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Sample records for general approach developed

  1. Relationships of Approaches to Studying, Metacognition, and Intellectual Development of General Chemistry Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egenti, Henrietta N.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated approaches to studying, intellectual developments, and metacognitive skills of general chemistry students enrolled for the spring 2011 semester at a single campus of a multi-campus community college. The three instruments used were the Approaches and Study Skills Inventory for Students (ASSIST), the Learning Environment…

  2. A Generalized Approach to Forensic Dye Identification: Development and Utility of Reference Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, Ethan; Palenik, Skip; Palenik, Christopher S

    2018-04-18

    While color is arguably the most important optical property of evidential fibers, the actual dyestuffs responsible for its expression in them are, in forensic trace evidence examinations, rarely analyzed and still less often identified. This is due, primarily, to the exceedingly small quantities of dye present in a single fiber as well as to the fact that dye identification is a challenging analytical problem, even when large quantities are available for analysis. Among the practical reasons for this are the wide range of dyestuffs available (and the even larger number of trade names), the low total concentration of dyes in the finished product, the limited amount of sample typically available for analysis in forensic cases, and the complexity of the dye mixtures that may exist within a single fiber. Literature on the topic of dye analysis is often limited to a specific method, subset of dyestuffs, or an approach that is not applicable given the constraints of a forensic analysis. Here, we present a generalized approach to dye identification that ( 1 ) combines several robust analytical methods, ( 2 ) is broadly applicable to a wide range of dye chemistries, application classes, and fiber types, and ( 3 ) can be scaled down to forensic casework-sized samples. The approach is based on the development of a reference collection of 300 commercially relevant textile dyes that have been characterized by a variety of microanalytical methods (HPTLC, Raman microspectroscopy, infrared microspectroscopy, UV-Vis spectroscopy, and visible microspectrophotometry). Although there is no single approach that is applicable to all dyes on every type of fiber, a combination of these analytical methods has been applied using a reproducible approach that permits the use of reference libraries to constrain the identity of and, in many cases, identify the dye (or dyes) present in a textile fiber sample.

  3. Approaching Behaviour Monitor and Vibration Indication in Developing a General Moving Object Alarm System (GMOAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiwei Dong

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available People who suffer from hearing impairment caused by illness, age or extremely noisy environments are constantly in danger of being hit or knocked down by fast moving objects behind them when they have no companion or augmented sensory system to warn them. In this paper, we propose the General Moving Object Alarm System (GMOAS, a system focused on aiding the safe mobility of people under these circumstances. The GMOAS is a wearable haptic device that consists of two main subsystems: (i a moving object monitoring subsystem that uses laser range data to detect and track approaching objects, and (ii an alarm subsystem that warns the user of possibly dangerous approaching objects by triggering tactile vibrations on an “alarm necklace”. For moving object monitoring, we propose a simple yet efficient solution to monitor the approaching behavior of objects. Compared with previous work in motion detection and tracking, we are not interested in specific objects but any type of approaching object that might harm the user. To this extent, we define a boundary in the laser range data where the objects are monitored. Within this boundary a fan-shape grid is constructed to obtain an evenly distributed spatial partitioning of the data. These partitions are efficiently clustered into continuous objects which are then tracked through time using an object association algorithm based on updating a deviation matrix that represents angle, distance and size variations of the objects. The speed of the tracked objects is monitored throughout the algorithm. When the speed of an approaching object surpasses the safety threshold, the alarm necklace is triggered indicating the approaching direction of the fast moving object. The alarm necklace is equipped with three motors that can indicate five directions with respect to the user: left, back, right, left-back and right-back. We performed three types of outdoor experiments (object passing, approaching and crossing that

  4. [The general methodological approaches identifying strategic positions in developing healthy lifestyle of population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorofeev, S B; Babenko, A I

    2017-01-01

    The article deals with analysis of national and international publications concerning methodological aspects of elaborating systematic approach to healthy life-style of population. This scope of inquiry plays a key role in development of human capital. The costs related to healthy life-style are to be considered as personal investment into future income due to physical incrementation of human capital. The definitions of healthy life-style, its categories and supportive factors are to be considered in the process of development of strategies and programs of healthy lifestyle. The implementation of particular strategies entails application of comprehensive information and educational programs meant for various categories of population. Therefore, different motivation techniques are to be considered for children, adolescents, able-bodied population, the elderly. This approach is to be resulted in establishing particular responsibility for national government, territorial administrations, health care administrations, employers and population itself. The necessity of complex legislative measures is emphasized. The recent social hygienic studies were focused mostly on particular aspects of development of healthy life-style of population. Hence, the demand for long term exploration of development of organizational and functional models implementing medical preventive measures on the basis of comprehensive information analysis using statistical, sociological and professional expertise.

  5. Developing General Cultural Literacy through Teaching English in a Russian University: Competence and Semiotic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana A. Zolotareva

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to some of the issues of teaching English in a Russian university, which arouse as a result of introducing new educational standards and it discusses the ways of forming students’ general cultural competence by using authentic curricula, in order to meet the requirements of those standards. It also shows the importance of semiotics for acquisition a foreign language and culture, and reveals the worth of “personalia” as a culture language sign, as well as peculiarity of its functioning, which lies in its ability to represent social and cultural values and priorities in personal-precedential form, thus making a contribution to developingan individual’sconcept scheme and, consequently, general cultural literacy.

  6. Skills Development, Habits of Mind, and the Spiral Curriculum: A Dialectical Approach to Undergraduate General Education Curriculum Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Jeffrey W.

    2016-01-01

    This essay seeks to contribute to growing discussion concerning the need for more intentional inclusion of habits of mind in curriculum development, particularly in undergraduate general education, and to fuel an examination of the "dialectical" relationship between skills development and the development of habits of mind. The essay…

  7. The risk-based approach to ATMP development - generally accepted by regulators but infrequently used by companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooijman, M; van Meer, P J K; Gispen-de Wied, C C; Moors, E H M; Hekkert, M P; Schellekens, H

    2013-11-01

    Advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMPs) are the cutting edge of drug innovation. ATMPs have different challenges than other drug classes. To accommodate these challenges and facilitate science-driven development, flexibility in the requirements to demonstrate the safety and efficacy of this rapidly evolving drug class is necessary. To create flexibility, the European Union introduced the risk-based approach. This approach provides the possibility of omitting guideline-based studies based on risk analyses. To gain insight into the effect of the risk-based approach on the non-clinical development of ATMPs, two questions are addressed in this paper. Firstly, "Do companies use a risk-based approach for the non-clinical development of ATMPs?" and, secondly, "Does the Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP) of the European Medicines Agency (EMA) accept non-clinical development programs based on the risk-based approach?" Scientific advice letters formulated by the CHMP were analyzed. The risk-based approach was used to justify deviations from the guidelines in the majority (75%) of the cases. The CHMP accepted 40% of the proposals to omit studies and stated that additional data was necessary to make an informed decision for 35% of the proposals. This indicates that the risk-based approach facilitates the science-driven development of ATMPs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Regge cuts: A general approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weis, J.H.

    1976-01-01

    We discuss an approach to the calculation of Regge-cut contributions to scattering amplitudes which relies only on the general structure of the physical Reggeon couplings. It thus allows a unified treatment of disparate models [such as the Feynman (Mandelstam) graph model and the dual model] and a general derivation of the Abramovskii--Gribov--Kancheli (AGK) rules. The structure of the Reggeon couplings is expressed through integrals over complex helicity. The Regge-cut amplitude can then be obtained, and its s-channel discontinuity, taken; there results a direct derivation of a set of ''cutting rules'' which express the total discontinuity as a sum of terms involving various discontinuities of the Reggeon couplings. The equality of these discontinuities follows directly if the singularities in complex helicity are the usual ones. Thus the AGK rules are seen to be quite model independent. Here we study in detail the simplest example: the Reggeon-particle cut in the four-particle amplitude

  9. Development of generalized boiling transition model applicable for wide variety of fuel bundle geometries. Basic strategy and numerical approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ninokata, Hisashi; Sadatomi, Michio; Okawa, Tomio

    2003-01-01

    In order to establish a key technology to realize advanced BWR fuel designs, a three-year project of the advanced subchannel analysis code development had been started since 2002. The five dominant factors involved in the boiling transitional process in the fuel bundles were focused. They are, (1) inter-subchannel exchanges, (2) influences of obstacles (3) dryout of liquid film, (4) transition of two-phase flow regimes and (5) deposition of droplets. It has been recognized that present physical models or constitutive equations in subchannel formulations need to be improved so that they include geometrical effects in the fuel bundle design more mechanistically and universally. Through reviewing literatures and existent experimental results, underlying elementary processes and geometrical factors that are indispensable for improving subchannel codes were identified. The basic strategy that combines numerical and experimental approaches was proposed aiming at establishment of mechanistic models for the five dominant factors. In this paper, the present status of methodologies for detailed two-phase flow studies has been summarized. According to spatial scales of focused elementary processes, proper numerical approaches were selected. For some promising numerical approaches, preliminary calcitonins were performed for assessing their applicability to investigation of elementary processes involved in the boiling transition. (author)

  10. TRAC development at General Electric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, J.G.M.; Shaug, J.C.; Shiralkar, B.S.

    1987-01-01

    TRAC is a computer code for transient analysis of light water reactors. The BWR version of TRAC has been developed as a result of a close cooperation between General Electric Company and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Up through 1985 the development work at General Electric was jointly funded by General Electric, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Electric Power Research Institute under the Refill-Reflood and FIST programs. At INEL (which has the main responsibility for the NRC version of TRAC-BWR) this work has led to the development of TRACBD1 and TRACBF1, while at GE, TRACB04 was the final product of the Refill-Reflood and FIST programs. TRAC development has continued at General Electric after the completion of these programs with the evolution of the TRACG code. The purpose of the paper is to describe this work. The TRAC development at General Electric can be divided into two main categories: extended benchmark capability and improved user convenience

  11. Generalizing human error rates: A taxonomic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buffardi, L.; Fleishman, E.; Allen, J.

    1989-01-01

    It is well established that human error plays a major role in malfunctioning of complex, technological systems and in accidents associated with their operation. Estimates of the rate of human error in the nuclear industry range from 20-65% of all system failures. In response to this, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission has developed a variety of techniques for estimating human error probabilities for nuclear power plant personnel. Most of these techniques require the specification of the range of human error probabilities for various tasks. Unfortunately, very little objective performance data on error probabilities exist for nuclear environments. Thus, when human reliability estimates are required, for example in computer simulation modeling of system reliability, only subjective estimates (usually based on experts' best guesses) can be provided. The objective of the current research is to provide guidelines for the selection of human error probabilities based on actual performance data taken in other complex environments and applying them to nuclear settings. A key feature of this research is the application of a comprehensive taxonomic approach to nuclear and non-nuclear tasks to evaluate their similarities and differences, thus providing a basis for generalizing human error estimates across tasks. In recent years significant developments have occurred in classifying and describing tasks. Initial goals of the current research are to: (1) identify alternative taxonomic schemes that can be applied to tasks, and (2) describe nuclear tasks in terms of these schemes. Three standardized taxonomic schemes (Ability Requirements Approach, Generalized Information-Processing Approach, Task Characteristics Approach) are identified, modified, and evaluated for their suitability in comparing nuclear and non-nuclear power plant tasks. An agenda for future research and its relevance to nuclear power plant safety is also discussed

  12. The Graduate Pedagogical Process in the Comprehensive General Medicine Specialization: towards a Practice based on the Cultural-historical Approach to Human Development

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Teresa Fernández Vidal; José Aurelio Díaz Quiñones; Silvia Enrique Vilaplana

    2016-01-01

    Cuban educators conceive programs and processes using the cultural-historical approach to human development, since this is the theory that, thanks to its founder Lev Semiónovich Vygotsky, could overcome the approaches that fragmented the analysis and understanding of the human development. Such currents of thought hyperbolized the different conditioning factors of this development and ignored the dialectical relationship between them in terms of personality formation and development, its proc...

  13. Manufacturing technologies for photovoltaics and possible means of their development in Russia (Review). Part 1: General approach to the development of photoelectric converters and basic silicon technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasenko, A. B.; Popel', O. S.

    2015-11-01

    The state and key tendencies of the development of basic technologies for manufacture of photoelectric converters (PECs) in the world are considered, and their advantages and disadvantages are discussed. The first part of the review gives short information on the development of photovoltaics in the world and planes of the development of solar power plants in Russia. Total power of photoelectric plants operating in various countries in 2015 exceeded 150 GW and increased in the last ten years with a rate of approximately 50% per year. Russia made important state decisions on the support of the development of renewable power engineering and developed mechanisms, which were attractive for business, on the stimulation of building of the network of solar power plants with a total power to 1.5 GW in the country to 2020. At the same time, the rigid demands are made with respect to the localization of the production of components of these plants that opens new abilities for the development of the domestic production of photovoltaics manufacture. Data on the efficiency of PECs of various types that are attained in the leading laboratories of the world are given. Particular emphasis has been placed on the consideration of basic silicon technologies of PEC manufacture, which had the widest commercial application. The basic methods for production of polycrystalline silicon and making single-crystal and multicrystal silicon are described. Fundamentals of making techniques for plates, PECs, and photoelectric modules based on single-crystal and polycrystalline silicon are considered. The second part will be devoted to modifications of manufacturing techniques for photoelectric converters, enhancement methods for contact structures, and recommendations of authors with respect to the choice of prospective technologies for the expansion of PEC production in Russia. It will involve formulations and substantiations of the most promising lines of the development of photoelectric

  14. [Treatment of generalized anxiety: new pharmacologic approaches].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulenger, J P

    1995-01-01

    First defined as a residual diagnostic category in the third edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) was until recently one of the least studied and least clearly conceptualized of the anxiety disorders. The clinical definition of GAD has however improved up to the fourth edition of the DSM where the disorder is now characterized as a chronic state of apprehensive expectation and uncontrollable worry concerning multiple daily life events or activities and accompanied with at least 3 symptoms belonging to a list of six common manifestations of psychic or motor tension. Clinical research demonstrating the stability and the specificity of somatic symptoms clearly support the validity of the diagnosis of GAD despite possible difficulties in the differential diagnosis with other chronic conditions or axis II disorders such as dysthymia or mixed anxiety-depressive disorder. After benzodiazepines (BZD) and 5-HT1A agonists like buspirone, several other types of new anxiolytic drugs have been developed for the treatment of GAD. Partial agonists at GABA-BZD receptor sites may offer the advantage of a better efficacy vs side-effects ratio over classical BZDs; however, systematic comparative clinical trials will have to demonstrate the clinical relevance of the encouraging results obtained with these drugs, at the experimental level, during studies in healthy volunteers and during the first placebo-controlled trials. Furthermore, the recent description of GABA-receptor's subunits clearly suggest that the development of drugs acting at this level and devoided of psychomotor or withdrawal side-effects is a target that is worth pursuing. On the other hand, the development of 5-HT2 and 5-HT3 antagonists is also of interest for the treatment of GAD since it could provide new anxiolytic drugs without these side-effects and thus easier to administer on a long-term basis corresponding to the chronicity of GAD

  15. An approach to vertigo in general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dommaraju, Sindhu; Perera, Eshini

    2016-04-01

    Dizziness is a common and very distressing presentation in general practice. In more than half of these cases, the dizziness is due to vertigo, which is the illusion of movement of the body or its surroundings. It can have central or peripheral causes, and determining the cause can be difficult. The aim of this article is to provide a clear framework for approaching patients who present with vertigo. A suggested approach to the assessment of vertigo is outlined. The causes of vertigo may be central (involving the brainstem or cerebellum) or peripheral (involving the inner ear). A careful history and physical examination can distinguish between these causes. The most common causes of vertigo seen in primary care are benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV), vestibular neuronitis (VN) and Ménière's disease. These peripheral causes of vertigo are benign, and treatment involves reassurance and management of symptoms.

  16. A general approach to welfare measurement through national income accounting

    OpenAIRE

    Asheim, Geir B.; Buchholz, Wolfgang

    2002-01-01

    We develop a framework for analyzing national income accounting using a revealed welfare approach that is sufficiently general to cover, e.g., both the standard discounted utilitarian and maximin criteria as special cases. We show that the basic welfare properties of comprehensive national income accounting, which were previously ascribed only to the discounted utilitarian case, in fact extend to this more general framework. In particular, it holds under a wide range of circumstances that rea...

  17. Female genital mutilation reversal: a general approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Mallika; Stanhope, Todd J; Occhino, John A

    2014-07-01

    Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a violation of human rights; yet, more than 100 million females are estimated to have undergone the procedure worldwide. There is an increased need for physician education in treating FGM. Female pelvic surgeons have a unique opportunity to treat this population of patients. Here, we depict the classification of FGM and a general approach to FGM reversal. We specifically address the procedure of type III FGM reversal, or defibulation. In this video, we first highlight the importance of the problem of FGM. Next, we present the classification of FGM using an original, simple, schematic diagram highlighting they key anatomic structures involved in the four types of FGM. We then present a simple case of reversal of type III FGM, a procedure also known as defibulation. After depicting the surgical procedure, we discuss clinical results and summarize key principles of the defibulation procedure. Our patient was a 25-year-old woman who had undergone type III FGM as a child in Somalia. She desired restoration of vaginal function. We performed a reversal, and her postoperative course was uncomplicated. By 6 weeks postoperatively, she was able to engage in sexual intercourse without dyspareunia. FGM is a problem at the doorsteps of female pelvic medicine and reconstructive surgery. Our video demonstrates a basic surgical approach that can be applied to simple cases of type III FGM presenting to the female pelvic surgeon.

  18. Five Generalizations About Cognitive Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegler, Robert S.

    1983-01-01

    Proposes five generalizations on existing knowledge, learning, and their interaction, and discusses evidence for these from recent research on children's learning, memory, conceptual understanding, and problem solving. (Author/AOS)

  19. Developing a general ward nursing dashboard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Margot; Hogg, Maggie; Leach, Stuart; Penman, Mags; Friel, Susan

    2014-12-15

    The seventh and final article in the series on Leading Better Care explores some of the challenges in clinical practice relating to the use of data and making information meaningful to senior charge nurses and ward sisters. It describes the collaborative approach taken by NHS Lanarkshire, which involved nursing staff, programme leads and the eHealth team in the development of a general ward nursing dashboard as a means of ensuring safe, effective person-centred care. The article also illustrates how this web-based data-reporting programme is used to support clinical practice.

  20. A general approach to error propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanborn, J.B.

    1987-01-01

    A computational approach to error propagation is explained. It is shown that the application of the first-order Taylor theory to a fairly general expression representing an inventory or inventory-difference quantity leads naturally to a data structure that is useful for structuring error-propagation calculations. This data structure incorporates six types of data entities: (1) the objects in the material balance, (2) numerical parameters that describe these objects, (3) groups or sets of objects, (4) the terms which make up the material-balance equation, (5) the errors or sources of variance and (6) the functions or subroutines that represent Taylor partial derivatives. A simple algorithm based on this data structure can be defined using formulas that are sums of squares of sums. The data structures and algorithms described above have been implemented as computer software in FORTRAN for IBM PC-type machines. A free-form data-entry format allows users to separate data as they wish into separate files and enter data using a text editor. The program has been applied to the computation of limits of error for inventory differences (LEIDs) within the DOE complex. 1 ref., 3 figs

  1. Developing regulatory approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axelsson, Lars

    2012-01-01

    Lars Axelsson presented SSM progress on oversight of LMfS/SC since the Chester 1 Workshop in 2007. Current SSM approaches for safety culture oversight include targeted safety management and safety culture inspections, compliance inspections which cover aspects of safety management/safety culture and multi-disciplinary team inspections. Examples of themes for targeted inspections include management of ambiguous operational situations or other weak signals, understanding of and attitudes to Human Performance tools, the Safety Department's role and authority and Leadership for safety. All regulatory activities provide inputs for the SSM yearly safety evaluation of each licensee. A form has been developed to capture safety culture observations from inspections and other interactions with licensees. Analysis will be performed to identify patterns and provide information to support planning of specific Safety Culture activities. Training has been developed for regulatory staff to enhance the quality of regulatory interventions on safety culture. This includes a half-day seminar to provide an overview of safety culture, and a workshop which provides more in-depth discussion on cultural issues and how to capture those during regulatory activities. Future plans include guidance for inspectors, and informal seminars on safety culture with licensees

  2. Some generalizations of the nonlocal transformations approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Tychynin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Some generalizations of a method of nonlocal transformations are proposed: a con­nection of given equations via prolonged nonlocal transformations and finding of an adjoint solution to the solutions of initial equation are considered. A concept of nonlocal transformation with additional variables is introduced, developed and used for searching symmetries of differential equations. A problem of inversion of the nonlocal transforma­tion with additional variables is investigated and in some cases solved. Several examples are presented. Derived technique is applied for construction of the algorithms and for­mulae of generation of solutions. The formulae derived are used for construction of exact solutions of some nonlinear equations.

  3. A Generalized Approach for Measuring Relationships Among Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lijun; Ahsan, Md Asif; Chen, Ming

    2017-07-21

    Several methods for identifying relationships among pairs of genes have been developed. In this article, we present a generalized approach for measuring relationships between any pairs of genes, which is based on statistical prediction. We derive two particular versions of the generalized approach, least squares estimation (LSE) and nearest neighbors prediction (NNP). According to mathematical proof, LSE is equivalent to the methods based on correlation; and NNP is approximate to one popular method called the maximal information coefficient (MIC) according to the performances in simulations and real dataset. Moreover, the approach based on statistical prediction can be extended from two-genes relationships to multi-genes relationships. This application would help to identify relationships among multi-genes.

  4. A general approach for developing system-specific functions to score protein-ligand docked complexes using support vector inductive logic programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, Ata; Shrimpton, Paul J; Muggleton, Stephen H; Sternberg, Michael J E

    2007-12-01

    Despite the increased recent use of protein-ligand and protein-protein docking in the drug discovery process due to the increases in computational power, the difficulty of accurately ranking the binding affinities of a series of ligands or a series of proteins docked to a protein receptor remains largely unsolved. This problem is of major concern in lead optimization procedures and has lead to the development of scoring functions tailored to rank the binding affinities of a series of ligands to a specific system. However, such methods can take a long time to develop and their transferability to other systems remains open to question. Here we demonstrate that given a suitable amount of background information a new approach using support vector inductive logic programming (SVILP) can be used to produce system-specific scoring functions. Inductive logic programming (ILP) learns logic-based rules for a given dataset that can be used to describe properties of each member of the set in a qualitative manner. By combining ILP with support vector machine regression, a quantitative set of rules can be obtained. SVILP has previously been used in a biological context to examine datasets containing a series of singular molecular structures and properties. Here we describe the use of SVILP to produce binding affinity predictions of a series of ligands to a particular protein. We also for the first time examine the applicability of SVILP techniques to datasets consisting of protein-ligand complexes. Our results show that SVILP performs comparably with other state-of-the-art methods on five protein-ligand systems as judged by similar cross-validated squares of their correlation coefficients. A McNemar test comparing SVILP to CoMFA and CoMSIA across the five systems indicates our method to be significantly better on one occasion. The ability to graphically display and understand the SVILP-produced rules is demonstrated and this feature of ILP can be used to derive hypothesis for

  5. Generalized Hubbard Hamiltonian: renormalization group approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cannas, S.A.; Tamarit, F.A.; Tsallis, C.

    1991-01-01

    We study a generalized Hubbard Hamiltonian which is closed within the framework of a Quantum Real Space Renormalization Group, which replaces the d-dimensional hypercubic lattice by a diamond-like lattice. The phase diagram of the generalized Hubbard Hamiltonian is analyzed for the half-filled band case in d = 2 and d = 3. Some evidence for superconductivity is presented. (author). 44 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs

  6. Development and validation of a general approach to predict and quantify the synergism of anti-cancer drugs using experimental design and artificial neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivetta, Tiziana; Isaia, Francesco; Trudu, Federica; Pani, Alessandra; Manca, Matteo; Perra, Daniela; Amato, Filippo; Havel, Josef

    2013-10-15

    The combination of two or more drugs using multidrug mixtures is a trend in the treatment of cancer. The goal is to search for a synergistic effect and thereby reduce the required dose and inhibit the development of resistance. An advanced model-free approach for data exploration and analysis, based on artificial neural networks (ANN) and experimental design is proposed to predict and quantify the synergism of drugs. The proposed method non-linearly correlates the concentrations of drugs with the cytotoxicity of the mixture, providing the possibility of choosing the optimal drug combination that gives the maximum synergism. The use of ANN allows for the prediction of the cytotoxicity of each combination of drugs in the chosen concentration interval. The method was validated by preparing and experimentally testing the combinations with the predicted highest synergistic effect. In all cases, the data predicted by the network were experimentally confirmed. The method was applied to several binary mixtures of cisplatin and [Cu(1,10-orthophenanthroline)2(H2O)](ClO4)2, Cu(1,10-orthophenanthroline)(H2O)2(ClO4)2 or [Cu(1,10-orthophenanthroline)2(imidazolidine-2-thione)](ClO4)2. The cytotoxicity of the two drugs, alone and in combination, was determined against human acute T-lymphoblastic leukemia cells (CCRF-CEM). For all systems, a synergistic effect was found for selected combinations. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. A General Approach to Causal Mediation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Kosuke; Keele, Luke; Tingley, Dustin

    2010-01-01

    Traditionally in the social sciences, causal mediation analysis has been formulated, understood, and implemented within the framework of linear structural equation models. We argue and demonstrate that this is problematic for 3 reasons: the lack of a general definition of causal mediation effects independent of a particular statistical model, the…

  8. A general approach to query flattening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ruth, J.

    The translation of queries from complex data models to simpler data models is a recurring theme in the construction of efficient data management systems. In this paper we propose a general framework to guide the translation from data models with nested types to a flat relational model (query

  9. General practitioner views on the determinants of test ordering: a theory-based qualitative approach to the development of an intervention to improve immunoglobulin requests in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadogan, S L; McHugh, S M; Bradley, C P; Browne, J P; Cahill, M R

    2016-07-19

    Research suggests that variation in laboratory requesting patterns may indicate unnecessary test use. Requesting patterns for serum immunoglobulins vary significantly between general practitioners (GPs). This study aims to explore GP's views on testing to identify the determinants of behaviour and recommend feasible intervention strategies for improving immunoglobulin test use in primary care. Qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted with GPs requesting laboratory tests at Cork University Hospital or University Hospital Kerry in the South of Ireland. GPs were identified using a Health Service Executive laboratory list of GPs in the Cork-Kerry region. A random sample of GPs (stratified by GP requesting patterns) was generated from this list. GPs were purposively sampled based on the criteria of location (urban/rural); length of time qualified; and practice size (single-handed/group). Interviews were carried out between December 2014 and February 2015. Interviews were transcribed verbatim using NVivo 10 software and analysed using the framework analysis method. Emerging themes were mapped to the theoretical domains framework (TDF), which outlines 12 domains that can enable or inhibit behaviour change. The behaviour change wheel and behaviour change technique (BCT) taxonomy were then used to identify potential intervention strategies. Sixteen GPs were interviewed (ten males and six females). Findings suggest that intervention strategies should specifically target the key barriers to effective test ordering, while considering the context of primary care practice. Seven domains from the TDF were perceived to influence immunoglobulin test ordering behaviours and were identified as 'mechanisms for change' (knowledge, environmental context and resources, social/professional role and identity, beliefs about capabilities, beliefs about consequences, memory, attention and decision-making processes and behavioural regulation). Using these TDF domains, seven BCTs

  10. Local electric dipole moments: A generalized approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groß, Lynn; Herrmann, Carmen

    2016-09-30

    We present an approach for calculating local electric dipole moments for fragments of molecular or supramolecular systems. This is important for understanding chemical gating and solvent effects in nanoelectronics, atomic force microscopy, and intensities in infrared spectroscopy. Owing to the nonzero partial charge of most fragments, "naively" defined local dipole moments are origin-dependent. Inspired by previous work based on Bader's atoms-in-molecules (AIM) partitioning, we derive a definition of fragment dipole moments which achieves origin-independence by relying on internal reference points. Instead of bond critical points (BCPs) as in existing approaches, we use as few reference points as possible, which are located between the fragment and the remainder(s) of the system and may be chosen based on chemical intuition. This allows our approach to be used with AIM implementations that circumvent the calculation of critical points for reasons of computational efficiency, for cases where no BCPs are found due to large interfragment distances, and with local partitioning schemes other than AIM which do not provide BCPs. It is applicable to both covalently and noncovalently bound systems. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. General practitioner views on the determinants of test ordering: a theory-based qualitative approach to the development of an intervention to improve immunoglobulin requests in primary care.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cadogan, S L

    2016-07-19

    Research suggests that variation in laboratory requesting patterns may indicate unnecessary test use. Requesting patterns for serum immunoglobulins vary significantly between general practitioners (GPs). This study aims to explore GP\\'s views on testing to identify the determinants of behaviour and recommend feasible intervention strategies for improving immunoglobulin test use in primary care.

  12. Advanced control room evaluation: General approach and rationale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Hara, J.M.; Wachtel, J.

    1991-01-01

    Advanced control rooms (ACRs) for future nuclear power plants (NPPs) are being designed utilizing computer-based technologies. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission reviews the human engineering aspects of such control rooms to ensure that they are designed to good human factors engineering principles and that operator performance and reliability are appropriately supported in order to protect public health and safety. This paper describes the rationale and general approach to the development of a human factors review guideline for ACRs. The factors influencing the guideline development are discussed, including the review environment, the types of advanced technologies being addressed, the human factors issues associated with advanced technology, and the current state-of-the-art of human factors guidelines for advanced human-system interfaces (HSIs). The proposed approach to ACR review would track the design and implementation process through the application of review guidelines reflecting four review modules: planning, design process analysis, human factors engineering review, and dynamic performance evaluation. 21 refs

  13. Vibrational mechanics nonlinear dynamic effects, general approach, applications

    CERN Document Server

    Blekhman, Iliya I

    2000-01-01

    This important book deals with vibrational mechanics - the new, intensively developing section of nonlinear dynamics and the theory of nonlinear oscillations. It offers a general approach to the study of the effect of vibration on nonlinear mechanical systems.The book presents the mathematical apparatus of vibrational mechanics which is used to describe such nonlinear effects as the disappearance and appearance under vibration of stable positions of equilibrium and motions (i.e. attractors), the change of the rheological properties of the media, self-synchronization, self-balancing, the vibrat

  14. Multiple sclerosis: general features and pharmacologic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen Lagumersindez, Denis; Martinez Sanchez, Gregorio

    2009-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is an autoimmune, inflammatory and desmyelinization disease central nervous system (CNS) of unknown etiology and critical evolution. There different etiological hypotheses talking of a close interrelation among predisposing genetic factors and dissimilar environmental factors, able to give raise to autoimmune response at central nervous system level. Hypothesis of autoimmune pathogeny is based on study of experimental models, and findings in biopsies of affected patients by disease. Accumulative data report that the oxidative stress plays a main role in pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis. Oxygen reactive species generated by macrophages has been involved as mediators of demyelinization and of axon damage, in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and strictly in multiple sclerosis. Disease diagnosis is difficult because of there is not a confirmatory unique test. Management of it covers the treatment of acute relapses, disease modification, and symptoms management. These features require an individualized approach, base on evolution of this affection, and tolerability of treatments. In addition to diet, among non-pharmacologic treatments for multiple sclerosis it is recommended physical therapy. Besides, some clinical assays have been performed in which we used natural extracts, nutrition supplements, and other agents with promising results. Pharmacology allowed neurologists with a broad array of proved effectiveness drugs; however, results of research laboratories in past years make probable that therapeutical possibilities increase notably in future. (Author)

  15. Oral and General Health Promotion for Children: A Holistic Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cinar, Ayse Basak

    Inequalities in oral and general health have been rising globally; WHO calls for adoption of an integrated approach to their promotion as both share common risk factors. However, research about this issue among children is scarce. Based on the associations of such a research found in common for a...... to adopt healthy lifestyles, both in economically developing and developed countries. This book should be especially useful to researchers, professionals in dentistry and medicine, policy makers, and anyone else involved in provision of better health to community....... Turkish and Finnish children, this book underlies that oral health is turning out to be part of the global health culture, regardless of cultural differences and different oral health care systems. The book, further, by most recent literature, provides a review of 'Significance of Oral Health, Concept......Inequalities in oral and general health have been rising globally; WHO calls for adoption of an integrated approach to their promotion as both share common risk factors. However, research about this issue among children is scarce. Based on the associations of such a research found in common for all...

  16. Development of a General Purpose Gamification Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Vea, Eivind

    2016-01-01

    This report describes the design and implementation of a general purpose gamification framework developed in JavaScript on the Metor platform. Gamification is described as the use of game elements in none-game contexts. The purpose is to encourage and change user behaviour. Examples of existing gamification use cases and frameworks are described. A demo game shows how a general purpose framework can be used.

  17. [Systemic inflammation: theoretical and methodological approaches to description of general pathological process model. Part 3. Backgroung for nonsyndromic approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusev, E Yu; Chereshnev, V A

    2013-01-01

    Theoretical and methodological approaches to description of systemic inflammation as general pathological process are discussed. It is shown, that there is a need of integration of wide range of types of researches to develop a model of systemic inflammation.

  18. Generalized approach to bilateral control for EMG driven exoskeleton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gradetsky Valery

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses a generalized approach to bilateral control for EMG driven exoskeleton systems. In this paper we consider a semi-automatic mechatronic system that is controlled via human muscle activity (EMG level. The problem is to understand how the movement of the exoskeleton effects on the control. The considered system can be described in terms of bilateral control. This means the existence of force feedback from the object via the exoskeleton links and drives to operator. The simulation of the considered model was held on the MATLAB Simulink. The mathematical model of the bilateral system with exoskeleton and operator was developed. Transient functions for different dynamic parameters were obtained. It was shown that force feedback is essential for the R&D of such systems.

  19. Architecture Approach in System Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Burita

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to describe a practical solution of architecture approach in system development. The software application is the system which optimizes the transport service. The first part of the paper defines the enterprise architecture, its parts and frameworks. Next is explained the NATO Architecture Framework (NAF, a tool for command and control systems development in military environment. The NAF is used for architecture design of the system for optimization of the transport service.

  20. Development of Einstein's general theory of relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datta, B.K.

    1980-01-01

    Starting from Poincare's Lorentz-invariant theory of gravity formulated in 1906, development of Einstein's general theory of relativity during 1906-1916 is discussed. Three stages in this development are recognised. In the first stage during 1907-1914, Einstein tried to extend the relativity principle of uniform motion to the frames in non-uniform motion. For this purpose, he introduced the principle of equivalence which made it possible to calculate the effect of homogeneous gravitational field on arbitrary physical processes. During the second stage comprising years 1912-1914 overlapping the first stage, Einstein and Grossmann were struggling to translate physical postulates into the language of the absolute differential calculus. In the period 1915-1916, Einstein formulated the field equations of general relativity. While discussing these developmental stages, theories of gravitation formulated by Abraham, Nordstroem and Mie are also discussed. (M.G.B.)

  1. General approach to polymer chains confined by interacting boundaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freed, Karl F; Dudowicz, Jacek; Stukalin, Evgeny B; Douglas, Jack F

    2010-09-07

    Polymer chains, confined to cavities or polymer layers with dimensions less than the chain radius of gyration, appear in many phenomena, such as gel chromatography, rubber elasticity, viscolelasticity of high molar mass polymer melts, the translocation of polymers through nanopores and nanotubes, polymer adsorption, etc. Thus, the description of how the constraints alter polymer thermodynamic properties is a recurrent theoretical problem. A realistic treatment requires the incorporation of impenetrable interacting (attractive or repulsive) boundaries, a process that introduces significant mathematical complications. The standard approach involves developing the generalized diffusion equation description of the interaction of flexible polymers with impenetrable confining surfaces into a discrete eigenfunction expansion, where the solutions are normally truncated at the first mode (the "ground state dominance" approximation). This approximation is mathematically well justified under conditions of strong confinement, i.e., a confinement length scale much smaller than the chain radius of gyration, but becomes unreliable when the polymers are confined to dimensions comparable to their typically nanoscale size. We extend a general approach to describe polymers under conditions of weak to moderate confinement and apply this semianalytic method specifically to determine the thermodynamics and static structure factor for a flexible polymer confined between impenetrable interacting parallel plate boundaries. The method is first illustrated by analyzing chain partitioning between a pore and a large external reservoir, a model system with application to chromatography. Improved agreement is found for the partition coefficients of a polymer chain in the pore geometry. An expression is derived for the structure factor S(k) in a slit geometry to assist in more accurately estimating chain dimensions from scattering measurements for thin polymer films.

  2. Generalized Ford-Vilenkin approach for the dynamical Casimir effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rego, Andreson L.C.; Alves, Danilo Teixeira; Alves, Joao Paulo da Silva

    2012-01-01

    Full text: In the 70s decade the first works investigating the quantum problem of the radiation emitted by moving mirrors in vacuum were published by Moore, DeWitt, Fulling and Davies. This effect, usually named dynamical Casimir effect (DCE). The DCE is also related to several other problems like particle creation in cosmological models and radiation emitted by collapsing black holes, decoherence, entanglement the Unruh effect. The DCE has been subject to experimental investigations: few months ago, Wilson and collaborators have announced the first experimental observation of the DCE. The theory of the DCE has been investigated by many authors, among them Ford and Vilenkin [L.H. Ford and A. Vilenkin, Phys. Rev. D 25, 2569 (1982)] who developed a perturbative method, which can be applied to moving mirrors in small displacements δq(t) = εF (t) and with nonrelativistic velocities. The usual application of the Ford-Vilenkin approach to the calculation of the spectrum of the created particles, results in the spectral distribution proportional to ε 2 . In the present paper, we consider a real massless scalar field and a moving mirror in a two-dimensional spacetime, satisfying Dirichlet boundary condition at the instantaneous position of the mirror, for large displacements and relativistic velocities. We generalize the Ford-Vilenkin approach to the calculation of the spectral density of the created particles, obtaining formulas for the spectrum up to order ε n . (author)

  3. Continuing professional development for general practitioners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tulinius, Charlotte; Hølge-Hazelton, Bibi

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The profession of medicine has long been characterised by virtues such as authorisation, specialisation, autonomy, self-regulation and adherence to an ethical code of practice, and its complexity has granted it the privilege of self-regulation. Studies have shown continuing professional...... development (CPD) for general practitioners (GPs) to be most effective when it is set up within a multi-method design. This paper reports a research-based evaluation of a 2-year educational CPD project for 21 GPs. METHODS: The project focused on the issue of 'children in need' and was delivered through group...

  4. Approaches to Macroevolution: 1. General Concepts and Origin of Variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jablonski, David

    2017-01-01

    . The temporal and spatial patterns of the origins of evolutionary novelties are a challenge to macroevolutionary theory; individual events can be described retrospectively, but a general model relating development, genetics, and ecology is needed. An accompanying paper (Jablonski in Evol Biol 2017) reviews diversity dynamics and the sorting of variation, with some general conclusions.

  5. Automotive mechatronic systems. General developments and examples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isermann, R. [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany). Inst. fuer Automatisierungstechnik, FG Regelungstechnik und Prozessautomatisierung

    2006-08-15

    Automobiles are showing an increasing integration of mechanics with digital electronics and information processing. This integration is between the components (hardware) and by the information-driven functions (software), resulting in integrated systems called mechatronic systems. Their development involves finding an optimal balance between the basic mechanical structure, sensor and actuator implementation, communication, automatic information processing and overall control. This contribution summarizes some ongoing developments for mechatronic systems in automobiles, shows design approaches and examples and considers the various embedded control functions and systems integrity. Some examples of automotive mechatronic systems are shown in more detail. Great progress can be observed in braking systems (ABS, ESP), the first brake-by-wire electro-hydraulic brake system (EHB), steering systems (electrical power steering, active front steering) and active suspension systems. (orig.)

  6. General background and approach to multibody dynamics for space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santini, Paolo; Gasbarri, Paolo

    2009-06-01

    Multibody dynamics for space applications is dictated by space environment such as space-varying gravity forces, orbital and attitude perturbations, control forces if any. Several methods and formulations devoted to the modeling of flexible bodies undergoing large overall motions were developed in recent years. Most of these different formulations were aimed to face one of the main problems concerning the analysis of spacecraft dynamics namely the reduction of computer simulation time. By virtue of this, the use of symbolic manipulation, recursive formulation and parallel processing algorithms were proposed. All these approaches fall into two categories, the one based on Newton/Euler methods and the one based on Lagrangian methods; both of them have their advantages and disadvantages although in general, Newtonian approaches lend to a better understanding of the physics of problems and in particular of the magnitude of the reactions and of the corresponding structural stresses. Another important issue which must be addressed carefully in multibody space dynamics is relevant to a correct choice of kinematics variables. In fact, when dealing with flexible multibody system the resulting equations include two different types of state variables, the ones associated with large (rigid) displacements and the ones associated with elastic deformations. These two sets of variables have generally two different time scales if we think of the attitude motion of a satellite whose period of oscillation, due to the gravity gradient effects, is of the same order of magnitude as the orbital period, which is much bigger than the one associated with the structural vibration of the satellite itself. Therefore, the numerical integration of the equations of the system represents a challenging problem. This was the abstract and some of the arguments that Professor Paolo Santini intended to present for the Breakwell Lecture; unfortunately a deadly disease attacked him and shortly took him

  7. g-factor calculations from the generalized seniority approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheshwari, Bhoomika; Jain, Ashok Kumar

    2018-05-01

    The generalized seniority approach proposed by us to understand the B(E1)/B(E2)/B(E3) properties of semi-magic nuclei has been widely successful in the explanation of the same and has led to an expansion in the scope of seniority isomers. In the present paper, we apply the generalized seniority scheme to understand the behavior of g-factors in semi-magic nuclei. We find that the magnetic moment and the gfactors do show a particle number independent behavior as expected and the understanding is consistent with the explanation of transition probabilities.

  8. The general entity of life: a cybernetic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielecki, Andrzej

    2015-06-01

    Life, not only in the well-known context of biochemical metabolism but also in the context of hypothetical life synthesized laboratorially or possibly found on other planets, is considered in this paper. The three-component information-energetic-structural irreducible processing in autonomous systems is the core of the proposed approach. The cybernetic organization of a general entity of life--the alivon--is postulated. The crucial properties of life and evolution are derived from the proposed approach. Information encoded in biological structures is also studied.

  9. Inclusive Leadership Development: Drawing From Pedagogies of Women's and General Leadership Development Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Keimei; Cavanagh, Kevin V.; van Esch, Chantal; Bilimoria, Diana; Brown, Cara

    2016-01-01

    Trends in extant literature suggest that more relational and identity-based leadership approaches are necessary for leadership that can harness the benefits of the diverse and globalized workforces of today and the future. In this study, we compared general leadership development programs (GLDPs) and women's leadership development programs (WLDPs)…

  10. General approaches to the risk assessment of chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, Patrick [Commission of the European Communities, Directorate General XI, Environment, Nuclear Safety and Civil Protection (Belgium)

    1992-07-01

    In the context of the UNCED 92 'Earth Summit' in Rio, the following definition of chemical risk assessment has been developed: 'Chemical risk assessment is a scientific process that identifies and quantifies the potential adverse effects on human health or ecosystems of defined exposures to chemical substances, to mixtures that include chemicals, or to chemically hazardous processes or situations. Risk itself is the probability of the occurrence of a defined adverse effect in a defined group and in defined circumstances'. I would not be so impertinent as to try and improve upon a definition that has the tacit endorsement of the majority of world-leaders. Furthermore, I consider that too many man-years have been spent discussing this topic. Thankfully the UNCED definition recognises chemical risk assessment as being a process and not some immutable physical law. In this presentation I will attempt to explain some of the details and mechanisms of that process but first of all it is worthwhile to spend a few moments putting chemical risk assessment in its proper context and asking the simple question: why do we want/need to assess the potential risk of chemicals?. In general terms, chemicals risk assessment is carried out in order to ensure that neither man (consumer/worker/general public) nor the environment are exposed to unacceptable risks arising from the production, use and disposal of chemicals. At a national and/or international level, risk assessments are performed by the regulatory authorities before they accept notification dossiers (e.g. new industrial chemicals) or grant authorizations (e.g. pharmaceuticals, pesticides, cosmetics, food additives). At the local level, plant-operators must carry out risk assessments to ensure that in the particular circumstances of their factory the workers are adequately protected and that satisfactory accident prevention and contingency plans are prepared. Similarly, local authorities must carry out risk assessments before

  11. General approaches to the risk assessment of chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, Patrick

    1992-01-01

    In the context of the UNCED 92 'Earth Summit' in Rio, the following definition of chemical risk assessment has been developed: 'Chemical risk assessment is a scientific process that identifies and quantifies the potential adverse effects on human health or ecosystems of defined exposures to chemical substances, to mixtures that include chemicals, or to chemically hazardous processes or situations. Risk itself is the probability of the occurrence of a defined adverse effect in a defined group and in defined circumstances'. I would not be so impertinent as to try and improve upon a definition that has the tacit endorsement of the majority of world-leaders. Furthermore, I consider that too many man-years have been spent discussing this topic. Thankfully the UNCED definition recognises chemical risk assessment as being a process and not some immutable physical law. In this presentation I will attempt to explain some of the details and mechanisms of that process but first of all it is worthwhile to spend a few moments putting chemical risk assessment in its proper context and asking the simple question: why do we want/need to assess the potential risk of chemicals?. In general terms, chemicals risk assessment is carried out in order to ensure that neither man (consumer/worker/general public) nor the environment are exposed to unacceptable risks arising from the production, use and disposal of chemicals. At a national and/or international level, risk assessments are performed by the regulatory authorities before they accept notification dossiers (e.g. new industrial chemicals) or grant authorizations (e.g. pharmaceuticals, pesticides, cosmetics, food additives). At the local level, plant-operators must carry out risk assessments to ensure that in the particular circumstances of their factory the workers are adequately protected and that satisfactory accident prevention and contingency plans are prepared. Similarly, local authorities must carry out risk assessments before

  12. General Approach to Characterize Reservoir Fluids Using a Large PVT Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varzandeh, Farhad; Yan, Wei; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2016-01-01

    methods. We proposed a general approach to develop correlations for model parameters and applied it to the characterization for the PC-SAFT EoS. The approach consists in first developing the correlations based on the DIPPR database, and then adjusting the correlations based on a large PVT database......, the approach gives better PVT calculation results for the tested systems. Comparison was also made between PC-SAFT with the proposed characterization method and other EoS models. The proposed approach can be applied to other EoS models for improving their fluid characterization. Besides, the challenges...

  13. Generalized Wigner functions in curved spaces: A new approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kandrup, H.E.

    1988-01-01

    It is well known that, given a quantum field in Minkowski space, one can define Wigner functions f/sub W//sup N/(x 1 ,p 1 ,...,x/sub N/,p/sub N/) which (a) are convenient to analyze since, unlike the field itself, they are c-number quantities and (b) can be interpreted in a limited sense as ''quantum distribution functions.'' Recently, Winter and Calzetta, Habib and Hu have shown one way in which these flat-space Wigner functions can be generalized to a curved-space setting, deriving thereby approximate kinetic equations which make sense ''quasilocally'' for ''short-wavelength modes.'' This paper suggests a completely orthogonal approach for defining curved-space Wigner functions which generalizes instead an object such as the Fourier-transformed f/sub W/ 1 (k,p), which is effectively a two-point function viewed in terms of the ''natural'' creation and annihilation operators a/sup dagger/(p-(12k) and a(p+(12k). The approach suggested here lacks the precise phase-space interpretation implicit in the approach of Winter or Calzetta, Habib, and Hu, but it is useful in that (a) it is geared to handle any ''natural'' mode decomposition, so that (b) it can facilitate exact calculations at least in certain limits, such as for a source-free linear field in a static spacetime

  14. Questions and Countermeasures on Developing General Aviation Industry in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Yongming

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available China’s general aviation industry has exposed many problems with the low-altitude airspace expanding openness. General aviation is an important part of national economy and defence forces, the development of general aviation has a practical and far-reaching significance. By analysing the China’s current general aviation industry, combined with the importance of the development of general aviation, propose some countermeasures and suggestions for the development of China’s general aviation industry.

  15. A Neuroevolution Approach to General Atari Game Playing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hausknecht, Matthew; Lehman, Joel; Miikkulainen, Risto

    2014-01-01

    This article addresses the challenge of learning to play many dierent video games with little domain- specic knowledge. Specically, it introduces a neuro-evolution approach to general Atari 2600 game playing. Four neuro-evolution algorithms were paired with three dierent state representations...... representations while indirect-encoding methods (i.e. HyperNEAT) allow scaling to higher-dimensional representations (i.e. the raw game screen). Previous approaches based on temporal- dierence learning had trouble dealing with the large state spaces and sparse reward gradients often found in Atari games. Neuro...... and evaluated on a set of 61 Atari games. The neuro-evolution agents represent dierent points along the spectrum of algorithmic sophistication - including weight evolution on topologically xed neural net- works (Conventional Neuro-evolution), Covariance Matrix Adaptation Evolution Strategy (CMA-ES), evolution...

  16. Sequential approach to Colombeau's theory of generalized functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todorov, T.D.

    1987-07-01

    J.F. Colombeau's generalized functions are constructed as equivalence classes of the elements of a specially chosen ultrapower of the class of the C ∞ -functions. The elements of this ultrapower are considered as sequences of C ∞ -functions, so in a sense, the sequential construction presented here refers to the original Colombeau theory just as, for example, the Mikusinski sequential approach to the distribution theory refers to the original Schwartz theory of distributions. The paper could be used as an elementary introduction to the Colombeau theory in which recently a solution was found to the problem of multiplication of Schwartz distributions. (author). Refs

  17. MELiSSA Food Characterization general approach and current status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weihreter, Martin; Chaerle, Laury; Secco, Benjamin; Molders, Katrien; van der Straeten, Dominique; Duliere, Eric; Pieters, Serge; Maclean, Heather; Dochain, Denis; Quinet, Muriel; Lutts, Stanley; Graham, Thomas; Stasiak, Michael; Rondeau Vuk, Theresa; Zheng, Youbin; Dixon, Mike; Laniau, Martine; Larreture, Alain; Timsit, Michel; Aronne, Giovanna; Barbieri, Giancarlo; Buonomo, Roberta; Veronica; Paradiso, Roberta; de Pascale, Stafania; Galbiati, Massimo; Troia, A. R.; Nobili, Matteo; Bucchieri, Lorenzo; Page, Valérie; Feller, Urs; Lasseur, Christophe

    . Available MELiSSA closed environment crop growth data were used to develop a first photosynthetic model representing the basic carbon fixation mechanisms. This model will be further elaborated in the course of this study to predict yield, oxygen production and transpi-ration. As an ultimate goal the model is intended to simulate the composition of the different plant organs (root, shoot, fruit/seed or tuber) for each crop under various conditions. For the validation of this model an extensive amount of data sets are needed. Current plant growth bench test setups will provide part of the required data. To gain more precise and detailed datasets, a highly closed plant growth chamber (Plant Characterization Unit, PCU) is under development. The PCU will provide accurate mass balances for carbon, water, oxygen and other elements with statistical reliability. This reliability is achieved through a high degree of closure and environment homogeneity. The PCU will also provide data for the above described plant characterization studies. The general work approach, the current status and future steps will be illustrated.

  18. General aspects of a manpower development programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calori, F.; Goodman, E.I.

    1977-01-01

    A manpower development program as a long term program for developing countries, requirements based on objectives, organizations and roles, a utility program, the level of domestic involvement, the methodology of a manpower development program and the identification of requirements are treated. (HK) [de

  19. General Research and Development problems in dismantling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorin, C.

    1993-01-01

    R and D studies for dismantling nuclear facilities have been conducted in several domains: safety evaluation (3D cameras, gamma camera, gamma low level control bench, alpha measures); general studies (such as the Baladin software, an expert system for dismantling); decontamination techniques (utilisation of acid or base liquids, laser, ...); cutting techniques and tools (remote controlled grinder, remote controlled robot, carrier crane); robotics for remote operations and handling; waste processing

  20. A κ-generalized statistical mechanics approach to income analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clementi, F; Gallegati, M; Kaniadakis, G

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes a statistical mechanics approach to the analysis of income distribution and inequality. A new distribution function, having its roots in the framework of κ-generalized statistics, is derived that is particularly suitable for describing the whole spectrum of incomes, from the low–middle income region up to the high income Pareto power-law regime. Analytical expressions for the shape, moments and some other basic statistical properties are given. Furthermore, several well-known econometric tools for measuring inequality, which all exist in a closed form, are considered. A method for parameter estimation is also discussed. The model is shown to fit remarkably well the data on personal income for the United States, and the analysis of inequality performed in terms of its parameters is revealed as very powerful

  1. A κ-generalized statistical mechanics approach to income analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clementi, F.; Gallegati, M.; Kaniadakis, G.

    2009-02-01

    This paper proposes a statistical mechanics approach to the analysis of income distribution and inequality. A new distribution function, having its roots in the framework of κ-generalized statistics, is derived that is particularly suitable for describing the whole spectrum of incomes, from the low-middle income region up to the high income Pareto power-law regime. Analytical expressions for the shape, moments and some other basic statistical properties are given. Furthermore, several well-known econometric tools for measuring inequality, which all exist in a closed form, are considered. A method for parameter estimation is also discussed. The model is shown to fit remarkably well the data on personal income for the United States, and the analysis of inequality performed in terms of its parameters is revealed as very powerful.

  2. Spreading dynamics on complex networks: a general stochastic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noël, Pierre-André; Allard, Antoine; Hébert-Dufresne, Laurent; Marceau, Vincent; Dubé, Louis J

    2014-12-01

    Dynamics on networks is considered from the perspective of Markov stochastic processes. We partially describe the state of the system through network motifs and infer any missing data using the available information. This versatile approach is especially well adapted for modelling spreading processes and/or population dynamics. In particular, the generality of our framework and the fact that its assumptions are explicitly stated suggests that it could be used as a common ground for comparing existing epidemics models too complex for direct comparison, such as agent-based computer simulations. We provide many examples for the special cases of susceptible-infectious-susceptible and susceptible-infectious-removed dynamics (e.g., epidemics propagation) and we observe multiple situations where accurate results may be obtained at low computational cost. Our perspective reveals a subtle balance between the complex requirements of a realistic model and its basic assumptions.

  3. Development of a generalized integral jet model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duijm, Nijs Jan; Kessler, A.; Markert, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Integral type models to describe stationary plumes and jets in cross-flows (wind) have been developed since about 1970. These models are widely used for risk analysis, to describe the consequences of many different scenarios. Alternatively, CFD codes are being applied, but computational requireme......Integral type models to describe stationary plumes and jets in cross-flows (wind) have been developed since about 1970. These models are widely used for risk analysis, to describe the consequences of many different scenarios. Alternatively, CFD codes are being applied, but computational...... requirements still limit the number of scenarios that can be dealt with using CFD only. The integral models, however, are not suited to handle transient releases, such as releases from pressurized equipment, where the initially high release rate decreases rapidly with time. Further, on gas ignition, a second...... model is needed to describe the rapid combustion of the flammable part of the plume (flash fire) and a third model has to be applied for the remaining jet fire. The objective of this paper is to describe the first steps of the development of an integral-type model describing the transient development...

  4. Generalized structured component analysis a component-based approach to structural equation modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Hwang, Heungsun

    2014-01-01

    Winner of the 2015 Sugiyama Meiko Award (Publication Award) of the Behaviormetric Society of Japan Developed by the authors, generalized structured component analysis is an alternative to two longstanding approaches to structural equation modeling: covariance structure analysis and partial least squares path modeling. Generalized structured component analysis allows researchers to evaluate the adequacy of a model as a whole, compare a model to alternative specifications, and conduct complex analyses in a straightforward manner. Generalized Structured Component Analysis: A Component-Based Approach to Structural Equation Modeling provides a detailed account of this novel statistical methodology and its various extensions. The authors present the theoretical underpinnings of generalized structured component analysis and demonstrate how it can be applied to various empirical examples. The book enables quantitative methodologists, applied researchers, and practitioners to grasp the basic concepts behind this new a...

  5. GENERAL TASKS OF MATHEMATICAL EDUCATION DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Testov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses basic implementation aspects of the Mathematical Education Development Concept, adopted by the Russian Government in 2013. According to the above document, the main problems of mathematical education include: low motivation of secondary and higher school students for studying the discipline, resulted from underestimation of mathematical knowledge; and outdated educational content, overloaded by technical elements. In the author’s opinion, a number of important new mathematical fields, developed over the last years, - the graph theory, discrete mathematics, encoding theory, fractal geometry, etc – have a large methodological and applied educational potential. However, these new subdisciplines have very little representation both in the secondary and higher school mathematical curricula. As a solution for overcoming the gap between the latest scientific achievements and pedagogical practices, the author recommends integration of the above mentioned mathematical disciplines in educational curricula instead of some outdated technical issues. In conclusion, the paper emphasizes the need for qualified mathematical teachers’ training for solving the problems of students’ motivation development and content updates.

  6. Radioimmunoassay in developing countries: General principles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piyasena, R D

    1993-12-31

    Radioimmunoassay (RIA) is probably the most commonly performed nuclear medicine technique. It is an in vitro procedure, where no radioactivity is administered to the patient. But this alone is not the reason for its widespread use. It provides the basis for extremely sensitive and specific diagnostic tests, and its use in present day medicine has brought a virtual information explosion in terms of understanding the pathophysiology of many diseases. The fact that the technology involved is within the technical and economic capabilities of the developing world is evident from the increasing demand for its introduction or expansion of existing services. RIA facilities need not be restricted to urban hospitals, as in the case of in vivo nuclear medicine techniques, but may be extended to smaller district hospitals and other laboratories in peripheral areas. It is also possible to send blood samples to a central laboratory so that a single centre can serve a wide geographical area. There are many laboratories in the industrialized world that receive a major proportion of samples for assay by mail. In recent years, substantial RIA services have been established in many of the developing countries in Asia and Latin America. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and World Health Organisation (WHO) have made vital contributions to these activities and have played a catalytic role in assisting member states to achieve realistic goals. In the past five years, more than 250 individual RIA laboratories in developing member states have been beneficiaries of IAEA projects

  7. Radioimmunoassay in developing countries: General principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piyasena, R.D.

    1992-01-01

    Radioimmunoassay (RIA) is probably the most commonly performed nuclear medicine technique. It is an in vitro procedure, where no radioactivity is administered to the patient. But this alone is not the reason for its widespread use. It provides the basis for extremely sensitive and specific diagnostic tests, and its use in present day medicine has brought a virtual information explosion in terms of understanding the pathophysiology of many diseases. The fact that the technology involved is within the technical and economic capabilities of the developing world is evident from the increasing demand for its introduction or expansion of existing services. RIA facilities need not be restricted to urban hospitals, as in the case of in vivo nuclear medicine techniques, but may be extended to smaller district hospitals and other laboratories in peripheral areas. It is also possible to send blood samples to a central laboratory so that a single centre can serve a wide geographical area. There are many laboratories in the industrialized world that receive a major proportion of samples for assay by mail. In recent years, substantial RIA services have been established in many of the developing countries in Asia and Latin America. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and World Health Organisation (WHO) have made vital contributions to these activities and have played a catalytic role in assisting member states to achieve realistic goals. In the past five years, more than 250 individual RIA laboratories in developing member states have been beneficiaries of IAEA projects

  8. [The rise and development of general dentistry in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongchen

    2016-02-01

    General dentistry is an important part of the dental medicine and general dentists and general dentistry form the basis of clinical dental medicine. China's general dentistry has a long history, which started as an independent specialist in the 1990s. At present, the Chinese general dental medicine has received more and more attention as an independent profession. General dental medical model has been rapidly developed in the general hospital department of dentistry, private practice and community dentistry institutions, dental specialist hospitals and so on. In this paper, we will review the rise and development of China's general dentistry, and report its theoretical characteristics, institutional framework, academic progress, member development report, and look forward to its development in the future.

  9. Approaching development – An opinionated review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Christian

    2010-01-01

    and as a craft and argues for the necessity of recognizing their difference. Moreover, as a social science, development studies also navigate between theoretical generalization and descriptive particularism. By making a distinction between explanatory and heuristic frameworks, development studies can...... be normalized as a science and thus able to study a contextual moving target while drawing on a general or ‘grand theory'....

  10. A general excimer signaling approach for aptamer sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Cuichen; Yan, Ling; Wang, Chunming; Lin, Haoxue; Wang, Chi; Chen, Xi; Yang, Chaoyong James

    2010-06-15

    Simple, fast and direct analysis or monitoring of significant molecules in complex biological samples is important for many biological study, clinical diagnosis and forensic investigations. Herein we highlight a general method to tailor aptamer sequence into functional subunits to design target-induced light-switching excimer sensors for rapid, sensitive and selective detection of important molecules in complex biological fluids. Our approach is to split one single strand aptamer into two pieces and each terminally labeled with a pyrene molecule while maintaining their binding affinity to target molecules. In the presence of target molecules, two aptamer fragments are induced to self-assemble to form aptamer-target complex and bring two pyrene molecules into a close proximity to form an excimer, resulting in fluorescent switching from approximately 400 nm to 485 nm. With an anti-cocaine sensor, as low as 1 microM of cocaine can be detected using steady-state fluorescence assays and more importantly low picomole level of target can be directly visualized with naked eyes. Because the excimer has a long fluorescence lifetime, time-resolved measurements were used to directly detect as low as 5 microM cocaine in urine samples quantitatively without any sample pretreatment. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Schistosomiasis vaccine development: approaches and prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. R. Bergquist

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available Mounting evidence for acquired immunity to schistosomiasis in humans supports the case for immunological intervention. On the other hand, rapid reinfection poses a threat to younger age groups due to the slow maturation of natural resistance. However, rational approaches, based on advances in immunology and molecular biology, have substantially increased the odds of producing an effective vaccine. Since the parasite cannot replicate in the human host and serious morbidity generally occurs only after a relatively long period of heavy worm burden, complete protection against infection is not essential. The chances of success would increase if more than one of the various host/parasite interphases were targeted, for example reducing morbidity through decreased worm loads as well as through suppression of egg production. Several promising schistosome antigens have now reached an advanced phase of development and are currently undergoing independent confirmatory testing according to a standardized protocol. A few molecules are being contemplated for scaled-up production but, so far, only one has reached the stage of industrial manufacture and safety testing. Since schistosomiasis cannot realistically be controlled by a single approach, vaccination is envisaged to be implemented in conjunction with other means of control, notably chemotherapy.

  12. Systems approach to nuclear waste glass development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jantzen, C.M.

    1986-01-01

    Development of a host solid for the immobilization of nuclear waste has focused on various vitreous wasteforms. The systems approach requires that parameters affecting product performance and processing be considered simultaneously. Application of the systems approach indicates that borosilicate glasses are, overall, the most suitable glasses for the immobilization of nuclear waste. Phosphate glasses are highly durable; but the glass melts are highly corrosive and the glasses have poor thermal stability and low solubility for many waste components. High-silica glasses have good chemical durability, thermal stability, and mechanical stability, but the associated high melting temperatures increase volatilization of hazardous species in the waste. Borosilicate glasses are chemically durable and are stable both thermally and mechanically. The borosilicate melts are generally less corrosive than commercial glasses, and the melt temperature miimizes excessive volatility of hazardous species. Optimization of borosilicate waste glass formulations has led to their acceptance as the reference nuclear wasteform in the United States, United Kingdom, Belgium, Germany, France, Sweden, Switzerland, and Japan

  13. Development in the Slovakia. General environmental science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    In this chapter the basic of the environmental science and preservation of the natural memories; The protection of the nature and landscape; The protection of the forest; The protection of the trees growing outside of the forests, parks and gardens; The protection of free growing of species of plants; The protection of free living species of animals; The protection of animals and game law; The protection of fishes and fishery; The water protection, their balance and water farm; The health protection of the man (Radiation protection and nuclear safety is included); The veterinary ministration and protection of animals; The air protection and protection of the ozone layer; Wastes and waste management; The protection and agricultural use of soil; The protection and use of minerals; The protection of cultural heritage in the landscape; The territorial planning, building order and environmental rationalizing; The assessment of influences on the environment; The state fund of the environment; The state administration for the environment; The access to environmental information; The law about the environment and basic meanings of the environmentalism; The environmental terminology in the environmental law; The environmental terminology in the development and documents of environmental law are reviewed

  14. Generalized Hurst exponent approach to efficiency in MENA markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sensoy, A.

    2013-10-01

    We study the time-varying efficiency of 15 Middle East and North African (MENA) stock markets by generalized Hurst exponent analysis of daily data with a rolling window technique. The study covers a time period of six years from January 2007 to December 2012. The results reveal that all MENA stock markets exhibit different degrees of long-range dependence varying over time and that the Arab Spring has had a negative effect on market efficiency in the region. The least inefficient market is found to be Turkey, followed by Israel, while the most inefficient markets are Iran, Tunisia, and UAE. Turkey and Israel show characteristics of developed financial markets. Reasons and implications are discussed.

  15. A new approach for developing adjoint models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, P. E.; Funke, S. W.

    2011-12-01

    Many data assimilation algorithms rely on the availability of gradients of misfit functionals, which can be efficiently computed with adjoint models. However, the development of an adjoint model for a complex geophysical code is generally very difficult. Algorithmic differentiation (AD, also called automatic differentiation) offers one strategy for simplifying this task: it takes the abstraction that a model is a sequence of primitive instructions, each of which may be differentiated in turn. While extremely successful, this low-level abstraction runs into time-consuming difficulties when applied to the whole codebase of a model, such as differentiating through linear solves, model I/O, calls to external libraries, language features that are unsupported by the AD tool, and the use of multiple programming languages. While these difficulties can be overcome, it requires a large amount of technical expertise and an intimate familiarity with both the AD tool and the model. An alternative to applying the AD tool to the whole codebase is to assemble the discrete adjoint equations and use these to compute the necessary gradients. With this approach, the AD tool must be applied to the nonlinear assembly operators, which are typically small, self-contained units of the codebase. The disadvantage of this approach is that the assembly of the discrete adjoint equations is still very difficult to perform correctly, especially for complex multiphysics models that perform temporal integration; as it stands, this approach is as difficult and time-consuming as applying AD to the whole model. In this work, we have developed a library which greatly simplifies and automates the alternate approach of assembling the discrete adjoint equations. We propose a complementary, higher-level abstraction to that of AD: that a model is a sequence of linear solves. The developer annotates model source code with library calls that build a 'tape' of the operators involved and their dependencies, and

  16. Nanotechnology for potable water and general consumption in developing countries

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hillie, T

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available that affect people in developing and developed countries. The challenges outlined are; poor governance, water scarcity, sanitation and climate change. Nanotechnology is sufficiently advanced to help provide potable water and water for general assumption...

  17. A Generalized Hybrid Multiscale Modeling Approach for Flow and Reactive Transport in Porous Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, X.; Meng, X.; Tang, Y. H.; Guo, Z.; Karniadakis, G. E.

    2017-12-01

    Using emerging understanding of biological and environmental processes at fundamental scales to advance predictions of the larger system behavior requires the development of multiscale approaches, and there is strong interest in coupling models at different scales together in a hybrid multiscale simulation framework. A limited number of hybrid multiscale simulation methods have been developed for subsurface applications, mostly using application-specific approaches for model coupling. The proposed generalized hybrid multiscale approach is designed with minimal intrusiveness to the at-scale simulators (pre-selected) and provides a set of lightweight C++ scripts to manage a complex multiscale workflow utilizing a concurrent coupling approach. The workflow includes at-scale simulators (using the lattice-Boltzmann method, LBM, at the pore and Darcy scale, respectively), scripts for boundary treatment (coupling and kriging), and a multiscale universal interface (MUI) for data exchange. The current study aims to apply the generalized hybrid multiscale modeling approach to couple pore- and Darcy-scale models for flow and mixing-controlled reaction with precipitation/dissolution in heterogeneous porous media. The model domain is packed heterogeneously that the mixing front geometry is more complex and not known a priori. To address those challenges, the generalized hybrid multiscale modeling approach is further developed to 1) adaptively define the locations of pore-scale subdomains, 2) provide a suite of physical boundary coupling schemes and 3) consider the dynamic change of the pore structures due to mineral precipitation/dissolution. The results are validated and evaluated by comparing with single-scale simulations in terms of velocities, reactive concentrations and computing cost.

  18. A general approach to posterior contraction in nonparametric inverse problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knapik, Bartek; Salomond, Jean Bernard

    In this paper, we propose a general method to derive an upper bound for the contraction rate of the posterior distribution for nonparametric inverse problems. We present a general theorem that allows us to derive contraction rates for the parameter of interest from contraction rates of the related

  19. Reflections on Narrative Approaches to Moral Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenco, Orlando

    1996-01-01

    Compares narrative approaches to Kohlberg's theory of moral development along five dimensions: values relevance, legitimacy, universality, rationality, and commensurability. Argues that, contrary to Kohlberg's theory, narrative approaches may lead to contradiction in epistemology, nihilism in moral choices, and opportunism in relationships.…

  20. eHealth development: a holistic approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lentferink, Aniek

    2016-01-01

    This presentation was held during the course 'eHealth development a holistic approach' at the University of Twente. The presentation included information about the project Quantified Self at Work and specifically the approach of co-creation during eHealth design with important stakeholders.

  1. Dynamical Systems Approaches to Emotional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camras, Linda A.; Witherington, David C.

    2005-01-01

    Within the last 20 years, transitions in the conceptualization of emotion and its development have given rise to calls for an explanatory framework that captures emotional development in all its organizational complexity and variability. Recent attempts have been made to couch emotional development in terms of a dynamical systems approach through…

  2. Social Case-work in General Practice: An Alternative Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratoff, L.; Pearson, Barbara

    1970-01-01

    During a two-year period a senior case-worker was seconded by a voluntary family case-work agency, the Liverpool Personal Service Society, to work with three general practitioners. The commonest reasons for referral of the 157 new patients to the social worker over this study period were extreme poverty; housing, matrimonial, and psychiatric problems; and problems of fatherless families. The successful and valuable co-operation between the general practitioners, case-worker, and various specialist professional and financial services of the Society have proved that a professional social worker has an important role in the general-practice team. PMID:5420213

  3. A general approach for monodisperse colloidal perovskites, Chemistry of Materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demirors, A.F.; Imhof, A.

    2009-01-01

    We describe a novel general method for synthesizing monodisperse colloidal perovskite particles at room temperature by postsynthesis addition of metal hydroxides to amorphous titania colloids. In previous work, we used titania particles to synthesize homogenously mixed silica-titania composite

  4. A Fuzzy-Logic Generalization of a Data Mining Approach

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Holeňa, Martin

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 6 (2001), s. 595-610 ISSN 1210-0552. [SOFSEM 2001 Workshop on Soft Computing. Piešťany, 29.11.2001-30.11.2001] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1030004 Institutional research plan: AV0Z1030915 Keywords : data analysis * vague hypotheses * vague significante level * fuzzy prediacate calculus * basic fuzzy logic * generalized quantifiers * method GUHA Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  5. Discourse analysis in general practice: a sociolinguistic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nessa, J; Malterud, K

    1990-06-01

    It is a simple but important fact that as general practitioners we talk to our patients. The quality of the conversation is of vital importance for the outcome of the consultation. The purpose of this article is to discuss a methodological tool borrowed from sociolinguistics--discourse analysis. To assess the suitability of this method for analysis of general practice consultations, the authors have performed a discourse analysis of one single consultation. Our experiences are presented here.

  6. A Dooyeweerd-based approach to regional economic development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aay, H; Van Langevelde, A

    2005-01-01

    Within regional science there is a need for a general theory of regional economic development, one that evaluates and integrates existing approaches. In this paper, the philosophy of Herman Dooyeweerd is used as a basis for conceptualising the contours of such a theory. Contributions of this

  7. the chemist's triangle and a general systemic approach to teaching

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IICBA01

    The three levels of science thought (macro, micro, symbolic), identified by ... advocated in the systemic approach to teaching and learning of chemistry. ... A recent paper by Reid [1] illuminates the issue and claims school chemistry as part of.

  8. Ada developers' supplement to the recommended approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kester, Rush; Landis, Linda

    1993-01-01

    This document is a collection of guidelines for programmers and managers who are responsible for the development of flight dynamics applications in Ada. It is intended to be used in conjunction with the Recommended Approach to Software Development (SEL-81-305), which describes the software development life cycle, its products, reviews, methods, tools, and measures. The Ada Developers' Supplement provides additional detail on such topics as reuse, object-oriented analysis, and object-oriented design.

  9. [Precision medicine : a required approach for the general internist].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waeber, Gérard; Cornuz, Jacques; Gaspoz, Jean-Michel; Guessous, Idris; Mooser, Vincent; Perrier, Arnaud; Simonet, Martine Louis

    2017-01-18

    The general internist cannot be a passive bystander of the anticipated medical revolution induced by precision medicine. This latter aims to improve the predictive and/or clinical course of an individual by integrating all biological, genetic, environmental, phenotypic and psychosocial knowledge of a person. In this article, national and international initiatives in the field of precision medicine are discussed as well as the potential financial, ethical and limitations of personalized medicine. The question is not to know if precision medicine will be part of everyday life but rather to integrate early the general internist in multidisciplinary teams to ensure optimal information and shared-decision process with patients and individuals.

  10. Developing educational hypermedia applications: a methodological approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Miguel Nunes

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an hypermedia development methodology with the aim of integrating the work of both educators, who will be primarily responsible for the instructional design, with that of software experts, responsible for the software design and development. Hence, it is proposed that the educators and programmers should interact in an integrated and systematic manner following a methodological approach.

  11. Toward a Cooperative Experimental System Development Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbæk, Kaj; Kyng, Morten; Mogensen, Preben Holst

    1997-01-01

    This chapter represents a step towards the establishment of a new system development approach, called Cooperative Experimental System Development (CESD). CESD seeks to overcome a number of limitations in existing approaches: specification oriented methods usually assume that system design can...... be based solely on observation and detached reflection; prototyping methods often have a narrow focus on the technical construction of various kinds of prototypes; Participatory Design techniques—including the Scandinavian Cooperative Design (CD) approaches—seldom go beyond the early analysis....../design activities of development projects. In contrast, the CESD approach is characterized by its focus on: active user involvement throughout the entire development process; prototyping experiments closely coupled to work-situations and use-scenarios; transforming results from early cooperative analysis...

  12. A general approach to decomposable bi-capacities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Saminger, S.; Mesiar, Radko

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 5 (2003), s. 631-642 ISSN 0023-5954 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA402/04/1026 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1075907 Keywords : bi-capacity * cumulative prospect theory * decomposable capacity Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.319, year: 2003

  13. Integrated radiobioecological monitoring of Semipalatinsk test site: general approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sejsebaev, A.T.; Shenal', K.; Bakhtin, M.M.; Kadyrova, N.Zh.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents major research directions and general methodology for establishment of an integrated radio-bio-ecological monitoring system at the territory of the former Semipalatinsk nuclear test site. Also, it briefly provides the first results of monitoring the natural plant and animal populations at STS. (author)

  14. An Investigative, Cooperative Learning Approach to the General Microbiology Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Kyle; Fenster, Amy; Dilts, Judith A.; Temple, Louise

    2009-01-01

    Investigative- and cooperative-based learning strategies have been used effectively in a variety of classrooms to enhance student learning and engagement. In the General Microbiology laboratory for juniors and seniors at James Madison University, these strategies were combined to make a semester-long, investigative, cooperative learning experience…

  15. General Systems Theory Approaches to Organizations: Some Problems in Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peery, Newman S., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Considers the limitations of General Systems Theory (GST) as a major paradigm within administrative theory and concludes that most systems formulations overemphasize growth and show little appreciation for intraorganizational conflict, diversity of values, and political action within organizations. Suggests that these limitations are mainly due to…

  16. A simplified approach to general scalar-tensor theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloomfield, Jolyon

    2013-01-01

    The most general covariant action describing gravity coupled to a scalar field with only second order equations of motion, Horndeski's theory (also known as ''Generalized Galileons''), provides an all-encompassing model in which single scalar dark energy models may be constrained. However, the generality of the model makes it cumbersome to manipulate. In this paper, we demonstrate that when considering linear perturbations about a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker background, the theory is completely specified by only six functions of time, two of which are constrained by the background evolution. We utilise the ideas of the Effective Field Theory of Inflation/Dark Energy to explicitly construct these six functions of time in terms of the free functions appearing in Horndeski's theory. These results are used to investigate the behavior of the theory in the quasistatic approximation. We find that only four functions of time are required to completely specify the linear behavior of the theory in this limit, which can further be reduced if the background evolution is fixed. This presents a significantly reduced parameter space from the original presentation of Horndeski's theory, giving hope to the possibility of constraining the parameter space. This work provides a cross-check for previous work on linear perturbations in this theory, and also generalizes it to include spatial curvature

  17. Currency Hedging for International Stock Portfolios : A General Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Roon, F.A.; Nijman, T.E.; Werker, B.J.M.

    1999-01-01

    This paper tests whether hedging currency risk improves the performance of international stock portfolios. We use a generalized performance measure which allows for investor-dependencies such as different utility functions and the presence of nontraded risks. In addition we show that an auxiliary

  18. A New Approach to the General Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieron, Joseph F.; McCarthy, Paul J.; Kermis, Thomas W.

    1996-11-01

    Background Canisius College is a medium-sized liberal arts college with a longstanding tradition of maintaining an excellent chemistry program. We realized a few years ago, however, that this tradition was not being sustained by our General Chemistry laboratory course, which had not changed significantly in years. With the help of a grant from the National Science Foundation, our department has been able to design a new laboratory course built around several guiding principles. The design called for experiments to be grouped in units or clusters. Each cluster has a unifying theme or common thread, which gives some coherence to the experiments. The clusters and experiments are listed in the appendix and briefly explained below. Course Design Cluster A's topic is organic and polymer chemistry, and its main objective is to show that chemistry can be enjoyable and relevant to common experiences. Data collection is minimal and hands-on manipulation with observable products is emphasized. Cluster B is a case study of the chemistry of maintaining a swimming pool. The common theme is solution chemistry, and the experiments are designed to promote critical thinking. Cluster C encompasses both oxidation - reduction reactions and electrochemistry, and attempts to show the commonality of these important topics. Cluster D is a series of experiments on methods and techniques of analytical chemistry; in this group the analysis of unknown materials is undertaken. Cluster E is covered last in the second semester, and it stresses important concepts in chemistry at a slightly more advanced level. The emphasis is on the relationship of experiment to theory, and the cluster involves experiments in kinetics, equilibrium, and synthesis. Other guidelines that we considered important in our design were the use of computers (when appropriate), the introduction of microscale chemistry, and the use of instrumentation whenever possible. A separate cluster, labeled Mac, was developed to provide

  19. Mentorship Programs for Faculty Development in Academic General Pediatric Divisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Takagishi

    2011-01-01

    Discussion. General pediatric division chiefs acknowledge the benefits of mentoring relationships, and some have programs in place. Many need tools to create them. Pediatric societies could facilitate this critical area of professional development.

  20. The chemist's triangle and a general systemic approach to teaching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The three levels of science thought (macro, micro, symbolic), identified by Johnstone and represented by a triangle, may be viewed as a core closed-cluster concept map of the type advocated in the systemic approach to teaching and learning of chemistry. Some of the implications of this view for teaching, learning and ...

  1. General renormalized statistical approach with finite cross-field correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vakulenko, M.O.

    1992-01-01

    The renormalized statistical approach is proposed, accounting for finite correlations of potential and magnetic fluctuations. It may be used for analysis of a wide class of nonlinear model equations describing the cross-correlated plasma states. The influence of a cross spectrum on stationary potential and magnetic ones is investigated. 10 refs. (author)

  2. General presentation of the core mechanical behaviour approach in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, A.; Dorsselaere, J.P. van

    1984-01-01

    This French review paper presents the evolution along time of the FBR core mechanical behaviour approach, from RAPSODIE to SPX2, through PHENIX and SPX1: core designs, knowledge of the irradiation laws, project criterias, calculation codes, and R and D fields. (author)

  3. General approach for accurate resonance analysis in transformer windings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popov, M.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, resonance effects in transformer windings are thoroughly investigated and analyzed. The resonance is determined by making use of an accurate approach based on the application of the impedance matrix of a transformer winding. The method is validated by a test coil and the numerical

  4. Holistic and Ecological Approaches in Talent Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Kristoffer

    the somewhat opposing talent discovery and development approaches by focusing on how an environment manages the balance between these two, and how this balance becomes a part of the environment’s identity. Ecological perspectives on talent development hold rich insights for developing theories, research......Research on athletic talent has evolved from talent detection to talent development with both perspectives focusing on an individual athlete. This individual focus has been mirrored in the applied work of the sport psychology practitioner in youth competitive sport who has primarily focused...... on equipping individual athletes with the psychosocial skills required in a sport career. In contrast, the holistic ecological approach (HEA) to talent development in sport (Henriksen, Stambulova & Roessler, 2010) acknowledges the role of the overall environment in athletes’ development. The HEA integrates...

  5. Generalized perturbation theory (GPT) methods. A heuristic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gandini, A.

    1987-01-01

    Wigner first proposed a perturbation theory as early as 1945 to study fundamental quantities such as the reactivity worths of different materials. The first formulation, CPT, for conventional perturbation theory is based on universal quantum mechanics concepts. Since that early conception, significant contributions have been made to CPT, in particular, Soodak, who rendered a heuristic interpretation of the adjoint function, (referred to as the GPT method for generalized perturbation theory). The author illustrates the GPT methodology in a variety of linear and nonlinear domains encountered in nuclear reactor analysis. The author begins with the familiar linear neutron field and then generalizes the methodology to other linear and nonlinear fields, using heuristic arguments. The author believes that the inherent simplicity and elegance of the heuristic derivation, although intended here for reactor physics problems might be usefully adopted in collateral fields and includes such examples

  6. Physico mathematical approach to generalized monopoles without a string

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, W.A.; Faria Rosa, M.A.; Maia, A.

    1988-01-01

    A theory of the generalized magnetic monopole without string, which is distinct from Dirac's original theory and also distinct from the topological theory of the monopole is presented. This theory is first formulated in the Clifford bundle formalism; and in the particular case of electrodynamics it is deduced from Maxwell equations the generalized Lorentz force and the equations of motion of charges and monopoles. The conservation laws and the problem of Lagrangian formalism are discussed. Dirac quantization condition in two different ways are obtained. Finally a principal fiber formulation of the theory using the spliced bundle concept with gauge group GxG, where G is the gauge group of the theory without monopoles, is presented

  7. Whiteheadian approach to quantum theory and the generalized bell's theorem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stapp, H.P.

    1979-01-01

    The model of the world proposed by Whitehead provides a natural theoretical framework in which to imbed quantum theory. This model accords with the ontological ideas of Heisenberg, and also with Einstein's view that physical theories should refer nominally to the objective physical situation, rather than our knowledge of that system. Whitehead imposed on his model the relativistic requirement that what happens in any given spacetime region be determined only by what has happened in its absolute past, i.e., in the backward light-cone drawn from that region. This requirement must be modified, for it is inconsistent with the implications of quantum theory expressed by a generalized version of Bell's theorem. Revamping the causal spacetime structure of the Whitehead-Heisenberg ontology to bring it into accord with the generalized Bell's theorem creates the possibility of a nonlocal causal covariant theory that accords with the statistical prediction of quantum theory

  8. The statistical-inference approach to generalized thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavenda, B.H.; Scherer, C.

    1987-01-01

    Limit theorems, such as the central-limit theorem and the weak law of large numbers, are applicable to statistical thermodynamics for sufficiently large sample size of indipendent and identically distributed observations performed on extensive thermodynamic (chance) variables. The estimation of the intensive thermodynamic quantities is a problem in parametric statistical estimation. The normal approximation to the Gibbs' distribution is justified by the analysis of large deviations. Statistical thermodynamics is generalized to include the statistical estimation of variance as well as mean values

  9. Trade Liberalisation and Poverty in Bangladesh: A General Equilibrium Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Nahar, Bodrun; Siriwardana, Mahinda

    2009-01-01

    This paper uses a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model to investigate the impact on poverty of trade liberalisation in Bangladesh. The simulation results show that the complete removal of tariffs favours export oriented sectors in the economy. With trade liberalisation, rural and urban areas experience an overall reduction in poverty in the short run. However, a marginal increase in the poverty gap and poverty severity for urban areas is projected, implying that the poor become poorer i...

  10. Effects produced by oscillations applied to nonlinear dynamic systems: a general approach and examples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blekhman, I. I.; Sorokin, V. S.

    2016-01-01

    A general approach to study effects produced by oscillations applied to nonlinear dynamic systems is developed. It implies a transition from initial governing equations of motion to much more simple equations describing only the main slow component of motions (the vibro-transformed dynamics.......g., the requirement for the involved nonlinearities to be weak. The approach is illustrated by several relevant examples from various fields of science, e.g., mechanics, physics, chemistry and biophysics....... equations). The approach is named as the oscillatory strobodynamics, since motions are perceived as under a stroboscopic light. The vibro-transformed dynamics equations comprise terms that capture the averaged effect of oscillations. The method of direct separation of motions appears to be an efficient...

  11. The General Atomics low speed urban Maglev technology development program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    The overall objective of this program is to develop magnetic levitation technology that is a cost effective, reliable, : and environmentally friendly option for urban mass transportation in the United States. Maglev is a revolutionary : approach in w...

  12. Continuation of probability density functions using a generalized Lyapunov approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baars, S., E-mail: s.baars@rug.nl [Johann Bernoulli Institute for Mathematics and Computer Science, University of Groningen, P.O. Box 407, 9700 AK Groningen (Netherlands); Viebahn, J.P., E-mail: viebahn@cwi.nl [Centrum Wiskunde & Informatica (CWI), P.O. Box 94079, 1090 GB, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Mulder, T.E., E-mail: t.e.mulder@uu.nl [Institute for Marine and Atmospheric research Utrecht, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Utrecht University, Princetonplein 5, 3584 CC Utrecht (Netherlands); Kuehn, C., E-mail: ckuehn@ma.tum.de [Technical University of Munich, Faculty of Mathematics, Boltzmannstr. 3, 85748 Garching bei München (Germany); Wubs, F.W., E-mail: f.w.wubs@rug.nl [Johann Bernoulli Institute for Mathematics and Computer Science, University of Groningen, P.O. Box 407, 9700 AK Groningen (Netherlands); Dijkstra, H.A., E-mail: h.a.dijkstra@uu.nl [Institute for Marine and Atmospheric research Utrecht, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Utrecht University, Princetonplein 5, 3584 CC Utrecht (Netherlands); School of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States)

    2017-05-01

    Techniques from numerical bifurcation theory are very useful to study transitions between steady fluid flow patterns and the instabilities involved. Here, we provide computational methodology to use parameter continuation in determining probability density functions of systems of stochastic partial differential equations near fixed points, under a small noise approximation. Key innovation is the efficient solution of a generalized Lyapunov equation using an iterative method involving low-rank approximations. We apply and illustrate the capabilities of the method using a problem in physical oceanography, i.e. the occurrence of multiple steady states of the Atlantic Ocean circulation.

  13. AUTOMOTIVE MARKET- FROM A GENERAL TO A MARKET SEGMENTATION APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviana Andreea Niminet

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Automotive market and its corresponding industry are undoubtedly of outmost importance and therefore proper market segmentation is crucial for market players, potential competitors and customers as well. Time has proved that market economic analysis often shown flaws in determining the relevant market, by using solely or mainly the geographic aspect and disregarding the importance of segments on the automotive market. For these reasons we propose a new approach of the automotive market proving the importance of proper market segmentation and defining the strategic groups within the automotive market.

  14. A Hybrid Generalized Hidden Markov Model-Based Condition Monitoring Approach for Rolling Bearings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Hu, Youmin; Wu, Bo; Wang, Yan; Xie, Fengyun

    2017-05-18

    The operating condition of rolling bearings affects productivity and quality in the rotating machine process. Developing an effective rolling bearing condition monitoring approach is critical to accurately identify the operating condition. In this paper, a hybrid generalized hidden Markov model-based condition monitoring approach for rolling bearings is proposed, where interval valued features are used to efficiently recognize and classify machine states in the machine process. In the proposed method, vibration signals are decomposed into multiple modes with variational mode decomposition (VMD). Parameters of the VMD, in the form of generalized intervals, provide a concise representation for aleatory and epistemic uncertainty and improve the robustness of identification. The multi-scale permutation entropy method is applied to extract state features from the decomposed signals in different operating conditions. Traditional principal component analysis is adopted to reduce feature size and computational cost. With the extracted features' information, the generalized hidden Markov model, based on generalized interval probability, is used to recognize and classify the fault types and fault severity levels. Finally, the experiment results show that the proposed method is effective at recognizing and classifying the fault types and fault severity levels of rolling bearings. This monitoring method is also efficient enough to quantify the two uncertainty components.

  15. A Hybrid Generalized Hidden Markov Model-Based Condition Monitoring Approach for Rolling Bearings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Liu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The operating condition of rolling bearings affects productivity and quality in the rotating machine process. Developing an effective rolling bearing condition monitoring approach is critical to accurately identify the operating condition. In this paper, a hybrid generalized hidden Markov model-based condition monitoring approach for rolling bearings is proposed, where interval valued features are used to efficiently recognize and classify machine states in the machine process. In the proposed method, vibration signals are decomposed into multiple modes with variational mode decomposition (VMD. Parameters of the VMD, in the form of generalized intervals, provide a concise representation for aleatory and epistemic uncertainty and improve the robustness of identification. The multi-scale permutation entropy method is applied to extract state features from the decomposed signals in different operating conditions. Traditional principal component analysis is adopted to reduce feature size and computational cost. With the extracted features’ information, the generalized hidden Markov model, based on generalized interval probability, is used to recognize and classify the fault types and fault severity levels. Finally, the experiment results show that the proposed method is effective at recognizing and classifying the fault types and fault severity levels of rolling bearings. This monitoring method is also efficient enough to quantify the two uncertainty components.

  16. APPROACHES TO EMPLOYEE DEVELOPMENT IN CZECH ORGANISATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VNOUČKOVÁ, Lucie

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Education, development, knowledge management, career development and talent management are currently often discussed themes regarding strategic management of organisations. Those concepts are strategically important. Therefore the aim of the article is to evaluate possibilities of employee education and development and identify main approaches to employee development in Czech organizations. The results are based on a quantitative survey by questionnaire data collection. The results shows that 70% of respondents have possibility of development; 86% uses their skills and abilities and 63% stated that their employer support their development. On the contrary, 27% do not feel any possibility to grow and that may lead to disaffection, loss of production or even to employee turnover. Based on the results of the analysis, employees, who miss adequate level of development are usually key and knowledge employees; it is necessary to support their career plans and development to retain them in organisation.

  17. A novel and generalized approach in the inversion of geoelectrical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    can automate this process and substantially reduce development .... In this network, the information moves in only ..... inversion scheme for deep resistivity sounding data using artificial ... Tiwari 2013 Delineation of shallow resistivity structure.

  18. Implementation of the rapid cross section adjustment approach at General Electric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowan, C.L.; Kujawski, E.; Protsik, R.

    1978-01-01

    The General Electric rapid cross section adjustment approach was developed to use the shielding factor method for formulating multigroup cross sections. In this approach, space- and composition-dependent cross sections for a particular reactor or shield design are prepared from a generalized cross section library by the use of resonance self-shielding factors, and by the adjustment of elastic scattering cross sections for the local neutron flux spectra. The principal tool in the cross section adjustment package is the data processing code TDOWN. This code was specified to give the user a high degree of flexibility in the analysis of advanced reactor designs. Of particular interest in the analysis of critical experiments is the ability to carry out cell heterogeneity self-shielding calculations using a multiregion equivalence relationship, and the homogenization of the cross sections over the specified cell with the flux weighting obtained from transport theory calculations. Extensive testing of the rapid cross section adjustment approach, including comparisons with Monte Carlo methods, indicated that this approach can be utilized with a high degree of confidence in the design analysis of complex fast reactor systems. 2 figures, 1 table

  19. Polish Qualitative Sociology: The General Features and Development

    OpenAIRE

    Konecki, Krzysztof Tomasz

    2005-01-01

    The article explores the development of Polish qualitative sociology in Poland by presenting its main intellectual routes and some of the general features of Polish sociology. Romanticism and inductionmethod are crucial elements for the development of this discipline in Poland and contribute to its. unigueness. The role of Florian Znaniecki in creating the Polish qualitative sociology is also underlined. Krzysztof Konecki

  20. Multiple Scattering Approach to Continuum State with Generally Shaped Potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatada, Keisuke; Hayakawa, Kuniko; Tenore, Antonio; Benfatto, Maurizio; Natoli, Calogero

    2007-01-01

    We present a new scheme for solving the scattering problem for an arbitrarily shaped potential cell that avoids the well known convergence problems in the angular momentum expansion of the cell shape function. Tests of the method against analytically soluble separable model potentials, with and without shape truncation, have been performed with success. By a judicious choice of the shape of the cells partitioning the whole molecular space and use of empty cells when necessary, we set up a multiple scattering scheme that leads to a straightforward generalization of the same equations in the muffin-tin approximation. For example lmax in the angular momentum expansion can still be chosen according to the rule lmax ∼ kR, where R is the radius of the bounding sphere of the cell and all the matrices appearing in the theory are square matrices

  1. An investigative, cooperative learning approach to the general microbiology laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Kyle; Fenster, Amy; Dilts, Judith A; Temple, Louise

    2009-01-01

    Investigative- and cooperative-based learning strategies have been used effectively in a variety of classrooms to enhance student learning and engagement. In the General Microbiology laboratory for juniors and seniors at James Madison University, these strategies were combined to make a semester-long, investigative, cooperative learning experience involving culture and identification of microbial isolates that the students obtained from various environments. To assess whether this strategy was successful, students were asked to complete a survey at the beginning and at the end of the semester regarding their comfort level with a variety of topics. For most of the topics queried, the students reported that their comfort had increased significantly during the semester. Furthermore, this group of students thought that the quality of this investigative lab experience was much better than that of any of their previous lab experiences.

  2. Interacting holographic dark energy models: a general approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Som, S.; Sil, A.

    2014-08-01

    Dark energy models inspired by the cosmological holographic principle are studied in homogeneous isotropic spacetime with a general choice for the dark energy density . Special choices of the parameters enable us to obtain three different holographic models, including the holographic Ricci dark energy (RDE) model. Effect of interaction between dark matter and dark energy on the dynamics of those models are investigated for different popular forms of interaction. It is found that crossing of phantom divide can be avoided in RDE models for β>0.5 irrespective of the presence of interaction. A choice of α=1 and β=2/3 leads to a varying Λ-like model introducing an IR cutoff length Λ -1/2. It is concluded that among the popular choices an interaction of the form Q∝ Hρ m suits the best in avoiding the coincidence problem in this model.

  3. The canonical Lagrangian approach to three-space general relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyam, Vasudev; Venkatesh, Madhavan

    2013-07-01

    We study the action for the three-space formalism of general relativity, better known as the Barbour-Foster-Ó Murchadha action, which is a square-root Baierlein-Sharp-Wheeler action. In particular, we explore the (pre)symplectic structure by pulling it back via a Legendre map to the tangent bundle of the configuration space of this action. With it we attain the canonical Lagrangian vector field which generates the gauge transformations (3-diffeomorphisms) and the true physical evolution of the system. This vector field encapsulates all the dynamics of the system. We also discuss briefly the observables and perennials for this theory. We then present a symplectic reduction of the constrained phase space.

  4. French research on a general approach to sodium fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malet, JC.

    1989-01-01

    This document gives a general idea of how one may deal with the safety of an installation in case of a sodium leak generating either a sodium pool fire, or a sodium spray fire, or a combined sodium fire, and in case of a sodium leak either with or without fire and/or any aggravating phenomenon such as aerosols or sodium-concrete reactions, for example. This paper describes the means used to reduce fire consequences. These means are either design codes used for dimensioning premises with their ventilation system or for defining a course of action to be taken in case of fire, or equipment and components (fire fighting equipment, detection devices, etc.) used to prevent or to fight fires, or finally, to repair the installation after a fire, the latter operation including the processing of the residues. (author)

  5. Systematic Approach for Development of Innovative Infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarema Muhamedova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The necessity for development of innovative infrastructure is proved. Its nature, reasonability of systematic approach use and purpose has been identified. The author suggests considering the regime of infrastructural provision aimed at offering horizontal and vertical integration of institutions. This model is designed to create and integral complex for innovative support. The grounds of establishment the state politics are identified. The conceptual recommendations on its development and formation of relevant model, strategy and regulatory mechanism are outlined.

  6. Biotechnology approaches to developing herbicide tolerance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of herbicides has revolutionized weed control in many crop production systems. However, with the increasing development of weed resistances to many popular selective herbicides, the need has arisen to rethink the application of chemical weed control. Approaches to maintain the efficiency of chemical weed ...

  7. An approach towards sustainable groundwater development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To address water availability problems in a semi-arid country like South Africa, the National Water Act (RSA, 1998) proposes that specialists adopt an approach that is strategic, deliberate and dictated by socio-political reforms and socioeconomic development needs on a programmatic basis for long-term sustainability.

  8. Gouty arthritis: An approach for general practice | Tikly | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gout is a common crystal-induced inflammatory arthritis, the prevalence and clinical complexity of which is increasing in the face of a growing aged population with multiple co-morbidities. Recent epidemiological studies emphasise that lifestyle factors strongly influence the development of hyperuricaemia and gout.

  9. Generalized Information Equilibrium Approaches to EEG Sleep Stage Discrimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd Zorick

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in neuroscience have raised the hypothesis that the underlying pattern of neuronal activation which results in electroencephalography (EEG signals is via power-law distributed neuronal avalanches, while EEG signals are nonstationary. Therefore, spectral analysis of EEG may miss many properties inherent in such signals. A complete understanding of such dynamical systems requires knowledge of the underlying nonequilibrium thermodynamics. In recent work by Fielitz and Borchardt (2011, 2014, the concept of information equilibrium (IE in information transfer processes has successfully characterized many different systems far from thermodynamic equilibrium. We utilized a publicly available database of polysomnogram EEG data from fourteen subjects with eight different one-minute tracings of sleep stage 2 and waking and an overlapping set of eleven subjects with eight different one-minute tracings of sleep stage 3. We applied principles of IE to model EEG as a system that transfers (equilibrates information from the time domain to scalp-recorded voltages. We find that waking consciousness is readily distinguished from sleep stages 2 and 3 by several differences in mean information transfer constants. Principles of IE applied to EEG may therefore prove to be useful in the study of changes in brain function more generally.

  10. The nickel isotopes in a generalized-seniority approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monnoye, O.; Van Isacker, P.; Pittel, S.; Bennett, J.

    2002-01-01

    The nickel isotopes exist over a wide range of neutron numbers, extending from proton-rich to very neutron-rich nuclei. We report here a consistent study of the odd-mass Z = 28 nuclei in the full p∫ + g 9/2 shell using the generalized-seniority shell model. We include up to three unpaired nucleons in the odd sector and up to two in the even sector. We also report related results for the odd-mass 69 Cu and odd-odd 66 Co nuclei. Our calculations make use of a realistic shell-model interaction, whose monopole part has been renormalized to fit the properties of nuclei near closed shells. The calculated results are in good global agreement with experimental data and contain some evidence for the persistence of the N = 40 sub-shell closure around 68 Ni. The results demonstrate the importance of keeping the entire p∫ + g 9/2 space as active, both for neutrons and protons. (authors)

  11. Low-energy coupling of individual and collective degrees of freedom: a general microscopic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quentin, P.; Meyer, M.

    1988-01-01

    A general microscopic approach of low energy coupling of individual and collective degrees of freedom is presented. The ingredients of a Bohr-Mottelson unified model description are determined consistently from the Skyrme SIII effective interaction, through the adiabatic limit of the time-dependent Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov approximation. Three specific aspects will be mostly developed: i) the effect of pairing correlations on adiabatic mass parameters and collective dynamics; ii) a consistent coupling of collective and individual degrees of freedom to describe odd nuclei; iii) a study of spectroscopic data in odd-odd nuclei as a test of effective nucleon-nucleon interactions. (author)

  12. A Simple and General Approach to Determination of Self and Mutual Inductances for AC machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Kaiyuan; Rasmussen, Peter Omand; Ritchie, Ewen

    2011-01-01

    Modelling of AC electrical machines plays an important role in electrical engineering education related to electrical machine design and control. One of the fundamental requirements in AC machine modelling is to derive the self and mutual inductances, which could be position dependant. Theories...... developed so far for inductance determination are often associated with complicated machine magnetic field analysis, which exhibits a difficulty for most students. This paper describes a simple and general approach to the determination of self and mutual inductances of different types of AC machines. A new...... determination are given for a 3-phase, salient-pole synchronous machine, and an induction machine....

  13. Mass transfer simulation of nanofiltration membranes for electrolyte solutions through generalized Maxwell-Stefan approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshyargar, Vahid; Fadaei, Farzad; Ashrafizadeh, Seyed Nezameddin

    2015-01-01

    A comprehensive mathematical model is developed for simulation of ion transport through nanofiltration membranes. The model is based on the Maxwell-Stefan approach and takes into account steric, Donnan, and dielectric effects in the transport of mono and divalent ions. Theoretical ion rejection for multi-electrolyte mixtures was obtained by numerically solving the 'hindered transport' based on the generalized Maxwell-Stefan equation for the flux of ions. A computer simulation has been developed to predict the transport in the range of nanofiltration, a numerical procedure developed linearization and discretization form of the governing equations, and the finite volume method was employed for the numerical solution of equations. The developed numerical method is capable of solving equations for multicomponent systems of n species no matter to what extent the system shows stiffness. The model findings were compared and verified with the experimental data from literature for two systems of Na 2 SO 4 +NaCl and MgCl 2 +NaCl. Comparison showed great agreement for different concentrations. As such, the model is capable of predicting the rejection of different ions at various concentrations. The advantage of such a model is saving costs as a result of minimizing the number of required experiments, while it is closer to a realistic situation since the adsorption of ions has been taken into account. Using this model, the flux of permeates and rejections of multi-component liquid feeds can be calculated as a function of membrane properties. This simulation tool attempts to fill in the gap in methods used for predicting nanofiltration and optimization of the performance of charged nanofilters through generalized Maxwell-Stefan (GMS) approach. The application of the current model may weaken the latter gap, which has arisen due to the complexity of the fundamentals of ion transport processes via this approach, and may further facilitate the industrial development of

  14. A GENERAL APPROACH TO THE TOURISM RESEARCH IN SINALOA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Miguel Flores-Campaña

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The historical development of tourism research is described, analyzing trends in the short term and the role they have played some government agencies to support tourism and training of human resources in Sinaloa. He was elected to Mazatlan, main tourist destination in the state, to establish the development of tourism research in Sinaloa, using cognitive arguments to analyze its scientific nature also epistemological and scientific level compared from the academic production two units of higher education in the centennial Autonomous University of Sinaloa. 40 educational training and human resource development for the tourism sector in seven municipalities of the state territory, both in public institutions (20 and private (20, four of them in training, a similar number in the high school level were identified , two higher technical college, 27 undergraduate and graduate in only three. This type of provision begins in the early 1970s and today, 12 schools have closed or changed programs, while 28 are active. Limited articulation between management and tourism policy, whose pillars are academic institutions aimed at tourism research in sight. The creation of a government agency dedicated to tourism research to determine, monitor and implement plans to adverse situations emerging in tourist destinations in Sinaloa, under consistent, rigorous and systematic processes, as required by all scientific research is recommended.

  15. A general approach to total repair cost limit replacement policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Beichelt

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A common replacement policy for technical systems consists in replacing a system by a new one after its economic lifetime, i.e. at that moment when its long-run maintenance cost rate is minimal. However, the strict application of the economic lifetime does not take into account the individual deviations of maintenance cost rates of single systems from the average cost development. Hence, Beichet proposed the total repair cost limit replacement policy: the system is replaced by a new one as soon as its total repair cost reaches or exceeds a given level. He modelled the repair cost development by functions of the Wiener process with drift. Here the same policy is considered under the assumption that the one-dimensional probability distribution of the process describing the repair cost development is given. In the examples analysed, applying the total repair cost limit replacement policy instead of the economic life-time leads to cost savings of between 4% and 30%. Finally, it is illustrated how to include the reliability aspect into the policy.

  16. Approach to performance based regulation development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spogen, L.R.; Cleland, L.L.

    1977-06-01

    An approach to the development of performance based regulations (PBR's) is described. Initially, a framework is constructed that consists of a function hierarchy and associated measures. The function at the top of the hierarchy is described in terms of societal objectives. Decomposition of this function into subordinate functions and their subsequent decompositions yield the function hierarchy. ''Bottom'' functions describe the roles of system components. When measures are identified for the performance of each function and means of aggregating performances to higher levels are established, the framework may be employed for developing PBR's. Consideration of system flexibility and performance uncertainty guide in determining the hierarchical level at which regulations are formulated. Ease of testing compliance is also a factor. To show the viability of the approach, the framework developed by Lawrence Livermore Laboratory for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission for evaluation of material control systems at fixed facilities is presented

  17. Education positive approach: contributions to human development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara ROMERO PÉREZ

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This article analizes the current theoretical perspectives underlying educational proposals aimed at promoting the positive development of the people. Firstly we show the most important characteristics of the positive approach. Then, we focus on the positive concept of the inner and its relation to eudaimonia, self-care and emotional selfgovernance. Thirdly, with reference to the contributions of Positive Psychology and Prevention Science we examine the two points of view –hedonic and eudaemonic– from which different pedagogical approaches are based and focus towards education for the welfare, social-emotional development and educational character. We conclude that, despite the lack of practical knowledge about happiness and the art of living, a positive education oriented to the human construction processes must promote both emotional and social skills such as feelings and moral responsibilities for the optimal development of human being.

  18. General practitioners' approach to malingering in basic military training centres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokcu, Alper Tunga; Kurt, E

    2017-04-01

    Malingering can be defined as the abuse of the right to benefit from the health services. In this study, the frequency of the malingering cases in Basic Military Training Centres (BMTCs) and the behaviours and the attitudes of the military physicians towards the recruits who are suspected malingerers were described. A total of 17 general practitioners in nine different BMTCs in different regions of Turkey constitute the universe of this descriptive study. In the questionnaire, there were a total of 30 questions about the descriptive characteristics of the participants and their attitudes and behaviours towards malingering. Informed consent form and a questionnaire were applied through the intranet via participants' emails. In the study, 15 physicians were reached with a response rate of 88.2%. All of the physicians suspected malingering in some of the soldiers who were examined. A total of 80% of the physicians (n=12) suspected malingering in at least 10% of the patients they examined. Only 13.3% of the physicians (n=2) had officially diagnosed a case of malingering in the last training period. All of the participants stated that they did not report the official decision for every soldier suspected of malingering. Instead of reporting official decision for malingering, the military physicians apply alternative procedures for suspected malingerers. In countries where the military service is compulsory, prevalence of malingering is estimated to be higher (approximately 5-25%). The problem of malingering is often underestimated due to the fact it is usually overlooked. Malingering remains a problem for the entire military healthcare system, due to the difficulties in exact diagnosis. Therefore, it can be useful to take some practical administrative measures for the soldiers who are prone to malingering, in order to discourage the behaviour. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  19. Towards a Provotyping Approach in Systems Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Preben Holst

    1992-01-01

    This paper explores the notion of ‘provocation through concrete experience’ towards a provotyping approach. It addresses the question: How do we on the one hand, devise qualitatively new systems, and on the other hand, ensure their usability in a given practice? The notion of provocation through...... practice and a lack of mutual understanding, usually conceived of as hindrances to successful systems development, are used constructively. These ideas are compared to four related approaches: Future Workshops, Metaphorical Design, Cooperative Prototyping, and Organizational Games. The comparison serves...

  20. [Nursing managerial approach: a study based on general management theories].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Marcia Simoni; Spagnol, Carla Aparecida; Trevizan, Maria Auxiliadora; Hayashida, Miyeko

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify nurses managerial conduct in a private maternity hospital located in the interior of the São Paulo state, Brazil. In order to collect data, authors used a questionnaire with 20 propositions related to the work of nurses in the different units of the hospital. Following, authors performed a descriptive statistical analysis of the data. Results showed a tendency toward democratization in the conduct of the nurses investigated as the majority of the responses privileged questions on team work, workers' participation and group development. Also, authors evidenced that great part of the responses did not agree with the propositions about the principles of the Classical Administration Theory.

  1. A Unified Simulation Approach for the Fast Outage Capacity Evaluation over Generalized Fading Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Rached, Nadhir B.

    2016-01-06

    The outage capacity (OC) is among the most important performance metrics of communication systems over fading channels. The evaluation of the OC, when equal gain combining (EGC) or maximum ratio combining (MRC) diversity techniques are employed, boils down to computing the cumulative distribution function (CDF) of the sum of channel envelopes (equivalently amplitudes) for EGC or channel gains (equivalently squared enveloped/ amplitudes) for MRC. Closed-form expressions of the CDF of the sum of many generalized fading variates are generally unknown and constitute open problems. We develop a unified hazard rate twisting Importance Sampling (IS) based approach to efficiently estimate the CDF of the sum of independent arbitrary variates. The proposed IS estimator is shown to achieve an asymptotic optimality criterion, which clearly guarantees its efficiency. Some selected simulation results are also shown to illustrate the substantial computational gain achieved by the proposed IS scheme over crude Monte Carlo simulations.

  2. A unified simulation approach for the fast outage capacity evaluation over generalized fading channels

    KAUST Repository

    Rached, Nadhir B.

    2015-06-14

    The outage capacity (OC) is among the most important performance metrics of communication systems over fading channels. The evaluation of the OC, when Equal Gain Combining (EGC) or Maximum Ratio Combining (MRC) diversity techniques are employed, boils down to computing the Cumulative Distribution Function (CDF) of the sum of channel envelopes (equivalently amplitudes) for EGC or channel gain (equivalently squared enveloped/amplitudes) for MRC. Closed-form expressions of the CDF of the sum of many generalized fading variates are generally unknown and constitute open problems. In this paper, we develop a unified hazard rate twisting Importance Sampling (IS) based approach to efficiently estimate the CDF of the sum of independent arbitrary variates. The proposed IS estimator is shown to achieve an asymptotic optimality criterion, which clearly guarantees its efficiency. Some selected simulation results are also shown to illustrate the substantial computational gain achieved by the proposed IS scheme over crude Monte-Carlo simulations.

  3. A general framework for global asymptotic stability analysis of delayed neural networks based on LMI approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Jinde; Ho, Daniel W.C.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, global asymptotic stability is discussed for neural networks with time-varying delay. Several new criteria in matrix inequality form are given to ascertain the uniqueness and global asymptotic stability of equilibrium point for neural networks with time-varying delay based on Lyapunov method and Linear Matrix Inequality (LMI) technique. The proposed LMI approach has the advantage of considering the difference of neuronal excitatory and inhibitory efforts, which is also computationally efficient as it can be solved numerically using recently developed interior-point algorithm. In addition, the proposed results generalize and improve previous works. The obtained criteria also combine two existing conditions into one generalized condition in matrix form. An illustrative example is also given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed results

  4. Stepwise Approach to Accessible MOOC Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draffan, E A; Wald, Mike; Dickens, Kate; Zimmermann, Gottfried; Kelle, Sebastian; Miesenberger, Klaus; Petz, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Developing resources for online learning in its many guises and more recently for MOOCs has been discussed across the educational sector, usually by individuals working for one institution or organisation. Rarely are there discussions that highlight the issues of collaborative working on content that is delivered over a period of weeks for a wide range of abilities and skills. In particular there is a reluctance to face the issues presented by barriers to access for those with disabilities and even the issues that could arise should an academic be unable to access the development platform to present content. This paper aims to approach these issues by providing guidance in a series of practical steps that highlight an inclusive design approach.

  5. Polish Qualitative Sociology: The General Features and Development

    OpenAIRE

    Konecki, Krzysztof Tomasz; Kacperczyk, Anna; Marciniak, Łukasz

    2005-01-01

    Forum Qualitative Sozialforschung / Forum: Qualitative Social Research,2005, 6(3) The article explores the development of Polish qualitative sociology in Poland by presenting its main intellectual routes and some of the general features of Polish sociology. Romanticism and inductionmethod are crucial elements for the development of this discipline in Poland and contribute to its. unigueness. The role of Florian Znaniecki in creating the Polish qualitative sociology is also underlined.

  6. A generalized development model for testing GPS user equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemesath, N.

    1978-01-01

    The generalized development model (GDM) program, which was intended to establish how well GPS user equipment can perform under a combination of jamming and dynamics, is described. The systems design and the characteristics of the GDM are discussed. The performance aspects of the GDM are listed and the application of the GDM to civil aviation is examined.

  7. Complexions of Iterative Information Systems Development Approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Magnus Rotvit Perlt

    There is an abundance of methodologies and approaches of information Systems Development (ISD) Processes. We use the concept of complexions of development processes and Technology Use Mediation (TUM) from a client perspective to show how an instance of a planned project in the prehospital sector...... changes dynamically. We identify how the events in the ISD process unfold according to which actions are taken and responded to by users and management respectively. The study finds that depending on the types of actions that users take, managers will react and this can greatly change the complexion...

  8. A development approach for nuclear thermal propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buden, D.

    1992-01-01

    The cost and time to develop nuclear thermal propulsion systems are very approach dependent. The objectives addressed are the development of an ''acceptable'' nuclear thermal propulsion system that can be used as part of the transportation system for people to explore Mars and the enhancement performance of other missions, within highly constrained budgets and schedules. To accomplish this, it was necessary to identify the cost drivers considering mission parameters, safety of the crew, mission success, facility availability and time and cost to construct new facilities, qualification criteria, status of technologies, management structure, and use of such system engineering techniques as concurrent engineering

  9. A generalized estimating equations approach to quantitative trait locus detection of non-normal traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomson Peter C

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract To date, most statistical developments in QTL detection methodology have been directed at continuous traits with an underlying normal distribution. This paper presents a method for QTL analysis of non-normal traits using a generalized linear mixed model approach. Development of this method has been motivated by a backcross experiment involving two inbred lines of mice that was conducted in order to locate a QTL for litter size. A Poisson regression form is used to model litter size, with allowances made for under- as well as over-dispersion, as suggested by the experimental data. In addition to fixed parity effects, random animal effects have also been included in the model. However, the method is not fully parametric as the model is specified only in terms of means, variances and covariances, and not as a full probability model. Consequently, a generalized estimating equations (GEE approach is used to fit the model. For statistical inferences, permutation tests and bootstrap procedures are used. This method is illustrated with simulated as well as experimental mouse data. Overall, the method is found to be quite reliable, and with modification, can be used for QTL detection for a range of other non-normally distributed traits.

  10. Multiple sclerosis: general features and pharmacologic approach; Esclerosis multiple: aspectos generales y abordaje farmacologico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen Lagumersindez, Denis; Martinez Sanchez, Gregorio [Instituto de Farmacia y Alimentos, Universidad de La Habana, La Habana (Cuba)

    2009-07-01

    Multiple sclerosis is an autoimmune, inflammatory and desmyelinization disease central nervous system (CNS) of unknown etiology and critical evolution. There different etiological hypotheses talking of a close interrelation among predisposing genetic factors and dissimilar environmental factors, able to give raise to autoimmune response at central nervous system level. Hypothesis of autoimmune pathogeny is based on study of experimental models, and findings in biopsies of affected patients by disease. Accumulative data report that the oxidative stress plays a main role in pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis. Oxygen reactive species generated by macrophages has been involved as mediators of demyelinization and of axon damage, in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and strictly in multiple sclerosis. Disease diagnosis is difficult because of there is not a confirmatory unique test. Management of it covers the treatment of acute relapses, disease modification, and symptoms management. These features require an individualized approach, base on evolution of this affection, and tolerability of treatments. In addition to diet, among non-pharmacologic treatments for multiple sclerosis it is recommended physical therapy. Besides, some clinical assays have been performed in which we used natural extracts, nutrition supplements, and other agents with promising results. Pharmacology allowed neurologists with a broad array of proved effectiveness drugs; however, results of research laboratories in past years make probable that therapeutical possibilities increase notably in future. (Author)

  11. Radioimmunotherapy: Development of an effective approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    Goals of this program are to answer the fundamental scientific questions for the development of an effective approach for delivering radiation therapy to cancer on antibody-based radiopharmaceuticals. The following list consists of highlights of developments from our program: documented therapeutic response of lymphoma in patients receiving radioimmunotherapy; development and application of quantitative radionuclide imaging techniques for therapy planning and dosimetry calculations; multicompartmental modeling and analysis of the in vivo MoAb kinetics in patients; a MoAb macrocycle chelate for Cu-67: development, production, in vitro and in vivo testing; NMR analysis of immunoradiotherapeutic effects on the metabolism of lymphoma; analysis of the variable molecular characteristics of the MoAb radiopharmaceutical, and their significance; in vivo studies in mice and patients of the metabolism of radioiodinated MoAb as well as In-111 CITC MoAb; and biodistribution of Cu-67 TETA MoAb in nude mice with human lymphoma.

  12. Radioimmunotherapy: Development of an effective approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    Goals of this program are to answer the fundamental scientific questions for the development of an effective approach for delivering radiation therapy to cancer on antibody-based radiopharmaceuticals. The following list consists of highlights of developments from our program: documented therapeutic response of lymphoma in patients receiving radioimmunotherapy; development and application of quantitative radionuclide imaging techniques for therapy planning and dosimetry calculations; multicompartmental modeling and analysis of the in vivo MoAb kinetics in patients; a MoAb macrocycle chelate for Cu-67: development, production, in vitro and in vivo testing; NMR analysis of immunoradiotherapeutic effects on the metabolism of lymphoma; analysis of the variable molecular characteristics of the MoAb radiopharmaceutical, and their significance; in vivo studies in mice and patients of the metabolism of radioiodinated MoAb as well as In-111 CITC MoAb; and biodistribution of Cu-67 TETA MoAb in nude mice with human lymphoma

  13. mosaicQA - A General Approach to Facilitate Basic Data Quality Assurance for Epidemiological Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialke, Martin; Rau, Henriette; Schwaneberg, Thea; Walk, Rene; Bahls, Thomas; Hoffmann, Wolfgang

    2017-05-29

    Epidemiological studies are based on a considerable amount of personal, medical and socio-economic data. To answer research questions with reliable results, epidemiological research projects face the challenge of providing high quality data. Consequently, gathered data has to be reviewed continuously during the data collection period. This article describes the development of the mosaicQA-library for non-statistical experts consisting of a set of reusable R functions to provide support for a basic data quality assurance for a wide range of application scenarios in epidemiological research. To generate valid quality reports for various scenarios and data sets, a general and flexible development approach was needed. As a first step, a set of quality-related questions, targeting quality aspects on a more general level, was identified. The next step included the design of specific R-scripts to produce proper reports for metric and categorical data. For more flexibility, the third development step focussed on the generalization of the developed R-scripts, e.g. extracting characteristics and parameters. As a last step the generic characteristics of the developed R functionalities and generated reports have been evaluated using different metric and categorical datasets. The developed mosaicQA-library generates basic data quality reports for multivariate input data. If needed, more detailed results for single-variable data, including definition of units, variables, descriptions, code lists and categories of qualified missings, can easily be produced. The mosaicQA-library enables researchers to generate reports for various kinds of metric and categorical data without the need for computational or scripting knowledge. At the moment, the library focusses on the data structure quality and supports the assessment of several quality indicators, including frequency, distribution and plausibility of research variables as well as the occurrence of missing and extreme values. To

  14. Developing a holistic approach to obesity management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jenny; Wimpenny, Peter

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss the theoretical background and relevance of a holistic approach to obesity management by nurses. There is a global rise in the number of people with obesity, such that it now represents one of the major health challenges. However, nurses are often influenced by physical and dietetic focused approaches and could fail to acknowledge a range of other factors that can impact on weight management. As part of the development of a holistic approach to obesity a literature search was undertaken to establish relevant theoretical perspectives that underpin practice in physical, psychological and social aspects of care (focused on the period 1995-2005). In addition, experiences of working in a secondary care weight management clinic were also drawn upon. Psychobiological, attribution and social support theories were identified that could contribute to a better understanding of obesity. If these theoretical perspectives and supporting evidence can be integrated in a holistic approach to care and management it might be possible to promote better health and well-being in those with obesity. Creating a greater understanding of the range of theoretical perspectives and supporting evidence related to obesity could, it is argued, provide enhanced care and management. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  15. Developing a General Outcome Measure Off Growth in Social Skills for Infants and Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carta, Judith; Greenwood, Charles; Luze, Gayle; Cline, Gabriel; Kuntz, Susan

    2004-01-01

    Proficiency in social interaction with adults and peers is an important outcome in early childhood. The development of an experimental measure for assessing growth in social skills in children birth to 3 years is described. Based on the general outcome measurement (GOM) approach (e.g., Deno, 1997), the measure is intended for use by early…

  16. Developing a General Outcome Measure of Growth in Social Skills for Infants and Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carta, Judith; Greenwood, Charles; Luze, Gayle; Cline, Gabriel; Kuntz, Susan

    2004-01-01

    Proficiency in social interaction with adults and peers is an important outcome in early childhood. The development of an experimental measure for assessing growth in social skills in children birth to 3 years is described. Based on the general outcome measurement (GOM) approach (e.g., Deno, 1997), the measure is intended for use by early…

  17. Barriers to implementing low impact development approaches in Washington State roadways and highways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-04

    Low impact development (LID) is an approach to stormwater management that seeks to mimic the natural hydrologic functions of stormwater runoff prior to development. In general, LID techniques emphasize infiltration and evapotranspiration to remove po...

  18. METHODOLOGICAL APPROACHES FOR MODELING THE RURAL SETTLEMENT DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorbenkova Elena Vladimirovna

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Subject: the paper describes the research results on validation of a rural settlement developmental model. The basic methods and approaches for solving the problem of assessment of the urban and rural settlement development efficiency are considered. Research objectives: determination of methodological approaches to modeling and creating a model for the development of rural settlements. Materials and methods: domestic and foreign experience in modeling the territorial development of urban and rural settlements and settlement structures was generalized. The motivation for using the Pentagon-model for solving similar problems was demonstrated. Based on a systematic analysis of existing development models of urban and rural settlements as well as the authors-developed method for assessing the level of agro-towns development, the systems/factors that are necessary for a rural settlement sustainable development are identified. Results: we created the rural development model which consists of five major systems that include critical factors essential for achieving a sustainable development of a settlement system: ecological system, economic system, administrative system, anthropogenic (physical system and social system (supra-structure. The methodological approaches for creating an evaluation model of rural settlements development were revealed; the basic motivating factors that provide interrelations of systems were determined; the critical factors for each subsystem were identified and substantiated. Such an approach was justified by the composition of tasks for territorial planning of the local and state administration levels. The feasibility of applying the basic Pentagon-model, which was successfully used for solving the analogous problems of sustainable development, was shown. Conclusions: the resulting model can be used for identifying and substantiating the critical factors for rural sustainable development and also become the basis of

  19. A generalized linear factor model approach to the hierarchical framework for responses and response times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molenaar, Dylan; Tuerlinckx, Francis; van der Maas, Han L J

    2015-05-01

    We show how the hierarchical model for responses and response times as developed by van der Linden (2007), Fox, Klein Entink, and van der Linden (2007), Klein Entink, Fox, and van der Linden (2009), and Glas and van der Linden (2010) can be simplified to a generalized linear factor model with only the mild restriction that there is no hierarchical model at the item side. This result is valuable as it enables all well-developed modelling tools and extensions that come with these methods. We show that the restriction we impose on the hierarchical model does not influence parameter recovery under realistic circumstances. In addition, we present two illustrative real data analyses to demonstrate the practical benefits of our approach. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  20. NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL-DEVELOPMENT APPROACH IN AUTISTIC CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragoslav KOPACHEV

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper on the children’s autism gives an overview of neuropsychological aspect and in context of the development dynamic approach.The author expresses some characteristics and dilemmas which refer to the Kanner’s autism and Asperger`s syndrome. He presents his own opinion and dilemmas about the every day practice in relation to children’s autism as a pathological disorder which is an expression of pervasive disorder, children’s psychosis or just one development phase in which children are fixated forever.The author thinks children’s autism should be seen in context of the inter-game of biological factors, development and the stress.

  1. Developing Common Competencies for Southeast Asian General Dental Practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuenjitwongsa, Supachai; Poolthong, Suchit; Bullock, Alison; Oliver, Richard G

    2017-09-01

    Current policy in Southeast Asian dental education focuses on high-quality dental services from new dental graduates and the free movement of dental practitioners across the region. The Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Dental Councils have proposed the "Common Major Competencies for ASEAN General Dental Practitioners" to harmonize undergraduate dental education. This article discusses how the ASEAN competencies were developed and established to assist the development of general dental practitioners with comparable knowledge, skills, and attitudes across ASEAN. The competencies were developed through four processes: a questionnaire about current national oral health problems, a two-round Delphi process that sought agreement on competencies, a panel discussion by representatives from ASEAN Dental Councils, and data verification by the representatives after the meeting. Key themes of the ASEAN competencies were compared with the competencies from the U.S., Canada, Europe, Australia, and Japan. A total of 33 competency statements, consistent with other regions, were agreed upon and approved. Factors influencing the ASEAN competencies and their implementation include oral health problems in ASEAN, new knowledge and technology in dentistry, limited institutional resources, underregulated dental schools, and uneven distribution of dental practitioners. The ASEAN competencies will serve as the foundation for further developments in ASEAN dental education including policy development, curriculum revision, quality assurance, and staff development. Collaboration amongst stakeholders is essential for successful harmonization of ASEAN dental education.

  2. Development of the APR+ Auxiliary Building General Arrangement (GA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Hyung Keun; Park, Young Sheop; Kang, Yong Chul

    2011-01-01

    The general arrangement (GA) drawing of a nuclear power plant is the most basic drawing which contains all of the plant equipment, systems, and rooms. Therefore, it should be issued at an early design stage to provide the contours of the overall plant structure. This type of drawing is typically used widely throughout the design stages. The development project of APR+ (Advanced Power Reactor+), as a succeeding model of the APR1400 (Advanced Power Reactor 1400) design, has its own GA that encompasses all of its power buildings. This was developed starting in October of 2009. Among several of the buildings in this design, the Auxiliary Building (AB) is one of the most important buildings to produce electricity, and to protect against undesirable radiation emissions. This paper focuses on the design characteristics of the general arrangement of the AB

  3. A Systematic Approach for Soft Sensor Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Bao; Recke, Bodil; Renaudat, Philippe

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a systematic approach based on robust statistical techniques for development of a data-driven soft sensor, which is an important component of the process analytical technology (PAT) and is essential for effective quality control. The data quality is obviously of essential...... significance for a data-driven soft sensor. Therefore, preprocessing procedures for process measurements are described in detail. First, a template is defined based on one or more key process variables to handle missing data related to severe operation interruptions. Second, a univariate, followed...... reveal the effectiveness of the systematic framework in deriving data-driven soft sensors that provide reasonably reliable one-step-ahead predictions....

  4. Verification of FPGA-based NPP I and C systems. General approach and techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrashov, Anton; Kharchenko, Vyacheslav; Sklyar, Volodymir; Reva, Lubov; Siora, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a general approach and techniques for design and verification of Field Programmable Gates Arrays (FPGA)-based Instrumentation and Control (I and C) systems for Nuclear Power Plants (NPP). Appropriate regulatory documents used for I and C systems design, development, verification and validation (V and V) are discussed considering the latest international standards and guidelines. Typical development and V and V processes of FPGA electronic design for FPGA-based NPP I and C systems are presented. Some safety-related features of implementation process are discussed. Corresponding development artifacts, related to design and implementation activities are outlined. An approach to test-based verification of FPGA electronic design algorithms, used in FPGA-based reactor trip systems is proposed. The results of application of test-based techniques for assessment of FPGA electronic design algorithms for reactor trip system (RTS) produced by Research and Production Corporation (RPC) 'Radiy' are presented. Some principles of invariant-oriented verification for FPGA-based safety-critical systems are outlined. (author)

  5. Development of a General Modelling Methodology for Vacuum Residue Hydroconversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira de Oliveira L.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This work concerns the development of a methodology for kinetic modelling of refining processes, and more specifically for vacuum residue conversion. The proposed approach allows to overcome the lack of molecular detail of the petroleum fractions and to simulate the transformation of the feedstock molecules into effluent molecules by means of a two-step procedure. In the first step, a synthetic mixture of molecules representing the feedstock for the process is generated via a molecular reconstruction method, termed SR-REM molecular reconstruction. In the second step, a kinetic Monte-Carlo method (kMC is used to simulate the conversion reactions on this mixture of molecules. The molecular reconstruction was applied to several petroleum residues and is illustrated for an Athabasca (Canada vacuum residue. The kinetic Monte-Carlo method is then described in detail. In order to validate this stochastic approach, a lumped deterministic model for vacuum residue conversion was simulated using Gillespie’s Stochastic Simulation Algorithm. Despite the fact that both approaches are based on very different hypotheses, the stochastic simulation algorithm simulates the conversion reactions with the same accuracy as the deterministic approach. The full-scale stochastic simulation approach using molecular-level reaction pathways provides high amounts of detail on the effluent composition and is briefly illustrated for Athabasca VR hydrocracking.

  6. MODELING OF INNOVATION EDUCATIONAL ENVIRONMENT OF GENERAL EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTION: THE SCIENTIFIC APPROACHES

    OpenAIRE

    Anzhelika D. Tsymbalaru

    2010-01-01

    In the paper the scientific approaches to modeling of innovation educational environment of a general educational institution – system (analysis of object, process and result of modeling as system objects), activity (organizational and psychological structure) and synergetic (aspects and principles).

  7. A general approach toward enhancement of pseudocapacitive performance of conducting polymers by redox-active electrolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Wei; Xia, Chuan; Baby, Rakhi Raghavan; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2014-01-01

    A general approach is demonstrated where the pseudocapacitive performance of different conducting polymers is enhanced in redox-active electrolytes. The concept is demonstrated using several electroactive conducting polymers, including polyaniline

  8. Innovation in Developing Countries - a New Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmara Bubel

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Currently the enterprises’ development and competitive positions are determined by innovation. The importance of innovation in corporate management is a result of changes in corporate environment, as well as of preferences and changing needs of customers. These changes are accompanied by a new approach to innovation: they are no longer limited to developed countries, but also emerge in developing countries. Moreover, a reverse in the direction of innovations occurs, which means that developing countries are often not only the recipients of innovative products, but also creators and „exporters”. Given the current trends, the paper begins with the concept of innovation and deals with the subject of innovation in developing countries. The conclusion of the paper presents examples of innovative solutions originated from Poland. Although Poland ranks rather „tail end” in innovation rankings, but also deliver products that have a good chance to conquer the global market. By highlighting the importance of this reverse innovative trend, this article provides the conceptual grounds for further systematic research.

  9. Marketing Approach to Management of Spatial Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniil Petrovich Frolov

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Marketing of territories is a modern mechanism of management of spatial entities› development (cities, regions, etc., which is based on the principles of regulated self-organization and cultivation of self-generating trends. In this paper territories are considered as socially responsible multistakeholder quasi-corporations that produce specific goods and promote their own brands. But it is not clear yet what marketing of territories is – the function or ideology of regional administration? How do regional marketing and branding correlate? What is «the product of the territory» and who are its› consumers? Why are instituting territorial goods so important? How do the traditional socio- economic development strategy and marketing strategy of the region relate? What is the action mechanism of the regional marketing? The article presents the author›s answers to these and other issues of theory and practice of regional marketing in the context of new methodological approaches

  10. Number-concept acquisition and general vocabulary development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negen, James; Sarnecka, Barbara W

    2012-11-01

    How is number-concept acquisition related to overall language development? Experiments 1 and 2 measured number-word knowledge and general vocabulary in a total of 59 children, ages 30-60 months. A strong correlation was found between number-word knowledge and vocabulary, independent of the child's age, contrary to previous results (D. Ansari et al., 2003). This result calls into question arguments that (a) the number-concept creation process is scaffolded mainly by visuo-spatial development and (b) that language only becomes integrated after the concepts are created (D. Ansari et al., 2003). Instead, this may suggest that having a larger nominal vocabulary helps children learn number words. Experiment 3 shows that the differences with previous results are likely due to changes in how the data were analyzed. © 2012 The Authors. Child Development © 2012 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF THE STRUCTURAL MATRIX APPROACH IN ORGANIZATIONAL DIAGNOSTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishlanova Marina Yur'evna

    2012-07-01

    The proposed approach discloses private constituents of elements, communications, organizational layers, generalized characteristics of layers, and partial effects. This approach may be used to simulate a system of forces, items of pressure, and organizational problems. The most advanced state of stability and sustainable development is now provided with the structure within which the elements remain in certain natural interdependence (symmetry, or balance. Formation of this model is based on thorough diagnostics of an organization through the employment of the structural matrix approach and the audit of the following characteristics: labour efficiency, reliability and flexibility of communications, uniformity of distribution of communications and their coordination, connectivity of elements and layers with account for their impact, degree of freedom of elements, layers and the system as a whole, reliability, rigidity, adaptability, stability of the organizational structure.

  12. A guide to developing resource selection functions from telemetry data using generalized estimating equations and generalized linear mixed models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Koper

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Resource selection functions (RSF are often developed using satellite (ARGOS or Global Positioning System (GPS telemetry datasets, which provide a large amount of highly correlated data. We discuss and compare the use of generalized linear mixed-effects models (GLMM and generalized estimating equations (GEE for using this type of data to develop RSFs. GLMMs directly model differences among caribou, while GEEs depend on an adjustment of the standard error to compensate for correlation of data points within individuals. Empirical standard errors, rather than model-based standard errors, must be used with either GLMMs or GEEs when developing RSFs. There are several important differences between these approaches; in particular, GLMMs are best for producing parameter estimates that predict how management might influence individuals, while GEEs are best for predicting how management might influence populations. As the interpretation, value, and statistical significance of both types of parameter estimates differ, it is important that users select the appropriate analytical method. We also outline the use of k-fold cross validation to assess fit of these models. Both GLMMs and GEEs hold promise for developing RSFs as long as they are used appropriately.

  13. Learning environment, approaches to learning and learning preferences: medical students versus general education students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Raza

    2016-05-01

    The main objective of the study was to see whether medical students use more desirable approaches to studying than general education students. Survey method was used to collect data from both the medical students and the general education students. The survey of the medical students was carried out between January and March, 2012. The survey was administered to all the medical students present in lecture halls on day of data collection, while general education students were randomly selected from four subject areas at two universities. In total, 976 medical students and 912 general students participated in the study. Of the general students, 494(54%) were boys and 418(46%)were girls with an overall mean age of 20.53±1.77 years (range: 17-27 years). The medical students' perceptions of their learning environment and their learning preferences were broadly similar to that of general education students with the exception of workload. The medical students perceived the workload to be less appropriate (Mean = 2.06±0.72) than the students in general education (Mean = 2.84±0.90). The medical students were more likely to use the deep approach to studying (Mean = 3.66±0.59) than the students in general education (Mean = 3.16±0.91). The students in general education were slightly more likely to use the organized studying (Mean = 3.44±0.90) than the medical students (Mean =3.23±0.90). Both medical students and the students in general education tended to use the surface approaches along with other approaches to studying. There was not a great difference between the medical students and the students pursuing general education with regard to perceptions of the learning environment and approaches to learning.

  14. A statistical mechanical approach for the computation of the climatic response to general forcings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Lucarini

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The climate belongs to the class of non-equilibrium forced and dissipative systems, for which most results of quasi-equilibrium statistical mechanics, including the fluctuation-dissipation theorem, do not apply. In this paper we show for the first time how the Ruelle linear response theory, developed for studying rigorously the impact of perturbations on general observables of non-equilibrium statistical mechanical systems, can be applied with great success to analyze the climatic response to general forcings. The crucial value of the Ruelle theory lies in the fact that it allows to compute the response of the system in terms of expectation values of explicit and computable functions of the phase space averaged over the invariant measure of the unperturbed state. We choose as test bed a classical version of the Lorenz 96 model, which, in spite of its simplicity, has a well-recognized prototypical value as it is a spatially extended one-dimensional model and presents the basic ingredients, such as dissipation, advection and the presence of an external forcing, of the actual atmosphere. We recapitulate the main aspects of the general response theory and propose some new general results. We then analyze the frequency dependence of the response of both local and global observables to perturbations having localized as well as global spatial patterns. We derive analytically several properties of the corresponding susceptibilities, such as asymptotic behavior, validity of Kramers-Kronig relations, and sum rules, whose main ingredient is the causality principle. We show that all the coefficients of the leading asymptotic expansions as well as the integral constraints can be written as linear function of parameters that describe the unperturbed properties of the system, such as its average energy. Some newly obtained empirical closure equations for such parameters allow to define such properties as an explicit function of the unperturbed forcing

  15. A general approach for cache-oblivious range reporting and approximate range counting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afshani, Peyman; Hamilton, Chris; Zeh, Norbert

    2010-01-01

    We present cache-oblivious solutions to two important variants of range searching: range reporting and approximate range counting. Our main contribution is a general approach for constructing cache-oblivious data structures that provide relative (1+ε)-approximations for a general class of range c...

  16. Min-max optimization and the radial approach to the public service system design with generalized utility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Janáček

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the min-max public service system design, where the generalized utility is considered. In contrast to the formulations presented in the literature, the generalized utility defined for a public service system assumes that the user’s utility comes generally from more than one located service center and the individual contributions from relevant centers are weighted by reduction coefficients depending on a center order. Given that commercial IP-solvers often fail due to enormous computational times or extreme memory demands when resolving this issue, we suggested and compared several approaches based on a bisection process with the purpose of developing an effective max-min approach to the public service system design with a generalized utility.

  17. Recruitment and retention of rural general practitioners: a marketing approach reveals new possibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemphill, Elizabeth; Dunn, Steve; Barich, Hayley; Infante, Rebecca

    2007-12-01

    This paper repositions the challenge of attracting and retaining rural GPs in a marketing context as a new focus for future research and policy development. Case study with mixed design of surveys of GPs and medical students and depth interviews with GPs, medical students, regional-division administrators and GP recruitment agents. GP recruitment and retention in the Limestone Coast region of South Australia. Twenty-seven Limestone Coast (LC) GPs; random sample of medical students from Adelaide University, Adelaide University Rural Health Society and Flinders University; snowball sampling two adjacent rural regions (20 GPs); and administrators from LC and adjacent regions and GP recruitment agencies in Adelaide. Drawing from marketing theory, creative suggestion of 'promotion of the practice and not the region' offers a means of GP recruitment and retention for structured succession planning for rural general practices. Structural attempts to broaden the GP market with overseas recruitment have done little for improving full-time equivalent GP levels. Market segmentation and market orientation offer a new emphasis on value exchange between the corporation (the practice), customer (GPs) and competition (all practices) to influence future mobility. A marketing orientation to the GP challenge emphasises individual's perceptions of value, GP expectations and practice offerings. Failure to acknowledge benefits of this marketing approach means that solutions such as those developed in the Limestone Coast region are unlikely. Research is now required to define GP satisfaction and value for long-term viability of general practices.

  18. A general approach for optimal kinematic design of 6-DOF parallel ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Optimal kinematic design of parallel manipulators is a challenging problem. In this work, an attempt has been made to present a generalized approach of kinematic design for a 6-legged parallel manipulator, by considering only the minimally required design parameters. The same approach has been used to design a ...

  19. Exploring Alternative Characteristic Curve Approaches to Linking Parameter Estimates from the Generalized Partial Credit Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, James S.; Bao, Han; Huang, Chun-Wei; Gagne, Phill

    Characteristic curve approaches for linking parameters from the generalized partial credit model were examined for cases in which common (anchor) items are calibrated separately in two groups. Three of these approaches are simple extensions of the test characteristic curve (TCC), item characteristic curve (ICC), and operating characteristic curve…

  20. Development of particle multiplicity distributions using a general form of the grand canonical partition function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.J.; Mekjian, A.Z.

    2004-01-01

    Various phenomenological models of particle multiplicity distributions are discussed using a general form of a unified model which is based on the grand canonical partition function and Feynman's path integral approach to statistical processes. These models can be written as special cases of a more general distribution which has three control parameters which are a,x,z. The relation to these parameters to various physical quantities are discussed. A connection of the parameter a with Fisher's critical exponent τ is developed. Using this grand canonical approach, moments, cumulants and combinants are discussed and a physical interpretation of the combinants are given and their behavior connected to the critical exponent τ. Various physical phenomena such as hierarchical structure, void scaling relations, Koba-Nielson-Olesen or KNO scaling features, clan variables, and branching laws are shown in terms of this general approach. Several of these features which were previously developed in terms of the negative binomial distribution are found to be more general. Both hierarchical structure and void scaling relations depend on the Fisher exponent τ. Applications of our approach to the charged particle multiplicity distribution in jets of L3 and H1 data are given

  1. Towards a general object-oriented software development methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidewitz, ED; Stark, Mike

    1986-01-01

    Object diagrams were used to design a 5000 statement team training exercise and to design the entire dynamics simulator. The object diagrams are also being used to design another 50,000 statement Ada system and a personal computer based system that will be written in Modula II. The design methodology evolves out of these experiences as well as the limitations of other methods that were studied. Object diagrams, abstraction analysis, and associated principles provide a unified framework which encompasses concepts from Yourdin, Booch, and Cherry. This general object-oriented approach handles high level system design, possibly with concurrency, through object-oriented decomposition down to a completely functional level. How object-oriented concepts can be used in other phases of the software life-cycle, such as specification and testing is being studied concurrently.

  2. Force Control for a Pneumatic Cylinder Using Generalized Predictive Controller Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad ’Athif Mohd Faudzi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pneumatic cylinder is a well-known device because of its high power to weight ratio, easy use, and environmental safety. Pneumatic cylinder uses air as its power source and converts it to a possible movement such as linear and rotary movement. In order to control the pneumatic cylinder, controller algorithm is needed to control the on-off solenoid valve with encoder and pressure sensor as the feedback inputs. In this paper, generalized predictive controller (GPC is proposed as the control strategy for the pneumatic cylinder force control. To validate and compare the performance, proportional-integral (PI controller is also presented. Both controllers algorithms GPC and PI are developed using existing linear model of the cylinder from previous research. Results are presented in simulation and experimental approach using MATLAB-Simulink as the platform. The results show that the GPC is capable of fast response with low steady state error and percentage overshoot compared to PI.

  3. General survey of recent development of photoemission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edamoto, Kazuyuki

    1994-01-01

    On the present state of the recent development of photoemission spectroscopy, by limiting the topics to the development of the spectroscopy proper and the development contributing to the progress of surface science, general explanation is made. As to the development that enabled to heighten spectrum resolution, surface core-level shift and the precise measurement of the Fermi surface of surface level are described, showing the example. Also a number of the developments which enabled the utilization of the light source, of which the wavelength is variable, and which was brought about by synchrotron radiation beam, were mentioned. Besides, spin polarized photoelectron spectroscopy, the development of photoelectron microscope and others are outlined. Photoemission spectroscopy is very useful for analyzing the electron condition of solid surfaces. There are two factors in heightening core level spectrum resolution, namely, heightening the resolution of an electron energy analyzer proper and the utilization of synchrotron radiation as a light source. High resolution core-level spectra, angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, and as the light source of which the wavelength is variable, resonance photoemission spectroscopy, constant initial state spectroscopy and soft X-ray photoemission spectroscopy, and as the recently developed spectroscopy, spin polarized photoemission spectroscopy, Auger photoelectron coincidence spectroscopy and photoelectron microscope are explained. (K.I.)

  4. Energy and Development. A Modelling Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Ruijven, B.J.

    2008-01-01

    Rapid economic growth of developing countries like India and China implies that these countries become important actors in the global energy system. Examples of this impact are the present day oil shortages and rapidly increasing emissions of greenhouse gases. Global energy models are used to explore possible future developments of the global energy system and identify policies to prevent potential problems. Such estimations of future energy use in developing countries are very uncertain. Crucial factors in the future energy use of these regions are electrification, urbanisation and income distribution, issues that are generally not included in present day global energy models. Model simulations in this thesis show that current insight in developments in low-income regions lead to a wide range of expected energy use in 2030 of the residential and transport sectors. This is mainly caused by many different model calibration options that result from the limited data availability for model development and calibration. We developed a method to identify the impact of model calibration uncertainty on future projections. We developed a new model for residential energy use in India, in collaboration with the Indian Institute of Science. Experiments with this model show that the impact of electrification and income distribution is less univocal than often assumed. The use of fuelwood, with related health risks, can decrease rapidly if the income of poor groups increases. However, there is a trade off in terms of CO2 emissions because these groups gain access to electricity and the ownership of appliances increases. Another issue is the potential role of new technologies in developing countries: will they use the opportunities of leapfrogging? We explored the potential role of hydrogen, an energy carrier that might play a central role in a sustainable energy system. We found that hydrogen only plays a role before 2050 under very optimistic assumptions. Regional energy

  5. TMT approach to observatory software development process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buur, Hanne; Subramaniam, Annapurni; Gillies, Kim; Dumas, Christophe; Bhatia, Ravinder

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of the Observatory Software System (OSW) is to integrate all software and hardware components of the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) to enable observations and data capture; thus it is a complex software system that is defined by four principal software subsystems: Common Software (CSW), Executive Software (ESW), Data Management System (DMS) and Science Operations Support System (SOSS), all of which have interdependencies with the observatory control systems and data acquisition systems. Therefore, the software development process and plan must consider dependencies to other subsystems, manage architecture, interfaces and design, manage software scope and complexity, and standardize and optimize use of resources and tools. Additionally, the TMT Observatory Software will largely be developed in India through TMT's workshare relationship with the India TMT Coordination Centre (ITCC) and use of Indian software industry vendors, which adds complexity and challenges to the software development process, communication and coordination of activities and priorities as well as measuring performance and managing quality and risk. The software project management challenge for the TMT OSW is thus a multi-faceted technical, managerial, communications and interpersonal relations challenge. The approach TMT is using to manage this multifaceted challenge is a combination of establishing an effective geographically distributed software team (Integrated Product Team) with strong project management and technical leadership provided by the TMT Project Office (PO) and the ITCC partner to manage plans, process, performance, risk and quality, and to facilitate effective communications; establishing an effective cross-functional software management team composed of stakeholders, OSW leadership and ITCC leadership to manage dependencies and software release plans, technical complexities and change to approved interfaces, architecture, design and tool set, and to facilitate

  6. Development of Communication Technologies in Turkey: A General Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek Penpece

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Communication is a system that senders have possibility to send message to receiver in general meaning. It is considered that as a modern Turkish economy should use communication systems largely. It is critically important to show Turkey’s usage of communication technologies as a country that keeps up with new developments in the world. Communication tools that examined in this study are postal services, newspaper and magazines, fixed-line telephone and mobile phone, internet. According to examined period it is resulted that the usage of communication tools increased. It is observed that some communication tools usage decreased caused by different factors in some terms.

  7. Computable general equilibrium model fiscal year 2014 capability development report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, Brian Keith [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Boero, Riccardo [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2016-05-11

    This report provides an overview of the development of the NISAC CGE economic modeling capability since 2012. This capability enhances NISAC's economic modeling and analysis capabilities to answer a broader set of questions than possible with previous economic analysis capability. In particular, CGE modeling captures how the different sectors of the economy, for example, households, businesses, government, etc., interact to allocate resources in an economy and this approach captures these interactions when it is used to estimate the economic impacts of the kinds of events NISAC often analyzes.

  8. Developments of the general computer network of NIPNE-HH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirica, M.; Constantinescu, S.; Danet, A.

    1997-01-01

    Since 1991 the general computer network of NIPNE-HH was developed and connected to RNCN (Romanian National Computer Network) for research and development and it offers to the Romanian physics research community an efficient and cost-effective infrastructure to communicate and collaborate with fellow researchers abroad, and to collect and exchange the most up-to-date information in their research area. RNCN is targeted on the following main objectives: Setting up a technical and organizational infrastructure meant to provide national and international electronic services for the Romanian scientific research community; - Providing a rapid and competitive tool for the exchange of information in the framework of Research and Development (R-D) community; - Using the scientific and technical data bases available in the country and offered by the national networks from other countries through international networks; - Providing a support for information, scientific and technical co-operation. RNCN has two international links: to EBONE via ACONET (64kbps) and to EuropaNET via Hungarnet (64 kbps). The guiding principle in designing the project of general computer network of NIPNE-HH, as part of RNCN, was to implement an open system based on OSI standards taking into account the following criteria: - development of a flexible solution, according to OSI specifications; - solutions of reliable gateway with the existing network already in use,allowing the access to the worldwide networks; - using the TCP/IP transport protocol for each Local Area Network (LAN) and for the connection to RNCN; - ensuring the integration of different and heterogeneous software and hardware platforms (DOS, Windows, UNIX, VMS, Linux, etc) through some specific interfaces. The major objectives achieved in direction of developing the general computer network of NIPNE-HH are: - linking all the existing and newly installed computer equipment and providing an adequate connectivity. LANs from departments

  9. The First Flight Decision for New Human Spacecraft Vehicles - A General Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaible, Dawn M.; Sumrall, John Phillip

    2011-01-01

    Determining when it is safe to fly a crew on a launch vehicle/spacecraft for the first time, especially when the test flight is a part of the overall system certification process, has long been a challenge for program decision makers. The decision on first flight is ultimately the judgment of the program and agency management in conjunction with the design and operations team. To aid in this decision process, a NASA team undertook the task to develop a generic framework for evaluating whether any given program or commercial provider has sufficiently complete and balanced plans in place to allow crewmembers to safely fly on human spaceflight systems for the first time. It was the team s goal to establish a generic framework that could easily be applied to any new system, although the system design and intended mission would require specific assessment. Historical data shows that there are multiple approaches that have been successful in first flight with crew. These approaches have always been tailored to the specific system design, mission objectives, and launch environment. Because specific approaches may vary significantly between different system designs and situations, prescriptive instructions or thorough checklists cannot be provided ahead of time. There are, however, certain general approaches that should be applied in thinking through the decision for first flight. This paper addresses some of the most important factors to consider when developing a new system or evaluating an existing system for whether or not it is safe to fly humans to/from space. In the simplest terms, it is time to fly crew for the first time when it is safe to do so and the benefit of the crewed flight is greater than the residual risk. This is rarely a straight-forward decision. The paper describes the need for experience, sound judgment, close involvement of the technical and management teams, and established decision processes. In addition, the underlying level of confidence the

  10. Relation between generalized Bogoliubov and Bogoliubov-de Gennes approaches including Nambu-Goldstone mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mine, M.; Okumura, M.; Yamanaka, Y.

    2005-01-01

    The two approaches of consistent quantum field theory for systems of the trapped Bose-Einstein condensates are known, one is the Bogoliubov-de Gennes approach and the other is the generalized Bogoliubov approach. In this paper, we investigate the relation between the two approaches and show that they are formally equivalent to each other. To do this one must carefully treat the Nambu-Goldstone mode which plays a crucial role in the condensation. It is emphasized that the choice of vacuum is physically relevant

  11. General analytical approach for sound transmission loss analysis through a thick metamaterial plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oudich, Mourad; Zhou, Xiaoming; Badreddine Assouar, M.

    2014-01-01

    We report theoretically and numerically on the sound transmission loss performance through a thick plate-type acoustic metamaterial made of spring-mass resonators attached to the surface of a homogeneous elastic plate. Two general analytical approaches based on plane wave expansion were developed to calculate both the sound transmission loss through the metamaterial plate (thick and thin) and its band structure. The first one can be applied to thick plate systems to study the sound transmission for any normal or oblique incident sound pressure. The second approach gives the metamaterial dispersion behavior to describe the vibrational motions of the plate, which helps to understand the physics behind sound radiation through air by the structure. Computed results show that high sound transmission loss up to 72 dB at 2 kHz is reached with a thick metamaterial plate while only 23 dB can be obtained for a simple homogeneous plate with the same thickness. Such plate-type acoustic metamaterial can be a very effective solution for high performance sound insulation and structural vibration shielding in the very low-frequency range

  12. General analytical approach for sound transmission loss analysis through a thick metamaterial plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oudich, Mourad; Zhou, Xiaoming; Badreddine Assouar, M., E-mail: Badreddine.Assouar@univ-lorraine.fr [CNRS, Institut Jean Lamour, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy F-54506 (France); Institut Jean Lamour, University of Lorraine, Boulevard des Aiguillettes, BP: 70239, 54506 Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy (France)

    2014-11-21

    We report theoretically and numerically on the sound transmission loss performance through a thick plate-type acoustic metamaterial made of spring-mass resonators attached to the surface of a homogeneous elastic plate. Two general analytical approaches based on plane wave expansion were developed to calculate both the sound transmission loss through the metamaterial plate (thick and thin) and its band structure. The first one can be applied to thick plate systems to study the sound transmission for any normal or oblique incident sound pressure. The second approach gives the metamaterial dispersion behavior to describe the vibrational motions of the plate, which helps to understand the physics behind sound radiation through air by the structure. Computed results show that high sound transmission loss up to 72 dB at 2 kHz is reached with a thick metamaterial plate while only 23 dB can be obtained for a simple homogeneous plate with the same thickness. Such plate-type acoustic metamaterial can be a very effective solution for high performance sound insulation and structural vibration shielding in the very low-frequency range.

  13. Generalized Philosophy of Alerting with Applications for Parallel Approach Collision Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winder, Lee F.; Kuchar, James K.

    2000-01-01

    The goal of the research was to develop formal guidelines for the design of hazard avoidance systems. An alerting system is automation designed to reduce the likelihood of undesirable outcomes that are due to rare failures in a human-controlled system. It accomplishes this by monitoring the system, and issuing warning messages to the human operators when thought necessary to head off a problem. On examination of existing and recently proposed logics for alerting it appears that few commonly accepted principles guide the design process. Different logics intended to address the same hazards may take disparate forms and emphasize different aspects of performance, because each reflects the intuitive priorities of a different designer. Because performance must be satisfactory to all users of an alerting system (implying a universal meaning of acceptable performance) and not just one designer, a proposed logic often undergoes significant piecemeal modification before gamma general acceptance. This report is an initial attempt to clarify the common performance goals by which an alerting system is ultimately judged. A better understanding of these goals will hopefully allow designers to reach the final logic in a quicker, more direct and repeatable manner. As a case study, this report compares three alerting logics for collision prevention during independent approaches to parallel runways, and outlines a fourth alternative incorporating elements of the first three, but satisfying stated requirements. Three existing logics for parallel approach alerting are described. Each follows from different intuitive principles. The logics are presented as examples of three "philosophies" of alerting system design.

  14. General Dynamics Convair Division approach to structural analysis of large superconducting coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldi, R.W.

    1979-01-01

    This paper describes the overall integrated analysis approach and highlights the results obtained. Most of the procedures and techniques described were developed over the past three years. Starting in late 1976, development began on high-accuracy computer codes for electromagnetic field and force analysis. This effort resulted in completion of a family of computer programs called MAGIC (MAGnetic Integration Calculation). Included in this group of programs is a post-processor called POSTMAGIC that links MAGIC to GDSAP (General Dynamics Structural Analysis Program) by automatically transferring force data. Integrating these computer programs afforded us the capability to readily analyze several different conditions that are anticipated to occur during tokamak operation. During 1977 we initiated the development of the CONVERT program that effectively links our THERMAL ANALYZER program to GDSAP by automatically transferring temperature data. The CONVERT program allowed us the capability to readily predict thermal stresses at several different time phases during the computer-simulated cooldown and warmup cycle. This feature aided us in determining the most crucial time phases and to adjust recommended operating procedure to minimize risk. (orig.)

  15. Computable general equilibrium model fiscal year 2013 capability development report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, Brian Keith [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rivera, Michael Kelly [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Boero, Riccardo [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-05-17

    This report documents progress made on continued developments of the National Infrastructure Simulation and Analysis Center (NISAC) Computable General Equilibrium Model (NCGEM), developed in fiscal year 2012. In fiscal year 2013, NISAC the treatment of the labor market and tests performed with the model to examine the properties of the solutions computed by the model. To examine these, developers conducted a series of 20 simulations for 20 U.S. States. Each of these simulations compared an economic baseline simulation with an alternative simulation that assumed a 20-percent reduction in overall factor productivity in the manufacturing industries of each State. Differences in the simulation results between the baseline and alternative simulations capture the economic impact of the reduction in factor productivity. While not every State is affected in precisely the same way, the reduction in manufacturing industry productivity negatively affects the manufacturing industries in each State to an extent proportional to the reduction in overall factor productivity. Moreover, overall economic activity decreases when manufacturing sector productivity is reduced. Developers ran two additional simulations: (1) a version of the model for the State of Michigan, with manufacturing divided into two sub-industries (automobile and other vehicle manufacturing as one sub-industry and the rest of manufacturing as the other subindustry); and (2) a version of the model for the United States, divided into 30 industries. NISAC conducted these simulations to illustrate the flexibility of industry definitions in NCGEM and to examine the simulation properties of in more detail.

  16. Genetic Approaches to Develop Salt Tolerant Germplasm

    KAUST Repository

    Tester, Mark A.

    2015-08-19

    Forty percent of the world\\'s food is produced under irrigation, and this is directly threatened by over-exploitation and changes in the global environment. One way to address this threat is to develop systems for increasing our ability to use lower quality water, in particular saline water. Low cost partial desalination of brackish water, use of saline water for cooling and increases in the salinity tolerance of crops can all contribute to the development of this new agricultural system. In this talk, the focus will be on the use of forward genetic approaches for discovery of genes related to salinity tolerance in barley and tomatoes. Rather than studying salinity tolerance as a trait in itself, we dissect salinity tolerance into a series of components that are hypothesised to contribute to overall salinity tolerance (following the paradigm of Munns & Tester, 2008). For example, one significant component of tolerance of most crop plants to moderate soil salinity is due to the ability to maintain low concentrations of Na+ in the leaves, and much analysis of this aspect has been done (e.g. Roy et al., 2013, 2014). A major site for the control of shoot Na+ accumulation is at the plasma membrane of the mature stele of the root. Alleles of HKT, a major gene underlying this transport process have been characterized and, in work led by Dr Rana Munns (CSIRO), have now been introgressed into commercial durum wheat and led to significantly increased yields in saline field conditions (Munns et al., 2012). The genotyping of mapping populations is now highly efficient. However, the ability to quantitatively phenotype these populations is now commonly limiting forward progress in plant science. The increasing power of digital imaging and computational technologies offers the opportunity to relieve this phenotyping bottleneck. The Plant Accelerator is a 4500m2 growth facility that provides non-destructive phenotyping of large populations of plants (http

  17. Multi Sensor Approach to Address Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Shahid

    2007-01-01

    The main objectives of Earth Science research are many folds: to understand how does this planet operates, can we model her operation and eventually develop the capability to predict such changes. However, the underlying goals of this work are to eventually serve the humanity in providing societal benefits. This requires continuous, and detailed observations from many sources in situ, airborne and space. By and large, the space observations are the way to comprehend the global phenomena across continental boundaries and provide credible boundary conditions for the mesoscale studies. This requires a multiple sensors, look angles and measurements over the same spot in accurately solving many problems that may be related to air quality, multi hazard disasters, public health, hydrology and more. Therefore, there are many ways to address these issues and develop joint implementation, data sharing and operating strategies for the benefit of the world community. This is because for large geographical areas or regions and a diverse population, some sound observations, scientific facts and analytical models must support the decision making. This is crucial for the sustainability of vital resources of the world and at the same time to protect the inhabitants, endangered species and the ecology. Needless to say, there is no single sensor, which can answer all such questions effectively. Due to multi sensor approach, it puts a tremendous burden on any single implementing entity in terms of information, knowledge, budget, technology readiness and computational power. And, more importantly, the health of planet Earth and its ability to sustain life is not governed by a single country, but in reality, is everyone's business on this planet. Therefore, with this notion, it is becoming an impractical problem by any single organization/country to bear this colossal responsibility. So far, each developed country within their means has proceeded along satisfactorily in implementing

  18. Developing disaster management modules: a collaborative approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Valerie

    Disasters, whether natural or human induced, can strike when least expected. The events of 9/11 in the US, the 7/7 bombings in the UK, and the anthrax incident in the US on 10th October 2001 indicate that there is a need to have a nursing workforce who is able to respond effectively to mass casualty events and incidents involving chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear substances. Multi-agency collaboration is one of the fundamental principles of disaster preparedness and response. It was therefore necessary to take a similar multi-agency collaborative approach to develop modules on the management of mass casualty events and incidents involving hazardous substances. The modules are offered to registered nurses and registered paramedics. They can be taken independently or as part of a BSc in nursing or health pathway, on a part-time basis. Since the commencement of the modules in September 2004, registered paramedics and registered nurses who work in a wide range of specialties have accessed them.

  19. Mentorship programs for faculty development in academic general pediatric divisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagishi, Jennifer; Dabrow, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    Introduction. Mentoring relationships have been shown to support academicians in areas of research, work/life balance, and promotion. Methods. General pediatric division chiefs accessed an electronic survey asking about mentorship relationships, their ability to create a mentorship program, and resources needed. Results. Dyadic mentorship programs were available at 53% of divisions. Peer mentorship programs were available at 27% of divisions. Overall, 84% of chiefs believed that dyadic mentorship would benefit their faculty. 91% of chiefs believed that peer mentorship would benefit their faculty. Chiefs were interested in starting peer (57%) or dyadic (55%) mentorship programs. Few divisions had a peer mentorship program available, whereas 24% already had a dyadic program. 43% of chiefs felt that they had the tools to start a program. Many tools are needed to create a program. Discussion. General pediatric division chiefs acknowledge the benefits of mentoring relationships, and some have programs in place. Many need tools to create them. Pediatric societies could facilitate this critical area of professional development.

  20. Approaches to Sustainable Development in Contemporary Museology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Campolmi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development has become a leading value of the 21st century society. Throsby’s and Hutter’s recent studies on inter and intra-generational equity, diversity maintenance and interdependence have demonstrated that sustainability values promote a different perspective on cultural institutions. Particularly, they incite to reorganize the production and consumption patterns, and rethink about the construction of meanings in permanent displays. The paper wants to explore how sustainability principles are an approach to develop a “sustainable museology”, which cares about making visitors more critic and aware of the political, sociological, epistemological and cultural implications that lay behind the making of exhibitions. Museums undertaking a sustainable development of their narrative making processes overpass the Foucauldian idea of art museums as heterotopy, (space of otherness, and approach that of archétopy. This model offers rooms to rethink about narratives as stakeholders’ collective processes capable to “meet the needs of the present without compromising those of the future generations”, as stated in the “Brundtland Commision” Report of 1987. The last display done by the Berlin Neue Nationalgalerie is analysed as a case-study for archétopy. Il paper analizza il concetto di sostenibilità nelle politiche governative dei musei d’arte. Lo studio osserva tale valore da un punto di vista sia teorico che pratico e cita l’esempio dei grandi musei europei, facendo più volte riferimento al caso della Tate Modern di Londra. Se da un lato l’argomento è esplicitamente collegato ai musei d’arte in quanto essi operano per la sostenibilità del bene comune, dall’altro i musei europei hanno basato le proprie politiche culturali adottando il così detto approccio “three bottom” già intrapreso dalle grandi aziende e dalle business companies. Tale approccio si basa sull’elaborazione di politiche attente alla

  1. Development of a General Form CO2 and Brine Flux Input Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansoor, K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Sun, Y. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Carroll, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-08-01

    The National Risk Assessment Partnership (NRAP) project is developing a science-based toolset for the quantitative analysis of the potential risks associated with changes in groundwater chemistry from CO2 injection. In order to address uncertainty probabilistically, NRAP is developing efficient, reduced-order models (ROMs) as part of its approach. These ROMs are built from detailed, physics-based process models to provide confidence in the predictions over a range of conditions. The ROMs are designed to reproduce accurately the predictions from the computationally intensive process models at a fraction of the computational time, thereby allowing the utilization of Monte Carlo methods to probe variability in key parameters. This report presents the procedures used to develop a generalized model for CO2 and brine leakage fluxes based on the output of a numerical wellbore simulation. The resulting generalized parameters and ranges reported here will be used for the development of third-generation groundwater ROMs.

  2. A new approach in simulating RF linacs using a general, linear real-time signal processor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, A.; Jachim, S.P.

    1991-01-01

    Strict requirements on the tolerances of the amplitude and phase of the radio frequency (RF) cavity field are necessary to advance the field of accelerator technology. Due to these stringent requirements upon modern accelerators,a new approach of modeling and simulating is essential in developing and understanding their characteristics. This paper describes the implementation of a general, linear model of an RF cavity which is used to develop a real-time signal processor. This device fully emulates the response of an RF cavity upon receiving characteristic parameters (Q 0 , ω 0 , Δω, R S , Z 0 ). Simulating an RF cavity with a real-time signal processor is beneficial to an accelerator designer because the device allows one to answer fundamental questions on the response of the cavity to a particular stimulus without operating the accelerator. In particular, the complex interactions between the RF power and the control systems, the beam and cavity fields can simply be observed in a real-time domain. The signal processor can also be used upon initialization of the accelerator as a diagnostic device and as a dummy load for determining the closed-loop error of the control system. In essence, the signal processor is capable of providing information that allows an operator to determine whether the control systems and peripheral devices are operating properly without going through the tedious procedure of running the beam through a cavity

  3. A systematic approach to developing a global surgery elective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoehn, Richard S; Davis, Bradley R; Huber, Nathan L; Edwards, Michael J; Lungu, Douglas; Logan, Jocelyn M

    2015-01-01

    Interest in global health has been increasing for years among American residents and medical students. Many residency programs have developed global health tracks or electives in response to this need. Our goal was to create a global surgery elective based on a synergistic partnership between our institution and a hospital in the developing world. We created a business plan and 1-year schedule for researching potential sites and completing a pilot rotation at our selected hospital. We administered a survey to general surgery residents at the University of Cincinnati and visited medical facilities in Sierra Leone, Cameroon, and Malawi. The survey was given to all general surgery residents. A resident and a faculty member executed the fact-finding trip as well as the pilot rotation. Our general surgery residents view an international elective as integral to residency training and would participate in such an elective. After investigating 6 hospitals in sub-Saharan Africa, we conducted a pilot rotation at our selected hospital and gained the necessary information to organize a curriculum. We will begin sending senior residents for 8-week rotations in the coming academic year. By systematically approaching the process of creating a global surgery elective, we were able to gain considerable insight into choosing a location and organizing the elective. Copyright © 2015 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Global nuclear developments and the IAEA Director General Mohamed ElBaradei reviews achievements, challenges at IAEA General Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    In a statement to the 44th regular session of the Agency's General Conference (18 - 22 September 2000, Austria Center Vienna), the IAEA Director General reviewed nuclear developments from the IAEA perspectives. In this connection, the Director General signalled the IAEA's achievements and its readiness to provide its services as may be requested in response to global developments. He also underlined present and future challenges shaping the IAEA agenda, including financial challenges

  5. Generalized Galilean transformations and the measurement problem in the entropic dynamics approach to quantum theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, David T.

    Quantum mechanics is an extremely successful and accurate physical theory, yet since its inception, it has been afflicted with numerous conceptual difficulties. The primary subject of this thesis is the theory of entropic quantum dynamics (EQD), which seeks to avoid these conceptual problems by interpreting quantum theory from an informational perspective. We begin by reviewing Cox's work in describing probability theory as a means of rationally and consistently quantifying uncertainties. We then discuss how probabilities can be updated according to either Bayes' theorem or the extended method of maximum entropy (ME). After that discussion, we review the work of Caticha and Giffin that shows that Bayes' theorem is a special case of ME. This important result demonstrates that the ME method is the general method for updating probabilities. We then review some motivating difficulties in quantum mechanics before discussing Caticha's work in deriving quantum theory from the approach of entropic dynamics, which concludes our review. After entropic dynamics is introduced, we develop the concepts of symmetries and transformations from an informational perspective. The primary result is the formulation of a symmetry condition that any transformation must satisfy in order to qualify as a symmetry in EQD. We then proceed to apply this condition to the extended Galilean transformation. This transformation is of interest as it exhibits features of both special and general relativity. The transformation yields a gravitational potential that arises from an equivalence of information. We conclude the thesis with a discussion of the measurement problem in quantum mechanics. We discuss the difficulties that arise in the standard quantum mechanical approach to measurement before developing our theory of entropic measurement. In entropic dynamics, position is the only observable. We show how a theory built on this one observable can account for the multitude of measurements present in

  6. Agile Service Development: A Rule-Based Method Engineering Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    dr. Martijn Zoet; Stijn Hoppenbrouwers; Inge van de Weerd; Johan Versendaal

    2011-01-01

    Agile software development has evolved into an increasingly mature software development approach and has been applied successfully in many software vendors’ development departments. In this position paper, we address the broader agile service development. Based on method engineering principles we

  7. Policy development: a more formal systems approach process

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Greeff, AP

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Policy developers in corporate and governance roles are often developing policies by means of policy development cycles that typically resemble a system life cycle approach. Although policy development cycles often vary, depending on the applicable...

  8. Exponential stability for formation control systems with generalized controllers: A unified approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, Zhiyong; Mou, Shaoshuai; Anderson, Brian D.O.; Cao, Ming

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses generalized controllers for distance-based rigid formation shape stabilization and aims to provide a unified approach for the convergence analysis. We consider two types of formation control systems according to different characterizations of target formations: minimally rigid

  9. A general approach for optimal kinematic design of 6-DOF parallel ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this work, an attempt has been made to present a generalized approach of ..... made either with the help of contour plots (figures 6a and b) or by comparing the .... IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation 3: 1970–1975.

  10. Green Goggles: Designing and Teaching a General Chemistry Course to Nonmajors Using a Green Chemistry Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    A novel course using green chemistry as the context to teach general chemistry fundamentals was designed, implemented and is described here. The course design included an active learning approach, with major course graded components including a weekly blog entry, exams, and a semester project that was disseminated by wiki and a public symposium.…

  11. Standardized approach for developing probabilistic exposure factor distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maddalena, Randy L.; McKone, Thomas E.; Sohn, Michael D.

    2003-03-01

    The effectiveness of a probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) depends critically on the quality of input information that is available to the risk assessor and specifically on the probabilistic exposure factor distributions that are developed and used in the exposure and risk models. Deriving probabilistic distributions for model inputs can be time consuming and subjective. The absence of a standard approach for developing these distributions can result in PRAs that are inconsistent and difficult to review by regulatory agencies. We present an approach that reduces subjectivity in the distribution development process without limiting the flexibility needed to prepare relevant PRAs. The approach requires two steps. First, we analyze data pooled at a population scale to (1) identify the most robust demographic variables within the population for a given exposure factor, (2) partition the population data into subsets based on these variables, and (3) construct archetypal distributions for each subpopulation. Second, we sample from these archetypal distributions according to site- or scenario-specific conditions to simulate exposure factor values and use these values to construct the scenario-specific input distribution. It is envisaged that the archetypal distributions from step 1 will be generally applicable so risk assessors will not have to repeatedly collect and analyze raw data for each new assessment. We demonstrate the approach for two commonly used exposure factors--body weight (BW) and exposure duration (ED)--using data for the U.S. population. For these factors we provide a first set of subpopulation based archetypal distributions along with methodology for using these distributions to construct relevant scenario-specific probabilistic exposure factor distributions.

  12. Identification of Climate Change with Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) Distribution Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahayu, Anita

    2013-01-01

    Some events are difficult to avoid and gives considerable influence to humans and the environment is extreme weather and climate change. Many of the problems that require knowledge about the behavior of extreme values and one of the methods used are the Extreme Value Theory (EVT). EVT used to draw up reliable systems in a variety of conditions, so as to minimize the risk of a major disaster. There are two methods for identifying extreme value, Block Maxima with Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) distribution approach and Peaks over Threshold (POT) with Generalized Pareto Distribution (GPD) approach. This research in Indramayu with January 1961-December 2003 period, the method used is Block Maxima with GEV distribution approach. The result showed that there is no climate change in Indramayu with January 1961-December 2003 period.

  13. A general approach toward enhancement of pseudocapacitive performance of conducting polymers by redox-active electrolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Wei

    2014-12-01

    A general approach is demonstrated where the pseudocapacitive performance of different conducting polymers is enhanced in redox-active electrolytes. The concept is demonstrated using several electroactive conducting polymers, including polyaniline, polypyrrole, and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene). As compared to conventional electrolytes, the redox-active electrolytes, prepared by simply adding a redox mediator to the conventional electrolyte, can significantly improve the energy storage capacity of pseudocapacitors with different conducting polymers. The results show that the specific capacitance of conducting polymer based pseudocapacitors can be increased by a factor of two by utilization of the redox-active electrolytes. In fact, this approach gives some of the highest reported specific capacitance values for electroactive conducting polymers. Moreover, our findings present a general and effective approach for the enhancement of energy storage performance of pseudocapacitors using a variety of polymeric electrode materials. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The quantitation of buffering action II. Applications of the formal & general approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Bernhard M

    2005-01-01

    Background The paradigm of "buffering" originated in acid-base physiology, but was subsequently extended to other fields and is now used for a wide and diverse set of phenomena. In the preceding article, we have presented a formal and general approach to the quantitation of buffering action. Here, we use that buffering concept for a systematic treatment of selected classical and other buffering phenomena. Results H+ buffering by weak acids and "self-buffering" in pure water represent "conservative buffered systems" whose analysis reveals buffering properties that contrast in important aspects from classical textbook descriptions. The buffering of organ perfusion in the face of variable perfusion pressure (also termed "autoregulation") can be treated in terms of "non-conservative buffered systems", the general form of the concept. For the analysis of cytoplasmic Ca++ concentration transients (also termed "muffling"), we develop a related unit that is able to faithfully reflect the time-dependent quantitative aspect of buffering during the pre-steady state period. Steady-state buffering is shown to represent the limiting case of time-dependent muffling, namely for infinitely long time intervals and infinitely small perturbations. Finally, our buffering concept provides a stringent definition of "buffering" on the level of systems and control theory, resulting in four absolute ratio scales for control performance that are suited to measure disturbance rejection and setpoint tracking, and both their static and dynamic aspects. Conclusion Our concept of buffering provides a powerful mathematical tool for the quantitation of buffering action in all its appearances. PMID:15771784

  15. Comparing Two Approaches for Engineering Education Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edström, Kristina; Kolmos, Anette

    2012-01-01

    During the last decade there have been two dominating models for reforming engineering education: Problem/Project Based Learning (PBL) and the CDIO Initiative. The aim of this paper is to compare the PBL and CDIO approaches to engineering education reform, to identify and explain similarities...... and differences. CDIO and PBL will each be defined and compared in terms of the original need analysis, underlying educational philosophy and the essentials of the respective approaches to engineering education. In these respects we see many similarities. Circumstances that explain differences in history...... approaches have much in common and can be combined, and especially that the practitioners have much to learn from each other’s experiences through a dialogue between the communities. This structured comparison will potentially indicate specifically what an institution experienced in one of the communities...

  16. Elementary Students' Generalization and Representation of Functional Relationships: A Learning Progressions Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Ana; Fonger, Nicole L.; Blanton, Maria; Knuth, Eric

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we describe our learning progressions approach to early algebra research that involves the coordination of a curricular framework, an instructional sequence, written assessments, and levels of sophistication describing the development of students' thinking. We focus in particular on what we have learning through this approach about…

  17. The Microsociological Approach on Local Development Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lic. Domingos António-Lópes

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In the past two decades, societies, economies and cultures of the countries developed and developing have lived deep structural changes of marked breadth and impact processes in everyday lives.  Today we are witnessing a new era of technological and organizational restructuring that affects the ways to produce and manage local development. Sociology as a social science has begun to rethink development from the voices of a variety of actors, to strike with them rhythms and intensities of the social and cultural dynamics. This article is a sociological study on local development from the perspective of culture, placing the concepts of social space and socialization practices. An analysis of documentary sources which favoured the systematization of the concepts of development and local development.Keywords:  development, local development, socialization, cultural practices, social space, social capital.

  18. General Approaches and Requirements on Safety and Security of Radioactive Materials Transport in Russian Federation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ershov, V.N.; Buchel'nikov, A.E.; Komarov, S.V.

    2016-01-01

    Development and implementation of safety and security requirements for transport of radioactive materials in the Russian Federation are addressed. At the outset it is worth noting that the transport safety requirements implemented are in full accordance with the IAEA's ''Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (2009 Edition)''. However, with respect to security requirements for radioactive material transport in some cases the Russian Federation requirements for nuclear material are more stringent compared to IAEA recommendations. The fundamental principles of safety and security of RM managements, recommended by IAEA documents (publications No. SF-1 and GOV/41/2001) are compared. Its correlation and differences concerning transport matters, the current level and the possibility of harmonization are analysed. In addition a reflection of the general approaches and concrete transport requirements is being evaluated. Problems of compliance assessment, including administrative and state control problems for safety and security provided at internal and international shipments are considered and compared. (author)

  19. Origins and development of the Cauchy problem in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ringström, Hans

    2015-01-01

    The seminal work of Yvonne Choquet-Bruhat published in 1952 demonstrates that it is possible to formulate Einstein's equations as an initial value problem. The purpose of this article is to describe the background to and impact of this achievement, as well as the result itself. In some respects, the idea of viewing the field equations of general relativity as a system of evolution equations goes back to Einstein himself; in an argument justifying that gravitational waves propagate at the speed of light, Einstein used a special choice of coordinates to derive a system of wave equations for the linear perturbations on a Minkowski background. Over the following decades, Hilbert, de Donder, Lanczos, Darmois and many others worked to put Einstein's ideas on a more solid footing. In fact, the issue of local uniqueness (giving a rigorous justification for the statement that the speed of propagation of the gravitational field is bounded by that of light) was already settled in the 1930s by the work of Stellmacher. However, the first person to demonstrate both local existence and uniqueness in a setting in which the notion of finite speed of propagation makes sense was Yvonne Choquet-Bruhat. In this sense, her work lays the foundation for the formulation of Einstein's equations as an initial value problem. Following a description of the results of Choquet-Bruhat, we discuss the development of three research topics that have their origin in her work. The first one is local existence. One reason for addressing it is that it is at the heart of the original paper. Moreover, it is still an active and important research field, connected to the problem of characterizing the asymptotic behaviour of solutions that blow up in finite time. As a second topic, we turn to the questions of global uniqueness and strong cosmic censorship. These questions are of fundamental importance to anyone interested in justifying that the Cauchy problem makes sense globally. They are

  20. Baltimore: A Multifaceted Approach to Developing Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, Rachel E.; Shiller, Jessica; Connolly, Faith

    2018-01-01

    As community schools spread across the country, community school staff need effective approaches to engaging families and community-based partners. Such principles must be broadly applicable, given community schools' mandate to adapt to different local contexts. Based on recent research on Baltimore City's community schools, the authors highlight…

  1. Applying the Cultural Approach to Cognitive Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauvain, Mary; Beebe, Heidi; Zhao, Shuheng

    2011-01-01

    Cognitive development is a cultural process. More experienced cultural members and the practices, institutions, and artifacts of the culture provide support and guidance for children as they develop knowledge and thinking skills. In this article, the authors describe the value that is added to our understanding of cognitive development when…

  2. Agricultural Development in Rural Nigeria: A Review of Approaches ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agricultural Development in Rural Nigeria: A Review of Approaches. ... African Journal of Sustainable Development ... the country's very low human development indicators, particularly in the rural areas, is a serious cause of concern.

  3. System theoretic approach to sustainable development problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batanović Vladan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows that the concepts and methodology contained in the system theory and operations research are suitable for application in the planning and control of the sustainable development. The sustainable development problems can be represented using the state space concepts, such as the transition of system, from the given initial state to the final state. It is shown that sustainable development represents a specific control problem. The peculiarity of the sustainable development is that the target is to keep the system in the prescribed feasible region of the state space. The analysis of planning and control problems of sustainable development has also shown that methods developed in the operations research area, such as multicriteria optimization, dynamic processes simulation, non-conventional treatment of uncertainty etc. are adequate, exact base, suitable for resolution of these problems.

  4. Approaches to Sustainable Development in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostrzewa, Karina; ); Piasecki, Ryszard

    2009-01-01

    The sustainable development principle was introduced into the legal system of Poland when the Constitution of the Polish Republic was adopted in 1997. Paradoxically, in Poland - one of the few countries in the world which have introduced the concept of sustainable development at the level of the Constitution, it is difficult to find a reference to it in the political debate. The national sustainable development strategy Poland 2025 has met no response among society and today it seems to be hardly remembered by anybody. An average citizen does not know the concept of sustainable development, or has a vague notion of it, often identifying it exclusively with environmental protection. Solving social problems (the labour market, education, health protection, equality of the sexes, etc.) is not associated with sustainable development whatsoever, and neither is engagement into achieving these development targets on the global scale

  5. The Typology of Methodological Approaches to Development of Innovative Clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farat Olexandra V.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to study the existing methodological approaches to assessing the development of enterprises for further substantiation of possibilities of their using by cluster associations. As a result of research, based on the analysis of scientific literature, the most applicable methodological approaches to assessing the development of enterprises are characterized. 8 methodical approaches to assessing the level of development of enterprises and 4 methodological approaches to assessing the level of development of clusters are singled out. Each of the approaches is characterized by the presence of certain advantages and disadvantages, but none of them allows to obtain a systematic assessment of all areas of cluster functioning, identify possible reserves for cluster competitiveness growth and characterize possible strategies for their future development. Taking into account peculiarities of the functioning and development of cluster associations of enterprises, we propose our own methodological approach for assessing the development of innovative cluster structures.

  6. A frequency-domain approach to improve ANNs generalization quality via proper initialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaari, Majdi; Fekih, Afef; Seibi, Abdennour C; Hmida, Jalel Ben

    2018-08-01

    The ability to train a network without memorizing the input/output data, thereby allowing a good predictive performance when applied to unseen data, is paramount in ANN applications. In this paper, we propose a frequency-domain approach to evaluate the network initialization in terms of quality of training, i.e., generalization capabilities. As an alternative to the conventional time-domain methods, the proposed approach eliminates the approximate nature of network validation using an excess of unseen data. The benefits of the proposed approach are demonstrated using two numerical examples, where two trained networks performed similarly on the training and the validation data sets, yet they revealed a significant difference in prediction accuracy when tested using a different data set. This observation is of utmost importance in modeling applications requiring a high degree of accuracy. The efficiency of the proposed approach is further demonstrated on a real-world problem, where unlike other initialization methods, a more conclusive assessment of generalization is achieved. On the practical front, subtle methodological and implementational facets are addressed to ensure reproducibility and pinpoint the limitations of the proposed approach. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The Generality of Adult Development Stages and Transformations: Comparing Meaning-making and Logical Reasoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Hagström

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Human development theories differ in “context sensitivity,” covering those stressing development stages and those stressing continuously progressing changes. The former theories differ in whether, how and why the stages are regarded as being generalized across domains, i.e. their generality claims. Piaget’s developmental stage theory of logical complexity of children and adolescents fulfill “strong” such claims, including fixed stage sequentiality of increasing complexity levels and higher stage structures integrating earlier ones. His theory has inspired a number of adult development stage theories with varying generality claims. These provide suggestions of stages and stage transitions reaching beyond “pure” cognition, integrating more of e.g. emotional, value and moral dimensions. From a neo-Piagetian perspective, core generality aspects seem to concern on the one hand logical reasoning and on the other hand meaning-making. This raises questions of how these aspects are related to each other in terms of stage structures and transformations. The aim of the article is to discern general features in adult development stage structures and transitions, in terms of logical reasoning and meaning making. This is carried out by a “thought experiment” interrelating two theories that differ in these respects but that are both based on Piaget’s theory, namely Robert Kegan’s constructive developmental Subject-Object Theory (SOT and Michael Common´s behaviouristic Model of Hierarchical Complexity (MHC. This comparing approach concerns the 3rd, 4th and 5th order of consciousness as well as transitions between these according to SOT, and order 9 to 12 and corresponding transitions according to MHC. The thought experiment indicates that the generality claims of both models can be argued for without one of them necessarily being subordinated to the other one. Both theories are interpreted as differing but partly overlapping structures of

  8. Lessons on rural development, challenges and approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Absalón Machado

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available For 25 years, Colombia implemented a rural development policy according to models adopted in Latin America since the 1960s. That policy advanced progressively toward decentralized and participatory development and it also moved forward to new concept of rural territorial development. Nevertheless, the Integrated Rural Development Program - IRD, turned into a Co-financing Fund, due to several reasons, ended during the second half of the 1990s. The change of protectionist policies towards deregulation, political cooptation of the program and the weak State capacities to replacing the IRD with other alternatives to stabilize rural societies contributed to the disappearance of the policy.

  9. Spinal anesthesia using Taylor′s approach helps avoid general anesthesia in short stature asthmatic patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarjeet Dnyandeo Patil

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The case history of a 35-year-old female patient with short stature is presented. She was posted for rectopexy in view of rectal prolapse. She was a known case of bronchial asthma. She had crowding of intervertebral spaces, which made administration of spinal anesthesia via the normal route very difficult. Taylor′s approach for administration of the same was tried and proved successful, thus saving the patient from receiving general anesthesia in the presence of bronchial asthma, for a perineal surgery. The possible cause for the difficulty in administration of spinal anesthesia and the Taylor′s approach are discussed, and reports of similar cases reviewed.

  10. Approach to developing reliable space reactor power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondt, J.F.; Shinbrot, C.H.

    1991-01-01

    The Space Reactor Power System Project is in the engineering development phase of a three-phase program. During Phase II, the Engineering Development Phase, the SP-100 Project has defined and is pursuing a new approach to developing reliable power systems. The approach to developing such a system during the early technology phase is described in this paper along with some preliminary examples to help explain the approach. Developing reliable components to meet space reactor power system requirements is based on a top down systems approach which includes a point design based on a detailed technical specification of a 100 kW power system

  11. Unified Approach in the DSS Development Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The structure of today's decision support environment become very complex due to new generation of Business Intelligence applications and technologies like Data Warehouse, OLAP (On Line Analytical Processing and Data Mining. In this respect DSS development process are not simple and needs an adequate methodology or framework able to manage different tools and platforms to achieve manager's requirements. The DSS development process must be view like a unified and iterative set of activities and operations. The new techniques based on Unified Process (UP methodology and UML (Unified Modeling Language it seems to be appropriate for DSS development using prototyping and RAD (Rapid Application Development techniques. In this paper we present a conceptual framework for development and integrate Decision Support Systems using Unified Process Methodology and UML.

  12. Development of General Purpose Data Acquisition Shell (GPDAS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Y.; Kim, K.

    1995-01-01

    This note is intended as an abbreviated introduction to the concept and the structure of General Purpose Data Acquisitions Shell (GPDAS) and assumes the reader has a certain level of familiarity with programming in general. The structure of the following sections consists of brief explanations of the concepts and commands of GPDAS, followed by several examples. Some of these are tabulated in the appendices at the end of this note

  13. Developing the Blueprint for a General Surgery Technical Skills Certification Examination: A Validation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Montbrun, Sandra; Louridas, Marisa; Szasz, Peter; Harris, Kenneth A; Grantcharov, Teodor P

    There is a recognized need to develop high-stakes technical skills assessments for decisions of certification and resident promotion. High-stakes examinations requires a rigorous approach in accruing validity evidence throughout the developmental process. One of the first steps in development is the creation of a blueprint which outlines the potential content of examination. The purpose of this validation study was to develop an examination blueprint for a Canadian General Surgery assessment of technical skill certifying examination. A Delphi methodology was used to gain consensus amongst Canadian General Surgery program directors as to the content (tasks or procedures) that could be included in a certifying Canadian General Surgery examination. Consensus was defined a priori as a Cronbach's α ≥ 0.70. All procedures or tasks reaching a positive consensus (defined as ≥80% of program directors rated items as ≥4 on the 5-point Likert scale) were then included in the final examination blueprint. Two Delphi rounds were needed to reach consensus. Of the 17 General Surgery Program directors across the country, 14 (82.4%) and 10 (58.8%) program directors responded to the first and second round, respectively. A total of 59 items and procedures reached positive consensus and were included in the final examination blueprint. The present study has outlined the development of an examination blueprint for a General Surgery certifying examination using a consensus-based methodology. This validation study will serve as the foundational work from which simulated model will be developed, pilot tested and evaluated. Copyright © 2017 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A General and Intuitive Approach to Understand and Compare the Torque Production Capability of AC Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Dong; Lu, Kaiyuan; Rasmussen, Peter Omand

    2014-01-01

    Electromagnetic torque analysis is one of the key issues in the analysis of electric machines. It plays an important role in machine design and control. The common method described in most of the textbooks is to calculate the torque in the machine variables and then transform them to the dq......-frame, through complicated mathematical manipulations. This is a more mathematical approach rather than explaining the physics behind torque production, which even brings a lot of difficulties to specialist. This paper introduces a general and intuitive approach to obtain the dq-frame torque equation of various...... AC machines. In this method, torque equation can be obtained based on the intuitive physical understanding of the mechanism behind torque production. It is then approved to be applicable for general case, including rotor saliency and various types of magnetomotive force sources. As an application...

  15. Analyzing Information Systems Development: A Comparison and Analysis of Eight IS Development Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iivari, Juhani; Hirschheim, Rudy

    1996-01-01

    Analyzes and compares eight information systems (IS) development approaches: Information Modelling, Decision Support Systems, the Socio-Technical approach, the Infological approach, the Interactionist approach, the Speech Act-based approach, Soft Systems Methodology, and the Scandinavian Trade Unionist approach. Discusses the organizational roles…

  16. A dynamical systems approach to motor development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamm, K; Thelen, E; Jensen, J L

    1990-12-01

    The study of motor development has long influenced the clinical practice of physical therapy. We first review the contributions and deficiencies of two traditional maturational and reflex-based models of motor development. Second, we describe basic principles of kinematic and kinetic analyses of movement and show how we have applied these techniques to understand infant stepping and kicking. Third, we propose a theory of motor development based on a dynamical systems perspective that is consistent with our infant studies. Finally, we explore the implications of the model for physical therapists.

  17. Intervention pattern in crisis: mental health as a nursing care approach at a general hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Elias Barbosa; Kestenberg, Célia Caldeira Fonseca; Silva, Alexandre Vicente

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Testing and validating the application of Intervention in Crisis theory as an approach in mental health on HIV/AIDS patients care who are interned at a general hospital. Method: Help Interview has been accomplished as an activity for Mental Health subject according to an applied guide by graduation in nursing students in order to identify this illness psycho-social repercussion and draft therapeutic plan for patients under their care. The outcomes were the reports results presented...

  18. Generalized approach to modifying optical vortices with suppressed sidelobes using Bessel-like functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J; Yuan, X-C; Zhao, X; Fang, Z L; Zhu, S W

    2009-11-01

    We propose a generalized approach to producing optical vortices with suppressed sidelobes using a variable Bessel-like function added to the conventional spiral phase plate. Experimental verifications are implemented by a phase-only spatial light modulator. It is demonstrated that the method is valid for optical vortex beams with arbitrary topological charges and without changing the primary ring size as a unique property among the existing techniques.

  19. A general approach to mesoporous metal oxide microspheres loaded with noble metal nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Jin, Zhao; Xiao, Manda; Bao, Zhihong; Wang, Peng; Wang, Jianfang

    2012-01-01

    Catalytic microspheres: A general approach is demonstrated for the facile preparation of mesoporous metal oxide microspheres loaded with noble metal nanoparticles (see TEM image in the picture). Among 18 oxide/noble metal catalysts, TiO 2/0.1 mol Pd microspheres showed the highest turnover frequency in NaBH 4 reduction of 4-nitrophenol (see picture). Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Spinal anesthesia using Taylor's approach helps avoid general anesthesia in short stature asthmatic patient

    OpenAIRE

    Patil, Amarjeet Dnyandeo; Bapat, Manasi; Patil, Sunita A.; Gogna, Roshan Lal

    2015-01-01

    The case history of a 35-year-old female patient with short stature is presented. She was posted for rectopexy in view of rectal prolapse. She was a known case of bronchial asthma. She had crowding of intervertebral spaces, which made administration of spinal anesthesia via the normal route very difficult. Taylor′s approach for administration of the same was tried and proved successful, thus saving the patient from receiving general anesthesia in the presence of bronchial asthma, for a perine...

  1. Generalized Models from Beta(p, 2) Densities with Strong Allee Effect: Dynamical Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Aleixo, Sandra M.; Rocha, J. Leonel

    2012-01-01

    A dynamical approach to study the behaviour of generalized populational growth models from Beta(p, 2) densities, with strong Allee effect, is presented. The dynamical analysis of the respective unimodal maps is performed using symbolic dynamics techniques. The complexity of the correspondent discrete dynamical systems is measured in terms of topological entropy. Different populational dynamics regimes are obtained when the intrinsic growth rates are modified: extinction, bistability, chaotic ...

  2. A general approach to mesoporous metal oxide microspheres loaded with noble metal nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Jin, Zhao

    2012-04-26

    Catalytic microspheres: A general approach is demonstrated for the facile preparation of mesoporous metal oxide microspheres loaded with noble metal nanoparticles (see TEM image in the picture). Among 18 oxide/noble metal catalysts, TiO 2/0.1 mol Pd microspheres showed the highest turnover frequency in NaBH 4 reduction of 4-nitrophenol (see picture). Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Generalized coherent state approach to star products and applications to the fuzzy sphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexanian, G.; Pinzul, A.; Stern, A.

    2001-01-01

    We construct a star product associated with an arbitrary two-dimensional Poisson structure using generalized coherent states on the complex plane. From our approach one easily recovers the star product for the fuzzy torus, and also one for the fuzzy sphere. For the latter we need to define the 'fuzzy' stereographic projection to the plane and the fuzzy sphere integration measure, which in the commutative limit reduce to the usual formulae for the sphere

  4. A general analytical approach to the one-group, one-dimensional transport equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barichello, L.B.; Vilhena, M.T.

    1993-01-01

    The main feature of the presented approach to solve the neutron transport equation consists in the application of the Laplace transform to the discrete ordinates equations, which yields a linear system of order N to be solved (LTS N method). In this paper this system is solved analytically and the inversion is performed using the Heaviside expansion technique. The general formulation achieved by this procedure is then applied to homogeneous and heterogeneous one-group slab-geometry problems. (orig.) [de

  5. Toward a More Holistic Evaluation Approach for Rural Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, Koichi

    2013-01-01

    The discussion on and development of a holistic evaluation approach for rural development will be indispensable to improving and enriching the lives of rural people. This approach can be developed by considering the conceptualization of community policy structure in rural areas, the localization of policy structure in the rural community, and the…

  6. Philosophy and possible approach to SAMG development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sartmadjiev, A.

    1999-01-01

    In this lecture are discussed: Safety functional relationship; Basic principles for development and implementation of SAMG; and Determination of the plant damage condition. Phases of the SA management are presented

  7. An approach towards sustainable groundwater development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    role-players are used to develop a social-character map. • Site surveys and ... intervention programmes. ..... tional benefit and demonstrate improved psychosocial function- ... CAMPBEll C (1997) Migration, masculine identities and AIdS: The.

  8. Teaching Web Evaluation: A Cognitive Development Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candice Benjes-Small

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Web evaluation has been a standard information literacy offering for years and has always been a challenging topic for instruction librarians. Over time, the authors had tried a myriad of strategies to teach freshmen how to assess the credibility of Web sites but felt the efforts were insufficient. By familiarizing themselves with the cognitive development research, they were able to effectively revamp Web evaluation instruction to improve student learning. This article discusses the problems of traditional methods, such as checklists; summarizes the cognitive development research, particularly in regards to its relationship to the ACRL Information Literacy Standards; and details the instructional lesson plan developed by the authors that incorporates cognitive development theories.

  9. Trends in scenario development methodologies and integration in NUMO's approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebashi, Takeshi; Ishiguro, Katsuhiko; Wakasugi, Keiichiro; Kawamura, Hideki; Gaus, Irina; Vomvoris, Stratis; Martin, Andrew J.; Smith, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The development of scenarios for quantitative or qualitative analysis is a key element of the assessment of the safety of geological disposal systems. As an outcome of an international workshop attended by European and the Japanese implementers, a number of features common to current methodologies could be identified, as well as trends in their evolution over time. In the late nineties, scenario development was often described as a bottom-up process, whereby scenarios were said to be developed in essence from FEP databases. Nowadays, it is recognised that, in practice, the approaches actually adopted are better described as top-down or 'hybrid', taking as their starting point an integrated (top-down) understanding of the system under consideration including uncertainties in initial state, sometimes assisted by the development of 'storyboards'. A bottom-up element remains (hence the term 'hybrid') to the extent that FEP databases or FEP catalogues (including interactions) are still used, but the focus is generally on completeness checking, which occurs parallel to the main assessment process. Recent advances focus on the consistent treatment of uncertainties throughout the safety assessment and on the integration of operational safety and long term safety. (author)

  10. An Approach to Teaching General Chemistry II that Highlights the Interdisciplinary Nature of Science*,†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumter, Takita Felder; Owens, Patrick M.

    2012-01-01

    The need for a revised curriculum within the life sciences has been well-established. One strategy to improve student preparation in the life sciences is to redesign introductory courses like biology, chemistry, and physics so that they better reflect their disciplinary interdependence. We describe a medically relevant, context-based approach to teaching second semester general chemistry that demonstrates the interdisciplinary nature of biology and chemistry. Our innovative method provides a model in which disciplinary barriers are diminished early in the undergraduate science curriculum. The course is divided into three principle educational modules: 1) Fundamentals of General Chemistry, 2) Medical Approaches to Inflammation, and 3) Neuroscience as a connector of chemistry, biology, and psychology. We accurately anticipated that this modified approach to teaching general chemistry would enhance student interest in chemistry and bridge the perceived gaps between biology and chemistry. The course serves as a template for context-based, interdisciplinary teaching that lays the foundation needed to train 21st century scientists. PMID:21445902

  11. An approach to teaching general chemistry II that highlights the interdisciplinary nature of science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumter, Takita Felder; Owens, Patrick M

    2011-01-01

    The need for a revised curriculum within the life sciences has been well-established. One strategy to improve student preparation in the life sciences is to redesign introductory courses like biology, chemistry, and physics so that they better reflect their disciplinary interdependence. We describe a medically relevant, context-based approach to teaching second semester general chemistry that demonstrates the interdisciplinary nature of biology and chemistry. Our innovative method provides a model in which disciplinary barriers are diminished early in the undergraduate science curriculum. The course is divided into three principle educational modules: 1) Fundamentals of General Chemistry, 2) Medical Approaches to Inflammation, and 3) Neuroscience as a connector of chemistry, biology, and psychology. We accurately anticipated that this modified approach to teaching general chemistry would enhance student interest in chemistry and bridge the perceived gaps between biology and chemistry. The course serves as a template for context-based, interdisciplinary teaching that lays the foundation needed to train 21st century scientists. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Drought assessment in the Dongliao River basin: traditional approaches vs. generalized drought assessment index based on water resources systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, B. S.; Yan, D. H.; Wang, H.; Liu, J. H.; Yang, Z. Y.; Qin, T. L.; Yin, J.

    2015-08-01

    Drought is firstly a resource issue, and with its development it evolves into a disaster issue. Drought events usually occur in a determinate but a random manner. Drought has become one of the major factors to affect sustainable socioeconomic development. In this paper, we propose the generalized drought assessment index (GDAI) based on water resources systems for assessing drought events. The GDAI considers water supply and water demand using a distributed hydrological model. We demonstrate the use of the proposed index in the Dongliao River basin in northeastern China. The results simulated by the GDAI are compared to observed drought disaster records in the Dongliao River basin. In addition, the temporal distribution of drought events and the spatial distribution of drought frequency from the GDAI are compared with the traditional approaches in general (i.e., standard precipitation index, Palmer drought severity index and rate of water deficit index). Then, generalized drought times, generalized drought duration, and generalized drought severity were calculated by theory of runs. Application of said runs at various drought levels (i.e., mild drought, moderate drought, severe drought, and extreme drought) during the period 1960-2010 shows that the centers of gravity of them all distribute in the middle reaches of Dongliao River basin, and change with time. The proposed methodology may help water managers in water-stressed regions to quantify the impact of drought, and consequently, to make decisions for coping with drought.

  13. Human Security versus Human Development - Behavioristic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duralia Oana

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent terrorist attacks in Brussels, Paris and Istanbul, are shaking a world bewildered of daily fear of violence, while the contemporary consumer has to deal with the “new wars” emerging in the context of the current socio-economic and political context. The issue is especially thorny since, most of the times, the “enemy” the citizens must face is unknown, not only when it comes to terrorist attacks, but also when dealing with the question of the “enemy” in foods purchased for consumption (food security or the security of personal data when accessing and using the Internet (cyber security. Consequently, this paper attempts to highlight the way in which the safety and security needs of the contemporary consumer have diversified over time, often becoming determinants of social behavior in general, and of the buying and consumption behavior, in particular.

  14. Development of Digital MMIS for Research Reactors: Graded Approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil ur, Rahman; Shin, Jin Soo; Heo, Gyun Young; Son, Han Seong; Kim, Young Ki; Park, Jae Kwan; Seo, Sang Mun; Kim, Yong Jun

    2012-01-01

    Though research reactors are small in size yet they are important in terms of industrial applications and R and D, educational purposes. Keeping the eye on its importance, Korean government has intention to upgrade and extend this industry. Presently, Korea is operating only HANARO at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) and AGN-201K at Kyung Hee University (KHU), which are not sufficient to meet the current requirements of research and education. In addition, we need self-sufficiency in design and selfreliance in design and operation, as we are installing research reactors in domestic as well as foreign territories for instance Jordan. Based on these demands, KAERI and universities initiated a 5 year research project since December 2011 collaboratly, for the deep study of reactor core, thermal hydraulics, materials and instrumentation and control (I and C). This particular study is being carried out to develop highly reliable advanced digital I and C systems using a grading approach. It is worth mentioning that next generation research reactor should be equipped with advance state of the art digital I and C for safe and reliable operation and impermeable cyber security system that is needed to be devised. Moreover, human error is one of important area which should be linked with I and C in terms of Man Machine Interface System (MMIS) and development of I and C should cover human factor engineering. Presently, the digital I and C and MMIS are well developed for commercial power stations whereas such level of development does not exist for research reactors in Korea. Since the functional and safety requirements of research reactors are not so strict as commercial power plants, the design of digital I and C systems for research reactors seems to be graded based on the stringency of regulatory requirements. This paper was motivated for the introduction of those missions, so it is going to describe the general overview of digital I and C systems, the graded

  15. Development of Digital MMIS for Research Reactors: Graded Approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalil ur, Rahman; Shin, Jin Soo; Heo, Gyun Young [Kyunghee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Son, Han Seong [Joongbu University, Geumsan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Ki; Park, Jae Kwan; Seo, Sang Mun; Kim, Yong Jun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    Though research reactors are small in size yet they are important in terms of industrial applications and R and D, educational purposes. Keeping the eye on its importance, Korean government has intention to upgrade and extend this industry. Presently, Korea is operating only HANARO at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) and AGN-201K at Kyung Hee University (KHU), which are not sufficient to meet the current requirements of research and education. In addition, we need self-sufficiency in design and selfreliance in design and operation, as we are installing research reactors in domestic as well as foreign territories for instance Jordan. Based on these demands, KAERI and universities initiated a 5 year research project since December 2011 collaboratly, for the deep study of reactor core, thermal hydraulics, materials and instrumentation and control (I and C). This particular study is being carried out to develop highly reliable advanced digital I and C systems using a grading approach. It is worth mentioning that next generation research reactor should be equipped with advance state of the art digital I and C for safe and reliable operation and impermeable cyber security system that is needed to be devised. Moreover, human error is one of important area which should be linked with I and C in terms of Man Machine Interface System (MMIS) and development of I and C should cover human factor engineering. Presently, the digital I and C and MMIS are well developed for commercial power stations whereas such level of development does not exist for research reactors in Korea. Since the functional and safety requirements of research reactors are not so strict as commercial power plants, the design of digital I and C systems for research reactors seems to be graded based on the stringency of regulatory requirements. This paper was motivated for the introduction of those missions, so it is going to describe the general overview of digital I and C systems, the graded

  16. Need for multiple approaches in collaborative software development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LePoire, D. J.

    2002-01-01

    The need to share software and reintegrate it into new applications presents a difficult but important challenge. Component-based development as an approach to this problem is receiving much attention in professional journals and academic curricula. However, there are many other approaches to collaborative software development that might be more appropriate. This paper reviews a few of these approaches and discusses criteria for the conditions and contexts in which these alternative approaches might be more appropriate. This paper complements the discussion of context-based development team organizations and processes. Examples from a small development team that interacts with a larger professional community are analyzed

  17. A Systems Engineering Approach to Architecture Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pietro, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Architecture development is often conducted prior to system concept design when there is a need to determine the best-value mix of systems that works collectively in specific scenarios and time frames to accomplish a set of mission area objectives. While multiple architecture frameworks exist, they often require use of unique taxonomies and data structures. In contrast, this paper characterizes architecture development using terminology widely understood within the systems engineering community. Using a notional civil space architecture example, it employs a multi-tier framework to describe the enterprise level architecture and illustrates how results of lower tier, mission area architectures integrate into the enterprise architecture. It also presents practices for conducting effective mission area architecture studies, including establishing the trade space, developing functions and metrics, evaluating the ability of potential design solutions to meet the required functions, and expediting study execution through the use of iterative design cycles

  18. A general approach for the estimation of loss of life due to natural and technological disasters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonkman, S.N.; Lentz, A.; Vrijling, J.K.

    2010-01-01

    In assessing the safety of engineering systems in the context of quantitative risk analysis one of the most important consequence types concerns the loss of life due to accidents and disasters. In this paper, a general approach for loss of life estimation is proposed which includes three elements: (1) the assessment of physical effects associated with the event; (2) determination of the number of exposed persons (taking into account warning and evacuation); and (3) determination of mortality amongst the population exposed. The typical characteristics of and modelling approaches for these three elements are discussed. This paper focuses on 'small probability-large consequences' events within the engineering domain. It is demonstrated how the proposed approach can be applied to various case studies, such as tunnel fires, earthquakes and flood events.

  19. Child Development: An Active Learning Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Laura E.; Munsch, Joyce

    2010-01-01

    Within each chapter of this innovative topical text, the authors engage students by demonstrating the wide range of real-world applications of psychological research connected to child development. In particular, the distinctive Active Learning features incorporated throughout the book foster a dynamic and personal learning process for students.…

  20. Entrepreneurship development in China : a multilevel approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Studies of entrepreneurship focus on one of three areas: entrepreneurship as an engine to drive national economic growth, CE as an instrument to facilitate corporate performance, and individual EI as the source of entrepreneurial behavior. There has been rapid development and corporate catching-up

  1. Energy and development : A modelling approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ruijven, B.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304834521

    2008-01-01

    Rapid economic growth of developing countries like India and China implies that these countries become important actors in the global energy system. Examples of this impact are the present day oil shortages and rapidly increasing emissions of greenhouse gases. Global energy models are used explore

  2. Classical and Contemporary Approaches for Moral Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cam, Zekeriya; Seydoogullari, Sedef; Cavdar, Duygu; Cok, Figen

    2012-01-01

    Most of the information in the moral development literature depends on Theories of Piaget and Kohlberg. The theoretical contribution by Gilligan and Turiel are not widely known and not much resource is available in Turkish. For this reason introducing and discussing the theories of Gilligan and Turiel and more comprehensive perspective for moral…

  3. Genetic Approaches to Develop Salt Tolerant Germplasm

    KAUST Repository

    Tester, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    Forty percent of the world's food is produced under irrigation, and this is directly threatened by over-exploitation and changes in the global environment. One way to address this threat is to develop systems for increasing our ability to use lower

  4. A general approach for haplotype phasing across the full spectrum of relatedness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared O'Connell

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Many existing cohorts contain a range of relatedness between genotyped individuals, either by design or by chance. Haplotype estimation in such cohorts is a central step in many downstream analyses. Using genotypes from six cohorts from isolated populations and two cohorts from non-isolated populations, we have investigated the performance of different phasing methods designed for nominally 'unrelated' individuals. We find that SHAPEIT2 produces much lower switch error rates in all cohorts compared to other methods, including those designed specifically for isolated populations. In particular, when large amounts of IBD sharing is present, SHAPEIT2 infers close to perfect haplotypes. Based on these results we have developed a general strategy for phasing cohorts with any level of implicit or explicit relatedness between individuals. First SHAPEIT2 is run ignoring all explicit family information. We then apply a novel HMM method (duoHMM to combine the SHAPEIT2 haplotypes with any family information to infer the inheritance pattern of each meiosis at all sites across each chromosome. This allows the correction of switch errors, detection of recombination events and genotyping errors. We show that the method detects numbers of recombination events that align very well with expectations based on genetic maps, and that it infers far fewer spurious recombination events than Merlin. The method can also detect genotyping errors and infer recombination events in otherwise uninformative families, such as trios and duos. The detected recombination events can be used in association scans for recombination phenotypes. The method provides a simple and unified approach to haplotype estimation, that will be of interest to researchers in the fields of human, animal and plant genetics.

  5. Agribusiness model approach to territorial food development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murcia Hector Horacio

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Several research efforts have coordinated the academic program of Agricultural Business Management from the University De La Salle (Bogota D.C., to the design and implementation of a sustainable agribusiness model applied to food development, with territorial projection. Rural development is considered as a process that aims to improve the current capacity and potential of the inhabitant of the sector, which refers not only to production levels and productivity of agricultural items. It takes into account the guidelines of the Organization of the United Nations “Millennium Development Goals” and considered the concept of sustainable food and agriculture development, including food security and nutrition in an integrated interdisciplinary context, with holistic and systemic dimension. Analysis is specified by a model with an emphasis on sustainable agribusiness production chains related to agricultural food items in a specific region. This model was correlated with farm (technical objectives, family (social purposes and community (collective orientations projects. Within this dimension are considered food development concepts and methodologies of Participatory Action Research (PAR. Finally, it addresses the need to link the results to low-income communities, within the concepts of the “new rurality”.

  6. Development and Assessment of Service Learning Projects in General Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felzien, Lisa; Salem, Laura

    2008-01-01

    Service learning involves providing service to the community while requiring students to meet learning goals in a specific course. A service learning project was implemented in a general biology course at Rockhurst University to involve students in promoting scientific education in conjunction with community partner educators. Students were…

  7. Mathematical developments regarding the general theory of the Earth magnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, A.

    1983-01-01

    A literature survey on the Earth's magnetic field, citing the works of Gauss, Erman-Petersen, Quintus Icilius and Neumayer is presented. The general formulas for the representation of the potential and components of the Earth's magnetic force are presented. An analytical representation of magnetic condition of the Earth based on observations is also made.

  8. General-purpose heat source development. Phase I: design requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snow, E.C.; Zocher, R.W.

    1978-09-01

    Studies have been performed to determine the necessary design requirements for a 238 PuO 2 General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS). Systems and missions applications, as well as accident conditions, were considered. The results of these studies, along with the recommended GPHS design requirements, are given in this report

  9. Specific Cooperative Analysis and Design in General Hypermedia Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbæk, Kaj; Mogensen, Preben Holst

    1994-01-01

    activities. We demonstrate how these activities informed the general hypermedia framework and application design. Use scenarios and prototypes with example data from the users’ daily work were used as sources both to trigger design ideas and new insights regarding work practice. Mutual challenging...

  10. Revising Amartya Sen's Capability Approach to Education for Ethical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, Kwangsu; Jeong, Wongyu

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine whether Amartya Sen's capability approach can suggest an appropriate theory of education for ethical development. Many advocates of Sen's capability approach insist that his approach is superior to rival theories of education, including the human capital theory. This is because Sen emphasizes the purpose and…

  11. PUMA Development through a Multi physics Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheon, Jinsik; Kim, Junehyung; Lee, Byoungoon; Lee, Chanbock

    2013-01-01

    Meanwhile advances of numerical methods make it possible for the multi physics problem to be solved in a fully coupled way. In addition to a multidimensional, multi physical approach, a nuclear fuel performance analysis code, which is 1D code, should be improved by accommodating the state-of-the-art in the numerical analysis to support current fuel design and performance analysis. In particular, the coupling between the mechanical equilibrium equation and a set of numerically stiff kinetics equations for fission gas release is of great importance for a multi physics simulation of nuclear fuel. Instead, coupling between temperature and fuel constituent was found to be made with a relative ease by employing an ordinary differential equations solver. As an effort for a new SFR metal fuel performance analysis code, called PUMA (Performance of Uranium Metal fuel rod Analysis code), the deformation of U-Zr fuel for SFR in connection with a fission gas release model is analyzed. A finite element analyses for purely mechanical problems are performed using a backward differentiation formula, and are subjected to scrupulous verification with Abaqus. Then mechanical equilibrium equation and the equations for fission gas release are coupled with the same differential-algebraic equations (DAE) solver

  12. Understanding and developing creativity: A practical approach

    OpenAIRE

    Donald J. Treffinger; Edwin C. Selby

    2008-01-01

    Critical thinking and creative thinking are proposed as determinants to cope with the constant change society, and basically children are experiencing nowadays. Moreover, tools for the development of critical and creative thinking are discussed, and the creative problem solving toolbox is presented, involving tools for generating options, as well as tools for focusing options. The importance of the tools as significant basis for the learning process, as well as for the management of changes i...

  13. [Approach to the Development of Mind and Persona].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawaguchi, Toshiko

    2018-01-01

    To access medical specialists by health specialists working in the regional health field, the possibility of utilizing the voice approach for dissociative identity disorder (DID) patients as a health assessment for medical access (HAMA) was investigated. The first step is to investigate whether the plural personae in a single DID patient can be discriminated by voice analysis. Voices of DID patients including these with different personae were extracted from YouTube and were analysed using the software PRAAT with basic frequency, oral factors, chin factors and tongue factors. In addition, RAKUGO story teller voices made artificially and dramatically were analysed in the same manner. Quantitive and qualitative analysis method were carried out and nested logistic regression and a nested generalized linear model was developed. The voice from different personae in one DID patient could be visually and easily distinquished using basic frequency curve, cluster analysis and factor analysis. In the canonical analysis, only Roy's maximum root was personae could guide to the risky situation such as suicide. So if the voice approach can show the time threshold of changes between the different personae, it would be useful as an Access Assessment in the form of a simple HAMA.

  14. Radioimmunotherapy: Development of an effective approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeNardo, S.J.

    1991-01-01

    We plan to extend our success in treating B cell malignancies with 131 I labeled Lym-1 by a major effort in therapy with 67 Cu Lym-1. Yttrium-90 labeled by a macrocycle, DOTA will be studied in patients as a continuation of the 111 In-BAD (DOTA) Lym-1 studies. Excellent images and pharmacokinetics of the 111 In-BAD(DOTA)-Lym-1 studies. Lymphomas and related diseases represent a special case for radioimmunotherapy because of their documented radiosensitivity and immunodeficiency, and thus offer a unique opportunity to conduct therapeutic feasibility studies in a responsive human model. Using marine and chimeric L6 and other MoAb to breast cancer, we have applied the strategies that were developed in taking Lym-1 antibody from the bench to the patient. We have examined a number of monoclonal antibodies for treatment of breast cancer and chose chimeric L6 for prototype studies because of certain characteristics. The chemistry of attachment of conjugates to antibodies and their impact on immunological targeting biological activities (cytotoxicity), metabolic fate, and therapeutic index will continue to be a major strength and function of this program. This grant has supported the conception, synthesis, and development of the first macrocylic, bifunctional chelating agent TETA (6-p-nitrobenzyl-1,4,8,11-tetraazatetradecane-N,N',N double-prime, N'double-prime-tetraacetic acid and its derivatives, including Lym-1-2IT-BAT), for use in Cu-67-based radioimmunodiagnosis and therapy. This work has led to the further development of several new macrocylic bifunctional chelating agents for copper, indium, yttrium and other metals. In addition, successful Cu-67 labelings of Lym-1-2IT-BAT for human radiopharmaceutical have shown patient pharmacokinetics of 67 Cu-BAT(TETA)-Lym-1 with promising therapeutic dosimetry

  15. Software development an open source approach

    CERN Document Server

    Tucker, Allen; de Silva, Chamindra

    2011-01-01

    Overview and Motivation Software Free and Open Source Software (FOSS)Two Case Studies Working with a Project Team Key FOSS Activities Client-Oriented vs. Community-Oriented Projects Working on a Client-Oriented Project Joining a Community-Oriented Project Using Project Tools Collaboration Tools Code Management Tools Run-Time System ConstraintsSoftware Architecture Architectural Patterns Layers, Cohesion, and Coupling Security Concurrency, Race Conditions, and DeadlocksWorking with Code Bad Smells and Metrics Refactoring Testing Debugging Extending the Software for a New ProjectDeveloping the D

  16. A systematic approach for component-based software development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guareis de farias, Cléver; van Sinderen, Marten J.; Ferreira Pires, Luis

    2000-01-01

    Component-based software development enables the construction of software artefacts by assembling prefabricated, configurable and independently evolving building blocks, called software components. This paper presents an approach for the development of component-based software artefacts. This

  17. An Introduction to the Human Development and Capability Approach

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2009-08-29

    Aug 29, 2009 ... ... Reports at the global, regional, national and local level. ... Book cover An Introduction to the Human Development and Capability Approach: ... inequality; the role of markets and economic growth in promoting development; ...

  18. An Introduction to the Human Development and Capability Approach

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    29 août 2009 ... Book cover An Introduction to the Human Development and Capability Approach: ... Reports at the global, regional, national and local level. ... inequality; the role of markets and economic growth in promoting development; the ...

  19. Feminist Development Economics : An Institutional Approach to Household Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.P. van Staveren (Irene); O. Odebode (Olasunbo)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ In this chapter, we argue that an institutional approach to feminist development economics provides deeper understandings to how gender inequalities function in economic processes in developing countries. We do this in three ways. First, we distinguish between

  20. The generalized multipole technique for light scattering recent developments

    CERN Document Server

    Eremin, Yuri

    2018-01-01

    This book presents the Generalized Multipole Technique as a fast and powerful theoretical and computation tool to simulate light scattering by nonspherical particles. It also demonstrates the considerable potential of the method. In recent years, the concept has been applied in new fields, such as simulation of electron energy loss spectroscopy and has been used to extend other methods, like the null-field method, making it more widely applicable. The authors discuss particular implementations of the GMT methods, such as the Discrete Sources Method (DSM), Multiple Multipole Program (MMP), the Method of Auxiliary Sources (MAS), the Filamentary Current Method (FCM), the Method of Fictitious Sources (MFS) and the Null-Field Method with Discrete Sources (NFM-DS). The Generalized Multipole Technique is a surface-based method to find the solution of a boundary-value problem for a given differential equation by expanding the fields in terms of fundamental or other singular solutions of this equation. The amplitudes ...

  1. The Internalization Theory of Emotions: A Cultural Historical Approach to the Development of Emotions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holodynski, Manfred

    2013-01-01

    Starting with an overview of theoretical approaches to emotion from an activity-oriented stance, this article applies Vygotsky's three general principles of development, sign mediation, and internalization to the development of emotional expressions as a culturally evolved sign system. The possible twofold function of expression signs as a means…

  2. Radioactive waste management approaches for developed countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patricia Paviet-Hartmann; Anthony Hechanova; Catherine Riddle

    2013-07-01

    , ALSEP, EXAM, or LUCA are pursued worldwide and their approaches will be highlighted.

  3. On the equivalence of generalized least-squares approaches to the evaluation of measurement comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, A.; Clare, J. F.

    2012-06-01

    Analysis of CIPM international comparisons is increasingly being carried out using a model-based approach that leads naturally to a generalized least-squares (GLS) solution. While this method offers the advantages of being easier to audit and having general applicability to any form of comparison protocol, there is a lack of consensus over aspects of its implementation. Two significant results are presented that show the equivalence of three differing approaches discussed by or applied in comparisons run by Consultative Committees of the CIPM. Both results depend on a mathematical condition equivalent to the requirement that any two artefacts in the comparison are linked through a sequence of measurements of overlapping pairs of artefacts. The first result is that a GLS estimator excluding all sources of error common to all measurements of a participant is equal to the GLS estimator incorporating all sources of error, including those associated with any bias in the standards or procedures of the measuring laboratory. The second result identifies the component of uncertainty in the estimate of bias that arises from possible systematic effects in the participants' measurement standards and procedures. The expression so obtained is a generalization of an expression previously published for a one-artefact comparison with no inter-participant correlations, to one for a comparison comprising any number of repeat measurements of multiple artefacts and allowing for inter-laboratory correlations.

  4. Understanding and developing creativity: A practical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald J. Treffinger

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Critical thinking and creative thinking are proposed as determinants to cope with the constant change society, and basically children are experiencing nowadays. Moreover, tools for the development of critical and creative thinking are discussed, and the creative problem solving toolbox is presented, involving tools for generating options, as well as tools for focusing options. The importance of the tools as significant basis for the learning process, as well as for the management of changes in the creative problem solving solution, as well as its application from infancy to adulthood is discussed. Finally, recommendations about teaching and application of thinking tools are considered.

  5. A risk management approach to CAIS development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Hal; Kerner, Judy; Alden, Tony; Belz, Frank; Tadman, Frank

    1986-01-01

    The proposed DoD standard Common APSE Interface Set (CAIS) was developed as a framework set of interfaces that will support the transportability and interoperability of tools in the support environments of the future. While the current CAIS version is a promising start toward fulfilling those goals and current prototypes provide adequate testbeds for investigations in support of completing specifications for a full CAIS, there are many reasons why the proposed CAIS might fail to become a usable product and the foundation of next-generation (1990'S) project support environments such as NASA's Space Station software support environment. The most critical threats to the viability and acceptance of the CAIS include performance issues (especially in piggybacked implementations), transportability, and security requirements. To make the situation worse, the solution to some of these threats appears to be at conflict with the solutions to others.

  6. The Ritz - Sublaminate Generalized Unified Formulation approach for piezoelectric composite plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ottavio, Michele; Dozio, Lorenzo; Vescovini, Riccardo; Polit, Olivier

    2018-01-01

    This paper extends to composite plates including piezoelectric plies the variable kinematics plate modeling approach called Sublaminate Generalized Unified Formulation (SGUF). Two-dimensional plate equations are obtained upon defining a priori the through-thickness distribution of the displacement field and electric potential. According to SGUF, independent approximations can be adopted for the four components of these generalized displacements: an Equivalent Single Layer (ESL) or Layer-Wise (LW) description over an arbitrary group of plies constituting the composite plate (the sublaminate) and the polynomial order employed in each sublaminate. The solution of the two-dimensional equations is sought in weak form by means of a Ritz method. In this work, boundary functions are used in conjunction with the domain approximation expressed by an orthogonal basis spanned by Legendre polynomials. The proposed computational tool is capable to represent electroded surfaces with equipotentiality conditions. Free-vibration problems as well as static problems involving actuator and sensor configurations are addressed. Two case studies are presented, which demonstrate the high accuracy of the proposed Ritz-SGUF approach. A model assessment is proposed for showcasing to which extent the SGUF approach allows a reduction of the number of unknowns with a controlled impact on the accuracy of the result.

  7. DNA Processing and Reassembly on General Purpose FPGA-based Development Boards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SZÁSZ Csaba

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The great majority of researchers involved in microelectronics generally agree that many scientific challenges in life sciences have associated with them a powerful computational requirement that must be solved before scientific progress can be made. The current trend in Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA computing technologies is to develop special hardware platforms capable to provide the needed processing performance at lower cost. In this endeavor the FPGA-based (Field Programmable Gate Arrays configurations aimed to accelerate genome sequencing and reassembly plays a leading role. This paper emphasizes benefits and advantages using general purpose FPGA-based development boards in DNA reassembly applications beside the special hardware architecture solutions. An original approach is unfolded which outlines the versatility of high performance ready-to-use manufacturer development platforms endowed with powerful hardware resources fully optimized for high speed processing applications. The theoretical arguments are supported via an intuitive implementation example where the designer it is discharged from any hardware development effort and completely assisted in exclusive concentration only on software design issues providing greatly reduced application development cycles. The experiments prove that such boards available on the market are suitable to fulfill in all a wide range of DNA sequencing and reassembly applications.

  8. Operational intervention levels in a nuclear emergency, general concepts and a probabilistic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauritzen, B.; Baeverstam, U.; Naadland Holo, E.; Sinkko, K.

    1997-12-01

    This report deals with Operational Intervention Levels (OILs) in a nuclear or radiation emergency. OILs are defined as the values of environmental measurements, in particular dose rate measurements, above which specific protective actions should be carried out in emergency exposure situations. The derivation and the application of OILs are discussed, and an overview of the presently adopted values is provided, with emphasis on the situation in the Nordic countries. A new, probabilistic approach to derive OILs is presented and the method is illustrated by calculating dose rate OILs in a simplified setting. Contrary to the standard approach, the probabilistic approach allows for optimization of OILs. It is argued, that optimized OILs may be much larger than the presently adopted or suggested values. It is recommended, that the probabilistic approach is further developed and employed in determining site specific OILs and in optimizing environmental measuring strategies. (au)

  9. Generalization of the development of liquid-sparkling counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bian Zhengzhu; Zhang Jue; Zhang Jinwei

    2006-01-01

    This paper includes five parts. It not only reviews the development history of liquid-sparkling counter but refers that the appearance of coincident circuit is its milestone. The paper summarizes the resembled hard ware and soft ware and soft ware of liquid-sparkling counter of indoor and overseas, and prospects the development of liquid-sparkling counter in our country. (authors)

  10. General-purpose heat source development. Phase II: conceptual designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snow, E.C.; Zocher, R.W.; Grinberg, I.M.; Hulbert, L.E.

    1978-11-01

    Basic geometric module shapes and fuel arrays were studied to determine how well they could be expected to meet the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) design requirements. Seven conceptual designs were selected, detailed drawings produced, and these seven concepts analyzed. Three of these design concepts were selected as GPHS Trial Designs to be reanalyzed in more detail and tested. The geometric studies leading to the selection of the seven conceptual designs, the analyses of these designs, and the selection of the three trial designs are discussed

  11. Development and Assessment of Green, Research-Based Instructional Materials for the General Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciatore, Kristen L.

    2010-01-01

    This research entails integrating two novel approaches for enriching student learning in chemistry into the context of the general chemistry laboratory. The first is a pedagogical approach based on research in cognitive science and the second is the green chemistry philosophy. Research has shown that inquiry-based approaches are effective in…

  12. Faculty Approaches to Assessing Critical Thinking in the Humanities and the Natural and Social Sciences: Implications for General Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, Mark C.; Labig, Chalmer E., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    An analysis of interviews, focus-group discussions, assessment instruments, and assignment prompts revealed that within general education, faculty assessed critical thinking as faceted using methods and criteria that varied epistemically across disciplines. Faculty approaches were misaligned with discipline-general institutional approaches.…

  13. MGF Approach to the Analysis of Generalized Two-Ray Fading Models

    KAUST Repository

    Rao, Milind; Lopez-Martinez, F. Javier; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Goldsmith, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    We analyze a class of Generalized Two-Ray (GTR) fading channels that consist of two line of sight (LOS) components with random phase plus a diffuse component. We derive a closedform expression for the moment generating function (MGF) of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for this model, which greatly simplifies its analysis. This expression arises from the observation that the GTR fading model can be expressed in terms of a conditional underlying Rician distribution. We illustrate the approach to derive simple expressions for statistics and performance metrics of interest such as the amount of fading, the level crossing rate, the symbol error rate, and the ergodic capacity in GTR fading channels. We also show that the effect of considering a more general distribution for the phase difference between the LOS components has an impact on the average SNR.

  14. Generalization of the geometric optical series approach for nonadiabatic scattering problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herman, M.F.

    1982-01-01

    The geometric optical series approach of Bremmer is generalized for multisurface nonadiabatic scattering problems. This method yields the formal solution of the Schroedinger equation as an infinite series of multiple integrals. The zeroth order term corresponds to WKB propagation on a single adiabatic surface, while the general Nth order term involves N reflections and/or transitions between surfaces accompanied by ''free,'' single surface semiclassical propagation between the points of reflection and transition. Each term is integrated over all possible transition and reflection points. The adiabatic and diabatic limits of this expression are discussed. Numerical results, in which all reflections are ignored, are presented for curve crossing and noncrossing problems. These results are compared to exact quantum results and are shown to be highly accurate

  15. Sustainability in product development: a proposal for classification of approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Flores Magnago

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The product development is a process that addresses sustainability issues inside companies. Many approaches have been discussed in academy concerning sustainability, as Natural Capitalism, Design for Environment (DfE and Life Cycle Analysis (LCA, but a question arises: which is indicated for what circumstance? This article aim is the proposition of a classification, based on a literature review, for 15 of these approaches. The criteria were: (i approach nature, (ii organization level, (iii integration level in Product Development Process (PDP, and (iv approach relevance for sustainability dimensions. Common terms allowed the establishment of connections among the approaches. As a result the researchers concluded that, despite they come from distinct knowledge areas they are not mutually excludent, on the contrary, the approaches may be used in a complementary way by managers. The combined use of complementary approaches is finally suggested in the paper.

  16. A Fuzzy Approach Using Generalized Dinkelbach’s Algorithm for Multiobjective Linear Fractional Transportation Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurdan Cetin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a multiobjective linear fractional transportation problem (MLFTP with several fractional criteria, such as, the maximization of the transport profitability like profit/cost or profit/time, and its two properties are source and destination. Our aim is to introduce MLFTP which has not been studied in literature before and to provide a fuzzy approach which obtain a compromise Pareto-optimal solution for this problem. To do this, first, we present a theorem which shows that MLFTP is always solvable. And then, reducing MLFTP to the Zimmermann’s “min” operator model which is the max-min problem, we construct Generalized Dinkelbach’s Algorithm for solving the obtained problem. Furthermore, we provide an illustrative numerical example to explain this fuzzy approach.

  17. General approach to understanding the electronic structure of graphene on metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voloshina, E N; Dedkov, Yu S

    2014-01-01

    This manuscript presents the general approach to the understanding of the connection between bonding mechanism and electronic structure of graphene on metals. To demonstrate its validity, two limiting cases of ‘weakly’ and ‘strongly’ bonded graphene on Al(111) and Ni(111) are considered, where the Dirac cone is preserved or fully destroyed, respectively. Furthermore, the electronic structure, i.e. doping level, hybridization effects, as well as a gap formation at the Dirac point of the intermediate system, graphene/Cu(111), is fully understood in the framework of the proposed approach. This work summarises the long-term debates regarding connection of the bonding strength and the valence band modification in the graphene/metal systems and paves a way for the effective control of the electronic states of graphene in the vicinity of the Fermi level. (paper)

  18. A Generalized Estimating Equations Approach to Model Heterogeneity and Time Dependence in Capture-Recapture Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akanda Md. Abdus Salam

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Individual heterogeneity in capture probabilities and time dependence are fundamentally important for estimating the closed animal population parameters in capture-recapture studies. A generalized estimating equations (GEE approach accounts for linear correlation among capture-recapture occasions, and individual heterogeneity in capture probabilities in a closed population capture-recapture individual heterogeneity and time variation model. The estimated capture probabilities are used to estimate animal population parameters. Two real data sets are used for illustrative purposes. A simulation study is carried out to assess the performance of the GEE estimator. A Quasi-Likelihood Information Criterion (QIC is applied for the selection of the best fitting model. This approach performs well when the estimated population parameters depend on the individual heterogeneity and the nature of linear correlation among capture-recapture occasions.

  19. Constraint satisfaction adaptive neural network and heuristics combined approaches for generalized job-shop scheduling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, S; Wang, D

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a constraint satisfaction adaptive neural network, together with several heuristics, to solve the generalized job-shop scheduling problem, one of NP-complete constraint satisfaction problems. The proposed neural network can be easily constructed and can adaptively adjust its weights of connections and biases of units based on the sequence and resource constraints of the job-shop scheduling problem during its processing. Several heuristics that can be combined with the neural network are also presented. In the combined approaches, the neural network is used to obtain feasible solutions, the heuristic algorithms are used to improve the performance of the neural network and the quality of the obtained solutions. Simulations have shown that the proposed neural network and its combined approaches are efficient with respect to the quality of solutions and the solving speed.

  20. Understanding price discovery in interconnected markets: Generalized Langevin process approach and simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenck, Natalya A.; Horvath, Philip A.; Sinha, Amit K.

    2018-02-01

    While the literature on price discovery process and information flow between dominant and satellite market is exhaustive, most studies have applied an approach that can be traced back to Hasbrouck (1995) or Gonzalo and Granger (1995). In this paper, however, we propose a Generalized Langevin process with asymmetric double-well potential function, with co-integrated time series and interconnected diffusion processes to model the information flow and price discovery process in two, a dominant and a satellite, interconnected markets. A simulated illustration of the model is also provided.

  1. MGF approach to the capacity analysis of Generalized Two-Ray fading models

    KAUST Repository

    Rao, Milind

    2015-09-11

    We propose a class of Generalized Two-Ray (GTR) fading channels that consists of two line of sight (LOS) components with random phase and a diffuse component. Observing that the GTR fading model can be expressed in terms of the underlying Rician distribution, we derive a closed-form expression for the moment generating function (MGF) of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of this model. We then employ this approach to compute the ergodic capacity with receiver side information. The impact of the underlying phase difference between the LOS components on the average SNR of the signal received is also illustrated. © 2015 IEEE.

  2. MGF approach to the capacity analysis of Generalized Two-Ray fading models

    KAUST Repository

    Rao, Milind; Lopez-Martinez, F. Javier; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Goldsmith, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    We propose a class of Generalized Two-Ray (GTR) fading channels that consists of two line of sight (LOS) components with random phase and a diffuse component. Observing that the GTR fading model can be expressed in terms of the underlying Rician distribution, we derive a closed-form expression for the moment generating function (MGF) of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of this model. We then employ this approach to compute the ergodic capacity with receiver side information. The impact of the underlying phase difference between the LOS components on the average SNR of the signal received is also illustrated. © 2015 IEEE.

  3. Development of a general method for photovoltaic system analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nolay, P

    1987-01-01

    The photovoltaic conversion for energetic applications is now widely used, but its development still needs the resolution of many problems for the sizing and for the real working of the installations. The precise analysis of the components and whole system behaviour has led to the development of accurate models for the simulation of such systems. From this modelling phase, a simulation code has been built. The validation of this software has been achieved from experimental test measurements. Since the quality of the software depends on the precision of the input data, an original method of determination of component characteristics, by means of model identification, has been developed. These tools permit the prediction of system behaviour and the dynamic simulation of systems under real conditions. Used for the study of photovoltaic system sizing, this software has allowed the definition of new concepts which will serve as a basis for the development of a sizing method.

  4. General atomics low speed Maglev technology development program (Supplemental #3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-05-01

    This report details accomplishments of the Low Speed Maglev Technology Development Program, Supplemental #3. The 4 major tasks included: guideway foundation construction, fabrication and installation of 7 guideway modules, system integration and test...

  5. Protection of facilities against sabotage general approaches and studies in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venot, R.; Loiseau, O.; Cheval, K.

    2004-01-01

    In addition to the measures taken in the frame of the nuclear safety demonstration, the French nuclear facilities are subjected to a specific verification approach concerning the risk resulting from a malevolent action that may cause a release of radioactive materials in the environment. This approach aims at determining the protection level for facilities, based on predefined threats and the provisions to be set, if necessary, to ensure a satisfactory protection. The approach presented in this paper basically consists of a sensitivity analysis followed by a vulnerability analysis. In the French national control system also shortly described in the paper, the competent authority asks the operator to present a demonstration based on the approach and IRSN is charged with the technical assessment of the dossier. Because these analyses are generally based on specific tools, particularly in the case of vulnerability assessment, IRSN has raised a program to collect a set of methods and data on this subject, presented in the second part of this paper. It must be pointed out that no quantitative results or detailed examples will be given in the paper due to the sensitivity of the subject and the confidentiality measures applying. (orig.)

  6. Financial Structure and Economic Welfare: Applied General Equilibrium Development Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Robert

    2010-09-01

    This review provides a common framework for researchers thinking about the next generation of micro-founded macro models of growth, inequality, and financial deepening, as well as direction for policy makers targeting microfinance programs to alleviate poverty. Topics include treatment of financial structure general equilibrium models: testing for as-if-complete markets or other financial underpinnings; examining dual-sector models with both a perfectly intermediated sector and a sector in financial autarky, as well as a second generation of these models that embeds information problems and other obstacles to trade; designing surveys to capture measures of income, investment/savings, and flow of funds; and aggregating individuals and households to the level of network, village, or national economy. The review concludes with new directions that overcome conceptual and computational limitations.

  7. Financial Structure and Economic Welfare: Applied General Equilibrium Development Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Robert

    2010-01-01

    This review provides a common framework for researchers thinking about the next generation of micro-founded macro models of growth, inequality, and financial deepening, as well as direction for policy makers targeting microfinance programs to alleviate poverty. Topics include treatment of financial structure general equilibrium models: testing for as-if-complete markets or other financial underpinnings; examining dual-sector models with both a perfectly intermediated sector and a sector in financial autarky, as well as a second generation of these models that embeds information problems and other obstacles to trade; designing surveys to capture measures of income, investment/savings, and flow of funds; and aggregating individuals and households to the level of network, village, or national economy. The review concludes with new directions that overcome conceptual and computational limitations. PMID:21037939

  8. Shock-jump conditions in a general medium: weak-solution approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, L. K.; Krzysik, O. A.

    2017-05-01

    General conservation laws are considered, and the concept of a weak solution is extended to the case of an equation involving three space variables and time. Four-dimensional vector calculus is used to develop general jump conditions at a shock wave in the material. To illustrate the use of this result, jump conditions at a shock in unsteady three-dimensional compressible gas flow are presented. It is then proved rigorously that these reduce to the commonly assumed conditions in coordinates normal and tangential to the shock face. A similar calculation is also outlined for an unsteady three-dimensional shock in magnetohydrodynamics, and in a chemically reactive fluid. The technique is available for determining shock-jump conditions in quite general continuous media.

  9. Química geral experimental: uma nova abordagem didática Experimental general chemistry: a new teaching approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Eduardo da Luz Júnior

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available This essay describes a new didactic approach, in according with the national curriculum guidelines for chemistry undergraduate courses in Brazil, employed during the one-semester course "Experimental General Chemistry" for chemistry undergraduate students at the Federal University of Piauí. The new approach has positively helped student's training by improving their reading skills and their understanding of scientific reports, by developing the use of electronic tools to search and to recover the required knowledge for their learning activities, and by improving their skills of understanding published texts and dealing with digital sources. At the same time the students are strongly stimulated to enter the research program for undergraduate students available at the University.

  10. A META-COMPOSITE SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT APPROACH FOR TRANSLATIONAL RESEARCH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadasivam, Rajani S.; Tanik, Murat M.

    2013-01-01

    Translational researchers conduct research in a highly data-intensive and continuously changing environment and need to use multiple, disparate tools to achieve their goals. These researchers would greatly benefit from meta-composite software development or the ability to continuously compose and recompose tools together in response to their ever-changing needs. However, the available tools are largely disconnected, and current software approaches are inefficient and ineffective in their support for meta-composite software development. Building on the composite services development approach, the de facto standard for developing integrated software systems, we propose a concept-map and agent-based meta-composite software development approach. A crucial step in composite services development is the modeling of users’ needs as processes, which can then be specified in an executable format for system composition. We have two key innovations. First, our approach allows researchers (who understand their needs best) instead of technicians to take a leadership role in the development of process models, reducing inefficiencies and errors. A second innovation is that our approach also allows for modeling of complex user interactions as part of the process, overcoming the technical limitations of current tools. We demonstrate the feasibility of our approach using a real-world translational research use case. We also present results of usability studies evaluating our approach for future refinements. PMID:23504436

  11. A meta-composite software development approach for translational research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadasivam, Rajani S; Tanik, Murat M

    2013-06-01

    Translational researchers conduct research in a highly data-intensive and continuously changing environment and need to use multiple, disparate tools to achieve their goals. These researchers would greatly benefit from meta-composite software development or the ability to continuously compose and recompose tools together in response to their ever-changing needs. However, the available tools are largely disconnected, and current software approaches are inefficient and ineffective in their support for meta-composite software development. Building on the composite services development approach, the de facto standard for developing integrated software systems, we propose a concept-map and agent-based meta-composite software development approach. A crucial step in composite services development is the modeling of users' needs as processes, which can then be specified in an executable format for system composition. We have two key innovations. First, our approach allows researchers (who understand their needs best) instead of technicians to take a leadership role in the development of process models, reducing inefficiencies and errors. A second innovation is that our approach also allows for modeling of complex user interactions as part of the process, overcoming the technical limitations of current tools. We demonstrate the feasibility of our approach using a real-world translational research use case. We also present results of usability studies evaluating our approach for future refinements.

  12. EXTERNAL QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF GENERAL EDUCATION AS A FACTOR OF TEACHERS’ PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Potemkinа

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Nowadays, foreign and Russian researchers state the lack of reliable tools for diagnostics of professional gaps among teachers. It is unjustified to draw conclusions about skill level of teachers, relying only on results which are shown by pupils when holding unified state examinations and monitoring tests. However, information on results of an external assessment of quality of the general education (the USE, OGE, All-Russian test works and national researches of quality of education corresponds to professional development of teachers and more rational organization of this process.The aim of the article is to consider and discuss the relationship between professional development of teachers and external assessment of the quality of general education; the search of opportunities and terms of the results use of external evaluation procedures in teacher training.Methodology and research methods. The authors analyzed the publications (available on the Internet and in periodicals to determine the relevance of the problem and compare approaches to its solution by Russian and foreign researchers. The methods involve content analysis, problem-based and comparative analysis for the diagnosis of the current practices of teachers’ professional development. The purpose of the analysis is the inclusion of education quality assessment and evaluation results in the contents of programs of professional development of teachers.Results. The created request for the profitability analysis results of an external assessment of general education quality of professional development of pedagogical staff is observed. However, the analysis of modern practice of additional professional pedagogical education showed that the preparation to prevails; certification procedure results for improvement of pedagogical activity are rarely used. The main reasons for this situation are found out: lack of the target information products for system of professional

  13. Developing Pre-Algebraic Thinking in Generalizing Repeating Pattern Using SOLO Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Lim Hooi; Yew, Wun Thiam

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, researchers discussed the application of the generalization perspective in helping the primary school pupils to develop their pre-algebraic thinking in generalizing repeating pattern. There are two main stages of the generalization perspective had been adapted, namely investigating and generalizing the pattern. Since the Biggs and…

  14. Coursebook Development and Evaluation for English for General Purposes Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohrabi, Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    Writing a coursebook is a demanding task and more important than writing is how to evaluate it in order to pin point its weaknesses and improve them. If we yearn to produce a quality and useful coursebook, we need to consider how to develop and evaluate it. The study reported in this article describes the process in which the researcher developed…

  15. Developing a Dynamic Stochastic General Equilibrium Model for the ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    They bring benefits by helping to project changes that take place because of shocks to the ... This proposal seeks to develop a DSGE model for the Indian economy to ... In partnership with UNESCO's Organization for Women in Science for the ...

  16. Communication: General variational approach to nuclear-quadrupole coupling in rovibrational spectra of polyatomic molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yachmenev, Andrey; Küpper, Jochen

    2017-10-01

    A general algorithm for computing the quadrupole-hyperfine effects in the rovibrational spectra of polyatomic molecules is presented for the case of ammonia (NH3). The method extends the general variational approach TROVE [J. Mol. Spectrosc. 245, 126-140 (2007)] by adding the extra term in the Hamiltonian that describes the nuclear quadrupole coupling, with no inherent limitation on the number of quadrupolar nuclei in a molecule. We applied the new approach to compute the nitrogen-nuclear-quadrupole hyperfine structure in the rovibrational spectrum of NH143. These results agree very well with recent experimental spectroscopic data for the pure rotational transitions in the ground vibrational and ν2 states and the rovibrational transitions in the ν1, ν3, 2ν4, and ν1 + ν3 bands. The computed hyperfine-resolved rovibrational spectrum of ammonia will be beneficial for the assignment of experimental rovibrational spectra, further detection of ammonia in interstellar space, and studies of the proton-to-electron mass variation.

  17. General physicians' perspective of sleep apnea from a developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Syed Fayyaz; Zahid, Sumaiya; Haqqee, Raana; Khan, Javaid Ahmed

    2003-06-01

    To assess the knowledge of general physicians about the diagnosis and management of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), a self-administered questionnaire, containing 15 questions, was distributed to 160 doctors attending a pulmonary CME program in March 2002. After 15 minutes of response time, the questionnaires were collected. The data were entered and analyzed using SPSS (Version 10.0) software. One hundred and twenty (75%) questionnaires were returned. Only 41% of responders had ever read an article about OSA and 36% had suspected it at least once in their practice. The majority (61-77%) of responders were aware of the common symptoms of OSA, but 55% did not recognize its association with hypertension. A significant number of doctors were not aware that OSA could occur in non-obese individuals (33%), women (42%) and children (39%). Only 25% of responders recognized that a history and blood tests were insufficient to make a reliable diagnosis of OSA. Half of the responders were aware of CPAP therapy for OSA, whereas 18% would have prescribed sedatives to treat sleep disturbances in OSA.

  18. Systems approach to waste management in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, E. R.

    1991-01-01

    A systems engineering approach to the development of waste management facilities is described which may prove to be useful for developing countries. Basically the approach involves a determination of performance objectives, the functions necessary to achieve the objectives, the constraints involved, and the basic facility requirements necessary to accomplish the functions. The foregoing provides the basis for developing a set of descriptions and associated requirements for the overall system as well as for elements of the system at different hierarchical levels. These in turn provide the basis for initiation of design and subsequently construction of the facilities involved. The operation of the approach is illustrated for a hypothetical low level waste processing system

  19. The spherical harmonics method, 1 (general development of the theory)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mark, C.

    1957-02-01

    A method of obtaining approximate solutions of the transport equation is presented in a form applicable in principle to any geometry. The approximation will give good results in cases where the angular distribution is not very anisotropic. The basis of the approximation is to expand the density per unit solid angle Ψ(→/r, →/Ω) in spherical harmonic tensors formed from →/Ω the unit vector in the direction of velocity, and to break off the expansion. A differential equation whose degree increases with the order of the approximation is obtained for the total density Ψ (o) (r). This equation has the form where the numbers ν i depend on the order of the approximation and on the value of the parameter a of the medium, but not at all on the geometry. When the equation for the total density is an ordinary equation, we simulate the physical condition of continuity of Ψ(→/r, →/Ω) at a boundary in a multi-medium problem by requiring that the spherical harmonic moments of Ψ(→/r, →/Ω) which we retain be continuous; and this determines the constants in the solution for Ψ (o) (→/r. The form of the solution for the total density and the necessary moments in an approximation of general order is given explicitly for plane and spherical symmetry; and for cylindrical symmetry the solution is given for two low-order approximations. In a later report (CRT-338, Revised) the application of the method to several problems involving plane and spherical symmetry will be discussed in detail and the results of a number of examples already worked will also be given. (author)

  20. The spherical harmonics method, 1 (general development of the theory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark, C

    1957-02-15

    A method of obtaining approximate solutions of the transport equation is presented in a form applicable in principle to any geometry. The approximation will give good results in cases where the angular distribution is not very anisotropic. The basis of the approximation is to expand the density per unit solid angle {Psi}({yields}/r, {yields}/{Omega}) in spherical harmonic tensors formed from {yields}/{Omega} the unit vector in the direction of velocity, and to break off the expansion. A differential equation whose degree increases with the order of the approximation is obtained for the total density {Psi}{sup (o)}(r). This equation has the form where the numbers {nu}{sub i} depend on the order of the approximation and on the value of the parameter a of the medium, but not at all on the geometry. When the equation for the total density is an ordinary equation, we simulate the physical condition of continuity of {Psi}({yields}/r, {yields}/{Omega}) at a boundary in a multi-medium problem by requiring that the spherical harmonic moments of {Psi}({yields}/r, {yields}/{Omega}) which we retain be continuous; and this determines the constants in the solution for {Psi}{sup (o)}({yields}/r. The form of the solution for the total density and the necessary moments in an approximation of general order is given explicitly for plane and spherical symmetry; and for cylindrical symmetry the solution is given for two low-order approximations. In a later report (CRT-338, Revised) the application of the method to several problems involving plane and spherical symmetry will be discussed in detail and the results of a number of examples already worked will also be given. (author)

  1. Developing a generalized allometric equation for aboveground biomass estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Q.; Balamuta, J. J.; Greenberg, J. A.; Li, B.; Man, A.; Xu, Z.

    2015-12-01

    A key potential uncertainty in estimating carbon stocks across multiple scales stems from the use of empirically calibrated allometric equations, which estimate aboveground biomass (AGB) from plant characteristics such as diameter at breast height (DBH) and/or height (H). The equations themselves contain significant and, at times, poorly characterized errors. Species-specific equations may be missing. Plant responses to their local biophysical environment may lead to spatially varying allometric relationships. The structural predictor may be difficult or impossible to measure accurately, particularly when derived from remote sensing data. All of these issues may lead to significant and spatially varying uncertainties in the estimation of AGB that are unexplored in the literature. We sought to quantify the errors in predicting AGB at the tree and plot level for vegetation plots in California. To accomplish this, we derived a generalized allometric equation (GAE) which we used to model the AGB on a full set of tree information such as DBH, H, taxonomy, and biophysical environment. The GAE was derived using published allometric equations in the GlobAllomeTree database. The equations were sparse in details about the error since authors provide the coefficient of determination (R2) and the sample size. A more realistic simulation of tree AGB should also contain the noise that was not captured by the allometric equation. We derived an empirically corrected variance estimate for the amount of noise to represent the errors in the real biomass. Also, we accounted for the hierarchical relationship between different species by treating each taxonomic level as a covariate nested within a higher taxonomic level (e.g. species contribution of each different covariate in estimating the AGB of trees. Lastly, we applied the GAE to an existing vegetation plot database - Forest Inventory and Analysis database - to derive per-tree and per-plot AGB estimations, their errors, and how

  2. Managing Cybersecurity Research and Experimental Development: The REVO Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Dan Craigen; Drew Vandeth; D’Arcy Walsh

    2013-01-01

    We present a systematic approach for managing a research and experimental development cybersecurity program that must be responsive to continuously evolving cybersecurity, and other, operational concerns. The approach will be of interest to research-program managers, academe, corporate leads, government leads, chief information officers, chief technology officers, and social and technology policy analysts. The approach is compatible with international standards and procedures published by the...

  3. An approach for the development of visual configuration systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Lars; Ladeby, Klaes Rohde

    2007-01-01

    How can a visual configuration system be developed to support the specification process' in companies that manufacture customer tailored products? This article focuses on how visual configuration systems can be developed. The approach for developing visual configuration systems has been developed...... by Centre for Product Modelling (CPM) at The Technical University of Denmark. The approach is based on experiences from a visualization project in co-operation between CPM and the global provider of power protection American Power Conversion (APC). The visual configuration system was developed in 2001...... of the product in the visual configuration system....

  4. On the generalization of the hazard rate twisting-based simulation approach

    KAUST Repository

    Rached, Nadhir B.

    2016-11-17

    Estimating the probability that a sum of random variables (RVs) exceeds a given threshold is a well-known challenging problem. A naive Monte Carlo simulation is the standard technique for the estimation of this type of probability. However, this approach is computationally expensive, especially when dealing with rare events. An alternative approach is represented by the use of variance reduction techniques, known for their efficiency in requiring less computations for achieving the same accuracy requirement. Most of these methods have thus far been proposed to deal with specific settings under which the RVs belong to particular classes of distributions. In this paper, we propose a generalization of the well-known hazard rate twisting Importance Sampling-based approach that presents the advantage of being logarithmic efficient for arbitrary sums of RVs. The wide scope of applicability of the proposed method is mainly due to our particular way of selecting the twisting parameter. It is worth observing that this interesting feature is rarely satisfied by variance reduction algorithms whose performances were only proven under some restrictive assumptions. It comes along with a good efficiency, illustrated by some selected simulation results comparing the performance of the proposed method with some existing techniques.

  5. General Approach for Composite Thermoelectric Systems with Thermal Coupling: The Case of a Dual Thermoelectric Cooler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuautli Yanehowi Flores-Niño

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we show a general approach for inhomogeneous composite thermoelectric systems, and as an illustrative case, we consider a dual thermoelectric cooler. This composite cooler consists of two thermoelectric modules (TEMs connected thermally in parallel and electrically in series. Each TEM has different thermoelectric (TE properties, namely thermal conductance, electrical resistance and the Seebeck coefficient. The system is coupled by thermal conductances to heat reservoirs. The proposed approach consists of derivation of the dimensionless thermoelectric properties for the whole system. Thus, we obtain an equivalent figure of merit whose impact and meaning is discussed. We make use of dimensionless equations to study the impact of the thermal conductance matching on the cooling capacity and the coefficient of the performance of the system. The equivalent thermoelectric properties derived with our formalism include the external conductances and all intrinsic thermoelectric properties of each component of the system. Our proposed approach permits us changing the thermoelectric parameters of the TEMs and the working conditions of the composite system. Furthermore, our analysis shows the effect of the number of thermocouples on the system. These considerations are very useful for the design of thermoelectric composite systems. We reproduce the qualitative behavior of a commercial composite TEM connected electrically in series.

  6. Male gametophyte development and function in angiosperms: a general concept

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hafidh, Said; Fíla, Jan; Honys, David

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 29, 1-2 (2016), s. 31-51 ISSN 2194-7953 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-22720S; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-32292S; GA ČR(CZ) GAP305/12/2611; GA ČR(CZ) GA15-16050S; GA MŠk(CZ) LD14109 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Pollen development * Male gametophyte * Pollen tube growth Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.629, year: 2016

  7. Developing, Approving and Maintaining Qualifications: Selected International Approaches. Research Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misko, Josie

    2015-01-01

    There are lessons for Australia in the key approaches to the development, approval, maintenance and quality assurance of qualifications adopted in countries overseas. This research takes into account a range of approaches used in selected European Union (EU) member states (Germany, Finland and Sweden), the United Kingdom (England, Northern Ireland…

  8. Bridging Knowledge: A Collective Undergraduate Thesis Development Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdsworth, Jason K.; Arun, Özgür

    2017-01-01

    While there are various approaches to gerontological and geriatrics (and social sciences) education globally, a component commonly included in undergraduate education is a final thesis project. In Turkey, the Department of Gerontology at Akdeniz University has undertaken a unique approach to thesis development that values and draws on accessing…

  9. A Task-Based Approach to Materials Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunan, David

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to present a task-based approach to materials development. In the first part of the chapter, I sketch out the evolution of task based language teaching, drawing on a distinction between synthetic and analytical approaches to syllabus design first articulated by Wilkins (1976).

  10. A Constructive Neural-Network Approach to Modeling Psychological Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, Thomas R.

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews a particular computational modeling approach to the study of psychological development--that of constructive neural networks. This approach is applied to a variety of developmental domains and issues, including Piagetian tasks, shift learning, language acquisition, number comparison, habituation of visual attention, concept…

  11. A Comparison of MOOC Development and Delivery Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Neil; Caldwell, Helen; Richards, Mike; Bandara, Arosha

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present a comparison of two ways of developing and delivering massive open online courses (MOOCs). One was developed by The Open University in collaboration with FutureLearn; the other was developed independently by a small team at the Northampton University. Design/methodology/approach: The different…

  12. A COMPUTABLE GENERAL EQUILIBRIUM APPROACH TO TRADE AND ENVIRONMENTAL MODELLING IN THE MALAYSIAN ECONOMY

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Amin, Abul Quasem; Jaafar, Abdul Hamid; Siwar, Chamhuri

    2008-01-01

    Environmental pollution is now a serious problem in many developing countries. One approach to mitigate the problem is to implement various pollution control policies. However, due to a lack of adequate quantitative models, the economic impacts and effectiveness of many pollution control policies are still unknown. Therefore, there is a greater need to know whether economic liberalization, trade, environment and social welfare can be joined in one direction under environmental taxation and po...

  13. Rationale of beings: Recent developments in particle, nuclear and general physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, K.; Kawazoc, Y.; Matsuzaki, H.; Takahashi, K.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents papers on particle physics and nuclear physics. The chapters are on gravity, particles and fields, quantum theories, field theories, nuclei and atoms and general physics. Recent developments in various fields of physics in general are discussed

  14. Evaluation and optimization of General Atomics' GT-MHR reactor cavity cooling system using an axiomatic design approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thielman, Jeff; Ge, Ping; Wu, Qiao; Parme, Laurence

    2005-01-01

    The development of the Generation IV (Gen-IV) nuclear reactors has presented social, technical, and economical challenges to nuclear engineering design and research. To develop a robust, reliable nuclear reactor system with minimal environmental impact and cost, modularity has been gradually accepted as a key concept in designing high-quality nuclear reactor systems. While the establishment and reliability of a nuclear power plant is largely facilitated by the installment of standardized base units, the realization of modularity at the sub-system/sub-unit level in a base unit is still highly heuristic, and lacks consistent, quantifiable measures. In this work, an axiomatic design approach is developed to evaluate and optimize the reactor cavity cooling system (RCCS) of General Atomics' Gas Turbine-Modular Helium Reactor (GT-MHR) nuclear reactor, for the purpose of constructing a quantitative tool that is applicable to Gen-IV systems. According to Suh's axiomatic design theory, modularity is consistently represented by functional independence through the design process. Both qualitative and quantitative measures are developed here to evaluate the modularity of the current RCCS design. Optimization techniques are also used to improve the modularity at both conceptual and parametric level. The preliminary results of this study have demonstrated that the axiomatic design approach has great potential in enhancing modular design, and generating more robust, safer, and less expensive nuclear reactor sub-units

  15. THEORY AND METHODOLOGY OF ICT APPLICATION INTO A SOCIAL STUDY IN ABROAD AND UKRAINE: GENERAL APPROACHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena O. Hrytsenchuk

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an analysis of theoretical and methodological foundations of the implementation of information and communication technology (ICT in secondary education and particularly in the social sciences in Western Europe, USA and Ukraine today. Materials and documents of UNDP, Council of Europe, the Organization of European Cooperation and Development (OECD and documents legal and regulatory framework of education, school curricula and programs of foreign countries and Ukraine were researched. There are outlined approaches ICT use in subject areas of Social cycle of secondary school, the article covers some directions of national education strategies for using ICT in Western Europe, USA and Ukraine and prospects of development.

  16. Quantum harmonic Brownian motion in a general environment: A modified phase-space approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, L.

    1993-01-01

    After extensive investigations over three decades, the linear-coupling model and its equivalents have become the standard microscopic models for quantum harmonic Brownian motion, in which a harmonically bound Brownian particle is coupled to a quantum dissipative heat bath of general type modeled by infinitely many harmonic oscillators. The dynamics of these models have been studied by many authors using the quantum Langevin equation, the path-integral approach, quasi-probability distribution functions (e.g., the Wigner function), etc. However, the quantum Langevin equation is only applicable to some special problems, while other approaches all involve complicated calculations due to the inevitable reduction (i.e., contraction) operation for ignoring/eliminating the degrees of freedom of the heat bath. In this dissertation, the author proposes an improved methodology via a modified phase-space approach which employs the characteristic function (the symplectic Fourier transform of the Wigner function) as the representative of the density operator. This representative is claimed to be the most natural one for performing the reduction, not only because of its simplicity but also because of its manifestation of geometric meaning. Accordingly, it is particularly convenient for studying the time evolution of the Brownian particle with an arbitrary initial state. The power of this characteristic function is illuminated through a detailed study of several physically interesting problems, including the environment-induced damping of quantum interference, the exact quantum Fokker-Planck equations, and the relaxation of non-factorizable initial states. All derivations and calculations axe shown to be much simplified in comparison with other approaches. In addition to dynamical problems, a novel derivation of the fluctuation-dissipation theorem which is valid for all quantum linear systems is presented

  17. Top-Down Approach for the Social Capital Development

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Syed Akhter Hussain; Shah, Tari shah; Ahmed, Eatzaz

    2011-01-01

    This study provides the compatibility of top-down approach of the collectivist society with the algebraic representation of social capital matrix [22], which establishes algebraic based model having capability of interpreting the state intervention in building social capital. The study also suggests a policy framework for the developing economic strategies and effective planing at government level regarding social capital development in perspective of top-down approach.

  18. Epidemiology in Germany-general development and personal experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichmann, Heinz-Erich

    2017-08-01

    Did you ever hear about epidemiology in Germany? Starting from an epidemiological desert the discipline has grown remarkably, especially during the last 10-15 years: research institutes have been established, research funding has improved, multiple curriculae in Epidemiology and Public Health are offered. This increase has been quite steep, and now the epidemiological infrastructure is much better. Several medium-sized and even big population cohorts are ongoing, and the number and quality of publications from German epidemiologists has reached a respectable level. My own career in epidemiology started in the field of environmental health. After German reunification I concentrated for many years on environmental problems in East Germany and observed the health benefits after improvement of the situation. Later, I concentrated on population-based cohorts in newborns (GINI/LISA) and adults (KORA, German National Cohort), and on biobanking. This Essay describes the development in Germany after worldwar 2, illustrated by examples of research results and build-up of epidemiological infractructures worth mentioning.

  19. Development of general X-ray scattering model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, Joe; Wendt, Scott

    2015-01-01

    X-ray scattering is a complex process made difficult to describe due to the effects of a complex energy spectrum interacting with a wide range of material types in complex geometry. The scattering is further complicated by the volume of material illuminated and the experimental configuration of the data acquisition. The importance of accounting for the key physics in scattering modeling is critical to the viability of the model. For example, scattering in the detector and the speed of the detector, as measured by the absorbed dose needed to produce a signal, are important in capturing undercut effects. Another example is the noise properties of the detectors are dependent on photon energy. We report on a semi-empirical treatment of x-ray scattering that includes a full energy treatment for a wide range of material types. We also include complex geometry effects that the part shape introduces. The treatment is based on experimental measurements using an energy dispersive germanium detector over energies from treatment is showing good results with experimental measurements of the scattering component agreeing with the model results to the 10% level over the range of x-ray energies and materials typical in industrial applications. Computation times for this model are in the 20 keV to 320 keV. Detector stripping routines for detector artifacts were developed. The computation time is in the range of a few minutes on a typical PC

  20. China's Approach to International Development: A Study of Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Renwick

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available China is establishing itself as a new international aid donor. This study explains China's emerging approach to international development assistance. The paper addresses the question of how far China's understanding of "development" is an appropriate basis for genuinely "win-win" relationships? The paper explores this question by examining China's relationship with Southeast Asia. China is re-emphasising its commitment and partnership credentials with neighbouring states, some of whom have many people living in poverty and as countries are in need of development assistance. The paper identifies key facets of China's approach to international development, examines economic, political and strategic factors underpinning China's approach in Southeast Asia. Adopting a Human Security perspective, it assesses China's development contribution with reference to Cambodia, Laos and Myanmar and highlights popular opposition. The study finds that Chinese trade and investment are making a significant contribution to the region's economic growth. However, the analysis identifies two problems in China's approach, an over-reliance on the level of state-to-state relations and too narrow a domain of engagement centred upon economic cooperation. China needs to incorporate a societal engagement strategy highlighting transparency and accountability of Chinese corporate behaviour. It also needs to re-balance its approach by emphasising human capital capability and capacity-building across the non-economic social and cultural domains. China's approach to international development is a rapid learning process and is emerging, but still has further to go.

  1. An approach for quantitatively analyzing the genuine tripartite nonlocality of general three-qubit states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Zhaofeng; Li, Lvzhou; Ling, Jie

    2018-04-01

    Nonlocality is an important resource for quantum information processing. Genuine tripartite nonlocality, which is sufficiently confirmed by the violation of Svetlichny inequality, is a kind of more precious resource than the standard one. The genuine tripartite nonlocality is usually quantified by the amount of maximal violation of Svetlichny inequality. The problem of detecting and quantifying the genuine tripartite nonlocality of quantum states is of practical significance but still open for the case of general three-qubit quantum states. In this paper, we quantitatively investigate the genuine nonlocality of three-qubit states, which not only include pure states but also include mixed states. Firstly, we derive a simplified formula for the genuine nonlocality of a general three-qubit state, which is a function of the corresponding three correlation matrices. Secondly, we develop three properties of the genuine nonlocality which can help us to analyze the genuine nonlocality of complex states and understand the nature of quantum nonlocality. Further, we get analytical results of genuine nonlocality for two classes of three-qubit states which have special correlation matrices. In particular, the genuine nonlocality of generalized three-qubit GHZ states, which is derived by Ghose et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 250404, 2009), and that of three-qubit GHZ-symmetric states, which is derived by Paul et al. (Phys. Rev. A 94, 032101, 2016), can be easily derived by applying the strategy and properties developed in this paper.

  2. THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE PROCESS-BASED APPROACH TO MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urij V. Lyandau

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the timeline of the approaches to management of the industrial processes and organizations in general.The Adam Smith’s idea of specialization, the Henry Ford’s conveyor and Frederick Taylor’s scientific approach created functional corporations, in which specialized departments consisted of specialized workers. Such organizational chart was optimized for every department’s tasks, which are necessary to perform.During the life cycle evolution of industrial and then informational ages external conditions of production has changed. In consequence, there was born the necessity to change key factors of the management paradigm. These changes are the transfer from the functional management to the process-based approach. The functional management was the basic type of management in many organizations during the 20th century. Only in the end of 1990 companies started to integrate the process-based approach. This conversion was born cause of special conditions that the informational age created.

  3. A relational developmental systems approach to moral development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpendale, Jeremy I M; Hammond, Stuart I; Atwood, Sherrie

    2013-01-01

    Morality and cooperation are central to human life. Psychological explanations for moral development and cooperative behavior will have biological and evolutionary dimensions, but they can differ radically in their approach to biology. In particular, many recent proposals have pursued the view that aspects of morality are innate. We briefly review and critique two of these claims. In contrast to these nativist assumptions about the role of biology in morality, we present an alternative approach based on a relational developmental systems view of moral development. The role for biology in this approach is in setting up the conditions--the developmental system--in which forms of interaction and later forms of thinking emerge.

  4. A Meta-heuristic Approach for Variants of VRP in Terms of Generalized Saving Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Yoshiaki

    Global logistic design is becoming a keen interest to provide an essential infrastructure associated with modern societal provision. For examples, we can designate green and/or robust logistics in transportation systems, smart grids in electricity utilization systems, and qualified service in delivery systems, and so on. As a key technology for such deployments, we engaged in practical vehicle routing problem on a basis of the conventional saving method. This paper extends such idea and gives a general framework available for various real-world applications. It can cover not only delivery problems but also two kind of pick-up problems, i.e., straight and drop-by routings. Moreover, multi-depot problem is considered by a hybrid approach with graph algorithm and its solution method is realized in a hierarchical manner. Numerical experiments have been taken place to validate effectiveness of the proposed method.

  5. RichMol: A general variational approach for rovibrational molecular dynamics in external electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Alec; Yachmenev, Andrey

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, a general variational approach for computing the rovibrational dynamics of polyatomic molecules in the presence of external electric fields is presented. Highly accurate, full-dimensional variational calculations provide a basis of field-free rovibrational states for evaluating the rovibrational matrix elements of high-rank Cartesian tensor operators and for solving the time-dependent Schrödinger equation. The effect of the external electric field is treated as a multipole moment expansion truncated at the second hyperpolarizability interaction term. Our fully numerical and computationally efficient method has been implemented in a new program, RichMol, which can simulate the effects of multiple external fields of arbitrary strength, polarization, pulse shape, and duration. Illustrative calculations of two-color orientation and rotational excitation with an optical centrifuge of NH3 are discussed.

  6. Hurricane Sandy Economic Impacts Assessment: A Computable General Equilibrium Approach and Validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boero, Riccardo [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Edwards, Brian Keith [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2017-08-07

    Economists use computable general equilibrium (CGE) models to assess how economies react and self-organize after changes in policies, technology, and other exogenous shocks. CGE models are equation-based, empirically calibrated, and inspired by Neoclassical economic theory. The focus of this work was to validate the National Infrastructure Simulation and Analysis Center (NISAC) CGE model and apply it to the problem of assessing the economic impacts of severe events. We used the 2012 Hurricane Sandy event as our validation case. In particular, this work first introduces the model and then describes the validation approach and the empirical data available for studying the event of focus. Shocks to the model are then formalized and applied. Finally, model results and limitations are presented and discussed, pointing out both the model degree of accuracy and the assessed total damage caused by Hurricane Sandy.

  7. Solubility of magnetite in high temperature water and an approach to generalized solubility computations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinov, K.; Ishigure, K.; Matsuura, C.; Hiroishi, D.

    1993-01-01

    Magnetite solubility in pure water was measured at 423 K in a fully teflon-covered autoclave system. A fairly good agreement was found to exist between the experimental data and calculation results obtained from the thermodynamical model, based on the assumption of Fe 3 O 4 dissolution and Fe 2 O 3 deposition reactions. A generalized thermodynamical approach to the solubility computations under complex conditions on the basis of minimization of the total system Gibbs free energy was proposed. The forms of the chemical equilibria were obtained for various systems initially defined and successfully justified by the subsequent computations. A [Fe 3+ ] T -[Fe 2+ ] T phase diagram was introduced as a tool for systematic understanding of the magnetite dissolution phenomena in pure water and under oxidizing and reducing conditions. (orig.)

  8. Handwriting Without Tears(®): General Education Effectiveness Through a Consultative Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donica, Denise K

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the effectiveness of the Handwriting Without Tears(®) (HWT) kindergarten printing curriculum in general education through a consultative approach with occupational therapy. One cohort of students was the control (n = 19), whereas two other cohorts were experimental groups learning printing through the HWT curriculum (n = 20 each). The Test of Handwriting Skills-Revised (THS-R) was used to collect end-of-year legibility scores for all cohorts. Both experimental groups individually and both experimental groups combined into one group outperformed the control group on all 10 of the THS-R subtests-scoring significantly higher (p handwriting curriculum implementation and the success of HWT for printing instruction. Copyright © 2015 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  9. Theory of transformation groups I general properties of continuous transformation groups a contemporary approach and translation

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This modern translation of Sophus Lie's and Friedrich Engel's “Theorie der Transformationsgruppen Band I” will allow readers to discover the striking conceptual clarity and remarkably systematic organizational thought of the original German text. Volume I presents a comprehensive introduction to the theory and is mainly directed towards the generalization of ideas drawn from the study of examples. The major part of the present volume offers an extremely clear translation of the lucid original. The first four chapters provide not only a translation, but also a contemporary approach, which will help present day readers to familiarize themselves with the concepts at the heart of the subject. The editor's main objective was to encourage a renewed interest in the detailed classification of Lie algebras in dimensions 1, 2 and 3, and to offer access to Sophus Lie's monumental Galois theory of continuous transformation groups, established at the end of the 19th Century. Lie groups are widespread in mathematics, p...

  10. Photocaged Competitor Guests: A General Approach Toward Light-Activated Cargo Release From Cucurbiturils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Miguel A; Basílio, Nuno; Moro, Artur J; Domingues, Mara; González-Delgado, José A; Arteaga, Jesús F; Pischel, Uwe

    2017-09-21

    A general approach toward the light-induced guest release from cucurbit[7]uril by means of a photoactivatable competitor was devised. An o-nitrobenzyl-caged competitor is photolyzed to generate a competitive guest that can displace cargo from the host macrocycle solely based on considerations of chemical equilibrium. With this method the release of terpene guests from inclusion complexes with cucurbit[7]uril was demonstrated. The binding of the herein investigated terpenes, all being lead fragrant components in essential oils, has been characterized for the first time. They feature binding constants of up to 10 8  L mol -1 and a high differential binding selectivity (spanning four orders of magnitude for the binding constants for the particular set of terpenes). By fine-tuning the photoactivatable competitor guest, selective and also sequential release of the terpenes was achieved. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Generalized Langevin dynamics of a nanoparticle using a finite element approach: Thermostating with correlated noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uma, B.; Swaminathan, T. N.; Ayyaswamy, P. S.; Eckmann, D. M.; Radhakrishnan, R.

    2011-09-01

    A direct numerical simulation (DNS) procedure is employed to study the thermal motion of a nanoparticle in an incompressible Newtonian stationary fluid medium with the generalized Langevin approach. We consider both the Markovian (white noise) and non-Markovian (Ornstein-Uhlenbeck noise and Mittag-Leffler noise) processes. Initial locations of the particle are at various distances from the bounding wall to delineate wall effects. At thermal equilibrium, the numerical results are validated by comparing the calculated translational and rotational temperatures of the particle with those obtained from the equipartition theorem. The nature of the hydrodynamic interactions is verified by comparing the velocity autocorrelation functions and mean square displacements with analytical results. Numerical predictions of wall interactions with the particle in terms of mean square displacements are compared with analytical results. In the non-Markovian Langevin approach, an appropriate choice of colored noise is required to satisfy the power-law decay in the velocity autocorrelation function at long times. The results obtained by using non-Markovian Mittag-Leffler noise simultaneously satisfy the equipartition theorem and the long-time behavior of the hydrodynamic correlations for a range of memory correlation times. The Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process does not provide the appropriate hydrodynamic correlations. Comparing our DNS results to the solution of an one-dimensional generalized Langevin equation, it is observed that where the thermostat adheres to the equipartition theorem, the characteristic memory time in the noise is consistent with the inherent time scale of the memory kernel. The performance of the thermostat with respect to equilibrium and dynamic properties for various noise schemes is discussed.

  12. Organisational development in general practice: lessons from practice and professional development plans (PPDPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hocking Paul

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Improving the quality and effectiveness of clinical practice is becoming a key task within all health services. Primary medical care, as organised in the UK is composed of clinicians who work in independent partnerships (general practices that collaborate with other health care professionals. Although many practices have successfully introduced innovations, there are no organisational development structures in place that support the evolution of primary medical care towards integrated care processes. Providing incentives for attendance at passive educational events and promoting 'teamwork' without first identifying organisational priorities are interventions that have proved to be ineffective at changing clinical processes. A practice and professional development plan feasibility study was evaluated in Wales and provided the experiential basis for a summary of the lessons learnt on how best to guide organisational development systems for primary medical care. Results Practice and professional development plans are hybrids produced by the combination of ideas from management (the applied behavioural science of organisational development and education (self-directed adult learning theories and, in conceptual terms, address the lack of effectiveness of passive educational strategies by making interventions relevant to identified system wide needs. In the intervention, each practice participated in a series of multidisciplinary workshops (minimum 4 where the process outcome was the production of a practice development plan and a set of personal portfolios, and the final outcome was a realised organisational change. It was apparent during the project that organisational admission to a process of developmental planning needed to be a stepwise process, where initial interest can lead to a fuller understanding, which subsequently develops into motivation and ownership, sufficient to complete the exercise. The advantages of

  13. Advanced human-system interface design review guideline. General evaluation model, technical development, and guideline description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Hara, J.M.

    1994-07-01

    Advanced control rooms will use advanced human-system interface (HSI) technologies that may have significant implications for plant safety in that they will affect the operator's overall role in the system, the method of information presentation, and the ways in which operators interact with the system. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviews the HSI aspects of control rooms to ensure that they are designed to good human factors engineering principles and that operator performance and reliability are appropriately supported to protect public health and safety. The principal guidance available to the NRC, however, was developed more than ten years ago, well before these technological changes. Accordingly, the human factors guidance needs to be updated to serve as the basis for NRC review of these advanced designs. The purpose of this project was to develop a general approach to advanced HSI review and the human factors guidelines to support NRC safety reviews of advanced systems. This two-volume report provides the results of the project. Volume I describes the development of the Advanced HSI Design Review Guideline (DRG) including (1) its theoretical and technical foundation, (2) a general model for the review of advanced HSIs, (3) guideline development in both hard-copy and computer-based versions, and (4) the tests and evaluations performed to develop and validate the DRG. Volume I also includes a discussion of the gaps in available guidance and a methodology for addressing them. Volume 2 provides the guidelines to be used for advanced HSI review and the procedures for their use

  14. Advanced human-system interface design review guideline. General evaluation model, technical development, and guideline description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Hara, J.M.

    1994-07-01

    Advanced control rooms will use advanced human-system interface (HSI) technologies that may have significant implications for plant safety in that they will affect the operator`s overall role in the system, the method of information presentation, and the ways in which operators interact with the system. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviews the HSI aspects of control rooms to ensure that they are designed to good human factors engineering principles and that operator performance and reliability are appropriately supported to protect public health and safety. The principal guidance available to the NRC, however, was developed more than ten years ago, well before these technological changes. Accordingly, the human factors guidance needs to be updated to serve as the basis for NRC review of these advanced designs. The purpose of this project was to develop a general approach to advanced HSI review and the human factors guidelines to support NRC safety reviews of advanced systems. This two-volume report provides the results of the project. Volume I describes the development of the Advanced HSI Design Review Guideline (DRG) including (1) its theoretical and technical foundation, (2) a general model for the review of advanced HSIs, (3) guideline development in both hard-copy and computer-based versions, and (4) the tests and evaluations performed to develop and validate the DRG. Volume I also includes a discussion of the gaps in available guidance and a methodology for addressing them. Volume 2 provides the guidelines to be used for advanced HSI review and the procedures for their use.

  15. Generalized Lagrangian Path Approach to Manifestly-Covariant Quantum Gravity Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Tessarotto

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A trajectory-based representation for the quantum theory of the gravitational field is formulated. This is achieved in terms of a covariant Generalized Lagrangian-Path (GLP approach which relies on a suitable statistical representation of Bohmian Lagrangian trajectories, referred to here as GLP-representation. The result is established in the framework of the manifestly-covariant quantum gravity theory (CQG-theory proposed recently and the related CQG-wave equation advancing in proper-time the quantum state associated with massive gravitons. Generally non-stationary analytical solutions for the CQG-wave equation with non-vanishing cosmological constant are determined in such a framework, which exhibit Gaussian-like probability densities that are non-dispersive in proper-time. As a remarkable outcome of the theory achieved by implementing these analytical solutions, the existence of an emergent gravity phenomenon is proven to hold. Accordingly, it is shown that a mean-field background space-time metric tensor can be expressed in terms of a suitable statistical average of stochastic fluctuations of the quantum gravitational field whose quantum-wave dynamics is described by GLP trajectories.

  16. Soleus muscle H-reflex monitoring in endoscopic surgery under general anesthesia percutaneous interlaminar approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huixue; Gao, Yingji; Ji, Lixin; Bai, Wanshan

    2018-05-01

    The clinical value of soleus muscle H-reflex monitoring in general anesthesia percutaneous interlaminar approach was investigated. A total of 80 cases with unilateral L5-S1 disc herniation between January 2015 and October 2016 were randomly divided into control group (without soleus muscle H-reflex monitoring, n=40) and observation group (with soleus muscle H-reflex monitoring, n=40). Results showed that the operation time of the observation group was shorter than that of the control group (Ph after operation, the amplitude of H-reflex in diseased side soleus muscle was significantly lower than that in healthy side (Ph postoperatively, the latency of H-reflex in diseased side soleus muscle was shorter than that of healthy side (PH-reflex latency in soleus muscle were significantly lower (PH-reflex monitoring can effectively reduce the damage to the nerve roots under percutaneous endoscopic intervertebral endoscopic surgery under general anesthesia, improve the accuracy of surgery, reduce the complications, shorten the operation time and reduce the surgical bleeding, which is more beneficial to patients smooth recovery.

  17. Generalized Langevin equation: An efficient approach to nonequilibrium molecular dynamics of open systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stella, L.; Lorenz, C. D.; Kantorovich, L.

    2014-04-01

    The generalized Langevin equation (GLE) has been recently suggested to simulate the time evolution of classical solid and molecular systems when considering general nonequilibrium processes. In this approach, a part of the whole system (an open system), which interacts and exchanges energy with its dissipative environment, is studied. Because the GLE is derived by projecting out exactly the harmonic environment, the coupling to it is realistic, while the equations of motion are non-Markovian. Although the GLE formalism has already found promising applications, e.g., in nanotribology and as a powerful thermostat for equilibration in classical molecular dynamics simulations, efficient algorithms to solve the GLE for realistic memory kernels are highly nontrivial, especially if the memory kernels decay nonexponentially. This is due to the fact that one has to generate a colored noise and take account of the memory effects in a consistent manner. In this paper, we present a simple, yet efficient, algorithm for solving the GLE for practical memory kernels and we demonstrate its capability for the exactly solvable case of a harmonic oscillator coupled to a Debye bath.

  18. Investigation of the spatial generalization of Kato's theorem by a variational density-functional approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csavinszky, P.

    1990-01-01

    In a recent work, March has considered the quantum-mechanical system of an arbitrary number of closed electronic shells around an atomic nucleus of charge Z a e. March has assumed that the shells are filled by noninteracting electrons, moving in the bare Coulomb potential energy of V(r) = -Z a e 2 /r. In this framework, the basic quantity is the total electron (number) density ρ(r), built by summing the (number) density ρ n (r) of the nth closed electronic shell over the principal quantum number n. March has shown that Kato's theorem, (∂ρ(r)/∂r) r=0 = -(2Z a /a 0 )ρ (r = 0), with a 0 = ℎ 2 /me 2 , is amenable to a spatially dependent generalization that can be expressed by ∂ρ(r)/∂r = -(2Z a /a 0 )ρ s (r), where ρ s (r) is the s-state contribution from the n closed electronic shells to ρ(r). The present work investigates the spatially dependent generalization of Kato's theorem for the Ne atom by making use of a variational density-functional approach and adopting several expressions for the kinetic-energy functional of the electrons. The intriguing question of identifying the best kinetic-energy functional is raised and discussed

  19. The contribution of several Nobel Laureates in the development of the Theory of general economic equilibrium

    OpenAIRE

    Florentina Xhelili Krasniqi; Rahmie Topxhiu; Donat Rexha

    2016-01-01

    Nobel Laureates with their contributions to the development of the theory of general equilibrium have enabled this theory to be one of the most important for theoretical and practical analysis of the overall economy and the efficient use of economic resources. Results of the research showing that contributions of Nobel Laureates in the economy belong to two main frameworks of development of the general equilibrium theory: one was the mathematical model of general equilibrium developed by J...

  20. Developing a general practice library: a collaborative project between a GP and librarian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, D; Rossall, H

    2001-12-01

    The authors report on a self-completed questionnaire study from a North Yorkshire based general practice regarding the information needs of its clinicians. The work was carried out with a particular focus on the practice library, and the findings identified that a new approach to maintaining and developing the library was needed. The literature regarding the information needs of primary care clinicians and the role of practice libraries is considered, and compared to those of the clinicians at the practice. Discussion follows on how a collaborative project was set up between the practice and a librarian based at the local NHS Trust library in order to improve the existing practice library. Difficulties encountered and issues unique to the project are explored, including training implications presented by the implementation of electronic resources. Marketing activities implemented are discussed, how the library will operate in its new capacity, and how ongoing support and maintenance of the library will be carried out. It is concluded that although scepticism still exists regarding librarian involvement in practice libraries, collaboration between clinicians and librarians is an effective approach to the successful development and maintenance of a practice library, and recommendations are therefore made for similar collaborative work.

  1. Disordering scaling and generalized nearest-neighbor approach in the thermodynamics of Lennard-Jones systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorob'ev, V.S.

    2003-01-01

    We suggest a concept of multiple disordering scaling of the crystalline state. Such a scaling procedure applied to a crystal leads to the liquid and (in low density limit) gas states. This approach provides an explanation to a high value of configuration (common) entropy of liquefied noble gases, which can be deduced from experimental data. We use the generalized nearest-neighbor approach to calculate free energy and pressure of the Lennard-Jones systems after performing this scaling procedure. These thermodynamic functions depend on one parameter characterizing the disordering only. Condensed states of the system (liquid and solid) correspond to small values of this parameter. When this parameter tends to unity, we get an asymptotically exact equation of state for a gas involving the second virial coefficient. A reasonable choice of the values for the disordering parameter (ranging between zero and unity) allows us to find the lines of coexistence between different phase states in the Lennard-Jones systems, which are in a good agreement with the available experimental data

  2. Case study of read-across predictions using a Generalized Read-Across (GenRA) Approach (10th World Congress)

    Science.gov (United States)

    We developed the Generalized Read-Across (GenRA) approach to facilitate automated, algorithmic read across predictions. GenRA uses in vitro bioactivity data in conjunction with chemical information to predict up to 574 different apical outcomes from repeat-dose toxicity studies. ...

  3. Final Technical Report: "Representing Endogenous Technological Change in Climate Policy Models: General Equilibrium Approaches"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ian Sue Wing

    2006-04-18

    The research supported by this award pursued three lines of inquiry: (1) The construction of dynamic general equilibrium models to simulate the accumulation and substitution of knowledge, which has resulted in the preparation and submission of several papers: (a) A submitted pedagogic paper which clarifies the structure and operation of computable general equilibrium (CGE) models (C.2), and a review article in press which develops a taxonomy for understanding the representation of technical change in economic and engineering models for climate policy analysis (B.3). (b) A paper which models knowledge directly as a homogeneous factor, and demonstrates that inter-sectoral reallocation of knowledge is the key margin of adjustment which enables induced technical change to lower the costs of climate policy (C.1). (c) An empirical paper which estimates the contribution of embodied knowledge to aggregate energy intensity in the U.S. (C.3), followed by a companion article which embeds these results within a CGE model to understand the degree to which autonomous energy efficiency improvement (AEEI) is attributable to technical change as opposed to sub-sectoral shifts in industrial composition (C.4) (d) Finally, ongoing theoretical work to characterize the precursors and implications of the response of innovation to emission limits (E.2). (2) Data development and simulation modeling to understand how the characteristics of discrete energy supply technologies determine their succession in response to emission limits when they are embedded within a general equilibrium framework. This work has produced two peer-reviewed articles which are currently in press (B.1 and B.2). (3) Empirical investigation of trade as an avenue for the transmission of technological change to developing countries, and its implications for leakage, which has resulted in an econometric study which is being revised for submission to a journal (E.1). As work commenced on this topic, the U.S. withdrawal

  4. Component-Based Approach in Learning Management System Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitseva, Larisa; Bule, Jekaterina; Makarov, Sergey

    2013-01-01

    The paper describes component-based approach (CBA) for learning management system development. Learning object as components of e-learning courses and their metadata is considered. The architecture of learning management system based on CBA being developed in Riga Technical University, namely its architecture, elements and possibilities are…

  5. Rights-Based Approach: The Hub of Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choondassery, Yesudas

    2017-01-01

    A rights-based approach to the environmental issues has been gaining momentum since the United Nations' Environmental Agency proposed a new rights-based agenda for sustainable development in the document, "Transforming Our World: The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development" (UN, 2015). Our moral responsibility toward the environment is…

  6. "Design for Somebody" - Approach Enabling Mobile Technology Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirkka, Andrew; Merilampi, Sari; Koivisto, Antti; Tommiska, Janika; Saarinen, Tatu-Pekka

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents case examples of Design for Somebody (DfS) philosophy used both in developing novel technologies and modifying existing main stream technologies applicable for users with special needs. DfS embodies variety of mobile technology approaches to generate personalised means to enable and motivate physical, cognitive and social skills development.

  7. An Introduction to the Human Development and Capability Approach

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    For still others, development is a holistic project of personal social and spiritual progress. ..... One set relates to how the policy decision will affect economic output. ...... This brings up one further misunderstanding of Sen's capability approach and ...... Human development focuses on the institutional factors that violate human ...

  8. Learning Conservation and Sustainable Development: An Interdisciplinary Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Schelhas; James P. Lassoie

    2001-01-01

    Conservation aud sustainable development (CSD) represent one of the most important new ways of thinking in natural resource management and policy. Cornell University has developed an iuterdisciplinary graduate minor to include this approach in its curriculum. The concept of CSD involves working toward environmental, social, and economic goals simultaneously. Although...

  9. Local energy developments based on spatial and systemic approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manickam, Anu

    Local energy developments from a spatial and systemic approach are highlighted using examples from a Dutch case study. Developments in energy systems included interconnectedness of contextual factors and systems responses. The need to explore both the contextual factors and systemic aspects are

  10. Relationship between motivational goal orientations, perceptions of general education classroom learning environment, and deep approaches to learning

    OpenAIRE

    Chanut Poondej; Thanita Lerdpornkulrat

    2016-01-01

    Researchers have reported empirical evidence that the deep approaches to learning account for significant successful learning. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between students' motivational goal orientation, their perceptions of the general education classroom learning environment, and deep approaches to learning strategies. Participants (N = 494) were first- and second-year college students enrolled in any of the general education courses in higher education in Thaila...

  11. A Comparison of Five Alternative Approaches to Information Systems Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudy Hirschheim

    1997-11-01

    Full Text Available The field of information systems (IS has grown dramatically over the past three decades. Recent trends have transformed the IS landscape. These trends include: the evolution of implementation technology from centralized mainframe environments towards distributed client-server architectures, embracing the internet and intranets; changes in user interface technology from character-based to graphical user interfaces, multimedia, and the World Wide Web; changes in applications from transaction processing systems towards systems supporting collaborative work; and the use of information technology as an enabler of business process reengineering and redesign. These technology changes coupled with changes in organizations and their operating environment, such as the growth of the network and virtual organization, internationalization and globalization of many organizations, intensified global competition, changes in values such as customer orientation (service quality and Quality of Working Life, have imposed new demands on the development of information systems. These changes have led to an increasing discussion about information systems development (ISO, and in particular, the various methods, tools, methodologies, and approaches for ISD. We believe such discussion has opened the door for new, alternative IS development approaches and methodologies. Our paper takes up this theme by describing five alternative ISD approaches, namely the Interactionist approach, the Speech Act-based approach, Soft Systems Methodology, the Trade Unionist approach, and the Professional Work Practices approach. Despite the fact that most of these approaches have a history of over 15 years, their relevance to IS development is not well recognized in the mainstream of IS practice and research, nor is their institutional status comparable to traditional approaches such as structured analysis and design methods. Therefore we characterize the five approaches as 'alternative' in

  12. Approach to a generalized real-time nuclear materials control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarsch, V.; Onnen, S.; Polster, F.J.; Woit, J.

    1978-01-01

    Untrained users and a large amount of--at first glance incompatible--processes and materials are the environment of computer-aided nuclear materials control systems. To find an efficient model of the real processes and materials descriptions and to allow the operating personnel to communicate with the system in his everyday symbolism are goals in the development of the concept presented in this paper. According to this concept a real-time minicomputer-based materials control system is being implemented in the Nuclear Research Center of Karlsruhe. The chosen approach satisfies the heterogeneous requirements of the various institutes of the Center and is also applicable to other nuclear plants

  13. A Generalized Pivotal Quantity Approach to Analytical Method Validation Based on Total Error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Harry; Zhang, Jianchun

    2015-01-01

    The primary purpose of method validation is to demonstrate that the method is fit for its intended use. Traditionally, an analytical method is deemed valid if its performance characteristics such as accuracy and precision are shown to meet prespecified acceptance criteria. However, these acceptance criteria are not directly related to the method's intended purpose, which is usually a gurantee that a high percentage of the test results of future samples will be close to their true values. Alternate "fit for purpose" acceptance criteria based on the concept of total error have been increasingly used. Such criteria allow for assessing method validity, taking into account the relationship between accuracy and precision. Although several statistical test methods have been proposed in literature to test the "fit for purpose" hypothesis, the majority of the methods are not designed to protect the risk of accepting unsuitable methods, thus having the potential to cause uncontrolled consumer's risk. In this paper, we propose a test method based on generalized pivotal quantity inference. Through simulation studies, the performance of the method is compared to five existing approaches. The results show that both the new method and the method based on β-content tolerance interval with a confidence level of 90%, hereafter referred to as the β-content (0.9) method, control Type I error and thus consumer's risk, while the other existing methods do not. It is further demonstrated that the generalized pivotal quantity method is less conservative than the β-content (0.9) method when the analytical methods are biased, whereas it is more conservative when the analytical methods are unbiased. Therefore, selection of either the generalized pivotal quantity or β-content (0.9) method for an analytical method validation depends on the accuracy of the analytical method. It is also shown that the generalized pivotal quantity method has better asymptotic properties than all of the current

  14. Review of foreign approaches to development of communication in children with autistic spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soldatenkova E.N.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a generalized overview of international approaches to the evaluation and formation of communication in children with autism spectrum disor ders (ASD. Described radicals communication disorders in children with ASD. Analyzed foreign approaches (Communication system for the exchange of images (PECS Lori Frost and Andrew Bondy; options piktogramme6ideogrammic communication (bliss6symbolism, Loeb system, a system of sign language; Program in Applied verbal behavior; a Method of facilitating communication (FC and others used for the development of communication in children with ASD and donditions underlying these approaches. Examined differences in focus for the development of communication in children with ASD in domestic and foreign schools. The main conditions for the development of communication in children with ASD described in the framework of cultural historical psychology and activity approach, ensuring the inclusion of children with ASD in education.

  15. Strategic approach to outsourcing the research and development function

    OpenAIRE

    Firend, A.R

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes an approach for outsourcing the R&D function. This model is to serve as a strategic approach to outsourcing that considers number of elements with strategic competitive advantage as an ultimate objective. This paper suggest that outsourcing research and development should be planed and conducted from a strategic standpoint and have positive impact on organizational competitive position by incorporating it into the overall\\ud strategy of the organization to reduce the numbe...

  16. Development of a Conservative Model Validation Approach for Reliable Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    CIE 2015 August 2-5, 2015, Boston, Massachusetts, USA [DRAFT] DETC2015-46982 DEVELOPMENT OF A CONSERVATIVE MODEL VALIDATION APPROACH FOR RELIABLE...obtain a conservative simulation model for reliable design even with limited experimental data. Very little research has taken into account the...3, the proposed conservative model validation is briefly compared to the conventional model validation approach. Section 4 describes how to account

  17. Developing a New Approach for Arabic Morphological Analysis and Generation

    OpenAIRE

    Gridach, Mourad; Chenfour, Noureddine

    2011-01-01

    Arabic morphological analysis is one of the essential stages in Arabic Natural Language Processing. In this paper we present an approach for Arabic morphological analysis. This approach is based on Arabic morphological automaton (AMAUT). The proposed technique uses a morphological database realized using XMODEL language. Arabic morphology represents a special type of morphological systems because it is based on the concept of scheme to represent Arabic words. We use this concept to develop th...

  18. Recent developments in the path integral approach to anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujikawa, Kazuo.

    1986-08-01

    After a brief summary of the path integral approach to anomalous identities, some of the recent developments in this approach are discussed. The topics discussed include (i) Construction of the effective action by means of the covariant current, (ii) Gauss law constraint in anomalous gauge theories, (iii) Path integral approach to anomalies in superconformal transformations, (iv) Conformal and ghost number anomalies in string theory in analogy with the instanton calculation, (v) Covariant local Lorentz anomaly and its connection with the mathematical construction of the consistent anomaly. (author)

  19. Assessing the Accuracy of Generalized Inferences From Comparison Group Studies Using a Within-Study Comparison Approach: The Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaciw, Andrew P

    2016-06-01

    Various studies have examined bias in impact estimates from comparison group studies (CGSs) of job training programs, and in education, where results are benchmarked against experimental results. Such within-study comparison (WSC) approaches investigate levels of bias in CGS-based impact estimates, as well as the success of various design and analytic strategies for reducing bias. This article reviews past literature and summarizes conditions under which CGSs replicate experimental benchmark results. It extends the framework to, and develops the methodology for, situations where results from CGSs are generalized to untreated inference populations. Past research is summarized; methods are developed to examine bias in program impact estimates based on cross-site comparisons in a multisite trial that are evaluated against site-specific experimental benchmarks. Students in Grades K-3 in 79 schools in Tennessee; students in Grades 4-8 in 82 schools in Alabama. Grades K-3 Stanford Achievement Test (SAT) in reading and math scores; Grades 4-8 SAT10 reading scores. Past studies show that bias in CGS-based estimates can be limited through strong design, with local matching, and appropriate analysis involving pretest covariates and variables that represent selection processes. Extension of the methodology to investigate accuracy of generalized estimates from CGSs shows bias from confounders and effect moderators. CGS results, when extrapolated to untreated inference populations, may be biased due to variation in outcomes and impact. Accounting for effects of confounders or moderators may reduce bias. © The Author(s) 2016.

  20. Deconstructive Misalignment: Archives, Events, and Humanities Approaches in Academic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor M. Holmes

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Using poetry, role play, readers’ theatre, and creative manipulations of space through yarn and paper weaving, a workshop in 2008 challenged one of educational development’s more pervasive and least questioned notions (“constructive alignment” associated most often with the work of John Biggs. This paper describes the reasoning behind using humanities approaches specifically in this case and more generally in the Challenging Academic Development Collective’s work, as well as problematising the notions of “experiment” and “results” by unarchiving and re-archiving such a nonce-event. The critical stakes in using an anti-empirical method are broached, and readers are encouraged to experience their own version of the emergent truths of such approaches by drawing their own conclusions. En 2008, par le biais de la poésie, du jeu de rôles, du théâtre lu et de manipulations créatrices de l’espace avec de la laine et des tissages en papier, un atelier a mis au défi une des notions les plus généralisées et les moins remises en question du développement éducatif, l’alignement constructif, le plus souvent associé aux travaux de John Biggs. Cet article décrit le raisonnement qui se cache sous l’utilisation des approches des humanités tout spécialement dans ce cas et de manière plus générale dans les travaux du Collectif sur le développement académique stimulant. L’article traite également de la problématique sur les notions d’« expérience » et de « résultats » en désarchivant et en réarchivant une telle circonstance. Les enjeux principaux de l’utilisation de cette méthode anti-empirique sont abordés et les lecteurs sont encouragés à faire l’expérience de leur propre version des vérités qui émergent de telles approches en tirant leurs propres conclusions.

  1. Teaching Introductory Oceanography through Case Studies: Project based approach for general education students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnsworth, K. L.; House, M.; Hovan, S. A.

    2013-12-01

    A recent workshop sponsored by SERC-On the Cutting Edge brought together science educators from a range of schools across the country to discuss new approaches in teaching oceanography. In discussing student interest in our classes, we were struck by the fact that students are drawn to emotional or controversial topics such as whale hunting and tsunami hazard and that these kinds of topics are a great vehicle for introducing more complex concepts such as wave propagation, ocean upwelling and marine chemistry. Thus, we have developed an approach to introductory oceanography that presents students with real-world issues in the ocean sciences and requires them to explore the science behind them in order to improve overall ocean science literacy among non-majors and majors at 2 and 4 year colleges. We have designed a project-based curriculum built around topics that include, but are not limited to: tsunami hazard, whale migration, ocean fertilization, ocean territorial claims, rapid climate change, the pacific trash patch, overfishing, and ocean acidification. Each case study or project consists of three weeks of class time and is structured around three elements: 1) a media analysis; 2) the role of ocean science in addressing the issue; 3) human impact/response. Content resources range from textbook readings, popular or current print news, documentary film and television, and data available on the world wide web from a range of sources. We employ a variety of formative assessments for each case study in order to monitor student access and understanding of content and include a significant component of in-class student discussion and brainstorming guided by faculty input to develop the case study. Each study culminates in summative assessments ranging from exams to student posters to presentations, depending on the class size and environment. We envision this approach for a range of classroom environments including large group face-to-face instruction as well as hybrid

  2. Student Development in Higher Education: A Constructivist Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Rania; Sarirete, Akila

    Sustainable education requires a new approach to knowledge acquisition and learning. This approach is manifested in merging student experience inside and outside the classroom, which eventually results in shaping the 21 st century lifelong learner. This paper presents an innovative student development model based on the constructivist approach; showing the collaboration between student affairs and academics. Furthermore, it illustrates a unique experience implemented at Effat University for developing the student as a whole person. This is done to complement the student's academic experience with the necessary skills and abilities derived from Effat University mission that focuses on creating women leaders. The student finds herself in a journey of self development and growth throughout the course of her study until graduation. At the time of graduation, she is equipped with all what it takes to be a successful career woman and a leader of change in her society.

  3. Pyranose dehydrogenase ligand promiscuity: a generalized approach to simulate monosaccharide solvation, binding, and product formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael M H Graf

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The flavoenzyme pyranose dehydrogenase (PDH from the litter decomposing fungus Agaricus meleagris oxidizes many different carbohydrates occurring during lignin degradation. This promiscuous substrate specificity makes PDH a promising catalyst for bioelectrochemical applications. A generalized approach to simulate all 32 possible aldohexopyranoses in the course of one or a few molecular dynamics (MD simulations is reported. Free energy calculations according to the one-step perturbation (OSP method revealed the solvation free energies (ΔGsolv of all 32 aldohexopyranoses in water, which have not yet been reported in the literature. The free energy difference between β- and α-anomers (ΔGβ-α of all d-stereoisomers in water were compared to experimental values with a good agreement. Moreover, the free-energy differences (ΔG of the 32 stereoisomers bound to PDH in two different poses were calculated from MD simulations. The relative binding free energies (ΔΔGbind were calculated and, where available, compared to experimental values, approximated from Km values. The agreement was very good for one of the poses, in which the sugars are positioned in the active site for oxidation at C1 or C2. Distance analysis between hydrogens of the monosaccharide and the reactive N5-atom of the flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD revealed that oxidation is possible at HC1 or HC2 for pose A, and at HC3 or HC4 for pose B. Experimentally detected oxidation products could be rationalized for the majority of monosaccharides by combining ΔΔGbind and a reweighted distance analysis. Furthermore, several oxidation products were predicted for sugars that have not yet been tested experimentally, directing further analyses. This study rationalizes the relationship between binding free energies and substrate promiscuity in PDH, providing novel insights for its applicability in bioelectrochemistry. The results suggest that a similar approach could be applied to study

  4. General practitioners′ knowledge and approach to chronic kidney disease in Karachi, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Yaqub

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to lack of adequate number of formally trained nephrologists, many patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD are seen by general practitioners (GPs. This study was designed to assess the knowledge of the GPs regarding identification of CKD and its risk factors, and evaluation and management of risk factors as well as complications of CKD. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 232 randomly selected GPs from Karachi during 2011. Data were collected on a structured questionnaire based on the kidney disease outcomes and quality initiative recommendations on screening, diagnosis, and management of CKD. A total of 235 GPs were approached, and 232 consented to participate. Mean age was 38.5 ± 11.26 years; 56.5% were men. Most of the GPs knew the traditional risk factors for CKD, i.e., diabetes (88.4% and hypertension (80%, but were less aware of other risk factors. Only 38% GPs were aware of estimated glomerular filtration rate in evaluation of patients with CKD. Only 61.6% GPs recognized CKD as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. About 40% and 29% GPs knew the correct goal systolic and diastolic blood pressure, respectively. In all, 41% GPs did not know when to refer the patient to a nephrologist. Our survey identified specific gaps in knowledge and approach of GPs regarding diagnosis and management of CKD. Educational efforts are needed to increase awareness of clinical practice guidelines and recommendations for patients with CKD among GPs, which may improve management and clinical outcomes of this population.

  5. Modeling the Demand for Family and General Takaful in Malaysia (A Comparative Study: ARDL Approach to Cointegration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weni Hawariyuni

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective- Nowadays, numerous studies focus on the determinant of the demand for takaful, either family or general takaful in Malaysia. In this respect, these studies employ economic and socio-demographic variables to examine the determinants of takaful. They found that income, interest rates, financial development, pensions, stocks, price of insurance, life expectancy, dependency ratio, education, and age have positive on determinants of takaful. However, previous tudies have found that inflation, savings, and unemployment rate have negative relationship with the determinant of takaful in Malaysia. This study attempts to examine the determinants of the demand for family takaful and general takaful for comparative study in Malaysia for the period of 1988 to 2010. It employs economic and socio-demographic variables to measure these determinants.Methods-Using time series data, this study applies the Autoregressive Distributive Lag (ARDL approach to cointegration to examine the determinants of the demand for family takaful and general takaful in the short and long run.Result-The findings indicate that the economic and socio-demographic variables such as income, and education have positive relationship with the demand for family takaful in the short run, but not in the long run.Conclusion-Meanwhile, it also indicates that income and education have no relationship with demand for general takaful in Malaysia in the short run and long run. It indicates that if there is an increase in income, people tend to buy more family takaful of STMB. At the same time, the educated people already aware of the takaful products, they may necessarily purchase family takaful than life insurance.

  6. A Stigmergy Approach for Open Source Software Developer Community Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Xiaohui [ORNL; Beaver, Justin M [ORNL; Potok, Thomas E [ORNL; Pullum, Laura L [ORNL; Treadwell, Jim N [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    The stigmergy collaboration approach provides a hypothesized explanation about how online groups work together. In this research, we presented a stigmergy approach for building an agent based open source software (OSS) developer community collaboration simulation. We used group of actors who collaborate on OSS projects as our frame of reference and investigated how the choices actors make in contribution their work on the projects determinate the global status of the whole OSS projects. In our simulation, the forum posts and project codes served as the digital pheromone and the modified Pierre-Paul Grasse pheromone model is used for computing developer agent behaviors selection probability.

  7. Systems approaches to integrated solid waste management in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, Rachael E.; Farahbakhsh, Khosrow

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Five drivers led developed countries to current solid waste management paradigm. ► Many unique factors challenge developing country solid waste management. ► Limited transferability of developed country approaches to developing countries. ► High uncertainties and decision stakes call for post-normal approaches. ► Systems thinking needed for multi-scale, self-organizing eco-social waste systems. - Abstract: Solid waste management (SWM) has become an issue of increasing global concern as urban populations continue to rise and consumption patterns change. The health and environmental implications associated with SWM are mounting in urgency, particularly in the context of developing countries. While systems analyses largely targeting well-defined, engineered systems have been used to help SWM agencies in industrialized countries since the 1960s, collection and removal dominate the SWM sector in developing countries. This review contrasts the history and current paradigms of SWM practices and policies in industrialized countries with the current challenges and complexities faced in developing country SWM. In industrialized countries, public health, environment, resource scarcity, climate change, and public awareness and participation have acted as SWM drivers towards the current paradigm of integrated SWM. However, urbanization, inequality, and economic growth; cultural and socio-economic aspects; policy, governance, and institutional issues; and international influences have complicated SWM in developing countries. This has limited the applicability of approaches that were successful along the SWM development trajectories of industrialized countries. This review demonstrates the importance of founding new SWM approaches for developing country contexts in post-normal science and complex, adaptive systems thinking

  8. Systems approaches to integrated solid waste management in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, Rachael E., E-mail: rmarsh01@uoguelph.ca [School of Engineering, University of Guelph, Albert A. Thornbrough Building, Guelph, ON, Canada N1G 2W1 (Canada); Farahbakhsh, Khosrow, E-mail: khosrowf@uoguelph.ca [School of Engineering, University of Guelph, Albert A. Thornbrough Building, Guelph, ON, Canada N1G 2W1 (Canada)

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► Five drivers led developed countries to current solid waste management paradigm. ► Many unique factors challenge developing country solid waste management. ► Limited transferability of developed country approaches to developing countries. ► High uncertainties and decision stakes call for post-normal approaches. ► Systems thinking needed for multi-scale, self-organizing eco-social waste systems. - Abstract: Solid waste management (SWM) has become an issue of increasing global concern as urban populations continue to rise and consumption patterns change. The health and environmental implications associated with SWM are mounting in urgency, particularly in the context of developing countries. While systems analyses largely targeting well-defined, engineered systems have been used to help SWM agencies in industrialized countries since the 1960s, collection and removal dominate the SWM sector in developing countries. This review contrasts the history and current paradigms of SWM practices and policies in industrialized countries with the current challenges and complexities faced in developing country SWM. In industrialized countries, public health, environment, resource scarcity, climate change, and public awareness and participation have acted as SWM drivers towards the current paradigm of integrated SWM. However, urbanization, inequality, and economic growth; cultural and socio-economic aspects; policy, governance, and institutional issues; and international influences have complicated SWM in developing countries. This has limited the applicability of approaches that were successful along the SWM development trajectories of industrialized countries. This review demonstrates the importance of founding new SWM approaches for developing country contexts in post-normal science and complex, adaptive systems thinking.

  9. Development of an Electrochemistry Teaching Sequence using a Phenomenographic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Velazquez, Sorangel

    the core concepts from discipline-specific models and theories serve as visual tools to describe reversible redox half-reactions at equilibrium, predict the spontaneity of the electrochemical process and explain interfacial equilibrium between redox species and electrodes in solution. The integration of physics concepts into electrochemistry instruction facilitated describing the interactions between the chemical system (e.g., redox species) and the external circuit (e.g., voltmeter). The "Two worlds" theoretical framework was chosen to anchor a robust educational design where the world of objects and events is deliberately connected to the world of theories and models. The core concepts in Marcus theory and density of states (DOS) provided the scientific foundations to connect both worlds. The design of this teaching sequence involved three phases; the selection of the content to be taught, the determination of a coherent and explicit connection among concepts and the development of educational activities to engage students in the learning process. The reduction-oxidation and electrochemistry chapters of three of the most popular general chemistry textbooks were revised in order to identify potential gaps during instruction, taking into consideration learning and teaching difficulties. The electrochemistry curriculum was decomposed into manageable sections contained in modules. Thirteen modules were developed and each module addresses specific conceptions with regard to terminology, redox reactions in electrochemical cells, and the function of the external circuit in electrochemical process. The electrochemistry teaching sequence was evaluated using a phenomenographic approach. This approach allows describing the qualitative variation in instructors' consciousness about the teaching of electrochemistry. A phenomenographic analysis revealed that the most relevant aspect of variation came from instructors' expertise. Participant A expertise (electrochemist) promoted in

  10. On the Use of Hybrid Development Approaches in Software and Systems Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhrmann, Marco; Münch, Jürgen; Diebold, Philipp

    2016-01-01

    A software process is the game plan to organize project teams and run projects. Yet, it still is a challenge to select the appropriate development approach for the respective context. A multitude of development approaches compete for the users’ favor, but there is no silver bullet serving all...... possible setups. Moreover, recent research as well as experience from practice shows companies utilizing different development approaches to assemble the best-fitting approach for the respective company: a more traditional process provides the basic framework to serve the organization, while project teams...

  11. A Facile and General Approach to Recoverable High-Strain Multishape Shape Memory Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xingjian; Pan, Yi; Zheng, Zhaohui; Ding, Xiaobin

    2018-03-01

    Fabricating a single polymer network with no need to design complex structures to achieve an ideal combination of tunable high-strain multiple-shape memory effects and highly recoverable shape memory property is a great challenge for the real applications of advanced shape memory devices. Here, a facile and general approach to recoverable high-strain multishape shape memory polymers is presented via a random copolymerization of acrylate monomers and a chain-extended multiblock copolymer crosslinker. As-prepared shape memory networks show a large width at the half-peak height of the glass transition, far wider than current classical multishape shape memory polymers. A combination of tunable high-strain multishape memory effect and as high as 1000% recoverable strain in a single chemical-crosslinking network can be obtained. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first thermosetting material with a combination of highly recoverable strain and tunable high-strain multiple-shape memory effects. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Approach to design neural cryptography: a generalized architecture and a heuristic rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Nankun; Liao, Xiaofeng; Huang, Tingwen

    2013-06-01

    Neural cryptography, a type of public key exchange protocol, is widely considered as an effective method for sharing a common secret key between two neural networks on public channels. How to design neural cryptography remains a great challenge. In this paper, in order to provide an approach to solve this challenge, a generalized network architecture and a significant heuristic rule are designed. The proposed generic framework is named as tree state classification machine (TSCM), which extends and unifies the existing structures, i.e., tree parity machine (TPM) and tree committee machine (TCM). Furthermore, we carefully study and find that the heuristic rule can improve the security of TSCM-based neural cryptography. Therefore, TSCM and the heuristic rule can guide us to designing a great deal of effective neural cryptography candidates, in which it is possible to achieve the more secure instances. Significantly, in the light of TSCM and the heuristic rule, we further expound that our designed neural cryptography outperforms TPM (the most secure model at present) on security. Finally, a series of numerical simulation experiments are provided to verify validity and applicability of our results.

  13. The Generalized Hill Model: A Kinematic Approach Towards Active Muscle Contraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzel, Andreas; Kuhl, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    Excitation-contraction coupling is the physiological process of converting an electrical stimulus into a mechanical response. In muscle, the electrical stimulus is an action potential and the mechanical response is active contraction. The classical Hill model characterizes muscle contraction though one contractile element, activated by electrical excitation, and two non-linear springs, one in series and one in parallel. This rheology translates into an additive decomposition of the total stress into a passive and an active part. Here we supplement this additive decomposition of the stress by a multiplicative decomposition of the deformation gradient into a passive and an active part. We generalize the one-dimensional Hill model to the three-dimensional setting and constitutively define the passive stress as a function of the total deformation gradient and the active stress as a function of both the total deformation gradient and its active part. We show that this novel approach combines the features of both the classical stress-based Hill model and the recent active-strain models. While the notion of active stress is rather phenomenological in nature, active strain is micro-structurally motivated, physically measurable, and straightforward to calibrate. We demonstrate that our model is capable of simulating excitation-contraction coupling in cardiac muscle with its characteristic features of wall thickening, apical lift, and ventricular torsion. PMID:25221354

  14. Circular orbits and acceleration of particles by near-extremal dirty rotating black holes: general approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaslavskii, Oleg B

    2012-01-01

    We study the effect of collisions of ultrahigh energy particles near the black hole horizon (BSW effect) for two scenarios: when one of the particles either (i) moves on a circular orbit or (ii) plunges from it toward the horizon. It is shown that such circular near-horizon orbits can exist for near-extremal black holes only. This includes the innermost stable orbit (ISCO), marginally bound orbit (MBO) and photon one (PhO). We consider generic ‘dirty’ rotating black holes not specifying the metric and show that the energy in the center-of-mass frame has the universal scaling dependence on the surface gravity κ. Namely, E c.m. ∼ κ −n where for the ISCO, n= 1/3 in case (i) or n= 1/2 in case (ii). For the MBO and PhCO, n= 1/2 in both scenarios that agrees with recent calculations of Harada and Kimura for the Kerr metric. We also generalize the Grib and Pavlov observations made for the Kerr metric. The magnitude of the BSW effect on the location of collision has a somewhat paradoxical character: it decreases when approaching the horizon. (paper)

  15. Circular orbits and acceleration of particles by near-extremal dirty rotating black holes: general approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaslavskii, Oleg B.

    2012-10-01

    We study the effect of collisions of ultrahigh energy particles near the black hole horizon (BSW effect) for two scenarios: when one of the particles either (i) moves on a circular orbit or (ii) plunges from it toward the horizon. It is shown that such circular near-horizon orbits can exist for near-extremal black holes only. This includes the innermost stable orbit (ISCO), marginally bound orbit (MBO) and photon one (PhO). We consider generic ‘dirty’ rotating black holes not specifying the metric and show that the energy in the center-of-mass frame has the universal scaling dependence on the surface gravity κ. Namely, Ec.m. ˜ κ-n where for the ISCO, n=\\frac{1}{3} in case (i) or n=\\frac{1}{2} in case (ii). For the MBO and PhCO, n=\\frac{1}{2} in both scenarios that agrees with recent calculations of Harada and Kimura for the Kerr metric. We also generalize the Grib and Pavlov observations made for the Kerr metric. The magnitude of the BSW effect on the location of collision has a somewhat paradoxical character: it decreases when approaching the horizon.

  16. From the big five to the general factor of personality: a dynamic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micó, Joan C; Amigó, Salvador; Caselles, Antonio

    2014-10-28

    An integrating and dynamic model of personality that allows predicting the response of the basic factors of personality, such as the Big Five Factors (B5F) or the general factor of personality (GFP) to acute doses of drug is presented in this paper. Personality has a dynamic nature, i.e., as a consequence of a stimulus, the GFP dynamics as well as each one of the B5F of personality dynamics can be explained by the same model (a system of three coupled differential equations). From this invariance hypothesis, a partial differential equation, whose solution relates the GFP with each one of the B5F, is deduced. From this dynamic approach, a co-evolution of the GFP and each one of the B5F occurs, rather than an unconnected evolution, as a consequence of the same stimulus. The hypotheses and deductions are validated through an experimental design centered on the individual, where caffeine is the considered stimulus. Thus, as much from a theoretical point of view as from an applied one, the models here proposed open a new perspective in the understanding and study of personality like a global system that interacts intimately with the environment, being a clear bet for the high level inter-disciplinary research.

  17. Cultural transmission and the evolution of human behaviour: a general approach based on the Price equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Mouden, C; André, J-B; Morin, O; Nettle, D

    2014-02-01

    Transmitted culture can be viewed as an inheritance system somewhat independent of genes that is subject to processes of descent with modification in its own right. Although many authors have conceptualized cultural change as a Darwinian process, there is no generally agreed formal framework for defining key concepts such as natural selection, fitness, relatedness and altruism for the cultural case. Here, we present and explore such a framework using the Price equation. Assuming an isolated, independently measurable culturally transmitted trait, we show that cultural natural selection maximizes cultural fitness, a distinct quantity from genetic fitness, and also that cultural relatedness and cultural altruism are not reducible to or necessarily related to their genetic counterparts. We show that antagonistic coevolution will occur between genes and culture whenever cultural fitness is not perfectly aligned with genetic fitness, as genetic selection will shape psychological mechanisms to avoid susceptibility to cultural traits that bear a genetic fitness cost. We discuss the difficulties with conceptualizing cultural change using the framework of evolutionary theory, the degree to which cultural evolution is autonomous from genetic evolution, and the extent to which cultural change should be seen as a Darwinian process. We argue that the nonselection components of evolutionary change are much more important for culture than for genes, and that this and other important differences from the genetic case mean that different approaches and emphases are needed for cultural than genetic processes. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2013 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  18. Pedagogic Approach to the Mechanisms of Personality Identity Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakurova, Marina V.

    2016-01-01

    The article addresses the problem of defining and attributing pedagogic essence to the mechanisms of personality identity development. It is based on the general mechanism of social interaction. Its structure contains, on the one hand, pedagogic interaction, including the forms of pedagogic assistance and pedagogic support; on the other hand, it…

  19. Esclerosis múltiple: aspectos generales y abordaje farmacológico Multiple sclerosis: general features and pharmacologic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nielsen Lagumersindez Denis

    2009-08-01

    disease of central nervous system (CNS of unknown etiology and critical evolution. There are different etiological hypotheses talking of a close interrelation among predisposing genetic factors and dissimilar environmental factors, able to give raise to autoimmune response at central nervous system level. Hypothesis of autoimmune pathogeny is based on study of experimental models, and findings in biopsies of affected patients by disease. Accumulative data report that the oxidative stress plays a main role in pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis. Oxygen reactive species generated by macrophages has been involved as mediators of demyelinization and of axon damage, in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and strictly in multiple sclerosis. Disease diagnosis is difficult because of there is not a confirmatory unique test. Management of it covers the treatment of acute relapses, disease modification, and symptoms management. These features require an individualized approach, base on evolution of this affection, and tolerability of treatments. In addition to diet, among non-pharmacologic treatments for multiple sclerosis it is recommended physical therapy. Besides, some clinical assays have been performed in which we used natural extracts, nutrition supplements, and other agents with promising results. Pharmacology allowed neurologists with a broad array of proved effectiveness drugs; however, results of research laboratories in past years make probable that therapeutical possibilities increase notably in future.

  20. General Output Feedback Stabilization for Fractional Order Systems: An LMI Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiheng Wei

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the problem of general output feedback stabilization for fractional order linear time-invariant (FO-LTI systems with the fractional commensurate order 0<α<2. The objective is to design suitable output feedback controllers that guarantee the stability of the resulting closed-loop systems. Based on the slack variable method and our previous stability criteria, some new results in the form of linear matrix inequality (LMI are developed to the static and dynamic output feedback controllers synthesis for the FO-LTI system with 0<α<1. Furthermore, the results are extended to stabilize the FO-LTI systems with 1≤α<2. Finally, robust output feedback control is discussed. Numerical examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed design methods.

  1. Managing Cybersecurity Research and Experimental Development: The REVO Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Craigen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We present a systematic approach for managing a research and experimental development cybersecurity program that must be responsive to continuously evolving cybersecurity, and other, operational concerns. The approach will be of interest to research-program managers, academe, corporate leads, government leads, chief information officers, chief technology officers, and social and technology policy analysts. The approach is compatible with international standards and procedures published by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD and the Treasury Board of Canada Secretariat (TBS. The key benefits of the approach are the following: i the breadth of the overall (cybersecurity space is described; ii depth statements about specific (cybersecurity challenges are articulated and mapped to the breadth of the problem; iii specific (cybersecurity initiatives that have been resourced through funding or personnel are tracked and linked to specific challenges; and iv progress is assessed through key performance indicators. Although we present examples from cybersecurity, the method may be transferred to other domains. We have found the approach to be rigorous yet adaptive to change; it challenges an organization to be explicit about the nature of its research and experimental development in a manner that fosters alignment with evolving business priorities, knowledge transfer, and partner engagement.

  2. Neural Plasticity: Single Neuron Models for Discrimination and Generalization and AN Experimental Ensemble Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, Paul Wesley

    A special form for modification of neuronal response properties is described in which the change in the synaptic state vector is parallel to the vector of afferent activity. This process is termed "parallel modification" and its theoretical and experimental implications are examined. A theoretical framework has been devised to describe the complementary functions of generalization and discrimination by single neurons. This constitutes a basis for three models each describing processes for the development of maximum selectivity (discrimination) and minimum selectivity (generalization) by neurons. Strengthening and weakening of synapses is expressed as a product of the presynaptic activity and a nonlinear modulatory function of two postsynaptic variables--namely a measure of the spatially integrated activity of the cell and a temporal integration (time-average) of that activity. Some theorems are given for low-dimensional systems and computer simulation results from more complex systems are discussed. Model neurons that achieve high selectivity mimic the development of cat visual cortex neurons in a wide variety of rearing conditions. A role for low-selectivity neurons is proposed in which they provide inhibitory input to neurons of the opposite type, thereby suppressing the common component of a pattern class and enhancing their selective properties. Such contrast-enhancing circuits are analyzed and supported by computer simulation. To enable maximum selectivity, the net inhibition to a cell must become strong enough to offset whatever excitation is produced by the non-preferred patterns. Ramifications of parallel models for certain experimental paradigms are analyzed. A methodology is outlined for testing synaptic modification hypotheses in the laboratory. A plastic projection from one neuronal population to another will attain stable equilibrium under periodic electrical stimulation of constant intensity. The perturbative effect of shifting this intensity level

  3. Conducting Research with young people and developing the MTW Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frostholm, Peter Hornbæk; Mikkelsen, Sidse Hølvig; Gravesen, David Thore

    2017-01-01

    Abstract In this article we present our qualitative mixed-methods methodology that we name the Map-Talk-Walk Approach (MTW Approach). We developed the approach to better grasp young people’s understandings of youth, normality and belonging, which make up the thematic framework of our current youth...... research. The MTW Approach is based on three phases, 1) Researcher-initiated workshops, 2) Focus group interviews, and 3) Walk-and-talks in the young people’s local environments. In the article, we discuss the ethical complications related to doing research with young people and positioning them as experts...... in their life worlds. Our ambition is to create a democratized research process that allows the participants ownership, and we find this to be a challenging task. In the closing section, after a thorough presentation of the three phases, we discuss some of the pitfalls we experienced during the process...

  4. Study on Risk Approaches in Software Development Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu BRANDAS

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Risk approaches in project development led to the integration in the IT project management methodologies and software development of activities and processes of risk management. The diversity and the advanced level of the used technologies in IT projects with increasing com-plexity leads to an exponential diversification of risk factors.The purpose of this research is to identify the level of the risk approach in IT projects both at the IT project management and software development methodologies level and the level of the perception of IT project man-agers, IT managers and IT analysts in Romanian IT companies. Thus, we want to determine the correlation between the use of a project management or software development methodology and the overall level of risk perceived by the project managers using these methodologies.

  5. General health workers' description of mental health problems and treatment approaches used in Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koka, Betty E; Deane, Frank P; Lyons, Geoffrey Cb; Lambert, Gordon

    2014-11-01

    Papua New Guinea is a developing country with limited resources for specialist mental health services. Little is known about the mental health and treatment services of Papua New Guinea. The aim of this study was to clarify the presenting mental health problems encountered by Papua New Guinean health workers and the common treatment approaches used. A total of 203 Papua New Guinean health workers completed a retrospective quantitative survey about their three most recent mental health patients. The survey asked about presenting symptomatology, diagnoses (including culture-bound diagnoses) and treatment approaches. The major presenting mental health problems for males included schizophrenia, substance use disorder, sorcery and spirit possession. Depression was the most common diagnoses for women, followed by sorcery and somatisation. Over 65% of patients were prescribed psychotropic medication, over 50% received some form of psychological intervention and 28% were receiving traditional treatments. Somatic symptoms are common among both male and female Papua New Guineans; however, males may be more likely to present with psychotic symptoms and females with mood-related problems. Schizophrenia and depression are commonly identified with substance use disorder more problematic among males. Culture-specific explanations and treatment are commonly used. © The Author(s) 2013.

  6. Holistic approach to education and upbringing: Contradictory to the general assumption of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihajlović Ljubiša M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Holistic education is a compprehensive view of education based on the assumption that each individual finds his own identity, meaning and objective in life through the connection with the community, nature and human values such as compassion and peace. Within holistic education the teacher is viewed not as an authority figure who guides and controls, but rather as a 'friend', a facilitator of learning: a guide and a companion in gaining experience. The norm is cooperation rather than competition. However, is this possible in real life? The answer is simple - it is not. Why? The reason why lies in the foundation of life itself: a molecule built in such a way that it does not permit such an idealistic approach to life, and therefore, to education. It is a DNK molecule: the molecule of life exhibiting, among other, the following characteristics: it seeks procreation, and exhibits the tendency of eternal struggle, competition. This is in stark opposition to holistic approach to education which does not recognize competition, struggle, gradation and rivalry. The development of an advanced and socially responsible society demands partial, measured application of holism. This needs to be reflected in education as well: approved competition, clear and fair gradation, the best in certain areas become the elite, with the rest following or to be found solutions in accordance with their abilities.

  7. Characterization of remarkable floods in France, a transdisciplinary approach applied on generalized floods of January 1910

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudou, Martin; Lang, Michel; Vinet, Freddy; Coeur, Denis

    2014-05-01

    emphasize one flood typology or one flood dynamic (for example flash floods are often over-represented than slow dynamic floods in existing databases). Thus, the selected criteria have to introduce a general overview of flooding risk in France by integrating all typologies: storm surges, torrential floods, rising groundwater level and resulting to flood, etc. The methodology developed for the evaluation grid is inspired by several scientific works related to historical hydrology (Bradzil, 2006; Benito et al., 2004) or extreme floods classification (Kundzewics et al. 2013; Garnier E., 2005). The referenced information are mainly issued from investigations realized for the PFRA (archives, local data),from internet databases on flooding disasters, and from a complementary bibliography (some scientists such as Maurice Pardé a geographer who largely documented French floods during the 20th century). The proposed classification relies on three main axes. Each axis is associated to a set of criteria, each one related to a score (from 0.5 to 4 points), and pointing out a final remarkability score. • The flood intensity characterizing the flood's hazard level. It is composed of the submersion duration, important to valorize floods with slow dynamics as flooding from groundwater, the event peak discharge's return period, and the presence of factors increasing significantly the hazard level (dykes breaks, log jam, sediment transport…) • The flood severity focuses on economic damages, social and political repercussions, media coverage of the event, fatalities number or eventual flood warning failures. Analyzing the flood consequences is essential in order to evaluate the vulnerability of society at disaster date. • The spatial extension of the flood, which contributes complementary information to the two first axes. The evaluation grid was tested and applied on the sample of 176 remarkable events. Around twenty events (from 1856 to 2010) come out with a high remarkability rate

  8. Developing an Approach for Analyzing and Verifying System Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratton, William C.; Lindvall, Mikael; Ackermann, Chris; Sibol, Deane E.; Godfrey, Sally

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews a project for developing an approach for analyzing and verifying the inter system communications. The motivation for the study was that software systems in the aerospace domain are inherently complex, and operate under tight constraints for resources, so that systems of systems must communicate with each other to fulfill the tasks. The systems of systems requires reliable communications. The technical approach was to develop a system, DynSAVE, that detects communication problems among the systems. The project enhanced the proven Software Architecture Visualization and Evaluation (SAVE) tool to create Dynamic SAVE (DynSAVE). The approach monitors and records low level network traffic, converting low level traffic into meaningful messages, and displays the messages in a way the issues can be detected.

  9. Adapting the innovation systems approach to agricultural development in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friederichsen, Rupert; Thai, Thi Minh; Neef, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    into the still-dominant transfer of technology model. We show how extensionists draw selectively on these diverse discourses to foster interaction with outsiders and clients, and bolster their livelihood strategies. We conclude that the conceptual framework suggested by the innovation systems (IS) approach......Competing models of innovation informing agricultural extension, such as transfer of technology, participatory extension and technology development, and innovation systems have been proposed over the last decades. These approaches are often presented as antagonistic or even mutually exclusive....... This article shows how practitioners in a rural innovation system draw on different aspects of all three models, while creating a distinct local practice and discourse. We revisit and deepen the critique of Vietnam’s “model” approach to upland rural development, voiced a decade ago in this journal. Our...

  10. Linear-algebraic approach to electron-molecule collisions: General formulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, L.A.; Schneider, B.I.

    1981-01-01

    We present a linear-algebraic approach to electron-molecule collisions based on an integral equations form with either logarithmic or asymptotic boundary conditions. The introduction of exchange effects does not alter the basic form or order of the linear-algebraic equations for a local potential. In addition to the standard procedure of directly evaluating the exchange integrals by numerical quadrature, we also incorporate exchange effects through a separable-potential approximation. Efficient schemes are developed for reducing the number of points and channels that must be included. The method is applied at the static-exchange level to a number of molecular systems including H 2 , N 2 , LiH, and CO 2

  11. Comparing Efficacy of Instructional Approaches to Develop Environmental Awareness Among School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doris D’Souza

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to compare efficacy of self-learning, audiovisual, and fun activity instructional approaches among school students of Patna, the capital city of Bihar state of India, to develop environmental awareness. The study participants include 144 randomly selected students (72 girls and 72 boys from eight different schools of Patna. During a weeklong environmental awareness program, students were instructed using above three approaches of instruction. Data have been analyzed by using linear regression. Regression was carried out to eliminate the effect of general mental ability (GMA scores. The results suggest about overall superiority of fun activity approach over other approaches tested in the present study. However, awareness gain has been significant among the students with high GMA when instructed through audiovisual approach.

  12. Territorial development. A new approach to development processes for the economies of the developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Pecqueur

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to show how the elements of a (flexible and adaptable model of territorial development, whose roots are anchored in the analysis of coordination among pre-capitalist actors, can take on a more concrete form in developing economies. Our hypothesis is that the application of this model functions as a resurgence of pre-capitalist production relations, revalidated by local practices and renewed by territorial dynamics. Is such a return to pre-capitalist ways possible and realistic despite the obstacles and, if so, under what conditions? These are the questions this paper seeks to address, by the way of a specifically economic analysis focused on the dynamics of productive systems. On the first part, we review the fundamental principles of a model of territorial development based on a local system of actors, which assumes that the territory is “constructed” and is founded, according to our approach, on the principle of specification. On the second part, we assess the feasibility of this model in developing economies, remembering that we are starting from practices that are already old; practices involving risks and that assume certain conditions of implementation.

  13. Life Span Approach to Growth and Human Development: A Broad ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The traditional approach to the study of development emphasizes extensive change in childhood. ... the paper draws the reader's attention to the fact that by adopting the life-span perspective, we gain insights into what our lives will be like as we grow into middle age or old age, who we are, how we came to be this way and ...

  14. Pedagogical Approaches to Develop Critical Thinking and Crisis Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powley, Edward H.; Taylor, Scott N.

    2014-01-01

    Management schools must be prepared to aid leaders and managers to succeed in uncertain environments. We offer two approaches, each designed for critical thinking skill development, to teach graduate management students about leading in and through potential disruption to organizational life. First, we present a personalized case method that…

  15. Object Oriented Software Development Using A Use-Cases Approach

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents a systematic approach to the analysis and design of an online banking system using the Use-Cases method of Jacobson. This analysis and design method will support the development of highly effective reuseable code, thus bringing the benefits of object orientation into important software projects.

  16. Reasoning about Development: Essays on Amartya Sen's Capability Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.R. Wells (Thomas)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractOver the last 30 years the Indian philosopher-economist Amartya Sen has developed an original normative approach to the evaluation of individual and social well-being. The foundational concern of this ‘capability approach’ is the real freedom of individuals to achieve the kind of lives

  17. Object Oriented Software Development Using A Use-Cases Approach

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Object Oriented Software Development Using A Use-Cases Approach. ... to the analysis and design of an online banking system using the Use-Cases method of Jacobson. ... thus bringing the benefits of object orientation into important software projects. Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management Vol.

  18. Personality and Development in Childhood: A Person-Centered Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Daniel; Atkins, Robert; Fegley, Suzanne

    2003-01-01

    Applied a person-centered approach to childhood personality development in 28 diverse samples of 3- to 6-year-olds studied over 6 years. Identified resilient, overcontrolled, and undercontrolled personality types. Found that the undercontrolled personality type related to intellectual decline over 6 years. The number of family risks predicted…

  19. Combinatorial chemistry approach to development of molecular plastic solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Godovsky, Dmitri; Inganäs, Olle; Brabec, Christoph J.; Sariciftci, N. Serdar; Hummelen, Jan C.; Janssen, Rene A.J.; Prato, M.; Maggini, M.; Segura, Jose; Martin, Nazario

    1999-01-01

    We used a combinatorial chemistry approach to develop the molecular plastic solar cells based on soluble fullerene derivatives or solubilized TCNQ molecules in combination with conjugated polymers. Profiles, formed by the diffusion of low molecular weight component in the spin-cast polymer host were

  20. Literature: Developing Critical Awareness; Some Classroom-Tested Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Dorothy, Ed.

    1977-01-01

    This issue of the "Illinois English Bulletin" is devoted to developing critical awareness, through poetry, values, the elements of fiction, and literary study. The first section considers approaching narrative through the use of popular materials and includes two essays: "Grim Tales in the English Classroom" by Larry Danielson and "From the Comics…

  1. An Iterative Approach To Development Of A PACS Display Workstation

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, Kathleen G.

    1989-05-01

    An iterative prototyping approach has been used in the development of requirements for a new user interface for the display workstation in the CommView system product line. This approach involves many steps, including development of the preliminary concept, validation and ranking of ideas within that concept, prototyping, evaluating, and revising. We describe in this paper the process undertaken to design and evaluate the new user interface. Staff at Abbott Northwestern Hospital, Bowman Gray/Baptist Hospital Medical Center, Duke University Medical Center, Georgetown University Medical Center and Robert Wood Johnson University Hospital participated in various aspects of the study. The subject population included radiologists, residents, technologists and staff physicians from several areas in the hospitals. Subjects participated in in-depth interviews, answered questionnaires, and performed specific tasks, to aid our development process. We feel this method has resulted in a product that will achieve a high level of customer satisfaction, developed in less time than a traditional approach. Some of the reasons we believe in the value of this approach are: • Users may not be able to describe their needs in terms that designers are expecting, leading to misinterpretation; • Users may not be able to choose between options without seeing them; • Users needs and choices evolve with experience; • Users true choices and needs may not seem logical to one not performing those tasks (i.e., the designers).

  2. Nature and dementia: development of a person-centered approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, I.H.; Vliet, D. van; Gerritsen, D.L.; Droes, R.M.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to develop and try out an approach for personalized nature activities for people with dementia. METHODS: A qualitative descriptive study using focus group interviews with people with dementia was conducted. Based on the results of the focus groups and the

  3. Sustainable development through biomass utilization: A practical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi Malhotra

    2008-01-01

    (Please note, this is an abstract only) This paper is for folks involved in community development efforts targeted towards biomass utilization. Our approach to evaluate the potential for establishing enterprises that utilize locally available forest resources is tailored specifically to the needs of the local community. We evaluate the: 1. Technical feasibility and...

  4. An Approach to Quality Estimation in Model-Based Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmegaard, Jens Peter; Koch, Peter; Ravn, Anders Peter

    2004-01-01

    We present an approach to estimation of parameters for design space exploration in Model-Based Development, where synthesis of a system is done in two stages. Component qualities like space, execution time or power consumption are defined in a repository by platform dependent values. Connectors...

  5. Systematic Approach to Modernization of the Russian Federal Spatial Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Tatarkin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper estimates the regional and municipal opportunities of spa- tial development modernization in the Russian Federation. In the post-crisis period, it is necessary to facilitate the innovative processes and society oriented state develop- ment to give way to the steady transition from the regional policy to the federal state structure, which requires scientifically based decision making in all the directions of social development. The author considers the ideology of such transition and recom- mends using the systematic approach to choosing priorities and development institu- tions. Several perspective factors such as education and science are analyzed in the context of systematic regional and territorial development along with the necessity for program-project modernization of the federal state structure. The following new insti- tutions for regional development are proposed: regional and municipal self-deve- lopment, business territories, program-project planning of spatial development

  6. Systematic Approach to Modernization of the Russian Federal Spatial Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Tatarkin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper estimates the regional and municipal opportunities of spa- tial development modernization in the Russian Federation. In the post-crisis period, it is necessary to facilitate the innovative processes and society oriented state develop- ment to give way to the steady transition from the regional policy to the federal state structure, which requires scientifically based decision making in all the directions of social development. The author considers the ideology of such transition and recom- mends using the systematic approach to choosing priorities and development institu- tions. Several perspective factors such as education and science are analyzed in the context of systematic regional and territorial development along with the necessity for program-project modernization of the federal state structure. The following new insti- tutions for regional development are proposed: regional and municipal self-deve- lopment, business territories, program-project planning of spatial development

  7. Developing green supply chain management strategies: A taxonomic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Mutingi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The objective of this research is to explore the empirical green supply chain activities found in literature, and to develop a taxonomic framework that can be used for formulating appropriate strategies for green supply chains, based on characteristic dimensions for the green supply chain. Design/methodology/approach: The taxonomic framework is developed through (i analysis of green supply chain activities found in existing empirical work or case studies recorded in literature, (ii identification of key dimensions that influence green supply chain management strategies, and (iii development of a taxonomic scheme for selecting or developing green strategies. Findings: The paper finds that this study yielded: a set of three characteristic dimensions that influence strategic green supply chain management, and a guided structured approach selecting appropriate green strategies, providing managerial insights. Research limitations/implications: This paper shows that future work includes development of specific performance management indices according to the taxonomy of green strategies developed in this study. Practical implications: This research provided a practical guided approach that enhances appropriate formulation of green strategies for green supply chain management, while providing sound managerial insights for the supply chain decision maker. The choice of supply chain strategy directly impacts the overall environmental, economic and operations performance of the supply chain. Originality/value: This study presents to supply chain decision makers a new taxonomic framework that simplifies and enhances the formulation of green strategies, and to researchers a comparative understanding of various strategies applicable to green supply chains.

  8. A strategic approach to quality improvement and patient safety education and resident integration in a general surgery residency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Heron, Colette T; Jarman, Benjamin T

    2014-01-01

    To outline a structured approach for general surgery resident integration into institutional quality improvement and patient safety education and development. A strategic plan to address Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) Clinical Learning Environment Review assessments for resident integration into Quality Improvement and Patient Safety initiatives is described. Gundersen Lutheran Medical Foundation is an independent academic medical center graduating three categorical residents per year within an integrated multi-specialty health system serving 19 counties over 3 states. The quality improvement and patient safety education program includes a formal lecture series, online didactic sessions, mandatory quality improvement or patient safety projects, institutional committee membership, an opportunity to serve as a designated American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Project and Quality in Training representative, mandatory morbidity and mortality conference attendance and clinical electives in rural surgery and international settings. Structured education regarding and participation in quality improvement and patient safety programs are able to be accomplished during general surgery residency. The long-term outcomes and benefits of these strategies are unknown at this time and will be difficult to measure with objective data. © 2013 Published by Association of Program Directors in Surgery on behalf of Association of Program Directors in Surgery.

  9. Perception approaches and practices of local farming and development: an anthropological approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadi, S.A.; Chaudhry, A.G.

    2015-01-01

    The study focused on recognizing the local approaches of farming in designing and implementation of development projects. These approaches are representative of a particular ecological, social, economical, and political system, shaped by the constraints and opportunities associated to the area. Effective and successful development projects must include the local perceptions, their approaches and practices, as the locals are the ones most representative of their issues and have the most workable solution to them. The traditional agriculture has completely been clutched into the nexus of modern farming methods, due to which they are being abandoned by the farmers. Modern farming which is representative of development has increased the competition, transitioning, breaking the community into people experimenting on modern technology and those who are still finding means to adapt their traditional agriculture to the fast changing needs of the societies. The research was carried out in the villages of Ghora Gali and Aruka through qualitative and quantitative methods. Sustainable development in Pakistan thus needs to be reinvented in the local perspective considering approaches and practices and, eradicating the alien chains of development completely. (author)

  10. Development and application of a unified balancing approach with multiple constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorzi, E. S.; Lee, C. C.; Giordano, J. C.

    1985-01-01

    The development of a general analytic approach to constrained balancing that is consistent with past influence coefficient methods is described. The approach uses Lagrange multipliers to impose orbit and/or weight constraints; these constraints are combined with the least squares minimization process to provide a set of coupled equations that result in a single solution form for determining correction weights. Proper selection of constraints results in the capability to: (1) balance higher speeds without disturbing previously balanced modes, thru the use of modal trial weight sets; (2) balance off-critical speeds; and (3) balance decoupled modes by use of a single balance plane. If no constraints are imposed, this solution form reduces to the general weighted least squares influence coefficient method. A test facility used to examine the use of the general constrained balancing procedure and application of modal trial weight ratios is also described.

  11. A unique anesthesia approach for carotid endarterectomy: Combination of general and regional anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhen Samanta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Carotid endarterectomy (CEA, a preventable surgery, reduces the future risks of cerebrovascular stroWke in patients with marked carotid stenosis. Peri-operative management of such patients is challenging due to associated major co-morbidities and high incidence of peri-operative stroke and myocardial infarction. Both general anesthesia (GA and local regional anesthesia (LRA can be used with their pros and cons. Most developing countries as well as some developed countries usually perform CEA under GA because of technical easiness. LRA usually comprises superficial, intermediate, deep cervical plexus block or a combination of these techniques. Deep block, particularly, is technically difficult and more complicated, whereas intermediate plexus block is technically easy and equally effective. We did CEA under a combination of GA and LRA using ropivacaine 0.375% with 1 mcg/kg dexmedetomidine (DEX infiltration. In LRA, we gave combined superficial and intermediate cervical plexus block with infiltration at the incision site and along the lower border of mandible. We observed better hemodynamics in intraoperative as well as postoperative periods and an improved postoperative outcome of the patient. So, we concluded that combination of GA and LRA is a good anesthetic technique for CEA. Larger randomized prospective trials are needed to support our conclusion.

  12. Conceptual development of a complete LWR reload design methodology based on generalized perturbation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    A new approach for the physics design and analysis of LWR reload cores is developed and demonstrated through several practical applications. The new design philosophy uses first- and second-order response derivatives to predict the important reactor performance characteristics (power peaking, reactivity coefficients, etc.) for any number of possible material configurations (assembly shuffling and burnable poison loadings). The response derivatives are computed using generalized perturbation theory (GPT) techniques. This report describes in detail an idealized GPT-based design system. The idealized system would contain individual modules to generate the required first-order and higher-order sensitivity data. It would also contain at least two major application codes; one for core design optimization and the other for evaluation of several safety parameters of interest in off-normal situations. This ideal system would be fully automated, user-friendly, and quite flexible in its ability to provide a variety of design and analysis capabilities. Information gained form these three studies gives a good foundation for the development of a complete integrated design package

  13. Cooperative technology development: An approach to advancing energy technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stern, T.

    1989-09-01

    Technology development requires an enormous financial investment over a long period of time. Scarce national and corporate resources, the result of highly competitive markets, decreased profit margins, wide currency fluctuations, and growing debt, often preclude continuous development of energy technology by single entities, i.e., corporations, institutions, or nations. Although the energy needs of the developed world are generally being met by existing institutions, it is becoming increasingly clear that existing capital formation and technology transfer structures have failed to aid developing nations in meeting their growing electricity needs. This paper will describe a method for meeting the electricity needs of the developing world through technology transfer and international cooperative technology development. The role of nuclear power and the advanced passive plant design will be discussed. (author)

  14. An OOP Approach to Simplify MDI Application Development An OOP Approach to Simplify MDI Application Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donato Hernández Fusilier

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The Multiple Document Interface (MDI is a Microsoft Windows specification that allows managing multiple documents using a single graphic interface application. An MDI application allows opening several documents simultaneously. Only one document is active at a particular time. MDI applications can be deployed using Win32 or Microsoft Foundation Classes (MFC. Programs developed using Win32 are faster than those using MFC. However, Win32applications are difficult to implement and prone to errors. It should be mentioned that, learning how to properly use MFC to deploy MDI applications is not simple, and performance is typically worse than that of Win32 applications. A method to simplify the development of MDI applications using Object-Oriented Programming (OOP is proposed. Subsequently, it is shown that this method generates compact code that is easier to read and maintain than other methods (i.e., MFC. Finally, it is demonstrated that the proposed method allowsthe rapid development of MDI applications without sacrificing application performance.La Interfase para Múltiples Documentos (MDI es una especificación del sistema operativo Microsoft Windows que permite manipular varios documentos usando un sólo programa. Un programa del tipo MDI permite abrir varios documentos simultáneamente. En un instante dado, sólo un documento es activo. Los programas del tipo MDI pueden desarrollarseu sando Win32 o las clases fundamentales de Microsoft (MFC. Los programas desarrollados usando Win32 son más rápidos que los programas que usan MFC. Sin embargo, éstos son difíciles de implementar promoviendo la existencia de errores. Cabe mencionar que el desarrollo de programas del tipo MDI usando MFC no es sencillo, y que su desempeño estípicamente peor que el de un programa del tipo Win32. Se propone un método que drásticamente simplifica el desarrollo de programas del tipo MDI por medio de la Programación Orientada a Objetos (POO. Se demuestra que el m

  15. Systematic approach to scenario development using FEP analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, L.E.E.; Lever, D.A.

    2001-01-01

    UK regulatory requirements require that the 'assessed radiological risk ... to a representative member of the potentially exposed group at greatest risk should be consistent with a risk target of 10 -6 per year' and that risks should be 'summed over all situations that could give rise to exposure to the group'. It is a further requirement that a repository performance assessment provides a 'comprehensive record of the judgements and assumptions on which the risk assessments are based'. In order to meet these requirements, Nirex, working with AEA Technology, has developed an approach to performance assessment based on the identification and analysis of features, events and processes (FEPs). The objectives of the approach are to provide a comprehensive, traceable and clear presentation of a performance assessment for a deep geological radioactive waste repository. The approach to scenario development is fundamental to the overall Nirex strategy for performance assessment, eventually leading to a repository safety case for regulatory submission. This paper outlines the main concepts of the approach, illustrated with examples of work undertaken by Nirex to demonstrate its practicality. Due to the current status of the Nirex repository programme, the approach has not yet been used to conduct a full performance assessment of a repository located at a specific site. (authors)

  16. Sustainable intensification: a multifaceted, systemic approach to international development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himmelstein, Jennifer; Ares, Adrian; van Houweling, Emily

    2016-12-01

    Sustainable intensification (SI) is a term increasingly used to describe a type of approach applied to international agricultural projects. Despite its widespread use, there is still little understanding or knowledge of the various facets of this composite paradigm. A review of the literature has led to the formalization of three principles that convey the current characterization of SI, comprising a whole system, participatory, agroecological approach. Specific examples of potential bottlenecks to the SI approach are cited, in addition to various technologies and techniques that can be applied to overcome these obstacles. Models of similar, succcessful approaches to agricultural development are examined, along with higher level processes. Additionally, this review explores the desired end points of SI and argues for the inclusion of gender and nutrition throughout the process. To properly apply the SI approach, its various aspects need to be understood and adapted to different cultural and geographic situations. New modeling systems and examples of the effective execution of SI strategies can assist with the successful application of the SI paradigm within complex developing communities. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Measuring and Examining General Self-Efficacy among Community College Students: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Starobin, Soko S.

    2018-01-01

    This study examined a psychosocial mechanism of how general self-efficacy interacts with other key factors and influences degree aspiration for students enrolled in an urban diverse community college. Using general self-efficacy scales, the authors hypothesized the General Self-efficacy model for Community College students (the GSE-CC model). A…

  18. Routine general practice care for panic disorder within the lifestyle approach to managing panic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodney A. Lambert

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Routine general practice (GP care is rarely comprehensively described in clinical trials. This paper examines routine GP care within the lifestyle approach to managing panic (LAMP study. The aim of this paper is to describe/discuss routine GP care for panic disorder (PD patients within both study arms in the LAMP study. An unblinded pragmatic randomised controlled trial in 15 East of England GP practices (2 primary care trusts. Participants met Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition criteria for PD with/without agoraphobia. Follow-up measures recorded at 20 weeks/10 months following randomisation. Control arm, unrestricted routine GP care (practice appointments, referrals and prescriptions. Trial arm, occupational therapyled lifestyle treatment comprising lifestyle review of fluid intake, diet pattern, exercise, caffeine, alcohol and nicotine. Primary outcome measure: beck anxiety inventory. At baseline, participants attended 2-3 times more GP appointments than population average, reducing at 10 months to 1.6 times population average for routine GP care and 0.97 population average for lifestyle arm. At 10 months, 33% fewer referrals (6 referrals; 0 mental health than at baseline (9 referrals; 2 mental health were made for lifestyle arm patients compared with 42% increase (from 12 referrals; 8 mental health at baseline to 17 referrals; 7 mental health in GP care arm. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors were prescribed most often. Benzodiazepines and beta-blockers were prescribed more often than tricyclic against current clinical guidelines. In conclusion, we found that PD patients at baseline were high healthcare resource users. Treatment in both study arms reduced resource use. Routine GP care requires further review for this patient group.

  19. Non-aqueous metathesis as a general approach to prepare nanodispersed materials: Case study of scheelites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afanasiev, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    A general approach to the preparation of inorganic nanoparticles is proposed, using metathesis of precursor salts in non-aqueous liquids. Nanoparticles of scheelites AMO 4 (A=Ba, Sr, Ca; M=Mo, W), were obtained with a quantitative yield. Precipitations in formamide, N-methylformamide, propylene carbonate, DMSO and polyols often provide narrow particle size distributions. Advantageous morphology was explained by strong ionic association in non-aqueous solvents, leading to slow nucleation and negligible Ostwald ripening. Mean particle size below 10 nm and high specific surface areas were obtained for several Ca(Sr)Mo(W)O 4 materials, making them promising for applications as adsorbents or catalysts. Zeta-potential of scheelites in aqueous suspensions showed negative values in a wide range of pH. Systematic study of optical properties demonstrated variation of optical gap in the sequences W>Mo and Ba>Sr>Ca. The observed trends were reproduced by DFT calculations. No quantum confinement effect was observed for small particles, though the surface states induce low-energy features in the optical spectra. - Graphical abstract: Scheelites AMO 4 (A=Ca, Sr, Ba; M=Mo, W) were prepared in various non-aqueous liquids with high specific surface areas and narrow size distributions. The optical gap of scheelites changes in the series Ca

  20. Distributional impacts of carbon pricing: A general equilibrium approach with micro-data for households

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rausch, Sebastian; Metcalf, Gilbert E.; Reilly, John M.

    2011-01-01

    Many policies to limit greenhouse gas emissions have at their core efforts to put a price on carbon emissions. Carbon pricing impacts households both by raising the cost of carbon intensive products and by changing factor prices. A complete analysis requires taking both effects into account. The impact of carbon pricing is determined by heterogeneity in household spending patterns across income groups as well as heterogeneity in factor income patterns across income groups. It is also affected by precise formulation of the policy (how is the revenue from carbon pricing distributed) as well as the treatment of other government policies (e.g. the treatment of transfer payments). What is often neglected in analyses of policy is the heterogeneity of impacts across households even within income or regional groups. In this paper, we incorporate 15,588 households from the U.S. Consumer and Expenditure Survey data as individual agents in a comparative-static general equilibrium framework. These households are represented within the MIT USREP model, a detailed general equilibrium model of the U.S. economy. In particular, we categorize households by full household income (factor income as well as transfer income) and apply various measures of lifetime income to distinguish households that are temporarily low-income (e.g., retired households drawing down their financial assets) from permanently low-income households. We also provide detailed within-group distributional measures of burden impacts from various policy scenarios. - Highlights: → We develop a simulation model with 15,588 households to study the distributional impacts of carbon pricing in the US. → Sources side impacts have typically been ignored in the literature biasing studies towards finding carbon pricing to be regressive. → Our general equilibrium framework allows us to capture uses and sources side impacts from carbon pricing. → We find that variation in impacts within broad socioeconomic groups may

  1. A plant control system development approach for IRIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, R.T.; Brittain, C.R.; March-Leuba, J.A.; Conway, L.E.; Oriani, L.

    2003-01-01

    The plant control system concept for the International Reactor Innovative and Secure (IRIS) will make use of integrated control, diagnostic, and decision modules to provide a highly automated intelligent control capability. The plant control system development approach established for IRIS involves determination and verification of control strategies based on whole-plant simulation; identification of measurement, control, and diagnostic needs; development of an architectural framework in which to integrate an intelligent plant control system; and design of the necessary control and diagnostic elements for implementation and validation. This paper describes key elements of the plant control system development approach established for IRIS and presents some of the strategies and methods investigated to support the desired control capabilities. (author)

  2. Transgenic approaches for development of disease resistance in banana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shekhawat, Upendra K.S.; Ghag, Siddhesh B.; Ganapathi, Thumballi R.

    2014-01-01

    Banana (Musa spp.) is an important food and cash crop worldwide. Diseases and pests pose the most serious constraint to banana cultivation. Among the diseases, Fusarium wilt and Banana Bunchy Top Virus (BBTV) are the most important economically. We have explored different transgenic approaches for development of efficient resistance in banana against these two diseases. For countering Fusarium wilt, we have over expressed Petunia floral defensins using a strong constitutive promoter in transgenic banana plants. We have also tested a host induced gene silencing strategy targeting two vital fungal genes to obtain Fusarium resistant banana plants. For development of BBTV resistant banana plants also, we have used a host-induced gene silencing approach utilizing the full and partial coding sequence of the viral replication initiation protein. Successful bioassays performed in controlled greenhouse conditions have shown the efficacy of using these strategies to develop disease resistant banana plants. (author)

  3. Recent developments in protein and peptide parenteral delivery approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Ashaben; Cholkar, Kishore; Mitra, Ashim K

    2014-01-01

    Discovery of insulin in the early 1900s initiated the research and development to improve the means of therapeutic protein delivery in patients. In the past decade, great emphasis has been placed on bringing protein and peptide therapeutics to market. Despite tremendous efforts, parenteral delivery still remains the major mode of administration for protein and peptide therapeutics. Other routes such as oral, nasal, pulmonary and buccal are considered more opportunistic rather than routine application. Improving biological half-life, stability and therapeutic efficacy is central to protein and peptide delivery. Several approaches have been tried in the past to improve protein and peptide in vitro/in vivo stability and performance. Approaches may be broadly categorized as chemical modification and colloidal delivery systems. In this review we have discussed various chemical approaches such as PEGylation, hyperglycosylation, mannosylation, and colloidal carriers including microparticles, nanoparticles, liposomes, carbon nanotubes and micelles for improving protein and peptide delivery. Recent developments on in situ thermosensitive gel-based protein and peptide delivery have also been described. This review summarizes recent developments on some currently existing approaches to improve stability, bioavailability and bioactivity of peptide and protein therapeutics following parenteral administration. PMID:24592957

  4. A Participatory Systemic Approach To Rural Community Development In Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuan M. Ha

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Various failures of the traditional approach in community development in developing countries have led to the development of a more appropriate and holistic approach to address complex development issues. Systems approaches and cutting-edge tools have recently been embraced to deal with such complexities under contexts of interwoven relationships amongst social economic political cultural and environmental factors. This paper provides reflections on practical value of the Evolutionary Learning Laboratory ELLab through a case study on improving the quality of life for women farmers in northern Vietnam where gender-bias labour hardship and poor living-standard are evident. The first five steps of the participatory systems-based ELLab were implemented during 2013-2014 providing valuable results that have made both practical and theoretical contributions with substantial implications to community development. Our study finds that the context-based results reshaped the original project goal. The approach and framework helped to identify and engage right stakeholders in problem analyses and decision making activities. Fuzzy problems within the complex web of life of the women and rural households were uncovered using relevant systems tools to develop a big picture systems model of the current situation defining levers for systemic interventions. The ELLab helps to build capacity of local people for taking ownership of the process and outcomes to guarantee sustainability and long-term impacts. It also facilitates true participation and co-learning amongst stakeholders triggering transformative learning. Contributions to action research and an innovative mechanism for sharing reflections and lessons at both local and global levels via the online Think2ImpactTM are discussed.

  5. The development of professional practice standards for Australian general practice nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halcomb, Elizabeth; Stephens, Moira; Bryce, Julianne; Foley, Elizabeth; Ashley, Christine

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the current role of general practice nurses and the scope of nursing practice to inform the development of national professional practice standards for Australian general practice nurses. Increasing numbers of nurses have been employed in Australian general practice to meet the growing demand for primary care services. This has brought significant changes to the nursing role. Competency standards for nurses working in general practice were first developed in Australia in 2005, but limited attention has been placed on articulating the contemporary scope of practice for nurses in this setting. Concurrent mixed methods design. Data collection was conducted during 2013-2014 and involved two online surveys of Registered and Enrolled Nurses currently working in general practice, a series of 14 focus groups across Australia and a series of consultations with key experts. Data collection enabled the development of 22 Practice Standards separated into four domains: (i) Professional Practice; (ii) Nursing Care; (iii) General Practice Environment and (iv) Collaborative Practice. To differentiate the variations in enacting these Standards, performance indicators for the Enrolled Nurse, Registered Nurse and Registered Nurse Advanced Practice are provided under each Standard. The development of national professional practice standards for nurses working in Australian general practice will support ongoing workforce development. These Standards are also an important means of articulating the role and scope of the nurses' practice for both consumers and other health professionals, as well as being a guide for curriculum development and measurement of performance. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. General Practitioners Views of Implementing a Stratified Treatment Approach for Low Back Pain in Germany: A Qualitative Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Karstens

    Full Text Available The STarT Back stratified primary care approach has demonstrated clinical and cost effectiveness in the UK, and is commonly used by General Practitioners (GPs. However, it remains unknown how this approach could be implemented into the German healthcare system. The aim of this study was therefore to explore the views and perceptions of German GPs in respect to using a stratified primary care for low back pain (LBP.A 90-minute think-tank workshop was conducted with 14 male and five female GPs, during which the STarT-Back-Screening-Tool (SBST and related research evidence was presented. This was followed by two focus groups, based on a semi-structured interview guideline to identify potential implementation barriers and opportunities. Discussions were audiotaped, transcribed and coded using a content analysis approach.For the three deductively developed main themes, 15 subthemes emerged: (1 application of the SBST, with the following subthemes: which health profession should administer it, patients known to the GP practice, the reason for the GP consultation, scoring the tool, the tool format, and the anticipated impact on GP practice; (2 psychologically informed physiotherapy, with subthemes including: provision by a physiotherapist, anticipated impact, the skills of physiotherapists, management of patients with severe psychosocial problems, referral and remuneration; (3 the management of low-risk patients, with subthemes including: concern about the appropriate advising health professional, information and media, length of consultation, and local exercise venues.The attitudes of GPs towards stratified primary care for LBP indicated positive support for pilot-testing in Germany. However, there were mixed reactions to the ability of German physiotherapists to manage high-risk patients and handle their complex clinical needs. GPs also mentioned practical difficulties in providing extended advice to low-risk patients, which nevertheless could be

  7. Personnel planning in general practices: development and testing of a skill mix analysis method.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eitzen-Strassel, J. von; Vrijhoef, H.J.M.; Derckx, E.W.C.C.; Bakker, D.H. de

    2014-01-01

    Background: General practitioners (GPs) have to match patients’ demands with the mix of their practice staff’s competencies. However, apart from some general principles, there is little guidance on recruiting new staff. The purpose of this study was to develop and test a method which would allow GPs

  8. Personnel planning in general practices : Development and testing of a skill mix analysis method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    von Eitzen-Strassel, J.; Vrijhoef, H.J.M.; Derckx, E.W.C.C.; de Bakker, D.H.

    2014-01-01

    Background General practitioners (GPs) have to match patients’ demands with the mix of their practice staff’s competencies. However, apart from some general principles, there is little guidance on recruiting new staff. The purpose of this study was to develop and test a method which would allow GPs

  9. Developing a framework of, and quality indicators for, general practice management in Europe.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engels, Y.M.P.; Campbell, S.M.; Dautzenberg, M.G.H.; Hombergh, P. van den; Brinkmann, H.; Szecsenyi, J.; Falcoff, H.; Seuntjens, L.; Kuenzi, B.; Grol, R.P.T.M.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To develop a framework for general practice management made up of quality indicators shared by six European countries. METHODS: Two-round postal Delphi questionnaire in the setting of general practice in Belgium, France, Germany, The Netherlands, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. Six

  10. Generalized Maintenance Trainer Simulator: Development of Hardware and Software. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towne, Douglas M.; Munro, Allen

    A general purpose maintenance trainer, which has the potential to simulate a wide variety of electronic equipments without hardware changes or new computer programs, has been developed and field tested by the Navy. Based on a previous laboratory model, the Generalized Maintenance Trainer Simulator (GMTS) is a relatively low cost trainer that…

  11. Object Oriented Approach to Software Development for LHC Experiments

    CERN Multimedia

    Tummers, B J; Day, C; Innocente, V; Mount, R; Visser, E; Burnett, T H; Balke, C

    2002-01-01

    % RD41 \\\\ \\\\ We propose to study the viability of the Object Oriented~(OO) approach for developing the code for LHC experiments. The authors of this proposal will learn the key issues of this approach:~~OO analysis and design. Several methodologies will be studied to select the most appropriate for the High Energy Physics case. Some Computer Aided Software Engineering tools and implementation languages will be evaluated. These studies will be carried out with various well-defined prototypes, some of which have been defined in a preceding study and some of which will be defined in the course of this R\\&D project. We propose to also study in this project how the OO approach enhances a different, and hopefully better, project management. Management tools will be tried and professional training will be organized.

  12. The contribution of several Nobel Laureates in the development of the Theory of general economic equilibrium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentina Xhelili Krasniqi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Nobel Laureates with their contributions to the development of the theory of general equilibrium have enabled this theory to be one of the most important for theoretical and practical analysis of the overall economy and the efficient use of economic resources. Results of the research showing that contributions of Nobel Laureates in the economy belong to two main frameworks of development of the general equilibrium theory: one was the mathematical model of general equilibrium developed by John R. Hicks (1939, Kenneth J.Arrow (1951 and Gerard Debreu (1954 and second frames of general equilibrium belongs to Paul A. Samuelson (1958. To highlight the contributions of these Nobel laureates in the development of the theory of general equilibrium have been selected and are presented in the paper some views, estimates and assumptions that have contributed not only in solving concrete problems, but also to the development of economic science in general. Their works represent a synthesis of theoretical and practical aspects of treatment of general equilibrium which are the starting point for further research in this field.

  13. A MOOC approach for training researchers in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Murugesan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We report on an online course in research writing offered in a massive open online course (MOOC format for developing country researchers. The concepts of cognitive presence, teacher presence, and social presence informed the design of the course, with a philosophy of strong social interaction supported by guest facilitators. The course was developed with low-bandwidth elements and hosted on a Moodle site. It was offered twice as a MOOC and 2830 learners from more than 90 countries, mainly in the developing world, took part. The average completion rate was 53%. Female learners and learners who were active in the forums were more likely to complete the course. Our MOOC approach may be a useful model for continuing professional development training in the developing world.

  14. Effects of conventional and problem-based learning on clinical and general competencies and career development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen-Schotanus, Janke; Muijtjens, Arno M. M.; Schonrock-Adema, Johanna; Geertsma, Jelle; van der Vleuten, Cees P. M.

    OBJECTIVE: To test hypotheses regarding the longitudinal effects of problem-based learning (PBL) and conventional learning relating to students' appreciation of the curriculum, self-assessment of general competencies, summative assessment of clinical competence and indicators of career development.

  15. Implementation of an electronic surgical referral service. Collaboration, consensus and cost of the surgeon – general practitioner Delphi approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augestad KM

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Knut Magne Augestad,1–3 Arthur Revhaug,1,3 Roar Johnsen,4 Stein-Olav Skrøvseth,2 Rolv-Ole Lindsetmo1,3 1Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, 2Department of Integrated Care and Telemedicine, University Hospital North Norway, Tromsø, Norway; 3Department of Colorectal Surgery, University Hospitals Case Medical Center, Cleveland, Ohio, USA; 4Department of Public Health and General Practice, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway Background: Poor coordination between levels of care plays a central role in determining the quality and cost of health care. To improve patient coordination, systematic structures, guidelines, and processes for creating, transferring, and recognizing information are needed to facilitate referral routines. Methods: Prospective observational survey of implementation of electronic medical record (EMR-supported guidelines for surgical treatment. Results: One university clinic, two local hospitals, 31 municipalities, and three EMR vendors participated in the implementation project. Surgical referral guidelines were developed using the Delphi method; 22 surgeons and seven general practitioners (GPs needed 109 hours to reach consensus. Based on consensus guidelines, an electronic referral service supported by a clinical decision support system, fully integrated into the GPs' EMR, was developed. Fifty-five information technology personnel and 563 hours were needed (total cost 67,000 £ to implement a guideline supported system in the EMR for 139 GPs. Economical analyses from a hospital and societal perspective, showed that 504 (range 401–670 and 37 (range 29–49 referred patients, respectively, were needed to provide a cost-effective service. Conclusion: A considerable amount of resources were needed to reach consensus on the surgical referral guidelines. A structured approach by the Delphi method and close collaboration between IT personnel, surgeons and primary care physicians were needed to

  16. A Novel Approach for Modeling Chemical Reaction in Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sozen, Mehmet; Majumdar, Alok

    2002-01-01

    The Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP) is a computer code developed at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center for analyzing steady state and transient flow rates, pressures, temperatures, and concentrations in a complex flow network. The code, which performs system level simulation, can handle compressible and incompressible flows as well as phase change and mixture thermodynamics. Thermodynamic and thermophysical property programs, GASP, WASP and GASPAK provide the necessary data for fluids such as helium, methane, neon, nitrogen, carbon monoxide, oxygen, argon, carbon dioxide, fluorine, hydrogen, water, a hydrogen, isobutane, butane, deuterium, ethane, ethylene, hydrogen sulfide, krypton, propane, xenon, several refrigerants, nitrogen trifluoride and ammonia. The program which was developed out of need for an easy to use system level simulation tool for complex flow networks, has been used for the following purposes to name a few: Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) High Pressure Oxidizer Turbopump Secondary Flow Circuits, Axial Thrust Balance of the Fastrac Engine Turbopump, Pressurized Propellant Feed System for the Propulsion Test Article at Stennis Space Center, X-34 Main Propulsion System, X-33 Reaction Control System and Thermal Protection System, and International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System design. There has been an increasing demand for implementing a combustion simulation capability into GFSSP in order to increase its system level simulation capability of a liquid rocket propulsion system starting from the propellant tanks up to the thruster nozzle for spacecraft as well as launch vehicles. The present work was undertaken for addressing this need. The chemical equilibrium equations derived from the second law of thermodynamics and the energy conservation equation derived from the first law of thermodynamics are solved simultaneously by a Newton-Raphson method. The numerical scheme was implemented as a User

  17. General approach to the testing of binary solubility systems for thermodynamic consistency. Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamm, L.L.; Van Brunt, V.

    1982-08-01

    A comparison of implicit Runge-Kutta and orthogonal collocation methods is made for the numerical solution to the ordinary differential equation which describes the high-pressure vapor-liquid equilibria of a binary system. The systems of interest are limited to binary solubility systems where one of the components is supercritical and exists as a noncondensable gas in the pure state. Of the two methods - implicit Runge-Kuta and orthogonal collocation - this paper attempts to present some preliminary but not necessarily conclusive results that the implicit Runge-Kutta method is superior for the solution to the ordinary differential equation utilized in the thermodynamic consistency testing of binary solubility systems. Due to the extreme nonlinearity of thermodynamic properties in the region near the critical locus, an extended cubic spline fitting technique is devised for correlating the P-x data. The least-squares criterion is employed in smoothing the experimental data. Even though the derivation is presented specifically for the correlation of P-x data, the technique could easily be applied to any thermodynamic data by changing the endpoint requirements. The volumetric behavior of the systems must be given or predicted in order to perform thermodynamic consistency tests. A general procedure is developed for predicting the volumetric behavior required and some indication as to the expected limit of accuracy is given

  18. Essays on environmental policy analysis: Computable general equilibrium approaches applied to Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, M.

    2001-01-01

    This thesis consists of three essays within the field of applied environmental economics, with the common basic aim of analyzing effects of Swedish environmental policy. Starting out from Swedish environmental goals, the thesis assesses a range of policy-related questions. The objective is to quantify policy outcomes by constructing and applying numerical models especially designed for environmental policy analysis. Static and dynamic multi-sectoral computable general equilibrium models are developed in order to analyze the following issues. The costs and benefits of a domestic carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) tax reform. Special attention is given to how these costs and benefits depend on the structure of the tax system and, furthermore, how they depend on policy-induced changes in 'secondary' pollutants. The effects of allowing for emission permit trading through time when the domestic long-term domestic environmental goal is specified in CO 2 stock terms. The effects on long-term projected economic growth and welfare that are due to damages from emission flow and accumulation of 'local' pollutants (nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide), as well as the outcome of environmental policy when costs and benefits are considered in an integrated environmental-economic framework

  19. Vertical Integration in Teaching And Learning (VITAL): an approach to medical education in general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Marie-Louise B; King, David B; Mitchell, Geoffrey K; Kelly, Glynn D; Buckley, John F; Garside, Susan J

    2007-07-16

    There is increasing demand to provide clinical and teaching experiences in the general practice setting. Vertical integration in teaching and learning, whereby teaching and learning roles are shared across all learner stages, has the potential to decrease time demands and stress on general practitioners, to provide teaching skills and experience to GP registrars, and to improve the learning experience for medical students, and may also help meet the increased demand for teaching in general practice. We consider potential advantages and barriers to vertical integration of teaching in general practice, and provide results of focus group discussions with general practice principals and registrars about vertical integration. We recommend further research into the feasibility of using vertical integration to enhance the capacity to teach medical students in general practice.

  20. A Novel Approach toward Fuzzy Generalized Bi-Ideals in Ordered Semigroups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faiz Muhammad Khan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In several advanced fields like control engineering, computer science, fuzzy automata, finite state machine, and error correcting codes, the use of fuzzified algebraic structures especially ordered semigroups plays a central role. In this paper, we introduced a new and advanced generalization of fuzzy generalized bi-ideals of ordered semigroups. These new concepts are supported by suitable examples. These new notions are the generalizations of ordinary fuzzy generalized bi-ideals of ordered semigroups. Several fundamental theorems of ordered semigroups are investigated by the properties of these newly defined fuzzy generalized bi-ideals. Further, using level sets, ordinary fuzzy generalized bi-ideals are linked with these newly defined ideals which is the most significant part of this paper.

  1. A Multicultural Competencies Approach to Developing Human Capital Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolliscroft, Paul; Cagáňová, Dagmar; Čambál, Miloš; Šefčíková, Miriam; Kamenova, Joana Valery

    2012-12-01

    The globalisation phenomenon has been prevalent since the last decade of 20th century and remains a significant factor influencing both organisations and individuals today. Within a globalised business environment the effective management of multicultural aspects and differences has become imperative to ensure success. It is increasingly evident there is a need to develop a clear understanding of multicultural competencies in order to fully develop a strategic approach to human capital management (HCM). The adoption of a strategic approach is necessary to ensure a focus on the issues critical to success and competitive advantage including multicultural management, professional skills and knowledge management. This paper aims to identify the importance of intercultural management and the impact of globalisation upon international business.

  2. A General Approach to Enhance Short Wave Satellite Imagery by Removing Background Atmospheric Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Scheirer

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric interaction distorts the surface signal received by a space-borne instrument. Images derived from visible channels appear often too bright and with reduced contrast. This hampers the use of RGB imagery otherwise useful in ocean color applications and in forecasting or operational disaster monitoring, for example forest fires. In order to correct for the dominant source of atmospheric noise, a simple, fast and flexible algorithm has been developed. The algorithm is implemented in Python and freely available in PySpectral which is part of the PyTroll family of open source packages, allowing easy access to powerful real-time image-processing tools. Pre-calculated look-up tables of top of atmosphere reflectance are derived by off-line calculations with RTM DISORT as part of the LibRadtran package. The approach is independent of platform and sensor bands, and allows it to be applied to any band in the visible spectral range. Due to the use of standard atmospheric profiles and standard aerosol loads, it is possible just to reduce the background disturbance. Thus signals from excess aerosols become more discernible. Examples of uncorrected and corrected satellite images demonstrate that this flexible real-time algorithm is a useful tool for atmospheric correction.

  3. Science based integrated approach to advanced nuclear fuel development - vision, approach, and overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unal, Cetin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pasamehmetoglu, Kemal [IDAHO NATIONAL LAB; Carmack, Jon [IDAHO NATIONAL LAB

    2010-01-01

    Advancing the performance of Light Water Reactors, Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles, and Advanced Rcactors, such as the Next Generation Nuclear Power Plants, requires enhancing our fundamental understanding of fuel and materials behavior under irradiation. The capability to accurately model the nuclear fuel systems is critical. In order to understand specific aspects of the nuclear fuel, fully coupled fuel simulation codes are required to achieve licensing of specific nuclear fuel designs for operation. The backbone of these codes, models, and simulations is a fundamental understanding and predictive capability for simulating the phase and microstructural behavior of the nuclear fuel system materials and matrices. The purpose of this paper is to identify the modeling and simulation approach in order to deliver predictive tools for advanced fuels development. The coordination between experimental nuclear fuel design, development technical experts, and computational fuel modeling and simulation technical experts is a critical aspect of the approach and naturally leads to an integrated, goal-oriented science-based R & D approach and strengthens both the experimental and computational efforts. The Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) and Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) Fuels Integrated Performance and Safety Code (IPSC) are working together to determine experimental data and modeling needs. The primary objective of the NEAMS fuels IPSC project is to deliver a coupled, three-dimensional, predictive computational platform for modeling the fabrication and both normal and abnormal operation of nuclear fuel pins and assemblies, applicable to both existing and future reactor fuel designs. The science based program is pursuing the development of an integrated multi-scale and multi-physics modeling and simulation platform for nuclear fuels. This overview paper discusses the vision, goals and approaches how to develop and implement the new approach.

  4. Science based integrated approach to advanced nuclear fuel development - vision, approach, and overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unal, Cetin; Pasamehmetoglu, Kemal; Carmack, Jon

    2010-01-01

    Advancing the performance of Light Water Reactors, Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles, and Advanced Rcactors, such as the Next Generation Nuclear Power Plants, requires enhancing our fundamental understanding of fuel and materials behavior under irradiation. The capability to accurately model the nuclear fuel systems is critical. In order to understand specific aspects of the nuclear fuel, fully coupled fuel simulation codes are required to achieve licensing of specific nuclear fuel designs for operation. The backbone of these codes, models, and simulations is a fundamental understanding and predictive capability for simulating the phase and microstructural behavior of the nuclear fuel system materials and matrices. The purpose of this paper is to identify the modeling and simulation approach in order to deliver predictive tools for advanced fuels development. The coordination between experimental nuclear fuel design, development technical experts, and computational fuel modeling and simulation technical experts is a critical aspect of the approach and naturally leads to an integrated, goal-oriented science-based R and D approach and strengthens both the experimental and computational efforts. The Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) and Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) Fuels Integrated Performance and Safety Code (IPSC) are working together to determine experimental data and modeling needs. The primary objective of the NEAMS fuels IPSC project is to deliver a coupled, three-dimensional, predictive computational platform for modeling the fabrication and both normal and abnormal operation of nuclear fuel pins and assemblies, applicable to both existing and future reactor fuel designs. The science based program is pursuing the development of an integrated multi-scale and multi-physics modeling and simulation platform for nuclear fuels. This overview paper discusses the vision, goals and approaches how to develop and implement the new approach.

  5. Genome-Wide Approaches to Drosophila Heart Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfred Frasch

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The development of the dorsal vessel in Drosophila is one of the first systems in which key mechanisms regulating cardiogenesis have been defined in great detail at the genetic and molecular level. Due to evolutionary conservation, these findings have also provided major inputs into studies of cardiogenesis in vertebrates. Many of the major components that control Drosophila cardiogenesis were discovered based on candidate gene approaches and their functions were defined by employing the outstanding genetic tools and molecular techniques available in this system. More recently, approaches have been taken that aim to interrogate the entire genome in order to identify novel components and describe genomic features that are pertinent to the regulation of heart development. Apart from classical forward genetic screens, the availability of the thoroughly annotated Drosophila genome sequence made new genome-wide approaches possible, which include the generation of massive numbers of RNA interference (RNAi reagents that were used in forward genetic screens, as well as studies of the transcriptomes and proteomes of the developing heart under normal and experimentally manipulated conditions. Moreover, genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments have been performed with the aim to define the full set of genomic binding sites of the major cardiogenic transcription factors, their relevant target genes, and a more complete picture of the regulatory network that drives cardiogenesis. This review will give an overview on these genome-wide approaches to Drosophila heart development and on computational analyses of the obtained information that ultimately aim to provide a description of this process at the systems level.

  6. The applying stakeholder approach to strategic management of territories development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilshat Azamatovich Tazhitdinov

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, the aspects of the strategic management of socioeconomic development of territories in terms of stakeholder approach are discussed. The author's interpretation of the concept of stakeholder sub-region is proposed, and their classification into internal and external to the territorial socioeconomic system of sub-regional level is offered. The types of interests and types of resources stakeholders in the sub-region are identified, and at the same time the correlation of interests and resources allows to determine the groups (alliances stakeholders, which ensure the balance of interests depending on the certain objectives of the association. The conceptual stakeholder agent model of management of strategic territorial development within the hierarchical system of «region — sub-region — municipal formation,» is proposed. All stakeholders there are considered as the influence agents directing its own resources to provide a comprehensive approach to management territorial development. The interaction between all the influence agents of the «Region — Sub-region — municipal formation» is provided vertically and horizontally through the initialization of the development and implementation of strategic documents of the sub-region. Vertical interaction occurs between stakeholders such as government and municipal authorities being as a guideline, and the horizontal — between the rests of them being as a partnership. Within the proposed model, the concurrent engineering is implemented, which is a form of inter-municipal strategic cooperation of local government municipalities for the formation and analyzing a set of alternatives of the project activities in the sub-region in order to choose the best options. The proposed approach was tested in the development of medium-term comprehensive program of socioeconomic development of the Zauralye and sub-regions of the North-East of the Republic of Bashkortostan (2011–2015.

  7. Malaria Vaccine Development: The Need for Novel Approach-es: A Review Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shima MAHMOUDI

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although rigorous efforts have substantially decreased the malaria burden through decades, it still threatens the lives of millions of children. Development of an effective vaccine can provide important approach in malaria control strategies. Unfortunately, development of an effective vaccine for falciparum malaria has been hindered by the extreme complexity of malaria parasite biology, complex and diverse parasite genomes, and immune evasion by the parasites as well as the intricate nature of the parasites infection cycle. The aim of this review was to discuss the different approaches to malaria vaccine development until now.Methods: Scientific databases, including MEDLINE (via PubMed and SCOPUS were searched up to 30 Jan 2017 and the articles regarding malaria vaccine development were taken into examination.Results: Several strategies for malaria vaccine development including pre-erythrocytic vaccines, antibody-based subunit vaccines, vectored vaccines, whole sporozoite vaccines, genetically Attenuated parasites and sporozoite subunit vaccine, erythrocytic vaccines, sexual stage vaccine, transmission-blocking vaccine as well as synthetic peptides and conjugate vaccine has been introduced. However, the success has been limited thus far.Conclusion: Although development of malaria vaccine over the past 70 year has been continued, the discovery, development, and licensing of a malaria vaccine formulation, which meets safety, affordability, accessibility, applicability, and efficacy has not yet been achieved.

  8. The Approach of General Surgeons to Oncoplastic and Reconstructive Breast Surgery in Turkey: A Survey of Practice Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Emiroğlu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oncoplastic Breast Surgery (OBS, which is a combination of oncological procedures and plastic surgery techniques, has recently gained widespread use. Aims: To assess the experiences, practice patterns and preferred approaches to Oncoplastic and Reconstructive Breast Surgery (ORBS undertaken by general surgeons specializing in breast surgery in Turkey. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: Between December 2013 and February 2014, an eleven-question survey was distributed among 208 general surgeons specializing in breast surgery. The questions focused on the attitudes of general surgeons toward performing oncoplastic breast surgery (OBS, the role of the general surgeon in OBS and their training for it as well as their approaches to evaluating cosmetic outcomes in Breast Conserving Surgery (BCS and informing patients about ORBS preoperatively. Results: Responses from all 208 surgeons indicated that 79.8% evaluated the cosmetic outcomes of BCS, while 94.2% informed their patients preoperatively about ORBS. 52.5% performed BCS (31.3% themselves, 21.1% together with a plastic surgeon. 53.8% emphasized that general surgeons should carry out OBS themselves. 36.1% of respondents suggested that OBS training should be included within mainstream surgical training, whereas 27.4% believed this training should be conducted by specialised centres. Conclusion: Although OBS procedure rates are low in Turkey, it is encouraging to see general surgeons practicing ORBS themselves. The survey demonstrates that our general surgeons aspire to learn and utilize OBS techniques.

  9. Measurement of use value and non-use value of environmental quality consistent with general equilibrium approach

    OpenAIRE

    Naoki Sakamoto; Kazunori Nakajima

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes the consistent method with general equilibrium models to measure use value and non-use value of large-scale change in environmental quality. First, we develop a general equilibrium model that parameters of the utility function with environmental quality as a dependent variable can be estimated on the basis of the travel cost method and the contingent variation method. Second, we examine to identify the general equilibrium impact of environmental quality by a comparative st...

  10. Generalization of BLM procedure and its scales in any order of pQCD: a practical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhajlov, S.V.

    2005-01-01

    Brodsky-Lepage-Mackenzie procedure is sequentially extended for any fixed order of the perturbation QCD. The reformed perturbation series looks like a continued fraction. A generalization of this procedure which provides one with a certain mechanism of the Fastest Apparent Convergence (FAC) prescription is developed. This generalized BLM procedure is applied to Adler function D in N 3 LO and N 4 LO. The final effect of this generalized BLM improvement for D and R e + e - functions is discussed

  11. Alternate Solution to Generalized Bernoulli Equations via an Integrating Factor: An Exact Differential Equation Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisdell, C. C.

    2017-01-01

    Solution methods to exact differential equations via integrating factors have a rich history dating back to Euler (1740) and the ideas enjoy applications to thermodynamics and electromagnetism. Recently, Azevedo and Valentino presented an analysis of the generalized Bernoulli equation, constructing a general solution by linearizing the problem…

  12. Testing for Spanning with Futrures Contracts and Nontraded Assets : A General Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijman, T.E.; de Roon, F.A.; Werker, B.J.M.

    1996-01-01

    This paper generalizes the notion of mean-variance spanning as de- ned in the seminal paper of Huberman & Kandel (1987) in three di- mensions.It is shown how regression techniques can be used to test for spanning for more general classes of utility functions, in case some as- sets are nontraded, and

  13. Constructing conditionally integrable evolution systems in (1+1) dimensions: a generalization of invariant modules approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sergyeyev, A.

    2002-01-01

    Given a generalized (Lie-Baecklund) vector field satisfying certain nondegeneracy assumptions, we explicitly describe all (1+1)-dimensional evolution systems that admit this vector field as a generalized conditional symmetry. The connection with the theory of symmetries of systems of ODEs and with the theory of invariant modules is discussed. (author)

  14. Quality aspects of Dutch general practice based data : A conceptual approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Dungen, C.; Hoeymans, N.; Schellevis, F.G.; van Oers, J.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Background. General practice–based data, collected within general practice registration networks (GPRNs), are widely used in research. The quality of the data is important but the recording criteria about what type of information is collected and how this information should be recorded differ

  15. Diagnostic approach to urinary tract infections in male general practice patients: a national surveillance study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijer, C.D.J. den; Dongen, M.C.J.M. van; Donker, G.A.; Stobberingh, E.E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Diagnostic urinary tract infection (UTI) studies have primarily been performed among female patients. Aim: To create a diagnostic algorithm for male general practice patients suspected of UTI. Design and setting: Surveillance study in the Dutch Sentinel General Practice Network. Method:

  16. Direct Aggression and Generalized Anxiety in Adolescence: Heterogeneity in Development and Intra-Individual Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeus, Wim; Van de Schoot, Rens; Hawk, Skyler T; Hale, William W; Branje, Susan

    2016-02-01

    Co-occurrence of aggression and anxiety might change during adolescence, or stay stable. We studied change and stability of four types of co-occurrence regarding direct aggression and anxiety in adolescence: an anxious and non-aggressive type, an aggressive and non-anxious type, a comorbid aggressive-anxious type and a no problems type. We applied a person-centered approach to assess increases and decreases of these types, and tested various models of intra-individual change of the types: the stability, acting out and failure models. We used data from a five-wave study of 923 early-to-middle and 390 middle-to-late adolescents (48.5 % male), thereby covering the ages of 12-20. We observed accelerated development in the older cohort: adolescents tended to grow faster out of the aggressive types in middle-to-late adolescence than in early-to-middle adolescence. We observed one other group-dependent pattern of heterogeneity in development, namely "gender differentiation": gender differences in aggression and generalized anxiety became stronger over time. We found support for two perspectives on intra-individual change of the four types, namely the stability and the acting out perspective. The no problems--and to a lesser extent the anxious--type proved to be stable across time. Acting out was found in early-to-middle adolescents, males, and adolescents with poorer-quality friendships. In all three groups, there were substantial transitions from the anxious type to the aggressive type during 4 years (between 20 and 41 %). Remarkably, acting out was most prevalent in subgroups that, generally speaking, are more vulnerable for aggressive behavior, namely early-to-middle adolescents and males. We interpret acting out as the attempt of adolescents to switch from anxiety to instrumental aggression, in order to become more visible and obtain an autonomous position in the adolescent world. Acting out contributed to the explanation of accelerated development and gender

  17. Project Report on Development of a Safeguards Approach for Pyroprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Bean

    2010-09-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory has undertaken an effort to develop a standard safeguards approach for international commercial pyroprocessing facilities. This report details progress for the fiscal year 2010 effort. A component by component diversion pathway analysis has been performed, and has led to insight on the mitigation needs and equipment development needed for a valid safeguards approach. The effort to develop an in-hot cell detection capability led to the digital cloud chamber, and more importantly, the significant potential scientific breakthrough of the inverse spectroscopy algorithm, including the ability to identify energy and spatial location of gamma ray emitting sources with a single, non-complex, stationary radiation detector system. Curium measurements were performed on historical and current samples at the FCF to attempt to determine the utility of using gross neutron counting for accountancy measurements. A solid cost estimate of equipment installation at FCF has been developed to guide proposals and cost allocations to use FCF as a test bed for safeguards measurement demonstrations. A combined MATLAB and MCNPX model has been developed to perform detector placement calculations around the electrorefiner. Early harvesting has occurred wherein the project team has been requested to provide pyroprocessing technology and safeguards short courses.

  18. Radioimmunotherapy: Development of an effective approach. Progress report, 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-12-31

    Goals of this program are to answer the fundamental scientific questions for the development of an effective approach for delivering radiation therapy to cancer on antibody-based radiopharmaceuticals. The following list consists of highlights of developments from our program: documented therapeutic response of lymphoma in patients receiving radioimmunotherapy; development and application of quantitative radionuclide imaging techniques for therapy planning and dosimetry calculations; multicompartmental modeling and analysis of the in vivo MoAb kinetics in patients; a MoAb macrocycle chelate for Cu-67: development, production, in vitro and in vivo testing; NMR analysis of immunoradiotherapeutic effects on the metabolism of lymphoma; analysis of the variable molecular characteristics of the MoAb radiopharmaceutical, and their significance; in vivo studies in mice and patients of the metabolism of radioiodinated MoAb as well as In-111 CITC MoAb; and biodistribution of Cu-67 TETA MoAb in nude mice with human lymphoma.

  19. The Development of the Standard Lithuanian Language: Ecolinguistic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaida Buivydienė

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The theory of standard languages is closely linked with the standardization policy and prevailing ideology. The language ideology comprises its value, experience and convictions related to language usage and its dis - course being influenced at institutional, local and global levels. Recently, in the last decades, foreign linguists have linked the theories of the development of standard lan- guages and their ideologies with an ecolinguistic approach towards language standardization phenomena. The article is based on Einar Haugen ’s theory about the development of standard languages and ecolinguistic statements and presents the stages of developing the standard language as well as the factors having an influ - ence on them. In conclusion, a strong political and social impact has been made on the development of the standard Lithuanian language. The stages of the progress of the standard Lithuanian language have rapidly changed each other, some have been held very close to one another and some still have been taken part.

  20. THE INCREASE OF ENTERPRISES’ INNOVATIVE DEVELOPMENT BASED ON THE NETWORK APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Gudz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is studying the role and problems of the innovative development of domestic enterprises, discovering the factors that influence these processes. Methodology. The methodology for the study was based on logical and historical methods, methods of the system-functional approach, methods of scientific abstraction, systematization, grouping, generalization and formalization, analysis and synthesis, economic and statistical methods, and method of questioning and peer review. Results. It is studied the essence and substantiated the expediency of the network approach use, it is outlined its capabilities and limitations, determined the effectiveness of network innovation structures, and developed the proposals for activating the innovative development of enterprises in new dimensions of the economic space based on the network approach. Practical implications. The proposed measures will promote the activation of innovative development for domestic enterprises, improve the quality of business chains, competitiveness and management structures, and provide the development of new market segments. Value/originality. The information background for the paper was the official data of the State Statistics Service of Ukraine, statistical and financial statements of enterprises, rating estimates by the international agency Bloomberg Rankings, analytical report “Global Innovation Index” (World Intellectual Property Organization, WIPO, the report of the European Innovation Scoreboard, scientific publications of domestic and foreign researchers, normative reference literature, analytical and logical generalizations and observations of authors, Internet information resources.

  1. Informing General CSCW Product Development through Cooperative Design in Specific Work Domains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbæk, Kaj; Mogensen, Preben Holst

    1997-01-01

    sharing of materials in the engineering domain. In our project, a single engineering company (Great Belt Link Ltd.) was chosen as the user organization. The paper summarizes the process from observational studies, over a future workshop and cooperative prototyping activities, to a pilot installation. We...... describe how these activities informed the general hypermedia framework and application design. Use scenarios and prototypes with example data from the users‘ daily work were used as sources both to trigger design ideas and new insights regarding work practice. Common participants in specific activities...... and general development activities supported transfer of work domain knowledge into general features of the product being developed. Mutual challenging characterized the interaction between specific cooperative analysis and design activities and general development activities. Prototypes, scenarios, materials...

  2. A Response-Time Approach to Comparing Generalized Rational and Take-the-Best Models of Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergert, F. Bryan; Nosofsky, Robert M.

    2007-01-01

    The authors develop and test generalized versions of take-the-best (TTB) and rational (RAT) models of multiattribute paired-comparison inference. The generalized models make allowances for subjective attribute weighting, probabilistic orders of attribute inspection, and noisy decision making. A key new test involves a response-time (RT)…

  3. Survey of meshless and generalized finite element methods: A unified approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babuška, Ivo; Banerjee, Uday; Osborn, John E.

    In the past few years meshless methods for numerically solving partial differential equations have come into the focus of interest, especially in the engineering community. This class of methods was essentially stimulated by difficulties related to mesh generation. Mesh generation is delicate in many situations, for instance, when the domain has complicated geometry; when the mesh changes with time, as in crack propagation, and remeshing is required at each time step; when a Lagrangian formulation is employed, especially with nonlinear PDEs. In addition, the need for flexibility in the selection of approximating functions (e.g., the flexibility to use non-polynomial approximating functions), has played a significant role in the development of meshless methods. There are many recent papers, and two books, on meshless methods; most of them are of an engineering character, without any mathematical analysis.In this paper we address meshless methods and the closely related generalized finite element methods for solving linear elliptic equations, using variational principles. We give a unified mathematical theory with proofs, briefly address implementational aspects, present illustrative numerical examples, and provide a list of references to the current literature.The aim of the paper is to provide a survey of a part of this new field, with emphasis on mathematics. We present proofs of essential theorems because we feel these proofs are essential for the understanding of the mathematical aspects of meshless methods, which has approximation theory as a major ingredient. As always, any new field is stimulated by and related to older ideas. This will be visible in our paper.

  4. Variation of Student Numerical and Figural Reasoning Approaches by Pattern Generalization Type, Strategy Use and Grade Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Mouhayar, Rabih; Jurdak, Murad

    2016-01-01

    This paper explored variation of student numerical and figural reasoning approaches across different pattern generalization types and across grade level. An instrument was designed for this purpose. The instrument was given to a sample of 1232 students from grades 4 to 11 from five schools in Lebanon. Analysis of data showed that the numerical…

  5. Development of the Comprehensive General Parenting Questionnaire for caregivers of 5-13 year olds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite the large number of parenting questionnaires, considerable disagreement exists about how to best assess parenting. Most of the instruments only assess limited aspects of parenting. To overcome this shortcoming, the “Comprehensive General Parenting Questionnaire” (CGPQ) was systematically developed. Such a measure is frequently requested in the area of childhood overweight. Methods First, an item bank of existing parenting measures was created assessing five key parenting constructs that have been identified across multiple theoretical approaches to parenting (Nurturance, Overprotection, Coercive control, Behavioral control, and Structure). Caregivers of 5- to 13-year-olds were asked to complete the online survey in the Netherlands (N = 821), Belgium (N = 435) and the United States (N = 241). In addition, a questionnaire regarding personality characteristics (“Big Five”) of the caregiver was administered and parents were asked to report about their child’s height and weight. Factor analyses and Item-Response Modeling (IRM) techniques were used to assess the underlying parenting constructs and for item reduction. Correlation analyses were performed to assess the relations between general parenting and personality of the caregivers, adjusting for socio-economic status (SES) indicators, to establish criterion validity. Multivariate linear regressions were performed to examine the associations of SES indicators and parenting with child BMI z-scores. Additionally, we assessed whether scores on the parenting constructs and child BMI z-scores differed depending on SES indicators. Results The reduced questionnaire (62 items) revealed acceptable fit of our parenting model and acceptable IRM item fit statistics. Caregiver personality was related as hypothesized with the GCPQ parenting constructs. While correcting for SES, overprotection was positively related to child BMI. The negative relationship between structure and BMI was

  6. Development of the Comprehensive General Parenting Questionnaire for caregivers of 5-13 year olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleddens, Ester F C; O'Connor, Teresia M; Watson, Kathleen B; Hughes, Sheryl O; Power, Thomas G; Thijs, Carel; De Vries, Nanne K; Kremers, Stef P J

    2014-02-10

    Despite the large number of parenting questionnaires, considerable disagreement exists about how to best assess parenting. Most of the instruments only assess limited aspects of parenting. To overcome this shortcoming, the "Comprehensive General Parenting Questionnaire" (CGPQ) was systematically developed. Such a measure is frequently requested in the area of childhood overweight. First, an item bank of existing parenting measures was created assessing five key parenting constructs that have been identified across multiple theoretical approaches to parenting (Nurturance, Overprotection, Coercive control, Behavioral control, and Structure). Caregivers of 5- to 13-year-olds were asked to complete the online survey in the Netherlands (N = 821), Belgium (N = 435) and the United States (N = 241). In addition, a questionnaire regarding personality characteristics ("Big Five") of the caregiver was administered and parents were asked to report about their child's height and weight. Factor analyses and Item-Response Modeling (IRM) techniques were used to assess the underlying parenting constructs and for item reduction. Correlation analyses were performed to assess the relations between general parenting and personality of the caregivers, adjusting for socio-economic status (SES) indicators, to establish criterion validity. Multivariate linear regressions were performed to examine the associations of SES indicators and parenting with child BMI z-scores. Additionally, we assessed whether scores on the parenting constructs and child BMI z-scores differed depending on SES indicators. The reduced questionnaire (62 items) revealed acceptable fit of our parenting model and acceptable IRM item fit statistics. Caregiver personality was related as hypothesized with the GCPQ parenting constructs. While correcting for SES, overprotection was positively related to child BMI. The negative relationship between structure and BMI was borderline significant. Parents with a high

  7. Development of Scientific Approach Based on Discovery Learning Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellizar, E.; Hardeli, H.; Beltris, S.; Suharni, R.

    2018-04-01

    Scientific Approach is a learning process, designed to make the students actively construct their own knowledge through stages of scientific method. The scientific approach in learning process can be done by using learning modules. One of the learning model is discovery based learning. Discovery learning is a learning model for the valuable things in learning through various activities, such as observation, experience, and reasoning. In fact, the students’ activity to construct their own knowledge were not optimal. It’s because the available learning modules were not in line with the scientific approach. The purpose of this study was to develop a scientific approach discovery based learning module on Acid Based, also on electrolyte and non-electrolyte solution. The developing process of this chemistry modules use the Plomp Model with three main stages. The stages are preliminary research, prototyping stage, and the assessment stage. The subject of this research was the 10th and 11th Grade of Senior High School students (SMAN 2 Padang). Validation were tested by the experts of Chemistry lecturers and teachers. Practicality of these modules had been tested through questionnaire. The effectiveness had been tested through experimental procedure by comparing student achievement between experiment and control groups. Based on the findings, it can be concluded that the developed scientific approach discovery based learning module significantly improve the students’ learning in Acid-based and Electrolyte solution. The result of the data analysis indicated that the chemistry module was valid in content, construct, and presentation. Chemistry module also has a good practicality level and also accordance with the available time. This chemistry module was also effective, because it can help the students to understand the content of the learning material. That’s proved by the result of learning student. Based on the result can conclude that chemistry module based on

  8. A general approach for controlling transcription and probing epigenetic mechanisms: application to the CD4 locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Mimi; Kaundal, Ravinder; Huang, Haichang; Zhao, Jiugang; Yang, Xiaojun; Chaiyachati, Barbara H; Li, Sicong; Chi, Tian

    2013-01-15

    Synthetic regulatory proteins such as tetracycline (tet)-controlled transcription factors are potentially useful for repression as well as ectopic activation of endogenous genes and also for probing their regulatory mechanisms, which would offer a versatile genetic tool advantageous over conventional gene targeting methods. In this study, we provide evidence supporting this concept using Cd4 as a model. CD4 is expressed in double-positive and CD4 cells but irreversibly silenced in CD8 cells. The silencing is mediated by heterochromatin established during CD8 lineage development via transient action of the Cd4 silencer; once established, the heterochromatin becomes self-perpetuating independently of the Cd4 silencer. Using a tet-sensitive Cd4 allele harboring a removable Cd4 silencer, we found that a tet-controlled repressor recapitulated the phenotype of Cd4-deficient mice, inhibited Cd4 expression in a reversible and dose-dependent manner, and could surprisingly replace the Cd4 silencer to induce irreversible Cd4 silencing in CD8 cells, thus suggesting the Cd4 silencer is not the (only) determinant of heterochromatin formation. In contrast, a tet-controlled activator reversibly disrupted Cd4 silencing in CD8 cells. The Cd4 silencer impeded this disruption but was not essential for its reversal, which revealed a continuous role of the silencer in mature CD8 cells while exposing a remarkable intrinsic self-regenerative ability of heterochromatin after forced disruption. These data demonstrate an effective approach for gene manipulation and provide insights into the epigenetic Cd4 regulatory mechanisms that are otherwise difficult to obtain.

  9. Comprehensive change management concepts. Development of a participatory approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zink, Klaus J; Steimle, Ulrich; Schröder, Delia

    2008-07-01

    During the last years, many change projects in organizations did not have the planned success. Therefore at first, the causes for these failures and the success factors contributing to organizational change have to be discussed. To get better results, a comprehensive change management concept has been developed and tested in an ongoing research project. By using concepts for an integrated assessment and design of organizations, an approach for analyzing the current situation has been elaborated to identify "lack of integration" in the change initiatives of a company. To realize an integrated overall approach of modernization by harmonizing different methods and concepts, first, one has to prove their relationship to policy and strategy (vertical harmonization). The second step is to take into account the fact that there has to be a logical fit between the single concepts (horizontal harmonization). But even if all elements are logically coherent, that does not mean that the people working in the company also see this coherence. Therefore, in addition to the "logical fit", one has to examine the "psychological fit". In the end, a concept for analyzing the status quo in an organization as a result of "objective data" and "subjective data" originated. Subsequently, instruments for harmonizing different modernizing concepts have been applied. As part of the comprehensive change management concept participatory ergonomic approaches have been used during the project. The present study shows this approach in the case of one company.

  10. A psychology based approach for longitudinal development in cognitive robotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James eLaw

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A major challenge in robotics is the ability to learn, from novel experiences, new behaviour that is useful for achieving new goals and skills. Autonomous systems must be able to learn solely through the environment, thus ruling out a priori task knowledge, tuning, extensive training, or other forms of pre-programming. Learning must also be cumulative and incremental, as complex skills are built on top of primitive skills. Additionally, it must be driven by intrinsic motivation because formative experience is gained through autonomous activity, even in the absence of extrinsic goals or tasks. This paper presents an approach to these issues through robotic implementations inspired by the learning behaviour of human infants. We describe an approach to developmental learning and present results from a demonstration of longitudinal development on an iCub humanoid robot. The results cover the rapid emergence of staged behaviour, the role of constraints in development, the effect of bootstrapping between stages, and the use of a schema memory of experiential fragments in learning new skills. The context is a longitudinalexperiment in which the robot advanced from uncontrolled motor babbling to skilled hand/eyeintegrated reaching and basic manipulation of objects. This approach offers promise for furtherfast and effective sensory-motor learning techniques for robotic learning.

  11. A new approach to child mental health care within general practice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhaak, P.F.M.; Dijk, M. van; Walstock, D.; Zwaanswijk, M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Child and adolescent mental health problems are frequently not identified and properly treated within general practice. Politicians in the Netherlands are promoting more primary healthcare treatment for mental health problems. The current study aims to evaluate an integrated primary

  12. A CRITICAL NEEDS PLAN FOR GENERAL MOTORS: A CULTURAL PLURALISM APPROACH

    OpenAIRE

    Gregory W. Goussak; Jon K. Webber; Elliot M. Ser

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to create a critical needs plan for General Motors Corporation in the 21st century. General Motors (GM), once the most dominant manufacturer in the automotive industry, finds itself in financial crisis with a Chapter 11 bankruptcy and a necessary government infusion of capital. The foundation of this paper applies the Supportive Model as an effective strategy for creating a new corporate culture and focusing GM as a competitive manufacturer in the global automotiv...

  13. Purchasing a General Ticket for Public Transport - A Means-End Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Wittmer, Andreas; Riegler, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Switzerland offers a dense network of public transport means. The Swiss General Ticket (GT) is a popular travel pass, which allows the use of most of the public transport facilities in Switzerland. The buying behavior for public transport general tickets underlies a complex decision process. Public transport customers can deal with the complexity in two ways: either one decides on choice heuristics according to ones rather emotional beliefs or decides systematically based on a rational price ...

  14. Application of Generalized Hukuhara derivative approach in an economic production quantity model with partial trade credit policy under fuzzy environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinki Majumder

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this present study, a production inventory model with partial trade credit is formulated and solved in fuzzy environment via Generalized Hukuhara derivative approach. To capture the market, a supplier offers a trade credit period to its retailers. Due to this facility, retailer also offers a partial trade credit period to his/her customer to boost the demand of the item. In practical life situation, demands are generally dependent upon time. Constant demand of an item varies time to time. In this vague situation, demands are taken as time dependent, where its constant part is taken as Left Right - type fuzzy number. In this paper, Generalized Hukuhara derivative approach is used to solve the fuzzy inventory model. Four different cases are considered by using Generalized Hukuhara-(i differentiability and Generalized Hukuhara-(ii differentiability. The objective of this paper is to find out the optimal time so as the total inventory cost is minimum. Finally the model is solved by generalized reduced gradient method. The proposed model and technique are illustrated by numerical examples. Some sensitivity analyses both in tabular and graphical forms are presented and the effects of minimum cost with respect to various inventory parameters are discussed.

  15. Provisional safety analyses for SGT stage 2 -- Models, codes and general modelling approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-12-01

    In the framework of the provisional safety analyses for Stage 2 of the Sectoral Plan for Deep Geological Repositories (SGT), deterministic modelling of radionuclide release from the barrier system along the groundwater pathway during the post-closure period of a deep geological repository is carried out. The calculated radionuclide release rates are interpreted as annual effective dose for an individual and assessed against the regulatory protection criterion 1 of 0.1 mSv per year. These steps are referred to as dose calculations. Furthermore, from the results of the dose calculations so-called characteristic dose intervals are determined, which provide input to the safety-related comparison of the geological siting regions in SGT Stage 2. Finally, the results of the dose calculations are also used to illustrate and to evaluate the post-closure performance of the barrier systems under consideration. The principal objective of this report is to describe comprehensively the technical aspects of the dose calculations. These aspects comprise: · the generic conceptual models of radionuclide release from the solid waste forms, of radionuclide transport through the system of engineered and geological barriers, of radionuclide transfer in the biosphere, as well as of the potential radiation exposure of the population, · the mathematical models for the explicitly considered release and transport processes, as well as for the radiation exposure pathways that are included, · the implementation of the mathematical models in numerical codes, including an overview of these codes and the most relevant verification steps, · the general modelling approach when using the codes, in particular the generic assumptions needed to model the near field and the geosphere, along with some numerical details, · a description of the work flow related to the execution of the calculations and of the software tools that are used to facilitate the modelling process, and · an overview of the

  16. Provisional safety analyses for SGT stage 2 -- Models, codes and general modelling approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-12-15

    In the framework of the provisional safety analyses for Stage 2 of the Sectoral Plan for Deep Geological Repositories (SGT), deterministic modelling of radionuclide release from the barrier system along the groundwater pathway during the post-closure period of a deep geological repository is carried out. The calculated radionuclide release rates are interpreted as annual effective dose for an individual and assessed against the regulatory protection criterion 1 of 0.1 mSv per year. These steps are referred to as dose calculations. Furthermore, from the results of the dose calculations so-called characteristic dose intervals are determined, which provide input to the safety-related comparison of the geological siting regions in SGT Stage 2. Finally, the results of the dose calculations are also used to illustrate and to evaluate the post-closure performance of the barrier systems under consideration. The principal objective of this report is to describe comprehensively the technical aspects of the dose calculations. These aspects comprise: · the generic conceptual models of radionuclide release from the solid waste forms, of radionuclide transport through the system of engineered and geological barriers, of radionuclide transfer in the biosphere, as well as of the potential radiation exposure of the population, · the mathematical models for the explicitly considered release and transport processes, as well as for the radiation exposure pathways that are included, · the implementation of the mathematical models in numerical codes, including an overview of these codes and the most relevant verification steps, · the general modelling approach when using the codes, in particular the generic assumptions needed to model the near field and the geosphere, along with some numerical details, · a description of the work flow related to the execution of the calculations and of the software tools that are used to facilitate the modelling process, and · an overview of the

  17. Stages of Psychometric Measure Development: The Example of the Generalized Expertise Measure (GEM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germain, Marie-Line

    2006-01-01

    This paper chronicles the steps, methods, and presents hypothetical results of quantitative and qualitative studies being conducted to develop a Generalized Expertise Measure (GEM). Per Hinkin (1995), the stages of scale development are domain and item generation, content expert validation, and pilot test. Content/face validity and internal…

  18. Professional Development for iPad Integration in General Education: Staying Ahead of the Curve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psiropoulos, Dmitri; Barr, Sandy; Eriksson, Claire; Fletcher, Shauna; Hargis, Jace; Cavanaugh, Cathy

    2016-01-01

    This faculty development case study focuses on a team of 16 General Education faculty at an urban women's college during the initial 6 months of the college's comprehensive implementation of an iPad teaching and learning environment. This article traces the effectiveness of an iPad professional development program through analyses of critical…

  19. Development and feasibility of a patient feedback programme to improve consultation skills in general practice training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinders, M.E.; Blankenstein, A.H.; van Marwijk, H.W.J.; Schleypen, H.; Schoonheim, P.L.; Stalman, W.A.B.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To develop an attractive and effective patient feedback training programme for general practice trainees (GPTs). Methods: First, an exploratory study was conducted in which patients and GPTs were interviewed after they had worked with patient feedback. This contributed to the development

  20. Factors associated with the risk of caries development after comprehensive dental rehabilitation under general anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yai-Tin Lin

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion: This study has shown that SM count and CRA score were associated with new caries development in ECC children who needed to be treated under general anesthesia. The modified Cariogram used in this study is another significant tool for predicting new carries development in this particular population.