WorldWideScience

Sample records for general agreement on tariffs and trade

  1. General Agreement on Tariff and Trade Negotiations: A Computer-Based Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manrique, Gabriel G.

    This paper recommends the use of a computer simulation about trade and tariff negotiations to reinforce and apply principles learned in undergraduate international trade courses and to provide students with an opportunity to use the advanced features of Symphony, a computer spreadsheet. This simulation is a game in which both the class and…

  2. World Trade Organisation (WTO): Trade rules/agreements and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    World Trade Organisation (WTO): Trade rules/agreements and developing countries. ... The GATT (General Agreement on Trade and Tariffs) rules of 1947 were seen as prejudicial to the ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  3. The ASEAN Free Trade Agreement: impact on trade flows and external trade barriers

    OpenAIRE

    Calvo-Pardo, Hector; Freund, Caroline; Ornelas, Emanuel

    2009-01-01

    Using detailed data on trade and tariffs from 1992-2007, the authors examine how the ASEAN Free Trade Agreement has affected trade with nonmembers and external tariffs facing nonmembers. First, the paper examines the effect of preferential and external tariff reduction on import growth from ASEAN insiders and outsiders across HS 6-digit industries. The analysis finds no evidence that prefe...

  4. Research on Replacing Effects & Examination System of TBT against Tariff Impediment to Textile and Apparel Trade

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    With the cutoff and limitation of tariff and traditional non-tariff Barriers to Trade by GATT/WTO, Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) has gradually replaced tariff and general non-tariff Barriers to Trade and become an important measurement in new trade protectionism. This article analyzes the replacement of TBT on tariff barrier for exporting countries, as well as the trading pattern of TBT in its maturing period through the discussion of macro strategies of surpassing TBT; meanwhile it also probes into the examination and supervision policies of governmental functional departments.

  5. The ASEAN Free Trade Agreement: impact on trade flows and external trade barriers

    OpenAIRE

    Calvo-Pardo, Hector; Freund, Caroline; Ornelas, Emanuel

    2009-01-01

    Using detailed data on trade and tariffs from 1992-2007, we examine how the ASEAN Free Trade Agreement has affected trade with non-members and external tariffs facing non-members. First, we examine the effect of preferential and external tariff reduction on import growth from ASEAN insiders and outsiders across HS 6-digit industries. We find no evidence that preferential liberalization has led to lower import growth from non-members. Second, we examine the relationship between preferential ta...

  6. Health services under the General Agreement on Trade in Services.

    OpenAIRE

    Adlung, R.; Carzaniga, A.

    2001-01-01

    The potential for trade in health services has expanded rapidly in recent decades. More efficient communication systems have helped to reduce distance-related barriers to trade; rising incomes and enhanced information have increased the mobility of patients; and internal cost pressures have led various governments to consider possibilities for increased private participation. As yet, however, health services have played only a modest role in the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS). ...

  7. The General Agreement on Trade in Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francina Esteve García

    1995-07-01

    Full Text Available The conclusion of GATS and its inclusion as an annex in the constitutive Agreement of the World Trade Organization (WTO responds to the need for disposing of a stable juridical instrument which, given the current economic interdependence between States, can be applied to the international trade in services.One of the main new features of this agreement is its field of application given that it includes all service sectors (except those provided for in the name of governmental authorities and the four forms of carrying out trade in services and, as regards the principle of market access and that of national treatment, will be regulated according to those respective obligations which the Members have assumed.In exchange for not accepting the exclusion of any service sector, the negotiations concerning some fundamental sectors could not be totally closed and deadlines were extended in order to unblock the most controversial themes.One of the fundamental principles of the GATS is the most favoured nation clause of inconditional character but its consecration has been attenuated by the possibility of maintaining important exceptions in its application. The principle of transparency is also essential in the field of services, given that this sector is characterised by large public interventionism in access regulation and the exercise of the different economic activities which form it.The balance of the GATS is globally positive given that it includes a multilateral framework of principles and disciplines which is administered in the headquarters of the WTO, which have been accepted by a great majority of States within the international community and which remain subject to the WTO’s mechanism for the solution of differences.However, the opening of the market and the suppression of restrictions which derive from internal regulations have not been achieved given that, orientating itself around the objectives of national politics, liberalization is

  8. Health services under the General Agreement on Trade in Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adlung, R; Carzaniga, A

    2001-01-01

    The potential for trade in health services has expanded rapidly in recent decades. More efficient communication systems have helped to reduce distance-related barriers to trade; rising incomes and enhanced information have increased the mobility of patients; and internal cost pressures have led various governments to consider possibilities for increased private participation. As yet, however, health services have played only a modest role in the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS). It is possible that Members of the World Trade Organization have been discouraged from undertaking access commitments by the novelty of the Agreement, coordination problems between relevant agencies, widespread inexperience in concepts of services trade, a traditionally strong degree of government involvement in the health sector, and concerns about basic quality and social objectives. However, more than five years have passed since GATS entered into force, allowing hesitant administrations to familiarize themselves with its main elements and its operation in practice. The present paper is intended to contribute to this process. It provides an overview of the basic structure of GATS and of the patterns of current commitments in health services and of limitations frequently used in this context. The concluding section discusses possibilities of pursuing basic policy objectives in a more open environment and indicates issues that may have to be dealt with in current negotiations on services.

  9. Impacts of Tariff and Non-tariff Trade Barriers on Global Forest Products Trade: An Application of the Global Forest Products Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, L.; Bogdanski, B.; Stennes, B.; Kooten, van G.C.

    2010-01-01

    Although there has been considerable analysis on the effects of trade measures on forest product markets, these have tended to focus on tariffs. There is growing concern about the impact of non-tariff trade measures on the global forest product sector. The objective of this study is to fill a gap an

  10. CETA - BILATERAL TRADE AGREEMENT BETWEEN THE EU AND CANADA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Borta, Ludmila

    2014-01-01

    ... (under the World Trade Organisation) and a number of bilateral (preferential) trade agreements. The aim of this paper is to present an example of fully elimination of tariffs and tariff lines under a bilateral trade agreement...

  11. 78 FR 69518 - North American Free Trade Agreement; Invitation for Applications for Inclusion on the Chapter 19...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-19

    ... American Free Trade Agreement; Invitation for Applications for Inclusion on the Chapter 19 Roster AGENCY... 19 of the North American Free Trade Agreement (``NAFTA'') provides for the establishment of a roster... to whether the amendment is inconsistent with the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (``GATT...

  12. Preferential trade agreements and their role in world trade

    OpenAIRE

    Medvedev, Denis

    2006-01-01

    The author investigates the effects of preferential trade agreements (PTAs) on bilateral trade flows using a comprehensive database of PTAs in force and a detailed matrix of world trade. He shows that total trade between PTA partners is a poor proxy for preferential trade (trade in tariff lines where preferences are likely to matter): while the former amounted to one-third of global trade in 2000-02, the latter was between one-sixth and one-tenth of world trade. His gravity model estimates in...

  13. Research on Replacing Effects & Examination System of TBT against Tariff Impediment to Textile and Apparel Trade

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chengjianbing; Lvjianming; Chengpeng Jiang

    2010-01-01

    @@ With the cutoff and limitation of tariff and traditional nontariff Barriers to Trade by GATT/WTO,the changes of income level and customers' preference in importing countries might bring more requirements for product quality,safety and environmental protection,under the rule of sustainable protection.When looking into the cases of Rapex Circular of EU and CPSC Recall of USA,we can find that TBT on Textile and Apparel has increasingly been leading into a heated issue of discussion among international trade policies.

  14. CETA - BILATERAL TRADE AGREEMENT BETWEEN THE EU AND CANADA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila Borta

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The international trade for wide world countries in the means more growth, more jobs and access on more products at competitive prices. The European Union is a major economy and an important trading partner for many countries and regions in the world. To stimulate growth and to create jobs in the Union, this economy has concluded multilateral trade agreement (under the World Trade Organisation and a number of bilateral (preferential trade agreements. The aim of this paper is to present an example of fully elimination of tariffs and tariff lines under a bilateral trade agreement. In this case, we have analysed Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement (CETA negotiated by the European Union and Canada. For both sides of Atlantic, the CETA is supposed to bring the solution for today's issues concerning the important trading aspects and, also, to facilitate the EU-Canada bilateral trade by creating competition.

  15. 77 FR 24759 - Implementation of United States-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement Tariff-Rate Quota for Imports...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-25

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Implementation of United States-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement Tariff-Rate...-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement will be administered using certificates of quota eligibility. DATES..., the United States entered into the United States-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement (the...

  16. The precautionary principle and other non-tariff barriers to free and fair international food trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupien, John R

    2002-07-01

    International food trade and world population are growing rapidly. National legislation has been enacted and implemented in many countries to assure good quality and safe foods to meet increased demand. No country is fully self-sufficient in domestic food production to meet population demands, and all require some food imports. Current international food trade agreements call for free and fair food trade between all countries, developed and developing. National food legislation and food production, processing and marketing systems have evolved in most countries to ensure better quality and safer foods. At the international level the work of the FAO/ WHO Codex Alimentarius Commission (Codex) and the World Trade Organization Agreements on Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS) and on Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) and related Uruguay Round agreements have been agreed to by over 140 countries with the aim to promoting the free and fair trade of good quality and safe foods between all countries. The SPS and TBT agreements rely on science-based Codex standards, guidelines, and recommendations as benchmarks for judging international food trade disputes. A number of non-tariff barriers to trade, often related to agricultural subsidies and other food trade payments in developed countries, continue to give rise to complaints to WTO. They also continue to prevent free and fair trade, particularly for developing countries in international food trade. A number of these non-tariff barriers to trade are briefly examined, along with other domestic and international food trade problems, and recommendations for improvements are made.

  17. 19 CFR 181.71 - Denial of preferential tariff treatment dependent on origin verification and determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... FREE TRADE AGREEMENT Origin Verifications and Determinations § 181.71 Denial of preferential tariff... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Denial of preferential tariff treatment dependent...) of this part, Customs shall deny preferential tariff treatment on an imported good, or shall deny...

  18. The Canada-United States Free Trade Agreement: Impact on the upstream Canadian oil and gas sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hankel, R.C. (Western Tanger Resources Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada))

    1990-12-01

    The Canada-United States Free Trade Agreement (FTA) aims to accomplish three things: eliminate in stages all tariff and some nontariff barriers to trade between the two countries; establish trade rules that will ensure a more predictable environment for business decisions in both countries, thus encouraging commerce and investment; and provide an adjudication process, through which minor problems can be forestalled or solved. These three aims apply equally to the oil and gas sector as well as to all industry sectors. The relationship between Canada and the USA regarding energy trade (and overall trade) during the 1970s and early 1980s was quite confrontation-oriented. This pattern has undergone a strong reversal since the mid-80s, and the FTA helps to ensure a continuation of this positive trend. The agreement does not, however, create a continental energy policy. Both countries remain free to construct policies, enact laws, initiate conservation practices, and pass regulations regarding all energy forms, including oil and gas, as long as they adhere to existing commitments with the International Energy Agency and the General Agreement on Trade and Tariffs. Perhaps the two major gains made by the FTA for the Canadian oil and gas sector are the prevention of future direct government interference with free market forces, and the facilitation of more investment in the Canadian petroleum industry and vice versa. Existing Canadianization laws are grandfathered, however, and consequently Canada will maintain a strong prominent control of its own resources. 16 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Can bilateral trade agreements help induce free trade?

    OpenAIRE

    Riezman, Raymond Glenn

    1999-01-01

    There has been growing debate about whether bilateral trade agreements are damaging multilateral efforts to eliminate barriers to international trade. This paper develops a model in which trading blocks always charge optimal tariffs and make trade agreements based on strategic considerations. We ask a very simple question. Does the fact that trading blocks can form bilateral trade agreements make Free trade less likely to occur? The answer is that it depends on the size distribution of the tr...

  20. 76 FR 65559 - North American Free Trade Agreement; Invitation for Applications for Inclusion on the Chapter 19...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-21

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE North American Free Trade Agreement; Invitation for Applications for Inclusion on... applications. SUMMARY: Chapter 19 of the North American Free Trade Agreement (``NAFTA'') provides for the... on Tariffs and Trade (``GATT''), the GATT Antidumping or Subsidies Codes, successor agreements, or...

  1. 77 FR 64578 - North American Free Trade Agreement; Invitation for Applications for Inclusion on the Chapter 19...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-22

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE North American Free Trade Agreement; Invitation for Applications for Inclusion on... applications. SUMMARY: Chapter 19 of the North American Free Trade Agreement (``NAFTA'') provides for the... on Tariffs and Trade (``GATT''), the GATT Antidumping or Subsidies Codes, successor agreements, or...

  2. 75 FR 64390 - North American Free Trade Agreement; Invitation for Applications for Inclusion on the Chapter 19...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-19

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE North American Free Trade Agreement; Invitation for Applications for Inclusion on... applications. SUMMARY: Chapter 19 of the North American Free Trade Agreement (``NAFTA'') provides for the... on Tariffs and Trade (``GATT''), the GATT Antidumping or Subsidies Codes, successor agreements, or...

  3. Bilateral trade agreements and the rise of global supply chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdzisław W. Puślecki

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the influence of the rise global supply chains on bilateral trade agreements. Given that a few multinational firms are responsible for a major share of world trade, our findings suggest that these firms may support regulatory harmonization across different Preferential Trade Agreements (PTAs to lower trade costs or resist harmonization – and encourage certain non-tariff measures – to prevent new competitors from entering markets. The finding partly explains the persistence of regulatory divergence.  Building on institutional and comparative trade hypothesis, the findings of the paper present new tendencies in the foreign trade policy: the impact of the rise global supply chains on the political economy of trade, motivations for countries in cooperating on trade policies, and the increasing importance of bilateral agreements in the foreign trade policy. Additionally, the findings suggest that the political economy of regulatory convergence may be more complex than is sometimes suggested in the prior literature.

  4. Global effects of accelerated tariff liberalization in the forest products sector to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shushuai Zhu; Joseph Buongiorno; David J. Brooks

    2002-01-01

    This study projects the effects of tariff elimination on the world sector. Projections were done for two scenarios: (1) progressive tariff elimination according to the schedule agreed to under the current General Agreement on Tariff or Trade (GATT) and (2) complete elimination of tariff on wood products as proposed within the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC)...

  5. The Problems of the Non-Tariff Regulation of Foreign Trade Activities in the Conditions of Free Trade Zone between Ukraine and the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Рanaseyko Irina M.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at generalizing the results of establishing the free trade zone between Ukraine and the EU in 2016, and developing measures to improve the system of non-tariff regulation of foreign trade activities. The substance, objectives, and tools of the non-tariff regulation of foreign trade activity, as used in the EU and in Ukraine, were considered. The major attention was paid to the tariff quotas for Ukraine in the terms of the free-trade zone with the European Union. The tariff quotas for different goods were analyzed from the view of their adequacy and uniformity of use. Reasons for partial use or non-use of the tariff quotas were identified. Issues of effectiveness of implementation of the restrictive function of tariff quotas, as well as their influence on Ukrainian exporters, were considered. A comparative characterization of the tariff quotas, which were applied within the terms of the free trade zone for Ukraine and for the EU, was carried out. The article specifies the necessity for compliance by Ukraine with technical reglaments, environmental regulations, sanitary and phyto-sanitary measures, marketing standards. The major obstacles to the Ukrainian products’ entering the European markets were identified.

  6. Free Trade and Tariffs: Level III, Unit 2, Lesson 1; Capitalism, Communism, Socialism: Lesson 2; Nationalism vs. Internationalism: Lesson 3. Advanced General Education Program. A High School Self-Study Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. Job Corps.

    This self-study program for high-school level contains lessons on: Free Trade and Tariffs; Capitalism, Communism, Socialism; and Nationalism vs. Internationalism. Each of the lessons concludes with a Mastery Test to be completed by the student. (DB)

  7. The Effect of Tariff Reduction in Agricultural Sector on Macroeconomic Variables: Using Global Trade Analysis Project (GTAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Heidari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Economic effects of membership in the WTO in recent years, has been one of the most important issues for Iranian economy. If Iran joins the WTO, in this process, tariff reduction in agricultural sector will be one of the policies which has to be employed. Therefore, investigating economic effects of tariff reduction or even its elimination in this sector will be necessary in running effective policies to minimize the probabilistic losses of accession. Tariffs on agricultural products in Iran are determined merely on the basis of annual country economy, and have no long term strategy. Government is just obliged to impose effective tariffs on agricultural products imports, in order to protect local productions. On the other hand, according to the census of population and housing, the share of agricultural sector in employment has reduced during the past decade. Moreover, Iran central bank information indicated the reduction in the share of agricultural sector in GDP for the past decade. Declining the share of agriculture in production and employment, considering the high number of university graduates in the field of agriculture along with rising unemployment rate of this group, motivated this study to investigate the effect of tariff reduction in this sector on macroeconomic variables. Materials and Methods: This study analyzed the welfare effects of import tariffs reduction in agricultural sector from Iran most important commercial partners and vice versa, using the Global Trade Analysis Project (GTAP, based on computable general equilibrium (CGE model. Moreover, the effects of tariffs reduction, is investigated on output, price level and transfer of production factors between different economic sectors. In order to simulate the above model, we used GTAP version 8 which covers 57 commodities and 113 regions with economic information of these regions. This model uses Social Accounting Matrix of countries as data information. Our

  8. Trade agreements and trade flows: Estimating the effect of free trade agreements on trade flows with an application to the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Scott L. Baier; Jeffrey H. Bergstrand

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the proposed EU-GCC FTA, a free trade agreement (FTA) between the EU and the Gulf Cooperation Counil (GCC), which includes Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates. The paper first takes a fresh look at the methodology generally applied to analysis of potential FTAs, and then uses its own enhanced methodology to analyse the proposed EU-GCC FTA.

  9. 18 CFR 35.10 - Form and style of rate schedules, tariffs and service agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Form and style of rate schedules, tariffs and service agreements. 35.10 Section 35.10 Conservation of Power and Water Resources... OF RATE SCHEDULES AND TARIFFS Application § 35.10 Form and style of rate schedules, tariffs...

  10. Regional and Mega-Regional Trade Agreements: Agricultural Trade in the Trans-Pacific Partnership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Maltseva

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Mega-regional trade agreements (MRTAs have appeared in response to the prolonged stagnation of the multilateral trading system ruled by the World Trade Organization (WTO. Although this issue has stimulated research in international integration, the specifics of MRTAs have not yet been sufficiently investigated. This article therefore assesses the multilateralization potential of regional commitments using the example of the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP. It includes commitments in market access liberalization made in regional trade agreements (RTAs and in intraregional agricultural trade liberalization under the TPP. The central research problem is to identify the regional liberalization commitments that might be promoted to the level of the WTO. The authors use the methodology devised by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development for assessing the potential multilateralization. RTA and MRTA commitments are grouped in two policy areas: WTO-plus (going beyond the normal provisions of the WTO and WTO-beyond (dealing with issues going beyond the WTO. The TTP is scrutinized in the context of intraregional agricultural trade liberalization. MRTAs can raise regional commitments to the global level because of their large membership, regulatory transparency and high levels of implementation. The multilateralization of regional agreements is expected in services and investments as well as in various aspects of technical regulation. The key features of implementing RTA’s WTO-plus and WTO-beyond commitments in intraregional agricultural trade are discussed. Most RTAs have liberalized tariffs beyond the WTO Agreement on Agriculture (WTO-plus, but only a few have strengthened disciplines in non-tariff barriers and implemented WTO-beyond commitments for export restrictions and export subsidies. The TPP parties are a diverse group in terms of involvement in global agricultural trade and applied tariffs on agriculture and food. The TPP

  11. A welfare ranking of multilateral reductions in real and tariff trade barriers when firms are heterogenous

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Philipp; Sørensen, Allan

    2014-01-01

    Trade liberalization comes about through reductions in various types of trade barriers. This paper introduces, apart from the customary real trade costs (i.e. iceberg and fixed export costs), two revenue generating trade barriers (i.e. an ad valorem tariff and a trade license) into a standard...... heterogeneous-firms-trade model with Pareto distributed productivities. We derive analytical welfare rankings of all four liberalization channels for an equal effect on two openness measures, for any trade cost level and while all four barriers are simultaneously present, i.e. for any initial equilibrium. We...

  12. A welfare ranking of multilateral reductions in real and tariff trade barriers when firms are heterogenous

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Philipp; Sørensen, Allan

    Trade liberalization comes about through reductions in various types of trade costs. This paper introduces, apart from real variable (i.e. iceberg) and fixed export costs, two partially redistributed tariffs into a Melitz (2003) model. We present comparable results for welfare effects and changes...... to the most preferred mode of liberalization as the fraction of tariffs wasted moves from zero to unity. Apart from a situation with no tariff redistribution, reductions in iceberg trade costs are preferred to reductions in real fixed trade costs which again are preferred to cuts in unit tariffs....

  13. Understanding the World Wool Market: Trade, Productivity and Grower Incomes. Part 6: The Costs of Global Tariff Barriers on Wool Products; Conclusion

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    This is Chapters 6 & 7 of my PhD thesis Understanding the World Wool Market: Trade, Productivity and Grower Incomes, UWA, 2006. The full thesis is available as Discussion Papers 06.19 to 06.24. The WOOLGEM model is applied to estimate the distortionary effects on prices, output, trade and regional welfare of wool tariff barriers. The estimates are simulated under long-run conditions where each region faces a trade balance constraint and capital is free to accumulate or depreciate within each ...

  14. Intellectual property rights and the TRIPS agreement : an overview of ethical problems and some proposed solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Sonderholm, Jorn

    2010-01-01

    The Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights negotiated in 1986 under the auspices of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, the institutional predecessor of the World Trade Organization, incorporated substantial and uniform protections of intellectual property rights into the international trade system. A large body of contemporary academic literature sugges...

  15. The Free Trade Agreement and Canada's natural resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saunders, J.O.

    The Free Trade Agreement (FTA) concluded between Canada and the United States holds important implications for Canada's natural resource industries. Of the two general types of barriers confronting exporters, tariffs, and non-tariff measures (NTMs), it is probably the FTA's provisions with respect to the latter that hold the most significance for the Canadian resource sector. In the energy sector, for example, no tariffs are imposed on electricity, uranium, natural gas, and natural gas liquids, with the exception of the customer user fee which applies to exports generally. One other regulatory issue that has been of concern to Canada recently is raised in the Agreement, concerning the relationship between U.S. regulatory authorities (especially the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission - FERC) and Canada's National Energy Board. Specifically, to what extent can FERC extend its jurisdiction so as to affect Canadian resources policies. While the possible conflict between Canadian and American regulatory authorities holds some potential significance for the energy sector, clearly the greater concerns of Canadian resource exporters in recent years have concerned more traditional NTM issues.

  16. El Acuerdo General sobre el Comercio de Servicios y sus implicaciones para la salud pública General Agreement on Trade in Services and its implications for public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Román Umaña-Peña

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Debido a la importancia económica del sector servicios y a su potencial comercial, en 1995 entró en vigor el Acuerdo General sobre el Comercio de Servicios (AGCS de la Organización Mundial del Comercio (OMC, cuyos objetivos son liberalizar el comercio de servicios y establecer las normas y disciplinas que lo rijan. Sin embargo, hasta el momento el acuerdo ha generado poca jurisprudencia sobre sus normas, y algunas de ellas están en proceso de elaboración, lo que le da un carácter ambiguo a la vez que dificulta precisar sus implicaciones. No obstante, algunos analistas consideran que ciertas características y disposiciones representarían una amenaza a los mecanismos de financiación de los servicios públicos, así como a la autonomía reglamentaria gubernamental. Además, el acuerdo llevaría a la formalización de compromisos de carácter irreversible, que impedirían el restablecimiento de condiciones previas, en caso de que fallasen los sistemas de mercado y la participación privada; por otra parte, estaría en oposición a los monopolios y proveedores exclusivos y, en cierto grado, afectaría a los subsidios de los proveedores locales. La capacidad del Tribunal de Justicia de las Comunidades Europeas para forzar la implementación de medidas competitivas en los servicios públicos genera incertidumbre por sus implicaciones para los sistemas sanitarios. El acuerdo de España con la OMC tiene muchos aspectos aún por consolidar, lo que abre una oportunidad política para el debate y la participación desde el sector salud en sucesivas rondas de negociación.Due to the economic importance of the service sector and its trade potential, in 1995 the World Trade Organization (WTO launched the General Agreement on Trade in Services with the objective of liberalizing trade in services worldwide and of establishing rules and disciplines to regulate it. Until now, the Agreement has produced few case laws on its rules and some of them are in

  17. PRINSIP-PRINSIP GATS (GENERAL AGREEMENT ON TRADE IN SERVICES TERHADAP PERDAGANGAN JASA PENDIDIKAN TINGGI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberta Hartiana

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available International trade in higher education belongs to the more complex reality in the international trade in services, become global trends and reform in system of higher education all over the world. This research is aimed at finding out both modes of supply and principles of GATS regarding international trade in services. The main objective of the GATS is creating a credible and reliable system of international trade rules; ensuring fair and equitable treatment of all members; stimulating economic activity through guaranteed policy bindings and promoting trade and development through progressive liberalization. This study used normative research. The method used for collecting data was the statute approach. Primary legal sources derived from WTO Trade in Services Division regarding GATS obligations and the principles of the international trade in services. The result of this study, it was found that, there were four modes of supply trade in education under GATS (article 1:2 such as: cross-border supply; consumption abroad; commercial presence and delivery abroad; and the principles of GATS divided into two categories; Firstly, unconditionally obligations, such as the Most-Favoured Nation (article II GATS and Transparency (article III GATS apply directly and automatically to all WTO members and services sector regardless of whether WTO member schedule commitment or not; Secondly, conditionally obligations such as: National Treatment (article XVII and Market Access (article XVI  and only applies to commitment listed in national schedules. Perdagangan internasional dalam pendidikan tinggi milik realitas yang lebih kompleks dalam perdagangan internasional di bidang jasa, menjadi tren global dan reformasi dalam sistem pendidikan tinggi di seluruh dunia. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui model-model pasokan dan prinsip-prinsip GATS mengenai perdagangan internasional di bidang jasa. Tujuan utama dari GATS adalah menciptakan sistem yang kredibel

  18. 75 FR 24969 - China's Agricultural Trade: Competitive Conditions and Effects on U.S. Exports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-06

    ... of China's MFN tariffs, preferential tariffs negotiated under China's free trade agreements, and... with which China has negotiated trade agreements; (4) A description of the principal measures affecting... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL...

  19. 48 CFR 25.403 - World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement and Free Trade Agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement and Free Trade Agreements. 25.403 Section 25.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Trade Agreements 25.403 World Trade...

  20. Comparative Analysis of Rules of Origin in Member Countries of Pacific Alliance and Free Trade Agreements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roberto Concha V.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to compare the rules of origin between the regionalintegration agreement Pacific Alliance and the Colombia free trade agreements withChile, CAN and G3, in order to determine if there are significant differences betweenthem. During this research, evidence shows that there are differences in the rules of originamong free trade agreements, this could generate incentives to the exporter in theposition of choosing a specific trade agreement. The main conclusion is that not always the best option to export to Chile, Mexico or Peruis through the Pacific Alliance, as would be expected to be the most recent agreement.The choice of agreement depends on the merchandise to be exported, so it isrecommended to look for the tariff subheading beforehand and to analyze which treatywould be most beneficial to export, according to its characteristics and composition. 

  1. The effect of the free trade agreement on Canada's energy resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, J. (Univ of Winnipeg, MB (Canada))

    An examination of the Canada-USA Free Trade Agreement (FTA) shows that the issue of reduction of tariffs and trade in goods is a minor feature, especially with respect to energy. The question of what are the energy-related issues of the FTA and how they affect Canadian energy resources is studied. An overview of the development of Canada's energy sector is provided to give a perspective on the effects of the FTA. The significant articles in the FTA energy section are reviewed, with the most critical being the proportional sharing clause which states that any restriction on energy exports must not reduce the proportion that is exported in relation to the total supply. Some arguments in support of the FTA energy provisions are outlined, but it is argued that the FTA is more restrictive than the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT); for example, the FTA effectively eliminates the GATT export restriction provisions and includes electricity in its list of energy goods. An aspect of the proportional sharing clause appears to subject Canada to a greater proportion of any energy-supply reductions than the USA. The FTA energy regulations prevent Canada from adopting any 2-price system for energy, thus removing the right to make Canadian resources available to Canadian consumers at lower prices. The FTA appears to restrict electric utilities from terminating export contracts if the surplus electricity being exported is needed within Canada. Similar restriction would apply to exports of oil and gas. Overall implications of the FTA mean that Canadian resources are now North American resources. 37 refs., 1 tab.

  2. Economic costs and payoffs of bilateral/regional trade agreements

    OpenAIRE

    Vollrath, Thomas L.; Hallahan, Charles B.

    2009-01-01

    The rapid increase in the number of bilateral and regional free-trade agreements since 1995 is a striking development. The proliferation of these agreements has raised questions among academicians and policymakers about whether they have, in fact, opened markets, created trade, promoted economic growth, and/or distorted trade. This study uses panel data from the 1975-2005 period and the gravity framework to identify the influence of bilateral/regional free-trade agreements on bilateral trade ...

  3. 77 FR 47880 - U.S.-Trans-Pacific Partnership Free Trade Agreement Including Canada and Mexico: Advice on the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-10

    ... COMMISSION U.S.-Trans-Pacific Partnership Free Trade Agreement Including Canada and Mexico: Advice on the... instituted investigation nos. TA-131-036 and TA-2104-028, U.S.-Trans-Pacific Partnership Free Trade Agreement... Partnership Free Trade Agreement Including Malaysia: Advice on Probable Economic Effect of Providing Duty-Free...

  4. Hydro and the Free Trade Agreement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nehterton, A.

    This paper on the USA-Canada Free Trade Agreement considers the affect of the Agreement on Canadian electricity supplies and exports. The contentious issue involved stems from the level of long term control a purchaser of energy may gain over the exporter's resources; since electricity cannot be stored in very large quantity, a purchaser of such energy not only buys a quantity of energy but also the primary rights to use of an electrical generation capacity. This paper's concern is primarily with the level of firm energy contracts between Canadian and US utilities, and the danger that Canada could lose control of the use and benefits of the resource base. The Free Trade Agreement establishes a continental energy market whose entities are entitled to 'national treatment', i.e. foreign firms to be treated as domestic ones. The Agreement may mean increasing difficulty in repatriation of Canadian electricity capacity dedicated to the continental market, loss of national market integration if the current policy of requiring export prices to be no lower than domestic ones is overturned, lack of a means to overcome US internal regulatory interference to Canadian exports, and an overall tendency to lose the ability to shape trade and natural resources for national purposes. On the other hand, the Agreement can be the major political underpinning for new directions in energy investment.

  5. Potential impact of a transatlantic trade and Investment partnership on the global forest sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph Buongiorno; Paul Rougieux; Ahmed Barkaoui; Shushuai Zhu; Patrice Harou

    2014-01-01

    The effects of a transatlantic trade agreement on the global forest sector were assessed with the Global Forest Products Model, conditional on previous macroeconomic impacts predicted with a general equilibrium model. Comprehensive tariff elimination per se had little effect on the forest sector. However, with deeper reforms and integration consumption would increase...

  6. CETA - BILATERAL TRADE AGREEMENT BETWEEN THE EU AND CANADA

    OpenAIRE

    Ludmila Borta

    2014-01-01

    The international trade for wide world countries in the means more growth, more jobs and access on more products at competitive prices. The European Union is a major economy and an important trading partner for many countries and regions in the world. To stimulate growth and to create jobs in the Union, this economy has concluded multilateral trade agreement (under the World Trade Organisation) and a number of bilateral (preferential) trade agreements. The aim of this paper is to present an e...

  7. Globalization in the Balkans: Free trade agreement and the perspectives of attracting large institutional investors on the domestic capital market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radonjić Ognjen

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to take advantage of potentially positive effects that free trade flows have on economic growth, eight countries from South-East Europe united to create a regional free trade agreement. Significant market enlargement, cancellation of customs, tariffs and other export barriers create favorable opportunities for the development and growth of domestic companies. What is more, new sources of growth and development for local enterprises, as well as intensified competition, result in increased attractiveness of the region for large international investors. On the other hand, in order to take advantage of the presence of large international investors on the domestic market, it is very important to have in function a stable and rational financial system. Again, it is questionable how to develop in the most efficient way, at the moment, our underdeveloped financial market. A complementary solution is to attract large institutional investors on the domestic market, on one hand, and the foundation of domestic ones, on the other, in order to achieve a significant enlargement of the market liquidity as the basic determinant of its future development.

  8. 77 FR 66505 - To Implement the United States-Panama Trade Promotion Agreement and for Other Purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-05

    ... Trade Promotion Agreement and for Other Purposes By the President of the United States of America A...-Panama Trade Promotion Agreement Implementation Act (the ``Implementation Act'') (Public Law 112-43, 125... preferential tariff treatment provided for under the Agreement. I have determined that it is necessary...

  9. 48 CFR 225.403 - World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement and Free Trade Agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement and Free Trade Agreements. 225.403 Section 225.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Trade...

  10. Study on Theory and Methods of Telecommunication Tariff

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The pricing of telecommunication services is quite important aswell as complicated. This paper strengthens the research of theories and implementation of telecommunication tariff in China. It is helpful for the government authorities and enterprises to unify and standardize the regulatory methods, to guide the deciding of the structure and level of telecommunication tariff by implementing scientific theories, to further develop and optimize the tariff system. This paper conducts a systematic, in-depth and creative research on some of the most popular and most difficult problems in the area of telecommunication tariff research, such as the regulation of telecommunication tariff, the theories of telecommunication tariff, the systematic pricing theory, the interconnection charge, the model cost evaluation theory, the long-run incremental cost theory, and the international telecommunication tariff. After studying the foreign methods on telecommunication tariff regulation, basing on the current situation of China's tariff regulation, the scope and methods for China's telecommunication tariff regulation are suggested. Aimed at the weakness of pricing theory for enterprises to set up telecommunication tariffs, an overall frame work of telecommunication tariff theories is proposed. The systematic pricing theory and model cost evaluation theory of telecommunication services are put forward from a brand new perspective. A front topic, the LRIC theory, is probed. In addition, the pricing practices of network interconnection charge and international telecommunication tariff, which are currently very attractive to the theorists, are discussed. Basing on these studies, this paper improves the structure of telecommunication tariff theory. It provides the Chinese government authorities with practical methods and helpful supports to regulate the telecommunication tariffs; in the mean time, it also provides the enterprises with scientific pricing theories and methods to set up

  11. The North American Free Trade Agreement: What it means for US coal exports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phelleps, M.

    The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) is an unprecedented trade agreement that provides rules, guidelines, and procedures for eliminating barriers to trade and investment between the United States, Canada, and Mexico. It includes schedules for reducing and eventually eliminating tariff and nontariff barriers to trade, rules for converting nontariff barriers to trade barriers, rules for determining the origin of traded goods, provisions for facilitating investments, and exceptions to the general terms and conditions outlined in the text of the agreement. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the opportunities for the United States' coal industry in Mexico. This paper examines the Mexican coal industry, current and future coal use in Mexico, opportunities for US exports to Mexico, other coal-related export opportunities, and information sources on NAFTA implementation.

  12. Essays on the Economics of Trade Agreements.:Essays on the Economics of Trade Agreements.

    OpenAIRE

    Soete, Sophie

    2017-01-01

    Economic Integration Agreements (EIAs) have been gaining importance in the last two decades in terms of number of countries concluding them, trade flows covered, trade barriers removed and policy domains covered. This dissertation wants to add to the understanding of how these agreements are negotiated and what impact they have, as this is important for academics as well as policymakers and well-informed citizens. In the first two essays of this dissertation, I study the effects of EIAs be...

  13. 75 FR 4607 - Free Trade Agreements; Invitation for Applications for Inclusion on Dispute Settlement Rosters...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-28

    ...A number of trade agreements to which the United States is a party call for the parties to establish rosters of persons available to serve on dispute settlement panels to hear disputes under those agreements. These agreements include the United States-Chile Free Trade Agreement, the Dominican Republic-Central America-United States Free Trade Agreement (``CAFTA-DR''), the North American Free Trade Agreement (``NAFTA''), and the United States-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement. In some instances, an agreement will call for the establishment of more than one roster. For example, the CAFTA-DR requires the establishment of four rosters of individuals who would be available to serve as panelists in dispute settlement proceedings arising under that agreement: a general roster and rosters for disputes concerning financial services, labor, and environment matters. USTR is inviting interested persons to apply to be on one or more of these several rosters under the various agreements.

  14. The Kyoto Agreement: Trade and Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    1999-01-01

    The Kyoto Agreement from 1997 allows trade of CO2 emission quotas between the 38 industrialized countries which have committed themselves to an emission ceiling. However, it does not define how this potential trade system should be designed. The intention was to clarify these matters during...... the 1999 conference in Buenos Aires. Nothing was decided at this conference, leaving open the question of how emission trade is supposed to take place. Therefore, this article aims to propose a design which is both politically and administratively feasible. It may, as such, catch the interest of both...

  15. Thailand in Regional and Bilateral Free Trade Agreements

    OpenAIRE

    Rattanaphan, Chalakorn

    2009-01-01

    The Regional Trade Agreements (RTAs) and the bilateral Free Trade Agreements (FTAs) have increasingly been a new wave of international trade around the world. The countries who seek to establish these agreements, be regionally or bilaterally, realize that the trade agreements are in fact tools to increase trade with their trading partners, to extend and expand their foreign markets, as well as to encourage foreign investments but the overall goal is to strengthen economic tie with the trading...

  16. La opacidad de los acuerdos generales de bienes y servicios en España Opacity of general agreements on goods and services in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Román Andrés Umaña Peña

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Explorar la intensidad del debate parlamentario sobre el Acuerdo General de Comercio de Servicios (AGCS asumido por España ante la Organización Mundial del Comercio (OMC, y compararla con la del Acuerdo General de Bienes (GATT. Métodos: Búsqueda sistemática y análisis del contenido de todas las iniciativas parlamentarias sobre AGCS y GATT realizadas entre 1979 y 2004 en el Congreso de los Diputados y el Senado. Se calculó la frecuencia y porcentaje de iniciativas parlamentarias de ambos temas, resultado de su tramitación y tipo de iniciativa. Resultados: Se presentaron 185 iniciativas parlamentarias sobre los acuerdos multilaterales de bienes y servicios, de las que 120 se referían al GATT, 8 al AGCS y 57 a ambos acuerdos. La mayoría de las iniciativas no fueron discutidas (GATT, 71%; GATS, 55,4% o estuvieron sujetas a un debate político en el que apenas se dieron intervenciones por parte de los grupos parlamentarios. Conclusiones: A pesar de las implicaciones del acuerdo multilateral de servicios para la política sanitaria española, éste se ha asumido con escaso debate parlamentario previo, incluso menos que en el caso de su homólogo sobre bienes. Se requiere en este tema una intensificación de la función de control al gobierno.Objective: To explore the intensity of the debate in the Spanish Parliament on the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS developed by Spain and the World Trade Organization, and to compare it with the debate on the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT. Methods: A systematic search and content analysis were performed of all parliamentary initiatives on GATS and GATT undertaken from 1979 to 2004 in the Spanish Parliament and Senate. The frequency and percentages of initiatives on both issues were calculated, and the final result and kinds of initiative were analyzed. Results: A total of 185 initiatives were presented in the Spanish Parliament on these agreements, of which 120 were

  17. Tariffs Formation on oil transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glyzina, T. S.; Kolbysheva, Yu. V.; Grivtsova, I. S.; Dmitrieva, N. V.

    2016-09-01

    Oil transportation via trunk pipelines is an important part of the oil industry's activity. The main instrument of tariff regulation is the method of tariffs formation. Three methods of tariffs formation such as the method of economically justified costs (the Cost plus method), the method of economically justified return on investment capital (the RAB method), and the method of tariffs indexation were considered.

  18. Recent Leaps Towards Free Trade - The Impact on Norwegian Industry and Trade Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Fæhn, Taran; Grünfeld, Leo A.

    1996-01-01

    In this study we model effects on Norwegian industry and trade patterns of the recently implemented trade reforms - the WTO-agreement, the EEA-treaty, the OECD ship building reform and the EFTA fishing agreement - through changes in tariffs, NTBs, government procurement and subsidy policy as well as shifts in foreign prices and demand. We employ a highly disaggregated CGE model to simulate the difference between an economy adapted to the mentioned reforms and an economy based on a multilatera...

  19. Peculiarities of non-tariff restrictions adjustment in foreign trade between the U.S. and EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohdan Tustanivskyy

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is the theoretical evaluation of the non-tariff trading conditions essence, determination of their place and importance in the trade between the U.S. and the EU, the assessment of possible effects due to its reduction or complete freezing. The paper takes into consideration the subject-matter and importance of non-tariff methods of foreign trade regulation, finds their place and distinguishes their specific use in the foreign trade relations between the U.S. and the EU. Accordingly, the trading terms between the above-mentioned trading partners are found to be mostly liberal, and major restrictions have non-tariff character. The estimation of the rationality of the existing non-tariff trade barriers is given, and the possible effects after their adjustment, shown up in the GDP growth, imports and exports volume, population higher incomes and wages, are evaluated. The importance of the non-tariff restrictions adjustment in the context of prospects for the transatlantic free trade area creation is emphasized.

  20. 78 FR 23954 - U.S.-EU Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership Agreement: Advice on the Probable Economic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-23

    ... COMMISSION U.S.-EU Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership Agreement: Advice on the Probable Economic... investigation Nos. TA-131-037 and TA-2104-029, U.S.-EU Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership Agreement... Union (EU) member states. More specifically, the USTR, under authority delegated by the President...

  1. Agricultural Tariff Tracker

    Data.gov (United States)

    Foreign Agricultural Service, Department of Agriculture — The Agricultural Tariff Tool is a web application that queries tariff schedules and rate information resulting from Free Trade Agreements (FTAs). All...

  2. Energy, natural resources and the Canada-United States Free Trade Agreement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saunders, J.O. (Calgary Univ., Alberta (CA). Canadian Inst. of Resources Law)

    1990-01-01

    On January 1, 1989 the Canada-United States Free Trade Agreement (FTA) came into effect, following a bitterly-fought general election in Canada, in which the Agreement figured as the overwhelmingly predominant issue. This article examines, from a primarily Canadian perspective, the implications of the Free Trade Agreement for the energy and natural resources sectors. A brief overview of the structure of the Agreement, is followed by a discussion, firstly, of the chapter on energy trade and, secondly, of the Agreement's implications for the substance and application of US trade laws. (author).

  3. Tariffs and Firm-Level Heterogeneous Fixed Export Costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Philipp J.H.; Jørgensen, Jan Guldager

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a two country intra-industry trade model with bilateral ad valorem tariffs and fixed export costs that are heterogeneous across firms. In this model not all firms will choose to export. We examine the effects of reciprocal changes in the tariff and the fixed export barrier...... on the number of firms, firm profits, tariff revenue and consumer welfare. We show that both types of trade barriers reduce (increase) the number of exporting (pure domestic) firms. However, the sum of available home and foreign varieties may actually increase for small tariffs. Firm profits fall for both...... the tariff and the fixed export barrier. Tariff revenue falls for an increase in fixed exporting costs whereas we have a Laffer curve effect for the tariff. Finally, we establish that welfare falls with fixed export costs and large tariffs but increases for small tariffs, i.e. there exist a welfare...

  4. Monitoring the impacts of trade agreements on food environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friel, S; Hattersley, L; Snowdon, W; Thow, A-M; Lobstein, T; Sanders, D; Barquera, S; Mohan, S; Hawkes, C; Kelly, B; Kumanyika, S; L'Abbe, M; Lee, A; Ma, J; Macmullan, J; Monteiro, C; Neal, B; Rayner, M; Sacks, G; Swinburn, B; Vandevijvere, S; Walker, C

    2013-10-01

    The liberalization of international trade and foreign direct investment through multilateral, regional and bilateral agreements has had profound implications for the structure and nature of food systems, and therefore, for the availability, nutritional quality, accessibility, price and promotion of foods in different locations. Public health attention has only relatively recently turned to the links between trade and investment agreements, diets and health, and there is currently no systematic monitoring of this area. This paper reviews the available evidence on the links between trade agreements, food environments and diets from an obesity and non-communicable disease (NCD) perspective. Based on the key issues identified through the review, the paper outlines an approach for monitoring the potential impact of trade agreements on food environments and obesity/NCD risks. The proposed monitoring approach encompasses a set of guiding principles, recommended procedures for data collection and analysis, and quantifiable 'minimal', 'expanded' and 'optimal' measurement indicators to be tailored to national priorities, capacity and resources. Formal risk assessment processes of existing and evolving trade and investment agreements, which focus on their impacts on food environments will help inform the development of healthy trade policy, strengthen domestic nutrition and health policy space and ultimately protect population nutrition. © 2013 The Authors. Obesity Reviews published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  5. 77 FR 37948 - Free Trade Agreements; Invitation for Applications for Inclusion on Dispute Settlement Lists for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-25

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Free Trade Agreements; Invitation for Applications for Inclusion on Dispute Settlement Lists for U.S. Free Trade Agreements (FTAs) With Australia, Colombia, Korea, Morocco, and... United States-Australia Free Trade Agreement (``USAFTA''), the United States-Colombia Trade Promotion...

  6. The trade effects of endogenous preferential trade agreements

    OpenAIRE

    Egger, Peter; Larch, Mario; Staub, Kevin E; Winkelmann, Rainer

    2010-01-01

    Recent work by Anderson and van Wincoop (2003) establishes an empirical modelling strategy which takes full account of the structural, non-(log-)linear impact of trade barriers on trade in new trade theory models. Structural new trade theory models have never been used to evaluate and quantify the role of endogenous preferential trade agreement (PTA) membership for trade in a way which is consistent with general equilibrium. Apart from this gap, the present paper aims at delivering an empiric...

  7. THE TPP AND TTIP TRADE AGREEMENTS: THE INTERNATIONAL NEGOTIATION PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana GUTU

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Free trade is one of the ultimate purposes of the free trade agreements currently negotiated over the world. Two of these trials are represented by the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP and the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP. The common feature of these two trade deals is represented by the United States, a global actor that is making sure that it will be able to trade in best conditions on both of its geographical shores: on the Pacific and on The Atlantic. The negotiations are still ongoing, but results are expected on both sides. An important issue for the third parties, but not only, is represented by the secrecy of the negotiations undertaken and the lack of transparency shown by the negotiating Governments. If the agreements are concluded, a major global impact on trade and investments is expected, with significant positive implications for the TPP and TTIP negotiating states.

  8. Assessing the impact of the Australia-United States Free Trade Agreement on Australian and global medicines policy

    OpenAIRE

    Searles Andrew; Drahos Peter; Henry David; Doran Evan; Faunce Thomas; Pekarsky Brita; Neville Warwick

    2005-01-01

    Abstract On 1 January 2005, a controversial trade agreement entered into force between Australia and the United States. Though heralded by the parties as facilitating the removal of barriers to free trade (in ways not achievable in multilateral fora), it also contained many trade-restricting intellectual property provisions and others uniquely related to altering pharmaceutical regulation and public health policy in Australia. The latter appear to have particularly focused on the world-respec...

  9. A Comparative Analysis of Trade Facilitation in Selected Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreement

    OpenAIRE

    Institute for International Trade

    2006-01-01

    This study compared the treatment of trade facilitation in four selected regional trade agreements, AFTA, APEC, SAFRA and PACER, and in one bilateral free trade agreement being the Australia-Singapore Free Trade Agreement (ASFTA), with a view to determining model trade facilitation principles and measures which may be instructive for developing country negotiations and policy makers.

  10. A Comparative Analysis of Trade Facilitation in Selected Regional and Bilateral Trade Agreement

    OpenAIRE

    Wille, P.; J. Redden

    2006-01-01

    This study compares the treatment of trade facilitation in four selected regional trade agreements, AFTA, APEC, SAFTA and PACER, and in one bilateral free trade agreement being the Australia-Singapore Free Trade Agreement (ASFTA), with a view to determining model trade facilitation principles and measures which may be instructive for developing country negotiators and policy makers.

  11. Analysis Of Agricultural Productivity And Growth On Safta (South Asian Free Trade Agreement And Its Imact On Economy Of Pakistan By Using CGE Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazir Ahmed GOPANG

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This research explore the opportunities and analyzing the cost andbenefit on Pak-India trade on South Asian Free Trade Agreement (SAFTAand its possible impact on the welfare of both countries. Pak-India trade on SAFTA create opportunities for the both countries in export Laid growth. In First Scenario when normal trading relation will be restores and given MFN(Most Favored Nations status given to each other to attack the trade between two countries. The Global trade analysis GTAP model is used to analyze the possible impact of SAFTA on Pakistan in a multi country, multi sector applied General equilibrium frame work. After employing the simplified static analysis framework, the analysis based on simulations revealsthat current demand for Pakistani Basmati Rice and other consumer items like leather and cotton-made garments will expand after the FTA and consumer surplus will increase. The export of Rice, leather and cotton-made garments may be conducted by two scenarios, i.e. when normal trading relations between Pakistan and India will be restored and when there will be a free trade between Pakistan and India in the presence of South Asian Free Trade Agreement (SAFTA. Results based on this research reveal that on SAFTA, grounds, there will be net export benefi ts in Pakistan’s economy.

  12. Trade Agreements PTI

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The objective of the Trade Agreements PTI is to advance CBP’s mission by working with internal and external stakeholders to facilitate legitimate trade and address...

  13. Bilateral trade agreements and the feasibility of multilateral free trade

    OpenAIRE

    Saggi, Kamal; Yildiz, Halis Murat

    2008-01-01

    This paper compares stable Nash equilibria of two games of trade liberalization. In the FTA game, each country can form an FTA with either one of its trade partners, or both of them, or none of them. By contrast, in the No FTA game, each country must choose either no agreement or free trade. Under symmetry, free trade is uniquely stable under the No FTA game whereas the FTA game also admits a bilateral FTA as an equilibrium. However, there exist patterns of cost asymmetry for which the freedo...

  14. Bilateral trade agreements and the feasibility of multilateral free trade

    OpenAIRE

    SAGGI, Kamal; Yildiz, Halis Murat

    2008-01-01

    This paper compares stable Nash equilibria of two games of trade liberalization. In the FTA game, each country can form an FTA with either one of its trade partners, or both of them, or none of them. By contrast, in the No FTA game, each country must choose either no agreement or free trade. Under symmetry, free trade is uniquely stable under the No FTA game whereas the FTA game also admits a bilateral FTA as an equilibrium. However, there exist patterns of cost asymmetry for which the freedo...

  15. Heterogeneous trade agreements, WTO membership and international trade : an analysis using matching econometrics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kohl, Tristan; Trojanowska, Sofia

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the heterogeneous effects of trade agreements (TAs) and World Trade Organization (WTO) membership on the volume of international trade. We extend Baier and Bergstrand’s (2009a) application of matching econometrics by distinguishing between different types of TAs and WTO partici

  16. Heterogeneous trade agreements, WTO membership and international trade : an analysis using matching econometrics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kohl, Tristan; Trojanowska, Sofia

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the heterogeneous effects of trade agreements (TAs) and World Trade Organization (WTO) membership on the volume of international trade. We extend Baier and Bergstrand’s (2009a) application of matching econometrics by distinguishing between different types of TAs and WTO

  17. 论非关税贸易壁垒对我国农产品出口的影响及应对措施%On non tariff trade barriers impact on China's exports of agricultural products and measures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张琦

    2014-01-01

    Agricultural products has accounted for a large proportion in our country's export products, the trade of agricultural products has also been a high-profile problem in international trade. With the gradual weakening of the role of traditional tariff barriers, non-tariff barriers to trade have increasingly become the main measure of a country's trade protection. Therefore, it is necessary to influence of non tariff trade barriers on China's agricultural product export trade are analyzed, in order to better take corresponding measures to reduce the loss.%农产品在我国对外出口的产品中一直占有很大的比重,农产品贸易也一直是国际贸易中备受瞩目的问题。随着传统的关税壁垒作用的逐渐弱化,非关税贸易壁垒日益成为一国贸易保护的主要措施。因此,有必要对非关税贸易壁垒对我国农产品出口贸易的影响进行分析,以利于更好的采取相应的措施以减少损失。

  18. An Assessment of the China-Korea Free Trade Agreement: Implementation Outcome and Influencing Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meiling Wang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available China-Korea Free Trade Agreement tops the list of trade volume covered by 14 FTAs China has signed with its signatory counterparts. In principle, 100 days of China-Korea Free Trade Agreement (ChKFTA into effect as of December 20, 2015, through two stages of tariff reduction and/or elimination, can result in substantial benefits for Chinese imports and/or exports firms. The paper is a pilot questionnaire study assessing the enforcement outcome of ChKFTA, based on the responding firms’ perceived observations and views of the impact of ChKFTA on their trading activities in the first quarter of 2016, and the role of related rule of origin (RoO. Such an inquiry of the relationship between rule of origin and trade in goods aims at yielding evidence for decision-making on how to optimize the outcome of ChKFTA and China’s increasing number of FTAs as well.

  19. Global trade and climate policy scenarios. Impact on Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honkatukia, J.; Kaitila, V.; Kotilainen, M.; Niemi, J.

    2012-09-15

    In this study we use the dynamic version of the GTAP model to analyse the effects of global trade policy changes and their interaction with different global climate policy regimes from Finland's point of view, and in particular, implications for Finnish export sectors. Scenarios explore further trade liberalisation as well as effects of higher-than-current tariffs on world markets. As a complementary dimension we analyse the impact of a global climate agreement that will lead to an additional improvement in energy efficiency and impose limitations to GHG emissions. We find a general trend towards a greater weight of services sector in Finland's total exports volume, whilst the share of traditionally important heavy industry and electronics industries declines. These trends are amplified by further trade liberalisation and slowed down by new barriers for trade. The global coverage of climate policy is particularly significant for energy-intensive industries. (orig.)

  20. Free trade agreements and their impact on latin american migrations: An approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Ernesto Buitrago R.

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to review the causes of international migration and the potential impact of FTAs (Free TradeAgreements on latin american migrations. The first part describes the economic and non-economic causes for migration. The second one shows the potential impact of FTAs in the economy (job creation/destruction by sectors in CAFTA countries and Colombia.The last part shows that there is little correlation between the commercial openness (FTAs and the reduction of poverty. Poverty seems to be increasing in the studied countries –even more in those with the most open commercial regimens, than in those with the most closed ones. Data proves that openness doesn’t reduce the poverty automatically; on the contrary, in some (regional or subregional cases it increases and causes a major determinant of international migration in latin american countries.

  1. Implications of bilateral free trade agreements on access to medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Carlos María

    2006-05-01

    The TRIPS Agreement of the World Trade Organization (WTO) mandated the introduction of protection of intellectual property rights, notably patents, for pharmaceutical products. While the implications for the access to medicines contained in the terms of this Agreement raised significant concerns, a recent new wave of free trade agreements, negotiated outside the WTO, requires even higher levels of intellectual property protection for medicines than those mandated by that Agreement. The measures involved include the extension of the patent term beyond 20 years; prohibition of use of test data on drug efficacy and safety for certain periods for the approval of generic products; the linkage between drug registration and patent protection; in some cases, limitations to the grounds for granting compulsory licences. This article reviews some of these measures that further limit the competition of generic products and discusses their possible implication for access to medicines.

  2. The impact of WTO and other trade negotiations on fisheries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dross, M.; Acker, van den H.; Schönherr, N.; Smit, J.G.P.; Beukers, R.

    2009-01-01

    The study compiles and analyses information on international as well as EU trade flows; it considers the tariffs applied in trade in fisheries with a particular focus on tariff protection maintained by the EU. Against this backdrop the current state of the ongoing multilateral and bilateral trade

  3. Gravity, Bilateral Agreements, and Trade Diversion in the Americas

    OpenAIRE

    Raymond Robertson; Antoni Estevadeordal

    2009-01-01

    Krishna (1998) shows that a bilateral agreement between two countries render a multilateral agreement less attractive if the bilateral agreement is trade diverting. This paper combines Krishna’s model with the empirical approach of Anderson and va

  4. Impact of the North American Free Trade Agreement on high-fructose corn syrup supply in Canada: a natural experiment using synthetic control methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Pepita; McKee, Martin; Basu, Sanjay; Stuckler, David

    2017-07-04

    Critics of free trade agreements have argued that they threaten public health, as they eliminate barriers to trade in potentially harmful products, such as sugar. Here we analyze the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), testing the hypothesis that lowering tariffs on food and beverage syrups that contain high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) increased its use in foods consumed in Canada. We used supply data from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations to assess changes in supply of caloric sweeteners including HFCS after NAFTA. We estimate the impact of NAFTA on supply of HFCS in Canada using an innovative, quasi-experimental methodology - synthetic control methods - that creates a control group with which to compare Canada's outcomes. Additional robustness tests were performed for sample, control groups and model specification. Tariff reductions in NAFTA coincided with a 41.6 (95% confidence interval 25.1 to 58.2) kilocalorie per capita daily increase in the supply of caloric sweeteners including HFCS. This change was not observed in the control groups, including Australia and the United Kingdom, as well as a composite control of 16 countries. Results were robust to placebo tests and additional sensitivity analyses. NAFTA was strongly associated with a marked rise in HFCS supply and likely consumption in Canada. Our study provides evidence that even a seemingly modest change to product tariffs in free trade agreements can substantially alter population-wide dietary behaviour and exposure to risk factors. © 2017 Canadian Medical Association or its licensors.

  5. The Algerian Foreign Trade between the Multilateral Trading System and the Regionalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khayreddine Belaaze

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This contribution aims at highlighting a major challenge facing global trade and trade in developing countries. Indeed, regional and preferential trade agreements are now more than ever inconsistent and incoherent and one of the principles of the World Trade Organization, the clause of the most favored nation requiring eliminated all forms of discrimination between trading parties, but what we see in regional trade agreements that the preferential tariffs based on a principle of discrimination. All regional trade agreements granting preferential tariffs between member countries, these preferences do not include the remains of non-member countries (rest of world. On the other hand, preferential tariffs are lower than MFN rates. Meanwhile, the number of regional agreements has doubled since 1995 date creation of the WTO, and Algeria like other developing countries considered one of countries which have not benefit a lot from this situation.

  6. The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and Mexican nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squires, Allison

    2011-03-01

    In the context of nurse migration, experts view trade agreements as either vehicles for facilitating migration or as contributing to brain-drain phenomena. Using a case study design, this study explored the effects of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) on the development of Mexican nursing. Drawing results from a general thematic analysis of 48 interviews with Mexican nurses and 410 primary and secondary sources, findings show that NAFTA changed the relationship between the State and Mexican nursing. The changed relationship improved the infrastructure capable of producing and monitoring nursing human resources in Mexico. It did not lead to the mass migration of Mexican nurses to the United States and Canada. At the same time, the economic instability provoked by the peso crisis of 1995 slowed the implementation of planned advances. Subsequent neoliberal reforms decreased nurses' security as workers by minimizing access to full-time positions with benefits, and decreased wages. This article discusses the linkages of these events and the effects on Mexican nurses and the development of the profession. The findings have implications for nursing human resources policy-making and trade in services.

  7. The impact of the trade liberalization on the women work: Comparative analyzes between the South Africa and the Ethiopia with an impact of the general equilibrium calculable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lulit Mitik

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of trade liberalization on female labor depend on a country′s socio-economic and employment sector characteristics. A Gender-aware computable general equilibrium model is applied to Ethiopia and South Africa from a comparative perspective. Tariff reduction results in opposite outcomes regarding gender-based wage and labor market participation inequalities in the two countries due to their structural differences in men′s and women′s employment.

  8. THE ROLE OF REGIONAL TRADE AGREEMENTS IN ACHIEVING FOOD SECURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Sapa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article was to identify certain relationships between international trade and food security with special emphasis on regional trade agreements. The study was conducted on the basis of domestic and foreign sources of literature. Unresolved problem of food insecurity indicate not only identification of the source of this state , but also ways to improve the food situation in the world. One of the factors that improve directly and indirectly food security level is international trade. Limited capability for performing trade liberalization at the global level means that the way of improving access to food is regionalism. However, taking full advantage of regional trade agreements to solve the problem of food insecurity must be accompanied by elimination or reduction the non-tariff barriers, that still exist.

  9. EU-Mercosur Trade Agreement: Potential Impacts on Rural Livelihoods and Gender (with Focus on Bio-fuels Feedstock Expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonith Hinojosa

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The trade-sustainable impact assessment of the European Union-Mercosur trade agreement found that the economic impact of the trade liberalisation scenario could be positive in the agricultural sectors of Mercosur countries. However, it also found that the social and environmental impacts would be mixed and potentially detrimental. This paper addresses the likely effects on the livelihoods of vulnerable rural populations. It argues that the potential impacts can be analysed within a diversified livelihood strategies framework, which is expanded to include institutional and policy factors. It concludes that the negative expected impact responds to the highly uneven access to capital assets. On the other hand, the effects are not generalised to all Mercosur countries, nor to all regions in each of the member countries. Enhancing or mitigating measures refer to the importance of sequencing and regulation to improve disadvantaged groups‘ abilities to participate in trade-led agricultural intensification or industrialisation processes.

  10. TRADE, REVENUE AND WELFARE EFFECTS UNDER AN ECONOMIC PARTNERSHIP AGREEMENT BETWEEN BURKINA FASO AND THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.O. Onogwu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study estimates the impact on Burkina Faso of eliminating tariffs on imports from the EU under EPAs, considering trade, revenue and welfare effects. At complete elimination of tariffs on all products imports from trade classification sections (TDC 01-13 from the EU. Burkina Faso is likely to experience both welfare gains and losses depending on the values of imports of each trade classification section in question. The overall welfare effect relative to GDP tends to be very small and positive, but potential tariff revenue losses are enormous even when the country has up to fifteen - twenty-five years in which to implement the tariff reductions, unless with scope for tax substitution. EPAs effects are concentrated on those product sections where trade creation outweighs trade diversion such as Animal products, Vegetable products, Animal/Veg. products, Mineral products, and Textiles products. Besides, product sections with the greatest market opportunities for EU suppliers to displace any of the other suppliers, ECOWAS and/or ROW include sections where trade diversion outweighs trade creation effects, such as prepared foodstuffs, product of chemicals, plastics, raw hides & skin, etc. The sensitive products (SPs to be excluded from tariff removal should include sections in which ECOWAS member nations are suppliers to regional importers so that excluding them as SPs would improve the welfare gain compared to estimates where tariff are removed from those products in which ECOWAS have zero potential. The results at this level of aggregation will provide useful information to the on-going negotiations between ECOWAS and the EU in determining Burkinabe's products to be exempted from tariff removal during EPAs based on the severity of the effects on varied trade classification (TDC sections, among other considerations.

  11. Terms of Trade and Global Efficiency Effects of Free Trade Agreements, 1990-2002

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, James; Yotov, Yoto

    2012-01-01

    This paper infers the terms of trade effects of the Free Trade Agreements (FTAs) of the 1990s. Using panel data methods to resolve two way causality between trade and FTAs, we estimate large FTA effects on bilateral trade volume in digit manufacturing goods from 1990-2002. We deduce the terms of trade changes implied by these volume effects for 40 countries plus a rest-of-the-world aggregate using the structural gravity model. Some countries gain over 10%, some lose less than 0.2%. Overall, u...

  12. The European Union’s Trade Strategy and Its Reflections on Turkey: an Evaluation from the Perspective of Free Trade Agreements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sait AKMAN

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to assess implications, of European Union’s (EU new trade strategy and its Free Trade Agreements (FTAs with third countries, on Turkey-EU relations. It analyses critics raised in the context of FTAs and puts forward that the sustainability of the relations is contingent to the satisfaction of a set of criteria.The EU shifted its trade policy from sole reliance on multilateral trade negotiations towards initiatives for bilateral and preferential agreements (PTAs under its ‘Global Europe’ strategy which was adopted in 2006, to propose its trade policy agenda and priorities in accordance with its Lisbon Strategy. WTO Doha Round is currently in deadlock and it is improbable that it will be concluded in the near future. Partly for this reason, the EU tends to implement its policy objectives constantly through a set of FTAs. Turkey has to align its trade policy to the EU’s preferential regimes, pursuant to its obligations arising from the Customs Union (CU. Hence, it has concluded so far sixteen FTAs with relevant countries. On the other hand, the intensification of critics about the FTAs process and the CU brings impediments for Turkey to commit itself to its CU obligations in the next period. Two main motives can be cited as a reason: First, the EU trade strategy obviously considers the global context within which the EU rests; and the Member States’ interests, which are subsequently reflected into its FTAs. Nevertheless, a harmonious action by Turkey becomes onerous as long as EU trade priorities diverge from Turkey’s long term trade strategy. Second reason, aside from technical aspects of the CU, can be attributed to the ‘political uncertainty’ converged around the ‘open-endedness’ of the membership process, which in turn affects the CU, Turkey’s most vital linkage to the EU, and the commitments there from.

  13. Bilateral Agreements and Fair Trade Practices: A Policy Analysis of the Colombia-U.S. Free Trade Agreement (2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin J. Fandl

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article brings to the attention of those public servants involved in the design and negotiation of free trade agreements between the United States and developing countries, such as Colombia, the potential benefits and drawbacks of negotiating in a bilateral forum. Rather than critiquing the free trade agreement for its particular provisions, this article examines the U.S. policy of negotiating bilaterally with developing countries as opposed to multilaterally in the world trade system and what effects such an approach might have on the economic development of the latter. Using an incremental policy analysis, the article critiques the bilateral approach in terms of economic development and fair trade negotiations using the recent Colombia-U.S. trade agreement as a case study. The article concludes that a bilateral approach that is disconnected from a broader multilateral context may be detrimental to developing countries and recommends increased oversight of such agreements by the World Trade Organization to ensure a higher degree of fairness.

  14. Tariffs and Firm-Level Heterogeneous Fixed Export Costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Philipp J.H.; Jørgensen, Jan Guldager

    2006-01-01

    on the number of firms, firm profits, tariff revenue and consumer welfare. We show that both types of trade barriers reduce (increase) the number of exporting (pure domestic) firms. However, the sum of available home and foreign varieties may actually increase for small tariffs. Firm profits fall for both......This paper presents a two country intra-industry trade model with bilateral ad valorem tariffs and fixed export costs that are heterogeneous across firms. In this model not all firms will choose to export. We examine the effects of reciprocal changes in the tariff and the fixed export barrier...

  15. Analysis Of Agricultural Productivity And Growth On Safta (South Asian Free Trade Agreement) And Its Imact On Economy Of Pakistan By Using CGE Model

    OpenAIRE

    Nazir Ahmed GOPANG; SZABAC Dokri; F. M. Shaikh

    2010-01-01

    This research explore the opportunities and analyzing the cost andbenefit on Pak-India trade on South Asian Free Trade Agreement (SAFTA)and its possible impact on the welfare of both countries. Pak-India trade on SAFTA create opportunities for the both countries in export Laid growth. In First Scenario when normal trading relation will be restores and given MFN(Most Favored Nations) status given to each other to attack the trade between two countries. The Global trade analysis GTAP model is u...

  16. Political Economy aspects of Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Agreements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiota MANOLI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Trade agreements are usually shaped by political considerations rather than pure welfare estimations. This article aims at discussing the political economy aspects of Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Agreements offered by the European Union to its Eastern partners. It is argued that although the DCFTAs concern trade liberalization and remain a technically complicated elite-driven process, they are widely perceived by engaged partners and beyond as primary evidence of joining the European economic integration project which will fundamentally affect the distribution of wealth and power in Eastern neighbourhood redesigning its political economy map. Using trade jargon, these agreements have served geopolitical goals rather than economic interests.

  17. Trade Liberalization and Climate Change: A Computable General Equilibrium Analysis of the Impacts on Global Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Rehdanz

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Based on predicted changes in the magnitude and distribution of global precipitation, temperature and river flow under the A1B and A2 scenarios of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (IPCC SRES, this study assesses the potential impacts of climate change and CO2 fertilization on global agriculture, and its interactions with trade liberalization, as proposed for the Doha Development Round. The analysis uses the new version of the GTAP-W model, which distinguishes between rainfed and irrigated agriculture and implements water as an explicit factor of production for irrigated agriculture. Significant reductions in agricultural tariffs lead to modest changes in regional water use. Patterns are non-linear. On the regional level, water use may go up for partial liberalization, and down for more complete liberalization. This is because different crops respond differently to tariff reductions, and because trade and competition matter too. Moreover, trade liberalization tends to reduce water use in water scarce regions, and increase water use in water abundant regions, even though water markets do not exist in most countries. Considering impacts of climate change, the results show that global food production, welfare and GDP fall over time while food prices increase. Larger changes are observed under the SRES A2 scenario for the medium term (2020 and under the SRES A1B scenario for the long term (2050. Combining scenarios of future climate change with trade liberalization, countries are affected differently. However, the overall effect on welfare does not change much.

  18. Impact of WTO Accession and the Customs Union on the Bound and Applied Tariff Rates of the Russian Federation

    OpenAIRE

    Shepotylo, Oleksandr; Tarr, David G.

    2012-01-01

    After 18 years of negotiations, Russia has joined the World Trade Organization. This paper assesses how the tariff structure of the Russian Federation will change as a result of the phased implementation of its World Trade Organization commitments between 2012 and 2020 and how it has changed as a result of its agreement to participate in a Customs Union with Kazakhstan and Belarus. The an...

  19. The bilateral trade agreements and export performance of South Asian nations with special reference to India Sri Lanka Free Trade Agreement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhail P

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The regional trade agreements (RTA have been one of the important developments in the world trading system in 1990s. There are number of studies on the effects trade agreements in different contexts. This study is an attempt to analyse the effects of bilateral trade agreements in the intraregional trade in the SAARC region with special reference to the Free Trade Agreements (FTA between India Sri Lanka. The study uses a panel regression analysis by using balance panel data. The study concludes that the FTA between India and Sri Lanka has brought positive results in the trade between these two nations by improving the bilateral trade in goods. The results of the study are important in the context of looking for the prospects of a free trade area in the region by member nations.

  20. 75 FR 28059 - Actual Effects of the Free Trade Agreements With Chile, Australia, and Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-19

    ... COMMISSION Actual Effects of the Free Trade Agreements With Chile, Australia, and Singapore AGENCY: United...) instituted investigation No. 332-515, Actual Effects of the Free Trade Agreements with Chile, Australia, and... conduct an investigation and provide a report on the actual effects of the free trade agreements (FTAs...

  1. Trade Agreements: Impact on the U.S. Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-11

    40,992 -23,864 Elec. 7,566 2,497 -419 846 Constr . 2,814 929 -11,377 2,876 Trade -91,056 -30,051 -129,833 13,330 Services -300,997 -99,339 105...Agreements: Impact on the U.S. Economy Congressional Research Service 19 FTAA SACU Australia Morocco Elec. -228 14 15 2 Constr . -88 -13 -257 -57 Trade

  2. Energy and the NAFTA [North American Free Trade Agreement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plourde, A.

    1993-05-01

    A review is presented of the implications of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) for the energy industry. This agreement expands the coverage accorded to energy in the Canada-US Free Trade Agreement (FTA), and is of limited significance with respect to Canada-US relations, but is quite important to these two countries' energy trade with Mexico. With respect to Canada-US trade, the most important departure from the FTA is that NAFTA tends to ensure a greater degree of respect for the terms of negotiated contracts, in particular by requiring the parties to make efforts to secure compliance with the national treatment provisions of the NAFTA by subfederal regulatory entities. Mexico's constitution severely restricts foreign participation in the activities of its energy industries, including basic petrochemicals. While NAFTA accomodates these restrictions, Canadian and US companies will have opportunities to bid on contracts for goods and services and construction in the Mexican energy sector on an equal footing with their Mexican counterparts. NAFTA also provides expanded opportunities for foreign investment and control in electricity generation for own-use, cogeneration and public service purposes. The parties are explicitly allowed to extend activity incentives to their respective oil and gas industries. 9 refs.

  3. Proposed Rules of Origin in Emerging Asia-Pacific Preferential Trade Agreements: Will PTAs Promote Trade and Development?

    OpenAIRE

    William E. James

    2006-01-01

    World trade is increasingly being dominated by preferential trade agreements that have taken precedence over multilateral trade negotiations. Within Asia and the Pacific an explosion of bilateral deals is taking place that seems likely to produce a tangle of hub-spoke trade blocs centered on major Asian or Pacific countries.

  4. 从贸易与环境视角辨析碳关税的合法性%Analysis on Legality of Carbon Tariff in the Perspective of Trade and Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施姝婧; 黄良军

    2011-01-01

    随着联合国哥本哈根气候变化会议落下帷幕,"碳关税"这一具有时代色彩的非传统绿色贸易壁垒成为国际社会关注的热点。虽然碳关税的产生和存在具有一定的法律依据,但这并不能掩盖碳关税的本质———新保护主义。本文通过权衡贸易自由和环境保护之利弊,探析了碳关税的合法性,并针对发达国家征收碳关税的措施,提出发展中国家应采取的应对措施。%"carbon tariff",a Non-conventional Green Trade Barrier,has attracted people's attention quite a lot since the UN Climate Change Conference in Copenhagen.The generation and existence of carbon tariff have some legal basises,but the essence of carbon tariff is still a new protectionism barrier which in green clothes.The paper analyzes the legality of carbon tariff by compare free trade with environment protection.At the same time,the author suggests that China should take some measures so as to protect the legitimate rights.

  5. On regional trade agreement and multilateral trade system%浅析区域贸易协定与多边贸易体制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕光

    2014-01-01

    Since 90's of the twentieth Century, especially after the failure of no progress and Cancun Conference of the Doha Round negotiations, in the global scope blew up a regional trade liberalization tide. Regional trade agreements began from the multilateral trade system"exception"role change to"mainstream"role, on one hand, the impact of the multilateral trading system, on the other hand also promoted the development of multilateral trade liberalization, the two sides should be mutual development in coordination. This paper explains the concept of the regional trade agreement, types, development trend and the reasons for the rise, citing the relevant regulations of the WTO, between the multilateral trading system and regional trade agreements on the basis of the conflict, and aprospect of harmonious relations between the two sides proposed.%自20世纪90年代以来,特别是多哈回合谈判的毫无进展和坎昆会议失败之后,在全球范围内刮起了一股区域贸易自由化的浪潮。区域贸易协定开始了从多边贸易体制的“例外”的角色向“主流”角色的转变,一方面冲击了多边贸易体制,另一方面也推动了多边贸易的自由化,二者应当在协调中相互发展。本文阐释了区域贸易协定的概念、类型、发展趋势以及兴起的原因,并且援引WTO有关规定,在此基础上分析多边贸易体制与区域贸易协定之间的冲突,并对二者关系的协调提出了一定的展望。

  6. Assessing the impact of the Australia-United States Free Trade Agreement on Australian and global medicines policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faunce, Thomas; Doran, Evan; Henry, David; Drahos, Peter; Searles, Andrew; Pekarsky, Brita; Neville, Warwick

    2005-10-06

    On 1 January 2005, a controversial trade agreement entered into force between Australia and the United States. Though heralded by the parties as facilitating the removal of barriers to free trade (in ways not achievable in multilateral fora), it also contained many trade-restricting intellectual property provisions and others uniquely related to altering pharmaceutical regulation and public health policy in Australia. The latter appear to have particularly focused on the world-respected process of federal government reimbursement after expert cost-effectiveness evaluation, popularly known as the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme ('PBS'). It remains uncertain what sort of impacts--if any--the Australia-United States Free Trade Agreement ('AUSFTA') will have on PBS processes such as reference pricing and their important role in facilitating equitable and affordable access to essential medicines. This is now the field of inquiry for a major three year Australian Research Council ('ARC')-funded study bringing together a team of senior researchers in regulatory theory from the Australian National University and pharmacoeconomics from the University of Newcastle. The project proposes to monitor, assess and analyse the real and potential impacts of the AUSFTA in this area, providing Australian policy-makers with continuing expertise and options. To the extent that the AUSFTA medicines provisions may represent an important precedent in a global strategy by industry on cost-effectiveness evaluation of pharmaceuticals, the study will also be of great interest to policy makers in other jurisdictions.

  7. Assessing the impact of the Australia-United States Free Trade Agreement on Australian and global medicines policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Searles Andrew

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract On 1 January 2005, a controversial trade agreement entered into force between Australia and the United States. Though heralded by the parties as facilitating the removal of barriers to free trade (in ways not achievable in multilateral fora, it also contained many trade-restricting intellectual property provisions and others uniquely related to altering pharmaceutical regulation and public health policy in Australia. The latter appear to have particularly focused on the world-respected process of federal government reimbursement after expert cost-effectiveness evaluation, popularly known as the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme ('PBS'. It remains uncertain what sort of impacts – if any – the Australia-United States Free Trade Agreement ('AUSFTA' will have on PBS processes such as reference pricing and their important role in facilitating equitable and affordable access to essential medicines. This is now the field of inquiry for a major three year Australian Research Council ('ARC'-funded study bringing together a team of senior researchers in regulatory theory from the Australian National University and pharmacoeconomics from the University of Newcastle. The project proposes to monitor, assess and analyse the real and potential impacts of the AUSFTA in this area, providing Australian policy-makers with continuing expertise and options. To the extent that the AUSFTA medicines provisions may represent animportant precedent in a global strategy by industry oncost-effectiveness evaluation of pharmaceuticals, the study will also beof great interest to policy makers in other jurisdictions.

  8. Energy and the Canada-US Free Trade Agreement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmichael, E.A.

    1988-01-01

    The Canada-USA Free Trade Agreement has raised concerns in both countries with respect to its provisions that may affect security of energy supplies, market access, and energy policy. This document summarizes what the Agreement actually says with regard to energy questions, and reviews Canadian and US energy policies in the postwar period. Three distinct stages of North American energy policy are identified, according to the oil price situation in each stage. From this review, a number of observations are made on the effects of various energy-related policies, and it is noted that past policies of trade restrictions, price controls, and discriminatory treatment of foreign supplies have proven to be wasteful. On the other hand, this is not taken to mean that Canada and the USA should not give up the ability to conduct independent, constructive energy policies, and the exact provisions of the Agreement's energy chapter are examined with that point in mind. The benefits of the Agreement for Canada are outlined, notably in the uranium, oil/gas, and electricity sectors. It is concluded that the Agreement does not reduce Canada's energy supply security, and that it should enhance the energy security of both Canada and the USA. 11 refs.

  9. Draft Public Health Statement on the U.S.-Central American Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. is rapidly negotiating a raft of new regional and bilateral trade agreements. The most recent agreement, with Central America, [was to] come before Congress for a vote as soon as late May. There is growing concern that international trade agreements threaten health care and the health of communities. . . . The Draft Public Health Statement on the U.S.-Central American Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA), developed by CPATH which planned a campaign around the issues, analyzes key provisions from the perspective of public health and suggests reframing the trade debate in terms of health.

  10. Multinational Firm’s Production Decisions under Overlapping Free Trade Agreements: Rule of Origin Requirements and Environmental Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Hee Lee

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study the impact of the rule of origin (ROO requirements accompanied by free trade agreements (FTAs, which specify the minimum portion of supplies that should satisfy the origin requirement, on a multinational firm’s production decisions. We consider a multinational firm who exports its product to multiple countries and analyze its production decision in the presence of multiple free trading agreements (FTAs. The ROO requirements in FTAs not only refer to the origin of supplies but are also involved with an environmental regulation of a country of the supplies. As such, meeting multiple ROO requirements can be costly since it may be involved with an adjustment of production facility and suppliers according to different environmental standards. We investigate a multinational firm’s choice of the ROO level in its production decision under multiple FTAs. It is well known that, in the presence of overlapping FTAs, the firm may strategically choose not to comply with the minimum ROO requirements in the FTAs. Instead, the firm may choose to comply with an ROO level that is higher than required, or pay the tariff instead without enjoying tariff exemption by the FTA in the new country. Such unintended outcomes in the FTAs are called the Spaghetti Bowl Effect. We characterize and quantify two types of such Spaghetti Bowl Effects with the optimal production decisions of a multinational firm under multiple ROO requirements and derive policy implications.

  11. Studying the Effects of Non-Tariff Barriers on the Export of the Main Agricultural Products of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Ardakani

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: As trade agreements decrease tariffs throughout the world, other barriers to trade emerge. These Non-Tariff Barriers (NTBs can be just as troublesome as tariffs for exporting countries. NTBs include any of a number of hindrances that restrict the ability of companies to export. NTBs may now have a greater impact on trade than tariffs. Approach: In contrast with previous research, we used a gravity model to estimate the trade effect of non-tariff barriers imposed by importer countries on pistachios, raisins and shrimp exported by Iran. Results: NTBs had a negative impact on pistachio and shrimp exports and their effect was greater than that of tariffs; raisin exports were unaffected by NTBs. Conclusion/Recommendations: The export and the world demand for agricultural products increasing focusing on quality, packaging, labeling and standards of products. Policy makers in countries that export agricultural products, such as Iran, must consider these characteristics when designing their programs. Therefore, if Iran builds up-to-date production systems, it will increase its exports of agricultural products.

  12. Does it matter who you sign with ? comparing the impacts of north-south and south-south trade agreements on bilateral trade

    OpenAIRE

    Behar, Alberto; Cirera i Criville, Laia

    2011-01-01

    Free trade agreements lead to a rise in bilateral trade regardless of whether the signatories are developed or developing countries. Furthermore, the percentage increase in bilateral trade is higher for South-South agreements than for North-South agreements. In this paper, the results are robust across a number of gravity model specifications in which the analysis controls for the endogene...

  13. 18 CFR 154.208 - Service of tariff filings on customers and other parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... SCHEDULES AND TARIFFS Procedures for Changing Tariffs § 154.208 Service of tariff filings on customers and... customers and state regulatory commissions that have made a standing request for such service. (c) Within... section, service upon the designated recipient will be deemed service upon the customer or other party. (e...

  14. The bilateral trade agreements and export performance of South Asian nations with special reference to India Sri Lanka Free Trade Agreement

    OpenAIRE

    Suhail P; Sreejesh S

    2011-01-01

    The regional trade agreements (RTA) have been one of the important developments in the world trading system in 1990s. There are number of studies on the effects trade agreements in different contexts. This study is an attempt to analyse the effects of bilateral trade agreements in the intraregional trade in the SAARC region with special reference to the Free Trade Agreements (FTA) between India Sri Lanka. The study uses a panel regression analysis by using balance panel data. The study conclu...

  15. Understanding Canada's International Trade Policy. "Understanding Economics" Series No. 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornell, Peter M.

    Written for secondary school Canadian students, the document examines Canada's international trade policy. It is arranged in three sections. Part I discusses the affect of Canada's trade policy on the individual citizen. Tariffs and non-tariff barriers to trade such as import licenses, preferential purchasing agreements, health and safety…

  16. Free-trade agreements: challenges for global health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Ribeiro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study new free-trade agreements are discussed, which are based on the breaking down of tariff and technical barriers and normally exclude most of the poorest countries in the world. Considering the current context of economic globalization and its health impacts, seven controversial points of these treaties and their possible implications for global public health are presented, mainly regarding health equity and other health determinants. Finally, this research proposes a greater social and health professionals participation in the formulation and discussion of these treaties, and a deeper insertion of Brazil in this important international agenda.

  17. Free-trade agreements: challenges for global health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Helena

    2015-01-01

    In this study new free-trade agreements are discussed, which are based on the breaking down of tariff and technical barriers and normally exclude most of the poorest countries in the world. Considering the current context of economic globalization and its health impacts, seven controversial points of these treaties and their possible implications for global public health are presented, mainly regarding health equity and other health determinants. Finally, this research proposes a greater social and health professionals participation in the formulation and discussion of these treaties, and a deeper insertion of Brazil in this important international agenda.

  18. Non-tariff Protectionism in EU Countries and Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melnyk Tetyana M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article assesses positions of the European Union as an integration association in international trade, studies the system of non-tariff regulation in EU countries and identifies key problems of harmonisation of the Ukrainian legislation to the European one in the sphere of non-tariff regulation of international trade. In order to assess scales of application of non-tariff measures in foreign trade, the article analyses the index of coverage and frequency of use of non-tariff restrictions, dynamics of initiated non-tariff measures and trade structure of their distribution, and also detects reasons of application of non-tariff restrictions. The article characterises the system of technical regulation of EU and assesses main steps of Ukraine on the way of bringing the domestic standards in correspondence with the European ones as a necessary condition for increase of export of domestic products and increase of its competitiveness. The prospect of further scientific studies in this direction lies in forecasting influence of non-tariff restrictions upon volumes of import and export flows in foreign trade.

  19. Deliberative Engagement within the World Trade Organization: A Functional Substitute for Authoritative Interpretations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Creamer, Cosette; Godzimirska, Zuzanna

    2016-01-01

    The transition from the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) dispute settlement proceedings to the Dispute Settlement Mechanism (DSM) of the World Trade Organization (WTO) represented a notable instance of judicialization within international economic governance. Since it began ruling on...

  20. 19 CFR 10.616 - Verification and justification of claim for preferential tariff treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... RATE, ETC. Dominican Republic-Central America-United States Free Trade Agreement Origin Verifications and Determinations § 10.616 Verification and justification of claim for preferential tariff treatment... preferential tariff treatment. 10.616 Section 10.616 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER...

  1. The Canada-U. S. Free Trade Agreement and energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomic, S.

    1988-04-01

    One of the most controversial sections of the Canada-U.S. Free Trade Agreement (FTA) pertains to the energy sector. Opponents to the FTA say it will lead to a massive sellout of Canada's national resources and is a threat to national security. Allies say the FTA will improve Canadian access to U.S. markets; enhance investor confidence in Canada; improve economies of scale; and lead to increased revenue and capital spending. These issues were addressed at the January meeting of the Canadian chapter of International Association of Energy Economists (IAEE). Canada and the U.S. are partners, exchanging goods and services each year worth roughly $140 billion. Energy trade amounts to about $10 billion a year with Canada exporting mainly oil, gas and natural gas liquids, and coal. Both Canada and the U.S. have recognized they have a common interest in ensuring access to each other's market and enhancing their mutual security of supply. Under the FTA, both countries would refrain from new quantitative restrictions on energy exports, taxes, and minimum price requirements subject to limited exceptions. Canadian government is not obliged to deliver any particular quantity but only to refrain from imposing restrictions that would reduce exports below the proportion of Canadian supply which U.S. buyers had purchased during the previous 36 months. The U.S. will also eliminate the restriction on enrichment of Canadian uranium and will allow exports of Alaskan oil to Canada. This article discusses specific elements involving uranium, electrical power, oil and natural gas. The Canada-US Free Trade Agreement, signed by Prime Minister Mulroney and President Reagan on Jan. 2, 1988 has become the focus of vigorous debate not only regarding the rules which will cover trade between the two countries, but also regarding different visions of Canada's future.

  2. International, European and U.S. perspectives on the negotiation and adoption of the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eckes, C.; Fahey, E.; Kanetake, M.

    2012-01-01

    The negotiation and conclusion of the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA) has generated fierce controversy and political protest around the globe. Its main aim is the improvement of the domestic enforcement of intellectual property (IP) rights. This paper analyzes in detail the secretive

  3. China and Chile Signing Free Trade Agreement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shen; Danyang

    2005-01-01

      Mr. Bo Xilai, Minister of Commerce of China, and Mr.Walker, Foreign Minister of Chile, signed the China-Chile FTA on behalf of their respective government on November 18, 2005. Chinese President Hu Jintao and Chile President Lagos attended the signing ceremony, according to a press release on the website of Network Center of MOFCOM.……

  4. China and Chile Signing Free Trade Agreement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shen Danyang

    2005-01-01

    @@ Mr. Bo Xilai, Minister of Commerce of China, and Mr.Walker, Foreign Minister of Chile, signed the China-Chile FTA on behalf of their respective government on November 18, 2005. Chinese President Hu Jintao and Chile President Lagos attended the signing ceremony, according to a press release on the website of Network Center of MOFCOM.

  5. The Free Trade Agreement and the Mexican health sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurell, A C; Ortega, M E

    1992-01-01

    This article presents a discussion of the probable implications for the Mexican health sector of the Free Trade Agreement (FTA) between the United States, Canada, and Mexico. The authors argue that the FTA should be seen as part of neoliberal policies adopted by the Mexican government in 1983 that are based on large-scale privatization and deregulation of labor relations. In this general context the health sector, which traditionally has been dominated by public institutions, is undergoing a deep restructuring. The main trends are the decapitalization of the public sector and a selective process of privatization that tends to constitute the private health sector in a field of capital accumulation. The FTA is likely to force a change in Mexican health legislation, which includes health services in the public social security system and recognizes the right to health, and to accelerate selective privatization. The U.S. insurance industry and hospital corporations are interested in promoting these changes in order to gain access to the Mexican market, estimated at 20 to 25 million persons. This would lead to further deterioration of the public institutions, increasing inequalities in health and strengthening the private sector. The historical trend toward the integration of a National Health Service in Mexico would be interrupted in favor of formation of a dual private-public system.

  6. REGIONAL TRADE AGREEMENTS AND COMPETITION POLICY. CASE STUDY: EU, ASEAN AND NAFTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fora Andreea-Florina

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The large number of regional trade agreements notified to the World Trade Organization (WTO significantly influenced the flow of world trade. By April 2014 there had been notified 583 regional trade agreements to the WTO, of which only 379 are in force. The objective of this paper is to highlight the importance of regional trade agreements in world trade, especially the importance of establishing a regional competition policy in these agreements. The research methodology used is the analysis of legislation governing preferential trade agreements at the level of WTO, the collection and interpretation of statistical data provided by the WTO Secretariat, the case study, namely the study of literature. The paper is structured in three parts. The first part of the paper examines the basic laws based on which regional trade agreements are notified to the WTO and the evolution of these agreements in the period 1958-2013. The second part of the paper is devoted to the analysis of competition policy in regional trade agreements. In this part of the paper, to highlight the patterns of competition policy adopted under these agreements was analyzed by three case studies of competition policy in the EU, ASEAN and NAFTA. The three case studies have revealed that the three preferential trade agreements present regional competition policies with varying degrees of integration. The most complex form of competition policy is found in the European Union, because we are talking about a centralized model of competition policy. ASEAN presents a partially decentralized model, while NAFTA scrolls with a decentralized model of competition policy. The last part of the paper presents the characteristics of the four models of competition policy identified in the preferential trade agreements in force. It should be emphasized that if the initial preferential trade agreements have not put a great emphasis on the rules of competition policy, practice has shown the importance

  7. USA-Canada free trade agreement and energy problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogushi, Nobuyuki

    1988-11-01

    The USA and Canada occupying approx. 70 and 20%, respectively, of the export/import amount of the opponent country, the free trade agreement is regarded as a matter of course, also judging from the geographical condition between both countries. Energywise to analyze the influence of that agreement, if concluded, as for oil, Canada is exporting 30% of produced oil to the USA, which will not be influential in the short term. However in the long term, it will be problematic as the oil reserve is being exhausted in Canada. As for natural gas, Canadian supply of natural gas to the USA being in excess at present, the agreement, if concluded, would be influential on the present disturbance to be solved. Canada exports 9% of produced electric power to the USA, where there domestically exist pros and cons of the liberalization of power importation. By the agreement if concluded, the USA will be assured of the stable supply of uranium and exempt from the required uranium manufacture. But the conclusion of agreement, depending upon the political situation in Canada, is not easily predictable. 8 tables.

  8. 75 FR 65031 - U.S.-Trans-Pacific Partnership Free Trade Agreement Including Malaysia: Advice on the Probable...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-21

    ... COMMISSION U.S.-Trans-Pacific Partnership Free Trade Agreement Including Malaysia: Advice on the Probable... instituted investigation nos. TA-131-035 and TA-2104-027, U.S.-Trans-Pacific Partnership Free Trade Agreement... investigation Nos. TA-131-034 and TA-2104- 026, U.S.-Trans-Pacific Partnership Free Trade Agreement: Advice on...

  9. 75 FR 3489 - U.S.-Trans-Pacific Partnership Free Trade Agreement: Advice on Probable Economic Effect of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-21

    ... COMMISSION U.S.-Trans-Pacific Partnership Free Trade Agreement: Advice on Probable Economic Effect of.... TA-131-034 and TA-2104-026, U.S.-Trans-Pacific Partnership Free Trade Agreement: Advice on Probable... negotiations for a free trade agreement with Australia, Brunei Darussalam, Chile, New Zealand, Peru, Singapore...

  10. Protocol on the accession of the people’s republic of china

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Preamble The World Trade Organization ("WTO"), pursuant to the approval of the Ministerial Conference of the WTO accorded under Article Ⅻ of the Marrakesh Agreement Establishing the World Trade Organization ("WTO Agreement"), and the People's Republic of China ("China"). Recalling that China was an original contracting party to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 1947. Taking note that China is a signatory to the Final Act Embodying the Results of the Uruguay Round of Multilateral Trade Negotiati...

  11. Tariff discrimination on Brazil's soluble coffee: an economic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marislei Nishijima

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This article evaluates the impacts of the imposition of tariffs on the Brazilian soluble coffee mainly by European countries as of the 1990s. More particularly, it verifies whether the imposition of discriminatory trade tariffs by the European Union and of non-discriminatory ones by some Eastern European countries reflects on the international demand for this commodity. For this purpose, dynamic models of global demand for Brazilian soluble coffee were estimated for the 1995-2003 period using data from the International Coffee Organization. Findings suggest that existing tariffs significantly account for the reduction of Brazilian share of soluble in the world market.

  12. Indonesian and United States of American Economic Partnership Agreement Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tajerin Tajerin

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes fisheries trade effects from the implementation of Indonesian and the UnitedStates of American Economic Partnership Agreement (IUSEPA. The analysis is performed on theintegrated world trade databases owned by World Trade Organization, United Nations Conferenceon Trade and Development, and United Nations Statistics Division, using Wits software packagedeveloped by the World Bank. The result indicates that in the future, Indonesian government as aparty that will conduct bilateral economic partnership agreement with the United states, needs topropose or negotiate fishery import tariffs that imposed by the United States ranges from 0 to 7percent.Keywords: Bilateral economic agreement, fisheries, trade effect

  13. Tariff Impact on the Domestic Price of Vegetable Oil in Iran and the Associated Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    omid gilanpour

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study uses vector error correction model to examine the effects of oilseeds, crude oil and vegetable oil tariffs on vegetable oil consumer price. Monthly data sets for the years 2004-2013 and VAR and VECM models were applied for this study. Research findings indicates only a long term equilibrium relation between the study variables .The effect of vegetable oil tariffs on consumer and producer price index are 0.4 and 0.07, respectively. Furthermore, one percent increase in the oil seeds and crude oil tariff, will increase consumer prices by 2.35, 0.19percent. The huge gap between the impacts of the two tariffs –e.g. oilseeds and crude oil tariffs- on consumer price shows that oil industries work with low efficiency. This practically doubles the impact of tariff on consumers. Accordingly, structural reform in the oil industry can develop oil production and prevent additional burden upon the consumer price.

  14. Potential Economic Impacts of the Vietnam-Korea Free Trade Agreement on Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanh Hoan Phan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an assessment of the potential economic impacts of the Vietnam-Korea free trade agreement on Vietnam, by using general equilibrium modeling. The results show that Vietnam-Korea FTA will increase aggregate welfare for both countries in the long run. The most important gains accrue from better allocation of resources consequent to trade liberalization. All the sectoral differences and changes are consistent with the trade profiles of the two countries, and the long-run results are more pronounced than those of the short-run. In comparison with other ASEAN countries, the CGE analysis suggests that Vietnam's agriculture exports to Korea would especially rise in the long run. However, there will be strong competition in this sector among ASEAN members. Thus, an earlier conclusion of a comprehensive FTA with Korea is expected to be a good strategy for Vietnam, so as to avoid the direct competition with ASEAN members in the future.

  15. Hub-and-Spoke or else? Free trade agreements in the 'enlarged' European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta De Santis

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The object of this paper is to estimate if and how the Central European Free Trade Agreement (CEFTA and the Baltic Free Trade Agreement (BFTA exerted a significant impact on intra-European trade, effectively reducing the influence of the European Association Agreements (EAs in shaping the European trade structure as a hub-and-spoke system - with the EU15 being the hub and the CEECs the spoke. This paper analyses bilateral trade flows between eight CEECs and EU-23. We estimate a gravity equation using a system GMM dynamic panel data approach. Results support the assumptions that gravity forces and "persistence effects" matter. With respect to the effect of free trade agreements, evidence is found that Free trade agreements between CEECs matter: There is evidence that the presence of intra-periphery agreements helped expand intra-periphery trade and limited the emergence of a "hub-and-spoke" relationship between CEECs and EU. This results have important policy implications for the trade strategy of "future" EU members of the Southeastern European Countries as well as of the Southern Mediterranean Countries. According to the empirical results, these countries should move towards a regional free-trade area as exemplified by the CEFTA and the BFTA to avoid "hub-and-spoke" effects.

  16. Central European Free Trade Agreement (CEFTA 2006 - Opportunities, Trade Relation and Evolution of Macedonian Economic Diplomacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krum Efremov

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Main activity in the foreign trade policy of the Republic of Macedonia during the past 10 years was the integration of the country on the Central European Free Trade Agreement – (CEFTA. The reason for this is the expectation that the membership of the Republic of Macedonia in CEFTA will significantly contribute to the continual efforts for strengthening the regional trade cooperation, further liberalisation of foreign trade exchange, and continuation of activities for harmonisation of trade rules with international standards. Additionally, CEFTA 2006 provides a much more comprehensive framework for development of mutual relations and economic cooperation among the countries of South Easte Europe. We will explain the concept of development of economic diplomacy in the Republic of Macedonia as a tool for supporting Macedonian economy. The purpose of these activities is to present the Republic of Macedonia as an attractive destination for foreign investments through the promotion of business advantages, and giving incentive to Macedonian export, as well as through strengthening of the country’s position as a attractive touristic destination.

  17. PREDICTABLE TRENDS OF EU TARIFF POLICY IN GLOBALIZATION'S CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caba Stefan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper consists of information regarding current situation of international trade relations, in particular those pertaining to EU, concerning to preferential trade agreements, the trend towards globalization and custom policies. The importance of this document is given by the identification of strategy trends in respect to EU tariff policy in the context of changes at commercial exchange level, as a consequence of international trade globalization's trend. The tariff policy, as a component of the trade one, represents a factor which influences companies behavior and, consequently the structure of import-export interstates relations. Specialty literature has lately identified a less natural phenomenon: starting with adoption by WTO states members of some measures and principles that emphasize the trade globalization tendency, a significant number of preferential agreements were settled in the meanwhile, many of them being bilateral, fact at least at first view is opposite to globalization phenomenon. The causes of this phenomenon have not been yet completely identified by economic analysts, so that these preferential trade agreements can be translated as a an impediment in the way of globalization and, on the contrary an intermediate phase and an accelerator of global extension trade exchange phenomenon. The present work ideas are based on analysis by bibliographic guide that link to historical GATT/WTO and principles which sustain its operation and to dynamic of international trade. Also, there have been studied data related to strategies of trade policy adopted by EU. The results consist of information about tariff policy elements adopted or forecasted by EU in general strategic context of participation to international trade. Particularly, it is emphasized the new competencies that must be achieved by custom personnel because of changes in trade exchanges. The main idea is represented by the necessity of custom authorities responsibility

  18. United States - Thailand Free Trade Agreement Negotiations: Potential Effects on Pharmaceutical Patent Protection in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Laohapakakul, Duangrat

    2006-01-01

    Benefits and losses that a country would get from entering into a free trade agreement are often controversial and rise to national debate. This is especially apparent for negotiations between developed and developing countries, where there are large discrepancies between the bargaining power and the policies on national growth and development of each party. Numerous debates have dealt with the topics covered under the current U.S. – Thailand Free Trade Agreement (FTA) nego...

  19. Influences and Countermeasures of Green Trade Barrier on Export Trade of Chinese Agricultural Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    With the worsening of environment, many countries pay more attention to the environmental protection. Green (organic) trade barrier gradually attracts more attention to the non-tariff barrier in the international trade. However, according to the economic levels of different countries, great differences exist in environment standards of these countries which resulted in the appearance of green trade barriers as trade protection. This study classified the connotations and characteristics of green trade barrier, gave the descriptions on the development and type of green trade barrier, and analysed the influences on China's export and put forward some countermeasures which aimed at stimulating the development of our foreign trade.

  20. The Proposed U.S.-South Korea Free Trade Agreement (KORUS FTA): Provisions and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-02

    FTA) Congressional Research Service 5 Automobiles Trade in autos and autoparts proved to be among the most difficult issues tackled by U.S. and...Tariffs would be immediately reduced to zero in each country for autoparts imported from the other.43 • Reduction of alleged discriminatory effects of

  1. Adapting veterinary infrastructures to meet the challenges of globalisation and the requirements of the World Trade Organization Agreement on Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiermann, A

    2004-04-01

    To maximise the benefits of globalisation, countries and their stakeholders must become familiar with and adhere to the rights and obligations set out by the World Trade Organization under the Agreement on Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures. Furthermore, for trade in animals and animal products, they must adhere to the standards, guidelines and recommendations established by the OIE (World organisation for animal health), which also encourages participation of countries in the standard-setting process. Only after implementing these requirements and strengthening veterinary infrastructures and surveillance and monitoring systems, will countries be able to fully benefit from the new international trade rules.

  2. Ukrainian Sanitary and Phytosanitary Laws Approximation to EU Acquis Under Association Agreement Including Agreement on Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Area (DCFTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kepych Taras

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews the achievements to date in legal approximation in the sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS field in Ukraine. Effective regulatory approximation in the SPS field was critical to anchoring the reform process in Ukraine and to fostering further progress in EU’s relations with this Eastern Partnership (EaP country. This paper highlights three major problems in Ukraine that were hindering reform in the SPS field: inconsistency between Ukrainian and EU food safety legislation, lack of uniformity between animal health law regimes, absence of a single SPS regulator. Legal implementation of approximated legislation still remains as key challenge. The paper offers recommendations to improve the Ukraine’s approach so that the Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Area (DCFTA is part of the Association Agreement (AA between the EU and the Republic of Ukraine could fulfill its potential.

  3. 19 CFR 10.521 - Goods eligible for tariff preference level claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... States-Singapore Free Trade Agreement Tariff Preference Level § 10.521 Goods eligible for tariff... United States, and that meet the applicable conditions for preferential tariff treatment under the SFTA, other than the condition that they are originating goods. The preferential tariff treatment is...

  4. The Tariff Analysis Project: A database and analysis platform forelectricity tariffs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coughlin, K.; White, R.; Bolduc, C.; Fisher, D.; Rosenquist, G.

    2006-05-12

    Much of the work done in energy research involves ananalysis of the costs and benefits of energy-saving technologies andother measures from the perspective of the consumer. The economic valuein particular depends on the price of energy (electricity, gas or otherfuel), which varies significantly both for different types of consumers,and for different regions of the country. Ideally, to provide accurateinformation about the economic value of energy savings, prices should becomputed directly from real tariffs as defined by utility companies. Alarge number of utility tariffs are now available freely over the web,but the complexity and diversity of tariff structures presents aconsiderable barrier to using them in practice. The goal of the TariffAnalysis Project (TAP) is to collect andarchive a statistically completesample of real utility tariffs, and build a set of database and web toolsthat make this information relatively easy to use in cost-benefitanalysis. This report presentsa detailed picture of the current TAPdatabase structure and web interface. While TAP has been designed tohandle tariffs for any kind of utility service, the focus here is onelectric utilities withinthe United States. Electricity tariffs can bevery complicated, so the database structures that have been built toaccommodate them are quite flexible and can be easily generalized toother commodities.

  5. 国家经贸委公布部分产品进口配额及税率%SETC announces quotas and tariff rates on imported goods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    @@ In accordance with"The Regulations of the People's Republic of China on the Administration of Import and Export of Goods"as well as China's pledges upon its accession to the World Trade Organisation, China's State Economics and Trade Commission(SETC)recently published quotas and tariff rates for some imported goods for 2002.

  6. China Cut Tariffs on Refined Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    China has cut import tariffs on gasoline, diesel, aviation kerosene, and fuel oil significantly since July 1 this year. According to the information released by the Ministry of Finance, the rate of import tariffs on motor gasoline and aviation gasoline was reduced from 5% to 1%; the rates of import tariffs on aviation kerosene and light diesel were reduced from 9% and 6% to 0 separately; the rate of import tariffs on 5"-7" fuel oil was reduced from 6% to 1%.

  7. Review of the impact of the Ukraine-EU free trade agreement on manufacturing industries (mechanical engineering, chemical and light industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Usenko

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The article gives a definition to the concept of ‘deep integration’ taken by the Ukrainian Government as a framework concept for the establishment of a Ukraine-EU free trade area. The paper uses the term ‘deep free trade’ or ‘free trade area +’. It offers a review of the Ukrainian economy and its readiness to open such industries as mechanical engineering, chemical and light industry to free trade with the EU. It examines which cooperative steps might be taken in the sectors in question in the framework of a free trade area by identifying specific features of those sectors in Ukraine and the EU through SWOT analysis and review of certain provisions in relevant agreements between the EU and other countries. It proposes to forecast the possible impact of a free trade area on stakeholders’ position regarding the agreement by using the ‘stakeholder approach’ (identifying and classifying interest groups and the European Commission’s method of ‘impact assessment’. Based on the results of this research, conclusions are made concerning the fundamental negotiation principles for talks between Ukraine and the EU as to the economic and trade component of the new ‘enhanced agreement.

  8. OPTIMAL TARIFF SETTING AND ANALYSIS OF INTERNATIONAL TRADE STRATEGIC DETERMINATION%最优关税制定及国际贸易战略决定分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙麒圣; 李克强

    2012-01-01

    International trade is wide spread today, therefore interactions in tariffs strategy among countries are quite common in the international market. This paper discussed the problem of government tariff setting in international trade by establishing asymmetric quartet two-stage nested game model. Theoretical analysis showed that developing national trade was better than seclusion and there was an optimal tariff in trade which was superior to that of non-tariff, which would damage interest of others. In an asymmetric model of two countries and a single product with tariff barriers, free trade was not a rational choice under normal circumstances. The Nash equilibrium solution of two countries were both adopting optimal tariff policy, forming Prisoner's Dilemma, which could explain the prevalence of trade protection policy in reality.%当今世界国际贸易关系广泛存在,在不完全竞争的国际市场中充满了国家之间贸易政策的关税战略互动.本文建立了非对称的四方两阶段嵌套博弈模型,讨论了国际贸易中的政府关税设定.理论分析结果表明,对任意贸易国而言,开展国际贸易都优于闭关锁国;且存在一个最优关税优于无关税的自由贸易,但这将会损害他国利益.在具有关税壁垒的非对称的两国单一产品贸易模型中,自由贸易在通常情况下并非各国的理性选择,博弈中两国的纳什均衡解是双方均采用最优关税政策,形成囚徒困境,这解释了现实中贸易保护政策盛行的原因.

  9. The high price of "free" trade: U.S. trade agreements and access to medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopert, Ruth; Gleeson, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    The United States' pursuit of increasingly TRIPS-Plus levels of intellectual property protection for medicines in bilateral and regional trade agreements is well recognized. Less so, however, are U.S. efforts through these agreements to influence and constrain the pharmaceutical coverage programs of its trading partners. Although arguably unsuccessful in the Australia- U.S. Free Trade Agreement (AUSFTA), the U.S. nevertheless succeeded in its bilateral FTA with South Korea (KORUS) in establishing prescriptive provisions pertaining to the operation of coverage and reimbursement programs for medicines and medical devices, which have the potential to adversely impact future access in that country. More recently, draft texts leaked from the current Trans Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPPA) negotiations show that U.S. objectives include not only AUSFTA-Plus and KORUS-Plus IP provisions but also ambitious inroads into the domestic health programs of its TPPA partners. This highlights the apparent conflict between trade goals - pursued through multilateral legal instruments to promote economic "health"- and public health objectives, such as the development of treatments for neglected diseases, the pursuit of efficiency and equity in priority setting, and the procurement of medicines at prices that reflect their therapeutic value and facilitate affordable access. © 2013 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  10. Tariff-Tax Reforms and Market Access

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreickemeier, Udo; Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis

    2006-01-01

    paper examines whether the country that implements such a reform ends up opening up its markets to international trade, i.e. whether its market access improves. It is shown that this is not necessarily so. We also show that, comparing to the reform of only tariffs, the tariff-tax reform is a less......Reducing tariffs and increasing consumption taxes is a standard IMF advice to countries that want to open up their economy without hurting government finances. Indeed, theoretical analysis of such a tariff-tax reform shows an unambiguous increase in welfare and government revenues. The present...... efficient proposal to follow both as far as it concerns market access and welfare.JEL code: F13, H20.Keywords: Market access; tariff reform, consumption tax reform....

  11. Tariff-Tax Reforms and Market Access

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreickemeier, Udo; Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis

    2006-01-01

    paper examines whether the country that implements such a reform ends up opening up its markets to international trade, i.e. whether its market access improves. It is shown that this is not necessarily so. We also show that, comparing to the reform of only tariffs, the tariff-tax reform is a less......Reducing tariffs and increasing consumption taxes is a standard IMF advice to countries that want to open up their economy without hurting government finances. Indeed, theoretical analysis of such a tariff-tax reform shows an unambiguous increase in welfare and government revenues. The present...... efficient proposal to follow both as far as it concerns market access and welfare.JEL code: F13, H20.Keywords: Market access; tariff reform, consumption tax reform....

  12. The Southern African Development Community Trade Legal Instruments Compliance with Certain Criteria of GATT Article XXIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Saurombe

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Article XXIV of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT lays down the legal principles with which regional trade agreements have to conform. Based on these principles, WTO members have the mandate to determine the legality of Regional Trade Agreements (RTAs under the GATT. Article XXIV permits both regional and bilateral preferential trade agreements leading to the formation of customs unions and free trade areas, and seeks to integrate them in the multilateral trading system envisioned for the world. SADC is an RTA created under this Article. Notwithstanding the controversies surrounding the provisions and interpretation of Article XXIV, this paper seeks to establish the extent to which the SADC Protocol on Trade and free trade area comply with WTO rules. An analysis of selected Article XXIV provisions and the SADC Trade Protocol provisions will be undertaken in trying to establish this compliance.

  13. MULTILATERAL ENVIRONMENTAL AGREEMENTS AND THE TRADE MEASURES CONTAINED IN THESE AGREEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margareta Timbur

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The environmental problems which the society is facing, ozone depletion, biodiversity loss, the spread of persistent organic pollutants, are a result of human activity with a worldwide impact, requiring immediate resolution. In this context, negotiation, signing and implementation of several multilateral environmental agreements (MEAs are one of the best solutions, affordable and reliable. The aim of this study is to analyze the commercial measures, which to some extent, ensure stability, security, and expansion of MEAs. The paper discusses, also, the efficiency, necessity and the influences of trade measures in MEAs and the WTO role in signing these agreements.

  14. 78 FR 19566 - Request for Comments Concerning Proposed Transatlantic Trade and Investment Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    ... concluded that an agreement that addresses a broad range of bilateral trade and investment policies, as well... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Request for Comments Concerning Proposed Transatlantic Trade and Investment Agreement AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative (USTR). ACTION: Request for comments and...

  15. Impact of Russian Log Export Tariffs on China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Based on the introduction of the Sino-Russian timber trade and the history about timber export in Russia,the paper gives the reasons for the adjustment in Russian timber export and its influence on timber import in China.Finally countermeasures against Russian adjustment in timber export tariffs are proposed.

  16. On a Strategy to Develop Robust and Simple Tariffs from Motor Vehicle Insurance Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andreas Christmann

    2005-01-01

    The goals of this paper are twofold: we describe common features in data sets from motor vehicle insurance companies and we investigate a general strategy which exploits the knowledge of such features. The results of the strategy are a basis to develop insurance tariffs. We use a nonparametric approach based on a combination of kernel logistic regression and ε-support vector regression which both have good robustness properties. The strategy is applied to a data set from motor vehicle insurance companies.

  17. Reductions in real versus tariff barriers: the impact on industry concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jan Guldager; Schröder, Philipp

    2003-01-01

    as a reduction of trade barriers) may exert opposing forces on industry concentration, depending on whether the barrier consists of real (frictional) or tariff costs. In particular, the Herfindahl index of industry concentration falls for a reduction in real costs, but rises for a reduction in tariff costs....... The reason is that real barriers burn up resources, such that industry profitability is reduced, reducing entry, and resulting in fewer firms and a correspondingly higher concentration. Under a tariff barrier, the redistributed tariff revenue stabilises industry profitability, resulting in more firms...

  18. Implications of the US -South Korea Free Trade Agreement on Agricultural Exports from the US

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasa Konduru

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The United States-S. Korea Free Trade Agreement (KORUS FTA became effective in 2012 and is expected to create new opportunities and improve access for one another’s markets. It is expected to benefit the US agricultural sector particularly as S. Korea maintains high trade barriers for agricultural imports. This paper analyses the impact of KORUS FTA on the agricultural exports from the US with an example of table grapes. The results obtained by using the Import demand estimation method show that table grape exports will become more competitive in S. Korea due to the KORUS FTA. The paper also calculates preference indices for various agricultural imports from the US and rest of the world before and after the free trade agreement in S. Korean agricultural markets. This will help in understanding the implications of KORUS FTA not only on the US-S. Korean agricultural trade, but also between S. Korea and the rest of the world.

  19. Mainland China and Taiwan Come to an Agreement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Taiwan and Mainland China are set to remove or lower tariffs on a range of items,including textile products,as part of a wide-ranging trade agreement agreed on June 14th.Taiwan’s Ministry of Economic Affairs

  20. Tariffs and Firm-Level Heterogeneous Fixed Export Costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jan G.; Schröder, Philipp J.H.

    2005-01-01

    Recent literature on the workhorse model of intra-industry trade has explored heterogeneous cost structures at the firm level. These approaches have proven to add realism and predictive power. This note shows, however, that this added realism also implies that there may exist a positive bilateral...... tariff that maximizes national and world welfare. Applying one of the simplest specifications possible, namely a symmetric two-country intra-industry trade model with fixed export costs that are heterogeneous across firms, we find that the reciprocal reduction of small tariffs reduces welfare....

  1. Treatment of oil and energy in the US-Canada free trade agreement and its future implication (Part 1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo

    1989-02-01

    This article is a report of the investigation with which Petroleum Public Corporation was entrusted by Agency of Natural Resources and Energy, Ministry of International Trade and Industry as a project of FY 1987 and which was partially entrusted to overseas consultants and also included, inter alia, the results of hearing held in both USA and Canada. The whole report consists of five chapters and the articles relevant to energy in the US-Canada Free Trade Agreement (tentative translation) are attached thereto, but in this Part I, Chapter 1 (General outline of the US-Canada Free Trade Agreement), Chapter 2 (outline of the part concerning energy in the US-Canada Free Trade Agreement) and the above attachment are included. This US-Canada Free Trade Agreement-FTA was signed by both countries on 2 January 1988 and became effective on 1 January 1989 giving a birth to the US-Canada Free Trade Zone. As a result, the impact of this birth onto the world economy is great. The authors provide detailed explanations on several relevant subjects of each chapters referred to in above while grasping the main issues concerned. 9 figs., 7 tabs.

  2. 中国-俄罗斯FTA的贸易、关税及福利效应--基于WITS-SMART的模拟分析%Trade,Tariffs and Welfare Effects of China-Russia FTA-A Simulation Analysis Based on WITS-SMART Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余振; 陈继勇; 邱珊

    2014-01-01

    Currently,it is urgent for both China and Russia to consolidate the economic foundation of bilateral strategic part-nership through the FTA. Using the WITS-SMART model, the paper provides insights on trade, tariffs and welfare effects of China-Russia FTA. The results show that the majority of production sectors will benefit from the expansion of trade along with the continuous reduction of tariffs under the FTA framework. The overall economic welfare of China and Russia will increase re-gardless of the decline of two country’ s tariff revenues. If China and Russia can achieve zero tariff as soon as possible, the trade between the two countries will grow rapidly. Therefore, both China and Russia should realize the significances of Chi-na-Russian FTA and promote FTA negotiations at the strategic level,and ultimately reach and sign the FTA.%当前,中国与俄罗斯亟需通过FTA夯实双方战略伙伴关系的经贸基础。文章利用WITS-SMART模型估算了中俄FTA的贸易、关税以及福利效应,结果显示:随着FTA框架下关税不断削减,中俄两国大多数产品部门都将从贸易规模扩张中受益,尽管两国的关税收入会出现下降,但是整体的经济福利都将获得提升。如果两国能够尽快实现零关税,那么两国之间的贸易往来会获得快速增长。因此,中俄两国需要从战略层面把握中俄FTA建设的重要意义,尽快推动中俄FTA谈判与建设。

  3. Welfare-maximizing and revenue-maximizing tariffs with a few domestic firms

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno Larue; Jean-Philippe Gervais

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we compare the orthodox optimal tariff formula with the appropriate welfare-maximizing tariff when there are a few producing or importing firms. The welfare-maximizing tariff can be very low, voire negative in some cases, while in others it can even exceed the maximum-revenue tariff. The relationship between the welfare-maximizing tariff and the number of firms need not be monotonically increasing, because the tariff is not strictly used to internalize terms of trade externality...

  4. Which sectors of the Icelandic economy are likely to benefit the most after the Free Trade Agreement with China?

    OpenAIRE

    Hugo Miguel Borges Esteves 1977

    2014-01-01

    This thesis analyses which sectors of the Icelandic economy are likely to benefit the most after the Free Trade Agreement (FTA) with China. The fishing industry, the service sector and the manufacturing sector are very likely to benefit. Other sectors can also be affected in a positive way, especially agriculture. How the FTA will impact the different sectors of the Icelandic economy is very interesting because once it enters into force, tariffs on most goods will disappear. In order t...

  5. A general overview of the Mexican battery industry with the effects and opportunities that NAFTA will have on it

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malacon, S. [Acumuladores Mexicanos, Monterrey (Mexico)

    1995-02-01

    This article, overviewing the past and future of the Mexican battery manufacturing industry, was originally presented at the 1994 IBMA Convention. The past history of Mexican battery manufacturing remains factual and unchanged. However, the present is still developing in ways unforeseen at this time, especially with the acceptance of Mexico into the the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). Previous to NAFTA, the Mexican battery market was protected by import duties approaching one hundred percent. This protection made the battery industry in Mexico inefficient against international competition. Mexico was accepted into the General Agreement of Tariffs and Trade (GATT) in 1985 which made the economy start to open, with import duties reduced and import licenses required for only a few items. The NAFTA agreement, phased in over fifteen years beginning in 1994, reduces tariffs to zero for trade between Canada, the USA, and Mexico. The articles focuses on trends in automotive parts trade, including batteries; rules of origin that determine whether a good can be traded freely; and evaluation of NAFTA and trade trends in the period Jan. to June, 1994.

  6. Korea’s Trade Strategies for Mega Free Trade Agreements in Regional and Global Economic Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Chul Park

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Korea has developed rapidly since the 1960s. It is one of the four Asian tiger economies and a good model for developing countries. Korea shows the world how a developing country can develop its economy rapidly and become industrialized. Its development strategy has mainly been an export-oriented trade policy. As a result, its trade volume grew from $1 billion in 1966 to $1 trillion in 2011, which is a 1,000-fold increase within five decades. Since 2011, Korea has become one of seven countries with a trade volume over $1 trillion. However, the Korean economy has experienced turbulence as well as positive growth. It underwent severe economic crises such as the Asian financial crisis in 1997 and the global financial crisis in 2008. Its economy has been extremely vulnerable to the external economic environment, although it has improved and strengthened, particularly since the global financial crisis. During those two crises, the government carried out an appropriate trade policy with a strategic approach to upgrade its industrial structure and competitiveness in global markets. This article comprehensively discusses Korean trade policy and strategy over the last five decades, and how its national economy has developed rapidly. It also explores how the government sets its strategic targets in Asia and the Asia Pacific region. It considers two mega free trade agreements (FTAs — the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership and the Trans-Pacific Partnership — as new opportunities for further development. Therefore, it is wise to analyze these regional mega FTAs in order to maximize the national interest.

  7. The impacts of trade blocks and tax reforms on the Brazilian economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Cunha

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses a general equilibrium model to evaluate the impacts of trade agreements and tax reforms on the Brazilian economy. The model predicts that welfare gains will happen whether Argentina reduces the tariffs it places on Brazilian products or the Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA is implemented. However, the FTAA engenders larger welfare gains. These gains will be even larger if the FTAA is implemented simultaneously to a reduction on domestic consumption taxes. These findings suggest that most of the gains come from the reduction of Brazilian tariff and tax rates.Adota-se neste artigo um modelo de equilíbrio geral para avaliar os impactos de acordos comerciais e uma reforma tributária sobre a economia brasileira. O modelo prediz que ganhos de bem-estar ocorrerão se a Argentina reduzir as tarifas sobre os produtos brasileiros ou se a Área de Livre Comércio das Américas (ALCA for implementada. Contudo, a ALCA induz ganhos mais expressivos. Tais ganhos serão ainda maiores se a ALCA for implementada simultaneamente a uma redução do imposto sobre consumo. Essas conclusões sugerem que a maior parte dos ganhos decorrem de reduções nos impostos de importação e consumo existentes no Brasil.

  8. TDFs and Trade: The U.S.-Canada Free-Trade Agreement from a Transborder Data Flow Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutenbeck, Jeffrey B.

    This paper examines the potential impacts of the comprehensive free-trade agreement negotiated by the United States and Canada in 1987 on transborder data flow between the two countries. An introductory overview of transborder data flow (TDFs) is followed by a discussion of how TDFs have been dealt with by both the United States and Canada to…

  9. EU Trade Policies: Benchmarking Protection in a General Equilibrium Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Antimiani, Alessandro; Salvatici, Luca

    2007-01-01

    This paper deals with the EU s trade policy with two objectives: on the one hand, we study the performance of EU's preferential agreements in granting their partners improved market access; on the other hand, we assess the extent to which domestic sectors are effectively protected. As far as the first objective is concerned, we construct bilateral indicators of protection based on the applied tariffs faced by each exporter. In order to do this, an index of trade policy restrict...

  10. US-Canada Free-Trade Agreement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-02-01

    The US-Canada Free Trade Agreement is an historic agreement that will yield major benefits for the US and Canadian economies, for US-Canadian bilateral trade relations, and for the international trade regime. The energy section of the Agreement is one of its most important. Energy trade between the US and Canada amounts to over $10 billion per year, the largest such bilateral trade in the world. Canada is our largest oil supplier and provides virtually all of our natural gas and electricity imports. While these volumes are a small fraction of US needs, they provide an important margin of energy security. Canada also is an important market for US energy exports, buying 16 million tons or $700 million worth of coal in 1987, 20% of US coal exports. The Free Trade Agreement ensures that the US and Canada can continued to enjoy unrestricted trade in energy, provides benefits to US consumers and producers, and enhances our energy security. The Agreement: prohibits future restrictions on energy trade, such as quantitative restriction, import or export taxes, and minimum prices; ensures that US consumers will be treated equitably with Canadian consumers; provides added assurance of supply in the event of disruptions; will lower costs to consumers, including our energy intensive industries, and help make US industry more competitive in world markets; will provide more certainty to producers and consumers, which should expand energy trade and be more conducive to energy investment; and will, over time, reduce US oil imports by encouraging continued market penetration of Canadian and US natural gas, and greater use of Canadian hydroelectric power.

  11. Free Trade for New York: The Economic Impact of the Canada-United States Free Trade Agreement on New York State. Rockefeller Institute Special Report Number 30.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doh, Jonathan P.

    This paper assesses the potential impact on the New York State economy, industries, and regions of the recently implemented Canada-U.S. Free Trade Agreement (FTA). Canadian trade and investment have had significant impacts on the economies of the United States and New York state. An analysis of the potential impact of the FTA on New York state,…

  12. [The Free Trade Agreement and environmental health in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Peña, P; Gutiérrez-Zúñiga, C; Zurutuza-Fernández, R; Jiménez-González, O

    1993-01-01

    This work offers an overview of the state of the art and future state of environmental health in our country from a viewpoint of the impact of the commercial opening established in the Free Trade Agreement among Mexico, the USA, and Canada. In the first section of this work, we analyze the expected economic changes resulting from the implementation of the FTA and foretells the way in which those changes will influence the present environmental and epidemiologic profiles of this country in the medium and long term. The main changes predicted by the analysis are, in the epidemiologic context, the acceleration of the transference of occupational, consumption, environmental and population risks, characteristic of industrialized countries, to the country's polarized epidemiologic profile; and, in the environmental context, a transition consisting of a broadening and composition of the spectrum of pollutants, including and important lagging of bacteriologic control. The second section offers an analysis of the predicted response capacity facing the new environmental risk dynamics in the country, encompassing regulation, normativeness and enforcement of environmental and consumer protection, as well as obstacles found in health services to the implementation of surveillance, detection and treatment of health damages caused by environmental factors. The analysis of the organized social response to these problems discloses a relative flexibility of the normativeness and enforcement functions in comparison with our northern neighbors, a paramount factor for the possible transference of environmental risks, as well as the informational and research deficiency about environmental issues, basic elements for sustaining environmental health in the country, aiming at speeding up the development and transference of technologies for prevention, detection and management of environmental risks in the country, drawing upon the systematization of our experience and that of our neighbors

  13. WHY DO MULTILATERAL ENVIRONMENT AGREEMENTS CONTAIN TRADE MEASURES?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAUL-BOGDAN ZAMFIR

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose to identifie the factors both contributing to and limiting the success of trade measures: the provision of funding, the existence of comprehensive and balanced packages of policy instruments, avoiding over-reliance on one type of control, and policies based on understanding the underlying economics of the situation all featured as factors underpinning success. In general we can say that there are three broad sets of reasons why trade restrictions have been incorporated in Multilateral Enviroment Agreements (MEAs: - to provide a means of monitoring and controlling trade in products where the uncontrolled trade would lead to or contribute to environmental damage. This may extend to a complete exclusion of particular products from international trade; - to provide a means of complying with the MEA.s requirements; - to provide a means of enforcing the MEA, by forbidding trade with non-parties or non-complying parties;

  14. The continental free trade area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandrey, Ron; Jensen, Hans Grinsted

    non-tariff barriers, and time in transit costs). Our simulations for a Free Trade Agreement (FTA) with a selected group of African countries show that this is very much a second-best option, and the inclusion of most of the significant economies in Africa generates the best results. Only in the event......The Trade Law Centre (tralac) has recently capitalised upon the prerelease Version 9.2 of the Global Trade Analysis Project (GTAP) database and the recent excellent data sets from the World Bank and other publishing quality data on trade barriers across the African continent. It undertook a series...... of simulations examining regional integration and intra-African trade barrier reductions. The results for tariff elimination on intra-African trade are promising. But the real news is in confirming that these barriers are not as significant as the various trade-related barriers except for tariffs. Especially...

  15. Trade and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbott, Philip; Bentzen, Jeanet Sinding; Tarp, Finn

    2009-01-01

    History, not predictions of CGE models or cross-country growth studies, shows a strong relationship between trade and development. Vietnam’s experience with bilateral trade agreements, comparing actual outcomes with predictions from existing models, demonstrates this and the limitations of research...... methodologies. Forecasts for Vietnam greatly underestimated the impact of past agreements because tariff reform was not the main factor driving adjustments. Addressing market imperfections through institutional reform was central to bringing output and trade expansion. Key questions for future research...... are whether policy reform will result in new institutional changes, and how resulting incentives determine the evolution of investment by sector....

  16. 19 CFR 10.703 - Filing of claim for preferential tariff treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... States-Jordan Free Trade Agreement Import Requirements § 10.703 Filing of claim for preferential tariff treatment. An importer may make a claim for US-JFTA preferential tariff treatment by including on the entry... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Filing of claim for preferential tariff...

  17. Will the General Agreement on Trade in Services Necessitate Federal Involvement in Lawyer Regulation? Some Constitutional Implications of Regulating the Global Lawyer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan W. Hopkins

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available It has been over seven years since the California Supreme Court thrust the thorny issues associated with multijurisdictional legal practice onto the American Bar’s agenda with its decision in Birbrower, Montalbano, Condon & Frank, P.C. v. Superior Court of Santa Clara County. The Birbrower court held that a New York law firm, none of whose attorneys were admitted to practice law in California, committed the unauthorized practice of law by advising a California corporation in an impending California arbitration. Most troubling from a practitioner’s perspective was the court’s suggestion that an attorney might practice law “in California,” and thereby commit the unauthorized practice of law there, by “virtually” entering the state through telephone, fax, or e-mail. The Birbrower decision generated a great deal of anxiety among American lawyers and prompted the American Bar Association to create a Commission on Multijurisdictional Practice (“MJP Commission”. The MJP Commission was formed in July 2000, with a mandate to report on the state of multijurisdictional practice in the United States and to make recommendations that would facilitate that practice in the public interest.

  18. 76 FR 41858 - Petition Under Section 302 on the U.S.-Israel Free Trade Agreement; Decision Not To Initiate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-15

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Petition Under Section 302 on the U.S.-Israel Free Trade Agreement; Decision Not To Initiate Investigation AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION: Decision not to... Government of Israel during the negotiation in the 1980s of the U.S.-Israel Free Trade Agreement (U.S.-Israel...

  19. EFFECT OF TARIFF ESCALATION ON GHANAIAN COCOA EXPORTS: AN EMPIRICAL PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Abdul Aziz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyses the effects of tariff escalation on Ghanaian cocoa exports in four importing markets: USA, EU, Japan and Malaysia. The study estimates nominal and effective protection coefficients in these markets based on ad-valorem equivalent of applied and bound specific tariffs. Results revealed that, effective protection exists in the Japanese and Malaysian cocoa industries at different stages of processing on both bound and applied tariffs. In contrast, the USA and the EU do not effectively protect their cocoa industries, thus, no tariff escalation on applied tariffs against cocoa imports from Ghana. This study concludes that from a static effect, higher tariffs do have a negative consequence on Ghanaian cocoa exports in these importing countries. From a dynamic perspective however, the relationship between tariff structures in these importing countries and Ghanaian cocoa exports is somewhat ambiguous and each situation has to be viewed on their own merit. A complete elimination of tariffs as a form of trade barrier on Ghanaian cocoa exports does not necessarily imply that Ghana could easily increase its exports of value added cocoa.

  20. RELATIONS BETWEEN THE FREE TRADE AGREEMENT OF COLOMBIA WITH THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA AND THE MULTILATERAL ENVIRONMENTAL AGREEMENTS

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    This article is the result of a study carried out by the Environmental law Research Area of Universidad del Rosario, within the project of environmental conflicts applied to international decisions. One of the topics discussed in this research is the analysis of relationships between Multilateral Environmental Agreements (MEAs) and the Free Trade Agreement, or Trade Promotion Agreement, which was entered into by Colombia and the United States of America (Col-USA FTA) with the purpose of deter...

  1. The future of human rights impact assessments of trade agreements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walker, S.M.

    2009-01-01

    The Future of Human Rights Impact Assessments of Trade Agreements develops a methodology for human rights impact assessments of trade agreements and considers whether there is any value in using the methodology on a sustained basis to ensure that the human dimensions of international trade are taken

  2. Opportunities of Trade in Services between the EU and Ukraine: the Case of Telecommunications Services under the GATS and the Association Agreement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batura, Olga; Kretova, Olga A.

    - ments of integration in the EU internal market. The paper argues that in short to middle term the Association Agreement does not offer much of value-added in comparison to the current GATS commitments in terms of services liberali- sation. The juiciest “carrot” of the Association Agreement......This working paper studies the legal and regulatory conditions for trade in ser- vices between the European Union (EU) and Ukraine on the example of tele- communications services that are important carrier services for various busi- ness activities in the cross-border trade. The paper outlines...... the general frame- work for trade in services under the GATS as expressed in the commitments undertaken by Ukraine and examines the detailed provisions of the EU- Ukraine Association Agreement on trade liberalisation and regulatory approx- imation that is a WTO-extra agreement. It also provides an overview...

  3. Market Access through Bound Tariffs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sala, Davide; Schröder, Philipp J.H.; Yalcin, Erdal

    on the risk that exporters face in destination markets. The present paper formalizes the underlying interaction of risk, fixed export costs and firms' market entry decisions based on techniques known from the real options literature; doing so we highlight the important role of bound tariffs at the extensive......WTO negotiations deal predominantly with bound - besides applied - tariff rates. But, how can reductions in tariffs ceilings, i.e. tariff rates that no exporter may ever actually be confronted with, generate market access? The answer to this question relates to the effects of tariff bindings...... margin of trade. We find that bound tariffs are more effective with higher risk destination markets, that a large binding overhang may still command substantial market access, and that reductions in bound tariffs generate effective market access even when bound rates are above current and long...

  4. Market access through bound tariffs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sala, Davide; Schröder, Philipp J.H.; Yalcin, Erdal

    2010-01-01

    on the risk that exporters face in destination markets. The present paper formalizes the underlying interaction of risk, fixed export costs and firms' market entry decisions based on techniques known from the real options literature; doing so we highlight the important role of bound tariffs at the extensive......WTO negotiations deal predominantly with bound - besides applied - tariff rates. But, how can reductions in tariffs ceilings, i.e. tariff rates that no exporter may ever actually be confronted with, generate market access? The answer to this question relates to the effects of tariff bindings...... margin of trade. We find that bound tariffs are more effective with higher risk destination markets, that a large binding overhang may still command substantial market access, and that reductions in bound tariffs generate effective market access even when bound rates are above current and longterm...

  5. Proposed U.S.-South Korea Free Trade Agreement and Potential Employment Effects: Analysis of Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-11

    Korea-U.S. Free Trade Agreement, by Kozo Kiyota and Robert M. Stern, University of Michigan, April 2007. Source of data for table is ILO (2006), UNIDO ...U.S. trade with Mexico between two different periods: the two seven-year periods immediately before and after the North American Free Trade...United States as a result of a projected increase in the U.S. trade deficit with Mexico . The EPI approach made a number of assumptions, including 1

  6. The Politics of Global Value Chains: Import-dependent Firms and EU-Asia Trade Agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckhardt, Jappe; Poletti, Arlo

    2016-01-01

    In 2006, the European Commission released its Global Europe Communication, in which it announced a shift from a multilateral to a bilateral trade strategy. One of the key pillars of this new strategy was to strengthen the bilateral trade relations with key Asian countries. In contrast to existing analyses that focus on European Union (EU) decision makers' agency, we propose an explanation for this notable shift in the EU's trade policy that stresses the political role of import-dependent firms. In light of the increasing integration of such firms into global value chains, the article argues that a plausible case can be made, both theoretically and empirically, that import-dependent firms had a clear stake in the signing of preferential trade agreements between the EU and Asian countries and that their lobbying efforts significantly affected the EU's decision to start negotiations with South Korea, India and Vietnam.

  7. The Politics of Global Value Chains: Import-dependent Firms and EU–Asia Trade Agreements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckhardt, Jappe; Poletti, Arlo

    2015-01-01

    In 2006, the European Commission released its Global Europe Communication, in which it announced a shift from a multilateral to a bilateral trade strategy. One of the key pillars of this new strategy was to strengthen the bilateral trade relations with key Asian countries. In contrast to existing analyses that focus on European Union (EU) decision makers’ agency, we propose an explanation for this notable shift in the EU’s trade policy that stresses the political role of import-dependent firms. In light of the increasing integration of such firms into global value chains, the article argues that a plausible case can be made, both theoretically and empirically, that import-dependent firms had a clear stake in the signing of preferential trade agreements between the EU and Asian countries and that their lobbying efforts significantly affected the EU’s decision to start negotiations with South Korea, India and Vietnam. PMID:28018131

  8. ASEAN-China Free Trade Area and the Competitiveness of Local Industries: A Case Study of Major Industries in the Lao People's Democratic Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Leebouapao, Leebeer; INSISIENMAY, Sthabandith; Vanthana NOLINTHA

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides an evaluation of the impact of the ASEAN-China Free Trade Agreement (ACFTA) on industries in the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR). In general, the paper finds that price competitiveness in the three industries under review falls substantially if tariffs are completely removed. However, the degree of impact varies substantially across industries. In the wood processing and cement industries, of which the latter benefits from import substitution policies, competiti...

  9. U.S. Trade Policy and the Caribbean: From Trade Preferences to Free Trade Agreements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-22

    ATPA ) and the African Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA). 7 See Pastor, Robert A. Exiting the Whirlpool: U.S. Foreign Policy Toward Latin America and...reform that includes the GSP, ATPA , and AGOA. Congress has signaled that it may be time to consider a wholesale review of the design, scope, and

  10. Trade policy, not morals or health policy”: the US Trade Representative, tobacco companies and market liberalization in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, Ross; Collin, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    The enforced opening of Thailand’s cigarette market to imports in 1990 has become a cause celebre in debates about the social and health impacts of trade agreements. At the instigation of leading US-based cigarette manufacturers, the US Trade Representative (USTR) threatened trade sanctions against Thailand to compel the government to liberalize its domestic cigarette market. Thailand’s challenge to the USTR led to referral to General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) arbitration. While GATT ruled in favour of the USTR on market access, it also found that Thailand could subsequently enact non-discriminatory tobacco control regulation without contravening the GATT agreement. This paper contributes to existing literature via its analysis of tobacco industry documents that highlight not only USTR responsiveness to lobbying from tobacco corporations, raising concerns about the drivers of globalization and the limited protection afforded to public health concerns in trade agreements. Significantly, the documents also indicate that USTR support of the tobacco industry was not unconditional, being subject to wider pressures of global trade negotiations. Such qualification notwithstanding, however,,ongoing governmental willingness to advance the international interests of tobacco corporations remains a concern from a public health perspective, particularly given the failure of the US to ratify the World Health Organization’s Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. PMID:25705122

  11. 中国水产品非关税贸易壁垒的实证研究--基于贸易引力模型%Case Study on the Impacts of Non-Tariff Trade Barriers to the Aquatic Products Trade of China:Based on the Trade Gravity Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨卫; 苗青

    2016-01-01

    随着贸易自由化程度的提高以及“黄箱政策”的出台,关税壁垒在国际贸易竞争中的作用日益减弱,许多国家逐步设置以进口配额、许可证、检验检疫和技术标准等非关税壁垒为主的贸易保护措施,同时各国在政治、文化和风俗习惯等方面的差异也会对国际贸易产生一定的影响。文章以2000—2014年中国与美国、日本、韩国、加拿大和东盟的贸易面板数据为基础,在 Tinbergen (1962)和 Poyhonen(1963)所建立的传统贸易引力模型的基础上,对原有模型中的变量进行改进和拓展,创新提出使用军事冲突变量去量化非关税贸易壁垒对我国水产品贸易的影响,同时结合双因素方差分析方法探究贸易品种和国家区域的差异对于贸易总额的影响;结果显示,我国水产品贸易政策存在一定的调整空间,可根据不同国家背景和贸易种类在区域一体化政策、水产品生产、物流渠道建设和文化宣传方面进行政策和方法的改进。%With the improvement of the degree of trade liberalization and the release of a “yellow box”policy,the role of tariff barriers in international trade competition is increasingly weakened. At the same time,many countries have set up step by step in order to import quotas and permits, inspection and quarantine,and technical standards and other non-tariff barriers of trade protection measures.Furthermore,the differences in politics,culture and social customs and habits also have certain influence on the international trade of aquatic products.Based on the trade panel data be-tween China and the United States,Japan,Korea,Canada,and the Association of South-East Asi-an Nations (ASEAN)in 2000—2014,and on the basis of traditional trade gravity model estab-lished by Tinbergen (1962)and Poyhonen (1963 ),the original variables in the model were im-proved and developed,and the method of using military conflict and the

  12. Free Trade Agreements Are Cause for Hope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Financial Times

    2011-01-01

    @@ On October 21, three bilateral trade agreements have passed the US House of Representatives and Senate.But the votes came with a sense of relief rather than celebration from their supporters, and resignation rather than anger from their opponents. Very occasionally, common sense soars above political partisanship and economic short-termism to inspire hopeeven in the most jaded investor.The passing by US Congress of free trade agreements between America and Colombia, Panama and South Korea would be cause for celebration at the best of times.

  13. Brazilian trade policies between 1994 and 2014 and its effects on productivity of the automotive industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Hubertus Dörner

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes protectionist measures adopted by Brazilian trade policy between 1994 and the present and possible impacts on productivity of domestic industry and welfare. To limit the scope of this paper, object is the automotive industry due to its outstanding economic importance and contribution to the development of the country. After a short presentation of the main protectionist measures in the world, aspects of productivity in general a brief summary of the automobile industry in Brazil is exposed. Thereafter, the most common protectionist measures as part of Brazilian foreign trade policy, in particular exchange rate, tariff and non-tariff policy and its possible impacts on the productivity of the automotive industry and welfare in the country are discussed

  14. The North American Free Trade Agreement: Implications for the parties and world oil markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verleger, P.K. Jr. [Institute for International Economics, Washington, DC (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The proposed North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) has been criticized because it failed to open Mexico`s hydrocarbon reserves to development by private parties. This failure is an economic tragedy. Consumer welfare will clearly be reduced as a consequence. However, the loss is confined to Mexico where economic growth rates may be reduced by as much as one half of one percent per year. Otherwise, the agreement will have insignificant impacts on the world oil market. Future levels of production and prices will be unaffected by the agreement. 24 refs., 6 tabs.

  15. Protecting the autonomy of states to enact tobacco control measures under trade and investment agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Andrew; Sheargold, Elizabeth

    2015-06-01

    Since the adoption of the WHO's WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, governments have been pursuing progressively stronger and more wide-reaching tobacco control measures. In response, tobacco companies are frequently using international trade and investment agreements as tools to challenge domestic tobacco control measures. Several significant new trade and investment agreements that some fear may provide new legal avenues to the tobacco industry to challenge health measures are currently under negotiation, including the Trans-Pacific Partnership (a 12 party agreement of Asia-Pacific regional countries) and the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (an agreement between the USA and the European Union). This commentary examines different options for treaty provisions that the parties could employ in these agreements to minimise legal risks relating to tobacco control measures. It recommends that parties take a comprehensive approach, combining provisions that minimise the potential costs of litigation with provisions that increase the likelihood of a state successfully defending tobacco control measures in such litigation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  16. Free Trade Agreements and Firm-Product Markups in Chilean Manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lamorgese, A.R.; Linarello, A.; Warzynski, Frederic Michel Patrick

    In this paper, we use detailed information about firms' product portfolio to study how trade liberalization affects prices, markups and productivity. We document these effects using firm product level data in Chilean manufacturing following two major trade agreements with the EU and the US...... at the firm-product level. On average, adjustment on the profit margin does not appear to play a role. However, for more differentiated products, we find some evidence of an increase in markups, suggesting that firms do not fully pass-through increases in productivity on prices whenever they have enough...

  17. International trade agreements: hazards to health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Ellen R; Brenner, Joseph E

    2004-01-01

    Since the 1980s, neoliberal policies have prescribed reducing the role of governments, relying on market forces to organize and provide health care and other vital human services. In this context, international trade agreements increasingly serve as mechanisms to enforce the privatization, deregulation, and decentralization of health care and other services, with important implications for democracy as well as for health. Critics contend that social austerity and "free" trade agreements contribute to the rise in global poverty and economic inequality and instability, and therefore to increased preventable illness and death. Under new agreements through the World Trade Organization that cover vital human services such as health care, water, education, and energy, unaccountable, secret trade tribunals could overrule decisions by democratically elected officials on public financing for national health care systems, licensing and training standards for health professionals, patient safety and quality regulations, occupational safety and health, control of hazardous substances such as tobacco and alcohol, the environment, and affordable access to safe water and sanitation. International negotiations in 2003 in Cancun and in Miami suggested that countervailing views are developing momentum. A concerned health care community has begun to call for a moratorium on trade negotiations on health care and water, and to reinvigorate an alternative vision of universal access to vital services.

  18. Schemes for aggregating preferential tariffs in agriculture,export volume effects and African LDCs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Wusheng

    Trade-weighted aggregated tariffs (TWPT) are often used in analyzing the issues of erosion of non-reciprocal preferences. This paper argues that commonly used TWPTs under-estimate the true protection on imports originated from preference-receiving countries, including LDCs. When used in numerical...... simulations of preference erosion and expansion scenarios, the TWPTs tend to incorrectly downplay preference erosion effect of MFN tariff cuts, and understate the export promotion effect of expanding preferences. In light of these claims, an alternative aggregation scheme is developed to calculate aggregated...... preferential tariffs imposed by a number of developed countries on African LDCs. These are shown to be higher than the TWPTs aggregated from the same disaggregated tariff data set. Numerical simulations conducted with the two sets of aggregated tariffs confirm the two claims and suggest that TWPTs may lead...

  19. Making Education Markets through Global Trade Agreements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Susan L.

    2017-01-01

    This paper uses the global trade negotiations and agreements, which include education sectors as potentially tradable services, to show the complex processes at work in making global education markets. Drawing on the work of Jens Beckert and others, I focus on the micro-processes of making capitalist orders and the challenges at hand in bringing…

  20. Reducing Tariffs According to WTO Accession Rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosse, Henrik Barslund; Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis

    2012-01-01

    When Vietnam joined the World Trade Organization (WTO) in 2007 it was granted an accession period up to 2014. During this period tariffs would have to fall according to the accession agreement. This paper evaluates this 2007–2014 trade liberalization by building an applied general equilibrium model...

  1. Regulatory Cooperation for Trade in Services in the EU and US Trade Agreements with the Republic of Korea: How Deep and How Compatible?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laurenza, E.C.; Mathis, J.

    2013-01-01

    This article compares domestic regulation provisions in the field of international trade in services for two economic integration agreements with the Republic of Korea: the Free Trade Agreement between the United States of America and the Republic of Korea (2011) and the Free Trade Agreement between

  2. Opportunities of Trade in Services between the EU and Ukraine: the Case of Telecommunications Services under the GATS and the Association Agreement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batura, Olga; Kretova, Olga A.

    This working paper studies the legal and regulatory conditions for trade in ser- vices between the European Union (EU) and Ukraine on the example of tele- communications services that are important carrier services for various busi- ness activities in the cross-border trade. The paper outlines...... the general frame- work for trade in services under the GATS as expressed in the commitments undertaken by Ukraine and examines the detailed provisions of the EU- Ukraine Association Agreement on trade liberalisation and regulatory approx- imation that is a WTO-extra agreement. It also provides an overview...... – the internal mar- ket treatment – is difficult to reach due to unclear and complicated rules on regulatory approximation. Key words: EU, Ukraine, trade in services, telecommunications services, liber- alisation, regulatory approximation...

  3. Oil energy operation and its future significance in Free Trade Agreement between USA and Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-04-01

    The influence of Free Trade Agreement (FTA) between the USA and Canada on the oil, gas, uranium, electric power and coal industries was explained, together with the actual situation and policy of both the countries. The FTA is to further liberalize the energy trade, between both the countries, already almost liberalized, and guarantee it in future, however not to directly influence the energy trade of those countries with Japan and other third countries. Even if the supply from both those countries decreased, there would be no influence of it, as judged from the importation quantity so far and actual record in world market. While Japanese enterprises, exploring in the USA and Canada as of 1988, were twelve and four, respectively, in number. And there is no change, in regulation for the investment from other countries than both those countries. Moreover, Canada, with a policy securing the safety and guarantee, looks forward to Japanese participation in exploration. 4 figs., 16 tabs.

  4. The impact of the CEFTA trade agreement on economic development in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA. Leonora Vranja

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Given the fact that Kosovo was in a difficult economic situation, it became a member of CEFTA, so that domestic producers could export their goods, benefit from free trade, attract foreign investors, and also it was seen as an opportunity for integration into the European Union (EU. After the signing of this agreement, eventhough expectations were optimistic about economic development, the agreement was not fully implemented. Kosovo, compared to other SouthEast European countries that are also members of this agreement, has been discriminated against in terms of export of domestic products and the number of foreign investors has decreased. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the impact of this agreement on Kosovo's economic development. For analyzing the macroeconomic indicators affected by this agreement, analytical methods were used, and interviews were conducted with a local producer as well as with an economic expert. The results of this research show that the CEFTA 2006 agreement did not have the expected positive impact on the development of the economy in Kosovo.

  5. Permit trading and stability of international climate agreements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altamirano-Cabrera, J.C.; Finus, M.

    2006-01-01

    We analyze the implication of different allocation schemes of CO2-emission permits for stability and the success of international climate agreements. Our model combines a game theoretical with an empirical module that comprises 12 world regions and captures important dynamic aspects of the climate c

  6. Welfare Effects of Tariff Reduction Formulas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guldager, Jan G.; Schröder, Philipp J.H.

    . This paper presents a two country intra-industry trade model with heterogeneous firms subject to high and low tariffs. We examine the welfare effects of applying three different tariff reduction formulas proposed in the literature i) a proportional cut, ii) the Swiss formula and iii) a compression formula......WTO negotiations rely on tariff reduction formulas. It has been argued that formula approaches are of increasing importance in trade talks, because of the large number of countries involved, the wider dispersion in initial tariffs (e.g. tariff peaks) and gaps between bound and applied tariff rates....... No single formula dominates for all conditions. The ranking of the three tools depends on the degree of product differentiation in the industry, and the achieved reduction in the average tariff....

  7. Aluminum Production Cost Drops to 375 Yuan/Tonne After On-Grid Power Tariff Cut

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    Following the cut of coal-fired on-grid power tariff in April 2015,in 2016 the coal-fired ongrid power tariff experienced another cut.The average nationwide cut was about0.03yuan/k Wh,the reduced amount will be used to lower general industrial and commercial electricity sales price by the same

  8. Impact Of Pak-India Relationship On Rice Trade On Economy Of Pakistan By Using Computable General Equilibrium Model (CGE)

    OpenAIRE

    Faiz Muhammad Shaikh; Mushtaque Ali Jariko; Muhammad Saleh Memon; Abdul Sattar Shah

    2015-01-01

    This research investigates the Impact of PAK-INDIA Rice trade on Economy of Pakistan. Data were collected from GTAP-7 database. Data were collected from 60 rice exporters by using simple random technique and data were analyzed by using GEM-software. Different simulation run on GTAP-7 database and various tariff rates applied. It was revealed that if India were removing the sensitive list item, in this scenario both countries would have positive impact on GDP, Export, Import. The results indic...

  9. On International Trade in Educational Services: An Interpretation of the Regulations and China's WTO Commitments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xi-bin

    2006-01-01

    The "General Agreement on Trade in Services" (GATS) of the World Trade Organization (WTO) covers educational trade services. Hence, all the regulations of the GATS have to be followed in the international trade of educational services. Having acceded to the WTO, China is starting to fulfill the rights and obligations as a member by…

  10. On International Trade in Educational Services: An Interpretation of the Regulations and China's WTO Commitments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xi-bin

    2006-01-01

    The "General Agreement on Trade in Services" (GATS) of the World Trade Organization (WTO) covers educational trade services. Hence, all the regulations of the GATS have to be followed in the international trade of educational services. Having acceded to the WTO, China is starting to fulfill the rights and obligations as a member by completely…

  11. Farther Export Tariff Laid on Some RE Metallic Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ To further regulate the export of high-energy-consumption and high-pollution products and resources products, promote the import of energy products, resource products and key components and facilitate the trade balance, and approved by the 9th Meeting of Tariff Regulations Commission of the State Council, China would adjust the import and export tariff rate of some commodities since June 1st, 2007.

  12. Implications of WTO Tariff Reductions for EU and US Dairy Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Pajic, Mirjana; Blandford, David; Bailey, Kenneth W.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study is to measure the impact of proposed Doha Round tariff reductions on the global dairy industry and dairy policy. We examine how proposed tariff reductions affect global trade and prices, and the implications for the European Union and the United States. Since international market conditions can vary, we examine the implications of liberalization under two sets of market conditions. The first corresponds to the year 2004 in which there was a global surplus of dairy ...

  13. Implications of the Central America-Dominican Republic-Free Trade Agreement for the nutrition transition in Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkes, Corinna; Thow, Anne Marie

    2008-11-01

    To identify potential impacts of the Central America-Dominican Republic-Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA-DR) on food consumption patterns associated with the nutrition transition, obesity, and diet-related chronic diseases. Examination of CAFTA-DR agreement to identify measures that have the potential to affect food availability and retail prices. CAFTA-DR includes agreements on tariffs, tariff-rate quotas (TRQs), and sanitary and phytosanitary regulations with direct implications for the availability and prices of various foods. Agreements on investment, services, and intellectual property rights (IPR) are also relevant because they create a business climate more conducive to long-term investment by the transnational food industry. Trade liberalization under CAFTA-DR is likely to increase availability and lower relative prices of two food groups associated with the nutrition transition: meat and processed foods. These outcomes are expected to occur as the direct result of increased imports from the United States and increased production by U.S. companies based in Central America, and the indirect result of increased domestic meat production (due to increased availability of cheaper animal feed) and increased production of processed foods by domestic companies (due to a more competitive market environment). CAFTA-DR is likely to further the nutrition transition in Central America by increasing the consumption of meat; highly processed foods; and new, non-traditional foods. The public health community should be more aware of the implications of trade agreements for dietary health. Governments and related stakeholders should assess the coherence between changes fostered by specific trade agreements with national policies on diet and nutrition.

  14. Tariffs In Apparel And Footwear: A Gender Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uros Andrejevic

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The theory of tariffs is very different from the reality of tariffs. Most of the literature on protectionism is too theoretical and, more importantly, too aggregate. In practice, tariffs greatly differ among products and affect consumers differently based on their income and gender. In this paper we use a gender approach to study US tariffs on selected apparel and footwear products. The scope of this study is to examine whether gender plays a role in evaluating the cost of tariffs on consumers and to suggest policies to end a possible discriminatory conduct.

  15. Europe’s Preferential Trade Agreements: Status, Content, and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-22

    under the GATT. Many more bilateral and regional agreements are being negotiated—an estimated 60 PTAs in Asia alone—in all parts of the world. The...Access to the EU, HNMINT, February 4, 2010. 56 Business Standard, “India, EU to resume FTA talks next week,” January 22, 2010. 57 Factiva, Accord Fintech ...University Press, 2008 101 Razeen Sally, “Looking East, The European Union’s New FTA Negotiations in Asia ,” October 2007, European Centre for

  16. The role of science in international trade law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugard, Maurits; Smart, Michael

    2006-02-01

    While the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade addressed overt barriers to international trade, the current focus of international trade rules has shifted to less obvious, but in many cases no less restrictive, barriers to trade, such as protectionist measures adopted under the guise of health and safety standards. The new agreements established under the World Trade Organization ("WTO"), including the Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures ("SPS Agreement"), the Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade ("TBT Agreement"), provide important tools that can be invoked by governments and used by stakeholders to address regulatory barriers that were once thought outside the purview of international trade rules. Non-science based regulations can be and have been successfully challenged under the SPS and TBT Agreements, which prohibit WTO Members from maintaining laws or regulations that adversely affect trade unless such measures are scientifically justified. Stakeholders should use to the fullest extent possible international trade rules to eliminate non-science based regulations that adversely affect trade in the goods that they produce.

  17. A new generation of trade policy: potential risks to diet-related health from the trans pacific partnership agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friel, Sharon; Gleeson, Deborah; Thow, Anne-Marie; Labonte, Ronald; Stuckler, David; Kay, Adrian; Snowdon, Wendy

    2013-10-16

    Trade poses risks and opportunities to public health nutrition. This paper discusses the potential food-related public health risks of a radical new kind of trade agreement: the Trans Pacific Partnership agreement (TPP). Under negotiation since 2010, the TPP involves Australia, Brunei, Canada, Chile, Japan, Malaysia, Mexico, New Zealand, Peru, Singapore, the USA, and Vietnam. Here, we review the international evidence on the relationships between trade agreements and diet-related health and, where available, documents and leaked text from the TPP negotiations. Similar to other recent bilateral or regional trade agreements, we find that the TPP would propose tariffs reductions, foreign investment liberalisation and intellectual property protection that extend beyond provisions in the multilateral World Trade Organization agreements. The TPP is also likely to include strong investor protections, introducing major changes to domestic regulatory regimes to enable greater industry involvement in policy making and new avenues for appeal. Transnational food corporations would be able to sue governments if they try to introduce health policies that food companies claim violate their privileges in the TPP; even the potential threat of litigation could greatly curb governments' ability to protect public health. Hence, we find that the TPP, emblematic of a new generation of 21st century trade policy, could potentially yield greater risks to health than prior trade agreements. Because the text of the TPP is secret until the countries involved commit to the agreement, it is essential for public health concerns to be articulated during the negotiation process. Unless the potential health consequences of each part of the text are fully examined and taken into account, and binding language is incorporated in the TPP to safeguard regulatory policy space for health, the TPP could be detrimental to public health nutrition. Health advocates and health-related policymakers must be

  18. The Effects of North America Free Trade Agreement on Mexican Environmental Policy (1994-2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ningu J.   Kenneth

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The scope of this study was to analyze the implementation of the environmental policy and the way Mexico has integrated the environmental aspects into a North America Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA. We are aware of the fact that many environmental costs do not necessarily reflect the environmental damage. Environmental costs are often defined by determining either the willingness of the users to pay for the damages or for admittance of claims for damage. Since everyone has the right to a clean and thriving natural environment it is the policy maker who determines the basis of admittance of the most correct means to determine environmental costs in order to reduce the damages. Methodologically, we analyzed the existence and implementation of environmental policy. Instead of looking at the tradeoff between trade related incentives and environmental considerations, we analyzed how trade-offs changes under free trade effects the policy issues. When compared the countries environmental policy and the NAFTA stipulations we found that Mexico has a well-defined environmental policy but less integrated in the free trade agreement. The decision makers have increased the concessions of consumption of fixed capital as a means to increase gains from trade. This has lead to increased environmental damage, natural resource depletion and environmental costs.

  19. The impact of TTIP agreement on the European Union-United States coal trade potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olkuski Tadeusz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the paper is to assess the impact of currently negotiated TTIP agreement (Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership on the use of hard coal in the EU and the US. Hard coal is the most important fuel in global electricity generation. This also applies to the United States, a leading manufacturer and exporter of this energy source. The US coal is exported to the EU market. The article presents the estimated exports of hard coal from the US to the EU. Due to the fact that price has a major impact on the size of exports, the paper presents the estimated prices, including freight costs, of power coal for the analyzed scenarios. According to one scenario, the US and European prices will be equalized (including freight costs by 2020, while from 2025 on the comparative advantage and competitiveness of the US hard coal will decrease. Taking into account the fact that the export of coal from the United States is free from customs duties, the acceptance of TIPP should not affect the currently existing trade between the two continents and the amount of exported coal. Nevertheless, the question of hard coal economy cannot be separated from other sectors of the energy market, which can be significantly affected by the future agreement.

  20. A Study on the Countermeasures of Technical Trade Barriers in the Post Non-tariff Barrier Era%非关税壁垒后时代技术性贸易壁垒及其对策研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖靓

    2012-01-01

    As non-tariff policies ( e. g., import quota and import license) are discarded as trade barriers, technical trade barriers emerge as the new obstacle to international trade. Technical barriers to trade require that exporters must customize their goods to meet the importing country's technical norms, its health, safety, or environmental norms, and that firms undergo costly product labeling and conformity assessment procedures. As the globalization deepens, developed countries and regions, such as the US,the European Union (EU) , and Japan, practice technical trade barriers increasingly for trade protection. Technical trade barriers have been applied in the trading of electromechanical products and chemical products. They are further being applied to the trading of agricultural products, fabrics, and medical products at unprecedented pace. The increasing use of technical trade barrierssuggests their concealing nature, operability, and pertinence, which makes them the least arguable among all new and non- tariff barriers and the most disadvantageous to developing countries. Joining the WTO in 2001 is expected to bring China a great opportunity to expand its exports. However, different forms of technical trade barriers have severely restricted the export trade in China. Protectionism or reasonable national regulation? By the question of protection of non-economic interests as barriers to the free movement of goods in comparison of EC law and WTO law, the long standing and well-known problem is articulated under which legal conditions non-tariff barriers to the free border crossing flow of goods can be justified by non-economic national re- quirements ( such as health or environmental protection) within the legal orders of the European Community (EC) and the World Trade Organization (WTO) Since China joined WTO a decade ago, 769 anti-dumping, anti-subsidy, safeguard measures, and special safeguard measures cases have been sued against it, i. e

  1. Trade Policy Reform and the Missing Revenue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Thomas Channing; Tarp, Finn

    2008-01-01

    into a computable general equilibrium model of an African economy (Mozambique) to study the implications of trade policy reform. Model simulations indicate that lowering tariff rates and reducing duty-free importation in a manner that maintains official revenue benefit nearly everyone. The main exception is those......In many African countries, large discrepancies exist between revenues implied by published tariff rates multiplied by estimated import volumes and actual receipts. We develop a stylised trade model where average and marginal tariff rates diverge and incorporate insights from this model...... who benefited from duty-free imports in the base...

  2. Welfare Effect of Mergers and Trade Liberalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ray Chaudhuri, A.; Benchekroun, H.

    2008-01-01

    In a two-country model where firms behave à la Cournot, we show that marginal and non-marginal trade liberalization have different effects on the social desirability of horizontal mergers. Marginal tariff reductions increase (decrease) the desirability of merger at sufficiently low (high) tariff lev

  3. A Research Study on the Projected Impact of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) on Texas Public Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortez, Albert; And Others

    This report estimates the number of recent immigrant students that would enroll in Texas public schools as a result of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), and recommends educational strategies to address the unique needs of recent immigrants. Research approaches included a review of existing research on immigration trends and…

  4. The Proposed U.S.-Panama Free Trade Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-21

    willing to locate in a former banana plantation. Two initiatives were controversial: a six-year moratorium on collective bargaining rights and the... Sheets : U.S.-Panama Trade Promotion Agreement, April 19, 2011. The Proposed U.S.-Panama Free Trade Agreement Congressional Research Service 31

  5. THE FREE TRADE AGREEMENTS BETWEEN THE EUROPEAN UNION AND LATIN AMERICA. THE PERUVIAN AND MEXICAN CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Manrique de LUNA BARRIOS

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The European Union has signed a number of free trade agreements with different countries in Latin America because it is aware of the great importance that this region has gained as a destination for its exports and investments. Furthermore, the European Union wishes to reaffirm its ties with countries in the region because it hopes to consolidate its political and economic position as an international player with its presence in those markets. In this paper we will discuss the free trade agreements that the EU has signed with Mexico and later with Peru, because they are two examples where Latin American countries have achieved significant economic growth and where the trade has generated significant benefits. Additionally they are two major trading partners of the European Union and they have allowed the EU to continue to expand its zone of influence in Latin America.

  6. THE EU’S NEIGHBOURHOOD TRADE ARRANGEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila BORTA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The elusive outcome of the Doha Round has increased the importance of the preferential trade agreements worldwide. Currently, the EU`s trade policy is driven by preferential negotiations. European bilateralism is important and extremely challenging. This union aims to conclude a significant number of deep and comprehensive free trade agreements, particularly by eliminating tariffs, and also by facilitating the trade of services, investments, procurement and regulatory matters. The EU has granted unilateral preferences to developing countries through tariff free access to the EU market, thereby helping them to eradicate poverty and promote sustainable development. Based on the primary motives of Europe’s preferential trade agreements, we have analysed the trade agreements negotiated with geographically close neighbours to which the EU is prepared to offer commercial accession or some slightly less ambitious type of relationship.

  7. 75 FR 54352 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Free Trade Agreements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-07

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Free Trade Agreements... Agreements. OMB Number: 1651-0117. Form Number: None. Abstract: Free trade agreements are established to... further cooperation to expand and enhance benefits of the agreement. Free trade agreements establish free...

  8. Impact of Large Scale Energy Efficiency Programs On Consumer Tariffs and Utility Finances in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abhyankar, Nikit; Phadke, Amol

    2011-01-20

    Large-scale EE programs would modestly increase tariffs but reduce consumers' electricity bills significantly. However, the primary benefit of EE programs is a significant reduction in power shortages, which might make these programs politically acceptable even if tariffs increase. To increase political support, utilities could pursue programs that would result in minimal tariff increases. This can be achieved in four ways: (a) focus only on low-cost programs (such as replacing electric water heaters with gas water heaters); (b) sell power conserved through the EE program to the market at a price higher than the cost of peak power purchase; (c) focus on programs where a partial utility subsidy of incremental capital cost might work and (d) increase the number of participant consumers by offering a basket of EE programs to fit all consumer subcategories and tariff tiers. Large scale EE programs can result in consistently negative cash flows and significantly erode the utility's overall profitability. In case the utility is facing shortages, the cash flow is very sensitive to the marginal tariff of the unmet demand. This will have an important bearing on the choice of EE programs in Indian states where low-paying rural and agricultural consumers form the majority of the unmet demand. These findings clearly call for a flexible, sustainable solution to the cash-flow management issue. One option is to include a mechanism like FAC in the utility incentive mechanism. Another sustainable solution might be to have the net program cost and revenue loss built into utility's revenue requirement and thus into consumer tariffs up front. However, the latter approach requires institutionalization of EE as a resource. The utility incentive mechanisms would be able to address the utility disincentive of forgone long-run return but have a minor impact on consumer benefits. Fundamentally, providing incentives for EE programs to make them comparable to supply

  9. Addressing legal and political barriers to global pharmaceutical access: options for remedying the impact of the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) and the imposition of TRIPS-plus standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Kohler, Jillian Clare; Forman, Lisa; Lipkus, Nathaniel

    2008-07-01

    Despite myriad programs aimed at increasing access to essential medicines in the developing world, the global drug gap persists. This paper focuses on the major legal and political constraints preventing implementation of coordinated global policy solutions - particularly, the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) and bilateral and regional free trade agreements. We argue that several policy and research routes should be taken to mitigate the restrictive impact of TRIPS and TRIPS-plus rules, including greater use of TRIPS flexibilities, advancement of human rights, and an ethical framework for essential medicines distribution, and a broader campaign that debates the legitimacy of TRIPS and TRIPS-plus standards themselves.

  10. 45 CFR 162.915 - Trading partner agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Trading partner agreements. 162.915 Section 162... REQUIREMENTS ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS General Provisions for Transactions § 162.915 Trading partner agreements. A covered entity must not enter into a trading partner agreement that would do any of...

  11. Service-level agreements. Trading places.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freer, J; Gray, C

    1997-10-16

    Internal trading or service-level agreements can help trusts manage the interface between hospital consultants and support services. Previous attempts at introducing SLAs had increased the administrative burden on support departments without changing consultants' behaviour or improving budgetary control. Problems were resolved by simplifying and improving measuring and reporting systems to produce credible, user-friendly information that facilitates meaningful debate between clinical managers and support services.

  12. Endowments, power, and democracy: Political economy of multilateral commitments on trade in services

    OpenAIRE

    Roy, Martin

    2010-01-01

    In spite of their growing importance in international trade as well as in bilateral and multilateral trade negotiations, services have only attracted limited attention from researchers interested in determinants of trade policies and trade cooperation. This paper seeks to account for countries' varying levels of market access commitments under the multilateral General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS). I develop an argument suggesting how levels of democracy and factor endowments are asso...

  13. Legal Forms of Negotiated Trade in Services Agreement (TiSA) Outcomes – Perspectives onTrade Integration and an Incrementalist Approach to Quasi-Multilateralization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thystrup, Amalie Giødesen

    2016-01-01

    This summer saw some of the key emerging economies change their position on services negotiations at the WTO and may prove instrumental in bringing services back to the WTO, via TiSA. While TiSA parties have discussed critical mass based multilateralization for a while, another approach may prove...

  14. 76 FR 42163 - Pilot Program on the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) Long-Haul Trucking Provisions...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-18

    ... to an April 8, 2011 notice announcing a pilot program on the North American Free Trade Agreement... TRANSPORTATION Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Pilot Program on the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) Long-Haul Trucking Provisions; Correction AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety...

  15. 19 CFR 10.778 - Filing of claim for tariff preference level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Free Trade Agreement Tariff Preference Level § 10.778 Filing of claim for tariff preference level. A... under § 10.770 of this subpart may nevertheless be entitled to preferential tariff treatment under...

  16. 19 CFR 10.818 - Filing of claim for tariff preference level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Free Trade Agreement Tariff Preference Level § 10.818 Filing of claim for tariff preference level. A... originating good under § 10.810 of this subpart may nevertheless be entitled to preferential tariff...

  17. Fears and Strategies: The EU, China and their Free Trade Agreements in East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Garcia

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The stalemate at the WTO Doha Round sparked a new wave of bilateral preferential and free trade agreements (FTAs. Nowhere has this been more evident than in the Asia Pacific region. Whilst there are economic reasons for FTAs, these are less efficient and more complex than multilateral agreements and most have had fairly small economic impacts. This paper compares the strategies of a newcomer to the FTA arena, China, and the actor with the most cumulative FTAs, the EU. It ponders on the different reasons informing their strategies and on how these may be affecting each other. It also considers the role of competitive fears and competitive diffusion in the formulation of their policies.

  18. African agricultural trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Sandrey, Ron

    2015-01-01

    This article starts with a profile of African agricultural trade. Using the pre-release version 9.2 of the GTAP database, we then show that the results for tariff elimination on intra-African trade are promising, but these tariff barriers are not as significant as the various trade-related barriers...... outside of tariffs. Impressive results were forecast by simulating both a 50% reduction in what can be considered traditional non-tariff barriers and a modest 20% reduction in the costs associated with transit time delays at customs, terminals and internal land transportation. Gains from tariff...

  19. Analysis of carbon mitigation policies. Feed-in tariffs, energy and carbon price interactions and competitive distortions on carbon markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichenbach, Johanna

    2011-07-19

    I study several policy instruments for carbon mitigation with a focus on subsidies for renewable energies, emission taxes and emission allowances. In Chapter 1, I analyze the optimal design and the welfare implications of two policies consisting of an emission tax for conventional fossil-fuel utilities combined with a subsidy for the producers of renewable energy equipment and an emission tax combined with a feed-in tariff for renewable electricity. In Chapter 2 I study the empirical interrelationships between European emission allowance prices and prices for electricity, hard coal and natural gas with an application to portfolio allocation. In Chapters 3 and 4, I discuss several policy-related issues of emissions trading, in particular the potential for market manipulations by firms holding a dominant position in the emission market, the output market or both, and competitive distortions and leakage due to unequal emission regulations across industries, sectors, regions, or countries. (orig.)

  20. From Wellhead to Market. Oil Pipeline Tariffs and Tariff Methodologies in Selected Energy Charter Member Countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-01-15

    Freedom of energy transit is an important element of the Energy Charter process. The Energy Charter Treaty obliges its member countries to facilitate energy transit on a nondiscriminatory basis, and to refrain from imposing unreasonable delays, restrictions or charges on energy in transit. A main focus for the Energy Charter process has been the conditions for transit of natural gas. Tariffs, along with access to energy transit infrastructure, are the basis of free transit. To examine gas transit flows and tariff methodologies, the Energy Charter Secretariat published a study on gas transit tariffs in selected Energy Charter member countries in January 2006. This report follows on from the gas tariff study and examines oil transit flows and oil transit tariffs. The Energy Charter constituency in the land-locked part of the Eurasian continent has the world's largest oil pipeline system, which was originally built during the Soviet era. After collapse of the Soviet Union the pipeline system was divided into separate parts by emergence of new borders, and oil transported by the pipeline now has to cross multiple borders before it reaches its destination. The main objectives of this study are; to review transit tariff methodologies for existing and new oil transit pipeline systems across selected member countries of the Energy Charter; to compare transit tariff regimes with those for domestic transport; and to assess the overall consistency of these transit tariffs vis-a-vis the provisions of the Energy Charter Treaty and draft Transit Protocol. Geographically, this study covers the following key oil transit countries; in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus and Central Asia: the Russian Federation, Belarus, Ukraine, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Georgia; and in Western Europe: France, Switzerland, Germany, Austria, Italy, Norway and the UK. Chapter 3 gives a brief review on main domestic and cross-border oil flows in the countries examined. Chapter 4 describes essential

  1. Health preemption behind closed doors: trade agreements and fast-track authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosbie, Eric; Gonzalez, Mariaelena; Glantz, Stanton A

    2014-09-01

    Noncommunicable diseases result from consuming unhealthy products, including tobacco, which are promoted by transnational corporations. The tobacco industry uses preemption to block or reverse tobacco control policies. Preemption removes authority from jurisdictions where tobacco companies' influence is weak and transfers it to jurisdictions where they have an advantage. International trade agreements relocate decisions about tobacco control policy to venues where there is little opportunity for public scrutiny, participation, and debate. Tobacco companies are using these agreements to preempt domestic authority over tobacco policy. Other transnational corporations that profit by promoting unhealthy foods could do the same. "Fast-track authority," in which Congress cedes ongoing oversight authority to the President, further distances the public from the debate. With international agreements binding governments to prioritize trade over health, transparency and public oversight of the trade negotiation process is necessary to safeguard public health interests.

  2. 2007 Report to Congress of the U.S.- China Economic and Security Review Commission

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-01

    International Eco- nomic and Exchange Rate Policies, (Washington, DC: June, 2007), pp. 27–35. 43. Xin Zhiming, ‘‘ Forex rules scrapped to stem liquidity...enterprises Forex foreign exchange GATT General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade GDP gross domestic product GIC Government of Singapore Investment

  3. Trade Related Environmental Measures in Multilateral Environmental Agreements and the WTO: Irreconcilable Differences?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Singh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: WTO adopted a multilateral trading system without ignoring the importance of protecting environment. Exceptions in Article XX, Clause (b and (g checks trade at the cost of environment. It is difficult to establish a relationship between Trade Related Environmental Measures (TREMs in Multilateral Environmental Agreements (MEAs and World Trade Organization (WTO rules. For the past ten years there have been simultaneous efforts to reconcile the differences between the two. Approach: Therefore, the author was intrigued by this topic and followed an analytical method of study with the help of various WTO documents available online as well as in books. Against this background, this article pursues three main goals to achieve. Firstly, it examines whether Public International law can be used in the WTO. In answering this question the author analyses the relationship between Trade Measures in MEA and WTO and how a meaningful balance can be struck between the two. The author has tried to find a solution to such conflicts in the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties. The Public International Law by applying the principle of lex specialis settles the conflict in favor of environment. Results: But somehow for years, WTO and its Dispute Settlement Body have been settling disputes between trade and environment in favor of trade. The second goal of this study is to determine whether sustainable development and its principles are intending to achieve a normative status in International law. In examining this issue it is pertinent to note that the International Case laws like the Gabcikovo Nagymaros Dispute becomes of utmost importance. The treaty laws also add to the presence of Sustainable Development. The author has also discussed the response of the WTO to sustainable development in the light of leading case laws. Conclusion: Towards the end the author has offered humble suggestions to reconcile the differences between TREMs in MEAs and

  4. Agriculture in Pending U.S. Free Trade Agreements with Colombia, Panama, and South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-04

    Cotton 124.8 2.2% Returned Meat & Poultry 5.3 2.1% Food Preparations 116.8 2.1% Coffee Extract 3.7 1.5% Fresh Oranges 90.2 1.6% Bean Cake & Stick...the chairmen and ranking members of the House Ways and Means and Senate Finance Committees, the American Farm Bureau Federation on January 29, 2010...called upon these committees to expedite the approval of pending free trade agreements (FTAs) with Colombia, Panama, and South Korea. The Farm

  5. The Australia-US Free Trade Agreement: An Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Philippa Dee

    2005-01-01

    Australia and the United States signed a bilateral trade agreement in 2004. This paper analyses the provisions of the agreement, compares the provisions with other bilateral and multilateral agreements and comments on the modelling that the Australian Government used to estimate the likely benefits of the agreement. The author concludes that the modelling relied on overstates the potential gains from the agreement, which establishes many undesirable precedents, especially in relation to sugar...

  6. Distortions of Sino-US and Sino-EU Safeguard Agreements: Effects on World Textile Markets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suwen Pan; Mark Welch; Samarendu Mohanty; Xiurong He

    2007-01-01

    The effects of Sino-US and Sino-EU safeguard agreements on US, Chinese and world cotton and textile sectors are investigated using a partial equilibrium model. The effects are compared to a free trade scenario under the provisions of the Agreement on Textiles and Clothing. The two safeguard agreements capping Chinese textile exports would decrease China's textile and apparel exports, production, and domestic consumption by an average 1.57, 0.63 and 0.32 percent, respectively. The safeguard agreements cause an increase in the US cotton textile price index and a slight decrease in US net textile imports and textile consumption. The agreements cause a decrease in the world cotton price and the quantity of cotton traded, but these trends reverse at safeguard expiration. The results generally support the view that the safeguard agreements forestall the effects of free trade in textiles and apparel rather than creating long lasting shifts in the textile trade.

  7. The Three Amigos, energy trade and NAFTA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, Alexander

    1999-07-01

    This article examines the effect of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) on the energy sectors in the US, Canada and Mexico with the general opening of borders to trade and business opportunities. Details are given of Mexico joining GATT in 1986, and the bilateral trade agreement of Canada and the US which incorporates GATT rules for energy trade. Foreign investment, export restrictions, environmental concerns, and dispute resolution are discussed, and the advantages of the NAFTA agreement are outlined. (UK)

  8. Preferential Trade Agreements and the Law and Politics of GATT Article XXIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    The tasks Preferential Trade Agreements (PTAs) perform are expressed in their scope and covered issues, thus in order to be WTO compatible these aspects of PTAs should comply with the relevant WTO rules. This paper examines which aspects of PTAs can violate these rules and therefore can...

  9. 78 FR 32356 - United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-30

    ... 178 RIN 1515-AD86 United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement AGENCIES: U.S. Customs and Border... United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement entered into by the United States and the Republic of Korea... ``Korea'') signed the United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement (hereinafter ``UKFTA'' or the ``Agreement...

  10. 76 FR 697 - United States-Oman Free Trade Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-06

    ... States--Oman Free Trade Agreement AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland... Free Trade Agreement entered into by the United States and the Sultanate of Oman. DATES: Interim rule...'') entered into the U.S.--Oman Free Trade Agreement (``OFTA'' or ``Agreement''). The stated objectives of the...

  11. Deliberative Engagement within the World Trade Organization: A Functional Substitute for Authoritative Interpretations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Creamer, Cosette; Godzimirska, Zuzanna

    2016-01-01

    The transition from the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) dispute settlement proceedings to the Dispute Settlement Mechanism (DSM) of the World Trade Organization (WTO) represented a notable instance of judicialization within international economic governance. Since it began ruling...... on trade conflicts in 1995, the DSM has enjoyed significantly greater independence from direct government control than its GATT predecessors. It has also exercised a greater degree of interpretive autonomy than initially intended by WTO member governments (Members). This development largely stems from...... with Members in particular. This Article specifies how the proposal would work in practice and addresses potential limitations and obstacles to its implementation....

  12. Nafta due to end most barriers to trade among U. S. , Mexico, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-08-24

    This paper reports that energy companies in the U.S. will benefit --- but not as much as they had hoped --- from the recently drafted North American Free Trade Agreement (Nafta) among the U.S., Mexico, and Canada. Nafta would remove most of the trade barriers between Mexico and the other two countries and supplement the U.S. - Canada Free Trade Agreement to create an open market in North America totaling $6 trillion/year in products and serving more than 360 million persons. Nafta was negotiated under a law that allows Congress to consider the pact for only 90 days, then vote on it without amendments. The pact marks the first time the U.S. has covered environmental concerns in a trade treaty, mainly pollution along the U.S.-Mexico border. The pact also is consistent with the international General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT).

  13. 76 FR 65365 - United States-OMAN Free Trade Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-21

    ... 178 RIN 1515-AD68 United States-OMAN Free Trade Agreement AGENCIES: U.S. Customs and Border Protection... ``Parties'') entered into the U.S.-Oman Free Trade Agreement (``OFTA'' or ``Agreement''). The provisions of... have more free trade agreements like the OFTA. Conclusion Accordingly, CBP believes that the interim...

  14. Identifying the interprofessional agreement between community pharmacists and general practitioners views on collaborative practice in Slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubán, Ladislav; Fazekaš, Tomáš; Fulmeková, Magdaléna; Snopková, Miroslava; Oleárová, Anna; Kuželová, Magdaléna

    2017-01-01

    The collaboration of community pharmacists (CPs) and general practitioners (GPs) has a positive effect on healthcare outcomes. There are still many countries, where no efforts have been made to enhance this type of teamwork. There is no evidence of how GPs and CPs collaborate in Slovakia. The objective of this study is to identify the current level of GPs and CPs teamwork in Slovakia and to identify the key factors, where these professions agree. Two parallel electronic surveys were prepared and sent out by e-mail to CPs and GPs in Slovakia. The questions in the multi-choice questionnaires were divided into 6 sections: teamwork experience, attitudes to collaborative practice, preferred method of communication, preferred tasks done by CPs, anticipated areas of future collaboration and perceived barriers to collaborative practice. The results were analyzed separately by the proportion of agreements within each group. From the total of 670 questionnaires, which were sent out (434 to GPs and 236 to CPs) 347 were completed and returned by GPs (79.95%) and 181 by CPs (76.7%). The overall response rate was 78.33%. The perfect match of agreements between the CPs and the GPs answers was identified in: their preference to collaborate face-to-face (p = 0.0001) perception of the role of the community pharmacist (p sustainable collaborative environment, the identified barriers need to be taken into account.Key words: agreement barriers collaboration community pharmacist general practitioner.

  15. Free-Trade Agreements: North America and the Northwest Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-09-01

    Mexico in recent years. The U.S. market is already relatively open for most products. Further, under the maquiladora program, U.S.-made components are...advantage and would encourage investment to make Mexico’s industry competitive. To some extent, generous quotas and the maquiladora program have already given

  16. The Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement: Trading away our health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruckert, Arne; Schram, Ashley; Labonté, Ronald

    2015-04-29

    There is long-standing interest by the public health community in the potential implications of trade and investment agreements for public health. Our commentary highlights the main pathways by which the Trans-Pacific Partnerships (TPP), a comprehensive trade and investment agreement currently under negotiation, might undermine population health (based on analysis of and commentary about leaked chapters of the TPP), and calls for a more transparent and health-sensitive TPP negotiation process. We argue that use of comprehensive health impact assessments could be helpful in identifying how the potentially serious health consequences of the TPP and similar future international trade and investment agreements can be avoided, minimized or mitigated.

  17. 19 CFR 181.52 - Subsequent claims for preferential tariff treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) NORTH AMERICAN FREE TRADE AGREEMENT Restrictions on Drawback and Duty-Deferral Programs § 181.52 Subsequent claims for preferential tariff treatment. If a... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Subsequent claims for preferential...

  18. Past, present and future of pharmaceutical patents under Korea-US Trade Agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yoon Suk

    2016-07-01

    The introduction of substance patents in 1987 was viewed with apprehension as it was believed that the system would only reinforce the domination of the technology of advanced countries based on the trade agreement between Korea and the USA. However, substance patents provided the Korean pharmaceutical industry with the driving force required to develop new substances, and the Korean pharmaceutical industry has been constantly improving its research and development capability. The patent-approval linkage system was implemented according to the Korea-US Free Trade Agreement in 2015. The system comprises the following: registering the drugs in the Green List, notifying the listed patent and marketing approval holders about the application for generic marketing approval, patent holder's request for staying generic sales and first generic exclusivity. Korean generic companies are expected to have opportunities that enable them to challenge the global market by accumulating experience of designing of generic products, making patent challenges and strategically developing of new drugs or incrementally modified drugs through the linkage system.

  19. North American Free Trade Agreement: Mexico`s petroleum sector (Part I and Part II). Joint Hearings before the Subcommittees on International Economic Policy and Trade and Western Hemisphere Affairs of the Committee on Foreign Affairs, House of Representatives, One Hundred Second Congress, Second Session, March 26 and May 5, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    Joint hearings were held on the The North American Free Trade Agreement(NAFTA): Mexico`s Petroleum Sector. The purpose of this session was to receive a report from the General Accounting Office. The report Mexican Oil: Issues Affecting the Potential U.S. Trade and Development was requested by the Congress to aid in deciding if Oil should be included in the NAFTA. The report included: (1) recent trends in Mexican oil production and exports and the primary factors affecting Mexico`s ability to meet current production and export goals, (2) the views of U.S. oil-producing and oil service contracting companies regarding principal barriers to and potential benefits of U.S. trade with and investment in Mexico`s petroleum sector and the response of Mexican officials to those views, and (3) U.S. government efforts to assist Mexico`s petroleum sector. Prepared statements of government and industry officials were included in the record of the proceedings.

  20. 78 FR 6188 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Free Trade Agreement-Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-29

    ... Regulation; Free Trade Agreement--Colombia AGENCY: Department of Defense (DoD), General Services... Regulation (FAR) to implement the United States-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement. This Trade Promotion... eligible products and services from Colombia. DATES: Effective Date: January 29, 2013. FOR...

  1. Trade related business climate and manufacturing export performance in Africa: A firm-level analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, Lawrence; Balchin, Neil

    2008-01-01

    Africa continues to be marginalised in world trade of manufactured goods, despite reductions in tariffs and non-tariff barriers. This paper investigates whether high business and trade costs associated with Africa’s trade-related infrastructure, trade institutions and the regulatory environment have contributed towards its mediocre trade performance. The paper focuses on eight African countries - Egypt, Kenya, Madagascar, Mauritius, Morocco, South Africa, Tanzania and Zambia - using the World...

  2. The Impact of Free Trade Agreements on Foreign Direct Investment: The Case of Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chankwon Bae

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to empirically identify the effects of FTAs on outward and inward FDIs in Korea. Considering the income differences between Korea and its FTA partners, we hypothesize that FTAs have a positive effect on outward FDI to developing countries and inward FDI from developed countries. An underlying source of the hypothesis is the Knowledge-Capital model, addressing the positive (negative relationship between trade costs and horizontal (vertical FDI. We test for the hypothesis using data on Korea's FTAs and FDI over the period 2000-2010. We find that our empirical results support the hypothesis, and additionally, FTAs in general encourage FDI by creating an FDI-friendly environment.

  3. Restructuring the State through Economic and Trade Agreements: The Case of Investment Disputes Resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert G. Finbow

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This essay will examine the emergence of transnational governance via supranational economic agreements which promote global imposition of liberalizing policies in the interests of transnational investors. The stalled multilateral World Trade Organization (WTO process has given way to a plethora of regional and bilateral economic agreements covering a range of new issues—investment, intellectual property, services, and regulations—which trench ever more deeply on domestic decision-making. Informed by Phillip Cerny’s conception of “competition states”, Colin Crouch’s (2000 lament about “post-democracy”, Carroll and Sapinski’s analysis of “global corporate elites”, and David Held’s depiction of “global governance complexes”, the essay will examine the role of transnational corporate and institutional elites in advancing economic agreements which narrow the scope for democratic governance. These authors depict the combination of constraint and empowerment of states induced by these transnational agreements which force most liberal democracies to cut or tweak programs and regulations in economic and social fields to protect investor rights, while boosting restraints on citizens in areas like intellectual property—what Cerny (1997 calls the “paradox” of the competition state. Given the number and complexity of these transnational governance arrangements, this essay will focus on the transnational constraints of investor state arbitration and disputes settlement systems. This will be illustrated by examining the growth of investor disputes settlement claims in bilateral treaties and major European and North American economic agreements and the rise of arbitration cases which impose costs on states for violations of investor rights. The essay considers the implications of these new forms of transnational governance for democratic governments’ responsive to popular demands. It concludes by suggesting the need for

  4. Non-tariff Trade Barrier and Agricultural Products Trade%非关税贸易壁垒与农产品贸易

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李秉龙; 王可山

    2004-01-01

    1.非关税壁垒的含义。非关税壁垒(Non—Tariff Barriers,NTB s)是指一国政府采取除关税外的各种办法来对本国的对外贸易活动进行调节、管理和控制的一切政策和手段的综合。战后随着GATY和WTO所推动的多轮贸易谈判的不断深入,世界关税水平得以大幅度降低,

  5. 49 CFR 1319.1 - Exemption of freight forwarders in the noncontiguous domestic trade from tariff filing requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exemption of freight forwarders in the... (CONTINUED) CARRIER RATES AND SERVICE TERMS EXEMPTIONS § 1319.1 Exemption of freight forwarders in the noncontiguous domestic trade from tariff filing requirements. Freight forwarders subject to the Board's...

  6. CUSTOMS AND TARIFF REGULATION AS AN INSTRUMENT OF SUPPORT FOR THE AGRICULTURAL COMPLEX OF THE KRASNODAR REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zielinskaya M. V.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the measures of indirect state support for domestic agricultural producer is a tariff policy, which is a key factor determining the national trade regimes and the conditions of admission of foreign products to domestic sales. The study agricultural imports in the Krasnodar region in the article are encouraged to use the weighted and substantiated by the specificity of the current state of the domestic economy tariff quotas and duties on imports of agricultural products

  7. PERBANDINGAN HUKUM PENGATURAN STANDARDISASI MENURUT AGREEMENT TBT DAN UNDANG-UNDANG NO. 7 TAHUN 2014 TENTANG PERDAGANGAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syukri Hidayatullah

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade has been agreed as part of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade /GATT and implemented by the WTO member states. In Indonesia, Act No.7/2014 About Trade adopted the system, such as standardization, technical regulations and conformity assessment. This research aims to get the enforcement of standardization according to Act No.7/2014 as compared with the provisions of the Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade and to obtain the impact of standardization in reducing technical barriers to trade. The research is a normative legal research using comparative approach. The degree of object comparison is discussed using economic analysis of law. The result shows that economic analysis assumes rational behavior of the State to achieve maximum prosperity through multilateral trade agreements. Multilateral agreements are an efficient choice because it produces a universal agreement. Thus, the allocation of norms of standardization in Act No.7/2014 About Trade is assumed to sync with the Agreement on Technical Barrier to Trade, but there is a difference in controlling the equilibrium of treatment. Standardization is still considered to become potential for technical barriers of trade. The essence of this obstacle accounts as internal measures.   Abstrak Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade disepakati sebagai bagian dari perjanjian General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT dan dilaksanakan oleh negara –negara anggota WTO. Di Indonesia, Undang-undang No.7 Tahun 2014 tentang Perdagangan mengatur norma yang diadopsi dari Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade, yaitu standardisasi, regulasi teknis dan penilaian kesesuaian. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendapatkan hasil pemberlakuan standardisasi menurut Undang-undang No.7 Tahun 2014 tentang Perdagangan yang dibandingkan dengan Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade dan untuk mendapatkan dampak standardisasi dalam mengurangi hambatan teknis

  8. 75 FR 68808 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Free Trade Agreements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-09

    ... Information Collection Activities: Free Trade Agreements AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection...: Free Trade Agreements. This is a proposed extension of an information collection that was previously... other technological techniques or other forms of information. Title: Free Trade Agreements. OMB Number...

  9. Rights, Free Trade, and Politics: The Strategic Use of a Rights Discourse in the Negotiation of Free Trade Agreements (FTAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelika Rettberg

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to describe the strategic use of a rights discourse by domestic and international actors involved in the negotiation and ratification processes of free trade agreements between Colombia, the United States, and the European Union. We suggest that some of the differences between both FTAs and the processes leading up to their approval and ratification can be attributed to the ability of relevant actors to build and disseminate rights-based arguments in order to develop like-minded political coalitions, and other institutional and contextual characteristics.

  10. Environmental and international tariffs in a mixed duopoly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Fernanda A.; Ferreira, Flávio

    2013-10-01

    In this paper, we study the effects of environmental and trade policies in an international mixed duopoly serving two markets, in which the public firm maximizes the sum of consumer surplus and its profit. We also analyse the effects of privatization. The model has two stages. In the first stage, governments choose environmental taxes and import tariffs, simultaneously. Then, the firms engage in a Cournot competition, choosing output levels for the domestic market and to export. We compare the results obtained in the three different ways of moving on the decision make of the firms.

  11. International trade agreements: a threat to tobacco control policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, E R; Brenner, J E; Houston, T P

    2005-08-01

    International covenants establish a role for governments in ensuring the conditions for human health and wellbeing, which has been recognised as a central human right. International trade agreements, conversely, prioritize the rights of corporations over health and human rights. International trade agreements are threatening existing tobacco control policies and restrict the possibility of implementing new controls. This situation is unrecognised by many tobacco control advocates in signatory nations, especially those in developing countries. Recent agreements on eliminating various trade restrictions, including those on tobacco, have expanded far beyond simply international movement of goods to include internal tobacco distribution regulations and intellectual property rules regulating advertising and labelling. Our analysis shows that to the extent trade agreements protect the tobacco industry, in itself a deadly enterprise, they erode human rights principles and contribute to ill health. The tobacco industry has used trade policy to undermine effective barriers to tobacco importation. Trade negotiations provide an unwarranted opportunity for the tobacco industry to assert its interests without public scrutiny. Trade agreements provide the industry with additional tools to obstruct control policies in both developed and developing countries and at every level. The health community should become involved in reversing these trends, and help promote additional measures to protect public health.

  12. Do we really know that trade agreements increase trade?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kohl, T.

    This study surveys the empirical literature in which the gravity equation has been used to study the effect of economic integration agreements (EIAs) on international trade flows. We show that most studies either focus on improving the methodology to assess regionalism’s overall impact, or on a

  13. Trade openness and investment in North Africa: A CGE application to deep and comprehensive free trade areas (DCFTAs) between the EU and respectively Egypt, Morocco and Tunisia

    OpenAIRE

    BOULANGER PIERRE; Kavallari, Aikaterini; Rau, Marie-Luise; Rutten, Martine

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide an impact analysis of deep and comprehensive free trade areas (DCFTAs) between the European Union (EU) and most of the North-African (NAF) countries – namely Egypt, Morocco and Tunisia. Scenarios are modelled with MAGNET, a general equilibrium model, and focus on trade liberalisation including non-tariff measures (NTMs) on the one hand, increases in foreign direct investments (FDIs) and capital flows on the other. They assume either broad productivity gains...

  14. Jane Kelsey, Serving Whose Interests? The Political Economy of Trade in Services Agreements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maureen Irish

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Serving Whose Interests is an examination of the General Agreement on Trade in Services [GATS] since its inception in 1995, with several case studies that discuss services trade in specific applications around the world. The scholarship i s extensive and detailed. Jane Kelsey, law professor at the University of Auckland, has criticized the pro-market services trade regime i n her role as a political activist. In this book, her goals are to make the technicalities of trade rules accessible and to show their effects on people and communities.

  15. The Impact of the AFTA Tariff Reduction on Districs Economic Growth in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adiwan Fahlan Aritenang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak. Saat ini telah banyak upaya pertumbuhan ekonomi melalui liberalisasi perdagangan dan integrasi ekonomi. Melalui kedua upaya ini diharapkan dapat mendorong pembangunan daerah melalui peningkatan keterkaitan ekonomi lokal dengan perdagangan global. Dalam dua dekade terakhir, Indonesia telah terlibat aktif dalam perdagangan bebas ASEAN (ASEAN Free Trade Area/AFTA sebagai perjanjian perdagangan multilateral antar negara-negara Asia Tenggara. Artikel ini mengkaji dampak liberalisasi perdagangan AFTA terhadap inklusifitas pembangunan ekonomi kabupaten/kota pada era otonomi daerah. Artikel ini menganalisis dampak AFTA terhadap pembangunan kabupaten/kota di Indonesia. Artikel ini menunjukkan bahwa dampak AFTA masih pada pusat kegiatan industri manufaktur dan daerah maju. Selanjutnya, artikel ini berpendapat bahwa peran dominan pemerintah pusat tetap diperlukan untuk menjamin manfaat AFTA bagi pembangunan daerah.Kata kunci. ASEAN FTA, konvergensi wilayah, Tarif CEPTAbstract. Trade liberalization and economic integration have been globally adopted to accelerate the collective economic growth. Specifically trade liberalization is viewed as a crucial economic factor that promotes local economic development through promoting local economy into the global trade. This phenomenon is also found in Indonesia with its involvement in the ASEAN Free Trade Area (AFTA as a multilateral agreement that selected specific industry sectors for trade inclusion. This article reviews the impact of AFTA trade liberalization on districts economic growth in the context of Indonesia’s decentralised domestic political system. The article argues that the persistent dominant role of central government is still needed to ensure the AFTA’s benefits for the district development.Keywords. ASEAN FTA, regional convergence, tariff CEPT

  16. On the Executing Ways of Carbon Tariff under Multilateral Trading System%多边贸易体制下碳关税的实施路径探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖峰

    2014-01-01

    “Carbon Tariff”proposed bysome developed countries is to impose carbon cost on goods imported from countries without mandatory carbon-emission cutting rules,and it may take forms of environmental,remedy or technical trading measures under prevalent mul-tilateral trading system.The key to execute the environmental trading measure is the interpre-tation of Article 20 (b)and (g)of GATT and its preamble,the key to trade remedies is to increase the comparable price with the excuse of “non-market economy”,and the key to technical trading measures is to incorporate carbon-intensity and carbon-footprint into the technical standards.The different measures may incur different forms of international trade conflicts.It is recommended to clearly identify the ultimate goals of carbon tariffs and analyze the legal issues caused by the three types of measures,so as to work out specific resolutions to the issues.%部分发达国家单边推出的碳关税措施,目的在于增加从未承担强制减排义务国家进口产品的碳成本,它在现行多边贸易体制下能以环境贸易措施、贸易救济措施和技术贸易措施等为实施形式。环境贸易型碳关税的实施关键在于对GATT第20条(b)、(g)项和前言的解释,贸易救济措施的实施关键在于以“非市场经济国家”为借口抬高可比价格,而技术贸易型碳关税的实施关键在于将碳强度、碳足迹纳入技术标准体系,各自可能引发的不同形态的国际贸易冲突。应当认清碳关税的根本目的,剖析三种实施方式各自产生的法律问题,从而有针对性地加以应对。

  17. 14 CFR 221.94 - Explanation and data supporting tariff changes and new matter in tariffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... applicable to the balance of the system, such matter, insofar as it applies over the balance of the system... changes and new matter in tariffs. 221.94 Section 221.94 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY... With Department § 221.94 Explanation and data supporting tariff changes and new matter in tariffs....

  18. Access to generic antiretrovirals: inequality, intellectual property law, and international trade agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Arachu; Westerhaus, Michael

    2007-01-01

    The governments of numerous low- and middle-income countries are currently instituting rules that strengthen changes in domestic intellectual property legislation, often made to conform to the mandates of "free" trade agreements signed with the United States. These measures frequently include intellectual property provisions that extend beyond the patent law standards agreed upon in recent World Trade Organization negotiations, which promised to balance the exigencies of public health and patent holders. In this paper, we analyze the concern that this augmentation of patent law standards will curtail access to essential medicines, particularly as they relate to the AIDS pandemic. We critically examine the potential threats posed by trade agreements vis-à-vis efforts to provide universal access to antiretroviral medications and contend that the conditioning of economic development upon the strengthening of intellectual property law demands careful attention when public health is at stake. Finally, we examine advocacy successes in challenging patent law and conclude that greater advocacy and policy strategies are needed to ensure the protection of global health in trade negotiations.

  19. The Proposed U.S.-South Korea Free Trade Agreement (KORUS FTA): Provisions and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    share of the U.S. market in the face of growing competition from emerging East Asian producers from Thailand, Malaysia , Vietnam, and possibly China...One 10-year TRQ would apply to imports of fluid milk and cream, among other specified dairy products. The USITC projects that imports of agricultural...South Korean market , while opponents claim that the KORUS FTA does not go far enough to break down South Korean trade barriers or that the agreement

  20. 中小企业应对出口贸易非关税壁垒研究%Research of export trade non-tariff barriers for Small and Medium Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林云芳

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzes the SMEs in the export trade frequently encountered technical barriers to trade, green trade barriers, non-tariff trade barriers blue, for different types of non-tariff barriers from the government and corporate level are proposed to establish conform to international standards of technical standards, and actively participate in national technical measures to review and develop, improve environmental protection legal system, countermeasures and suggestions to strengthen international cooperation and international certification standards of production.%文章分析了我国中小企业在出口贸易时经常遭遇的技术性贸易壁垒、绿色贸易壁垒、蓝色贸易壁垒等非关税壁垒,针对不同种类的非关税壁垒,从政府和企业层面分别提出了建立与国际标准相符合的技术标准体系、积极参与国家技术性措施评议与制定、完善环保法律体系、加强产品生产的国际标准认证和国际合作等对策和建议。

  1. The Effects of the Tripartite Free Trade Area: Towards a New Economic Geography in Southern, Eastern and Northern Africa?

    OpenAIRE

    Mold, Andrew; Mukwaya, Rodgers

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluates the economic impact of the proposed COMESA-SADC-EAC Tripartite Free Trade Area (TFTA) on 26 African countries. It uses the global trade analysis project (GTAP) computable general equilibrium (CGE) model and database to measure the static effects of the establishment of the TFTA on industrial production, trade flows and consumption in the tripartite region. The results indicate a significant increase in intra-regional exports as a result of tariff elimination, boosting int...

  2. The health impact of trade and investment agreements: a quantitative systematic review and network co-citation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Pepita; McKee, Martin; Basu, Sanjay; Stuckler, David

    2017-03-08

    Regional trade agreements are major international policy instruments that shape macro-economic and political systems. There is widespread debate as to whether and how these agreements pose risks to public health. Here we perform a comprehensive systematic review of quantitative studies of the health impact of trade and investment agreements. We identified studies from searches in PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE, and Global Health Online. Research articles were eligible for inclusion if they were quantitative studies of the health impacts of trade and investment agreements or policy. We systematically reviewed study findings, evaluated quality using the Quality Assessment Tool from the Effective Public Health Practice Project, and performed network citation analysis to study disciplinary siloes. Seventeen quantitative studies met our inclusion criteria. There was consistent evidence that implementing trade agreements was associated with increased consumption of processed foods and sugar-sweetened beverages. Granting import licenses for patented drugs was associated with increased access to pharmaceuticals. Implementing trade agreements and associated policies was also correlated with higher cardiovascular disease incidence and higher Body Mass Index (BMI), whilst correlations with tobacco consumption, under-five mortality, maternal mortality, and life expectancy were inconclusive. Overall, the quality of studies is weak or moderately weak, and co-citation analysis revealed a relative isolation of public health from economics. We identified limitations in existing studies which preclude definitive conclusions of the health impacts of regional trade and investment agreements. Few address unobserved confounding, and many possible consequences and mechanisms linking trade and investment agreements to health remain poorly understood. Results from our co-citation analysis suggest scope for greater interdisciplinary collaboration. Notwithstanding these limitations, our

  3. 76 FR 71617 - Request for Comments Concerning Compliance With Telecommunications Trade Agreements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-18

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Request for Comments Concerning Compliance With Telecommunications Trade Agreements... compliance with the following agreements regarding telecommunications products and services of the United... Agreement (``CAFTA-DR''), and any other telecommunications trade agreements, such as Mutual...

  4. Effects of Bilateralism and the MFN Clause on International Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lampe, Markus

    2009-01-01

    This study contributes to a revised picture of nineteenth-century bilateralism. Employing a new disaggregated data set, it argues that bilateral treaties did not implement general free trade, but instead reduced tariffs unevenly through commodity-specific preferences, especially favoring manufact...

  5. 18 CFR 341.1 - Electronic filing of tariffs and related materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Electronic filing of tariffs and related materials. (a) General rule. Filings of tariff publications and... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electronic filing of tariffs and related materials. 341.1 Section 341.1 Conservation of Power and Water Resources...

  6. 18 CFR 154.4 - Electronic filing of tariffs and related materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TARIFFS General Provisions and Conditions § 154.4 Electronic filing of tariffs and related materials. (a... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electronic filing of tariffs and related materials. 154.4 Section 154.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources...

  7. Trade Facilitation Provisions in Regional Trade Agreements: Discriminatory or Non-discriminatory?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Innwon Park

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The RTAs with trade facilitation provisions have been expected to generate a larger net trade-creating effect and complement the discriminatory feature of RTAs but have yet to be empirically proven. Recognizing the limitations of existing studies, we conducted a quantitative analysis on the effects of RTAs with and without trade facilitation provisions on both intra- and extra-bloc trade by using a modified gravity equation. We applied the Poisson Pseudo-Maximum Likelihood (PPML estimation with time varying exporter and importer fixed effect method to panel data consisting of 45,770 country pairs covering 170 countries for 2000-2010. We found that the trade facilitation provisions in existing RTAs are non-discriminatory by generating more intra- and extra-bloc trade in general. In particular, we found that the trade effects of RTAs in the APEC region are much stronger than the general case covering all RTAs in the world. In addition, as we control the trade effect of a country's trade facilitation, which is ranked by the World Bank's logistic performance index, RTAs consisting of trade facilitation provisions are discriminatory for trade in final goods and non-discriminatory for trade in intermediate goods. Overall, we endeavor to "explain," instead of "hypothesizing," why most of the recent RTAs contain trade facilitation provisions, especially in light of the deepening regional interdependence through trade in parts and components under global value chains and support the necessity of multilateralizing RTAs by implementing non-discriminatory trade facilitation provisions.

  8. Schemes for aggregating preferential tariffs in agriculture,export volume effects and African LDCs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Wusheng

    Trade-weighted aggregated tariffs (TWPT) are often used in analyzing the issues of erosion of non-reciprocal preferences. This paper argues that commonly used TWPTs under-estimate the true protection on imports originated from preference-receiving countries, including LDCs. When used in numerical...... simulations of preference erosion and expansion scenarios, the TWPTs tend to incorrectly downplay preference erosion effect of MFN tariff cuts, and understate the export promotion effect of expanding preferences. In light of these claims, an alternative aggregation scheme is developed to calculate aggregated...

  9. 77 FR 69723 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Free Trade Agreement-Panama

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-20

    ... Regulation; Free Trade Agreement--Panama AGENCIES: Department of Defense (DoD), General Services... implement the United States-- Panama Trade Promotion Agreement. This Trade Promotion Agreement is a free... Promotion Agreement is designated in the FAR as the Panama Free Trade Agreement (FTA). This FTA provides for...

  10. Canada and the North American Free Trade Agreement: Between globalization and regional integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caterina García Segura

    1995-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present article is to analize, from Canada’s perspective, the choice regarding the model of state as well as of economic and commercial policy which the decision to participate in the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA implies. The debatewhich NAFTA provoked in Canada expresses in concrete terms that debate which, in much larger terms, takes place at the international level regarding the multilateralization and/or the regionalization of commercial exchanges. It is a reflection of the tension between theintegrating forces (process of globalization and the fragmenting ones (processes of regionalization which characterize the dynamics of the contemporary international system. The hypothesis of this work is that in spite of being a commercial agreement, the Canadian government’s decision to participate in NAFTA was a decision of a political nature which was not determined exclusively by the reality of the existing commercial exchanges between Canada and Mexico or by the perspectives of improving them inthe short term. The immediate objective of Canada was to avoid that a possible bilateral agreement between its prinicipal economic member, the United States, and Mexico would empty out the contents of the existing Free Trade Agreement (FTA between Canada and the United States. In this sense, NAFTA was the possible remedy to an unwanted situation (the negotiation of a US-Mexico bilateral agreement. The objective in the medium and long term is use the platform of regional integration as a trampoline from where the Canadian economy can be reorientated and driven in order to attain international competitiveness. In this sense, Canada’s true option had already beenrealised with the FTA.

  11. 76 FR 68067 - United States-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-03

    ... to trade in textile and apparel goods between Peru and the United States. The provisions within...] RIN 1515-AD79 United States-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement AGENCIES: U.S. Customs and Border... of the United States- Peru Trade Promotion Agreement. DATES: Interim rule effective November 3, 2011...

  12. 78 FR 77489 - Trade, Investment, and Industrial Policies in India: Effects on the U.S. Economy Submission of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Trade, Investment, and Industrial Policies in India: Effects on the U.S. Economy Submission of... the U.S. Economy. The investigation was instituted under section 332(g) of the Tariff Act of 1930 (19...

  13. Developing sorbent standards for spill response: Effects of the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 and the Free Trade Agreement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schrader, E.L.; Westover, E.S. [Millsaps College, Jackson, MI (United States)

    1993-09-01

    For the past five years the Millsaps Sorbent Laboratory has been actively engaged in developing standards for initial and long-term oil spill remedial technologies. As a voting member of the American Society of Testing Materials (ASTM) F-20 Committee, Canadian General Standards Board, and the US Coast Guard Sorbents Task Force, and laboratory has been engaged in developing useful, pragmatic protocols for various chemical and physical sorbent and filtration technologies driven by the deadlines imposed by the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (OPA 90). The {open_quotes}open border{close_quotes} approach to certification of technologies and products promulgated by the US/Canadian Free Trade Agreement has placed the US users and producers of such products and systems in a unique and tenuous position. Canadian standards and goals are grandfathered into the United States under this agreement and products have official US government certification based on Canadian regulations. This situation is unfavorable to the US domestic environment and economy for several specific scenarios. Included in these scenarios are: abundant warm-water zones and inland waters of the US versus Canada, the basic chemical variation between Canadian and US crude oils, the different generally accepted remediation technologies in the US versus Canadian, and the technology validation procedures prior to purchase inherent to both countries. 5 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  14. Developing sorbent standards for spill response: Effects of the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 and the Free Trade Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrader, E. L.; Westover, E. S.

    1993-09-01

    For the past five years the Millsaps Sorbent Laboratory has been actively engaged in developing standards for initial and long-term oil spill remedial technologies. As a voting member of the American Society of Testing Materials (ASTM) F-20 Committee, Canadian General Standards Board, and the US Coast Guard Sorbents Task Force, the laboratory has been engaged in developing useful, pragmatic protocols for various chemical and physical sorbent and filtration technologies driven by the deadlines imposed by the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (OPA 90). The “open border” approach to certification of technologies and products promulgated by the US/Canadian Free Trade Agreement has placed the US users and producers of such products and systems in a unique and tenuous position. Canadian standards and goals are grandfathered into the United States under this agreement and products have official US government certification based on Canadian regulations. This situation is unfavorable to the US domestic environment and economy for several specific scenarios. Included in these scenarios are: abundant warmwater zones and inland waters of the US versus Canada, the basic chemical variation between Canadian and US crude oils, the different generally accepted remediation technologies in the US versus Canadian, and the technology validation procedures prior to purchase inherent to both countries.

  15. Effect of electricity tariffs and cooling technologies on dairy farm electricity consumption, related costs and greenhouse gas emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Upton, J.R.; Shalloo, L.; Murphy, M.; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to provide insight into the variations in dairy farm electricity costs across five electricity tariffs. The effect of four milk cooling scenarios is also simulated to illustrate the effect of technologies on the electricity consumption, related costs and CO2 emissions of a

  16. Effect of electricity tariffs and cooling technologies on dairy farm electricity consumption, related costs and greenhouse gas emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Upton, J.R.; Shalloo, L.; Murphy, M.; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to provide insight into the variations in dairy farm electricity costs across five electricity tariffs. The effect of four milk cooling scenarios is also simulated to illustrate the effect of technologies on the electricity consumption, related costs and CO2 emissions of a

  17. 78 FR 9938 - U.S.-Korea Free Trade Agreement: Effects on U.S. Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises; Institution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-12

    .... Background: As requested, the Commission will conduct an investigation and prepare a report containing... (SMEs) since entry into force of the agreement on March 15, 2012. The Commission, to the extent..., and export strategy of U.S. SMEs, as identified by those SMEs, and describing how U.S. SMEs...

  18. International conventions and agreements in the ecological area: In light of modern civilization and international trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Milica

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A large number of authors examine the problem of environmental protection in their papers. The concept of sustainable development and intensive use of modern technology in order to overcome the environmental problems of modern civilization becomes an imperative. Theoretical engagement in ecological issues is not enough. It is necessary to implement ecological measures in practice and to spread environmental awareness. Modern science and social practice have interdependence of economy and ecology in their focus. The main direction of social change is movement from economic to ecological paradigm that involves an ethical responsibility to the current and future generations. There is a need to establish effective programs to protect the environment at the national and supranational level. Active international cooperation in the field of ecology has resulted in the formulation of a number of documents on environmental protection. This paper illustrates the importance of environmental protection and the necessity of implementing international conventions and agreements in the environmental field, with focus on their impact on international trade.

  19. 49 CFR 1312.10 - Notification of tariff changes and nature of changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Notification of tariff changes and nature of... WATER CARRIER IN NONCONTIGUOUS DOMESTIC TRADE § 1312.10 Notification of tariff changes and nature of... changes and their nature (whether an increase or decrease in service, rates or transportation charges)....

  20. The Impact of Trade Liberalization and Information Technology on India's Manufacturing Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shruti

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation is an investigation into how trade liberalization and the adoption of information technology have impacted labour and productivity in India's manufacturing sector respectively. The second chapter analyses the relationship between India's liberalization of tariffs on imported intermediate inputs (henceforth input tariff…

  1. Transboundary Pollution, Trade Liberalization and Environmental Taxes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baksi, S.; Ray Chaudhuri, A.

    2008-01-01

    In a bilateral trade framework, we examine the impact of tariff reduction on the optimal pollution tax and social welfare when pollution is transboundary. Strategic considerations lead countries to distort their pollution tax in the non-cooperative equilibrium. Trade liberalization changes the disto

  2. Transboundary Pollution, Trade Liberalization and Environmental Taxes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baksi, S.; Ray Chaudhuri, A.

    2008-01-01

    In a bilateral trade framework, we examine the impact of tariff reduction on the optimal pollution tax and social welfare when pollution is transboundary. Strategic considerations lead countries to distort their pollution tax in the non-cooperative equilibrium. Trade liberalization changes the

  3. Transboundary Pollution, Trade Liberalization and Environmental Taxes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baksi, S.; Ray Chaudhuri, A.

    2008-01-01

    In a bilateral trade framework, we examine the impact of tariff reduction on the optimal pollution tax and social welfare when pollution is transboundary. Strategic considerations lead countries to distort their pollution tax in the non-cooperative equilibrium. Trade liberalization changes the disto

  4. COMPETITIVE POSITION OF SELECTED REGIONAL TRADE AGREEMENTS ON THE GLOBAL AGRI-FOOD MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Sapa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The study attempts to determine the CACM, MERCOSUR and NAFTA competitive position in the agri-food market taking into account selected indicators related to GDP, productivity and trade. The analysis allowed to state that only for MERCOSUR the competitive position in global food-market improved. In that groupings, compared to NAFTA and CACM, there was a bigger increase in GDP per capita and labour productivity in agriculture. Furthermore, only the share of MERCOSUR agri-food trade in world trade increased which was accompanied by a greater increase of extra-regional agri-food trade than intra-regional ones.

  5. WTO UpholdsU.S.Tariffs on Tires from China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lesley Cui

    2011-01-01

    The World Trade Organization on September 5released the ruling of its Appellate Body,upholding President Obama's decision to impose three-year punitive tariffs on Chinese passenger and light truck tires.The Obama administration in September 2009placed a 35 percent safeguard duty on tires for cars and light trucks that Chinese manufacturers exported to the US,after the United Steelworkers (USW) complained that surging imports hurt home producers.Chinese tire imports were shown to have surged to record levels in the five years prior to the filing of the petition,causing significant market disruption.According to the USW,Chinese tire imports by volume grew 215%from 2004 until 2008,reaching a volume of 46 million tires.

  6. Health risks of including alcohol and tobacco in PICTA free trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Linda

    2004-03-01

    In April 2005 Pacific Forum leaders will decide whether to include alcohol and tobacco in the Pacific Island Countries Trade Agreement (PICTA). This article presents arguments for keeping alcohol out of regional free trade agreements. Inclusion will allow regional rationalisation of production, increased alcohol availability, competition and marketing, and lower prices. These trade goals are inappropriate for alcohol and tobacco. Pacific public health organisations are concerned that official advice has focused on fiscal impacts, not health and social impacts. The World Health Organization has identified alcohol as the leading factor in injury and disease for low-mortality developing countries. Effective policies to reduce alcohol related harm include restrictions on availability, as well as excise taxes affecting price. Under trade agreements elsewhere, national alcohol policies have been challenged as 'non-tariff barriers to trade'. Hazardous drinking is of increasingly concern in the Pacific and decisions about alcohol should not reflect commercial interests.

  7. Evaluating the effect of domestic support on international trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urban, Kirsten; Brockmeier, Martina; Jensen, Hans Grinsted

    to 2007, the results indicate a decrease in trade distortion stemming from the implementation of decoupled support in the EU. The trade-equivalent protection rate determined under the index shows that domestic support payments restrict trade more than tariffs and export subsidies. Additionally, the index...... indicates that reducing WTO amber box domestic support payments would lead to decreased trade restrictiveness.......We use the Mercantilist Trade Restrictiveness Index (MTRI) to develop an extended index that measures the overall trade effects of domestic support payments in a general equilibrium framework environment. Our index is capable of analyzing the development of the trade restrictiveness of domestic...

  8. 78 FR 42084 - Cooperative Agreement to Support the World Trade Organization's Standards and Trade Development...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-15

    ..., Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (HFS-550), Food and Drug Administration, 5100 Paint Branch Pkwy., College Park, MD 20740, 240-402-2031, email: julie.moss@fda.hhs.gov . Grants Management Contact... strengthen food safety systems globally to prevent food safety ] problems rather than merely reacting...

  9. Prospects of an EU-Mercosur trade agreement for the Dutch agrifood sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkum, van S.

    2015-01-01

    This report provides insights into the current trade relations between the EU and Mercosur and assesses impacts of a comprehensive trade agreement between the two blocs on the Dutch agrifood sector. Trade opportunities of Dutch fruit & vegetables and dairy products would expand if an agreement w

  10. Tobacco control and the World Trade Organization: mapping member states' positions after the framework convention on tobacco control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckhardt, Jappe; Holden, Chris; Callard, Cynthia D

    2016-11-01

    To note the frequency of discussions and disputes about tobacco control measures at the World Trade Organization (WTO) before and after the coming into force of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). To review trends or patterns in the positions taken by members of the WTO with respect to tobacco control measures. To discuss possible explanations for these observed trends/patterns. We gathered data on tobacco-related disputes in the WTO since its establishment in 1995 and its forerunner, the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), prior-FCTC and post-FCTC. We also looked at debates on tobacco control measures within the WTO more broadly. To this end, we classified and coded the positions of WTO member states during discussions on tobacco control and the FCTC, from 1995 until 2013, within the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee and the Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) Council. There is a growing interest within the WTO for tobacco-related issues and opposition to tobacco control measures is moving away from high-income countries towards low(er) income countries. The growing prominence of tobacco issues in the WTO can be attributed at least in part to the fact that during the past decade tobacco firms have been marginalised from the domestic policy-making process in many countries, which has forced them to look for other ways and forums to influence decision-making. Furthermore, the finding that almost all recent opposition within the WTO to stronger tobacco regulations came from developing countries is consistent with a relative shift of transnational tobacco companies' lobbying efforts from developed to developing countries. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  11. A comparison of individual and social time trade-off values for health states in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burström, Kristina; Johannesson, Magnus; Diderichsen, Finn

    2005-01-01

    This study aimed to compare directly elicited individual time trade-off (TTO) values in a general population sample with the social values derived using the UK EQ-5D index tariff. In the Stockholm County 1998 postal Public Health Survey (n=4950, 20-88 years), the EQ-5D self-classifier, a TTO...... and a rating scale (RS) question were included (n=2549 for all three questions). The mean TTO (EQ-5D) value was 0.943 (0.890) in the youngest age-group and 0.699 (0.733) in the oldest age-group. The difference between TTO and EQ-5D values was greater in more severe health status groups was. The same equation...... as for the UK EQ-5D index tariff was estimated for TTO and RS and resulted in significant and consistent coefficients for nearly all dimensions. The coefficients for moderate problems were closer to the EQ-5D index tariff than the coefficients for severe problems. Age was also significant after controlling...

  12. Technical barriers, import licenses and tariffs as means of limiting market access

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jan G.; Schröder, Philipp

    2003-01-01

    to trade can dominate a tariff in terms of consumer welfare, even when tariff revenues are fully redistributed. This case occurs for high levels of protection. Furthermore, an import license with full redistribution of revenues dominates both the technical barrier and the tariff for all levels......Technical barriers (standards), import licenses and tariffs may be deployed as means of limiting the market entry of foreign firms. The present paper examines these measures in a setting of monopolistic competition. It is established that -- contrary to what one would expect -- a technical barrier...

  13. Technical barriers, import licenses and tariffs as means of limiting market access

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jan G.; Schröder, Philipp

    2003-01-01

    Technical barriers (standards), import licenses and tariffs may be deployed as means of limiting the market entry of foreign firms. The present paper examines these measures in a setting of monopolistic competition. It is established that -- contrary to what one would expect -- a technical barrier...... to trade can dominate a tariff in terms of consumer welfare, even when tariff revenues are fully redistributed. This case occurs for high levels of protection. Furthermore, an import license with full redistribution of revenues dominates both the technical barrier and the tariff for all levels...

  14. FREE TRADE AND REGULATORY PROTECIONISM: NECESSITY, RELEVANCE AND INSTRUMENTS OF REGULATORY LIBERALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenad Pandurević

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In spite of strong resistence,international trade becomes frier of any kind ofbarriers. Both by multilateral and regional andbilateral preferencial trade arrangements, tariffs asmost direct barrier to free trade have been alreadyeliminated on most products or considerablylowered there where they exist. Non-tariff barriersare, as a rule, directly in contrast to rules andprinciples of international trade and as such theyare subject to continuous surveillance andelimination. In such situation, technical barriers, ortehnical regulations and standards as well asproduct conformity assessement remain a centralbarrier to international trade. Although tehnicalregulations are about making market moreefficient, they also create additional costs tointernational trade. However, contrary to otherbarriers to trade, their elimination is not possible incontemporary state of international political andeconomic relations. Thus, diminishing theirnegative impact is one of the greatest challenges ininternational trade.By free trade agreements with countries fromthe region, EU and Turkey, Bosnia andHerzegovina liberalised most of its internationalexchange in form of elimination or reduction oftarriffs and quantitative restrictions on mostproducts. However, due to nonconformity oftechnical regulations as well as inadequateinfrastructure in this field, in the first place withEuropean requirements, BiH has not yet realisedall potential deriving form free trade.

  15. Environmental impacts of a free trade agreement between China and Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fauchald, Ole Kristian; Vennemo, Haakon

    2012-11-01

    The report assesses the likely impacts of the FTA for environmental policies, regulations and the physical environment. The analysis covers the main parts of the FTA: Trade in goods, trade in services and investments, and is limited to those parts of the FTA that are assumed to have the greatest effects. The analysis is based on scenarios setting out possible results of the negotiations. These scenarios build on existing obligations in the WTO seen in conjunction with the public documents that the negotiations are based upon. The report contains the following core elements: 1. The details of a baseline scenario. 2. Two scenarios based on possible outcomes of the negotiations - a free trade scenario and a green trade scenario. 3. Screening and scoping in light of input from consultations with public authorities, non-governmental organizations and the team of Chinese researchers. 4. Five case studies that focus on effects of the FTA on trade and investment between Norway and China, and the resulting environmental consequences. 5. Five regulatory studies that focus on effects of the FTA for environmental rules and policy.(auth)

  16. Deliberative Engagement within the World Trade Organization: A Functional Substitute for Authoritative Interpretations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Creamer, Cosette; Godzimirska, Zuzanna

    The transition from the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade dispute settlement proceedings to the Dispute Settlement Mechanism (DSM) of the World Trade Organization represented a notable instance of judicialization within international economic governance, in that it significantly increased...... of the Organization resulting in non-use of one of the primary means of legislative response—authoritative interpretations. This creates a predicament not only for the Organization’s political organs. The ineffective nature of this existing mechanism also deprives the DSM of constructive normative guidance from its...

  17. Law [Review of: World trade report 2011: the WTO and preferential trade agreements: from co-existence to coherence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathis, J.H.

    2012-01-01

    The World Trade Review asked distinguished scholars from the three different fields of economics (Pravin Krishna), political science (Edward D. Mansfield) and law (James H. Mathis) to independently review the WTO's annual World Trade Report for 2011, the theme of which is The WTO and Preferential

  18. Beyond trade: the expanding scope of the non-trade agenda in trade agreements

    OpenAIRE

    Milewicz, KM; Hollway, J; Peacock, C; Snidal, D

    2016-01-01

    Increased complexity and density of transnational problems creates unprecedented challenges and opportunities for contemporary international governance. ‘Issue linkage’ is one institutional arrangement through which states address these chang- ing circumstances. In this paper, we examine the widening scope of the non-trade agenda in Preferential Trade Agreements (PTAs). Non-trade issues (NTIs) such as human rights, democracy, environment, corruption and labor standards are increasingly l...

  19. Do South-South Preferential Trade Agreements Undermine the Prospects for Multilateral Free Trade?

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Missios; Halis Murat Yildiz

    2013-01-01

    Due to trade diversion, there has been concerns expressed over the proliferation of preferential trade agreements (PTAs) between South countries. In this paper, we compare welfare across the various forms of bilateral free trade agreements (FTAs) and customs unions (CUs) and examine their implications for the stability of multilateral free trade. While North-North PTAs tend to yield higher welfare, we fi?nd certain cases where South-South agreements are more likely to lead to global free trad...

  20. 75 FR 14479 - Reallocation of Unused Fiscal Year 2010 Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-25

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Reallocation of Unused Fiscal Year 2010 Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar... fiscal year (FY) 2010 in-quota quantity of the tariff-rate quota (TRQ) for imported raw cane sugar. DATES... maintains TRQs for imports of raw cane and refined sugar. Section 404(d)(3) of the Uruguay Round Agreements...

  1. 浅议碳关税及其对中国工业化进程的影响%Discussion on Carbon Tariff and Its Effects on Chinese Industrialization Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭而郛; 鞠美庭

    2013-01-01

    This article analyzes the essence and international influence of carbon tariff, through the research on the background and policy intent of carbon tariff.The article also analyses the choice of Chinese industrialization and its effects from carbon tariff.Consequently, the article put forward that the essence of carbon tariff is a kind of new trading protection to maintain the competitive industry and enforce international political speech right of western countries.And the carbon tariff would have a profound impact on China's foreign trade, as well as the overall industrialization process, forcing China to accelerate the implementation of the transformation of the mode of economic growth, and create a new industrialization road to adapt to the complicated international background.%通过对碳关税的提出背景、政策意图的研究,对碳关税的实质及国际影响进行了分析,并且对碳关税对中国工业化道路的选择,以及对中国工业化进程的影响进行了分析.提出碳关税的实质是对本国产业竞争力以及为巩固和加强国际政治话语权而实施的新型贸易保护手段.碳关税政策将对中国的对外贸易以及整体工业化进程产生深远的影响,迫使中国继续加快实施经济增长方式的转变,创新适应目前复杂国际背景的新型工业化道路.

  2. The North American Free Trade Agreement and North East Asia: a comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Hernández Bielma

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a comparative analysis is made of the behavior of trade and FDI on two economic regions constituted by: NAFTA (Mexico, USA and Canada, and that formed by the countries of Northeast Asia (China, Japan and Korea. This analysis is completed to determine the evolution of trade and FDI in the context of two different dynamics of commerce. Where, on the one hand there is a dualistic economic integration process constituted in jure by signing NAFTA, and on the other, an economic pole constituted de facto by three major economic countries in the Asian region.

  3. Welfare Effects of Tariff Peak Conversion: The Case of Monopolistic Competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Philipp; Jørgensen, Jan Guldager

    WTO negotiations have introduced formula approaches to reduce protection and improve market access. It has been argued that formula approaches are needed even more in current and future negotiations to secure success due to the large number of countries involved in the negotiations, the wider dis...... tariffs are analyzed. It is established that reduction in the trade restriction using three formulas proposed in the literature i) a proportional cut, ii) the Swiss formula and iii) a compression formula leads to non-trivial impacts on the welfare....... dispersion in initial tariffs (tariff peaks) and gaps between bound and applied tariff rates. This paper presents a general equilibrium model with monopolistic competition to examine the welfare effects of different formulas in a process of improving market access. Products with initially high and low...

  4. Border tax adjustments for additional costs engendered by internal and EU environmental protection measures. Implementation options and WTO admissibility; Grenzsteuerausgleich fuer Mehrkosten infolge nationaler/europaeischer Umweltschutzinstrumente. Gestaltungsmoeglichkeiten und WTO-rechtliche Zulaessigkeit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilbert, Jacqueline; Berg, Holger (comps.)

    2008-04-15

    At the end of the year 2006, France proposed the introduction of a 'climatic tariff' into the discussion of the international climatic protection. The 'climatic tariff' shall adjust extra costs, which result from the domestic production by means of environmental protection instruments and to which the import goods are not exposed, with import/export compensatory payments in the form of import duties and/or taxes on import goods. The introduction of an import/export compensatory payment system aims to load imported goods equivalent to domestic products in order to adjust competitive disadvantages. In the contribution under consideration the authors report on possibilities and problems of design for an import/export tax compensatory. The authors examine the validity of the measures of import/export compensation from legal view the World Trade Organization (Geneva, Switzerland) based on the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade.

  5. Free Trade Agreements, Private Courts and Environmental Exploitation: Disconnected Policies, Denials and Moral Disengagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigel South

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Although there is strong scientific consensus that climate change and environmental degradation are occurring, there is also a significant body of opinion that is sceptical about, or denies the validity of, evidence for this. However it is not solely the nature of differing views about global warming or ecological disaster that is being contested but the case for or against intervention and regulation in the market. At an international level, gestures toward ‘sustainability’ are (i compromised by combining them with declarations of the need for continued economic growth, and (ii undermined by the arrangements put in place by existing and new transnational trade agreements. The paper examines these views and developments, and the patterns of denial, disconnection and fragmentation they display.

  6. NAFTA, public health, and environmental issues in border states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atkinson, A. [Texas Office of the Attorney General, Austin, TX (United States)

    1994-12-31

    During the last decade, the ties that draw countries together both economically and environmentally have become increasingly apparent. This was clearly exposed in the recent debate over the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and in recent decisions interpreting the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT). Environmental aspects of other international treaties have also come under close scrutiny. This article examines the effects NAFTA and its companion, the North American Agreement on Environmental Cooperation, may have on public health and environmental regulation in border states.

  7. Exploring hubness in Regional Trade Agreements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaal, A. de

    2016-01-01

    In the plethora of Regional Trade Agreements (RTAs) some countries take in a more central position than others in the sense that some countries are much more engaged with other countries through RTAs. Furthermore, the position of some countries is that of a hub: they have (many) trade

  8. Interdependence in ASEAN: An Assessment of the ASEAN Preferential Trading Agreements (PTA)

    OpenAIRE

    Caoyonan, Elisa T.

    1987-01-01

    This article examines whether the ASEAN Preferential Trading Arrangements have increased the level of interdependence among ASEAN countries in the area of trade. Specifically, whether such interdependence has brought about institutional and economic changes such as tariff reduction and nontariff barriers among ASEAN countries.

  9. Effect of A-Level Subject Choice and Entry Tariff on Final Degree and Level 1 Performance in Biosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Nicola C.; Aves, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    Following the publication of the higher education white paper increasing entry tariff and widening participation have become even more important issues for universities. This report examines the relationship between entry tariff and undergraduate achievement in Biosciences at the University of Exeter. We show that, whilst there is a significant…

  10. Effect of A-Level Subject Choice and Entry Tariff on Final Degree and Level 1 Performance in Biosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Nicola C.; Aves, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    Following the publication of the higher education white paper increasing entry tariff and widening participation have become even more important issues for universities. This report examines the relationship between entry tariff and undergraduate achievement in Biosciences at the University of Exeter. We show that, whilst there is a significant…

  11. Assessment of the economic partnership agreement between South Africa and the European Union / Joanna Wroblewski.

    OpenAIRE

    Wroblewski, Joanna Makgorzata

    2012-01-01

    Trade agreements play a big part in international trade and have existed for as long as countries have been trading internationally. Countries often agree to sign a trade agreement with their trading partners because trade agreements can stimulate international trade by removing barriers. Trade agreements can also have a negative impact on a country, such as social injustice and economic inequality. South Africa has numerous trade agreements with various countries, one important agreement tha...

  12. TRADE CREATION AND DIVERSION EFFECTS OF THE NORTH AMERICAN FREE TRADE AGREEMENT OF U.S. SUGAR IMPORTS FROM MEXICO

    OpenAIRE

    Devadoss, Stephen; Kropf, Jurgen; Wahl, Thomas I.

    1995-01-01

    A world sugar model consisting of 21 countries was developed to determine the effects of NAFTA of U.S. and Mexican sugar markets and to quantify the trade creation and diversion effects on U.S. imports from Mexico. Mexican sugar production increases under NAFTA, causing Mexico to become a net exporter. NAFTA induces sugar imports from Mexico to displace U.S. production, to meet demand expansion, and also to divert U.S. imports from other foreign suppliers to Mexico. Effects of NAFTA on the U....

  13. Long-run Effects of the Korea-China Free-Trade Agreement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunghyun Kim

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses a 53-country 15-industry computable general equilibrium model of trade to analyze the effects of the Korea-China free trade agreement on the Korean economy, the manufacturing sector in particular. The model is based on Yaylaci and Shikher (2014 which uses the Eaton-Kortum methodology to explain intra-industry trade. The model predicts that the Korea-China FTA will increase Korea-China manufacturing trade by 56%, manufacturing employment in Korea by 5.7% and China by 0.55%. The model also predicts significant reallocation of employment across industries with the Food industry in Korea losing jobs and other industries there gaining jobs, with the Medical equipment industry gaining the most. There will be some trade diversion from the ASEAN countries, as well as Japan and the United States.

  14. Services and investment in the EU-South Korea free-trade area: implications of a new approach for GATS V agreements and for bilateral investment treaties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathis, J.; Laurenza, E.

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on the services and investment features of the recently concluded free trade agreement between the European Union and its Member States, of the one part, and the Republic of Korea, of the other part. This agreement is an early example of a new scheduling approach adopted by the

  15. Health Impacts from Corn Production Pre-and Post-NAFTA Trade Agreement (1986–2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Cano, Oliver; Sánchez-Piña, Ramón Alberto; González-Ibarra, Álvaro Jesús; Murillo-Zamora, Efrén; Nava-Garibaldi, Cynthia Monique

    2016-01-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a powerful methodology for the study of health impacts and public policies. We performed this study to quantitatively explain the potential health impacts on disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) of corn produced in Mexico and imported from the United States of America (U.S.) from 1984 until 2014. The processes are hybrid and organic corn production. The functional unit was defined as 1 ton of corn production. Results indicate a total value of 178,431, 244,175, and 283,426 DALYs of three decades: 1984–1993, 1994–2003, and 2004–2013, of Mexican production; the U.S. production and transport were also calculated, showing values of 29,815, 65,837, and 107,729 for the same three decades. Additionally, DALYs were obtained for the category of human health and climate change by functional unit: 802.31 (1984–1993), 802.67 (1994–2003), and 803.92 (2004–2013), and for imported corn transported to Mexico from the U.S., 859.12 (1984–2013). DALYs on human toxicity were obtained: 99.05 (1984–1993), 99.05 (1994–2003), and 99.04 (2004–2013), and for the corn imported and transported to Mexico from the U.S., 116.25 (1984–2013). Conclusions: Environmental and health impacts in terms of DALYs are higher when corn is imported versus the corn produced in Mexico. Environmental health and nominal corn cultivation and transport impacts have increased as a result of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). Mexico needs to redefine its public policies to suffer less of an environmental burden from corn to ensure global environmental health and food security. PMID:27420088

  16. Health Impacts from Corn Production Pre-and Post-NAFTA Trade Agreement (1986–2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Mendoza-Cano

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Life cycle assessment (LCA is a powerful methodology for the study of health impacts and public policies. We performed this study to quantitatively explain the potential health impacts on disability-adjusted life years (DALYs of corn produced in Mexico and imported from the United States of America (U.S. from 1984 until 2014. The processes are hybrid and organic corn production. The functional unit was defined as 1 ton of corn production. Results indicate a total value of 178,431, 244,175, and 283,426 DALYs of three decades: 1984–1993, 1994–2003, and 2004–2013, of Mexican production; the U.S. production and transport were also calculated, showing values of 29,815, 65,837, and 107,729 for the same three decades. Additionally, DALYs were obtained for the category of human health and climate change by functional unit: 802.31 (1984–1993, 802.67 (1994–2003, and 803.92 (2004–2013, and for imported corn transported to Mexico from the U.S., 859.12 (1984–2013. DALYs on human toxicity were obtained: 99.05 (1984–1993, 99.05 (1994–2003, and 99.04 (2004–2013, and for the corn imported and transported to Mexico from the U.S., 116.25 (1984–2013. Conclusions: Environmental and health impacts in terms of DALYs are higher when corn is imported versus the corn produced in Mexico. Environmental health and nominal corn cultivation and transport impacts have increased as a result of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA. Mexico needs to redefine its public policies to suffer less of an environmental burden from corn to ensure global environmental health and food security.

  17. Health Impacts from Corn Production Pre-and Post-NAFTA Trade Agreement (1986-2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Cano, Oliver; Sánchez-Piña, Ramón Alberto; González-Ibarra, Álvaro Jesús; Murillo-Zamora, Efrén; Nava-Garibaldi, Cynthia Monique

    2016-07-13

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a powerful methodology for the study of health impacts and public policies. We performed this study to quantitatively explain the potential health impacts on disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) of corn produced in Mexico and imported from the United States of America (U.S.) from 1984 until 2014. The processes are hybrid and organic corn production. The functional unit was defined as 1 ton of corn production. Results indicate a total value of 178,431, 244,175, and 283,426 DALYs of three decades: 1984-1993, 1994-2003, and 2004-2013, of Mexican production; the U.S. production and transport were also calculated, showing values of 29,815, 65,837, and 107,729 for the same three decades. Additionally, DALYs were obtained for the category of human health and climate change by functional unit: 802.31 (1984-1993), 802.67 (1994-2003), and 803.92 (2004-2013), and for imported corn transported to Mexico from the U.S., 859.12 (1984-2013). DALYs on human toxicity were obtained: 99.05 (1984-1993), 99.05 (1994-2003), and 99.04 (2004-2013), and for the corn imported and transported to Mexico from the U.S., 116.25 (1984-2013). Environmental and health impacts in terms of DALYs are higher when corn is imported versus the corn produced in Mexico. Environmental health and nominal corn cultivation and transport impacts have increased as a result of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). Mexico needs to redefine its public policies to suffer less of an environmental burden from corn to ensure global environmental health and food security.

  18. Multi-membership and the effectiveness of regional trade agreements in Western and Southern Africa : A comparative study of ECOWAS and SADC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.K. Afesorgbor (Sylvanus Kwaku); P.A.G. van Bergeijk (Peter)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractUsing a gravity model for 35 countries and the years 1995-2006 we estimate the impact of regional trade agreements in Africa (in particular ECOWAS and SADC) and compare this to the a benchmark of North South trade integration (Europe’s preferential trade agreement). We find that •

  19. Multi-membership and the effectiveness of regional trade agreements in Western and Southern Africa : A comparative study of ECOWAS and SADC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.K. Afesorgbor (Sylvanus Kwaku); P.A.G. van Bergeijk (Peter)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractUsing a gravity model for 35 countries and the years 1995-2006 we estimate the impact of regional trade agreements in Africa (in particular ECOWAS and SADC) and compare this to the a benchmark of North South trade integration (Europe’s preferential trade agreement). We find that • ECO

  20. 19 CFR 10.421 - Goods eligible for tariff preference claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Free Trade Agreement Tariff Preference Level § 10.421 Goods eligible for tariff preference claims. The... to 5516) that meet the applicable conditions for preferential tariff treatment under the US-CFTA... conditions for preferential tariff treatment under the US-CFTA other than the condition that they...

  1. 19 CFR 10.779 - Goods eligible for tariff preference claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Free Trade Agreement Tariff Preference Level § 10.779 Goods eligible for tariff preference claims. The... applicable conditions for preferential tariff treatment under the MFTA, other than the condition that they... for preferential tariff treatment under the MFTA, other than the condition that they are...

  2. Energy Prices, Tariffs, Taxes and Subsidies in Ukraine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Meredydd

    2007-04-01

    For many years, electricity, gas and district heating tariffs for residential consumers were very low in Ukraine; until recently, they were even lower than in neighbouring countries such as Russia. The increases in gas and electricity tariffs, implemented in 2006, are an important step toward sustainable pricing levels; however, electricity and natural gas (especially for households) are still priced below the long-run marginal cost. The problem seems even more serious in district heating and nuclear power. According to the Ministry of Construction, district heating tariffs, on average, cover about 80% of costs. Current electricity prices do not fully include the capital costs of power stations, which are particularly high for nuclear power. Although the tariff for nuclear electricity generation includes a small decommissioning charge, it has not been sufficient to accumulate necessary funds for nuclear plants decommissioning.

  3. Testing the effectiveness of an international conservation agreement: marketplace forensics and CITES caviar trade regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doukakis, Phaedra; Pikitch, Ellen K; Rothschild, Anna; DeSalle, Rob; Amato, George; Kolokotronis, Sergios-Orestis

    2012-01-01

    The international wildlife trade is a key threat to biodiversity. Temporal genetic marketplace monitoring can determine if wildlife trade regulation efforts such as the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) are succeeding. Protected under CITES effective 1997, sturgeons and paddlefishes, the producers of black caviar, are flagship CITES species. We test whether CITES has limited the amount of fraudulent black caviar reaching the marketplace. Using mitochondrial DNA-based methods, we compare mislabeling in caviar and meat purchased in the New York City area pre and post CITES listing. Our recent sampling of this market reveals a decrease in mislabeled caviar (2006-2008; 10%; n = 90) compared to pre-CITES implementation (1995-1996; 19%; n = 95). Mislabeled caviar was found only in online purchase (n = 49 online/41 retail). Stricter controls on importing and exporting as per CITES policies may be having a positive conservation effect by limiting the amount of fraudulent caviar reaching the marketplace. Sturgeons and paddlefishes remain a conservation priority, however, due to continued overfishing and habitat degradation. Other marine and aquatic species stand to benefit from the international trade regulation that can result from CITES listing.

  4. Testing the effectiveness of an international conservation agreement: marketplace forensics and CITES caviar trade regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phaedra Doukakis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The international wildlife trade is a key threat to biodiversity. Temporal genetic marketplace monitoring can determine if wildlife trade regulation efforts such as the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES are succeeding. Protected under CITES effective 1997, sturgeons and paddlefishes, the producers of black caviar, are flagship CITES species. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We test whether CITES has limited the amount of fraudulent black caviar reaching the marketplace. Using mitochondrial DNA-based methods, we compare mislabeling in caviar and meat purchased in the New York City area pre and post CITES listing. Our recent sampling of this market reveals a decrease in mislabeled caviar (2006-2008; 10%; n = 90 compared to pre-CITES implementation (1995-1996; 19%; n = 95. Mislabeled caviar was found only in online purchase (n = 49 online/41 retail. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Stricter controls on importing and exporting as per CITES policies may be having a positive conservation effect by limiting the amount of fraudulent caviar reaching the marketplace. Sturgeons and paddlefishes remain a conservation priority, however, due to continued overfishing and habitat degradation. Other marine and aquatic species stand to benefit from the international trade regulation that can result from CITES listing.

  5. EU-India free trade agreement : a quantitative assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterbosch, T.J.; Kuiper, M.H.; Roza, P.

    2008-01-01

    This report analyses the effects of a regional trade agreement (FTA) between the EU and India, for which negotiations are underway. The study starts with abrief overview of the key insights from the existing literature on FTAs and their relationship with multilateral negotiations. The remainder of

  6. EU-India free trade agreement : a quantitative assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterbosch, T.J.; Kuiper, M.H.; Roza, P.

    2008-01-01

    This report analyses the effects of a regional trade agreement (FTA) between the EU and India, for which negotiations are underway. The study starts with abrief overview of the key insights from the existing literature on FTAs and their relationship with multilateral negotiations. The remainder of t

  7. 碳关税对中国出口贸易的影响及应对策略%Influences of Carbon Tariffs on Chinese Export and Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘辉

    2012-01-01

    Carbon tariffs are new green trade barriers put forward by the United States to be imposed on energy-intensive products imported. It seems that the purpose of introducing carbon tariffs is to reduce global warming effects and to guarantee fair competition in global business transactions. But the fact is that the purpose of carbon tariffs is to dominate the speech right and contain the developing countries including China. Carbon tariffs influence China' s export-oriented businesses in two ways. First, it will make the cost of production become bigger which will in turn reduce exportation and make the export countries suffer from welfare losses. Second, carbon tariffs' environment regulations will force export-oriented enterprises to take reformation and enhance their efficiency and make them become more competitive in the long run. However, in the short run, as China does not have the prerequisite for "Porter Hypothesis" , carbon tariffs will lead to rising costs and declining competitiveness of export products. This paper systematically analyzes composition of China's export and direction of China' s export, points out that the introduction of carbon tariffs will impose a severe challenge on China's exportation in the present and better the market structure, the industrial structure and export structure in the long run. To deal with this situation, China' s government should take countermeasures such as taking "environment diplomacy" , imposing gradually carbon tax, and constructing green manufacturing system, etc.%碳关税是美国提出的针对国际贸易中高能耗进口产品征税的一种新型绿色贸易壁垒.从表面上看,碳关税的提出是为了缓解全球气候变暖的现实,促进全球贸易的公平竞争.实质上,碳关税的提出是美国国内政治经济博弈的结果,其目的是为了夺取世界经济新的话语权,同时也是为了制衡中国在内的发展中国家.碳关税对我国出口的影响机制有二:第一,碳

  8. Strategic Implications of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-04-01

    AD-A276 615 1993 Executive Research Project S9 Strategic Implications of the North American Free Trade Agreement ( NAFTA ) Commander Daniel E. Busch...implications. This paper highlights the importance of NAFTA with respect to national security in the areas of raw materials, labor, industrial...capacity, the economy, and military cooperation. It also explores the political impact of trade regionalization driven by NAFTA and similar trade agreements

  9. ASEAN’s Preferential Trade Agreements (PTA Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanyi Leu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a diversification explanation in order understand the development of PTAs in Southeast Asia. I argue that an important reason why ASEAN states participate in PTAs has been to diversify existing trade ties and to reduce overdependence on a narrow range of export markets. Southeast Asian countries have formed PTAs with markets with which they had weak or unexplored economic relations, as demonstrated by three case analyses: the ASEAN Free Trade Area (AFTA, the ASEAN-China Free Trade Agreement (ACFTA and the ASEAN-Japan Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement (AJCEP. To maximise the economic gains and the diversification effects of PTA participation, ASEAN countries have pursued a strategy of strengthening economic unity while keeping external economic linkages as diversified as possible. Although East Asia, and especially China, was an important alternative market to reduce ASEAN’s dependence on trade with America, ASEAN countries have also pursued PTAs with a number of other trading partners. This paper explains how PTAs have helped ASEAN states to develop more policy autonomy in their trading environment.

  10. Free trade and freer petchems drive Mexican restructuring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, A.

    1992-11-25

    When Mexico first opened up its protected markets in 1987 by cutting import tariffs, it thrust the chemical industry into a phase of change. Now, with the advent of the North American Free Trade Agreement(NAFTA) and the liberalization of petrochemicals by state oil group Petroleos Mexicanos (Pemex), restructuring has moved up a gear.

  11. CHALLENGE FOR ASEAN-CHINA FREE TRADE AGREEMENT ON INDONESIA EMPLOYMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatimah Riswati

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This research analyzes the challenges for Indonesian economy towards the implementation ofASEAN-China Free Trade Area (ACFTA especially on employment opportunity in Indonesia.Using regression technique, the labour cost and change in fix capital are statistically significant ininfluencing the employment opportunity. This result implies that ACFTA will challenge the Indonesiancompetitiveness due to increasing labour cost, while ACFTA also potentially increases capitalflow from China which has ambiguous impacts on labour absorption. The SWOT (Strength,Weakness, Opportunity and Threat analysis recommends for Indonesian government to improvecomprehensive strategy of national industry to be more competitive to China products.Keywords: ACFTA, employment opportunity, structural equation modelJEL classification numbers: F13, F14, F15, F42

  12. 中国-东盟自由贸易区大部分货物贸易2010年零关税%Zero tariff expected for most cargo trade in China-ASEAN free trade zone by 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The negotiation committees of China and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) have reached agreement on the most important prat-agreement on cargo trade, according to the Ministry of Commerce spokesman Chong Quan. The two sides decided to sign two agreements on cargo trade and dispute resolution mechanism of the China-ASEAN free trade zone duringthe China-ASEAN leaders' meeting in November 2004.

  13. A partial equilibrium analysis of NAFTA's impact on U.S. bilateral trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cephas Naanwaab

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the effects of the North American Free Trade Agreement on agricultural commodity trade using extensive data. The data cover agricultural exports and imports between the U.S. and NAFTA partners over the extended period of 1989-2010. The commodities covered in the analyses include; corn, soy bean, cotton, wheat, fresh vegetables, poultry, dairy products, and red meats. A partial equilibrium model, in which we derive each trading partner’s excess demand and excess supply, is used to study the impact of NAFTA on trade, controlling for other trade-inducing variables such as exchange rates, tariffs, per capita incomes, and relative prices. Regression results show mixed effects of NAFTA on different commodities while graphical and counterfactual analyses indicate strictly positive effects.

  14. An Analysis of the New Trade Regime for State-Owned Enterprises under the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikyung Yun

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the new discipline on state-owned enterprises contained in the recently concluded Trans Pacific Partnership Agreement, and evaluates various factors that influenced the shaping of its specific rules. The new discipline consolidates and strengthens related provisions in current trade regimes, reflects various aspects of trade disputes between China and the US, and adopts, as its general underlying rationale, the principle of competitive neutrality. The new discipline contains elements that may challenge the multilateral trade regime, and may serve as a role model in regulating state-owned enterprises, including subsidies in services trade in other on-going trade negotiations. The new regime makes us think hard about fundamental issues regarding enforcement of competition policy against state-owned enterprises, treatment of non-market economies, and how to deal with effects of subsidies in international trade, bringing competition issues back on the trade agenda.

  15. Trade liberalisation and financial compensation : the BLNS states in the wake of the EU-South African trade and development agreement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staak, van der S.

    2006-01-01

    This study discusses the fate of Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia and Swaziland (BLNS) following the 1999 free trade agreement between the European Union and South Africa. As members - with South Africa - of the Southern African Customs Union (SACU), the BLNS countries are now effectively locked into reci

  16. Trade liberalisation and financial compensation : the BLNS states in the wake of the EU-South African trade and development agreement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staak, van der S.

    2006-01-01

    This study discusses the fate of Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia and Swaziland (BLNS) following the 1999 free trade agreement between the European Union and South Africa. As members - with South Africa - of the Southern African Customs Union (SACU), the BLNS countries are now effectively locked into reci

  17. Trade liberalisation and financial compensation : the BLNS states in the wake of the EU-South African trade and development agreement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staak, van der S.

    2006-01-01

    This study discusses the fate of Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia and Swaziland (BLNS) following the 1999 free trade agreement between the European Union and South Africa. As members - with South Africa - of the Southern African Customs Union (SACU), the BLNS countries are now effectively locked into

  18. 19 CFR 10.606 - Filing of claim for tariff preference level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...-Central America-United States Free Trade Agreement Tariff Preference Level § 10.606 Filing of claim for... nevertheless be entitled to preferential tariff treatment under the CAFTA-DR under an applicable...

  19. The Trans-Atlantic Trade and Investment Partnership – A Challenge for the European Union?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana–Antonia Colibășanu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the early 2000s, the United States and European Union have discussed the development of bilateral and regional trade agreements. The TTIP – Trans-Atlantic Trade and Investment Partnership was announced in February 2013 and is currently under negotiation. The initiative aims at establishing a trade agreement between the two blocs, removing all trade barriers, including the non-tariff ones, in a wide range of economic sectors. The paper looks at several key elements that the bilateral negotiations are set to challenge from the European Union perspective. We focus on the main causes for resistance within the EU towards establishing the agreement, seeking to understand the future framework for international trade for the European states. While the EU continues integration to establish a functioning internal market, still continuing the process of diminishing and eliminating non-tariff barriers among the member states, we examine whether liberalisation of trade and investment between the US and the EU will benefit the EU as a whole, considering the current socio-economic trends at the Union’s level.

  20. IFRIC 12, ICPC 01 and Regulatory Accounting: Influences on Formation of Tariffs in the Electricity Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natan Szuster

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate to what extent the IFRIC12 and ICPC01 accounting characteristics can influence in the formation of tariffs in the electricity sector in Brazil. The choice of this sector is justified by its economic relevance, its importance for the development of the country and mainly because it uses specific regulatory accounting rules. With a purely qualitative approach - justified by the incipient stage of the current research in this area – we conducted a theoretical study, focusing on qualitative information, through research of the literature and documents. The results show that the pricing model may change under the IFRIC 12 and ICPC 01 standards, which makes the effective application of these accounting standards in the environment regulated by the National Electric Energy Agency (ANEEL a difficult and complex task. The study also indicates that the main difference between the regulatory accounting system promoted by ANEEL and the international standards is the impossibility of recognizing regulatory assets and liabilities under the latter system. Therefore, the Brazilian electricity sector is one of those that may have its financial statements most affected by the convergence of Brazilian accounting standards to international standards.

  1. Technical Barriers, Licenses and Tariffs as Means of Limiting Market Access

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Philipp J.H.; Jørgensen, Jan Guldager

    2006-01-01

    Technical barriers (standards), import licenses and tariffs may be deployed as means of limiting the market access of foreign firms. The present paper examines these measures in a setting of monopolistic competition. We find that, if protection focuses predominantly on the number of foreign firms...... accessing the domestic market, a technical barrier (an import license) may dominate a tariff (tariff and a tech- nical barrier) in terms of consumer welfare, even when tariff revenues are fully redistributed. However, if protection pays su±cient focus on limiting the total import volume, then tariffs...

  2. Free Trade Agreements in East Asian Countries: What Has Been Done and What Needs to Be Done?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JungTaik Hyun

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we attempt to make a critical assessment of East Asia's free trIn this paper, we attempt to make a critical assessment of East Asia's free trade agreements (FTAs and suggest future steps of action. The FTAs of three Northeast Asian countries and five ASEAN countries are examined. We find that the concluded and currently negotiated FTAs of East Asia have produced a fairly limited impact on trade and welfare. The limitation came from the fact that the selection of FTA partners was not based on economic gains but on an ad hoc basis or a defensive purpose. Therefore, we suggest that East Asian countries concentrate FTA activities on trade partners with large trade volumes. In this regard, the successful conclusion of the ongoing Korea-Japan FTA negotiation is crucial, and the two governments need to dissociate social and historical concerns with economic considerations. The FTAs between China, Korea, Japan and the U.S. should immediately follow the Korea-Japan FTA to realize the potentials and to prevent biased specialization. The FTAs of East Asia allowed a wide range of exemptions to protect inefficient sectors such as agriculture. The proper approach, we suggest, is not to avoid the problem but to proceed with comprehensive agreements and thus maximize the gains of FTAs. Restructuring industries and reallocating resources to the sectors with comparative advantage, while providing adequate assistance programs, is required. We also note that East Asian countries should utilize existing unilateral, regional and multilateral methods of liberalization as well as bilateral FTAs.

  3. CCPIT Successfully Signed Preferential Certificate of under the China-Chile Free Trade Agreement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ On March 1, 2010,China and Chile signed China-Peru Free Trade Agreement. in Beijing.After the two countries completing the domestic legal procedures, this agreement has been fully implemented since March 1, 2010.

  4. Anti-Americanism and Trade Policy in Brazil and France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerry Alons

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se explora los efectos del anti-americanismo en la política comercial de Brasil durante la negociación del Área de Libre Comercio de las Américas y en la política comercial francesa durante la Ronda Uruguay del GATT. Aunque mucho se ha escrito sobre la conceptualización del anti-americanismo, sus causas y su presencia en distintos estados nacionales, la investigación acerca de sus efectos sobre la política y las políticas públicas es escasa. Este artículo contribuye al debate al comparar dos estudios de caso y al reflexionar sobre los efectos del anti-americanismo en el proceso de toma de decisiones y en la política comercial bajo distintas circunstancias. English: This article traces the effects of anti-Americanism on Brazilian trade policy-making during the negotiations of the Free Trade Agreement of the Americas (FTAA and French trade policy-making during the Uruguay Round of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT. While much has been published on the conceptualisation of anti-Americanism, its causes, and its presence in different states, research into the effects of anti-Americanism on politics and policies is rather limited. This article adds to the debate by conducting a comparative study of the Brazilian and French cases and by reflecting on the effects of anti-Americanism on decision-making and policies under different circumstances.

  5. How might North American oil and gas markets have performed with a Free Trade Agreement in 1970?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watkins, G.C. [Charles River Associates Inc., Boston, MA (United States); Waverman, L. [Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    1993-12-31

    Deregulation on both sides of the U.S.-Canadian border has made certain aspects of trade agreements largely superfluous in the near term. It is over the longer term that the impact of the NAFTA will become apparent. To grapple with this issue, simulations are attempted of oil and gas trade between the United States and Canada as if the NAFTA had been in place before the first oil price shock of 1973. The simulations suggest substantial additional exports of Canadian oil and gas would have enabled the United States to back out volumes of OPEC oil during the critical years of the late 1970s and early 1980s. This would have served to dampen world oil markets during the years of OPEC ascendancy-not dramatically, but not negligibly either. By promoting closer integration of energy markets, the NAFTA should lead to more cohesive North American responses to any future world oil shocks. 13 refs., 8 tabs.

  6. Glossary on the World Trade Organisation and public health: part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labonte, Ronald; Sanger, Matthew

    2006-09-01

    Part 1 of this glossary introduced different health and trade arguments, overviewed the history of the World Trade Organisation (WTO), defined key "trade talk" terms, and reviewed three WTO treaties concerned with trade in goods (GATT 1994, the Agreement on Agriculture, and the Agreement on Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures). Part 2 reviews five more agreements and the growing number of bilateral and regional trade agreements, and concludes with a commentary on different strategies proposed to ensure that health is not compromised by trade liberalization treaties.

  7. Will the next generation of preferential trade and investment agreements undermine prevention of noncommunicable diseases? A prospective policy analysis of the Trans Pacific Partnership Agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thow, Anne Marie; Snowdon, Wendy; Labonté, Ronald; Gleeson, Deborah; Stuckler, David; Hattersley, Libby; Schram, Ashley; Kay, Adrian; Friel, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    The Trans Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPPA) is one of a new generation of 'deep' preferential trade and investment agreements that will extend many of the provisions seen in previous agreements. This paper presents a prospective policy analysis of the likely text of the TPPA, with reference to nutrition policy space. Specifically, we analyse how the TPPA may constrain governments' policy space to implement the 'policy options for promoting a healthy diet' in the World Health Organization's Global Action Plan for Prevention and Control of Noncommunicable Diseases (NCDs) 2013-2020. This policy analysis suggests that if certain binding commitments are made under the TPPA, they could constrain the ability of governments to protect nutrition policy from the influence of vested interests, reduce the range of interventions available to actively discourage consumption of less healthy food (and to promote healthy food) and limit governments' capacity to implement these interventions, and reduce resources available for nutrition education initiatives. There is scope to protect policy space by including specific exclusions and/or exceptions during negotiation of trade and investment agreements like the TPPA, and by strengthening global health frameworks for nutrition to enable them to be used as reference during disputes in trade fora. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The Best of Both Worlds? Free Trade in Services and EU Law on Privacy and Data Protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yakovleva, S.; Irion, K.

    2016-01-01

    The article focuses on the interplay between European Union (EU) law on privacy and data protection and international trade law, in particular the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) and the WTO dispute settlement system. The argument distinguishes between the effects of international

  9. The Best of Both Worlds? Free Trade in Services and EU Law on Privacy and Data Protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yakovleva, S.; Irion, K.

    2016-01-01

    The article focuses on the interplay between European Union (EU) law on privacy and data protection and international trade law, in particular the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) and the WTO dispute settlement system. The argument distinguishes between the effects of international trad

  10. Import & Export Tariff Changes in 2007

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Since January 1st, 2007, the Program for Implementation of Tariffs in 2007 has become effective. The Customs Tariff Commission of the State Council has made many modifications on the implementation of import and export tariffs as following:

  11. On intemational trade in educational services: an interpretation of the regulations and China's WTO commitments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin Xi-bin

    2006-01-01

    The General Agreement on Trade in Services(GATS)of the World Trade Organization(WTO)covers educational trade services.Hence,all the regulations of the GATS have to be followed in the international trade of educational services.Having acceded to the WTO.China is starting to fulfill the rights and obligations as a member by completely respecting international trade,services and intellectual property laws.At the same time,it is also starting to fulfill some of the commitments it made in the GATS,such as expanding activities on trade in educational services.Comprehending the fundamental regulations and China's commitments is significant towards promoting China's international trade in educational services.

  12. Customs as Facilitation of Trade. Case of Albania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etleva Bajrami

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Economic cooperation and trade between countries of region is very important as a opening step for entering in big markets like EU-s. All agreements have a huge impact in customs administration for elimination of customs taxes and for facilitation of trade during customs crossing. Trade integration is seen as faster way for countries to complete all necessary condition for European Integration. This process requires fulfillment of all reforms, needed for approaches the development and integration between countries. This process is spread in time because of the feature and difference between society and their economies. Regional economic integration is considered an import component for longterm integration of South Eastern European countries in EU. Membership of Albania in WTO brings a number of free trade agreements, with the main purpose trade liberalization. The essences of these agreements have been liberalization of customs tariffs for increasing foreign trade and attract foreign investors. The loss of customs income will be compensating from imports increasing and economic development in general. The role of Customs has changed from one of a complete focus on revenue collection to a broad role encompassing components of revenue collection, trade facilitation and border security. Simplified customs procedures and documents are very important for improving relation of business and government and also improving business performance. The aim of this paper is to point out the roles, responsibilities and challenges of customs, for concluding this we have conducted a survey for analyzing the performance of customs in Albania.

  13. The Impact of the Canada-Korea Free Trade Agreement as Negotiated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Ciuriak

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the impact of the Canada-Korea Free Trade Agreement on the basis of the published text and agreed schedule of commitments. We find that the Agreement reinforces existing patterns of comparative advantage between Canada (agriculture and resource-based sectors and Korea (autos and other industries. The sensitive sectors that held up the deal for years - autos into Canada and beef into Korea - witness major trade gains, but are not unduly disrupted. In both economies, the major output gains otherwise come in non-traded services sectors, driven by income effects. We find that trade diversion effects are quite significant; this lends support for the domino theory of major free trade agreements - since the Korea-EU agreement broke the ice, the pressure has intensified on third parties to re-level playing fields by striking their own deals. The study breaks new ground in modelling services trade by developing policy impacts based on the extent to which the text of the Agreement modifies Korea's and Canada's scores on the OECD's Services Trade Restrictiveness Index and by providing estimates of Mode 3 Services trade impacts. The analysis of the Agreement as negotiated, the present study, in our view, is a step forward in understanding the impact of modern free trade agreements.

  14. Improving regulatory capacity to manage risks associated with trade agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walls, Helen L; Smith, Richard D; Drahos, Peter

    2015-03-21

    Modern trade negotiations have delivered a plethora of bilateral and regional preferential trade agreements (PTAs), which involve considerable risk to public health, thus placing demands on governments to strengthen administrative regulatory capacities in regard to the negotiation, implementation and on-going management of PTAs. In terms of risk management, the administrative regulatory capacity requisite for appropriate negotiation of PTAs is different to that for the implementation or on-going management of PTAs, but at all stages the capacity needed is expensive, skill-intensive and requires considerable infrastructure, which smaller and poorer states especially struggle to find. It is also a task generally underestimated. If states do not find ways to increase their capacities then PTAs are likely to become much greater drivers of health inequities. Developing countries especially struggle to find this capacity. In this article we set out the importance of administrative regulatory capacity and coordination to manage the risks to public health associated with PTAs, and suggest ways countries can improve their capacity.

  15. 76 FR 40420 - Pilot Program on the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) Long-Haul Trucking Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-08

    ... passenger motor carriers to conduct international charter and tour bus operations in the United States.... Mexico has agreed to suspend fifty percent of the tariffs across the board once the new cross-border... year. It also fails to fulfill the benefits (particularly lower transportation costs) that accrue...

  16. Toward the Successful Implementation of the North American Free-Trade Agreement: The Integration of Language and Business Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffield, Barney T., III

    This paper examines the need for the integration of language and business studies to enhance successful implementation of the North American Free Trade Agreement. For college and university graduates to deal effectively with French-Canadian and Mexican business people and consumers, they must be exposed to their languages and their cultures. This…

  17. 19 CFR 10.425 - Transit and transshipment of non-originating cotton or man-made fiber fabric or apparel goods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Chile Free Trade Agreement Tariff Preference Level.... (a) General. A good will not be considered eligible for preferential tariff treatment under an... United States, or both, that would enable the good to qualify for preferential tariff treatment...

  18. Trade in Climate Smart Goods of Ecuador: Quantitative Analysis using Trade Indices, SMART and Gravity Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Somesh Kumar, Mathur Mathur

    2014-01-01

    The study identified Climate Smart Goods (CSG) in which Ecuador has advantage in production and trade. The interest in the subject of Trade in Climate Smart Goods was fuelled by Ecuador's positive trade balance with the rest of the Andean Community and MERCOSUR region in 2010. SMART tool in WITS has been utilized for evaluating the relative benefits of tariff liberalization of CSG with MERCOSUR, China, Japan, US, and EU27 separately in 2010. It provides the results on various variables such a...

  19. 论“共同但有区别的责任”对碳关税贸易措施的约束%Governance of Carbon Tariff Trade Measure by "Common But Differentiated Responsibilities" Principle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王燕

    2012-01-01

    碳关税源于碳减排国家维持竞争力和减少碳泄漏的需要。作为气候贸易措施,碳关税应符合WTO涵盖协定及气候公约“共同但有区别责任”原则.从而减少多边贸易治理和气候治理的分歧,维护南北国家在贸易体制下的权利义务平衡。该原则在碳关税争端中适用是可行的,它为WTO可持续发展原则一定程度地反映,亦可为TBT协定、GATT第20条引言所兼容,DSU对司法解释的规定和争端解决实践亦证实外部国际法原则可被纳入环境贸易争端中予以解释。%Carbon tariff is a border tax adjustment levied to cope with competition and carbon leakage problem. As a climate trade measure, carbon tariff should conform to both WTO rules and "Common But Differentiated Responsibilities" principle adopted by Climate Convention, which is established on the developed countries' historic emissions responsibility and their current ability to reduce emission. The Common But Differentiated Responsibilities Principle allocates the responsibilities for developed and developing countries when pursuing sustainable development, and this principle is reflected in TBT Agreement and Article 20 of GATT. The Dispute Settlement Jurisprudence and Judicial interpretation rules adopted by DSU prove that the non-WTO rules can also play a part in solving the trade disputes. Therefore, the analysis of carbon tariff from the perspective of "Common but Differentiated Responsibilities" is feasible and could improve the harmony of trade governance and climate governance, protecting developing countries' interests under the WTO.

  20. Latin American Agriculture in a World of Trade Agreements

    OpenAIRE

    Josling, Tim; Paggi, Mechel; Wainio, John; Yamazaki, Fumiko

    2014-01-01

    Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) countries have been among the most active participants in the negotiation of regional and bilateral FTAs. The countries of the region are members of 73 of the 259 FTAs notified to the WTO as currently in force, with 29 of these agreements containing tariff concessions made to one or more Latin American partners: the remaining 44 are between an LAC member country and a third country. Among LAC countries already linked by an FTA, a large percentage of agricult...

  1. Prospects for the EU-US Trade Relations in the Light of the TTIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ružeková Viera

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available To success on international markets, individual economies are trying to take measures to increase their efficiency, flexibility and competitiveness. There is a liberalization of tariff and non-tariff barriers mainly due to trade based on regional integration. Among such agreements belong also the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP between the EU and the USA, which represent the largest economies in the world. The paper analyses developed scientific studies that assess the economic impact, advantages and disadvantages of closer economic cooperation. However, it reflects not only the economic but also foreign policy importance of this partnership. In the case of signing the TTIP, it would become the most important bilateral trade agreement ever, both in terms of international trade as well as in terms of the impact on international trade as a whole.

  2. Evolving trade policy and the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement: does it threaten Vietnam's access to medicine and its progress towards scaling up HIV prevention, treatment and care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linh, Nguyen Nhat; Huong, Nguyen Thanh; Thuy, Hua Thanh

    2015-01-01

    The Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPP) has undergone 18 rounds of secretive negotiation between the USA and 11 Asia-Pacific countries. Aiming at a free trade area, this multilateral trade proposal covers all aspects of commercial relations among the countries involved. Despite some anticipated positive impacts in trade, specific articles in this proposal's intellectual property and transparency chapters might negatively impact access to medicine, in general, and to antiretroviral (ARV) drugs, in particular, in Vietnam. Drawing on a desk review and qualitative in-depth interviews with 20 key informants from government, academia, hospitals and civil society, we analyse various provisions of the proposal being negotiated leaked after the 14th round of negotiations in September 2012. Findings suggest that the TPP could lead to increased monopoly protection and could limit technological advancements within the local pharmaceutical manufacturing industry, resulting in higher medicine prices in Vietnam. This outcome would have a significant impact on Vietnam's ability to achieve goals for HIV prevention, treatment and care, and create barriers to universal health-care coverage. This research provides unique evidence for Vietnam to advocate for more equitable pharmaceutical provisions in and to raise awareness of the implications of the TPP among the pharmaceutical stakeholder community in Vietnam.

  3. Acordos bilaterais de comércio como estratégia de inserção regional e internacional do Chile Bilateral trade agreements as Chile's strategy for regional and international insertion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Rossetto Lopes

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho analisa a mudança na estratégia de inserção regional e internacional do Chile no começo dos anos 1990, com ênfase em acordos comerciais bilaterais, depois de ter praticado a abertura comercial generalizada desde meados da década de 1970. A opção por acordos bilaterais foi adotada pelo primeiro governo democrático, como parte da orientação de manter e aprofundar a abertura externa empreendida pela ditadura, e conseguiu ampliar as vendas externas e diversificar produtos e destinos. As exportações têm papel decisivo na economia chilena, aberta e pequena, e os 24 acordos bilaterais de comércio com diferentes países e regiões, além de outros em negociação, podem ser explicados pelo esgotamento das possibilidades de ampliar o comércio por meio de reduções adicionais da tarifa externa unilateral, hoje em 6% para quase todos os produtos. A formação de uma rede de acordos bilaterais ampla e diversificada, contudo, tem também interesses políticos, estratégicos e de segurança em relação a vizinhos e a países próximos, além de evitar que o Chile precise se integrar, como membro pleno, a blocos regionais para garantir seus interesses, o que amplia as possibilidades de lidar com diferentes e importantes parceiros no âmbito internacional.The paper analysis the change of Chile's regional and international strategy of insertion through bilateral trade agreements in the beginning of the 90s, after a generalized trade opening since the middle of the 70s. The bilateral trade agreements strategy was set up by the democratic governments as part of the direction of maintaining and deepening the unilateral trade liberalization undertaken by the dictatorship, enlarging exports and diversifying products and markets. Exports have a decisive role in Chile's economy, open and small. The 24 bilateral trade agreements already signed with different countries and regions (besides others under negotiation can be explained by the

  4. 19 CFR 10.100 - Entry, examination, and tariff status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. General Provisions United States Government Importations § 10.100 Entry, examination, and tariff status. Except as otherwise..., importations made by or for the account of any agency or office of the United States Government are subject...

  5. 75 FR 70770 - Request for Comments Concerning Compliance With Telecommunications Trade Agreements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-18

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Request for Comments Concerning Compliance With Telecommunications Trade Agreements... following agreements regarding telecommunications products and services of the United States: the World... agreements regarding telecommunications products and services that are in force with respect to the...

  6. The Employment Effects of the North American Free Trade Agreement: Recommendations and Background Studies. Special Report No. 33.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Commission for Employment Policy (DOL), Washington, DC.

    This publication presents results of a year-long research program initiated by the National Commission for Employment Policy to research and discuss the employment effects of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). It contains the letter to the President in which the Commission endorses NAFTA because of its positive employment-creating…

  7. Welfare gains from liberalized banana trade and a new international banana agreement

    OpenAIRE

    Kox, H.L.M.

    1998-01-01

    The European Union import policy for bananas grants preferential trade access for ACP bananas and discriminates against bananas from other sources. It is shown that such trade discrimination cannot be defended by development-related motives. As a form of aid transfer to banana-exporting ACP countries, the EU import regime is highly inefficient. The effective value of financial transfers is low, while there are large associated welfare costs to domestic consumers and to non-preferred export co...

  8. The U.S.-Colombia Free Trade Agreement: Economic and Political Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    after Brazil and Mexico . Colombia’s economy is the fifth- largest economy in Latin America. In 2006, approximately 45% of Colombians lived in poverty...significant trade partner, accounting for 11% of Colombia’s exports and 6% of Colombia’s imports. Other major trade partners for Colombia are Mexico , China...a Colombia, Anuncia el Presidente de Colombia en Entrevista a Caracol Radio,” May 3, 2007. 48 Colombia’s Observatorio del Programa Presidencial de

  9. The Effects of the Colombian Trade Liberalization on Urban Poverty

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    We examine whether the Colombian trade reform can explain any of Colombia's decline in urban poverty between 1984 and 1995. Our approach focuses on short- and medium- run channels through which trade reform could affect poverty. Despite the chronological coincidence of the poverty reduction with the trade reforms over this period, we do not observe any evidence of a link between poverty and tariff reductions operating through the labor income channel. Our descriptive analysis suggests that al...

  10. 78 FR 5775 - Notice of Allocation of Tariff Rate Quotas (TRQ) on the Import of Certain Worsted Wool Fabrics...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-28

    ... certain worsted wool fabrics under tariff rate quotas established by Title V of the Trade and Development... INFORMATION: Background: Title V of the Trade and Development Act of 2000, as amended by the Trade Act of 2002...--New York, NY Saint Laurie Ltd.--New York, NY Tom James Co.--Franklin, TN Warren Sewell Clothing Co...

  11. 77 FR 56739 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-13

    ... States-Korea Free Trade Agreement AGENCY: Department of Defense (DoD), General Services Administration... Regulation (FAR) to implement the United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement. The Republic of Korea is already... the Republic of Korea to the definition of ``Free Trade Agreement country'' in multiple locations in...

  12. Individual Mobile Communication Services and Tariffs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Chen (Hong)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractIndividual services and tariffs existed briefly in the beginning of telecommunications history 150 years ago but faded away over time. Service provisioning evolved into the current supplier-centric situation which has many limitations and disadvantages. This thesis re-embraces the user-c

  13. Permit trading and credit trading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boom, Jan-Tjeerd; R. Dijstra, Bouwe

    This paper compares emissions trading based on a cap on total emissions (permit trading) and on relative standards per unit of output (credit trading). Two types of market structure are considered: perfect competition and Cournot oligopoly. We find that output, abatement costs and the number...... of firms are higher under credit trading. Allowing trade between permit-trading and credit-trading sectors may increase in welfare. With perfect competition, permit trading always leads to higher welfare than credit trading. With imperfect competition, credit trading may outperform permit trading....... Environmental policy can lead to exit, but also to entry of firms. Entry and exit have a profound impact on the performance of the schemes, especially under imperfect competition. We find that it may be impossible to implement certain levels of total industry emissions. Under credit trading several levels...

  14. Globalisation and Exploitation in Peru: Strategic Selectivities and the Defeat of Labour in the US-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeek, J.B.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the socio-economic implications of the US-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement for the governance of Peruvian labour relations. It is argued that the trade agreement aims to lock-in the neoliberal market reforms carried out since the 1990s, which have given rise to an export-oriented

  15. Globalisation and Exploitation in Peru: Strategic Selectivities and the Defeat of Labour in the US-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeek, J.B.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the socio-economic implications of the US-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement for the governance of Peruvian labour relations. It is argued that the trade agreement aims to lock-in the neoliberal market reforms carried out since the 1990s, which have given rise to an export-oriented

  16. The European Window: Challenges in the Negotiation of Mexico's Free Trade Agreement with the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Sergio Gómez Lora; Jaime Zabludovsky

    2005-01-01

    On 1 July 2000 regulations to liberalize trade flows between Mexico and the European Union came into force, after more than six years of diplomatic work and complex negotiations. These regulations are part of the ¿Tratado de Libre Comercio (TLCUEM), which is also one of the components of the Agreement on Economic Association, Political Concertation and Cooperation (¿Global Agreement¿). The Global Agreement through its three components ¿ political dialogue, trade liberalization and cooperation...

  17. 77 FR 64031 - United States-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-18

    ..., Customs duties and inspection, Financial and accounting procedures, Reporting and recordkeeping...-22, to implement the preferential tariff treatment and other customs-related provisions of the United... implement the preferential tariff treatment and other customs-related provisions of the United...

  18. When Two Worlds Collide: Ownership of Genetic Resources unde rthe Convention on Biological Diversity and the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg K. Venbrux

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The rapid growth of the biotechnology industry over the past two decades led many countries to recognize the vast economic potential of their genetic resources and indigenous knowledge. 1  Pharmaceutical companies and plant breeders increasingly rely upon these resources to engineer plantderived drugs, disease-resistant crops, and biotechnical production processes.2 With increasing demand for new biotechnological products, the global community is struggling to strike a balance between the interests of host countries, who seek remuneration for supplying genetic resources and traditional knowledge, and biotechnological inventors, who are pressing for free access, open markets, and stronger intellectual property rights protection.

  19. New Goods, Old Theory, and the Welfare Costs of Trade Restrictions

    OpenAIRE

    ROMER, Paul M.

    1993-01-01

    The typical economic model implicitly assumes that the set of goods in an economy never changes. As a result, the predicted efficiency loss from a tariff is small, on the order of the square of the tariff rate. If we loosen this assumption and assume that international trade can bring new goods into an economy, the fraction of national income lost when a tariff is imposed can be much larger, as much as two times the tariff rate. Much of this paper is devoted to explaining why this seemingly s...

  20. 77 FR 30355 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-22

    ... Regulation Supplement: United States- Korea Free Trade Agreement (DFARS Case 2012-D025) AGENCY: Defense... United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement. The Republic of Korea is already party to the World Trade... provisions and clauses in DFARS part 252 to implement the United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement (see the...

  1. 48 CFR 52.225-4 - Buy American Act-Free Trade Agreement-Israeli Trade Act Certificate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.225-4 Buy American Act—Free Trade Agreement—Israeli Trade Act... product,” “foreign end product,” “Free Trade Agreement country,” “Free Trade Agreement country end product... American Act—Free Trade Agreements—Israeli Trade Act.” (b) The offeror certifies that the following...

  2. FTA Corpus: a parallel corpus of English and Spanish Free Trade Agreements for the study of specialized collocations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Patiño García

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the Corpus of Free Trade Agreements (henceforth FTA, a specialized parallel corpus in English and Spanish from Europe and America and a smaller subcorpus in English-Norwegian and Spanish-Norwegian that was prepared and then aligned with Translation Corpus Aligner 2 (Hofland & Johansson, 1998. The data was taken from Free Trade Agreements. These agreements are specialized texts officially signed and ratified by several countries and blocks of countries in the last twenty years. Thus, FTAs are a rich repository for terminology and phraseology that is used in different fields of business activity throughout the world. The corpus contains around 1.37 million words in the English section and 1.48 million words in its Spanish counterpart, plus 60,000 words each in the Spanish-Norwegian and English-Norwegian subcorpus. The corpus is being used primarily to study the terms and specialized collocations that include these terms in this kind of specialized texts.Keywords: specialized collocation, specialized parallel corpus, corpus linguistics, Free Trade Agreement

  3. EU is Speeding Up Its Offensive Trade Policy. The New EU-Japan Free Trade Agreement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Ghibuțiu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In March 2013, the EU and Japan launched negotiations for a comprehensive free trade agreement (FTA. The EU also announced starting of similar negotiations with the United States. Japan decided to join the Trans-Pacific Partnership under negotiation among 11 developed and developing nations in Asia-Pacific. FTAs are not new for the multilateral trading system. Striking is, however, the outstanding pace of the new trade deals among traditional trading powers. Our paper addresses the significance of the EU-Japan FTA. It first discusses the new FTA from a broader perspective, focusing on the difficulties and ongoing structural changes in the world economy. Second, it explores its importance through the lens of EU-Japan bilateral trade relations. It concludes that the recent push for FTAs by the big trading powers is a rapid means of mutual market opening in the context of reforming the very fundamentals of their economic and trade policies, as a response to the financial crisis and the shift in economic power from developed to developing countries.

  4. 77 FR 51828 - Dominican Republic-Central America-United States Free Trade Agreement; Notice of Extension of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ... of the Secretary Dominican Republic--Central America--United States Free Trade Agreement; Notice of... Republic--Central America--United States Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA-DR). On December 22, 2011, OTLA... International Labor Affairs, U.S. Department of Labor. ACTION: Notice. The Office of Trade and Labor Affairs...

  5. Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States (2015) - Revision 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    US International Trade Commission — This dataset is the 2015 Harmonized Tariff Schedule Revision 1 effective July 1, 2015. It provides the applicable tariff rates and statistical categories for all...

  6. The impact of further tariff reduction on the EU sugar sector in the forthcoming multilateral round

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. HUAN-NIEMI

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper indicates the need for reform in the EU sugar sector due to the erosion of "border protection" in the view of further reduction in import tariffs for sugar. Three tariff reduction methods are assessed to project the "border protection" for EU sugar: Swiss formula proposed by the Cairns Group, "Harbinson" Proposal by the World Trade Organization and Uruguay Round formula proposed by the EU. In the assumed forthcoming multilateral round for agriculture, the EU would need to lower the support price for sugar by 67%, if the Cairns Group tariff reduction method is used. However, if the "Harbinson" method is used, the EU would need to lower the support price for sugar by at least 35%. On the contrary, the EU may avoid lowering the support price for sugar with three conditions occurring simultaneously: 1 the Uruguay Round formula is used as the reduction method in the assumed new WTO round and the EU can use the minimum reduction rate of 15% for sugar

  7. 中日韩货物贸易自由化比较研究%A Comparative Study on the Trade Liberalization Agreements of Commodity among China, Japan and South Korea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张彬; 胡渊

    2012-01-01

    进入21世纪以来,中日韩都加快了参与区域经济一体化的步伐,而货物贸易自由化又是区域经济一体化协议的重要组成部分。回顾与总结中日韩三国参与区域经济一体化的实践可以发现,三国的货物贸易自由化协议在收益目标、协议内容、伙伴方选择、战略实施步骤等方面存在差异,这与其经济结构和发展目标相关。结合日本和韩国货物贸易自由化的经验,我们认为中国货物贸易自由化的开展需要成立专门的机构统筹自由贸易区战略、制定合理的货物贸易自由化收益目标、设计自由贸易区推进策略。%China, Japan and South Korea all have accelerated the speed of participating in regional economic integration since the beginning of the 21st century, and trade liberalization of goods is an important part of the regional trade agree- ments(RTAs). By summarizing the achievements on participating in RTAs of China, Japan and South Korea, it can be concluded that the difference in the three countries'trade liberalization agreements of goods lies in the interest target, con- tents, partners selection and strategic steps, which are determined by the economy situation and development goals. From the experiences of Japan and South Korea, China for the process of trade hberalizatian of goods needs to establish special- ized state agency to co - ordinate FTA Strategy, together with drawing up reasonable interest targets of RTAs and designing the promotion strategy of FTA implementation.

  8. The Australia–US Free Trade Agreement - An Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Philippa Dee

    2005-01-01

    Australia and the United States signed a bilateral trade agreement in 2004. This paper analyses the provisions of the agreement, compares the provisions with other bilateral and multilateral agreements and comments on the modelling that the Australian Government used to estimate the likely benefits of the agreement. The author concludes that the modelling relied on overstates the potential gains from the agreement, which establishes many undesirable precedents, especially in relation to sugar...

  9. IMPACT OF MAIZE IMPORT TARIFF POLICY CHANGES ON PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION IN INDONESIA: A MULTIMARKET MODEL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sintya Jummoni Krissanty Umboh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this study is at analyzing the impact of maize import tariff policy changes on production and consumption in Indonesia. Three groups of households were assessed in this studi, namely: (1 large scale broiler farming, (2 small scale broiler farming, and (3 other households. Employed data in this study were classified into 3 types: (1 production and input, consumption, and household income, (2 inputs and outputs, and (3 elasticities. The abolishment of the import tariff policy on maize had an impact on increased maize imported and decreased maize price. Decreased domestic maize price was responded by maize farmer through lessing maize planted area and fertilizer input uses that had impact on the declining in maize production. On the other hand, this policy had positive impact on production of rice, chicken meat, and eggs which led to increase incomes of small scale broiler farming and agricultural sector, as well as national. It furthermore increased the consumption for maize, chicken meat, and eggs in Indonesia.

  10. Democratic discussion in newspaper reporting of the Australia-United States Free Trade Agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykes, Robbie

    2008-10-01

    This article presents a Habermasian analysis of newspaper reporting of the debate surrounding the effect of the Australia-United States Free Trade Agreement (the FTA) on access to medicines through Australian patent law. Habermas's concept of the public sphere is utilised in determining whether discussion within the print media adequately conveyed complex legal issues to the public and facilitated democratic discussion. It was found that newspaper reporting generally failed to meet this standard.

  11. 77 FR 58098 - Haier America Trading, LLC, Provisional Acceptance of a Settlement Agreement and Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-19

    ... Agreement. The payment shall be made electronically to the CPSC via www.pay.gov . 16. The parties enter into... reporting requirements. 17. In consideration of Haier America's payment, the Commission agrees to release... balance of the Agreement and the Order shall remain in full force and effect, unless the Commission and...

  12. Assessing environmental effects of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) : an analytic framework (phase 2) and issue studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    A framework has been developed by the Commission for Environmental Cooperation to analyze significant environmental changes under the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). Phase 2 of this framework was developed using the following four component studies: (1) an examination of the operation of NAFTA`s environmentally-related institutions, (2) a study on maize in Mexico, (3) a study on cattle feedlots in Canada and the United States, and (4) a study on electricity in Canada, Mexico and the United States. The studies were designed to understand the relationships between economic activity and the environment. Environmental changes in air, water, land, and biota were found to pose the greatest concerns. The next phase of the process will involve an extensive peer review by academics, trade economists, policy analysts, and experts in other relevant fields from the three countries. This phase is expected to be completed by the end of 1999. To date none of the three governments have taken a position regarding the contents of the framework or its constituent studies. refs., tabs.

  13. Multilareral Environment Agreements Versus the World Trade Organization System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushant Chandra

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Since the inception of WTO in 1994, the protection of environment has evolved as a key issue due to recurrent trade transaction occurring among the states. WTO constituted a committee on Trade and Environment in 1995 to evaluate the scope of complementarities between trade liberalization and environmental protection. However Doha Development Agenda of 2001 and Article XX of GATT have proven to be a beacon light in such an evaluation but still it is observed that various states have resorted to varied margin of appreciation in applying restrictions. Thus this article bewrays the varied practices adopted by the states in this regards. Approach: Determining the approach of the states in striking a balance between the transnational trade practices and protecting environment from depletion caused by such practices. Also to determine an efficacious method for dealing the existing menace. The research methodology resorted to in the completion of this article is doctrinal in nature. The sources escorted belong to the genre of both external and internal. Omnibus of articles, books and electronic resources have been referred to for completing the article. The method of writing is primarily descriptive. The official website of WTO has proven to be of tremendous help. A uniform mode of citation has been followed throughout the article. Result: There are myriad of multilateral environmental agreements which usually incorporate environmental norms that may result in clashes with trade norms of the WTO. Reconciliation can only be possible with good faith negotiations under the Doha Development Agenda with renewed vigour and full commitments from both trade and environment advocates. Conclusion: In the event of any future conflict between the WTO rules and MEAs, trade advocates cannot simply argue that the WTO Agreements take priority and thus prevail over any other conflicting international treaties because the environmental side has the

  14. Impact of Trade Costs on Trade: Empirical Evidence from Asian Countries

    OpenAIRE

    De, Prabir

    2007-01-01

    Trade costs include all costs incurred in getting a good to a final user other than the marginal cost of producing the good itself, such as transportation costs (both freight costs and time costs), policy barriers (tariffs and non-tariff barriers), information costs, contract enforcement costs, costs associated with the use of different currencies, legal and regulatory costs, and local distribution costs (wholesale and retail). Higher trade costs is an obstacle to trade and it impedes the rea...

  15. Essays on globalization. Policies in trade, development, resources and climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerkelae, L.

    2009-07-01

    This research study on globalization consists of an introduction on the methodology applied, a summary and four independent essays focussing on applied policy research in international trade. The study follows the CGE (Computable General Equilibrium) research tradition. The simulation environment is the publicly available GTAP model. The essays examine the specific topics of trade and aid policies, price liberalization of the Russian energy markets, trade preferences in the sugar sector of the EU and the role of carbon sinks in mitigating climate change. The first essay examines trade and aid policies in Mozambique. The essay analyses the impact of alternative options like trade agreements, aid and trade facilitation. The results suggest that Mozambique has very little to gain from trade agreements or the Doha Round, although some agreements with the EU do yield some benefit. Trade facilitation and aid-for-trade programs on the other hand have the potential for larger benefits. The second essay examines the impact of liberalising RussiaAEs energy sector. The analysis is based on the implicit subsidies in regulated prices of electricity and gas and focuses on the effect of the different taxes and subsidies with respect to welfare and GDP in Russia and abroad. Increases in the price of electricity and gas improve efficiency and shift output from domestic markets to exports. The third essay investigates the impact of liberalising the EUAEs sugar sector by taking into account the complex structure of the EU sugar market and preferences in imports for developing countries. The fourth essay focuses on the effects of including carbon sinks into the analysis of the impacts of the Kyoto agreement. (orig.)

  16. Feed-in Tariffs: Good Practices and Design Considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, Sadie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Esterly, Sean [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-01-02

    In recent years, feed-in tariff (FIT) activity has focused primarily on revisions to current policies, underscoring the need for stable and predictable, yet flexible, policy environments. This policy brief provides a primer on key FIT design elements, lessons from country experience, and support resources to enable more detailed and country-specific FIT policy design.

  17. Transition problems in economic reform: agriculture in the North American free trade agreement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijnbergen, S.J.G.

    1995-01-01

    Investigates the effecto of the North American Free Trade Agreement on agriculture in Mexico. Implications on policy design for the absence of efficient capital markets, on the welfare costs of reforming gradually, on incentive problems created by trade adjustement policies and on the redistribution

  18. Transition problems in economic reform: agriculture in the North American free trade agreement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijnbergen, S.J.G.

    1995-01-01

    Investigates the effecto of the North American Free Trade Agreement on agriculture in Mexico. Implications on policy design for the absence of efficient capital markets, on the welfare costs of reforming gradually, on incentive problems created by trade adjustement policies and on the redistribution

  19. The impact of regulatory heterogeneity on agri-food trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winchester, N.; Rau, M.L.; Goetz, C.; Larue, B.; Otsuki, T.; Shutes, K.; Wieck, C.; Burnquist, H.L.; Pinto de Souza, M.J.; Nunes de Faria, R.

    2012-01-01

    We estimate the impact of regulatory heterogeneity on agri-food trade using a gravity analysis that relies on detailed data on non-tariff measures (NTMs) collected by the NTM-Impact project. The data cover a broad range of import requirements for agricultural and food products for the EU and nine of

  20. 76 FR 77777 - North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904; Binational Panel Reviews: Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-14

    ... International Trade Administration North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904; Binational Panel...) 482-5438. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Chapter 19 of the North American Free Trade Agreement..., International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: On December 6, 2011, a Motion to Terminate...

  1. The economic impact of the Australia-United States free trade agreement

    OpenAIRE

    Shiro Armstrong

    2015-01-01

    The Australia–United States free trade agreement (AUSFTA) came into effect in 2005. It was the second preferential trade agreement that Australia signed, after its agreement with Singapore, and marked a departure from the primacy of Australia’s previous trade policy of unilateral and multilateral trade liberalisation towards preferential liberalisation. This paper assesses the economic effects of AUSFTA by applying the Productivity Commission’s gravity model of trade from its Bilateral ...

  2. The economic impact of the Australia-United States free trade agreement

    OpenAIRE

    Shiro Armstrong

    2015-01-01

    The Australia–United States free trade agreement (AUSFTA) came into effect in 2005. It was the second preferential trade agreement that Australia signed, after its agreement with Singapore, and marked a departure from the primacy of Australia’s previous trade policy of unilateral and multilateral trade liberalisation towards preferential liberalisation. This paper assesses the economic effects of AUSFTA by applying the Productivity Commission’s gravity model of trade from its Bilateral ...

  3. Sustainability of Trade Liberalization and Antidumping: Evidence from Mexico’s Trade Liberalization toward China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Liu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A Negative Binomial Regression Model is used to investigate the sustainability of China–Mexico trade liberalization by testing the tariff lines underpinning Mexico’s successful antidumping (AD measures against Chinese imports from 1991 to 2011. Evidence shows import tariff cutting and consumption growth have a positive impact on consumer goods but a negative impact on intermediaries. This result implies that while the Mexican government has expended considerable energy on the trade liberalization of intermediate and capital goods, the domestic consumer goods market has been protected from Chinese imports. The empirical results indicate that Mexico’s AD use for consumer goods helps to sustain trade liberalization of intermediate and capital goods under the domestic political pressures for trade opening.

  4. 48 CFR 3025.7002-3 - Specific application of trade agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... acquisition threshold, (HSAR) 48 CFR 3025.7002 applies to all covered items except those from Mexico, Canada... Agreement (NAFTA) and the U.S.-Chile Free Trade Agreement but TSA is excluded from all other trade...

  5. A research on Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA) :Its Effects and Solutions in China%《反假冒贸易协定》研究——其影响与中国的对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘雪凤

    2013-01-01

    The Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement challenges the international rules multilateral system, in which the protection of intellectual property right goes beyond the scope of TRIPS agreement and forms TRIPS-plus standard, and it will bring great, potential and negative influences on intellectual property right field at the global level including China. China has to take the following suggestions to achieve own benefits: to promote indigenous innovation, try to constrict the negotiation issues on intellectual property right into WTO regime by combining the developing countries and international NGOs, and rebalance the IPR by multilateral system.%《反假冒贸易协定》挑战了国际规则中的多边体制,由于对知识产权的保护超过了TRIPS协议的范围而形成了TRIPS-plus协议,它将对全球知识产权领域造成极大的、潜在的消极影响,中国也概莫能外.要成功应对《反假冒贸易协定》,中国必须在国内加强自主创新经济发展模式的同时,联合发展中国家及非政府组织,力争把知识产权议题纳入WTO框架内,通过多边体制来达到知识产权利益的相对平衡.

  6. Leveraging Trade Agreements to Meet U.S. Security Aims

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-08

    examines President Barack Obama’s strategic “pivot to Asia,” and the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) trade ageement to reveal how trade agreements...Gernwny.”3 In a 1950 letter to West German Chancellor Konrad Adenauer, Schuman proposed the creation of the European Coal and Steel Community. In...the coal and steel industries that supported the two states’ armament production. These industries were located in the coal- rich Saar-Ruhr region

  7. The Effects of NAFTA On U.S.-Mexican Trade and GDP

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-05-01

    The North American Free Trade Agreement ( NAFTA ) went into effect on January 1 1994, creating a free trade area encompassing the United States, Canada...and free trade areas with a number of other countries of varying degrees of development Consequently, assessing the effects of NAFTA is relevant to...Finance-examines aggregate U.S.-Mexican trade in goods in the first eight years after NAFTA went into effect and how it has been affected by the agreement

  8. The rising tide of green unilateralism in world trade law. Options for reconciling the emerging north-south conflict

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biermann, F.

    2000-12-01

    This paper argues that to reconcile the objectives of free trade and environmental protection, limited reforms of international trade law are required. There is a need to guarantee, first, that universally accepted international environmental agreements that mandate trade-restrictions remain compatible with international trade law, in particular with the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade. Second, it is necessary to ensure that the interests of small and vulnerable states are protected against environmental unilateralism of the major trading nations. This reform agenda could be realized, it is argued, through an authoritative interpretation of international trade law by the Ministerial Conference of the World Trade Organization (WTO). This interpretation should stipulate that environmentally-motivated trade restrictions which are related to processes and production methods, and which are intended to protect environmental goods outside the importing country, be compatible with WTO law, but only if mandated by international environmental agreements that have been previously accepted by the Ministerial Conference. This paper outlines the rationale for such authoritative interpretation and offers a possible legal draft. This clarification of the relationship between international environmental and international trade law would protect the sovereign right of smaller trading nations, particularly developing countries, to enact their own environmental standards as may be appropriate and feasible according to their specific situation. It would also maintain the supremacy of multilateralism in both international trade and environmental policies, as opposed to unilateral action. The principle of international co-operation and the rule of law would be strengthened, and attempts to use the international trade system for the enforcement of unilaterally decided environmental standards would be precluded. (orig.)

  9. Canadian energy development under the Free Trade Agreement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McRae, R.N. (Calgary Univ., AB (CA). Dept. of Economics)

    1991-06-01

    The Free Trade Agreements between Canada and the USA endorses the status quo as far as energy trade is concerned; but it provides an important guarantee of future access, as far as Canada is concerned. This is especially critical for natural gas and electricity exports, since they are expected to increase. This article will demonstrate that an increase in energy exports benefits not only the energy sector but also provides favourable macroeconomic responses. (author).

  10. 19 CFR 10.763 - Filing of claim for preferential tariff treatment upon importation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... RATE, ETC. United States-Morocco Free Trade Agreement Import Requirements § 10.763 Filing of claim for preferential tariff treatment upon importation. An importer may make a claim for MFTA preferential tariff... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Filing of claim for preferential tariff...

  11. 19 CFR 10.607 - Goods eligible for tariff preference level claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Republic-Central America-United States Free Trade Agreement Tariff Preference Level § 10.607 Goods eligible... applicable conditions for preferential tariff treatment under the CAFTA-DR, other than the condition that they are originating goods. The preferential tariff treatment is limited to the quantities specified...

  12. 19 CFR 10.803 - Filing of claim for preferential tariff treatment upon importation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... RATE, ETC. United States-Bahrain Free Trade Agreement Import Requirements § 10.803 Filing of claim for preferential tariff treatment upon importation. An importer may make a claim for BFTA preferential tariff... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Filing of claim for preferential tariff...

  13. 78 FR 57838 - North American Free Trade Agreement Binational Panel Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-20

    ... International Trade Administration North American Free Trade Agreement Binational Panel Reviews AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section, International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice... to the Decision and Order of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) Binational Panel dated...

  14. The Proposed U.S.-Colombia Free Trade Agreement: Economic and Political Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-16

    most populous country in Latin America, after Brazil and Mexico . Colombia’s economy, the fifth-largest economy in Latin America, is quite small when... Mexico , and Brazil. Colombia accounts for a very small percentage of U.S. trade (0.8% in 2009). Colombia ranks 22nd among U.S. export markets and...President Alvaro Uribe, “Se Hara Todo el Esfuerzo Para Que No Se Le Niegue el TLC a Colombia, Anuncia el Presidente de Colombia en Entrevista a Caracol

  15. Patents, pills and politics: the Australia-United States Free Trade Agreement and the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Ken

    2004-11-08

    There is tension between the need of the pharmaceutical innovator for intellectual property protection and the need of society for equitable and affordable access to innovative drugs. The recent Australia-United States Free Trade Agreement provides a nice illustration of this interplay between patents, pills and politics. This article provides a brief history of patent law as applied to pharmaceuticals, describes how the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme got caught up in AUSFTA negotiations, analyses the clauses that are likely to impact upon the PBS and describes the political process that reviewed and ultimately amended the AUSFTA.

  16. From Idealism to Realism? EU Preferential Trade Agreement Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Garcia

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This article examines how the EU’s ‘conflicted power’ in trade has played out within its preferential trade agreement (PTA strategies with third parties. It does this by providing an overview of how approaches to the EU’s external trade policies have evolved over time, especially since the end of the Cold War. Tracing changes in discourse in the EU’s consolidated trade policy demonstrates how the policy objectives have evolved from what could be characterised as a soft and even normative power to a much more realist one, attempting to safeguard its position in the international economic order. Notwithstanding these changes, explained by a combination of international context and ideational preferences, an underlying overall continuity has remained in terms of the main economic interests to be realised through trade policy, which presents a portrait of the EU as a rational and realist (if sometimes conflicted actor in the global economy.

  17. Legal aspects of Brazilian ethanol and non-tariff barriers to import; Aspectos juridicos relativos ao etanol brasileiro e as barreiras nao-tarifarias a sua importacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavalcante, Hellen Priscilla Marinho

    2010-01-15

    This article presents the main socioeconomic and legal aspects that affect Brazilian ethanol, exposing the context in which the production appeared in the country. Then will discuss the main non-tariff protectionist measures that affect the market for biofuels, explaining about its merits. After exposure of the panorama of the application of protectionist measures on Brazilian ethanol will be presented to the role played by the World Trade Organization - WTO, and its understanding of the classification of ethanol in international trade.

  18. Transatlantic Cooperation in Space: Eu-Canada Free Trade Agreement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luise Weber-Steinhaus

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available National governments are keenly aware of the need for investment in space. Canada, as a formal cooperating state in the European Space Agency (ESA, and Germany, as a leading member state of ESA, are interlinked in Europe’s space endeavours. Beyond ESA, Germany and Canada additionally have a strong history of bilateral cooperation on a range of space projects. This paper discusses the novel interdependencies between clear national and now supranational space policies, using the examples of the Canada-European Union (EU Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement (CETA. The agreement covers most aspects of the EU-Canada bilateral economic relationship and includes space. The paper focuses on international space policies, strategic bilateral co-operation, and technical accomplishments. It takes a closer look at German-Canadian collaboration in space programs and offers some reflection on the effect of both the EU and ESA’S transatlantic involvement in space.

  19. Colombia and the free trade agreement Colombia y el tratado de libre comercio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herrera Valencia Beethoven

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available The Government has stated its intention of making all efforts to enterNAFTA as soon as possible. It wants to widen its markets and gainadvantages for exports. In Congress and public opinion in the United States there is opposition to the idea, based on Colombia's flagrant violations of human rights, and accusations that the drug-traffickers have infiltrated the economy and politics. Curiously, though,Colombian exports have had privileged access to Europe and the United States, but Colombia has not taken advantage of this and the balanceof trade ins negative. The success of integration does not depend one conomic policy alone: social policy must also come into play.El gobierno colombiano ha expresado su intención de orientar todos los esfuerzos por ingresar a Nafta en el menos tiempo posible. Se trata de ampliar el mercado y obtener ventajas para las exportaciones. En el Congreso y en la opinión pública de los Estados Unidos hay conceptos adversos a este ingreso, por las flagrantes violaciones de los derechos humanos y por las denuncias de infiltraciones del narcotráfico en la economía y la política del país. Lo curioso es que en el último lustro, los productos colombianos de exportación han tenido condiciones privilegiadas de acceso a los mercados europeo y estadounidense, pese a ello no se las han sabido aprovechar y nuestra balanza comercial es negativa. El éxito de la integración no depende ya tan solo de políticas económicas, también son esenciales políticas sociales.

  20. Making Sense of the GATS Debate: Semiotic Analysis of the Conflicting Ideas on the Education/Free-Trade Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verger, Antoni

    2011-01-01

    The General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) of the World Trade Organization has generated an intense and passionate debate about the relationship between free-trade and education and, specifically, about the effects of trade liberalization in national education systems. This article explores in detail this debate from a critical discourse…

  1. Making sense of the GATS debate: semiotic analysis of the conflicting ideas on the education/free trade relationship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verger, A.

    2011-01-01

    The General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) of the World Trade Organization has generated an intense and passionate debate about the relationship between free-trade and education and, specifically, about the effects of trade liberalization in national education systems. This article explores

  2. Making sense of the GATS debate: semiotic analysis of the conflicting ideas on the education/free trade relationship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Verger

    2011-01-01

    The General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) of the World Trade Organization has generated an intense and passionate debate about the relationship between free-trade and education and, specifically, about the effects of trade liberalization in national education systems. This article explores i

  3. Bilateralism and free trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Goyal (Sanjeev); S. Joshi

    1999-01-01

    textabstractIn recent years, there has been a great deal of research on the relative merits of multilateralism and bilateralism and their implications for the nature of the trading regime between countries. In this paper we explore the scope of bilateral free-trade agreements as a foundation for

  4. Trans Pacific Stategic Economic Partnership With Japan, South Korea and China Integrate: General Equilibrium Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todsadee Areerat

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The Trans-Pacific Strategic Economic Partnership Agreement (TPP is a high standard and broad based Free Trade Agreement that aims to integrate the economies of the Asia-Pacific region. Recently, the US is pressing Japan to join the group. Japan is considering joining the TPP because of the dual considerations of its own economy and the political situation in East Asia. While, South Korea has yet to agree to join the TPP over concerns that their agriculture will be seriously affected. In addition, Japan and the US are employing both military and economic strategies to isolate China. However, China has contacted those already participating in TPP negotiations and shares some common views with Japan and South Korea on agricultural issues. Therefore, in this study, we attempt to assess the possibility of reaching full trade liberalization or trade creation through the TPP with the addition of new member countries including Japan, Korea and China. Approach: A Computable General Equilibrium (CGE or Global Trade Analysis Project (GTAP model is used to evaluate the economic effects of a TPP agreement among TPP countries with trade creation. In this study, seven cases were created to distinguish the welfare and trade effects of policy changes. Results: We found that the new member countries among TPP countries with East Asia countries including Japan, South Korea and China would benefit from the FTA among member countries. They gain much more from the real GDP and welfare than the TPP agreement, particularly Vietnam and Korea. This is particularly a fact for trade in the meat product sectors between TPP with Japan, Korea and China, which most of them gain benefit. Conclusion: Therefore, the TPP would benefit both economies and welfare with the eliminate tariff rate.

  5. Trade Barrier Elimination, Economics of Scale and Market Competition: Computable General Equilibrium Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widyastutik Widyastutik

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The ASEAN and its dialogue partner countries agreed to reduce trade barriers in the services sector, one of which is sea transport services. The purpose of this study is to estimate the equivalent tax of non-tariff barriers in the sea transport services. Besides that, this study is going to analyze the economic impacts of the regulatory barriers elimination in the sea transport services of ASEAN and its dialogue partner countries. Using the gravity model, it can be identified that trade barriers of sea transport services sector of ASEAN and dialogue partner countries are still relatively high. Additionally, by adopting IC-IRTS model in Global CGE Model (GTAP, the simulation results show consistent results with the theory of pro-competitive effects. The greater gain from trade is obtained in the CGE model assuming IC-IRTS compared to PC-CRTS. China gains a greater benefit that is indicated by the highest increase in welfare and GDP followed by Japan and AustraliaDOI: 10.15408/sjie.v6i2.5279

  6. On strategic transformation of international trade of China from perspective of amendment of Tariff Act of 1930 of USA%从美国修订《1930年关税法》看我国外贸战略转型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟祥铭; 李德军; 邱爱莲

    2012-01-01

    In March 2012, USA Senate passed the amendment of Tariff Act of 1930, which aims to impose countervailing duties on China, Vietnam and other "non-market economy countries". In recent years, the trade disputes between China and USA are in a period of higher incidence, and the financial crisis exacerbates trade frictions of the exports of China. The present mode of growth should be changed as soon as possible, the value addition of products should be increased, the path dependence of export on fewer countries should be reduced and diversified markets should be explored, and the integration of domestic and international trade should be promoted in order to achieve the strategic transformation andupgrading of international trade of China.%2012年3月,美国参议院通过修订《1930年关税法》的法案,以便对中国、越南等"非市场经济国家"征收反补贴税。近几年,中美之间的贸易争端处于高发期,金融危机加剧了我国外贸出口中遭受的贸易摩擦。应尽快转变原有增长方式,提高产品附加值、降低对少数国家的路径依赖,开拓多元化市场、促进内外贸一体化,以实现我国外贸战略的转型升级。

  7. MEASURES APPLIED TO AGREEMENTS SPS AND TBT ON BRAZILIAN EXPORTS OF TOBACCO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Otávio de Freitas

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to analyze the effect of non-tariff measures, specifically the Sanitary and Phytosanitary - SPS and Technical Barriers to Trade - TBT, on brazilian exports of tobacco and if this effect remained in the periods following the issuance of notifications. For that a gravity model was estimated using a sample of 89 importer’s brazilian tobacco between 1997 to 2011. The method used in the estimation of equations was the model Poisson-Pseudo Maximum Likehood (PPML. The results show that the sanitary and phytosanitary measures (SPS affect the international flow of trade in tobacco negatively. Furthermore, was verified that this effect persisted during the periods after the issuance notification, and exporting companies can take up to 2 years to adjust the requirements set. Among the objectives of SPS notifications, most are related to measures for the protection of human health and protection of the plant, which may explain the greater difficulty of adaptation, since they are requirements that require large investments. The technical measures (TBT were not statically significant, confirming a non-tariff such notifications on international trade in tobacco. Although most of the notifications to tobacco are associated with technical measures, the results indicated that they have not configured as barriers to trade in tobacco. This may suggest that the requirements referred to them, which was mostly related to labeling and / or packaging, were attended by Brazil without difficulty. Thus, it becomes important to include questions concerning the regulation of these measures in the discussions and decision-making processes of companies exporting tobacco. In terms of government actions, it would be interesting to establishment or enhancement of policies to increase the informative character of health measures, particularly those involving issues related to human health and plant protection, in order to reduce the time that exporters

  8. NAFTA and occupational health: a Canadian perspective. North American Free Trade Agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, C

    1997-01-01

    In Canada, health and safety laws are built around three worker rights which are not guaranteed by law in the United States: the right to participate in joint management-worker health and safety committees; the right to know about workplace hazards which requires consultation with the joint committee about the education and training programs; and the right to refuse hazardous work. In the context of NAFTA, health, safety and environmental laws and their enforcement, as well as the workers' compensation system, are all under attack by business leaders who cite the need to deregulate and privatize Canadian institutions in order to harmonize with the United States. The counteroffensive by the trade unions and their allies in the social justice movement is described; the struggle continues.

  9. 48 CFR 52.225-3 - Buy American Act-Free Trade Agreements-Israeli Trade Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.225-3 Buy American Act—Free Trade Agreements—Israeli Trade Act. As prescribed in 25.1101(b)(1)(i), insert the following clause: Buy American Act—Free Trade Agreements—Israeli... Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Morocco, Nicaragua, Oman, Peru, or Singapore. Free Trade Agreement...

  10. Assessment of individual agreements with repeated measurements based on generalized confidence intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroz, Jorge; Burdick, Richard K

    2009-01-01

    Individual agreement between two measurement systems is determined using the total deviation index (TDI) or the coverage probability (CP) criteria as proposed by Lin (2000) and Lin et al. (2002). We used a variance component model as proposed by Choudhary (2007). Using the bootstrap approach, Choudhary (2007), and generalized confidence intervals, we construct bounds on TDI and CP. A simulation study was conducted to assess whether the bounds maintain the stated type I error probability of the test. We also present a computational example to demonstrate the statistical methods described in the paper.

  11. Vietnam and ASEAN: Should They Integrate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    into ASEAN and its trade liberalization policies. Despite Vietnam’s compliance with the Common Effective Preferential Tariff (CEPT) Scheme in the... Preferential Tariff (CEPT) Scheme in the ASEAN Free Trade Area (AFTA), Vietnam’s use of non-tariff barriers conflicts with ASEAN policies. Vietnam uses...a full member of ASEAN, Vietnam agreed to fulfill the mandates, policies and agreements of the ASEAN Free Trade Area (AFTA). 6 AFTA facilitates

  12. Environmental challenges and opportunities of the evolving North American electricity market : NAFTA provisions and the electricity sector[Secretariat report to Council under article 13 of the North American agreement on environmental cooperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horlick, G.; Schuchhardt, C. [O' Melveny and Myers LLP, Washington, DC (United States); Mann, H. [International Inst. for Sustainable Development, Winnipeg, MB (Canada)

    2002-06-01

    In this background paper, the authors examined the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) from the perspective of the electricity sector, especially trade in electricity. The authors only identified those rules that have relevance to the topic at hand; they did not interpret the rules. NAFTA rules and environmental regulations, as well as the possible links between them were examined in the first section of the paper, while the relationship between NAFTA Chapter Eleven: Investment Provisions and environmental regulations and standards was dealt with in the second section. The twelve committees and nineteen working groups of NAFTA were listed in annex one, as well as the one council. Annex two discussed tariff reduction on capital equipment. refs., tabs.

  13. 78 FR 73234 - Determination of Trade Surplus in Certain Sugar and Syrup Goods and Sugar-Containing Products of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-05

    ... preferential tariff treatment under (i) the United States-Chile Free Trade Agreement (Chile FTA); (ii) the United States-Morocco Free Trade Agreement (Morocco FTA); (iii) the Dominican Republic-Central America- United States Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA-DR); (iv) the United States- Peru Trade Promotion...

  14. Steepest Ascent Tariff Reforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis; Woodland, Alan D.

    2006-01-01

    a theoretical concept where the focus is upon the size of welfare gains accruing from tariff reforms rather than simply with the direction of welfare effects that has been the concern of theliterature.JEL code: F15.Keywords: Steepest ascent tariff reforms; piecemeal tariff policy; welfare; market access; small......This paper introduces the concept of a steepest ascent tariff reform for a small open economy. By construction, it is locally optimal in that it yields the highest gain in utility of any feasible tariff reform vector of the same length. Accordingly, it provides a convenient benchmark...... existing reforms are locally optimal, provide geometric illustrations and compare welfare effectiveness of reforms using numerical examples. Moreover, being a general concept, we apply it to the issue of market access and examine its implications. Overall, the paper's contribution lies in presenting...

  15. Preferential Trade Agreements Harm the Third Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Mossay, Pascal; Tabuchi, Takatoshi

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we study market liberalization in an imperfectly competitive environment in the presence of price effects. For this purpose, we build a three-country model of international trade under monopolistic competition with endogenous prices and wages. The neighboring effect translates how the size effect propagates across countries. When some country increases in size, its nominal wage increases, as well as that in a small and near country, while that in a large and distant country fal...

  16. Preferential trade agreements harm third countries

    OpenAIRE

    Mossay, Pascal; Tabuchi, Takatoshi

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we study market liberalization in an imperfectly competitive environment in the presence of price effects. For this purpose, we build a three-country model of international trade under monopolistic competition with endogenous prices and wages. The neighboring effect translates how the size effect propagates across countries. When some country increases in size, its relative wage increases, as well as that in a small and near country, while that in a large and distant country fa...

  17. The North American Free Trade Agreement. Headline Series No. 299.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grayson, George W.

    This document discusses the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) as a debate over the wisdom of opening the southern United States border to the free flow of goods and services between the United States and Mexico. The book is divided into six chapters. The first is a basic introduction to the development of the idea of a free trade…

  18. Child Labor and Trade Liberalization in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kis-Katos, Krisztina; Sparrow, Robert

    2011-01-01

    We examine the effects of trade liberalization on child work in Indonesia, identifying geographical differences in the effects of trade policy through district level exposure to reduction in import tariff barriers, from 1993 to 2002. The results suggest that increased exposure to trade liberalization is associated with a decrease in child work…

  19. Child Labor and Trade Liberalization in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kis-Katos, Krisztina; Sparrow, Robert

    2011-01-01

    We examine the effects of trade liberalization on child work in Indonesia, identifying geographical differences in the effects of trade policy through district level exposure to reduction in import tariff barriers, from 1993 to 2002. The results suggest that increased exposure to trade liberalization is associated with a decrease in child work…

  20. The welfare impact of a free trade agreement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Sandrey, Ron; Vink, Nick

    2012-01-01

    The African market has become increasingly important to South Africa’s agricultural trade. Exports have been increasing rapidly, although imports have not kept pace. This pattern is also evident in the general trade in manufactured goods. The purpose of this article is to look at the best estimate...... conditiuons that will prevail with respect to trade in agricultural and manufactured goods between South Africa (SACU) and the member countries of SADC, the East African Comminuity and COMESA. The analysis is conducted using the GTAP database and its associated general equilibrium model. The results show...

  1. The North American Free Trade Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-02-25

    that would have continued 3 Carlos Salinas de Gortari , Interview, NEW PERSPECTIVES QUARTERLY, Winter 1991, pp. 4-9. 4 Various authors presenting...vast US and Canadian consumer markets and to attract badly needed foreign capital. In this sense, the agreement is the crown jewel in President Salinas ...President Salinas recognizes the importance of the agreement as a means to consolidate gains made to date, thereby providing the "permanence

  2. The Influence of"Carbon Tariffs"on Trade in Business English Negotiations%浅析商务英语谈判中“碳关税”对贸易的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李识予

    2014-01-01

    In the process of the globalization, business negotiation is one of the most important communicating methods. The final result of negotiation has a great influence on both benefits of nations and corporations. As the international current language, business English is the bridge in mutual negotiation. In order to realize set goals and defend the legitimate benefits of the whole country, representatives need to acquire all kinds of strategies and skills. This thesis focuses on the emissions of greenhouse which have emerged in the economic development based on the example of carbon tariffs. The fact that many countries incline to take steps to impose carbon tariffs brings us the mixed result of opportunities and challenges. Therefore, as the largest developing country, it is necessary for us to utilize appropriate and effective business negotiations skills. Only in this way can we eliminate contradictions and balance benefits to the largest extent.%在全球经济一体化的进程中,对外贸易谈判是最重要的沟通交流手段之一,谈判结果关系到国家和企业的切身利益。作为国际通用语言---商务英语是双方在谈判中沟通的媒介,国家及企业谈判代表必须熟练掌握并灵活运用商务英语的各种策略及技巧,以便实现谈判目标并且维护国家的正当利益。此文以“碳关税”对中国出口贸易的影响为例,聚焦了在发展经济中出现的温室气体排放问题。各国开始纷纷在碳关税问题上动作,国际上一些国家开始征收碳关税,此举既给中国出口贸易带来了机遇也给其带来了严峻的挑战。作为发展中国家,我们需要运用恰当有效的商务谈判技巧来最大限度的消除矛盾和平衡各方利益。

  3. 48 CFR 252.225-7020 - Trade Agreements Certificate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... country end product, nondesignated country end product, qualifying country end product, and U.S.-made end... are U.S.-made, qualifying country, or designated country end products unless— (i) There are no offers... identification of country of origin. (1) For all line items subject to the Trade Agreements clause of......

  4. The Elusive China-Japan-South Korea Free Trade Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    institutional underpinning to NEA regionalism.50 Specifically, the GATT/WTO architecture provides China- Japan -South Korea with self-satisfying...normative glue between China and Japan that is instilled by a liberal institutional underpinning.350 Specifically, the WTO architecture provides China... JAPAN -SOUTH KOREA FREE TRADE AGREEMENT by Jonathan D. Greenberg September 2015 Thesis Advisor: Michael Glosny Second Reader: Naazneen

  5. 75 FR 82375 - North American Free Trade Agreement, Article 1904 NAFTA Panel Reviews; Request for Panel Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-30

    ... International Trade Administration North American Free Trade Agreement, Article 1904 NAFTA Panel Reviews... American Free Trade Agreement. Second and Third Requests for Panel Review were filed by GD Affiliates S. de.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Chapter 19 of the North American Free Trade Agreement (``Agreement'') established a...

  6. Processing Trade Tariff Reductions Lead to a Decline in Copper Smelting Enterprises’ Export Cost

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>The Notice of the Ministry of Finance and the State Administration of Taxation on Labor VAT and Consumption Tax Policy on Export Goods(Cai Shui 〔 2012 〕 39) was released. Three percent consolidated tax on copper concentrate processing export trade under the proc-

  7. A Comparison Between Chinese and Foreign Power Tariffs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Ying

    2007-01-01

    @@ With deepened reform of power system and marketization, power tariff has more and more become a topic of discussion, and furthermore, that the power tariff in China is high or low, reasonable or unreasonable is a top hot spot of the society.

  8. 7 CFR 735.107 - Warehouse charges and tariffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Warehouse charges and tariffs. 735.107 Section 735.107... AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS FOR WAREHOUSES REGULATIONS FOR THE UNITED STATES WAREHOUSE ACT Warehouse Licensing § 735.107 Warehouse charges and tariffs. (a) A warehouse operator must not make any unreasonable...

  9. The difference between energy consumption and energy cost: Modelling energy tariff structures for water resource recovery facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aymerich, I; Rieger, L; Sobhani, R; Rosso, D; Corominas, Ll

    2015-09-15

    The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the importance of incorporating more realistic energy cost models (based on current energy tariff structures) into existing water resource recovery facilities (WRRFs) process models when evaluating technologies and cost-saving control strategies. In this paper, we first introduce a systematic framework to model energy usage at WRRFs and a generalized structure to describe energy tariffs including the most common billing terms. Secondly, this paper introduces a detailed energy cost model based on a Spanish energy tariff structure coupled with a WRRF process model to evaluate several control strategies and provide insights into the selection of the contracted power structure. The results for a 1-year evaluation on a 115,000 population-equivalent WRRF showed monthly cost differences ranging from 7 to 30% when comparing the detailed energy cost model to an average energy price. The evaluation of different aeration control strategies also showed that using average energy prices and neglecting energy tariff structures may lead to biased conclusions when selecting operating strategies or comparing technologies or equipment. The proposed framework demonstrated that for cost minimization, control strategies should be paired with a specific optimal contracted power. Hence, the design of operational and control strategies must take into account the local energy tariff.

  10. 76 FR 50285 - Fiscal Year 2012 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2012 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar and Sugar-Containing Products AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative... quotas for imported raw cane sugar, refined and specialty sugar and sugar-containing products. DATES...

  11. 75 FR 50796 - Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-17

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar, and Sugar-Containing Products AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative... quotas for imported raw cane sugar, refined and specialty sugar, and sugar-containing products. DATES...

  12. 75 FR 53013 - Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-30

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar, and Sugar-containing Products; Revision AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade... allocations of raw cane sugar, refined and special sugar, and sugar-containing products. USTR is revising the...

  13. The Countermeasures of Speeding up the Trade Development between Qingdao and ASEAN%加快青岛市与东盟贸易发展的对策研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡苏文; 孙玉洁

    2011-01-01

    The start of China-ASEAN Free Trade Area has given opportunities for the further development of Qingdao and the ASEAN trade.In recent years,Qingdao has made great achievements on ASEAN trade,but there are still some problems.In the face of the implementation of preferential tariffs in China-ASEAN trade area,foreign trade enterprises in Qingdao should increase the utilization rates on the Free Trade Area agreement,and develop competitive industries to achieve economic complementation,expand investment and take other measures to accelerate trade with ASEAN.%中国-东盟自由贸易区的启动,为青岛与东盟贸易进一步发展带来了机遇。近几年青岛与

  14. Cyprus Permanent Secretary for the Planning Bureau A. Moleskis signing the Protocol to the Cooperation Agreement between CERN and the Government of the Republic of Cyprus with Director-General R. Aymar on 30th July 2007

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2007-01-01

    Cyprus Permanent Secretary for the Planning Bureau A. Moleskis signing the Protocol to the Cooperation Agreement between CERN and the Government of the Republic of Cyprus with Director-General R. Aymar on 30th July 2007

  15. Regulatory on the corporate social responsibility in the context of sustainable development by mandatory in the world trade organization law perspective (case study in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SH. M. Hum. TAUFIQURRAHMAN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Regulatory on the Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR by mandatory in Indonesia as stipulated in Article 74 of Law No. 40/2007 on the Limited Liability Company (hereafter the Company Law raises a contradiction. Those who agree argue that the company is not solely for profit, but more than that are participating in social issues and the preservation of the environment within the framework of sustainable development. Conversely, those who disagree view that social issues and the environment are the full responsibility of state. The involvement of a corporation in social and environmental activities is voluntary. Verdict of the Indonesian Constitutional Court in case no. 53/PUU-VI / / 2008 dated 13 April 2009 which rejected a requesting of material test of the Article 74 paragraph (1, (2 and (3 of the Company Law confirms the existence of the CSR by mandatory in international trade traffic today. The analytical results indicates that mandatory CSR regulation in the Company Law is not a form of a state intervention to the private activities. In addition, the arrangement is not contrary to the principles of free trade within the framework of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT / World Trade Organization (WTO.

  16. Alberta: evaluating a decade's experience with the Canada - U.S. Free Trade Agreement (FTA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chambers, E.J.; Mirus, R.; Scholnick, B. [Western Centre for Economic Research, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    1999-07-01

    With a decade of experience available, there is a period of sufficient duration to allow a broad assessment of the Canada-US Free Trade Agreement's (FTA) impact on the Alberta economy. The disposition of three classes of exports - energy, agricultural and non-energy/non-agricultural to individual US states is examined. Besides creating a new range of market opportunities for Alberta companies, the FTA helped diversification within the energy industry by guaranteeing US market access for natural gas producers. The major sections of the report deal with: the FTA experience from 1988 to 1998, exports, overview of the Alberta export sector, employment variability in Alberta, inward foreign direct investment since the FTA: data and implications and an assessment of the impact of tariff reductions under the FTA. Alberta's international export sector increased over this period in size and in relative importance. Goods exported to foreign countries as a share of the provincial Gross Domestic Product rose from a 1/4 in 1988 to 1/3 in 1998. This absolute and relative growth in the export sector coincided with the rise in the importance of shipments to the U.S. market.

  17. 77 FR 17353 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; New Designated Country (Armenia) and Other Trade Agreements Updates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION 48 CFR Part 52 RIN 9000-AM16..., Malta, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain,...

  18. Power Tariff Reform and Energy Constraint in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Power tariff reform and power restructuring should be coordinately advanced. In the period of the power tariff reform, attention should be fully given to possible demand growth, investment characteristics and environment pressure when taking transitional measures. In the stage, focal point of the reform is to establish a rational system of sales price to power network. Moreover, it is necessary to raise the electricity price for household consumption. The highly-centralized system of state-owned power enterprises is the root-cause of some basic problems in the power industry. The system would cause a great power overproduction, squeeze out private and foreign investment and constrain efficiency improvement. Effective energy strategy and planning are a crux of dealing with crises of energy security. China needs a state-class energy administration body and should make massive research on energy economics.

  19. 48 CFR 52.225-5 - Trade Agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Agreement country (Aruba, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia... Taipei))”, or United Kingdom); (2) A Free Trade Agreement country (Australia, Bahrain, Canada, Chile, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Morocco, Nicaragua, Oman,...

  20. An Inconvenient Tariff

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NICOLAS; LORIS

    2009-01-01

    When it comes to carbon tariffs, China shouldn’t buy what the United States is selling The current cap-and-trade debate is generating a lot of noise in the United States. Much of that noise is coming from the halls of Congress, where phone lines are ringing off the hook from citizens expressing their

  1. 78 FR 45181 - North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews: Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ... International Trade Administration North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel..., Washington, DC 20230, (202) 482-5438. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Chapter 19 of the North American Free Trade..., International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: On June 24, 2013, a Notice of Motion to...

  2. 77 FR 49781 - North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews: Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-17

    ... International Trade Administration North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel..., Washington, DC 20230, (202) 482-5438. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Chapter 19 of the North American Free Trade..., International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: On August 9, 2012, a Motion to Terminate...

  3. Policy of Tariff Protection in the Light of WTO Accession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc. Burim Gashi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Tariff rates are crucial instrument of trade policy. This paper covers several important issues related to the reforms of this area. First part of the paper explains the key features of tariffs as protection instrument: different policy takers and opposite economic interests; benefits and adverse effects; alternative measures of protection; dependence of tariff policy on the development priorities and the welfare effects, etc. This document explains main World Trade Organization requirements concerning protection policy such as primary role of tariffs, restricted set of non-tariff instruments, limited scope of safeguard measures, comparison on the legal development in the field until now, and an indication of further legislation changes necessary in the period of adjustment. It also gives main elements of the customs-reform strategy: choice and concentration of goals and priorities; criteria for preparation of the alternative scenarios; solving convergence problems; defining conditionality for alternative solutions and interdependence of relevant externalities. The goal of the paper is to give recommendation for trade policy reform in our country necessarily to become member of World Trade Organization.

  4. Optimal decisions of countries with carbon tax and carbon tariff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumei Hou

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Reducing carbon emission has been the core problem of controlling global warming and climate deterioration recently. This paper focuses on the optimal carbon taxation policy levied by countries and the impact on firms’ optimal production decisions. Design/methodology/approach: This paper uses a two-stage game theory model to analyze the impact of carbon tariff and tax. Numerical simulation is used to supplement the theoretical analysis. Findings: Results derived from the paper indicate that the demand in an unstable market is significantly affected by environmental damage level. Carbon tariff is a policy-oriented tax while the carbon tax is a market-oriented one. Comprehensive carbon taxation policy benefit developed countries and basic policy is more suitable for developing countries. Research limitations/implications: In this research, we do not consider random demand and asymmetric information, which may not well suited the reality. Originality/value: This work provides a different perspective in analyzing the impact of carbon tax and tariff. It is the first study to consider two consuming market and the strategic game between two countries. Different international status of countries considered in the paper is also a unique point.

  5. 77 FR 27548 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Free Trade Agreement-Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-10

    ... 9000-AM24 Federal Acquisition Regulation; Free Trade Agreement--Colombia AGENCY: Department of Defense... Acquisition Regulation (FAR) to implement the United States- Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement. This Trade... eligible products and services from Colombia. DATES: Effective Date: May 15, 2012. Comment Date:...

  6. 75 FR 54594 - North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904; Binational Panel Reviews: Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-08

    ... International Trade Administration North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904; Binational Panel..., International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of Completion of Panel Review of the International Trade Administration's final determination of Light-Walled Rectangular Pipe and Tube from Mexico...

  7. The Impact of Utility Tariff Evolution on Behind-the-Meter PV Adoption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, Wesley J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gagnon, Pieter J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Frew, Bethany A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-18

    This analysis uses a new method to link the NREL Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) capacity expansion model with the NREL distributed generation market demand model (dGen) to explore the impact that the evolution of retail electricity tariffs can have on the adoption of distributed photovoltaics (DPV). The evolution most notably takes the form of decreased mid-day electricity costs, as low-cost PV reduces the marginal cost of electricity during those hours and the changes are subsequently communicated to electricity consumers through tariffs. We find that even under the low PV prices of the new SunShot targets the financial performance of DPV under evolved tariffs still motivates behind-the-meter adoption, despite significant reduction in the costs of electricity during afternoon periods driven by deployment of cheap utility-scale PV. The amount of DPV in 2050 in these low-cost futures ranged from 206 GW to 263 GW, a 13-fold and 16-fold increase over 2016 adoption levels respectively. From a utility planner's perspective, the representation of tariff evolution has noteworthy impacts on forecasted DPV adoption in scenarios with widespread time-of-use tariffs. Scenarios that projected adoption under a portfolio of time-of-use tariffs, but did not represent the evolution of those tariffs, predicted up to 36 percent more DPV in 2050, compared to scenarios that did not represent that evolution. Lastly, we find that a reduction in DPV deployment resulting from evolved tariffs had a negligible impact on the total generation from PV - both utility-scale and distributed - in the scenarios we examined. Any reduction in DPV generation was replaced with utility-scale PV generation, to arrive at the quantity that makes up the least-cost portfolio.

  8. Climate policy and dependence on traded carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Robbie M.; Davis, Steven J.; Peters, Glen P.

    2013-09-01

    A growing number of countries regulate carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions occurring within their borders, but due to rapid growth in international trade, the products consumed in many of the same countries increasingly rely on coal, oil and gas extracted and burned in other countries where CO2 is not regulated. As a consequence, existing national and regional climate policies may be growing less effective every year. Furthermore, countries that are dependent on imported products or fossil fuels are more exposed to energy and climate policies in other countries. We show that the combined international trade in carbon (as fossil fuels and also embodied in products) increased from 12.3 GtCO2 (55% of global emissions) in 1997 to 17.6 GtCO2 (60%) in 2007 (growing at 3.7% yr-1). Within this, trade in fossil fuels was larger (10.8 GtCO2 in 2007) than trade in embodied carbon (6.9 GtCO2), but the latter grew faster (4.6% yr-1 compared with 3.1% yr-1 for fuels). Most major economies demonstrate increased dependence on traded carbon, either as exports or as imports. Because energy is increasingly embodied in internationally traded products, both as fossil fuels and as products, energy and climate policies in other countries may weaken domestic climate policy via carbon leakage and mask energy security issues.

  9. ASSESSING THE EFFECTS OF NAFTA ON CANADA/US AGRICULTURAL TRADE

    OpenAIRE

    Deng, Hugh; Nzuma, Jonathan M.

    2005-01-01

    While there seems to be an agreement that Canada-US Free Trade Agreement (CUSTA)/North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) have benefited member countries, some analysts have argued that the agreements had little effect on the bilateral Canada/US agricultural trade as many other factors have contributed to the increased trade flows. Results from this study reveal that the aggregate bilateral agricultural trade flows have generally experienced a steady growth since the implementation of NAFT...

  10. ESO and NSF Sign Agreement on ALMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-02-01

    Green Light for World's Most Powerful Radio Observatory On February 25, 2003, the European Southern Observatory (ESO) and the US National Science Foundation (NSF) are signing a historic agreement to construct and operate the world's largest and most powerful radio telescope, operating at millimeter and sub-millimeter wavelength. The Director General of ESO, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky, and the Director of the NSF, Dr. Rita Colwell, act for their respective organizations. Known as the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA), the future facility will encompass sixty-four interconnected 12-meter antennae at a unique, high-altitude site at Chajnantor in the Atacama region of northern Chile. ALMA is a joint project between Europe and North America. In Europe, ESO is leading on behalf of its ten member countries and Spain. In North America, the NSF also acts for the National Research Council of Canada and executes the project through the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) operated by Associated Universities, Inc. (AUI). The conclusion of the ESO-NSF Agreement now gives the final green light for the ALMA project. The total cost of approximately 650 million Euro (or US Dollars) is shared equally between the two partners. Dr. Cesarsky is excited: "This agreement signifies the start of a great project of contemporary astronomy and astrophysics. Representing Europe, and in collaboration with many laboratories and institutes on this continent, we together look forward towards wonderful research projects. With ALMA we may learn how the earliest galaxies in the Universe really looked like, to mention but one of the many eagerly awaited opportunities with this marvellous facility". "With this agreement, we usher in a new age of research in astronomy" says Dr. Colwell. "By working together in this truly global partnership, the international astronomy community will be able to ensure the research capabilities needed to meet the long-term demands of our scientific enterprise, and

  11. Welfare Effects of Tariff Reduction Formulas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guldager, Jan G.; Schröder, Philipp J.H.

    . This paper presents a two country intra-industry trade model with heterogeneous firms subject to high and low tariffs. We examine the welfare effects of applying three different tariff reduction formulas proposed in the literature i) a proportional cut, ii) the Swiss formula and iii) a compression formula...

  12. Non-Tariff Barriers and Factors that influence The Indonesian Cocoa Export to Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raditya Anggoro

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study are: first, to analyse the competitiveness of Indonesian cocoa in the European Unio market; second, to analyse the competitiveness and the factors that influence the Indonesian cocoa exports to the EU market; third, to calculate the non-tariff barriers imposed by the European Union market for Indonesian cocoa. Methods used are the RCA index and gravity models. The differences between actual and potential trade flows are indicated as non-tariff barriers. Results of the calculation RCA is showed that all destinations of a cocoa export have a high competitiveness (RCA> 1 but tend to decrease. Results of the estimate gravity models show the factors influencing the Indonesian cocoa exports are the real per capita GDP of Indonesia and the destination country, CPI of destination countries, the economic distance, exchange rates, and tariff. The result of non-tariff barriers indicated that the Netherlands is the state which has the largest non-tariff barriers among the most other EU countriesDOI:  10.15408/sjie.v5i1.3131 

  13. 76 FR 30499 - To Modify the Rules of Origin for the United States-Singapore Free Trade Agreement, and for Other...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-25

    ... 8682 of May 23, 2011 To Modify the Rules of Origin for the United States-Singapore Free Trade Agreement..., 2003, the President entered into the United States-Singapore Free Trade Agreement (USSFTA). The USSFTA was approved by the Congress in section 101(a) of the United States-Singapore Free Trade Agreement...

  14. 76 FR 4633 - North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-26

    ... International Trade Administration North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section, International Trade Administration, Department... Free-Trade Agreement (``Agreement'') establishes a mechanism to replace domestic judicial review of...

  15. 76 FR 56156 - North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-12

    ... International Trade Administration North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section, International Trade Administration, Department.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Chapter 19 of the North American Free-Trade Agreement (``Agreement'') establishes a...

  16. 77 FR 74174 - North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-13

    ... International Trade Administration North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section, International Trade Administration, Department... American Free-Trade Agreement (``Agreement'') establishes a mechanism to replace domestic judicial review...

  17. 77 FR 65864 - North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-31

    ... International Trade Administration North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section, International Trade Administration, Department... Free-Trade Agreement (``Agreement'') establishes a mechanism to replace domestic judicial review of...

  18. 78 FR 60191 - United States-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    ... Accounting, Customs duties and inspection, Financial and accounting procedures, Reporting and recordkeeping.... 12-16, to implement the preferential tariff treatment and other customs-related provisions of the... other customs-related provisions of the CTPA and the Act. Please refer to those documents for...

  19. 48 CFR 52.225-11 - Buy American Act-Construction Materials under Trade Agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Government Procurement Agreement country (Aruba, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Cyprus, Czech Republic... United Kingdom); (2) A Free Trade Agreement country (Australia, Bahrain, Canada, Chile, Costa Rica... Officer has determined that the WTO GPA and all the Free Trade Agreements except the Bahrain FTA, NAFTA...

  20. 78 FR 63052 - United States-Panama Trade Promotion Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    ... truthfulness of information and documents submitted in support of a claim for preferential tariff treatment... truthfulness of the claim and of all the information and data contained in the certification provided for in... the truthfulness of the information contained in those documents. When a certification prepared by an...