WorldWideScience

Sample records for general approach review

  1. A general framework and review of scatter correction methods in cone beam CT. Part 2: Scatter estimation approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruehrnschopf and, Ernst-Peter; Klingenbeck, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    The main components of scatter correction procedures are scatter estimation and a scatter compensation algorithm. This paper completes a previous paper where a general framework for scatter compensation was presented under the prerequisite that a scatter estimation method is already available. In the current paper, the authors give a systematic review of the variety of scatter estimation approaches. Scatter estimation methods are based on measurements, mathematical-physical models, or combinations of both. For completeness they present an overview of measurement-based methods, but the main topic is the theoretically more demanding models, as analytical, Monte-Carlo, and hybrid models. Further classifications are 3D image-based and 2D projection-based approaches. The authors present a system-theoretic framework, which allows to proceed top-down from a general 3D formulation, by successive approximations, to efficient 2D approaches. A widely useful method is the beam-scatter-kernel superposition approach. Together with the review of standard methods, the authors discuss their limitations and how to take into account the issues of object dependency, spatial variance, deformation of scatter kernels, external and internal absorbers. Open questions for further investigations are indicated. Finally, the authors refer on some special issues and applications, such as bow-tie filter, offset detector, truncated data, and dual-source CT.

  2. General review on cermets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nouvel, G.

    1975-01-01

    After an attempt to classify the basic constituents of cermets in function of their resistivity and microhardness, the history of ceramic-metal composites is reviewed. The two main methods of production, sintering and impregnation, are examined from the point of view of the problems posed and solutions required to obtain optimum mechanical properties (resistance to creep and thermal shock...). A summary table of the chief cermets and their applications is proposed with precise details in some particular cases [fr

  3. Regge cuts: A general approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weis, J.H.

    1976-01-01

    We discuss an approach to the calculation of Regge-cut contributions to scattering amplitudes which relies only on the general structure of the physical Reggeon couplings. It thus allows a unified treatment of disparate models [such as the Feynman (Mandelstam) graph model and the dual model] and a general derivation of the Abramovskii--Gribov--Kancheli (AGK) rules. The structure of the Reggeon couplings is expressed through integrals over complex helicity. The Regge-cut amplitude can then be obtained, and its s-channel discontinuity, taken; there results a direct derivation of a set of ''cutting rules'' which express the total discontinuity as a sum of terms involving various discontinuities of the Reggeon couplings. The equality of these discontinuities follows directly if the singularities in complex helicity are the usual ones. Thus the AGK rules are seen to be quite model independent. Here we study in detail the simplest example: the Reggeon-particle cut in the four-particle amplitude

  4. A review of the generalized uncertainty principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tawfik, Abdel Nasser; Diab, Abdel Magied

    2015-01-01

    Based on string theory, black hole physics, doubly special relativity and some ‘thought’ experiments, minimal distance and/or maximum momentum are proposed. As alternatives to the generalized uncertainty principle (GUP), the modified dispersion relation, the space noncommutativity, the Lorentz invariance violation, and the quantum-gravity-induced birefringence effects are summarized. The origin of minimal measurable quantities and the different GUP approaches are reviewed and the corresponding observations are analysed. Bounds on the GUP parameter are discussed and implemented in the understanding of recent PLANCK observations of cosmic inflation. The higher-order GUP approaches predict minimal length uncertainty with and without maximum momenta. Possible arguments against the GUP are discussed; for instance, the concern about its compatibility with the equivalence principles, the universality of gravitational redshift and the free fall and law of reciprocal action are addressed. (review)

  5. Advanced control room evaluation: General approach and rationale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Hara, J.M.; Wachtel, J.

    1991-01-01

    Advanced control rooms (ACRs) for future nuclear power plants (NPPs) are being designed utilizing computer-based technologies. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission reviews the human engineering aspects of such control rooms to ensure that they are designed to good human factors engineering principles and that operator performance and reliability are appropriately supported in order to protect public health and safety. This paper describes the rationale and general approach to the development of a human factors review guideline for ACRs. The factors influencing the guideline development are discussed, including the review environment, the types of advanced technologies being addressed, the human factors issues associated with advanced technology, and the current state-of-the-art of human factors guidelines for advanced human-system interfaces (HSIs). The proposed approach to ACR review would track the design and implementation process through the application of review guidelines reflecting four review modules: planning, design process analysis, human factors engineering review, and dynamic performance evaluation. 21 refs

  6. Book Review: Review Manual for Massachusetts General Hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Book Title: Review Manual for Massachusetts General Hospital Handbook of. General Hospital Psychiatry. 5th ed. Book Author: Theodore A. Stern. Pp 121. Philadelphia: Elsevier Mosby. 2004. ISBN 0-323-02768-7.

  7. The Law Review Approach: What the Humanities Can Learn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendenhall, Allen

    2013-01-01

    Readers of this journal probably know how the peer review process works in the humanities disciplines and at various journals. Therefore the author explains how the law review process generally works and then what the humanities can learn and borrow from the law review process. He ends by advocating for a hybrid law review/peer review approach to…

  8. A General Framework for Reviewing Dictionaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2013-01-01

    in specific types of situations in the real (extra-lexicographic) world. I propose a basis for a framework that contains an outline of general theoretical and practical principles that underlie the true nature of dictionary reviews, and places the reviews in a lexicographic universe with the dictionary...... and lexicography at its centre. This seems to be in line with the modern understanding of lexicography as a separate academic discipline concerned with the compilation, design, evaluation and use of dictionaries. Moreover, a set of generally applicable principles may lead the discourse community to accept...

  9. An approach to vertigo in general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dommaraju, Sindhu; Perera, Eshini

    2016-04-01

    Dizziness is a common and very distressing presentation in general practice. In more than half of these cases, the dizziness is due to vertigo, which is the illusion of movement of the body or its surroundings. It can have central or peripheral causes, and determining the cause can be difficult. The aim of this article is to provide a clear framework for approaching patients who present with vertigo. A suggested approach to the assessment of vertigo is outlined. The causes of vertigo may be central (involving the brainstem or cerebellum) or peripheral (involving the inner ear). A careful history and physical examination can distinguish between these causes. The most common causes of vertigo seen in primary care are benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV), vestibular neuronitis (VN) and Ménière's disease. These peripheral causes of vertigo are benign, and treatment involves reassurance and management of symptoms.

  10. Generalizing human error rates: A taxonomic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buffardi, L.; Fleishman, E.; Allen, J.

    1989-01-01

    It is well established that human error plays a major role in malfunctioning of complex, technological systems and in accidents associated with their operation. Estimates of the rate of human error in the nuclear industry range from 20-65% of all system failures. In response to this, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission has developed a variety of techniques for estimating human error probabilities for nuclear power plant personnel. Most of these techniques require the specification of the range of human error probabilities for various tasks. Unfortunately, very little objective performance data on error probabilities exist for nuclear environments. Thus, when human reliability estimates are required, for example in computer simulation modeling of system reliability, only subjective estimates (usually based on experts' best guesses) can be provided. The objective of the current research is to provide guidelines for the selection of human error probabilities based on actual performance data taken in other complex environments and applying them to nuclear settings. A key feature of this research is the application of a comprehensive taxonomic approach to nuclear and non-nuclear tasks to evaluate their similarities and differences, thus providing a basis for generalizing human error estimates across tasks. In recent years significant developments have occurred in classifying and describing tasks. Initial goals of the current research are to: (1) identify alternative taxonomic schemes that can be applied to tasks, and (2) describe nuclear tasks in terms of these schemes. Three standardized taxonomic schemes (Ability Requirements Approach, Generalized Information-Processing Approach, Task Characteristics Approach) are identified, modified, and evaluated for their suitability in comparing nuclear and non-nuclear power plant tasks. An agenda for future research and its relevance to nuclear power plant safety is also discussed

  11. Female genital mutilation reversal: a general approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Mallika; Stanhope, Todd J; Occhino, John A

    2014-07-01

    Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a violation of human rights; yet, more than 100 million females are estimated to have undergone the procedure worldwide. There is an increased need for physician education in treating FGM. Female pelvic surgeons have a unique opportunity to treat this population of patients. Here, we depict the classification of FGM and a general approach to FGM reversal. We specifically address the procedure of type III FGM reversal, or defibulation. In this video, we first highlight the importance of the problem of FGM. Next, we present the classification of FGM using an original, simple, schematic diagram highlighting they key anatomic structures involved in the four types of FGM. We then present a simple case of reversal of type III FGM, a procedure also known as defibulation. After depicting the surgical procedure, we discuss clinical results and summarize key principles of the defibulation procedure. Our patient was a 25-year-old woman who had undergone type III FGM as a child in Somalia. She desired restoration of vaginal function. We performed a reversal, and her postoperative course was uncomplicated. By 6 weeks postoperatively, she was able to engage in sexual intercourse without dyspareunia. FGM is a problem at the doorsteps of female pelvic medicine and reconstructive surgery. Our video demonstrates a basic surgical approach that can be applied to simple cases of type III FGM presenting to the female pelvic surgeon.

  12. General and Specific Approaches to Media Parenting: A Systematic Review of Current Measures, Associations with Screen-Viewing, and Measurement Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Mark J.; Urbanski, Carly R.; Sebire, Simon J.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Parent-focused interventions may help to reduce youth screen-viewing (SV). This review synthesized current information on the links between parenting styles, parenting practices, and youth SV with a focus on measurement. Methods A systematic review of electronic databases was conducted. Results In all, 29 of 1189 studies met the inclusion criteria. Parenting practices were divided into rule and nonrule-based practices. Seven rules: (1) Limits on total time (n studies=23); (2) limits on time of day (n=7); (3) content restriction (n=11); (4) mealtime rules (n=2); (5) parental supervision (n=3); (6) contingent screentime (n=3); and (7) no-TV policy (n=1) were reported. Two nonrule-based practices were reported: Co-viewing (n=6) and encouragement to view (n=2). Three studies (10.3%) provided information on parenting styles. Only 12 studies (41.4%) provided information on the reliability/validity of the outcome measure, 15 (51.7%) studies provided information on the reliability/validity of the parenting measure, and 6 (20.7%) provided information on the reliability/validity of both outcome and exposure measures. Conclusions There is mixed evidence that parenting styles and media-related parenting practices are associated with youth SV. The assessment of parental influence of youth media use is hampered by the diversity of measures that have been used. There is a need for new measures that assess a range of media parenting practices that are relevant to multiple forms of SV. PMID:23944925

  13. A general approach to error propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanborn, J.B.

    1987-01-01

    A computational approach to error propagation is explained. It is shown that the application of the first-order Taylor theory to a fairly general expression representing an inventory or inventory-difference quantity leads naturally to a data structure that is useful for structuring error-propagation calculations. This data structure incorporates six types of data entities: (1) the objects in the material balance, (2) numerical parameters that describe these objects, (3) groups or sets of objects, (4) the terms which make up the material-balance equation, (5) the errors or sources of variance and (6) the functions or subroutines that represent Taylor partial derivatives. A simple algorithm based on this data structure can be defined using formulas that are sums of squares of sums. The data structures and algorithms described above have been implemented as computer software in FORTRAN for IBM PC-type machines. A free-form data-entry format allows users to separate data as they wish into separate files and enter data using a text editor. The program has been applied to the computation of limits of error for inventory differences (LEIDs) within the DOE complex. 1 ref., 3 figs

  14. Manufacturing technologies for photovoltaics and possible means of their development in Russia (Review). Part 1: General approach to the development of photoelectric converters and basic silicon technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasenko, A. B.; Popel', O. S.

    2015-11-01

    The state and key tendencies of the development of basic technologies for manufacture of photoelectric converters (PECs) in the world are considered, and their advantages and disadvantages are discussed. The first part of the review gives short information on the development of photovoltaics in the world and planes of the development of solar power plants in Russia. Total power of photoelectric plants operating in various countries in 2015 exceeded 150 GW and increased in the last ten years with a rate of approximately 50% per year. Russia made important state decisions on the support of the development of renewable power engineering and developed mechanisms, which were attractive for business, on the stimulation of building of the network of solar power plants with a total power to 1.5 GW in the country to 2020. At the same time, the rigid demands are made with respect to the localization of the production of components of these plants that opens new abilities for the development of the domestic production of photovoltaics manufacture. Data on the efficiency of PECs of various types that are attained in the leading laboratories of the world are given. Particular emphasis has been placed on the consideration of basic silicon technologies of PEC manufacture, which had the widest commercial application. The basic methods for production of polycrystalline silicon and making single-crystal and multicrystal silicon are described. Fundamentals of making techniques for plates, PECs, and photoelectric modules based on single-crystal and polycrystalline silicon are considered. The second part will be devoted to modifications of manufacturing techniques for photoelectric converters, enhancement methods for contact structures, and recommendations of authors with respect to the choice of prospective technologies for the expansion of PEC production in Russia. It will involve formulations and substantiations of the most promising lines of the development of photoelectric

  15. 28 CFR 40.13 - Review by the Attorney General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Review by the Attorney General. 40.13... Procedures for Obtaining Certification of a Grievance Procedure § 40.13 Review by the Attorney General. The Attorney General shall review and respond to each application as promptly as the circumstances, including...

  16. Generalized Hubbard Hamiltonian: renormalization group approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cannas, S.A.; Tamarit, F.A.; Tsallis, C.

    1991-01-01

    We study a generalized Hubbard Hamiltonian which is closed within the framework of a Quantum Real Space Renormalization Group, which replaces the d-dimensional hypercubic lattice by a diamond-like lattice. The phase diagram of the generalized Hubbard Hamiltonian is analyzed for the half-filled band case in d = 2 and d = 3. Some evidence for superconductivity is presented. (author). 44 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs

  17. [Treatment of generalized anxiety: new pharmacologic approaches].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulenger, J P

    1995-01-01

    First defined as a residual diagnostic category in the third edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) was until recently one of the least studied and least clearly conceptualized of the anxiety disorders. The clinical definition of GAD has however improved up to the fourth edition of the DSM where the disorder is now characterized as a chronic state of apprehensive expectation and uncontrollable worry concerning multiple daily life events or activities and accompanied with at least 3 symptoms belonging to a list of six common manifestations of psychic or motor tension. Clinical research demonstrating the stability and the specificity of somatic symptoms clearly support the validity of the diagnosis of GAD despite possible difficulties in the differential diagnosis with other chronic conditions or axis II disorders such as dysthymia or mixed anxiety-depressive disorder. After benzodiazepines (BZD) and 5-HT1A agonists like buspirone, several other types of new anxiolytic drugs have been developed for the treatment of GAD. Partial agonists at GABA-BZD receptor sites may offer the advantage of a better efficacy vs side-effects ratio over classical BZDs; however, systematic comparative clinical trials will have to demonstrate the clinical relevance of the encouraging results obtained with these drugs, at the experimental level, during studies in healthy volunteers and during the first placebo-controlled trials. Furthermore, the recent description of GABA-receptor's subunits clearly suggest that the development of drugs acting at this level and devoided of psychomotor or withdrawal side-effects is a target that is worth pursuing. On the other hand, the development of 5-HT2 and 5-HT3 antagonists is also of interest for the treatment of GAD since it could provide new anxiolytic drugs without these side-effects and thus easier to administer on a long-term basis corresponding to the chronicity of GAD

  18. A General Approach to Causal Mediation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Kosuke; Keele, Luke; Tingley, Dustin

    2010-01-01

    Traditionally in the social sciences, causal mediation analysis has been formulated, understood, and implemented within the framework of linear structural equation models. We argue and demonstrate that this is problematic for 3 reasons: the lack of a general definition of causal mediation effects independent of a particular statistical model, the…

  19. A general approach to query flattening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ruth, J.

    The translation of queries from complex data models to simpler data models is a recurring theme in the construction of efficient data management systems. In this paper we propose a general framework to guide the translation from data models with nested types to a flat relational model (query

  20. Local electric dipole moments: A generalized approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groß, Lynn; Herrmann, Carmen

    2016-09-30

    We present an approach for calculating local electric dipole moments for fragments of molecular or supramolecular systems. This is important for understanding chemical gating and solvent effects in nanoelectronics, atomic force microscopy, and intensities in infrared spectroscopy. Owing to the nonzero partial charge of most fragments, "naively" defined local dipole moments are origin-dependent. Inspired by previous work based on Bader's atoms-in-molecules (AIM) partitioning, we derive a definition of fragment dipole moments which achieves origin-independence by relying on internal reference points. Instead of bond critical points (BCPs) as in existing approaches, we use as few reference points as possible, which are located between the fragment and the remainder(s) of the system and may be chosen based on chemical intuition. This allows our approach to be used with AIM implementations that circumvent the calculation of critical points for reasons of computational efficiency, for cases where no BCPs are found due to large interfragment distances, and with local partitioning schemes other than AIM which do not provide BCPs. It is applicable to both covalently and noncovalently bound systems. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Oral and General Health Promotion for Children: A Holistic Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cinar, Ayse Basak

    Inequalities in oral and general health have been rising globally; WHO calls for adoption of an integrated approach to their promotion as both share common risk factors. However, research about this issue among children is scarce. Based on the associations of such a research found in common for a...... to adopt healthy lifestyles, both in economically developing and developed countries. This book should be especially useful to researchers, professionals in dentistry and medicine, policy makers, and anyone else involved in provision of better health to community....... Turkish and Finnish children, this book underlies that oral health is turning out to be part of the global health culture, regardless of cultural differences and different oral health care systems. The book, further, by most recent literature, provides a review of 'Significance of Oral Health, Concept......Inequalities in oral and general health have been rising globally; WHO calls for adoption of an integrated approach to their promotion as both share common risk factors. However, research about this issue among children is scarce. Based on the associations of such a research found in common for all...

  2. Book Review: Organizations: A Systems Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoeneborn, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    Review of: Stefan Kühl: Organizations. A Systems Approach (trans. P. Schmitz). Farnham: Gower Publishing, 2013. 195 pp. £14.99. ISBN 9781472413413.......Review of: Stefan Kühl: Organizations. A Systems Approach (trans. P. Schmitz). Farnham: Gower Publishing, 2013. 195 pp. £14.99. ISBN 9781472413413....

  3. Some generalizations of the nonlocal transformations approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Tychynin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Some generalizations of a method of nonlocal transformations are proposed: a con­nection of given equations via prolonged nonlocal transformations and finding of an adjoint solution to the solutions of initial equation are considered. A concept of nonlocal transformation with additional variables is introduced, developed and used for searching symmetries of differential equations. A problem of inversion of the nonlocal transforma­tion with additional variables is investigated and in some cases solved. Several examples are presented. Derived technique is applied for construction of the algorithms and for­mulae of generation of solutions. The formulae derived are used for construction of exact solutions of some nonlinear equations.

  4. 48 CFR 801.602-70 - General review requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General review... AFFAIRS GENERAL DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Career Development, Contracting Authority, and Responsibilities 801.602-70 General review requirements. (a) Contracting officers...

  5. Multiple sclerosis: general features and pharmacologic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen Lagumersindez, Denis; Martinez Sanchez, Gregorio

    2009-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is an autoimmune, inflammatory and desmyelinization disease central nervous system (CNS) of unknown etiology and critical evolution. There different etiological hypotheses talking of a close interrelation among predisposing genetic factors and dissimilar environmental factors, able to give raise to autoimmune response at central nervous system level. Hypothesis of autoimmune pathogeny is based on study of experimental models, and findings in biopsies of affected patients by disease. Accumulative data report that the oxidative stress plays a main role in pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis. Oxygen reactive species generated by macrophages has been involved as mediators of demyelinization and of axon damage, in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and strictly in multiple sclerosis. Disease diagnosis is difficult because of there is not a confirmatory unique test. Management of it covers the treatment of acute relapses, disease modification, and symptoms management. These features require an individualized approach, base on evolution of this affection, and tolerability of treatments. In addition to diet, among non-pharmacologic treatments for multiple sclerosis it is recommended physical therapy. Besides, some clinical assays have been performed in which we used natural extracts, nutrition supplements, and other agents with promising results. Pharmacology allowed neurologists with a broad array of proved effectiveness drugs; however, results of research laboratories in past years make probable that therapeutical possibilities increase notably in future. (Author)

  6. Negative ion formation processes: A general review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alton, G.D.

    1990-01-01

    The principal negative ion formation processes will be briefly reviewed. Primary emphasis will be placed on the more efficient and universal processes of charge transfer and secondary ion formation through non-thermodynamic surface ionization. 86 refs., 20 figs

  7. Cosmology and particle physics: A general review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olive, K.A.

    1986-01-01

    Cosmology today does not stop at t = 1 s. Indeed, ''reasonable'' statements begin at the Planck epoch or when t ≅ 10/sup -44/s. In this review, the author attempts to highlight the current understanding of the various stages in the evolution of the universe from -- 10/sup -4/s to the period of galaxy formation at t≅10/sup 5/ years. He tries to follow a chronological order for the discussion and begins with the Planck epoch. In the section entitled INFLATION, discusses the inflationary epoch. In the section, GUTs and COSMOLOGY, he reviews the present status of big bang baryosynthesis, i.e., the origin of the apparent slight excess of baryons over antibaryons. This is perhaps the third most reliable piece of evidence indicating a hot big bang. He also reviews the present status of big bang nucleosynthesis and discuss why he feels it is one of the greatest successes of the standard big bang model. Finally, in the last section, he reviews the present role of particles in the universe; that is, their effects on galaxy formation and constraints from present observations that can be placed on particle properties

  8. Treatment Approaches in Down's Syndrome: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman, Philip J.; Ward, James

    1986-01-01

    The paper reviews research into treatment approaches in Down's Syndrome. Pharmacological treatments reviewed include thyroid therapy, 5-hydroxytryptophan, vitamin therapy, and cell therapy. Other treatments considered are movement patterning, early intervention, and facial surgery. Early educational intervention is seen as the most effective…

  9. Review of general tritium accountancy techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vassallo, G.; Engelmann, U.

    1995-01-01

    The accountancy of material in any facility forms an integral part of good housekeeping practices. However, for materials such as tritium, a combination of safety, security and economic reasons often demands that a comprehensive material control program be implemented. Within a tritium facility, the isotope is usually stored at a central magazine from where it can be distributed to and collected from process plant and experiments and received from external suppliers. This paper outlines the routine magazine measurement techniques employed for quantitatively assaying tritium for such control purposes and reviews the advantages and drawbacks of various methods. 10 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  10. 30 CFR 256.65 - Attorney General review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Attorney General review. 256.65 Section 256.65... give due consideration to the views of the Attorney General. The Secretary may act on an assignment or transfer if the Attorney General has not responded to the request for consultation within 30 days of said...

  11. An integrative review of facilitators and barriers influencing collaboration and teamwork between general practitioners and nurses working in general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInnes, Susan; Peters, Kath; Bonney, Andrew; Halcomb, Elizabeth

    2015-09-01

    To identify facilitators and barriers influencing collaboration and teamwork between general practitioners and nurses working in general (family) practice. Internationally, a shortage of doctors entering and remaining in general practice and an increasing burden of chronic disease has diversified the nurse's role in this setting. Despite a well-established general practice nursing workforce, little attention has been paid to the ways doctors and nurses collaborate in this setting. Integrative literature review. CINAHL, Scopus, Web of Life, Cochrane Library, Joanna Briggs Institute Library of Systematic Reviews and Trove (dissertation and theses) were searched for papers published between 2000 and May 2014. This review was informed by the approach of Whittemore and Knafl (2005). All included papers were assessed for methodological quality. Findings were extracted, critically examined and grouped into themes. Eleven papers met the inclusion criteria. Thematic analysis revealed three themes common to the facilitators of and barriers to collaboration and teamwork between GPs in general practice: (1) roles and responsibilities; (2) respect, trust and communication; and (3) hierarchy, education and liability. This integrative review has provided insight into issues around role definition, communication and organizational constraints which influence the way nurses and general practitioners collaborate in a team environment. Future research should investigate in more detail the ways doctors and nurses work together in general practice and the impact of collaboration on nursing leadership and staff retention. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Approaches to Macroevolution: 1. General Concepts and Origin of Variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jablonski, David

    2017-01-01

    . The temporal and spatial patterns of the origins of evolutionary novelties are a challenge to macroevolutionary theory; individual events can be described retrospectively, but a general model relating development, genetics, and ecology is needed. An accompanying paper (Jablonski in Evol Biol 2017) reviews diversity dynamics and the sorting of variation, with some general conclusions.

  13. Unbalance on power systems: a general review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reineri, Claudio A.; Gomez Targarona, Juan C.

    2009-07-01

    A general revision of different aspects in relation to the voltage unbalance in electric power systems is presented, that should necessarily be deeply known by technical operators and designers of facilities, installations, and electric equipment. Dissimilar unbalance definitions, unbalance measurement methods, their quantification and the interpretation of such magnitudes are revised. The causes of the unbalances in electric power systems were described and analyzed. The effects on power systems are also studied, specially those that have influence on: system operability, lost of efficiency of the three phase system and their impact in the definitions of traditional power. Similarly is studied the unbalance effect on certain loads, in particular: three-phase motors, power electronics and ASD's. Also methods to locate the origin of these problems, as well as the different normative or standards, and possible methods to mitigate their effects are deeply detailed. It is concluded in the necessity to deepen the study of the power system unbalance, because numerous non resolved aspects still exist whose solution requires of a deep knowledge on the part of the involved professionals. (author)

  14. A general approach to welfare measurement through national income accounting

    OpenAIRE

    Asheim, Geir B.; Buchholz, Wolfgang

    2002-01-01

    We develop a framework for analyzing national income accounting using a revealed welfare approach that is sufficiently general to cover, e.g., both the standard discounted utilitarian and maximin criteria as special cases. We show that the basic welfare properties of comprehensive national income accounting, which were previously ascribed only to the discounted utilitarian case, in fact extend to this more general framework. In particular, it holds under a wide range of circumstances that rea...

  15. Investigating the Problem of Skill Generalization: Literature Review III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haring, Norris

    The third in a series of literature reviews, this monograph presents three articles on skill generalization among individuals with severe disabilities. Kathleen A. Liberty analyzes the results of 15 studies to determine how teaching self-control affected students' performance in training and generalization, "Behavior-Control of Stimulus Events to…

  16. General presentation of the core mechanical behaviour approach in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, A.; Dorsselaere, J.P. van

    1984-01-01

    This French review paper presents the evolution along time of the FBR core mechanical behaviour approach, from RAPSODIE to SPX2, through PHENIX and SPX1: core designs, knowledge of the irradiation laws, project criterias, calculation codes, and R and D fields. (author)

  17. A Generalized Approach for Measuring Relationships Among Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lijun; Ahsan, Md Asif; Chen, Ming

    2017-07-21

    Several methods for identifying relationships among pairs of genes have been developed. In this article, we present a generalized approach for measuring relationships between any pairs of genes, which is based on statistical prediction. We derive two particular versions of the generalized approach, least squares estimation (LSE) and nearest neighbors prediction (NNP). According to mathematical proof, LSE is equivalent to the methods based on correlation; and NNP is approximate to one popular method called the maximal information coefficient (MIC) according to the performances in simulations and real dataset. Moreover, the approach based on statistical prediction can be extended from two-genes relationships to multi-genes relationships. This application would help to identify relationships among multi-genes.

  18. Review of the Mobile Malware Mitigation Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasiia Alekseevna Skovoroda

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets are extremely widespread nowadays. These devices provide users with a wide range of applications for commercial and public use. However, the contents of applications and their full behavior are not always properly reviewed which makes the presence of malware in the application marketplaces possible. Mobile security researchers have proposed many effective solutions for detection and prevention of malicious applications on mobile devices. This paper provides a comprehensive review and comparison of the most recent approaches to mobile malware mitigation.

  19. The validity of peer review in a general medicine journal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Jeffrey L; Srinivasan, Malathi; Rea, Joanna; Fletcher, Kathlyn E; Kravitz, Richard L

    2011-01-01

    All the opinions in this article are those of the authors and should not be construed to reflect, in any way, those of the Department of Veterans Affairs. Our study purpose was to assess the predictive validity of reviewer quality ratings and editorial decisions in a general medicine journal. Submissions to the Journal of General Internal Medicine (JGIM) between July 2004 and June 2005 were included. We abstracted JGIM peer review quality ratings, verified the publication status of all articles and calculated an impact factor for published articles (Rw) by dividing the 3-year citation rate by the average for this group of papers; an Rw>1 indicates a greater than average impact. Of 507 submissions, 128 (25%) were published in JGIM, 331 rejected (128 with review) and 48 were either not resubmitted after revision was requested or were withdrawn by the author. Of 331 rejections, 243 were published elsewhere. Articles published in JGIM had a higher citation rate than those published elsewhere (Rw: 1.6 vs. 1.1, p = 0.002). Reviewer quality ratings of article quality had good internal consistency and reviewer recommendations markedly influenced publication decisions. There was no quality rating cutpoint that accurately distinguished high from low impact articles. There was a stepwise increase in Rw for articles rejected without review, rejected after review or accepted by JGIM (Rw 0.60 vs. 0.87 vs. 1.56, p<0.0005). However, there was low agreement between reviewers for quality ratings and publication recommendations. The editorial publication decision accurately discriminated high and low impact articles in 68% of submissions. We found evidence of better accuracy with a greater number of reviewers. The peer review process largely succeeds in selecting high impact articles and dispatching lower impact ones, but the process is far from perfect. While the inter-rater reliability between individual reviewers is low, the accuracy of sorting is improved with a greater

  20. Nanomedicine approaches in vascular disease: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Anirban Sen

    2011-12-01

    Nanomedicine approaches have revolutionized the treatment of cancer and vascular diseases, where the limitations of rapid nonspecific clearance, poor biodistribution and harmful side effects associated with direct systemic drug administration can be overcome by packaging the agents within sterically stabilized, long-circulating nanovehicles that can be further surface-modified with ligands to actively target cellular/molecular components of the disease. With significant advancements in genetics, proteomics, cellular and molecular biology and biomaterials engineering, the nanomedicine strategies have become progressively refined regarding the modulation of surface and bulk chemistry of the nanovehicles, control of drug release kinetics, manipulation of nanoconstruct geometry and integration of multiple functionalities on single nanoplatforms. The current review aims to capture the various nanomedicine approaches directed specifically toward vascular diseases during the past two decades. Analysis of the promises and limitations of these approaches will help identify and optimize vascular nanomedicine systems to enhance their efficacy and clinical translation in the future. Nanomedicine-based approaches have had a major impact on the treatment and diagnosis of malignancies and vascular diseases. This review discusses various nanomedicine approaches directed specifically toward vascular diseases during the past two decades, highlighting their advantages, limitations and offering new perspectives on future applications. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Book review: Preventing Crime. A Holistic Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Díaz Rozas

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Book review. Tore Bjørgo. Preventing Crime. A Holistic Approach. London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2016. 9781137560476 (Hb 93.59€, 9781349569786 (Pb 41.59€, 9781137560483 (eBook 76.99€.Reseña. Tore Bjørgo. Preventing Crime. A Holistic Approach. Londres: Palgrave Macmillan, 2016. 9781137560476 (Td 93.59€, 9781349569786 (Tb 41.59€, 9781137560483 (e-Libro 76.99€.DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3092188

  2. A review of anthropological approaches to ageing

    OpenAIRE

    Kaczmarek, Maria; Szwed, Anita

    1997-01-01

    It is evident that the pattern of ageing among humans has a unique character. Therefore, when undertaking any research on human ageing one has to specify a proper methodology and methods which are available in the anthropological perspective. The paper is aimed at providing a review of anthropological approaches to the study of ageing. On the basis of the meaning and scope of the concept of ageing, its sources and causal factors are discussed. Further, functional, physiological an...

  3. Polarization speckles and generalized Stokes vector wave: a review [invited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takeda, Mitsuo; Wang, Wei; Hanson, Steen Grüner

    2010-01-01

    We review some of the statistical properties of polarization-related speckle phenomena, with an introduction of a less known concept of polarization speckles and their spatial degree of polarization. As a useful means to characterize twopoint vector field correlations, we review the generalized...... Stokes parameters proposed by Korotkova and Wolf, and introduce its time-domain representation to describe the space-time evolution of the correlation between random electric vector fields at two different space-time points. This time-domain generalized Stokes vector, with components similar to those...... of the beam coherence polarization matrix proposed by Gori, is shown to obey the wave equation in exact analogy to a coherence function of scalar fields. Because of this wave nature, the time-domain generalized Stokes vector is referred to as generalized Stokes vector wave in this paper....

  4. g-factor calculations from the generalized seniority approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheshwari, Bhoomika; Jain, Ashok Kumar

    2018-05-01

    The generalized seniority approach proposed by us to understand the B(E1)/B(E2)/B(E3) properties of semi-magic nuclei has been widely successful in the explanation of the same and has led to an expansion in the scope of seniority isomers. In the present paper, we apply the generalized seniority scheme to understand the behavior of g-factors in semi-magic nuclei. We find that the magnetic moment and the gfactors do show a particle number independent behavior as expected and the understanding is consistent with the explanation of transition probabilities.

  5. Description of a practice model for pharmacist medication review in a general practice setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Mette; Hallas, Jesper; Hansen, Trine Graabæk

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Practical descriptions of procedures used for pharmacists' medication reviews are sparse. OBJECTIVE: To describe a model for medication review by pharmacists tailored to a general practice setting. METHODS: A stepwise model is described. The model is based on data from the medical chart...... no indication (n=47, 23%). Most interventions were aimed at cardiovascular drugs. CONCLUSION: We have provided a detailed description of a practical approach to pharmacists' medication review in a GP setting. The model was tested and found to be usable, and to deliver a medication review with high acceptance...

  6. The general entity of life: a cybernetic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielecki, Andrzej

    2015-06-01

    Life, not only in the well-known context of biochemical metabolism but also in the context of hypothetical life synthesized laboratorially or possibly found on other planets, is considered in this paper. The three-component information-energetic-structural irreducible processing in autonomous systems is the core of the proposed approach. The cybernetic organization of a general entity of life--the alivon--is postulated. The crucial properties of life and evolution are derived from the proposed approach. Information encoded in biological structures is also studied.

  7. A Review of General Aviation Safety (1984-2017).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Douglas D

    2017-07-01

    General aviation includes all civilian aviation apart from operations involving paid passenger transport. Unfortunately, this category of aviation holds a lackluster safety record, accounting for 94% of civil aviation fatalities. In 2014, of 1143 general aviation accidents, 20% were fatal compared with 0 of 29 airline mishaps in the United States. Herein, research findings over the past 30 yr will be reviewed. Accident risk factors (e.g., adverse weather, geographical region, post-impact fire, gender differences) will be discussed. The review will also summarize the development and implementation of stringent crashworthiness designs with multi-axis dynamic testing and head-injury protection and its impact on mitigating occupant injury severity. The benefits and drawbacks of new technology and human factor considerations associated with increased general aviation automation will be debated. Data on the safety of the aging general aviation population and increased drug usage will also be described. Finally, areas in which general aviation occupant survival could be improved and injury severity mitigated will be discussed with the view of equipping aircraft with 1) crash-resistant fuel tanks to reduce post-impact conflagration; 2) after-market ballistic parachutes for older aircraft; and 3) current generation electronic locator beacons to hasten site access by first responders.Boyd DD. A review of general aviation safety (1984-2017). Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(7):657-664.

  8. Performing Systematic Literature Reviews with Novices: An Iterative Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavallée, Mathieu; Robillard, Pierre-N.; Mirsalari, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Reviewers performing systematic literature reviews require understanding of the review process and of the knowledge domain. This paper presents an iterative approach for conducting systematic literature reviews that addresses the problems faced by reviewers who are novices in one or both levels of understanding. This approach is derived from…

  9. Albert Einstein's 1916 Review Article on General Relativity

    OpenAIRE

    Sauer, Tilman

    2004-01-01

    The first comprehensive overview of the final version of the general theory of relativity was published by Einstein in 1916 after several expositions of preliminary versions and latest revisions of the theory in November 1915. A historical account of this review paper is given, of its prehistory, including a discussion of Einstein's collaboration with Marcel Grossmann, and of its immediate reception.

  10. Nutritional deficiency in general practice: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wayenburg, van C.A.M.; Laar, van de F.A.; Weel, van C.; Staveren, van W.A.; Binsbergen, van J.J.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Nutritional deficiency is an independent risk factor for mortality. Despite its clinical relevance, the prevalence in a primary care setting is poorly documented. We performed a systematic review of reported prevalence and clinical assessment of nutritional deficiency in general practice.

  11. Job satisfaction among general practitioners : A systematic literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ham, I.; Verhoeven, A.A.; Groenier, K.H.; Groothoff, J.W.; de Haan, J.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: In recent years, the incidence of being overworked and burnt out has increased among general practitioners (GPs). One of the factors that influences the development of burnout is the job satisfaction that physicians experience. Therefore, we conducted a literature review to answer the

  12. Job satisfaction among general practitioners: A systematic literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ham, I.; Verhoeven, A.A.; Groenier, K.H.; Groothoff, J.W.; de Haan, J.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: In recent years, the incidence of being overworked and burnt out has increased among general practitioners (GPs). One of the factors that influences the development of burnout is the job satisfaction that physicians experience. Therefore, we conducted a literature review to answer the

  13. AN APPROACH FOR REVIEWING AND RANKING THE CUSTOMERS’ REVIEWS THROUGH QUALITY OF REVIEW (QoR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Kawate

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Quality is referred as the degree of excellence that means the expected product or service being considered to achieve desired requirements. Whereas, Quality of Reviews (QoR relates to the task of determining the quality, efficiency, suitability, or utility of each review by addressing Quality of Product (QoP and Quality of Service (QoS. It is an essential task of ranking, the reviews based on the quality and efficiency of the reviews given by the users. Whatever the reviews are provided to the particular product or services are from user experiences. The Quality of Reviews (QoR is one of a kind method that defines how the customer’s standpoint for the service or product that he/she experienced. The main issue while reviewing any product, the reviewer provides his/her opinion in the form of reviews and might be a few of those reviews are malicious spam entries to skew the rating of the product. Also in another case, many times customers provide the reviews which are quite common and that won’t helpful for the buyer to interpret the helpful feedback on their products because of too many formal reviews from distinct customers. Hence, we proposed novel approaches: i to statistical analyzes the customer reviews on products by Amazon to identify top most useful or helpful reviewers; ii to analyze the products and its reviews associated for malicious reviews ratings that skewed the overall product ranking. As this is one of the efficient approaches to avoid spam reviewers somehow from reviewing the products. With this, we can use this method for distinguishing between nominal users and spammers. This method helps to quest for helpful reviewers not only to make the product better from best quality reviewers, but also these quality reviewers themselves can able to review future products.

  14. Review of Instructional Approaches in Ethics Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulhearn, Tyler J; Steele, Logan M; Watts, Logan L; Medeiros, Kelsey E; Mumford, Michael D; Connelly, Shane

    2017-06-01

    Increased investment in ethics education has prompted a variety of instructional objectives and frameworks. Yet, no systematic procedure to classify these varying instructional approaches has been attempted. In the present study, a quantitative clustering procedure was conducted to derive a typology of instruction in ethics education. In total, 330 ethics training programs were included in the cluster analysis. The training programs were appraised with respect to four instructional categories including instructional content, processes, delivery methods, and activities. Eight instructional approaches were identified through this clustering procedure, and these instructional approaches showed different levels of effectiveness. Instructional effectiveness was assessed based on one of nine commonly used ethics criteria. With respect to specific training types, Professional Decision Processes Training (d = 0.50) and Field-Specific Compliance Training (d = 0.46) appear to be viable approaches to ethics training based on Cohen's d effect size estimates. By contrast, two commonly used approaches, General Discussion Training (d = 0.31) and Norm Adherence Training (d = 0.37), were found to be considerably less effective. The implications for instruction in ethics training are discussed.

  15. Generalized Wigner functions in curved spaces: A new approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kandrup, H.E.

    1988-01-01

    It is well known that, given a quantum field in Minkowski space, one can define Wigner functions f/sub W//sup N/(x 1 ,p 1 ,...,x/sub N/,p/sub N/) which (a) are convenient to analyze since, unlike the field itself, they are c-number quantities and (b) can be interpreted in a limited sense as ''quantum distribution functions.'' Recently, Winter and Calzetta, Habib and Hu have shown one way in which these flat-space Wigner functions can be generalized to a curved-space setting, deriving thereby approximate kinetic equations which make sense ''quasilocally'' for ''short-wavelength modes.'' This paper suggests a completely orthogonal approach for defining curved-space Wigner functions which generalizes instead an object such as the Fourier-transformed f/sub W/ 1 (k,p), which is effectively a two-point function viewed in terms of the ''natural'' creation and annihilation operators a/sup dagger/(p-(12k) and a(p+(12k). The approach suggested here lacks the precise phase-space interpretation implicit in the approach of Winter or Calzetta, Habib, and Hu, but it is useful in that (a) it is geared to handle any ''natural'' mode decomposition, so that (b) it can facilitate exact calculations at least in certain limits, such as for a source-free linear field in a static spacetime

  16. A Neuroevolution Approach to General Atari Game Playing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hausknecht, Matthew; Lehman, Joel; Miikkulainen, Risto

    2014-01-01

    This article addresses the challenge of learning to play many dierent video games with little domain- specic knowledge. Specically, it introduces a neuro-evolution approach to general Atari 2600 game playing. Four neuro-evolution algorithms were paired with three dierent state representations...... representations while indirect-encoding methods (i.e. HyperNEAT) allow scaling to higher-dimensional representations (i.e. the raw game screen). Previous approaches based on temporal- dierence learning had trouble dealing with the large state spaces and sparse reward gradients often found in Atari games. Neuro...... and evaluated on a set of 61 Atari games. The neuro-evolution agents represent dierent points along the spectrum of algorithmic sophistication - including weight evolution on topologically xed neural net- works (Conventional Neuro-evolution), Covariance Matrix Adaptation Evolution Strategy (CMA-ES), evolution...

  17. Sequential approach to Colombeau's theory of generalized functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todorov, T.D.

    1987-07-01

    J.F. Colombeau's generalized functions are constructed as equivalence classes of the elements of a specially chosen ultrapower of the class of the C ∞ -functions. The elements of this ultrapower are considered as sequences of C ∞ -functions, so in a sense, the sequential construction presented here refers to the original Colombeau theory just as, for example, the Mikusinski sequential approach to the distribution theory refers to the original Schwartz theory of distributions. The paper could be used as an elementary introduction to the Colombeau theory in which recently a solution was found to the problem of multiplication of Schwartz distributions. (author). Refs

  18. Vibrational mechanics nonlinear dynamic effects, general approach, applications

    CERN Document Server

    Blekhman, Iliya I

    2000-01-01

    This important book deals with vibrational mechanics - the new, intensively developing section of nonlinear dynamics and the theory of nonlinear oscillations. It offers a general approach to the study of the effect of vibration on nonlinear mechanical systems.The book presents the mathematical apparatus of vibrational mechanics which is used to describe such nonlinear effects as the disappearance and appearance under vibration of stable positions of equilibrium and motions (i.e. attractors), the change of the rheological properties of the media, self-synchronization, self-balancing, the vibrat

  19. Robotics in general surgery: an evidence-based review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Se-Jin; Kim, Seon-Hahn

    2014-05-01

    Since its introduction, robotic surgery has been rapidly adopted to the extent that it has already assumed an important position in the field of general surgery. This rapid progress is quantitative as well as qualitative. In this review, we focus on the relatively common procedures to which robotic surgery has been applied in several fields of general surgery, including gastric, colorectal, hepato-biliary-pancreatic, and endocrine surgery, and we discuss the results to date and future possibilities. In addition, the advantages and limitations of the current robotic system are reviewed, and the advanced technologies and instruments to be applied in the near future are introduced. Such progress is expected to facilitate the widespread introduction of robotic surgery in additional fields and to solve existing problems.

  20. Spinal anesthesia using Taylor′s approach helps avoid general anesthesia in short stature asthmatic patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarjeet Dnyandeo Patil

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The case history of a 35-year-old female patient with short stature is presented. She was posted for rectopexy in view of rectal prolapse. She was a known case of bronchial asthma. She had crowding of intervertebral spaces, which made administration of spinal anesthesia via the normal route very difficult. Taylor′s approach for administration of the same was tried and proved successful, thus saving the patient from receiving general anesthesia in the presence of bronchial asthma, for a perineal surgery. The possible cause for the difficulty in administration of spinal anesthesia and the Taylor′s approach are discussed, and reports of similar cases reviewed.

  1. The neurolinguistic approach to awake surgery reviewed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Witte, Elke; Mariën, Peter

    2013-02-01

    Intraoperative direct electrical stimulation (DES) is increasingly used in patients operated on for tumours in critical language areas. Although a positive impact of DES on postoperative linguistic outcome is generally advocated, the literature is only scantily documented with information about the linguistic methods applied in awake surgery. This article critically reviews the neurolinguistic procedures currently used in awake studies. Based on an extensive review of the literature, an overview is given of the language mapping techniques applied in brain tumour surgery. Studies investigating linguistic testing and outcome in awake surgery were analysed. Information about the timing of the assessment(s), the linguistic tasks, the linguistic stimuli and the indication for awake surgery was also discussed. Intraoperative DES remains the 'gold standard' for language mapping, but pre- and postoperative non-invasive mapping methods are important adjuncts. In the pre- and postoperative phase, standardised linguistic test batteries are generally used to assess language function. In the intraoperative phase, only naming and number counting are commonly applied. Most often no detailed information about the linguistic stimuli is provided and no standardised protocols measuring different linguistic levels have been described. Awake surgery with DES is a useful tool for preserving linguistic functions in patients undergoing surgery in critical brain regions. However, no studies exist that apply a well-balanced and standardised linguistic protocol to reliably identify the critical language zones. The availability of a standardised linguistic protocol might substantially increase intraoperative comfort and might improve outcome and quality of life. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Two decades of external peer review of cancer care in general hospitals; the Dutch experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilsdonk, Melvin J; Siesling, Sabine; Otter, Rene; van Harten, Wim H

    2016-03-01

    External peer review was introduced in general hospitals in the Netherlands in 1994 to assess and improve the multidisciplinary team approach in cancer care. This paper aims to explore the value, perceived impact, and (future) role of external peer review in cancer care. Semistructured interviews were held with clinicians, oncology nurses, and managers from fifteen general hospitals that participated in three rounds of peer review over a period of 16 years. Interviewees reflected on the goals and expectations, experiences, perceived impact, and future role of external peer review. Transcriptions of the interviews were coded to discover recurrent themes. Improving clinical care and organization were the main motives for participation. Positive impact was perceived on multiple aspects of care such as shared responsibilities, internal prioritization of cancer care, improved communication, and a clear structure and position of cancer care within general hospitals. Establishing a direct relationship between the external peer review and organizational or clinical impact proved to be difficult. Criticism was raised on the content of the program being too theoretical and organization-focussed after three rounds. According to most stakeholders, external peer review can improve multidisciplinary team work in cancer care; however, the acceptance is threatened by a perceived disbalance between effort and visible clinical impact. Leaner and more clinically focused programs are needed to keep repeated peer reviews challenging and worthwhile. © 2015 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. A κ-generalized statistical mechanics approach to income analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clementi, F; Gallegati, M; Kaniadakis, G

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes a statistical mechanics approach to the analysis of income distribution and inequality. A new distribution function, having its roots in the framework of κ-generalized statistics, is derived that is particularly suitable for describing the whole spectrum of incomes, from the low–middle income region up to the high income Pareto power-law regime. Analytical expressions for the shape, moments and some other basic statistical properties are given. Furthermore, several well-known econometric tools for measuring inequality, which all exist in a closed form, are considered. A method for parameter estimation is also discussed. The model is shown to fit remarkably well the data on personal income for the United States, and the analysis of inequality performed in terms of its parameters is revealed as very powerful

  4. A κ-generalized statistical mechanics approach to income analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clementi, F.; Gallegati, M.; Kaniadakis, G.

    2009-02-01

    This paper proposes a statistical mechanics approach to the analysis of income distribution and inequality. A new distribution function, having its roots in the framework of κ-generalized statistics, is derived that is particularly suitable for describing the whole spectrum of incomes, from the low-middle income region up to the high income Pareto power-law regime. Analytical expressions for the shape, moments and some other basic statistical properties are given. Furthermore, several well-known econometric tools for measuring inequality, which all exist in a closed form, are considered. A method for parameter estimation is also discussed. The model is shown to fit remarkably well the data on personal income for the United States, and the analysis of inequality performed in terms of its parameters is revealed as very powerful.

  5. Spreading dynamics on complex networks: a general stochastic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noël, Pierre-André; Allard, Antoine; Hébert-Dufresne, Laurent; Marceau, Vincent; Dubé, Louis J

    2014-12-01

    Dynamics on networks is considered from the perspective of Markov stochastic processes. We partially describe the state of the system through network motifs and infer any missing data using the available information. This versatile approach is especially well adapted for modelling spreading processes and/or population dynamics. In particular, the generality of our framework and the fact that its assumptions are explicitly stated suggests that it could be used as a common ground for comparing existing epidemics models too complex for direct comparison, such as agent-based computer simulations. We provide many examples for the special cases of susceptible-infectious-susceptible and susceptible-infectious-removed dynamics (e.g., epidemics propagation) and we observe multiple situations where accurate results may be obtained at low computational cost. Our perspective reveals a subtle balance between the complex requirements of a realistic model and its basic assumptions.

  6. Generalized approach to bilateral control for EMG driven exoskeleton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gradetsky Valery

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses a generalized approach to bilateral control for EMG driven exoskeleton systems. In this paper we consider a semi-automatic mechatronic system that is controlled via human muscle activity (EMG level. The problem is to understand how the movement of the exoskeleton effects on the control. The considered system can be described in terms of bilateral control. This means the existence of force feedback from the object via the exoskeleton links and drives to operator. The simulation of the considered model was held on the MATLAB Simulink. The mathematical model of the bilateral system with exoskeleton and operator was developed. Transient functions for different dynamic parameters were obtained. It was shown that force feedback is essential for the R&D of such systems.

  7. General approach to polymer chains confined by interacting boundaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freed, Karl F; Dudowicz, Jacek; Stukalin, Evgeny B; Douglas, Jack F

    2010-09-07

    Polymer chains, confined to cavities or polymer layers with dimensions less than the chain radius of gyration, appear in many phenomena, such as gel chromatography, rubber elasticity, viscolelasticity of high molar mass polymer melts, the translocation of polymers through nanopores and nanotubes, polymer adsorption, etc. Thus, the description of how the constraints alter polymer thermodynamic properties is a recurrent theoretical problem. A realistic treatment requires the incorporation of impenetrable interacting (attractive or repulsive) boundaries, a process that introduces significant mathematical complications. The standard approach involves developing the generalized diffusion equation description of the interaction of flexible polymers with impenetrable confining surfaces into a discrete eigenfunction expansion, where the solutions are normally truncated at the first mode (the "ground state dominance" approximation). This approximation is mathematically well justified under conditions of strong confinement, i.e., a confinement length scale much smaller than the chain radius of gyration, but becomes unreliable when the polymers are confined to dimensions comparable to their typically nanoscale size. We extend a general approach to describe polymers under conditions of weak to moderate confinement and apply this semianalytic method specifically to determine the thermodynamics and static structure factor for a flexible polymer confined between impenetrable interacting parallel plate boundaries. The method is first illustrated by analyzing chain partitioning between a pore and a large external reservoir, a model system with application to chromatography. Improved agreement is found for the partition coefficients of a polymer chain in the pore geometry. An expression is derived for the structure factor S(k) in a slit geometry to assist in more accurately estimating chain dimensions from scattering measurements for thin polymer films.

  8. A comprehensive review of telementoring applications in laparoscopic general surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniou, Stavros A; Antoniou, George A; Franzen, Jan; Bollmann, Stefan; Koch, Oliver O; Pointner, Rudolf; Granderath, Frank A

    2012-08-01

    Incorporation of advanced laparoscopic procedures in the practice of institutions without respective experience is a significant impediment in the dissemination of minimally invasive techniques. On-site mentoring programs carry several cost-related and practical constraints. Telementoring has emerged as a practical and cost-effective alternative mentoring tool. The present study aimed to review the pertinent literature on telementoring applications in laparoscopic general surgery. A systematic review using the Medline database was performed. Articles reporting on clinical experience with telementoring applications in general surgery were included. Variations in methodology, study design, and operative procedures precluded cumulative outcome evaluation. Instead, a critical appraisal of current evidence was undertaken. Seventy-five articles were identified in the primary search, and ten studies were considered eligible. No randomized studies comparing on-site mentoring with telementoring were identified. The included studies reported on a total of 96 laparoscopic telementored procedures: 50 cholecystectomies, 23 colorectal resections, 7 fundoplications, 9 adrenalectomies, 6 hernia repairs, and 2 splenectomies. Completion of remotely assisted procedures was feasible in the vast majority of cases, whereas technical difficulties included video and audio latency with low transfer rates (programs in general surgery. Their clinical effectiveness as teaching alternatives to traditional mentoring programs remains to be further evaluated.

  9. Generalized Ford-Vilenkin approach for the dynamical Casimir effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rego, Andreson L.C.; Alves, Danilo Teixeira; Alves, Joao Paulo da Silva

    2012-01-01

    Full text: In the 70s decade the first works investigating the quantum problem of the radiation emitted by moving mirrors in vacuum were published by Moore, DeWitt, Fulling and Davies. This effect, usually named dynamical Casimir effect (DCE). The DCE is also related to several other problems like particle creation in cosmological models and radiation emitted by collapsing black holes, decoherence, entanglement the Unruh effect. The DCE has been subject to experimental investigations: few months ago, Wilson and collaborators have announced the first experimental observation of the DCE. The theory of the DCE has been investigated by many authors, among them Ford and Vilenkin [L.H. Ford and A. Vilenkin, Phys. Rev. D 25, 2569 (1982)] who developed a perturbative method, which can be applied to moving mirrors in small displacements δq(t) = εF (t) and with nonrelativistic velocities. The usual application of the Ford-Vilenkin approach to the calculation of the spectrum of the created particles, results in the spectral distribution proportional to ε 2 . In the present paper, we consider a real massless scalar field and a moving mirror in a two-dimensional spacetime, satisfying Dirichlet boundary condition at the instantaneous position of the mirror, for large displacements and relativistic velocities. We generalize the Ford-Vilenkin approach to the calculation of the spectral density of the created particles, obtaining formulas for the spectrum up to order ε n . (author)

  10. Teaching the Literature Review: A Practical Approach for College Instructors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisco, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Instructors across the disciplines require their students to write literature reviews. Although numerous sources describe the literature review process, instructors and students face difficulty when approaching the structure of a literature review. This paper presents a straightforward, efficient approach for teaching students how to write a…

  11. Elements of integrated care approaches for older people: a review of reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Andrew M; Valentijn, Pim P; Thiyagarajan, Jotheeswaran A; Araujo de Carvalho, Islene

    2018-04-07

    The World Health Organization (WHO) recently proposed an Integrated Care for Older People approach to guide health systems and services in better supporting functional ability of older people. A knowledge gap remains in the key elements of integrated care approaches used in health and social care delivery systems for older populations. The objective of this review was to identify and describe the key elements of integrated care models for elderly people reported in the literature. Review of reviews using a systematic search method. A systematic search was performed in MEDLINE and the Cochrane database in June 2017. Reviews of interventions aimed at care integration at the clinical (micro), organisational/service (meso) or health system (macro) levels for people aged ≥60 years were included. Non-Cochrane reviews published before 2015 were excluded. Reviews were assessed for quality using the Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) 1 tool. Fifteen reviews (11 systematic reviews, of which six were Cochrane reviews) were included, representing 219 primary studies. Three reviews (20%) included only randomised controlled trials (RCT), while 10 reviews (65%) included both RCTs and non-RCTs. The region where the largest number of primary studies originated was North America (n=89, 47.6%), followed by Europe (n=60, 32.1%) and Oceania (n=31, 16.6%). Eleven (73%) reviews focused on clinical 'micro' and organisational 'meso' care integration strategies. The most commonly reported elements of integrated care models were multidisciplinary teams, comprehensive assessment and case management. Nurses, physiotherapists, general practitioners and social workers were the most commonly reported service providers. Methodological quality was variable (AMSTAR scores: 1-11). Seven (47%) reviews were scored as high quality (AMSTAR score ≥8). Evidence of elements of integrated care for older people focuses particularly on micro clinical care integration processes, while there

  12. Different Aspects of General Anesthesia in Pediatric Dentistry: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramazani, Nahid

    2016-04-01

    Most child population is able to undergo dental treatment in the conventional setting. However, some children fail to cope with in-office conscious state and cannot respond to usual management modalities. This review aims to discuss the topic further. A computerized search in databases PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Google Scholar and Google were performed using dental general anesthesia related keywords. Original and review English-written articles that were limited to child population were retrieved without any limitation of publication date. The suitable papers were selected and carefully studied. A data form designed by author was used to write relevant findings. Preoperative oral examination and comprehensive evaluation of treatment needs is only possible after clinical and radiographic oral examination. Effective collaboration in dental GA team should be made to minimize psychological trauma of children who undergo dental GA. Before conducting comprehensive dental treatment under GA, the general health of the child and the success rate of procedures provided needs to be accurately evaluated. It is noteworthy that determination of the optimal timing for GA dental operation is of great importance. Providing safety with pediatric dental rehabilitation under GA is critical. Besides criteria for case selection of dental GA, some degree of dental practitioner's judgment is required to make decision. Pre- and post-operative instructions to parents or caregiver decrease the risk of complications. However, trained resuscitation providers, careful monitoring and advanced equipment minimize adverse outcomes.

  13. General background and approach to multibody dynamics for space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santini, Paolo; Gasbarri, Paolo

    2009-06-01

    Multibody dynamics for space applications is dictated by space environment such as space-varying gravity forces, orbital and attitude perturbations, control forces if any. Several methods and formulations devoted to the modeling of flexible bodies undergoing large overall motions were developed in recent years. Most of these different formulations were aimed to face one of the main problems concerning the analysis of spacecraft dynamics namely the reduction of computer simulation time. By virtue of this, the use of symbolic manipulation, recursive formulation and parallel processing algorithms were proposed. All these approaches fall into two categories, the one based on Newton/Euler methods and the one based on Lagrangian methods; both of them have their advantages and disadvantages although in general, Newtonian approaches lend to a better understanding of the physics of problems and in particular of the magnitude of the reactions and of the corresponding structural stresses. Another important issue which must be addressed carefully in multibody space dynamics is relevant to a correct choice of kinematics variables. In fact, when dealing with flexible multibody system the resulting equations include two different types of state variables, the ones associated with large (rigid) displacements and the ones associated with elastic deformations. These two sets of variables have generally two different time scales if we think of the attitude motion of a satellite whose period of oscillation, due to the gravity gradient effects, is of the same order of magnitude as the orbital period, which is much bigger than the one associated with the structural vibration of the satellite itself. Therefore, the numerical integration of the equations of the system represents a challenging problem. This was the abstract and some of the arguments that Professor Paolo Santini intended to present for the Breakwell Lecture; unfortunately a deadly disease attacked him and shortly took him

  14. A general excimer signaling approach for aptamer sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Cuichen; Yan, Ling; Wang, Chunming; Lin, Haoxue; Wang, Chi; Chen, Xi; Yang, Chaoyong James

    2010-06-15

    Simple, fast and direct analysis or monitoring of significant molecules in complex biological samples is important for many biological study, clinical diagnosis and forensic investigations. Herein we highlight a general method to tailor aptamer sequence into functional subunits to design target-induced light-switching excimer sensors for rapid, sensitive and selective detection of important molecules in complex biological fluids. Our approach is to split one single strand aptamer into two pieces and each terminally labeled with a pyrene molecule while maintaining their binding affinity to target molecules. In the presence of target molecules, two aptamer fragments are induced to self-assemble to form aptamer-target complex and bring two pyrene molecules into a close proximity to form an excimer, resulting in fluorescent switching from approximately 400 nm to 485 nm. With an anti-cocaine sensor, as low as 1 microM of cocaine can be detected using steady-state fluorescence assays and more importantly low picomole level of target can be directly visualized with naked eyes. Because the excimer has a long fluorescence lifetime, time-resolved measurements were used to directly detect as low as 5 microM cocaine in urine samples quantitatively without any sample pretreatment. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Findings Brief External Review of the Ecosystem Approaches to ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    External Review of the Ecosystem Approaches to Human. Health Program ... Improved understanding of social, political, economic, and ecological interactions and .... global learning, communication among partners and others stakeholders.

  16. General review of solar-powered closed sorption refrigeration systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarbu, Ioan; Sebarchievici, Calin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Provide review of development in solar sorption refrigeration technologies. • Theoretical basis and applications of absorption and adsorption cycles are discussed. • Thermodynamic properties of most common working pairs have been reviewed. • Development of hybrid or thermal energy storage adsorption systems was explored. • A comparison between solar-powered absorption and adsorption systems was performed. - Abstract: The negative environmental impacts of burning fossil fuels have forced the energy research community seriously to consider renewable sources, such as naturally available solar energy. Thermally powered refrigeration technologies are classified into two categories: thermo-mechanical technology and sorption technology (open systems or closed systems). This paper provides a detailed review of the solar closed sorption (absorption and adsorption) refrigeration systems, which utilise working pairs (fluids). After an introduction of the basic principles of these systems, the history of development and recent advances in solar sorption refrigeration technologies are reported. The adsorption cooling typically has a lower heat source temperature requirement than the absorption cooling. Based on the coefficient of performance (COP), the absorption systems are preferred over the adsorption systems, and the higher temperature issues can be easily handled with solar adsorption systems. The thermodynamic properties of most common working fluids, as well as the use of ternary mixtures in solar-powered absorption systems, have been reviewed in this study. The paper also refers to new approaches to increase the efficiency and sustainability of the basic adsorption cycles, such as the development of hybrid or thermal energy storage adsorption systems. This research shows that solar-powered closed sorption refrigeration technologies can be attractive alternatives not only to serve the needs for air-conditioning, refrigeration, ice making, thermal

  17. The screening approach for review of accident management programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misak, J.

    1999-01-01

    In this lecture the screening approach for review of accident management programmes are presented. It contains objective trees for accident management: logic structure of the approach; objectives and safety functions for accident management; safety principles

  18. General approaches to the risk assessment of chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, Patrick [Commission of the European Communities, Directorate General XI, Environment, Nuclear Safety and Civil Protection (Belgium)

    1992-07-01

    In the context of the UNCED 92 'Earth Summit' in Rio, the following definition of chemical risk assessment has been developed: 'Chemical risk assessment is a scientific process that identifies and quantifies the potential adverse effects on human health or ecosystems of defined exposures to chemical substances, to mixtures that include chemicals, or to chemically hazardous processes or situations. Risk itself is the probability of the occurrence of a defined adverse effect in a defined group and in defined circumstances'. I would not be so impertinent as to try and improve upon a definition that has the tacit endorsement of the majority of world-leaders. Furthermore, I consider that too many man-years have been spent discussing this topic. Thankfully the UNCED definition recognises chemical risk assessment as being a process and not some immutable physical law. In this presentation I will attempt to explain some of the details and mechanisms of that process but first of all it is worthwhile to spend a few moments putting chemical risk assessment in its proper context and asking the simple question: why do we want/need to assess the potential risk of chemicals?. In general terms, chemicals risk assessment is carried out in order to ensure that neither man (consumer/worker/general public) nor the environment are exposed to unacceptable risks arising from the production, use and disposal of chemicals. At a national and/or international level, risk assessments are performed by the regulatory authorities before they accept notification dossiers (e.g. new industrial chemicals) or grant authorizations (e.g. pharmaceuticals, pesticides, cosmetics, food additives). At the local level, plant-operators must carry out risk assessments to ensure that in the particular circumstances of their factory the workers are adequately protected and that satisfactory accident prevention and contingency plans are prepared. Similarly, local authorities must carry out risk assessments before

  19. General approaches to the risk assessment of chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, Patrick

    1992-01-01

    In the context of the UNCED 92 'Earth Summit' in Rio, the following definition of chemical risk assessment has been developed: 'Chemical risk assessment is a scientific process that identifies and quantifies the potential adverse effects on human health or ecosystems of defined exposures to chemical substances, to mixtures that include chemicals, or to chemically hazardous processes or situations. Risk itself is the probability of the occurrence of a defined adverse effect in a defined group and in defined circumstances'. I would not be so impertinent as to try and improve upon a definition that has the tacit endorsement of the majority of world-leaders. Furthermore, I consider that too many man-years have been spent discussing this topic. Thankfully the UNCED definition recognises chemical risk assessment as being a process and not some immutable physical law. In this presentation I will attempt to explain some of the details and mechanisms of that process but first of all it is worthwhile to spend a few moments putting chemical risk assessment in its proper context and asking the simple question: why do we want/need to assess the potential risk of chemicals?. In general terms, chemicals risk assessment is carried out in order to ensure that neither man (consumer/worker/general public) nor the environment are exposed to unacceptable risks arising from the production, use and disposal of chemicals. At a national and/or international level, risk assessments are performed by the regulatory authorities before they accept notification dossiers (e.g. new industrial chemicals) or grant authorizations (e.g. pharmaceuticals, pesticides, cosmetics, food additives). At the local level, plant-operators must carry out risk assessments to ensure that in the particular circumstances of their factory the workers are adequately protected and that satisfactory accident prevention and contingency plans are prepared. Similarly, local authorities must carry out risk assessments before

  20. BOOK REVIEW: Partial Differential Equations in General Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halburd, Rodney G.

    2008-11-01

    Although many books on general relativity contain an overview of the relevant background material from differential geometry, very little attention is usually paid to background material from the theory of differential equations. This is understandable in a first course on relativity but it often limits the kinds of problems that can be studied rigorously. Einstein's field equations lie at the heart of general relativity. They are a system of partial differential equations (PDEs) relating the curvature of spacetime to properties of matter. A central part of most problems in general relativity is to extract information about solutions of these equations. Most standard texts achieve this by studying exact solutions or numerical and analytical approximations. In the book under review, Alan Rendall emphasises the role of rigorous qualitative methods in general relativity. There has long been a need for such a book, giving a broad overview of the relevant background from the theory of partial differential equations, and not just from differential geometry. It should be noted that the book also covers the basic theory of ordinary differential equations. Although there are many good books on the rigorous theory of PDEs, methods related to the Einstein equations deserve special attention, not only because of the complexity and importance of these equations, but because these equations do not fit into any of the standard classes of equations (elliptic, parabolic, hyperbolic) that one typically encounters in a course on PDEs. Even specifying exactly what ones means by a Cauchy problem in general relativity requires considerable care. The main problem here is that the manifold on which the solution is defined is determined by the solution itself. This means that one does not simply define data on a submanifold. Rendall's book gives a good overview of applications and results from the qualitative theory of PDEs to general relativity. It would be impossible to give detailed

  1. Clinical TVA-based studies: a general review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eHabekost

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In combination with whole report and partial report tasks, the Theory of Visual Attention (TVA can be used to estimate individual differences in five basic attentional parameters: The visual processing speed, the storage capacity of visual short-term memory, the perceptual threshold, the efficiency of top-down selectivity, and the spatial bias of attentional weighting. TVA-based assessment has been used in about 30 studies to investigate attentional deficits in a range of neurological and psychiatric conditions: (a neglect and simultanagnosia, (b reading disturbances, (c aging and neurodegenerative diseases, and most recently (d neurodevelopmental disorders. The article introduces TVA based assessment, discusses its methodology and psychometric properties, and reviews the progress made in each of the four research fields. The empirical results demonstrate the general usefulness of TVA-based assessment for many types of clinical neuropsychological research. The method’s most important qualities are cognitive specificity and theoretical grounding, but it is also characterized by good reliability and sensitivity to minor deficits. The review concludes by pointing to promising new areas for clinical TVA-based research.

  2. Stroke admissions in Kubwa General Hospital: A 30-month review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osaze Ojo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available >Background: Stroke is a common neurological disorder that contributes significantly to the morbidity and mortality of medical admissions.Objectives: To review the types, risk factors, hemispheric involvement, and outcomes of admitted stroke patients in Kubwa General Hospital, Abuja, Nigeria.Subjects and Methods: We carried out a retrospective study of patients who had a clinical diagnosis of stroke in Kubwa General Hospital, Abuja, Nigeria, between January 2013 and June 2015.Results: A total of 60 patients who had stroke were admitted during this period, accounting for 4.25% of medical admissions. Men and women accounted for 68.3% and 31.7%, respectively, with a male-to-female ratio of 2:1. Their mean age was 54.9 ± 13.5 years while the median age was 52.5 years. The mean hospital stay for these patients was 8.4 ± 5.5 days. Ischemic stroke occurred more frequently (65% compared with hemorrhagic stroke (35%. Hypertension (65%, alcohol (25%, previous stroke (18.3%, diabetes mellitus, and hypercholesterolemia (18.3% were the common identifiable risk factors for stroke. Ten patients (16.7% had two risk factors for stroke, whereas 8 patients (13.3% had three risk factors for stroke. The mean systolic and diastolic blood pressures on admission were 171.5 ± 41.6 mmHg and 103.3 ± 24.0 mmHg, respectively. The left hemisphere (53.3% was more often affected than the right hemisphere in these patients. Majority of the patients (48.3% were discharged following improvement while the case fatality was 11.7%.Conclusion: Stroke is not uncommon as a cause of medical admission in Kubwa General Hospital. Ischemic stroke occurred more commonly and the left hemisphere was more often involved compared with the right hemisphere. Hypertension was the most common risk factor for stroke in these patients.

  3. Practical approach to childhood masturbation--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallants, Charita; Casteels, Kristina

    2008-10-01

    The aim of this article is to review the literature for information that could guide the clinical practitioner in the assessment and management of childhood masturbation. The boundary between normal and abnormal or deviant masturbation in children remains unclear. Besides the link with sexual abuse, other environmental factors and individual factors, as well as psychiatric disorders, are mentioned in relation to masturbation and sexual behaviour in general in children. However, evidence-based information is missing and, therefore, a safety management approach is advised when a clinician is confronted with childhood masturbation. We conclude that normal psychosexual development, as well as environmental and individual factors, should be considered in the assessment and management of childhood masturbation.

  4. A general approach to posterior contraction in nonparametric inverse problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knapik, Bartek; Salomond, Jean Bernard

    In this paper, we propose a general method to derive an upper bound for the contraction rate of the posterior distribution for nonparametric inverse problems. We present a general theorem that allows us to derive contraction rates for the parameter of interest from contraction rates of the related

  5. On the generalization of Medvedev approach to classical mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bochnacki, P.; Horzela, A.; Kapuscik, E.; Kempczynski, J.

    1991-06-01

    The many body systems, called Medvedev systems, for which the momentum of each body depends on velocities of all other bodies are considered. The notion of singular Medvedev systems is introduced and their properties are reviewed. (author)

  6. Approaching development – An opinionated review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Christian

    2010-01-01

    and as a craft and argues for the necessity of recognizing their difference. Moreover, as a social science, development studies also navigate between theoretical generalization and descriptive particularism. By making a distinction between explanatory and heuristic frameworks, development studies can...... be normalized as a science and thus able to study a contextual moving target while drawing on a general or ‘grand theory'....

  7. Social Case-work in General Practice: An Alternative Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratoff, L.; Pearson, Barbara

    1970-01-01

    During a two-year period a senior case-worker was seconded by a voluntary family case-work agency, the Liverpool Personal Service Society, to work with three general practitioners. The commonest reasons for referral of the 157 new patients to the social worker over this study period were extreme poverty; housing, matrimonial, and psychiatric problems; and problems of fatherless families. The successful and valuable co-operation between the general practitioners, case-worker, and various specialist professional and financial services of the Society have proved that a professional social worker has an important role in the general-practice team. PMID:5420213

  8. Venous Thromboembolism Prevention in Emergency General Surgery: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Patrick B; Vogt, Kelly N; Lau, Brandyn D; Aboagye, Jonathan; Parry, Neil G; Streiff, Michael B; Haut, Elliott R

    2018-05-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is the most preventable cause of morbidity and mortality in US hospitals, and approximately 2.5% of emergency general surgery (EGS) patients will be diagnosed with a VTE event. Emergency general surgery patients are at increased risk of morbidity and mortality because of the nature of acute surgical conditions and the challenges related to prophylaxis. MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Database of Collected Reviews were searched from January 1, 1990, through December 31, 2015. Nearly all operatively and nonoperatively treated EGS patients have a moderate to high risk of developing a VTE, and individual risk should be assessed at admission. Pharmacologic prophylaxis in the form of unfractionated or low-molecular-weight heparin should be considered unless an absolute contraindication, such as bleeding, exists. Patients should receive the first dose at admission to the hospital, and administration should continue until discharge without missed doses. Certain patient populations, such as those with malignant tumors, may benefit from prolonged VTE prophylaxis after discharge. Mechanical prophylaxis should be considered in all patients, particularly if pharmacologic prophylaxis is contraindicated. Studies that specifically target improved adherence with VTE prophylaxis in EGS patients suggest that efficacy and quality improvement initiatives should be undertaken from a system and institutional perspective. Operatively and nonoperatively treated EGS patients are at a comparatively high risk of VTE. Despite gaps in existing literature with respect to this increasing patient population, successful best practices can be applied. Best practices include assessment of VTE risk, optimal prophylaxis, and physician, nurse, and patient education regarding the use of mechanical and pharmacologic VTE prophylaxis and institutional policies.

  9. Review of the general regulation of radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortes C, A.

    2008-12-01

    As a result of advances in radiation protection at the international level, the National Commission of Nuclear Safety and Safeguards has been given the task of revising the General Regulation of Radiation Safety to cover such developments, especially those contained in the safety basic standards No. 115 of the IAEA, published in 1977. In addition, the working group has considered issues that need to be regulated to avoid unnecessary dose received by the public due to exposure to ionizing radiation. Related to the public exposure believes the preliminary deal with situations of chronic exposure in homes, as well as human activities involving natural sources of ionizing radiation exposure to cause the public to levels that exceed the dose limits laid down in the Regulation. It is also envisaged that they will be subject to monitoring by the Commission, the concentration levels due to radon in homes, radon outdoor, radio and radon in drinking water, and external radiation levels due to naturally occurring radionuclides in building materials. Thus, the processes that may be subject to surveillance by the National Commission of Nuclear Safety and Safeguards include water treatment, some metallurgical processes, some of the mining industry and some industrial processes in which waste increase activity concentration of naturally occurring radionuclides. With the revision of the General Regulation of Radiation Safety, certain standards must be reviewed and further developed such as the concentration of radon levels in homes room, outdoor radon, radon and radio in drinking water, radiation levels out sourcing due to naturally occurring radionuclides in building materials, and standards governing (and identify) the radioactive material generation in the processes mentioned previously. (Author)

  10. A general approach for monodisperse colloidal perovskites, Chemistry of Materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demirors, A.F.; Imhof, A.

    2009-01-01

    We describe a novel general method for synthesizing monodisperse colloidal perovskite particles at room temperature by postsynthesis addition of metal hydroxides to amorphous titania colloids. In previous work, we used titania particles to synthesize homogenously mixed silica-titania composite

  11. A Fuzzy-Logic Generalization of a Data Mining Approach

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Holeňa, Martin

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 6 (2001), s. 595-610 ISSN 1210-0552. [SOFSEM 2001 Workshop on Soft Computing. Piešťany, 29.11.2001-30.11.2001] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1030004 Institutional research plan: AV0Z1030915 Keywords : data analysis * vague hypotheses * vague significante level * fuzzy prediacate calculus * basic fuzzy logic * generalized quantifiers * method GUHA Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  12. Discourse analysis in general practice: a sociolinguistic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nessa, J; Malterud, K

    1990-06-01

    It is a simple but important fact that as general practitioners we talk to our patients. The quality of the conversation is of vital importance for the outcome of the consultation. The purpose of this article is to discuss a methodological tool borrowed from sociolinguistics--discourse analysis. To assess the suitability of this method for analysis of general practice consultations, the authors have performed a discourse analysis of one single consultation. Our experiences are presented here.

  13. MELiSSA Food Characterization general approach and current status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weihreter, Martin; Chaerle, Laury; Secco, Benjamin; Molders, Katrien; van der Straeten, Dominique; Duliere, Eric; Pieters, Serge; Maclean, Heather; Dochain, Denis; Quinet, Muriel; Lutts, Stanley; Graham, Thomas; Stasiak, Michael; Rondeau Vuk, Theresa; Zheng, Youbin; Dixon, Mike; Laniau, Martine; Larreture, Alain; Timsit, Michel; Aronne, Giovanna; Barbieri, Giancarlo; Buonomo, Roberta; Veronica; Paradiso, Roberta; de Pascale, Stafania; Galbiati, Massimo; Troia, A. R.; Nobili, Matteo; Bucchieri, Lorenzo; Page, Valérie; Feller, Urs; Lasseur, Christophe

    . Available MELiSSA closed environment crop growth data were used to develop a first photosynthetic model representing the basic carbon fixation mechanisms. This model will be further elaborated in the course of this study to predict yield, oxygen production and transpi-ration. As an ultimate goal the model is intended to simulate the composition of the different plant organs (root, shoot, fruit/seed or tuber) for each crop under various conditions. For the validation of this model an extensive amount of data sets are needed. Current plant growth bench test setups will provide part of the required data. To gain more precise and detailed datasets, a highly closed plant growth chamber (Plant Characterization Unit, PCU) is under development. The PCU will provide accurate mass balances for carbon, water, oxygen and other elements with statistical reliability. This reliability is achieved through a high degree of closure and environment homogeneity. The PCU will also provide data for the above described plant characterization studies. The general work approach, the current status and future steps will be illustrated.

  14. the chemist's triangle and a general systemic approach to teaching

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IICBA01

    The three levels of science thought (macro, micro, symbolic), identified by ... advocated in the systemic approach to teaching and learning of chemistry. ... A recent paper by Reid [1] illuminates the issue and claims school chemistry as part of.

  15. Advanced human-system interface design review guideline. General evaluation model, technical development, and guideline description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Hara, J.M.

    1994-07-01

    Advanced control rooms will use advanced human-system interface (HSI) technologies that may have significant implications for plant safety in that they will affect the operator's overall role in the system, the method of information presentation, and the ways in which operators interact with the system. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviews the HSI aspects of control rooms to ensure that they are designed to good human factors engineering principles and that operator performance and reliability are appropriately supported to protect public health and safety. The principal guidance available to the NRC, however, was developed more than ten years ago, well before these technological changes. Accordingly, the human factors guidance needs to be updated to serve as the basis for NRC review of these advanced designs. The purpose of this project was to develop a general approach to advanced HSI review and the human factors guidelines to support NRC safety reviews of advanced systems. This two-volume report provides the results of the project. Volume I describes the development of the Advanced HSI Design Review Guideline (DRG) including (1) its theoretical and technical foundation, (2) a general model for the review of advanced HSIs, (3) guideline development in both hard-copy and computer-based versions, and (4) the tests and evaluations performed to develop and validate the DRG. Volume I also includes a discussion of the gaps in available guidance and a methodology for addressing them. Volume 2 provides the guidelines to be used for advanced HSI review and the procedures for their use

  16. Advanced human-system interface design review guideline. General evaluation model, technical development, and guideline description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Hara, J.M.

    1994-07-01

    Advanced control rooms will use advanced human-system interface (HSI) technologies that may have significant implications for plant safety in that they will affect the operator`s overall role in the system, the method of information presentation, and the ways in which operators interact with the system. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviews the HSI aspects of control rooms to ensure that they are designed to good human factors engineering principles and that operator performance and reliability are appropriately supported to protect public health and safety. The principal guidance available to the NRC, however, was developed more than ten years ago, well before these technological changes. Accordingly, the human factors guidance needs to be updated to serve as the basis for NRC review of these advanced designs. The purpose of this project was to develop a general approach to advanced HSI review and the human factors guidelines to support NRC safety reviews of advanced systems. This two-volume report provides the results of the project. Volume I describes the development of the Advanced HSI Design Review Guideline (DRG) including (1) its theoretical and technical foundation, (2) a general model for the review of advanced HSIs, (3) guideline development in both hard-copy and computer-based versions, and (4) the tests and evaluations performed to develop and validate the DRG. Volume I also includes a discussion of the gaps in available guidance and a methodology for addressing them. Volume 2 provides the guidelines to be used for advanced HSI review and the procedures for their use.

  17. [Precision medicine : a required approach for the general internist].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waeber, Gérard; Cornuz, Jacques; Gaspoz, Jean-Michel; Guessous, Idris; Mooser, Vincent; Perrier, Arnaud; Simonet, Martine Louis

    2017-01-18

    The general internist cannot be a passive bystander of the anticipated medical revolution induced by precision medicine. This latter aims to improve the predictive and/or clinical course of an individual by integrating all biological, genetic, environmental, phenotypic and psychosocial knowledge of a person. In this article, national and international initiatives in the field of precision medicine are discussed as well as the potential financial, ethical and limitations of personalized medicine. The question is not to know if precision medicine will be part of everyday life but rather to integrate early the general internist in multidisciplinary teams to ensure optimal information and shared-decision process with patients and individuals.

  18. BOOK REVIEW: A First Course in General Relativity (Second Edition) A First Course in General Relativity (Second Edition)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poisson, Eric

    2010-05-01

    A few years ago, in my review of Sean Carroll's book in Classical and Quantum Gravity [1], I wrote that while the 1970s was the decade of Weinberg [2] and Misner, Thorne and Wheeler [3], and while the eighties was the decade of Schutz [4] and Wald [5], the 2000s was clearly the decade of Hartle [6] and Carroll [7]. In my opinion, these books continue to stand out in the surprisingly dense crowd of introductory textbooks on general relativity. At the dawn of this new decade I look forward to see what fresh pedagogical insights will be produced next, and who will be revealed as the winners of the 2010s. It is, of course, much too early to tell, but Schutz is back, and he will set the standard just as he did back in 1985. This is the long-awaited second edition of his `First Course', a short, accessible, and very successful introduction to general relativity. The changes from the first edition are modest: Schutz wisely refrained from bloating the text with new topics, and limited himself to updating his discussion of gravitational-wave sources and detectors, neutron-star and black-hole astrophysics, and suggestions for further reading. Most importantly, he completely rewrote the chapter on cosmology, a topic that has evolved enormously since the first edition. The book begins in chapter 1 with a beautiful review of special relativity that emphasizes spacetime geometry and stays away from an algebraic approach based on the Lorentz transformation, which appears only later in the chapter. This is followed up in chapters 2 and 3 with an introduction to vector and tensor analysis in flat spacetime. The point of view is modern (tensors are defined as linear mapping of vectors and one-forms into real numbers) but the presentation is very accessible and avoids an overload of mathematical fine print. In chapter 4 the book introduces the spacetime description of fluids; it is here that the energy-momentum tensor makes its first appearance. The move to curved spacetime is

  19. The regulatory review: general comments, current status of review, identification of critical issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vigfusson, J.; Franck, E.

    2004-01-01

    Typically, a lot of interesting and important details add up to give a coherent and convincing picture of a safe repository. A good portion of these details must be studied and the scientific basis of the system must be clearly understood by the reviewing authority in order to be able to pass a judgement on the safety case. HSK has already received a large part of the documentation relating to the project, including the three high level documents that summarize the synthesis of the geological information, the demonstration of repository design and construction feasibility and the safety case. After a first look at the contents of the documentation we would like to complement Nagra on the maturity and clarity of the presentation in these reports. At this early stage, we shall not present any review judgements. The reviewer usually is dependent upon having not only the high level documents but also all the detailed reference reports in front of him in order to do his job, and HSK is still receiving very relevant documents. Thus we are still at the very beginning of our review. Here, we offer some comments of general nature about the review process and mention a few points that seem to be uppermost in our mind at this stage. (author)

  20. A general approach to decomposable bi-capacities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Saminger, S.; Mesiar, Radko

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 5 (2003), s. 631-642 ISSN 0023-5954 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA402/04/1026 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1075907 Keywords : bi-capacity * cumulative prospect theory * decomposable capacity Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.319, year: 2003

  1. Integrated radiobioecological monitoring of Semipalatinsk test site: general approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sejsebaev, A.T.; Shenal', K.; Bakhtin, M.M.; Kadyrova, N.Zh.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents major research directions and general methodology for establishment of an integrated radio-bio-ecological monitoring system at the territory of the former Semipalatinsk nuclear test site. Also, it briefly provides the first results of monitoring the natural plant and animal populations at STS. (author)

  2. An Investigative, Cooperative Learning Approach to the General Microbiology Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Kyle; Fenster, Amy; Dilts, Judith A.; Temple, Louise

    2009-01-01

    Investigative- and cooperative-based learning strategies have been used effectively in a variety of classrooms to enhance student learning and engagement. In the General Microbiology laboratory for juniors and seniors at James Madison University, these strategies were combined to make a semester-long, investigative, cooperative learning experience…

  3. General Systems Theory Approaches to Organizations: Some Problems in Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peery, Newman S., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Considers the limitations of General Systems Theory (GST) as a major paradigm within administrative theory and concludes that most systems formulations overemphasize growth and show little appreciation for intraorganizational conflict, diversity of values, and political action within organizations. Suggests that these limitations are mainly due to…

  4. A simplified approach to general scalar-tensor theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloomfield, Jolyon

    2013-01-01

    The most general covariant action describing gravity coupled to a scalar field with only second order equations of motion, Horndeski's theory (also known as ''Generalized Galileons''), provides an all-encompassing model in which single scalar dark energy models may be constrained. However, the generality of the model makes it cumbersome to manipulate. In this paper, we demonstrate that when considering linear perturbations about a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker background, the theory is completely specified by only six functions of time, two of which are constrained by the background evolution. We utilise the ideas of the Effective Field Theory of Inflation/Dark Energy to explicitly construct these six functions of time in terms of the free functions appearing in Horndeski's theory. These results are used to investigate the behavior of the theory in the quasistatic approximation. We find that only four functions of time are required to completely specify the linear behavior of the theory in this limit, which can further be reduced if the background evolution is fixed. This presents a significantly reduced parameter space from the original presentation of Horndeski's theory, giving hope to the possibility of constraining the parameter space. This work provides a cross-check for previous work on linear perturbations in this theory, and also generalizes it to include spatial curvature

  5. Currency Hedging for International Stock Portfolios : A General Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Roon, F.A.; Nijman, T.E.; Werker, B.J.M.

    1999-01-01

    This paper tests whether hedging currency risk improves the performance of international stock portfolios. We use a generalized performance measure which allows for investor-dependencies such as different utility functions and the presence of nontraded risks. In addition we show that an auxiliary

  6. A review of Spacelab mission management approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craft, H. G., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The Spacelab development program is a joint undertaking of the NASA and ESA. The paper addresses the initial concept of Spacelab payload mission management, the lessons learned, and modifications made as a result of the actual implementation of Spacelab Mission 1. The discussion covers mission management responsibilities, program control, science management, payload definition and interfaces, integrated payload mission planning, integration requirements, payload specialist training, payload and launch site integration, payload flight/mission operations, and postmission activities. After 3.5 years the outlined overall mission manager approach has proven to be most successful. The approach does allow the mission manager to maintain the lowest overall mission cost.

  7. The chemist's triangle and a general systemic approach to teaching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The three levels of science thought (macro, micro, symbolic), identified by Johnstone and represented by a triangle, may be viewed as a core closed-cluster concept map of the type advocated in the systemic approach to teaching and learning of chemistry. Some of the implications of this view for teaching, learning and ...

  8. General renormalized statistical approach with finite cross-field correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vakulenko, M.O.

    1992-01-01

    The renormalized statistical approach is proposed, accounting for finite correlations of potential and magnetic fluctuations. It may be used for analysis of a wide class of nonlinear model equations describing the cross-correlated plasma states. The influence of a cross spectrum on stationary potential and magnetic ones is investigated. 10 refs. (author)

  9. General approach for accurate resonance analysis in transformer windings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popov, M.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, resonance effects in transformer windings are thoroughly investigated and analyzed. The resonance is determined by making use of an accurate approach based on the application of the impedance matrix of a transformer winding. The method is validated by a test coil and the numerical

  10. Generalized perturbation theory (GPT) methods. A heuristic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gandini, A.

    1987-01-01

    Wigner first proposed a perturbation theory as early as 1945 to study fundamental quantities such as the reactivity worths of different materials. The first formulation, CPT, for conventional perturbation theory is based on universal quantum mechanics concepts. Since that early conception, significant contributions have been made to CPT, in particular, Soodak, who rendered a heuristic interpretation of the adjoint function, (referred to as the GPT method for generalized perturbation theory). The author illustrates the GPT methodology in a variety of linear and nonlinear domains encountered in nuclear reactor analysis. The author begins with the familiar linear neutron field and then generalizes the methodology to other linear and nonlinear fields, using heuristic arguments. The author believes that the inherent simplicity and elegance of the heuristic derivation, although intended here for reactor physics problems might be usefully adopted in collateral fields and includes such examples

  11. Physico mathematical approach to generalized monopoles without a string

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, W.A.; Faria Rosa, M.A.; Maia, A.

    1988-01-01

    A theory of the generalized magnetic monopole without string, which is distinct from Dirac's original theory and also distinct from the topological theory of the monopole is presented. This theory is first formulated in the Clifford bundle formalism; and in the particular case of electrodynamics it is deduced from Maxwell equations the generalized Lorentz force and the equations of motion of charges and monopoles. The conservation laws and the problem of Lagrangian formalism are discussed. Dirac quantization condition in two different ways are obtained. Finally a principal fiber formulation of the theory using the spliced bundle concept with gauge group GxG, where G is the gauge group of the theory without monopoles, is presented

  12. Whiteheadian approach to quantum theory and the generalized bell's theorem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stapp, H.P.

    1979-01-01

    The model of the world proposed by Whitehead provides a natural theoretical framework in which to imbed quantum theory. This model accords with the ontological ideas of Heisenberg, and also with Einstein's view that physical theories should refer nominally to the objective physical situation, rather than our knowledge of that system. Whitehead imposed on his model the relativistic requirement that what happens in any given spacetime region be determined only by what has happened in its absolute past, i.e., in the backward light-cone drawn from that region. This requirement must be modified, for it is inconsistent with the implications of quantum theory expressed by a generalized version of Bell's theorem. Revamping the causal spacetime structure of the Whitehead-Heisenberg ontology to bring it into accord with the generalized Bell's theorem creates the possibility of a nonlocal causal covariant theory that accords with the statistical prediction of quantum theory

  13. The statistical-inference approach to generalized thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavenda, B.H.; Scherer, C.

    1987-01-01

    Limit theorems, such as the central-limit theorem and the weak law of large numbers, are applicable to statistical thermodynamics for sufficiently large sample size of indipendent and identically distributed observations performed on extensive thermodynamic (chance) variables. The estimation of the intensive thermodynamic quantities is a problem in parametric statistical estimation. The normal approximation to the Gibbs' distribution is justified by the analysis of large deviations. Statistical thermodynamics is generalized to include the statistical estimation of variance as well as mean values

  14. Trade Liberalisation and Poverty in Bangladesh: A General Equilibrium Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Nahar, Bodrun; Siriwardana, Mahinda

    2009-01-01

    This paper uses a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model to investigate the impact on poverty of trade liberalisation in Bangladesh. The simulation results show that the complete removal of tariffs favours export oriented sectors in the economy. With trade liberalisation, rural and urban areas experience an overall reduction in poverty in the short run. However, a marginal increase in the poverty gap and poverty severity for urban areas is projected, implying that the poor become poorer i...

  15. Global nuclear developments and the IAEA Director General Mohamed ElBaradei reviews achievements, challenges at IAEA General Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    In a statement to the 44th regular session of the Agency's General Conference (18 - 22 September 2000, Austria Center Vienna), the IAEA Director General reviewed nuclear developments from the IAEA perspectives. In this connection, the Director General signalled the IAEA's achievements and its readiness to provide its services as may be requested in response to global developments. He also underlined present and future challenges shaping the IAEA agenda, including financial challenges

  16. Agricultural Development in Rural Nigeria: A Review of Approaches ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agricultural Development in Rural Nigeria: A Review of Approaches. ... African Journal of Sustainable Development ... the country's very low human development indicators, particularly in the rural areas, is a serious cause of concern.

  17. Teaching the Literature Review: A Practical Approach for College Instructors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Cisco

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Instructors across the disciplines require their students to write literature reviews. Although numerous sources describe the literature review process, instructors and students face difficulty when approaching the structure of a literature review. This paper presents a straightforward, efficient approach for teaching students how to write a literature review. Developed over the course of three years at a university writing center, this lesson received substantial support from students across the disciplines. This paper reflects on one group of students’ experiences while writing literature reviews in a political science course, showing that students demonstrated a sense of confidence and direction after the lesson. University professors, writing center staff, and content-discipline instructors in higher education classrooms can alleviate their students’ anxiety about literature reviews by using this lesson in their classrooms.

  18. Continuation of probability density functions using a generalized Lyapunov approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baars, S., E-mail: s.baars@rug.nl [Johann Bernoulli Institute for Mathematics and Computer Science, University of Groningen, P.O. Box 407, 9700 AK Groningen (Netherlands); Viebahn, J.P., E-mail: viebahn@cwi.nl [Centrum Wiskunde & Informatica (CWI), P.O. Box 94079, 1090 GB, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Mulder, T.E., E-mail: t.e.mulder@uu.nl [Institute for Marine and Atmospheric research Utrecht, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Utrecht University, Princetonplein 5, 3584 CC Utrecht (Netherlands); Kuehn, C., E-mail: ckuehn@ma.tum.de [Technical University of Munich, Faculty of Mathematics, Boltzmannstr. 3, 85748 Garching bei München (Germany); Wubs, F.W., E-mail: f.w.wubs@rug.nl [Johann Bernoulli Institute for Mathematics and Computer Science, University of Groningen, P.O. Box 407, 9700 AK Groningen (Netherlands); Dijkstra, H.A., E-mail: h.a.dijkstra@uu.nl [Institute for Marine and Atmospheric research Utrecht, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Utrecht University, Princetonplein 5, 3584 CC Utrecht (Netherlands); School of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States)

    2017-05-01

    Techniques from numerical bifurcation theory are very useful to study transitions between steady fluid flow patterns and the instabilities involved. Here, we provide computational methodology to use parameter continuation in determining probability density functions of systems of stochastic partial differential equations near fixed points, under a small noise approximation. Key innovation is the efficient solution of a generalized Lyapunov equation using an iterative method involving low-rank approximations. We apply and illustrate the capabilities of the method using a problem in physical oceanography, i.e. the occurrence of multiple steady states of the Atlantic Ocean circulation.

  19. A Multidisciplinary Approach to Pancreas Cancer in 2016: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, Evan L; Shahda, Safi; Sandrasegaran, Kumar; DeWitt, John; Easler, Jeffrey J; Agarwal, David M; Eagleson, Mackenzie; Zyromski, Nicholas J; House, Michael G; Ellsworth, Susannah; El Hajj, Ihab; O'Neil, Bert H; Nakeeb, Attila; Sherman, Stuart

    2017-04-01

    In this article, we review our multidisciplinary approach for patients with pancreatic cancer. Specifically, we review the epidemiology, diagnosis and staging, biliary drainage techniques, selection of patients for surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and discuss other palliative interventions. The areas of active research investigation and where our knowledge is limited are emphasized.

  20. AUTOMOTIVE MARKET- FROM A GENERAL TO A MARKET SEGMENTATION APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviana Andreea Niminet

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Automotive market and its corresponding industry are undoubtedly of outmost importance and therefore proper market segmentation is crucial for market players, potential competitors and customers as well. Time has proved that market economic analysis often shown flaws in determining the relevant market, by using solely or mainly the geographic aspect and disregarding the importance of segments on the automotive market. For these reasons we propose a new approach of the automotive market proving the importance of proper market segmentation and defining the strategic groups within the automotive market.

  1. Multiple Scattering Approach to Continuum State with Generally Shaped Potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatada, Keisuke; Hayakawa, Kuniko; Tenore, Antonio; Benfatto, Maurizio; Natoli, Calogero

    2007-01-01

    We present a new scheme for solving the scattering problem for an arbitrarily shaped potential cell that avoids the well known convergence problems in the angular momentum expansion of the cell shape function. Tests of the method against analytically soluble separable model potentials, with and without shape truncation, have been performed with success. By a judicious choice of the shape of the cells partitioning the whole molecular space and use of empty cells when necessary, we set up a multiple scattering scheme that leads to a straightforward generalization of the same equations in the muffin-tin approximation. For example lmax in the angular momentum expansion can still be chosen according to the rule lmax ∼ kR, where R is the radius of the bounding sphere of the cell and all the matrices appearing in the theory are square matrices

  2. An investigative, cooperative learning approach to the general microbiology laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Kyle; Fenster, Amy; Dilts, Judith A; Temple, Louise

    2009-01-01

    Investigative- and cooperative-based learning strategies have been used effectively in a variety of classrooms to enhance student learning and engagement. In the General Microbiology laboratory for juniors and seniors at James Madison University, these strategies were combined to make a semester-long, investigative, cooperative learning experience involving culture and identification of microbial isolates that the students obtained from various environments. To assess whether this strategy was successful, students were asked to complete a survey at the beginning and at the end of the semester regarding their comfort level with a variety of topics. For most of the topics queried, the students reported that their comfort had increased significantly during the semester. Furthermore, this group of students thought that the quality of this investigative lab experience was much better than that of any of their previous lab experiences.

  3. Interacting holographic dark energy models: a general approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Som, S.; Sil, A.

    2014-08-01

    Dark energy models inspired by the cosmological holographic principle are studied in homogeneous isotropic spacetime with a general choice for the dark energy density . Special choices of the parameters enable us to obtain three different holographic models, including the holographic Ricci dark energy (RDE) model. Effect of interaction between dark matter and dark energy on the dynamics of those models are investigated for different popular forms of interaction. It is found that crossing of phantom divide can be avoided in RDE models for β>0.5 irrespective of the presence of interaction. A choice of α=1 and β=2/3 leads to a varying Λ-like model introducing an IR cutoff length Λ -1/2. It is concluded that among the popular choices an interaction of the form Q∝ Hρ m suits the best in avoiding the coincidence problem in this model.

  4. The canonical Lagrangian approach to three-space general relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyam, Vasudev; Venkatesh, Madhavan

    2013-07-01

    We study the action for the three-space formalism of general relativity, better known as the Barbour-Foster-Ó Murchadha action, which is a square-root Baierlein-Sharp-Wheeler action. In particular, we explore the (pre)symplectic structure by pulling it back via a Legendre map to the tangent bundle of the configuration space of this action. With it we attain the canonical Lagrangian vector field which generates the gauge transformations (3-diffeomorphisms) and the true physical evolution of the system. This vector field encapsulates all the dynamics of the system. We also discuss briefly the observables and perennials for this theory. We then present a symplectic reduction of the constrained phase space.

  5. French research on a general approach to sodium fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malet, JC.

    1989-01-01

    This document gives a general idea of how one may deal with the safety of an installation in case of a sodium leak generating either a sodium pool fire, or a sodium spray fire, or a combined sodium fire, and in case of a sodium leak either with or without fire and/or any aggravating phenomenon such as aerosols or sodium-concrete reactions, for example. This paper describes the means used to reduce fire consequences. These means are either design codes used for dimensioning premises with their ventilation system or for defining a course of action to be taken in case of fire, or equipment and components (fire fighting equipment, detection devices, etc.) used to prevent or to fight fires, or finally, to repair the installation after a fire, the latter operation including the processing of the residues. (author)

  6. Generalized Hurst exponent approach to efficiency in MENA markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sensoy, A.

    2013-10-01

    We study the time-varying efficiency of 15 Middle East and North African (MENA) stock markets by generalized Hurst exponent analysis of daily data with a rolling window technique. The study covers a time period of six years from January 2007 to December 2012. The results reveal that all MENA stock markets exhibit different degrees of long-range dependence varying over time and that the Arab Spring has had a negative effect on market efficiency in the region. The least inefficient market is found to be Turkey, followed by Israel, while the most inefficient markets are Iran, Tunisia, and UAE. Turkey and Israel show characteristics of developed financial markets. Reasons and implications are discussed.

  7. A Review of Educational Approaches for Individuals with Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Ian; Foreman, Phil

    2001-01-01

    This article reviews research on educational approaches to the management of autism. Approaches include sensory-motor therapies (sensory integration training, auditory integration therapy, music therapy), applied behavior analysis, communication therapies, multi-treatment programs, and play and group therapy. Recommendations are made about the…

  8. Generalized statistical mechanics approaches to earthquakes and tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadakis, Giorgos; Michas, Georgios

    2016-01-01

    Despite the extreme complexity that characterizes the mechanism of the earthquake generation process, simple empirical scaling relations apply to the collective properties of earthquakes and faults in a variety of tectonic environments and scales. The physical characterization of those properties and the scaling relations that describe them attract a wide scientific interest and are incorporated in the probabilistic forecasting of seismicity in local, regional and planetary scales. Considerable progress has been made in the analysis of the statistical mechanics of earthquakes, which, based on the principle of entropy, can provide a physical rationale to the macroscopic properties frequently observed. The scale-invariant properties, the (multi) fractal structures and the long-range interactions that have been found to characterize fault and earthquake populations have recently led to the consideration of non-extensive statistical mechanics (NESM) as a consistent statistical mechanics framework for the description of seismicity. The consistency between NESM and observations has been demonstrated in a series of publications on seismicity, faulting, rock physics and other fields of geosciences. The aim of this review is to present in a concise manner the fundamental macroscopic properties of earthquakes and faulting and how these can be derived by using the notions of statistical mechanics and NESM, providing further insights into earthquake physics and fault growth processes. PMID:28119548

  9. Alternatives to Sedation and General Anesthesia in Pediatric Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuirt, Delaney

    2016-09-01

    To assess alternatives to sedation and general anesthesia to prepare children for magnetic resonance (MR) imaging examinations. Online databases were searched for articles discussing methods of preparing children for MR imaging procedures. Because of the large number of articles returned, criteria were limited to only studies that prepared patients without the use of sedation or general anesthesia. Twenty-four studies were deemed appropriate for inclusion in the review. The following methods emerged as alternatives to pediatric sedation: mock scanners, MR-compatible audiovisual systems, feed-sleep manipulation, play therapy, infant incubators/immobilizers, photo diaries, sucrose solutions, and guided imagery. The approaches with the most extensive research were mock MR scanners and feed-sleep manipulation. Evidence supports the use of these alternative techniques as valid substitutes for pediatric sedation and general anesthesia. To reduce the risks associated with sedation of pediatric patients, institutions could implement the alternatives discussed in this review. Cost analyses should be conducted first because some methods are more expensive than others. Finally, further research is needed to better assess the effectiveness of lesser-practiced methods, including photo diaries, sucrose solutions, and guided imagery. ©2016 American Society of Radiologic Technologists.

  10. Generalized Information Equilibrium Approaches to EEG Sleep Stage Discrimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd Zorick

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in neuroscience have raised the hypothesis that the underlying pattern of neuronal activation which results in electroencephalography (EEG signals is via power-law distributed neuronal avalanches, while EEG signals are nonstationary. Therefore, spectral analysis of EEG may miss many properties inherent in such signals. A complete understanding of such dynamical systems requires knowledge of the underlying nonequilibrium thermodynamics. In recent work by Fielitz and Borchardt (2011, 2014, the concept of information equilibrium (IE in information transfer processes has successfully characterized many different systems far from thermodynamic equilibrium. We utilized a publicly available database of polysomnogram EEG data from fourteen subjects with eight different one-minute tracings of sleep stage 2 and waking and an overlapping set of eleven subjects with eight different one-minute tracings of sleep stage 3. We applied principles of IE to model EEG as a system that transfers (equilibrates information from the time domain to scalp-recorded voltages. We find that waking consciousness is readily distinguished from sleep stages 2 and 3 by several differences in mean information transfer constants. Principles of IE applied to EEG may therefore prove to be useful in the study of changes in brain function more generally.

  11. The nickel isotopes in a generalized-seniority approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monnoye, O.; Van Isacker, P.; Pittel, S.; Bennett, J.

    2002-01-01

    The nickel isotopes exist over a wide range of neutron numbers, extending from proton-rich to very neutron-rich nuclei. We report here a consistent study of the odd-mass Z = 28 nuclei in the full p∫ + g 9/2 shell using the generalized-seniority shell model. We include up to three unpaired nucleons in the odd sector and up to two in the even sector. We also report related results for the odd-mass 69 Cu and odd-odd 66 Co nuclei. Our calculations make use of a realistic shell-model interaction, whose monopole part has been renormalized to fit the properties of nuclei near closed shells. The calculated results are in good global agreement with experimental data and contain some evidence for the persistence of the N = 40 sub-shell closure around 68 Ni. The results demonstrate the importance of keeping the entire p∫ + g 9/2 space as active, both for neutrons and protons. (authors)

  12. Effectiveness of empathy in general practice: a systematic review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derksen, F.; Bensing, J.; Lagro-Janssen, A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Empathy as a characteristic of patient-physician communication in both general practice and clinical care is considered to be the backbone of the patient-physician relationship. Although the value of empathy is seldom debated, its effectiveness is little discussed in general practice.

  13. Effectiveness of empathy in general practice: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derksen, F.; Bensing, J.; Lagro-Janssen, A.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Empathy as a characteristic of patient-physician communication in both general practice and clinical care is considered to be the backbone of the patient-physician relationship. Although the value of empathy is seldom debated, its effectiveness is little discussed in general practice.

  14. Generalized Galilean transformations and the measurement problem in the entropic dynamics approach to quantum theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, David T.

    Quantum mechanics is an extremely successful and accurate physical theory, yet since its inception, it has been afflicted with numerous conceptual difficulties. The primary subject of this thesis is the theory of entropic quantum dynamics (EQD), which seeks to avoid these conceptual problems by interpreting quantum theory from an informational perspective. We begin by reviewing Cox's work in describing probability theory as a means of rationally and consistently quantifying uncertainties. We then discuss how probabilities can be updated according to either Bayes' theorem or the extended method of maximum entropy (ME). After that discussion, we review the work of Caticha and Giffin that shows that Bayes' theorem is a special case of ME. This important result demonstrates that the ME method is the general method for updating probabilities. We then review some motivating difficulties in quantum mechanics before discussing Caticha's work in deriving quantum theory from the approach of entropic dynamics, which concludes our review. After entropic dynamics is introduced, we develop the concepts of symmetries and transformations from an informational perspective. The primary result is the formulation of a symmetry condition that any transformation must satisfy in order to qualify as a symmetry in EQD. We then proceed to apply this condition to the extended Galilean transformation. This transformation is of interest as it exhibits features of both special and general relativity. The transformation yields a gravitational potential that arises from an equivalence of information. We conclude the thesis with a discussion of the measurement problem in quantum mechanics. We discuss the difficulties that arise in the standard quantum mechanical approach to measurement before developing our theory of entropic measurement. In entropic dynamics, position is the only observable. We show how a theory built on this one observable can account for the multitude of measurements present in

  15. Revised White House Peer Review Guidelines Draw Generally Favorable Respons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2004-04-01

    A new bulletin from the White House Office of Management and Budget outlines minimum standards for peer review of scientific information that includes findings representing an official position of a department or agency of the federal government. The OMB Revised Information Quality Bulletin for Peer Review, released on 15 April, substantially modifies a previous draft issued on 15 September 2003, which some had criticized as restrictive and imbalanced.

  16. General practitioners' approach to malingering in basic military training centres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokcu, Alper Tunga; Kurt, E

    2017-04-01

    Malingering can be defined as the abuse of the right to benefit from the health services. In this study, the frequency of the malingering cases in Basic Military Training Centres (BMTCs) and the behaviours and the attitudes of the military physicians towards the recruits who are suspected malingerers were described. A total of 17 general practitioners in nine different BMTCs in different regions of Turkey constitute the universe of this descriptive study. In the questionnaire, there were a total of 30 questions about the descriptive characteristics of the participants and their attitudes and behaviours towards malingering. Informed consent form and a questionnaire were applied through the intranet via participants' emails. In the study, 15 physicians were reached with a response rate of 88.2%. All of the physicians suspected malingering in some of the soldiers who were examined. A total of 80% of the physicians (n=12) suspected malingering in at least 10% of the patients they examined. Only 13.3% of the physicians (n=2) had officially diagnosed a case of malingering in the last training period. All of the participants stated that they did not report the official decision for every soldier suspected of malingering. Instead of reporting official decision for malingering, the military physicians apply alternative procedures for suspected malingerers. In countries where the military service is compulsory, prevalence of malingering is estimated to be higher (approximately 5-25%). The problem of malingering is often underestimated due to the fact it is usually overlooked. Malingering remains a problem for the entire military healthcare system, due to the difficulties in exact diagnosis. Therefore, it can be useful to take some practical administrative measures for the soldiers who are prone to malingering, in order to discourage the behaviour. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  17. [Systemic inflammation: theoretical and methodological approaches to description of general pathological process model. Part 3. Backgroung for nonsyndromic approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusev, E Yu; Chereshnev, V A

    2013-01-01

    Theoretical and methodological approaches to description of systemic inflammation as general pathological process are discussed. It is shown, that there is a need of integration of wide range of types of researches to develop a model of systemic inflammation.

  18. REVIEW OF APPROACHES TO IMMUNOTHERAPY IN ONCOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. L. Tsarev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses modern ideas about the immune therapy of cancer — methods of treatment of oncological diseases based on immunological reactions of the organism to the appearance of malignant cells in it. This area is actively studied in clinical practice in the last decade, and some therapy has already been approved for use by regulators after promising results of clinical trials 3 phase.Immune therapy is based on antitumor immune cycle — the cascade of processes responsible for the immune system’s response to tumor cells. Involved regulatory mechanisms are targets for various therapies, the overall goal is to restore proper functioning of the cycle and to achieve the elimination of cancer cells.Currently, the most studied two types of immune therapy — checkpoint inhibitors and adaptive cell therapy. Checkpoint inhibitors increase the activity of body immune cells, reducing the inhibitory influence of the tumor microenvironment and the tumor cells themselves, which allowed them to get out from under the pressure of the immune system during the development of the disease. Adaptive cell therapy, in turn, allows to compensate the lack of active immune against tumor cells.Mechanisms of action determine the effectiveness of various therapies for different diseases, and for patients inside of one diagnosis. To determine the effectiveness of other treatment prior to a particular patient it is necessary to use the latest achievements in precision medicine, based on the search for new biomarkers and analyzing each patient separately. This approach will significantly reduce costs and save precious time for the patient. 

  19. A New Approach to the General Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieron, Joseph F.; McCarthy, Paul J.; Kermis, Thomas W.

    1996-11-01

    Background Canisius College is a medium-sized liberal arts college with a longstanding tradition of maintaining an excellent chemistry program. We realized a few years ago, however, that this tradition was not being sustained by our General Chemistry laboratory course, which had not changed significantly in years. With the help of a grant from the National Science Foundation, our department has been able to design a new laboratory course built around several guiding principles. The design called for experiments to be grouped in units or clusters. Each cluster has a unifying theme or common thread, which gives some coherence to the experiments. The clusters and experiments are listed in the appendix and briefly explained below. Course Design Cluster A's topic is organic and polymer chemistry, and its main objective is to show that chemistry can be enjoyable and relevant to common experiences. Data collection is minimal and hands-on manipulation with observable products is emphasized. Cluster B is a case study of the chemistry of maintaining a swimming pool. The common theme is solution chemistry, and the experiments are designed to promote critical thinking. Cluster C encompasses both oxidation - reduction reactions and electrochemistry, and attempts to show the commonality of these important topics. Cluster D is a series of experiments on methods and techniques of analytical chemistry; in this group the analysis of unknown materials is undertaken. Cluster E is covered last in the second semester, and it stresses important concepts in chemistry at a slightly more advanced level. The emphasis is on the relationship of experiment to theory, and the cluster involves experiments in kinetics, equilibrium, and synthesis. Other guidelines that we considered important in our design were the use of computers (when appropriate), the introduction of microscale chemistry, and the use of instrumentation whenever possible. A separate cluster, labeled Mac, was developed to provide

  20. Nuclear Technology Review 2013. Report by the Director General

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    In response to requests by Member States, the Secretariat produces a comprehensive Nuclear Technology Review each year. Attached is this year's report, which highlights notable developments principally in 2012. The Nuclear Technology Review 2013 covers the following areas: power applications, atomic and nuclear data, accelerators and research reactors, and nuclear sciences and applications. Additional documentation associated with the Nuclear Technology Review 2013 is available on the Agency's website1 in English on nuclear hydrogen production technology and preliminary lessons learned from the Fukushima Daiichi accident for advanced nuclear power plant technology development. Information on the IAEA's activities related to nuclear science and technology can also be found in the IAEA's Annual Report 2012 (GC(57)/3), in particular the Technology section, and the Technical Cooperation Report for 2012 (GC(57)/INF/4). The document has been modified to take account, to the extent possible, of specific comments by the Board of Governors and other comments received from Member States. (author)

  1. Nuclear Installation Safety: General Observations and Trends from IAEA Peer Reviews

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rzentkowski, G.

    2016-01-01

    The Safety Review Services (SRSs) for nuclear installations address the needs of Member States at all stages of installations’ lifecycle. SRSs are based on the IAEA Safety Standards and are provided on Member States’ request to peer review national regulatory frameworks and safety provisions for nuclear installations. They result in recommendations and suggestions to improve national regulations and operational safety, and serve to exert peer pressure to ensure that that every Member State with nuclear installations recognizes its safety responsibility and the need to comply with the IAEA Safety Standards. This presentation provides an overview of SRSs for Nuclear Installations, including their structure and main subject areas. The presentation also summarizes general findings and trends which clearly demonstrate that there is continuous improvement in regulation of nuclear installations and in safety of their operation. Nevertheless, there is the need to further enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of SRSs through review of the overall governance model and service delivery to better serve the needs of Member States. The presentation points out some areas of improvements which have already been implemented or are being considered for implementation. Just as important, SRSs are conducted by teams of experts from around the world to strengthening international cooperation, ensure diversity and impartiality, and improve the overall quality of the safety review being conducted. The review team members are also provided with the opportunity for mutual learning and sharing good practices among themselves and with the Member State undergoing the review. As a result, SRAs play an important role in a quest to harmonize regulatory requirements and approaches globally. (author)

  2. General review of literature relevant to coastal water discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pentreath, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    This review on the behaviour of radionuclides released into coastal water from the radioactive discharges, prepared on the basis of existing publications and documents, is divided into parts on pathways of exposure, behaviour of radionuclides in coastal environments, biological avialability of radionuclides, habit surveys and critical groups, assessment of dose to man and the effects of radiation on aquatic organisms

  3. Multiple sclerosis: general features and pharmacologic approach; Esclerosis multiple: aspectos generales y abordaje farmacologico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen Lagumersindez, Denis; Martinez Sanchez, Gregorio [Instituto de Farmacia y Alimentos, Universidad de La Habana, La Habana (Cuba)

    2009-07-01

    Multiple sclerosis is an autoimmune, inflammatory and desmyelinization disease central nervous system (CNS) of unknown etiology and critical evolution. There different etiological hypotheses talking of a close interrelation among predisposing genetic factors and dissimilar environmental factors, able to give raise to autoimmune response at central nervous system level. Hypothesis of autoimmune pathogeny is based on study of experimental models, and findings in biopsies of affected patients by disease. Accumulative data report that the oxidative stress plays a main role in pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis. Oxygen reactive species generated by macrophages has been involved as mediators of demyelinization and of axon damage, in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and strictly in multiple sclerosis. Disease diagnosis is difficult because of there is not a confirmatory unique test. Management of it covers the treatment of acute relapses, disease modification, and symptoms management. These features require an individualized approach, base on evolution of this affection, and tolerability of treatments. In addition to diet, among non-pharmacologic treatments for multiple sclerosis it is recommended physical therapy. Besides, some clinical assays have been performed in which we used natural extracts, nutrition supplements, and other agents with promising results. Pharmacology allowed neurologists with a broad array of proved effectiveness drugs; however, results of research laboratories in past years make probable that therapeutical possibilities increase notably in future. (Author)

  4. 24 CFR 4.34 - Review of Inspector General's report by the Ethics Law Division.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... report by the Ethics Law Division. 4.34 Section 4.34 Housing and Urban Development Office of the... Funding Decisions § 4.34 Review of Inspector General's report by the Ethics Law Division. After receipt of the Inspector General's report, the Ethics Law Division shall review the facts and circumstances of...

  5. Systematic reviews of adverse effects: framework for a structured approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herxheimer Andrew

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As every healthcare intervention carries some risk of harm, clinical decision making needs to be supported by a systematic assessment of the balance of benefit to harm. A systematic review that considers only the favourable outcomes of an intervention, without also assessing the adverse effects, can mislead by introducing a bias favouring the intervention. Much of the current guidance on systematic reviews is directed towards the evaluation of effectiveness; but this differs in important ways from the methods used in assessing the safety and tolerability of an intervention. A detailed discussion of why, how and when to include adverse effects in a systematic review, is required. Methods This discussion paper, which presupposes a basic knowledge of systematic review methodology, was developed by consensus among experienced reviewers, members of the Adverse Effects Subgroup of The Cochrane Collaboration, and supplemented by a consultation of content experts in reviews methodology, as well as those working in drug safety. Results A logical framework for making decisions in reviews that incorporate adverse effects is provided. We explore situations where a comprehensive investigation of adverse effects is warranted and suggest strategies to identify practicable and clinically useful outcomes. The advantages and disadvantages of including observational and experimental study designs are reviewed. The consequences of including separate studies for intended and unintended effects are explained. Detailed advice is given on designing electronic searches for studies with adverse effects data. Reviewers of adverse effects are given general guidance on the assessment of study bias, data collection, analysis, presentation and the interpretation of harms in a systematic review. Conclusion Readers need to be able to recognize how strategic choices made in the review process determine what harms are found, and how the findings may affect

  6. A critical review of treatment approaches for gambling disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stea, Jonathan N; Hodgins, David C

    2011-06-01

    This review presents the theoretical model, evidence base, and theoretical and methodological issues for seven treatment approaches to gambling disorders: 1) psychoanalytic and psychodynamic treatments, 2) Gamblers Anonymous, 3) behavioural treatments, 4) cognitive and cognitive-behavioural therapies, 5) brief, motivational, and self-directed interventions, 6) pharmacotherapies, and 7) family therapy approaches. Throughout the review, broader clinical and research issues are also discussed, including barriers to treatment-seeking, controlled gambling versus abstinence as a treatment goal, comorbidity, and the evaluation of treatment efficacy and effectiveness.

  7. General review on climate change problems: causes, potential effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martellet, J.

    1991-01-01

    Greenhouse gases and greenhouse effect principles are reviewed and climate changes due to the human activities are discussed: identification of gases, human or natural causes, composition evolution in the atmosphere and relative roles of greenhouse gases. The various tools and calculations methods for evaluating the climate change due to greenhouse effect are presented. Several problems are stated: evolution of the climate structure in 2030, variations of the climatic extremes and the extreme phenomena, augmentation or diminution of the storms on a warmed planet, long term evolution of the climate. Some consequences of a climate change are reviewed: sea level raising, climate change effects on ecosystems. Precision and validity of these predictions are discussed; recommendations for diminishing the uncertainties are proposed

  8. General insurance marketing: a review and future research agenda

    OpenAIRE

    Robson, Julie

    2015-01-01

    The financial services sector is a huge and diverse industry comprising many different forms of organisations and product offerings. Yet, a review of past papers in the Journal of Financial Services Marketing (JFSM) reveals a heavy bias towards articles on banking, to the neglect of other equally important financial services categories. The purpose of this paper is to address this imbalance and to call for more research to be conducted in a wider range of financial services categories. In par...

  9. A review of function modeling: Approaches and applications

    OpenAIRE

    Erden, M.S.; Komoto, H.; Van Beek, T.J.; D'Amelio, V.; Echavarria, E.; Tomiyama, T.

    2008-01-01

    This work is aimed at establishing a common frame and understanding of function modeling (FM) for our ongoing research activities. A comparative review of the literature is performed to grasp the various FM approaches with their commonalities and differences. The relations of FM with the research fields of artificial intelligence, design theory, and maintenance are discussed. In this discussion the goals are to highlight the features of various classical approaches in relation to FM, to delin...

  10. A review on colloidal systems in general and in respect of nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuorinen, Ulla

    1987-04-01

    Recently the possible importance of colloids in connection with nuclear waste disposal, especially in radionuclide migration has been emphasized. Several studies have been or are going to be initiated to investigate the occurrence of natural groundwater colloids and their properties as well as formation and properties of radiocolloids, especially pseudoradiocolloids. If colloids are found to be important, they also have to considered in the safety assessments of nuclear waste disposal. In order to do so, additional theory and equations have to be added to present codes and models. This study is a literature survey consisting first a general approach on colloidal systems and their properties. Then a review on natural groundwater colloids (clays and organs) is given following descriptions of several methods to study colloids. Lastly the role of colloids in nuclear waste disposal is discussed including especially some information about possible actinide colloids and some current research going on in this field. 96 refs

  11. mosaicQA - A General Approach to Facilitate Basic Data Quality Assurance for Epidemiological Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialke, Martin; Rau, Henriette; Schwaneberg, Thea; Walk, Rene; Bahls, Thomas; Hoffmann, Wolfgang

    2017-05-29

    Epidemiological studies are based on a considerable amount of personal, medical and socio-economic data. To answer research questions with reliable results, epidemiological research projects face the challenge of providing high quality data. Consequently, gathered data has to be reviewed continuously during the data collection period. This article describes the development of the mosaicQA-library for non-statistical experts consisting of a set of reusable R functions to provide support for a basic data quality assurance for a wide range of application scenarios in epidemiological research. To generate valid quality reports for various scenarios and data sets, a general and flexible development approach was needed. As a first step, a set of quality-related questions, targeting quality aspects on a more general level, was identified. The next step included the design of specific R-scripts to produce proper reports for metric and categorical data. For more flexibility, the third development step focussed on the generalization of the developed R-scripts, e.g. extracting characteristics and parameters. As a last step the generic characteristics of the developed R functionalities and generated reports have been evaluated using different metric and categorical datasets. The developed mosaicQA-library generates basic data quality reports for multivariate input data. If needed, more detailed results for single-variable data, including definition of units, variables, descriptions, code lists and categories of qualified missings, can easily be produced. The mosaicQA-library enables researchers to generate reports for various kinds of metric and categorical data without the need for computational or scripting knowledge. At the moment, the library focusses on the data structure quality and supports the assessment of several quality indicators, including frequency, distribution and plausibility of research variables as well as the occurrence of missing and extreme values. To

  12. Book Review: Comparative Education Research: Approaches and Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noel Mcginn

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Book Review Comparative Education Research: Approaches and Methods (2nd edition By Mark Bray, Bob Adamson and Mark Mason (Eds. (2014, 453p ISBN: 978-988-17852-8-2, Hong Kong: Comparative Education Research Centre and Springer

  13. A review of function modeling : Approaches and applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erden, M.S.; Komoto, H.; Van Beek, T.J.; D'Amelio, V.; Echavarria, E.; Tomiyama, T.

    2008-01-01

    This work is aimed at establishing a common frame and understanding of function modeling (FM) for our ongoing research activities. A comparative review of the literature is performed to grasp the various FM approaches with their commonalities and differences. The relations of FM with the research

  14. BOOK REVIEW: Neurosurgery in the Tropics: A practical approach ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BOOK REVIEW: Neurosurgery in the Tropics: A practical approach to common problems By Jeffrey V. Rosenfeld MBBS, MS, FRACS, FRCS (Ed), FACS, FACTM and David A.K Watters ChM, FRACS, FRCS (Ed) Macmillan Education LTD 2000, Price $ 50 US ISBN 0-333-68412-5.

  15. Robotic bariatric surgery: A general review of the current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Minoa K; Hagen, Monika E; Buchs, Nicolas C; Buehler, Leo H; Morel, Philippe

    2017-12-01

    While conventional laparoscopy is the gold standard for almost all bariatric procedures, robotic assistance holds promise for facilitating complex surgeries and improving clinical outcomes. Since the report of the first robotic-assisted bariatric procedure in 1999, numerous publications, including those reporting comparative trials and meta-analyses across bariatric procedures with a focus on robotic assistance, can be found. This article reviews the current literature and portrays the perspectives of robotic bariatric surgery. While there are substantial reports on robotic bariatric surgery currently in publication, most studies suffer from low levels of evidence. As such, although robotics technology is without a doubt superior to conventional laparoscopy, the precise role of robotics in bariatric surgery is not yet clear. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Breast Cancer After Treatment of Hodgkin's Lymphoma: General Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alm El-Din, Mohamed A.; El-Badawy, Samy A.; Taghian, Alphonse G.

    2008-01-01

    The improved survival rates among patients with Hodgkin's lymphoma over the past few decades have come with increased incidence of second malignancies. One of the major concerns among female survivors is the significantly elevated risk of breast cancer that appears with extended follow-up. In this review, we include the published literature regarding the risk of breast cancer after irradiation for Hodgkin's lymphoma. We also present the possible long-term surveillance strategies and the optimal time to start screening these women. This could potentially help in early detection of secondary breast cancers and consequently improve outcomes. Furthermore, because of prior radiotherapy, the management of the breast cancer among this unique population has been controversial. We discuss the characteristics of breast cancer that occurs after Hodgkin's lymphoma and also treatment options that could be implemented

  17. A mixed-methods approach to systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Alan; White, Heath; Bath-Hextall, Fiona; Salmond, Susan; Apostolo, Joao; Kirkpatrick, Pamela

    2015-09-01

    There are an increasing number of published single-method systematic reviews that focus on different types of evidence related to a particular topic. As policy makers and practitioners seek clear directions for decision-making from systematic reviews, it is likely that it will be increasingly difficult for them to identify 'what to do' if they are required to find and understand a plethora of syntheses related to a particular topic.Mixed-methods systematic reviews are designed to address this issue and have the potential to produce systematic reviews of direct relevance to policy makers and practitioners.On the basis of the recommendations of the Joanna Briggs Institute International Mixed Methods Reviews Methodology Group in 2012, the Institute adopted a segregated approach to mixed-methods synthesis as described by Sandelowski et al., which consists of separate syntheses of each component method of the review. Joanna Briggs Institute's mixed-methods synthesis of the findings of the separate syntheses uses a Bayesian approach to translate the findings of the initial quantitative synthesis into qualitative themes and pooling these with the findings of the initial qualitative synthesis.

  18. Knowledge brokering for healthy aging: a scoping review of potential approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Eerd, Dwayne; Newman, Kristine; DeForge, Ryan; Urquhart, Robin; Cornelissen, Evelyn; Dainty, Katie N

    2016-10-19

    Developing a healthcare delivery system that is more responsive to the future challenges of an aging population is a priority in Canada. The World Health Organization acknowledges the need for knowledge translation frameworks in aging and health. Knowledge brokering (KB) is a specific knowledge translation approach that includes making connections between people to facilitate the use of evidence. Knowledge gaps exist about KB roles, approaches, and guiding frameworks. The objective of the scoping review is to identify and describe KB approaches and the underlying conceptual frameworks (models, theories) used to guide the approaches that could support healthy aging. Literature searches were done in PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO, EBM reviews (Cochrane Database of systematic reviews), CINAHL, and SCOPUS, as well as Google and Google Scholar using terms related to knowledge brokering. Titles, abstracts, and full reports were reviewed independently by two reviewers who came to consensus on all screening criteria. Documents were included if they described a KB approach and details about the underlying conceptual basis. Data about KB approach, target stakeholders, KB outcomes, and context were extracted independently by two reviewers. Searches identified 248 unique references. Screening for inclusion revealed 19 documents that described 15 accounts of knowledge brokering and details about conceptual guidance and could be applied in healthy aging contexts. Eight KB elements were detected in the approaches though not all approaches incorporated all elements. The underlying conceptual guidance for KB approaches varied. Specific KB frameworks were referenced or developed for nine KB approaches while the remaining six cited more general KT frameworks (or multiple frameworks) as guidance. The KB approaches that we found varied greatly depending on the context and stakeholders involved. Three of the approaches were explicitly employed in the context of health aging. Common elements

  19. MODELING OF INNOVATION EDUCATIONAL ENVIRONMENT OF GENERAL EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTION: THE SCIENTIFIC APPROACHES

    OpenAIRE

    Anzhelika D. Tsymbalaru

    2010-01-01

    In the paper the scientific approaches to modeling of innovation educational environment of a general educational institution – system (analysis of object, process and result of modeling as system objects), activity (organizational and psychological structure) and synergetic (aspects and principles).

  20. A general approach toward enhancement of pseudocapacitive performance of conducting polymers by redox-active electrolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Wei; Xia, Chuan; Baby, Rakhi Raghavan; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2014-01-01

    A general approach is demonstrated where the pseudocapacitive performance of different conducting polymers is enhanced in redox-active electrolytes. The concept is demonstrated using several electroactive conducting polymers, including polyaniline

  1. Review of existing issues, ethics and practices in general medical research and in radiation protection research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiner-Karoussou, A.

    2008-01-01

    A literature review was carried out in relation to general medical research and radiation protection research. A large number of documents were found concerning the subject of ethics in general medical research. For radiation protection research, the number of documents and the information available is very limited. A review of practices in 13 European countries concerning general medical research and radiation protection research was carried out by sending a questionnaire to each country. It was found that all countries reviewed were well regulated for general medical research. For research that involves ionising radiation, the UK and Ireland are by far the most regulated countries. For other countries, there does not seem to be much information available. From the literature review and the review of practices, a number of existing ethical issues were identified and exposed, and a number of conclusions were drawn. (authors)

  2. Premature ejaculation: A clinical review for the general physician.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Eric; Gilbert, Brent; Perera, Marlon; Roberts, Matthew J

    2015-10-01

    Premature ejaculation is one of the most common sexual dysfunctions in men. Recent epidemiological studies suggest its prevalence in Australia may range from 21-31% This article will discuss the current definition of premature ejaculation from a urological perspective. It will provide an understanding of the pathogenesis of premature ejaculation, as well as assessment and management options. Premature ejaculation can have a significant adverse effect on the quality of life for the patient and his sexual partners. It can potentially lead to psychological distress, diminished self- esteem, anxiety, erectile dysfunction, reduced libido and poor interpersonal relationships. Most men feel reluctant to discuss premature ejaculation with their general practitioner despite its psychological, emotional and relational effects. Effective, evidence-based treatment options are available and physicians should feel confident when exploring ways to improve the quality of life for men with sexual dysfunction.

  3. Learning environment, approaches to learning and learning preferences: medical students versus general education students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Raza

    2016-05-01

    The main objective of the study was to see whether medical students use more desirable approaches to studying than general education students. Survey method was used to collect data from both the medical students and the general education students. The survey of the medical students was carried out between January and March, 2012. The survey was administered to all the medical students present in lecture halls on day of data collection, while general education students were randomly selected from four subject areas at two universities. In total, 976 medical students and 912 general students participated in the study. Of the general students, 494(54%) were boys and 418(46%)were girls with an overall mean age of 20.53±1.77 years (range: 17-27 years). The medical students' perceptions of their learning environment and their learning preferences were broadly similar to that of general education students with the exception of workload. The medical students perceived the workload to be less appropriate (Mean = 2.06±0.72) than the students in general education (Mean = 2.84±0.90). The medical students were more likely to use the deep approach to studying (Mean = 3.66±0.59) than the students in general education (Mean = 3.16±0.91). The students in general education were slightly more likely to use the organized studying (Mean = 3.44±0.90) than the medical students (Mean =3.23±0.90). Both medical students and the students in general education tended to use the surface approaches along with other approaches to studying. There was not a great difference between the medical students and the students pursuing general education with regard to perceptions of the learning environment and approaches to learning.

  4. Affinity monolith chromatography: A review of general principles and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhao; Rodriguez, Elliott; Azaria, Shiden; Pekarek, Allegra; Hage, David S

    2017-11-01

    Affinity monolith chromatography, or AMC, is a liquid chromatographic method in which the support is a monolith and the stationary phase is a biological-binding agent or related mimic. AMC has become popular for the isolation of biochemicals, for the measurement of various analytes, and for studying biological interactions. This review will examine the principles and applications of AMC. The materials that have been used to prepare AMC columns will be discussed, which have included various organic polymers, silica, agarose, and cryogels. Immobilization schemes that have been used in AMC will also be considered. Various binding agents and applications that have been reported for AMC will then be described. These applications will include the use of AMC for bioaffinity chromatography, immunoaffinity chromatography, dye-ligand affinity chromatography, and immobilized metal-ion affinity chromatography. The use of AMC with chiral stationary phases and as a tool to characterize biological interactions will also be examined. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. A general approach for cache-oblivious range reporting and approximate range counting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afshani, Peyman; Hamilton, Chris; Zeh, Norbert

    2010-01-01

    We present cache-oblivious solutions to two important variants of range searching: range reporting and approximate range counting. Our main contribution is a general approach for constructing cache-oblivious data structures that provide relative (1+ε)-approximations for a general class of range c...

  6. General review of diagnostic systems in EDF PWR units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevalier, R.; Brasseur, S.; Ricard, B.

    1998-01-01

    Since the beginning of the French nuclear program, Electricite de France (EDF) has looked for ways to improve the availability and safety of its nuclear units. Therefore, monitoring systems on turbogenerators, reactor coolant pumps, primary circuits and core internal structures were designed by the Research and Development Division and implemented with technologies available during the 1970's. However, mainly because of difficulties for data interpretation by plant personnel, EDF subsequently decided to design and develop different tools to help plant operators to process a diagnosis: - a new generation of the Monitoring and Diagnostic System called PSAD, - expert systems for diagnosis on reactor coolant pumps (RCP) 'DIAPO' and turbogenerator units (TG) 'DIVA', - diagnostic guides written for most equipment pending the installation of new monitoring and diagnosis systems. The first version of PSAD, installed in five units, performs on-line monitoring of the turbogenerator shaft line, steam inlet valves, the reactor coolant pumps and the generator stator. The second version not yet implemented, will include Loose Part Detection (LPD) and Core Internal Structure Monitoring (CISM). The level of diagnosis achieved by PSAD depends on the component monitored. The TG and RCP monitoring functions of PSAD compute high level diagnosis descriptors such as natural frequencies and long term trends but do not elaborate a diagnosis automatically. However, a diagnostic assistance window is available on-line, whenever a warning message is displayed, whether for immediate or later action. The window presents a diagnostic approach whose purpose is to find the causes of the symptoms observed. This diagnosis approach is automated in the DIVA and DIAPO expert systems. Numerous potential faults can be identified for both systems thanks to a hierarchy of abnormal situations. The user interactively answers questions when information is needed to progress in the diagnosis. The resulting

  7. A general approach for optimal kinematic design of 6-DOF parallel ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Optimal kinematic design of parallel manipulators is a challenging problem. In this work, an attempt has been made to present a generalized approach of kinematic design for a 6-legged parallel manipulator, by considering only the minimally required design parameters. The same approach has been used to design a ...

  8. Exploring Alternative Characteristic Curve Approaches to Linking Parameter Estimates from the Generalized Partial Credit Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, James S.; Bao, Han; Huang, Chun-Wei; Gagne, Phill

    Characteristic curve approaches for linking parameters from the generalized partial credit model were examined for cases in which common (anchor) items are calibrated separately in two groups. Three of these approaches are simple extensions of the test characteristic curve (TCC), item characteristic curve (ICC), and operating characteristic curve…

  9. Relationships of Approaches to Studying, Metacognition, and Intellectual Development of General Chemistry Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egenti, Henrietta N.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated approaches to studying, intellectual developments, and metacognitive skills of general chemistry students enrolled for the spring 2011 semester at a single campus of a multi-campus community college. The three instruments used were the Approaches and Study Skills Inventory for Students (ASSIST), the Learning Environment…

  10. BOOK REVIEW: Advanced Mechanics and General Relativity Advanced Mechanics and General Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louko, Jorma

    2011-04-01

    Joel Franklin's textbook `Advanced Mechanics and General Relativity' comprises two partially overlapping, partially complementary introductory paths into general relativity at advanced undergraduate level. Path I starts with the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formulations of Newtonian point particle motion, emphasising the action principle and the connection between symmetries and conservation laws. The concepts are then adapted to point particle motion in Minkowski space, introducing Lorentz transformations as symmetries of the action. There follows a focused development of tensor calculus, parallel transport and curvature, using examples from Newtonian mechanics and special relativity, culminating in the field equations of general relativity. The Schwarzschild solution is analysed, including a detailed discussion of the tidal forces on a radially infalling observer. Basics of gravitational radiation are examined, highlighting the similarities to and differences from electromagnetic radiation. The final topics in Path I are equatorial geodesics in Kerr and the motion of a relativistic string in Minkowski space. Path II starts by introducing scalar field theory on Minkowski space as a limit of point masses connected by springs, emphasising the action principle, conservation laws and the energy-momentum tensor. The action principle for electromagnetism is introduced, and the coupling of electromagnetism to a complex scalar field is developed in a detailed and pedagogical fashion. A free symmetric second-rank tensor field on Minkowski space is introduced, and the action principle of general relativity is recovered from coupling the second-rank tensor to its own energy-momentum tensor. Path II then merges with Path I and, supplanted with judicious early selections from Path I, can proceed to the Schwarzschild solution. The choice of material in each path is logical and focused. A notable example in Path I is that Lorentz transformations in Minkowki space are introduced

  11. Routine general practice care for panic disorder within the lifestyle approach to managing panic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodney A. Lambert

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Routine general practice (GP care is rarely comprehensively described in clinical trials. This paper examines routine GP care within the lifestyle approach to managing panic (LAMP study. The aim of this paper is to describe/discuss routine GP care for panic disorder (PD patients within both study arms in the LAMP study. An unblinded pragmatic randomised controlled trial in 15 East of England GP practices (2 primary care trusts. Participants met Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition criteria for PD with/without agoraphobia. Follow-up measures recorded at 20 weeks/10 months following randomisation. Control arm, unrestricted routine GP care (practice appointments, referrals and prescriptions. Trial arm, occupational therapyled lifestyle treatment comprising lifestyle review of fluid intake, diet pattern, exercise, caffeine, alcohol and nicotine. Primary outcome measure: beck anxiety inventory. At baseline, participants attended 2-3 times more GP appointments than population average, reducing at 10 months to 1.6 times population average for routine GP care and 0.97 population average for lifestyle arm. At 10 months, 33% fewer referrals (6 referrals; 0 mental health than at baseline (9 referrals; 2 mental health were made for lifestyle arm patients compared with 42% increase (from 12 referrals; 8 mental health at baseline to 17 referrals; 7 mental health in GP care arm. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors were prescribed most often. Benzodiazepines and beta-blockers were prescribed more often than tricyclic against current clinical guidelines. In conclusion, we found that PD patients at baseline were high healthcare resource users. Treatment in both study arms reduced resource use. Routine GP care requires further review for this patient group.

  12. Role of genetics in the etiopathogenesis of genetic generalized epilepsy: A review of current literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S A Balarabe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Until recently, genetic generalized epilepsy (GGE was believed to be of presumed genetic etiology with no identifiable genetic mutation or demonstrable epigenetic abnormality. A wide range of epileptic disorders has clue for an inherited susceptibility. Monogenic disorders associated with epilepsy mental retardation and structural brain lesion typified by heterotopias, tuberous sclerosis, and progressive myoclonus epilepsies account for about 1% of epilepsies. This review focuses on the role of genetic mutations and epigenetic rearrangements in the pathophysiologic mechanism of GGE. To achieve this; PubMed, EMBASE, and Google Scholar were systematically and comprehensively searched using keywords (“epilepsy” “juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME,” “typical absences,” “idiopathic generalized epilepsy,” “JME,” “juvenile absence epilepsy,” “childhood absence epilepsy” “generalized tonic-clonic seizure” “GTCS”. Most GGE has evidence of underlying genetic inheritance. Recent animal studies have shown that early detection and treatment of genetic generalized epilepsies can alter the phenotypic presentation in rodents. These findings suggest a critical period in epileptogenesis, during which spike-and-wave seizures can be suppressed, leading to chronic changes in the brain (epileptogenesis and the preceding dysfunctions may, therefore, be targeted using therapeutic approaches that may either delay or inhibit the transition to active epileptic attack. The interplay between genetic mutations and epigenetic rearrangements play important roles in the development of GCE and that this process, especially at crucial developmental periods, is very susceptible to environmental modulations.

  13. Carbon capture in vehicles : a review of general support, available mechanisms, and consumer-acceptance issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    This survey of the feasibility of introducing carbon capture and storage (CCS) into light vehicles : started by reviewing the level of international support for CCS in general. While there have been : encouraging signs that CCS is gaining acceptance ...

  14. [Source monitoring: general presentation and review of literature in schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferchiou, A; Schürhoff, F; Bulzacka, E; Mahbouli, M; Leboyer, M; Szöke, A

    2010-09-01

    monitoring is one of the rare cognitive tests showing a correlation with the positive dimension. Source monitoring deficits have been proposed as a potential explanation for the positive symptoms and some, but not all studies lent support to this hypothesis. Heterogeneity of studied samples, in particular different criteria to define hallucinating subjects (e.g. currently versus anytime during their lives), could explain the discordant results. Source monitoring impairments were observed in pharmacological models of psychosis, in first degree relatives of schizophrenic patients, and also in the general population associated with schizotypal dimensions. These results support a relationship between source monitoring deficits and some of the symptomatic dimensions of the schizophrenic spectrum but still await replication. Some studies found source monitoring deficits in other psychiatric conditions such as mania or obsessive-compulsive disorder. Thus, those studies suggest that source monitoring deficits may be not specific to schizophrenia. Source monitoring competencies are critical for good (i.e. adapted) everyday functioning. Source monitoring deficits have been suggested as a potential explanation for some (or all) positive psychotic symptoms. However, to date, methodological inconsistencies (especially with regard to test design and choice of subjects' samples) have precluded firm, definite conclusions. Copyright © 2010 L’Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. The Peer Education Approach in Adolescents- Narrative Review Article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdi, Fatemeh; Simbar, Masoumeh

    2013-11-01

    Adolescence is an important stage of human life span, which crucial developmental processes occur. Since peers play a critical role in the psychosocial development of most adolescents, peer education is currently considered as a health promotion strategy in adolescents. Peer education is defined as a system of delivering knowledge that improves social learning and provides psychosocial support. As identifying the outcomes of different educational approaches will be beneficial in choosing the most effective programs for training adolescents, the present article reviewed the impact of the peer education approach on adolescents. In this review, databases such as PubMed, EMBASE, ISI, and Iranian databases, from 1999 to 2013, were searched using a number of keywords. Peer education is an effective tool for promoting healthy behaviors among adolescents. The development of this social process depends on the settings, context, and the values and expectations of the participants. Therefore, designing such programs requires proper preparation, training, supervision, and evaluation.

  16. Systematic review protocol of interventions to improve the psychological well-being of general practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Marylou; Murray, Lois; Donnelly, Michael

    2015-09-22

    The challenges and complexities faced by general practitioners are increasing, and there are concerns about their well-being. Consequently, attention has been directed towards developing and evaluating interventions and strategies to improve general practitioner well-being and their capacity to cope with workplace challenges. This systematic review aims to evaluate research evidence regarding the effectiveness of interventions designed to improve general practitioner well-being. Eligible studies will include programmes developed to improve psychological well-being that have assessed outcomes using validated tools pertaining to well-being and related outcomes. Only programmes that have been evaluated using controlled study designs will be reviewed. An appropriately developed search strategy will be applied to six electronic databases: the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, PsycINFO and Web of Science. Studies will be screened in two stages by two independent reviewers. A third reviewer will arbitrate when required. Pre-specified inclusion and exclusion criteria will be assessed during a pilot phase early on in the review process. The Cochrane data extraction form will be adapted and applied to each eligible study by two independent reviewers, and each study will be appraised critically using standardised checklists from the Cochrane Handbook. Methodological quality will be taken into account in the analysis of the data and the synthesis of results. A narrative synthesis will be undertaken if data is unsuited to a meta-analysis. The systematic review will be reported according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses guidance. This will be the first systematic review on this topic, and the evidence synthesis will aid decision-making by general practitioners, policy makers and planners regarding ways in which to improve GP well-being. Findings will be disseminated at general practitioner meetings

  17. Comprehensive Review on Divisible Load Theory: Concepts, Strategies, and Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamsollah Ghanbari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There is extensive literature concerning the divisible load theory. The divisible load theory is mainly applied for scheduling in the area of distributed computing. It is based on the fact that the load can be divided into some arbitrarily independent parts, in which each part can be processed independently by a processor. This paper reviews the literature concerning the divisible load theory, while focusing on the details of the basic concepts, approaches, strategies, typologies, and open problems.

  18. Biotechnological and molecular approaches for vanillin production: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Baljinder; Chakraborty, Debkumar

    2013-02-01

    Vanillin is one of the most widely used flavoring agents in the world. As the annual world market demand of vanillin could not be met by natural extraction, chemical synthesis, or tissue culture technology, thus biotechnological approaches may be replacement routes to make production of bio-vanillin economically viable. This review's main focus is to highlight significant aspects of biotechnology with emphasis on the production of vanillin from eugenol, isoeugenol, lignin, ferulic acid, sugars, phenolic stilbenes, vanillic acid, aromatic amino acids, and waste residues by applying fungi, bacteria, and plant cells. Production of biovanillin using GRAS lactic acid bacteria and metabolically engineered microorganisms, genetic organization of vanillin biosynthesis operons/gene cassettes and finally the stability of biovanillin generated through various biotechnological procedures are also critically reviewed in the later sections of the review.

  19. Intermittent Smoothing Approaches for Wind Power Output: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Jabir

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Wind energy is one of the most common types of renewable energy resource. Due to its sustainability and environmental benefits, it is an emerging source for electric power generation. Rapid and random changes of wind speed makes it an irregular and inconsistent power source when connected to the grid, causing different technical problems in protection, power quality and generation dispatch control. Due to these problems, effective intermittent smoothing approaches for wind power output are crucially needed to minimize such problems. This paper reviews various intermittent smoothing approaches used in smoothing the output power fluctuations caused by wind energy. Problems associated with the inclusion of wind energy resources to grid are also briefly reviewed. From this review, it has been found that battery energy storage system is the most suitable and effective smoothing approach, provided that an effective control strategy is available for optimal utilization of battery energy system. This paper further demonstrates different control strategies built for battery energy storage system to obtain the smooth output wind power.

  20. Systematic review of general burden of disease studies using disability-adjusted life years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polinder Suzanne

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To systematically review the methodology of general burden of disease studies. Three key questions were addressed: 1 what was the quality of the data, 2 which methodological choices were made to calculate disability adjusted life years (DALYs, and 3 were uncertainty and risk factor analyses performed? Furthermore, DALY outcomes of the included studies were compared. Methods Burden of disease studies (1990 to 2011 in international peer-reviewed journals and in grey literature were identified with main inclusion criteria being multiple-cause studies that quantified the burden of disease as the sum of the burden of all distinct diseases expressed in DALYs. Electronic database searches included Medline (PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science. Studies were collated by study population, design, methods used to measure mortality and morbidity, risk factor analyses, and evaluation of results. Results Thirty-one studies met the inclusion criteria of our review. Overall, studies followed the Global Burden of Disease (GBD approach. However, considerable variation existed in disability weights, discounting, age-weighting, and adjustments for uncertainty. Few studies reported whether mortality data were corrected for missing data or underreporting. Comparison with the GBD DALY outcomes by country revealed that for some studies DALY estimates were of similar magnitude; others reported DALY estimates that were two times higher or lower. Conclusions Overcoming “error” variation due to the use of different methodologies and low-quality data is a critical priority for advancing burden of disease studies. This can enlarge the detection of true variation in DALY outcomes between populations or over time.

  1. Relation between generalized Bogoliubov and Bogoliubov-de Gennes approaches including Nambu-Goldstone mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mine, M.; Okumura, M.; Yamanaka, Y.

    2005-01-01

    The two approaches of consistent quantum field theory for systems of the trapped Bose-Einstein condensates are known, one is the Bogoliubov-de Gennes approach and the other is the generalized Bogoliubov approach. In this paper, we investigate the relation between the two approaches and show that they are formally equivalent to each other. To do this one must carefully treat the Nambu-Goldstone mode which plays a crucial role in the condensation. It is emphasized that the choice of vacuum is physically relevant

  2. General Approach to Characterize Reservoir Fluids Using a Large PVT Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varzandeh, Farhad; Yan, Wei; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2016-01-01

    methods. We proposed a general approach to develop correlations for model parameters and applied it to the characterization for the PC-SAFT EoS. The approach consists in first developing the correlations based on the DIPPR database, and then adjusting the correlations based on a large PVT database......, the approach gives better PVT calculation results for the tested systems. Comparison was also made between PC-SAFT with the proposed characterization method and other EoS models. The proposed approach can be applied to other EoS models for improving their fluid characterization. Besides, the challenges...

  3. Psychotherapy approaches for adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse: an integrative review of outcomes research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martsolf, Donna S; Draucker, Claire B

    2005-10-01

    This review synthesized results of 26 outcomes research studies and two meta-analyses that evaluated abuse-focused psychotherapy techniques for survivors of childhood sexual abuse. Different therapeutic approaches delivered in individual, group, or combination formats were evaluated with pre/post test, quasi-experimental, or randomized control designs. Accumulated research findings suggest that abuse-focused psychotherapy for adults sexually abused as children is generally beneficial in reducing psychiatric distress, depression, and trauma-specific symptoms. No one therapeutic approach was demonstrated to be superior. There was little evidence about the effectiveness of individual versus group therapy or the optimal treatment duration.

  4. Refugee experiences of general practice in countries of resettlement: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, I-Hao; Drillich, Ann; Schattner, Peter

    2015-03-01

    Refugees and asylum seekers often struggle to use general practice services in resettlement countries. To describe and analyse the literature on the experiences of refugees and asylum seekers using general practice services in countries of resettlement. Literature review using systematic search and narrative data extraction and synthesis methodologies. International, peer-reviewed literature published in English language between 1990 and 2013. Embase, Ovid MEDLINE, PsycINFO, CSA Sociological Abstracts, and CINAHL databases were searched using the terms: refugee, asylum seeker, experience, perception, doctor, physician, and general practitioner. Titles, abstracts and full texts were reviewed and were critically appraised. Narrative themes describing the refugee or asylum seeker's personal experiences of general practice services were identified, coded, and analysed. From 8722 papers, 85 were fully reviewed and 23 included. These represented the experiences of approximately 864 individuals using general practice services across 11 countries. Common narrative themes that emerged were: difficulties accessing general practice services, language barriers, poor doctor-patient relationships, and problems with the cultural acceptability of medical care. The difficulties refugees and asylum seekers experience accessing and using general practice services could be addressed by providing practical support for patients to register, make appointments, and attend services, and through using interpreters. Clinicians should look beyond refugee stereotypes to focus on the needs and expectations of the individual. They should provide clear explanations about unfamiliar clinical processes and treatments while offering timely management. © British Journal of General Practice 2015.

  5. Review Article: Celiac Disease, New Approaches to Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashtak, Shahrooz; Murray, Joseph A

    2014-01-01

    STRUCTURED SUMMARY Background Celiac disease is managed by life-long gluten withdrawal from the diet. However strict adherence to a gluten-free diet is difficult and is not always effective. Novel therapeutic approaches are needed to supplement or even replace the dietary treatment. Aims To review recent advances in new therapeutic options for celiac disease. Methods A literature search was performed on MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, Scopus, DDW.org and ClinicalTrial.gov for English articles and abstracts. The search terms used include but not limited to “Celiac disease”, “new”, “novel”, Advances”, “alternatives” and “Drug therapy”. The cited articles were selected based on the relevancy to the review objective. Results Several new therapeutic approaches for celiac disease are currently under development by targeting its underlying pathogenesis. Alternative therapies range from reproduction of harmless wheat strains to immunomodulatory approaches. Some of these therapies such as enzymatic cleavage of gluten and permeability inhibitors have shown promise in clinical studies. Conclusion Gluten-free diet is still the only practical treatment for patients with celiac disease. Novel strategies provide promise of alternative adjunctive approaches to diet restriction alone for patients with this disorder. PMID:22324389

  6. Psychosomatic approaches to obstetrics, gynaecology and andrology--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, Mira

    2009-01-01

    This review aims to clarify the scope and clinical importance of psychosomatic approaches to obstetrics, gynaecology and andrology. This gradually expanding sub-specialty covers a wide domain of complex disease conditions that can be managed more effectively if the various biological, psychological and social aspects are recognised at the start and concurrent treatment initiated. The current need to practise biopsychosocial management of disease conditions is highlighted along with a description of what this would involve. The nine-field psychosomatic approach, which can be applied to everyday clinical encounters, has been illustrated. Clinical applications of the psychosomatic approach are discussed for various conditions including chronic pelvic pain, eating disorders, tokophobia, post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, menstrual disorders, infertility, bereavement and testicular cancer. Cultural considerations and the need for further research are also briefly discussed.

  7. The Flipped Learning Approach in Nursing Education: A Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presti, Carmen Rosa

    2016-05-01

    This integrative review examines the application of the pedagogical methodology-the flipped classroom-in nursing education. A literature search of the CINAHL, ERIC, and the National Library of Medicine (PubMed and MEDLINE) databases was conducted, using the following key words: flipped classroom, inverted classroom, and nursing education. Results of a literature search yielded 94 articles, with 13 meeting the criteria of the flipped classroom approach in nursing education. Themes identified include the theoretical underpinning, strategies for implementation of a flipped classroom, and student satisfaction with and outcomes of the flipped classroom approach. Syntheses of the findings indicate that the flipped classroom approach can yield positive outcomes, but further study of this methodology is needed to guide future implementation. [J Nurs Educ. 2016;55(5):252-257.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  8. Approach bias modification training and consumption: A review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakoschke, Naomi; Kemps, Eva; Tiggemann, Marika

    2017-01-01

    Recent theoretical perspectives and empirical evidence have suggested that biased cognitive processing is an important contributor to unhealthy behaviour. Approach bias modification is a novel intervention in which approach biases for appetitive cues are modified. The current review of the literature aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of modifying approach bias for harmful consumption behaviours, including alcohol use, cigarette smoking, and unhealthy eating. Relevant publications were identified through a search of four electronic databases (PsycINFO, Google Scholar, ScienceDirect and Scopus) that were conducted between October and December 2015. Eligibility criteria included the use of a human adult sample, at least one session of avoidance training, and an outcome measure related to the behaviour of interest. The fifteen identified publications (comprising 18 individual studies) were coded on a number of characteristics, including consumption behaviour, participants, task, training and control conditions, number of training sessions and trials, outcome measure, and results. The results generally showed positive effects of approach-avoidance training, including reduced consumption behaviour in the laboratory, lower relapse rates, and improvements in self-reported measures of behaviour. Importantly, all studies (with one exception) that reported favourable consumption outcomes also demonstrated successful reduction of the approach bias for appetitive cues. Thus, the current review concluded that approach bias modification is effective for reducing both approach bias and unhealthy consumption behaviour. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Generalized structured component analysis a component-based approach to structural equation modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Hwang, Heungsun

    2014-01-01

    Winner of the 2015 Sugiyama Meiko Award (Publication Award) of the Behaviormetric Society of Japan Developed by the authors, generalized structured component analysis is an alternative to two longstanding approaches to structural equation modeling: covariance structure analysis and partial least squares path modeling. Generalized structured component analysis allows researchers to evaluate the adequacy of a model as a whole, compare a model to alternative specifications, and conduct complex analyses in a straightforward manner. Generalized Structured Component Analysis: A Component-Based Approach to Structural Equation Modeling provides a detailed account of this novel statistical methodology and its various extensions. The authors present the theoretical underpinnings of generalized structured component analysis and demonstrate how it can be applied to various empirical examples. The book enables quantitative methodologists, applied researchers, and practitioners to grasp the basic concepts behind this new a...

  10. Review of design approaches of advanced pressurized LWRs. Report of a technical committee meeting and workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The Technical Committee Meeting and Workshop was devoted to review and discuss differences and commonalties in the various design approaches with the aim of increasing the understanding of the design decisions taken, and a number of general conclusions were drawn. Though many differences in design approaches were found in the presentations, a number of common features could also be identified. These included design approaches to achieve further improvements with respect to safety, design simplification, reduction in cost, incorporation of feedback from operating experience, and control room improvements regarding human factors and digitization. Design approaches to achieve further improvements in safety included consideration of severe accidents in the design process, increased thermal margins and water inventories, longer grace periods and double containments. Refs, figs and tabs

  11. Review of design approaches of advanced pressurized LWRs. Report of a technical committee meeting and workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    The Technical Committee Meeting and Workshop was devoted to review and discuss differences and commonalties in the various design approaches with the aim of increasing the understanding of the design decisions taken, and a number of general conclusions were drawn. Though many differences in design approaches were found in the presentations, a number of common features could also be identified. These included design approaches to achieve further improvements with respect to safety, design simplification, reduction in cost, incorporation of feedback from operating experience, and control room improvements regarding human factors and digitization. Design approaches to achieve further improvements in safety included consideration of severe accidents in the design process, increased thermal margins and water inventories, longer grace periods and double containments. Refs, figs and tabs.

  12. International approaches to driving under the influence of cannabis: A review of evidence on impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Tara Marie; Mann, Robert E

    2016-12-01

    There are knowledge gaps regarding the effectiveness of different approaches designed to prevent and deter driving under the influence of cannabis (DUIC). Policymakers are increasingly interested in evidence-based responses to DUIC as numerous jurisdictions worldwide have legally regulated cannabis or are debating such regulation. We contribute a comprehensive review of international literature on countermeasures that address DUIC, and identify where and how such measures have been evaluated. The following databases were systematically searched from 1995 to present: Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Sociological Abstracts, and Criminal Justice Abstracts. Hand searching of relevant documents, internet searches for grey literature, and review of ongoing email alerts were conducted to capture any emerging literature and relevant trends. Numerous international jurisdictions have introduced a variety of measures designed to deter DUIC. Much interest has been generated regarding non-zero per se laws that set fixed legal limits for tetrahydrocannabinol and/or its metabolites detected in drivers. Other approaches include behavioural impairment laws, zero-tolerance per se laws, roadside drug testing, graduated licensing system restrictions, and remedial programs. However, very few evaluations have appeared in the literature. Although some promising results have been reported (e.g., roadside testing), it is premature to draw firm conclusions regarding the broader impacts of general deterrent approaches to DUIC. This review points to the need for a long-term commitment to rigorously evaluate, using multiple methods, the impact of general and specific deterrent DUIC countermeasures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Review on Electrodynamic Energy Harvesters—A Classification Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Lausecker

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Beginning with a short historical sketch, electrodynamic energy harvesters with focus on vibration generators and volumes below 1dm3 are reviewed. The current challenges to generate up to several milliwatts of power from practically relevant flows and vibrations are addressed, and the variety of available solutions is sketched. Sixty-seven different harvester concepts from more than 130 publications are classified with respect to excitation, additional boundary conditions, design and fabrication. A chronological list of the harvester concepts with corresponding references provides an impression about the developments. Besides resonant harvester concepts, the review includes broadband approaches and mechanisms to harvest from flow. Finally, a short overview of harvesters in applications and first market ready concepts is given.

  14. Social network approaches to leadership: an integrative conceptual review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Dorothy R; DeChurch, Leslie A; Braun, Michael T; Contractor, Noshir S

    2015-05-01

    Contemporary definitions of leadership advance a view of the phenomenon as relational, situated in specific social contexts, involving patterned emergent processes, and encompassing both formal and informal influence. Paralleling these views is a growing interest in leveraging social network approaches to study leadership. Social network approaches provide a set of theories and methods with which to articulate and investigate, with greater precision and rigor, the wide variety of relational perspectives implied by contemporary leadership theories. Our goal is to advance this domain through an integrative conceptual review. We begin by answering the question of why-Why adopt a network approach to study leadership? Then, we offer a framework for organizing prior research. Our review reveals 3 areas of research, which we term: (a) leadership in networks, (b) leadership as networks, and (c) leadership in and as networks. By clarifying the conceptual underpinnings, key findings, and themes within each area, this review serves as a foundation for future inquiry that capitalizes on, and programmatically builds upon, the insights of prior work. Our final contribution is to advance an agenda for future research that harnesses the confluent ideas at the intersection of leadership in and as networks. Leadership in and as networks represents a paradigm shift in leadership research-from an emphasis on the static traits and behaviors of formal leaders whose actions are contingent upon situational constraints, toward an emphasis on the complex and patterned relational processes that interact with the embedding social context to jointly constitute leadership emergence and effectiveness. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. A general approach-avoidance hypothesis of oxytocin: accounting for social and non-social effects of oxytocin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harari-Dahan, Osnat; Bernstein, Amit

    2014-11-01

    We critically reexamine extant theory and empirical study of Oxytocin. We question whether OT is, in fact, a "social neuropeptide" as argued in dominant theories of OT. We critically review human and animal research on the social and non-social effects of Oxytocin, including behavioral, psychophysiological, neurobiological, and neuroimaging studies. We find that extant (social) theories of Oxytocin do not account for well-documented non-social effects of Oxytocin. Furthermore, we find a range of evidence that social and non-social effects of Oxytocin may be mediated by core approach-avoidance motivational processes. We propose a General Approach-avoidance Hypothesis of Oxytocin (GAAO). We argue that the GAAO may provide a parsimonious account of established social and non-social effects of Oxytocin. We thus re-conceptualize the basic function(s) and mechanism(s) of action of Oxytocin. Finally, we highlight implications of the GAAO for basic and clinical research in humans

  16. A review of approaches to the value of privacy

    OpenAIRE

    Anagnostou, Miltiades E.; Lambrou, Maria A.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we examine information privacy from a value-centered angle. We review and compare different personal data valuation approaches. We consider the value of personal data now and in the near future, and we find that the enduring part of personal data will soon become common knowledge and that their price and value will drop substantially. Therefore the sector that is based on personal data extraction will need to focus on new ways of monetization and on the of the dynamic part of pe...

  17. Exponential stability for formation control systems with generalized controllers: A unified approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, Zhiyong; Mou, Shaoshuai; Anderson, Brian D.O.; Cao, Ming

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses generalized controllers for distance-based rigid formation shape stabilization and aims to provide a unified approach for the convergence analysis. We consider two types of formation control systems according to different characterizations of target formations: minimally rigid

  18. A general approach for optimal kinematic design of 6-DOF parallel ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this work, an attempt has been made to present a generalized approach of ..... made either with the help of contour plots (figures 6a and b) or by comparing the .... IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation 3: 1970–1975.

  19. Green Goggles: Designing and Teaching a General Chemistry Course to Nonmajors Using a Green Chemistry Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    A novel course using green chemistry as the context to teach general chemistry fundamentals was designed, implemented and is described here. The course design included an active learning approach, with major course graded components including a weekly blog entry, exams, and a semester project that was disseminated by wiki and a public symposium.…

  20. Windows 7 Antiforensics: A Review and a Novel Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eterovic-Soric, Brett; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond; Mubarak, Sameera; Ashman, Helen

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, we review literature on antiforensics published between 2010 and 2016 and reveal the surprising lack of up-to-date research on this topic. This research aims to contribute to this knowledge gap by investigating different antiforensic techniques for devices running Windows 7, one of the most popular operating systems. An approach which allows for removal or obfuscation of most forensic evidence is then presented. Using the Trojan software DarkComet RAT as a case study, we demonstrate the utility of our approach and that a Trojan Horse infection may be a legitimate possibility, even if there is no evidence of an infection on a seized computer's hard drive. Up-to-date information regarding how forensic artifacts can be compromised will allow relevant stakeholders to make informed decisions when deciding the outcome of legal cases involving digital evidence. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  1. The effectiveness of consultation-liaison psychiatry in the general hospital setting: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Rebecca; Wand, Anne P F

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to review how the effectiveness of consultation liaison psychiatry (CLP) services has been measured and to evaluate the strength of the evidence for effectiveness. Systematic review of medical databases using broad search terms as well as expert opinion was sought. The literature search was restricted to studies of general, whole-of-hospital inpatient CLP services. Forty articles were found and grouped into five measurements of effectiveness: cost effectiveness including length of stay, concordance, staff and patient feedback, and follow-up outcome studies. All measurements contributed to the evaluation of CLP services, but no one measure in isolation could adequately cover the multifaceted roles of CLP. Concordance was the only measurement with an established, consistent approach for evaluation. Cost effectiveness and follow-up outcome studies were the only measures with levels of evidence above four, however the three follow-up outcome studies reported conflicting results. Subjective evidence derived from patient and staff feedback is important but presently lacking due to methodological problems. The effectiveness of CLP services was demonstrated by cost-effectiveness, earlier referrals to CLP predicting shorter length of stay, and concordance with some management recommendations. There is evidence that some CLP services are cost-effective and reduce length of stay when involved early and that referrers follow certain recommendations. However, many studies had disparate results and were methodologically flawed. Future research should focus on standardising patient and staff feedback, and short-term patient outcomes. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Models of clinical reasoning with a focus on general practice: A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdani, Shahram; Hosseinzadeh, Mohammad; Hosseini, Fakhrolsadat

    2017-10-01

    Diagnosis lies at the heart of general practice. Every day general practitioners (GPs) visit patients with a wide variety of complaints and concerns, with often minor but sometimes serious symptoms. General practice has many features which differentiate it from specialty care setting, but during the last four decades little attention was paid to clinical reasoning in general practice. Therefore, we aimed to critically review the clinical reasoning models with a focus on the clinical reasoning in general practice or clinical reasoning of general practitioners to find out to what extent the existing models explain the clinical reasoning specially in primary care and also identity the gaps of the model for use in primary care settings. A systematic search to find models of clinical reasoning were performed. To have more precision, we excluded the studies that focused on neurobiological aspects of reasoning, reasoning in disciplines other than medicine decision making or decision analysis on treatment or management plan. All the articles and documents were first scanned to see whether they include important relevant contents or any models. The selected studies which described a model of clinical reasoning in general practitioners or with a focus on general practice were then reviewed and appraisal or critics of other authors on these models were included. The reviewed documents on the model were synthesized. Six models of clinical reasoning were identified including hypothetic-deductive model, pattern recognition, a dual process diagnostic reasoning model, pathway for clinical reasoning, an integrative model of clinical reasoning, and model of diagnostic reasoning strategies in primary care. Only one model had specifically focused on general practitioners reasoning. A Model of clinical reasoning that included specific features of general practice to better help the general practitioners with the difficulties of clinical reasoning in this setting is needed.

  3. Models of clinical reasoning with a focus on general practice: a critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHAHRAM YAZDANI

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Diagnosis lies at the heart of general practice. Every day general practitioners (GPs visit patients with a wide variety of complaints and concerns, with often minor but sometimes serious symptoms. General practice has many features which differentiate it from specialty care setting, but during the last four decades little attention was paid to clinical reasoning in general practice. Therefore, we aimed to critically review the clinical reasoning models with a focus on the clinical reasoning in general practice or clinical reasoning of general practitioners to find out to what extent the existing models explain the clinical reasoning specially in primary care and also identity the gaps of the model for use in primary care settings Methods: A systematic search to find models of clinical reasoning were performed. To have more precision, we excluded the studies that focused on neurobiological aspects of reasoning, reasoning in disciplines other than medicine decision making or decision analysis on treatment or management plan. All the articles and documents were first scanned to see whether they include important relevant contents or any models. The selected studies which described a model of clinical reasoning in general practitioners or with a focus on general practice were then reviewed and appraisal or critics of other authors on these models were included. The reviewed documents on the model were synthesized Results: Six models of clinical reasoning were identified including hypothetic-deductive model, pattern recognition, a dual process diagnostic reasoning model, pathway for clinical reasoning, an integrative model of clinical reasoning, and model of diagnostic reasoning strategies in primary care. Only one model had specifically focused on general practitioners reasoning. Conclusion: A Model of clinical reasoning that included specific features of general practice to better help the general practitioners with the difficulties

  4. Characteristics of qualitative studies in influential journals of general medicine: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Hiroshi; Slingsby, Brian Taylor; Takahashi, Miyako; Hayashi, Yoko; Sugimori, Hiroki; Nakayama, Takeo

    2009-12-01

    Although qualitative studies have increased since the 1990s, some reports note that relatively few influential journals published them up until 2000. This study critically reviewed the characteristics of qualitative studies published in top tier medical journals since 2000. We assessed full texts of qualitative studies published between 2000 and 2004 in the Annals of Internal Medicine, BMJ, JAMA, Lancet, and New England Journal of Medicine. We found 80 qualitative studies, of which 73 (91%) were published in BMJ. Only 10 studies (13%) combined qualitative and quantitative methods. Sixty-two studies (78%) used only one method of data collection. Interviews dominated the choice of data collection. The median sample size was 36 (range: 9-383). Thirty-three studies (41%) did not specify the type of analysis used but rather described the analytic process in detail. The rest indicated the mode of data analysis, in which the most prevalent methods were the constant comparative method (23%) and the grounded theory approach (22%). Qualitative data analysis software was used by 33 studies (41%). Among influential journals of general medicine, only BMJ consistently published an average of 15 qualitative study reports between 2000 and 2004. These findings lend insight into what qualities and characteristics make a qualitative study worthy of consideration to be published in an influential journal, primarily BMJ.

  5. Generalized worry disorder: a review of DSM-IV generalized anxiety disorder and options for DSM-V.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Gavin; Hobbs, Megan J; Borkovec, Thomas D; Beesdo, Katja; Craske, Michelle G; Heimberg, Richard G; Rapee, Ronald M; Ruscio, Ayelet Meron; Stanley, Melinda A

    2010-02-01

    Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) has undergone a series of substantial classificatory changes since its first inclusion in DSM-III. The majority of these revisions have been in response to its poor inter-rater reliability and concerns that it may lack diagnostic validity. This article provides options for the revision of the DSM-IV GAD criteria for DSM-V. First, searches were conducted to identify the evidence that previous DSM Work Groups relied upon when revising the DSM-III-R GAD and the overanxious disorder classifications. Second, the literature pertaining to the DSM-IV criteria for GAD was examined. The review presents a number of options to be considered for DSM-V. One option is for GAD to be re-labeled in DSM-V as generalized worry disorder. This would reflect its hallmark feature. Proposed revisions would result in a disorder that is characterized by excessive anxiety and worry generalized to a number of events or activities for 3 months or more. Worry acts as a cognitive coping strategy that manifests in avoidant behaviors. The reliability and validity of the proposed changes could be investigated in DSM-V validity tests and field trials.

  6. Critical review and hydrologic application of threshold detection methods for the generalized Pareto (GP) distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamalakis, Antonios; Langousis, Andreas; Deidda, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    Estimation of extreme rainfall from data constitutes one of the most important issues in statistical hydrology, as it is associated with the design of hydraulic structures and flood water management. To that extent, based on asymptotic arguments from Extreme Excess (EE) theory, several studies have focused on developing new, or improving existing methods to fit a generalized Pareto (GP) distribution model to rainfall excesses above a properly selected threshold u. The latter is generally determined using various approaches, such as non-parametric methods that are intended to locate the changing point between extreme and non-extreme regions of the data, graphical methods where one studies the dependence of GP distribution parameters (or related metrics) on the threshold level u, and Goodness of Fit (GoF) metrics that, for a certain level of significance, locate the lowest threshold u that a GP distribution model is applicable. In this work, we review representative methods for GP threshold detection, discuss fundamental differences in their theoretical bases, and apply them to 1714 daily rainfall records from the NOAA-NCDC open-access database, with more than 110 years of data. We find that non-parametric methods that are intended to locate the changing point between extreme and non-extreme regions of the data are generally not reliable, while methods that are based on asymptotic properties of the upper distribution tail lead to unrealistically high threshold and shape parameter estimates. The latter is justified by theoretical arguments, and it is especially the case in rainfall applications, where the shape parameter of the GP distribution is low; i.e. on the order of 0.1 ÷ 0.2. Better performance is demonstrated by graphical methods and GoF metrics that rely on pre-asymptotic properties of the GP distribution. For daily rainfall, we find that GP threshold estimates range between 2÷12 mm/d with a mean value of 6.5 mm/d, while the existence of quantization in the

  7. A review of the decoherent histories approach to the arrival time problem in quantum theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yearsley, James M

    2011-01-01

    We review recent progress in understanding the arrival time problem in quantum mechanics, from the point of view of the decoherent histories approach to quantum theory. We begin by discussing the arrival time problem, focussing in particular on the role of the probability current in the expected classical solution. After a brief introduction to decoherent histories we review the use of complex potentials in the construction of appropriate class operators. We then discuss the arrival time problem for a particle coupled to an environment, and review how the arrival time probability can be expressed in terms of a POVM in this case. We turn finally to the question of decoherence of the corresponding histories, and we show that this can be achieved for simple states in the case of a free particle, and for general states for a particle coupled to an environment.

  8. Identification of Climate Change with Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) Distribution Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahayu, Anita

    2013-01-01

    Some events are difficult to avoid and gives considerable influence to humans and the environment is extreme weather and climate change. Many of the problems that require knowledge about the behavior of extreme values and one of the methods used are the Extreme Value Theory (EVT). EVT used to draw up reliable systems in a variety of conditions, so as to minimize the risk of a major disaster. There are two methods for identifying extreme value, Block Maxima with Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) distribution approach and Peaks over Threshold (POT) with Generalized Pareto Distribution (GPD) approach. This research in Indramayu with January 1961-December 2003 period, the method used is Block Maxima with GEV distribution approach. The result showed that there is no climate change in Indramayu with January 1961-December 2003 period.

  9. A general approach toward enhancement of pseudocapacitive performance of conducting polymers by redox-active electrolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Wei

    2014-12-01

    A general approach is demonstrated where the pseudocapacitive performance of different conducting polymers is enhanced in redox-active electrolytes. The concept is demonstrated using several electroactive conducting polymers, including polyaniline, polypyrrole, and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene). As compared to conventional electrolytes, the redox-active electrolytes, prepared by simply adding a redox mediator to the conventional electrolyte, can significantly improve the energy storage capacity of pseudocapacitors with different conducting polymers. The results show that the specific capacitance of conducting polymer based pseudocapacitors can be increased by a factor of two by utilization of the redox-active electrolytes. In fact, this approach gives some of the highest reported specific capacitance values for electroactive conducting polymers. Moreover, our findings present a general and effective approach for the enhancement of energy storage performance of pseudocapacitors using a variety of polymeric electrode materials. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Hyperparathyroidism-related extensor tenosynovitis at the wrist: a general review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichihara, Satoshi; Hidalgo-Diaz, Juan Jose; Prunières, Guillaume; Facca, Sybille; Bodin, Frédéric; Boucher, Stéphanie; Liverneaux, Philippe

    2015-07-01

    Extensor tenosynovitis often occurs accompanying with rheumatoid arthritis, gout, trauma, mycobacterium and dialysis-related amyloidosis. However, there is no recognition of extensor tenosynovitis accompanying with hyperparathyroidism. The purpose of this general review was to describe the clinical condition and to report the results of surgical intervention in the extensor tenosynovitis at the wrist related to hyperparathyroidism. Hyperparathyroidism is thought to be a rare disease in adult. Although renal symptoms are the commonest symptom, musculoskeletal complaints also occur in hyperparathyroidism. From our general review, hyperparathyroidism deserves consideration in the differential diagnosis of extensor tenosynovitis at the wrist.

  11. General parenting, childhood overweight and obesity-inducing behaviors: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleddens, Ester F C; Gerards, Sanne M P L; Thijs, Carel; de Vries, Nanne K; Kremers, Stef P J

    2011-06-01

    Despite emerging efforts to investigate the influence parents have on their children's weight status and related dietary and activity behaviors, reviews regarding the role of general parenting are lacking. We performed a systematic review regarding the relationship between general parenting and these weight-related outcomes to guide observational research. In total, 36 studies were included. Discrepancies across studies were found, which may be explained by differences in conceptualization of parenting constructs. Overall, however, results suggest that children raised in authoritative homes ate more healthy, were more physically active and had lower BMI levels, compared to children who were raised with other styles (authoritarian, permissive/indulgent, uninvolved/neglectful). Findings of some moderation studies indicate that general parenting has a differential impact on children's weight-related outcomes, depending on child and parental characteristics. These findings underline the importance of acknowledging interactions between general parenting and both child and parent characteristics, as well as behavior-specific parenting practices.

  12. A national review of the frequency of minimally invasive surgery among general surgery residents: assessment of ACGME case logs during 2 decades of general surgery resident training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Morgan K; McAteer, Jarod P; Drake, F Thurston; Goldin, Adam B; Khandelwal, Saurabh; Gow, Kenneth W

    2015-02-01

    Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) has created a shift in how many surgical diseases are treated. Examining the effect on resident operative experience provides valuable insight into trends that may be useful for restructuring the requirements of resident training. To evaluate changes in general surgery resident operative experience regarding MIS. Retrospective review of the frequency of MIS relative to open operations among general surgery residents using the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education case logs for academic years 1993-1994 through 2011-2012. General surgery residency training among accredited programs in the United States. We analyzed the difference in the mean number of MIS techniques and corresponding open procedures across training periods using 2-tailed t tests with statistical significance set at P surgery has an increasingly prominent role in contemporary surgical therapy for many common diseases. The open approach, however, still predominates in all but 5 procedures. Residents today must become efficient at performing multiple techniques for a single procedure, which demands a broader skill set than in the past.

  13. Integrated Approaches to Occupational Health and Safety: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooklin, A; Joss, N; Husser, E; Oldenburg, B

    2017-09-01

    The study objective was to conduct a systematic review of the effectiveness of integrated workplace interventions that combine health promotion with occupational health and safety. Electronic databases (n = 8), including PsychInfo and MEDLINE, were systematically searched. Studies included were those that reported on workplace interventions that met the consensus definition of an "integrated approach," published in English, in the scientific literature since 1990. Data extracted were occupation, worksite, country, sample size, intervention targets, follow-up period, and results reported. Quality was assessed according to American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine Practice Guidelines. Heterogeneity precluded formal meta-analyses. Results were classified according to the outcome(s) assessed into five categories (health promotion, injury prevention, occupational health and safety management, psychosocial, and return-on-investment). Narrative synthesis of outcomes was performed. A total of 31 eligible studies were identified; 23 (74%) were (quasi-)experimental trials. Effective interventions were most of those aimed at improving employee physical or mental health. Less consistent results were reported from integrated interventions targeting occupational health and safety management, injury prevention, or organizational cost savings. Integrated approaches have been posed as comprehensive solutions to complex issues. Empirical evidence, while still emerging, provides some support for this. Continuing investment in, and evaluation of, integrated approaches are worthwhile.

  14. A Generalized Hybrid Multiscale Modeling Approach for Flow and Reactive Transport in Porous Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, X.; Meng, X.; Tang, Y. H.; Guo, Z.; Karniadakis, G. E.

    2017-12-01

    Using emerging understanding of biological and environmental processes at fundamental scales to advance predictions of the larger system behavior requires the development of multiscale approaches, and there is strong interest in coupling models at different scales together in a hybrid multiscale simulation framework. A limited number of hybrid multiscale simulation methods have been developed for subsurface applications, mostly using application-specific approaches for model coupling. The proposed generalized hybrid multiscale approach is designed with minimal intrusiveness to the at-scale simulators (pre-selected) and provides a set of lightweight C++ scripts to manage a complex multiscale workflow utilizing a concurrent coupling approach. The workflow includes at-scale simulators (using the lattice-Boltzmann method, LBM, at the pore and Darcy scale, respectively), scripts for boundary treatment (coupling and kriging), and a multiscale universal interface (MUI) for data exchange. The current study aims to apply the generalized hybrid multiscale modeling approach to couple pore- and Darcy-scale models for flow and mixing-controlled reaction with precipitation/dissolution in heterogeneous porous media. The model domain is packed heterogeneously that the mixing front geometry is more complex and not known a priori. To address those challenges, the generalized hybrid multiscale modeling approach is further developed to 1) adaptively define the locations of pore-scale subdomains, 2) provide a suite of physical boundary coupling schemes and 3) consider the dynamic change of the pore structures due to mineral precipitation/dissolution. The results are validated and evaluated by comparing with single-scale simulations in terms of velocities, reactive concentrations and computing cost.

  15. A frequency-domain approach to improve ANNs generalization quality via proper initialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaari, Majdi; Fekih, Afef; Seibi, Abdennour C; Hmida, Jalel Ben

    2018-08-01

    The ability to train a network without memorizing the input/output data, thereby allowing a good predictive performance when applied to unseen data, is paramount in ANN applications. In this paper, we propose a frequency-domain approach to evaluate the network initialization in terms of quality of training, i.e., generalization capabilities. As an alternative to the conventional time-domain methods, the proposed approach eliminates the approximate nature of network validation using an excess of unseen data. The benefits of the proposed approach are demonstrated using two numerical examples, where two trained networks performed similarly on the training and the validation data sets, yet they revealed a significant difference in prediction accuracy when tested using a different data set. This observation is of utmost importance in modeling applications requiring a high degree of accuracy. The efficiency of the proposed approach is further demonstrated on a real-world problem, where unlike other initialization methods, a more conclusive assessment of generalization is achieved. On the practical front, subtle methodological and implementational facets are addressed to ensure reproducibility and pinpoint the limitations of the proposed approach. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. [Ten years retrospective review of the application of digital medical technology in general surgery in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, C H; Lau, Y Y; Zhou, W P; Cai, W

    2017-12-01

    Digital medical technology is a powerful tool which has forcefully promoted the development of general surgery in China. In this article, we reviews the application status of three-dimensional visualization and three-dimensional printing technology in general surgery, introduces the development situation of surgical navigation guided by optical and electromagnetic technology and preliminary attempt to combined with mixed reality applied to complicated hepatectomy, looks ahead the development direction of digital medicine in the era of artificial intelligence and big data on behalf of surgical robot and radiomics. Surgeons should proactively master these advanced techniques and accelerate the innovative development of general surgery in China.

  17. Workload and job satisfaction among general practitioners: a review of the literature.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenewegen, P.P.; Hutten, J.B.F.

    1991-01-01

    The workload of general practitioners (GPs) is an important issue in health care systems with capitation payment for GPs services. This article reviews the literature on determinants and consequences of workload and job satisfaction of GPs. Determinants of workload are located on the demand side

  18. The role of the general practitioner in return to work after cancer-a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Femke; Frings-Dresen, Monique H.; van Dijk, Nynke; van Etten-Jamaludin, Faridi S.; van Asselt, Kristel M.; de Boer, Angela G. E. M.

    2018-01-01

    The number of cancer patients and survivors of working age is increasing. General Practitioners (GPs) may have a significant role in psychosocial cancer care, including work-related concerns. Therefore, we performed a systematic literature review to identify the role of the GP in work-related

  19. 77 FR 58380 - General Services Administration Acquisition Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Price...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-20

    ...] General Services Administration Acquisition Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Price Reductions Clause... requirement regarding the GSAR Price Reductions Clause. A notice was published in the Federal Register at 76... identified by Information Collection 3090- 0235, Price Reduction Clause, by any of the following methods...

  20. Pharmacotherapy for the treatment of aggressive behavior in general adult psychiatry: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goedhard, L.E.; Stolker, J.J.; Heerdink, E.R.; Nijman, H.L.I.; Olivier, B.; Egberts, A.C.G.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the evidence for pharmacologic management of outwardly directed aggressive behavior in general adult psychiatry. DATA SOURCES: Literature searches in PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and Cochrane libraries from 1966 through March 2005 were used to identify relevant

  1. 77 FR 31016 - General Services Administration Acquisition Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; GSA Mentor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-24

    ... Services Administration Acquisition Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; GSA Mentor-Prot[eacute]g[eacute... collection concerning the GSA Mentor-Prot[eacute]g[eacute] Program, General Service Administration... Collection 3090- 0286, GSA Mentor-Prot[eacute]g[eacute] Program by any of the following methods: Regulations...

  2. A General and Intuitive Approach to Understand and Compare the Torque Production Capability of AC Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Dong; Lu, Kaiyuan; Rasmussen, Peter Omand

    2014-01-01

    Electromagnetic torque analysis is one of the key issues in the analysis of electric machines. It plays an important role in machine design and control. The common method described in most of the textbooks is to calculate the torque in the machine variables and then transform them to the dq......-frame, through complicated mathematical manipulations. This is a more mathematical approach rather than explaining the physics behind torque production, which even brings a lot of difficulties to specialist. This paper introduces a general and intuitive approach to obtain the dq-frame torque equation of various...... AC machines. In this method, torque equation can be obtained based on the intuitive physical understanding of the mechanism behind torque production. It is then approved to be applicable for general case, including rotor saliency and various types of magnetomotive force sources. As an application...

  3. General anesthesia in cardiac surgery: a review of drugs and practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alwardt, Cory M; Redford, Daniel; Larson, Douglas F

    2005-06-01

    General anesthesia is defined as complete anesthesia affecting the entire body with loss of consciousness, analgesia, amnesia, and muscle relaxation. There is a wide spectrum of agents able to partially or completely induce general anesthesia. Presently, there is not a single universally accepted technique for anesthetic management during cardiac surgery. Instead, the drugs and combinations of drugs used are derived from the pathophysiologic state of the patient and individual preference and experience of the anesthesiologist. According to the definition of general anesthesia, current practices consist of four main components: hypnosis, analgesia, amnesia, and muscle relaxation. Although many of the agents highlighted in this review are capable of producing more than one of these effects, it is logical that drugs producing these effects are given in combination to achieve the most beneficial effect. This review features a discussion of currently used anesthetic drugs and clinical practices of general anesthesia during cardiac surgery. The information in this particular review is derived from textbooks, current literature, and personal experience, and is designed as a general overview of anesthesia during cardiac surgery.

  4. Systems and complexity thinking in the general practice literature: an integrative, historical narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturmberg, Joachim P; Martin, Carmel M; Katerndahl, David A

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 7 decades, theories in the systems and complexity sciences have had a major influence on academic thinking and research. We assessed the impact of complexity science on general practice/family medicine. We performed a historical integrative review using the following systematic search strategy: medical subject heading [humans] combined in turn with the terms complex adaptive systems, nonlinear dynamics, systems biology, and systems theory, limited to general practice/family medicine and published before December 2010. A total of 16,242 articles were retrieved, of which 49 were published in general practice/family medicine journals. Hand searches and snowballing retrieved another 35. After a full-text review, we included 56 articles dealing specifically with systems sciences and general/family practice. General practice/family medicine engaged with the emerging systems and complexity theories in 4 stages. Before 1995, articles tended to explore common phenomenologic general practice/family medicine experiences. Between 1995 and 2000, articles described the complex adaptive nature of this discipline. Those published between 2000 and 2005 focused on describing the system dynamics of medical practice. After 2005, articles increasingly applied the breadth of complex science theories to health care, health care reform, and the future of medicine. This historical review describes the development of general practice/family medicine in relation to complex adaptive systems theories, and shows how systems sciences more accurately reflect the discipline's philosophy and identity. Analysis suggests that general practice/family medicine first embraced systems theories through conscious reorganization of its boundaries and scope, before applying empirical tools. Future research should concentrate on applying nonlinear dynamics and empirical modeling to patient care, and to organizing and developing local practices, engaging in community development, and influencing

  5. Intervention pattern in crisis: mental health as a nursing care approach at a general hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Elias Barbosa; Kestenberg, Célia Caldeira Fonseca; Silva, Alexandre Vicente

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Testing and validating the application of Intervention in Crisis theory as an approach in mental health on HIV/AIDS patients care who are interned at a general hospital. Method: Help Interview has been accomplished as an activity for Mental Health subject according to an applied guide by graduation in nursing students in order to identify this illness psycho-social repercussion and draft therapeutic plan for patients under their care. The outcomes were the reports results presented...

  6. Generalized approach to modifying optical vortices with suppressed sidelobes using Bessel-like functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J; Yuan, X-C; Zhao, X; Fang, Z L; Zhu, S W

    2009-11-01

    We propose a generalized approach to producing optical vortices with suppressed sidelobes using a variable Bessel-like function added to the conventional spiral phase plate. Experimental verifications are implemented by a phase-only spatial light modulator. It is demonstrated that the method is valid for optical vortex beams with arbitrary topological charges and without changing the primary ring size as a unique property among the existing techniques.

  7. A general approach to mesoporous metal oxide microspheres loaded with noble metal nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Jin, Zhao; Xiao, Manda; Bao, Zhihong; Wang, Peng; Wang, Jianfang

    2012-01-01

    Catalytic microspheres: A general approach is demonstrated for the facile preparation of mesoporous metal oxide microspheres loaded with noble metal nanoparticles (see TEM image in the picture). Among 18 oxide/noble metal catalysts, TiO 2/0.1 mol Pd microspheres showed the highest turnover frequency in NaBH 4 reduction of 4-nitrophenol (see picture). Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Spinal anesthesia using Taylor's approach helps avoid general anesthesia in short stature asthmatic patient

    OpenAIRE

    Patil, Amarjeet Dnyandeo; Bapat, Manasi; Patil, Sunita A.; Gogna, Roshan Lal

    2015-01-01

    The case history of a 35-year-old female patient with short stature is presented. She was posted for rectopexy in view of rectal prolapse. She was a known case of bronchial asthma. She had crowding of intervertebral spaces, which made administration of spinal anesthesia via the normal route very difficult. Taylor′s approach for administration of the same was tried and proved successful, thus saving the patient from receiving general anesthesia in the presence of bronchial asthma, for a perine...

  9. Generalized Models from Beta(p, 2) Densities with Strong Allee Effect: Dynamical Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Aleixo, Sandra M.; Rocha, J. Leonel

    2012-01-01

    A dynamical approach to study the behaviour of generalized populational growth models from Beta(p, 2) densities, with strong Allee effect, is presented. The dynamical analysis of the respective unimodal maps is performed using symbolic dynamics techniques. The complexity of the correspondent discrete dynamical systems is measured in terms of topological entropy. Different populational dynamics regimes are obtained when the intrinsic growth rates are modified: extinction, bistability, chaotic ...

  10. A general approach to mesoporous metal oxide microspheres loaded with noble metal nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Jin, Zhao

    2012-04-26

    Catalytic microspheres: A general approach is demonstrated for the facile preparation of mesoporous metal oxide microspheres loaded with noble metal nanoparticles (see TEM image in the picture). Among 18 oxide/noble metal catalysts, TiO 2/0.1 mol Pd microspheres showed the highest turnover frequency in NaBH 4 reduction of 4-nitrophenol (see picture). Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Generalized coherent state approach to star products and applications to the fuzzy sphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexanian, G.; Pinzul, A.; Stern, A.

    2001-01-01

    We construct a star product associated with an arbitrary two-dimensional Poisson structure using generalized coherent states on the complex plane. From our approach one easily recovers the star product for the fuzzy torus, and also one for the fuzzy sphere. For the latter we need to define the 'fuzzy' stereographic projection to the plane and the fuzzy sphere integration measure, which in the commutative limit reduce to the usual formulae for the sphere

  12. A general analytical approach to the one-group, one-dimensional transport equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barichello, L.B.; Vilhena, M.T.

    1993-01-01

    The main feature of the presented approach to solve the neutron transport equation consists in the application of the Laplace transform to the discrete ordinates equations, which yields a linear system of order N to be solved (LTS N method). In this paper this system is solved analytically and the inversion is performed using the Heaviside expansion technique. The general formulation achieved by this procedure is then applied to homogeneous and heterogeneous one-group slab-geometry problems. (orig.) [de

  13. A review of clinical approaches to gender dysphoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, G R

    1990-02-01

    Gender dysphoric patients are not infrequently encountered in the clinical practice of psychiatry. A comprehensive review of the world literature reveals that the systematic study of severe gender disorders--as exemplified by transsexualism--is relatively new, consisting of just over 25 years of collective experience. While the formal diagnosis of transsexualism is rare, this disorder represents the most severe form of the gender dysphoric conditions. Many nontranssexual patients with a variety of other psychiatric disorders present to psychiatrists desperately requesting somatic treatments (cross-gender hormones, sex reassignment surgery, and other cosmetic surgical procedures). A lengthy differential diagnosis needs to be considered, and a specialized approach to interviewing gender dysphoric patients is highly recommended. Available treatments and their efficacy are discussed. Large prospective controlled studies of treatments for gender dysphoria, such as sex reassignment surgery and psychotherapy, are lacking. Countertransference issues are noted to be particularly relevant in the care of gender dysphoric individuals.

  14. [Academic review of global health approaches: an analytical framework].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco-Giraldo, Alvaro

    2015-09-01

    In order to identify perspectives on global health, this essay analyzes different trends from academia that have enriched global health and international health. A database was constructed with information from the world's leading global health centers. The search covered authors on global diplomacy and global health and was performed in PubMed, LILACS, and Google Scholar with the key words "global health" and "international health". Research and training centers in different countries have taken various academic approaches to global health; various interests and ideological orientations have emerged in relation to the global health concept. Based on the mosaic of global health centers and their positions, the review concludes that the new concept reflects the construction of a paradigm of renewal in international health and global health, the pre-paradigmatic stage of which has still not reached a final version.

  15. A review of numerical techniques approaching microstructures of crystalline rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yahui; Wong, Louis Ngai Yuen

    2018-06-01

    The macro-mechanical behavior of crystalline rocks including strength, deformability and failure pattern are dominantly influenced by their grain-scale structures. Numerical technique is commonly used to assist understanding the complicated mechanisms from a microscopic perspective. Each numerical method has its respective strengths and limitations. This review paper elucidates how numerical techniques take geometrical aspects of the grain into consideration. Four categories of numerical methods are examined: particle-based methods, block-based methods, grain-based methods, and node-based methods. Focusing on the grain-scale characters, specific relevant issues including increasing complexity of micro-structure, deformation and breakage of model elements, fracturing and fragmentation process are described in more detail. Therefore, the intrinsic capabilities and limitations of different numerical approaches in terms of accounting for the micro-mechanics of crystalline rocks and their phenomenal mechanical behavior are explicitly presented.

  16. An Approach to Teaching General Chemistry II that Highlights the Interdisciplinary Nature of Science*,†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumter, Takita Felder; Owens, Patrick M.

    2012-01-01

    The need for a revised curriculum within the life sciences has been well-established. One strategy to improve student preparation in the life sciences is to redesign introductory courses like biology, chemistry, and physics so that they better reflect their disciplinary interdependence. We describe a medically relevant, context-based approach to teaching second semester general chemistry that demonstrates the interdisciplinary nature of biology and chemistry. Our innovative method provides a model in which disciplinary barriers are diminished early in the undergraduate science curriculum. The course is divided into three principle educational modules: 1) Fundamentals of General Chemistry, 2) Medical Approaches to Inflammation, and 3) Neuroscience as a connector of chemistry, biology, and psychology. We accurately anticipated that this modified approach to teaching general chemistry would enhance student interest in chemistry and bridge the perceived gaps between biology and chemistry. The course serves as a template for context-based, interdisciplinary teaching that lays the foundation needed to train 21st century scientists. PMID:21445902

  17. An approach to teaching general chemistry II that highlights the interdisciplinary nature of science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumter, Takita Felder; Owens, Patrick M

    2011-01-01

    The need for a revised curriculum within the life sciences has been well-established. One strategy to improve student preparation in the life sciences is to redesign introductory courses like biology, chemistry, and physics so that they better reflect their disciplinary interdependence. We describe a medically relevant, context-based approach to teaching second semester general chemistry that demonstrates the interdisciplinary nature of biology and chemistry. Our innovative method provides a model in which disciplinary barriers are diminished early in the undergraduate science curriculum. The course is divided into three principle educational modules: 1) Fundamentals of General Chemistry, 2) Medical Approaches to Inflammation, and 3) Neuroscience as a connector of chemistry, biology, and psychology. We accurately anticipated that this modified approach to teaching general chemistry would enhance student interest in chemistry and bridge the perceived gaps between biology and chemistry. The course serves as a template for context-based, interdisciplinary teaching that lays the foundation needed to train 21st century scientists. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. A Hybrid Generalized Hidden Markov Model-Based Condition Monitoring Approach for Rolling Bearings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Hu, Youmin; Wu, Bo; Wang, Yan; Xie, Fengyun

    2017-05-18

    The operating condition of rolling bearings affects productivity and quality in the rotating machine process. Developing an effective rolling bearing condition monitoring approach is critical to accurately identify the operating condition. In this paper, a hybrid generalized hidden Markov model-based condition monitoring approach for rolling bearings is proposed, where interval valued features are used to efficiently recognize and classify machine states in the machine process. In the proposed method, vibration signals are decomposed into multiple modes with variational mode decomposition (VMD). Parameters of the VMD, in the form of generalized intervals, provide a concise representation for aleatory and epistemic uncertainty and improve the robustness of identification. The multi-scale permutation entropy method is applied to extract state features from the decomposed signals in different operating conditions. Traditional principal component analysis is adopted to reduce feature size and computational cost. With the extracted features' information, the generalized hidden Markov model, based on generalized interval probability, is used to recognize and classify the fault types and fault severity levels. Finally, the experiment results show that the proposed method is effective at recognizing and classifying the fault types and fault severity levels of rolling bearings. This monitoring method is also efficient enough to quantify the two uncertainty components.

  19. A Hybrid Generalized Hidden Markov Model-Based Condition Monitoring Approach for Rolling Bearings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Liu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The operating condition of rolling bearings affects productivity and quality in the rotating machine process. Developing an effective rolling bearing condition monitoring approach is critical to accurately identify the operating condition. In this paper, a hybrid generalized hidden Markov model-based condition monitoring approach for rolling bearings is proposed, where interval valued features are used to efficiently recognize and classify machine states in the machine process. In the proposed method, vibration signals are decomposed into multiple modes with variational mode decomposition (VMD. Parameters of the VMD, in the form of generalized intervals, provide a concise representation for aleatory and epistemic uncertainty and improve the robustness of identification. The multi-scale permutation entropy method is applied to extract state features from the decomposed signals in different operating conditions. Traditional principal component analysis is adopted to reduce feature size and computational cost. With the extracted features’ information, the generalized hidden Markov model, based on generalized interval probability, is used to recognize and classify the fault types and fault severity levels. Finally, the experiment results show that the proposed method is effective at recognizing and classifying the fault types and fault severity levels of rolling bearings. This monitoring method is also efficient enough to quantify the two uncertainty components.

  20. Biomimetic approaches to modulate cellular adhesion in biomaterials: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmany, Maria B; Van Dyke, Mark

    2013-03-01

    Natural extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins possess critical biological characteristics that provide a platform for cellular adhesion and activation of highly regulated signaling pathways. However, ECM-based biomaterials can have several limitations, including poor mechanical properties and risk of immunogenicity. Synthetic biomaterials alleviate the risks associated with natural biomaterials but often lack the robust biological activity necessary to direct cell function beyond initial adhesion. A thorough understanding of receptor-mediated cellular adhesion to the ECM and subsequent signaling activation has facilitated development of techniques that functionalize inert biomaterials to provide a biologically active surface. Here we review a range of approaches used to modify biomaterial surfaces for optimal receptor-mediated cell interactions, as well as provide insights into specific mechanisms of downstream signaling activation. In addition to a brief overview of integrin receptor-mediated cell function, so-called "biomimetic" techniques reviewed here include (i) surface modification of biomaterials with bioadhesive ECM macromolecules or specific binding motifs, (ii) nanoscale patterning of the materials and (iii) the use of "natural-like" biomaterials. Copyright © 2012 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Implementation of the rapid cross section adjustment approach at General Electric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowan, C.L.; Kujawski, E.; Protsik, R.

    1978-01-01

    The General Electric rapid cross section adjustment approach was developed to use the shielding factor method for formulating multigroup cross sections. In this approach, space- and composition-dependent cross sections for a particular reactor or shield design are prepared from a generalized cross section library by the use of resonance self-shielding factors, and by the adjustment of elastic scattering cross sections for the local neutron flux spectra. The principal tool in the cross section adjustment package is the data processing code TDOWN. This code was specified to give the user a high degree of flexibility in the analysis of advanced reactor designs. Of particular interest in the analysis of critical experiments is the ability to carry out cell heterogeneity self-shielding calculations using a multiregion equivalence relationship, and the homogenization of the cross sections over the specified cell with the flux weighting obtained from transport theory calculations. Extensive testing of the rapid cross section adjustment approach, including comparisons with Monte Carlo methods, indicated that this approach can be utilized with a high degree of confidence in the design analysis of complex fast reactor systems. 2 figures, 1 table

  2. A general approach for the estimation of loss of life due to natural and technological disasters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonkman, S.N.; Lentz, A.; Vrijling, J.K.

    2010-01-01

    In assessing the safety of engineering systems in the context of quantitative risk analysis one of the most important consequence types concerns the loss of life due to accidents and disasters. In this paper, a general approach for loss of life estimation is proposed which includes three elements: (1) the assessment of physical effects associated with the event; (2) determination of the number of exposed persons (taking into account warning and evacuation); and (3) determination of mortality amongst the population exposed. The typical characteristics of and modelling approaches for these three elements are discussed. This paper focuses on 'small probability-large consequences' events within the engineering domain. It is demonstrated how the proposed approach can be applied to various case studies, such as tunnel fires, earthquakes and flood events.

  3. Effects produced by oscillations applied to nonlinear dynamic systems: a general approach and examples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blekhman, I. I.; Sorokin, V. S.

    2016-01-01

    A general approach to study effects produced by oscillations applied to nonlinear dynamic systems is developed. It implies a transition from initial governing equations of motion to much more simple equations describing only the main slow component of motions (the vibro-transformed dynamics.......g., the requirement for the involved nonlinearities to be weak. The approach is illustrated by several relevant examples from various fields of science, e.g., mechanics, physics, chemistry and biophysics....... equations). The approach is named as the oscillatory strobodynamics, since motions are perceived as under a stroboscopic light. The vibro-transformed dynamics equations comprise terms that capture the averaged effect of oscillations. The method of direct separation of motions appears to be an efficient...

  4. Liver involvement in Gaucher disease - Review and clinical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adar, Tomer; Ilan, Yaron; Elstein, Deborah; Zimran, Ari

    2018-02-01

    Gaucher disease (GD), one of the most prevalent lysosomal storage diseases, is associated with glucocerebroside accumulation in cells of the monocyte-macrophage system in various organs, including the liver. Evaluating and managing liver disease in patients with Gaucher disease may be challenging. While hepatic involvement is common in Gaucher disease, its severity, and clinical significance span a wide spectrum, ranging from sub-clinical involvement to liver cirrhosis with its associated complications including portal hypertension. Apart from liver involvement in Gaucher disease, patients with may also suffer from other comorbidities involving the liver. That Gaucher disease itself can mimic hepatic lesions, affect laboratory tests used to characterize liver disease, and may be associated with non-cirrhotic portal hypertension, complicates the diagnostic approach even more. Better understanding of liver involvement in Gaucher disease can spare patients unnecessary invasive testing, and assist physicians in decision making when evaluating patients with Gaucher disease suspected for significant liver disease. This review describes the various clinical manifestations, laboratory and imaging abnormalities that may be encountered when following patients with Gaucher disease for liver involvement. The mechanism for liver disease are discussed, as well as the possible hepato-protective effect of glucocerebroside, and the a diagnostic and treatment approaches. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. What do we know about who does and does not attend general health checks? Findings from a narrative scoping review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dryden Ruth

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background General and preventive health checks are a key feature of contemporary policies of anticipatory care. Ensuring high and equitable uptake of such general health checks is essential to ensuring health gain and preventing health inequalities. This literature review explores the socio-demographic, clinical and social cognitive characteristics of those who do and do not engage with general health checks or preventive health checks for cardiovascular disease. Methods An exploratory scoping study approach was employed. Databases searched included the British Nursing Index and Archive, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR and Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE, EMBASE, MEDLINE, PsycINFO and the Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI. Titles and abstracts of 17463 papers were screened; 1171 papers were then independently assessed by two researchers. A review of full text was carried out by two of the authors resulting in 39 being included in the final review. Results Those least likely to attend health checks were men on low incomes, low socio-economic status, unemployed or less well educated. In general, attenders were older than non-attenders. An individual’s marital status was found to affect attendance rates with non-attenders more likely to be single. In general, white individuals were more likely to engage with services than individuals from other ethnic backgrounds. Non-attenders had a greater proportion of cardiovascular risk factors than attenders, and smokers were less likely to attend than non-smokers. The relationship between health beliefs and health behaviours appeared complex. Non-attenders were shown to value health less strongly, have low self-efficacy, feel less in control of their health and be less likely to believe in the efficacy of health checks. Conclusion Routine health check-ups appear to be taken up inequitably, with

  6. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in the Iranian general population: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daryani, Ahmad; Sarvi, Shahabeddin; Aarabi, Mohsen; Mizani, Azadeh; Ahmadpour, Ehsan; Shokri, Azar; Rahimi, Mohammad-Taghi; Sharif, Mehdi

    2014-09-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is one of the most common protozoan parasites with widespread distribution globally. It is the causative agent of Toxoplasma infection, which is prevalent in human and other warm-blooded vertebrates. While T. gondii infection in healthy people is usually asymptomatic, it can lead to serious pathological effects in congenital cases and immunodeficient patients. We sought to identify the seroprevalence rate of Toxoplasma infection in the Iranian general population to develop a comprehensive description of the disease condition in Iran for future use. Electronic databases (PubMed, Google Scholar, Science Direct, and Scopus) and Persian language databases (Magiran, Scientific Information Database [SID], Iran Medex, and Iran Doc) were searched. Furthermore, graduate student dissertations and proceedings of national parasitology congresses were searched manually. Our search resulted in a total of 35 reports published from 1978 to 2012.These include 22 published articles, 1 unpublished study, 8 proceedings from the Iranian conference of parasitology, and 4 graduate student dissertations, resulting in 52,294 individuals and 23,385 IgG seropositive cases. The random errors method was used for this meta-analysis. The result shows that the overall seroprevalence rate of toxoplasmos is among the general population in Iran was 39.3% (95% CI=33.0%-45.7%). There was no significant difference in the seroprevalence rate between male and female patients. A significant linear trend of increasing overall prevalence by age was noted (P<0.0001). In addition, the data indicates that there are high seroprevalence in groups who have direct contact with cats, consume uncooked meat and raw fruits or vegetables, in farmers and Housewife, individuals who have a low level of education, and live in rural areas. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first systematic review of T. gondii infection seroprevalence in Iran, which shows a high prevalence of Toxoplasma infection

  7. Using text mining for study identification in systematic reviews: a systematic review of current approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Mara-Eves, Alison; Thomas, James; McNaught, John; Miwa, Makoto; Ananiadou, Sophia

    2015-01-14

    The large and growing number of published studies, and their increasing rate of publication, makes the task of identifying relevant studies in an unbiased way for inclusion in systematic reviews both complex and time consuming. Text mining has been offered as a potential solution: through automating some of the screening process, reviewer time can be saved. The evidence base around the use of text mining for screening has not yet been pulled together systematically; this systematic review fills that research gap. Focusing mainly on non-technical issues, the review aims to increase awareness of the potential of these technologies and promote further collaborative research between the computer science and systematic review communities. Five research questions led our review: what is the state of the evidence base; how has workload reduction been evaluated; what are the purposes of semi-automation and how effective are they; how have key contextual problems of applying text mining to the systematic review field been addressed; and what challenges to implementation have emerged? We answered these questions using standard systematic review methods: systematic and exhaustive searching, quality-assured data extraction and a narrative synthesis to synthesise findings. The evidence base is active and diverse; there is almost no replication between studies or collaboration between research teams and, whilst it is difficult to establish any overall conclusions about best approaches, it is clear that efficiencies and reductions in workload are potentially achievable. On the whole, most suggested that a saving in workload of between 30% and 70% might be possible, though sometimes the saving in workload is accompanied by the loss of 5% of relevant studies (i.e. a 95% recall). Using text mining to prioritise the order in which items are screened should be considered safe and ready for use in 'live' reviews. The use of text mining as a 'second screener' may also be used cautiously

  8. Energy policy of the International Energy Agency (IEA) countries. General review of the year 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This book is a general review on energy policy leaded by Members countries of International Energy Agency (IEA) during the year 1990. This book describes also the trends and the recent events which have affected energy demand, energy conservation, energy efficiency, energy supply and energy source development. This annual review gives the IEA energy forecasting for the next years, till year 2001. A detailed study of energy policy in Federal Republic of Germany, Austria, Denmark, Greece, Ireland and Japan is given. The policy of fifteen another Members countries, which have been analyzed the previous years, is recapitulated and briefly brought up to date

  9. Patients' and carers' perspectives of palliative care in general practice: A systematic review with narrative synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Emilie; Knight, Selena; Gott, Merryn; Barclay, Stephen; White, Patrick

    2018-04-01

    General practitioners have overall responsibility for community care, including towards end of life. Current policy places generalists at the centre of palliative care provision. However, little is known about how patients and carers understand the general practitioner's role. To explore patient and carer perspectives of (1) the role of the general practitioner in providing palliative care to adult patients and (2) the facilitators and barriers to the general practitioner's capacity to fulfil this perceived role. Systematic literature review and narrative synthesis. Seven electronic databases (MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, BNI, CINAHL, Cochrane and HMIC) were searched from inception to May 2017. Two reviewers independently screened papers at title, abstract and full-text stages. Grey literature, guideline, hand searches of five journals and reference list/citation searches of included papers were undertaken. Data were extracted, tabulated and synthesised using narrative, thematic analysis. A total of 25 studies were included: 14 employed qualitative methods, 8 quantitative survey methods and 3 mixed-methods. Five key themes were identified: continuity of care, communication between primary and secondary care, contact and accessibility, communication between general practitioner and patient, and knowledge and competence. Although the terminology and context of general practice vary internationally, themes relating to the perceived role of general practitioners were consistent. General practitioners are considered well placed to provide palliative care due to their breadth of clinical responsibility, ongoing relationships with patients and families, and duty to visit patients at home and coordinate healthcare resources. These factors, valued by service users, should influence future practice and policy development.

  10. Using Q Methodology in the Literature Review Process: A Mixed Research Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Frels, Rebecca K.

    2015-01-01

    Because of the mixed research-based nature of literature reviews, it is surprising, then, that insufficient information has been provided as to how reviewers can incorporate mixed research approaches into their literature reviews. Thus, in this article, we provide a mixed methods research approach--Q methodology--for analyzing information…

  11. On the equivalence of generalized least-squares approaches to the evaluation of measurement comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, A.; Clare, J. F.

    2012-06-01

    Analysis of CIPM international comparisons is increasingly being carried out using a model-based approach that leads naturally to a generalized least-squares (GLS) solution. While this method offers the advantages of being easier to audit and having general applicability to any form of comparison protocol, there is a lack of consensus over aspects of its implementation. Two significant results are presented that show the equivalence of three differing approaches discussed by or applied in comparisons run by Consultative Committees of the CIPM. Both results depend on a mathematical condition equivalent to the requirement that any two artefacts in the comparison are linked through a sequence of measurements of overlapping pairs of artefacts. The first result is that a GLS estimator excluding all sources of error common to all measurements of a participant is equal to the GLS estimator incorporating all sources of error, including those associated with any bias in the standards or procedures of the measuring laboratory. The second result identifies the component of uncertainty in the estimate of bias that arises from possible systematic effects in the participants' measurement standards and procedures. The expression so obtained is a generalization of an expression previously published for a one-artefact comparison with no inter-participant correlations, to one for a comparison comprising any number of repeat measurements of multiple artefacts and allowing for inter-laboratory correlations.

  12. The Ritz - Sublaminate Generalized Unified Formulation approach for piezoelectric composite plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ottavio, Michele; Dozio, Lorenzo; Vescovini, Riccardo; Polit, Olivier

    2018-01-01

    This paper extends to composite plates including piezoelectric plies the variable kinematics plate modeling approach called Sublaminate Generalized Unified Formulation (SGUF). Two-dimensional plate equations are obtained upon defining a priori the through-thickness distribution of the displacement field and electric potential. According to SGUF, independent approximations can be adopted for the four components of these generalized displacements: an Equivalent Single Layer (ESL) or Layer-Wise (LW) description over an arbitrary group of plies constituting the composite plate (the sublaminate) and the polynomial order employed in each sublaminate. The solution of the two-dimensional equations is sought in weak form by means of a Ritz method. In this work, boundary functions are used in conjunction with the domain approximation expressed by an orthogonal basis spanned by Legendre polynomials. The proposed computational tool is capable to represent electroded surfaces with equipotentiality conditions. Free-vibration problems as well as static problems involving actuator and sensor configurations are addressed. Two case studies are presented, which demonstrate the high accuracy of the proposed Ritz-SGUF approach. A model assessment is proposed for showcasing to which extent the SGUF approach allows a reduction of the number of unknowns with a controlled impact on the accuracy of the result.

  13. [The potential of general magnetic therapy for the treatment and rehabilitation (a review)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulikov, A G; Voronina, D D

    2016-01-01

    This paper was designed to describe the main characteristics of general magnetic therapy and the mechanisms underlying its biological and therapeutic action. Special attention is given to the extensive application of this method in the routine clinical practice. The publications in the current scientific literature are reviewed in order to evaluate the potential of general magnetic therapy as a component of the combined treatment of various somatic pathologies, rehabilitation of the patients after surgical intervention with special reference to the management of the patients presenting with the oncological problems. The data suggesting good tolerability and high therapeutic effectiveness of the physiotherapeutic method under consideration.

  14. A review of governance of maternity services at South Tipperary general hospital

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Flory, David

    2015-09-01

    This review of the governance of maternity services at South Tipperary General Hospital has focussed on the systems and processes for assurance of service quality, risk management and patient safety primarily inside the hospital but also in the Hospital Group structure within which it operates. The effectiveness of the governance arrangements is largely determined by the quality of the leadership and management – both clinical and general – which designs, implements, and oversees those systems and processes and is ultimately responsible and accountable.\\r\

  15. Innovative approaches to cervical cancer screening for sex trade workers: an international scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thulien, Naomi S

    2014-03-01

    Female sex trade workers are among those at highest risk for developing and dying of cervical cancer, and yet many-particularly the most marginalized-are less likely than other women to be screened. This review summarizes global findings on innovative approaches to cervical cancer screening for female sex trade workers, highlights current gaps in the delivery of cervical cancer screening for female sex trade workers globally, and suggests areas for future research and policy development. A scoping review of peer-reviewed publications and grey literature was conducted. Medline (OVID), PubMed, EMBASE, and SCOPUS were searched for relevant studies written in English. There were no limitations placed on dates. Grey literature was identified by hand searching and through discussion with health care providers and community outreach workers currently working with sex trade workers. Twenty-five articles were deemed suitable for review. Articles detailing innovative ways for female sex trade workers to access cervical cancer screening were included. Articles about screening for sexually transmitted infections were also included if the findings could be generalized to screening for cervical cancer. Articles limited to exploring risk factors, knowledge, awareness, education, prevalence, and incidence of cervical cancer among sex trade workers were excluded from the review. Successful screening initiatives identified in the studies reviewed had unconventional hours of operation, understood the difference between street-based and venue-based sex trade workers, and/or used peers for outreach. Two significant gaps in health care service delivery were highlighted in this review: the limited use of unorthodox hours and the nearly exclusive practice of providing sexually transmitted infection screening for female sex trade workers without cervical cancer screening. In addition, although street-based (as opposed to venue-based) sex trade workers are likely at higher risk for

  16. How cells engulf: a review of theoretical approaches to phagocytosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, David M.; Endres, Robert G.

    2017-12-01

    Phagocytosis is a fascinating process whereby a cell surrounds and engulfs particles such as bacteria and dead cells. This is crucial both for single-cell organisms (as a way of acquiring nutrients) and as part of the immune system (to destroy foreign invaders). This whole process is hugely complex and involves multiple coordinated events such as membrane remodelling, receptor motion, cytoskeleton reorganisation and intracellular signalling. Because of this, phagocytosis is an excellent system for theoretical study, benefiting from biophysical approaches combined with mathematical modelling. Here, we review these theoretical approaches and discuss the recent mathematical and computational models, including models based on receptors, models focusing on the forces involved, and models employing energetic considerations. Along the way, we highlight a beautiful connection to the physics of phase transitions, consider the role of stochasticity, and examine links between phagocytosis and other types of endocytosis. We cover the recently discovered multistage nature of phagocytosis, showing that the size of the phagocytic cup grows in distinct stages, with an initial slow stage followed by a much quicker second stage starting around half engulfment. We also address the issue of target shape dependence, which is relevant to both pathogen infection and drug delivery, covering both one-dimensional and two-dimensional results. Throughout, we pay particular attention to recent experimental techniques that continue to inform the theoretical studies and provide a means to test model predictions. Finally, we discuss population models, connections to other biological processes, and how physics and modelling will continue to play a key role in future work in this area.

  17. New therapeutic approaches for treatment of tularaemia: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandrine eBOISSET

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic treatment of tularaemia is based on a few drugs, including the fluoroquinolones, the tetracyclines and the aminoglycosides. Because no effective and safe vaccine is currently available, tularaemia prophylaxis following proven exposure to F. tularensis also relies on administration of antibiotics. A number of reasons make it necessary to search for new therapeutic alternatives: the potential toxicity of first-line drugs, especially in children and pregnant women; a high rate of treatment relapses and failures, especially for severe and/or suppurated forms of the disease; and the possible use of antibiotic-resistant strains in the context of a biological threat. This review presents novel therapeutic approaches that have been explored in recent years to improve tularaemia patients’ management and prognosis. First, the activities of newly available antibiotic compounds were evaluated against F. tularensis, including tigecycline (a glycylcycline, ketolides (telithromycin and cethromycin and fluoroquinolones (moxifloxacin, gatifloxacin, trovafloxacin and grepafloxacin. The liposome delivery of some antibiotics was evaluated. The effect of antimicrobial peptides against F. tularensis was also considered. Other drugs were evaluated for their ability to suppress the intracellular multiplication of F. tularensis. The effects of the modulation of the innate immune response (especially via TLR receptors on the course of F. tularensis infection were characterized. Another approach was the administration of specific antibodies to induce passive resistance to F. tularensis infection. All of these studies highlight the need to develop new therapeutic strategies to improve the management of patients with tularaemia. Many possibilities exist, some unexplored. Moreover, it is likely that new therapeutic alternatives that are effective against this intracellular pathogen could be, at least partially, extrapolated to other human pathogens.

  18. Retrospective chart review of elderly patients receiving electroconvulsive therapy in a tertiary general hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Mosam Phirke; Harshal Sathe; Nilesh Shah; Sushma Sonavane; Anup Bharati; Avinash DeSousa

    2015-01-01

    Background: Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is the one of the oldest and effective treatments in psychiatry today. It has been used in a wide variety of psychiatric disorders in both young and old patients. Aims of the study: The present study is a retrospective chart review of geriatric patients receiving ECT as a treatment option in a tertiary care general hospital psychiatry setting. Methodology: The study evaluated ECT records over a 5-year period between the years 2010 and 2014...

  19. Chlamydia prevalence in the general population: is there a sex difference? a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Dielissen, Patrick W; Teunissen, Doreth AM; Lagro-Janssen, Antoine LM

    2013-01-01

    Background The focus of Chlamydia trachomatis screening and testing lies more on women than on men. The study aim was to establish by systematic review the prevalence of urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis infection in men and women in the general population. Methods Electronic databases and reference lists were searched from 2000 to 2013 using the key words “Chlamydia trachomatis”, “population-based study” and “disease prevalence”. Reference lists were checked. Studies were included in the anal...

  20. Pediatric patients on ketogenic diet undergoing general anesthesia-a medical record review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soysal, Elif; Gries, Heike; Wray, Carter

    2016-12-01

    To identify guidelines for anesthesia management and determine whether general anesthesia is safe for pediatric patients on ketogenic diet (KD). Retrospective medical record review. Postoperative recovery area. All pediatric patients who underwent general anesthesia while on KD between 2009 and 2014 were reviewed. We identified 24 patients who underwent a total of 33 procedures. All children were on KD due to intractable epilepsy. The age of patients ranged from 1 to 15 years. General anesthesia for the scheduled procedures. Patients' demographics, seizure history, type of procedure; perioperative blood chemistry, medications including the anesthesia administered, and postoperative complications. Twenty-four patients underwent a total of 33 procedures. The duration of KD treatment at the time of general anesthesia ranged from 4 days to 8 years. Among the 33 procedures, 3 patients had complications that could be attributable to KD and general anesthesia. A 9-year-old patient experienced increased seizures on postoperative day 0. An 8-year-old patient with hydropcephalus developed metabolic acidosis on postoperative day 1, and a 7-year-old patient's procedure was complicated by respiratory distress and increased seizure activity in the postanesthesia care unit. This study showed that it is relatively safe for children on KD to undergo general anesthesia. The 3 complications attributable to general anesthesia were mild, and the increased seizure frequencies in 2 patients returned back to baseline in 24 hours. Although normal saline is considered more beneficial than lactated Ringer's solution in patients on KD, normal saline should also be administered carefully because of the risk of exacerbating patients' metabolic acidosis. One should be aware of the potential change of the ketogenic status due to drugs given intraoperatively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Faculty Approaches to Assessing Critical Thinking in the Humanities and the Natural and Social Sciences: Implications for General Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, Mark C.; Labig, Chalmer E., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    An analysis of interviews, focus-group discussions, assessment instruments, and assignment prompts revealed that within general education, faculty assessed critical thinking as faceted using methods and criteria that varied epistemically across disciplines. Faculty approaches were misaligned with discipline-general institutional approaches.…

  2. A Unified Simulation Approach for the Fast Outage Capacity Evaluation over Generalized Fading Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Rached, Nadhir B.

    2016-01-06

    The outage capacity (OC) is among the most important performance metrics of communication systems over fading channels. The evaluation of the OC, when equal gain combining (EGC) or maximum ratio combining (MRC) diversity techniques are employed, boils down to computing the cumulative distribution function (CDF) of the sum of channel envelopes (equivalently amplitudes) for EGC or channel gains (equivalently squared enveloped/ amplitudes) for MRC. Closed-form expressions of the CDF of the sum of many generalized fading variates are generally unknown and constitute open problems. We develop a unified hazard rate twisting Importance Sampling (IS) based approach to efficiently estimate the CDF of the sum of independent arbitrary variates. The proposed IS estimator is shown to achieve an asymptotic optimality criterion, which clearly guarantees its efficiency. Some selected simulation results are also shown to illustrate the substantial computational gain achieved by the proposed IS scheme over crude Monte Carlo simulations.

  3. MGF Approach to the Analysis of Generalized Two-Ray Fading Models

    KAUST Repository

    Rao, Milind; Lopez-Martinez, F. Javier; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Goldsmith, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    We analyze a class of Generalized Two-Ray (GTR) fading channels that consist of two line of sight (LOS) components with random phase plus a diffuse component. We derive a closedform expression for the moment generating function (MGF) of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for this model, which greatly simplifies its analysis. This expression arises from the observation that the GTR fading model can be expressed in terms of a conditional underlying Rician distribution. We illustrate the approach to derive simple expressions for statistics and performance metrics of interest such as the amount of fading, the level crossing rate, the symbol error rate, and the ergodic capacity in GTR fading channels. We also show that the effect of considering a more general distribution for the phase difference between the LOS components has an impact on the average SNR.

  4. A unified simulation approach for the fast outage capacity evaluation over generalized fading channels

    KAUST Repository

    Rached, Nadhir B.

    2015-06-14

    The outage capacity (OC) is among the most important performance metrics of communication systems over fading channels. The evaluation of the OC, when Equal Gain Combining (EGC) or Maximum Ratio Combining (MRC) diversity techniques are employed, boils down to computing the Cumulative Distribution Function (CDF) of the sum of channel envelopes (equivalently amplitudes) for EGC or channel gain (equivalently squared enveloped/amplitudes) for MRC. Closed-form expressions of the CDF of the sum of many generalized fading variates are generally unknown and constitute open problems. In this paper, we develop a unified hazard rate twisting Importance Sampling (IS) based approach to efficiently estimate the CDF of the sum of independent arbitrary variates. The proposed IS estimator is shown to achieve an asymptotic optimality criterion, which clearly guarantees its efficiency. Some selected simulation results are also shown to illustrate the substantial computational gain achieved by the proposed IS scheme over crude Monte-Carlo simulations.

  5. Generalization of the geometric optical series approach for nonadiabatic scattering problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herman, M.F.

    1982-01-01

    The geometric optical series approach of Bremmer is generalized for multisurface nonadiabatic scattering problems. This method yields the formal solution of the Schroedinger equation as an infinite series of multiple integrals. The zeroth order term corresponds to WKB propagation on a single adiabatic surface, while the general Nth order term involves N reflections and/or transitions between surfaces accompanied by ''free,'' single surface semiclassical propagation between the points of reflection and transition. Each term is integrated over all possible transition and reflection points. The adiabatic and diabatic limits of this expression are discussed. Numerical results, in which all reflections are ignored, are presented for curve crossing and noncrossing problems. These results are compared to exact quantum results and are shown to be highly accurate

  6. A general framework for global asymptotic stability analysis of delayed neural networks based on LMI approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Jinde; Ho, Daniel W.C.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, global asymptotic stability is discussed for neural networks with time-varying delay. Several new criteria in matrix inequality form are given to ascertain the uniqueness and global asymptotic stability of equilibrium point for neural networks with time-varying delay based on Lyapunov method and Linear Matrix Inequality (LMI) technique. The proposed LMI approach has the advantage of considering the difference of neuronal excitatory and inhibitory efforts, which is also computationally efficient as it can be solved numerically using recently developed interior-point algorithm. In addition, the proposed results generalize and improve previous works. The obtained criteria also combine two existing conditions into one generalized condition in matrix form. An illustrative example is also given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed results

  7. A Fuzzy Approach Using Generalized Dinkelbach’s Algorithm for Multiobjective Linear Fractional Transportation Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurdan Cetin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a multiobjective linear fractional transportation problem (MLFTP with several fractional criteria, such as, the maximization of the transport profitability like profit/cost or profit/time, and its two properties are source and destination. Our aim is to introduce MLFTP which has not been studied in literature before and to provide a fuzzy approach which obtain a compromise Pareto-optimal solution for this problem. To do this, first, we present a theorem which shows that MLFTP is always solvable. And then, reducing MLFTP to the Zimmermann’s “min” operator model which is the max-min problem, we construct Generalized Dinkelbach’s Algorithm for solving the obtained problem. Furthermore, we provide an illustrative numerical example to explain this fuzzy approach.

  8. General approach to understanding the electronic structure of graphene on metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voloshina, E N; Dedkov, Yu S

    2014-01-01

    This manuscript presents the general approach to the understanding of the connection between bonding mechanism and electronic structure of graphene on metals. To demonstrate its validity, two limiting cases of ‘weakly’ and ‘strongly’ bonded graphene on Al(111) and Ni(111) are considered, where the Dirac cone is preserved or fully destroyed, respectively. Furthermore, the electronic structure, i.e. doping level, hybridization effects, as well as a gap formation at the Dirac point of the intermediate system, graphene/Cu(111), is fully understood in the framework of the proposed approach. This work summarises the long-term debates regarding connection of the bonding strength and the valence band modification in the graphene/metal systems and paves a way for the effective control of the electronic states of graphene in the vicinity of the Fermi level. (paper)

  9. A Generalized Estimating Equations Approach to Model Heterogeneity and Time Dependence in Capture-Recapture Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akanda Md. Abdus Salam

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Individual heterogeneity in capture probabilities and time dependence are fundamentally important for estimating the closed animal population parameters in capture-recapture studies. A generalized estimating equations (GEE approach accounts for linear correlation among capture-recapture occasions, and individual heterogeneity in capture probabilities in a closed population capture-recapture individual heterogeneity and time variation model. The estimated capture probabilities are used to estimate animal population parameters. Two real data sets are used for illustrative purposes. A simulation study is carried out to assess the performance of the GEE estimator. A Quasi-Likelihood Information Criterion (QIC is applied for the selection of the best fitting model. This approach performs well when the estimated population parameters depend on the individual heterogeneity and the nature of linear correlation among capture-recapture occasions.

  10. Constraint satisfaction adaptive neural network and heuristics combined approaches for generalized job-shop scheduling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, S; Wang, D

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a constraint satisfaction adaptive neural network, together with several heuristics, to solve the generalized job-shop scheduling problem, one of NP-complete constraint satisfaction problems. The proposed neural network can be easily constructed and can adaptively adjust its weights of connections and biases of units based on the sequence and resource constraints of the job-shop scheduling problem during its processing. Several heuristics that can be combined with the neural network are also presented. In the combined approaches, the neural network is used to obtain feasible solutions, the heuristic algorithms are used to improve the performance of the neural network and the quality of the obtained solutions. Simulations have shown that the proposed neural network and its combined approaches are efficient with respect to the quality of solutions and the solving speed.

  11. Understanding price discovery in interconnected markets: Generalized Langevin process approach and simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenck, Natalya A.; Horvath, Philip A.; Sinha, Amit K.

    2018-02-01

    While the literature on price discovery process and information flow between dominant and satellite market is exhaustive, most studies have applied an approach that can be traced back to Hasbrouck (1995) or Gonzalo and Granger (1995). In this paper, however, we propose a Generalized Langevin process with asymmetric double-well potential function, with co-integrated time series and interconnected diffusion processes to model the information flow and price discovery process in two, a dominant and a satellite, interconnected markets. A simulated illustration of the model is also provided.

  12. Low-energy coupling of individual and collective degrees of freedom: a general microscopic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quentin, P.; Meyer, M.

    1988-01-01

    A general microscopic approach of low energy coupling of individual and collective degrees of freedom is presented. The ingredients of a Bohr-Mottelson unified model description are determined consistently from the Skyrme SIII effective interaction, through the adiabatic limit of the time-dependent Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov approximation. Three specific aspects will be mostly developed: i) the effect of pairing correlations on adiabatic mass parameters and collective dynamics; ii) a consistent coupling of collective and individual degrees of freedom to describe odd nuclei; iii) a study of spectroscopic data in odd-odd nuclei as a test of effective nucleon-nucleon interactions. (author)

  13. MGF approach to the capacity analysis of Generalized Two-Ray fading models

    KAUST Repository

    Rao, Milind

    2015-09-11

    We propose a class of Generalized Two-Ray (GTR) fading channels that consists of two line of sight (LOS) components with random phase and a diffuse component. Observing that the GTR fading model can be expressed in terms of the underlying Rician distribution, we derive a closed-form expression for the moment generating function (MGF) of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of this model. We then employ this approach to compute the ergodic capacity with receiver side information. The impact of the underlying phase difference between the LOS components on the average SNR of the signal received is also illustrated. © 2015 IEEE.

  14. A Simple and General Approach to Determination of Self and Mutual Inductances for AC machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Kaiyuan; Rasmussen, Peter Omand; Ritchie, Ewen

    2011-01-01

    Modelling of AC electrical machines plays an important role in electrical engineering education related to electrical machine design and control. One of the fundamental requirements in AC machine modelling is to derive the self and mutual inductances, which could be position dependant. Theories...... developed so far for inductance determination are often associated with complicated machine magnetic field analysis, which exhibits a difficulty for most students. This paper describes a simple and general approach to the determination of self and mutual inductances of different types of AC machines. A new...... determination are given for a 3-phase, salient-pole synchronous machine, and an induction machine....

  15. MGF approach to the capacity analysis of Generalized Two-Ray fading models

    KAUST Repository

    Rao, Milind; Lopez-Martinez, F. Javier; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Goldsmith, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    We propose a class of Generalized Two-Ray (GTR) fading channels that consists of two line of sight (LOS) components with random phase and a diffuse component. Observing that the GTR fading model can be expressed in terms of the underlying Rician distribution, we derive a closed-form expression for the moment generating function (MGF) of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of this model. We then employ this approach to compute the ergodic capacity with receiver side information. The impact of the underlying phase difference between the LOS components on the average SNR of the signal received is also illustrated. © 2015 IEEE.

  16. The Voice of Chinese Health Consumers: A Text Mining Approach to Web-Based Physician Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Haijing; Zhang, Kunpeng

    2016-05-10

    skills and bedside manner, general appreciation from patients, and description of various symptoms. To the best of our knowledge, our work is the first study using an automated text-mining approach to analyze a large amount of unstructured textual data of Web-based physician reviews in China. Based on our analysis, we found that Chinese reviewers mainly concentrate on a few popular topics. This is consistent with the goal of Chinese online health platforms and demonstrates the health care focus in China's health care system. Our text-mining approach reveals a new research area on how to use big data to help health care providers, health care administrators, and policy makers hear patient voices, target patient concerns, and improve the quality of care in this age of patient-centered care. Also, on the health care consumer side, our text mining technique helps patients make more informed decisions about which specialists to see without reading thousands of reviews, which is simply not feasible. In addition, our comparison analysis of Web-based physician reviews in China and the United States also indicates some cultural differences.

  17. Protection of facilities against sabotage general approaches and studies in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venot, R.; Loiseau, O.; Cheval, K.

    2004-01-01

    In addition to the measures taken in the frame of the nuclear safety demonstration, the French nuclear facilities are subjected to a specific verification approach concerning the risk resulting from a malevolent action that may cause a release of radioactive materials in the environment. This approach aims at determining the protection level for facilities, based on predefined threats and the provisions to be set, if necessary, to ensure a satisfactory protection. The approach presented in this paper basically consists of a sensitivity analysis followed by a vulnerability analysis. In the French national control system also shortly described in the paper, the competent authority asks the operator to present a demonstration based on the approach and IRSN is charged with the technical assessment of the dossier. Because these analyses are generally based on specific tools, particularly in the case of vulnerability assessment, IRSN has raised a program to collect a set of methods and data on this subject, presented in the second part of this paper. It must be pointed out that no quantitative results or detailed examples will be given in the paper due to the sensitivity of the subject and the confidentiality measures applying. (orig.)

  18. Computational approaches in the design of synthetic receptors - A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowen, Todd; Karim, Kal; Piletsky, Sergey

    2016-09-14

    The rational design of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) has been a major contributor to their reputation as "plastic antibodies" - high affinity robust synthetic receptors which can be optimally designed, and produced for a much reduced cost than their biological equivalents. Computational design has become a routine procedure in the production of MIPs, and has led to major advances in functional monomer screening, selection of cross-linker and solvent, optimisation of monomer(s)-template ratio and selectivity analysis. In this review the various computational methods will be discussed with reference to all the published relevant literature since the end of 2013, with each article described by the target molecule, the computational approach applied (whether molecular mechanics/molecular dynamics, semi-empirical quantum mechanics, ab initio quantum mechanics (Hartree-Fock, Møller-Plesset, etc.) or DFT) and the purpose for which they were used. Detailed analysis is given to novel techniques including analysis of polymer binding sites, the use of novel screening programs and simulations of MIP polymerisation reaction. The further advances in molecular modelling and computational design of synthetic receptors in particular will have serious impact on the future of nanotechnology and biotechnology, permitting the further translation of MIPs into the realms of analytics and medical technology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Review of differentiated approaches to antiretroviral therapy distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Nicole; Kanagat, Natasha; Sharer, Melissa; Eagan, Sabrina; Pearson, Jennifer; Amanyeiwe, Ugochukwu Ugo

    2018-02-22

    In response to global trends of maximizing the number of patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART), this review summarizes literature describing differentiated models of ART distribution at facility and community levels in order to highlight promising strategies and identify evidence gaps. Databases and gray literature were searched, yielding thirteen final articles on differentiated ART distribution models supporting stable adult patients. Of these, seven articles focused on distribution at facility level and six at community level. Findings suggest that differentiated models of ART distribution contribute to higher retention, lower attrition, and less loss to follow-up (LTFU). These models also reduced patient wait time, travel costs, and time lost from work for drug pick-up. Facility- and community-level ART distribution models have the potential to extend treatment availability, enable improved access and adherence among people living with HIV (PLHIV), and facilitate retention in treatment and care. Gaps remain in understanding the desirability of these models for PLHIV, and the need for more information the negative and positive impacts of stigma, and identifying models to reach traditionally marginalized groups such as key populations and youth. Replicating differentiated care so efforts can reach more PLHIV will be critical to scaling these approaches across varying contexts.

  20. Review of Methods and Approaches for Deriving Numeric ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA will propose numeric criteria for nitrogen/phosphorus pollution to protect estuaries, coastal areas and South Florida inland flowing waters that have been designated Class I, II and III , as well as downstream protective values (DPVs) to protect estuarine and marine waters. In accordance with the formal determination and pursuant to a subsequent consent decree, these numeric criteria are being developed to translate and implement Florida’s existing narrative nutrient criterion, to protect the designated use that Florida has previously set for these waters, at Rule 62-302.530(47)(b), F.A.C. which provides that “In no case shall nutrient concentrations of a body of water be altered so as to cause an imbalance in natural populations of aquatic flora or fauna.” Under the Clean Water Act and EPA’s implementing regulations, these numeric criteria must be based on sound scientific rationale and reflect the best available scientific knowledge. EPA has previously published a series of peer reviewed technical guidance documents to develop numeric criteria to address nitrogen/phosphorus pollution in different water body types. EPA recognizes that available and reliable data sources for use in numeric criteria development vary across estuarine and coastal waters in Florida and flowing waters in South Florida. In addition, scientifically defensible approaches for numeric criteria development have different requirements that must be taken into consider

  1. Review of the Safety Design Approaches in Sodium Fast Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suk, Soo Dong; Lee, Yong Bum

    2009-12-01

    The principle of the Defense in depth is essential in securing the safety of nuclear power plants, that is, to prevent cores-damaging severs accidents and to minimize the radiological consequences of the accidents 'as low as possible' (ALARA). One of the major design features of sodium fast reactors (SFRs) is that it has a large amount of sodium in the reactor vessel, providing a large heat capacity, such that it is feasible to contain the consequences of sever core damaging accidents in the vessel and primary system boundary. Containment of a severe accident in the primary system boundary, that is called in-vessel retention(IVR), is not a licensing requirement but set up as a design goal in most of the SFR design in the context of risk minimization. The objective of this report is to broadly review and compare the approaches and efforts made in the some of the major SFR designs of the US, Europe and Japan to prevent severe accidents and mitigate their consequences should they occur. Specifically, the subjects described in this report include design criteria or requirements, accident categorization and acceptance criteria, design features to prevent and contain severs accidents

  2. Electrical deicing utilizing carbon fiber tape for asphalt approach and crosswalk phase I - literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-30

    The purpose of this study is to provide a comprehensive literature review of electrical deicing technology for possible application in asphalt approach and crosswalks. A : thorough review of existing and emerging deicing technology for snow/ice melti...

  3. A review of game theory approach to cyber security risk management

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A review of game theory approach to cyber security risk management. ... This paper presents a review of game theoretic-based model for cyber security risk management. Specifically, issues on ... AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE ...

  4. Preoperative nutrition status and postoperative outcome in elderly general surgery patients: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Stijn, Mireille F M; Korkic-Halilovic, Ines; Bakker, Marjan S M; van der Ploeg, Tjeerd; van Leeuwen, Paul A M; Houdijk, Alexander P J

    2013-01-01

    Poor nutrition status is considered a risk factor for postoperative complications in the adult population. In elderly patients, who often have a poor nutrition status, this relationship has not been substantiated. Thus, the aim of this systematic review was to assess the merit of preoperative nutrition parameters used to predict postoperative outcome in elderly patients undergoing general surgery. A systematic literature search of 10 consecutive years, 1998-2008, in PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases was performed. Search terms used were nutrition status, preoperative assessment, postoperative outcome, and surgery (hip or general), including their synonyms and MeSH terms. Limits used in the search were human studies, published in English, and age (65 years or older). Articles were screened using inclusion and exclusion criteria. All selected articles were checked on methodology and graded. Of 463 articles found, 15 were included. They showed profound heterogeneity in the parameters used for preoperative nutrition status and postoperative outcome. The only significant preoperative predictors of postoperative outcome in elderly general surgery patients were serum albumin and ≥ 10% weight loss in the previous 6 months. This systematic review revealed only 2 preoperative parameters to predict postoperative outcome in elderly general surgery patients: weight loss and serum albumin. Both are open to discussion in their use as a preoperative nutrition parameter. Nonetheless, serum albumin seems a reliable preoperative parameter to identify a patient at risk for nutrition deterioration and related complicated postoperative course.

  5. Generalized peeling skin syndrome: Case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharfi, Monia; Khaled, Aida; Ammar, Donia; Ezzine, Nadia; El Fekih, Nadia; Fazaa, Becima; Jaafoura, Hiabib; Kamoun, Mohamed Ridha

    2010-03-15

    Peeling skin syndrome (PSS) is a rare form of ichthyosis with a probable autosomal recessive inheritance that exhibits superficial, painless, continual, or seasonal cutaneous exfoliation. The syndrome generally appears at birth or in infancy. We report a case of generalized PSS and provide a literature review. A 34-year-old woman reported a lifelong history of generalized and painless peeling of the skin that worsened in summer. Her parents were third degree cousins. Her twin sister and her two cousins presented with the same condition. Physical examination showed widespread superficial sheets of variable size that could be easily removed without bleeding or pain. No underlying erythema was noted. Otherwise, the patient was in good health. Histological findings showed an epidermal cleavage within the stratum corneum. The generalized form of PSS is classified into 3 types, A, B, and C, according to the classification system of Traupe and Mevorah. We have tried to classify the cases of generalized PSS already reported in the literature into one of these three types. Thirteen reported cases probably presented PSS-type A. Sixteen patients are best described as PSS-type B. Two patients exhibit PSS-type C. Fifteen reported patients had an acral form of peeling skin syndrome. The classification of the eleven remaining patients was difficult to determine. Our patient presented clinical and histological features of generalized PSS-type A.

  6. A statistical mechanical approach for the computation of the climatic response to general forcings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Lucarini

    2011-01-01

    parameter alone for a general class of chaotic Lorenz 96 models. We then verify the theoretical predictions from the outputs of the simulations up to a high degree of precision. The theory is used to explain differences in the response of local and global observables, to define the intensive properties of the system, which do not depend on the spatial resolution of the Lorenz 96 model, and to generalize the concept of climate sensitivity to all time scales. We also show how to reconstruct the linear Green function, which maps perturbations of general time patterns into changes in the expectation value of the considered observable for finite as well as infinite time. Finally, we propose a simple yet general methodology to study general Climate Change problems on virtually any time scale by resorting to only well selected simulations, and by taking full advantage of ensemble methods. The specific case of globally averaged surface temperature response to a general pattern of change of the CO2 concentration is discussed. We believe that the proposed approach may constitute a mathematically rigorous and practically very effective way to approach the problem of climate sensitivity, climate prediction, and climate change from a radically new perspective.

  7. A Comparison of Traditional Book Reviews and Amazon.com Book Reviews of Fiction Using a Content Analysis Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christy Sich

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective - This study compared the quality and helpfulness of traditional book review sources with the online user rating system in Amazon.com in order to determine if one mode is superior to the other and should be used by library selectors to assist in making purchasing decisions. Methods - For this study, 228 reviews of 7 different novels were analyzed using a content analysis approach. Of these, 127 reviews came from traditional review sources and 101 reviews were published on Amazon.com. Results - Using a checklist developed for this study, a significant difference in the quality of reviews was discovered. Reviews from traditional sources scored significantly higher than reviews from Amazon.com. The researcher also looked at review length. On average, Amazon.com reviews are shorter than reviews from traditional sources. Review rating—favourable, unfavourable, or mixed/neutral—also showed a lack of consistency between the two modes of reviews. Conclusion - Although Amazon.com provides multiple reviews of a book on one convenient site, traditional sources of professionally written reviews would most likely save librarians more time in making purchasing decisions, given the higher quality of the review assessment.

  8. A generalized estimating equations approach to quantitative trait locus detection of non-normal traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomson Peter C

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract To date, most statistical developments in QTL detection methodology have been directed at continuous traits with an underlying normal distribution. This paper presents a method for QTL analysis of non-normal traits using a generalized linear mixed model approach. Development of this method has been motivated by a backcross experiment involving two inbred lines of mice that was conducted in order to locate a QTL for litter size. A Poisson regression form is used to model litter size, with allowances made for under- as well as over-dispersion, as suggested by the experimental data. In addition to fixed parity effects, random animal effects have also been included in the model. However, the method is not fully parametric as the model is specified only in terms of means, variances and covariances, and not as a full probability model. Consequently, a generalized estimating equations (GEE approach is used to fit the model. For statistical inferences, permutation tests and bootstrap procedures are used. This method is illustrated with simulated as well as experimental mouse data. Overall, the method is found to be quite reliable, and with modification, can be used for QTL detection for a range of other non-normally distributed traits.

  9. Communication: General variational approach to nuclear-quadrupole coupling in rovibrational spectra of polyatomic molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yachmenev, Andrey; Küpper, Jochen

    2017-10-01

    A general algorithm for computing the quadrupole-hyperfine effects in the rovibrational spectra of polyatomic molecules is presented for the case of ammonia (NH3). The method extends the general variational approach TROVE [J. Mol. Spectrosc. 245, 126-140 (2007)] by adding the extra term in the Hamiltonian that describes the nuclear quadrupole coupling, with no inherent limitation on the number of quadrupolar nuclei in a molecule. We applied the new approach to compute the nitrogen-nuclear-quadrupole hyperfine structure in the rovibrational spectrum of NH143. These results agree very well with recent experimental spectroscopic data for the pure rotational transitions in the ground vibrational and ν2 states and the rovibrational transitions in the ν1, ν3, 2ν4, and ν1 + ν3 bands. The computed hyperfine-resolved rovibrational spectrum of ammonia will be beneficial for the assignment of experimental rovibrational spectra, further detection of ammonia in interstellar space, and studies of the proton-to-electron mass variation.

  10. Motivational interviewing in general dental practice: A review of the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, E J; Vascott, D; Hocking, A; Nield, H

    2016-12-16

    Objectives The objective of this study was to systematically review the evidence regarding the use of motivational interviewing in the context of general dental practice, in order that practitioners can decide whether it might be an important skill to develop within their practices.Data sources The results reported in this study form part of a larger systematic review which sought to identify whether oral health promotion within dental practice is effective and how its effects can be optimised. Here, we focus on the papers describing motivational interviewing in dental practice published since 1994. The systematic review included searches of 20 online resources (including Ovid Medline and Embase).Data selection Papers which were not about oral health promotion and did not apply the behavioural and psychological theories, which underpin motivational interviewing, were excluded.Data synthesis This review included eight papers all of which were considered to be of robust quality, in terms of their research methods and seven of which were considered to offer externally valid findings. Five described randomised controlled trials and all of these RCTs demonstrated that interventions including motivational interviewing had a positive effect on oral health and health behaviour.Conclusions This review shows that the motivational interviewing technique, which is based on the concept of autonomy support, has potential for helping patients with poor oral health. Training in motivational interviewing for dental personnel could be a very useful addition to the skill set of practitioners and dental teams.

  11. Final Technical Report: "Representing Endogenous Technological Change in Climate Policy Models: General Equilibrium Approaches"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ian Sue Wing

    2006-04-18

    The research supported by this award pursued three lines of inquiry: (1) The construction of dynamic general equilibrium models to simulate the accumulation and substitution of knowledge, which has resulted in the preparation and submission of several papers: (a) A submitted pedagogic paper which clarifies the structure and operation of computable general equilibrium (CGE) models (C.2), and a review article in press which develops a taxonomy for understanding the representation of technical change in economic and engineering models for climate policy analysis (B.3). (b) A paper which models knowledge directly as a homogeneous factor, and demonstrates that inter-sectoral reallocation of knowledge is the key margin of adjustment which enables induced technical change to lower the costs of climate policy (C.1). (c) An empirical paper which estimates the contribution of embodied knowledge to aggregate energy intensity in the U.S. (C.3), followed by a companion article which embeds these results within a CGE model to understand the degree to which autonomous energy efficiency improvement (AEEI) is attributable to technical change as opposed to sub-sectoral shifts in industrial composition (C.4) (d) Finally, ongoing theoretical work to characterize the precursors and implications of the response of innovation to emission limits (E.2). (2) Data development and simulation modeling to understand how the characteristics of discrete energy supply technologies determine their succession in response to emission limits when they are embedded within a general equilibrium framework. This work has produced two peer-reviewed articles which are currently in press (B.1 and B.2). (3) Empirical investigation of trade as an avenue for the transmission of technological change to developing countries, and its implications for leakage, which has resulted in an econometric study which is being revised for submission to a journal (E.1). As work commenced on this topic, the U.S. withdrawal

  12. Open Peer Review: Collective Intelligence as a Framework for Theorizing Approaches to Peer Review in the Humanities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenna Pack Sheffield

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article takes a moderate approach, balancing suggestions for when open peer review can benefit scholarship in the humanities, while offering important concerns authors and editors must consider before deciding to implement the process. I focus on online commenting functions and how they have been—and can be—used for open peer review to help improve the quality of an author’s scholarly work and change the way publishers go about their peer review processes. While open peer review is not necessarily digital, digital technologies allow for a broader range of participants and faster dissemination of knowledge, which is why this article focuses on online open peer review. Open Peer Review: Collective Intelligence as a Framework for Theorizing Approaches to Peer Review in the Humanities, by Jenna Pack Sheffield

  13. A Generalized Approach to Forensic Dye Identification: Development and Utility of Reference Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, Ethan; Palenik, Skip; Palenik, Christopher S

    2018-04-18

    While color is arguably the most important optical property of evidential fibers, the actual dyestuffs responsible for its expression in them are, in forensic trace evidence examinations, rarely analyzed and still less often identified. This is due, primarily, to the exceedingly small quantities of dye present in a single fiber as well as to the fact that dye identification is a challenging analytical problem, even when large quantities are available for analysis. Among the practical reasons for this are the wide range of dyestuffs available (and the even larger number of trade names), the low total concentration of dyes in the finished product, the limited amount of sample typically available for analysis in forensic cases, and the complexity of the dye mixtures that may exist within a single fiber. Literature on the topic of dye analysis is often limited to a specific method, subset of dyestuffs, or an approach that is not applicable given the constraints of a forensic analysis. Here, we present a generalized approach to dye identification that ( 1 ) combines several robust analytical methods, ( 2 ) is broadly applicable to a wide range of dye chemistries, application classes, and fiber types, and ( 3 ) can be scaled down to forensic casework-sized samples. The approach is based on the development of a reference collection of 300 commercially relevant textile dyes that have been characterized by a variety of microanalytical methods (HPTLC, Raman microspectroscopy, infrared microspectroscopy, UV-Vis spectroscopy, and visible microspectrophotometry). Although there is no single approach that is applicable to all dyes on every type of fiber, a combination of these analytical methods has been applied using a reproducible approach that permits the use of reference libraries to constrain the identity of and, in many cases, identify the dye (or dyes) present in a textile fiber sample.

  14. Life cycle costing of food waste: A review of methodological approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Menna, Fabio; Dietershagen, Jana; Loubiere, Marion; Vittuari, Matteo

    2018-03-01

    Food waste (FW) is a global problem that is receiving increasing attention due to its environmental and economic impacts. Appropriate FW prevention, valorization, and management routes could mitigate or avoid these effects. Life cycle thinking and approaches, such as life cycle costing (LCC), may represent suitable tools to assess the sustainability of these routes. This study analyzes different LCC methodological aspects and approaches to evaluate FW management and valorization routes. A systematic literature review was carried out with a focus on different LCC approaches, their application to food, FW, and waste systems, as well as on specific methodological aspects. The review consisted of three phases: a collection phase, an iterative phase with experts' consultation, and a final literature classification. Journal papers and reports were retrieved from selected databases and search engines. The standardization of LCC methodologies is still in its infancy due to a lack of consensus over definitions and approaches. Research on the life cycle cost of FW is limited and generally focused on FW management, rather than prevention or valorization of specific flows. FW prevention, valorization, and management require a consistent integration of LCC and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to avoid tradeoffs between environmental and economic impacts. This entails a proper investigation of methodological differences between attributional and consequential modelling in LCC, especially with regard to functional unit, system boundaries, multi-functionality, included cost, and assessed impacts. Further efforts could also aim at finding the most effective and transparent categorization of costs, in particular when dealing with multiple stakeholders sustaining costs of FW. Interpretation of results from LCC of FW should take into account the effect on larger economic systems. Additional key performance indicators and analytical tools could be included in consequential approaches

  15. Malaria Vaccine Development: The Need for Novel Approach-es: A Review Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shima MAHMOUDI

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although rigorous efforts have substantially decreased the malaria burden through decades, it still threatens the lives of millions of children. Development of an effective vaccine can provide important approach in malaria control strategies. Unfortunately, development of an effective vaccine for falciparum malaria has been hindered by the extreme complexity of malaria parasite biology, complex and diverse parasite genomes, and immune evasion by the parasites as well as the intricate nature of the parasites infection cycle. The aim of this review was to discuss the different approaches to malaria vaccine development until now.Methods: Scientific databases, including MEDLINE (via PubMed and SCOPUS were searched up to 30 Jan 2017 and the articles regarding malaria vaccine development were taken into examination.Results: Several strategies for malaria vaccine development including pre-erythrocytic vaccines, antibody-based subunit vaccines, vectored vaccines, whole sporozoite vaccines, genetically Attenuated parasites and sporozoite subunit vaccine, erythrocytic vaccines, sexual stage vaccine, transmission-blocking vaccine as well as synthetic peptides and conjugate vaccine has been introduced. However, the success has been limited thus far.Conclusion: Although development of malaria vaccine over the past 70 year has been continued, the discovery, development, and licensing of a malaria vaccine formulation, which meets safety, affordability, accessibility, applicability, and efficacy has not yet been achieved.

  16. A Review of Accident Modelling Approaches for Complex Critical Sociotechnical Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Qureshi, Zahid H

    2008-01-01

    .... This report provides a review of key traditional accident modelling approaches and their limitations, and describes new system-theoretic approaches to the modelling and analysis of accidents in safety-critical systems...

  17. Current approaches to journal club by general surgery programs within the Southwestern surgical congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shifflette, Vanessa; Mitchell, Chris; Mangram, Alicia; Dunn, Ernest

    2012-01-01

    Journal club (JC) is a well-recognized education tool for many postgraduate medical education programs. Journal club helps residents learn critical analytic skills and keep up to date with current medical practices. To our knowledge, there is minimal evidence in the current literature detailing modern JC practices of general surgery training programs. Our study attempts to define how general surgery residency programs are implementing JC in their training process. We distributed by mail a 14-question survey to general surgery program directors within the Southwestern Surgical Congress. These surveys were redistributed 1 month after the initial attempt. The responses were collected and analyzed. Survey questions aimed to define JC practice characteristics, such as where JC is held, when JC is held, who directs JC, what journals are used, the perceived importance of JC, and average attendance. The surveys were sent to 32 program directors (PDs), which included 26 university and 6 community-based programs. We received responses from 26 (81%) PDs. Ninety-two percent of the programs have a consistent journal club (JC). Most JCs meet monthly (64%) or weekly (16%). The meeting places ranged from conference rooms (60%), faculty homes (20%), restaurants (8%), or in the hospital (12%). The meeting times were divided between morning (29%), midday (29%), and evening (42%). Most JCs lasted between 1 and 2 hours (88%), reviewed 1-4 articles (88%), and are attended by more than 60% of residents routinely (75%). Half of the programs (50%) had 3-4 faculty members present during discussion; 29% of the programs had only 1-2 faculty present. The articles were selected from more than 10 different journals. Seventy-five percent of the programs used the American Journal of Surgery and Annals of Surgery to find articles; only 13% of the programs used evidence-based reviews in surgery. PDs believe JC is very beneficial (42%), moderately beneficial (42%), or only fairly beneficial (16

  18. Mass transfer simulation of nanofiltration membranes for electrolyte solutions through generalized Maxwell-Stefan approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshyargar, Vahid; Fadaei, Farzad; Ashrafizadeh, Seyed Nezameddin

    2015-01-01

    A comprehensive mathematical model is developed for simulation of ion transport through nanofiltration membranes. The model is based on the Maxwell-Stefan approach and takes into account steric, Donnan, and dielectric effects in the transport of mono and divalent ions. Theoretical ion rejection for multi-electrolyte mixtures was obtained by numerically solving the 'hindered transport' based on the generalized Maxwell-Stefan equation for the flux of ions. A computer simulation has been developed to predict the transport in the range of nanofiltration, a numerical procedure developed linearization and discretization form of the governing equations, and the finite volume method was employed for the numerical solution of equations. The developed numerical method is capable of solving equations for multicomponent systems of n species no matter to what extent the system shows stiffness. The model findings were compared and verified with the experimental data from literature for two systems of Na 2 SO 4 +NaCl and MgCl 2 +NaCl. Comparison showed great agreement for different concentrations. As such, the model is capable of predicting the rejection of different ions at various concentrations. The advantage of such a model is saving costs as a result of minimizing the number of required experiments, while it is closer to a realistic situation since the adsorption of ions has been taken into account. Using this model, the flux of permeates and rejections of multi-component liquid feeds can be calculated as a function of membrane properties. This simulation tool attempts to fill in the gap in methods used for predicting nanofiltration and optimization of the performance of charged nanofilters through generalized Maxwell-Stefan (GMS) approach. The application of the current model may weaken the latter gap, which has arisen due to the complexity of the fundamentals of ion transport processes via this approach, and may further facilitate the industrial development of

  19. A strategic approach to quality improvement and patient safety education and resident integration in a general surgery residency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Heron, Colette T; Jarman, Benjamin T

    2014-01-01

    To outline a structured approach for general surgery resident integration into institutional quality improvement and patient safety education and development. A strategic plan to address Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) Clinical Learning Environment Review assessments for resident integration into Quality Improvement and Patient Safety initiatives is described. Gundersen Lutheran Medical Foundation is an independent academic medical center graduating three categorical residents per year within an integrated multi-specialty health system serving 19 counties over 3 states. The quality improvement and patient safety education program includes a formal lecture series, online didactic sessions, mandatory quality improvement or patient safety projects, institutional committee membership, an opportunity to serve as a designated American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Project and Quality in Training representative, mandatory morbidity and mortality conference attendance and clinical electives in rural surgery and international settings. Structured education regarding and participation in quality improvement and patient safety programs are able to be accomplished during general surgery residency. The long-term outcomes and benefits of these strategies are unknown at this time and will be difficult to measure with objective data. © 2013 Published by Association of Program Directors in Surgery on behalf of Association of Program Directors in Surgery.

  20. Assessing the Accuracy of Generalized Inferences From Comparison Group Studies Using a Within-Study Comparison Approach: The Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaciw, Andrew P

    2016-06-01

    Various studies have examined bias in impact estimates from comparison group studies (CGSs) of job training programs, and in education, where results are benchmarked against experimental results. Such within-study comparison (WSC) approaches investigate levels of bias in CGS-based impact estimates, as well as the success of various design and analytic strategies for reducing bias. This article reviews past literature and summarizes conditions under which CGSs replicate experimental benchmark results. It extends the framework to, and develops the methodology for, situations where results from CGSs are generalized to untreated inference populations. Past research is summarized; methods are developed to examine bias in program impact estimates based on cross-site comparisons in a multisite trial that are evaluated against site-specific experimental benchmarks. Students in Grades K-3 in 79 schools in Tennessee; students in Grades 4-8 in 82 schools in Alabama. Grades K-3 Stanford Achievement Test (SAT) in reading and math scores; Grades 4-8 SAT10 reading scores. Past studies show that bias in CGS-based estimates can be limited through strong design, with local matching, and appropriate analysis involving pretest covariates and variables that represent selection processes. Extension of the methodology to investigate accuracy of generalized estimates from CGSs shows bias from confounders and effect moderators. CGS results, when extrapolated to untreated inference populations, may be biased due to variation in outcomes and impact. Accounting for effects of confounders or moderators may reduce bias. © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. On the generalization of the hazard rate twisting-based simulation approach

    KAUST Repository

    Rached, Nadhir B.

    2016-11-17

    Estimating the probability that a sum of random variables (RVs) exceeds a given threshold is a well-known challenging problem. A naive Monte Carlo simulation is the standard technique for the estimation of this type of probability. However, this approach is computationally expensive, especially when dealing with rare events. An alternative approach is represented by the use of variance reduction techniques, known for their efficiency in requiring less computations for achieving the same accuracy requirement. Most of these methods have thus far been proposed to deal with specific settings under which the RVs belong to particular classes of distributions. In this paper, we propose a generalization of the well-known hazard rate twisting Importance Sampling-based approach that presents the advantage of being logarithmic efficient for arbitrary sums of RVs. The wide scope of applicability of the proposed method is mainly due to our particular way of selecting the twisting parameter. It is worth observing that this interesting feature is rarely satisfied by variance reduction algorithms whose performances were only proven under some restrictive assumptions. It comes along with a good efficiency, illustrated by some selected simulation results comparing the performance of the proposed method with some existing techniques.

  2. General Approach for Composite Thermoelectric Systems with Thermal Coupling: The Case of a Dual Thermoelectric Cooler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuautli Yanehowi Flores-Niño

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we show a general approach for inhomogeneous composite thermoelectric systems, and as an illustrative case, we consider a dual thermoelectric cooler. This composite cooler consists of two thermoelectric modules (TEMs connected thermally in parallel and electrically in series. Each TEM has different thermoelectric (TE properties, namely thermal conductance, electrical resistance and the Seebeck coefficient. The system is coupled by thermal conductances to heat reservoirs. The proposed approach consists of derivation of the dimensionless thermoelectric properties for the whole system. Thus, we obtain an equivalent figure of merit whose impact and meaning is discussed. We make use of dimensionless equations to study the impact of the thermal conductance matching on the cooling capacity and the coefficient of the performance of the system. The equivalent thermoelectric properties derived with our formalism include the external conductances and all intrinsic thermoelectric properties of each component of the system. Our proposed approach permits us changing the thermoelectric parameters of the TEMs and the working conditions of the composite system. Furthermore, our analysis shows the effect of the number of thermocouples on the system. These considerations are very useful for the design of thermoelectric composite systems. We reproduce the qualitative behavior of a commercial composite TEM connected electrically in series.

  3. Approaching Behaviour Monitor and Vibration Indication in Developing a General Moving Object Alarm System (GMOAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiwei Dong

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available People who suffer from hearing impairment caused by illness, age or extremely noisy environments are constantly in danger of being hit or knocked down by fast moving objects behind them when they have no companion or augmented sensory system to warn them. In this paper, we propose the General Moving Object Alarm System (GMOAS, a system focused on aiding the safe mobility of people under these circumstances. The GMOAS is a wearable haptic device that consists of two main subsystems: (i a moving object monitoring subsystem that uses laser range data to detect and track approaching objects, and (ii an alarm subsystem that warns the user of possibly dangerous approaching objects by triggering tactile vibrations on an “alarm necklace”. For moving object monitoring, we propose a simple yet efficient solution to monitor the approaching behavior of objects. Compared with previous work in motion detection and tracking, we are not interested in specific objects but any type of approaching object that might harm the user. To this extent, we define a boundary in the laser range data where the objects are monitored. Within this boundary a fan-shape grid is constructed to obtain an evenly distributed spatial partitioning of the data. These partitions are efficiently clustered into continuous objects which are then tracked through time using an object association algorithm based on updating a deviation matrix that represents angle, distance and size variations of the objects. The speed of the tracked objects is monitored throughout the algorithm. When the speed of an approaching object surpasses the safety threshold, the alarm necklace is triggered indicating the approaching direction of the fast moving object. The alarm necklace is equipped with three motors that can indicate five directions with respect to the user: left, back, right, left-back and right-back. We performed three types of outdoor experiments (object passing, approaching and crossing that

  4. Arsenic Accumulation in Rice and Probable Mitigation Approaches: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anindita Mitra

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available According to recent reports, millions of people across the globe are suffering from arsenic (As toxicity. Arsenic is present in different oxidative states in the environment and enters in the food chain through soil and water. In the agricultural field, irrigation with arsenic contaminated water, that is, having a higher level of arsenic contamination on the top soil, which may affects the quality of crop production. The major crop like rice (Oryza sativa L. requires a considerable amount of water to complete its lifecycle. Rice plants potentially accumulate arsenic, particularly inorganic arsenic (iAs from the field, in different body parts including grains. Different transporters have been reported in assisting the accumulation of arsenic in plant cells; for example, arsenate (AsV is absorbed with the help of phosphate transporters, and arsenite (AsIII through nodulin 26-like intrinsic protein (NIP by the silicon transport pathway and plasma membrane intrinsic protein aquaporins. Researchers and practitioners are trying their level best to mitigate the problem of As contamination in rice. However, the solution strategies vary considerably with various factors, such as cultural practices, soil, water, and environmental/economic conditions, etc. The contemporary work on rice to explain arsenic uptake, transport, and metabolism processes at rhizosphere, may help to formulate better plans. Common agronomical practices like rain water harvesting for crop irrigation, use of natural components that help in arsenic methylation, and biotechnological approaches may explore how to reduce arsenic uptake by food crops. This review will encompass the research advances and practical agronomic strategies on arsenic contamination in rice crop.

  5. Quantum harmonic Brownian motion in a general environment: A modified phase-space approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, L.

    1993-01-01

    After extensive investigations over three decades, the linear-coupling model and its equivalents have become the standard microscopic models for quantum harmonic Brownian motion, in which a harmonically bound Brownian particle is coupled to a quantum dissipative heat bath of general type modeled by infinitely many harmonic oscillators. The dynamics of these models have been studied by many authors using the quantum Langevin equation, the path-integral approach, quasi-probability distribution functions (e.g., the Wigner function), etc. However, the quantum Langevin equation is only applicable to some special problems, while other approaches all involve complicated calculations due to the inevitable reduction (i.e., contraction) operation for ignoring/eliminating the degrees of freedom of the heat bath. In this dissertation, the author proposes an improved methodology via a modified phase-space approach which employs the characteristic function (the symplectic Fourier transform of the Wigner function) as the representative of the density operator. This representative is claimed to be the most natural one for performing the reduction, not only because of its simplicity but also because of its manifestation of geometric meaning. Accordingly, it is particularly convenient for studying the time evolution of the Brownian particle with an arbitrary initial state. The power of this characteristic function is illuminated through a detailed study of several physically interesting problems, including the environment-induced damping of quantum interference, the exact quantum Fokker-Planck equations, and the relaxation of non-factorizable initial states. All derivations and calculations axe shown to be much simplified in comparison with other approaches. In addition to dynamical problems, a novel derivation of the fluctuation-dissipation theorem which is valid for all quantum linear systems is presented

  6. Dementia training programmes for staff working in general hospital settings - a systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scerri, Anthony; Innes, Anthea; Scerri, Charles

    2017-08-01

    Although literature describing and evaluating training programmes in hospital settings increased in recent years, there are no reviews that summarise these programmes. This review sought to address this, by collecting the current evidence on dementia training programmes directed to staff working in general hospitals. Literature from five databases were searched, based on a number of inclusion criteria. The selected studies were summarised and data was extracted and compared using narrative synthesis based on a set of pre-defined categories. Methodological quality was assessed. Fourteen peer-reviewed studies were identified with the majority being pre-test post-test investigations. No randomised controlled trials were found. Methodological quality was variable with selection bias being the major limitation. There was a great variability in the development and mode of delivery although, interdisciplinary ward based, tailor-made, short sessions using experiential and active learning were the most utilised. The majority of the studies mainly evaluated learning, with few studies evaluating changes in staff behaviour/practices and patients' outcomes. This review indicates that high quality studies are needed that especially evaluate staff behaviours and patient outcomes and their sustainability over time. It also highlights measures that could be used to develop and deliver training programmes in hospital settings.

  7. Protection motivation theory and physical activity in the general population: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Linh; Mullan, Barbara; McCaffery, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    An appropriate theoretical framework may be useful for guiding the development of physical activity interventions. This review investigates the effectiveness of the protection motivation theory (PMT), a model based on the cognitive mediation processes of behavioral change, in the prediction and promotion of physical activity participation. A literature search was conducted using the databases MEDLINE, PsycINFO, PubMed, and Web of Science, and a manual search was conducted on relevant reference lists. Studies were included if they tested or applied the PMT, measured physical activity, and sampled from healthy populations. A total of 20 studies were reviewed, grouped into four design categories: prediction, stage discrimination, experimental manipulation, and intervention. The results indicated that the PMT's coping appraisal construct of self-efficacy generally appears to be the most effective in predicting and promoting physical activity participation. In conclusion, the PMT shows some promise, however, there are still substantial gaps in the evidence.

  8. Literature Review: Weldability of Iridium DOP-26 Alloy for General Purpose Heat Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgardt, Paul [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Pierce, Stanley W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-10-19

    The basic purpose of this paper is to provide a literature review relative to fabrication of the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) that is used to provide electrical power for deep space missions of NASA. The particular fabrication operation to be addressed here is arc welding of the GPHS encapsulation. A considerable effort was made to optimize the fabrication of the fuel pellets and of other elements of the encapsulation; that work will not be directly addressed in this paper. This report consists of three basic sections: 1) a brief description of the GPHS will be provided as background information for the reader; 2) mechanical properties and the optimization thereof as relevant to welding will be discussed; 3) a review of the arc welding process development and optimization will be presented. Since the welding equipment must be upgraded for future production, some discussion of the historical establishment of relevant welding variables and possible changes thereto will also be discussed.

  9. The viable but non-culturable state in pathogenic Escherichia coli: A general review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer A. Pienaar

    2016-05-01

    Objectives: This review discusses various general aspects of the VBNC state, the mechanisms and possible public health impact of indicator and pathogenic E. coli entering into the VBNC state. Method: A literature review was conducted to ascertain the possibleimpact of E. coli entering into the VBNC state. Results: Escherichia coli enter into the VBNC state by means of several induction mechanisms. Various authors have found that E. coli can be resuscitated post-VBNC. Certain strains of pathogenic E. coli are still able to produce toxins in the VBNC state, whilst others are avirulent during the VBNC state but are able to regain virulence after resuscitation. Conclusion: Pathogenic and indicator E. coli entering into the VBNC state could have an adverse effect on public health if conventional detection methods are used, where the number of viable cells could be underestimated and the VBNC cells still produce toxins or could, at anytime, be resuscitated and become virulent again.

  10. General practice training and virtual communities of practice - a review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barnett Stephen

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Good General Practice is essential for an effective health system. Good General Practice training is essential to sustain the workforce, however training for General Practice can be hampered by a number of pressures, including professional, structural and social isolation. General Practice trainees may be under more pressure than fully registered General Practitioners, and yet isolation can lead doctors to reduce hours and move away from rural practice. Virtual communities of practice (VCoPs in business have been shown to be effective in improving knowledge sharing, thus reducing professional and structural isolation. This literature review will critically examine the current evidence relevant to virtual communities of practice in General Practice training, identify evidence-based principles that might guide their construction and suggest further avenues for research. Methods Major online databases Scopus, Psychlit and Pubmed were searched for the terms “Community of Practice” (CoP AND (Online OR Virtual OR Electronic AND (health OR healthcare OR medicine OR “Allied Health”. Only peer-reviewed journal articles in English were selected. A total of 76 articles were identified, with 23 meeting the inclusion criteria. There were no studies on CoP or VCoP in General Practice training. The review was structured using a framework of six themes for establishing communities of practice, derived from a key study from the business literature. This framework has been used to analyse the literature to determine whether similar themes are present in the health literature and to identify evidence in support of virtual communities of practice for General Practice training. Results The framework developed by Probst is mirrored in the health literature, albeit with some variations. In particular the roles of facilitator or moderator and leader whilst overlapping, are different. VCoPs are usually collaborations between stakeholders

  11. General practice training and virtual communities of practice - a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Stephen; Jones, Sandra C; Bennett, Sue; Iverson, Don; Bonney, Andrew

    2012-08-21

    Good General Practice is essential for an effective health system. Good General Practice training is essential to sustain the workforce, however training for General Practice can be hampered by a number of pressures, including professional, structural and social isolation. General Practice trainees may be under more pressure than fully registered General Practitioners, and yet isolation can lead doctors to reduce hours and move away from rural practice. Virtual communities of practice (VCoPs) in business have been shown to be effective in improving knowledge sharing, thus reducing professional and structural isolation. This literature review will critically examine the current evidence relevant to virtual communities of practice in General Practice training, identify evidence-based principles that might guide their construction and suggest further avenues for research. Major online databases Scopus, Psychlit and Pubmed were searched for the terms "Community of Practice" (CoP) AND (Online OR Virtual OR Electronic) AND (health OR healthcare OR medicine OR "Allied Health"). Only peer-reviewed journal articles in English were selected. A total of 76 articles were identified, with 23 meeting the inclusion criteria. There were no studies on CoP or VCoP in General Practice training. The review was structured using a framework of six themes for establishing communities of practice, derived from a key study from the business literature. This framework has been used to analyse the literature to determine whether similar themes are present in the health literature and to identify evidence in support of virtual communities of practice for General Practice training. The framework developed by Probst is mirrored in the health literature, albeit with some variations. In particular the roles of facilitator or moderator and leader whilst overlapping, are different. VCoPs are usually collaborations between stakeholders rather than single company VCoPs. Specific goals are important

  12. A Meta-heuristic Approach for Variants of VRP in Terms of Generalized Saving Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Yoshiaki

    Global logistic design is becoming a keen interest to provide an essential infrastructure associated with modern societal provision. For examples, we can designate green and/or robust logistics in transportation systems, smart grids in electricity utilization systems, and qualified service in delivery systems, and so on. As a key technology for such deployments, we engaged in practical vehicle routing problem on a basis of the conventional saving method. This paper extends such idea and gives a general framework available for various real-world applications. It can cover not only delivery problems but also two kind of pick-up problems, i.e., straight and drop-by routings. Moreover, multi-depot problem is considered by a hybrid approach with graph algorithm and its solution method is realized in a hierarchical manner. Numerical experiments have been taken place to validate effectiveness of the proposed method.

  13. RichMol: A general variational approach for rovibrational molecular dynamics in external electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Alec; Yachmenev, Andrey

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, a general variational approach for computing the rovibrational dynamics of polyatomic molecules in the presence of external electric fields is presented. Highly accurate, full-dimensional variational calculations provide a basis of field-free rovibrational states for evaluating the rovibrational matrix elements of high-rank Cartesian tensor operators and for solving the time-dependent Schrödinger equation. The effect of the external electric field is treated as a multipole moment expansion truncated at the second hyperpolarizability interaction term. Our fully numerical and computationally efficient method has been implemented in a new program, RichMol, which can simulate the effects of multiple external fields of arbitrary strength, polarization, pulse shape, and duration. Illustrative calculations of two-color orientation and rotational excitation with an optical centrifuge of NH3 are discussed.

  14. A generalized linear factor model approach to the hierarchical framework for responses and response times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molenaar, Dylan; Tuerlinckx, Francis; van der Maas, Han L J

    2015-05-01

    We show how the hierarchical model for responses and response times as developed by van der Linden (2007), Fox, Klein Entink, and van der Linden (2007), Klein Entink, Fox, and van der Linden (2009), and Glas and van der Linden (2010) can be simplified to a generalized linear factor model with only the mild restriction that there is no hierarchical model at the item side. This result is valuable as it enables all well-developed modelling tools and extensions that come with these methods. We show that the restriction we impose on the hierarchical model does not influence parameter recovery under realistic circumstances. In addition, we present two illustrative real data analyses to demonstrate the practical benefits of our approach. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  15. Hurricane Sandy Economic Impacts Assessment: A Computable General Equilibrium Approach and Validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boero, Riccardo [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Edwards, Brian Keith [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2017-08-07

    Economists use computable general equilibrium (CGE) models to assess how economies react and self-organize after changes in policies, technology, and other exogenous shocks. CGE models are equation-based, empirically calibrated, and inspired by Neoclassical economic theory. The focus of this work was to validate the National Infrastructure Simulation and Analysis Center (NISAC) CGE model and apply it to the problem of assessing the economic impacts of severe events. We used the 2012 Hurricane Sandy event as our validation case. In particular, this work first introduces the model and then describes the validation approach and the empirical data available for studying the event of focus. Shocks to the model are then formalized and applied. Finally, model results and limitations are presented and discussed, pointing out both the model degree of accuracy and the assessed total damage caused by Hurricane Sandy.

  16. Solubility of magnetite in high temperature water and an approach to generalized solubility computations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinov, K.; Ishigure, K.; Matsuura, C.; Hiroishi, D.

    1993-01-01

    Magnetite solubility in pure water was measured at 423 K in a fully teflon-covered autoclave system. A fairly good agreement was found to exist between the experimental data and calculation results obtained from the thermodynamical model, based on the assumption of Fe 3 O 4 dissolution and Fe 2 O 3 deposition reactions. A generalized thermodynamical approach to the solubility computations under complex conditions on the basis of minimization of the total system Gibbs free energy was proposed. The forms of the chemical equilibria were obtained for various systems initially defined and successfully justified by the subsequent computations. A [Fe 3+ ] T -[Fe 2+ ] T phase diagram was introduced as a tool for systematic understanding of the magnetite dissolution phenomena in pure water and under oxidizing and reducing conditions. (orig.)

  17. Handwriting Without Tears(®): General Education Effectiveness Through a Consultative Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donica, Denise K

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the effectiveness of the Handwriting Without Tears(®) (HWT) kindergarten printing curriculum in general education through a consultative approach with occupational therapy. One cohort of students was the control (n = 19), whereas two other cohorts were experimental groups learning printing through the HWT curriculum (n = 20 each). The Test of Handwriting Skills-Revised (THS-R) was used to collect end-of-year legibility scores for all cohorts. Both experimental groups individually and both experimental groups combined into one group outperformed the control group on all 10 of the THS-R subtests-scoring significantly higher (p handwriting curriculum implementation and the success of HWT for printing instruction. Copyright © 2015 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  18. Theory of transformation groups I general properties of continuous transformation groups a contemporary approach and translation

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This modern translation of Sophus Lie's and Friedrich Engel's “Theorie der Transformationsgruppen Band I” will allow readers to discover the striking conceptual clarity and remarkably systematic organizational thought of the original German text. Volume I presents a comprehensive introduction to the theory and is mainly directed towards the generalization of ideas drawn from the study of examples. The major part of the present volume offers an extremely clear translation of the lucid original. The first four chapters provide not only a translation, but also a contemporary approach, which will help present day readers to familiarize themselves with the concepts at the heart of the subject. The editor's main objective was to encourage a renewed interest in the detailed classification of Lie algebras in dimensions 1, 2 and 3, and to offer access to Sophus Lie's monumental Galois theory of continuous transformation groups, established at the end of the 19th Century. Lie groups are widespread in mathematics, p...

  19. Force Control for a Pneumatic Cylinder Using Generalized Predictive Controller Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad ’Athif Mohd Faudzi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pneumatic cylinder is a well-known device because of its high power to weight ratio, easy use, and environmental safety. Pneumatic cylinder uses air as its power source and converts it to a possible movement such as linear and rotary movement. In order to control the pneumatic cylinder, controller algorithm is needed to control the on-off solenoid valve with encoder and pressure sensor as the feedback inputs. In this paper, generalized predictive controller (GPC is proposed as the control strategy for the pneumatic cylinder force control. To validate and compare the performance, proportional-integral (PI controller is also presented. Both controllers algorithms GPC and PI are developed using existing linear model of the cylinder from previous research. Results are presented in simulation and experimental approach using MATLAB-Simulink as the platform. The results show that the GPC is capable of fast response with low steady state error and percentage overshoot compared to PI.

  20. Photocaged Competitor Guests: A General Approach Toward Light-Activated Cargo Release From Cucurbiturils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Miguel A; Basílio, Nuno; Moro, Artur J; Domingues, Mara; González-Delgado, José A; Arteaga, Jesús F; Pischel, Uwe

    2017-09-21

    A general approach toward the light-induced guest release from cucurbit[7]uril by means of a photoactivatable competitor was devised. An o-nitrobenzyl-caged competitor is photolyzed to generate a competitive guest that can displace cargo from the host macrocycle solely based on considerations of chemical equilibrium. With this method the release of terpene guests from inclusion complexes with cucurbit[7]uril was demonstrated. The binding of the herein investigated terpenes, all being lead fragrant components in essential oils, has been characterized for the first time. They feature binding constants of up to 10 8  L mol -1 and a high differential binding selectivity (spanning four orders of magnitude for the binding constants for the particular set of terpenes). By fine-tuning the photoactivatable competitor guest, selective and also sequential release of the terpenes was achieved. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Generalized Langevin dynamics of a nanoparticle using a finite element approach: Thermostating with correlated noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uma, B.; Swaminathan, T. N.; Ayyaswamy, P. S.; Eckmann, D. M.; Radhakrishnan, R.

    2011-09-01

    A direct numerical simulation (DNS) procedure is employed to study the thermal motion of a nanoparticle in an incompressible Newtonian stationary fluid medium with the generalized Langevin approach. We consider both the Markovian (white noise) and non-Markovian (Ornstein-Uhlenbeck noise and Mittag-Leffler noise) processes. Initial locations of the particle are at various distances from the bounding wall to delineate wall effects. At thermal equilibrium, the numerical results are validated by comparing the calculated translational and rotational temperatures of the particle with those obtained from the equipartition theorem. The nature of the hydrodynamic interactions is verified by comparing the velocity autocorrelation functions and mean square displacements with analytical results. Numerical predictions of wall interactions with the particle in terms of mean square displacements are compared with analytical results. In the non-Markovian Langevin approach, an appropriate choice of colored noise is required to satisfy the power-law decay in the velocity autocorrelation function at long times. The results obtained by using non-Markovian Mittag-Leffler noise simultaneously satisfy the equipartition theorem and the long-time behavior of the hydrodynamic correlations for a range of memory correlation times. The Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process does not provide the appropriate hydrodynamic correlations. Comparing our DNS results to the solution of an one-dimensional generalized Langevin equation, it is observed that where the thermostat adheres to the equipartition theorem, the characteristic memory time in the noise is consistent with the inherent time scale of the memory kernel. The performance of the thermostat with respect to equilibrium and dynamic properties for various noise schemes is discussed.

  2. Making the Most of What We Already Know: A Three-Stage Approach to Systematic Reviewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebelo Da Silva, Natalie; Zaranyika, Hazel; Langer, Laurenz; Randall, Nicola; Muchiri, Evans; Stewart, Ruth

    2016-09-06

    Conducting a systematic review in social policy is a resource-intensive process in terms of time and funds. It is thus important to understand the scope of the evidence base of a topic area prior to conducting a synthesis of primary research in order to maximize these resources. One approach to conserving resources is to map out the available evidence prior to undertaking a traditional synthesis. A few examples of this approach exist in the form of gap maps, overviews of reviews, and systematic maps supported by social policy and systematic review agencies alike. Despite this growing call for alternative approaches to systematic reviews, it is still common for systematic review teams to embark on a traditional in-depth review only. This article describes a three-stage approach to systematic reviewing that was applied to a systematic review focusing in interventions for smallholder farmers in Africa. We argue that this approach proved useful in helping us to understand the evidence base. By applying preliminary steps as part of a three-stage approach, we were able to maximize the resources needed to conduct a traditional systematic review on a more focused research question. This enabled us to identify and fill real knowledge gaps, build on work that had already been done, and avoid wasting resources on areas of work that would have no useful outcome. It also facilitated meaningful engagement between the review team and our key policy stakeholders. © The Author(s) 2016.

  3. Patient-centred care in general dental practice - a systematic review of the literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Delivering improvements in quality is a key objective within most healthcare systems, and a view which has been widely embraced within the NHS in the United Kingdom. Within the NHS, quality is evaluated across three key dimensions: clinical effectiveness, safety and patient experience, with the latter modelled on the Picker Principles of Patient-Centred Care (PCC). Quality improvement is an important feature of the current dental contract reforms in England, with “patient experience” likely to have a central role in the evaluation of quality. An understanding and appreciation of the evidence underpinning PCC within dentistry is highly relevant if we are to use this as a measure of quality in general dental practice. Methods A systematic review of the literature was undertaken to identify the features of PCC relevant to dentistry and ascertain the current research evidence base underpinning its use as a measure of quality within general dental practice. Results Three papers were identified which met the inclusion criteria and demonstrated the use of primary research to provide an understanding of the key features of PCC within dentistry. None of the papers identified were based in general dental practice and none of the three studies sought the views of patients. Some distinct differences were noted between the key features of PCC reported within the dental literature and those developed within the NHS Patient Experience Framework. Conclusions This systematic review reveals a lack of understanding of PCC within dentistry, and in particular general dental practice. There is currently a poor evidence base to support the use of the current patient reported outcome measures as indicators of patient-centredness. Further research is necessary to understand the important features of PCC in dentistry and patients’ views should be central to this research. PMID:24902842

  4. Trends in high-risk sexual behaviors among general population groups in China: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Rui; Richardus, Jan Hendrik; Looman, Caspar W N; de Vlas, Sake J

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this review was to investigate whether Chinese population groups that do not belong to classical high risk groups show an increasing trend of engaging in high-risk sexual behaviors. We systematically searched the English and Chinese literature on sexual risk behaviors published between January 1980 and March 2012 in PubMed and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI). We included observational studies that focused on population groups other than commercial sex workers (CSWs) and their clients, and men who have sex with men (MSM) and quantitatively reported one of the following indicators of recent high-risk sexual behavior: premarital sex, commercial sex, multiple sex partners, condom use or sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We used generalized linear mixed model to examine the time trend in engaging in high-risk sexual behaviors. We included 174 observational studies involving 932,931 participants: 55 studies reported on floating populations, 73 on college students and 46 on other groups (i.e. out-of-school youth, rural residents, and subjects from gynecological or obstetric clinics and premarital check-up centers). From the generalized linear mixed model, no significant trends in engaging in high-risk sexual behaviors were identified in the three population groups. Sexual risk behaviors among certain general population groups have not increased substantially. These groups are therefore unlikely to incite a STI/HIV epidemic among the general Chinese population. Because the studied population groups are not necessarily representative of the general population, the outcomes found may not reflect those of the general population.

  5. Towards vertical integration in general practice education: literature review and discussion paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Regan, A; Culhane, A; Dunne, C; Griffin, M; Meagher, D; McGrath, D; O'Dwyer, P; Cullen, W

    2013-09-01

    Medical education policy in Ireland has enabled an increase in undergraduate and postgraduate education activity in general practice. Internationally, 'vertical integration in general practice education' is suggested as a key strategy to support the implementation of this policy development. To review the emerging literature on vertical integration in GP education, specifically to define the concept of 'vertical integration' with regard to education in general practice and to describe its benefits and challenges. We searched 'Pubmed', 'Academic Search Complete', 'Google', and 'MEDLINE' databases using multiple terms related to 'vertical integration' and 'general practice education' for relevant articles published since 2001. Discussion papers, reports, policy documents and position statements were identified from reference lists and retrieved through internet searches. The key components of 'vertical integration' in GP education include continuous educational pathway, all stages in GP education, supporting the continuing educational/professional development needs of learners at each stage and effective curriculum planning and delivery. Many benefits (for GPs, learners and the community) and many challenges (for GPs/practices, learners and GPs in training) have been described. Characteristics of successful implementation include role sharing and collaborative organisational structures. Recent developments in medical education in Ireland, such as the increase in medical school clinical placements in general practice and postgraduate GP training and the introduction of new competence assurance requirements offer an important opportunity to further inform how vertical integration can support increased educational activity in general practice. Describing this model, recognising its benefits and challenges and supporting its implementation in practice are priorities for medical education in Ireland.

  6. Quality Control Review of the Assistant General for Audits Office of the Inspector General, National Reconnaissance Office

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brannin, Patricia A

    2004-01-01

    ...) system of quality control to the extent considered appropriate. The tests included reviewing a judgmental sample of six of nine audit reports issued by the NRO OAIGA during the year ended July 31, 2003...

  7. [Priority setting of health interventions. Review of criteria, approaches and role of assessment agencies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela-Lema, Leonor; Atienza-Merino, Gerardo; López-García, Marisa

    This study was carried out to develop an explicit health priority setting methodology to support decision-making regarding the technologies to be assessed for inclusion in the National Health Service service portfolio. The primary objective is to identify and analyse the criteria, approaches and conceptual frameworks used for national/international priority setting. An exhaustive review of the literature was carried out. For this purpose, a search of the main biomedical databases was performed and assessment agency websites were reviewed, among other sources. In general terms, it was found that there are no standardised criteria for priority setting, although some consensus and common trends have been identified regarding key elements (criteria, models and strategies, key actors, etc.). Globally, 8 key domains were identified: 1) need for intervention; 2) health outcomes; 3) type of benefit of the intervention; 4) economic consequences; 5) existing knowledge on the intervention/quality of and uncertainties regarding the evidence; 6) implementation and complexity of the intervention/feasibility; 7) priority, justice and ethics; and 8) overall context. The review provides a thorough analysis of the relevant issues and offers key recommendations regarding considerations for developing a national prioritisation framework. Findings are envisioned to be useful for different public organisations that are aiming to establish healthcare priorities. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Generalized Lagrangian Path Approach to Manifestly-Covariant Quantum Gravity Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Tessarotto

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A trajectory-based representation for the quantum theory of the gravitational field is formulated. This is achieved in terms of a covariant Generalized Lagrangian-Path (GLP approach which relies on a suitable statistical representation of Bohmian Lagrangian trajectories, referred to here as GLP-representation. The result is established in the framework of the manifestly-covariant quantum gravity theory (CQG-theory proposed recently and the related CQG-wave equation advancing in proper-time the quantum state associated with massive gravitons. Generally non-stationary analytical solutions for the CQG-wave equation with non-vanishing cosmological constant are determined in such a framework, which exhibit Gaussian-like probability densities that are non-dispersive in proper-time. As a remarkable outcome of the theory achieved by implementing these analytical solutions, the existence of an emergent gravity phenomenon is proven to hold. Accordingly, it is shown that a mean-field background space-time metric tensor can be expressed in terms of a suitable statistical average of stochastic fluctuations of the quantum gravitational field whose quantum-wave dynamics is described by GLP trajectories.

  9. Soleus muscle H-reflex monitoring in endoscopic surgery under general anesthesia percutaneous interlaminar approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huixue; Gao, Yingji; Ji, Lixin; Bai, Wanshan

    2018-05-01

    The clinical value of soleus muscle H-reflex monitoring in general anesthesia percutaneous interlaminar approach was investigated. A total of 80 cases with unilateral L5-S1 disc herniation between January 2015 and October 2016 were randomly divided into control group (without soleus muscle H-reflex monitoring, n=40) and observation group (with soleus muscle H-reflex monitoring, n=40). Results showed that the operation time of the observation group was shorter than that of the control group (Ph after operation, the amplitude of H-reflex in diseased side soleus muscle was significantly lower than that in healthy side (Ph postoperatively, the latency of H-reflex in diseased side soleus muscle was shorter than that of healthy side (PH-reflex latency in soleus muscle were significantly lower (PH-reflex monitoring can effectively reduce the damage to the nerve roots under percutaneous endoscopic intervertebral endoscopic surgery under general anesthesia, improve the accuracy of surgery, reduce the complications, shorten the operation time and reduce the surgical bleeding, which is more beneficial to patients smooth recovery.

  10. Recruitment and retention of rural general practitioners: a marketing approach reveals new possibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemphill, Elizabeth; Dunn, Steve; Barich, Hayley; Infante, Rebecca

    2007-12-01

    This paper repositions the challenge of attracting and retaining rural GPs in a marketing context as a new focus for future research and policy development. Case study with mixed design of surveys of GPs and medical students and depth interviews with GPs, medical students, regional-division administrators and GP recruitment agents. GP recruitment and retention in the Limestone Coast region of South Australia. Twenty-seven Limestone Coast (LC) GPs; random sample of medical students from Adelaide University, Adelaide University Rural Health Society and Flinders University; snowball sampling two adjacent rural regions (20 GPs); and administrators from LC and adjacent regions and GP recruitment agencies in Adelaide. Drawing from marketing theory, creative suggestion of 'promotion of the practice and not the region' offers a means of GP recruitment and retention for structured succession planning for rural general practices. Structural attempts to broaden the GP market with overseas recruitment have done little for improving full-time equivalent GP levels. Market segmentation and market orientation offer a new emphasis on value exchange between the corporation (the practice), customer (GPs) and competition (all practices) to influence future mobility. A marketing orientation to the GP challenge emphasises individual's perceptions of value, GP expectations and practice offerings. Failure to acknowledge benefits of this marketing approach means that solutions such as those developed in the Limestone Coast region are unlikely. Research is now required to define GP satisfaction and value for long-term viability of general practices.

  11. Generalized Langevin equation: An efficient approach to nonequilibrium molecular dynamics of open systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stella, L.; Lorenz, C. D.; Kantorovich, L.

    2014-04-01

    The generalized Langevin equation (GLE) has been recently suggested to simulate the time evolution of classical solid and molecular systems when considering general nonequilibrium processes. In this approach, a part of the whole system (an open system), which interacts and exchanges energy with its dissipative environment, is studied. Because the GLE is derived by projecting out exactly the harmonic environment, the coupling to it is realistic, while the equations of motion are non-Markovian. Although the GLE formalism has already found promising applications, e.g., in nanotribology and as a powerful thermostat for equilibration in classical molecular dynamics simulations, efficient algorithms to solve the GLE for realistic memory kernels are highly nontrivial, especially if the memory kernels decay nonexponentially. This is due to the fact that one has to generate a colored noise and take account of the memory effects in a consistent manner. In this paper, we present a simple, yet efficient, algorithm for solving the GLE for practical memory kernels and we demonstrate its capability for the exactly solvable case of a harmonic oscillator coupled to a Debye bath.

  12. Investigation of the spatial generalization of Kato's theorem by a variational density-functional approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csavinszky, P.

    1990-01-01

    In a recent work, March has considered the quantum-mechanical system of an arbitrary number of closed electronic shells around an atomic nucleus of charge Z a e. March has assumed that the shells are filled by noninteracting electrons, moving in the bare Coulomb potential energy of V(r) = -Z a e 2 /r. In this framework, the basic quantity is the total electron (number) density ρ(r), built by summing the (number) density ρ n (r) of the nth closed electronic shell over the principal quantum number n. March has shown that Kato's theorem, (∂ρ(r)/∂r) r=0 = -(2Z a /a 0 )ρ (r = 0), with a 0 = ℎ 2 /me 2 , is amenable to a spatially dependent generalization that can be expressed by ∂ρ(r)/∂r = -(2Z a /a 0 )ρ s (r), where ρ s (r) is the s-state contribution from the n closed electronic shells to ρ(r). The present work investigates the spatially dependent generalization of Kato's theorem for the Ne atom by making use of a variational density-functional approach and adopting several expressions for the kinetic-energy functional of the electrons. The intriguing question of identifying the best kinetic-energy functional is raised and discussed

  13. Verification of FPGA-based NPP I and C systems. General approach and techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrashov, Anton; Kharchenko, Vyacheslav; Sklyar, Volodymir; Reva, Lubov; Siora, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a general approach and techniques for design and verification of Field Programmable Gates Arrays (FPGA)-based Instrumentation and Control (I and C) systems for Nuclear Power Plants (NPP). Appropriate regulatory documents used for I and C systems design, development, verification and validation (V and V) are discussed considering the latest international standards and guidelines. Typical development and V and V processes of FPGA electronic design for FPGA-based NPP I and C systems are presented. Some safety-related features of implementation process are discussed. Corresponding development artifacts, related to design and implementation activities are outlined. An approach to test-based verification of FPGA electronic design algorithms, used in FPGA-based reactor trip systems is proposed. The results of application of test-based techniques for assessment of FPGA electronic design algorithms for reactor trip system (RTS) produced by Research and Production Corporation (RPC) 'Radiy' are presented. Some principles of invariant-oriented verification for FPGA-based safety-critical systems are outlined. (author)

  14. Disordering scaling and generalized nearest-neighbor approach in the thermodynamics of Lennard-Jones systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorob'ev, V.S.

    2003-01-01

    We suggest a concept of multiple disordering scaling of the crystalline state. Such a scaling procedure applied to a crystal leads to the liquid and (in low density limit) gas states. This approach provides an explanation to a high value of configuration (common) entropy of liquefied noble gases, which can be deduced from experimental data. We use the generalized nearest-neighbor approach to calculate free energy and pressure of the Lennard-Jones systems after performing this scaling procedure. These thermodynamic functions depend on one parameter characterizing the disordering only. Condensed states of the system (liquid and solid) correspond to small values of this parameter. When this parameter tends to unity, we get an asymptotically exact equation of state for a gas involving the second virial coefficient. A reasonable choice of the values for the disordering parameter (ranging between zero and unity) allows us to find the lines of coexistence between different phase states in the Lennard-Jones systems, which are in a good agreement with the available experimental data

  15. General analytical approach for sound transmission loss analysis through a thick metamaterial plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oudich, Mourad; Zhou, Xiaoming; Badreddine Assouar, M.

    2014-01-01

    We report theoretically and numerically on the sound transmission loss performance through a thick plate-type acoustic metamaterial made of spring-mass resonators attached to the surface of a homogeneous elastic plate. Two general analytical approaches based on plane wave expansion were developed to calculate both the sound transmission loss through the metamaterial plate (thick and thin) and its band structure. The first one can be applied to thick plate systems to study the sound transmission for any normal or oblique incident sound pressure. The second approach gives the metamaterial dispersion behavior to describe the vibrational motions of the plate, which helps to understand the physics behind sound radiation through air by the structure. Computed results show that high sound transmission loss up to 72 dB at 2 kHz is reached with a thick metamaterial plate while only 23 dB can be obtained for a simple homogeneous plate with the same thickness. Such plate-type acoustic metamaterial can be a very effective solution for high performance sound insulation and structural vibration shielding in the very low-frequency range

  16. General analytical approach for sound transmission loss analysis through a thick metamaterial plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oudich, Mourad; Zhou, Xiaoming; Badreddine Assouar, M., E-mail: Badreddine.Assouar@univ-lorraine.fr [CNRS, Institut Jean Lamour, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy F-54506 (France); Institut Jean Lamour, University of Lorraine, Boulevard des Aiguillettes, BP: 70239, 54506 Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy (France)

    2014-11-21

    We report theoretically and numerically on the sound transmission loss performance through a thick plate-type acoustic metamaterial made of spring-mass resonators attached to the surface of a homogeneous elastic plate. Two general analytical approaches based on plane wave expansion were developed to calculate both the sound transmission loss through the metamaterial plate (thick and thin) and its band structure. The first one can be applied to thick plate systems to study the sound transmission for any normal or oblique incident sound pressure. The second approach gives the metamaterial dispersion behavior to describe the vibrational motions of the plate, which helps to understand the physics behind sound radiation through air by the structure. Computed results show that high sound transmission loss up to 72 dB at 2 kHz is reached with a thick metamaterial plate while only 23 dB can be obtained for a simple homogeneous plate with the same thickness. Such plate-type acoustic metamaterial can be a very effective solution for high performance sound insulation and structural vibration shielding in the very low-frequency range.

  17. Generalized Philosophy of Alerting with Applications for Parallel Approach Collision Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winder, Lee F.; Kuchar, James K.

    2000-01-01

    The goal of the research was to develop formal guidelines for the design of hazard avoidance systems. An alerting system is automation designed to reduce the likelihood of undesirable outcomes that are due to rare failures in a human-controlled system. It accomplishes this by monitoring the system, and issuing warning messages to the human operators when thought necessary to head off a problem. On examination of existing and recently proposed logics for alerting it appears that few commonly accepted principles guide the design process. Different logics intended to address the same hazards may take disparate forms and emphasize different aspects of performance, because each reflects the intuitive priorities of a different designer. Because performance must be satisfactory to all users of an alerting system (implying a universal meaning of acceptable performance) and not just one designer, a proposed logic often undergoes significant piecemeal modification before gamma general acceptance. This report is an initial attempt to clarify the common performance goals by which an alerting system is ultimately judged. A better understanding of these goals will hopefully allow designers to reach the final logic in a quicker, more direct and repeatable manner. As a case study, this report compares three alerting logics for collision prevention during independent approaches to parallel runways, and outlines a fourth alternative incorporating elements of the first three, but satisfying stated requirements. Three existing logics for parallel approach alerting are described. Each follows from different intuitive principles. The logics are presented as examples of three "philosophies" of alerting system design.

  18. The First Flight Decision for New Human Spacecraft Vehicles - A General Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaible, Dawn M.; Sumrall, John Phillip

    2011-01-01

    Determining when it is safe to fly a crew on a launch vehicle/spacecraft for the first time, especially when the test flight is a part of the overall system certification process, has long been a challenge for program decision makers. The decision on first flight is ultimately the judgment of the program and agency management in conjunction with the design and operations team. To aid in this decision process, a NASA team undertook the task to develop a generic framework for evaluating whether any given program or commercial provider has sufficiently complete and balanced plans in place to allow crewmembers to safely fly on human spaceflight systems for the first time. It was the team s goal to establish a generic framework that could easily be applied to any new system, although the system design and intended mission would require specific assessment. Historical data shows that there are multiple approaches that have been successful in first flight with crew. These approaches have always been tailored to the specific system design, mission objectives, and launch environment. Because specific approaches may vary significantly between different system designs and situations, prescriptive instructions or thorough checklists cannot be provided ahead of time. There are, however, certain general approaches that should be applied in thinking through the decision for first flight. This paper addresses some of the most important factors to consider when developing a new system or evaluating an existing system for whether or not it is safe to fly humans to/from space. In the simplest terms, it is time to fly crew for the first time when it is safe to do so and the benefit of the crewed flight is greater than the residual risk. This is rarely a straight-forward decision. The paper describes the need for experience, sound judgment, close involvement of the technical and management teams, and established decision processes. In addition, the underlying level of confidence the

  19. Multidisciplinary approaches to managing osteoarthritis in multiple joint sites: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finney, Andrew; Healey, Emma; Jordan, Joanne L; Ryan, Sarah; Dziedzic, Krysia S

    2016-07-08

    The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence's Osteoarthritis (OA) guidelines recommended that future research should consider the benefits of combination therapies in people with OA across multiple joint sites. However, the clinical effectiveness of such approaches to OA management is unknown. This systematic review therefore aimed to identify the clinical and cost effectiveness of multidisciplinary approaches targeting multiple joint sites for OA in primary care. A systematic review of randomised controlled trials. Computerised bibliographic databases were searched (MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsychINFO, BNI, HBE, HMIC, AMED, Web of Science and Cochrane). Studies were included if they met the following criteria; a randomised controlled trial (RCT), a primary care population with OA across at least two different peripheral joint sites (multiple joint sites), and interventions undertaken by at least two different health disciplines (multidisciplinary). The Cochrane 'Risk of Bias' tool and PEDro were used for quality assessment of eligible studies. Clinical and cost effectiveness was determined by extracting and examining self-reported outcomes for pain, function, quality of life (QoL) and health care utilisation. The date range for the search was from database inception until August 2015. The search identified 1148 individual titles of which four were included in the review. A narrative review was conducted due to the heterogeneity of the included trials. Each of the four trials used either educational or exercise interventions facilitated by a range of different health disciplines. Moderate clinical benefits on pain, function and QoL were reported across the studies. The beneficial effects of exercise generally decreased over time within all studies. Two studies were able to show a reduction in healthcare utilisation due to a reduction in visits to a physiotherapist or a reduction in x-rays and orthopaedic referrals. The intervention that showed the most

  20. Identifying approaches for assessing methodological and reporting quality of systematic reviews

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pussegoda, Kusala; Turner, Lucy; Garritty, Chantelle

    2017-01-01

    there are potential gaps in research best-practice guidance materials. The aims of this study are to identify reports assessing the methodological quality (MQ) and/or reporting quality (RQ) of a cohort of SRs and to assess their number, general characteristics, and approaches to 'quality' assessment over time......BACKGROUND: The methodological quality and completeness of reporting of the systematic reviews (SRs) is fundamental to optimal implementation of evidence-based health care and the reduction of research waste. Methods exist to appraise SRs yet little is known about how they are used in SRs or where...... or reporting guidelines used as proxy to assess RQ were used in 80% (61/76) of identified reports. These included two reporting guidelines (PRISMA and QUOROM) and five quality assessment tools (AMSTAR, R-AMSTAR, OQAQ, Mulrow, Sacks) and GRADE criteria. The remaining 24% (18/76) of reports developed their own...

  1. A CONCEPTUAL REVIEW ON LINGUISTIC APPROACHES OF IDENTITY INVESTIGATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meinarni Susilowati

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Identity has been a blossoming issue in different fields. The intensity of investigating identity has stimulated the diverse methods and approaches to study identity from different angles. This paper discusses the how identity can be investigated from three different linguistic approaches, sociolinguistics, discourse analysis, and sociocultural linguistics approach. The practicality of these three approaches is explored to detect the nature of identity which is fluid, multiple, fragmented, socially, culturally, historically, religiously, and politically constructed and emerges within interactions. More space, however, is invested for elaborating the five principles of sociocultural linguistic approach due to its flexibility and multidimension of the approach. Empirical data is provided for proving its practicality for identity investigation. Further areas of investigation is given at the last part of the paper.

  2. Relationship between motivational goal orientations, perceptions of general education classroom learning environment, and deep approaches to learning

    OpenAIRE

    Chanut Poondej; Thanita Lerdpornkulrat

    2016-01-01

    Researchers have reported empirical evidence that the deep approaches to learning account for significant successful learning. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between students' motivational goal orientation, their perceptions of the general education classroom learning environment, and deep approaches to learning strategies. Participants (N = 494) were first- and second-year college students enrolled in any of the general education courses in higher education in Thaila...

  3. Application of fluorescence in robotic general surgery: review of the literature and state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marano, Alessandra; Priora, Fabio; Lenti, Luca Matteo; Ravazzoni, Ferruccio; Quarati, Raoul; Spinoglio, Giuseppe

    2013-12-01

    The initial use of the indocyanine green fluorescence imaging system was for sentinel lymph node biopsy in patients with breast or colorectal cancer. Since then, application of this method has received wide acceptance in various fields of surgical oncology, and it has become a valid diagnostic tool for guiding cancer treatment. It has also been employed in numerous conventional surgical procedures with much success and benefit to the patient. The advent of minimally invasive surgery brought with it a new use for fluorescence in helping to improve the safety of these procedures, particularly for single-site procedures. In 2010, a near-infrared camera was integrated into the da Vinci Si System, creating a combination of technical and minimally invasive advantages that have been embraced by several experienced surgeons. The use of fluorescence, although useful, is considered challenging. Only a few studies are currently available on the use of fluorescence in robotic general surgery, whereas many articles have focused on its application in open and laparoscopic surgery. Many of these reports describe promising and satisfactory results, although with some shortcomings. The purpose of this article is to review the current status of the use of fluorescence in general surgery and particularly its role in robotic surgery. We also review potential uses in the future.

  4. A Generalized Pivotal Quantity Approach to Analytical Method Validation Based on Total Error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Harry; Zhang, Jianchun

    2015-01-01

    The primary purpose of method validation is to demonstrate that the method is fit for its intended use. Traditionally, an analytical method is deemed valid if its performance characteristics such as accuracy and precision are shown to meet prespecified acceptance criteria. However, these acceptance criteria are not directly related to the method's intended purpose, which is usually a gurantee that a high percentage of the test results of future samples will be close to their true values. Alternate "fit for purpose" acceptance criteria based on the concept of total error have been increasingly used. Such criteria allow for assessing method validity, taking into account the relationship between accuracy and precision. Although several statistical test methods have been proposed in literature to test the "fit for purpose" hypothesis, the majority of the methods are not designed to protect the risk of accepting unsuitable methods, thus having the potential to cause uncontrolled consumer's risk. In this paper, we propose a test method based on generalized pivotal quantity inference. Through simulation studies, the performance of the method is compared to five existing approaches. The results show that both the new method and the method based on β-content tolerance interval with a confidence level of 90%, hereafter referred to as the β-content (0.9) method, control Type I error and thus consumer's risk, while the other existing methods do not. It is further demonstrated that the generalized pivotal quantity method is less conservative than the β-content (0.9) method when the analytical methods are biased, whereas it is more conservative when the analytical methods are unbiased. Therefore, selection of either the generalized pivotal quantity or β-content (0.9) method for an analytical method validation depends on the accuracy of the analytical method. It is also shown that the generalized pivotal quantity method has better asymptotic properties than all of the current

  5. Statistical Analysis of fMRI Time-Series: A Critical Review of the GLM Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin M Monti

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI is one of the most widely used tools to study the neural underpinnings of human cognition. Standard analysis of fMRI data relies on a General Linear Model (GLM approach to separate stimulus induced signals from noise. Crucially, this approach relies on a number of assumptions about the data which, for inferences to be valid, must be met. The current paper reviews the GLM approach to analysis of fMRI time-series, focusing in particular on the degree to which such data abides by the assumptions of the GLM framework, and on the methods that have been developed to correct for any violation of those assumptions. Rather than biasing estimates of effect size, the major consequence of non-conformity to the assumptions is to introduce bias into estimates of the variance, thus affecting test statistics, power and false positive rates. Furthermore, this bias can have pervasive effects on both individual subject and group-level statistics, potentially yielding qualitatively different results across replications, especially after the thresholding procedures commonly used for inference-making.

  6. Screening for sepsis in general hospitalized patients: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberto, L; Marshall, A P; Walker, R; Aitken, L M

    2017-08-01

    Sepsis is a condition widely observed outside critical care areas. To examine the application of sepsis screening tools for early recognition of sepsis in general hospitalized patients to: (i) identify the accuracy of these tools; (ii) determine the outcomes associated with their implementation; and (iii) describe the implementation process. A systematic review method was used. PubMed, CINAHL, Cochrane, Scopus, Web of Science, and Embase databases were systematically searched for primary articles, published from January 1990 to June 2016, that investigated screening tools or alert mechanisms for early identification of sepsis in adult general hospitalized patients. The review protocol was registered with PROSPERO (CRD42016042261). More than 8000 citations were screened for eligibility after duplicates had been removed. Six articles met the inclusion criteria testing two types of sepsis screening tools. Electronic tools can capture, recognize abnormal variables, and activate an alert in real time. However, accuracy of these tools was inconsistent across studies with only one demonstrating high specificity and sensitivity. Paper-based, nurse-led screening tools appear to be more sensitive in the identification of septic patients but were only studied in small samples and particular populations. The process of care measures appears to be enhanced; however, demonstrating improved outcomes is more challenging. Implementation details are rarely reported. Heterogeneity of studies prevented meta-analysis. Clinicians, researchers and health decision-makers should consider these findings and limitations when implementing screening tools, research or policy on sepsis recognition in general hospitalized patients. Copyright © 2017 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Vaginismus in peri- and postmenopausal women: a pragmatic approach for general practitioners and gynaecologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, Mairi E; Farmer, Laura; McAllister, Kay F; Cumming, Grant P

    2010-06-01

    Vaginismus is generally described as an involuntary contraction of the vaginal musculature, which usually results in the failure of penetration. Despite a lack of consensus as to the exact definition, prevalence rates vary between 4.2% and 42%. It is commonly diagnosed at both gynaecological and psychosexual clinics. The majority of studies and treatment options concentrate on the premenopausal age group. It is accepted that even within this age group, the diagnosis is often incorrect as symptoms can be confused with dyspareunia and other sexual pain disorders. There is no literature discussing vaginismus in the postmenopausal patient, despite evidence that an active sex life is important to the majority of women, irrespective of age. It is known that the majority of women do not report difficulties in their sex life and it may be that the older patient is more embarrassed at disclosing any such difficulties. This review aims to highlight the possible causes of vaginismus in this older age group and to aid the clinician in asking the appropriate questions, performing the appropriate examination and suggesting possible treatment options.

  8. Generalized Aggressive Periodontitis and Its Treatment Options: Case Reports and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Roshna

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Generalized aggressive periodontitis results in rapid destruction of the periodontium and can lead to early tooth loss in the affected individuals if not diagnosed early and treated appropriately. The diagnostic features of the disease are characteristic, but the clinical presentation and patterns of destructions may vary between patients. Successful management of the disease is challenging especially if diagnosed at advanced stages of the disease, but not impossible with the current therapeutic choices for the disease. A vast array of treatment modalities is available which can be employed in the treatment of generalized aggressive periodontitis with varying success rates, but a definite guideline for the management is yet to be formulated. However, with the exponential rate of developments in periodontal research, regenerative therapy, tissue engineering, and genetic technologies, the future seems promising in regard to options at managing the disease. This paper attempts to describe the clinical and radiographic diagnostic features and the current treatment options along with a suggested protocol for comprehensive management of generalized aggressive periodontitis patients with case reports and a brief review.

  9. Is beer consumption related to measures of abdominal and general obesity? A systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bendsen, N.T.; Christensen, R.; Bartels, E.M.; Kok, F.J.; Sierksma, A.; Raben, A.; Astrup, A.

    2013-01-01

    A systematic review was conducted to assess the evidence linking beer consumption to abdominal and general obesity. Following a systematic search strategy, 35 eligible observational studies and 12 experimental studies were identified. Regarding abdominal obesity, most observational data pointed

  10. The quantitation of buffering action II. Applications of the formal & general approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Bernhard M

    2005-01-01

    Background The paradigm of "buffering" originated in acid-base physiology, but was subsequently extended to other fields and is now used for a wide and diverse set of phenomena. In the preceding article, we have presented a formal and general approach to the quantitation of buffering action. Here, we use that buffering concept for a systematic treatment of selected classical and other buffering phenomena. Results H+ buffering by weak acids and "self-buffering" in pure water represent "conservative buffered systems" whose analysis reveals buffering properties that contrast in important aspects from classical textbook descriptions. The buffering of organ perfusion in the face of variable perfusion pressure (also termed "autoregulation") can be treated in terms of "non-conservative buffered systems", the general form of the concept. For the analysis of cytoplasmic Ca++ concentration transients (also termed "muffling"), we develop a related unit that is able to faithfully reflect the time-dependent quantitative aspect of buffering during the pre-steady state period. Steady-state buffering is shown to represent the limiting case of time-dependent muffling, namely for infinitely long time intervals and infinitely small perturbations. Finally, our buffering concept provides a stringent definition of "buffering" on the level of systems and control theory, resulting in four absolute ratio scales for control performance that are suited to measure disturbance rejection and setpoint tracking, and both their static and dynamic aspects. Conclusion Our concept of buffering provides a powerful mathematical tool for the quantitation of buffering action in all its appearances. PMID:15771784

  11. Pyranose dehydrogenase ligand promiscuity: a generalized approach to simulate monosaccharide solvation, binding, and product formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael M H Graf

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The flavoenzyme pyranose dehydrogenase (PDH from the litter decomposing fungus Agaricus meleagris oxidizes many different carbohydrates occurring during lignin degradation. This promiscuous substrate specificity makes PDH a promising catalyst for bioelectrochemical applications. A generalized approach to simulate all 32 possible aldohexopyranoses in the course of one or a few molecular dynamics (MD simulations is reported. Free energy calculations according to the one-step perturbation (OSP method revealed the solvation free energies (ΔGsolv of all 32 aldohexopyranoses in water, which have not yet been reported in the literature. The free energy difference between β- and α-anomers (ΔGβ-α of all d-stereoisomers in water were compared to experimental values with a good agreement. Moreover, the free-energy differences (ΔG of the 32 stereoisomers bound to PDH in two different poses were calculated from MD simulations. The relative binding free energies (ΔΔGbind were calculated and, where available, compared to experimental values, approximated from Km values. The agreement was very good for one of the poses, in which the sugars are positioned in the active site for oxidation at C1 or C2. Distance analysis between hydrogens of the monosaccharide and the reactive N5-atom of the flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD revealed that oxidation is possible at HC1 or HC2 for pose A, and at HC3 or HC4 for pose B. Experimentally detected oxidation products could be rationalized for the majority of monosaccharides by combining ΔΔGbind and a reweighted distance analysis. Furthermore, several oxidation products were predicted for sugars that have not yet been tested experimentally, directing further analyses. This study rationalizes the relationship between binding free energies and substrate promiscuity in PDH, providing novel insights for its applicability in bioelectrochemistry. The results suggest that a similar approach could be applied to study

  12. General practitioners′ knowledge and approach to chronic kidney disease in Karachi, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Yaqub

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to lack of adequate number of formally trained nephrologists, many patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD are seen by general practitioners (GPs. This study was designed to assess the knowledge of the GPs regarding identification of CKD and its risk factors, and evaluation and management of risk factors as well as complications of CKD. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 232 randomly selected GPs from Karachi during 2011. Data were collected on a structured questionnaire based on the kidney disease outcomes and quality initiative recommendations on screening, diagnosis, and management of CKD. A total of 235 GPs were approached, and 232 consented to participate. Mean age was 38.5 ± 11.26 years; 56.5% were men. Most of the GPs knew the traditional risk factors for CKD, i.e., diabetes (88.4% and hypertension (80%, but were less aware of other risk factors. Only 38% GPs were aware of estimated glomerular filtration rate in evaluation of patients with CKD. Only 61.6% GPs recognized CKD as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. About 40% and 29% GPs knew the correct goal systolic and diastolic blood pressure, respectively. In all, 41% GPs did not know when to refer the patient to a nephrologist. Our survey identified specific gaps in knowledge and approach of GPs regarding diagnosis and management of CKD. Educational efforts are needed to increase awareness of clinical practice guidelines and recommendations for patients with CKD among GPs, which may improve management and clinical outcomes of this population.

  13. Public Health's Approach to Systemic Racism: a Systematic Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, Billie; Wendel, Monica; Kerr, Jelani; Brooms, Derrick; Rollins, Aaron

    2018-05-04

    Recently, public health has acknowledged racism as a social determinant of health. Much evidence exists on the impact of individual-level racism and discrimination, with little to no examination of racism from the standpoint of systems and structures. The purpose of this systematic literature review is to analyze the extent to which public health currently addresses systemic racism in the published literature. Utilizing the PRISMA guidelines, this review examines three widely used databases to examine published literature covering the topic as well as implications for future research and practice. A total of 85 articles were included in the review analysis after meeting study criteria. Across numerous articles, the terms racism and systemic racism are largely absent. A critical need exists for an examination of the historical impact of systemic racism on the social determinants of health and health of marginalized populations.

  14. Summarizing systematic reviews: methodological development, conduct and reporting of an umbrella review approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aromataris, Edoardo; Fernandez, Ritin; Godfrey, Christina M; Holly, Cheryl; Khalil, Hanan; Tungpunkom, Patraporn

    2015-09-01

    With the increase in the number of systematic reviews available, a logical next step to provide decision makers in healthcare with the evidence they require has been the conduct of reviews of existing systematic reviews. Syntheses of existing systematic reviews are referred to by many different names, one of which is an umbrella review. An umbrella review allows the findings of reviews relevant to a review question to be compared and contrasted. An umbrella review's most characteristic feature is that this type of evidence synthesis only considers for inclusion the highest level of evidence, namely other systematic reviews and meta-analyses. A methodology working group was formed by the Joanna Briggs Institute to develop methodological guidance for the conduct of an umbrella review, including diverse types of evidence, both quantitative and qualitative. The aim of this study is to describe the development and guidance for the conduct of an umbrella review. Discussion and testing of the elements of methods for the conduct of an umbrella review were held over a 6-month period by members of a methodology working group. The working group comprised six participants who corresponded via teleconference, e-mail and face-to-face meeting during this development period. In October 2013, the methodology was presented in a workshop at the Joanna Briggs Institute Convention. Workshop participants, review authors and methodologists provided further testing, critique and feedback on the proposed methodology. This study describes the methodology and methods developed for the conduct of an umbrella review that includes published systematic reviews and meta-analyses as the analytical unit of the review. Details are provided regarding the essential elements of an umbrella review, including presentation of the review question in a Population, Intervention, Comparator, Outcome format, nuances of the inclusion criteria and search strategy. A critical appraisal tool with 10 questions to

  15. A systematic review of COTS evaluation and selection approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Garg

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In the past decades, a number of researchers have made their significant contributions to develop different approaches for solving a very challenging problem of commercial off-the shelf (COTS selection. The development of software with high quality and minimum development time has always been a difficult job for the software developers. Therefore, in today’s scenario, software developers move towards the implementation of component based software engineering that relies on the integration of small pieces of code namely (COTS. In this study, we present a comprehensive descriptive explanation of the various COTS evaluation and selection approaches developed by various researchers in the past to understand the concept of COTS selection. The advantages and disadvantages of each COTS selection approach are also provided, which will give a better prospect to the readers to understand the various existing COTS evaluation and selection approaches.

  16. A review of significant events analysed in general practice: implications for the quality and safety of patient care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley Nick

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Significant event analysis (SEA is promoted as a team-based approach to enhancing patient safety through reflective learning. Evidence of SEA participation is required for appraisal and contractual purposes in UK general practice. A voluntary educational model in the west of Scotland enables general practitioners (GPs and doctors-in-training to submit SEA reports for feedback from trained peers. We reviewed reports to identify the range of safety issues analysed, learning needs raised and actions taken by GP teams. Method Content analysis of SEA reports submitted in an 18 month period between 2005 and 2007. Results 191 SEA reports were reviewed. 48 described patient harm (25.1%. A further 109 reports (57.1% outlined circumstances that had the potential to cause patient harm. Individual 'error' was cited as the most common reason for event occurrence (32.5%. Learning opportunities were identified in 182 reports (95.3% but were often non-specific professional issues not shared with the wider practice team. 154 SEA reports (80.1% described actions taken to improve practice systems or professional behaviour. However, non-medical staff were less likely to be involved in the changes resulting from event analyses describing patient harm (p Conclusion The study provides some evidence of the potential of SEA to improve healthcare quality and safety. If applied rigorously, GP teams and doctors in training can use the technique to investigate and learn from a wide variety of quality issues including those resulting in patient harm. This leads to reported change but it is unclear if such improvement is sustained.

  17. General Dynamics Convair Division approach to structural analysis of large superconducting coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldi, R.W.

    1979-01-01

    This paper describes the overall integrated analysis approach and highlights the results obtained. Most of the procedures and techniques described were developed over the past three years. Starting in late 1976, development began on high-accuracy computer codes for electromagnetic field and force analysis. This effort resulted in completion of a family of computer programs called MAGIC (MAGnetic Integration Calculation). Included in this group of programs is a post-processor called POSTMAGIC that links MAGIC to GDSAP (General Dynamics Structural Analysis Program) by automatically transferring force data. Integrating these computer programs afforded us the capability to readily analyze several different conditions that are anticipated to occur during tokamak operation. During 1977 we initiated the development of the CONVERT program that effectively links our THERMAL ANALYZER program to GDSAP by automatically transferring temperature data. The CONVERT program allowed us the capability to readily predict thermal stresses at several different time phases during the computer-simulated cooldown and warmup cycle. This feature aided us in determining the most crucial time phases and to adjust recommended operating procedure to minimize risk. (orig.)

  18. A Facile and General Approach to Recoverable High-Strain Multishape Shape Memory Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xingjian; Pan, Yi; Zheng, Zhaohui; Ding, Xiaobin

    2018-03-01

    Fabricating a single polymer network with no need to design complex structures to achieve an ideal combination of tunable high-strain multiple-shape memory effects and highly recoverable shape memory property is a great challenge for the real applications of advanced shape memory devices. Here, a facile and general approach to recoverable high-strain multishape shape memory polymers is presented via a random copolymerization of acrylate monomers and a chain-extended multiblock copolymer crosslinker. As-prepared shape memory networks show a large width at the half-peak height of the glass transition, far wider than current classical multishape shape memory polymers. A combination of tunable high-strain multishape memory effect and as high as 1000% recoverable strain in a single chemical-crosslinking network can be obtained. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first thermosetting material with a combination of highly recoverable strain and tunable high-strain multiple-shape memory effects. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. A new approach in simulating RF linacs using a general, linear real-time signal processor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, A.; Jachim, S.P.

    1991-01-01

    Strict requirements on the tolerances of the amplitude and phase of the radio frequency (RF) cavity field are necessary to advance the field of accelerator technology. Due to these stringent requirements upon modern accelerators,a new approach of modeling and simulating is essential in developing and understanding their characteristics. This paper describes the implementation of a general, linear model of an RF cavity which is used to develop a real-time signal processor. This device fully emulates the response of an RF cavity upon receiving characteristic parameters (Q 0 , ω 0 , Δω, R S , Z 0 ). Simulating an RF cavity with a real-time signal processor is beneficial to an accelerator designer because the device allows one to answer fundamental questions on the response of the cavity to a particular stimulus without operating the accelerator. In particular, the complex interactions between the RF power and the control systems, the beam and cavity fields can simply be observed in a real-time domain. The signal processor can also be used upon initialization of the accelerator as a diagnostic device and as a dummy load for determining the closed-loop error of the control system. In essence, the signal processor is capable of providing information that allows an operator to determine whether the control systems and peripheral devices are operating properly without going through the tedious procedure of running the beam through a cavity

  20. Approach to design neural cryptography: a generalized architecture and a heuristic rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Nankun; Liao, Xiaofeng; Huang, Tingwen

    2013-06-01

    Neural cryptography, a type of public key exchange protocol, is widely considered as an effective method for sharing a common secret key between two neural networks on public channels. How to design neural cryptography remains a great challenge. In this paper, in order to provide an approach to solve this challenge, a generalized network architecture and a significant heuristic rule are designed. The proposed generic framework is named as tree state classification machine (TSCM), which extends and unifies the existing structures, i.e., tree parity machine (TPM) and tree committee machine (TCM). Furthermore, we carefully study and find that the heuristic rule can improve the security of TSCM-based neural cryptography. Therefore, TSCM and the heuristic rule can guide us to designing a great deal of effective neural cryptography candidates, in which it is possible to achieve the more secure instances. Significantly, in the light of TSCM and the heuristic rule, we further expound that our designed neural cryptography outperforms TPM (the most secure model at present) on security. Finally, a series of numerical simulation experiments are provided to verify validity and applicability of our results.

  1. The Generalized Hill Model: A Kinematic Approach Towards Active Muscle Contraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzel, Andreas; Kuhl, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    Excitation-contraction coupling is the physiological process of converting an electrical stimulus into a mechanical response. In muscle, the electrical stimulus is an action potential and the mechanical response is active contraction. The classical Hill model characterizes muscle contraction though one contractile element, activated by electrical excitation, and two non-linear springs, one in series and one in parallel. This rheology translates into an additive decomposition of the total stress into a passive and an active part. Here we supplement this additive decomposition of the stress by a multiplicative decomposition of the deformation gradient into a passive and an active part. We generalize the one-dimensional Hill model to the three-dimensional setting and constitutively define the passive stress as a function of the total deformation gradient and the active stress as a function of both the total deformation gradient and its active part. We show that this novel approach combines the features of both the classical stress-based Hill model and the recent active-strain models. While the notion of active stress is rather phenomenological in nature, active strain is micro-structurally motivated, physically measurable, and straightforward to calibrate. We demonstrate that our model is capable of simulating excitation-contraction coupling in cardiac muscle with its characteristic features of wall thickening, apical lift, and ventricular torsion. PMID:25221354

  2. Circular orbits and acceleration of particles by near-extremal dirty rotating black holes: general approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaslavskii, Oleg B

    2012-01-01

    We study the effect of collisions of ultrahigh energy particles near the black hole horizon (BSW effect) for two scenarios: when one of the particles either (i) moves on a circular orbit or (ii) plunges from it toward the horizon. It is shown that such circular near-horizon orbits can exist for near-extremal black holes only. This includes the innermost stable orbit (ISCO), marginally bound orbit (MBO) and photon one (PhO). We consider generic ‘dirty’ rotating black holes not specifying the metric and show that the energy in the center-of-mass frame has the universal scaling dependence on the surface gravity κ. Namely, E c.m. ∼ κ −n where for the ISCO, n= 1/3 in case (i) or n= 1/2 in case (ii). For the MBO and PhCO, n= 1/2 in both scenarios that agrees with recent calculations of Harada and Kimura for the Kerr metric. We also generalize the Grib and Pavlov observations made for the Kerr metric. The magnitude of the BSW effect on the location of collision has a somewhat paradoxical character: it decreases when approaching the horizon. (paper)

  3. Circular orbits and acceleration of particles by near-extremal dirty rotating black holes: general approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaslavskii, Oleg B.

    2012-10-01

    We study the effect of collisions of ultrahigh energy particles near the black hole horizon (BSW effect) for two scenarios: when one of the particles either (i) moves on a circular orbit or (ii) plunges from it toward the horizon. It is shown that such circular near-horizon orbits can exist for near-extremal black holes only. This includes the innermost stable orbit (ISCO), marginally bound orbit (MBO) and photon one (PhO). We consider generic ‘dirty’ rotating black holes not specifying the metric and show that the energy in the center-of-mass frame has the universal scaling dependence on the surface gravity κ. Namely, Ec.m. ˜ κ-n where for the ISCO, n=\\frac{1}{3} in case (i) or n=\\frac{1}{2} in case (ii). For the MBO and PhCO, n=\\frac{1}{2} in both scenarios that agrees with recent calculations of Harada and Kimura for the Kerr metric. We also generalize the Grib and Pavlov observations made for the Kerr metric. The magnitude of the BSW effect on the location of collision has a somewhat paradoxical character: it decreases when approaching the horizon.

  4. General Approaches and Requirements on Safety and Security of Radioactive Materials Transport in Russian Federation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ershov, V.N.; Buchel'nikov, A.E.; Komarov, S.V.

    2016-01-01

    Development and implementation of safety and security requirements for transport of radioactive materials in the Russian Federation are addressed. At the outset it is worth noting that the transport safety requirements implemented are in full accordance with the IAEA's ''Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (2009 Edition)''. However, with respect to security requirements for radioactive material transport in some cases the Russian Federation requirements for nuclear material are more stringent compared to IAEA recommendations. The fundamental principles of safety and security of RM managements, recommended by IAEA documents (publications No. SF-1 and GOV/41/2001) are compared. Its correlation and differences concerning transport matters, the current level and the possibility of harmonization are analysed. In addition a reflection of the general approaches and concrete transport requirements is being evaluated. Problems of compliance assessment, including administrative and state control problems for safety and security provided at internal and international shipments are considered and compared. (author)

  5. From the big five to the general factor of personality: a dynamic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micó, Joan C; Amigó, Salvador; Caselles, Antonio

    2014-10-28

    An integrating and dynamic model of personality that allows predicting the response of the basic factors of personality, such as the Big Five Factors (B5F) or the general factor of personality (GFP) to acute doses of drug is presented in this paper. Personality has a dynamic nature, i.e., as a consequence of a stimulus, the GFP dynamics as well as each one of the B5F of personality dynamics can be explained by the same model (a system of three coupled differential equations). From this invariance hypothesis, a partial differential equation, whose solution relates the GFP with each one of the B5F, is deduced. From this dynamic approach, a co-evolution of the GFP and each one of the B5F occurs, rather than an unconnected evolution, as a consequence of the same stimulus. The hypotheses and deductions are validated through an experimental design centered on the individual, where caffeine is the considered stimulus. Thus, as much from a theoretical point of view as from an applied one, the models here proposed open a new perspective in the understanding and study of personality like a global system that interacts intimately with the environment, being a clear bet for the high level inter-disciplinary research.

  6. Cultural transmission and the evolution of human behaviour: a general approach based on the Price equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Mouden, C; André, J-B; Morin, O; Nettle, D

    2014-02-01

    Transmitted culture can be viewed as an inheritance system somewhat independent of genes that is subject to processes of descent with modification in its own right. Although many authors have conceptualized cultural change as a Darwinian process, there is no generally agreed formal framework for defining key concepts such as natural selection, fitness, relatedness and altruism for the cultural case. Here, we present and explore such a framework using the Price equation. Assuming an isolated, independently measurable culturally transmitted trait, we show that cultural natural selection maximizes cultural fitness, a distinct quantity from genetic fitness, and also that cultural relatedness and cultural altruism are not reducible to or necessarily related to their genetic counterparts. We show that antagonistic coevolution will occur between genes and culture whenever cultural fitness is not perfectly aligned with genetic fitness, as genetic selection will shape psychological mechanisms to avoid susceptibility to cultural traits that bear a genetic fitness cost. We discuss the difficulties with conceptualizing cultural change using the framework of evolutionary theory, the degree to which cultural evolution is autonomous from genetic evolution, and the extent to which cultural change should be seen as a Darwinian process. We argue that the nonselection components of evolutionary change are much more important for culture than for genes, and that this and other important differences from the genetic case mean that different approaches and emphases are needed for cultural than genetic processes. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2013 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  7. 76 FR 67530 - Generalized System of Preferences (GSP): Notice of Actions Arising Out of the 2010 Annual GSP Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    ... OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Generalized System of Preferences (GSP): Notice of Actions Arising Out of the 2010 Annual GSP Review AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION: Notice of a petition accepted for review; and request for comments. SUMMARY: In September...

  8. Esclerosis múltiple: aspectos generales y abordaje farmacológico Multiple sclerosis: general features and pharmacologic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nielsen Lagumersindez Denis

    2009-08-01

    disease of central nervous system (CNS of unknown etiology and critical evolution. There are different etiological hypotheses talking of a close interrelation among predisposing genetic factors and dissimilar environmental factors, able to give raise to autoimmune response at central nervous system level. Hypothesis of autoimmune pathogeny is based on study of experimental models, and findings in biopsies of affected patients by disease. Accumulative data report that the oxidative stress plays a main role in pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis. Oxygen reactive species generated by macrophages has been involved as mediators of demyelinization and of axon damage, in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and strictly in multiple sclerosis. Disease diagnosis is difficult because of there is not a confirmatory unique test. Management of it covers the treatment of acute relapses, disease modification, and symptoms management. These features require an individualized approach, base on evolution of this affection, and tolerability of treatments. In addition to diet, among non-pharmacologic treatments for multiple sclerosis it is recommended physical therapy. Besides, some clinical assays have been performed in which we used natural extracts, nutrition supplements, and other agents with promising results. Pharmacology allowed neurologists with a broad array of proved effectiveness drugs; however, results of research laboratories in past years make probable that therapeutical possibilities increase notably in future.

  9. Analytical approaches for arsenic determination in air: A critical review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sánchez-Rodas, Daniel, E-mail: rodas@uhu.es [Centre for Research in Sustainable Chemistry-CIQSO, Associated Unit CSIC-University of Huelva “Atmospheric Pollution”, Campus El Carmen, University of Huelva, 21071 Huelva (Spain); Department of Chemistry and Materials Science, University of Huelva, 21071 Huelva (Spain); Sánchez de la Campa, Ana M. [Centre for Research in Sustainable Chemistry-CIQSO, Associated Unit CSIC-University of Huelva “Atmospheric Pollution”, Campus El Carmen, University of Huelva, 21071 Huelva (Spain); Department of Mining, Mechanic and Energetic Engineering, ETSI, University of Huelva, 21071 Huelva (Spain); Alsioufi, Louay [Centre for Research in Sustainable Chemistry-CIQSO, Associated Unit CSIC-University of Huelva “Atmospheric Pollution”, Campus El Carmen, University of Huelva, 21071 Huelva (Spain)

    2015-10-22

    This review describes the different steps involved in the determination of arsenic in air, considering the particulate matter (PM) and the gaseous phase. The review focuses on sampling, sample preparation and instrumental analytical techniques for both total arsenic determination and speciation analysis. The origin, concentration and legislation concerning arsenic in ambient air are also considered. The review intends to describe the procedures for sample collection of total suspended particles (TSP) or particles with a certain diameter expressed in microns (e.g. PM10 and PM2.5), or the collection of the gaseous phase containing gaseous arsenic species. Sample digestion of the collecting media for PM is described, indicating proposed and established procedures that use acids or mixtures of acids aided with different heating procedures. The detection techniques are summarized and compared (ICP-MS, ICP-OES and ET-AAS), as well those techniques capable of direct analysis of the solid sample (PIXE, INAA and XRF). The studies about speciation in PM are also discussed, considering the initial works that employed a cold trap in combination with atomic spectroscopy detectors, or the more recent studies based on chromatography (GC or HPLC) combined with atomic or mass detectors (AFS, ICP-MS and MS). Further trends and challenges about determination of As in air are also addressed. - Highlights: • Review about arsenic in the air. • Sampling, sample treatment and analysis of arsenic in particulate matter and gaseous phase. • Total arsenic determination and arsenic speciation analysis.

  10. A literature review of the twinning approach in supporting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this paper is to review international literature and to contextualise it to South Africa's water services institutions. On the basis of the literature evidence, the following questions will be discussed: • How is “twinning” to be conceptualised and operationalised • What are the expected outputs and outcomes of ...

  11. Perceived barriers and facilitators for general practitioner-patient communication in palliative care: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slort, W; Schweitzer, B P M; Blankenstein, A H; Abarshi, E A; Riphagen, I I; Echteld, M A; Aaronson, N K; van der Horst, He; Deliens, L

    2011-09-01

    While effective general practitioner (GP)-patient communication is required for the provision of good palliative care, barriers and facilitators for this communication are largely unknown. We aimed to identify barriers and facilitators for GP-patient communication in palliative care. In a systematic review seven computerized databases were searched to find empirical studies on GP-patient communication in palliative care. Fifteen qualitative studies and seven quantitative questionnaire studies were included. The main perceived barriers were GPs' lack of availability, and patients' and GPs' ambivalence to discuss 'bad prognosis'. Main perceived facilitators were GPs being available, initiating discussion about several end-of-life issues and anticipating various scenarios. Lack of availability and failure to discuss former mistakes appear to be blind spots of GPs. GPs should be more forthcoming to initiate discussions with palliative care patients about prognosis and end-of-life issues. Empirical studies are needed to investigate the effectiveness of the perceived barriers and facilitators.

  12. The prevalence of waterpipe tobacco smoking among the general and specific populations: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleem Sohaib

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to systematically review the medical literature for the prevalence of waterpipe tobacco use among the general and specific populations. Methods We electronically searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the ISI the Web of Science. We selected studies using a two-stage duplicate and independent screening process. We included cohort studies and cross sectional studies assessing the prevalence of use of waterpipe in either the general population or a specific population of interest. Two reviewers used a standardized and pilot tested form to collect data from each eligible study using a duplicate and independent screening process. We stratified the data analysis by country and by age group. The study was not restricted to a specific context. Results Of a total of 38 studies, only 4 were national surveys; the rest assessed specific populations. The highest prevalence of current waterpipe smoking was among school students across countries: the United States, especially among Arab Americans (12%-15% the Arabic Gulf region (9%-16%, Estonia (21%, and Lebanon (25%. Similarly, the prevalence of current waterpipe smoking among university students was high in the Arabic Gulf region (6%, the United Kingdom (8%, the United States (10%, Syria (15%, Lebanon (28%, and Pakistan (33%. The prevalence of current waterpipe smoking among adults was the following: Pakistan (6%, Arabic Gulf region (4%-12%, Australia (11% in Arab speaking adults, Syria (9%-12%, and Lebanon (15%. Group waterpipe smoking was high in Lebanon (5%, and Egypt (11%-15%. In Lebanon, 5%-6% pregnant women reported smoking waterpipe during pregnancy. The studies were all cross-sectional and varied by how they reported waterpipe smoking. Conclusion While very few national surveys have been conducted, the prevalence of waterpipe smoking appears to be alarmingly high among school students and university students in Middle Eastern countries and among groups of

  13. Prevalence of homeopathy use by the general population worldwide: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Relton, Clare; Cooper, Katy; Viksveen, Petter; Fibert, Philippa; Thomas, Kate

    2017-05-01

    To systematically review surveys of 12-month prevalence of homeopathy use by the general population worldwide. Studies were identified via database searches to October 2015. Study quality was assessed using a six-item tool. All estimates were in the context of a survey which also reported prevalence of any complementary and alternative medicine use. A total of 36 surveys were included. Of these, 67% met four of six quality criteria. Twelve-month prevalence of treatment by a homeopath was reported in 24 surveys of adults (median 1.5%, range 0.2-8.2%). Estimates for children were similar to those for adults. Rates in the USA, UK, Australia and Canada all ranged from 0.2% to 2.9% and remained stable over the years surveyed (1986-2012). Twelve-month prevalence of all use of homeopathy (purchase of over-the-counter homeopathic medicines and treatment by a homeopath) was reported in 10 surveys of adults (median 3.9%, range 0.7-9.8%) while a further 11 surveys which did not define the type of homeopathy use reported similar data. Rates in the USA and Australia ranged from 1.7% to 4.4% and remained stable over the years surveyed. The highest use was reported by a survey in Switzerland where homeopathy is covered by mandatory health insurance. This review summarises 12-month prevalence of homeopathy use from surveys conducted in eleven countries (USA, UK, Australia, Israel, Canada, Switzerland, Norway, Germany, South Korea, Japan and Singapore). Each year a small but significant percentage of these general populations use homeopathy. This includes visits to homeopaths as well as purchase of over-the-counter homeopathic medicines. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. A systematic review of help-seeking interventions for depression, anxiety and general psychological distress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulliver Amelia

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Depression and anxiety are treatable disorders, yet many people do not seek professional help. Interventions designed to improve help-seeking attitudes and increase help-seeking intentions and behaviour have been evaluated in recent times. However, there have been no systematic reviews of the efficacy or effectiveness of these interventions in promoting help-seeking. Therefore, this paper reports a systematic review of published randomised controlled trials targeting help-seeking attitudes, intentions or behaviours for depression, anxiety, and general psychological distress. Methods Studies were identified through searches of PubMed, PsycInfo, and the Cochrane database in November 2011. Studies were included if they included a randomised controlled trial of at least one intervention targeting help-seeking for depression or anxiety or general psychological distress, and contained extractable data on help-seeking attitudes or intentions or behaviour. Studies were excluded if they focused on problems or conditions other than the target (e.g., substance use, eating disorder. Results Six published studies of randomised controlled trials investigating eight different interventions for help-seeking were identified. The majority of trials targeted young adults. Mental health literacy content was effective (d = .12 to .53 in improving help-seeking attitudes in the majority of studies at post-intervention, but had no effect on help-seeking behaviour (d = −.01, .02. There was less evidence for other intervention types such as efforts to destigmatise or provide help-seeking source information. Conclusions Mental health literacy interventions are a promising method for promoting positive help-seeking attitudes, but there is no evidence that it leads to help-seeking behaviour. Further research investigating the effects of interventions on attitudes, intentions, and behaviour is required.

  15. Impact on diabetes management of General Practice Management Plans, Team Care Arrangements and reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramasinghe, Leelani K; Schattner, Peter; Hibbert, Marienne E; Enticott, Joanne C; Georgeff, Michael P; Russell, Grant M

    2013-08-19

    To investigate whether General Practice Management Plans (GPMPs), Team Care Arrangements (TCAs) and reviews of these improve the management and outcomes of patients with diabetes when supported by cdmNet, a web-based chronic disease management system; and to investigate adherence to the annual cycle of care (ACOC), as recommended in diabetes guidelines. A before-and-after study to analyse prospectively collected data on 577 patients with type 1 or 2 diabetes mellitus who were managed with a GPMP created using cdmNet between June 2008 and November 2012. Completion of the clinical tests in the ACOC (process outcome) and values of six of these clinical measurements (clinical outcomes). Significant improvements were seen after creation of a GPMP in the proportion of ACOC clinical tests completed (57.9% v 74.8%, P < 0.001), total cholesterol level (P < 0.01), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol level (P < 0.001) and body mass index (BMI) (P < 0.01). Patients using GPMPs and TCAs also improved their glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) level (P < 0.05). Patients followed up with irregular reviews had significant improvements in the proportion of ACOC clinical tests completed (59.2% v 77.6%, P < 0.001), total cholesterol level (P < 0.05), and BMI (P < 0.01), but patients with regular reviews had greater improvements in the proportion of ACOC clinical tests completed (58.9% v 85.0%, P < 0.001), HbA(1c) level (57.7 v 53.0 mmol/mol, P < 0.05), total cholesterol level (4.8 v 4.5 mmol/L, P < 0.05), LDL cholesterol level (2.8 v 2.4 mmol/L, P < 0.01) and diastolic blood pressure (76.0 v 74.0 mmHg, P < 0.05). There were significant improvements in process and clinical outcomes for patients on a GPMP or a GPMP and TCA, particularly when these were followed up by regular reviews. Patients using cdmNet were four times more likely to have their GPMP or TCA followed up through regular reviews than the national average.

  16. Senior expert group for the review of the Agency`s programme of activities. Opening remarks by the Director General

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ElBaradei, M [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    1998-03-23

    The document reproduces the opening remarks made by the Director General of the IAEA on 23 March 1998 at the first meeting of the Senior Expert Group for the review of the Agency`s programme and activities. The Director General explains his considerations in establishing the group, and the major challenges facing the safe use of nuclear energy and technologies

  17. Factors influencing attitudes of nurses in general health care toward patients with comorbid mental illness: an integrative literature review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluit, M.J. van der; Goossens, P.J.J.

    2011-01-01

    An estimated 40% of patients in general health care settings suffer from a comorbid mental illness. A literature review was conducted to elucidate the factors underlying the different attitudes of nurses in general health care toward the nursing care of these patients. Although lack of knowledge,

  18. Senior expert group for the review of the Agency's programme of activities. Opening remarks by the Director General

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElBaradei, M.

    1998-01-01

    The document reproduces the opening remarks made by the Director General of the IAEA on 23 March 1998 at the first meeting of the Senior Expert Group for the review of the Agency's programme and activities. The Director General explains his considerations in establishing the group, and the major challenges facing the safe use of nuclear energy and technologies

  19. Erosion and Sediment Transport Modelling in Shallow Waters: A Review on Approaches, Models and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hajigholizadeh

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The erosion and sediment transport processes in shallow waters, which are discussed in this paper, begin when water droplets hit the soil surface. The transport mechanism caused by the consequent rainfall-runoff process determines the amount of generated sediment that can be transferred downslope. Many significant studies and models are performed to investigate these processes, which differ in terms of their effecting factors, approaches, inputs and outputs, model structure and the manner that these processes represent. This paper attempts to review the related literature concerning sediment transport modelling in shallow waters. A classification based on the representational processes of the soil erosion and sediment transport models (empirical, conceptual, physical and hybrid is adopted, and the commonly-used models and their characteristics are listed. This review is expected to be of interest to researchers and soil and water conservation managers who are working on erosion and sediment transport phenomena in shallow waters. The paper format should be helpful for practitioners to identify and generally characterize the types of available models, their strengths and their basic scope of applicability.

  20. Annual banned-substance review: analytical approaches in human sports drug testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thevis, Mario; Kuuranne, Tiia; Walpurgis, Katja; Geyer, Hans; Schänzer, Wilhelm

    2016-01-01

    The aim of improving anti-doping efforts is predicated on several different pillars, including, amongst others, optimized analytical methods. These commonly result from exploiting most recent developments in analytical instrumentation as well as research data on elite athletes' physiology in general, and pharmacology, metabolism, elimination, and downstream effects of prohibited substances and methods of doping, in particular. The need for frequent and adequate adaptations of sports drug testing procedures has been incessant, largely due to the uninterrupted emergence of new chemical entities but also due to the apparent use of established or even obsolete drugs for reasons other than therapeutic means, such as assumed beneficial effects on endurance, strength, and regeneration capacities. Continuing the series of annual banned-substance reviews, literature concerning human sports drug testing published between October 2014 and September 2015 is summarized and reviewed in reference to the content of the 2015 Prohibited List as issued by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA), with particular emphasis on analytical approaches and their contribution to enhanced doping controls. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Modeling urban building energy use: A review of modeling approaches and procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Wenliang; Zhou, Yuyu; Cetin, Kristen; Eom, Jiyong; Wang, Yu; Chen, Gang; Zhang, Xuesong

    2017-12-01

    With rapid urbanization and economic development, the world has been experiencing an unprecedented increase in energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. While reducing energy consumption and GHG emissions is a common interest shared by major developed and developing countries, actions to enable these global reductions are generally implemented at the city scale. This is because baseline information from individual cities plays an important role in identifying economical options for improving building energy efficiency and reducing GHG emissions. Numerous approaches have been proposed for modeling urban building energy use in the past decades. This paper aims to provide an up-to-date review of the broad categories of energy models for urban buildings and describes the basic workflow of physics-based, bottom-up models and their applications in simulating urban-scale building energy use. Because there are significant differences across models with varied potential for application, strengths and weaknesses of the reviewed models are also presented. This is followed by a discussion of challenging issues associated with model preparation and calibration.

  2. A linear programming approach to max-sum problem: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Tomás

    2007-07-01

    The max-sum labeling problem, defined as maximizing a sum of binary (i.e., pairwise) functions of discrete variables, is a general NP-hard optimization problem with many applications, such as computing the MAP configuration of a Markov random field. We review a not widely known approach to the problem, developed by Ukrainian researchers Schlesinger et al. in 1976, and show how it contributes to recent results, most importantly, those on the convex combination of trees and tree-reweighted max-product. In particular, we review Schlesinger et al.'s upper bound on the max-sum criterion, its minimization by equivalent transformations, its relation to the constraint satisfaction problem, the fact that this minimization is dual to a linear programming relaxation of the original problem, and the three kinds of consistency necessary for optimality of the upper bound. We revisit problems with Boolean variables and supermodular problems. We describe two algorithms for decreasing the upper bound. We present an example application for structural image analysis.

  3. Approaches to the Surveillance of Foodborne Disease: A Review of the Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Laura; Miller, Megge; Cawthorne, Amy; Fearnley, Emily; Kirk, Martyn

    2015-12-01

    Foodborne disease surveillance aims to reduce the burden of illness due to contaminated food. There are several different types of surveillance systems, including event-based surveillance, indicator-based surveillance, and integrated food chain surveillance. These approaches are not mutually exclusive, have overlapping data sources, require distinct capacities and resources, and can be considered a hierarchy, with each level being more complex and resulting in a greater ability to detect and control foodborne disease. Event-based surveillance is generally the least resource-intensive system and makes use of informal data sources. Indicator-based surveillance is seen as traditional notifiable disease surveillance and consists of routinely collected data. Integrated food chain surveillance is viewed as the optimal practice for conducting continuous risk analysis for foodborne diseases, but also requires significant ongoing resources and greater multisectoral collaboration compared to the other systems. Each country must determine the most appropriate structure for their surveillance system for foodborne diseases based on their available resources. This review explores the evidence on the principles, minimum capabilities, and minimum requirements of each type of surveillance and discusses examples from a range of countries. This review forms the evidence base for the Strengthening the Surveillance and Response for Foodborne Diseases: A Practical Manual.

  4. Erosion and Sediment Transport Modelling in Shallow Waters: A Review on Approaches, Models and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajigholizadeh, Mohammad; Melesse, Assefa M; Fuentes, Hector R

    2018-03-14

    The erosion and sediment transport processes in shallow waters, which are discussed in this paper, begin when water droplets hit the soil surface. The transport mechanism caused by the consequent rainfall-runoff process determines the amount of generated sediment that can be transferred downslope. Many significant studies and models are performed to investigate these processes, which differ in terms of their effecting factors, approaches, inputs and outputs, model structure and the manner that these processes represent. This paper attempts to review the related literature concerning sediment transport modelling in shallow waters. A classification based on the representational processes of the soil erosion and sediment transport models (empirical, conceptual, physical and hybrid) is adopted, and the commonly-used models and their characteristics are listed. This review is expected to be of interest to researchers and soil and water conservation managers who are working on erosion and sediment transport phenomena in shallow waters. The paper format should be helpful for practitioners to identify and generally characterize the types of available models, their strengths and their basic scope of applicability.

  5. Review article: Surgical approaches for correction of post-tubercular kyphosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchmatia, Jaykar R; Lenke, Lawrence G; Molloy, Sean; Cheung, Kenneth M C; Kebaish, Khaled M

    2015-12-01

    This study reviewed the literature regarding the pros and cons of various surgical approaches (anterior, anterolateral, combined, and posterior) for correction of post-tubercular kyphosis. The anterior and anterolateral approaches are effective in improving neurological deficit but not in correcting kyphosis. The combined anterior and posterior approach and the posterior approach combined with 3-column osteotomy achieve good neurological improvement and kyphosis correction. The latter is superior when expertise and facilities are available.

  6. A generalized approach for producing, quantifying, and validating citizen science data from wildlife images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Alexandra; Kosmala, Margaret; Lintott, Chris; Packer, Craig

    2016-06-01

    Citizen science has the potential to expand the scope and scale of research in ecology and conservation, but many professional researchers remain skeptical of data produced by nonexperts. We devised an approach for producing accurate, reliable data from untrained, nonexpert volunteers. On the citizen science website www.snapshotserengeti.org, more than 28,000 volunteers classified 1.51 million images taken in a large-scale camera-trap survey in Serengeti National Park, Tanzania. Each image was circulated to, on average, 27 volunteers, and their classifications were aggregated using a simple plurality algorithm. We validated the aggregated answers against a data set of 3829 images verified by experts and calculated 3 certainty metrics-level of agreement among classifications (evenness), fraction of classifications supporting the aggregated answer (fraction support), and fraction of classifiers who reported "nothing here" for an image that was ultimately classified as containing an animal (fraction blank)-to measure confidence that an aggregated answer was correct. Overall, aggregated volunteer answers agreed with the expert-verified data on 98% of images, but accuracy differed by species commonness such that rare species had higher rates of false positives and false negatives. Easily calculated analysis of variance and post-hoc Tukey tests indicated that the certainty metrics were significant indicators of whether each image was correctly classified or classifiable. Thus, the certainty metrics can be used to identify images for expert review. Bootstrapping analyses further indicated that 90% of images were correctly classified with just 5 volunteers per image. Species classifications based on the plurality vote of multiple citizen scientists can provide a reliable foundation for large-scale monitoring of African wildlife. © 2016 The Authors. Conservation Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Conservation Biology.

  7. Synthetic Approaches to the Lamellarins—A Comprehensive Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Imbri

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present review discusses the known synthetic routes to the lamellarin alkaloids published until 2014. It begins with syntheses of the structurally simpler type-II lamellarins and then focuses on the larger class of the 5,6-saturated and -unsaturated type-I lamellarins. The syntheses are grouped by the strategy employed for the assembly of the central pyrrole ring.

  8. Internationalization of Higher Education: A Literature Review on Competency Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Chong Pui Yee

    2014-01-01

    This paper is a literature review on the internationalization of higher education focusing on staff competency in managing international students. This writing uncovered some empirical studies by researchers in a Malaysian context on the issue, challenges and expectation from both international students and university academics and administrators. International students faced great challenges in adjusting their life in Malaysia, these include different teaching and learning style, culture, la...

  9. Do longer consultations improve the management of psychological problems in general practice? A systematic literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hutton Catherine

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychological problems present a huge burden of illness in our community and GPs are the main providers of care. There is evidence that longer consultations in general practice are associated with improved quality of care; but this needs to be balanced against the fact that doctor time is a limited resource and longer consultations may lead to reduced access to health care. The aim of this research was to conduct a systematic literature review to determine whether management of psychological problems in general practice is associated with an increased consultation length and to explore whether longer consultations are associated with better health outcomes for patients with psychological problems. Methods A search was conducted on Medline (Ovid databases up to7 June 2006. The following search terms, were used: general practice or primary health care (free text or family practice (MeSH AND consultation length or duration (free text or time factors (MeSH AND depression or psychological problems or depressed (free text. A similar search was done in Web of Science, Pubmed, Google Scholar, and Cochrane Library and no other papers were found. Studies were included if they contained data comparing consultation length and management or detection of psychological problems in a general practice or primary health care setting. The studies were read and categories developed to enable systematic data extraction and synthesis. Results 29 papers met the inclusion criteria. Consultations with a recorded diagnosis of a psychological problem were reported to be longer than those with no recorded psychological diagnosis. It is not clear if this is related to the extra time or the consultation style. GPs reported that time pressure is a major barrier to treating depression. There was some evidence that increased consultation length is associated with more accurate diagnosis of psychological problems. Conclusion Further research is needed to

  10. Review: Management of adnexal masses: An age-guided approach ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adnexal masses in different age groups may need different management approaches. By elimination of the type of mass that is less likely in a specific age group one can identify the most prevalent group which can guide management. Most important of all, the probability of malignancy must either be identified or ruled out.

  11. Theoretical approaches to social innovation – A critical literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butzin, A.; Davis, A.; Domanski, D.; Dhondt, S.; Howaldt, J.; Kaletka, C.; Kesselring, A.; Kopp, R.; Millard, J.; Oeij, P.; Rehfeld, D.; Schaper-Rinkel, P.; Schwartz, M.; Scoppetta, A.; Wagner-Luptacik, P.; Weber, M.

    2014-01-01

    The SI-DRIVE report “Theoretical approaches to Social Innovation – A Critical Literature Review” delivers a comprehensive overview on the state of the art of theoretically relevant building blocks for advancing a theoretical understanding of social innovation. It collects different theoretical

  12. Initial approach to hypertension in the hemodynamics unit: review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Teixeira Fulton Schimit

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Correct identification and early management of hypertensive disorders should be a part of the therapeutic repertoire of every professional working in hemodynamics units. Based on recent publications, this study aims to propose a practical approach to the identification and early management of these disorders in this type of service.

  13. Review Article: Revisiting the Entitlement Approach to Famine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sen's (1981b) entitlement approach conceptualises famine as the characteristics of some people not having enough food to eat but not of there being not enough food to eat. Famine from this perspective is one that occurs without a decline in the macro level supply of food and, hence, it is all about demand failure/shift in the ...

  14. Representing Graphical User Interfaces with Sound: A Review of Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratanasit, Dan; Moore, Melody M.

    2005-01-01

    The inability of computer users who are visually impaired to access graphical user interfaces (GUIs) has led researchers to propose approaches for adapting GUIs to auditory interfaces, with the goal of providing access for visually impaired people. This article outlines the issues involved in nonvisual access to graphical user interfaces, reviews…

  15. Prevalence of Periodontal Disease in the General Population of India-A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shewale, Akhilesh H; Gattani, Deepti R; Bhatia, Nidhi; Mahajan, Rupali; Saravanan, S P

    2016-06-01

    Periodontal disease is a chronic inflammatory disease resulting in destruction of tissues and structures surrounding the teeth thus, if left untreated causes loss of teeth and ultimately results in edentulism, posing a great negative impact on individuals' quality of life. Hence the global epidemiological data suggests periodontal disease to be one of a major burden on oral diseases. To reduce this burden it is necessary to know the true prevalence of the disease according to which proper initiatives can be formulated. India being home to nearly 1.2 billion people and one amongst the rapidly developing country, its population requires being systemically as well as orally healthy to lead a good quality of life. However due to large heterogenecity amongst its residing population in terms of geographical area, culture, education, socioeconomic status, a variety of oral diseases like periodontal diseases are prevalent here. Even though the early studies suggested that the population is highly susceptible to the disease, the true prevalence of periodontal disease has not been found yet due to paucity in literature available. To systematically review the available literature taken from various parts of India and find the prevalence rate of periodontal disease amongst the general population of India. A literature search was performed using PUB MED, COCHRANE and EMBASE databases on August 6, 2015. Following full text assessment a thorough references search was made and potential studies were included. A Quality assessment of retrieved articles from 2(nd) round was done using a self designed questionnaire and only field survey studies were included in the systematic review. The literature search yielded six studies which had performed field surveys to find the prevalence of periodontal disease in their respective areas. These studies have observed different sets of age groups and the same has been accomplished by using Community Periodontal Index (CPI) or Community

  16. Novel Approaches to Spectral Properties of Correlated Electron Materials: From Generalized Kohn-Sham Theory to Screened Exchange Dynamical Mean Field Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delange, Pascal; Backes, Steffen; van Roekeghem, Ambroise; Pourovskii, Leonid; Jiang, Hong; Biermann, Silke

    2018-04-01

    The most intriguing properties of emergent materials are typically consequences of highly correlated quantum states of their electronic degrees of freedom. Describing those materials from first principles remains a challenge for modern condensed matter theory. Here, we review, apply and discuss novel approaches to spectral properties of correlated electron materials, assessing current day predictive capabilities of electronic structure calculations. In particular, we focus on the recent Screened Exchange Dynamical Mean-Field Theory scheme and its relation to generalized Kohn-Sham Theory. These concepts are illustrated on the transition metal pnictide BaCo2As2 and elemental zinc and cadmium.

  17. Augmentative Approaches in Family-Based Treatment for Adolescents with Restrictive Eating Disorders: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Imogen Lim; Subar, Anni; Touyz, Stephen; Rhodes, Paul

    2018-03-01

    To systematically review the literature reporting outcomes of augmentative family-based treatment (FBT) interventions for adolescents with restrictive eating disorders (EDs). Articles were identified through a systematic search of five electronic databases (PsycINFO, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Cochrane Database). Thirty articles were included, reporting on FBT augmentations featuring adjunctive treatment components, modified treatment structure and/or content with adherence to FBT principles, and adaptations allowing FBT delivery in different settings. All reported significant improvements in weight and/or ED symptoms at end-of-treatment, although few compared augmentative and standard FBT interventions and good quality follow-up data was generally lacking. There is early evidence for the effectiveness of augmentative FBT-based approaches in facilitating weight and/or ED symptom improvements for adolescents with restrictive EDs. There remains a lack of robust evidence demonstrating superior effects of such approaches over standard FBT, and further controlled studies are required to expand on the current evidence. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  18. Measuring and Examining General Self-Efficacy among Community College Students: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Starobin, Soko S.

    2018-01-01

    This study examined a psychosocial mechanism of how general self-efficacy interacts with other key factors and influences degree aspiration for students enrolled in an urban diverse community college. Using general self-efficacy scales, the authors hypothesized the General Self-efficacy model for Community College students (the GSE-CC model). A…

  19. Does generalized joint hypermobility predict joint injury in sport? A review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Donaldson, Peter R

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether persons with generalized joint hypermobility have an increased risk of lower limb joint injury during sport. DATA SOURCES: PubMed, CINAHL, EMBASE, and SportDiscus were searched through February 2009, without language restrictions, using terms related to risk; hip, ankle, and knee injuries; and joint instability. Reference lists of included studies and relevant reviews were searched by hand. STUDY SELECTION: Selection criteria were peer-reviewed studies with a prospective design that used an objective scale to measure generalized joint hypermobility; the participants were engaged in sport activity, and the injury data were quantitative and based on diagnosis by a health professional, were self-reported, or resulted in time lost to athletic participation. The studies were screened by 1 researcher and checked by a second. Study methods were independently assessed by 2 investigators using the 6-point scale for prognostic studies developed by Pengel. Disagreements were resolved through discussion. Of 4841 studies identified, 18 met inclusion criteria. Of these, 8 were included in random-effects meta-analyses. DATA EXTRACTION: The data extracted by 2 reviewers included participant and sport characteristics and details of joint hypermobility and injury measurements. More detailed data for 4 investigations were obtained from the study authors. Where possible, hypermobility was defined as >\\/=4 of 9 points on the British Society of Rheumatology Scale (BSRS). MAIN RESULTS: Lower limb joint injuries (3 studies, 1047 participants) occurred in 14% of participants. Using the BSRS of joint hypermobility, any lower limb injury was not associated with hypermobility [odds ratio (OR), 1.43; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.56-3.67]. Using the original authors\\' definitions, hypermobility was associated with risk of knee joint injuries (OR, 2.62; 95% CI, 1.04-6.58) in 5 studies. In 4 studies in which the BSRS could be used (1167 participants; incidence

  20. Vision Restoration in Glaucoma by Activating Residual Vision with a Holistic, Clinical Approach: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabel, Bernhard A; Cárdenas-Morales, Lizbeth; Gao, Ying

    2018-01-01

    How to cite this article: Sabel BA, Cárdenas-Morales L, Gao Y. Vision Restoration in Glaucoma by activating Residual Vision with a Holistic, Clinical Approach: A Review. J Curr Glaucoma Pract 2018;12(1):1-9.

  1. Review of Qualitative Approaches for the Construction Industry: Designing a Risk Management Toolbox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Zalk

    2011-06-01

    Conclusion: The Construction Toolbox presents a review-generated format to harness multiple solutions-based national programs and publications for controlling construction-related risks with simplified approaches across the occupational safety, health and hygiene professions.

  2. A general approach for haplotype phasing across the full spectrum of relatedness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared O'Connell

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Many existing cohorts contain a range of relatedness between genotyped individuals, either by design or by chance. Haplotype estimation in such cohorts is a central step in many downstream analyses. Using genotypes from six cohorts from isolated populations and two cohorts from non-isolated populations, we have investigated the performance of different phasing methods designed for nominally 'unrelated' individuals. We find that SHAPEIT2 produces much lower switch error rates in all cohorts compared to other methods, including those designed specifically for isolated populations. In particular, when large amounts of IBD sharing is present, SHAPEIT2 infers close to perfect haplotypes. Based on these results we have developed a general strategy for phasing cohorts with any level of implicit or explicit relatedness between individuals. First SHAPEIT2 is run ignoring all explicit family information. We then apply a novel HMM method (duoHMM to combine the SHAPEIT2 haplotypes with any family information to infer the inheritance pattern of each meiosis at all sites across each chromosome. This allows the correction of switch errors, detection of recombination events and genotyping errors. We show that the method detects numbers of recombination events that align very well with expectations based on genetic maps, and that it infers far fewer spurious recombination events than Merlin. The method can also detect genotyping errors and infer recombination events in otherwise uninformative families, such as trios and duos. The detected recombination events can be used in association scans for recombination phenotypes. The method provides a simple and unified approach to haplotype estimation, that will be of interest to researchers in the fields of human, animal and plant genetics.

  3. Non-aqueous metathesis as a general approach to prepare nanodispersed materials: Case study of scheelites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afanasiev, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    A general approach to the preparation of inorganic nanoparticles is proposed, using metathesis of precursor salts in non-aqueous liquids. Nanoparticles of scheelites AMO 4 (A=Ba, Sr, Ca; M=Mo, W), were obtained with a quantitative yield. Precipitations in formamide, N-methylformamide, propylene carbonate, DMSO and polyols often provide narrow particle size distributions. Advantageous morphology was explained by strong ionic association in non-aqueous solvents, leading to slow nucleation and negligible Ostwald ripening. Mean particle size below 10 nm and high specific surface areas were obtained for several Ca(Sr)Mo(W)O 4 materials, making them promising for applications as adsorbents or catalysts. Zeta-potential of scheelites in aqueous suspensions showed negative values in a wide range of pH. Systematic study of optical properties demonstrated variation of optical gap in the sequences W>Mo and Ba>Sr>Ca. The observed trends were reproduced by DFT calculations. No quantum confinement effect was observed for small particles, though the surface states induce low-energy features in the optical spectra. - Graphical abstract: Scheelites AMO 4 (A=Ca, Sr, Ba; M=Mo, W) were prepared in various non-aqueous liquids with high specific surface areas and narrow size distributions. The optical gap of scheelites changes in the series Ca

  4. Dynamic epidemiological models for dengue transmission: a systematic review of structural approaches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Andraud

    Full Text Available Dengue is a vector-borne disease recognized as the major arbovirose with four immunologically distant dengue serotypes coexisting in many endemic areas. Several mathematical models have been developed to understand the transmission dynamics of dengue, including the role of cross-reactive antibodies for the four different dengue serotypes. We aimed to review deterministic models of dengue transmission, in order to summarize the evolution of insights for, and provided by, such models, and to identify important characteristics for future model development. We identified relevant publications using PubMed and ISI Web of Knowledge, focusing on mathematical deterministic models of dengue transmission. Model assumptions were systematically extracted from each reviewed model structure, and were linked with their underlying epidemiological concepts. After defining common terms in vector-borne disease modelling, we generally categorised fourty-two published models of interest into single serotype and multiserotype models. The multi-serotype models assumed either vector-host or direct host-to-host transmission (ignoring the vector component. For each approach, we discussed the underlying structural and parameter assumptions, threshold behaviour and the projected impact of interventions. In view of the expected availability of dengue vaccines, modelling approaches will increasingly focus on the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of vaccination options. For this purpose, the level of representation of the vector and host populations seems pivotal. Since vector-host transmission models would be required for projections of combined vaccination and vector control interventions, we advocate their use as most relevant to advice health policy in the future. The limited understanding of the factors which influence dengue transmission as well as limited data availability remain important concerns when applying dengue models to real-world decision problems.

  5. Review of the superconducting approach to linear colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padamsee, H.

    1992-01-01

    For the next linear collider of 500 GeV CM energy, the beam energy needs to be increased by a factor of 5 over the SLC, but the luminosity needs to be increased by 5 orders of magnitude. The superconducting (SRF) approach offers multiple relief from the many pressing challenges of achieving high luminosity. The major challenges for the SRF approach are to raise the gradients well above 5 MV/m possible today and at the same time to lower the costs. Progress in SRF technology is presented. A collaborative venture on a TESLA TEST FACILITY is now taking shape, these activities are summarized. (R.P.) 19 refs.; 4 figs.; 3 tabs

  6. Precipitation in Powder Metallurgy, Nickel Base Superalloys: Review of Modeling Approach and Formulation of Engineering (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    AFRL-RX-WP-JA-2016-0333 PRECIPITATION IN POWDER- METALLURGY , NICKEL-BASE SUPERALLOYS: REVIEW OF MODELING APPROACH AND FORMULATION OF...PRECIPITATION IN POWDER- METALLURGY , NICKEL- BASE SUPERALLOYS: REVIEW OF MODELING APPROACH AND FORMULATION OF ENGINEERING (POSTPRINT) 5a...and kinetic parameters required for the modeling of γ′ precipitation in powder- metallurgy (PM), nickel-base superalloys are summarized. These

  7. Vectorization of Nucleic Acids for Therapeutic Approach: Tutorial Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geinguenaud, Frederic; Guenin, Erwann; Lalatonne, Yoann; Motte, Laurence

    2016-05-20

    Oligonucleotides present a high therapeutic potential for a wide variety of diseases. However, their clinical development is limited by their degradation by nucleases and their poor blood circulation time. Depending on the administration mode and the cellular target, these macromolecules will have to cross the vascular endothelium, to diffuse through the extracellular matrix, to be transported through the cell membrane, and finally to reach the cytoplasm. To overcome these physiological barriers, many strategies have been developed. Here, we review different methods of DNA vectorization, discuss limitations and advantages of the various vectors, and provide new perspectives for future development.

  8. Historiographic review of historical novels in Colombia: a regional approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Eduardo Rueda Enciso

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers a detailed bibliographic review of those Colombian historical novels published between years 1844 and 2014. At a first glance, the author defines what is understood as ‘historical novel’ and how this concept has been applied in the Colombian literature, from middle 19th century until today; then several authors and novels are highlighted as representatives of several country regions. Finally, changes produced along 160 years are described, covering from 19th´s romanticism to post-modernism. As a conclusion, the author points out some historical facts and circumstances, which have influenced literature production in Colombia.

  9. OBESITY IN CHILDREN: NEW PREVENTION CONCEPTS AND APPROACHES. LITERATURE REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga K. Netrebenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The review presents modern concepts of the obesity origins in children and adults. We substantiate the point of view of antenatal origin of obesity caused by malnutrition of a woman during pregnancy and also consider the possibility of influence of infant and young child nutrition on the development of obesity in the future. New opportunities for obesity prevention should be aimed at optimizing women's nutrition before and during childbearing, supporting breastfeeding, observing the timing of complementary feeding and adequate feeding of children after one year of age. 

  10. A review on software testing approaches for cloud applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamanna Siddiqui

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing has actually been invented to be the latest computing standard that will work several distinctive research areas, such as software testing. Testing cloud applications will keep its unique characteristics that involve more recent testing techniques. Software testing helps to reduce the need for hardware and software services and also provide adaptable and valuable cloud platform. Testing within the cloud platform is easily manageable based on new test models and criteria. Prioritization approach is made responsive to build much better relationship between test cases. These test cases are clustered dependent on priority level. The resources can be used properly by applying load balancing algorithm. Cloud guarantees maximum usage of existing resources. But, security defined as a primary problem in cloud. At the present time, organizations are progressively moving excited about deploying and making use of ready-prepared business applications, with particular short-term to the marketplace. The possible lack of capital budgets for software planning and on principle deployments, along with the swift progression of cloud these are the reasons why one should make the interest on business application. However, these are the interests that help make the SaaS based business application on-demand. In this paper different approaches has been discussed that will help to extend the cloud environment. Also, the study of several well-known software testing approaches.

  11. Min-max optimization and the radial approach to the public service system design with generalized utility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Janáček

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the min-max public service system design, where the generalized utility is considered. In contrast to the formulations presented in the literature, the generalized utility defined for a public service system assumes that the user’s utility comes generally from more than one located service center and the individual contributions from relevant centers are weighted by reduction coefficients depending on a center order. Given that commercial IP-solvers often fail due to enormous computational times or extreme memory demands when resolving this issue, we suggested and compared several approaches based on a bisection process with the purpose of developing an effective max-min approach to the public service system design with a generalized utility.

  12. An approach to peer review in forensic pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, D Noel; Langlois, Neil E I; Byard, Roger W

    2013-07-01

    Peer review in forensic pathology has been a long time in evolution but may provide a very useful mechanism to check for, and to correct, errors, in addition to establishing an important educative vehicle for pathologists. A process is reported that has been established at our institution that involves both informal peer review in the mortuary and formal auditing of a set number of cases. Every autopsy case is discussed at a daily meeting of pathologists before a provisional cause of death is released. In addition, one in ten cases including all homicides, deaths in custody, suspicious and paediatric cases, and randomly selected additional cases undergo formal auditing by a second pathologist. Finally, administrative staff check the completed report. This formalized process, in a jurisdiction where autopsies are usually performed by only one pathologist, has been extremely useful in standardizing autopsy reports and in enabling pathologists to discuss cases and associated issues on a regular basis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  13. Ecosystem Vulnerability Review: Proposal of an Interdisciplinary Ecosystem Assessment Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weißhuhn, Peter; Müller, Felix; Wiggering, Hubert

    2018-06-01

    To safeguard the sustainable use of ecosystems and their services, early detection of potentially damaging changes in functional capabilities is needed. To support a proper ecosystem management, the analysis of an ecosystem's vulnerability provide information on its weaknesses as well as on its capacity to recover after suffering an impact. However, the application of the vulnerability concept to ecosystems is still an emerging topic. After providing background on the vulnerability concept, we summarize existing ecosystem vulnerability research on the basis of a systematic literature review with a special focus on ecosystem type, disciplinary background, and more detailed definition of the ecosystem vulnerability components. Using the Web of ScienceTM Core Collection, we overviewed the literature from 1991 onwards but used the 5 years from 2011 to 2015 for an in-depth analysis, including 129 articles. We found that ecosystem vulnerability analysis has been applied most notably in conservation biology, climate change research, and ecological risk assessments, pinpointing a limited spreading across the environmental sciences. It occurred primarily within marine and freshwater ecosystems. To avoid confusion, we recommend using the unambiguous term ecosystem vulnerability rather than ecological, environmental, population, or community vulnerability. Further, common ground has been identified, on which to define the ecosystem vulnerability components exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity. We propose a framework for ecosystem assessments that coherently connects the concepts of vulnerability, resilience, and adaptability as different ecosystem responses. A short outlook on the possible operationalization of the concept by ecosystem vulnerabilty indices, and a conclusion section complete the review.

  14. Review of extended producer responsibility: A case study approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupt, Yamini; Sahay, Samraj

    2015-07-01

    Principles of extended producer responsibility have been the core of most of the recent policies and legislation dealing with the end-of-life management of recyclable goods. This article makes an exploratory review of 27 cases of extended producer responsibility from developed and developing economies with and without informal recycling, to ascertain the most important aspect of extended producer responsibility. A comparative analysis of the cases with respect to role of stakeholders in the upstream and downstream stages of the extended producer responsibility has been carried out. Further, the study uses exploratory factor analysis to determine the important aspects of the extended producer responsibility in practice using 13 variables identified from the review. Findings of the comparative analysis reveal that financial responsibility of the producers and separate collecting and recycling agencies contributed significantly to the success of the extended producer responsibility-based environmental policies. Regulatory provisions, take-back responsibility and financial flow come out to be the three most important aspects of the extended producer responsibility. Presence of informal sector had a negative impact on the regulatory provisions. The outcomes of this study could serve as a guideline for designing of effective extended producer responsibility-based policies. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Current psychological therapeutic approaches for gambling disorder with psychiatric comorbidities: A narrative review

    OpenAIRE

    Echeburúa, Enrique; Amor, Pedro J.; Gómez, Montserrat

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: Background: Although the presence of a gambling disorder (GD) together with another mental disorder poses special treatment challenges, such as relapses, severe outcomes for patients and families, and increased number of hospitalizations, there are only a few critical reviews in the literature. Objective: To review empirical evidence of psychological approaches to cope specifically with these dual disorders. Method: A narrative review of the relevant bibliography on this topic wa...

  16. Breast cancer treatment: historical review and current approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulakowski, A.

    1994-01-01

    The evolution and development of opinions on the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer since Galen to present time is presented. The concept of breast cancer as a local disease has been replaced by the understanding of its systemic character. On this background described are the methods of surgical treatment beginning from early - supraradical, to present -conservative approaches. The ''milestones'' in diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer of the last 40 years are presented. Current methods of breast cancer management include correct diagnosis (clinical examination, mammography, ultrasound, fine needle aspiration biopsy), TNM staging, adequate loco-regional therapy, systemic therapy, rehabilitation, reconstruction and careful follow-up. (author)

  17. Fetal MRI: An approach to practice: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Saleem, Sahar N.

    2013-01-01

    MRI has been increasingly used for detailed visualization of the fetus in utero as well as pregnancy structures. Yet, the familiarity of radiologists and clinicians with fetal MRI is still limited. This article provides a practical approach to fetal MR imaging. Fetal MRI is an interactive scanning of the moving fetus owed to the use of fast sequences. Single-shot fast spin-echo (SSFSE) T2-weighted imaging is a standard sequence. T1-weighted sequences are primarily used to demonstrate fat, cal...

  18. Vertical Integration in Teaching And Learning (VITAL): an approach to medical education in general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Marie-Louise B; King, David B; Mitchell, Geoffrey K; Kelly, Glynn D; Buckley, John F; Garside, Susan J

    2007-07-16

    There is increasing demand to provide clinical and teaching experiences in the general practice setting. Vertical integration in teaching and learning, whereby teaching and learning roles are shared across all learner stages, has the potential to decrease time demands and stress on general practitioners, to provide teaching skills and experience to GP registrars, and to improve the learning experience for medical students, and may also help meet the increased demand for teaching in general practice. We consider potential advantages and barriers to vertical integration of teaching in general practice, and provide results of focus group discussions with general practice principals and registrars about vertical integration. We recommend further research into the feasibility of using vertical integration to enhance the capacity to teach medical students in general practice.

  19. A Novel Approach toward Fuzzy Generalized Bi-Ideals in Ordered Semigroups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faiz Muhammad Khan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In several advanced fields like control engineering, computer science, fuzzy automata, finite state machine, and error correcting codes, the use of fuzzified algebraic structures especially ordered semigroups plays a central role. In this paper, we introduced a new and advanced generalization of fuzzy generalized bi-ideals of ordered semigroups. These new concepts are supported by suitable examples. These new notions are the generalizations of ordinary fuzzy generalized bi-ideals of ordered semigroups. Several fundamental theorems of ordered semigroups are investigated by the properties of these newly defined fuzzy generalized bi-ideals. Further, using level sets, ordinary fuzzy generalized bi-ideals are linked with these newly defined ideals which is the most significant part of this paper.

  20. A Review of Vaccine Approaches for West Nile Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin G. Kousoulas

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The West Nile virus (WNC first appeared in North America in 1999. The North American lineages of WNV were characterized by the presence of neuroinvasive and neurovirulent strains causing disease and death in humans, birds and horses. The 2012 WNV season in the United States saw a massive spike in the number of neuroinvasive cases and deaths similar to what was seen in the 2002–2003 season, according to the West Nile virus disease cases and deaths reported to the CDC by year and clinical presentation, 1999–2012, by ArboNET (Arboviral Diseases Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. In addition, the establishment and recent spread of lineage II WNV virus strains into Western Europe and the presence of neurovirulent and neuroinvasive strains among them is a cause of major concern. This review discusses the advances in the development of vaccines and biologicals to combat human and veterinary West Nile disease.

  1. Enhanced electrocoagulation: New approaches to improve the electrochemical process (Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos E. Barrera-Díaz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Electrocoagulation is a promising technology for the removal of colloids from different types of wastewater and it has also demonstrated good efficiencies for the breaking-up of emulsions. It consists of the dissolution ofaluminum or iron anodes, promoting the formation of coagulant reagents in wastewater that helps to coagulate pollutants and the formation of bubbles that favors the mixing (electroflocculation and the removal of suspended solids by flotation (electroflotation. During the recent years, the combination of this technology with other treatment technologies has become a hot topic looking for a synergistic improvement in the efficiencies. This work aims to review some of the more recent works regarding this topic, in particular the combination of electrocoagulation withozonation, adsorption and ultrasound irradiation.

  2. A review on the antagonist Ebola: A prophylactic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Fatima Nazish; Qazi, Sahar; Tanveer, Khushnuma; Raza, Khalid

    2017-12-01

    Ebola virus (EBOV), a member of Filoviridae virus family under the genus Ebolavirus, has emerged as a dangerous and potential threat to human health globally. It causes a severe and deadly hemorrhagic fever in humans and other mammals, called Ebola Virus Disease (EVD). In recent outbreaks of EVD, there has been loss of large numbers of individual's life. Therefore, EBOV has attracted researchers and increased interests in developing new models for virus evolution, and therapies. The EBOV interacts with the immune system of the host which led to understand how the virus functions and effects immune system behaviour. This article presents an exhaustive review on Ebola research which includes EVD illness, symptoms, transmission patterns, patho-physiology conditions, development of antiviral agents and vaccines, resilient health system, dynamics and mathematical model of EBOV, challenges and prospects for future studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Exposure to general anesthesia and risk of alzheimer's disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seitz Dallas P

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alzheimer's disease (AD is common among older adults and leads to significant disability. Volatile anesthetic gases administered during general anesthesia (GA have been hypothesized to be a risk factor for the development of AD. The objective of this study is to systematically review the association between exposure to GA and risk of AD. Methods We searched electronic databases including MEDLINE, Embase, and Google scholar for observational studies examining the association between exposure to GA and risk of AD. We examined study quality using a modified version of the Newcastle-Ottawa risk of bias assessment for observational studies. We used standard meta-analytic techniques to estimate pooled odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI. Subgroup and sensitivity analyses were undertaken to evaluate the robustness of the findings. Results A total of 15 case-control studies were included in the review. No cohort studies were identified that met inclusion criteria. There was variation in the methodological quality of included studies. There was no significant association between any exposure to GA and risk of AD (pooled OR: 1.05; 95% CI: 0.93 - 1.19, Z = 0.80, p = 0.43. There was also no significant association between GA and risk of AD in several subgroup and sensitivity analyses. Conclusions A history of exposure to GA is not associated with an increased risk of AD although there are few high-quality studies in this area. Prospective cohort studies with long-term follow-up or randomized controlled trials are required to further understand the association between GA and AD.

  4. Motivational interviewing by general practitioners for Type 2 diabetes patients: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thepwongsa, Isaraporn; Muthukumar, Radhakrishnan; Kessomboon, Pattapong

    2017-08-01

    Motivational interviewing (MI) is an effective tool to help clinicians with facilitating behavioural changes in many diseases and conditions. However, different forms of MI are required in different health care settings and for different clinicians. Although general practitioners (GPs) play a major role in Type 2 diabetes management, the effects of MI delivered by GPs intended to change the behaviours of their Type 2 diabetes patients and GP outcomes, defined as GP knowledge, satisfaction and practice behaviours, have not been systematically reviewed. An electronic search was conducted through Cochrane Library, Scopus, ProQuest, Wiley Online Library, Ovid MEDLINE, PubMed, CINAHL, MEDLINE Complete and Google Scholar from the earliest date of each database to 2017. Reference lists from each article obtained were reviewed. Measured changes in GP satisfaction, knowledge, and practice behaviours, and patient outcomes were recorded. Eight out of 1882 studies met the criteria for inclusion. Six studies examined the effects of MI on Type 2 diabetes patient outcomes, only one of which examined its effects on GP outcomes. Two-thirds of the studies (4/6) found a significant improvement in at least one of the following patient outcomes: total cholesterol, low-density lipoproteins, fasting blood glucose, HbA1c, body mass index, blood pressure, waist circumference and physical activity. The effects of MI on GP outcomes yielded mixed results. Few studies have examined evidence for the effectiveness of MI delivered by GPs to Type 2 diabetes patients. Evidence to support the effectiveness of MI on GP and patient outcomes is weak. Further quality studies are needed to examine the effects of MI on GP and patient outcomes. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Mediating Policy-Relevant Evidence at Speed: Are Systematic Reviews of Systematic Reviews a Useful Approach?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caird, Jenny; Sutcliffe, Katy; Kwan, Irene; Dickson, Kelly; Thomas, James

    2015-01-01

    When swift, accurate appraisal of evidence is required to inform policy concerning broad research questions, and budgetary constraints limit the employment of large research teams, researchers face a significant challenge which is sometimes met by reviewing existing systematic reviews. In this paper we highlight the challenges inherent in the…

  6. Diaphragmatic hernia: diagnostic approaches with review of the literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eren, Suat [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Atatuerk University, 25240 Erzurum (Turkey)]. E-mail: suateren@atauni.edu.tr; Ciris, Fahri [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Atatuerk University, 25240 Erzurum (Turkey)

    2005-06-01

    Because surgical repair is indicated for the treatment of diaphragmatic hernia (DH), preoperative imaging of the diaphragmatic defect, hernia content, and associated complications with other organ's pathologies is important. While various techniques can be used on imaging of DHs, selection of the most effective but the least invasive technique will present the most accurate findings about DH, and will facilitate the management of DH. We reviewed the diaphragmatic hernia types associated with our cases, and we discussed the preferred imaging modalities for different DHs with review of the literature. We evaluated the imaging findings of 21 DH cases. They were Morgagni's hernia (n = 4), Bochdalek hernia (n = 2), iatrogenic DH (n = 4), traumatic DH (n = 6), and hiatal hernia (n = 5). Although its limited findings on DH and indirect findings about the diaphragmatic rupture, plain radiography is firstly preferred technique on DH. We found that ultrasound (US) is a useful tool on DH, on traumatic DH cases especially. Not only it shows diaphragmatic continuity and herniated organs, but also it reveals associated abdominal organ's pathologies. Computed tomography (CT) scan is most effective in many DH cases. It shows the herniated abdominal organs together with complications, such as intestinal strangulation, haemothorax, and rib fractures. We stressed that Multislice CT scan with coronal and sagittal reformatted images is the most effective and useful imaging technique on DH. With high sensitivity for soft tissue, MR imaging may be performed in the selected patients, on the late presenting DH cases or on the cases of the diagnosis still in doubt especially.

  7. Environmentally relevant approaches to assess nanoparticles ecotoxicity: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bour, Agathe; Mouchet, Florence; Silvestre, Jérôme; Gauthier, Laury [Université de Toulouse (France); UPS, INP (France); EcoLab (Laboratoire d’écologie fonctionnelle et environnement) (France); ENSAT, Avenue de l’Agrobiopôle, F-31326 Castanet-Tolosan (France); CNRS (France); EcoLab (Laboratoire d’écologie fonctionnelle et environnement), F-31326 Castanet-Tolosan (France); Pinelli, Eric, E-mail: pinelli@ensat.fr [Université de Toulouse (France); UPS, INP (France); EcoLab (Laboratoire d’écologie fonctionnelle et environnement) (France); ENSAT, Avenue de l’Agrobiopôle, F-31326 Castanet-Tolosan (France); CNRS (France); EcoLab (Laboratoire d’écologie fonctionnelle et environnement), F-31326 Castanet-Tolosan (France)

    2015-02-11

    Highlights: • Integrated ecotoxicity of NPs from organism to community level is reviewed. • Trophic chains allow determining the implication of trophic route in NP toxicity. • The use of microcosms and mesocosms allows studies at larger scale. • Data concerning NP fate and effects in environmental conditions are lacking. - Abstract: Despite the increasing production and use of nanoparticles (NPs), there is a lack of knowledge about their environmental fate and ecotoxicity. Studies in environmentally relevant conditions are necessary to better assess these parameters, but such studies are rather rare. The present work represents first time that studies on engineered NPs using environmentally relevant exposure methods have been reviewed. These exposure methods differ from standardized protocols and can be classified into three groups: experimental trophic chains that allow study of the trophic route, multi-species exposures under laboratory conditions that allow for complex but controlled exposure and outdoor exposures that are more similar to environmentally realistic conditions. The majority of studies of micro- or mesocosms have focused on NP partitioning and bioaccumulation. The other major parameter that has been studied is NP ecotoxicity, which has been assessed in single species, in single species via the trophic route, and at the community level. The induction of biochemical defense systems, immunomodulation, effects on growth and reproduction, behavioral alterations and mortality have been used as indicators of major toxicity, depending on the species studied. The major effects of NPs on both microbial and algal communities include modifications of community compositions and diversities, decreased biomass and changes in community activities.

  8. Environmentally relevant approaches to assess nanoparticles ecotoxicity: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bour, Agathe; Mouchet, Florence; Silvestre, Jérôme; Gauthier, Laury; Pinelli, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Integrated ecotoxicity of NPs from organism to community level is reviewed. • Trophic chains allow determining the implication of trophic route in NP toxicity. • The use of microcosms and mesocosms allows studies at larger scale. • Data concerning NP fate and effects in environmental conditions are lacking. - Abstract: Despite the increasing production and use of nanoparticles (NPs), there is a lack of knowledge about their environmental fate and ecotoxicity. Studies in environmentally relevant conditions are necessary to better assess these parameters, but such studies are rather rare. The present work represents first time that studies on engineered NPs using environmentally relevant exposure methods have been reviewed. These exposure methods differ from standardized protocols and can be classified into three groups: experimental trophic chains that allow study of the trophic route, multi-species exposures under laboratory conditions that allow for complex but controlled exposure and outdoor exposures that are more similar to environmentally realistic conditions. The majority of studies of micro- or mesocosms have focused on NP partitioning and bioaccumulation. The other major parameter that has been studied is NP ecotoxicity, which has been assessed in single species, in single species via the trophic route, and at the community level. The induction of biochemical defense systems, immunomodulation, effects on growth and reproduction, behavioral alterations and mortality have been used as indicators of major toxicity, depending on the species studied. The major effects of NPs on both microbial and algal communities include modifications of community compositions and diversities, decreased biomass and changes in community activities

  9. Chronic widespread pain prevalence in the general population: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, P; Steultjens, M; Riskowski, J

    2018-01-01

    Chronic widespread pain (CWP) is a significant burden in communities. Understanding the impact of population-dependent (e.g., age, gender) and contextual-dependent (e.g. survey method, region, inequality level) factors have on CWP prevalence may provide a foundation for population-based strategies to address CWP. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to estimate the global prevalence of CWP and evaluate the population and contextual factors associated with CWP. A systematic review of CWP prevalence studies (1990-2017) in the general population was undertaken. Meta-analyses were conducted to determine CWP prevalence, and study population data and contextual factors were evaluated using a meta-regression. Thirty-nine manuscripts met the inclusion criteria. Study CWP prevalence ranged from 1.4% to 24.0%, with CWP prevalence in men ranging from 0.8% to 15.3% and 1.7% to 22.1% in women. Estimated overall CWP prevalence was 9.6% (8.0-11.2%). Meta-regression analyses showed gender, United Nations country development status, and human development index (HDI) influenced CWP prevalence, while survey method, region, methodological and reporting quality, and inequality showed no significant effect on the CWP estimate. Globally CWP affects one in ten individuals within the general population, with women more likely to experience CWP than men. HDI was noted to be the socioeconomic factor related to CWP prevalence, with those in more developed countries having a lower CWP prevalence than those in less developed countries. Most CWP estimates were from developed countries, and CWP estimates from countries with a lower socioeconomic position is needed to further refine the global estimate of CWP. This systematic review and meta-analysis updates the current global CWP prevalence by examining the population-level (e.g. age, gender) and contextual (e.g. country development status; survey style; reporting and methodologic quality) factors associated with CWP prevalence. This analyses

  10. Review of paediatric cardiology services in district general hospitals in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Hannah; Singh, Yogen

    2016-03-01

    Following the Safe and Sustainable review of Paediatric Services in 2012/2013, National Health Service England recommended that local paediatric cardiology services should be provided by specially trained paediatricians with expertise in cardiology in all non-specialist hospitals. To understand the variation in local paediatric cardiology services provided across district general hospitals in the United Kingdom. An internet-based questionnaire was sent out via the Paediatrician with Expertise in Cardiology Special Interest Group and the Neonatologists with Interest in Cardiology and Haemodynamics contact databases and the National Health Service directory. Non-responders were followed-up via telephone. The response rate was 80% (141 of 177 hospitals), and paediatricians with expertise in cardiology were available in 68% of those. Local cardiology clinics led by paediatricians with expertise in cardiology were provided in 96 hospitals (68%), whereas specialist outreach clinics were held in 123 centres (87%). A total of 11 hospitals provided neither specialist outreach clinics nor any local cardiology clinics led by paediatricians with expertise in cardiology. Paediatric echocardiography services were provided in 83% of the hospitals, 12-lead electrocardiogram in 96%, Holter electrocardiogram in 91%, and exercise testing in only 47% of the responding hospitals. Telemedicine facilities were established in only 52% of the centres, where sharing echocardiogram images via picture archiving and communication system was used most commonly. There has been a substantial increase in the availability of paediatricians with expertise in cardiology since 2008. Most of the hospitals are well-supported by specialist cardiology centres via outreach clinics; however, there remains significant variation in the local paediatric cardiology services provided across district general hospitals in the United Kingdom.

  11. The Approach of General Surgeons to Oncoplastic and Reconstructive Breast Surgery in Turkey: A Survey of Practice Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Emiroğlu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oncoplastic Breast Surgery (OBS, which is a combination of oncological procedures and plastic surgery techniques, has recently gained widespread use. Aims: To assess the experiences, practice patterns and preferred approaches to Oncoplastic and Reconstructive Breast Surgery (ORBS undertaken by general surgeons specializing in breast surgery in Turkey. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: Between December 2013 and February 2014, an eleven-question survey was distributed among 208 general surgeons specializing in breast surgery. The questions focused on the attitudes of general surgeons toward performing oncoplastic breast surgery (OBS, the role of the general surgeon in OBS and their training for it as well as their approaches to evaluating cosmetic outcomes in Breast Conserving Surgery (BCS and informing patients about ORBS preoperatively. Results: Responses from all 208 surgeons indicated that 79.8% evaluated the cosmetic outcomes of BCS, while 94.2% informed their patients preoperatively about ORBS. 52.5% performed BCS (31.3% themselves, 21.1% together with a plastic surgeon. 53.8% emphasized that general surgeons should carry out OBS themselves. 36.1% of respondents suggested that OBS training should be included within mainstream surgical training, whereas 27.4% believed this training should be conducted by specialised centres. Conclusion: Although OBS procedure rates are low in Turkey, it is encouraging to see general surgeons practicing ORBS themselves. The survey demonstrates that our general surgeons aspire to learn and utilize OBS techniques.

  12. Alternate Solution to Generalized Bernoulli Equations via an Integrating Factor: An Exact Differential Equation Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisdell, C. C.

    2017-01-01

    Solution methods to exact differential equations via integrating factors have a rich history dating back to Euler (1740) and the ideas enjoy applications to thermodynamics and electromagnetism. Recently, Azevedo and Valentino presented an analysis of the generalized Bernoulli equation, constructing a general solution by linearizing the problem…

  13. Testing for Spanning with Futrures Contracts and Nontraded Assets : A General Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijman, T.E.; de Roon, F.A.; Werker, B.J.M.

    1996-01-01

    This paper generalizes the notion of mean-variance spanning as de- ned in the seminal paper of Huberman & Kandel (1987) in three di- mensions.It is shown how regression techniques can be used to test for spanning for more general classes of utility functions, in case some as- sets are nontraded, and

  14. Constructing conditionally integrable evolution systems in (1+1) dimensions: a generalization of invariant modules approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sergyeyev, A.

    2002-01-01

    Given a generalized (Lie-Baecklund) vector field satisfying certain nondegeneracy assumptions, we explicitly describe all (1+1)-dimensional evolution systems that admit this vector field as a generalized conditional symmetry. The connection with the theory of symmetries of systems of ODEs and with the theory of invariant modules is discussed. (author)

  15. Quality aspects of Dutch general practice based data : A conceptual approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Dungen, C.; Hoeymans, N.; Schellevis, F.G.; van Oers, J.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Background. General practice–based data, collected within general practice registration networks (GPRNs), are widely used in research. The quality of the data is important but the recording criteria about what type of information is collected and how this information should be recorded differ

  16. Diagnostic approach to urinary tract infections in male general practice patients: a national surveillance study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijer, C.D.J. den; Dongen, M.C.J.M. van; Donker, G.A.; Stobberingh, E.E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Diagnostic urinary tract infection (UTI) studies have primarily been performed among female patients. Aim: To create a diagnostic algorithm for male general practice patients suspected of UTI. Design and setting: Surveillance study in the Dutch Sentinel General Practice Network. Method:

  17. Multimodal approach to identifying malingered posttraumatic stress disorder: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Shahid; Jabeen, Shagufta; Alam, Farzana

    2015-01-01

    The primary aim of this article is to aid clinicians in differentiating true posttraumatic stress disorder from malingered posttraumatic stress disorder. Posttraumatic stress disorder and malingering are defined, and prevalence rates are explored. Similarities and differences in diagnostic criteria between the fourth and fifth editions of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders are described for posttraumatic stress disorder. Possible motivations for malingering posttraumatic stress disorder are discussed, and common characteristics of malingered posttraumatic stress disorder are described. A multimodal approach is described for evaluating posttraumatic stress disorder, including interview techniques, collection of collateral data, and psychometric and physiologic testing, that should allow clinicians to distinguish between those patients who are truly suffering from posttraumatic disorder and those who are malingering the illness.

  18. Review Essay: Rethinking Gender Justice a Transnational Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siim, Birte

    2015-01-01

    Ambivalence” is one reason for feminists to be concerned about Fraser’s new theoretical and political approach. Here Fraser uses Karl Polanyi’s classical book: ’The Great Transformation’ (1944) as inspiration to rethink the character of the present political-economic crisis, social justice...... and the emancipatory potentials of feminism. The ambitious aim of the book is to contribute to feminism’s theoretical and political project in a globalized world. The title:’Fortunes of Feminism’, the prologue and the book’s structure as a drama in three acts all refer to Fraser’s interpretation of the evolution...... in in Justice Interruptus; two articles have only appeared in French It is therefore great to have a collection of some of her best articles, but the question is what gender researchers can learn from this book? To me, the final chapter: ”Between Marketization and Social Protection: Resolving the Feminist...

  19. Fetal MRI: An approach to practice: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahar N. Saleem

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available MRI has been increasingly used for detailed visualization of the fetus in utero as well as pregnancy structures. Yet, the familiarity of radiologists and clinicians with fetal MRI is still limited. This article provides a practical approach to fetal MR imaging. Fetal MRI is an interactive scanning of the moving fetus owed to the use of fast sequences. Single-shot fast spin-echo (SSFSE T2-weighted imaging is a standard sequence. T1-weighted sequences are primarily used to demonstrate fat, calcification and hemorrhage. Balanced steady-state free-precession (SSFP, are beneficial in demonstrating fetal structures as the heart and vessels. Diffusion weighted imaging (DWI, MR spectroscopy (MRS, and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI have potential applications in fetal imaging. Knowing the developing fetal MR anatomy is essential to detect abnormalities. MR evaluation of the developing fetal brain should include recognition of the multilayered-appearance of the cerebral parenchyma, knowledge of the timing of sulci appearance, myelination and changes in ventricular size. With advanced gestation, fetal organs as lungs and kidneys show significant changes in volume and T2-signal. Through a systematic approach, the normal anatomy of the developing fetus is shown to contrast with a wide spectrum of fetal disorders. The abnormalities displayed are graded in severity from simple common lesions to more complex rare cases. Complete fetal MRI is fulfilled by careful evaluation of the placenta, umbilical cord and amniotic cavity. Accurate interpretation of fetal MRI can provide valuable information that helps prenatal counseling, facilitate management decisions, guide therapy, and support research studies.

  20. A review of the theoretical and numerical approaches to modeling skyglow: Iterative approach to RTE, MSOS, and two-stream approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocifaj, Miroslav

    2016-01-01

    The study of diffuse light of a night sky is undergoing a renaissance due to the development of inexpensive high performance computers which can significantly reduce the time needed for accurate numerical simulations. Apart from targeted field campaigns, numerical modeling appears to be one of the most attractive and powerful approaches for predicting the diffuse light of a night sky. However, computer-aided simulation of night-sky radiances over any territory and under arbitrary conditions is a complex problem that is difficult to solve. This study addresses three concepts for modeling the artificial light propagation through a turbid stratified atmosphere. Specifically, these are two-stream approximation, iterative approach to Radiative Transfer Equation (RTE) and Method of Successive Orders of Scattering (MSOS). The principles of the methods, their strengths and weaknesses are reviewed with respect to their implications for night-light modeling in different environments. - Highlights: • Three methods for modeling nightsky radiance are reviewed. • The two-stream approximation allows for rapid calculation of radiative fluxes. • The above approach is convenient for modeling large uniformly emitting areas. • SOS is applicable to heterogeneous deployment of well-separated cities or towns. • MSOS is generally CPU less-intensive than traditional 3D RTE.

  1. A critical review on textile wastewater treatments: Possible approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holkar, Chandrakant R; Jadhav, Ananda J; Pinjari, Dipak V; Mahamuni, Naresh M; Pandit, Aniruddha B

    2016-11-01

    Waste water is a major environmental impediment for the growth of the textile industry besides the other minor issues like solid waste and resource waste management. Textile industry uses many kinds of synthetic dyes and discharge large amounts of highly colored wastewater as the uptake of these dyes by fabrics is very poor. This highly colored textile wastewater severely affects photosynthetic function in plant. It also has an impact on aquatic life due to low light penetration and oxygen consumption. It may also be lethal to certain forms of marine life due to the occurrence of component metals and chlorine present in the synthetic dyes. So, this textile wastewater must be treated before their discharge. In this article, different treatment methods to treat the textile wastewater have been presented along with cost per unit volume of treated water. Treatment methods discussed in this paper involve oxidation methods (cavitation, photocatalytic oxidation, ozone, H2O2, fentons process), physical methods (adsorption and filtration), biological methods (fungi, algae, bacteria, microbial fuel cell). This review article will also recommend the possible remedial measures to treat different types of effluent generated from each textile operation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Physicochemical Properties, Biological Activity, Health Benefits, and General Limitations of Aged Black Garlic: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Ji Hyeon; Kang, Dawon

    2017-06-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum) has been used as a medicinal food since ancient times. However, some people are reluctant to ingest raw garlic due to its unpleasant odor and taste. Therefore, many types of garlic preparations have been developed to reduce these attributes without losing biological functions. Aged black garlic (ABG) is a garlic preparation with a sweet and sour taste and no strong odor. It has recently been introduced to Asian markets as a functional food. Extensive in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated that ABG has a variety of biological functions such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, anti-obesity, anti-diabetic, anti-allergic, cardioprotective, and hepatoprotective effects. Recent studies have compared the biological activity and function of ABG to those of raw garlic. ABG shows lower anti-inflammatory, anti-coagulation, immunomodulatory, and anti-allergic effects compared to raw garlic. This paper reviews the physicochemical properties, biological activity, health benefits, adverse effects, and general limitations of ABG.

  3. Trans Fat Intake and Its Dietary Sources in General Populations Worldwide: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne J. Wanders

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available After the discovery that trans fat increases the risk of coronary heart disease, trans fat content of foods have considerably changed. The aim of this study was to systematically review available data on intakes of trans fat and its dietary sources in general populations worldwide. Data from national dietary surveys and population studies published from 1995 onward were searched via Scopus and websites of national public health institutes. Relevant data from 29 countries were identified. The most up to date estimates of total trans fat intake ranged from 0.3 to 4.2 percent of total energy intake (En% across countries. Seven countries had trans fat intakes higher than the World Health Organization recommendation of 1 En%. In 16 out of 21 countries with data on dietary sources, intakes of trans fat from animal sources were higher than that from industrial sources. Time trend data from 20 countries showed substantial declines in industrial trans fat intake since 1995. In conclusion, nowadays, in the majority of countries for which data are available, average trans fat intake is lower than the recommended maximum intake of 1 En%, with intakes from animal sources being higher than from industrial sources. In the past 20 years, substantial reductions in industrial trans fat have been achieved in many countries.

  4. Retrospective chart review of elderly patients receiving electroconvulsive therapy in a tertiary general hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosam Phirke

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT is the one of the oldest and effective treatments in psychiatry today. It has been used in a wide variety of psychiatric disorders in both young and old patients. Aims of the study: The present study is a retrospective chart review of geriatric patients receiving ECT as a treatment option in a tertiary care general hospital psychiatry setting. Methodology: The study evaluated ECT records over a 5-year period between the years 2010 and 2014, and it was observed that 23 elderly patients (aged ≥60 years had received ECT. Results: The patients received modified bitemporal ECT using a brief pulse ECT machine and had no major complications. A total of 184 ECT treatments were administered at an average of 8 treatments per case. The major diagnoses of patients were schizophrenia and major depression. The main indications of ECT were intolerance to medication, suicidal behavior and aggression. Out of the 23 elderly patients, 18 (78.26% showed a good response to ECT. The only complication noted was memory loss and confusion in 3 cases. Patients with medical illnesses like hypertension, diabetes and both together received ECT without any complications. Conclusions: This study adds to the scarce database on the use of ECT in elderly patients in India and adds evidence to the fact that ECT is a safe and effective treatment in the elderly.

  5. Systematic review and meta-analysis of dropout rates in individual psychotherapy for generalized anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gersh, Elon; Hallford, David J; Rice, Simon M; Kazantzis, Nikolaos; Gersh, Hannah; Gersh, Benji; McCarty, Carolyn A

    2017-12-01

    Despite being a relatively prevalent and debilitating disorder, Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) is the second least studied anxiety disorder and among the most difficult to treat. Dropout from psychotherapy is concerning as it is associated with poorer outcomes, leads to service inefficiencies and can disproportionately affect disadvantaged populations. No study to date has calculated a weighted mean dropout rate for GAD and explored associated correlates. A systematic review was conducted using PsycINFO, Medline and Embase databases, identifying studies investigating individual psychotherapies for adults with GAD. Forty-five studies, involving 2224 participants, were identified for meta-analysis. The weighted mean dropout rate was 16.99% (95% confidence interval 14.42%-19.91%). The Q-statistic indicated significant heterogeneity among studies. Moderator analysis and meta-regressions indicated no statistically significant effect of client age, sex, symptom severity, comorbidity, treatment type, study type (randomized trial or not), study quality, number of sessions or therapist experience. In research investigating psychotherapy for GAD, approximately one in six clients can be expected to drop out of treatment. Dropout rate was not significantly moderated by the client, therapist or treatment variables investigated. Future research should specify the definition of dropout, reasons for dropout and associated correlates to assist the field's progression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Physicochemical Properties, Biological Activity, Health Benefits, and General Limitations of Aged Black Garlic: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Hyeon Ryu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Garlic (Allium sativum has been used as a medicinal food since ancient times. However, some people are reluctant to ingest raw garlic due to its unpleasant odor and taste. Therefore, many types of garlic preparations have been developed to reduce these attributes without losing biological functions. Aged black garlic (ABG is a garlic preparation with a sweet and sour taste and no strong odor. It has recently been introduced to Asian markets as a functional food. Extensive in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated that ABG has a variety of biological functions such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, anti-obesity, anti-diabetic, anti-allergic, cardioprotective, and hepatoprotective effects. Recent studies have compared the biological activity and function of ABG to those of raw garlic. ABG shows lower anti-inflammatory, anti-coagulation, immunomodulatory, and anti-allergic effects compared to raw garlic. This paper reviews the physicochemical properties, biological activity, health benefits, adverse effects, and general limitations of ABG.

  7. Trans Fat Intake and Its Dietary Sources in General Populations Worldwide: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanders, Anne J.; Zock, Peter L.; Brouwer, Ingeborg A.

    2017-01-01

    After the discovery that trans fat increases the risk of coronary heart disease, trans fat content of foods have considerably changed. The aim of this study was to systematically review available data on intakes of trans fat and its dietary sources in general populations worldwide. Data from national dietary surveys and population studies published from 1995 onward were searched via Scopus and websites of national public health institutes. Relevant data from 29 countries were identified. The most up to date estimates of total trans fat intake ranged from 0.3 to 4.2 percent of total energy intake (En%) across countries. Seven countries had trans fat intakes higher than the World Health Organization recommendation of 1 En%. In 16 out of 21 countries with data on dietary sources, intakes of trans fat from animal sources were higher than that from industrial sources. Time trend data from 20 countries showed substantial declines in industrial trans fat intake since 1995. In conclusion, nowadays, in the majority of countries for which data are available, average trans fat intake is lower than the recommended maximum intake of 1 En%, with intakes from animal sources being higher than from industrial sources. In the past 20 years, substantial reductions in industrial trans fat have been achieved in many countries. PMID:28783062

  8. Polyphenol-rich food general and on pregnancy effects: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Marla; Baierle, Marília; Charão, Mariele F; Bubols, Guilherme B; Gravina, Fernanda S; Zielinsky, Paulo; Arbo, Marcelo D; Cristina Garcia, Solange

    2017-07-01

    This review aimed to investigate possible protective or deleterious effects of polyphenol-rich foods (PRF) on chronic diseases, e.g. cardiovascular, and in pregnant women, along with their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory action. A great variety of foods and beverages, such as herbal teas, grape and orange derivatives, dark chocolate, and many others contain high concentrations of flavonoids and are freely consumed by the general population. In humans, PRF consumption reduces lipid peroxidation, and several studies have shown a positive correlation between an increased consumption of PRF and a decrease in the incidence of cardiovascular disease. On the other hand, current studies have suggested that maternal ingestion of PRF, especially during the third trimester of pregnancy, could be associated to fetal ductal constriction (DC). Fetuses exposed to this type of diet show higher ductal velocities and lower pulsatility indexes, as well as larger right ventricles than those exposed to minimal amounts of these substances. The underlying mechanism involved in these conditions has not been entirely elucidated, but it seems to be a result of the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of polyphenols by some pathway. Furthermore, taking into account the deleterious effect in late-pregnancy against the numerous positive effects associated to polyphenols, this dual behavior deserves attention particularly to control the dietary ingestion of PRF during gestation. In this line, same PRF, natural constituents of human diet, may represent risk to fetal in late pregnancy compared to the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

  9. Variation of Student Numerical and Figural Reasoning Approaches by Pattern Generalization Type, Strategy Use and Grade Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Mouhayar, Rabih; Jurdak, Murad

    2016-01-01

    This paper explored variation of student numerical and figural reasoning approaches across different pattern generalization types and across grade level. An instrument was designed for this purpose. The instrument was given to a sample of 1232 students from grades 4 to 11 from five schools in Lebanon. Analysis of data showed that the numerical…

  10. Elementary Students' Generalization and Representation of Functional Relationships: A Learning Progressions Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Ana; Fonger, Nicole L.; Blanton, Maria; Knuth, Eric

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we describe our learning progressions approach to early algebra research that involves the coordination of a curricular framework, an instructional sequence, written assessments, and levels of sophistication describing the development of students' thinking. We focus in particular on what we have learning through this approach about…

  11. Recent approaches in food bio-preservation - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Veer Pal

    2018-01-01

    Bio-preservation is a technique of extending the shelf life of food by using natural or controlled microbiota or antimicrobials. The fermentation products as well as beneficial bacteria are generally selected in this process to control spoilage and render pathogen inactive. The special interest organism or central organism used for this purpose is lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and their metabolites. They are capable to exhibit antimicrobial properties and helpful in imparting unique flavour and texture to the food products. The major compounds produced by LAB are bacteriocin, organic acids and hydrogen peroxide. Bacteriocin is peptides or proteins with antimicrobial activity. On the basis of size, structure and post-translational modification, bacteriocin is divided into four different classes. Due to non-toxic, non-immunogenic, thermo-resistance characteristics and broad bactericidal activity, LAB bacteriocins are considered good bio-preservative agents. The most common LAB bactriocin is nisin which has wider applications in food industry and has been Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved. Nisin and other bacteriocin are being used in vegetables products, dairy and meat industries. Apart from LAB metabolites, bacteriophages and endolysins has promising role in food processing, preservation and safety. Bacteriocins and endolysins are more suitable for DNA shuffling and protein engineering to generate highly potent variants with expanded activity spectrum. Genetically modified bacteriophages may also be helpful in bio-preservation, however; their safety issues must be addressed properly before selection as bio-preservative agent.

  12. Recent approaches in food bio-preservation - a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veer Pal Singh

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Bio-preservation is a technique of extending the shelf life of food by using natural or controlled microbiota or antimicrobials. The fermentation products as well as beneficial bacteria are generally selected in this process to control spoilage and render pathogen inactive. The special interest organism or central organism used for this purpose is lactic acid bacteria (LAB and their metabolites. They are capable to exhibit antimicrobial properties and helpful in imparting unique flavour and texture to the food products. The major compounds produced by LAB are bacteriocin, organic acids and hydrogen peroxide. Bacteriocin is peptides or proteins with antimicrobial activity. On the basis of size, structure and post-translational modification, bacteriocin is divided into four different classes. Due to non-toxic, non-immunogenic, thermo-resistance characteristics and broad bactericidal activity, LAB bacteriocins are considered good bio-preservative agents. The most common LAB bactriocin is nisin which has wider applications in food industry and has been Food and Drug Administration (FDA approved. Nisin and other bacteriocin are being used in vegetables products, dairy and meat industries. Apart from LAB metabolites, bacteriophages and endolysins has promising role in food processing, preservation and safety. Bacteriocins and endolysins are more suitable for DNA shuffling and protein engineering to generate highly potent variants with expanded activity spectrum. Genetically modified bacteriophages may also be helpful in bio-preservation, however; their safety issues must be addressed properly before selection as bio-preservative agent.

  13. Surgery for adult patients with obstructive sleep apnoea: A review for general practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Nga T; Wallwork, Benjamin; Panizza, Benedict

    2016-08-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is a complex disease process that involves collapse of the upper airway during sleep and subsequent reduction or cessation of airflow. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is the primary treatment for OSA and is the recommended first-line treatment for patients with moderate-to-severe forms of the disease. However, some patients are unable to tolerate CPAP or are unwilling to accept it as a form of permanent management. In these cases, surgical management aimed at addressing anatomical obstruction may be useful and warranted. This article presents an overview of the surgical options available for OSA. The review also describes a useful approach for selecting appropriate patients for surgery. On the basis of an OSA model that accounts for observed increased risk of stroke, cardiovascular disease and motor vehicle accidents, there is evidence to support that surgery is beneficial and cost-effective for patients with severe OSA who are intolerant of CPAP. There are many surgical options available for OSA.

  14. Using text mining for study identification in systematic reviews: a systematic review of current approaches

    OpenAIRE

    O?Mara-Eves, Alison; Thomas, James; McNaught, John; Miwa, Makoto; Ananiadou, Sophia

    2015-01-01

    Background The large and growing number of published studies, and their increasing rate of publication, makes the task of identifying relevant studies in an unbiased way for inclusion in systematic reviews both complex and time consuming. Text mining has been offered as a potential solution: through automating some of the screening process, reviewer time can be saved. The evidence base around the use of text mining for screening has not yet been pulled together systematically; this systematic...

  15. Treatment and disposal of tyres: Two EU approaches. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torretta, Vincenzo; Rada, Elena Cristina; Ragazzi, Marco; Trulli, Ettore; Istrate, Irina Aura; Cioca, Lucian Ionel

    2015-11-01

    The treatment and disposal of tyres from vehicles has long been of considerable environmental importance. The main problem lies in the mixed composition of the tyres. Studies have been undertaken to modify the structure of the tyres, especially with reference to the percentage of granulated rubber incorporated, in order to improve their performance, and also to reduce their environmental impact during normal functioning (noise, particulates, etc.) and facilitate recycling and final disposal. The aim of the present study is to review and compare how used tyres are treated and disposed of in two different EU countries. The first is Italy, which has been part of the European Union since its inception, and has important industrial traditions. The second is Romania, an emerging country which recently became part of the EU, and whose economic and industrial development has had a major boost in recent years, with a strong growth in waste production, together with consumption in urban areas. The occasion was useful to consider the situation concerning the evolution of the different aspects related to the management of the end-of-life tyres. In particular, the paper considers the properties of tyre waste and their potential reuse, the enhancement of end-of-life tires and the various types of recovery, such as the reconstruction of tyres and the material recovery. The aspects related to the energy recovery and the use of the life cycle analysis, as a tool to support the choices of the best management system, were also taken into consideration, not forgetting that an adequate end-of-life planning is important when developing a sustainable product, since it can affect considerably its overall life cycle. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A review of occupational dose assessment uncertainties and approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, R. W.

    2004-01-01

    The Radiological Protection Practitioner (RPP) will spend a considerable proportion of his time predicting or assessing retrospective radiation exposures to occupational personnel for different purposes. The assessments can be for a variety of purposes, such as to predict doses for occupational dose control, or project design purposes or to make retrospective estimates for the dose record, or account for dosemeters which have been lost or damaged. There are other less frequent occasions when dose assessment will be required such as to support legal cases and compensation claims and to provide the detailed dose information for epidemiological studies. It is important that the level of detail, justification and supporting evidence in the dose assessment is suitable for the requirements. So for instance, day to day operational dose assessments often rely mainly on the knowledge of the RPP in discussion with operators whilst at the other end of the spectrum a historical dose assessment for a legal case will require substantial research and supporting evidence for the estimate to withstand forensic challenge. The robustness of the assessment will depend on many factors including a knowledge of the work activities, the radiation dose uptake and field characteristics; all of which are affected by factors such as the time elapsed, the memory of operators and the dosemeters employed. This paper reviews the various options and uncertainties in dose assessments ranging from use of personal dosimetry results to the development of upper bound assessments. The level of assessment, the extent of research and the evidence adduced should then be appropriate to the end use of the estimate. (Author)

  17. Neuromarketing empirical approaches and food choice: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasi, A; Songa, G; Mauri, M; Ciceri, A; Diotallevi, F; Nardone, G; Russo, V

    2018-06-01

    Consumers' food choices are often driven by reasons of which consumers are not fully aware. Decision-making about food is influenced by a complex set of emotions, feelings, attitudes, and values that are impossible to assess simply by asking consumers their opinions. Indeed, traditional techniques, such as self-reports or interviews, mainly allow the measurement of conscious and rational reactions to a product or advertising. Recently, there has been a rapidly growing interest in the multidisciplinary field of "neuromarketing," which takes advantage of neuroscientific techniques to study consumer behavior. This discipline applies neuroscientific methods and tools that allow the measurement of consumers' emotional and spontaneous reactions in a more objective and observable way. The aim of this paper is (a) to describe neuromarketing's underlying assumptions, techniques, and the advantages of this perspective, examining the scientific literature on the use of neuromarketing in food studies; and (b) to suggest best practices to apply this novel approach in the food marketing domain, with a specific focus on non-invasive methods. Finally, although the perception of nutritional elements has already been explored, the health content of labels, the presence of additives, and the evaluation of the information conveyed by food packaging remain other possible elements of interest in future food neuromarketing research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Book Review. Feeling Gender: A Generational and Psychological Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudy Rudy

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available As one of the phenomenal issues in the world, gender has always been an unfinished argument among experts, researchers, and academicians. With the growth of science and technology and the development of media in the 20th century, there have been many changes in perceiving gender. Topic on gender which was not widely discussed in academic forum has become an important topic nowadays. Studies and researches on gender have been in great progress since 1990s when more and more experts such as Judith Butler, Donna Haraway, etc. began to publish their writing on gender and sexuality. People started learning more about this issue. A common thing that people may understand is that there are biological and social factor which give a significant impact to gender categorizations (Fagot et al, 1997: 2. However, gender issues remain arguable topics from time to time. Era changes and one generation is replaced by another younger generations. From this condition, Harriet Bjerrum Nielsen, the professor at the Centre for Gender Research at the University of Oslo, Norway has shown her serious concern on how feelings of gender can change from one generation to another by observing the how men and women from some generations feel about their relationships toward their parents in order to reveal what gender really is to them. Therefore, this study incorporates a generational and psychological approach for analysis.

  19. Physical examination in undergraduate medical education in the field of general practice - a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moßhammer, Dirk; Graf, Joachim; Joos, Stefanie; Hertkorn, Rebekka

    2017-11-25

    Physical examination (PE) is an essential clinical skill and a central part of a physician's daily activity. Teaching of PE has been integrated into medical school by many clinical disciplines with respective specific examination procedures. For instance, PE teaching in general practice may include a full-body examination approach. Studies show that PE-skills of medical students often need enhancement. The aim of this article was to scope the literature regarding the teaching and research of PE within general practice during undergraduate medical education. We evaluated a wide breadth of literature relating to the content, study design, country of research institution and year of publication. Literature search in Medline along the PRISMA-P protocol was performed by search syntax ("physical examination" AND "medical education" AND "undergraduate" AND general practice) considering Medline MeSH (Medical Subject Heading)-Terms and Medline search term tree structure. Independent title, abstract and full-text screening with defined inclusion and exclusion criteria was performed. Full texts were analyzed by publication year, country of origin, study design and content (by categorizing articles along their main topic according to qualitative content analysis of Mayring). One-hundred seven articles were included. The annual number of publications ranged from 4 to 14 and had a slightly rising trend since 2000. Nearly half of the publications originated from the United States (n = 54), 33 from Canada and the United Kingdom. Overall, intervention studies represented the largest group (n = 60, including uncontrolled and controlled studies, randomized and non-randomized), followed by cross-sectional studies (n = 29). The 117 studies could be assigned to five categories "teaching methods (n = 53)", "teaching quality (n = 33)", "performance evaluation and examination formats (n=19)", "students' views (n = 8)" and "patients' and standardized patients' views

  20. A new approach to child mental health care within general practice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhaak, P.F.M.; Dijk, M. van; Walstock, D.; Zwaanswijk, M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Child and adolescent mental health problems are frequently not identified and properly treated within general practice. Politicians in the Netherlands are promoting more primary healthcare treatment for mental health problems. The current study aims to evaluate an integrated primary

  1. A CRITICAL NEEDS PLAN FOR GENERAL MOTORS: A CULTURAL PLURALISM APPROACH

    OpenAIRE

    Gregory W. Goussak; Jon K. Webber; Elliot M. Ser

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to create a critical needs plan for General Motors Corporation in the 21st century. General Motors (GM), once the most dominant manufacturer in the automotive industry, finds itself in financial crisis with a Chapter 11 bankruptcy and a necessary government infusion of capital. The foundation of this paper applies the Supportive Model as an effective strategy for creating a new corporate culture and focusing GM as a competitive manufacturer in the global automotiv...

  2. Purchasing a General Ticket for Public Transport - A Means-End Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Wittmer, Andreas; Riegler, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Switzerland offers a dense network of public transport means. The Swiss General Ticket (GT) is a popular travel pass, which allows the use of most of the public transport facilities in Switzerland. The buying behavior for public transport general tickets underlies a complex decision process. Public transport customers can deal with the complexity in two ways: either one decides on choice heuristics according to ones rather emotional beliefs or decides systematically based on a rational price ...

  3. Application of Generalized Hukuhara derivative approach in an economic production quantity model with partial trade credit policy under fuzzy environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinki Majumder

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this present study, a production inventory model with partial trade credit is formulated and solved in fuzzy environment via Generalized Hukuhara derivative approach. To capture the market, a supplier offers a trade credit period to its retailers. Due to this facility, retailer also offers a partial trade credit period to his/her customer to boost the demand of the item. In practical life situation, demands are generally dependent upon time. Constant demand of an item varies time to time. In this vague situation, demands are taken as time dependent, where its constant part is taken as Left Right - type fuzzy number. In this paper, Generalized Hukuhara derivative approach is used to solve the fuzzy inventory model. Four different cases are considered by using Generalized Hukuhara-(i differentiability and Generalized Hukuhara-(ii differentiability. The objective of this paper is to find out the optimal time so as the total inventory cost is minimum. Finally the model is solved by generalized reduced gradient method. The proposed model and technique are illustrated by numerical examples. Some sensitivity analyses both in tabular and graphical forms are presented and the effects of minimum cost with respect to various inventory parameters are discussed.

  4. 75 FR 4565 - General Services Administration Acquisition Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Industrial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-28

    ... Acquisition Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Industrial Funding Fee and Sales Reporting AGENCY... Management and Budget (OMB) a request to review and approve a reinstatement of a previously approved information collection requirement regarding industrial [[Page 4566

  5. Provisional safety analyses for SGT stage 2 -- Models, codes and general modelling approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-12-01

    In the framework of the provisional safety analyses for Stage 2 of the Sectoral Plan for Deep Geological Repositories (SGT), deterministic modelling of radionuclide release from the barrier system along the groundwater pathway during the post-closure period of a deep geological repository is carried out. The calculated radionuclide release rates are interpreted as annual effective dose for an individual and assessed against the regulatory protection criterion 1 of 0.1 mSv per year. These steps are referred to as dose calculations. Furthermore, from the results of the dose calculations so-called characteristic dose intervals are determined, which provide input to the safety-related comparison of the geological siting regions in SGT Stage 2. Finally, the results of the dose calculations are also used to illustrate and to evaluate the post-closure performance of the barrier systems under consideration. The principal objective of this report is to describe comprehensively the technical aspects of the dose calculations. These aspects comprise: · the generic conceptual models of radionuclide release from the solid waste forms, of radionuclide transport through the system of engineered and geological barriers, of radionuclide transfer in the biosphere, as well as of the potential radiation exposure of the population, · the mathematical models for the explicitly considered release and transport processes, as well as for the radiation exposure pathways that are included, · the implementation of the mathematical models in numerical codes, including an overview of these codes and the most relevant verification steps, · the general modelling approach when using the codes, in particular the generic assumptions needed to model the near field and the geosphere, along with some numerical details, · a description of the work flow related to the execution of the calculations and of the software tools that are used to facilitate the modelling process, and · an overview of the

  6. Provisional safety analyses for SGT stage 2 -- Models, codes and general modelling approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-12-15

    In the framework of the provisional safety analyses for Stage 2 of the Sectoral Plan for Deep Geological Repositories (SGT), deterministic modelling of radionuclide release from the barrier system along the groundwater pathway during the post-closure period of a deep geological repository is carried out. The calculated radionuclide release rates are interpreted as annual effective dose for an individual and assessed against the regulatory protection criterion 1 of 0.1 mSv per year. These steps are referred to as dose calculations. Furthermore, from the results of the dose calculations so-called characteristic dose intervals are determined, which provide input to the safety-related comparison of the geological siting regions in SGT Stage 2. Finally, the results of the dose calculations are also used to illustrate and to evaluate the post-closure performance of the barrier systems under consideration. The principal objective of this report is to describe comprehensively the technical aspects of the dose calculations. These aspects comprise: · the generic conceptual models of radionuclide release from the solid waste forms, of radionuclide transport through the system of engineered and geological barriers, of radionuclide transfer in the biosphere, as well as of the potential radiation exposure of the population, · the mathematical models for the explicitly considered release and transport processes, as well as for the radiation exposure pathways that are included, · the implementation of the mathematical models in numerical codes, including an overview of these codes and the most relevant verification steps, · the general modelling approach when using the codes, in particular the generic assumptions needed to model the near field and the geosphere, along with some numerical details, · a description of the work flow related to the execution of the calculations and of the software tools that are used to facilitate the modelling process, and · an overview of the

  7. BOOK REVIEW: Einstein's General Theory of Relativity—with Modern Applications in Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrabès, C.

    2008-09-01

    The increasing prominence of general relativity in astrophysics and cosmology is reflected in the growing number of texts, particularly at the undergraduate level. A natural attitude before opening a new one is to ask i) what makes this different from those already published? And ii) does it follow the 'physics-first approach' as for instance the book by Hartle where the basic physical concepts are introduced first with as little formalism as possible, or does it follow the more traditional 'math-first approach' for which the mathematical formalism comes first and is then applied to phyics? As announced in the title, a distinctive feature of the book by Gron and Hervik is the space (almost half the book) devoted to cosmology and in particular to some of the most recent developments in this rapidly evolving field. It is also apparent that the authors have chosen, like the majority of current books on general relativity, the 'math-first approach'. The book is divided into six parts, each of them subdivided into chapters with part VI containing a few short technical appendices. The first part of the book briefly presents in chapter I the principles of relativity, Newtonian mechanics and the Newtonian theory of gravity. In chapter II, a short introduction to special relativity is given. It seems at first surprising that the four-dimensional structure of space-time is not more fully exploited so that the reader would gain familiarity early on with notions like 4-velocity, 4-momentum and the stress energy tensor. This is in fact postponed to part II as an illustration of the mathematical formalism. The second part is devoted to those elements of differential geometry needed in this kind of course. The authors' presentation is somewhat similar to that of the books by Misner, Thorne and Wheeler and by Straumann (2nd edition). Vectors and forms are treated separately and the formalism of differential forms is introduced in detail. The various kinds of differentiation on

  8. Review of tri-generation technologies: Design evaluation, optimization, decision-making, and selection approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Moussawi, Houssein; Fardoun, Farouk; Louahlia-Gualous, Hasna

    2016-01-01

    diagram of the main CHP/CCHP system components is summarized. A general selection approach of the appropriate CCHP system according to specific needs is finally suggested. In almost all reviewed works, CCHP systems are found to have positive technical and performance impacts.

  9. A general approach to break the concentration barrier in single-molecule imaging

    KAUST Repository

    Loveland, Anna B.; Habuchi, Satoshi; Walter, Johannes C.; van Oijen, Antoine M.

    2012-01-01

    Single-molecule fluorescence imaging is often incompatible with physiological protein concentrations, as fluorescence background overwhelms an individual molecule's signal. We solve this problem with a new imaging approach called PhADE (Photo

  10. Operational intervention levels in a nuclear emergency, general concepts and a probabilistic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauritzen, B.; Baeverstam, U.; Naadland Holo, E.; Sinkko, K.

    1997-12-01

    This report deals with Operational Intervention Levels (OILs) in a nuclear or radiation emergency. OILs are defined as the values of environmental measurements, in particular dose rate measurements, above which specific protective actions should be carried out in emergency exposure situations. The derivation and the application of OILs are discussed, and an overview of the presently adopted values is provided, with emphasis on the situation in the Nordic countries. A new, probabilistic approach to derive OILs is presented and the method is illustrated by calculating dose rate OILs in a simplified setting. Contrary to the standard approach, the probabilistic approach allows for optimization of OILs. It is argued, that optimized OILs may be much larger than the presently adopted or suggested values. It is recommended, that the probabilistic approach is further developed and employed in determining site specific OILs and in optimizing environmental measuring strategies. (au)

  11. Estimating productivity costs using the friction cost approach in practice: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kigozi, Jesse; Jowett, Sue; Lewis, Martyn; Barton, Pelham; Coast, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    The choice of the most appropriate approach to valuing productivity loss has received much debate in the literature. The friction cost approach has been proposed as a more appropriate alternative to the human capital approach when valuing productivity loss, although its application remains limited. This study reviews application of the friction cost approach in health economic studies and examines how its use varies in practice across different country settings. A systematic review was performed to identify economic evaluation studies that have estimated productivity costs using the friction cost approach and published in English from 1996 to 2013. A standard template was developed and used to extract information from studies meeting the inclusion criteria. The search yielded 46 studies from 12 countries. Of these, 28 were from the Netherlands. Thirty-five studies reported the length of friction period used, with only 16 stating explicitly the source of the friction period. Nine studies reported the elasticity correction factor used. The reported friction cost approach methods used to derive productivity costs varied in quality across studies from different countries. Few health economic studies have estimated productivity costs using the friction cost approach. The estimation and reporting of productivity costs using this method appears to differ in quality by country. The review reveals gaps and lack of clarity in reporting of methods for friction cost evaluation. Generating reporting guidelines and country-specific parameters for the friction cost approach is recommended if increased application and accuracy of the method is to be realized.

  12. Recognition and management of perinatal depression and anxiety by general practitioners: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Elizabeth; Shakespeare, Judy; Elias, Fatin; Ayers, Susan

    2017-02-01

    Perinatal anxiety and depression are widespread, with up to 20% of women affected during pregnancy and after birth. In the UK, management of perinatal mental health falls under the remit of general practitioners (GPs). We reviewed the literature on GPs' routine recognition, diagnosis and management of anxiety and depression in the perinatal period. A systematic search of Embase, Medline, PsycInfo, Pubmed, Scopus and Web of Science was conducted. Studies were eligible if they reported quantitative measures of GPs' or Family Physicians' assessment, recognition and management of anxiety or depression in pregnancy or post-partum. Thirteen papers, reporting 10 studies, were identified from the United States, Australia, UK, Netherlands and Canada. All reported on depression; two included anxiety disorders. Reported awareness and ability to diagnose perinatal depression among GPs was high. GPs knew about and used screening tools in the UK but less so in US settings. Antidepressants were the first line of treatment, with various SSRIs considered safest. Counseling by GPs and referrals to specialists were common in the post-natal period, less so in pregnancy. Treatment choices were determined by resources, attitudes, knowledge and training. Data on GPs' awareness and management of perinatal depression were sparse and unlikely to be generalizable. Future directions for research are proposed; such as exploring the management of anxiety disorders which are largely missing from the literature, and understanding more about barriers to disclosure and recognition in primary care. More standardized training could help to improve recognition and management practices. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Patterns of Hamstring Muscle Tears in the General Population: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuske, Barbara; Hamilton, David F; Pattle, Sam B; Simpson, A Hamish R W

    2016-01-01

    Hamstring tears are well recognised in the sporting population. Little is known about these injuries in the general population. Evaluating the rates, patterns and risk factors of non-sporting hamstring tears, compared to sporting related hamstring tears. MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (1989-2015). Studies reporting patients with a grade 2 or 3 hamstring muscle tear, identified clinically, confirmed by MRI imaging or direct visualisation during surgical exploration. 144 sets of linked data were extracted for analysis. Most injuries were in males (81.3%), where mean age at injury was lower (30.2, 95% CI 29.1-31.3) than in females (35.4, 95% CI 32.4-38.4) p = 0.06. Key differences were found in the proportion of non-sporting injuries in patients under and over the age 40 (p = 0.001). The proportion of non-sporting injuries was significantly higher in females compared to males (25.9% female non-sporting injuries, versus 8.5% male; p = 0.02). Avulsions were more frequently reported in non-sporting activities (70.5%). The proportion of such injuries was notably higher in females, though this failed to meet significance (p = 0.124). Grouped by age category a bimodal distribution was noted, with the proportion of avulsions greater in younger (age 40) (p = 0.008). 86.8% of patients returned to pre-injury activity levels with a similar frequency across all study variables; age, activity (sporting vs non-sporting) and injury type (avulsion vs tear). This review highlights a proportion of adults suffering grade 2 or 3 hamstring injuries from activities other than the classic sports trauma. The majority of these non-sporting injuries were avulsion injuries that clustered in older female and skeletally immature patients suggesting a potential link to bone mineral density.

  14. Patterns of Hamstring Muscle Tears in the General Population: A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Kuske

    Full Text Available Hamstring tears are well recognised in the sporting population. Little is known about these injuries in the general population.Evaluating the rates, patterns and risk factors of non-sporting hamstring tears, compared to sporting related hamstring tears.MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (1989-2015.Studies reporting patients with a grade 2 or 3 hamstring muscle tear, identified clinically, confirmed by MRI imaging or direct visualisation during surgical exploration.144 sets of linked data were extracted for analysis. Most injuries were in males (81.3%, where mean age at injury was lower (30.2, 95% CI 29.1-31.3 than in females (35.4, 95% CI 32.4-38.4 p = 0.06. Key differences were found in the proportion of non-sporting injuries in patients under and over the age 40 (p = 0.001. The proportion of non-sporting injuries was significantly higher in females compared to males (25.9% female non-sporting injuries, versus 8.5% male; p = 0.02. Avulsions were more frequently reported in non-sporting activities (70.5%. The proportion of such injuries was notably higher in females, though this failed to meet significance (p = 0.124. Grouped by age category a bimodal distribution was noted, with the proportion of avulsions greater in younger (age 40 (p = 0.008. 86.8% of patients returned to pre-injury activity levels with a similar frequency across all study variables; age, activity (sporting vs non-sporting and injury type (avulsion vs tear.This review highlights a proportion of adults suffering grade 2 or 3 hamstring injuries from activities other than the classic sports trauma. The majority of these non-sporting injuries were avulsion injuries that clustered in older female and skeletally immature patients suggesting a potential link to bone mineral density.

  15. Pathologic findings of Whipple pancreaticoduodenectomy: a 5-year review on 51 cases at Taleghani general hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foroughi, Forough; Mohsenifar, Zhaleh; Ahmadvand, Alireza; Zare, Khandan

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to comprehensively analyze histopathologic parameters of Whipple pancreaticoduodenectomy specimens at Taleghani general hospital pathology department. The Whipple procedure is performed for variety of tumors involving the head of the pancreas, ampulla of Vater, common bile duct, or duodenum. Records of all cases of Whipple pancreaticoduodenectomy between 2007 and 2011were retrospectively reviewed and pathological details of diagnosis and staging were extracted. A total of 51 patients underwent Whipple procedure during a 5-year period, including 37 males and 14 females. The average age was 57 years (18-82 years). The most frequent presenting symptoms were jaundice and weight loss. Forty-four patients (86.3%) had malignant and 7 (13.7%) had benign lesions. Among malignant lesions, 27 (61.4%) were ampullary carcinomas, 12 (27.3%) were pancreatic carcinomas and 5 (11.4%) were cholangiocarcinomas. The pathological stage of most of the tumors was T3 (50%); followed by T2 (29.5%), and T1 (15.9%); only 4.5% were T4. Mean tumor size was 2.8 cm (0.2-7 cm). Duodenal and common bile duct margins were tumor-free in most cases (95.5 %). The pancreatic margin was free in 81.8% of patients; this margin had not been evaluated in 5 patients. Nearly 38.6% of all tumors showed vascular invasion while 68.2% showed perineural invasion. The average number of dissected lymph nodes was 4 (range 1-15); although in 25% of specimens, no lymph nodes had been found. Twelve specimens (35.3%) had lymph node metastases. The present study demonstrates that most of our patients are diagnosed with malignancy, at advanced stage, and further research is needed to develop practical methods for earlier diagnosis. The fact that 25% of specimens had no lymph nodes needs more consideration.

  16. Moving beyond the Emphasis on Bullying: A Generalized Approach to Peer Aggression in High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoghue, Christopher; Raia-Hawrylak, Alicia

    2016-01-01

    Heightened attention to bullying in research and in the media has led to a proliferation of school climate surveys that ask students to report their level of involvement in bullying. In this study, the authors reviewed the challenges associated with measuring bullying and the implications they have on the reliability of school climate surveys.…

  17. Modeling approaches of competitive sorption and transport of trace metals and metalloids in soils: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selim, H M; Zhang, Hua

    2013-01-01

    Competition among various heavy metal species for available adsorption sites on soil matrix surfaces can enhance the mobility of contaminants in the soil environment. Accurate predictions of the fate and behavior of heavy metals in soils and geologic media requires the understanding of the underlying competitive-sorption and transport processes. In this review, we present equilibrium and kinetic models for competitive heavy metal sorption and transport in soils. Several examples are summarized to illustrate the impact of competing ions on the reactivities and mobility of heavy metals in the soil-water environment. We demonstrate that equilibrium Freundlich approaches can be extended to account for competitive sorption of cations and anions with the incorporation of competition coefficients associated with each reaction. Furthermore, retention models of the multiple-reaction type including the two-site nonlinear equilibrium-kinetic models and the concurrent- and consecutive-multireaction models were modified to describe commonly observed time-dependent behaviors of heavy metals in soils. We also show that equilibrium Langmuir and kinetic second-order models can be extended to simulate the competitive sorption and transport in soils, although the use of such models is limited due to their simplifying assumptions. A major drawback of the empirically based Freundlich and Langmuir approaches is that their associated parameters are specific for each soil. Alternatively, geochemical models that are based on ion-exchange and surface-complexation concepts are capable of quantifying the competitive behavior of several chemical species under a wide range of environmental conditions. Such geochemical models, however, are incapable of describing the time-dependent sorption behavior of heavy metal ions in competitive systems. Further research is needed to develop a general-purpose model based on physical and chemical mechanisms governing competitive sorption in soils. Copyright

  18. The chain rule implies Tsirelson's bound: an approach from generalized mutual information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakakuwa, Eyuri; Murao, Mio

    2012-01-01

    In order to analyze an information theoretical derivation of Tsirelson's bound based on information causality, we introduce a generalized mutual information (GMI), defined as the optimal coding rate of a channel with classical inputs and general probabilistic outputs. In the case where the outputs are quantum, the GMI coincides with the quantum mutual information. In general, the GMI does not necessarily satisfy the chain rule. We prove that Tsirelson's bound can be derived by imposing the chain rule on the GMI. We formulate a principle, which we call the no-supersignaling condition, which states that the assistance of nonlocal correlations does not increase the capability of classical communication. We prove that this condition is equivalent to the no-signaling condition. As a result, we show that Tsirelson's bound is implied by the nonpositivity of the quantitative difference between information causality and no-supersignaling. (paper)

  19. Shock-jump conditions in a general medium: weak-solution approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, L. K.; Krzysik, O. A.

    2017-05-01

    General conservation laws are considered, and the concept of a weak solution is extended to the case of an equation involving three space variables and time. Four-dimensional vector calculus is used to develop general jump conditions at a shock wave in the material. To illustrate the use of this result, jump conditions at a shock in unsteady three-dimensional compressible gas flow are presented. It is then proved rigorously that these reduce to the commonly assumed conditions in coordinates normal and tangential to the shock face. A similar calculation is also outlined for an unsteady three-dimensional shock in magnetohydrodynamics, and in a chemically reactive fluid. The technique is available for determining shock-jump conditions in quite general continuous media.

  20. A revolutionary approach to composite construction and flight management systems for small, general aviation airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roskam, Jan; Wenninger, ED

    1992-01-01

    The design studies for two composite general aviation airplanes are presented. The main consideration for both of the designs was to avoid the typical 'metal replacement' philosophy that has hindered the widespread use of composites in general aviation aircraft. The first design is for a low wing aircraft based on the Smith Aircraft Corporation GT-3 Global Trainer. The second aircraft is a composite version of the Cessna 152. The project was conducted as a graduate level design class under the auspices of the KU/NASA/USRA Advanced Design Program in aeronautics. The results obtained from the Fall semester of 1991 and the Spring semester of 1992 are presented.

  1. Generalized Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov approach in the description of many-body systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janssen, D.

    1979-01-01

    The quantum mechanical equation for a group of states connected by large probabilities of transitions to each other, i.e. possessing common internal structure, is found. No phenomenological assumptions about the vibrational or rotational character of these states have been used. The equations obtained here can be understood as a direct generalization of the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov equation, this scheme including not only the ground state, but some excited states as well. The question of normalization of the density matrix in the generalized space has been solved and the additional solutions of the problem have been excluded. (author)

  2. CoSpa: A Co-training Approach for Spam Review Identification with Support Vector Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Zhang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Spam reviews are increasingly appearing on the Internet to promote sales or defame competitors by misleading consumers with deceptive opinions. This paper proposes a co-training approach called CoSpa (Co-training for Spam review identification to identify spam reviews by two views: one is the lexical terms derived from the textual content of the reviews and the other is the PCFG (Probabilistic Context-Free Grammars rules derived from a deep syntax analysis of the reviews. Using SVM (Support Vector Machine as the base classifier, we develop two strategies, CoSpa-C and CoSpa-U, embedded within the CoSpa approach. The CoSpa-C strategy selects unlabeled reviews classified with the largest confidence to augment the training dataset to retrain the classifier. The CoSpa-U strategy randomly selects unlabeled reviews with a uniform distribution of confidence. Experiments on the spam dataset and the deception dataset demonstrate that both the proposed CoSpa algorithms outperform the traditional SVM with lexical terms and PCFG rules in spam review identification. Moreover, the CoSpa-U strategy outperforms the CoSpa-C strategy when we use the absolute value of decision function of SVM as the confidence.

  3. 77 FR 1549 - Generalized System of Preferences (GSP): Notice of the Results of the 2010 GSP Annual Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-10

    ... OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Generalized System of Preferences (GSP): Notice...-free importation of eligible articles when imported from designated beneficiary developing countries... review and the recommendation of the U.S. Trade Representative, President Obama removed one product...

  4. Promoting Clinical Reasoning in Undergraduate Physical Therapy Education: A Review of Strategies and Approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brekke, Anders Falk

    2015-01-01

    Title: Promoting Clinical Reasoning in Undergraduate Physical Therapy Education: A Review of Strategies and Approaches Juneja H1, Brekke A F2 1,2 Physical Therapy Education, University College Zealand, Denmark Background: Clinical reasoning (CR) also referred to as “critical thinking” or “decision....... It is imperative that physical therapy educators utilize innovative pedagogical methods to facilitate learning of reasoning skills in students. Purpose: The review is an attempt to highlight and discuss selected pedagogical strategies and approaches to enhance clinical reasoning skills in undergraduate physical...... programs was shortlisted for the review. References of pertinent literature were scanned to identify further relevant citations. Results: The review provides a detailed insight into the interwoven nature of pedagogical techniques to promote clinical reasoning being used by different physical therapy...

  5. Combining Generalized Phase Contrast with matched filtering into a versatile beam shaping approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, Jesper; Palima, Darwin

    2010-01-01

    We adapt concepts from matched filtering to propose a method for generating reconfigurable multiple beams. Combined with the Generalized Phase Contrast (GPC) technique, the proposed method coined mGPC can yield dynamically reconfigurable optical beam arrays with high light efficiency for optical...... manipulation, high-speed sorting and other parallel spatial light applications [1]....

  6. A Computer Algebra Approach to Solving Chemical Equilibria in General Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalainoff, Melinda; Lachance, Russ; Riegner, Dawn; Biaglow, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we report on a semester-long study of the incorporation into our general chemistry course, of advanced algebraic and computer algebra techniques for solving chemical equilibrium problems. The method presented here is an alternative to the commonly used concentration table method for describing chemical equilibria in general…

  7. Robust Position Tracking for Electro-Hydraulic Drives Based on Generalized Feedforward Compensation Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Lasse; Andersen, Torben Ole; Pedersen, Henrik C.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a robust tracking control concept based on accurate feedforward compensation for hydraulic valve-cylinder drives. The proposed feedforward compensator is obtained utilizing a generalized description of the valve flow that takes into account any asymmetry of valves and...... constant gain type feedforward compensator, when subjected to strong perturbations in supply pressure and coulomb friction....

  8. General Surveillance of the soil ecosystem: An approach to monitoring unexpected adverse effects of GMO's

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, E.; Bakker, P.A.H.M.; Bergmans, H.; Bloem, J.; Griffiths, B.; Rutgers, M.

    2012-01-01

    The commercial cultivation of genetically modified (GM) crops in the European Union (EU) necessitates, according to EU legislation, the setting up of a General Surveillance (GS) system that should be able to detect unanticipated effects of GM crops on the environment. Although the applicant is

  9. Designing A General Deep Web Access Approach Based On A Newly Introduced Factor; Harvestability Factor (HF)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khelghati, Mohammadreza; van Keulen, Maurice; Hiemstra, Djoerd

    2014-01-01

    The growing need of accessing more and more information draws attentions to huge amount of data hidden behind web forms defined as deep web. To make this data accessible, harvesters have a crucial role. Targeting different domains and websites enhances the need to have a general-purpose harvester

  10. Personality Traits and General Intelligence as Predictors of Academic Performance: A Structural Equation Modelling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosander, Pia; Backstrom, Martin; Stenberg, Georg

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the extent to which personality traits, after controlling for general intelligence, predict academic performance in different school subjects. Upper secondary school students in Sweden (N=315) completed the Wonderlic IQ test (Wonderlic, 1992) and the IPIP-NEO-PI test (Goldberg, 1999). A series of…

  11. R&D and economic growth in Slovenia: A dynamic general equilibrium approach with endogenous growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbic, M.; Majcen, B.; Ivanova, O.; Cok, M.

    2011-01-01

    In the article, we model R&D as a major endogenous growth element in a small open economy general equilibrium framework and consider several R&D policy scenarios for Slovenia. Increase of the share of sectoral investment in R&D that is deductible from the corporate income tax and increase of

  12. Vulvovaginal candidiasis: Diagnostic and therapeutic approaches used by Dutch general practitioners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engberts, M.K.; Korporaal, H.; Vinkers, M.T.; Belkum, A. van; Binsbergen, J.J. van; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.; Helmerhorst, T.J.M.; Meijden, W.I. van der

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To establish how general practitioners (GPs) in the Netherlands diagnose and treat vaginal candidiasis. Methods: Questionnaires were sent to 1160 Dutch GPs. The GPs were asked to make an inventory of the annual number of consultations for vulvovaginal candidiasis. Furthermore, information

  13. Vulvovaginal candidiasis: diagnostic and therapeutic approaches used by Dutch general practitioners.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engberts, M.K.; Korporaal, H.; Vinkers, M.T.; Belkum, A. van; Binsbergen, J.J. van; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.; Helmerhorst, T.J.M.; Meijden, W.I. van der

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To establish how general practitioners (GPs) in the Netherlands diagnose and treat vaginal candidiasis. METHODS: Questionnaires were sent to 1160 Dutch GPs. The GPs were asked to make an inventory of the annual number of consultations for vulvovaginal candidiasis. Furthermore, information

  14. On the generalization of the hazard rate twisting-based simulation approach

    KAUST Repository

    Rached, Nadhir B.; Benkhelifa, Fatma; Kammoun, Abla; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Tempone, Raul

    2016-01-01

    requirement. Most of these methods have thus far been proposed to deal with specific settings under which the RVs belong to particular classes of distributions. In this paper, we propose a generalization of the well-known hazard rate twisting Importance

  15. A differential-geometric approach to generalized linear models with grouped predictors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Augugliaro, Luigi; Mineo, Angelo M.; Wit, Ernst C.

    We propose an extension of the differential-geometric least angle regression method to perform sparse group inference in a generalized linear model. An efficient algorithm is proposed to compute the solution curve. The proposed group differential-geometric least angle regression method has important

  16. Puzzling through General Chemistry: A Light-Hearted Approach to Engaging Students with Chemistry Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Susan L.

    2007-01-01

    Several puzzles are designed to be used by chemistry students as learning tools and teach them basic chemical concepts. The topics of the puzzles are based on the chapters from Chemistry, The Central Science used in general chemistry course and the puzzles are in various forms like crosswords, word searches, number searches, puzzles based on…

  17. A general approach to double-moment normalization of drop size distributions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, G.W.; Zawadzki, I.; Szyrmer, W.; Sempere Torres, D.; Uijlenhoet, R.

    2004-01-01

    Normalization of drop size distributions (DSDs) is reexamined here. First, an extension of the scaling normalization that uses one moment of the DSD as a scaling parameter to a more general scaling normalization that uses two moments as scaling parameters of the normalization is presented. In

  18. Reform in a General Chemistry Laboratory: How Do Students Experience Change in the Instructional Approach?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, I.; O'Connor, J.; Pancho, R.; Chrzanowski, M.; Sandi-Urena, S.

    2017-01-01

    This qualitative study investigated the experience of a cohort of students exposed consecutively to two substantially different environments in their General Chemistry Laboratory programme. To this end, the first semester in a traditional expository programme was followed by a semester in a cooperative, problem-based, multi-week format. The focus…

  19. A projection-based approach to general-form Tikhonov regularization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilmer, Misha E.; Hansen, Per Christian; Espanol, Malena I.

    2007-01-01

    We present a projection-based iterative algorithm for computing general-form Tikhonov regularized solutions to the problem minx| Ax-b |2^2+lambda2| Lx |2^2, where the regularization matrix L is not the identity. Our algorithm is designed for the common case where lambda is not known a priori...

  20. 77 FR 28390 - General Services Administration Acquisition Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; GSA Form 527...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-14

    .... Purpose The General Services Administration will be requesting the Office of Management and Budget to... GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION [OMB Control No. 3090-0007; Docket 2011-0016; Sequence 12] General... Qualifications and Financial Information AGENCY: Office of the Chief Finance Officer, GSA. ACTION: Notice of...