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Sample records for general 4-week toxicity

  1. [Toxicity studies of landiolol hydrochloride (ONO-1101) (2). 4-week repeated dose intravenous toxicity study in rats with 4-week recovery test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, K; Yanagi, H; Shimizu, K; Sakai, M; Nishibata, K; Oida, H; Shinomiya, K; Suzuki, Y; Yonezawa, H; Fujita, T

    1997-12-01

    4-week repeated dose toxicity study with 4-week recovery test of landiolol hydrochloride (ONO-1101), a novel ultra short acting beta-blocker, was conducted in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. ONO-1101 was administered intravenously to rats of both sexes at a dose level of 0 (control), 12.5, 25, 50 or 100 mg/kg/day. In the 100 mg/kg/day group, bradypnea or dyspnea was seen in all animals, pale in ear, eye and foot, tremor, reddish lacrimation and loss of righting reflex were also observed in some animals right after administration, and then those signs disappeared within 1 min after administration. During the treatment period, 3/20 animals of each sex in the 100 mg/kg/day showed clonic convulsion and died within 2 min after administration. No clinical changes were seen in the 50 mg/kg/day group or lower. Histopathological findings showed atrophy of the submaxillary gland in females and vessel-wall thickening and perivascular fibrosis of the injection site (tail) in both sexes at 100 mg/kg/day, however those changes were reversible. ONO-1101 did not effect on body weight, food consumption, ophthalmology, urinalysis, hematology, blood chemistry, organ weights or necropsy at any doses. These results indicate that the no-adverse-effect level of ONO-1101 in rats is 50 mg/kg/day for both sexes in this study.

  2. A 4-Week Repeated-Dose Oral Toxicity Study of Bojungikgi-Tang in Crl:CD Sprague Dawley Rats

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    Sae-Rom Yoo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional herbal medicines have been used for centuries in Asian countries. However, recent studies have led to increasing concerns about the safety and toxicity of herbal prescriptions. Bojungikgi-tang (BJIGT, a herbal decoction, has been used in Korea to improve physical strength. To establish the safety information, BJIGT water extract was evaluated in a 4-week repeated-dose oral toxicity test in Crl:CD Sprague Dawley rats. BJIGT was orally administered in daily doses of 0, 500, 1000, and 2000 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks via oral gavage in male and female rats. We examined the mortality, clinical signs, body weight change, food intake, organ weights, hematology, serum biochemistry, and urinalysis parameters. No significant changes were observed in mortality, clinical sings, body weight, food intake, organ weights, hematology, serum biochemistry, and urinalysis parameters between the control group and the BJIGT-treated groups in the rats of both sexes. The results indicate that BJIGT did not induce toxic effects at a dose level up to 2000 mg/kg in rats. Thus, this concentration is considered the nonobservable effect dose in rats and is appropriate for a 13-week subchronic toxicity study.

  3. Collaborative work to evaluate toxicity on male reproductive organs by repeated dose studies in rats 22). Effects of 2- and 4-week administration of theobromine on the testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funabashi, H; Fujioka, M; Kohchi, M; Tateishi, Y; Matsuoka, N

    2000-10-01

    The effects of theobromine, a xanthine derivative, on the testis were compared between rats dosed for 2 and 4 weeks to determine whether a 2-week dosing period is long enough to detect toxicity. Theobromine was administered orally to male Sprague-Dawley rats at dose levels of 250 and 500 mg/kg for 2 weeks starting at the age of 6 or 8 weeks, and for 4 weeks from the age of 6 weeks. Histopathological examination of reproductive organs revealed toxic findings in the testis at 500 mg/kg after 2 weeks of dosing at both ages, and at 250 and 500 mg/kg after 4 weeks of dosing. The primary findings were degeneration/necrosis and desquamation of spermatids and spermatocytes, vacuolization of seminiferous tubules, and multinucleated giant cell formation. These findings were present mainly in stages I-VI and XII-XIV. From these results, it is concluded that the toxic effects of theobromine on the testis can be detected by repeated dosing for 2 weeks as well as for 4 weeks.

  4. Modified Suanzaorentang Had the Treatment Effect for Generalized Anxiety Disorder for the First 4 Weeks of Paroxetine Medication: A Pragmatic Randomized Controlled Study

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    Ming-Fen Song

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Paroxetine does not show satisfactory therapeutic effect for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD patients for the first 2–4 weeks of medication. Diazepam is always concurrently used although it has some shortcomings such as physical dependence and withdrawal reactions. In this study, we aimed to identify whether modified Suanzaorentang (MSZRT, a combined Chinese formula including Suanzaorentang (SZRT and Zhizichitang (ZZCT, could control the anxiety of GAD for the first 4 weeks of paroxetine medication. Methods. 156 GAD patients were randomized to the treatment of paroxetine, paroxetine-diazepam, or paroxetine-MSZRT for 4 weeks. Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAMA Test and Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS Test were determined each week as the evaluation of clinical efficacy. Adverse events (AEs were also closely observed by performing the Treatment Emergent Symptom Scale (TESS Test. Results. Both paroxetine-MSZRT and paroxetine-diazepam decreased more HAMA and SAS total scores than paroxetine from weeks 1 to 3. Paroxetine-MSZRT as well as paroxetine-diazepam had an obviously higher onset rate than paroxetine in each week. After 4 weeks’ treatment, the overall effectiveness rate in the paroxetine-MSZRT group (90.00% was obviously higher than those of the paroxetine group (74.42% but did not significantly differ from the paroxetine-diazepam group (93.88%. Conclusion. MSZRT had the treatment effect for GAD when paroxetine was used for the first 4 weeks.

  5. The transferability from rat subacute 4-week oral toxicity study to translational research exemplified by two pharmaceutical immunosuppressants and two environmental pollutants with immunomodulating properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemmerling, J.; Fehlert, E.; Kuper, C.F.; Rühl-Fehlert, C.; Stropp, G.; Vogels, J.; Krul, C.; Vohr, H.W.

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to chemicals may have an influence on the immune system. Often, this is an unwanted effect but in some pharmaceuticals, it is the intended mechanism of action. Immune function tests and in depth histopathological investigations of immune organs were integrated in rodent toxicity studies

  6. Study on a 4-Week Recovery Test of Sweet Bee Venom after a 13-Week, Repeated, Intramuscular Dose Toxicity Test in Sprague-Dawley Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chungsan Lim

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives:This study was performed to check for reversibility in the changes induced by a 13-week, repeated, dose toxicity test of Sweet Bee Venom (SBV in Sprague-Dawley (SD rats. Methods:Fifteen male and 15 female SD rats were treated with 0.28 mg/kg of SBV (high-dosage group and the same numbers of male and female SD rats were treated with 0.2 mL/kg of normal saline (control group for 13 weeks. We selected five male and five female SD rats from the high-dosage group and the same numbers of male and female SD rats from the control group, and we observed these rats for four weeks. We conducted body-weight measurements, ophthalmic examinations, urinalyses and hematology, biochemistry, histology tests. Results:(1 Hyperemia and movement disorder were observed in the 13-week, repeated, dose toxicity test, but these symptoms were not observed during the recovery period. (2 The rats in the high-dose group showed no significant changes in weight compared to the control group. (3 No significant differences in the ophthalmic parameters, urine analyses, complete blood cell counts (CBCs, and biochemistry were observed among the recovery groups. (4 No changes in organ weights were observed during the recovery period. (5 Histological examination of the thigh muscle indicated cell infiltration, inflammation, degeneration, necrosis of muscle fiber, and fibrosis during the treatment period, but these changes were not observed during the recovery period. The fatty liver change that was observed during the toxicity test was not observed during the recovery period. No other organ abnormalities were observed. Conclusion:The changes that occurred during the 13-week, repeated, dose toxicity test are reversible, and SBV can be safely used as a treatment modality.

  7. General aspects of metal toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlowski, H; Kolkowska, P; Watly, J; Krzywoszynska, K; Potocki, S

    2014-01-01

    This review is focused on the general mechanisms of metal toxicity in humans. The possible and mainly confirmed mechanisms of their action are discussed. The metals are divided into four groups due to their toxic effects. First group comprises of metal ions acting as Fenton reaction catalyst mainly iron and copper. These types of metal ions participate in generation of the reactive oxygen species. Metals such as nickel, cadmium and chromium are considered as carcinogenic agents. Aluminum, lead and tin are involved in neurotoxicity. The representative of the last group is mercury, which may be considered as a generally toxic metal. Fenton reaction is a naturally occurring process producing most active oxygen species, hydroxyl radical: Fe(2+) + He2O2 ↔ Fe(3+) + OH(-) + OH(•) It is able to oxidize most of the biomolecules including DNA, proteins, lipids etc. The effect of toxicity depends on the damage of molecules i.e. production site of the hydroxyl radical. Chromium toxicity depends critically on its oxidation state. The most hazardous seems to be Cr(6+) (chromates) which are one of the strongest inorganic carcinogenic agents. Cr(6+) species act also as oxidative agents damaging among other nucleic acids. Redox inactive Al(3+), Cd(2+) or Hg(2+) may interfere with biology of other metal ions e.g. by occupying metal binding sites in biomolecules. All these aspects will be discussed in the review.

  8. Absence of in vivo genotoxicity of 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol and associated fatty acid esters in a 4-week comprehensive toxicity study using F344 gpt delta rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onami, Saeko; Cho, Young-Man; Toyoda, Takeshi; Horibata, Katsuyoshi; Ishii, Yuji; Umemura, Takashi; Honma, Masamitsu; Nohmi, Takehiko; Nishikawa, Akiyoshi; Ogawa, Kumiko

    2014-07-01

    3-Monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) is regarded as a rat renal and testicular carcinogen and has been classified as a possible human carcinogen (group 2B) by International Agency for Research on Cancer. This is potentially of great importance given that esters of this compound have recently found to be generated in many foods and food ingredients as a result of food processing. There have been a few reports about their toxicity, although we have recently found that the toxicity profile of 3-MCPD esters was similar to that of 3-MCPD in a rat 13-week repeated dose study, except for the acute renal toxicity seen in 3-MCPD-treated females. In the present study, to examine in vivo genotoxicity we administered equimolar doses of 3-MCPD or 3-MCPD fatty acid esters (palmitate diester, palmitate monoester and oleate diester) to 6-week-old male F344 gpt delta rats carrying a reporter transgene for 4 weeks by intragastric administration. In vivo micronucleus, Pig-a mutation and gpt assays were performed, as well as investigations of major toxicological parameters including histopathological features. As one result, the relative kidney weights of the 3-MCPD and all three ester groups were significantly increased compared with the vehicle control group. However, the frequency of micronucleated reticulocytes and Pig-a mutant red blood cells did not differ among groups. Moreover, no changes were observed in mutant frequencies of gpt and red/gam (Spi(-)) genes in the kidney and the testis of 3-MCPD and 3-MCPD-fatty-acid-esters-treated rats. In histopathological analyses, no treatment related changes were observed, except for decrease of eosinophilic bodies in the kidneys of all treated groups. These results suggest that 3-MCPD and its fatty acid esters are not in vivo genotoxins, although they may exert renal toxicity. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the UK Environmental Mutagen Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e

  9. Effects of an ethanol-gasoline mixture: results of a 4-week inhalation study in rats.

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    Chu, I; Poon, R; Valli, V; Yagminas, A; Bowers, W J; Seegal, R; Vincent, R

    2005-01-01

    The inhalation toxicity of an ethanol-gasoline mixture was investigated in rats. Groups of 15 male and 15 female rats were exposed by inhalation to 6130 ppm ethanol, 500 ppm gasoline or a mixture of 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline (by volume, 6130 ppm ethanol and 500 ppm gasoline), 6 h a day, 5 days per week for 4 weeks. Control rats of both genders received HEPA/charcoal-filtered room air. Ten males and ten females from each group were killed after 4 weeks of treatment and the remaining rats were exposed to filtered room air for an additional 4 weeks to determine the reversibility of toxic injuries. Female rats treated with the mixture showed growth suppression, which was reversed after 4 weeks of recovery. Increased kidney weight and elevated liver microsomal ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity, urinary ascorbic acid, hippuric acid and blood lymphocytes were observed and most of the effects were associated with gasoline exposure. Combined exposure to ethanol and gasoline appeared to exert an additive effect on growth suppression. Inflammation of the upper respiratory tract was observed only in the ethanol-gasoline mixture groups, and exposure to either ethanol and gasoline had no effect on the organ, suggesting that an irritating effect was produced when the two liquids were mixed. Morphology in the adrenal gland was characterized by vacuolation of the cortical area. Although histological changes were generally mild in male and female rats and were reversed after 4 weeks, the changes tended to be more severe in male rats. Brain biogenic amine levels were altered in ethanol- and gasoline-treated groups; their levels varied with respect to gender and brain region. Although no general interactions were observed in the brain neurotransmitters, gasoline appeared to suppress dopamine concentrations in the nucleus accumbens region co-exposed to ethanol. It was concluded that treatment with ethanol and gasoline, at the levels studied, produced mild, reversible

  10. Gemcitabine and cisplatin in locally advanced and metastatic bladder cancer; 3- or 4-week schedule?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als, Anne Birgitte; Sengeløv, Lisa; Von Der Maase, Hans

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chemotherapy with gemcitabine and cisplatin (GC) is an active regimen in advanced transitional cell carcinoma (TCC). Traditionally, GC has been administered as a 4-week schedule. However, an alternative 3-week schedule may be more feasible. Long-term survival data for the alternative 3......-week schedule and comparisons of the feasibility and toxicity between the two schedules have not previously been published. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of patients with stage IV TCC, treated with GC by a standard 4-week or by an alternative 3-week schedule. RESULTS...

  11. Thallium Toxicity: General Issues, Neurological Symptoms, and Neurotoxic Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio-Rico, Laura; Santamaria, Abel; Galván-Arzate, Sonia

    2017-01-01

    Thallium (Tl + ) is a ubiquitous natural trace metal considered as the most toxic among heavy metals. The ionic ratio of Tl + is similar to that of potassium (K + ), therefore accounting for the replacement of the latter during enzymatic reactions. The principal organelle damaged after Tl + exposure is mitochondria. Studies on the mechanisms of Tl + include intrinsic pathways altered and changes in antiapoptotic and proapoptotic proteins, cytochrome c, and caspases. Oxidative damage pathways increase after Tl + exposure to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS), changes in physical properties of the cell membrane caused by lipid peroxidation, and concomitant activation of antioxidant mechanisms. These processes are likely to account for the neurotoxic effects of the metal. In humans, Tl + is absorbed through the skin and mucous membranes and then is widely distributed throughout the body to be accumulated in bones, renal medulla, liver, and the Central Nervous System. Given the growing relevance of Tl + intoxication, in recent years there is a notorious increase in the number of reports attending Tl + pollution in different countries. In this sense, the neurological symptoms produced by Tl + and its neurotoxic effects are gaining attention as they represent a serious health problem all over the world. Through this review, we present an update to general information about Tl + toxicity, making emphasis on some recent data about Tl + neurotoxicity, as a field requiring attention at the clinical and preclinical levels.

  12. General toxicity of water soluble iodinated contrast media: pathogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreau, J.F.; Giwerc, M.; Chabriais, J.; Rotkopf, L.

    1987-01-01

    The accidents related to the general toxicity of the watersoluble iodinated contrast media are unfrequent. They still exist despite the availability of new kinds of low osmolar molecules. Their pathogenesis is not yet clearly defined. An anaphylactic mechanism cannot give a satisfying explanation because specific IgE have been exceptionally found in humans. Two theories are discussed. Lalli has made an emphasis on the role played by stress and anxiety. The other theory is based on the prominent role played by the lesion of the vascular endothelial cells then the activation of factor XII. A vicious circle is created by the liberation of pre- and neo-formated ligands, eventually after the activation of the complement system [fr

  13. Chronic Dermal Toxicity of Epoxy Resins I. Skin Carcinogenic Potency and General Toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holland, J.M.

    2001-01-16

    Epoxy resins are a diverse class of chemicals that differ in structure, physical properties, and, presumably, biological activity. The purpose of these experiments was to compare the chronic dermal toxicity and carcinogenicity of selected commercial epoxy resins and to determine the potential for positive synergistic carcinogenic interactions between different resins. This work is an extension and continuation of a Department of Energy sponsored program to evaluate epoxy resins for potential occupational health risks. The materials examined were chosen on the basis of their interest to the U.S. government. They are representative of the manufacturer's production at the time, and therefore the data are completely valid only for the specific production period. Results of the experimental exposures will be reported in two parts. This report describes the test materials, their chemical and physical characteristics and the experimental design. General (systemic) toxicity will be evaluated and the skin carcinogenicity of the materials compared. A subsequent report will provide morphological descriptions of skin and significant internal pathology induced by the various treatments.

  14. Phase I study of Carzelesin (U-80,244) given (4-weekly) by intravenous bolus schedule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awada, A; Punt, C J A; Piccart, M J; Tellingen, O Van; Manen, L Van; Kerger, J; Groot, Y; Wanders, J; Verweij, J; Wagener, D J Th

    1999-01-01

    Carzelesin is a cyclopropylpyrroloindole analogue which acts as a DNA-sequence-specific alkylating agent. In this phase I study, Carzelesin was given as a 4-weekly 10 min IV infusion to 51 patients with advanced solid tumours. Patients received a median of two courses (range 1–5) at one of nine dose levels: 24, 48, 96, 130, 150, 170, 210, 250 and 300 μg m−2. According to NCI-CTC criteria, non-haematological toxicities (grade 1/2) included fever, nausea and vomiting, mucositis and anorexia, none of which was clearly dose related. The dose-limiting toxicity was haematological and consisted mainly of neutropenia and to a lesser extent thrombocytopenia. From the dose level 150 μg m−2, the haematological toxicity (particularly thrombocytopenia) was delayed in onset, prolonged and cumulative in some patients. In several courses, double WBC nadirs occurred. The maximum tolerated dose for a single course was 300 μg m−2. From the dose level 170 μg m−2, the intended dose intensity could not be delivered to most patients receiving > 2 courses owing to cumulative haematological toxicity. The dose level with the best dose intensity for multiple courses was 150 μg m−2. The pharmacokinetics of Carzelesin and its metabolites (U-76,073; U-76,074) have been established in 31 patients during the first course of treatment using a HPLC method. Carzelesin exhibited linear pharmacokinetics. The concentration of U-76,074 (active metabolite) extended above the lower limit of quantitation (1 ng ml−1) for short periods of time and only at the higher dose levels. There was no relationship between neutropenia and the AUC of the prodrug Carzelesin, but the presence of detectable plasma levels of the active metabolite U-76,074 was usually associated with a substantial decrease in ANC values. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10188890

  15. Effect of Curriculum Change on Exam Performance in a 4-Week Psychiatry Clerkship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedermier, Julie; Way, David; Kasick, David; Kuperschmidt, Rada

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The authors investigated whether curriculum change could produce improved performance, despite a reduction in clerkship length from 8 to 4 weeks. Methods: The exam performance of medical students completing a 4-week clerkship in psychiatry was compared to national data from the National Board of Medical Examiners' Psychiatry Subject…

  16. The effects of a 4-week static stretching programme on the individual muscles comprising the hamstrings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichihashi, Noriaki; Umegaki, Hiroki; Ikezoe, Tome; Nakamura, Masatoshi; Nishishita, Satoru; Fujita, Kosuke; Umehara, Jun; Nakao, Sayaka; Ibuki, Satoko

    2016-12-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the effects of a 4-week intervention of static stretching (SS) on muscle hardness of the semitendinosus (ST), semimembranosus (SM) and biceps femoris (BF) muscles. Shear elastic modulus was measured by using ultrasound shear wave elastography as the index of muscle hardness. Thirty healthy men (age 22.7 ± 2.2 years) volunteered for this study and were randomly assigned to the SS intervention group (n = 15) or the control group (n = 15). Participants in the SS intervention group received a 4-week stretch intervention for the hamstrings of their dominant leg. Shear elastic moduli of the hamstrings were measured at initial evaluation and after 4 weeks in both groups at a determined angle. In all muscles, the shear elastic modulus decreased significantly after SS intervention. The percentage change in the shear elastic modulus from the value at initial evaluation to after 4 weeks intervention was greatest in the SM. These results suggest that SS intervention has chronic effects on reducing hardness of the hamstring muscle components, especially the SM muscle.

  17. [The biomonitoring of toxic substances in biological samples of general population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarluzea, Jesús; Aurrekoetxea, Juan José; Porta, Miquel; Sunyer, Jordi; Ballester, Ferran

    2016-11-01

    Many of the world's most developed countries have adopted biomonitoring of toxic substances in order to ascertain their levels in biological samples. These substances get into the body through different environmental exposures. Monitoring toxic substances in biological samples should allow us to ascertain their levels in vulnerable groups, assess their evolution over time, make comparisons with levels observed in other countries, identify groups at risk or with high toxic levels and promote research. The main objective of biomonitoring is to act as a policy design tool to facilitate the implementation of particular measures in various sectors: health, environmental, agricultural and livestock or food industry sectors. In Spain, information on levels of toxic substances of environmental origin is provided by specific studies on health effects from environmental sources, such as the INMA project (INfancia y Medio Ambiente [childhood and environment]). In addition, biomonitoring projects have been implemented in Catalonia and the Canary Islands, together with a national biomonitoring programme in the adult working population. However, further progress is needed to develop a system that covers the general population as well as subgroups at risk, which relies on the collaboration of the involved authorities and the participation of professionals from different sectors and citizen organisations interested in the relationship between health and the environment. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. The effect of nitrate on the thyroid gland function in healthy volunteers in a 4-week oral toxicity study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambers AC; Koppeschaar HPF; Isselt JW van; Slob W; Schothorst RC; Mensinga TjT; Meulenbelt J; ARO-UMC; VIC; LEO

    2000-01-01

    Increased nitrate intake might affect the thyroid gland function in humans, as has been observed in animals. The reason is that the nitrate-ion (NO3-) inhibits the iodide (I-) transport into the thyroid gland because it shares the same transport mechanism. This inhibition could lead to a decrease in

  19. Neuromuscular adaptations to 4 weeks of intensive drop jump training in well-trained athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alkjær, Tine; Meyland, Jacob; Raffalt, Peter C

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effects of 4 weeks of intensive drop jump training in well-trained athletes on jumping performance and underlying changes in biomechanics and neuromuscular adaptations. Nine well-trained athletes at high national competition level within sprinting and jumping disciplines...... participated in the study. The training was supervised and augmented feedback on performance was used to ensure maximal training intensity. The drop jumps were performed with minimal contact time and maximal jumping height. Assessment of performance during training showed effects of motor learning. Before...... and after the training intervention maximal isometric muscle strength, the biomechanics, muscle activity pattern of the lower extremities and the soleus H-reflex and V-wave during drop jumping were measured. Maximal jump height and performance index (PI) defined as jumping height divided by contact time...

  20. Effects of 4-week continuous ingestion of champignon extract on halitosis and body and fecal odor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Nishihira

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This was placebo-controlled double-blind parallel-group comparative clinical trial targeting 80 men and women aged 50–79 years with halitosis and body and fecal odor. We investigated whether daily champignon extract ingestion for 4 weeks improved these conditions. Subjects were divided into four groups: a placebo group and 50, 500, and 1000 mg/day ingestion groups. No severe adverse events or side effects were noted during the study period. Compared with the placebo group, all champignon extract ingestion groups showed improvement or tendency toward improvement in halitosis and body and fecal odor. Furthermore, our results suggested that the effectiveness of champignon extract in alleviating odors is dose-dependent, i.e., it increases with the dosage.

  1. The Effect of 4-week Difference Training Methods on Some Fitness Variables in Youth Handball Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolhossein a Parnow

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Handball is a team sport in which main activities such as sprinting, arm throwing, hitting, and so on involve. This Olympic team sport requires a standard of preparation in order to complete sixteen minutes of competitive play and to achieve success. This study, therefore, was done to determinate the effect of a 4-week different training on some physical fitness variables in youth Handball players. Thirty high-school students participated in the study and assigned into the Resistance Training (RT (n = 10: 16.75± 0.36 yr; 63.14± 4.19 kg; 174.8 ± 5.41 cm, Plyometric Training (PT (n = 10: 16.57± 0.26 yr; 65.52± 6.79 kg; 173.5 ± 5.44 cm, and Complex Training (CT (n=10, 16.23± 0.50 yr; 58.43± 10.50 kg; 175.2 ± 8.19 cm groups. Subjects were evaluated in anthropometric and physiological characteristics 48 hours before and after of a 4-week protocol. Because of study purposes, statistical analyses consisted of a repeated measure ANVOA and one-way ANOVA were used. In considering with pre to post test variables changes in the groups, data analysis showed BF, strength, speed, agility, and explosive power were affected by training protocols (P0.05. In conclusion, complex training result in advantageous effect on variables such as strength, explosive power, speed and agility in youth handball players compare with resistance and plyometric training although we also reported positive effect of these training methods. Coaches and players, therefore, could consider complex training as alternative method for other training methods.

  2. Jack-knife stretching promotes flexibility of tight hamstrings after 4 weeks: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sairyo, Koichi; Kawamura, Takeshi; Mase, Yasuyoshi; Hada, Yasushi; Sakai, Toshinori; Hasebe, Kiyotaka; Dezawa, Akira

    2013-08-01

    Tight hamstrings are reported to be one of the causes of low back pain. However, there have been few reports on effective stretching procedures for the tight hamstrings. The so-called jack-knife stretch, an active-static type of stretching, can efficiently increase the flexibility of tight hamstrings. To evaluate hamstring tightness before and after the 4-week stretching protocol in healthy volunteer adults and patients aged under 18 years with low back pain. For understanding the hamstrings tightness, we measured two parameters including (1) finger to floor distance (FFD) and (2) pelvis forward inclination angle (PFIA). Eight healthy adult volunteers who had no lumbar or hip problems participated in this study (mean age: 26.8 years). All lacked flexibility and their FFD were positive before the experiment. Subjects performed 2 sets of the jack-knife stretch every day for 4 weeks. One set consisted of 5 repetitions, each held for 5 s. Before and during the 4-week experiment, the FFD and PFIA of toe-touching tests were measured weekly. For 17 of the sports players aged under 18, only FFD was measured. In adult volunteers, FFD was 14.1 ± 6.1 cm before the experiment and decreased to -8.1 ± 3.7 cm by the end of week 4, indicating a gain in flexibility of 22.2 cm. PFIA was 50.6 ± 8.2 before the experiment and 83.8 ± 5.8 degrees after. Before and after the experiment, the differences were significant (p hamstrings.

  3. Spectral analysis of epicardial 60-lead electrograms in dogs with 4-week-old myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosoya, Y; Ikeda, K; Komatsu, T; Yamaki, M; Kubota, I

    2001-01-01

    There were few studies on the spectral analysis of multiple-lead epicardial electrograms in chronic myocardial infarction. Spectral analysis of multi-lead epicardial electrograms was performed in 6 sham-operated dogs (N group) and 8 dogs with 4-week-old myocardial infarction (MI group). Four weeks after the ligation of left anterior descending coronary artery, fast Fourier transform was performed on 60-lead epicardial electrograms, and then inverse transform was performed on 5 frequency ranges from 0 to 250 Hz. From the QRS onset to QRS offset, the time integration of unsigned value of reconstructed waveform was calculated and displayed as AQRS maps. On 0-25 Hz AQRS map, there was no significant difference between the 2 groups. In the frequency ranges of 25-250 Hz, MI group had significantly smaller AQRS values than N group solely in the infarct zone. It was shown that high frequency potentials (25-250 Hz) within QRS complex were reduced in the infarct zone.

  4. Matrix precipitation: a general strategy to eliminate matrix interference for pharmaceutical toxic impurities analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaojing; Xiong, Xuewu; Cao, Ji; Luan, Baolei; Liu, Yongjun; Liu, Guozhu; Zhang, Lei

    2015-01-30

    Matrix interference, which can lead to false positive/negative results, contamination of injector or separation column, incompatibility between sample solution and the selected analytical instrument, and response inhibition or even quenching, is commonly suffered for the analysis of trace level toxic impurities in drug substance. In this study, a simple matrix precipitation strategy is proposed to eliminate or minimize the above stated matrix interference problems. Generally, a sample of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) is dissolved in an appropriate solvent to achieve the desired high concentration and then an anti-solvent is added to precipitate the matrix substance. As a result, the target analyte is extracted into the mixed solution with very less residual of APIs. This strategy has the characteristics of simple manipulation, high recovery and excellent anti-interference capability. It was found that the precipitation ratio (R, representing the ability to remove matrix substance) and the proportion of solvent (the one used to dissolve APIs) in final solution (P, affecting R and also affecting the method sensitivity) are two important factors of the precipitation process. The correlation between R and P was investigated by performing precipitation with various APIs in different solvent/anti-solvent systems. After a detailed mathematical reasoning process, P=20% was proved to be an effective and robust condition to perform the precipitation strategy. The precipitation method with P=20% can be used as a general strategy for toxic impurity analysis in APIs. Finally, several typical examples are described in this article, where the challenging matrix interference issues have been resolved successfully. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A general mechanism for intracellular toxicity of metal-containing nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Sabella, Stefania

    2014-04-09

    The assessment of the risks exerted by nanoparticles is a key challenge for academic, industrial, and regulatory communities worldwide. Experimental evidence points towards significant toxicity for a range of nanoparticles both in vitro and in vivo. Worldwide efforts aim at uncovering the underlying mechanisms for this toxicity. Here, we show that the intracellular ion release elicited by the acidic conditions of the lysosomal cellular compartment-where particles are abundantly internalized-is responsible for the cascading events associated with nanoparticles-induced intracellular toxicity. We call this mechanism a "lysosome-enhanced Trojan horse effect" since, in the case of nanoparticles, the protective cellular machinery designed to degrade foreign objects is actually responsible for their toxicity. To test our hypothesis, we compare the toxicity of similar gold particles whose main difference is in the internalization pathways. We show that particles known to pass directly through cell membranes become more toxic when modified so as to be mostly internalized by endocytosis. Furthermore, using experiments with chelating and lysosomotropic agents, we found that the toxicity mechanism for different metal containing NPs (such as metallic, metal oxide, and semiconductor NPs) is mainly associated with the release of the corresponding toxic ions. Finally, we show that particles unable to release toxic ions (such as stably coated NPs, or diamond and silica NPs) are not harmful to intracellular environments. The Royal Society of Chemistry 2014.

  6. A general mechanism for intracellular toxicity of metal-containing nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Sabella, Stefania; Carney, Randy P.; Brunetti, Virgilio; Malvindi, Maria Ada; Al-Juffali, Noura; Vecchio, Giuseppe; Janes, Sam M.; Bakr, Osman; Cingolani, Roberto; Stellacci, Francesco; Pompa, Pier Paolo

    2014-01-01

    The assessment of the risks exerted by nanoparticles is a key challenge for academic, industrial, and regulatory communities worldwide. Experimental evidence points towards significant toxicity for a range of nanoparticles both in vitro and in vivo. Worldwide efforts aim at uncovering the underlying mechanisms for this toxicity. Here, we show that the intracellular ion release elicited by the acidic conditions of the lysosomal cellular compartment-where particles are abundantly internalized-is responsible for the cascading events associated with nanoparticles-induced intracellular toxicity. We call this mechanism a "lysosome-enhanced Trojan horse effect" since, in the case of nanoparticles, the protective cellular machinery designed to degrade foreign objects is actually responsible for their toxicity. To test our hypothesis, we compare the toxicity of similar gold particles whose main difference is in the internalization pathways. We show that particles known to pass directly through cell membranes become more toxic when modified so as to be mostly internalized by endocytosis. Furthermore, using experiments with chelating and lysosomotropic agents, we found that the toxicity mechanism for different metal containing NPs (such as metallic, metal oxide, and semiconductor NPs) is mainly associated with the release of the corresponding toxic ions. Finally, we show that particles unable to release toxic ions (such as stably coated NPs, or diamond and silica NPs) are not harmful to intracellular environments. The Royal Society of Chemistry 2014.

  7. A general mechanism for intracellular toxicity of metal-containing nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabella, Stefania; Carney, Randy P.; Brunetti, Virgilio; Malvindi, Maria Ada; Al-Juffali, Noura; Vecchio, Giuseppe; Janes, Sam M.; Bakr, Osman M.; Cingolani, Roberto; Stellacci, Francesco; Pompa, Pier Paolo

    2014-05-01

    The assessment of the risks exerted by nanoparticles is a key challenge for academic, industrial, and regulatory communities worldwide. Experimental evidence points towards significant toxicity for a range of nanoparticles both in vitro and in vivo. Worldwide efforts aim at uncovering the underlying mechanisms for this toxicity. Here, we show that the intracellular ion release elicited by the acidic conditions of the lysosomal cellular compartment - where particles are abundantly internalized - is responsible for the cascading events associated with nanoparticles-induced intracellular toxicity. We call this mechanism a ``lysosome-enhanced Trojan horse effect'' since, in the case of nanoparticles, the protective cellular machinery designed to degrade foreign objects is actually responsible for their toxicity. To test our hypothesis, we compare the toxicity of similar gold particles whose main difference is in the internalization pathways. We show that particles known to pass directly through cell membranes become more toxic when modified so as to be mostly internalized by endocytosis. Furthermore, using experiments with chelating and lysosomotropic agents, we found that the toxicity mechanism for different metal containing NPs (such as metallic, metal oxide, and semiconductor NPs) is mainly associated with the release of the corresponding toxic ions. Finally, we show that particles unable to release toxic ions (such as stably coated NPs, or diamond and silica NPs) are not harmful to intracellular environments.The assessment of the risks exerted by nanoparticles is a key challenge for academic, industrial, and regulatory communities worldwide. Experimental evidence points towards significant toxicity for a range of nanoparticles both in vitro and in vivo. Worldwide efforts aim at uncovering the underlying mechanisms for this toxicity. Here, we show that the intracellular ion release elicited by the acidic conditions of the lysosomal cellular compartment - where

  8. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF 4 WEEKS OF DYNAMIC B ALANCE TRAINING PROGRAM IN COLLEGIATE FOOTBALL PLAYERS: RANDOMIZED CLINICAL TRIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisha

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Balance is highly integrative dynamic process involving coordination of multiple neurological pathways that allows for the maintenance of the COG over BOS . Football players often perform lower extremity passing , shooting , twisting , cutting and dribbling skills while wearing shoes , these actions require body to be in the equilibrium position to perform the task . This leads to t he conclusion of the great importance of the ability of balance in football . AIMS: 1 . To study the effect of 4 week multidirectional balance board training on dynamic balance in football players . 2 . To study the effect of 4 week Both Sides Up ball training on dynamic balance in football players . 3 . To compare the effect of multidirectional balance board training program and BOSU ball training program on dynamic balance in football players . STUDY DESIGN: Randomized Clinical trial . METHODS: Total of 60 competitive badminton players with age group between18 - 25 were recruited in this study . The participants were allocated into 2 groups viz ., Group A (multidirectional balance board training and Group B (BOSU ball Training for a period of 4 we eks . Participants were test for SEBT and vertical jump test on first day and after 4 weeks of balance training . STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Student t test , Chi - Square Test . RESULTS: The data analysis and statistical inference showed that , after 4 weeks of balanc e training there was improvement in dynamic balance in both the groups but there was no significant difference in dynamic balance between two groups . As seen by difference in the SEBT and VJT scores pre and post training with p<0 . 001 . CONCLUSION: 4 weeks balance training using BOSU and multidirectional balance board is effective in improving dynamic balance and vertical jump performance in football players and also can be used as a component of multifaceted training to improve dynamic balance and game skills

  9. Tipepidine in adolescent patients with depression: a 4 week, open-label, preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasaki T

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Tsuyoshi Sasaki,1,2 Kenji Hashimoto,3 Masumi Tachibana,1 Tsutomu Kurata,1 Hiroshi Kimura,2 Hideki Komatsu,2 Masatomo Ishikawa,2 Tadashi Hasegawa,2 Akihiro Shiina,1 Tasuku Hashimoto,2 Nobuhisa Kanahara,4 Tetsuya Shiraishi,2 Masaomi Iyo1–41Department of Child Psychiatry, Chiba University Hospital, 2Department of Psychiatry, Chiba University Graduate School of Medicine, 3Division of Clinical Neuroscience, Chiba University Center for Forensic Mental Health, 4Division of Medical Treatment and Rehabilitation, Chiba University Center for Forensic Mental Health, Inohana, Chiba, JapanDepression in children and adolescents is a common, recurrent, and debilitating condition associated with increased psychosocial, and medical morbidity and mortality.1The global prevalence of depression in children and adolescents is 1%–2% and 3%–8%, respectively.2 Depressive symptoms are also associated with significant functional impairment in school and the work place (often requiring legal interventions,1–5 and an increased risk for substance abuse and suicide.6–9 Clinical guidelines suggest the use of two selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI, namely fluoxetine and escitalopram, both of which are effective with generally acceptable safety profiles in the treatment of adolescent depression.10 Additionally, combination treatment with an SSRI and psychotherapy, typically cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT, has shown benefit in this cohort.10 However, caution is warranted since antidepressants therapy in children and adolescents is associated with increased rates of suicidal ideation11–13 and adverse effects, characterized by excessive emotional arousal or behavioral activation.14 These results highlight the need for new therapies in adolescent patients with depression, particularly therapies with fewer side effects.View original paper by Brent and Maalouf.

  10. Effects of a Baking Soda Gum on extrinsic dental stain: results of a longitudinal 4-week assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soparkar, P; Newman, M B

    2001-07-01

    An evaluation of the effects of ARM & HAMMER DENTAL CARE The Baking Soda Gum (AHDC) on extrinsic dental stain was made in 48 subjects presenting with measurable extrinsic stain. The subjects were randomized to use either the baking soda gum or a non-baking soda placebo gum for 20 minutes twice daily after lunch and dinner while brushing once daily. The procedure of limited brushing was chosen to simulate the level of hygiene normally practiced by participants entering a clinical study. After 4 weeks, the reduction in measurable extrinsic stain in the baking soda gum group was statistically significant (P = .0044) relative to baseline. Statistical analysis of the placebo gum group revealed no significant change in extrinsic stain from baseline. The magnitude of the unadjusted longitudinal reduction in extrinsic stain in the baking soda gum group was 29.7% at 4 weeks.

  11. The in vitro anthelmintic effects of plumbagin on newly excysted and 4-weeks-old juvenile parasites of Fasciola gigantica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorsuwannarat, Natcha; Piedrafita, David; Chantree, Pathanin; Sansri, Veerawat; Songkoomkrong, Sineenart; Bantuchai, Sirasate; Sangpairot, Kant; Kueakhai, Pornanan; Changklungmoa, Narin; Chaichanasak, Pannigan; Chansela, Piyachat; Sobhon, Prasert

    2014-01-01

    The effect of plumbagin (PB, 5-hydroxy-2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone) against newly excysted juveniles (NEJs) and 4-weeks-old immature parasites of Fasciola gigantica were compared with triclabendazole (TCZ). The anthelmintic efficacy of 1, 10 and 100μg/ml of PB or TCZ following incubation in vitro for 1-24h was compared using a combination of relative motility (RM), survival index (SI) and larval migration inhibition (LMI) assays for parasite viability. The RM and SI values of the PB-treated group decreased at a more rapid rate than the TCZ-treated group. For NEJs, the decreased RM values were first observed at 1h incubation with 1μg/ml PB, and 90% of flukes were killed at 24h. In contrast, in TCZ-treated groups a 10-fold higher concentration of TCZ (10μg/ml) resulted in only 9% dead parasites after 24h incubation. In 4-weeks-old juvenile parasites, PB reduced the RM value at 10μg/ml with 100% of flukes dead after 3h, while TCZ decreased RM values at the concentration of 100μg/ml but with only 5% of flukes killed at 24h. NEJs treated with PB exhibited 88%, 99% and 100% of LMIs at the concentrations of 1, 10 and 100μg/ml, respectively. NEJs incubated with TCZ have an LMI of only 32% at the highest concentration of 100μg/ml. Similarly PB had a significantly greater killing of immature 4weeks juvenile stages than TCZ at all concentrations; however, 4-weeks-old juvenile parasites were more resistant to killing by PB or TCZ at all concentrations when compared to NEJs. Further studies were carried out to investigate the alterations of the parasite tegument by scanning electron microscope (SEM). PB caused similar tegumental alterations in 4-weeks-old juveniles as those observed in TCZ treatment but with greater damage at comparative time points, comprising of swelling, blebbing and rupture of the tegument, loss of spines, and eventual erosion, lesion and desquamation of the total tegument. These data indicate that PB had a greater fasciolicidal effect against

  12. Toxicity testing of chemical mixtures: some general aspects and need of international guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappus, H; Yang, R S

    1996-01-01

    The topics discussed by the Working Group on Toxicity Testing of Chemical Mixtures included the following (1) the study designs and results from two real-life exposure scenarios as additional information to the various investigations reported at the conference; (2) the need to take into consideration low-level, long-term exposure (i.e. mimicking human exposure conditions) as well as the issue of limited resources in experimental toxicology studies; (3) the importance of exploring alternative and predictive toxicology methodologies to minimize animal use and to conserve resources; (4) the realization that interactive toxicity should include the consideration of physical and biological agents in addition to chemicals. Two specific studies reported at the conference were also discussed. A number of recommendations were made concerning the planning and implementation of toxicology studies on chemical mixtures.

  13. Adaptation in Response of Excitation and Inhibition Factors of Angiogenesis after 4 Weeks of Progressive Resistant Training in Sedentary Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    s. Karami

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The sport activity is an important factor affecting the capillary density and angiogenesis. Nitric oxide (NO and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF are the most important stimulative regulators in the angiogenesis. In addition, endostatin is one of the inhibitors of angiogenesis. The aim of this study was to investigate the adaptation in the responses of the angiogenesis inhibition and stimulating factors after 4-week increasing resistive exercises in the sedentary men. Materials & Methods: In the semi-experimental study, 20 healthy and inactive male students, aged between 20 and 25 years, who were residents of Tehran University Dormitory, were studied in the first semester of the academic year 2015-16. The subjects, selected via available sampling method, were divided into two groups including experimental and control groups (n=10 per group. 4-week resistive exercises were done three sessions per week. Blood-sampling was done before and 48 hours after the last exercise session. VEGF, NO, and endostatin were then measured. Data was analyzed by SPSS 18 software using independent and dependent T tests, as well as Pearson correlation coefficient test. Findings: In experimental group, VEGF and No significantly increased at the posttest stage than the pretest (p=0.001. Nevertheless, no significant difference was observed in control group (p>0.05. In both experimental and control groups, endostatin level did not significantly increase at the posttest stage than the pretest (p>0.05. In addition, VEGF and NO were the only variables that were significantly correlated (p=0.016; r=0.82. Conclusion: 4-week increasing resistive exercises in the sedentary men significantly affect the angiogenes stimulating factors, i. e. VEGF and NO, while such exercises do not significantly affect the angiogenesis inhibition factor, i. e. endostatin.

  14. Tipepidine in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a 4-week, open-label, preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasaki T

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tsuyoshi Sasaki,1,2 Kenji Hashimoto,3 Masumi Tachibana,1 Tsutomu Kurata,1 Keiko Okawada,1 Maki Ishikawa,1 Hiroshi Kimura,2 Hideki Komatsu,2 Masatomo Ishikawa,2 Tadashi Hasegawa,2 Akihiro Shiina,1 Tasuku Hashimoto,2 Nobuhisa Kanahara,3 Tetsuya Shiraishi,2 Masaomi Iyo1–31Department of Child Psychiatry, Chiba University Hospital, 2Department of Psychiatry, Chiba University Graduate School of Medicine, 3Division of Clinical Neuroscience, Chiba University Center for Forensic Mental Health, Chiba, JapanBackground: Tipepidine (3-[di-2-thienylmethylene]-1-methylpiperidine has been used solely as a nonnarcotic antitussive in Japan since 1959. The safety of tipepidine in children and adults has already been established. It is reported that tipepidine inhibits G-protein-coupled inwardly rectifying potassium (GIRK-channel currents. The inhibition of GIRK channels by tipepidine is expected to modulate the level of monoamines in the brain. We put forward the hypothesis that tipepidine can improve attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD symptoms by modulating monoaminergic neurotransmission through the inhibition of GIRK channels. The purpose of this open-label trial was to confirm whether treatment with tipepidine can improve symptoms in pediatric patients with ADHD.Subjects and methods: This was a 4-week, open-label, proof-of-efficacy pilot study for pediatric subjects with ADHD. Ten pediatric ADHD subjects (70% male; mean age, 9.9 years; combined [inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive] subtype, n=7; inattentive subtype, n=3; hyperimpulsive subtype, n=0 received tipepidine hibenzate taken orally at 30 mg/day for 4 weeks. All subjects were assessed using the ADHD Rating Scale IV (ADHD-RS, Japanese version, and the Das–Naglieri Cognitive Assessment System (DN-CAS, Japanese version.Results: A comparison of baseline scores and 4-week end-point scores showed that all the ADHD-RS scores (total scores, hyperimpulsive subscores, and inattentive subscores

  15. Screening tests in toxicity or drug effect studies with use of centrifichem general-purpose spectrophotometeric analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagy, B.; Bercz, J.P.

    1986-01-01

    CentrifiChem System 400 general-purpose spectrophotometric analyzer which can process simultaneously 30 samples and reads the reactions within milliseconds was used for toxicity studies. Organic and inorganic chemicals were screened for inhibitory action of the hydrolytic activity of sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca,Mg-ATPase and that of the sacrolemmal (SL) Na,K-ATPase, or mitochondrial ATPase (M). SR and SL were prepared from rabbit muscles, Na,K-ATPase from pig kidneys, M from pig hearts. Pseudosubstrates of paranitrophenyl phosphate and 2,4-dinitrophenyl phosphate, both proven high energy phosphate substitutes for ATPase coupled ion transfer were used. The reaction rates were followed spectrophotometrically at 405 nm measuring the accumulation of yellow nitrophenolate ions. The reported calcium transfer coupling ratio to hydrolysis of 2:1 was ascertained with use of 45 Ca in case of SR. Inhibition constants (pI) on SR, SL, and M for the pseudosubstrate hydrolysis will be given for over 20 chemicals tested. The applicability of the system to general toxicity testing and to general cardio-effective drug screening will be presented

  16. Pathological and immunohistochemical studies of subclinical infection of chicken anemia virus in 4-week-old chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haridy, Mohie; Sasaki, Jun; Ikezawa, Mitsutaka; Okada, Kosuke; Goryo, Masanobu

    2012-06-01

    Subclinical infection of chicken anemia virus (CAV) at 4 to 6 weeks of age, after maternal antibodies have waned, is implicated in several field problems in broiler flocks. In order to understand the pathogenesis of subclinical infection with CAV, an immunopathological study of CAV-inoculated 4-week-old SPF chickens was performed. Sixty 4-week-old SPF chickens were equally divided into CAV and control groups. The CAV group was inoculated intramuscularly with the MSB1-TK5803 strain of CAV. Neither mortality nor anemia was detected in the CAV and control groups. In the CAV group, no signs were observed, except that some chickens were grossly smaller compared with the control group. Sporadic thymus lobes appeared to be reddening and atrophied. Within the first two weeks p.i. of CAV, there was a mild to moderate depletion of lymphocytes in the thymus cortex and spleen in some chickens. Moreover, lymphoid depletion of the bursa of Fabricius, proventriculus and cecal tonsils was observed. Hyperplastic lymphoid foci were observed in the liver, lungs, kidneys and heart at the 4th week p.i. of CAV. Immunohistochemically, a moderate lymphoid depletion of CD4(+)and CD8(+) T cells in the thymus cortex and spleen was observed in some chickens within two weeks p.i. of CAV. CAV inclusions and antigens were detected infrequently in the thymus cortex and spleen. It could be concluded that the immunosuppression in subclinical infection with CAV occurs as a result of reduction of cellular immunity.

  17. EFFECTS OF A 4-WEEK ECCENTRIC TRAINING PROGRAM ON THE REPEATED BOUT EFFECT IN YOUNG ACTIVE WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Fernandez-Gonzalo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the responses of women to the repeated bout effect (RBE and to a short eccentric training program. Twenty-four young females were randomly assigned to a training group (TG, n = 14 or a control group (CG, n = 10. They performed two identical acute eccentric bouts (120 repetitions at 70% of 1RM in a leg-press device in an 8 weeks interval. TG followed a 4-week-eccentric-training program between the bouts. Maximal isometric contraction, range of motion, peak power and quadriceps muscle soreness were compared between and within groups before and after the two acute eccentric bouts. TG and CG presented significant losses of isometric strength and peak power, and an increment in soreness after the first bout. Isometric strength and peak power were recovered faster in CG after the second bout (p < 0.05 compared with TG, which showed a similar recovery of these parameters after the second bout compared with the first one. A decrease in soreness and a faster recovery of range of motion were found in TG (p < 0.05 following the second bout compared with the first one, but not in CG. Data indicate that a 4-week eccentric training program may prevent the RBE over those adaptations related with muscle damage (e.g. strength loss, but it may increase RBE impact on inflammatory processes (e.g. soreness.

  18. STP Position Paper: Recommended Practices for Sampling and Processing the Nervous System (Brain, Spinal Cord, Nerve, and Eye) during Nonclinical General Toxicity Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Society of Toxicologic Pathology charged a Nervous System Sampling Working Group with devising recommended practices to routinely screen the central and peripheral nervous systems in Good Laboratory Practice-type nonclinical general toxicity studies. Brains should be trimmed ...

  19. Effects of a 4-week high-intensity interval training on pacing during 5-km running trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Silva

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the influence of a 4-week high-intensity interval training on the pacing strategy adopted by runners during a 5-km running trial. Sixteen male recreational long-distance runners were randomly assigned to a control group (CON, n=8 or a high-intensity interval training group (HIIT, n=8. The HIIT group performed high-intensity interval-training twice per week, while the CON group maintained their regular training program. Before and after the training period, the runners performed an incremental exercise test to exhaustion to measure the onset of blood lactate accumulation, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max, and peak treadmill speed (PTS. A submaximal constant-speed test to measure the running economy (RE and a 5-km running trial on an outdoor track to establish pacing strategy and performance were also done. During the 5-km running trial, the rating of perceived exertion (RPE and time to cover the 5-km trial (T5 were registered. After the training period, there were significant improvements in the HIIT group of ∼7 and 5% for RE (P=0.012 and PTS (P=0.019, respectively. There was no significant difference between the groups for VO2max (P=0.495 or onset of blood lactate accumulation (P=0.101. No difference was found in the parameters measured during the 5-km trial before the training period between HIIT and CON (P>0.05. These findings suggest that 4 weeks of HIIT can improve some traditional physiological variables related to endurance performance (RE and PTS, but it does not alter the perception of effort, pacing strategy, or overall performance during a 5-km running trial.

  20. The 5-day continuous infusion of cis-platinum: An update on toxicity pattern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salem, P.; Hashimi, L.; Jabboury, K.; Khalyl, M.

    1986-01-01

    In an attempt to further diminish the toxicity of Cis-Diamminodichloroplatinum (II) (DDP), clinical trials with the drug administered by 5-day continuous IV infusion were initiated in 1976. DDP cytotoxicity to asynchronous human lymphoma cells in culture was enhanced by prolonged exposure to the drug. Ninety-six patients patients with a varioty of histologically proven neoplastic diseases were intered in this study. All patients had a serum creatinine less than or equal to 1.5 mg/dl. Prior treatment was discontinued 3 to 4 weeks before initiation of cisplatin (DDP). Toxicity tables are presented of the general pattern of toxicity produced by 5-day DDP infustion and the gastrointestinal toxicity produced during the same period. A new dose schedule is presented which is apparently much less toxic than the bolus IV injection, in terms of immediate and delayed toxicities and allows the use of DDP for more prolonged periods of time in conjunction with radiation therapy

  1. Effects of miglyol 812 on rats after 4 weeks of gavage as compared with methylcellulose/tween 80.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, Rani S; Antman, M; Phillips, J; Khan, K N; Furst, S M

    2005-01-01

    Miglyol 812 is a medium-chain triglyceride used in toxicology studies as an excipient to improve test compound solubility/absorption. As part of a larger toxicology study, 15 Wistar Han IGS rats/sex/group were dosed by oral gavage for 4 weeks with 10 mL kg(-1) day(-1) of 100% Miglyol 812 or 0.5% methylcellulose/0.1% Tween 80 in water (MC-T) followed by 4 weeks without treatment to evaluate the potential effects of this excipient in long-term toxicology studies relative to a traditional excipient such as MC-T. Clinical signs evident during the dosing phase included soft and/or mucoid stool in 12/15 males and 11/15 females treated with Miglyol 812 but in no animals treated with MC-T. Animals treated with Miglyol 812 had a 6-7% statistically significant reduction in body weight gain as compared to MC-T-treated animals. Statistically significant changes in clinical chemistry parameters as compared to MC-T included decreased blood urea nitrogen (50% and 29% in males and females, respectively), increased cholesterol (1.6-fold and 1.5-fold in males and females, respectively), decreased total protein (6% and 8% in males and females, respectively), decreased globulins (15% and 11% in males and females, respectively), and increased triglycerides (2.8-fold and 1.7-fold in males and females, respectively). Absolute and relative thymic weights decreased 28% and 24%, respectively, in males, and 18% and 17%, respectively, in females without histological alterations. Histopathology revealed increased alveolar histiocytosis with focal interstitial inflammation in lungs in 5/10 males and 7/10 females treated with Miglyol 812 compared to only 1/10 males and 1/10 females treated with MC-T. All effects were reversible during the recovery period. Results of this study indicate that 100% miglyol 812 produces reversible gastrointestinal effects and decreases in body weight gains along with changes in several serum chemistry parameters. Therefore, it should not be considered innocuous when

  2. Feasibility, Acceptability, and Preliminary Effectiveness of a 4-week Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy Protocol for Hospital Employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luberto, Christina M; Wasson, Rachel S; Kraemer, Kristen M; Sears, Richard W; Hueber, Carly; Cotton, Sian

    2017-12-01

    Hospital employees may experience occupational stress and burnout, which negatively impact quality of life and job performance. Evidence-based interventions implemented within the hospital setting are needed to promote employees' well-being. We offered a 4-week Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy group program for hospital employees, and used a mixed-methods practice-based research approach to explore feasibility, acceptability, and effects on stress and burnout. Participants were 65 hospital employees ( M age = 44.06; 85% white) who participated between September 2015 and January 2016. Participants completed validated measures of stress and burnout before and after the program, and answered open-ended satisfaction questions after the program. Groups consistently enrolled at least 10 participants, but attendance rates declined across sessions (76% at session 2 vs. 54% at session 4) due primarily to work-related scheduling conflicts. The program content was acceptable as evidenced by high perceived value ( M = 9.18 out of 10), homework compliance (51% practicing at least 3 times/week), and qualitative requests for program expansion. There were large, statistically significant decreases in stress (Δ M = 2.1, p strategies to enhance session attendance.

  3. Physical activity and health-related quality of life in pediatric cancer patients following a 4-week inpatient rehabilitation program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Carsten; Krauth, Konstantin A; Gerß, Joachim; Rosenbaum, Dieter

    2016-09-01

    Chronic health conditions and impaired quality of life are commonly experienced in childhood cancer survivors. While rehabilitation clinics support patients in coping with the disease, studies evaluating an inpatient rehabilitation program on promoting physical activity (PA) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) are missing. A 4-week inpatient rehabilitation program was prospectively evaluated. One hundred fifty patients with leukemia or lymphoma (N = 86), brain tumors (N = 38), and sarcomas (N = 26) were enrolled on average 17 months after cessation of acute medical treatment. PA amount and cadence (indicating the intensity of walking activity) using the StepWatch™ 3 Activity Monitor and HRQoL global and physical well-being scores using the KINDL(®) questionnaire were assessed before, immediately after, and 6 and 12 months following the program and analyzed using multiple linear mixed models. Significant effects on PA were only found at 12-month follow-up for amount and cadence variables (all p patients revealed the highest PA level throughout the study, rehabilitation effects were more pronounced for cadence variables in brain tumor and sarcoma patients. The rehabilitation program had immediate (t = 4.56, p cancer patients.

  4. The effects of 4 weeks of jump training on landing knee valgus and crossover hop performance in female basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrington, Lee

    2010-12-01

    Female basketball players would appear particularly prone to knee injuries. These injuries have been associated with the nature of the sport, but more specifically with the particular movement strategies adopted. A valgus or abducted position of the knee on landing has been reported to be associated with a number of different knee injuries. Jump-training programs have been reported to improve both landing knee valgus and functional performance. The majority of the jump-training programs have been of 6 weeks' duration, 3 sessions per week often lasting up to 1 hour. For most sports coaches, team conditioners, and athletes, this duration and program length is not acceptable. The aim of this study was to assess if an abridged jump-training program could have similar effects to those previously reported. Fifteen female basketball players had their knee valgus angles assessed during 2 landing tasks, drop jump landing, and when undertaking a jump shot and along with crossover hop distance before and after a progressive jump-training program. The jump-training program lasted 4 weeks, 3 times per week, each session lasting 15 minutes. After training, crossover hop distance showed an average percentage improvement on distance jumped of 73.6% (p = 0.001); the drop jump knee valgus angle in the left leg on average was reduced by 9.8° (p = 0.002), right leg reduced by 12.3° (p = 0.0001); during the jump shot, the knee valgus angle in the left leg showed a mean reduction of 4.5° (p = 0.035), and the right leg was reduced by 4.3° (p = 0.01). The study undertaken achieved comparable results to those previously reported with an abridged program over considerably shortened session duration and training period.

  5. Osteoporosis education improves osteoporosis knowledge and dietary calcium: comparison of a 4 week and a one-session education course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laslett, Laura L; Lynch, Joan; Sullivan, Thomas R; McNeil, Julian D

    2011-08-01

    Education is ideal for osteoporosis because many risk factors are modifiable. However, the efficacy of shortened education courses compared to a standard 4 week course for improving osteoporosis knowledge and healthy behaviours is not known. This study aimed to assess whether education changed knowledge and healthy behaviours over 3 months of follow-up; and whether changes in these outcomes were different between participants receiving the different education courses. Adults aged ≥ 50 years presenting to Emergency with mild to moderate trauma fractures received either the Osteoporosis Prevention and Self-Management Course (OPSMC) (4 × 2.5 h) (n = 75) or a one-session course (1 × 2.5 h) (n = 71) in a non-randomised prospective study with single-blinded allocation. Participants completed questionnaires measuring osteoporosis knowledge, dietary calcium, physical activity, calcium and exercise self-efficacy, and osteoporosis medications at baseline and 3 months. Data were analysed using mixed models and GEE regression models. Osteoporosis knowledge and calcium from food (% of RDI) increased from baseline to 3 months in both groups (P osteoporosis medications increased between baseline and 3 months in the OPSMC group while decreasing in the one-session group (P = 0.039). There were no differences between the groups or over time in physical activity, calcium or exercise self-efficacy. Osteoporosis education (either the OPSMC or the one-session course) improved osteoporosis knowledge and calcium intake after 3 months. Participants attending the OPSMC maintained medication compliance. We were unable to determine other differences between the courses. This study confirms the value of osteoporosis education for improving osteoporosis knowledge. © 2011 The Authors. International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases © 2011 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  6. Cocoa extract intake for 4 weeks reduces postprandial systolic blood pressure response of obese subjects, even after following an energy-restricted diet

    OpenAIRE

    Idoia Ibero-Baraibar; Manuel Suárez; Anna Arola-Arnal; M. Angeles Zulet; J. Alfredo Martinez

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cardiometabolic profile is usually altered in obesity. Interestingly, the consumption of flavanol-rich foods might be protective against those metabolic alterations.Objective: To evaluate the postprandial cardiometabolic effects after the acute consumption of cocoa extract before and after 4 weeks of its daily intake. Furthermore, the bioavailability of cocoa extract was investigated.Design: Twenty-four overweight/obese middle-aged subjects participated in a 4-week intervention st...

  7. Efficacy and safety of diclofenac sodium 2% topical solution for osteoarthritis of the knee: a randomized, double-blind, vehicle-controlled, 4 week study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadsworth, L Tyler; Kent, Jeffrey D; Holt, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are standard therapy for osteoarthritis (OA). Topically applied NSAIDs reduce systemic exposure compared with oral NSAIDS, and European guidelines recommend their use. The NSAID diclofenac is available in a range of topical formulations. Diclofenac 1% gel and 1.5% four times daily and 2% twice daily (BID) solutions are approved to reduce pain from OA of the knee(s). The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of diclofenac sodium 2% topical solution BID versus vehicle control solution for treating pain associated with OA of the knee. A phase II, 4 week, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, two-arm, vehicle-controlled study compared pain relief with diclofenac sodium 2% topical solution versus control (vehicle only) in patients aged 40 to 85 years with radiographically confirmed primary OA of the knee. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT01119898. The primary efficacy outcome was change from baseline to the final visit in the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) pain subscale. Secondary outcomes included additional WOMAC subscales and patient global assessment of OA. Treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs), skin irritation, and vital signs were assessed and collected throughout the study. Of 260 patients randomized, 259 received ≥1 dose of study drug. Significantly greater reductions in least-squares mean (standard error) WOMAC pain scores were observed for diclofenac-treated (-4.4 [0.4]) versus vehicle-treated patients (-3.4 [0.4]) at the final visit (p = 0.040). The most commonly reported TEAEs were administration site conditions. The vehicle-treated group experienced slightly more TEAEs than the active treatment group (38.8% vs. 31.5%). No serious adverse events were reported. Administration of diclofenac sodium 2% topical solution BID resulted in significantly greater improvement in pain reduction in patients with OA of the knee versus vehicle

  8. The Impact of Classroom Physical Activity Breaks on Middle School Students' Health-Related Fitness: An Xbox One Kinetic Delivered 4-Week Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yli-Piipari, S.; Layne, T.; McCollins, T.; Knox, T.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the effect of a 4-week classroom physical activity break intervention on middle school students' health-related physical fitness. The study was a randomized controlled trial with students assigned to the experiment and control conditions. A convenience sample comprised 94 adolescents (experiment group n = 52;…

  9. Effects of 4 Weeks of Horseback Riding on Anxiety, Depression, and Self-Esteem in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wi-Young So

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: There is no report on the effects of horseback riding on children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the effects of 4 weeks of horseback riding on anxiety, depression, self-esteem, attention, and learning disorder in children with ADHD. Material and Methods: Subjects comprised a convenience sample of 10 children aged 10-12 years with ADHD and 10 children without ADHD. Horseback riding sessions were performed 2 times (40 minutes/day per week for 4 weeks. Before and after the horseback riding program, we measured the children’s anxiety, depression, self-esteem, attention, and learning disorder. The pre-test and post-test scores were analyzed with repeated-measures analysis of variance. Results: After participating in the 4-week horseback riding program, anxiety (p = 0.013, depression (p = 0.007, attention (p < 0.001, and learning disorder (p < 0.001 were significantly improved in the ADHD group compared to the control group. However, self-esteem was not significantly different between the two groups (p=0.096. Conclusion: These results indicate that the 4-week horseback riding program used in this study was very effective for significantly improving anxiety, depression, and attention in children with ADHD.

  10. Comparative chronic toxicity of homo- and heterocyclic aromatic compounds to benthic and terrestrial invertebrates: Generalizations and exceptions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leon Paumen, M.; de Voogt, P.; van Gestel, C.A.M.; Kraak, M.H.S.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to elucidate consistent patterns in chronic polycyclic aromatic compound (PAC) toxicity to soil and sediment inhabiting invertebrates. Therefore we examined our experimental dataset, consisting of twenty-one chronic effect concentrations for two soil invertebrates

  11. Comparative chronic toxicity of homo- and heterocyclic aromatic compounds to benthic and terrestrial invertebrates: Generalizations and exceptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    León Paumen, M.; de Voogt, P.; van Gestel, C.A.M.; Kraak, M.H.S.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to elucidate consistent patterns in chronic polycyclic aromatic compound (PAC) toxicity to soil and sediment inhabiting invertebrates. Therefore we examined our experimental dataset, consisting of twenty-one chronic effect concentrations for two soil invertebrates

  12. Toxicity study of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) in combination with acetone in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, M.; Østergaard, G.; Lam, Henrik Rye

    2000-01-01

    In two separate studies with exposure duration 9 weeks or 4 weeks, male Wistar rats were dosed with di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) by gavage and exposed to drinking water with or without acetone (0.5% wt/v in the 9-week study, 1.0% wt/v in the 4-week study). In the 9-week study the doses of DEHP...... were 0, 125, 250, 500 or 1000 mg/kg b.wt. In the 4-week study the doses of DEHP were increased to 1000, 5000 and 10,000 mg/kg b.wt. In the 9-week study, the relative liver weight was increased in the rats exposed to 500 and 1000 mg/kg b.wt. No interaction of DEHP and acetone was observed in any...... of the measured parameters. In the 4-week study DEHP, at the highest dose level, resulted in severe general toxicity. The group exposed to DEHP in combination with acetone was more affected. Male fertility was decreased. Body weight was decreased, and the relative weight of the liver, kidney, heart, brain...

  13. Evaluation of jojoba oil as a low-energy fat. 1. A 4-week feeding study in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verschuren, P M

    1989-01-01

    The nutritional properties of jojoba oil (JO) were examined in a 4-wk feeding study of rats fed a diet with JO at dose levels of 2.2, 4.5 and 9%, supplemented with a conventional fat up to 18%. General health, survival and food intake were not adversely affected. Body-weight gains showed a dose-related decline, which amounted to 20% of the body weight in the high-dose group of both sexes. Clinical chemistry revealed significantly increased levels of various enzymes that were indicative of cell damage. Haematology showed a dose-related increase in white blood cells. On necropsy an apparent distension of the small intestine was found. Histopathological evaluation revealed marked intestinal changes characterized by massive vacuolization and lipid deposition in the enterocytes, accompanied by distension of the villi and an increased cell turnover of small intestinal cells. Faeces production and faeces lipid content were increased with increasing JO levels. The recovery of JO in the faeces also increased in a dose-related manner and was found to be correlated with the intestinal histopathological changes. The significant adverse clinical and histopathological effects observed in this study imply that JO cannot be considered as a promising alternative dietary fat with a low digestibility.

  14. A 4-Week Intervention Involving Mobile-Based Daily 6-Minute Micro-Sessions of Functional High-Intensity Circuit Training Improves Strength and Quality of Life, but Not Cardio-Respiratory Fitness of Young Untrained Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Billy Sperlich

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to assess the psycho-physiological responses of physically untrained individuals to mobile-based multi-stimulating, circuit-like, multiple-joint conditioning (CircuitHIIT performed either once (1xCircuitHIIT or twice (2xCircuitHIIT daily for 4 weeks. In this single-center, two-arm randomized, controlled study, 24 men and women (age: 25 ± 5 years first received no training instructions for 4 weeks and then performed 4 weeks of either 1xCircuitHIIT or 2xCircuitHIIT (5 men and 7 women in each group daily. The 1xCircuitHIIT and 2xCircuitHIIT participants carried out 90.7 and 85.7% of all planned training sessions, respectively, with average heart rates during the 6-min sessions of 74.3 and 70.8% of maximal heart rate. Body, fat and fat-free mass, and metabolic rate at rest did not differ between the groups or between time-points of measurement. Heart rate while running at 6 km⋅h-1 declined after the intervention in both groups. Submaximal and peak oxygen uptake, the respiratory exchange ratio and heart rate recovery were not altered by either intervention. The maximal numbers of push-ups, leg-levers, burpees, 45°-one-legged squats and 30-s skipping, as well as perception of general health improved in both groups. Our 1xCircuitHIIT or 2xCircuitHIIT interventions improved certain parameters of functional strength and certain dimensions of quality of life in young untrained individuals. However, they were not sufficient to enhance cardio-respiratory fitness, in particular peak oxygen uptake.

  15. Effects of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) in zebrafish: General and reproductive toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhi, S.; Patino, R.

    2008-01-01

    Mixed-sex populations of young adult zebrafish (???2-month-old) were exposed to measured RDX concentrations of 0, 1 or 9.6 ppm for up to 12 weeks followed by a 15-day rearing period in untreated water. RDX caused high mortality at 9.6 ppm, with most deaths occurring within the first 8 weeks of exposure. RDX at 9.6 ppm caused lower body weights at 4 and 8 weeks of exposure; and at 1 ppm, lower body weight was observed only at 4 weeks. Fish length was not affected by treatment at any time during the exposure period. The bioconcentration factor for RDX seemed to be influenced by time of exposure but not by water RDX concentration; its overall values were 1.01 ?? 0.13, 0.91 ?? 0.06 and 2.23 ?? 0.04 at 4, 8 weeks and 12 weeks, respectively. RDX was not detected in fish collected after the 15-day recovery period. In a separate experiment, adult females and males were separately exposed to RDX at measured concentrations of 0, 0.5 and 3.2 ppm for a period of 6 weeks. Reproductive performance was evaluated by biweekly breeding of the fish and measuring packed-egg volume (PEV) as index of fecundity. At 0.5 ppm, RDX caused elevated PEV levels relative to the control value at 2 weeks but not at 4 or 6 weeks, whereas no significant effects were noted at 3.2 ppm. Egg fertilization and embryo hatching rates were not affected by RDX at any of the concentrations tested. In conclusion, RDX at sublethal concentrations causes short-term negative effects on growth and, at 0.5 ppm, positive effects on fecundity. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Nabarlek evaporation and storage ponds: possible role of biological activity in the escape of toxic substances to the general environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinick, W.

    1982-01-01

    An investigation was undertaken to determine whether or not game birds might become contaminated with radionuclides while visiting the evaporating ponds at the Nabarlek uranium mine. The level of biological community development in the ponds and water bird activity were low. It is concluded that at present escape of radionuclides or toxic elements from the ponds as a result of biological activity is not a problem

  17. Dichorionic twin ultrasound surveillance: sonography every 4 weeks significantly underperforms sonography every 2 weeks: results of the Prospective Multicenter ESPRiT Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Siobhan; Breathnach, Fionnuala; Burke, Gerard; McAuliffe, Fionnuala; Geary, Michael; Daly, Sean; Higgins, John; Hunter, Alyson; Morrison, John J; Higgins, Shane; Mahony, Rhona; Dicker, Patrick; Tully, Elizabeth; Malone, Fergal D

    2015-10-01

    A 2-week ultrasound scanning schedule for monochorionic twins is endorsed widely. There is a lack of robust data to inform a schedule for the surveillance of dichorionic gestations. We aimed to determine how ultrasound scanning that is performed at 2- or 4-week intervals (or every 4 weeks before 32 weeks' gestation and every 2 weeks thereafter) may impact the prenatal detection of fetal growth restriction (FGR) and ultimately influence timing of delivery. In a consecutive cohort of 789 dichorionic twin pregnancies that were recruited prospectively for the multicenter Evaluation of Sonographic Predictors of Restricted Growth in Twins study, ultrasound determination of fetal growth and interrogation of umbilical and middle cerebral artery Doppler scans were performed every 2 weeks from 24 weeks' gestation until delivery. Complete delivery and perinatal outcome data were recorded for all pregnancies. Where delivery was prompted by FGR, abnormal umbilical artery Doppler examination or poor biophysical profile and in the absence of ruptured membranes, onset of labor, preeclampsia, or antepartum hemorrhage, the delivery was considered "ultrasound-indicated." For ultrasound-indicated deliveries, detection probabilities for FGR/abnormal umbilical artery Doppler scans/poor biophysical were determined according to the interval between examinations, by the suppression if alternate examination data. Among 789 dichorionic twin pregnancies, 66 pairs (8%) had an "ultrasound indicated" delivery. Detection of FGR was reduced from 88-69%, and detection of abnormal umbilical artery Doppler was reduced from 82-62% when a 4-week ultrasound schedule was simulated. Both of these reductions reached statistical significance. There was a nonsignificant trend toward a reduction in the recording of oligohydramnios with a 4-week interval between examinations. This study suggests that the ultrasound surveillance program of every 2 weeks that is recommended currently for monochorionic twins

  18. Cocoa extract intake for 4 weeks reduces postprandial systolic blood pressure response of obese subjects, even after following an energy-restricted diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibero-Baraibar, Idoia; Suárez, Manuel; Arola-Arnal, Anna; Zulet, M. Angeles; Martinez, J. Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    Background Cardiometabolic profile is usually altered in obesity. Interestingly, the consumption of flavanol-rich foods might be protective against those metabolic alterations. Objective To evaluate the postprandial cardiometabolic effects after the acute consumption of cocoa extract before and after 4 weeks of its daily intake. Furthermore, the bioavailability of cocoa extract was investigated. Design Twenty-four overweight/obese middle-aged subjects participated in a 4-week intervention study. Half of the volunteers consumed a test meal enriched with 1.4 g of cocoa extract (415 mg flavanols), while the rest of the volunteers consumed the same meal without the cocoa extract (control group). Glucose and lipid profile, as well as blood pressure and cocoa metabolites in plasma, were assessed before and at 60, 120, and 180 min post-consumption, at the beginning of the study (Postprandial 1) and after following a 4-week 15% energy-restricted diet including meals containing or not containing the cocoa extract (Postprandial 2). Results In the Postprandial 1 test, the area under the curve (AUC) of systolic blood pressure (SBP) was significantly higher in the cocoa group compared with the control group (p=0.007), showing significant differences after 120 min of intake. However, no differences between groups were observed at Postprandial 2. Interestingly, the reduction of postprandial AUC of SBP (AUC_Postprandial 2-AUC_Postprandial 1) was higher in the cocoa group (p=0.016). Furthermore, cocoa-derived metabolites were detected in plasma of the cocoa group, while the absence or significantly lower amounts of metabolites were found in the control group. Conclusions The daily consumption of cocoa extract within an energy-restricted diet for 4 weeks resulted in a greater reduction of postprandial AUC of SBP compared with the effect of energy-restricted diet alone and independently of body weight loss. These results suggest the role of cocoa flavanols on postprandial blood

  19. Cocoa extract intake for 4 weeks reduces postprandial systolic blood pressure response of obese subjects, even after following an energy-restricted diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idoia Ibero-Baraibar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cardiometabolic profile is usually altered in obesity. Interestingly, the consumption of flavanol-rich foods might be protective against those metabolic alterations. Objective: To evaluate the postprandial cardiometabolic effects after the acute consumption of cocoa extract before and after 4 weeks of its daily intake. Furthermore, the bioavailability of cocoa extract was investigated. Design: Twenty-four overweight/obese middle-aged subjects participated in a 4-week intervention study. Half of the volunteers consumed a test meal enriched with 1.4 g of cocoa extract (415 mg flavanols, while the rest of the volunteers consumed the same meal without the cocoa extract (control group. Glucose and lipid profile, as well as blood pressure and cocoa metabolites in plasma, were assessed before and at 60, 120, and 180 min post-consumption, at the beginning of the study (Postprandial 1 and after following a 4-week 15% energy-restricted diet including meals containing or not containing the cocoa extract (Postprandial 2. Results: In the Postprandial 1 test, the area under the curve (AUC of systolic blood pressure (SBP was significantly higher in the cocoa group compared with the control group (p=0.007, showing significant differences after 120 min of intake. However, no differences between groups were observed at Postprandial 2. Interestingly, the reduction of postprandial AUC of SBP (AUC_Postprandial 2-AUC_Postprandial 1 was higher in the cocoa group (p=0.016. Furthermore, cocoa-derived metabolites were detected in plasma of the cocoa group, while the absence or significantly lower amounts of metabolites were found in the control group. Conclusions: The daily consumption of cocoa extract within an energy-restricted diet for 4 weeks resulted in a greater reduction of postprandial AUC of SBP compared with the effect of energy-restricted diet alone and independently of body weight loss. These results suggest the role of cocoa flavanols on

  20. Cocoa extract intake for 4 weeks reduces postprandial systolic blood pressure response of obese subjects, even after following an energy-restricted diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibero-Baraibar, Idoia; Suárez, Manuel; Arola-Arnal, Anna; Zulet, M Angeles; Martinez, J Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    Cardiometabolic profile is usually altered in obesity. Interestingly, the consumption of flavanol-rich foods might be protective against those metabolic alterations. To evaluate the postprandial cardiometabolic effects after the acute consumption of cocoa extract before and after 4 weeks of its daily intake. Furthermore, the bioavailability of cocoa extract was investigated. Twenty-four overweight/obese middle-aged subjects participated in a 4-week intervention study. Half of the volunteers consumed a test meal enriched with 1.4 g of cocoa extract (415 mg flavanols), while the rest of the volunteers consumed the same meal without the cocoa extract (control group). Glucose and lipid profile, as well as blood pressure and cocoa metabolites in plasma, were assessed before and at 60, 120, and 180 min post-consumption, at the beginning of the study (Postprandial 1) and after following a 4-week 15% energy-restricted diet including meals containing or not containing the cocoa extract (Postprandial 2). In the Postprandial 1 test, the area under the curve (AUC) of systolic blood pressure (SBP) was significantly higher in the cocoa group compared with the control group (p=0.007), showing significant differences after 120 min of intake. However, no differences between groups were observed at Postprandial 2. Interestingly, the reduction of postprandial AUC of SBP (AUC_Postprandial 2-AUC_Postprandial 1) was higher in the cocoa group (p=0.016). Furthermore, cocoa-derived metabolites were detected in plasma of the cocoa group, while the absence or significantly lower amounts of metabolites were found in the control group. The daily consumption of cocoa extract within an energy-restricted diet for 4 weeks resulted in a greater reduction of postprandial AUC of SBP compared with the effect of energy-restricted diet alone and independently of body weight loss. These results suggest the role of cocoa flavanols on postprandial blood pressure homeostasis.

  1. Effect of 4 Weeks of Detraining After a Period of Resistance Training on Plasma Apelin Levels in Overweight and Obese Girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezvaneh Galdavi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Apelin is secreted from visceral adipose tissue. However, the effect of resistance training and consequent detraining on the apelin level in obesity, has not yet been clearly determined. In the current research, the effect of 4 weeks of detraining after a period of resistance training, was investigated on the plasma apelin levels in overweight and obese girls. Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, 22 overweight and obese girls were purposefully selected and randomly divided into two groups of experimental (n=12 and control (n=10. The experimental group exercised in an 8-week training program (4 sessions per week according to a training program with an intensity of 65-80% of one maximum repetition, and then experienced 4 weeks of detraining. Blood sampling was performed after a 12-h fasting in various phases and the level of apelin was measured. Data were analyzed by Kolmogorov-Smirnov, repeated measure ANOVA, post-hoc LSD, and independent t-tests at a significance level of α 0.05. Also, after 4 weeks of detraining a slight increase was seen in the levels of apelin, but was not significant (p>0.05. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, resistance training as a new non-drug therapy can be effective in reducing the levels of apelin. Also, apelin levels increases with discontinuation of exercise, which may lead to the emergence of inflammatory features in the cardiovascular system.

  2. Comparison of the capacity of two biotic ligand models to predict chronic copper toxicity to two Daphnia magna clones and formulation of a generalized bioavailability model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Regenmortel, Tina; Janssen, Colin R; De Schamphelaere, Karel A C

    2015-07-01

    Although it is increasingly recognized that biotic ligand models (BLMs) are valuable in the risk assessment of metals in aquatic systems, the use of 2 differently structured and parameterized BLMs (1 in the United States and another in the European Union) to obtain bioavailability-based chronic water quality criteria for copper is worthy of further investigation. In the present study, the authors evaluated the predictive capacity of these 2 BLMs for a large dataset of chronic copper toxicity data with 2 Daphnia magna clones, termed K6 and ARO. One BLM performed best with clone K6 data, whereas the other performed best with clone ARO data. In addition, there was an important difference between the 2 BLMs in how they predicted the bioavailability of copper as a function of pH. These modeling results suggested that the effect of pH on chronic copper toxicity is different between the 2 clones considered, which was confirmed with additional chronic toxicity experiments. Finally, because fundamental differences in model structure between the 2 BLMs made it impossible to create an average BLM, a generalized bioavailability model (gBAM) was developed. Of the 3 gBAMs developed, the authors recommend the use of model gBAM-C(uni), which combines a log-linear relation between the 21-d median effective concentration (expressed as free Cu(2+) ion activity) and pH, with more conventional BLM-type competition constants for sodium, calcium, and magnesium. This model can be considered a first step in further improving the accuracy of chronic toxicity predictions of copper as a function of water chemistry (for a variety of Daphnia magna clones), even beyond the robustness of the current BLMs used in regulatory applications. © 2015 SETAC.

  3. Effects of 4-Week Intervention with Ulmus macrocarpa Hance Extract on Immune Function Biomarkers in Healthy Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Ra Cho

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Ulmus macrocarpa extract has been shown to have immune-related effects in animals, but no studies have yet been performed in humans. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted to determine the effect of short-term administration of Ulmus macrocarpa Hance extract (UME on immune function biomarkers and its safety in human subjects. Fifty-eight subjects were randomly assigned to a UME group or a placebo group. Subjects in the UME group were given 500 mg per day of UME orally for 4 weeks. Mean fluorescence intensity (MFI of tumor necrotic factor-α increased only in the UME group at 1 week (P=0.027. The MFI of interleukin-2 decreased less significantly in the UME group than in the placebo group at 1 week (P=0.028. However, unfortunately, at 4 weeks, no intergroup differences were detected in MFIs of cytokine. In conclusion, administration of UME for 1 week increased serum TNF-α and sustains IL-2 in human, which suggests that UME increases Th1-related immune function in the short term in healthy people. However, additional studies are needed to confirm the results of this first-stage study and further trials are required to decide on optimal dosage and duration of administration. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02414412.

  4. Treatment with α-Lipoic Acid over 16 Weeks in Type 2 Diabetic Patients with Symptomatic Polyneuropathy Who Responded to Initial 4-Week High-Dose Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hector Garcia-Alcala

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Effective treatment of diabetic sensorimotor polyneuropathy remains a challenge. To assess the efficacy and safety of α-lipoic acid (ALA over 20 weeks, we conducted a multicenter randomized withdrawal open-label study, in which 45 patients with type 2 diabetes and symptomatic polyneuropathy were initially treated with ALA (600 mg tid for 4 weeks (phase 1. Subsequently, responders were randomized to receive ALA (600 mg qd; n=16 or to ALA withdrawal (n=17 for 16 weeks (phase 2. During phase 1, the Total Symptom Score (TSS decreased from 8.9 ± 1.8 points to 3.46 ± 2.0 points. During phase 2, TSS improved from 3.7 ± 1.9 points to 2.5 ± 2.5 points in the ALA treated group (p<0.05 and remained unchanged in the ALA withdrawal group. The use of analgesic rescue medication was higher in the ALA withdrawal group than ALA treated group (p<0.05. In conclusion, in type 2 diabetic patients with symptomatic polyneuropathy who responded to initial 4-week high-dose (600 mg tid administration of ALA, subsequent treatment with ALA (600 mg qd over 16 weeks improved neuropathic symptoms, whereas ALA withdrawal was associated with a higher use of rescue analgesic drugs. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02439879.

  5. The Effect of 4 Weeks of Flaxseed Extract Supplementation on Serum Concentration of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor and C-Reactive Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosein Nazari

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Omega-3 Supplementation has different effects on the body. Terefore, this study was carried out with the aim of investigating the effect of 4 weeks of flaxseed extract supplementation on serum concentrations of Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and C-reactive protein (CRP. Methods: In this double-blind study, 24 male students (mean age, 23.21±1.98 were randomly divided into two groups, including flaxseed extract (n=12 and placebo (n=12. After 4 weeks of supplementation with flaxseed extract, serum levels of BDNF and CRP was measured in fasting state. BDNF level was measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA kit, and CRP level was measured using an immunoturbidimetric assay kit. Data were analyzed using t-test. The level of significance was set at p<0.05. Results: After four weeks of supplementation with flaxseed extract the mean serum level of BDNF significantly increased (p<0.001, but no significant change was observed in the serum level of CRP (p<0.591. Conclusion: It seems that supplementation with flaxseed extract through increasing BDNF level is useful for the improvement of cognitive and functional benefits of the brain.

  6. A 4-week, lifestyle-integrated, home-based exercise training programme elicits improvements in physical function and lean mass in older men and women: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cegielski, Jessica; Brook, Matthew S; Quinlan, Jonathan I; Wilkinson, Daniel J; Smith, Kenneth; Atherton, Philip J; Phillips, Bethan E

    2017-01-01

    Developing alternative exercise programmes that can alleviate certain barriers to exercise such as psychological, environmental or socio-economical barriers, but provide similar physiological benefits e.g. increases in muscle mass and strength, is of grave importance. This pilot study aimed to assess the efficacy of an unsupervised, 4-week, whole-body home-based exercise training (HBET) programme, incorporated into daily living activities, on skeletal muscle mass, power and strength. Twelve healthy older volunteers (63±3 years, 7 men: 5 women, BMI: 29±1 kg/m²) carried out the 4-week "lifestyle-integrated" HBET of 8 exercises, 3x12 repetitions each, every day. Before and after HBET, a number of physical function tests were carried out: unilateral leg extension 1-RM (one- repetition maximum), MVC (maximal voluntary contraction) leg extension, lower leg muscle power (via Nottingham Power Rig), handgrip strength and SPPBT (short physical performance battery test). A D 3 -Creatine method was used for assessment of whole-body skeletal muscle mass, and ultrasound was used to measure the quadriceps cross-sectional area (CSA) and vastus lateralis muscle thickness. Four weeks HBET elicited significant (p<0.05) improvements in leg muscle power (276.7±38.5 vs. 323.4±43.4 W), maximal voluntary contraction (60°: 154.2±18.4 vs. 168.8±15.2 Nm, 90°: 152.1±10.5 vs. 159.1±11.4 Nm) and quadriceps CSA (57.5±5.4 vs. 59.0±5.3 cm 2 ), with a trend for an increase in leg strength (1-RM: 45.7±5.9 vs. 49.6±6.0 kg, P=0.08). This was despite there being no significant differences in whole-body skeletal muscle mass, as assessed via D 3 -Creatine. This study demonstrates that increases in multiple aspects of muscle function can be achieved in older adults with just 4-weeks of "lifestyle-integrated" HBET, with a cost-effective means. This training mode may prove to be a beneficial alternative for maintaining and/or improving muscle mass and function in older adults.

  7. A randomized, 4-week double-blind placebo control study on the efficacy of donepezil augmentation of lithium for treatment of acute mania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen J

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Jing Chen,1 Zheng Lu,1,2 Mingyuan Zhang,1 Jie Zhang,1 Xiaodong Ni,1 Xuefeng Jiang,1 Heding Xu,1 Anisha Heeramun-Aubeeluck,2 Qiaoyan Hu,3 Hua Jin,4 John M Davis31Shanghai Mental Health Center, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Psychiatry, Tongji Hospital of Tongji University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 3University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA; 4University of California at San Diego, San Diego, CA, USAIntroduction: A significant number of mania patients fail to respond to current pharmacotherapy, thereby there is need for novel augmentation strategies. The results of some early studies showed the effectiveness of cholinomimetics in the treatment of mania. One open case series suggested the efficacy of donepezil in the treatment of bipolar disorder. Our aim was to explore whether an oral cholinesterase inhibitor, donepezil, administered during a 4-week treatment period,would benefit patients with acute mania.Methods: We conducted a 4-week double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of donepezil as an adjunctive treatment to lithium in patients with acute mania. Eligible subjects were randomly assigned to receive donepezil or placebo in addition to lithium. Donepezil was started at 5 mg/day, and increased to 10 mg/day in the first week. Patients were rated with the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS and Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS at baseline, day 1, week 1, week 2, and week 4.Results: Out of the 30 patients who were enrolled, 15 were on donepezil and 15 were on placebo. All patients completed the 4-week trial. On the first day, there was a difference of 1.97 units on the psychomotor symptoms scale of the YMRS in the donepezil group as compared to the placebo group (t = 2.39, P = 0.02. There was a difference of 0.57 units (t = 2.09, P = 0.04 in the speech item and a difference of 0.29 units in the sexual interest item (t = 2.11, P = 0.04 in the donepezil

  8. Imaging of the rabbit supraspinatus enthesis at 7 Tesla: a 4-week time course after repair surgery and effect of channeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trudel, Guy; Melkus, Gerd; Cron, Greg O; Louati, Hakim; Sheikh, Adnan; Larson, Peder E Z; Schweitzer, Mark; Lapner, Peter; Uhthoff, Hans K; Laneuville, Odette

    2017-08-01

    To image the supraspinatus enthesis reformation of rabbit shoulders by magnetic resonance at 7 Tesla (T) using T2 mapping after surgical repair and to assess the effects of channeling aimed at enhancing enthesis reformation. In 112 rabbits, the distal supraspinatus (SSP) tendon was unilaterally detached and reattached after 1 week. At the first surgery, channeling was performed at the footprint in 64 rabbits. At the second surgery, the SSP tendon of all rabbits was re-attached to the greater tuberosity. The shoulders were harvested at 0, 1, 2, or 4 weeks after the repair surgery and were imaged at 7T. Quantitative T2 mapping was performed using multi slice two-dimensional multi-echo spin-echo sequence with fat saturation. Enthesis regions of interests were drawn on three slices at the footprint to measure T2 relaxation times. Tendon repair (F (2, 218)  = 44; P < 2.2e-16) and postoperative duration (F (3, 218)  = 4.8; P = 0.006) both affected significantly the T2 values while channeling had no significant effect. For the time effect, the only pair with a statistical difference was the 0-week and 4-week for the channeling groups (P = 0.023). Enthesis reformation early after surgical repair of the SSP distal tendon was characterized by increasing T2 values. 2 Technical Efficacy: Stage 1 J. MAGN. RESON. IMAGING 2017;46:461-467. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  9. Evaluation of 4 weeks' neonatal antiretroviral prophylaxis as a component of a prevention of mother-to-child transmission program in a resource-rich setting.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ferguson, Wendy

    2011-05-01

    In resource-rich settings, universal adoption of a 4- rather than 6-week neonatal antiretroviral (ARV) prophylaxis regimen could reduce toxicity and results in cost savings, provided prevention of mother-to-child transmission program effectiveness is not compromised.

  10. Local toxicity of benzalkonium chloride in ophthalmic solutions following repeated applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okahara, Akihiko; Kawazu, Kouichi

    2013-01-01

    We performed repeated toxicity studies of benzalkonium chloride (BAK)-containing vehicles of ophthalmic solutions in monkeys and rabbits to assess the local toxicity of BAK after repeated applications on the ocular surface. Local toxicity of BAK was evaluated by toxicity studies in which a 0.01% BAK-containing vehicle was applied twice/day for 52 weeks, 4 times/day for 39 weeks, or 6 times/day for 13 weeks, or in which a 0.005% BAK-containing vehicle was applied 6 times/day for 52 weeks or twice/day for 4 weeks in monkeys. Local toxicity of BAK was also evaluated where a 0.01% BAK-containing vehicle was applied 6 times/day for 6 weeks, or a 0.005% BAK-containing vehicle was applied twice/day for 39 weeks or 8 times/day for 4 weeks in rabbits. These doses were chosen because BAK is generally used at concentrations up to 0.01% in ophthalmic solutions. The BAK-containing vehicle did not cause ophthalmological changes suggestive of irritation, allergy, or corneal damage. We also did not observe any histopathological changes in the eyeball, eyelid, lacrimal gland, and nasal cavity, with repeated applications of BAK for up to 52 weeks, up to 8 times/day, or at concentrations up to 0.01%, in monkeys and rabbits. Our results suggest that BAK in concentrations up to 0.01% in ophthalmic solution is non-toxic to the eyeball, its accessory organs, and the nasal cavity after long repeated applications.

  11. Single i.v. ketamine augmentation of newly initiated escitalopram for major depression: results from a randomized, placebo-controlled 4-week study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Y-D; Xiang, Y-T; Fang, J-X; Zu, S; Sha, S; Shi, H; Ungvari, G S; Correll, C U; Chiu, H F K; Xue, Y; Tian, T-F; Wu, A-S; Ma, X; Wang, G

    2016-02-01

    While oral antidepressants reach efficacy after weeks, single-dose intravenous (i.v.) ketamine has rapid, yet time-limited antidepressant effects. We aimed to determine the efficacy and safety of single-dose i.v. ketamine augmentation of escitalopram in major depressive disorder (MDD). Thirty outpatients with severe MDD (17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression total score ⩾ 24) were randomized to 4 weeks double-blind treatment with escitalopram 10 mg/day+single-dose i.v. ketamine (0.5 mg/kg over 40 min) or escitalopram 10 mg/day + placebo (0.9% i.v. saline). Depressive symptoms were measured using the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) and the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology - Self-Report (QIDS-SR). Suicidal ideation was evaluated with the QIDS-SR item 12. Adverse psychopathological effects were measured with the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS)-positive symptoms, Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) and Clinician Administered Dissociative States Scale (CADSS). Patients were assessed at baseline, 1, 2, 4, 24 and 72 h and 7, 14, 21 and 28 days. Time to response (⩾ 50% MADRS score reduction) was the primary outcome. By 4 weeks, more escitalopram + ketamine-treated than escitalopram + placebo-treated patients responded (92.3% v. 57.1%, p = 0.04) and remitted (76.9% v. 14.3%, p = 0.001), with significantly shorter time to response [hazard ratio (HR) 0.04, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.01-0.22, p escitalopram + placebo, escitalopram + ketamine was associated with significantly lower MADRS scores from 2 h to 2 weeks [(peak = 3 days-2 weeks; effect size (ES) = 1.08-1.18)], QIDS-SR scores from 2 h to 2 weeks (maximum ES = 1.27), and QIDS-SR suicidality from 2 to 72 h (maximum ES = 2.24). Only YMRS scores increased significantly with ketamine augmentation (1 and 2 h), without significant BPRS or CADSS elevation. Single-dose i.v. ketamine augmentation of escitalopram was safe and effective in severe MDD, holding promise for speeding up

  12. The Effect of a 4 Week Isometric Handgrip Training on Changes of Peripheral Resistance and Blood Pressure in Women Suffering from Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Haji Tehrani

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: According to many studies, hypertension is considered as the second leading risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD and cardiac infarction after smoking The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of four weeks of Isometric Handgrip (IHG Training on peripheral resistance and hypertension among hypertensive women. Methods: 14 middle aged women, aged 40 to 55 years old, were randomly selected. The training program included 4 sets of 2 minute IHG training with 1 minute resting between each period, performed 3 days a week for four weeks. Doppler ultrasound method was used to measure the vascular resistance. Data were analyzed using paired t-test. Results: According to the results, there was a significant difference between systolic blood pressure (p=0.006 and diastolic blood pressure (p=0.001 after 4 weeks of training. However, no significant difference was observed in vascular resistance (p=0.66. Conclusion: These results demonstrate that IHG training can reduce blood pressure in the hypertensive patients 24 hours after the last training session. It is also revealed that reduced blood pressure is not always associated with reduced vascular resistance and other influential factors may play a role in this regard.

  13. Pharmacodynamic effects of steady-state fingolimod on antibody response in healthy volunteers: a 4-week, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, multiple-dose study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulton, Craig; Meiser, Karin; David, Olivier J; Schmouder, Robert

    2012-12-01

    Fingolimod, a first-in-class oral sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor (S1PR) modulator, is approved in many countries for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, at a once-daily 0.5-mg dose. A reduction in peripheral lymphocyte count is an expected consequence of the fingolimod mechanism of S1PR modulation. The authors investigated if this pharmacodynamic effect impacts humoral and cellular immunogenicity. In this double-blind, parallel-group, 4-week study, 72 healthy volunteers were randomized to steady state, fingolimod 0.5 mg, 1.25 mg, or to placebo. The authors compared T-cell dependent and independent responses to the neoantigens, keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH), and pneumococcal polysaccharides vaccine (PPV-23), respectively, and additionally recall antigen response (tetanus toxoid [TT]) and delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) to KLH, TT, and Candida albicans. Fingolimod caused mild to moderate decreases in anti-KLH and anti-PPV-23 IgG and IgM levels versus placebo. Responder rates were identical between placebo and 0.5-mg groups for anti-KLH IgG (both > 90%) and comparable for anti-PPV-23 IgG (55% and 41%, respectively). Fingolimod did not affect anti-TT immunogenicity, and DTH response did not differ between placebo and fingolimod 0.5-mg groups. Expectedly, lymphocyte count reduced substantially in the fingolimod groups versus placebo but reversed by study end. Fingolimod was well tolerated, and the observed safety profile was consistent with previous reports.

  14. Clinical outcome and imaging changes after intraarticular (IA) application of etanercept or methylprednisolone in rheumatoid arthritis: Magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound-Doppler show no effect of IA injections in the wrist after 4 weeks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesen, M.; Boesen, L.; Jensen, K.E.

    2008-01-01

    Objective. To assess the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasound (US) changes in the wrist of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) 4 weeks after an US guided intraarticular (IA) injection. Methods. Contrast enhanced MRI and US-Doppler were performed at baseline and 4 weeks after IA....... Conclusion. In contrast to the clinical evaluation, imaging measures of relevance for the estimation of inflammation, US-Doppler, US RI, MRI synovitis, and bone-marrow edema did not change 4 weeks after a single IA injection of either methylprednisolone or etanercept in the wrist. Within the same period...... target joint score (p 4 weeks. Baseline MRI synovitis score was mean 5.08 (range 3-9) and was unchanged at followup in the whole group (p = 0.52) and between treatment groups (p = 0.43). MRI edema score (mean 4.46, range 0...

  15. Sex differences in resting hemodynamics and arterial stiffness following 4 weeks of resistance versus aerobic exercise training in individuals with pre-hypertension to stage 1 hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collier Scott R

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypertension (HTN exhibits sexual dimorphism; the incidence for women surpasses men during the sixth decade of life, while the pharmacological treatments are less effective and produce more side-effects in women than in men. Aerobic exercise (AE has been shown to prevent and treat HTN; however, resistance exercise (RE is not recommended as a strategy to treat HTN. In this study, we investigated the potential sex differences of AE versus RE in a cohort of unmedicated patients with hypertension. Methods In total, 40 moderately active, pre-hypertensive or stage 1 essential hypertensive male (M and female (F participants aged 40 to 60 years were randomly divided into four groups: M AE, M RE, F AE, and F. Each group exercised at moderate intensity, 3 days/week for 4 weeks. Hemodynamic, vascular and blood-flow data were collected before and after exercise training. Results Men showed a significant increase in central pulse wave velocity following RE while females showed no significant changes (12 ± to 13.9 ± vs. 9.2 ± to 9.6 ± m/s, respectively. RE showed significantly greater increases in peak blood flow when compared to AE (F RE 15 ± to 20 ± vs. F AE 17.5 ± to19.5 ±, M RE 19 ± to 24 ± vs M AE 21 ± to 25 ± ml* 100 ml*min, respectively. In addition, systolic and diastolic BP decreased greater for women following RE when compared to AE whereas men showed comparable decreases in BP following either exercise mode. Conclusion Moderate-intensity RE training may be a more favorable for women as a treatment option for hypertension because of greater decreases in diastolic BP and significant increases in flow-mediated dilation without concomitant increases in arterial stiffness, compared with their male counterparts.

  16. Adaptive metabolic response to 4 weeks of sugar-sweetened beverage consumption in healthy, lightly active individuals and chronic high glucose availability in primary human myotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartor, Francesco; Jackson, Matthew J; Squillace, Cesare; Shepherd, Anthony; Moore, Jonathan P; Ayer, Donald E; Kubis, Hans-Peter

    2013-04-01

    Chronic sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption is associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Hyperglycaemia contributes to metabolic alterations observed in T2DM, such as reduced oxidative capacity and elevated glycolytic and lipogenic enzyme expressions in skeletal muscle tissue. We aimed to investigate the metabolic alterations induced by SSB supplementation in healthy individuals and to compare these with the effects of chronic hyperglycaemia on primary muscle cell cultures. Lightly active, healthy, lean subjects (n = 11) with sporadic soft drink consumption underwent a 4-week SSB supplementation (140 ± 15 g/day, ~2 g glucose/kg body weight/day, glucose syrup). Before and after the intervention, body composition, respiratory exchange ratio (RER), insulin sensitivity, muscle metabolic gene and protein expression were assessed. Adaptive responses to hyperglycaemia (7 days, 15 mM) were tested in primary human myotubes. SSB supplementation increased fat mass (+1.0 kg, P < 0.05), fasting RER (+0.12, P < 0.05), fasting glucose (+0.3 mmol/L, P < 0.05) and muscle GAPDH mRNA expressions (+0.94 AU, P < 0.05). PGC1α mRNA was reduced (-0.20 AU, P < 0.05). Trends were found for insulin resistance (+0.16 mU/L, P = 0.09), and MondoA protein levels (+1.58 AU, P = 0.08). Primary myotubes showed elevations in GAPDH, ACC, MondoA and TXNIP protein expressions (P < 0.05). Four weeks of SSB supplementation in healthy individuals shifted substrate metabolism towards carbohydrates, increasing glycolytic and lipogenic gene expression and reducing mitochondrial markers. Glucose-sensing protein MondoA might contribute to this shift, although further in vivo evidence is needed to corroborate this.

  17. Effects of 4-Week Training Intervention with Unknown Loads on Power Output Performance and Throwing Velocity in Junior Team Handball Players.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Sabido

    Full Text Available To compare the effect of 4-week unknown vs known loads strength training intervention on power output performance and throwing velocity in junior team handball players.Twenty-eight junior team-handball players (17.2 ± 0.6 years, 1.79 ± 0.07 m, 75.6 ± 9.4 kgwere divided into two groups (unknown loads: UL; known loads: KL. Both groups performed two sessions weekly consisting of four sets of six repetitions of the bench press throw exercise, using the 30%, 50% and 70% of subjects' individual 1 repetition maximum (1RM. In each set, two repetitions with each load were performed, but the order of the loads was randomised. In the KL group, researchers told the subjects the load to mobilise prior each repetition, while in the UL group, researchers did not provide any information. Maximal dynamic strength (1RM bench press, power output (with 30, 50 and 70% of 1RM and throwing velocity (7 m standing throw and 9 m jumping throw were assessed pre- and post-training intervention.Both UL and KL group improved similarly their 1RM bench press as well as mean and peak power with all loads. There were significant improvements in power developed in all the early time intervals measured (150 ms with the three loads (30, 50, 70% 1RM in the UL group, while KL only improved with 30% 1RM (all the time intervals and with 70% 1RM (at certain time intervals. Only the UL group improved throwing velocity in both standing (4.7% and jumping (5.3% throw (p > 0.05.The use of unknown loads has led to greater gains in power output in the early time intervals as well as to increases in throwing velocity compared with known loads. Therefore unknown loads are of significant practical use to increase both strength and in-field performance in a short period of training.

  18. Effects of 4-Week Training Intervention with Unknown Loads on Power Output Performance and Throwing Velocity in Junior Team Handball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabido, Rafael; Hernández-Davó, Jose Luis; Botella, Javier; Moya, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    To compare the effect of 4-week unknown vs known loads strength training intervention on power output performance and throwing velocity in junior team handball players. Twenty-eight junior team-handball players (17.2 ± 0.6 years, 1.79 ± 0.07 m, 75.6 ± 9.4 kg)were divided into two groups (unknown loads: UL; known loads: KL). Both groups performed two sessions weekly consisting of four sets of six repetitions of the bench press throw exercise, using the 30%, 50% and 70% of subjects' individual 1 repetition maximum (1RM). In each set, two repetitions with each load were performed, but the order of the loads was randomised. In the KL group, researchers told the subjects the load to mobilise prior each repetition, while in the UL group, researchers did not provide any information. Maximal dynamic strength (1RM bench press), power output (with 30, 50 and 70% of 1RM) and throwing velocity (7 m standing throw and 9 m jumping throw) were assessed pre- and post-training intervention. Both UL and KL group improved similarly their 1RM bench press as well as mean and peak power with all loads. There were significant improvements in power developed in all the early time intervals measured (150 ms) with the three loads (30, 50, 70% 1RM) in the UL group, while KL only improved with 30% 1RM (all the time intervals) and with 70% 1RM (at certain time intervals). Only the UL group improved throwing velocity in both standing (4.7%) and jumping (5.3%) throw (p > 0.05). The use of unknown loads has led to greater gains in power output in the early time intervals as well as to increases in throwing velocity compared with known loads. Therefore unknown loads are of significant practical use to increase both strength and in-field performance in a short period of training.

  19. Noninvasive Digital Detection of Fetal DNA in Plasma of 4-Week-Pregnant Women following In Vitro Fertilization and Embryo Transfer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bedri Karakas

    Full Text Available The discovery of cell-free fetal DNA (cfDNA circulating in the maternal blood has provided new opportunities for noninvasive prenatal diagnosis (NIPD. However, the extremely low levels of cfDNA within a high background of the maternal DNA in maternal circulation necessitate highly sensitive molecular techniques for its reliable use in NIPD. In this proof of principle study, we evaluated the earliest possible detection of cfDNA in the maternal plasma by a bead-based emulsion PCR technology known as BEAMing (beads, emulsion, amplification, magnetics. Blood samples were collected from in vitro fertilization (IVF patients at 2 to 6 weeks following embryo transfer (i.e., 4 to 8 week pregnancies and plasma DNA was extracted. The genomic regions of both X and Y chromosome-specific sequences (AMELX and AMELY were concurrently amplified in two sequential PCRs; first by conventional PCR then by BEAMing. The positive beads either for AMELX or AMELY gene sequences were counted by a flow cytometer. Our results showed that the pregnancies yielding boys had significantly higher plasma AMELY gene fractions (0.512 ± 0.221 than the ones yielding girls (0.028 ± 0.003 or non-pregnant women (0.020 ± 0.005, P= 0.0059. Here, we clearly demonstrated that the BEAMing technique is capable of reliably detecting cfDNA in the blood circulation of 4-week-pregnant women, which is only two weeks after the embryo transfer. BEAMing technique can also be used to early detect fetal DNA alterations in other pregnancy-associated disorders.

  20. Effect of kefir and low-dose aspirin on arterial blood pressure measurements and renal apoptosis in unhypertensive rats with 4 weeks salt diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanbak, Güngör; Uzuner, Kubilay; Kuşat Ol, Kevser; Oğlakçı, Ayşegül; Kartkaya, Kazım; Şentürk, Hakan

    2014-01-01

    Abstract We aim to study the effect of low-dose aspirin and kefir on arterial blood pressure measurements and renal apoptosis in unhypertensive rats with 4 weeks salt diet. Forty adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups: control, high-salt (HS) (8.0% NaCl), HS+aspirin (10 mg/kg), HS+kefir (10.0%w/v), HS+aspirin +kefir. We measured sistolic blood pressure (SBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), diastolic pressure, pulse pressure in the rats. Cathepsin B, L, DNA fragmentation and caspase-3 activities were determined from rat kidney tissues and rats clearance of creatinine calculated. Although HS diet increased significantly SBP, MAP, diastolic pressure, pulse pressure parameters compared the control values. They were not as high as accepted hypertension levels. When compared to HS groups, kefir groups significantly decrease Cathepsin B and DNA fragmentation levels. Caspase levels were elevated slightly in other groups according to control group. While, we also found that creatinine clearance was higher in HS+kefir and HS+low-dose aspirin than HS group. Thus, using low-dose aspirin had been approximately decreased of renal function damage. Kefir decreased renal function damage playing as Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor. But, low-dose aspirin together with kefir worsened rat renal function damage. Cathepsin B might play role both apoptosis and prorenin-processing enzyme. But not caspase pathway may be involved in the present HS diet induced apoptosis. In conclusion, kefir and low-dose aspirin used independently protect renal function and renal damage induced by HS diet in rats.

  1. Physical properties of root cementum: part 20. Effect of fluoride on orthodontically induced root resorption with light and heavy orthodontic forces for 4 weeks: a microcomputed tomography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadeniz, Ersan Ilsay; Gonzales, Carmen; Nebioglu-Dalci, Oyku; Dwarte, Dennis; Turk, Tamer; Isci, Devrim; Sahin-Saglam, Aynur M; Alkis, Huseyin; Elekdag-Turk, Selma; Darendeliler, M Ali

    2011-11-01

    resorption after the application of buccal tipping force for 4 weeks. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Small Acute Benefits of 4 Weeks Processing Speed Training Games on Processing Speed and Inhibition Performance and Depressive Mood in the Healthy Elderly People: Evidence from a Randomized Control Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouchi, Rui; Saito, Toshiki; Nouchi, Haruka; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2016-01-01

    Background: Processing speed training using a 1-year intervention period improves cognitive functions and emotional states of elderly people. Nevertheless, it remains unclear whether short-term processing speed training such as 4 weeks can benefit elderly people. This study was designed to investigate effects of 4 weeks of processing speed training on cognitive functions and emotional states of elderly people. Methods: We used a single-blinded randomized control trial (RCT). Seventy-two older adults were assigned randomly to two groups: a processing speed training game (PSTG) group and knowledge quiz training game (KQTG) group, an active control group. In PSTG, participants were asked to play PSTG (12 processing speed games) for 15 min, during five sessions per week, for 4 weeks. In the KQTG group, participants were asked to play KQTG (four knowledge quizzes) for 15 min, during five sessions per week, for 4 weeks. We measured several cognitive functions and emotional states before and after the 4 week intervention period. Results: Our results revealed that PSTG improved performances in processing speed and inhibition compared to KQTG, but did not improve performance in reasoning, shifting, short term/working memory, and episodic memory. Moreover, PSTG reduced the depressive mood score as measured by the Profile of Mood State compared to KQTG during the 4 week intervention period, but did not change other emotional measures. Discussion: This RCT first provided scientific evidence related to small acute benefits of 4 week PSTG on processing speed, inhibition, and depressive mood in healthy elderly people. We discuss possible mechanisms for improvements in processing speed and inhibition and reduction of the depressive mood. Trial registration: This trial was registered in The University Hospital Medical Information Network Clinical Trials Registry (UMIN000022250).

  3. Psychological benefits 2 and 4 weeks after a single treatment with near infrared light to the forehead: a pilot study of 10 patients with major depression and anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teicher Martin H

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many studies have reported beneficial effects from the application of near-infrared (NIR light photobiomodulation (PBM to the body, and one group has reported beneficial effects applying it to the brain in stroke patients. We have reported that the measurement of a patient's left and right hemispheric emotional valence (HEV may clarify data and guide lateralized treatments. We sought to test whether a NIR treatment could 1. improve the psychological status of patients, 2. show a relationship between immediate psychological improvements when HEV was taken into account, and 3. show an increase in frontal pole regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF, and 4. be applied without side effects. Methods We gave 10 patients, (5 M/5 F with major depression, including 9 with anxiety, 7 with a past history of substance abuse (6 with an opiate abuse and 1 with an alcohol abuse history, and 3 with post traumatic stress disorder, a baseline standard diagnostic interview, a Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D, a Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A, and a Positive and Negative Affect Scale (PANAS. We then gave four 4-minute treatments in a random order: NIR to left forehead at F3, to right forehead at F4, and placebo treatments (light off at the same sites. Immediately following each treatment we repeated the PANAS, and at 2-weeks and at 4-weeks post treatment we repeated all 3 rating scales. During all treatments we recorded total hemoglobin (cHb, as a measure of rCBF with a commercial NIR spectroscopy device over the left and the right frontal poles of the brain. Results At 2-weeks post treatment 6 of 10 patients had a remission (a score ≤ 10 on the HAM-D and 7 of 10 achieved this on the HAM-A. Patients experienced highly significant reductions in both HAM-D and HAM-A scores following treatment, with the greatest reductions occurring at 2 weeks. Mean rCBF across hemispheres increased from 0.011 units in the off condition to 0.043 units in

  4. Introducing Toxics

    OpenAIRE

    David C. Bellinger

    2013-01-01

    With this inaugural issue, Toxics begins its life as a peer-reviewed, open access journal focusing on all aspects of toxic chemicals. We are interested in publishing papers that present a wide range of perspectives on toxicants and naturally occurring toxins, including exposure, biomarkers, kinetics, biological effects, fate and transport, treatment, and remediation. Toxics differs from many other journals in the absence of a page or word limit on contributions, permitting authors to present ...

  5. Generally applicable limits on intakes of uranium based on its chemical toxicity and the radiological significance of intakes at those limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorne, M C; Wilson, J

    2015-01-01

    Uranium is chemically toxic and radioactive, and both considerations have to be taken into account when limiting intakes of the element, in the context of both occupational and public exposures. Herein, the most recent information available on the chemical toxicity and biokinetics of uranium is used to propose new standards for limiting intakes of the element. The approach adopted allows coherent standards to be set for ingestion and inhalation of different chemical forms of the element by various age groups. It also allows coherent standards to be set for occupational and public exposures (including exposures of different age groups) and for various exposure regimes (including short-term and chronic exposures). The proposed standards are more restrictive than those used previously, but are less restrictive than the Minimal Risk Levels proposed recently by the US Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Having developed a set of proposed limits based solely on chemical toxicity considerations, the radiological implications of exposure at those proposed limits are investigated for natural, depleted and enriched uranium. (paper)

  6. Toxic Elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hajeb, Parvaneh; Shakibazadeh, Shahram; Sloth, Jens Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    Food is considered the main source of toxic element (arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury) exposure to humans, and they can cause major public health effects. In this chapter, we discuss the most important sources for toxic element in food and the foodstuffs which are significant contributors to h...

  7. Acute and Subacute Toxicity Evaluation of Corn Silk Extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Ae Wha; Kang, Hyeon Jung; Kim, Sun Lim; Kim, Myung Hwan; Kim, Woo Kyoung

    2018-03-01

    Many studies have reported therapeutic efficacy of corn silk extract. However, research on its toxicity and safe dose range is limited. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine the acute and subacute toxicity of corn silk extract in ICR mice. To determine acute toxicity, corn silk extract containing high levels of maysin was orally administered to mice at a dose of 0 or 2,000 mg/kg. Clinical symptoms, mortality, and body weight changes were recorded for 14 days. To determine subacute toxicity, corn silk extract was orally administered to mice over a 4-week period, and then body weight, water and food consumption, and organ weight were determined. In addition, urine and serum analyses were performed. In the acute toxicity study, no death or abnormal symptoms was observed in all treatment groups during the study period. Body weights did not show any significant change compared to those of the control group. Lethal dose of corn silk extract was estimated to be more than 2,000 mg/kg. In the 4-week subacute toxicity study, there was no corn silk extract related toxic effect on body weight, water intake, food consumption, urine parameters, clinical chemistry, or organ weight. Histopathological examination showed no abnormality related to the administration of corn silk extract at 500 mg/kg. The maximum non-toxic dose of corn silk extract containing high levels of maysin was found to be more than 500 mg/kg.

  8. Study The Effect of 4 weeks of Special Aerobic Training on CBS and SAM Levels in Hippocampus of Rats with Alzheimer-induced Disease with Aβ1-42 Injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Azimi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: H2S plays a key role in the pathogenesis of the Alzheimer’s disease. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of 4 weeks of the special aerobic training after induction of Alzheimer’s disease by Aβ1-42 injection on CBS and SAM levels in hippocampus of Wistar male rats. Materials and Methods: Twenty male Wistar rats (8 weeks old and weight 195 ± 20 g were divided into four groups including: healthy control, Alzheimer’s control, Alzheimer’s + training and sham. To induce Alzheimer’s disease, Aβ1-42 was infused into the hippocampus of rats. Training group trained for 4-week. For data analysis, one-way ANOVA was used and Eta and Omega squared tests were used to determine the effect size (p<0.05. Results: Findings revealed that 4 weeks of special aerobic training increased significantly the CBS and SAM levels in hippocampus of Alzheimer’s rats compared to the control Alzheimer’s rats ( ES=53; p= 0.007, ES= 92.22; p= 0.001. Also, we showed 4 weeks of special aerobic training increased CBS level in hippocampus of Alzheimer’s rats compared to the healthy cotrol group (ES= 44.07; p= 0.014. Conclusion: It seems that the special aerobic training can be used as a useful non-pharmacologically effective therapeutic treatment for Alzheimer's patients through positive regulation of hydrogen sulfide via CBS and SAM enzymes.

  9. Introducing Toxics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C. Bellinger

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available With this inaugural issue, Toxics begins its life as a peer-reviewed, open access journal focusing on all aspects of toxic chemicals. We are interested in publishing papers that present a wide range of perspectives on toxicants and naturally occurring toxins, including exposure, biomarkers, kinetics, biological effects, fate and transport, treatment, and remediation. Toxics differs from many other journals in the absence of a page or word limit on contributions, permitting authors to present their work in as much detail as they wish. Toxics will publish original research papers, conventional reviews, meta-analyses, short communications, theoretical papers, case reports, commentaries and policy perspectives, and book reviews (Book reviews will be solicited and should not be submitted without invitation. Toxins and toxicants concern individuals from a wide range of disciplines, and Toxics is interested in receiving papers that represent the full range of approaches applied to their study, including in vitro studies, studies that use experimental animal or non-animal models, studies of humans or other biological populations, and mathematical modeling. We are excited to get underway and look forward to working with authors in the scientific and medical communities and providing them with a novel venue for sharing their work. [...

  10. Anxiety and Anger Symptoms in Hwabyung Patients Improved More following 4 Weeks of the Emotional Freedom Technique Program Compared to the Progressive Muscle Relaxation Program: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Woo Suh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The Emotional Freedom Technique (EFT is a meridian-based psychological therapy. The present clinical trial investigates the effectiveness of EFT as a new treatment option for Hwabyung (HB patients experiencing anger and compares the efficacy to the Progressive Muscle Relaxation (PMR, the conventional meditation technique. Methods. The EFT and progressive muscle relaxation (PMR methods were performed on 27 HB patients, and their capacities to alleviate anxiety, anger, and emotional status were compared. After a 4-week program, a survey was conducted; patients then completed a self-training program for 4 weeks, followed by a second survey. Results. During the initial 4 weeks, the EFT group experienced a significant decrease in the HB symptom scale, anger state, and paranoia ideation (p<0.05. Over the entire 9-week interval, there were significant decreases in the HB symptom scale, anxiety state, anger state, anger trait, somatization, anxiety, hostility, and so on in EFT group (p<0.05. Conclusion. The EFT group showed improved psychological symptoms and physical symptoms greater than those observed in the PMR group. EFT more effectively alleviated HB symptoms compared to PMR. EFT group showed better maintenance during self-training, suggesting good model of self-control treatment in HB patients.

  11. Antimony Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyam Sundar

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Antimony toxicity occurs either due to occupational exposure or during therapy. Occupational exposure may cause respiratory irritation, pneumoconiosis, antimony spots on the skin and gastrointestinal symptoms. In addition antimony trioxide is possibly carcinogenic to humans. Improvements in working conditions have remarkably decreased the incidence of antimony toxicity in the workplace. As a therapeutic, antimony has been mostly used for the treatment of leishmaniasis and schistosomiasis. The major toxic side-effects of antimonials as a result of therapy are cardiotoxicity (~9% of patients and pancreatitis, which is seen commonly in HIV and visceral leishmaniasis co-infections. Quality control of each batch of drugs produced and regular monitoring for toxicity is required when antimonials are used therapeutically.

  12. Wild lettuce (Lactuca virosa) toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Besharat, Sima; Besharat, Mahsa; Jabbari, Ali

    2009-01-01

    Wild lettuce (Lactuca virosa) can cause toxic effects when eaten. Wild lettuce grows in the north of Iran and some natives consume it unaware of its adverse side effects. We describe eight patients with manifestations of wild lettuce toxicity, admitted to a general hospital affiliated to the Golestan University of Medical Sciences. All the patients recovered (although one had to spend 48 h in the intensive care unit) and no chronic complications were reported. A clinical suspicion of toxicity...

  13. Antimony Toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Sundar, Shyam; Chakravarty, Jaya

    2010-01-01

    Antimony toxicity occurs either due to occupational exposure or during therapy. Occupational exposure may cause respiratory irritation, pneumoconiosis, antimony spots on the skin and gastrointestinal symptoms. In addition antimony trioxide is possibly carcinogenic to humans. Improvements in working conditions have remarkably decreased the incidence of antimony toxicity in the workplace. As a therapeutic, antimony has been mostly used for the treatment of leishmaniasis and schistosomiasis. The...

  14. Oxygen toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. van der Westhuizen

    1990-07-01

    Full Text Available Oxygen has been discovered about 200 years ago. Since then the vital physiological involvement of oxygen in various biologi­cal processes, mainly energy production, has been established. However, in the body molecular oxygen can be converted to toxic oxygen metabolites such as superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide, the hydroxyl radical and singlet oxygen. These toxic metabolites are produced mainly in the mitochondria, plasma membranes and endoplasmic reticulum.

  15. 4-Week Gluten-Free Meal Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... salad sandwich on GF bread Turkey or beef meatballs (substitute crushed GF crackers or dehydrated potato flakes ... sautéed zucchini and roasted potatoes (reserve a few meatballs for Friday’s lunch) Friday Pancakes topped with peanut ...

  16. Pulmonary Toxicity Studies of Lunar Dust in Rodents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Chiu-Wing; James, John T.

    2012-01-01

    NASA has been contemplating returning astronauts to the moon for long-duration habitation and research and using it as a stepping-stone to Mars. Other spacefaring nations are planning to send humans to the moon for the first time. The surface of the moon is covered by a layer of fine dust. Fine terrestrial dusts, if inhaled, are known to pose a health risk to humans. Some Apollo crews briefly exposed to moon dust that adhered to spacesuits and became airborne in the Lunar Module reported eye and throat irritation. The habitable area of any lunar landing vehicle or outpost would inevitably become contaminated with lunar dust. To assess the health risks of exposure of humans to airborne lunar dust, we evaluated the toxicity of Apollo 14 moon dust in animal lungs. Studies of the pulmonary toxicity of a dust are generally first done by intratracheal instillation (ITI) of aqueous suspensions of the test dust into the lungs of rodents. If a test dust is irritating or cytotoxic to the lungs, the alveolar macrophages, after phagocytizing the dust particles, will release cellular messengers to recruit white blood cells (WBCs) and to induce dilation of blood capillary walls to make them porous, allowing the WBCs to gain access to the alveolar space. The dilation of capillary walls also allows serum proteins and water entering the lung. Besides altering capillary integrity, a toxic dust can also directly kill the cells that come into contact with it or ingest it, after which the dead cells would release their contents, including lactate dehydrogenase (a common enzyme marker of cell death or tissue damage). In the treated animals, we lavaged the lungs 1 and 4 weeks after the dust instillation and measured the concentrations of these biomarkers of toxicity in the bronchioalveolar lavage fluids to determine the toxicity of the dust. To assess whether the inflammation and cellular injury observed in the biomarker study would lead to persistent or progressive histopathological

  17. Radionuclide toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galle, P.

    1982-01-01

    The aim of this symposium was to review the radionuclide toxicity problems. Five topics were discussed: (1) natural and artificial radionuclides (origin, presence or emission in the environment, human irradiation); (2) environmental behaviour of radionuclides and transfer to man; (3) metabolism and toxicity of radionuclides (radioiodine, strontium, rare gas released from nuclear power plants, ruthenium-activation metals, rare earths, tritium, carbon 14, plutonium, americium, curium and einsteinium, neptunium, californium, uranium) cancerogenous effects of radon 222 and of its danghter products; (4) comparison of the hazards of various types of energy; (5) human epidemiology of radionuclide toxicity (bone cancer induction by radium, lung cancer induction by radon daughter products, liver cancer and leukaemia following the use of Thorotrast, thyroid cancer; other site of cancer induction by radionuclides) [fr

  18. Putative anticancer potential of novel 4-thiazolidinone derivatives: cytotoxicity toward rat C6 glioma in vitro and correlation of general toxicity with the balance of free radical oxidation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Коbylinska, Lesya I; Boiko, Nataliya M; Panchuk, Rostyslav R; Grytsyna, Iryna I; Klyuchivska, Olga Yu; Biletska, Liliya P; Lesyk, Roman B; Zіmenkovsky, Borys S; Stoika, Rostyslav S

    2016-04-23

    To evaluate the cytotoxic action of 4-thiazolidinone derivatives (ID 3288, ID 3882, and ID 3833) toward rat glioma C6 cells and to compare the effects of these compounds and doxorubicin on the balance of free radical oxidation (FRO) and antioxidant activity (AOA) in the serum of rats. Glioma cells were treated with ID 3882, ID 3288, ID 3833, and doxorubicin, and their cytotoxicity was studied using MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay and Trypan blue exclusion test, light and fluorescent microscopy, and flow cytometric study of cell cycling and apoptosis, including measuring of Annexin V-positive cells. The contents of superoxide radical, hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radical, malonic dialdehyde, and hydrogen sulfide were measured in the serum of rats. Enzymatic activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (Cat), and glutathione peroxydase (GPO) was determined. Among novel 4-thiazolidinone derivatives, ID 3288 was most toxic toward rat glioma C6 cells, even compared with doxorubicin. All applied derivatives were less active than doxorubicin in inducing reactive oxygen species-related indicators in the serum of rats. A similar effect was observed when enzymatic indicators of AOA processes were measured. While doxorubicin inhibited the activity of SOD, GPO, and Cat, the effects of 4-thiazolidinone derivatives were less prominent. Novel 4-thiazolidinone derivatives differ in their antineoplastic action toward rat glioma C6 cells, and ID 3288 possesses the highest activity compared to doxorubicin. Measurement of indicators of FRO and AOA in the serum of rats treated with these compounds showed their lower general toxicity compared with doxorubicin's toxicity.

  19. Joint toxic effects on Caenorhabditis elegans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, M.J.

    2003-01-01

    In polluted areas organisms are generally exposed to mixtures of toxic chemicals rather than a single toxicant only. Since the number of mixture toxicity studies with regard to soil systems is limited, the research in this thesis was focused on investigating ecotoxicological consequences of

  20. A 4-week, lifestyle-integrated, home-based exercise training programme elicits improvements in physical function and lean mass in older men and women: a pilot study [version 2; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Cegielski

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Developing alternative exercise programmes that can alleviate certain barriers to exercise such as psychological, environmental or socio-economical barriers, but provide similar physiological benefits e.g. increases in muscle mass and strength, is of grave importance. This pilot study aimed to assess the efficacy of an unsupervised, 4-week, whole-body home-based exercise training (HBET programme, incorporated into daily living activities, on skeletal muscle mass, power and strength. Methods: Twelve healthy older volunteers (63±3 years, 7 men: 5 women, BMI: 29±1 kg/m² carried out the 4-week “lifestyle-integrated” HBET of 8 exercises, 3x12 repetitions each, every day. Before and after HBET, a number of physical function tests were carried out: unilateral leg extension 1-RM (one- repetition maximum, MVC (maximal voluntary contraction leg extension, lower leg muscle power (via Nottingham Power Rig, handgrip strength and SPPBT (short physical performance battery test. A D3-Creatine method was used for assessment of whole-body skeletal muscle mass, and ultrasound was used to measure the quadriceps cross-sectional area (CSA and vastus lateralis muscle thickness. Results: Four weeks HBET elicited significant (p<0.05 improvements in leg muscle power (276.7±38.5 vs. 323.4±43.4 W, maximal voluntary contraction (60°: 154.2±18.4 vs. 168.8±15.2 Nm, 90°: 152.1±10.5 vs. 159.1±11.4 Nm and quadriceps CSA (57.5±5.4 vs. 59.0±5.3 cm2, with a trend for an increase in leg strength (1-RM: 45.7±5.9 vs. 49.6±6.0 kg, P=0.08. This was despite there being no significant differences in whole-body skeletal muscle mass, as assessed via D3-Creatine. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that increases in multiple aspects of muscle function can be achieved in older adults with just 4-weeks of “lifestyle-integrated” HBET, with a cost-effective means. This training mode may prove to be a beneficial alternative for maintaining and/or improving

  1. Phase III Randomized Study of 4 Weeks of High-Dose Interferon-α-2b in Stage T2bNO, T3a-bNO, T4a-bNO, and T1-4N1a-2a (microscopic) Melanoma: A Trial of the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group-American College of Radiology Imaging Network Cancer Research Group (E1697).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwala, Sanjiv S; Lee, Sandra J; Yip, Waiki; Rao, Uma N; Tarhini, Ahmad A; Cohen, Gary I; Reintgen, Douglas S; Evans, Terry L; Brell, Joanna M; Albertini, Mark R; Atkins, Michael B; Dakhil, Shaker R; Conry, Robert M; Sosman, Jeffrey A; Flaherty, Lawrence E; Sondak, Vernon K; Carson, William E; Smylie, Michael G; Pappo, Alberto S; Kefford, Richard F; Kirkwood, John M

    2017-03-10

    Purpose To test the efficacy of 4 weeks of intravenous (IV) induction with high-dose interferon (IFN) as part of the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group regimen compared with observation (OBS) in patients with surgically resected intermediate-risk melanoma. Patients and Methods In this intergroup international trial, eligible patients had surgically resected cutaneous melanoma in the following categories: (1) T2bN0, (2) T3a-bN0, (3) T4a-bN0, and (4) T1-4N1a-2a (microscopic). Patients were randomly assigned to receive IFN α-2b at 20 MU/m 2 /d IV for 5 days (Monday to Friday) every week for 4 weeks (IFN) or OBS. Stratification factors were pathologic lymph node status, lymph node staging procedure, Breslow depth, ulceration of the primary lesion, and disease stage. The primary end point was relapse-free survival. Secondary end points included overall survival, toxicity, and quality of life. Results A total of 1,150 patients were randomly assigned. At a median follow-up of 7 years, the 5-year relapse-free survival rate was 0.70 (95% CI, 0.66 to 0.74) for OBS and 0.70, (95% CI, 0.66 to 0.74) for IFN ( P = .964). The 5-year overall survival rate was 0.83 (95% CI, 0.79 to 0.86) for OBS and 0.83 (95% CI, 0.80 to 0.86) for IFN ( P = .558). Treatment-related grade 3 and higher toxicity was 4.6% versus 57.9% for OBS and IFN, respectively ( P weeks of IV induction as part of the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group high-dose IFN regimen is not better than OBS alone for patients with intermediate-risk melanoma as defined in this trial.

  2. An open-label, randomized, controlled, 4-week comparative clinical trial of barnidipine hydrochloride, a calcium-channel blocker, and benazepril, an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, in Chinese patients with renal parenchymal hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X; Zheng, F; Chen, P; Tang, L; Wei, R; Yu, Y; Su, Y; Kikkawa, T; Yamamoto, M

    2006-01-01

    This study compared barnidipine, a calcium-channel blocker, and benazepril, an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, in 85 Chinese patients with renal parenchymal hypertension (diastolic blood pressure range 95 - 110 mmHg). Patients were randomly assigned to receive either 10 mg barnidipine or 10 mg benazepril orally daily for 4 weeks. In patients with diastolic blood pressure > 90 mmHg after 2 weeks of treatment, the dose of barnidipine or benazepril was increased by 5 or 10 mg, respectively. Both the barnidipine-treated group (n = 43) and the benazepril-treated group (n = 42) showed significant mean reductions from baseline in sitting systolic and diastolic blood pressures. The decrease in diastolic blood pressure with benazepril was significantly greater than with barnidipine treatment. Sitting heart rate was not changed by either drug. There was no significant difference in adverse events between the two groups. Barnidipine is similar to benazepril for the treatment of renal parenchymal hypertension.

  3. Ecotoxicogenomic assessment of diclofenac toxicity in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Guangquan; Braver, Michiel W. den; Gestel, Cornelis A.M. van; Straalen, Nico M. van; Roelofs, Dick

    2015-01-01

    Diclofenac is widely used as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug leaving residues in the environment. To investigate effects on terrestrial ecosystems, we measured dissipation rate in soil and investigated ecotoxicological and transcriptome-wide responses in Folsomia candida. Exposure for 4 weeks to diclofenac reduced both survival and reproduction of F. candida in a dose-dependent manner. At concentrations ≥200 mg/kg soil diclofenac remained stable in the soil during a 21-day incubation period. Microarrays examined transcriptional changes at low and high diclofenac exposure concentrations. The results indicated that development and growth were severely hampered and immunity-related genes, mainly directed against bacteria and fungi, were significantly up-regulated. Furthermore, neural metabolic processes were significantly affected only at the high concentration. We conclude that diclofenac is toxic to non-target soil invertebrates, although its mode of action is different from the mammalian toxicity. The genetic markers proposed in this study may be promising early markers for diclofenac ecotoxicity. - Highlights: • Diclofenac is toxic to the non-target soil invertebrate Folsomia candida. • Diclofenac mainly caused mortality and thus only indirectly affected reproduction. • Diclofenac mode of action in F. candida was checked with gene expression profiling. • Diclofenac significantly affected development, growth and immune related processes. • Diclofenac nervous system activity in F. candida was different from that in mammals. - Diclofenac is toxic to non-target soil invertebrates with a mode of action clearly different from mammalian toxicity

  4. Toxic shock syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome; Toxic shock-like syndrome; TSLS ... Toxic shock syndrome is caused by a toxin produced by some types of staphylococcus bacteria. A similar problem, called toxic shock- ...

  5. Human Toxicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jolliet, Olivier; Fantke, Peter

    2015-01-01

    all chemicals and impact pathways characterizes the contribution of each factor to the total variation of 10–12 orders of magnitude in impacts per kg across all chemicals. This large variation between characterisation factors for different chemicals as well as the 3 orders of magnitude uncertainty....... As a whole, the assessment of toxicity in LCA has progressed on a very sharp learning curve during the past 20 years. This rapid progression is expected to continue in the coming years, focusing more on direct exposure of workers to chemicals during manufacturing and of consumers during product use...

  6. Analyzing the capacity of the Daphnia magna and Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata bioavailability models to predict chronic zinc toxicity at high pH and low calcium concentrations and formulation of a generalized bioavailability model for D. magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Regenmortel, Tina; Berteloot, Olivier; Janssen, Colin R; De Schamphelaere, Karel A C

    2017-10-01

    Risk assessment in the European Union implements Zn bioavailability models to derive predicted-no-effect concentrations for Zn. These models are validated within certain boundaries (i.e., pH ≤ 8 and Ca concentrations ≥ 5mg/L), but a substantial fraction of the European surface waters falls outside these boundaries. Therefore, we evaluated whether the chronic Zn biotic ligand model (BLM) for Daphnia magna and the chronic bioavailability model for Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata could be extrapolated to pH > 8 and Ca concentrations model can accurately predict Zn toxicity for Ca concentrations down to 0.8 mg/L and pH values up to 8.5. Because the chronic Zn BLM for D. magna could not be extrapolated beyond its validity boundaries for pH, a generalized bioavailability model (gBAM) was developed. Of 4 gBAMs developed, we recommend the use of gBAM-D, which combines a log-linear relation between the 21-d median effective concentrations (expressed as free Zn 2+ ion activity) and pH, with more conventional BLM-type competition constants for Na, Ca, and Mg. This model is a first step in further improving the accuracy of chronic toxicity predictions of Zn as a function of water chemistry, which can decrease the uncertainty in implementing the bioavailability-based predicted-no-effect concentration in the risk assessment of high-pH and low-Ca concentration regions in Europe. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:2781-2798. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  7. AMAP, the alleged non-toxic isomer of acetaminophen, is toxic in rat and human liver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadi, M; Dragovic, S.; van Swelm, R; Herpers, B; van de Water, B.; Russel, RG; Commandeur, J.N.M.; Groothuis, G.M.

    2013-01-01

    N-acetyl-meta-aminophenol (AMAP) is generally considered as a non-toxic regioisomer of the wellknown hepatotoxicant acetaminophen (APAP). However, so far, AMAP has only been shown to be non-toxic in mice and hamsters. To investigate whether AMAP could also be used as non-toxic analog of APAP in rat

  8. AMAP, the alleged non-toxic isomer of acetaminophen, is toxic in rat and human liver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadi, Mackenzie; Dragovic, Sanja; van Swelm, Rachel; Herpers, Bram; van de Water, Bob; Russel, Frans G. M.; Commandeur, Jan N. M.; Groothuis, Geny M. M.

    N-acetyl-meta-aminophenol (AMAP) is generally considered as a non-toxic regioisomer of the well-known hepatotoxicant acetaminophen (APAP). However, so far, AMAP has only been shown to be non-toxic in mice and hamsters. To investigate whether AMAP could also be used as non-toxic analog of APAP in rat

  9. Differences in the detection of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus in feather samples from 4-week-old and 24-week-old infected Pekin ducks (Anas platyrhynchos var. domestica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiello, Roberta; Beato, Maria Serena; Mancin, Marzia; Rigoni, Michela; Tejeda, Aurora Romero; Maniero, Silvia; Capua, Ilaria; Terregino, Calogero

    2013-08-30

    Previous studies have reported the detection of H5N1 HPAI virus in feathers from ducks naturally and experimentally infected and suggested that feather calami (FC) could be used as diagnostic samples for the early detection of H5N1 HPAI infections. Ducks are readily infected with H5N1 HPAI viruses although the development of clinical signs and deaths were reported as age-related with younger birds being more susceptible. The correlation between age and virus localisation in FC of infected ducks has not been studied to date. In the present study juvenile (4-week-old) and adult (24-week-old) Pekin ducks (Anas platyrhynchos var. domestica) were infected experimentally with a clade 2.2 H5N1 HPAI virus (A/duck/Nigeria/1071-23/2007). Tracheal (Tr) and cloacal (Cl) swabs and FC were collected at 3, 5, 7 and 10 days post infection and tested by RRT-PCR and a double antibody sandwich-ELISA (DAS-ELISA) developed in house. Virus was detected in swabs and FC of challenged ducks with a higher rate of detection in juvenile ducks. In this age group virus was detected over a longer period of time in FC compared to swabs. Our study showed that FC samples collected from young ducks are a valid diagnostic specimen for H5N1 HPAI virus detection. The DAS-ELISA on FC proved to be a suitable alternative diagnostic test when molecular and/or virus isolation techniques are not available therefore it could be useful in the diagnosis of H5N1 HPAI infections in under-resourced countries. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Toxicity and carcinogenicity of acidogenic or alkalogenic diets in rats; effects of feeding NH4Cl, KHCO3 or KCl

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lina, B.A.R.; Kuijpers, M.H.M.

    2004-01-01

    The effects of diet-induced acid-base disturbances were examined in 4-week, 13-week and 18-month toxicity studies, and in a 30-month carcinogenicity study. Rats were fed a natural ingredient diet (controls), supplemented with 2% or 4% KHCO3 (base-forming diets), or with 1% or 2.1% NH4Cl

  11. Distributed Structure Searchable Toxicity

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Distributed Structure Searchable Toxicity (DSSTox) online resource provides high quality chemical structures and annotations in association with toxicity data....

  12. Toxicities of selected substances to freshwater biota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hohreiter, D.W.

    1980-05-01

    The amount of data available concerning the toxicity of various substances to freshwater biota is so large that it is difficult to use in a practical situation, such as environmental impact assessment. In this document, summary tables are presented showing acute and/or chronic toxicity of selected substances for various groups of aquatic biota. Each entry is referenced to its original source so that details concerning experimental conditions may be consulted. In addition, general information concerning factors modifying toxicity, synergisms, evidence of bioaccumulation, and water quality standards and criteria for the selected substances is given. The final table is a general toxicity table designed to provide an easily accessible and general indication of toxicity of selected substances in aquatic systems.

  13. Physical properties of root cementum: Part 18. The extent of root resorption after the application of light and heavy controlled rotational orthodontic forces for 4 weeks: a microcomputed tomography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Andy T J; Turk, Tamer; Colak, Canan; Elekdağ-Turk, Selma; Jones, Allan S; Petocz, Peter; Darendeliler, M Ali

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this prospective randomized clinical trial was to quantitatively measure and compare the locations, dimensions, and volume of root resorption craters in human premolars after the application of controlled light and heavy rotational orthodontic forces over a 28-day (4-week) period. Fifteen patients requiring bilateral extraction of maxillary first premolars as part of their orthodontic treatment were recruited for this study. Each patient received a heavy (225 g) rotational force on 1 premolar and a light (25 g) rotational force on the contralateral premolar. Orthodontic rotational forces were applied over 28 days with buccal and palatal cantilever springs; 0.016-inch beta-titanium molybdenum alloys were used to apply the light force and 0.018-inch stainless steel was used for the heavy force. After the 28-day experimental period, the upper first premolars were extracted under stringent protocols to prevent root surface damage. The samples were then scanned using a microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) scan x-ray system (SkyScan 1072, Skyscan, Aartselaar, Belgium), and analyzed using convex hull algorithm (CHULL2D; University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia) software to obtain direct volumetric measurements. The mean volume of resorption craters was 0.42 in the light force group and 0.51 in the heavy force group (P = 0.013). When separated at the root level, the difference in volume of root resorption craters between the 2 groups was significantly different only at the midlevel (P = 0.001). Root resorption craters were consistently detected at the boundaries between the buccal and distal surfaces and the mesial and lingual surfaces. The result supports our hypothesis that positive areas develop significantly more root resorption craters at all 3 levels, as compared with minimal areas (paired t test root resorption than light rotational forces and compression areas (buccal-distal and lingual-mesial surfaces in this study) showed significantly higher root

  14. Toxicity identification evaluation methods for identification of toxicants in refinery effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barten, K.A.; Mount, D.R.; Hackett, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    During the last five years, the authors have used Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE) methods to characterize and identify the source(s) of toxicity in effluents from dozens of municipal and industrial facilities. In most cases, specific chemicals responsible for toxicity have been identified. Although generally successful, the initial experience was that for several refinery effluents, they were able only to qualitatively characterize the presence of organic toxicants; standard toxicant identification procedures were not able to isolate specific organic chemicals. They believe that organic toxicity in these refinery effluents is caused by multiple organic compounds rather than by just a few; evidence for this includes an inability to isolate toxicity in a small number of fractions using liquid chromatography and the presence of very large numbers of compounds in isolated fractions. There is also evidence that the toxicant(s) may be ionic, in that the toxicity of whole effluent and isolated fractions often show increasing toxicity with decreasing pH. Finally, positive-pressure filtration has also reduced toxicity in some samples. In this presentation the authors summarize their experiences with refinery effluents, focusing on typical patterns they have observed and alternative procedures they have used to better understand the nature of these toxicants

  15. Ocular toxicity of AUY922 in pigmented and albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roman, Danielle; VerHoeve, James; Schadt, Heiko; Vicart, Axel; Walker, Ursula Junker; Turner, Oliver; Richardson, Terrilyn A.; Wolford, Suzanne T.; Miller, Paul E.; Zhou, Wei; Lu, Hong; Akimov, Mikhail; Kluwe, William

    2016-01-01

    AUY922, a heat shock protein 90 inhibitor is associated with ocular adverse events (AEs). To provide a better understanding of ocular AEs in patients, 4 investigative studies were performed in a step-wise approach to assess retinal structure and function in pigmented (Brown Norway) and albino (Wistar) rats. In rats administered 30 mg/kg of AUY922, the AUC 0–24 h and C max are comparable to that in patients at 70 mg/m 2 . AUY922 at ≥ 30 mg/kg was poorly tolerated by rats with morbidity or mortality generally after the third weekly treatment. Electroretinography (ERG) changes were observed at doses ≥ 30 mg/kg. The ERG changes were dose dependent, consistent with an effect on the photoreceptors, and fully reversible. The ERG effects could not be minimized by decreasing the C max while maintaining AUC. Histopathological changes were seen mainly when rats were administered AUY922 at 100 mg/kg. The 2-hour infusion of AUY922 at 100 mg/kg caused disorganization of the outer segment photoreceptor morphology in male Brown Norway rats; the severity of the disorganization increased with the number of administrations, but was reversible during a 4-week posttreatment period. There was no major difference in ocular response between Brown Norway and Wistar rats. No changes in serum iron levels, and no changes in rhodopsin, PDE6α, β-transducin concentrations, or retinal pigment epithelium-specific protein RPE65 expression were observed after single and multiple infusions of AUY922 at 100 mg/kg compared to vehicle-treated controls. AUY922 retinal toxicity in rats recapitulates and further characterizes that reported in patients and is shown to be reversible, while a precise molecular mechanism for the effect was not determined. - Highlights: • Ocular toxicity of AUY922 was assessed in Brown Norway and Wistar rats. • AUY922 at ≥ 30 mg/kg was generally not well tolerated by rats. • Electroretinography (ERG) changes were observed at doses ≥ 30 mg/kg. • ERG changes

  16. Ocular toxicity of AUY922 in pigmented and albino rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roman, Danielle, E-mail: danielle.roman@novartis.com [Preclinical Safety, Novartis Pharma AG, Basel (Switzerland); VerHoeve, James [Ocular Services on Demand, Madison, WI (United States); University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI (United States); Schadt, Heiko; Vicart, Axel; Walker, Ursula Junker [Preclinical Safety, Novartis Pharma AG, Basel (Switzerland); Turner, Oliver [Preclinical Safety, Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation, East Hanover, NJ (United States); Richardson, Terrilyn A. [Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, Northeast Ohio Medical University, Rootstown, OH (United States); Wolford, Suzanne T. [Covance Laboratories Inc., Madison, WI (United States); Miller, Paul E. [Comparative Ophthalmic Research Laboratory (CORL), University of Wisconsin, Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital, Madison, WI (United States); Zhou, Wei [Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics, Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation, East Hanover, NJ (United States); Lu, Hong [Biologics Clinical Pharmacology, Janssen BioTherapeutics at Johnson & Johnson, Spring House, PA (United States); Akimov, Mikhail [Oncology Global Development, Novartis Pharma AG, Basel (Switzerland); Kluwe, William [Preclinical Safety, Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation, East Hanover, NJ (United States)

    2016-10-15

    AUY922, a heat shock protein 90 inhibitor is associated with ocular adverse events (AEs). To provide a better understanding of ocular AEs in patients, 4 investigative studies were performed in a step-wise approach to assess retinal structure and function in pigmented (Brown Norway) and albino (Wistar) rats. In rats administered 30 mg/kg of AUY922, the AUC{sub 0–24} {sub h} and C{sub max} are comparable to that in patients at 70 mg/m{sup 2}. AUY922 at ≥ 30 mg/kg was poorly tolerated by rats with morbidity or mortality generally after the third weekly treatment. Electroretinography (ERG) changes were observed at doses ≥ 30 mg/kg. The ERG changes were dose dependent, consistent with an effect on the photoreceptors, and fully reversible. The ERG effects could not be minimized by decreasing the C{sub max} while maintaining AUC. Histopathological changes were seen mainly when rats were administered AUY922 at 100 mg/kg. The 2-hour infusion of AUY922 at 100 mg/kg caused disorganization of the outer segment photoreceptor morphology in male Brown Norway rats; the severity of the disorganization increased with the number of administrations, but was reversible during a 4-week posttreatment period. There was no major difference in ocular response between Brown Norway and Wistar rats. No changes in serum iron levels, and no changes in rhodopsin, PDE6α, β-transducin concentrations, or retinal pigment epithelium-specific protein RPE65 expression were observed after single and multiple infusions of AUY922 at 100 mg/kg compared to vehicle-treated controls. AUY922 retinal toxicity in rats recapitulates and further characterizes that reported in patients and is shown to be reversible, while a precise molecular mechanism for the effect was not determined. - Highlights: • Ocular toxicity of AUY922 was assessed in Brown Norway and Wistar rats. • AUY922 at ≥ 30 mg/kg was generally not well tolerated by rats. • Electroretinography (ERG) changes were observed at doses ≥ 30

  17. Is LSD toxic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, David E; Grob, Charles S

    2018-03-01

    LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide) was discovered almost 75 years ago, and has been the object of episodic controversy since then. While initially explored as an adjunctive psychiatric treatment, its recreational use by the general public has persisted and on occasion has been associated with adverse outcomes, particularly when the drug is taken under suboptimal conditions. LSD's potential to cause psychological disturbance (bad trips) has been long understood, and has rarely been associated with accidental deaths and suicide. From a physiological perspective, however, LSD is known to be non-toxic and medically safe when taken at standard dosages (50-200μg). The scientific literature, along with recent media reports, have unfortunately implicated "LSD toxicity" in five cases of sudden death. On close examination, however, two of these fatalities were associated with ingestion of massive overdoses, two were evidently in individuals with psychological agitation after taking standard doses of LSD who were then placed in maximal physical restraint positions (hogtied) by police, following which they suffered fatal cardiovascular collapse, and one case of extreme hyperthermia leading to death that was likely caused by a drug substituted for LSD with strong effects on central nervous system temperature regulation (e.g. 25i-NBOMe). Given the renewed interest in the therapeutic potential of LSD and other psychedelic drugs, it is important that an accurate understanding be established of the true causes of such fatalities that had been erroneously attributed to LSD toxicity, including massive overdoses, excessive physical restraints, and psychoactive drugs other than LSD. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Salicylate toxicity model of tinnitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel eStolzberg

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Salicylate, the active component of the common drug aspirin, has mild analgesic, antipyretic, and anti-inflammatory effects at moderate doses. At higher doses, however, salicylate temporarily induces moderate hearing loss and the perception of a high-pitch ringing in humans and animals. This phantom perception of sound known as tinnitus is qualitatively similar to the persistent subjective tinnitus induced by high-level noise exposure, ototoxic drugs or aging which affects ~14% of the general population. For over a quarter century, auditory scientists have used the salicylate toxicity model to investigate candidate biochemical and neurophysiological mechanisms underlying phantom sound perception. In this review, we summarize some of the intriguing biochemical and physiological effects associated with salicylate-induced tinnitus, some of which occur in the periphery and others in the central nervous system. The relevance and general utility of the salicylate toxicity model in understanding phantom sound perception in general are discussed.

  19. Toxic compounds in honey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Nazmul; Khalil, Md Ibrahim; Islam, Md Asiful; Gan, Siew Hua

    2014-07-01

    There is a wealth of information about the nutritional and medicinal properties of honey. However, honey may contain compounds that may lead to toxicity. A compound not naturally present in honey, named 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), may be formed during the heating or preservation processes of honey. HMF has gained much interest, as it is commonly detected in honey samples, especially samples that have been stored for a long time. HMF is a compound that may be mutagenic, carcinogenic and cytotoxic. It has also been reported that honey can be contaminated with heavy metals such as lead, arsenic, mercury and cadmium. Honey produced from the nectar of Rhododendron ponticum contains alkaloids that can be poisonous to humans, while honey collected from Andromeda flowers contains grayanotoxins, which can cause paralysis of limbs in humans and eventually leads to death. In addition, Melicope ternata and Coriaria arborea from New Zealand produce toxic honey that can be fatal. There are reports that honey is not safe to be consumed when it is collected from Datura plants (from Mexico and Hungary), belladonna flowers and Hyoscamus niger plants (from Hungary), Serjania lethalis (from Brazil), Gelsemium sempervirens (from the American Southwest), Kalmia latifolia, Tripetalia paniculata and Ledum palustre. Although the symptoms of poisoning due to honey consumption may differ depending on the source of toxins, most common symptoms generally include dizziness, nausea, vomiting, convulsions, headache, palpitations or even death. It has been suggested that honey should not be considered a completely safe food. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Wild lettuce (Lactuca virosa) toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besharat, Sima; Besharat, Mahsa; Jabbari, Ali

    2009-01-01

    Wild lettuce (Lactuca virosa) can cause toxic effects when eaten. Wild lettuce grows in the north of Iran and some natives consume it unaware of its adverse side effects. We describe eight patients with manifestations of wild lettuce toxicity, admitted to a general hospital affiliated to the Golestan University of Medical Sciences. All the patients recovered (although one had to spend 48 h in the intensive care unit) and no chronic complications were reported. A clinical suspicion of toxicity caused by wild lettuce intake and an accurate history formed the basis of the diagnosis. Conservative treatment, vital sign monitoring, control of patient intake and output, and reducing patient agitation provided the basis for treatment.

  1. Toxicity alarm: Case history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogan, D.; Retallack, J.

    1993-01-01

    In late fall 1991, the Novacor petrochemical plant near Joffre, Alberta experienced a toxicity alarm, the first since its startup 14 years ago. Fish exposed to a normal toxicity test were stressed within 2 h and showed 100% mortality after 24 h. A history of the events leading up to, during, and after the toxicity alarm is presented. The major effluent sources were three cooling water systems. Although these sources are well characterized, the event causes were not immediately clear. Initial toxic screening indicated that one was very toxic, another moderately toxic, and the third not toxic at all. All three systems utilized the same chemical treatment program to avoid fouling: stabilized phosphates with minor variants. The most toxic of the cooling systems operated at 10-12 cycles, had three chemicals for biocide control, and had three makeup streams. Toxic and nontoxic system characteristics were compared. An in-depth modified toxicity identification and evaluation program was then performed to identify and evaluate the cause of the toxicity alarm for future prevention. The most probable causes of toxicity were identified by elimination. The combination of high numbers of cycles, hydrocarbons in the makeup water, and bromine added as an antifoulant resulted in formation of aromatic bromamines which are capable of causing the toxic condition experienced. 2 tabs

  2. Toxic substances handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junod, T. L.

    1979-01-01

    Handbook, published in conjunction with Toxic Substances Alert Program at NASA Lewis Research Center, profiles 187 toxic chemicals in their relatively pure states and include 27 known or suspected carcinogens.

  3. Ecotoxicogenomic assessment of diclofenac toxicity in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guangquan; den Braver, Michiel W; van Gestel, Cornelis A M; van Straalen, Nico M; Roelofs, Dick

    2015-04-01

    Diclofenac is widely used as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug leaving residues in the environment. To investigate effects on terrestrial ecosystems, we measured dissipation rate in soil and investigated ecotoxicological and transcriptome-wide responses in Folsomia candida. Exposure for 4 weeks to diclofenac reduced both survival and reproduction of F. candida in a dose-dependent manner. At concentrations ≥ 200 mg/kg soil diclofenac remained stable in the soil during a 21-day incubation period. Microarrays examined transcriptional changes at low and high diclofenac exposure concentrations. The results indicated that development and growth were severely hampered and immunity-related genes, mainly directed against bacteria and fungi, were significantly up-regulated. Furthermore, neural metabolic processes were significantly affected only at the high concentration. We conclude that diclofenac is toxic to non-target soil invertebrates, although its mode of action is different from the mammalian toxicity. The genetic markers proposed in this study may be promising early markers for diclofenac ecotoxicity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of consuming a purple-fleshed sweet potato beverage on health-related biomarkers and safety parameters in Caucasian subjects with elevated levels of blood pressure and liver function biomarkers: a 4-week, open-label, non-comparative trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oki, Tomoyuki; Kano, Mitsuyoshi; Watanabe, Osamu; Goto, Kazuhisa; Boelsma, Esther; Ishikawa, Fumiyasu; Suda, Ikuo

    2016-01-01

    An open-label study with one treatment arm was conducted to investigate changes in health-related biomarkers (blood pressure and liver enzyme activity) and the safety of 4 weeks of consuming a purple-fleshed sweet potato beverage in Caucasian subjects. Twenty healthy adults, 18-70 years of age, with a body mass index >25 kg/m(2), elevated blood pressure and elevated levels of liver function biomarkers consumed two cartons of purple-fleshed sweet potato beverage (125 ml, including 117 mg anthocyanin per carton) daily for 4 weeks. Hematology, serum clinical profile, dipstick urinalysis and blood pressure were determined before consumption, at 2 and 4 weeks of consumption and after a 2-week washout period. A trend was found toward lowering systolic blood pressure during the treatment period (p=0.0590). No significant changes were found in diastolic blood pressure throughout the study period. Systolic blood pressure was significantly lower after 4 weeks of consumption compared with before consumption (p=0.0125) and was significantly higher after the 2-week washout period compared with after consumption (p=0.0496). The serum alanine aminotransferase level significantly increased over time, but aspartate aminotransferase and γ-glutamyltransferase levels stayed within the normal range of reference values. Safety parameters of the blood and urine showed no clinically relevant changes. The consumption of a purple-fleshed sweet potato beverage for 4 weeks resulted in no clinically relevant changes in safety parameters of the blood and urine and showed a trend toward lowering systolic blood pressure.

  5. Prion Protein Does Not Confer Resistance to Hippocampus-Derived Zpl Cells against the Toxic Effects of Cu2+, Mn2+, Zn2+ and Co2+ Not Supporting a General Protective Role for PrP in Transition Metal Induced Toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cingaram, Pradeep Kumar Reddy; Nyeste, Antal; Dondapati, Divya Teja; Fodor, Elfrieda; Welker, Ervin

    2015-01-01

    The interactions of transition metals with the prion protein (PrP) are well-documented and characterized, however, there is no consensus on their role in either the physiology of PrP or PrP-related neurodegenerative disorders. PrP has been reported to protect cells from the toxic stimuli of metals. By employing a cell viability assay, we examined the effects of various concentrations of Cu2+, Zn2+, Mn2+, and Co2+ on Zpl (Prnp-/-) and ZW (Prnp+/+) hippocampus-derived mouse neuronal cells. Prnp-/- Zpl cells were more sensitive to all four metals than PrP-expressing Zw cells. However, when we introduced PrP or only the empty vector into Zpl cells, we could not discern any protective effect associated with the presence of PrP. This observation was further corroborated when assessing the toxic effect of metals by propidium-iodide staining and fluorescence activated cell sorting analysis. Thus, our results on this mouse cell culture model do not seem to support a strong protective role for PrP against transition metal toxicity and also emphasize the necessity of extreme care when comparing cells derived from PrP knock-out and wild type mice.

  6. Toxic substances alert program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junod, T. L.

    1978-01-01

    A toxicity profile is provided, of 187 toxic substances procured by NASA Lewis Research Center during a 3 1/2 year period, including 27 known or suspected carcinogens. The goal of the program is to assure that the center's health and safety personnel are aware of the procurement and use of toxic substances and to alert and inform the users of these materials as to the toxic characteristics and the control measures needed to ensure their safe use. The program also provides a continuing record of the toxic substances procured, who procured them, what other toxic substances the user has obtained in the past, and where similar materials have been used elsewhere at the center.

  7. A qualitative, exploratory study of predominantly female parental perceptions of consumer health technology use by their overweight and/or obese female adolescent participating in a fee-based 4-week weight-management intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoblock-Hahn, Amy L; LeRouge, Cynthia M

    2014-04-01

    Consumer health technologies (CHTs) are a growing part of the continuum of care for self-management of overweight and obesity. Parents positively or negatively influence adolescent weight-management efforts and are especially important throughout continuum of care settings. User-centered design (UCD) applications have been developed to assist primary users, such as adolescents, with their weight management, but less is known about the influence of parents as secondary users across many socio-ecological environments. The purpose of this study was to use the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) to inform the design of a UCD application in a qualitative study that sought to determine parental views on how technology can support previously learned behaviors that require ongoing management and support beyond formal lifestyle interventions. Parents of overweight and obese adolescents (n=14) were interviewed about perceived usefulness and planned user-intent of CHT that was designed for adolescents. UTAUT provided theoretical parental constructs (intention, performance and effort expectancy, and social influence) interactions within several socio-ecological contexts, including the home food environment and restaurant dining experiences. Although generalizations of this qualitative study are limited by a small sample size with predominantly mothers (n=13) of overweight and obese daughters (n=12), the exploratory inquiry using a parent as a secondary consumer user can complement the adoption of applications designed by adolescents. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Toxic epidermal necrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Frederick A; Mudgil, Adarsh Vijay; Rosmarin, David M

    2007-02-01

    Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) is an unpredictable, life-threatening drug reaction associated with a 30% mortality. Massive keratinocyte apoptosis is the hallmark of TEN. Cytotoxic T lymphocytes appear to be the main effector cells and there is experimental evidence for involvement of both the Fas-Fas ligand and perforin/granzyme pathways. Optimal treatment for these patients remains to be clarified. Discontinuation of the offending drug and prompt referral to a burn unit are generally agreed upon steps. Beyond that, however, considerable controversy exists. Evidence both pro and con exists for the use of IVIG, systemic corticosteroid, and other measures. There is also evidence suggesting that combination therapies may be of value. All the clinical data, however, is anecdotal or based on observational or retrospective studies. Definitive answers are not yet available. Given the rarity of TEN and the large number of patients required for a study to be statistically meaningful, placebo controlled trials are logistically difficult to accomplish. The absence of an animal model further hampers research into this condition. This article reviews recent data concerning clinical presentation, pathogenesis and treatment of TEN. At the conclusion of this learning activity, participants should have acquired a more comprehensive knowledge of our current understanding of the classification, clinical presentation, etiology, pathophysiology, prognosis, and treatment of TEN.

  9. Females and Toxic Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-14

    labeled as toxic, can he or she be rehabilitated?; Are there leadership styles that can be promoted to combat toxic leadership?; and Are the senior...examines leadership styles that are favorable for female leaders, and offers Transformational/Adaptive leadership as a style promising rehabilitative tools

  10. Generalized Superconductivity. Generalized Levitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciobanu, B.; Agop, M.

    2004-01-01

    In the recent papers, the gravitational superconductivity is described. We introduce the concept of generalized superconductivity observing that any nongeodesic motion and, in particular, the motion in an electromagnetic field, can be transformed in a geodesic motion by a suitable choice of the connection. In the present paper, the gravitoelectromagnetic London equations have been obtained from the generalized Helmholtz vortex theorem using the generalized local equivalence principle. In this context, the gravitoelectromagnetic Meissner effect and, implicitly, the gravitoelectromagnetic levitation are given. (authors)

  11. Mechanisms of Phosphine Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisa S. Nath

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Fumigation with phosphine gas is by far the most widely used treatment for the protection of stored grain against insect pests. The development of high-level resistance in insects now threatens its continued use. As there is no suitable chemical to replace phosphine, it is essential to understand the mechanisms of phosphine toxicity to increase the effectiveness of resistance management. Because phosphine is such a simple molecule (PH3, the chemistry of phosphorus is central to its toxicity. The elements above and below phosphorus in the periodic table are nitrogen (N and arsenic (As, which also produce toxic hydrides, namely, NH3 and AsH3. The three hydrides cause related symptoms and similar changes to cellular and organismal physiology, including disruption of the sympathetic nervous system, suppressed energy metabolism and toxic changes to the redox state of the cell. We propose that these three effects are interdependent contributors to phosphine toxicity.

  12. Gas Chromatography, GC/Mass Analysis and Bioactivity of Essential Oil from Aerial Parts of Ferulago trifida: Antimicrobial, Antioxidant, AChE Inhibitory, General Toxicity, MTT Assay and Larvicidal Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakoli, Saeed; Vatandoost, Hassan; Zeidabadinezhad, Reza; Hajiaghaee, Reza; Hadjiakhoondi, Abbas; Abai, Mohammad Reza; Yassa, Narguess

    2017-09-01

    We aimed to investigate different biological properties of aerial parts essential oil of Ferulago trifida Boiss and larvicidal activity of its volatile oils from all parts of plant. Essential oil was prepared by steam distillation and analyzed by Gas chromatography and GC/Mass. Antioxidant, antimicrobial, cytotoxic effects and AChE inhibitory of the oil were investigated using DPPH, disk diffusion method, MTT assay and Ellman methods. Larvicidal activity of F. trifida essential oil against malaria vector Anopheles stephensi was carried out according to the method described by WHO. In GC and GC/MS analysis, 58 compounds were identified in the aerial parts essential oil, of which E-verbenol (9.66%), isobutyl acetate (25.73%) and E-β-caryophyllene (8.68%) were main compounds. The oil showed (IC 50 = 111.2μg/ml) in DPPH and IC 50 = 21.5 mg/ml in the investigation of AChE inhibitory. Furthermore, the oil demonstrated toxicity with (LD 50 = 1.1μg/ml) in brine shrimp lethality test and with (IC 50 = 22.0, 25.0 and 42.55 μg/ml) on three cancerous cell lines (MCF-7, A-549 and HT-29) respectively. LC 50 of stem, root, aerial parts, fruits, and flowers essential oils against larvae of An. stephensi were equal with 10.46, 22.27, 20.50, 31.93 and 79.87ppm respectively. In antimicrobial activities, essential oil was effective on all specimens except Escherichia coli , Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans. The essential oil showed moderate antioxidant activity, strong antimicrobial properties and good toxic effect in brine shrimp test and MTT assay on three cancerous cell lines.

  13. Gas Chromatography, GC/Mass Analysis and Bioactivity of Essential Oil from Aerial Parts of Ferulago trifida: Antimicrobial, Antioxidant, AChE Inhibitory, General Toxicity, MTT assay and Larvicidal Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Tavakoli

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: We aimed to investigate different biological properties of aerial parts essential oil of Ferulago trifida Boiss and larvicidal activity of its volatile oils from all parts of plant.Methods: Essential oil was prepared by steam distillation and analyzed by Gas chromatography and GC/Mass. Anti­oxidant, antimicrobial, cytotoxic effects and AChE inhibitory of the oil were investigated using DPPH, disk diffusion method, MTT assay and Ellman methods. Larvicidal activity of F. trifida essential oil against malaria vector Anoph­eles stephensi was carried out according to the method described by WHO.Results: In GC and GC/MS analysis, 58 compounds were identified in the aerial parts essential oil, of which E-ver­benol (9.66%, isobutyl acetate (25.73% and E-β-caryophyllene (8.68% were main compounds. The oil showed (IC50= 111.2µg/ml in DPPH and IC50= 21.5 mg/ml in the investigation of AChE inhibitory. Furthermore, the oil demonstrated toxicity with (LD50= 1.1µg/ml in brine shrimp lethality test and with (IC50= 22.0, 25.0 and 42.55 µg/ml on three cancerous cell lines (MCF-7, A-549 and HT-29 respectively. LC50 of stem, root, aerial parts, fruits, and flowers essential oils against larvae of An. stephensi were equal with 10.46, 22.27, 20.50, 31.93 and 79.87ppm respectively. In antimicrobial activities, essential oil was effective on all specimens except Escherichia coli, Asper­gillus niger and Candida albicans.Conclusion: The essential oil showed moderate antioxidant activity, strong antimicrobial properties and good toxic effect in brine shrimp test and MTT assay on three cancerous cell lines.

  14. Polish Toxic Currency Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar Gontarski

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Toxic currency options are defined on the basis of the opposition to the nature (essence of an option contract, which is justified in terms of norms founded on the general law clause of characteristics (nature of a relation (which represents an independent premise for imposing restrictions on the freedom of contracts. So-understood toxic currency options are unlawful. Indeed they contravene iuris cogentis regulations. These include for instance option contracts, which are concluded with a bank, if the bank has not informed about option risk before concluding the contract; or the barrier options, which focus only on the protection of bank’s interests. Therefore, such options may appear to be invalid. Therefore, performing contracts for toxic currency options may be qualified as a criminal mismanagement. For the sake of security, the manager should then take into consideration filing a claim for stating invalidity (which can be made in a court verdict. At the same time, if the supervisory board member in a commercial company, who can also be a subject to mismanagement offences, commits an omission involving lack of reaction (for example, if he/she fails to notify of the suspected offence committed by the management board members acting to the company’s detriment when the management board makes the company conclude option contracts which are charged with absolute invalidity the supervisory board member so acting may be considered to act to the company’s detriment. In the most recent Polish jurisprudence and judicature the standard of a “good host” is treated to be the last resort for determining whether the manager’s powers resulting from criminal regulations were performed. The manager of the exporter should not, as a rule, issue any options. Issuing options always means assuming an obligation. In the case of currency put options it is an absolute obligation to purchase a given amount in euro at exchange rate set in advance. On the

  15. Pediatric Toxic Shock Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Yee

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Audience: This scenario was developed to educate emergency medicine residents on the diagnosis and management of a pediatric patient with toxic shock syndrome. The case is also appropriate for teaching of medical students and advanced practice providers, as well as a review of the principles of crisis resource management, teamwork, and communication. Introduction: Toxic shock syndrome is a low-frequency, high-acuity scenario requiring timely identification and aggressive management. If patients suffering from this condition are managed incorrectly, they may progress into multi-organ dysfunction and potentially death. Toxic shock syndrome has been associated with Streptococcus and Staphylococcus aureus (Staph. Approximately half of Staph cases are associated with menstruation, which was first described in the 1970s-1980s and was associated with the use of absorbent tampons.1 Group A Streptococcus may cause complications such as necrotizing fasciitis and gangrenous myositis.2 Pediatric patients may present critically ill from toxic shock syndrome. Providers need to perform a thorough history and physical exam to discern the source of infection. Management requires aggressive care with antibiotics and IV fluids. Objectives: By the end of this simulation session, the learner will be able to: 1 Recognize toxic shock syndrome. 2 Review the importance of a thorough physical exam. 3 Discuss management of toxic shock syndrome, including supportive care and the difference in antibiotic choices for streptococcal and staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome. 4 Appropriately disposition a patient suffering from toxic shock syndrome. 5 Communicate effectively with team members and nursing staff during a resuscitation of a critically ill patient. Method: This session was conducted using high-fidelity simulation, followed by a debriefing session and lecture on toxic shock syndrome.

  16. Electronic Cigarette Toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, J Drew; Michaels, David; Orellana-Barrios, Menfil; Nugent, Kenneth

    2017-04-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are often advertised as a healthier product when compared with traditional cigarettes. Currently, there are limited data to support this and only a threat of federal regulation from the US Food and Drug Administration. Calls to poison control centers about e-cigarette toxicity, especially in children, and case reports of toxic exposures have increased over the past 3 years. This research letter reports the frequency of hazardous exposures to e-cigarettes and characterizes the reported adverse health effects associated with e-cigarette toxicity.

  17. Toxicity Estimation Software Tool (TEST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Toxicity Estimation Software Tool (TEST) was developed to allow users to easily estimate the toxicity of chemicals using Quantitative Structure Activity Relationships (QSARs) methodologies. QSARs are mathematical models used to predict measures of toxicity from the physical c...

  18. General general game AI

    OpenAIRE

    Togelius, Julian; Yannakakis, Georgios N.; 2016 IEEE Conference on Computational Intelligence and Games (CIG)

    2016-01-01

    Arguably the grand goal of artificial intelligence research is to produce machines with general intelligence: the capacity to solve multiple problems, not just one. Artificial intelligence (AI) has investigated the general intelligence capacity of machines within the domain of games more than any other domain given the ideal properties of games for that purpose: controlled yet interesting and computationally hard problems. This line of research, however, has so far focuse...

  19. Toxicity Reference Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Toxicity Reference Database (ToxRefDB) contains approximately 30 years and $2 billion worth of animal studies. ToxRefDB allows scientists and the interested...

  20. Toxics Release Inventory (TRI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) is a dataset compiled by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). It contains information on the release and waste...

  1. Variability of LD50 Values from Rat Oral Acute Toxicity Studies: Implications for Alternative Model Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternative models developed for estimating acute systemic toxicity are generally evaluated using in vivo LD50 values. However, in vivo acute systemic toxicity studies can produce variable results, even when conducted according to accepted test guidelines. This variability can ma...

  2. Benzodiazepine Synthesis and Rapid Toxicity Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, James T.; Boriraj, Grit

    2010-01-01

    A second-year organic chemistry laboratory experiment to introduce students to general concepts of medicinal chemistry is described. Within a single three-hour time window, students experience the synthesis of a biologically active small molecule and the assaying of its biological toxicity. Benzodiazepine rings are commonly found in antidepressant…

  3. Zinc-arsenic interactions in soil: Solubility, toxicity and uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kader, Mohammed; Lamb, Dane T; Wang, Liang; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravi

    2017-11-01

    Arsenic (As) and zinc (Zn) are common co-contaminants in mining impacted soils. Their interaction on solubility and toxicity when present concurrently is not well understood in natural systems. The aim of this study was to observe their interaction in solubility (soil-solution), bioaccumulation (shoot uptake) and toxicity to cucumber (Cucumis sativa L) conducting 4 weeks pot study in 5 different soils spiked with As (0, 2, 4, 8 to 1024 mg kg -1 ) individually and with Zn at two phytotoxic doses. The As pore-water concentration was significantly reduced (df = 289, Adjusted R 2  = 0.84, p soils. This outcome may be due to adsorption/surface precipitation or tertiary bridging complexation. No homogenous precipitation of zinc arsenate could be established using electron microscopy, XRD or even equilibrium calculations. For bioaccumulation phase, no significant effect of Zn on As uptake was observed except acidic MG soil whereas, Zn uptake was significantly reduced (p soil. The synergistic response (more than additive) was predominant in this soil for a wide range of inhibition concentration (0-80%) at both Zn EC10 and EC50 levels. Since additive response is mostly considered in risk assessment for mixtures, precautions should be implemented for assessment of toxicity for As-Zn mixture in acidic soil due to their synergistic response in some soils. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Haloacetonitriles: metabolism and toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipscomb, John C; El-Demerdash, Ebtehal; Ahmed, Ahmed E

    2009-01-01

    The haloacetonitriles (HANs) exist in drinking water exclusively as byproducts of disinfection. HANs are found in drinking water more often, and in higher concentrations, when surface water is treated by chloramination. Human exposure occurs through consumption of finished drinking water; oral and dermal contact also occurs, and results from showering, swimming and other activities. HANs are reactive and are toxic to gastrointestinal tissues following oral administration. Such toxicity is characterized by GSH depletion, increased lipid peroxidation, and covalent binding of HAN-associated radioactivity to gut tissues. The presence of GSH in cells is an important protective mechanism against HAN toxicity; depletion of cellular GSH results in increased toxicity. Some studies have demonstrated an apparently synergistic effect between ROS and HAN administration, that may help explain effects observed in GI tissues. ROS are produced in gut tissues, and in vitro evidence indicates that ROS may contribute to the degradation and formation of reactive intermediates from HANs. The rationale for ROS involvement may involve HAN-induced depletion of GSH and the role of GSH in scavenging ROS. In addition to effects on GI tissues, studies show that HAN-derived radiolabel is found covalently bound to proteins and DNA in several organs and tissues. The addition of antioxidants to biologic systems protects against HAN-induced DNA damage. The protection offered by antioxidants supports the role of oxidative stress and the potential for a threshold in han-induced toxicity. However, additional data are needed to substantiate evidence for such a threshold. HANs are readily absorbed from the GI tract and are extensively metabolized. Elimination occurs primarily in urine, as unconjugated one-carbon metabolites. Evidence supports the involvement of mixed function oxidases, the cytochrome P450 enzyme family and GST, in HAN metabolism. Metabolism represents either a detoxification or

  5. Toxicity of ozone and nitrogen dioxide to alveolar macrophages: comparative study revealing differences in their mechanism of toxic action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietjens, I. M.; Poelen, M. C.; Hempenius, R. A.; Gijbels, M. J.; Alink, G. M.

    1986-01-01

    The toxicity of ozone and nitrogen dioxide is generally ascribed to their oxidative potential. In this study their toxic mechanism of action was compared using an intact cell model. Rat alveolar macrophages were exposed by means of gas diffusion through a Teflon film. In this in vitro system, ozone

  6. The toxicity of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crouse, P.L.

    1994-01-01

    Shipments of plutonium occasionally pass around the Cape coastal waters on its way to Japan from Europe. This invariably leads to a great deal of speculation of the dangers involved and of the extreme toxicity of plutonium, with the media and environmental groups claiming that (a) plutonium is the most toxic substance known to man, and that (b) a few kilograms of plutonium ground finely and dispersed in the atmosphere could kill every human being on earth. Comparisons with other poisons are drawn, e.g. common inorganic chemicals and biological agents. The original scare around the extraordinary toxicity of Pu seems to have started in 1974 with the claims of Tamplin and Cochran's hot particle theory about plutonium lodging in the sensitive portions of the lungs in small concentrated aggregates where they are much more effective in producing cancers. This theory, however, is regarded as thoroughly discredited by the experts in the field of radiotoxicity. 8 refs

  7. Iron metabolism and toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papanikolaou, G.; Pantopoulos, K.

    2005-01-01

    Iron is an essential nutrient with limited bioavailability. When present in excess, iron poses a threat to cells and tissues, and therefore iron homeostasis has to be tightly controlled. Iron's toxicity is largely based on its ability to catalyze the generation of radicals, which attack and damage cellular macromolecules and promote cell death and tissue injury. This is lucidly illustrated in diseases of iron overload, such as hereditary hemochromatosis or transfusional siderosis, where excessive iron accumulation results in tissue damage and organ failure. Pathological iron accumulation in the liver has also been linked to the development of hepatocellular cancer. Here we provide a background on the biology and toxicity of iron and the basic concepts of iron homeostasis at the cellular and systemic level. In addition, we provide an overview of the various disorders of iron overload, which are directly linked to iron's toxicity. Finally, we discuss the potential role of iron in malignant transformation and cancer

  8. Prostate hypofractionated radiation therapy with injection of hyaluronic acid: acute toxicities in a phase 2 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapet, Olivier; Decullier, Evelyne; Bin, Sylvie; Faix, Antoine; Ruffion, Alain; Jalade, Patrice; Fenoglietto, Pascal; Udrescu, Corina; Enachescu, Ciprian; Azria, David

    2015-03-15

    Hypofractionated radiation therapy (RT) in prostate cancer can be developed only if the risk of rectal toxicity is controlled. In a multicenter phase 2 trial, hypofractionated irradiation was combined with an injection of hyaluronic acid (HA) to preserve the rectal wall. Tolerance of the injection and acute toxicity rates are reported. The study was designed to assess late grade 2 toxicity rates. The results described here correspond to the secondary objectives. Acute toxicity was defined as occurring during RT or within 3 months after RT and graded according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0. HA tolerance was evaluated with a visual analog scale during the injection and 30 minutes after injection and then by use of the Common Terminology Criteria at each visit. From 2010 to 2012, 36 patients with low-risk to intermediate-risk prostate cancer were included. The HA injection induced a mean pain score of 4.6/10 ± 2.3. Thirty minutes after the injection, 2 patients still reported pain (2/10 and 3/10), which persisted after the intervention. Thirty-three patients experienced at least 1 acute genitourinary toxicity and 20 patients at least 1 acute gastrointestinal toxicity. Grade 2 toxicities were reported for 19 patients with urinary obstruction, frequency, or both and for 1 patient with proctitis. No grade 3 or 4 toxicities were reported. At the 3-month visit, 4 patients described grade 2 obstruction or frequency, and no patients had any grade 2 gastrointestinal toxicities. The injection of HA makes it possible to deliver hypofractionated irradiation over 4 weeks with a dose per fraction of > 3 Gy, with limited acute rectal toxicity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Prostate Hypofractionated Radiation Therapy With Injection of Hyaluronic Acid: Acute Toxicities in a Phase 2 Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapet, Olivier; Decullier, Evelyne; Bin, Sylvie; Faix, Antoine; Ruffion, Alain; Jalade, Patrice; Fenoglietto, Pascal; Udrescu, Corina; Enachescu, Ciprian; Azria, David

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Hypofractionated radiation therapy (RT) in prostate cancer can be developed only if the risk of rectal toxicity is controlled. In a multicenter phase 2 trial, hypofractionated irradiation was combined with an injection of hyaluronic acid (HA) to preserve the rectal wall. Tolerance of the injection and acute toxicity rates are reported. Methods and Materials: The study was designed to assess late grade 2 toxicity rates. The results described here correspond to the secondary objectives. Acute toxicity was defined as occurring during RT or within 3 months after RT and graded according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0. HA tolerance was evaluated with a visual analog scale during the injection and 30 minutes after injection and then by use of the Common Terminology Criteria at each visit. Results: From 2010 to 2012, 36 patients with low-risk to intermediate-risk prostate cancer were included. The HA injection induced a mean pain score of 4.6/10 ± 2.3. Thirty minutes after the injection, 2 patients still reported pain (2/10 and 3/10), which persisted after the intervention. Thirty-three patients experienced at least 1 acute genitourinary toxicity and 20 patients at least 1 acute gastrointestinal toxicity. Grade 2 toxicities were reported for 19 patients with urinary obstruction, frequency, or both and for 1 patient with proctitis. No grade 3 or 4 toxicities were reported. At the 3-month visit, 4 patients described grade 2 obstruction or frequency, and no patients had any grade 2 gastrointestinal toxicities. Conclusions: The injection of HA makes it possible to deliver hypofractionated irradiation over 4 weeks with a dose per fraction of > 3 Gy, with limited acute rectal toxicity

  10. Prostate Hypofractionated Radiation Therapy With Injection of Hyaluronic Acid: Acute Toxicities in a Phase 2 Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapet, Olivier, E-mail: olivier.chapet@chu-lyon.fr [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France); EMR3738, Université Lyon 1, Lyon (France); Decullier, Evelyne; Bin, Sylvie [Pole Information Médicale Evaluation Recherche, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Lyon (France); Université Lyon 1, Lyon (France); EA SIS, Université de Lyon, Lyon (France); Faix, Antoine [Department of Urology, Clinique Beausoleil, Montpellier (France); Ruffion, Alain [Université Lyon 1, Lyon (France); Department of Urology, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France); Jalade, Patrice [Department of Medical Physics, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France); Fenoglietto, Pascal [Department of Radiation Oncology and Physics, Institut du Cancer de Montpellier, Montpellier (France); Udrescu, Corina; Enachescu, Ciprian [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France); Azria, David [Department of Radiation Oncology and Physics, Institut du Cancer de Montpellier, Montpellier (France)

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: Hypofractionated radiation therapy (RT) in prostate cancer can be developed only if the risk of rectal toxicity is controlled. In a multicenter phase 2 trial, hypofractionated irradiation was combined with an injection of hyaluronic acid (HA) to preserve the rectal wall. Tolerance of the injection and acute toxicity rates are reported. Methods and Materials: The study was designed to assess late grade 2 toxicity rates. The results described here correspond to the secondary objectives. Acute toxicity was defined as occurring during RT or within 3 months after RT and graded according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0. HA tolerance was evaluated with a visual analog scale during the injection and 30 minutes after injection and then by use of the Common Terminology Criteria at each visit. Results: From 2010 to 2012, 36 patients with low-risk to intermediate-risk prostate cancer were included. The HA injection induced a mean pain score of 4.6/10 ± 2.3. Thirty minutes after the injection, 2 patients still reported pain (2/10 and 3/10), which persisted after the intervention. Thirty-three patients experienced at least 1 acute genitourinary toxicity and 20 patients at least 1 acute gastrointestinal toxicity. Grade 2 toxicities were reported for 19 patients with urinary obstruction, frequency, or both and for 1 patient with proctitis. No grade 3 or 4 toxicities were reported. At the 3-month visit, 4 patients described grade 2 obstruction or frequency, and no patients had any grade 2 gastrointestinal toxicities. Conclusions: The injection of HA makes it possible to deliver hypofractionated irradiation over 4 weeks with a dose per fraction of > 3 Gy, with limited acute rectal toxicity.

  11. central nervous system lignocaine toxicity in an infant following

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-05-28

    May 28, 2013 ... neurotoxicity include vertigo, tinnitus, ominous feelings, circumoral numbness, carrulousness, tremors, myoclonic jerks, convulsions, coma and cardiovascular collapse. These symptoms may not be detected in infants and children under general anesthesia. Diagnosis of local anesthetic toxicity.

  12. Human Health Toxicity Values in Superfund Risk Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    This memorandum revises the hierarchy of human health toxicity values generally recommended for use inr isk assessments, originally presented in Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund Volume I, Part A.

  13. Lysophospholipase inhibition by organophosphorus toxicants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quistad, Gary B.; Casida, John E.

    2004-01-01

    Lysophospholipases (LysoPLAs) are a large family of enzymes for removing lysophospholipids from cell membranes. Potent inhibitors are needed to define the importance of LysoPLAs as targets for toxicants and potential therapeutics. This study considers organophosphorus (OP) inhibitors with emphasis on mouse brain total LysoPLA activity relative to the mipafox-sensitive neuropathy target esterase (NTE)-LysoPLA recently established as 17% of the total activity and important in the action of OP delayed toxicants. The most potent inhibitors of total LysoPLA in mouse brain are isopropyl dodecylphosphonofluoridate (also for LysoPLA of Vibrio bacteria), ethyl octylphosphonofluoridate (EOPF), and two alkyl-benzodioxaphosphorin 2-oxides (BDPOs)[(S)-octyl and dodecyl] (IC50 2-8 nM). OP inhibitors acting in vitro and in vivo differentiate a more sensitive portion but not a distinct NTE-LysoPLA compared with total LysoPLA activity. For 10 active inhibitors, NTE-LysoPLA is 17-fold more sensitive than total LysoPLA, but structure-activity comparisons give a good correlation (r 2 = 0.94) of IC50 values, suggesting active site structural similarity or identity. In mice 4 h after intraperitoneal treatment with discriminating doses, EOPF, tribufos (a plant defoliant), and dodecanesulfonyl fluoride inhibit 41-57% of the total brain LysoPLA and 85-99% of the NTE-LysoPLA activity. Total LysoPLA as well as NTE-LysoPLA is decreased in activity in Nte +/- -haploinsufficient mice compared to their Nte +/+ littermates. The lysolecithin level of spinal cord but not brain is elevated significantly following EOPF treatment (3 mg/kg), thereby focusing attention on localized rather than general alterations in lysophospholipid metabolism in OP-induced hyperactivity and toxicity

  14. External radiation toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritz, T.E.

    1979-01-01

    The section contains summaries of research on neutron and gamma-ray toxicity in rodents, late effects of low-dose rate, whole-body, protracted exposure to 60 Co gamma rays on young adult beagles, and the effects of protracted, low-dose rate exposure to 60 Co gamma rays on preclinical leukemic phase-related changes in the granulopoietic system of beagles

  15. Local anaesthetic toxicity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Local anaesthetic toxicity has been known since the introduction of local anaesthetic drugs into anaesthetic practice more than a hundred ... was the first to think of cocaine as a narcotic. ..... anaesthetics act as Na+ channel-blocking agents, they slow down .... all neurons, leading to global CNS depression, slowing and.

  16. Toxicity of lunar dust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linnarsson, D.; Carpenter, J.; Fubini, B.; Gerde, P.; Loftus, D.; Prisk, K.; Staufer, U.; Tranfield, E.; van Westrenen, W.

    2012-01-01

    The formation, composition and physical properties of lunar dust are incompletely characterised with regard to human health. While the physical and chemical determinants of dust toxicity for materials such as asbestos, quartz, volcanic ashes and urban particulate matter have been the focus of

  17. Uranium: biokinetics and toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menetrier, F.; Renaud-Salis, V.; Flury-Herard, A.

    2000-01-01

    This report was achieved as a part of a collaboration with the Fuel Cycle Direction. Its aim was to give the state of the art about: the behaviour of uranium in the human organism (biokinetics) after ingestion, its toxicity (mainly renal) and the current regulation about its incorporation. Both in the upstream and in the downstream of the fuel cycle, uranium remains, quantitatively, the first element in the cycle which is, at the present time, temporarily disposed or recycled. Such a considerable quantity of uranium sets the problem of its risk on the health. In the long term, the biosphere may be affected and consequently the public may ingest water or food contaminated with uranium. In this way, radiological and chemical toxicity risk may be activated. This report emphasizes: the necessity of confirming some experimental and epidemiological biokinetic data used or not in the ICRP models. Unsolved questions remain about the gastrointestinal absorption according to chemical form (valency state, mixtures...), mass and individual variations (age, disease) further a chronic ingestion of uranium. It is well established that uranium is mainly deposited in the skeleton and the kidney. But the skeleton kinetics following a chronic ingestion and especially in some diseases has to be more elucidated; the necessity of taking into account uranium at first as a chemical toxic, essentially in the kidney and determining the threshold of functional lesion. In this way, it is important to look for some specific markers; the problem of not considering chemical toxicity of uranium in the texts regulating its incorporation

  18. How toxic is ibogaine?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Litjens, Ruud P. W.; Brunt, Tibor M.

    2016-01-01

    Ibogaine is a psychoactive indole alkaloid found in the African rainforest shrub Tabernanthe Iboga. It is unlicensed but used in the treatment of drug and alcohol addiction. However, reports of ibogaine's toxicity are cause for concern. To review ibogaine's pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics,

  19. Monosodium Glutamate Toxicity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    The brain is reportedly sensitive to monosodium glutamate (MSG) toxicity via oxidative stress. Sida acuta leaf ethanolic .... wherein the right hemisphere, was preserved for histology and fixed in 10% ... Biochemical Assays: The left hemisphere of the brain samples was ...... development in male and female rats. Exp Physiol.

  20. Nanomaterials and Retinal Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    The neuroretina should be considered as a potential site of nanomaterial toxicity. Engineered nanomaterials may reach the retina through three potential routes of exposure including; intra­ vitreal injection of therapeutics; blood-borne delivery in the retinal vasculature an...

  1. Toxic Hazards in Aviation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-04-01

    Pasteur, Lillm,FRANCE. (2) CONISH H.H., EARTH M.L.& IANNi F.L, "Comparative Toxicology of Platics during Thar-modecoqiorition Intsw-re8posium on...Pyrolysnis and Combustion of Materials" Firm and Materials (1976).1, 29-35 (8) ALAAIE Y."Toxicity of Platic dacomposition ProductsŖd Annu~al Progress

  2. The effect of aerobic exercise on treatment-related acute toxicity in men receiving radical external beam radiotherapy for localised prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapur, G; Windsor, P M; McCowan, C

    2010-09-01

    We retrospectively analysed acute radiation toxicity data for patients who had participated in a randomised controlled study in our centre in order to assess the impact of aerobic exercise on acute rectal and bladder morbidity during treatment. Data from 65 of 66 patients were analysed: 33 allocated into a control group (standard advice) and 33 into an exercise group (aerobic walking for 30 min at least three times per week) during 4 weeks of external beam radiotherapy; one patient in the exercise group withdrew after randomisation before starting radiotherapy. There was a trend towards less severe acute rectal toxicity in the exercise group with a statistically significant difference in mean toxicity scores over the 4 weeks of radiotherapy (P=0.004), with no significant difference in bladder toxicity scores between the two groups (P=0.123). The lack of an association for severity of bladder toxicity could be attributed to the confounding effect of lower urinary tract symptoms from their prostate cancer. Keeping active and being asked to adhere to a well-defined exercise schedule appears to reduce the severity of rectal toxicity during radiotherapy to the prostate.

  3. Acute toxicity and efficacy of postoperative combined modality therapy for adenocarcinoma of the pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, Brian J.; Raben, Adam; Casper, Ephraim; Minsky, Bruce D.

    1996-01-01

    PURPOSE: To examine the acute toxicity and outcome in patients (pts) treated with combined modality therapy following resection of adenocarcinoma of the pancreas. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From 2/88 to 2/96, 34 pts (M:20, F:14) received postoperative combined modality therapy following a pancreatic resection. Tumor location included; head only: 28, head and ampulla: 1, ampulla only: 1, body and tail: 2, and tail only: 2. Postoperative stages included: stage I: 7 (21%) and stage III: 27 (79%). Pts were referred for combined modality therapy based on surgeon preference. In general, pts were treated who had one or more adverse prognostic factors. These included positive local/regional lymph nodes (79%), positive margins (50%) or disease invasive into adjacent structures (85 %). Radiation fields included the original primary tumor bed (based on preoperative CT scans) and peri-pancreatic and para-aortic lymph nodes adjacent to vertebral bodies T10 through L3. No attempt was made to include the entire pancreas in the radiation field. Patients received 5040 cGy at 180 cGy/day using a 3 or 4 field technique and CT-based treatment planning. Concurrent bolus 5-FU (375-500 mg/m 2 ) was delivered on the first three and last three days of radiation. Post-radiation maintenance bolus 5-FU was given to 7 patients for a median of 6 cycles. A toxicity assessment using the NCI toxicity criteria was performed at each weekly visit and 4 weeks following the completion of combined modality therapy. The median follow-up was 13 months (range: 2-36 months). Patterns of failure as a component of failure were assessed by radiographic criteria and, in 2 pts, by intraoperative evaluation for symptomatic progression of disease. Local/regional failure was defined as recurrence within the radiation field. Distant failure included liver, peritoneal seeding, and extra-abdominal sites. Actuarial survival was calculated from the time of surgery using the Kaplan-Meier method. RESULTS: The only grade 3

  4. Oil sands tailings leachability and toxicity evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulley, J.R.

    1995-01-01

    Fine tailings disposal and reclamation is a major issue facing the oil sands mining and extraction industry. Government regulations dictate that reclamation must return the site to a level of self-sustaining biological capability which approximates the natural condition. A two-phase laboratory program has been completed to investigate the suitability of alternative reclamation materials. For the first phase of the study, chemical and toxicological analyses were carried out on 13 different reclamation and reference materials (solid phase and extractions). Seedling emergence, nematode maturation, algal growth and bacterial luminescence for leachate samples showed a range of sensitivities in response to the tested materials, although phytotoxicity tests were generally the most sensitive. With the exception of one test material, high toxicity ratings were consistent with that expected from the chemical data. The second phase of the study focused on the evaluation of chemical and toxicological conditions in leachate water generated using bench-scale column percolation tests. Leachate water equivalent to 10 pore volume replacements was generated and temporal variations in toxicity and chemistry monitored. Similar to phase 1 findings, phytotoxicity tests were the most sensitive tests to leachate waters. For most materials tested, most toxicity was removed after 2--3 porewater replacements. More persistent toxicity was noted for samples containing bitumen (e.g., fine tails and oil sands). No clear correspondence was noted between chemical concentrations and toxicity in leachate waters

  5. Estimation of toxicity using the Toxicity Estimation Software Tool (TEST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tens of thousands of chemicals are currently in commerce, and hundreds more are introduced every year. Since experimental measurements of toxicity are extremely time consuming and expensive, it is imperative that alternative methods to estimate toxicity are developed.

  6. Differential toxicity and influence of salinity on acute toxicity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Differential toxicity and influence of salinity on acute toxicity of copper sulphate and lead nitrate against Oreochromis niloticus. KA Bawa-Allah, F Osuala, J Effiong. Abstract. This study investigated the salinity-tolerance of Oreochromis niloticus and the influence of salinity changes on the acute toxicities of copper sulphate ...

  7. 40 CFR 80.810 - Who shall register with EPA under the gasoline toxics program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... gasoline toxics program? 80.810 Section 80.810 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics General Information § 80.810 Who shall register with EPA under the gasoline toxics program? (a) Refiners and importers...

  8. Toxic substances: Federal-provincial control. Revised edition. Current issue review No. 88-11E

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas, K; Johansen, D

    1993-01-01

    There is widespread public concern about the effect of toxic substances on human health and the environment. This document looks at the federal-provincial control on toxic substances. It specifically examines the control of toxic substances under the Canadian constitution; the political arena; the federal- provincial co-operation; the Green Plan; and the 1991 Auditor General's Report.

  9. Biological control of toxic cyanobacteri

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ndlela, Luyanda L

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available . Ecotoxicity studies: is toxicity reduced? (Testing on daphnids, fish and human cell lines) Resulting impacts on cyanotoxins (Toxin conformation changes, ELISA detection) Competition assays against toxic cyanobacteria (Can Bacillus etc. outcompete...

  10. Allegheny County Toxics Release Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) data provides information about toxic substances released into the environment or managed through recycling, energy recovery, and...

  11. Toxic waste liquor disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burton, W.R.

    1985-01-01

    Toxic waste liquors, especially radio active liquors, are disposed in a sub-zone by feeding down a bore hole a first liquid, then a buffer liquid (e.g. water), then the toxic liquors. Pressure variations are applied to the sub-zone to mix the first liquid and liquors to form gels or solids which inhibit further mixing and form a barrier between the sub-zone and the natural waters in the environment of the sub-zone. In another example the location of the sub-zone is selected so that the environement reacts with the liquors to produce a barrier around the zone. Blind bore holes are used to monitor the sub-zone profile. Materials may be added to the liquor to enhance barrier formation. (author)

  12. Portable, accurate toxicity testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabate, R.W.; Stiffey, A.V.; Dewailly, E.L.; Hinds, A.A.; Vieaux, G.J.

    1994-01-01

    Ever tightening environmental regulations, severe penalties for non-compliance, and expensive remediation costs have stimulated development of methods to detect and measure toxins. Most of these methods are bioassays that must be performed in the laboratory; none previously devised has been truly portable. The US Army, through the Small Business Innovative Research program, has developed a hand-held, field deployable unit for testing toxicity of battlefield water supplies. This patented system employs the measurable quenching, in the presence of toxins, of the natural bioluminescence produced by the marine dinoflagellate alga Pyrocystis lunula. The procedure's inventor used it for years to measure toxicity concentrations of chemical warfare agents actually, their simulants, primarily in the form of pesticides and herbicides plus assorted toxic reagents, waterbottom samples, drilling fluids, even blood. While the procedure is more precise, cheaper, and faster than most bioassays, until recently it was immobile. Now it is deployable in the field. The laboratory apparatus has been proven to be sensitive to toxins in concentrations as low as a few parts per billion, repeatable within a variation of 10% or less, and unlike some other bioassays effective in turbid or colored media. The laboratory apparatus and the hand-held tester have been calibrated with the EPA protocol that uses the shrimplike Mysidopsis bahia. The test organism tolerates transportation well, but must be rested a few hours at the test site for regeneration of its light-producing powers. Toxicity now can be measured confidently in soils, water columns, discharge points, and many other media in situ. Most significant to the oil industry is that drilling fluids can be monitored continuously on the rig

  13. Lead toxicity: current concerns.

    OpenAIRE

    Goyer, R A

    1993-01-01

    Over the 20-year period since the first issue of Environmental Health Perspectives was published, there has been considerable progress in the understanding of the potential toxicity of exposure to lead. Many of these advances have been reviewed in published symposia, conferences, and review papers in EHP. This brief review identifies major advances as well as a number of current concerns that present opportunities for prevention and intervention strategies. The major scientific advance has be...

  14. Toxic Substances Control Act

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-05-15

    This Reference Book contains a current copy of the Toxic Substances Control Act and those regulations that implement the statute and appear to be most relevant to DOE activities. The document is provided to DOE and contractor staff for informational purposes only and should not be interpreted as legal guidance. Questions concerning this Reference Book may be directed to Mark Petts, EH-231 (202/586-2609).

  15. Kombucha--toxicity alert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Kombucha mushroom, also known as Manchurian mushroom, is a mail-order product touted to lower blood pressure and raise T-cell counts. No controlled trials have been conducted to test these claims. Aspergillus, a mold that may grow on the Kombucha mushroom, attacks the brain and may be fatal to persons with weakened immune systems. Reported toxicity reactions have included stomach problems and yeast infections. Taking Kombucha in combination with other drugs may affect the drugs potency.

  16. Toxicity of nitrogen pentoxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diggle, W M; Gage, J C

    1954-01-01

    Two ppM N/sub 2/O/sub 5/ for 4 h or 1 ppM, 4 h/day for 12 days produced acute pulmonary edema in rats. Ten daily 4-h exposures to 0.5 ppM produced no edema but respiratory distress. NO/sub 2/ produced no edema (some hemorrhage) at 80 mg/m/sup 3/. Nitric acid vapor (63 mg/m/sup 3/) had no obvious toxic effect.

  17. Separations chemistry of toxic metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, P.; Barr, M.; Barrans, R.

    1996-01-01

    Sequestering and removing toxic metal ions from their surroundings is an increasingly active area of research and is gaining importance in light of current environmental contamination problems both within the DOE complex and externally. One method of separating metal ions is to complex them to a molecule (a ligand or chelator) which exhibits specific binding affinity for a toxic metal, even in the presence of other more benign metals. This approach makes use of the sometimes subtle differences between toxic and non-toxic metals resulting from variations in size, charge and shape. For example, toxic metals such as chromium, arsenic, and technetium exist in the environment as oxyanions, negatively charged species with a characteristic tetrahedral shape. Other toxic metals such as actinides and heavy metals are positively charged spheres with specific affinities for particular donor atoms such as oxygen (for actinides) and nitrogen (for heavy metals). In most cases the toxic metals are found in the presence of much larger quantities of less toxic metals such as sodium, calcium and iron. The selectivity of the chelators is critical to the goal of removing the toxic metals from their less toxic counterparts. The approach was to build a ligand framework that complements the unique characteristics of the toxic metal (size, charge and shape) while minimizing interactions with non-toxic metals. The authors have designed ligands exhibiting specificity for the target metals; they have synthesized, characterized and tested these ligands; and they have shown that they exhibit the proposed selectivity and cooperative binding effects

  18. Organophosphorus insecticides: Toxic effects and bioanalytical tests for evaluating toxicity during degradation processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čolović Mirjana B.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Organophosphorus insecticides have been the most applied group of insecticides for the last two decades. Their main toxic effects are related to irreversible inactivation of acetylcholinesterase (AChE. Actually, they covalently bind to serine OH group in the enzyme active site forming phosphorylated enzyme that cannot hydrolyze acetylcholine. Organophosphorus insecticides in the environment undergo the natural degradation pathway including mainly homogeneous and heterogeneous hydrolysis (especially at high pH generating non-inhibiting products. Additionally, thio organophosphates are easily oxidized by naturally present oxidants and UV light, forming more toxic and stable oxons. Thus, oxidative degradation procedures, generally referred as advanced oxidation processes (AOP, have been applied for their efficient removal from contaminated waters. The most applied bioassays to monitor the organophosphate toxicity i.e. the detoxification degree during AOP are Vibrio fischeri and AChE bioassays. Vibrio fischeri toxicity test exploits bioluminescence as the measure of luciferase activity of this marine bacterium, whereas AChE bioassay is based on AChE activity inhibition. Both bioanalytical techniques are rapid (several minutes, simple, sensitive and reproducible. Vibrio fischeri test seems to be a versatile indicator of toxic compounds generated in AOP for organophosphorus insecticides degradation. However, detection of neurotoxic AChE inhibitors, which can be formed in AOP of some organophosphates, requires AChE bioassays. Therefore, AChE toxicity test is more appropriate for monitoring the degradation processes of thio organophosphates, because more toxic oxo organophosphates might be formed and overlooked by Vibrio fischeri bioluminescence inhibition. In addition, during organophosphates removal by AOP, compounds with strong genotoxic potential may be formed, which cannot be detected by standard toxicity tests. For this reason, determination of

  19. Serum thymidine kinase--a marker of bone marrow toxicity during treatment with zidovudine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, C; Ingeberg, S; Teglbjaerg, L S

    1989-01-01

    Serum thymidine kinase (S-TK) was measured weekly in 16 randomly selected patients with AIDS or AIDS-related complex (ARC; Centers for Disease Control group IV A or group IV C-2) who participated in a controlled study of the efficacy of zidovudine therapy. S-TK increased significantly (P less than...... 0.01) in the zidovudine group, whereas it remained stable in the placebo (control) group. On the basis of this observation, the value of S-TK measurements as a predictor of bone marrow toxicity during zidovudine therapy was investigated in 42 patients with AIDS or ARC who received zidovudine as part...... of their usual treatment. There was a significant association between S-TK, haemoglobin and neutrophil counts measured after the first 4 weeks of therapy and the risk of developing bone marrow toxicity during the following 6 months. Combined, measurements of S-TK and neutrophil counts seem to be well suited...

  20. Modern toxic antipersonnel projectiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillard, Yvan; Regenstreif, Philippe; Fanton, Laurent

    2014-12-01

    In the spring of 1944, Kurt von Gottberg, the SS police chief in Minsk, was shot and injured by 2 Soviet agents. Although he was only slightly injured, he died 6 hours later. The bullets were hollow and contained a crystalline white powder. They were 4-g bullets, semi-jacketed in cupronickel, containing 28 mg of aconitine. They were later known as akonitinnitratgeschosse. The Sipo (the Nazi security police) then ordered a trial with a 9-mm Parabellum cartridge containing Ditran, an anticholinergic drug with hallucinogenic properties causing intense mental confusion. In later years, QNB was used and given the NATO code BZ (3-quinuclidinyl-benzylate). It was proven that Saddam Hussein had this weapon (agent 15) manufactured and used it against the Kurds. Serbian forces used the same type of weapon in the Bosnian conflict, particularly in Srebrenica.The authors go on to list the Cold War toxic weapons developed by the KGB and the Warsaw pact countries for the discreet elimination of dissidents and proindependence leaders who had taken refuge in the West. These weapons include PSZh-13 launchers, the Troika electronic sequential pistol, and the ingenious 4-S110T captive piston system designed by the engineer Stechkin. Disguised as a cigarette case, it could fire a silent charge of potassium cyanide. This rogues gallery also includes the umbrella rigged to inject a pellet of ricin (or another phytalbumin of similar toxicity, such as abrin or crotin) that was used to assassinate the Bulgarian writer and journalist Georgi Markov on September 7, 1978, in London.During the autopsy, the discovery of a bullet burst into 4 or 5 parts has to make at once suspecting the use of a toxic substance. Toxicological analysis has to look for first and foremost aconitine, cyanide, suxamethonium, Ditran, BZ, or one of the toxic phytalbumins. The use of such complex weapons has to make suspect a powerful organization: army, secret service, terrorism. The existence of the Russian UDAR spray

  1. Mechanisms of nickel toxicity in microorganisms

    OpenAIRE

    Macomber, Lee; Hausinger, Robert P.

    2011-01-01

    Nickel has long been known to be an important human toxicant, including having the ability to form carcinomas, but until recently nickel was believed to be an issue only to microorganisms living in nickel-rich serpentine soils or areas contaminated by industrial pollution. This assumption was overturned by the discovery of a nickel defense system (RcnR/RcnA) found in microorganisms that live in a wide range of environmental niches, suggesting that nickel homeostasis is a general biological co...

  2. Thyroid cancer in toxic and non-toxic multinodular goiter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cerci C

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Many authors have claimed that hyperthyroidism protects against thyroid cancer and believed that the incidence of malignancy is lower in patients with toxic multinodular goiter (TMG than in those with non-toxic multinodular goiter. But in recent studies, it was reported that the incidence of malignancy with TMG is not as low as previously thought. Aim : To compare the thyroid cancer incidence in patients with toxic and non-toxic multinodular goiter. Settings and Design : Histology reports of patients treated surgically with a preoperative diagnosis of toxic and non-toxic multinodular goiter were reviewed to identify the thyroid cancer incidence. Patients having a history of neck irradiation or radioactive iodine therapy were excluded from the study. Materials and Methods : We reviewed 294 patients operated between 2001-2005 from toxic and non-toxic multinodular goiter. One hundred and twenty-four of them were toxic and 170 were non-toxic. Hyperthyroidism was diagnosed by elevated tri-iodothyroinine / thyroxine ratios and low thyroid-stimulating hormone with clinical signs and symptoms. All patients were evaluated with ultrasonography and scintigraphy and fine needle aspiration biopsy. Statistical Analysis Used : Significance of the various parameters was calculated by using ANOVA test. Results : The incidence of malignancy was 9% in the toxic and 10.58% in the non-toxic multinodular goiter group. Any significant difference in the incidence of cancer and tumor size between the two groups could not be detected. Conclusions : The incidence of malignancy in toxic multinodular goiter is not very low as thought earlier and is nearly the same in non-toxic multinodular goiter.

  3. PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF MORINGA PEREGRINA LEAVES EXTRACT ON ACETAMINOPHEN -INDUCED LIVER TOXICITY IN ALBINO RATS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azim, Samy Abdelfatah Abdel; Abdelrahem, Mohamed Taha; Said, Mostafa Mohamed; Khattab, Alshaimaa

    2017-01-01

    Acetaminophen is a common antipyretic drug but at overdose can cause severe hepatotoxicity that may further develop into liver failure and hepatic centrilobular necrosis in experimental animals and humans. This study was undertaken to assess the ameliorative role of Moringa peregrina leaves extract against acetaminophen toxicity in rats. Induction of hepatotoxicity was done by chronic oral administration of acetaminophen (750 mg/kg bwt) for 4 weeks. To study the possible hepatoprotective effect, Moringa peregrina leaves extract (200 mg/kg bwt) or Silymarin (50 mg/kg bwt) was administered orally, for 4 weeks, along with acetaminophen. acetaminophen significantly increased serum liver enzymes and caused oxidative stress, evidenced by significantly increased tissue malondialdehyde, glutathione peroxidase, hepatic DNA fragmentation, and significant decrease of glutathione and antioxidant enzymes in liver, blood and brain. On the other hand, administration of Moringa peregrina leaves extract reversed acetaminophen-related toxic effects through: powerful malondialdehyde suppression, glutathione peroxidase normalization and stimulation of the cellular antioxidants synthesis represented by significant increase of glutathione, catalase and superoxide dismutase in liver, blood and brain, besides, DNA fragmentation was significantly decreased in the liver tissue. acetaminophen induced oxidative damage can be improved by Moringa peregrina leaves extract-treatment, due to its antioxidant potential.

  4. VORICONAZOLE TOXICITY IN MULTIPLE PENGUIN SPECIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyatt, Michael W; Georoff, Timothy A; Nollens, Hendrik H; Wells, Rebecca L; Clauss, Tonya M; Ialeggio, Donna M; Harms, Craig A; Wack, Allison N

    2015-12-01

    Aspergillosis is a common respiratory fungal disease in penguins managed under human care. Triazole antifungal drugs, including itraconazole, are most commonly used for treatment; however, itraconazole treatment failures from drug resistance are becoming more common, requiring newer treatment options. Voriconazole, a newer triazole, is being used more often. Until recently, no voriconazole pharmacokinetic studies had been performed in penguins, leading to empiric dosing based on other avian studies. This has led to increased anecdotal reporting of apparent voriconazole toxicity in penguins. This report describes 18 probable and 6 suspected cases of voriconazole toxicity in six penguin species from nine institutions: 12 African penguins (Spheniscus demersus), 5 Humboldt penguins (Spheniscus humboldti), 3 Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus), 2 gentoo penguins (Pygoscelis papua papua), 1 macaroni penguin (Eudyptes chrysolophus), and 1 emperor penguin (Aptenodytes forsteri). Observed clinical signs of toxicity included anorexia, lethargy, weakness, ataxia, paresis, apparent vision changes, seizure-like activity, and generalized seizures. Similar signs of toxicity have also been reported in humans, in whom voriconazole therapeutic plasma concentration for Aspergillus spp. infections is 2-6 μg/ml. Plasma voriconazole concentrations were measured in 18 samples from penguins showing clinical signs suggestive of voriconazole toxicity. The concentrations ranged from 8.12 to 64.17 μg/ml, with penguins having plasma concentrations above 30 μg/ml exhibiting moderate to severe neurologic signs, including ataxia, paresis, and seizures. These concentrations were well above those known to result in central nervous system toxicity, including encephalopathy, in humans. This case series highlights the importance of species-specific dosing of voriconazole in penguins and plasma therapeutic drug monitoring. Further investigation, including pharmacokinetic studies, is

  5. General toxic effects of shale tars on the human body

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahn, H; Sillam, A

    1972-01-01

    Of 115 workers in close contact with oil shale tars, 80 percent complained of headache, fatigue, and stomach aches. Vegetative dystonia, asthenovegetative, or asthenic syndromes were diagnosed in 32 percent of the cases. An excessive excretion of free phenols was found in the urine of 13 percent of the patients and an excess of sulfates and coproporphyrin in 27 and 29 percent, respectively. The statistical analysis of clinical data indicates a relation to biochemical changes. The immunological reactivity studies showed that in 60 percent of the cases the immunological resistance decreased markedly.

  6. Toxic potential of palytoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patocka, Jiří; Gupta, Ramesh C; Wu, Qing-hua; Kuca, Kamil

    2015-10-01

    This review briefly describes the origin, chemistry, molecular mechanism of action, pharmacology, toxicology, and ecotoxicology of palytoxin and its analogues. Palytoxin and its analogues are produced by marine dinoflagellates. Palytoxin is also produced by Zoanthids (i.e. Palythoa), and Cyanobacteria (Trichodesmium). Palytoxin is a very large, non-proteinaceous molecule with a complex chemical structure having both lipophilic and hydrophilic moieties. Palytoxin is one of the most potent marine toxins with an LD50 of 150 ng/kg body weight in mice exposed intravenously. Pharmacological and electrophysiological studies have demonstrated that palytoxin acts as a hemolysin and alters the function of excitable cells through multiple mechanisms of action. Palytoxin selectively binds to Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase with a Kd of 20 pM and transforms the pump into a channel permeable to monovalent cations with a single-channel conductance of 10 pS. This mechanism of action could have multiple effects on cells. Evaluation of palytoxin toxicity using various animal models revealed that palytoxin is an extremely potent neurotoxin following an intravenous, intraperitoneal, intramuscular, subcutaneous or intratracheal route of exposure. Palytoxin also causes non-lethal, yet serious toxic effects following dermal or ocular exposure. Most incidents of palytoxin poisoning have manifested after oral intake of contaminated seafood. Poisonings in humans have also been noted after inhalation, cutaneous/systemic exposures with direct contact of aerosolized seawater during Ostreopsis blooms and/or through maintaining aquaria containing Cnidarian zoanthids. Palytoxin has a strong potential for toxicity in humans and animals, and currently this toxin is of great concern worldwide.

  7. Metal metabolism and toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, M.H.; Larsen, R.P.; Whelton, B.D.; Moretti, E.S.; Peterson, D.P.; Oldham, R.D.

    1985-01-01

    This research focuses on the role of pregnancy and lactation in susceptibility to the toxic effects of cadmium and lead. Responses under investigation include lead-induced changes in pathways for vitamin D and calcium metabolism and cadmium-induced alterations in kidney function and skeletal structure. The second area focuses on the gastrointestinal absorption of plutonium and other actinide elements. Studies currently being conducted in nonhuman primates to develop a procedure to determine GI absorption values of uranium and plutonium that does not require sacrifice of the animal. 6 refs

  8. Control of air toxics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livengood, C.D.

    1995-01-01

    For more than 10 years, Argonne National Laboratory has supported the US DOE's Flue Gas Cleanup Program objective by developing new or improved environmental controls for industries that use fossil fuels. Argonne's pollutant emissions research has ranged from experiments in the basic chemistry of pollution-control systems, through laboratory-scale process development and testing, to pilot-scale field tests of several technologies. The work on air toxics is currently divided into two components: Investigating measures to improve the removal of mercury in existing pollution-control systems applied to coal combustion; and, Developing sensors and control techniques for emissions found in the textile industry

  9. Toxicity of tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobson, R.L.

    1979-01-01

    Among radionuclides of importance in atomic energy, 3 H has relatively low toxicity. The main health and environmental worry is the possibility that significant biological effects may follow from protracted exposure to low concentrations in water. To examine this possible hazard and measure toxicity at low tritium concentrations, chronic exposure studies were done on mice and monkeys. During vulnerable developmental periods animals were exposed to 3 HOH, and mice were exposed also to 60 Co gamma irradiation and energy-related chemical agents. The biological endpoint measured was the irreversible loss of female germ cells. Effects from tritium were observed at surprisingly low concentrations where 3 H was found more damaging than previously thought. Comparisons between tritium and gamma radiation showed the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) to be greater than 1 and to reach approximately 3 at very low exposures. For perspective, other comparisons were made: between radiation and chemical agents, which revealed parallels in action on germ cells, and between pre- and postnatal exposure, which warn of possible special hazard to the fetus from both classes of energy-related byproducts

  10. Thallium toxicity in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvjetko, Petra; Cvjetko, Ivan; Pavlica, Mirjana

    2010-03-01

    Thallium is a naturally occurring trace element, widely distributed in the earth's crust, but at very low concentrations. It does not have a known biological use and does not appear to be an essential element for life. It has been considered one of the most toxic heavy metals.Occasionally, there are reports on thallium poisoning as results of suicide or murder attempt or accident. The main threat to humans is through occupational exposure, environmental contamination, and accumulation in food, mainly in vegetables grown on contaminated soil. Increasing use in emerging new technologies and demanding high-tech industry constantly raise concern about exposure risk to all living organisms. Thallium is considered a cumulative poison that can cause adverse health effects and degenerative changes in many organs. The effects are the most severe in the nervous system. The exact mechanism of thallium toxicity still remains unknown, although impaired glutathione metabolism, oxidative stress, and disruption of potassium-regulated homeostasis may play a role. The lack of data about mutagenic, carcinogenic, or teratogenic effects of thallium compounds in humans calls for further research.

  11. Molecular toxicity of nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Xue-Ling; Yang, Sheng-Tao; Xing, Gengmei

    2014-10-01

    With the rapid developments in the fields of nanoscience and nanotechnlogy, more and more nanomaterials and their based consumer products have been used into our daily life. The safety concerns of nanomaterials have been well recognized by the scientific community and the public. Molecular mechanism of interactions between nanomaterials and biosystems is the most essential topic and final core of the biosafety. In the last two decades, nanotoxicology developed very fast and toxicity phenomena of nanomaterials have been reported. To achieve better understanding and detoxication of nanomaterials, thorough studies of nanotoxicity at molecular level are important. The interactions between nanomaterials and biomolecules have been widely investigated as the first step toward the molecular nanotoxicology. The consequences of such interactions have been discussed in the literature. Besides this, the chemical mechanism of nanotoxicology is gaining more attention, which would lead to a better design of nontoxic nanomaterials. In this review, we focus on the molecular nanotoxicology and explore the toxicity of nanomaterials at molecular level. The molecular level studies of nanotoxicology are summarized and the published nanotoxicological data are revisited.

  12. Toxicity of lunar dust assessed in inhalation-exposed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Chiu-wing; Scully, Robert R; Zhang, Ye; Renne, Roger A; Hunter, Robert L; McCluskey, Richard A; Chen, Bean T; Castranova, Vincent; Driscoll, Kevin E; Gardner, Donald E; McClellan, Roger O; Cooper, Bonnie L; McKay, David S; Marshall, Linda; James, John T

    2013-10-01

    Humans will again set foot on the moon. The moon is covered by a layer of fine dust, which can pose a respiratory hazard. We investigated the pulmonary toxicity of lunar dust in rats exposed to 0, 2.1, 6.8, 20.8 and 60.6 mg/m(3) of respirable-size lunar dust for 4 weeks (6 h/day, 5 days/week); the aerosols in the nose-only exposure chambers were generated from a jet-mill ground preparation of a lunar soil collected during the Apollo 14 mission. After 4 weeks of exposure to air or lunar dust, groups of five rats were euthanized 1 day, 1 week, 4 weeks or 13 weeks after the last exposure for assessment of pulmonary toxicity. Biomarkers of toxicity assessed in bronchoalveolar fluids showed concentration-dependent changes; biomarkers that showed treatment effects were total cell and neutrophil counts, total protein concentrations and cellular enzymes (lactate dehydrogenase, glutamyl transferase and aspartate transaminase). No statistically significant differences in these biomarkers were detected between rats exposed to air and those exposed to the two low concentrations of lunar dust. Dose-dependent histopathology, including inflammation, septal thickening, fibrosis and granulomas, in the lung was observed at the two higher exposure concentrations. No lesions were detected in rats exposed to ≤6.8 mg/m(3). This 4-week exposure study in rats showed that 6.8 mg/m(3) was the highest no-observable-adverse-effect level (NOAEL). These results will be useful for assessing the health risk to humans of exposure to lunar dust, establishing human exposure limits and guiding the design of dust mitigation systems in lunar landers or habitats.

  13. Quantal health effects of three toxic agents combined

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seiler, F.A.

    1988-01-01

    Quantal health effects such as cancer, correlated with the combined action of three toxic agents, are considered. Data on the combined effects of two agents are scarce and no such data exist for three toxicants, yet concerns have arisen about simultaneous exposure of radiation workers to three different agents. Using models developed from the analysis of health effects involving two toxicants, equations for the combined effects of three agents are derived from a more general formalism. An application of practical interest is the incidence of cancer of the esophagus and its correlation with concurrent exposures to alcohol, tobacco, and either low- or high-LET radiation. (author)

  14. Generalized functions

    CERN Document Server

    Gelfand, I M; Graev, M I; Vilenkin, N Y; Pyatetskii-Shapiro, I I

    Volume 1 is devoted to basics of the theory of generalized functions. The first chapter contains main definitions and most important properties of generalized functions as functional on the space of smooth functions with compact support. The second chapter talks about the Fourier transform of generalized functions. In Chapter 3, definitions and properties of some important classes of generalized functions are discussed; in particular, generalized functions supported on submanifolds of lower dimension, generalized functions associated with quadratic forms, and homogeneous generalized functions are studied in detail. Many simple basic examples make this book an excellent place for a novice to get acquainted with the theory of generalized functions. A long appendix presents basics of generalized functions of complex variables.

  15. Weekly vs. daily administration of oral methotrexate (MTX) for generalized plaque psoriasis: a randomized controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radmanesh, Mohammad; Rafiei, Behnam; Moosavi, Zahra-Beigum; Sina, Niloofar

    2011-10-01

    Methotrexate (MTX) treatment for psoriasis is most often administered weekly, because the drug has been considered more hepatotoxic when taken daily. However, some patients may tolerate smaller, more frequent doses better. To study the efficacy and toxicity of daily vs. weekly MTX. In a randomized controlled trial, 101 patients with generalized plaque psoriasis received oral MTX 2.5 mg daily for weeks, 4 weeks and monthly for a total of 4 months. Changes in PASI scores were classified into three categories: >75% improvement was considered significant; 25-75% moderate; and <25% poor. Sixty Group 1 patients and 81 Group 2 patients showed a significant response (P-value 0.001); 19 patients in Group 1 and 14 in Group 2 responded moderately; 22 patients in Group 1 and six patients from Group 2 responded poorly. Forty-five patients in Group 1 and 33 in Group 2 developed transient increases in liver enzymes (P-value 0.11). Nausea, headache, fatigue, and gastrointestinal upset were noted in four Group 1 patients and 30 Group 2 patients (P-value 0.0001). Nausea, vomiting, headache, and fatigue were significantly less common side effects in our patients who received MTX daily, but liver enzyme abnormalities were less common, and clinical efficacy was greater in the patients who received MTX weekly. © 2011 The International Society of Dermatology.

  16. A Generally Applicable Computer Algorithm Based on the Group Additivity Method for the Calculation of Seven Molecular Descriptors: Heat of Combustion, LogPO/W, LogS, Refractivity, Polarizability, Toxicity and LogBB of Organic Compounds; Scope and Limits of Applicability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf Naef

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A generally applicable computer algorithm for the calculation of the seven molecular descriptors heat of combustion, logPoctanol/water, logS (water solubility, molar refractivity, molecular polarizability, aqueous toxicity (protozoan growth inhibition and logBB (log (cblood/cbrain is presented. The method, an extendable form of the group-additivity method, is based on the complete break-down of the molecules into their constituting atoms and their immediate neighbourhood. The contribution of the resulting atom groups to the descriptor values is calculated using the Gauss-Seidel fitting method, based on experimental data gathered from literature. The plausibility of the method was tested for each descriptor by means of a k-fold cross-validation procedure demonstrating good to excellent predictive power for the former six descriptors and low reliability of logBB predictions. The goodness of fit (Q2 and the standard deviation of the 10-fold cross-validation calculation was >0.9999 and 25.2 kJ/mol, respectively, (based on N = 1965 test compounds for the heat of combustion, 0.9451 and 0.51 (N = 2640 for logP, 0.8838 and 0.74 (N = 1419 for logS, 0.9987 and 0.74 (N = 4045 for the molar refractivity, 0.9897 and 0.77 (N = 308 for the molecular polarizability, 0.8404 and 0.42 (N = 810 for the toxicity and 0.4709 and 0.53 (N = 383 for logBB. The latter descriptor revealing a very low Q2 for the test molecules (R2 was 0.7068 and standard deviation 0.38 for N = 413 training molecules is included as an example to show the limits of the group-additivity method. An eighth molecular descriptor, the heat of formation, was indirectly calculated from the heat of combustion data and correlated with published experimental heat of formation data with a correlation coefficient R2 of 0.9974 (N = 2031.

  17. Cyclophosphamide-induced pulmonary toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siemann, D.W.; Macler, L.; Penney, D.P.

    1986-01-01

    Unlike radiation effects, pulmonary toxicity following drug treatments may develop soon after exposure. The dose-response relationship between Cyclophosphamide and lung toxicity was investigated using increased breathing frequency assays used successfully for radiation induced injury. The data indicate that release of protein into the alveolus may play a significant role in Cy induced pulmonary toxicity. Although the mechanism responsible for the increased alveolar protein is as yet not identified, the present findings suggest that therapeutic intervention to inhibit protein release may be an approach to protect the lungs from toxic effects. (UK)

  18. E-Cigarette Toxicity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegin, Gulay; Mekala, Hema Madhuri; Sarai, Simrat Kaur; Lippmann, Steven

    2018-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is the most preventable cause of morbidity and mortality. In just a few short years, electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have become increasingly popular, especially for younger individuals. Many people believe that e-cigarettes are safe. The inhaled aerosols of e-cigarettes contain numerous potential toxicities, some of which could be dangerous for health with long-term use. The safety of prolonged aerosol exposure is not known. The use of e-cigarettes as a harm-reduction tool at stopping tobacco smoking is not uniformly successful. E-cigarettes may be safer than tobacco products, but repeated prolonged exposure to their aerosols has its own considerable potential risk. The long-term health consequences of their use remain to be established. Physicians should vigorously discourage the use of e-cigarettes and tobacco products, with special emphasis on abstinence for younger people and during pregnancy or lactation.

  19. General Editorial

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education. General Editorial. Articles in Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Volume 19 Issue 1 January 2014 pp 1-2 General Editorial. General Editorial on Publication Ethics · R Ramaswamy · More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 19 Issue 1 January 2014 pp 3-3 ...

  20. Children's Ability to Recognise Toxic and Non-Toxic Fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fancovicova, Jana; Prokop, Pavol

    2011-01-01

    Children's ability to identify common plants is a necessary prerequisite for learning botany. However, recent work has shown that children lack positive attitudes toward plants and are unable to identify them. We examined children's (aged 10-17) ability to discriminate between common toxic and non-toxic plants and their mature fruits presented in…

  1. Toxicity of middle distillates from dermal exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koschier, F J

    1999-02-01

    This report focuses on recent studies that investigated the effects of kerosine dermal exposure on neurotoxicity and reproductive/developmental toxicity. Background toxicity information will also be reviewed for kerosine range mid distillates. The kerosine range mid distillates have a carbon range of C9-C16 and have a boiling range of 302-554 degrees F (150-290 degrees C). This category includes kerosine, aviation fuels (e.g., Jet A, JP-5 and JP-8), no. 1 fuel oil and diesel fuel oil. In general, the kerosine range mid distillates demonstrate relatively low acute toxicity by any route of exposure. High inhalation exposures can induce central nervous system depression characterized by ataxia, hypoactivity and prostration. Kerosines are known to cause skin irritation and inflammation under conditions of acute and repeated exposure in animals and humans, but are only slightly irritating to the eye and are not skin sensitizers. In addition, the absorption of kerosine range mid distillates through the skin has been demonstrated to be fairly rapid, but limited to approximately 10-15% of the applied dose after 24 hours. The kerosine range mid distillates are generally inactive in genetic toxicity tests although positive studies have been reported. Positive results, while at times equivocal, have been reported for straight run kerosine and jet fuel A in the mouse lymphoma assay with metabolic activation, and hydrodesulfurized kerosine (mouse) and jet fuel A (rat) in the bone marrow cytogenetic assay. Effects on the nervous and reproductive systems have been reported in humans and experimental animals under conditions where inhalation and dermal exposure to specific kerosine type fuels are sometimes difficult to separate. Recent laboratory studies have addressed this point and examined the effects of dermal exposure. In these studies, rats were exposed to hydrodesulfurized kerosine by skin application to determine the potential of dermal contact to cause reproductive

  2. Development of tolerance against toxic Microcystis aeruginosa in three cladocerans and the ecological implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Nichun; Xie Ping

    2006-01-01

    This is the first experimental study to compare difference in the development of tolerance against toxic Microcystis among multi-species of cladocerans (Daphnia, Moina and Ceriodaphnia) pre-exposed to two M. aeruginosa PCC7820 strains (MC-containing and MC-free). Zooplankton were divided into S population (fed Scenedesmus), M-F population (fed Scenedesmus + MC-free Microcystis), and M-C population (fed Scenedesmus + MC-containing Microcystis). M-F and M-C populations were pre-exposed to Microcystis strains for 4 weeks, and their newborns were collected for experiments. A pre-exposure to MC-containing or MC-free Microcystis increased tolerance against toxic Microcystis. The marked increases in survival rate and median lethal time (LT 5 , 100-194% increase) in the M-C population of Ceriodaphnia suggest that small-sized cladocerans may develop stronger tolerance against Microcystis than large-sized ones when both groups are exposed to toxic Microcystis. This may explain why dominant Daphnia is usually replaced by small-sized cladocerans when cyanobacteria bloomed in summer in eutrophic lakes. - Three cladocerans pre-exposed to Microcystis developed different tolerance against toxic Microcystis, explaining zooplankton succession with blooms

  3. Development of tolerance against toxic Microcystis aeruginosa in three cladocerans and the ecological implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo Nichun [Donghu Experimental Station of Lake Ecosystems, State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology of China, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Donghu South Road 7, Wuhan 430072 (China); Xie Ping [Donghu Experimental Station of Lake Ecosystems, State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology of China, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Donghu South Road 7, Wuhan 430072 (China)]. E-mail: xieping@ihb.ac.cn

    2006-10-15

    This is the first experimental study to compare difference in the development of tolerance against toxic Microcystis among multi-species of cladocerans (Daphnia, Moina and Ceriodaphnia) pre-exposed to two M. aeruginosa PCC7820 strains (MC-containing and MC-free). Zooplankton were divided into S population (fed Scenedesmus), M-F population (fed Scenedesmus + MC-free Microcystis), and M-C population (fed Scenedesmus + MC-containing Microcystis). M-F and M-C populations were pre-exposed to Microcystis strains for 4 weeks, and their newborns were collected for experiments. A pre-exposure to MC-containing or MC-free Microcystis increased tolerance against toxic Microcystis. The marked increases in survival rate and median lethal time (LT{sub 5}, 100-194% increase) in the M-C population of Ceriodaphnia suggest that small-sized cladocerans may develop stronger tolerance against Microcystis than large-sized ones when both groups are exposed to toxic Microcystis. This may explain why dominant Daphnia is usually replaced by small-sized cladocerans when cyanobacteria bloomed in summer in eutrophic lakes. - Three cladocerans pre-exposed to Microcystis developed different tolerance against toxic Microcystis, explaining zooplankton succession with blooms.

  4. Hydroxycut-induced Liver Toxicity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hanumantp

    Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research | Jan-Feb 2014 | Vol 4 ... supplements can be responsible for documented or undocumented adverse drug effects. The ... Keywords: Hydroxycut, Liver toxicity, Nutritional supplements ... Caffeine anhydrous: 200 mg* ... series and review of liver toxicity from herbal weight loss.

  5. One Health and Toxic Cyanobacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    One Health and toxic cyanobacteria Blooms of toxic freshwater blue-green algae or cyanobacteria (HABs) have been in the news after HABs associated with human and animal health problems have been reported in Florida, California and Utah during 2016. HABs occur in warm, slow moving...

  6. Toxic Leadership in Educational Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, James E.

    2014-01-01

    While research on the traits and skills of effective leaders is plentiful, only recently has the phenomenon of toxic leadership begun to be investigated. This research report focuses on toxic leadership in educational organizations--its prevalence, as well as the characteristics and early indicators. Using mixed methods, the study found four…

  7. Building a developmental toxicity ontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Nancy; Boobis, Alan; Burgoon, Lyle; Carney, Edward; Currie, Richard; Fritsche, Ellen; Knudsen, Thomas; Laffont, Madeleine; Piersma, Aldert H; Poole, Alan; Schneider, Steffen; Daston, George

    2018-04-03

    As more information is generated about modes of action for developmental toxicity and more data are generated using high-throughput and high-content technologies, it is becoming necessary to organize that information. This report discussed the need for a systematic representation of knowledge about developmental toxicity (i.e., an ontology) and proposes a method to build one based on knowledge of developmental biology and mode of action/ adverse outcome pathways in developmental toxicity. This report is the result of a consensus working group developing a plan to create an ontology for developmental toxicity that spans multiple levels of biological organization. This report provide a description of some of the challenges in building a developmental toxicity ontology and outlines a proposed methodology to meet those challenges. As the ontology is built on currently available web-based resources, a review of these resources is provided. Case studies on one of the most well-understood morphogens and developmental toxicants, retinoic acid, are presented as examples of how such an ontology might be developed. This report outlines an approach to construct a developmental toxicity ontology. Such an ontology will facilitate computer-based prediction of substances likely to induce human developmental toxicity. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Toxic releases from power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubin, E.S.

    1999-01-01

    Beginning in 1998, electric power plants burning coal or oil must estimate and report their annual releases of toxic chemicals listed in the Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) published by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). This paper identifies the toxic chemicals of greatest significance for the electric utility sector and develops quantitative estimates of the toxic releases reportable to the TRI for a representative coal-fired power plant. Key factors affecting the magnitude and types of toxic releases for individual power plants also are discussed. A national projection suggests that the magnitude of electric utility industry releases will surpass those of the manufacturing industries which current report to the TRI. Risk communication activities at the community level will be essential to interpret and provide context for the new TRI results

  9. VARIATIONS IN REPRODUCTIVE TOXICANT IDENTIFICATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, F

    2008-05-13

    Reproductive toxicants are a very important class of compounds. They present unique hazards to those of child bearing ages, perform their 'dirty work' using a wide variety of mechanisms on a number of different organs, and are regulatorily important. Because of all of this, properly identifying reproductive toxicants is important, but fraught with difficulty. In this paper we will describe types or reproductive toxicants, their importance, and both mistakes and good practices that people who are not experts in reproductive toxicology may use in their attempts to identify them. Additionally, this paper will focus on chemical reproductive toxicants and will not address biological agents that could affect reproductive toxicity although many principles outlined here could be applied to that endeavor.

  10. Anaerobic biodegradability and toxicity of complex or toxicant wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wills Betancur, B.A.

    1995-01-01

    As a first approximation to wastewater classification in susceptibility terms to treatment by anaerobic biological system, anaerobic biodegradability trials are accomplished to leached of sanitary landfill, to wastewater of coffee grain wet treatment plant and to wastewater of fumaric acid recuperation plant. In the last Plant, anaerobic toxicity trials and lethal toxicity on the Daphnia pulex micro-crustacean are made too. Anaerobic biological trials are made continuing the Wageningen University (Holland) Methodology (1.987). Lethal toxicity biological trials are made following the Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater(18th edition, 1992). In development of this investigation project is found that fumaric acid recuperation plant leached it has a low anaerobic biodegradability, a high anaerobic toxicity and a high lethal toxicity over Daphnia pulex, for such reasons this leached is cataloged as complex and toxic wastewater. The other hand, wastewater of coffee grain wet treatment plant and wastewater of sanitary landfill they are both highly biodegradability and not-toxic, for such reasons these wastewaters are cataloged as susceptible to treatment by anaerobic biological system

  11. Generalized product

    OpenAIRE

    Greco, Salvatore; Mesiar, Radko; Rindone, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    Aggregation functions on [0,1] with annihilator 0 can be seen as a generalized product on [0,1]. We study the generalized product on the bipolar scale [–1,1], stressing the axiomatic point of view. Based on newly introduced bipolar properties, such as the bipolar increasingness, bipolar unit element, bipolar idempotent element, several kinds of generalized bipolar product are introduced and studied. A special stress is put on bipolar semicopulas, bipolar quasi-copulas and bipolar copulas.

  12. Toxicity of petroleum hydrocarbon distillates to soil organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cermak, Janet H; Stephenson, Gladys L; Birkholz, Detlef; Wang, Zhendi; Dixon, D George

    2010-12-01

    Canadian standards for petroleum hydrocarbons in soil are based on four distillate ranges (F1, C6-C10; F2, >C10-C16; F3, >C16-C34; and F4, >C34). Concerns have arisen that the ecological soil contact standards for F3 may be overly conservative. Oil distillates were prepared and characterized, and the toxicity of F3 and two subfractions, F3a (>C16-C23) and F3b (>C23-C34), to earthworms (Eisenia andrei), springtails (Orthonychiurus folsomi), and northern wheatgrass (Elymus lanceolatus), as well as the toxicity of F2 to earthworms, was determined. Clean soil was spiked with individual distillates and measured concentrations were determined for select tests. Results agree with previous studies with these distillates. Reported toxicities of crude and petroleum products to invertebrates were generally comparable to that of F3 and F3a. The decreasing order of toxicity was F3a > F3 > F3b with invertebrates, and F3a > F3b > F3 with plants. The toxicities of F3a and F3b were not sufficiently different to recommend regulating hydrocarbons based on these distillate ranges. The results also suggest that test durations may be insufficient for determining toxicity of higher distillate ranges, and that the selection of species and endpoints may significantly affect interpretation of toxicity test results. Copyright © 2010 SETAC.

  13. The toxicity of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsden, D.; Johns, T.F.

    1977-01-01

    Reference is made to recent publications concerned with the radiotoxicity of inhaled insoluble Pu compounds. The publications are a paper by Thorne and Vennart (Nature 263:555 (1976)), a report entitled 'The Toxicity of Plutonium', (London (HMSO), 1975), and the 'Sixth Report of the Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution', (Cmnd. 6618, London (HMSO), 1976). Thorne and Vennart concluded that the previously accepted value for the maximum permissible annual intake (MPAI) of such compounds may be too high by a factor of about five, and a similar conclusion was reached in the other two publications. It is thought by the present authors that the methods which have been used to suggest new values for the MPAI are unduly pessimistic for high-fired PuO 2 ; calculations have been based on the lung model of ICRP Publication 19 'The Metabolism of Compounds of Plutonium and the Other Actinides', (International Commission of Radiological Protection, 1972). This involves concluding that the risks to bone and liver are comparable to those for lung. This is discussed and it is thought that the previously established idea that the lung is the critical organ remains substantially correct for the case of high-fired PuO 2 . (U.K.)

  14. Mechanisms of nickel toxicity in microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macomber, Lee

    2014-01-01

    Summary Nickel has long been known to be an important human toxicant, including having the ability to form carcinomas, but until recently nickel was believed to be an issue only to microorganisms living in nickel-rich serpentine soils or areas contaminated by industrial pollution. This assumption was overturned by the discovery of a nickel defense system (RcnR/RcnA) found in microorganisms that live in a wide range of environmental niches, suggesting that nickel homeostasis is a general biological concern. To date, the mechanisms of nickel toxicity in microorganisms and higher eukaryotes are poorly understood. In this review, we summarize nickel homeostasis processes used by microorganisms and highlight in vivo and in vitro effects of exposure to elevated concentrations of nickel. On the basis of this evidence we propose four mechanisms of nickel toxicity: 1) nickel replaces the essential metal of metalloproteins, 2) nickel binds to catalytic residues of non-metalloenzymes; 3) nickel binds outside the catalytic site of an enzyme to inhibit allosterically, and 4) nickel indirectly causes oxidative stress. PMID:21799955

  15. Biocompatible lutein-polymer-lipid nanocapsules: Acute and subacute toxicity and bioavailability in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranganathan, Arunkumar; Hindupur, Ravi; Vallikannan, Baskaran, E-mail: baskaranv@cftri.res.in

    2016-12-01

    Lutein-poly-(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA)-phospholipid (PL) nanocapsules were prepared (henceforth referred as lutein nanocapsules) and studied for acute, subacute oral toxicity and bioavailability of lutein in mice. Prior to examining the safety of lutein nanocapsules, particle size, zeta potential, surface morphology and interaction between lutein, PLGA and PL were studied. In acute study, mice were gavaged with a single dose of lutein nanocapsules at 0.1, 1, 10 and 100 mg/kg body weight (BW) and examined for 2 weeks, while in subacute study, daily mice were gavaged with a dose of 1 and 10 mg/kg BW for 4 weeks. Results revealed that mean size and zeta value of lutein nanocapsules were 140 nm and − 44 mV, respectively. Acute and subacute toxicity studies did not show any mortality or treatment related adverse effect in clinical observations, ophthalmic examinations, body and organ weights. No toxicity related findings were observed in hematology, histopathology and other blood and tissue clinical chemistry parameters. In subacute study, no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) of lutein nanocapsules was found to be at a dose of 10 mg/kg BW. Feeding lutein nanocapsules resulted in a significant (p < 0.01) increase in lutein level in plasma and tissue compared to the control group. Lutein nanocapsules did not cause toxicity in mice. However, human trials are warranted. - Highlights: • Acute and subacute toxicity studies of lutein-PLGA-PL showed no toxicity. • PLGA-PL nanocapsules were safe carriers for oral delivery of lutein. • Oral gavage of lutein-PLGA-PL nanocapsule improves plasma lutein levels.

  16. Molecular toxicity mechanism of nanosilver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle McShan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Silver is an ancient antibiotic that has found many new uses due to its unique properties on the nanoscale. Due to its presence in many consumer products, the toxicity of nanosilver has become a hot topic. This review summarizes recent advances, particularly the molecular mechanism of nanosilver toxicity. The surface of nanosilver can easily be oxidized by O2 and other molecules in the environmental and biological systems leading to the release of Ag+, a known toxic ion. Therefore, nanosilver toxicity is closely related to the release of Ag+. In fact, it is difficult to determine what portion of the toxicity is from the nano-form and what is from the ionic form. The surface oxidation rate is closely related to the nanosilver surface coating, coexisting molecules, especially thiol-containing compounds, lighting conditions, and the interaction of nanosilver with nucleic acids, lipid molecules, and proteins in a biological system. Nanosilver has been shown to penetrate the cell and become internalized. Thus, nanosilver often acts as a source of Ag+ inside the cell. One of the main mechanisms of toxicity is that it causes oxidative stress through the generation of reactive oxygen species and causes damage to cellular components including DNA damage, activation of antioxidant enzymes, depletion of antioxidant molecules (e.g., glutathione, binding and disabling of proteins, and damage to the cell membrane. Several major questions remain to be answered: (1 the toxic contribution from the ionic form versus the nano-form; (2 key enzymes and signaling pathways responsible for the toxicity; and (3 effect of coexisting molecules on the toxicity and its relationship to surface coating.

  17. Evaluation of genetic diversity between toxic and non toxic Jatropha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Massimo

    Indian varieties and a non-toxic variety of Mexican origin by means of about 400 RAPD ... evaluate the level of polymorphism and the capacity to discriminate between the ..... Population genetic software for teaching and research. Mol. Ecol.

  18. Immobilization of leachable toxic soil pollutants by using oxidative enzymes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shannon, M.J.R.; Bartha, R.

    1988-01-01

    Screening of leachable toxic chemicals in a horseradish peroxidase-H 2 O 2 immobilization system established that immobilization was promising for most phenolic pollutants but not for benzoic acid, 2,6-dinitrocresol, or dibutyl phthalate. The treatment did not mobilize inherently nonmobile pollutants such as anilines and benzo[a]pyrene. In a separate study, an extracellular laccase in the culture filtrate of Geotrichum candidum was selected from five fungal enzymes evaluated as a cost-effective substitute for horseradish peroxidase. This enzyme was used in demonstrating the immobilization and subsequent fate of 14 C-labeled 4-methylphenol and 2,4-dichlorophenol in soil columns. When applied to Lakewood sand, 98.1% of 4-methylpheno was leached through with distilled water. Two days after immobilization treatment with the G. candidum culture filtrate, only 9.1% of the added 4-methylphenol was leached with the same volume of water. Of the more refractory test pollutant 2,4-dichlorophenol, 91.6% had leached at time zero and 48.5% had leached 1 day after the immobilization treatment. However, 2 weeks after immobilization, only 12.0% of the 2,4-dichlorophenol was leached compared with 61.7% from the control column that received no immobilization treatment. No remobilization of the bound pollutants was detected during 3- and 4-week incubation periods

  19. Toxicity of Uranium Adsorbent Materials using the Microtox Toxicity Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jiyeon [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Jeters, Robert T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gill, Gary A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kuo, Li-Jung [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bonheyo, George T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The Marine Sciences Laboratory at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory evaluated the toxicity of a diverse range of natural and synthetic materials used to extract uranium from seawater. The uranium adsorbent materials are being developed as part of the U. S. Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy, Fuel Resources Program. The goal of this effort was to identify whether deployment of a farm of these materials into the marine environment would have any toxic effects on marine organisms.

  20. A COMPREHENSIVE REVIEW OF TOXIC LEADERSHIP

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-05

    characteristics of a toxic leader , but labels the characteristics - leader types.  Deceptive  Autocratic  Egotistic  Incompetent  Ignorant...3 Characteristics of a Toxic Leader ...5 Table 2: Toxic Leader Characteristics

  1. National Air Toxic Assessments (NATA) Results

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The National Air Toxics Assessment was conducted by EPA in 2002 to assess air toxics emissions in order to identify and prioritize air toxics, emission source types...

  2. Gut as a target for cadmium toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinkov, Alexey A; Gritsenko, Viktor A; Skalnaya, Margarita G; Cherkasov, Sergey V; Aaseth, Jan; Skalny, Anatoly V

    2018-04-01

    The primary objective of the present study was to review the impact of Cd exposure on gut microbiota and intestinal physiology, as well as to estimate whether gut may be considered as the target for Cd toxicity. The review is based on literature search in available databases. The existing data demonstrate that the impact of Cd on gut physiology is two-sided. First, Cd exposure induces a significant alteration of bacterial populations and their relative abundance in gut (increased Bacteroidetes-to-Firmicutes ratio), accompanied by increased lipopolysaccharide (LPS) production, reflecting changed metabolic activity of the intestinal microbiome. Second, in intestinal wall Cd exposure induces inflammatory response and cell damage including disruption of tight junctions, ultimately leading to increased gut permeability. Together with increased LPS production, impaired barrier function causes endotoxinemia and systemic inflammation. Hypothetically, Cd-induced increase gut permeability may also result in increased bacterial translocation. On the one hand, bacteriolysis may be associated with aggravation of endotoxemia. At the same time, together with Cd-induced impairment of macrophage inflammatory response, increased bacterial translocation may result in increased susceptibility to infections. Such a supposition is generally in agreement with the finding of higher susceptibility of Cd-exposed mice to infections. The changed microbiome metabolic activity and LPS-induced systemic inflammation may have a significant impact on target organs. The efficiency of probiotics in at least partial prevention of the local (intestinal) and systemic toxic effects of cadmium confirms the role of altered gut physiology in Cd toxicity. Therefore, probiotic treatment may be considered as the one of the strategies for prevention of Cd toxicity in parallel with chelation, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory therapy. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. General relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenyon, I.R.

    1990-01-01

    General relativity is discussed in this book at a level appropriate to undergraduate students of physics and astronomy. It describes concepts and experimental results, and provides a succinct account of the formalism. A brief review of special relativity is followed by a discussion of the equivalence principle and its implications. Other topics covered include the concepts of curvature and the Schwarzschild metric, test of the general theory, black holes and their properties, gravitational radiation and methods for its detection, the impact of general relativity on cosmology, and the continuing search for a quantum theory of gravity. (author)

  4. Objective Assessment of an Ionic Foot bath (Ion Cleanse): Testing Its Ability to Remove Potentially Toxic Elements from the Body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, D.A.; Cooley, K.; Seely, D.; Kennedy, D.A.; Cooley, K.; Einarson, Th.R.; Seely, D.

    2012-01-01

    Ionic foot baths are often used in holistic health centres and spas to aid in detoxification; however, claims that these machines eliminate toxins from the body have not been rigorously evaluated. In this proof-of-principle study, we sought to measure the release of potentially toxic elements from ionic foot baths into distilled and tap water with and without feet. Water samples were collected and analyzed following 30-minute ionic foot bath sessions without feet using both distilled (n=1) and tap water (n=6) and following four ionic foot baths using tap water (once/week for 4 weeks) in six healthy participants. Urine collection samples were analyzed at four points during the study. Hair samples were analyzed for element concentrations at baseline and study conclusion. Contrary to claims made for the machine, there does not appear to be any specific induction of toxic element release through the feet when running the machine according to specifications

  5. Objective Assessment of an Ionic Footbath (IonCleanse: Testing Its Ability to Remove Potentially Toxic Elements from the Body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah A. Kennedy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ionic footbaths are often used in holistic health centres and spas to aid in detoxification; however, claims that these machines eliminate toxins from the body have not been rigorously evaluated. In this proof-of-principle study, we sought to measure the release of potentially toxic elements from ionic footbaths into distilled and tap water with and without feet. Water samples were collected and analyzed following 30-minute ionic footbath sessions without feet using both distilled (n=1 and tap water (n=6 and following four ionic footbaths using tap water (once/week for 4 weeks in six healthy participants. Urine collection samples were analyzed at four points during the study. Hair samples were analyzed for element concentrations at baseline and study conclusion. Contrary to claims made for the machine, there does not appear to be any specific induction of toxic element release through the feet when running the machine according to specifications.

  6. General problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This article presents the general problems as natural disasters, consequences of global climate change, public health, the danger of criminal actions, the availability to information about problems of environment

  7. Generalized Recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian Skov; Lando, David; Pedersen, Lasse Heje

    We characterize when physical probabilities, marginal utilities, and the discount rate can be recovered from observed state prices for several future time periods. Our characterization makes no assumptions of the probability distribution, thus generalizing the time-homogeneous stationary model...

  8. General Conformity

    Science.gov (United States)

    The General Conformity requirements ensure that the actions taken by federal agencies in nonattainment and maintenance areas do not interfere with a state’s plans to meet national standards for air quality.

  9. Toxicity of heavy metals in the environment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Oehme, F.W

    1978-01-01

    ... as the fundamental mechanisms of toxicity resulting from heavy metal chemicals. The more common toxic heavy metals, along with their biochemistry and associated clinical syndromes, are then described...

  10. 2011 NATA - Air Toxics Monitors

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset includes annual (2005 - 2013) statistics of measured ambient air toxics concentrations (in micrograms per cubic meter) and associated risk estimates for...

  11. Borocaptate sodium (BSH) toxicity issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaHann, T.

    1995-01-01

    ISU's Center for Toxicology Research has been conducting toxicity testing of borocaptate sodium (BSH) to aid in assessing if proposed human studies of BSH are likely to be acceptably safe. This report describes BSH interactions with other biological agents

  12. Intolerable toxicity of simultaneous 5-fluorouracil-radiotherapy in the treatment of advanced gastrointestinal tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higi, M.; Arndt, D.; Schmidt, C.; Schmitt, G.

    1983-01-01

    Simultaneous application of 5-fluorouracil and radiotherapy is generally accepted in the treatment of gastrointestinal tumours. However, in 10 patients with metastatic gastrointestinal tumours we oberseved intolerable toxicity during this combined treatment regimen. Because of gastrointestinal and haematological toxicity the combined modality was interrupted in all patients. Given sequentially, this regimen was tolerated. Our experience indicates that an intolerable high rate of toxicity has to be taken into consideration in case of the simultaneous combination of 5-fluorouracil and radiotherapy. (orig.) [de

  13. Acute toxicity of ingested fluoride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitford, Gary Milton

    2011-01-01

    This chapter discusses the characteristics and treatment of acute fluoride toxicity as well as the most common sources of overexposure, the doses that cause acute toxicity, and factors that can influence the clinical outcome. Cases of serious systemic toxicity and fatalities due to acute exposures are now rare, but overexposures causing toxic signs and symptoms are not. The clinical course of systemic toxicity from ingested fluoride begins with gastric signs and symptoms, and can develop with alarming rapidity. Treatment involves minimizing absorption by administering a solution containing calcium, monitoring and managing plasma calcium and potassium concentrations, acid-base status, and supporting vital functions. Approximately 30,000 calls to US poison control centers concerning acute exposures in children are made each year, most of which involve temporary gastrointestinal effects, but others require medical treatment. The most common sources of acute overexposures today are dental products - particularly dentifrices because of their relatively high fluoride concentrations, pleasant flavors, and their presence in non-secure locations in most homes. For example, ingestion of only 1.8 ounces of a standard fluoridated dentifrice (900-1,100 mg/kg) by a 10-kg child delivers enough fluoride to reach the 'probably toxic dose' (5 mg/kg body weight). Factors that may influence the clinical course of an overexposure include the chemical compound (e.g. NaF, MFP, etc.), the age and acid-base status of the individual, and the elapsed time between exposure and the initiation of treatment. While fluoride has well-established beneficial dental effects and cases of serious toxicity are now rare, the potential for toxicity requires that fluoride-containing materials be handled and stored with the respect they deserve. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. The Toxicity of Depleted Uranium

    OpenAIRE

    Briner, Wayne

    2010-01-01

    Depleted uranium (DU) is an emerging environmental pollutant that is introduced into the environment primarily by military activity. While depleted uranium is less radioactive than natural uranium, it still retains all the chemical toxicity associated with the original element. In large doses the kidney is the target organ for the acute chemical toxicity of this metal, producing potentially lethal tubular necrosis. In contrast, chronic low dose exposure to depleted uranium may not produce a c...

  15. Determination of toxic metals in salt deposits in Bormanda, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lawal

    3,12,13,14,15,16 . Chromium and Arsenic were not detected in any salt sample. Generally, the results of this study revealed the occurrence of some toxic metals in association with the soil salt deposits. Therefore, it is important to undertake Hazard Analysis and Critical Control. Point (HACCP) studies to identify and integrate.

  16. Generalized polygons

    CERN Document Server

    Van Maldeghem, Hendrik

    1998-01-01

    Generalized Polygons is the first book to cover, in a coherent manner, the theory of polygons from scratch. In particular, it fills elementary gaps in the literature and gives an up-to-date account of current research in this area, including most proofs, which are often unified and streamlined in comparison to the versions generally known. Generalized Polygons will be welcomed both by the student seeking an introduction to the subject as well as the researcher who will value the work as a reference. In particular, it will be of great value for specialists working in the field of generalized polygons (which are, incidentally, the rank 2 Tits-buildings) or in fields directly related to Tits-buildings, incidence geometry and finite geometry. The approach taken in the book is of geometric nature, but algebraic results are included and proven (in a geometric way!). A noteworthy feature is that the book unifies and generalizes notions, definitions and results that exist for quadrangles, hexagons, octagons - in the ...

  17. Determination of leachate toxicity through acute toxicity using Daphnia pulex and anaerobic toxicity assays

    OpenAIRE

    Carabalí-Rivera, Y. S; Barba-Ho, L. E; Torres-Lozada, P

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The municipal solid waste (MSW) of large cities, in particular the ones of developing countries, is mainly disposed in landfills (LFs), whose inadequate management generates the emission of greenhouse gases and the production of leachates with high concentrations of organic and inorganic matter and, occasionally heavy metals. In this study, the toxicity of the leachates from an intermediate-age municipal landfill was evaluated by ecotoxicity and anaerobic toxicity tests. The acute to...

  18. Ecotoxicogenomic assessment of diclofenac toxicity in soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, G.; den Braver, M.W.; van Gestel, C.A.M.; van Straalen, N.M.; Roelofs, D.

    2015-01-01

    Diclofenac is widely used as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug leaving residues in the environment. To investigate effects on terrestrial ecosystems, we measured dissipation rate in soil and investigated ecotoxicological and transcriptome-wide responses in Folsomia candida. Exposure for 4 weeks to

  19. General conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tubiana, M.

    1993-01-01

    In conclusion, a general consensus of a number of points which the author endeavours to summarize in this article: -doctors are an excellent channel for passing on information to the public -doctors feel that they do not know enough about the subject and a training on radiobiology and radiation protection is a necessity for them -communication between doctors and the general public is poor in this field -research should be encouraged in numerous areas such as: carcinogenic effect of low doses of radiation, pedagogy and risk perception

  20. Toxic stress and child refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, John S

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to describe the phenomenon of toxic stress and its impact on the physical and mental health of child refugees. Almost two decades ago, researchers found that recurring adverse childhood events (ACEs; e.g., physical, psychological, and sexual abuse, neglect, and household dysfunction such as substance abuse, mental illness, and criminal behavior) were associated with a significant increase in serious illnesses during adulthood. Illnesses include heart, lung, and liver disease, cancer, and bone fractures. The scientists reported that experiencing four or more ACEs during childhood significantly increases the risk for toxic stress. Toxic stress is defined as the exposure to extreme, frequent, and persistent adverse events without the presence of a supportive caretaker. There is a paucity of literature related to toxic stress and child refugees. However, it has been clearly established that the prolonged brutal and traumatizing war in Syria is having a profound impact on the physical and mental health of child refugees at a distressing rate. Prevention of toxic stress should be a primary goal of all pediatric healthcare professionals working with child refugees. While this seems daunting given the population, and the seemingly insurmountable stressors they experience, some basic interventions should be considered. Providing basic anticipatory guidance to parents and caregivers of child refugees, to encourage positive parenting and strengthening support networks, will be highly effective in developing the requisite buffers that mitigate the effects of stress and avoid toxic stress. Efforts should also be focused on addressing caregiver stress and improving their ability to provide safe, reliable, and nurturing care that will help to mitigate any stress response experienced by a child. It is critical that greater awareness be placed on the effects of toxic stress on child refugees who are exposed to significant adverse events early in life

  1. 40 CFR 261.8 - PCB wastes regulated under Toxic Substance Control Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false PCB wastes regulated under Toxic... (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) IDENTIFICATION AND LISTING OF HAZARDOUS WASTE General § 261.8 PCB wastes regulated under Toxic Substance Control Act. The disposal of PCB-containing dielectric fluid and electric...

  2. GENERAL Iarticle

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 8; Issue 2. Supersymmetry. Akshay Kulkarni P Ramadevi. General Article Volume 8 Issue 2 February 2003 pp 28-41 ... Author Affiliations. Akshay Kulkarni1 P Ramadevi1. Physics Department, Indian Institute of Technology, Mumbai 400 076, India.

  3. General indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This document summarizes the main 2002 energy indicators for France. A first table lists the evolution of general indicators between 1973 and 2002: energy bill, price of imported crude oil, energy independence, primary and final energy consumption. The main 2002 results are detailed separately for natural gas, petroleum and coal (consumption, imports, exports, production, stocks, prices). (J.S.)

  4. Generalized Recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian Skov; Lando, David; Pedersen, Lasse Heje

    We characterize when physical probabilities, marginal utilities, and the discount rate can be recovered from observed state prices for several future time periods. We make no assumptions of the probability distribution, thus generalizing the time-homogeneous stationary model of Ross (2015). Recov...

  5. GENERAL SURGERY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Surgery, University of Cape Town Health Sciences Faculty, Groote Schuur Hospital, Observatory, Cape Town,. South Africa ... included all district, regional and tertiary hospitals in the nine provinces. Clinics and so-called ..... large contingency of senior general surgeons from countries such as Cuba, who have ...

  6. GENERAL SURGERY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    effect of fatigue on patient safety, and owing to increasing emphasis on lifestyle issues .... increasing emphasis on an appropriate work-life balance in professional life.10 ... experience, were the most negative about the EWTD in general.3,13 ...

  7. GENERAL SURGERY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in the endoscopy room. GENERAL SURGERY. T du Toit, O C Buchel, S J A Smit. Department of Surgery, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, ... The lack of video instrumentation in developing countries: Redundant fibre-optic instruments (the old. “eye scope”) are still being used. This instrument brings endoscopists ...

  8. General Assembly

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    5th April, 2016 – Ordinary General Assembly of the Staff Association! In the first semester of each year, the Staff Association (SA) invites its members to attend and participate in the Ordinary General Assembly (OGA). This year the OGA will be held on Tuesday, April 5th 2016 from 11:00 to 12:00 in BE Auditorium, Meyrin (6-2-024). During the Ordinary General Assembly, the activity and financial reports of the SA are presented and submitted for approval to the members. This is the occasion to get a global view on the activities of the SA, its financial management, and an opportunity to express one’s opinion, including taking part in the votes. Other points are listed on the agenda, as proposed by the Staff Council. Who can vote? Only “ordinary” members (MPE) of the SA can vote. Associated members (MPA) of the SA and/or affiliated pensioners have a right to vote on those topics that are of direct interest to them. Who can give his/her opinion? The Ordinary General Asse...

  9. GENERAL SURGERY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    could cripple the global economy. Greater attention ... Africa and 5.7 general surgeons per 100 000 in the US.12 One of the key ... 100 000 insured population working in the private sector, which is comparable with the United States (US).

  10. Necklaces: Generalizations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    . A q-ary necklace of length n is an equivalence class of q-coloured strings of length n under rota- tion. In this article, we study various generaliza- tions and derive analytical expressions to count the number of these generalized necklaces.

  11. Generalized Recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lando, David; Pedersen, Lasse Heje; Jensen, Christian Skov

    We characterize when physical probabilities, marginal utilities, and the discount rate can be recovered from observed state prices for several future time periods. We make no assumptions of the probability distribution, thus generalizing the time-homogeneous stationary model of Ross (2015...... our model empirically, testing the predictive power of the recovered expected return and other recovered statistics....

  12. General Relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Straumann, Norbert

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a completely revised and expanded version of the previous classic edition ‘General Relativity and Relativistic Astrophysics’. In Part I the foundations of general relativity are thoroughly developed, while Part II is devoted to tests of general relativity and many of its applications. Binary pulsars – our best laboratories for general relativity – are studied in considerable detail. An introduction to gravitational lensing theory is included as well, so as to make the current literature on the subject accessible to readers. Considerable attention is devoted to the study of compact objects, especially to black holes. This includes a detailed derivation of the Kerr solution, Israel’s proof of his uniqueness theorem, and a derivation of the basic laws of black hole physics. Part II ends with Witten’s proof of the positive energy theorem, which is presented in detail, together with the required tools on spin structures and spinor analysis. In Part III, all of the differential geomet...

  13. Acute and subacute oral toxicity evaluation of Tephrosia purpurea extract in rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talib Hussain

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the acute and subacute toxicity of 50% ethanolic extract of Tephrosia purpurea (T. purpurea in rodents. Methods: The acute toxicity test was conducted in Swiss albino mice. The extract of T. purpurea was administrated in single doses of 50, 300 and 2000 mg/ kg and observed for behavioral changes and mortality, if any. In subacute toxicity study, Wistar rats of either sex were administered two doses of T. purpurea i.e., 200 and 400 mg/kg (One-tenth and one-fifth of the maximum tolerated dose, p.o. for 4 weeks. During 28 days of treatment, rats were observed weekly for any change in their body weight, food and water intake. At the end of 28 days, rats were sacrificed for hematological, biochemical and histopathology study. Results: In the acute toxicity study, T. purpurea was found to be well tolerated upto 2 000 mg/kg, produced neither mortality nor changes in behavior in mice. In subacute toxicity study, T. purpurea at dose level of 200 and 400 mg/kg did not produce any significant difference in their body weight, food and water intake when compared to vehicle treated rats. It also showed no significant alteration in hematological and biochemical parameters in experimental groups of rats apart from a decrease in aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase and alkaline phosphate content at the dose of 400 mg/kg. Histopathological study revealed normal architecture of kidney and liver of T. purpurea treated rats. Conclusions: These results demonstrated that there is a wide margin of safety for the therapeutic use of T. purpurea and further corroborated the traditional use of this extract as an anti hepatocarcinogenic agent

  14. Haloacetic acids in the aquatic environment. Part I: macrophyte toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, Mark L.; Solomon, Keith R.

    2004-01-01

    Haloacetic acids (HAAs) are contaminants of aquatic ecosystems with numerous sources, both anthropogenic and natural. The toxicity of HAAs to aquatic plants is generally uncharacterized. Laboratory tests were conducted with three macrophytes (Lemna gibba, Myriophyllum sibiricum and Myriophyllum spicatum) to assess the toxicity of five HAAs. Myriophyllum spp. has been proposed as required test species for pesticide registration in North America, but few studies have been conducted under standard test conditions. The HAAs in the present experiments were monochloroacetic acid (MCA), dichloroacetic acid (DCA), trichloroacetic acid (TCA), trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) and chlorodifluoroacetic acid (CDFA). MCA was the most toxic to Myriophyllum spp. with EC 50 values ranging from 8 to 12.4 mg/l depending on the endpoint, followed by DCA (EC 50 range 62-722.5 mg/l), TCA (EC 50 range 49.5-1702.6 mg/l), CDFA (EC 50 range 105.3 to >10,000 mg/l) and with TFA (EC 50 range 222.1 to 10,000 mg/l) the least toxic. Generally, L. gibba was less sensitive to HAA toxicity than Myriophyllum spp., with the difference in toxicity between them approximately threefold. The range of toxicity within Myriophyllum spp. was normally less than twofold. Statistically, plant length and node number were the most sensitive endpoints as they had the lowest observed coefficients of variation, but they were not the most sensitive to HAA toxicity. Toxicological sensitivity of endpoints varied depending on the measure of effect chosen and the HAA, with morphological endpoints usually an order of magnitude more sensitive than pigments for all plant species. Overall, mass and root measures tended to be the most sensitive indicators of HAA toxicity. The data from this paper were subsequently used in an ecological risk assessment for HAAs and aquatic plants. The assessment found HAAs to be of low risk to aquatic macrophytes and the results are described in the second manuscript of this series

  15. Oxaliplatin-Related Ocular Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Mesquida

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 52-year-old woman with advanced colorectal cancer who was treated with oxaliplatin on a FOLFOX schedule. After 3 cycles of chemotherapy, she started to complain of visual loss, altered color vision and neurological symptoms. Due to the suspicion of ocular and neurological toxicity, antineoplastic treatment was stopped. Her visual field showed a concentric bilateral scotoma and the electrooculogram test revealed severe impairment of the retinal pigment epithelium. Visual acuity, color vision and visual field recovered completely 8 months later, although electrooculogram remained abnormal. Ocular toxicity has been reported as an infrequent adverse event of oxaliplatin. Findings in this case indicate toxicity of this chemotherapeutic agent on the retinal pigment epithelium, which has not been reported before. This damage could be permanent, and it thus differs from previously described oxaliplatin-induced ocular toxicities, which are usually transient and reversible. With increasing use of oxaliplatin as first-line treatment in advanced colorectal cancer, we have to be aware of this possible toxicity.

  16. Gulf of Mexico mud toxicity limitations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, H.E.; Beardmore, D.H. (Phillips Petroleum Co., Bartlesville, OK (USA)); Stewart, W.S. (Drilling Specialties Co. (US))

    1989-10-01

    Because of the Environmental Protection Agency's recent toxicity limits on drilling mud discharges for offshore Gulf of Mexico, Phillips Petroleum conducted a mud toxicity study based on both field and lab tests. The study, discussed in this article, found the polyanionic cellulose-sulfomethylated quebracho-chrome lignosulfonate mud Phillips had been using would comfortably pass the toxicity limitations. The study also found barite and thinners were of low toxicity, and hydrocarbons and surfactants were highly toxic.

  17. Generalizing entanglement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Ding

    2017-12-01

    The expected indefinite causal structure in quantum gravity poses a challenge to the notion of entanglement: If two parties are in an indefinite causal relation of being causally connected and not, can they still be entangled? If so, how does one measure the amount of entanglement? We propose to generalize the notions of entanglement and entanglement measure to address these questions. Importantly, the generalization opens the path to study quantum entanglement of states, channels, networks, and processes with definite or indefinite causal structure in a unified fashion, e.g., we show that the entanglement distillation capacity of a state, the quantum communication capacity of a channel, and the entanglement generation capacity of a network or a process are different manifestations of one and the same entanglement measure.

  18. Acute Toxic Myocarditis and Pulmonary Oedema Developing from Scorpion Sting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cem Sahin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The majority of scorpion stings are generally seen with a set of simple clinical findings, such as pain, oedema, numbness, and tenderness in the area of the sting. However, occasionally events, such as toxic myocarditis, acute heart failure, acute pulmonary oedema, and Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS, which occur in scorpion sting cases are a significant problem which determine mortality and morbidity. The case presented here was a 38-year-old man who developed acute toxic myocarditis, acute heart failure, and acute pulmonary oedema following a scorpion sting on the 3rd finger of his right hand.

  19. A Novel Non-Toxic Xylene Substitute (SBO) for Histology

    OpenAIRE

    Kunhua, Wang; Chuming, Fan; Tao, Lai; Yanmei, Yang; Xin, Yang; Xiaoming, Zhang; Xuezhong, Guo; Xun, Lai

    2011-01-01

    Xylene has been generally used as a clearing and deparaffinizing agent in histology. Because of the potential toxic and flammable nature of xylene, its substitutes have been introduced into some laboratories. In this study, we introduced a novel, non-toxic xylene substitute (SBO), which was generated through a mixture of 86% of white oil No.2 and 14% of N-heptane. SBO had a high boiling point (188°C) and flash point (144°C) coupled with a scentless and decreased volatility. To compare the eff...

  20. Methoxsalen-induced macular toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya Maitray

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Psoralen compounds such as methoxsalen are photosensitizer agents used in conjunction with ultraviolet A (UVA radiation exposure as photochemotherapy (Psoralens and ultraviolet-A therapy [PUVA therapy] for certain epidermal skin disorders such as psoriasis and vitiligo. Methoxsalen has been shown to be associated with premature cataract formation by forming adducts with lens proteins following oral administration and subsequent UVA exposure. Hence, the use of UV-filtering glasses is recommended during PUVA therapy sessions. Ocular tissues can be exposed to its photosensitizing effect with subsequent UV radiation exposure through sunlight if the patient was to be without protective eye glasses, potentially causing macular toxicity. Till date, there have been no reports in the literature of any posterior segment ocular toxicity arising from methoxsalen use. Here, we describe a case of a bilateral macular toxicity in a middle-aged male treated with methoxsalen for vitiligo.

  1. Aluminium Toxicity Targets in Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sónia Silva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium (Al is the third most abundant metallic element in soil but becomes available to plants only when the soil pH drops below 5.5. At those conditions, plants present several signals of Al toxicity. As reported by literature, major consequences of Al exposure are the decrease of plant production and the inhibition of root growth. The root growth inhibition may be directly/indirectly responsible for the loss of plant production. In this paper the most remarkable symptoms of Al toxicity in plants and the latest findings in this area are addressed. Root growth inhibition, ROS production, alterations on root cell wall and plasma membrane, nutrient unbalances, callose accumulation, and disturbance of cytoplasmic Ca2+ homeostasis, among other signals of Al toxicity are discussed, and, when possible, the behavior of Al-tolerant versus Al-sensitive genotypes under Al is compared.

  2. Methylmercury toxicity and functional programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandjean, Philippe

    2007-01-01

    Adverse health effects of developmental toxicants may induce abnormal functional programming that leads to lasting functional deficits. This notion is considered from epidemiological evidence using developmental methylmercury neurotoxicity as an example. Accumulating evidence indicates that adverse effects may occur even at low-level methylmercury exposures from seafood and freshwater fish. Neurobehavioral outcomes are usually non-specific, and imprecise exposure assessment results in a bias toward the null. Essential nutrients may promote the development of certain brain functions, thereby causing confounding bias. The functional deficits caused by prenatal methylmercury exposure appear to be permanent, and their extent may depend on the joint effect of toxicants and nutrients. The lasting functional changes caused by neurodevelopmental methylmercury toxicity fit into the pattern of functional programming, with effects opposite to those linked to beneficial stimuli.

  3. General topology

    CERN Document Server

    Willard, Stephen

    2004-01-01

    Among the best available reference introductions to general topology, this volume is appropriate for advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate students. Its treatment encompasses two broad areas of topology: ""continuous topology,"" represented by sections on convergence, compactness, metrization and complete metric spaces, uniform spaces, and function spaces; and ""geometric topology,"" covered by nine sections on connectivity properties, topological characterization theorems, and homotopy theory. Many standard spaces are introduced in the related problems that accompany each section (340

  4. The Importance of Implementation of the General

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pearson, G. S.

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper makes an analysis of international developments over the past five years relating to the implementation of the general purpose criterion which is a central element of the Chemical Weapons Convention that ensures that the Convention covers all toxic chemicals. It examines how some of the recent international initiatives that are addressing chemicals that are of potential risk to public health or to the environment might be harnessed to implement the general purpose criterion thereby strengthening the Convention as a counter to the use of Toxic Industrial Chemicals and other chemicals either by States or by sub-State actors such as terrorists.

  5. Generalized polygons

    CERN Document Server

    Maldeghem, Hendrik

    1998-01-01

    This book is intended to be an introduction to the fascinating theory ofgeneralized polygons for both the graduate student and the specialized researcher in the field. It gathers together a lot of basic properties (some of which are usually referred to in research papers as belonging to folklore) and very recent and sometimes deep results. I have chosen a fairly strict geometrical approach, which requires some knowledge of basic projective geometry. Yet, it enables one to prove some typically group-theoretical results such as the determination of the automorphism groups of certain Moufang polygons. As such, some basic group-theoretical knowledge is required of the reader. The notion of a generalized polygon is a relatively recent one. But it is one of the most important concepts in incidence geometry. Generalized polygons are the building bricks of Tits buildings. They are the prototypes and precursors of more general geometries such as partial geometries, partial quadrangles, semi-partial ge­ ometries, near...

  6. DOPA Decarboxylase Modulates Tau Toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kow, Rebecca L; Sikkema, Carl; Wheeler, Jeanna M; Wilkinson, Charles W; Kraemer, Brian C

    2018-03-01

    The microtubule-associated protein tau accumulates into toxic aggregates in multiple neurodegenerative diseases. We found previously that loss of D 2 -family dopamine receptors ameliorated tauopathy in multiple models including a Caenorhabditis elegans model of tauopathy. To better understand how loss of D 2 -family dopamine receptors can ameliorate tau toxicity, we screened a collection of C. elegans mutations in dopamine-related genes (n = 45) for changes in tau transgene-induced behavioral defects. These included many genes responsible for dopamine synthesis, metabolism, and signaling downstream of the D 2 receptors. We identified one dopamine synthesis gene, DOPA decarboxylase (DDC), as a suppressor of tau toxicity in tau transgenic worms. Loss of the C. elegans DDC gene, bas-1, ameliorated the behavioral deficits of tau transgenic worms, reduced phosphorylated and detergent-insoluble tau accumulation, and reduced tau-mediated neuron loss. Loss of function in other genes in the dopamine and serotonin synthesis pathways did not alter tau-induced toxicity; however, their function is required for the suppression of tau toxicity by bas-1. Additional loss of D 2 -family dopamine receptors did not synergize with bas-1 suppression of tauopathy phenotypes. Loss of the DDC bas-1 reduced tau-induced toxicity in a C. elegans model of tauopathy, while loss of no other dopamine or serotonin synthesis genes tested had this effect. Because loss of activity upstream of DDC could reduce suppression of tau by DDC, this suggests the possibility that loss of DDC suppresses tau via the combined accumulation of dopamine precursor levodopa and serotonin precursor 5-hydroxytryptophan. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Toxic clinical hypoxic radiation sensitizers plus radiation-induced toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richmond, R.C.

    1984-01-01

    The operational definition espoused twelve years ago that clinical hypoxic radiation sensitizers should be nontoxic interferes with the recognition and research of useful radiation sensitizers. Eight years ago the toxic antitumor drug cis-dichlorodiammineplatinum(II) was reported to be a hypoxic radiation sensitizer and the selective antitumor action of this drug was stressed as potentially creating tumor-targeted radiation sensitization. This rationale of oxidative antitumor drugs as toxic and targeted clinical sensitizers is useful, and has led to the study reported here. The antitumor drug cis-(1,1-cyclobutane-dicarboxylato)diammineplatinum(II), or JM-8, is being tested in clinical trials. Cells of S. typhimurium in PBS in the presence of 0.2mM JM-8 are found to be sensitized to irradiation under hypoxic, but not oxic, conditions. JM-8 is nontoxic to bacteria at this concentration, but upon irradiation the JM-8 solution becomes highly toxic. This radiation induced toxicity of JM-8 preferentially develops from hypoxic solution, and thus contributes to the rationale of hypoxic tumor cell destruction

  8. The Acute Toxicity of Major Ion Salts to Ceriodaphnia dubia: I. Influence of background water chemistry.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset provides concentration-response data and associated general chemistry conditions for 26 experiments consisting of 149 tests regarding the acute toxicity...

  9. The Acute Toxicity of Major Ions to Ceriodaphnia dubia. II. Empirical Relationships in Binary Salt Mixtures

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset provides concentration-response data and associated general chemistry conditions for 29 experiments consisting of 209 tests regarding the acute toxicity...

  10. CADDIS Volume 2. Sources, Stressors and Responses: Unspecified Toxic Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intro to the unspecified toxic chemicals module, when to list toxic chemicals as a candidate cause, ways to measure toxic chemicals, simple and detailed conceptual diagrams for toxic chemicals, toxic chemicals module references and literature reviews.

  11. Taxation’s Troubling Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet E. Milne

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Occupy Wall Street spurred cries of indignation, including calls to reform the tax code. This article examines the difficulty of raising taxes in the United States at a time when the federal government faces many needs and new taxes could help address the growing income disparity. In Part 1, it looks at several trends—the substantial federal deficit and rising debt, the lack of funding for infrastructure, and increasing income disparity among US residents—to establish the premise that resistance to higher taxes is troublesome. The article then turns to the question why taxes are viewed negatively. It surveys literature about the general public’s attitudes toward taxation (Part 2 and the intensely political views of taxation on and surrounding Capitol Hill (Part 3. Parts 2 and 3 confirm the challenges of raising federal taxes and find a range of forces at work with varying levels of intensity. Part 4 looks forward and considers mechanisms that might help overcome the perception of taxes as politically poisonous and increase their acceptance. The article draws on research from numerous disciplines, but its analysis of potential paths forward looks through the lens of the law at ways in which various legal procedures and legally oriented approaches might help overcome resistance. It concludes that taxation is politically toxic, which is troublesome given the important roles that taxation plays in society, but that there are some glimmers of hope that the structure and details of the law may help create some opportunities for change. Occupy Wall Street impulsó gritos de indignación, incluyendo una llamada a reformar el código tributario. Este artículo analiza la dificultad de aumentar los impuestos en Estados Unidos, en un momento en el que el gobierno federal se enfrenta a muchas necesidades, y la creación de nuevos impuestos podría ayudar a abordar la creciente disparidad de ingresos. En la Parte 1, se tratan diversas tendencias

  12. A meta-analysis of medicinal plants to assess the evidence for toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Sarah; Vieira, Amandio

    2010-01-01

    Toxicity of phytochemicals, plant-based extracts and dietary supplements, and medicinal plants in general, is of medical importance and must be considered in phytotherapy and other plant uses. We show in this report how general database analyses can provide a quantitative assessment of research and evidence related to toxicity of medicinal plants or specific phytochemicals. As examples, several medicinal plants are analyzed for their relation to nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity. The results ...

  13. General chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Yeong Sik; Lee, Dong Seop; Ryu, Haung Ryong; Jang, Cheol Hyeon; Choi, Bong Jong; Choi, Sang Won

    1993-07-01

    The book concentrates on the latest general chemistry, which is divided int twenty-three chapters. It deals with basic conception and stoichiometry, nature of gas, structure of atoms, quantum mechanics, symbol and structure of an electron of ion and molecule, chemical thermodynamics, nature of solid, change of state and liquid, properties of solution, chemical equilibrium, solution and acid-base, equilibrium of aqueous solution, electrochemistry, chemical reaction speed, molecule spectroscopy, hydrogen, oxygen and water, metallic atom; 1A, IIA, IIIA, carbon and atom IVA, nonmetal atom and an inert gas, transition metals, lanthanons, and actinoids, nuclear properties and radioactivity, biochemistry and environment chemistry.

  14. General relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gourgoulhon, Eric

    2013-01-01

    The author proposes a course on general relativity. He first presents a geometrical framework by addressing, presenting and discussion the following notions: the relativistic space-time, the metric tensor, Universe lines, observers, principle of equivalence and geodesics. In the next part, he addresses gravitational fields with spherical symmetry: presentation of the Schwarzschild metrics, radial light geodesics, gravitational spectral shift (Einstein effect), orbitals of material objects, photon trajectories. The next parts address the Einstein equation, black holes, gravitational waves, and cosmological solutions. Appendices propose a discussion of the relationship between relativity and GPS, some problems and their solutions, and Sage codes

  15. Evaluation and interpretation of maternal toxicity in Segment II studies: Issues, some answers, and data needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, John M.; Chernoff, Neil; Keen, Carl L.; Daston, George P.

    2005-01-01

    Biologically rational regulatory policies with regards to developmental toxicity are often based on the extrapolation of standard laboratory rodent bioassay results to the human population. Significantly contributing to the difficulty of this task is the possibility that general toxic effects on the maternal organism may affect the developing conceptus. This review examines maternal factors which may bear directly or indirectly upon developmental outcome, with emphasis on those of greatest relevance to the hazard assessment process. Standard teratology testing protocols call for top dosage levels that induce overt maternal toxicity, and the developmental effects of this toxicity (both alone, and with concurrent embryo/fetal insult) continue to present regulators with considerable interpretive difficulties. In response to these problems, there have been both research and literature review efforts dealing with the relationship of maternal and developmental toxicity. Maternally mediated developmental toxicity occurs with a number of agents, and toxicant-induced alterations in maternal physiology may affect the conceptus at dosages not causing overt maternal toxicity. Relevant studies are reviewed here, and suggestions for avenues of future research are offered including the identification of any syndromes of developmental effects occurring at maternally toxic levels irrespective of the causative agent, and experimental approaches for the characterization of maternal toxicity

  16. Hydroquinone: Environmental Pollution, Toxicity, and Microbial Answers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Enguita

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydroquinone is a major benzene metabolite, which is a well-known haematotoxic and carcinogenic agent associated with malignancy in occupational environments. Human exposure to hydroquinone can occur by dietary, occupational, and environmental sources. In the environment, hydroquinone showed increased toxicity for aquatic organisms, being less harmful for bacteria and fungi. Recent pieces of evidence showed that hydroquinone is able to enhance carcinogenic risk by generating DNA damage and also to compromise the general immune responses which may contribute to the impaired triggering of the host immune reaction. Hydroquinone bioremediation from natural and contaminated sources can be achieved by the use of a diverse group of microorganisms, ranging from bacteria to fungi, which harbor very complex enzymatic systems able to metabolize hydroquinone either under aerobic or anaerobic conditions. Due to the recent research development on hydroquinone, this review underscores not only the mechanisms of hydroquinone biotransformation and the role of microorganisms and their enzymes in this process, but also its toxicity.

  17. Dehydropyrrolizidine Alkaloid Toxicity, Cytotoxicity, and Carcinogenicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan L. Stegelmeier

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloid (DHPA-producing plants have a worldwide distribution amongst flowering plants and commonly cause poisoning of livestock, wildlife, and humans. Previous work has produced considerable understanding of DHPA metabolism, toxicity, species susceptibility, conditions, and routes of exposure, and pathogenesis of acute poisoning. Intoxication is generally caused by contaminated grains, feed, flour, and breads that result in acute, high-dose, short-duration poisoning. Acute poisoning produces hepatic necrosis that is usually confirmed histologically, epidemiologically, and chemically. Less is known about chronic poisoning that may result when plant populations are sporadic, used as tisanes or herbal preparations, or when DHPAs contaminate milk, honey, pollen, or other animal-derived products. Such subclinical exposures may contribute to the development of chronic disease in humans or may be cumulative and probably slowly progress until liver failure. Recent work using rodent models suggest increased neoplastic incidence even with very low DHPA doses of short durations. These concerns have moved some governments to prohibit or limit human exposure to DHPAs. The purpose of this review is to summarize some recent DHPA research, including in vitro and in vivo DHPA toxicity and carcinogenicity reports, and the implications of these findings with respect to diagnosis and prognosis for human and animal health.

  18. Application of recombinant fluorescent mammalian cells as a toxicity biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, E J; Lee, Y; Lee, J E; Gu, M B

    2002-01-01

    With respect to developing a more sensitive biosensor, a recombinant fluorescent Chinese Hamster Ovary cell line was used for the monitoring of various toxicants. Both cell lines, EFC-500 and KFC-A10, were able to detect toxicants sensitively. They were characterized with mitomycin C and gamma-ray as genotoxicants and bisphenol A, nonylphenol, ziram and methyl bromide as possible and known EDCs. When compared to each other, the response of KFC-A10 was generally more informative and sensitive. Compared to typical bacterial biosensor systems, these cell lines offered a sensitivity of 2- to 50-fold greater for the tested chemicals. Based on these results, the use of mammalian cells offers a sensitive biosensor system that is not only fast, cheap and reproducible but also capable of monitoring the endocrine-like characteristics of environmental toxicants.

  19. Baltimore Air Toxics Study (BATS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, D.A. [Sullivan Environmental Consulting, Inc., Alexandria, VA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The Baltimore Air Toxics Study is one of the three urban air toxics initiatives funded by EPA to support the development of the national air toxics strategy. As part of this project, the Air Quality Integrated Management System (AIMS) is under development. AIMS is designed to bring together the key components of urban air quality management into an integrated system, including emissions assessment, air quality modeling, and air quality monitoring. Urban area source emissions are computed for a wide range of pollutants and source categories, and are joined with existing point source emissions data. Measured air quality data are used to evaluate the adequacy of the emissions data and model treatments as a function of season, meteorological parameters, and daytime/nighttime conditions. Based on tested model performance, AIMS provides the potential to improve the ability to predict air quality benefits of alternative control options for criteria and toxic air pollutants. This paper describes the methods used to develop AIMS, and provides examples from its application in the Baltimore metropolitan area. The use of AIMS in the future to enhance environmental management of major industrial facilities also will be addressed in the paper.

  20. Gossypol Toxicity from Cottonseed Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Cristina N. Gadelha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gossypol is a phenolic compound produced by pigment glands in cotton stems, leaves, seeds, and flower buds (Gossypium spp.. Cottonseed meal is a by-product of cotton that is used for animal feeding because it is rich in oil and proteins. However, gossypol toxicity limits cottonseed use in animal feed. High concentrations of free gossypol may be responsible for acute clinical signs of gossypol poisoning which include respiratory distress, impaired body weight gain, anorexia, weakness, apathy, and death after several days. However, the most common toxic effects is the impairment of male and female reproduction. Another important toxic effect of gossypol is its interference with immune function, reducing an animal’s resistance to infections and impairing the efficiency of vaccines. Preventive procedures to limit gossypol toxicity involve treatment of the cottonseed product to reduce the concentration of free gossypol with the most common treatment being exposure to heat. However, free gossypol can be released from the bound form during digestion. Agronomic selection has produced cotton varieties devoid of glands producing gossypol, but these varieties are not normally grown because they are less productive and are more vulnerable to attacks by insects.

  1. Oxidative stress in chemical toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kappus, H.

    1986-05-01

    The toxic effect of compounds which undergo redox cycling enzymatic one-electron reduction are reviewed. First of all, the enzymatic reduction of these compounds leads to reactive intermediates, mainly radicals which react with oxygen, whereby superoxide anion radicals are formed. Further oxygen metabolites are hydrogen peroxide, singlet oxygen and hydroxyl radicals. The role of these oxygen metabolites in toxicity is discussed. The occurrence of lipid peroxidation during redox cycling of quinonoide compounds, e.g., adriamycin, and the possible relationship to their toxicity is critically evaluated. It is shown that iron ions play a crucial role in lipid peroxidation induced by redox cycling compounds. DNA damage by metal chelates, e.g., bleomycin, is discussed on the basis of findings that enzymatic redox cycling of a bleomycin-iron complex has been observed. The involvement of hydroxyl radicals in bleomycin-induced DNA damage occurring during redox cycling in cell nuclei is claimed. Redox cycling of other substances, e.g., aromatic amines, is discussed in relation to carcinogenesis. Other chemical groups, e.g., nitroaromatic compounds, hydroxylamines and azo compounds are included. Other targets for oxygen radical attack, e.g., proteins, are also dealt with. It is concluded that oxygen radical formation by redox cycling may be a critical event in toxic effects of several compounds if the protective mechanisms of cells are overwhelmed.

  2. Holiday Plants with Toxic Misconceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zabrina N. Evens

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Several plants are used for their decorative effect during winter holidays. This review explores the toxic reputation and proposed management for exposures to several of those, namely poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima, English holly (Ilex aquifolium, American holly (Ilex opaca,bittersweet (Solanum dulcamara, Jerusalem cherry (Solanum pseudocapsicum, Americanmistletoe (Phoradendron serotinum, and European mistletoe (Viscum album.

  3. REPRODUCTIVE TOXICITY OF PHTHALATE ESTERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phthalate esters display several modes of toxicity in mammalian species. In the rat, in utero exposure at relatively low dosage levels disrupts development of the reproductive system of the male rat by altering fetal testis hormone production. This presentation is a review of t...

  4. Mixture toxicity revisited from a toxicogenomic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altenburger, Rolf; Scholz, Stefan; Schmitt-Jansen, Mechthild; Busch, Wibke; Escher, Beate I

    2012-03-06

    establish quantitative relationships between dose and time dependency of responses and (ii) to adopt mixture toxicity models. Moreover, (iii) utilization of novel bioinformatic tools and (iv) stress response concepts could be productive to translate multiple responses into hypotheses on the relationships between general stress and specific toxicity reactions of organisms.

  5. A meta-analysis of medicinal plants to assess the evidence for toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sarah; Vieira, Amandio

    2010-06-01

    Toxicity of phytochemicals, plant-based extracts and dietary supplements, and medicinal plants in general, is of medical importance and must be considered in phytotherapy and other plant uses. We show in this report how general database analyses can provide a quantitative assessment of research and evidence related to toxicity of medicinal plants or specific phytochemicals. As examples, several medicinal plants are analyzed for their relation to nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity. The results of analyses in different databases are similar, and reveal the two best-established toxic effects among the group of plants that were examined: nephrotoxicity of Aristolochia fangchi and hepatotoxicity of Larrea tridentata.

  6. Aquaglyceroporins: generalized metalloid channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Rita; Bhattacharjee, Hiranmoy; Rosen, Barry P.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Aquaporins (AQPs), members of a superfamily of transmembrane channel proteins, are ubiquitous in all domains of life. They fall into a number of branches that can be functionally categorized into two major sub-groups: i) orthodox aquaporins, which are water-specific channels, and ii) aquaglyceroporins, which allow the transport of water, non-polar solutes, such as urea or glycerol, the reactive oxygen species hydrogen peroxide, and gases such as ammonia, carbon dioxide and nitric oxide and, as described in this review, metalloids. Scope of Review: This review summarizes the key findings that AQP channels conduct bidirectional movement of metalloids into and out of cells. Major Conclusions: As(OH)3 and Sb(OH)3 behave as inorganic molecular mimics of glycerol, a property that allows their passage through AQP channels. Plant AQPs also allow the passage of boron and silicon as their hydroxyacids, boric acid (B(OH)3) and orthosilicic acid (Si(OH)4), respectively. Genetic analysis suggests that germanic acid (GeO2) is also a substrate. While As(III), Sb(III) and Ge(IV) are toxic metalloids, borate (B(III)) and silicate (Si(IV)) are essential elements in higher plants. General Significance: The uptake of environmental metalloids by aquaporins provides an understanding of (i) how toxic elements such as arsenic enter the food chain; (ii) the delivery of arsenic and antimony containing drugs in the treatment of certain forms of leukemia and chemotherapy of diseases caused by pathogenic protozoa; and (iii) the possibility that food plants such as rice could be made safer by genetically modifying them to exclude arsenic while still accumulating boron and silicon. PMID:24291688

  7. Generalizing quasinormality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Cossey

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Quasinormal subgroups have been studied for nearly 80 years. In finite groups, questions concerning them invariably reduce to p-groups, and here they have the added interest of being invariant under projectivities, unlike normal subgroups. However, it has been shown recently that certain groups, constructed by Berger and Gross in 1982, of an important universal nature with regard to the existence of core-free quasinormal subgroups gener- ally, have remarkably few such subgroups. Therefore in order to overcome this misfortune, a generalization of the concept of quasi- normality will be defined. It could be the beginning of a lengthy undertaking. But some of the initial findings are encouraging, in particular the fact that this larger class of subgroups also remains invariant under projectivities of finite p-groups, thus connecting group and subgroup lattice structures.

  8. Correlation of BTEX levels and toxicity of condensate contaminated groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Headley, J.; Goudey, S.; Birkholz, D.; Hardisty, P.

    1995-01-01

    The concentration of BTEX was determined for 60 groundwater samples collected from 6 gas plants in Western Canada, using conventional purge-and-trap GC/MS procedures. The gas plants were selected to cover different types of operations with different amine process chemicals employed for the sweetening of the raw sour-gas condensates. Aliquots of the ground water samples were subjected to toxicity screening tests, specifically, (a) bacterial luminescence (microtox); (b) daphnia mortality and (c) fathead minnow mortality. For the toxicity tests, sample handling procedures were developed to minimize the loss of volatile organics during the experiments. To account for possible losses, the levels of BTEX were monitored at the start and upon completion of these tests. The results indicated that the toxicity of the groundwater was in general, well correlated to the concentration of BTEX (primarily xylene). Approximately 5% of the samples, however, were observed to be toxic although the concentration of BTEX were below the method detection limit (1 microg/1). Thiophenic volatile organics were implicated for the latter. Based on the laboratory results, the remediation of BTEX is expected to correlate with the removal of the toxicity of the groundwater. These findings are of direct relevance to present technologies employed for remediation of ground water at the Sourgas plants

  9. Toxicity of sediments and pore water from Brunswick Estuary, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winger, Parley V.; Lasier, Peter J.; Geitner, Harvey

    1993-01-01

    A chlor-alkali plant in Brunswick, Georgia, USA, discharged >2 kg mercury/d into a tributary of the Turtle River-Brunswick Estuary from 1966 to 1971. Mercury concentrations in sediments collected in 1989 along the tributary near the chlor-alkali plant ranged from 1 to 27 μg/g (dry weight), with the highest concentrations found in surface (0–8 cm) sediments of subtidal zones in the vicinity of the discharge site. Toxicity screening in 1990 using Microtox® bioassays on pore water extracted on site from sediments collected at six stations distributed along the tributary indicated that pore water was highly toxic near the plant discharge. Ten-day toxicity tests on pore water from subsequent sediment samples collected near the plant discharge confirmed high toxicity to Hyalella azteca, and feeding activity was significantly reduced in whole-sediment tests. In addition to mercury in the sediments, other metals (chromium, lead, and zinc) exceeded 50 μg/g, and polychlorobiphenyl (PCB) concentrations ranged from 67 to 95 μg/g. On a molar basis, acid-volatile sulfide concentrations (20–45 μmol/g) in the sediments exceeded the metal concentrations. Because acid-volatile sulfides bind with cationic metals and form metal sulfides, which are generally not bioavailable, toxicities shown by these sediments were attributed to the high concentrations of PCBs and possibly methylmercury.

  10. Toxic element contamination of natural health products and pharmaceutical preparations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J Genuis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Concern has recently emerged regarding the safety of natural health products (NHPs-therapies that are increasingly recommended by various health providers, including conventional physicians. Recognizing that most individuals in the Western world now consume vitamins and many take herbal agents, this study endeavored to determine levels of toxic element contamination within a range of NHPs. METHODS: Toxic element testing was performed on 121 NHPs (including Ayurvedic, traditional Chinese, and various marine-source products as well as 49 routinely prescribed pharmaceutical preparations. Testing was also performed on several batches of one prenatal supplement, with multiple samples tested within each batch. Results were compared to existing toxicant regulatory limits. RESULTS: Toxic element contamination was found in many supplements and pharmaceuticals; levels exceeding established limits were only found in a small percentage of the NHPs tested and none of the drugs tested. Some NHPs demonstrated contamination levels above preferred daily endpoints for mercury, cadmium, lead, arsenic or aluminum. NHPs manufactured in China generally had higher levels of mercury and aluminum. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to toxic elements is occurring regularly as a result of some contaminated NHPs. Best practices for quality control-developed and implemented by the NHP industry with government oversight-is recommended to guard the safety of unsuspecting consumers.

  11. Albendazole Induced Recurrent Acute Toxic Hepatitis: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgic, Yilmaz; Yilmaz, Cengiz; Cagin, Yasir Furkan; Atayan, Yahya; Karadag, Nese; Harputluoglu, Murat Muhsin Muhip

    2017-01-01

    Drug induced acute toxic hepatitis can be idiosyncratic. Albendazole, a widely used broad spectrum antiparasitic drug is generally accepted as a safe drug. It may cause asymptomatic transient liver enzyme abnormalities but acute toxic hepatitis is very rare. Case Report : Herein, we present the case of 47 year old woman with recurrent acute toxic hepatitis after a single intake of albendazole in 2010 and 2014. The patient was presented with symptoms and findings of anorexia, vomiting and jaundice. For diagnosis, other acute hepatitis etiologies were excluded. Roussel Uclaf Causality Assessment Method (RUCAM) score was calculated and found to be 10, which meant highly probable drug hepatotoxicity. Within 2 months, all pathological findings came to normal. There are a few reported cases of albendazole induced toxic hepatitis, but at adults, there is no known recurrent acute toxic hepatitis due to albendazole at this certainty according to RUCAM score. Physicians should be aware of this rare and potentially fatal adverse effect of albendazole. © Acta Gastro-Enterologica Belgica.

  12. General report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicklisch, F.

    1984-01-01

    Growing complexity of technical matter has meant that technical expertise is called upon in more and more legal proceedings. The technical expert is, in general terms, the mediator between technology and the law, he is also entrusted with the task of pointing up the differences in approach and in the nature of authority in these two areas and thus paving the way for mutual understanding. The evaluation of the technical expert's opinion is one of the cardinal problems bound up with the role of the expert in legal procedure. After the presentation of the expert's opinion, the judge is supposed to possess so much specialised knowledge that he can assess the opinion itself in scientific and technical respects and put his finger on any errors the expert may have made. This problem can only be solved via an assessment opinion. First of all, the opinion can be assessed indirectly via evaluation of the credentials and the neutrality and independence of the expert. In direct terms, the opinion can be subjected to a certain - albeit restricted - scrutiny, whether it is generally convincing, as far as the layman is competent to judge. This interpretation alone makes it possible to classify and integrate legally the technical standards and regulations represent expert statements on the scientific and technical theorems based on the knowledge and experience gained in a given area. They are designed to reflect prevailing opinion among leading representatives of the profession and can thus themselves be regarded as expert opinions. As a rule, these opinions will have such weight that - other than in exceptional cases - they will not be invalidated in procedure by deviating opinions from individual experts. (orig./HSCH) [de

  13. Brachytherapy for stage IIIB squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix: survival and toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuliani, Antonio Carlos; Cunha, Maercio de Oliveira, E-mail: aczo.rt@gmail.co [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil); Esteves, Sergio C.B. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas. Secao de Radioterapia; Teixeira, Julio Cesar [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas. Dept. de Tocoginecologia

    2010-07-01

    Objective: to compare survival and toxicity of three different treatments for stage IIIB cervix cancer: low-dose-rate (LDR), high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy and association of HDR and chemotherapy. Methods: between 1985 and 2005, 230 patients with FIGO stage IIIB squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix received 4-field pelvic teletherapy at doses between 40 and 50.4 Gy, with a different complementation in each group. The LDRB group, with 42 patients, received one or two insertions of LDR, with Cesium-137, in a total dose of 80 to 100Gy at point A. The HDR group, 155 patients received HDR in 4 weekly 7 Gy fractions and 9 Gy to 14.4 Gy applied to the involved parametria. The CHT group, 33 patients, were given the same treatment as the HDR group and received 5 or 6 weekly cycles of cisplatin, 40 mg per m2. Results: the five-year progression-free survival (PFS) was 60% for the HDR group and 45% for the LDR group, and the two-year PFS for the CHT group was 65% (p = 0.02). The five-year Overall Survival (OS) was 65% for the HDR group and 49% for the LDR group. The two-year OS was 86% for the CHT group (p 0.02). Rectum toxicity grade II was 7% for the LDR group, 4% for the HDR group and 7% for the CHT group that had one case of rectum toxicity grade IV. Conclusion: patients that received HDR had better OS and PFS. The Chemotherapy-HDR association showed no benefit when compared to HDR only. Toxicity rates showed no difference between the three groups. (author)

  14. POTENTIAL PATHOPHYSIOLOGICAL MECHANISMS OF ULTRAFINE PARTICLE TOXIC EFFECTS IN HUMANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JASMINA JOVIĆ-STOŠIĆ

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological and clinical studies suggested the association of the particulate matter ambient air pollution and the increased morbidity and mortality, mainly from respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. The size of particles has great influence on their toxicity, because it determines the site in the respiratory tract where they deposit. The most well established theory explaining the mechanisms behind the increased toxicity of ultrafine particles (UFP, < 0.1 µm is that it has to do with the increased surface area and/or the combination with the increased number of particles. Biological effects of UFP are also determined by their shape and chemical composition, so it is not possible to estimate their toxicity in a general way. General hypothesis suggested that exposure to inhaled particles induces pulmonary alveolar inflammation as a basic pathophysiological event, triggering release of various proinflammatory cytokines. Chronic inflammation is a very important underlying mechanism in the genesis of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases. UFP can freely move through the circulation, but their effects on the secondary organs are not known yet, so more studies on recognizing toxicological endpoints of UFP are needed. Determination of UFP toxicity and the estimation of their internal and biologically active dose are necessary for the evidence based conclusions connecting air pollution by UFP and human diseases.

  15. N-acetyl-meta-aminophenol, the alleged nontoxic isomer of acetaminophen, is toxic in both rat and human precision-cut liver slices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadi, Mackenzie; Herpers, Bram; Dragovic, Sanja; van Swelm, Rachel P. L.; Russel, Frans G. M.; Commandeur, Jan N. M.; van de Water, Bob; Groothuis, Genoveva

    N-acetyl-meta-aminophenol (AMAP) is generally considered as a non-toxic regioisomer of the well-known hepatotoxicant acetaminophen (APAP). However, so far AMAP has only been shown to be non-toxic in mice and hamsters. To investigate whether AMAP could also be used as non-toxic analog of APAP in

  16. Toxic Release Inventory Chemicals by Groupings

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) makes available information for more than 600 toxic chemicals that are being used, manufactured, treated, transported, or released...

  17. Information Search of Toxic-Free Ammunition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adelman, Stephen

    1994-01-01

    Task Order No. 0001, Information Search of Toxic-Free Ammunition addresses issues related to toxic and environmentally harmful effects caused by the use of some of the current small arms ammunition...

  18. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Z # Search Form Controls Search The CDC submit Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry Note: Javascript ... gov . Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) , based ...

  19. Toxic chemicals: risk prevention through use reduction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Higgins, Thomas E; Sachdev, Jayanti A; Engleman, Stephen A

    2011-01-01

    ... on the actual toxicity of chemicals currently in use, discusses variables that contribute to the relative toxicity of a substance, compares alternate emphases in existing programs for reducing environmental...

  20. Health risks associated with inhaled nasal toxicants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feron, VJ; Arts, JHE; Kuper, CF; Slootweg, PJ; Woutersen, RA

    2001-01-01

    Health risks of inhaled nasal toxicants were reviewed with emphasis on chemically induced nasal lesions in humans, sensory irritation, olfactory and trigeminal nerve toxicity, nasal immunopathology and carcinogenesis, nasal responses to chemical mixtures, in vitro models, and nasal dosimetry- and

  1. Comparative Analysis of the Relationship between Trichloroethylene Metabolism and Tissue-Specific Toxicity among Inbred Mouse Strains: Kidney Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Hong Sik; Bradford, Blair U.; Kosyk, Oksana; Uehara, Takeki; Shymonyak, Svitlana; Collins, Leonard B.; Bodnar, Wanda M.; Ball, Louise M.; Gold, Avram; Rusyn, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a well-known environmental and occupational toxicant that is classified as carcinogenic to humans based on the epidemiological evidence of an association with higher risk of renal cell carcinoma. A number of scientific issues critical for assessing human health risks from TCE remain unresolved, such as the amount of kidney-toxic glutathione conjugation metabolites formed, inter-species and -individual differences, and the mode of action for kidney carcinogenicity. We hypothesized that TCE metabolite levels in the kidney are associated with kidney-specific toxicity. Oral dosing with TCE was conducted in sub-acute (600 mg/kg/d; 5 days; 7 inbred mouse strains) and sub-chronic (100 or 400 mg/kg/d; 1, 2, or 4 weeks; 2 inbred mouse strains) designs. We evaluated the quantitative relationship between strain-, dose-, and time-dependent formation of TCE metabolites from cytochrome P450-mediated oxidation [trichloroacetic acid (TCA), dichloroacetic acid (DCA), and trichloroethanol] and glutathione conjugation [S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine and S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)glutathione], and various kidney toxicity phenotypes. In sub-acute study, we observed inter-strain differences in TCE metabolite levels in the kidney. In addition, we found that in several strains kidney-specific effects of TCE included induction of peroxisome proliferator-marker genes Cyp4a10 and Acox1, increased cell proliferation, and expression of KIM-1, a marker of tubular damage and regeneration. In sub-chronic study, peroxisome proliferator-marker gene induction and kidney toxicity diminished while cell proliferative response was elevated in a dose-dependent manner in NZW/LacJ, but not C57BL/6J mice. Overall, we show that TCE metabolite levels in the kidney are associated with kidney-specific toxicity and that these effects are strain-dependent. PMID:25424545

  2. Methylmercury toxicity and functional programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandjean, Philippe

    2007-01-01

    : Accumulating evidence indicates that adverse effects may occur even at low-level methylmercury exposures from seafood and freshwater fish. Neurobehavioral outcomes are usually non-specific, and imprecise exposure assessment results in a bias toward the null. Essential nutrients may promote the development......PURPOSE: Adverse health effects of developmental toxicants may induce abnormal functional programming that leads to lasting functional deficits. This notion is considered from epidemiological evidence using developmental methylmercury neurotoxicity as an example. MOST IMPORTANT FINDINGS...... of certain brain functions, thereby causing confounding bias. The functional deficits caused by prenatal methylmercury exposure appear to be permanent, and their extent may depend on the joint effect of toxicants and nutrients. PRINCIPAL CONCLUSIONS: The lasting functional changes caused...

  3. Behavioral toxicity of selected radioprotectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landauer, M. R.; Davis, H. D.; Kumar, K. S.; Weiss, J. F.

    1992-10-01

    Effective radioprotection with minimal behavioral disruption is essential for the selection of protective agents to be used in manned spaceflight. This overview summarizes the studies on the behavioral toxicity of selected radioprotectors classified as phosphorothioates (WR-2721, WR-3689), bioactive lipids (16, 16 dimethylprostaglandin E2(DiPGE2), platelet activating factor (PAF), leukotriene C4), and immunomodulators (glucan, synthetic trehalose dicorynomycolate, and interleukin-1). Behavioral toxicity was examined in laboratory mice using a locomotor activity test. For all compounds tested, there was a dose-dependent decrease in locomotor behavior that paralleled the dose-dependent increase in radioprotection. While combinations of radioprotective compounds (DiPGE2 plus WR-2721) increased radioprotection, they also decreased locomotor activity. The central nervous system stimulant, caffeine, was able to mitigate the locomotor decrement produced by WR-3689 or PAF.

  4. Toxic Anterior Segment Syndrome (TASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem Öner

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Toxic anterior segment syndrome (TASS is a sterile intraocular inflammation caused by noninfectious substances, resulting in extensive toxic damage to the intraocular tissues. Possible etiologic factors of TASS include surgical trauma, bacterial endotoxin, intraocular solutions with inappropriate pH and osmolality, preservatives, denatured ophthalmic viscosurgical devices (OVD, inadequate sterilization, cleaning and rinsing of surgical devices, intraocular lenses, polishing and sterilizing compounds which are related to intraocular lenses. The characteristic signs and symptoms such as blurred vision, corneal edema, hypopyon and nonreactive pupil usually occur 24 hours after the cataract surgery. The differential diagnosis of TASS from infectious endophthalmitis is important. The main treatment for TASS formation is prevention. TASS is a cataract surgery complication that is more commonly seen nowadays. In this article, the possible underlying causes as well as treatment and prevention methods of TASS are summarized. (Turk J Oph thal mol 2011; 41: 407-13

  5. Small molecule fluoride toxicity agonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, James W; Plummer, Mark S; Blount, Kenneth F; Ames, Tyler D; Breaker, Ronald R

    2015-04-23

    Fluoride is a ubiquitous anion that inhibits a wide variety of metabolic processes. Here, we report the identification of a series of compounds that enhance fluoride toxicity in Escherichia coli and Streptococcus mutans. These molecules were isolated by using a high-throughput screen (HTS) for compounds that increase intracellular fluoride levels as determined via a fluoride riboswitch reporter fusion construct. A series of derivatives were synthesized to examine structure-activity relationships, leading to the identification of compounds with improved activity. Thus, we demonstrate that small molecule fluoride toxicity agonists can be identified by HTS from existing chemical libraries by exploiting a natural fluoride riboswitch. In addition, our findings suggest that some molecules might be further optimized to function as binary antibacterial agents when combined with fluoride. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. FLUORIDE TOXICITY – A HARSH REALITY

    OpenAIRE

    Bandlapalli Pavani; Mandava Ragini; David Banji; Otilia J F Banji; N Gouri Pratusha

    2011-01-01

    There are many incidents of fluoride toxicity whether it is acute or chronic. Fluoride toxicity is an environmental hazard which arises from the upper layers of geological crust and is dissolved in water. Prolonged drinking of such water causes chronic fluoride toxicity. Use of fluoride containing compounds for various purposes such as dental products, metal, glass, refrigerator and chemical industries act as a source of fluoride poisoning and increase the risk of toxicity. This review reflec...

  7. The Importance of Implementation of the General

    OpenAIRE

    Pearson, G. S.

    2006-01-01

    This paper makes an analysis of international developments over the past five years relating to the implementation of the general purpose criterion which is a central element of the Chemical Weapons Convention that ensures that the Convention covers all toxic chemicals. It examines how some of the recent international initiatives that are addressing chemicals that are of potential risk to public health or to the environment might be harnessed to implement the general purpose criterion thereby...

  8. Abacavir-induced liver toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Diletta Pezzani

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abacavir-induced liver toxicity is a rare event almost exclusively occurring in HLA B*5701-positive patients. Herein, we report one case of abnormal liver function tests occurring in a young HLA B*5701-negative woman on a stable nevirapine-based regimen with no history of liver problems or alcohol abuse after switching to abacavir from tenofovir. We also investigated the reasons for abacavir discontinuation in a cohort of patients treated with abacavir-lamivudine-nevirapine.

  9. Acute and chronic arsenic toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Ratnaike, R

    2003-01-01

    Arsenic toxicity is a global health problem affecting many millions of people. Contamination is caused by arsenic from natural geological sources leaching into aquifers, contaminating drinking water and may also occur from mining and other industrial processes. Arsenic is present as a contaminant in many traditional remedies. Arsenic trioxide is now used to treat acute promyelocytic leukaemia. Absorption occurs predominantly from ingestion from the small intestine, though minimal absorption o...

  10. Toxic metals in the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz-Ribadeneira, F.J.; Mo, T.; Canoy, M.J.

    1975-05-01

    Methods used in Puerto Rico for monitoring toxic metals in the atmosphere are described. Air sampling machines are placed at heights from 15 to 25 ft above the surface and the tapes are subjected to neutron activation and γ spectroscopy. The concentrations of up to 33 elements can be determined with precision and sensitivity without destroying the tapes, which can then be used for analysis by other methods. (U.S.)

  11. Plant responses to metal toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briat, J.F. [Montpellier-2 Univ., 34 (France). Biochimie et physiologie moleculaire des plantes, CNRS, URA 2133; Lebrun, M. [Montpellier-2 Univ., 34 (France). Biochimie et physiologie vegetale appliquee

    1999-01-01

    Increased metal concentration in the soils, up to toxic levels, is becoming an important environmental problem. Safety rule evolution will require solutions in order to cope with food safety rules, and to freeze metal leakage from heavily metal-poisoned soils, such as those from industrial fallows. In this context, plants could serve to develop bio-assays in order to promote new standards, more realistic than the mass of a given metal per kg of soil, that does not consider the metal bio-disponibility. Plants could also be used for phyto-extraction and/or phyto-stabilization. To reach these objectives, a genetic approach could be useful to generate metal-tolerant plants with enough biomass. In this work is more particularly studied the plant responses to metal toxicity. Metal toxicity for living organisms involves oxidative and /or genotoxic mechanisms. Plant protection against metal toxicity occurs, at least in part, through control of root metal uptake and of long distance metal transport. Inside cells, proteins such as ferritins and metallothioneins, and glutathione-derived peptides named phyto-chelatins, participate in excess metal storage and detoxification. Low molecular weight organic molecules, mainly organic acids and amino acids and their derivatives, also play an important role in plant metal homeostasis. When these systems are overloaded, oxidative stress defense mechanisms are activated. Molecular and cellular knowledge of these processes will be necessary to improve plant metal resistance. Occurrence of naturally tolerant plants which hyper accumulate metals provides helpful tools for this research. (authors) 130 refs.

  12. Developmental toxicity of engineered nanomaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Karin S.; Hansen, Jitka S.; Jackson, Petra

    2016-01-01

    Study of air pollution indicates that minute particles may adversely interfere with pregnancy and fetal development. As engineering of nanoparticles have emerged, so has concern that these might interfere with reproductive and developmental functions. This is because nanotechnology may potentially...... increase the overall particle burden in air and introduce particles with novel characteristics and surface reactivity. To evaluate safety for pregnant women, we have studied developmental toxicity of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs), following exposure of pregnant mice by inhalation (ENPs of titanium...

  13. Coumafuryl (Fumarin) toxicity in chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munger, L L; Su, J J; Barnes, H J

    1993-01-01

    Coumafuryl (Fumarin) toxicity was diagnosed in chickens less than 1 week of age. Mortality rate was 100%. Necropsy showed crops and gizzards to be full of feed. There was diffuse hemorrhage and unclotted blood in the abdomen and thorax. Histological examination showed congestion and hemorrhage. Chemical analysis of crop and gizzard contents contained approximately 340 ppm coumafuryl. The source of the coumafuryl was found to be the wood-straw mats in the chick boxes.

  14. Pathological features of glutaminase toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskerville, A.; Hambleton, P.; Benbough, J. E.

    1980-01-01

    In an investigation of the toxicity of the anti-tumour enzyme glutaminase Rhesus monkeys, marmosets, rabbits and mice were given various doses of chemically modified glutaminase parenterally. The enzyme induced diarrhoea and dysentery and at all but the lowest doses caused illness which was fatal within 10 days. Pathological lesions produced were hepatic lipidosis and glycogen accumulation, and, in the primates, acute necrotizing colitis. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:6775661

  15. Dietary zinc and its toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lantzsch, H J

    1973-01-01

    First signs of Zn-toxicity in rats appeared at 1000 to 2000 ppm Zn in food. They were characterized by growth inhibition by the appearance of a microcytic hypochromic anemia by a reversible impairment of the ability to reproduce by disturbances in fat metabolism and by Zn-accumulation especially in the liver and the skeleton. Available results in the literature concerning alimentary Zn-toxicity in horses are few. At a daily doses of 8000 mg Zn during gestation there were no noticeable adverse effects either in the mare or the foal. While with young lambs addition of Zn of up to 1000 ppm enhanced growth, food intake and feed efficiency, with older lambs it gave rise to depressions. Available results of experiments with milk cows are equally insufficient. At Zn-concentration of 40 to 80 ppm, which may be reached in normal foodstuff, there appears to be a disturbance in the metabolism of cellulose in the rumen. In spite of this fact and notwithstanding the insufficiently examined influence of high Zn-concentrations in food on the Cu-metabolism, the limit of Zn-tolerance can be given at 1000 mg per kg of food. If dissolved, Zn is far more toxic. With calves there wre no signs of clinical toxicity up to Zn-concentrations in the food of 3000 ppm. Above 900 ppm there appeared depression in growth and deterioration in the feed efficiency. Ae 1700 ppm there was a decrease infood intake. Increased Zn-intake lead to a growing Zn-accumulation in several organs and tissues, with the accumulation in the liver, bones, kidneys, pancreas and the gastrointestinal tract being of special significance. With cessation of Zn-intake in food, Zn-accumulation slowly disappeared. As a result of high Zn-intake there appears to be synergistic and antagonistic interdependent effects with the metabolism of other trace elements (Cu, Fe) and minerals (Ca, Na, P).

  16. The politics of toxic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahm, D.

    1998-01-01

    Toxic waste, and the public policy that deals with it, is a complex issue. Much of the complexity stems from the science and technology embedded in the topic, but a great deal also results from the intricate interactions between the social organizations and institutions involved. The politics of toxic waste plays out within three key aspects of this complexity. The first of these is the nature of the intergovernmental relations involved. For toxic waste issues, these intergovernmental relations can be between sovereign states or between a nation and an international governing organization, or they may be restricted to a domestic context. If the later is the case, the relationship can be between federal, state, and local governments or between different bureaus, departments, or agencies within the same level of government. A second feature of this complexity can be seen in the consequences of divergent organizational or institutional interests. When conflicting organizational or institutional perspectives, positions, or concerns arise, public policy outcomes are affected.The tug and pull of competing actors move policy in the direction favored by the winner. This may or may not be the most rational alternative. A third aspect of this interorganizational puzzle involves the question of where the locus of authority for decisionmaking resides and to what extent stakeholders, who do not possess direct authority, can influence policy outcomes

  17. Toxicity of pyrolysis gases from polyether sulfone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilado, C. J.; Olcomendy, E. M.

    1979-01-01

    A sample of polyether sulfone was evaluated for toxicity of pyrolysis gases, using the toxicity screening test method developed at the University of San Francisco. Animal response times were relatively short at pyrolysis temperatures of 600 to 800 C, with death occurring within 6 min. The principal toxicant appeared to be a compound other than carbon monoxide.

  18. Multimodality therapy in advanced head and neck cancer: Response and toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, H.; Leone, L.; Tefft, M.; Nigri, P.T.

    1987-01-01

    This study utilizes preoperative XRT with DDP, followed by radical surgery (group I) or radical dose of XRT with DDP (group II) and adjuvant chemotherapy with 5-FU infusion and DDP at 4-week intervals, six cycles. The authors report the response and toxicity in 37 patients (eight SIII, 28 SIV). Complete tumor clearance (CTC) was 90% (33 of 37). In group I, eight of 17 (47%) showed no tumor on the surgical specimen; one of eight recurred in 16 months. Nine with residual tumor achieved CTC with surgery; two recurred (5, 8 months). Nine of 17 are alive with no evidence of disease (NED) (median survival, 13 months); five died without disease. In group II, 16 of 20 (80%) had CTC (eight negative biopsy, eight clinical CR); eight of 16 recurred. Median time to recur was 5 months (3 - 16 months). Four PR died within 6 months. Eight had NED with a median survival of 25 months (18 - 33 months), one died with NED, and four PR and seven recurrent patients died with disease. Actuarial survival between group I and group II shows no significant difference so far. Toxicity was not excessive. This treatment schedule produced excellent tumor clearance rate. Survival information is very preliminary; longer follow-up is necessary

  19. Repeated sub-chronic oral toxicity study of xylooligosaccharides (XOS) in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yonglin; Wang, Yunzhi; Li, Yanshen; Han, Rui; Li, Chunmei; Xiao, Lin; Cho, Susan; Ma, Yukui; Fang, Chao; Lee, Albert W

    2017-06-01

    In this study, Beagle dogs were administered xylooligosaccharide (XOS, CAS # 87099-0) at doses of 0, 1250, 2500, and 5000 mg/kg/day by oral gavage for 26 weeks. A 4-week recovery period was added to observe delayed or reversible toxicity. Measurements included body weight, food consumption, clinical observations, temperature, electrocardiogram (ECG), urinalysis, blood chemistry, hematology, organ weight, gross necropsy, and histopathological examination. Except for transient diarrhea or vomiting, no treatment-related adverse effects were noted. In the mid-dose groups, transitional diarrhea was observed in the initial 1-2 weeks. In the high-dose groups, diarrhea and/or vomiting were observed episodically over the duration of treatment. However, they disappeared after XOS was withdrawn in the recovery period. Although there was a tendency toward less weight gain in the high-dose group animal group, this is typical in animals and humans fed non-digestible carbohydrates. This chronic toxicity study demonstrated that the no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) of XOS is 2500 mg/kg body weight (BW)/day. Based on body surface area (conversion factor of 0.54 for dogs to human), this corresponds to daily doses of 1350 mg/kg BW or 81-108 g XOS in human adults weighing 60-80 kg. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Toxicity of Tolyltriazole to Gram-Positive Coccus Microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-03-01

    Bausmith and Neufield 459). The second general category is the SAE Type II ADAF, which is a Type I ADAF with the addition of synthetic polymers...Act of 1972 ( Bausmith and Neufield 459, Gallagher 1995:109). The FAA and EPA requirements concerning ADAFs are often in conflict; as the FAA...AZUR Environmental. "Microtox Rapid Toxicity Testing System". http://www.azurenv.com/mtox.htm. October 1999. 3. Bausmith , David S. and Ronald D

  1. Household Food items Toxic to Dogs and Cats

    OpenAIRE

    Cortinovis, C.; Caloni, F.

    2016-01-01

    Several foods that are perfectly suitable for human consumption can be toxic to dogs and cats. Food-associated poisoning cases involving the accidental ingestion of chocolate and chocolate-based products, Allium spp. (onion, garlic, leek, and chives), macadamia nuts, Vitis vinifera fruits (grapes, raisins, sultanas, and currants), products sweetened with xylitol, alcoholic beverages, and unbaked bread dough have been reported worldwide in the last decade. The poisoning episodes are generally ...

  2. Developmental toxicity of low generation PAMAM dendrimers in zebrafish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King Heiden, Tisha C.; Dengler, Emelyne; Kao, Weiyuan John; Heideman, Warren; Peterson, Richard E.

    2007-01-01

    Biological molecules and intracellular structures operate at the nanoscale; therefore, development of nanomedicines shows great promise for the treatment of disease by using targeted drug delivery and gene therapies. PAMAM dendrimers, which are highly branched polymers with low polydispersity and high functionality, provide an ideal architecture for construction of effective drug carriers, gene transfer devices and imaging of biological systems. For example, dendrimers bioconjugated with selective ligands such as Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) would theoretically target cells that contain integrin receptors and show potential for use as drug delivery devices. While RGD-conjugated dendrimers are generally considered not to be cytotoxic, there currently exists little information on the risks that such materials pose to human health. In an effort to compliment and extend the knowledge gleaned from cell culture assays, we have used the zebrafish embryo as a rapid, medium throughput, cost-effective whole-animal model to provide a more comprehensive and predictive developmental toxicity screen for nanomaterials such as PAMAM dendrimers. Using the zebrafish embryo, we have assessed the developmental toxicity of low generation (G3.5 and G4) PAMAM dendrimers, as well as RGD-conjugated forms for comparison. Our results demonstrate that G4 dendrimers, which have amino functional groups, are toxic and attenuate growth and development of zebrafish embryos at sublethal concentrations; however, G3.5 dendrimers, with carboxylic acid terminal functional groups, are not toxic to zebrafish embryos. Furthermore, RGD-conjugated G4 dendrimers are less potent in causing embryo toxicity than G4 dendrimers. RGD-conjugated G3.5 dendrimers do not elicit toxicity at the highest concentrations tested and warrant further study for use as a drug delivery device

  3. Toxic Stress: Effects, Prevention and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hillary A. Franke

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Children who experience early life toxic stress are at risk of long-term adverse health effects that may not manifest until adulthood. This article briefly summarizes the findings in recent studies on toxic stress and childhood adversity following the publication of the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP Policy Report on the effects of toxic stress. A review of toxic stress and its effects is described, including factors of vulnerability, resilience, and the relaxation response. An integrative approach to the prevention and treatment of toxic stress necessitates individual, community and national focus.

  4. Review of Phthalates Exposure and Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaneh Taghilou

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The dialkyl- or alkyl/aryl esters of 1, 2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, which are known as Phthalates, are high-production volume synthetic chemicals and considered as environmental pollutants, due to high production and uses in community, plastics industry and common consuming products. Di-(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP is the most abundant phthalate in the environment. Human exposure with DEHP could be done via different chemical compounds including food packaging, household furnishings, nutritional supplements, cleaning materials and insecticides. Besides, exposure of human with phthalates occurs through different pathways such as direct contact and using Phthalate-containing products, and indirectly through leaching into other products, or general environmental contaminations. Historically, the diet has been considered the major source of phthalate exposure in the general population, but in all sources, pathways, and their relative contributions to human exposures are not well understood. Medical devices are other source of significant exposure in human. Furthermore, cosmetics, personal care products, pharmaceuticals, nutritional supplements, herbal remedies and insecticides, may result in significant but poorly quantified human exposure with this compounds. In the present review article, we tried to discuss about metabolism of phthalates in human, toxicity, monitoring of phthalates in foods, environment, and cosmetic products and then metabolites of phthalates. Finally, evaluation of human exposure through biological control is discussed.

  5. Reproductive toxicity and pharmacokinetics of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chahoud, I.; Krowke, R.; Schimmel, A.; Merker, H.J.; Neubert, D.

    1989-01-01

    A study on the reproductive toxicity of 14 C-TCDD in male rats was performed. Two dose regimes were applied subcutaneously: TCDD-25 (initial dose: 25 μg/kg body wt; maintenance dose: 5 μg/kg body wt) and TCDD-75 (initial dose: 75 μg/kg body wt; maintenance dose: 15 μg/kg body wt); the maintenance dose was administered once weekly. The rats were treated for 10 weeks before they were mated and throughout the entire mating period. The dose regime TCDD-75 led to a mortality rate of 93% within a period of 16 weeks. The first animals died during 4 weeks, and an LD 50 was reached after 8 weeks. The dose regime TCDD-25 did not cause any mortality over a period of 12 weeks; but an LD 10 was reached within 13-20 weeks. The body weight was significantly decreased in both groups treated with TCDD after 1 week of treatment. It stabilized in the TCDD-25-group 4 weeks after treatment and stayed at this level until the end of the treatment period. The most significant finding is the delayed fertilization by the treated males; 15% of the males were found to be sterile. The mating index (84%) and fertility index (14±11 days) of the TCDD-25-group were lower when compared with controls (95%, 8±5), but the pregnancy index was not reduced. Application of the chosen TCDD doses led to clear-cut morphological changes of the testes. The Sertoli cells were changed (increased occurrence of vacuoles, swelling of endoplasmatic cavities), and the contact between the Sertoli cells and spermatogonia was disturbed, which might indicate an inhibited maturation of spermatozoa percursors. (orig.)

  6. Pulmonary toxicity of manufactured nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peebles, Brian Christopher

    Manufactured nanomaterials have become ubiquitous in science, industry, and medicine. Although electron microscopy and surface probe techniques have improved understanding of the physicochemical properties of nanomaterials, much less is known about what makes nanomaterials toxic. Particulate matter less than 2.5 mum in effective aerodynamic diameter is easily inhaled and taken deep into the lungs. The toxicity of inhaled particulate matter is related to its size and surface chemistry; for instance, the smaller the size of particles, the greater their specific surface area. The chemistry and toxicity of insoluble particles depends on their surface area, since chemical reactions may happen with the environment on the surface. Oxidation and reduction may occur on the surfaces of particles after they are produced. For instance, it is known that carbonaceous particles from vehicle exhaust and industrial emission may interact with reactive species like ozone in their ambient environment, altering the surface chemistry of the particles. Reaction with species in the environment may cause changes in the chemical functionality of the surface and change the toxic properties of the particles when they are inhaled. Furthermore, metals on the surface of inhalable particles can contribute to their toxicity. Much attention has been given to the presence of iron on the surfaces of inhalable particles in the environment. After particle inhalation, particles are endocytosed by alveolar macrophages in the immune response to foreign matter. They are exposed to hydrogen peroxide in the oxidative burst, which can cause the iron-mediated production of hydroxyl free radicals via the Fenton reaction, causing oxidative stress that leads to inflammation and cell death. The toxicity of particles that contain metals depends on the redox activity and bioavailability of the metals, the causes of thich have not yet been adequately explored. In this thesis, electron paramagnetic spectroscopy showed

  7. Modeling Aquatic Toxicity through Chromatographic Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Pumarega, Alejandro; Amézqueta, Susana; Farré, Sandra; Muñoz-Pascual, Laura; Abraham, Michael H; Fuguet, Elisabet; Rosés, Martí

    2017-08-01

    Environmental risk assessment requires information about the toxicity of the growing number of chemical products coming from different origins that can contaminate water and become toxicants to aquatic species or other living beings via the trophic chain. Direct toxicity measurements using sensitive aquatic species can be carried out but they may become expensive and ethically questionable. Literature refers to the use of chromatographic measurements that correlate to the toxic effect of a compound over a specific aquatic species as an alternative to get toxicity information. In this work, we have studied the similarity in the response of the toxicity to different species and we have selected eight representative aquatic species (including tadpoles, fish, water fleas, protozoan, and bacteria) with known nonspecific toxicity to chemical substances. Next, we have selected four chromatographic systems offering good perspectives for surrogation of the eight selected aquatic systems, and thus prediction of toxicity from the chromatographic measurement. Then toxicity has been correlated to the chromatographic retention factor. Satisfactory correlation results have been obtained to emulate toxicity in five of the selected aquatic species through some of the chromatographic systems. Other aquatic species with similar characteristics to these five representative ones could also be emulated by using the same chromatographic systems. The final aim of this study is to model chemical products toxicity to aquatic species by means of chromatographic systems to reduce in vivo testing.

  8. Toxicokinetics and toxicity of atorvastatin in dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herron, C.E. [Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics, GlaxoSmithKline, 5 Moore Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Brueckner, C.C. [Scinovo, GlaxoSmithKline, 5 Moore Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Chism, J.P. [Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics, GlaxoSmithKline, 5 Moore Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Kemp, D.C.; Prescott, J.S. [Safety Assessment, GlaxoSmithKline, 5 Moore Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Smith, G.A. [Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics, GlaxoSmithKline, 5 Moore Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Melich, D.H. [Safety Assessment, GlaxoSmithKline, 5 Moore Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Oleas, N. [Charles River Laboratories, Preclinical Services Montreal, 22022 Transcanadienne, Senneville, QC, Canada, H9X 3R3 (Canada); Polli, J.W., E-mail: joseph.w.polli@gsk.com [Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics, GlaxoSmithKline, 5 Moore Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (e.g., statins) are an important clinical option to lower cholesterol and treat co-morbidities. Atorvastatin is the most prescribed statin and has obtained generic status. We recently had a clinical development program evaluating a combination of atorvastatin with a GPR119 agonist as a treatment for dyslipidemia, where toxicological evaluations in dogs were completed. There were several challenges related to selecting doses for atorvastatin, including understanding the dose–exposure relationship from different drug forms used by the innovator in their general toxicology studies, bioanalytical assays that did not separate and quantify parent from metabolites, and high variability in the systemic exposures following oral dosing. The studies in this report characterized the toxicokinetics and toxicity of atorvastatin in the dog for up to 13-weeks. Overall, there were no notable differences in the toxicokinetics of atorvastatin or the two active hydroxylated metabolites between the sexes at Week 13. However, systemic exposures were markedly lower at Week 13 compared to that observed at Week 4, suggesting induction of metabolism or reduced absorption from the gastrointestinal tract following oral dosing. Changes in laboratory chemistries included increased liver enzyme levels and lower cholesterol levels. Histopathologic evaluation revealed multifocal minimal to slight hemorrhages in the submucosa of the gallbladder; all findings were reversible. The information from these studies along with the existing clinical experience with atorvastatin can be used to design robust toxicology studies in dogs and reduce animal use. - Highlights: • Atorvastatin is given to reduce cholesterol and is available as a generic drug. • Co-dosing of multiple products to treat hypercholesterolemia is increasing. • This work characterized the toxicokinetics and toxicity of atorvastatin in dogs. • The toxicokinetics of two hydroxylated metabolites were

  9. Toxicokinetics and toxicity of atorvastatin in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herron, C.E.; Brueckner, C.C.; Chism, J.P.; Kemp, D.C.; Prescott, J.S.; Smith, G.A.; Melich, D.H.; Oleas, N.; Polli, J.W.

    2015-01-01

    HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (e.g., statins) are an important clinical option to lower cholesterol and treat co-morbidities. Atorvastatin is the most prescribed statin and has obtained generic status. We recently had a clinical development program evaluating a combination of atorvastatin with a GPR119 agonist as a treatment for dyslipidemia, where toxicological evaluations in dogs were completed. There were several challenges related to selecting doses for atorvastatin, including understanding the dose–exposure relationship from different drug forms used by the innovator in their general toxicology studies, bioanalytical assays that did not separate and quantify parent from metabolites, and high variability in the systemic exposures following oral dosing. The studies in this report characterized the toxicokinetics and toxicity of atorvastatin in the dog for up to 13-weeks. Overall, there were no notable differences in the toxicokinetics of atorvastatin or the two active hydroxylated metabolites between the sexes at Week 13. However, systemic exposures were markedly lower at Week 13 compared to that observed at Week 4, suggesting induction of metabolism or reduced absorption from the gastrointestinal tract following oral dosing. Changes in laboratory chemistries included increased liver enzyme levels and lower cholesterol levels. Histopathologic evaluation revealed multifocal minimal to slight hemorrhages in the submucosa of the gallbladder; all findings were reversible. The information from these studies along with the existing clinical experience with atorvastatin can be used to design robust toxicology studies in dogs and reduce animal use. - Highlights: • Atorvastatin is given to reduce cholesterol and is available as a generic drug. • Co-dosing of multiple products to treat hypercholesterolemia is increasing. • This work characterized the toxicokinetics and toxicity of atorvastatin in dogs. • The toxicokinetics of two hydroxylated metabolites were

  10. Radiotherapy Does Not Influence the Severe Pulmonary Toxicity Observed With the Administration of Gemcitabine and Bleomycin in Patients With Advanced-Stage Hodgkin's Lymphoma Treated With the BAGCOPP Regimen: A Report by the German Hodgkin's Lymphoma Study Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macann, Andrew; Bredenfeld, Henning; Mueller, Rolf-Peter; Diehl, Volker; Engert, Andreas; Eich, Hans Theodor

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of radiotherapy on the severe pulmonary toxicity observed in the pilot study of BAGCOPP (bleomycin, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, procarbazine, prednisone, and gemcitabine) for advanced-stage Hodgkin's lymphoma. Methods and Materials: Patients with Stage III or IV Hodgkin's lymphoma or Stage IIB with risk factors participated in this single-arm, multicenter pilot study. Results: Twenty-seven patients were enrolled on the study before its premature closure as a result of the development of serious pulmonary toxicity in 8 patients. The pulmonary toxicity occurred either during or immediately after the BAGCOPP chemotherapy course. Pulmonary toxicity contributed to one early fatality but resolved in the other 7 patients after cessation of gemcitabine and bleomycin, allowing continuation of therapy. Fifteen patients received consolidative radiotherapy, including 4 who previously had pulmonary toxicity. There were no reported cases of radiation pneumonitis and no exacerbation of pulmonary symptoms in the 4 patients who had had previous pulmonary toxicity. Conclusions: The severe pulmonary toxicity observed in this study has been attributed to an interaction between gemcitabine and bleomycin. Gemcitabine (when administered without bleomycin) remains of interest in Hodgkin's lymphoma and is being incorporated into a new German Hodgkin's Lymphoma Study Group protocol that also includes consolidative radiotherapy. This study supports the concept of the integration of radiotherapy in gemcitabine-containing regimens in Hodgkin's lymphoma if there is an interval of at least 4 weeks between the two modalities and with a schedule whereby radiotherapy follows the chemotherapy

  11. Glutathione transferase activity and oocyte development in copepods exposed to toxic phytoplankton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kozlowsky-Suzuki, Betina; Koski, Marja; Hallberg, Eric

    2009-01-01

    toxins generally observed in copepods. In addition, decreasing gross growth efficiency (GGE) of copepods with increasing concentration of toxic diets could be caused either by a high expenditure coping with toxins (e.g., increase in the activity of detoxification enzymes) or by a deterioration...... of reproductive tissues. To assess the effect of toxic phytoplankton on the activity of detoxification enzymes and on oocyte maturation of Acartia tonsa and Temora longicornis, feeding and egg production experiments were carried out with a variety of toxic diets and an adequate non-toxic food control (Rhodomonas...... spp.) all provided as single species diets. Toxic diets included the nodularin-producing cyanobacterium Nodularia spumigena, the dinoflagellates Alexandrium minutum, and A. tamarense, which contained Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP) toxins, the dinoflagellate Prorocentrum lima with Diarrhetic...

  12. Dithiobiuret toxicity in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, K.D.

    1985-01-01

    Raising the daily dose of dithiobiuret (DTB) in male rats from 0.5 to 1 to 5 mg/kg shortened the latency to the onset of flaccid muscle tone and associated diminished performance in a treadmill test from 7 to 5 to 3 days, respectively. Concomitant with the development of flaccid muscle tone gastrocnemius muscle contractions elicited by high frequency motor nerve stimulation were lower in peak tension and tended to fade more rapidly in DTB-treated rats than in control rats. Remarkably, rats treated with highly daily doses (10-16 mg/kg) of DTB were resistant to the expected development of DTB-induced flaccid muscle tone, and tetanic contractile abnormalities but a corresponding refractoriness to body weight loss, decreased fed and water intake, diuresis, and depression in water balance was not present. This nonselectivity of the refractory responses supported the results of a histopathological study indicating that DTB-induced neuromuscular toxicity was unlikely to be secondary to effect on other organ systems. It is not known whether the ultimate neurotoxin is DTB or a metabolite. In this regard, two pathways for the metabolism of DTB were proposed based on the results of thin-layer chromatography of urine samples from rats treated with either 14 C- or 35 S-DTB. One pathway involved the reversible oxidation of DTB to the disulfide-containing compound thiuret, and the other involved the replacement of a sulfur atom with oxygen to form monothiobiuret. Thiuret, but not monothiobiuret, possessed comparable toxicity to STB. This further suggested that redox cycling between DTB and thiuret could be an important contributing factor to the toxicity of DTB

  13. Molecular basis of cadmium toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nath, R; Prasad, R; Palinal, V K; Chopra, R K

    1984-01-01

    Cadmium has been shown to manifest its toxicity in human and animals by mainly accumulating in almost all of the organs. The kidney is the main target organ where it is concentrated mainly in the cortex. Environmental exposure of cadmium occurs via food, occupational industries, terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem. At molecular level, cadmium interferes with the utilization of essential metals e.g. Ca, Zn, Se, Cr and Fe and deficiencies of these essential metals including protein and vitamins, exaggerate cadmium toxicity, due to its increased absorption through the gut and greater retention in different organs as metallothionein (Cd-Mt). Cadmium transport, across the intestinal and renal brush border membrane vesicles, is carrier mediated and it competes with zinc and calcium. It has been postulated that cadmium shares the same transport system. Cadmium inhibits protein synthesis, carbohydrate metabolism and drug metabolizing enzymes in liver of animals. Chronic environmental exposure of cadmium produces hypertension in experimental animals. Functional changes accompanying cadmium nephropathy include low molecular weight proteinuria which is of tubular origin associated with excess excretion of proteins such as beta 2 microglobulin, metallothionein and high molecular weight proteinuria of glomerular origin (excretion of proteins such as albumin IgG, transferrin etc.). Recent data has shown that metallothionein is more nephrotoxic to animals. Cadmium is also toxic to central nervous system. It causes an alterations of cellular functions in lungs. Cadmium affects both humoral and cell mediated immune response in animals. Cadmium induces metallothionein in liver and kidney but under certain nutritional deficiencies like protein-calorie malnutrition and calcium deficiency, enhanced induction and greater accumulation of cadmium metallothionein has been observed.

  14. Metabolism and toxicity of neptunium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nenot, J.C.

    1983-08-01

    The biological behaviour and toxicity of neptunium were studied. Neptunium was administered either intravenously or intramuscularly in rats. In contrast to other transuranium elements the distribution patterns of neptunium in the case of intravenous injection is not dependent on the physico-chemical state. Urinary excretion is high. The distribution after intramuscular injection showed a rather fast migration from the injection site. 237 Neptonium in urine was approximately equal to bone deposit. Neptunium behaviour followed that of alkaline earths rather than that of transplutonium elements

  15. Physiology and toxicity of fluoride

    OpenAIRE

    Dhar Vineet; Bhatnagar Maheep

    2009-01-01

    Fluoride has been described as an essential element needed for normal development and growth of animals and extremely useful for human beings. Fluoride is abundant in the environment and the main source of fluoride to humans is drinking water. It has been proved to be beneficial in recommended doses, and at the same time its toxicity at higher levels has also been well established. Fluoride gets accumulated in hard tissues of the body and has been know to play an important role in mineralizat...

  16. Air toxics research in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahkala, M.

    1994-01-01

    Air toxics research in Finland has developed rapidly in recent years. Though they have no enormous environmental problems in Finland, the author feels that they have to increase their knowledge of more efficient energy production and control technology. Enormous emission sources are around them, but there are also huge markets for know-how and technology in the energy sector. Two Finnish national research programs will ensure the continuity of the development efforts concerning combustion technology and environmental aspects at both theoretical and practical levels

  17. Copper toxicity in housed lambs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, A H; Valks, D A; Appleton, M A; Shaw, W B

    1969-09-27

    Copper toxicity among 170 lambs artificially reared indoors at High Mowthorpe NAAS Experimental Husbandry Farm is reported. Although only three lambs were lost it is not unreasonable to suggest that the liver copper levels of the lambs which were slaughtered would have been high and losses could have been much heavier had there been any further copper supplementation. Even a copper level of 20 ppm in lamb concentrates given to lambs reared artificially indoors is dangerous, and intakes of much less than 38 mg per lamb per day can be fatal if given of a prolonged period. 5 references, 1 table.

  18. Speciation in Metal Toxicity and Metal-Based Therapeutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas M. Templeton

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Metallic elements, ions and compounds produce varying degrees of toxicity in organisms with which they come into contact. Metal speciation is critical to understanding these adverse effects; the adjectives “heavy” and “toxic” are not helpful in describing the biological properties of individual elements, but detailed chemical structures are. As a broad generalization, the metallic form of an element is inert, and the ionic salts are the species that show more significant bioavailability. Yet the salts and other chelates of a metal ion can give rise to quite different toxicities, as exemplified by a range of carcinogenic potential for various nickel species. Another important distinction comes when a metallic element is organified, increasing its lipophilicity and hence its ability to penetrate the blood brain barrier, as is seen, for example, with organic mercury and tin species. Some metallic elements, such as gold and platinum, are themselves useful therapeutic agents in some forms, while other species of the same element can be toxic, thus focusing attention on species interconversions in evaluating metal-based drugs. The therapeutic use of metal-chelating agents introduces new species of the target metal in vivo, and this can affect not only its desired detoxification, but also introduce a potential for further mechanisms of toxicity. Examples of therapeutic iron chelator species are discussed in this context, as well as the more recent aspects of development of chelation therapy for uranium exposure.

  19. Are PAHS the Right Metric for Assessing Toxicity Related to Oils, Tars, Creosote and Similar Contaminants in Sediments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oils, tars, and other non-aqueous phase hydrocarbon liquids (NAPLs) are common sources of contamination in aquatic sediments, and the toxicity of such contamination has generally been attributed to component chemicals, particularly PAHs. While there is no doubt PAHs can be toxic ...

  20. Web-based Interspecies Correlation Estimation (Web-ICE) for Acute Toxicity: User Manual Version 3.3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information on the acute toxicity to multiple species is needed for the assessment of the risks to, and the protection of, individuals, populations, and ecological communities. However, toxicity data are limited for the majority of species, while standard test species are general...

  1. The Toxicity of Depleted Uranium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne Briner

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Depleted uranium (DU is an emerging environmental pollutant that is introduced into the environment primarily by military activity. While depleted uranium is less radioactive than natural uranium, it still retains all the chemical toxicity associated with the original element. In large doses the kidney is the target organ for the acute chemical toxicity of this metal, producing potentially lethal tubular necrosis. In contrast, chronic low dose exposure to depleted uranium may not produce a clear and defined set of symptoms. Chronic low-dose, or subacute, exposure to depleted uranium alters the appearance of milestones in developing organisms. Adult animals that were exposed to depleted uranium during development display persistent alterations in behavior, even after cessation of depleted uranium exposure. Adult animals exposed to depleted uranium demonstrate altered behaviors and a variety of alterations to brain chemistry. Despite its reduced level of radioactivity evidence continues to accumulate that depleted uranium, if ingested, may pose a radiologic hazard. The current state of knowledge concerning DU is discussed.

  2. A Miniscale Algal Toxicity Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arensberg, Pia; Hemmingsen, Vicky H.; Nyholm, Niels

    1995-01-01

    A simple miniscale (approx. 1 - 2.5 ml) toxicity test procedure with the freshwater green algaSelenastrum capricornutum is described. The procedure fulfils the validity criteria of the ISO (International Association for Standardization) standard test protocol. Practically identical concentration-...... days to 2 days (minitest as well as larger volume tests) in order to avoid excessive biomass growth. Shortening tests to 2 days appears necessary if light intensity and temperature are near the upper limits of the intervals stated in the ISO standard.......A simple miniscale (approx. 1 - 2.5 ml) toxicity test procedure with the freshwater green algaSelenastrum capricornutum is described. The procedure fulfils the validity criteria of the ISO (International Association for Standardization) standard test protocol. Practically identical concentration......-response curves were obtained with the ISO standard test and the minitest for potassium dichromate and 3,5-dichlorophenol. The minitest is conveniently carried out using 2.5 ml test volume in 20 ml glass scintillation vials, placed on a microplate shaker or on an ordinary shaking table, but smaller containers...

  3. Oral Chromium Exposure and Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hong; Brocato, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is a known carcinogen when inhaled. However, inhalational exposure to Cr(VI) affects only a small portion of the population, mainly by occupational exposures. In contrast, oral exposure to Cr(VI) is widespread and affects many people throughout the globe. In 2008, the National Toxicology Program (NTP) released a 2-year study demonstrating that ingested Cr(VI) was carcinogenic in rats and mice. The effects of Cr(VI) oral exposure is mitigated by reduction in the gut, however a portion evades the reductive detoxification and reaches target tissues. Once Cr(VI) enters the cell, it ultimately gets reduced to Cr(III), which mediates its toxicity via induction of oxidative stress during the reduction while Cr intermediates react with protein and DNA. Cr(III) can form adducts with DNA that may lead to mutations. This review will discuss the potential adverse effects of oral exposure to Cr(VI) by presenting up-to-date human and animal studies, examining the underlying mechanisms that mediate Cr(VI) toxicity, as well as highlighting opportunities for future research. PMID:26231506

  4. Toxic ornamental plants in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Varela Romero

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to contribute information on toxic ornamental plants in Venezuela. Information on taxonomy, common names, habit, origin, status, location, propagation and toxicology (part of the plant, effects was compiled from articles, books, catalogs, herbarium collections. A botanical analysis (taxonomy, common names, habit, origin, status, location, propagation and toxicology (part of the plant, effects was performed. The information about plant poisoning cases was requested to SIMET (Pharmacy faculty -UCV. Seventy-eight species were found in 34 families, the most important were: Apocynaceae (10 genera/12 species, Araceae (9/9, Euphorbiaceae (4/10 and Solanaceae (5/6. Genus Euphorbia was the most species rich. Most species were exotic species (79.5% and shrubs (32.1%. The entire plant (35 and latex (19 were the most toxic parts and the most frequent accidental ingestion (61.5%. Twenty cases were reported between 2009-2013, of which 80% were minors, female and urban areas. There is very little information published in Hispanic American countries

  5. Male-mediated developmental toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Anderson

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Male-mediated developmental toxicity has been of concern for many years. The public became aware of male-mediated developmental toxicity in the early 1990s when it was reported that men working at Sellafield might be causing leukemia in their children. Human and animal studies have contributed to our current understanding of male-mediated effects. Animal studies in the 1980s and 1990s suggested that genetic damage after radiation and chemical exposure might be transmitted to offspring. With the increasing understanding that there is histone retention and modification, protamine incorporation into the chromatin and DNA methylation in mature sperm and that spermatozoal RNA transcripts can play important roles in the epigenetic state of sperm, heritable studies began to be viewed differently. Recent reports using molecular approaches have demonstrated that DNA damage can be transmitted to babies from smoking fathers, and expanded simple tandem repeats minisatellite mutations were found in the germline of fathers who were exposed to radiation from the Chernobyl nuclear power plant disaster. In epidemiological studies, it is possible to clarify whether damage is transmitted to the sons after exposure of the fathers. Paternally transmitted damage to the offspring is now recognized as a complex issue with genetic as well as epigenetic components.

  6. Hypothermia reduces sulphur mustard toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mi Lei; Gong Wenrong; Nelson, Peggy; Martin, Leanne; Sawyer, Thomas W.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of temperature on the development of sulphur mustard (HD)-induced toxicity was investigated in first passage cultures of human skin keratinocytes and on hairless guinea pig skin. When cells exposed to HD were incubated at 37 deg. C, a concentration-dependent decline in viability was observed that was maximal by 2 days. In contrast, no significant HD-induced toxicity was evident up to 4 days posttreatment when the cells were incubated at 25 deg. C. However, these protective effects were lost by 24 h when the cells were switched back to 37 deg. C. The protective effects of hypothermia were also demonstrated when apoptotic endpoints were examined. The HD concentration-dependent induction of fragmented DNA (as quantitated using soluble DNA and the TUNEL reaction), morphology, and p53 expression were all significantly depressed when cell cultures were incubated at 25 deg. C compared to 37 deg. C. When animals were exposed to HD vapour for 2, 4, and 6 min and left at room temperature, lesions were produced whose severity was dependent on exposure time and that were maximal by 72 h posttreatment. Moderate cooling (5-10 deg. C) of HD exposure sites posttreatment (4-6 h) significantly reduced the severity of the resultant lesions. However, in contrast to the in vitro results, these effects were permanent. It appears that the early and noninvasive act of cooling HD-exposed skin may provide a facile means of reducing the severity of HD-induced cutaneous lesions

  7. Toxicity of fluoride to aquatic species and evaluation of toxicity modifying factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearcy, Krysta; Elphick, James; Burnett-Seidel, Charlene

    2015-07-01

    The present study was performed to investigate the toxicity of fluoride to a variety of freshwater aquatic organisms and to establish whether water quality variables contribute substantively to modifying its toxicity. Water hardness, chloride, and alkalinity were tested as possible toxicity modifying factors for fluoride using acute toxicity tests with Hyalella azteca and Oncorhynchus mykiss. Chloride appeared to be the major toxicity modifying factor for fluoride in these acute toxicity tests. The chronic toxicity of fluoride was evaluated with a variety of species, including 3 fish (Pimephales promelas, O. mykiss, and Salvelinus namaycush), 3 invertebrates (Ceriodaphnia dubia, H. azteca, and Chironomus dilutus), 1 plant (Lemna minor), and 1 alga (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata). Hyalella azteca was the most sensitive species overall, and O. mykiss was the most sensitive species of fish. The role of chloride as a toxicity modifying factor was inconsistent between species in the chronic toxicity tests. © 2015 SETAC.

  8. Repeated exposure to iron oxide nanoparticles causes testicular toxicity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundarraj, Kiruthika; Manickam, Vijayprakash; Raghunath, Azhwar; Periyasamy, Madhivadhani; Viswanathan, Mangala Priya; Perumal, Ekambaram

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether repeated exposure to iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe 2 O 3 -NPs) could be toxic to mice testis. Fe 2 O 3 -NPs (25 and 50 mg/kg) were intraperitoneally administered into mice once a week for 4 weeks. Our study showed that Fe 2 O 3 -NPs have the ability to cross the blood-testis barrier to get into the testis. The findings showed that exposure resulted in the accumulation of Fe 2 O 3 -NPs which was evidenced from the iron content and accumulation in the testis. Furthermore, 25 and 50 mg/kg Fe 2 O 3 -NPs administration increased the reactive oxygen species, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyl content, glutathione peroxidase activity, and nitric oxide levels with a concomitant decrease in the levels of antioxidants-superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione, and vitamin C. Increased expression of Bax, cleaved-caspase-3, and cleaved-PARP confirms apoptosis. Serum testosterone levels increased with increased concentration of Fe 2 O 3 -NPs exposure. In addition, the histopathological lesions like vacuolization, detachment, and sloughing of germ cells were also observed in response to Fe 2 O 3 -NPs treatment. The data from our study entailed that testicular toxicity caused by Fe 2 O 3 -NPs exposure may be associated with Fe 2 O 3 -NPs accumulation leading to oxidative stress and apoptosis. Therefore, precautions should be taken in the safe use of Fe 2 O 3 -NPs to avoid complications in the fertility of males. Further research will unravel the possible molecular mechanisms on testicular toxicity of Fe 2 O 3 -NPs. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 32: 594-608, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Allowable shipment frequencies for the transport of toxic gases near nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, D.E.; Heath, D.C.

    1982-10-01

    One part of the safety analysis of offsite hazards for a nuclear power plant is consideration of accidents which could release toxic gases or vapors and thus jeopardize plant safety through incapacitation of the control room operators. The purpose of this work is to provide generic, bounding estimates of the maximum allowable shipping frequencies for the transport of a chemical near the plant, such that the regulatory criteria for the protection of the operators are met. A probabilistic methodology was developed and then applied to the truck and rail transport of an example chemical, chlorine. The current regulatory criteria are discussed in detail. For this study, a maximum allowable probability of occurrence of operator incapacitation of 10 - 5 per year was used in the example calculation for each mode of transport. Comprehensive tables of conditional probabilities are presented. Maximum allowable ahipping frequencies are then derived. These frequencies could be used as part of a generic, bounding criterion for the screening of toxic hazards safety analyses. Unless a transport survey assures shipping frequencies within 8 km of the plant on the order of or lower than 4/week for rail or 35/week for truck, the contol room should be isolatable and the shipping frequency then determines the degree of isolation needed. The need for isolation implies the need for toxic chemical detection at the air intake.For a self-detection case in which the smell threshold is significantly lower than the incapacitation threshold and the control room is isolatable, the corresponding trequencies are 11/week for rail or 115/week for truck. Self-contained breathing equipment is assumed to be used after 5 minutes

  10. Physiological and Nutritional Responses of Two Distinctive Quince (cydonia oblonga mill.) Rootstocks to Boron Toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eraslan, F.; Kucukyumuk, Z.; Polat, M.; Yildirim, A.

    2016-01-01

    The effects of excess boron (B) on some physiological and nutritional parameters of two distinctive quince (Cydonia oblonga Mill.) rootstocks were investigated. Throughout the world, B toxicity is a widely faced problem of soil in arid and semi-arid environments. In a greenhouse study, boron was applied at the rates of 0 and 40 mg kg/sup -1/ soil to quince A and quince C rootstocks. Toxicity of B differentially affected studied parameters and rootstocks. Boron toxicity increased B concentrations of both rootstocks however the increase was more pronounced in quince A rootstock. SPAD readings, (SPAD-meter, Minolta 502 Co Ltd., Japan) as a measure of chlorophyll decreased under B toxicity. Boron toxicity increased membrane permeability and anthocyanin in both rootstocks. Al though, there is rootstocks difference, lipid peroxidation (MDA) and proline and TAA (non-enzymatic total antioxidant activity) increased in response to B toxicity. In general, quince C had lower MDA (Malondialdehyde) and TAA but lower level of proline as compared to quince A. Boron toxicity did not affect the concentrations of P, Ca, Zn and Cu however increased B and Mn concentrations. Magnesium (Mg), Mn and Fe concentrations of quince were found higher than that of quince C. Indicating a genotypic effect, quince A and quince C responded to B toxicity differentially. (author)

  11. Toxicity and toxicokinetics of binary combinations of petroleum hydrocarbon distillates with the earthworm Eisenia andrei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cermak, Janet; Stephenson, Gladys; Birkholz, Detlef; Dixon, D George

    2013-04-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) act via narcosis and are expected to have additive toxicity. However, previous work has demonstrated less-than-additive toxicity with PHC distillates and earthworms. A study was initiated to investigate this through toxicity and toxicokinetic studies with the earthworm Eisenia andrei. Three petroleum distillate fractions, F2 (>C10-C16), F3a (>C16-C23), and F3b (>C23-C34), were used in two binary combinations, F2F3a and F3aF3b. In the toxicity study, clean soil was spiked with equitoxic combinations of the two distillates ranging from 0.5 to 2.5 toxic units. In the toxicokinetic study, a binary combination consisting of one concentration of each distillate was used. On a soil concentration basis, the toxicity of the binary combinations of distillates was less than additive. Accumulation of the individual distillates, however, was generally reduced when a second distillate was present, resulting in lower body burden. This is thought to be due to the presence of a nonaqueous-phase liquid at the soil concentrations used. On a tissue concentration basis, toxicity was closer to additive. The results demonstrate that tissue concentrations are the preferred metric for toxicity for earthworms. They also demonstrate that the Canada-wide soil standards based on individual distillates are likely protective. Copyright © 2013 SETAC.

  12. Formulated Beta-Cyfluthrin Shows Wide Divergence in Toxicity among Bird Species

    OpenAIRE

    Addy-Orduna, Laura M.; Zaccagnini, María-Elena; Canavelli, Sonia B.; Mineau, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    It is generally assumed that the toxicity of pyrethroid insecticides to birds is negligible, though few species have been tested. The oral acute toxicity of formulated beta-cyfluthrin was determined for canaries (Serinus sp.), shiny cowbirds (Molothrus bonariensis), and eared doves (Zenaida auriculata). Single doses were administered to adults by gavage. Approximate lethal doses 50 (LD50) and their confidence intervals were determined by approximate D-optimal design. Canaries were found to be...

  13. Nosological Inaccuracies in death certification in Northern Ireland. A comparative study between hospital doctors and general practitioners.

    OpenAIRE

    Armour, A.; Bharucha, H.

    1997-01-01

    We aimed to audit nosological inaccuracies in death certification in Northern Ireland and to compare performance of hospital doctors and general practitioners. Nosology is the branch of medicine which treats of the classification of disease. 1138 deaths were registered in Northern Ireland in a 4-week period commencing 3/10/94. 195 of these were either registered by HM Coroners (HMC) or required further investigation by their staff; these cases were excluded from the study. The remaining 943 w...

  14. Proceedings of the 36. annual aquatic toxicity workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martel, L.; Triffault-Bouchet, G.; Fournier, M.; Campbell, P.G.C.; Pellerin, J.; Lacroix, E.; Burridge, L.E.

    2010-01-01

    This workshop was held to discuss topics related to aquatic and environmental toxicology. Principles, issues, and recent innovations in aquatic toxicology were reviewed. New developments in environmental monitoring were discussed, as well as issues related to environmental regulation. The workshop was attended by a range of stakeholders from governments, universities, and industry. The sessions were entitled: legacy contaminants 1 organics; nanotoxicology; environmental effects monitoring; oil sands; BFR and other emerging contaminants; biomarkers; neuro and endocrine disrupting compounds; remediation of degraded aquatic environments; legacy contaminants 2 hydrocarbons; waterborne and diet-borne metals; water and sediment standards and criteria; pesticides; amphibians and wildlife toxicology; cyanobacteria; amphibians and wildlife toxicology 2; environmental risk assessment; genomics, protemics, and metabolomics; contamination in the Saguenay-St. Lawrence Marine park; legacy contaminants 3 organics and metals; community level indicators; toxicity tests; toxicity mechanisms; areas of concern; general aquatic toxicology; general legacy contaminants; emerging contaminants; cyanobacteria; amphibians and wildlife toxicology 1; omics in aquatic ecotoxicology; organism or population level indicators; and toxicity tests. The workshop featured 250 presentations, of which 24 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. tabs., figs.

  15. 1997 Toxic Hazards Research Annual Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-05-01

    evaluate the potential for CF 3I to produce reproductive toxicity and to provide additional information on the effect of CF 3I exposure on the...questions raised on the effects of CF 3I exposure following the recently completed acute and subchronic inhalation toxicity studies (Dodd et al., 1997a...individuals from potential toxic consequences resulting from exposure to combustion products of advanced composite materials (ACM), this laboratory has

  16. Trichothecenes: structure-toxic activity relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qinghua; Dohnal, Vlastimil; Kuca, Kamil; Yuan, Zonghui

    2013-07-01

    Trichothecenes comprise a large family of structurally related toxins mainly produced by fungi belonging to the genus Fusarium. Among trichothecenes, type A and type B are of the most concern due to their broad and highly toxic nature. In order to address structure-activity relationships (SAR) of trichothecenes, relationships between structural features and biological effects of trichothecene mycotoxins in mammalian systems are summarized in this paper. The double bond between C-9-C-10 and the 12,13-epoxide ring are essential structural features for trichothecene toxicity. Removal of these groups results in a complete loss of toxicity. A hydroxyl group at C-3 enhances trichothecene toxicity, while this activity decreases gradually when C-3 is substituted with either hydrogen or an acetoxy group. The presence of a hydroxyl group at C-4 promotes slightly lower toxicity than an acetoxy group at the same position. The toxicity for type B trichothecenes decreases if the substituent at C-4 is changed from acetoxy to hydroxyl or hydrogen at C-4 position. The presence of hydroxyl and hydrogen groups on C-15 decreases the trichothecene toxicity in comparison with an acetoxy group attached to this carbon. Trichothecenes toxicity increases when a macrocyclic ring exists between the C-4 and C-15. At C-8 position, an oxygenated substitution at C-8 is essential for trichothecene toxicity, indicating a decrease in the toxicity if substituent change from isovaleryloxy through hydrogen to the hydroxyl group. The presence of a second epoxy ring at C-7-C-8 reduces the toxicity, whereas epoxidation at C-9-C-10 of some macrocyclic trichothecenes increases the activity. Conjugated trichothecenes could release their toxic precursors after hydrolysis in animals, and present an additional potential risk. The SAR study of trichothecenes should provide some crucial information for a better understanding of trichothecene chemical and biological properties in food contamination.

  17. Studies on the toxicity of RSU-1069

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitmore, G.F.; Gulyas, S.

    1986-01-01

    RSU-1069 combines an aziridine function with a 2-nitroimidazole and has been reported to exhibit extraordinary radiosensitization both in vitro and in vivo. Such sensitization appears to be at variance with the electron affinity of the compound. In addition, recent experiments suggest that the compound is highly toxic to hypoxic tumor cells in vivo. On the assumption that the observed radiosensitizing ability may be a manifestation of toxicity and because of the high in vivo toxicity, we have investigated aerobic and hypoxic toxicity, both in wild type CHO cells and in mutants sensitive to a variety of DNA damaging agents. With wild type cells under aerobic conditions, the compound is approximately 50 times as toxic as misonidazole and under hypoxic conditions, approximately 250 times as toxic. The ratio of hypoxic to aerobic toxicity is approximately 80 times. Under aerobic conditions, repair-deficient mutants are 10 times as sensitive to RSU-1069 as wild type cells and approximately 100 times as sensitive under hypoxic conditions. The ratio of hypoxic to aerobic toxicity for the mutant cells is approximately 900. Based on these observations, we suggest that under aerobic conditions the aziridine function is primarily responsible for toxicity, whereas, under hypoxic conditions, the aziridine moiety combined with a reduced 2-nitroimidazole moiety produces a bifunctional agent

  18. Petroleum hydrocarbon toxicity to corals: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Nicholas R; Renegar, D Abigail

    2017-06-30

    The proximity of coral reefs to coastal urban areas and shipping lanes predisposes corals to petroleum pollution from multiple sources. Previous research has evaluated petroleum toxicity to coral using a variety of methodology, including monitoring effects of acute and chronic spills, in situ exposures, and ex situ exposures with both adult and larval stage corals. Variability in toxicant, bioassay conditions, species and other methodological disparities between studies prevents comprehensive conclusions regarding the toxicity of hydrocarbons to corals. Following standardized protocols and quantifying the concentration and composition of toxicant will aid in comparison of results between studies and extrapolation to actual spills. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Thermochemical Wastewater Valorization via Enhanced Microbial Toxicity Tolerance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckham, Gregg T [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Thelhawadigedara, Lahiru Niroshan Jayakody [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Johnson, Christopher W [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Pleitner, Brenna P [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cleveland, Nicholas S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Michener, William E [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Olstad-Thompson, Jessica L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Vardon, Derek R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Whitham, Jason M. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Giannone, Richard J. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Klingeman, Dawn M. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Brown, Robert C. [Iowa State University; Brown, Steven D. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; LanzaTech, Inc.; Hettich, Robert L. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Guss, Adam M. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    2018-04-17

    Thermochemical (TC) biomass conversion processes such as pyrolysis and liquefaction generate considerable amounts of wastewater, which often contains highly toxic compounds that are incredibly challenging to convert via standard wastewater treatment approaches such as anaerobic digestion. These streams represent a cost for TC biorefineries, and a potential valorization opportunity, if effective conversion methods are developed. The primary challenge hindering microbial conversion of TC wastewater is toxicity. In this study, we employ a robust bacterium, Pseudomonas putida, with TC wastewater streams to demonstrate that aldehydes are the most inhibitory compounds in these streams. Proteomics, transcriptomics, and fluorescence-based immunoassays of P. putida grown in a representative wastewater stream indicate that stress results from protein damage, which we hypothesize is a primary toxicity mechanism. Constitutive overexpression of the chaperone genes, groEL, groES, and clpB, in a genome-reduced P. putida strain improves the tolerance towards multiple TC wastewater samples up to 200-fold. Moreover, the concentration ranges of TC wastewater are industrially relevant for further bioprocess development for all wastewater streams examined here, representing different TC process configurations. Furthermore, we demonstrate proof-of-concept polyhydroxyalkanoate production from the usable carbon in an exemplary TC wastewater stream. Overall, this study demonstrates that protein quality control machinery and repair mechanisms can enable substantial gains in microbial tolerance to highly toxic substrates, including heterogeneous waste streams. When coupled to other metabolic engineering advances such as expanded substrate utilization and enhanced product accumulation, this study generally enables new strategies for biological conversion of highly-toxic, organic-rich wastewater via engineered aerobic monocultures or designer consortia.

  20. Animal data on plutonium toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, R.C.

    1975-01-01

    Animal data are necessary in the assessment of plutonium toxicity since it is unlikely that the necessary information on effects from humans will be obtained. Experiments on animals must be designed to provide understanding of the mechanisms at work if the results are to be applied to man since it is a statistical impossibility to design experiments to measure directly the low levels of risk that are of concern. Cancer induction appears to be the risk of greatest concern with the lung and bone apparently the most susceptible organs, depending upon the method of administration. Current limitations on these organs do not appear to have the safety margin formerly believed and there are some uncertainties in the extrapolation from animal data to man. (author)

  1. Toxic hazards of underground excavation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.; Chitnis, V.; Damasian, M.

    1982-09-01

    Inadvertent intrusion into natural or man-made toxic or hazardous material deposits as a consequence of activities such as mining, excavation or tunnelling has resulted in numerous deaths and injuries in this country. This study is a preliminary investigation to identify and document instances of such fatal or injurious intrusion. An objective is to provide useful insights and information related to potential hazards due to future intrusion into underground radioactive-waste-disposal facilities. The methodology used in this study includes literature review and correspondence with appropriate government agencies and organizations. Key categories of intrusion hazards are asphyxiation, methane, hydrogen sulfide, silica and asbestos, naturally occurring radionuclides, and various mine or waste dump related hazards

  2. Physiology and toxicity of fluoride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhar Vineet

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluoride has been described as an essential element needed for normal development and growth of animals and extremely useful for human beings. Fluoride is abundant in the environment and the main source of fluoride to humans is drinking water. It has been proved to be beneficial in recommended doses, and at the same time its toxicity at higher levels has also been well established. Fluoride gets accumulated in hard tissues of the body and has been know to play an important role in mineralization of bone and teeth. At high levels it has been known to cause dental and skeletal fluorosis. There are suggested effects of very high levels of fluoride on various body organs and genetic material. The purpose of this paper is to review the various aspects of fluoride and its importance in human life.

  3. Physiology and toxicity of fluoride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, Vineet; Bhatnagar, Maheep

    2009-01-01

    Fluoride has been described as an essential element needed for normal development and growth of animals and extremely useful for human beings. Fluoride is abundant in the environment and the main source of fluoride to humans is drinking water. It has been proved to be beneficial in recommended doses, and at the same time its toxicity at higher levels has also been well established. Fluoride gets accumulated in hard tissues of the body and has been know to play an important role in mineralization of bone and teeth. At high levels it has been known to cause dental and skeletal fluorosis. There are suggested effects of very high levels of fluoride on various body organs and genetic material. The purpose of this paper is to review the various aspects of fluoride and its importance in human life.

  4. Toxic agents causing cerebellar ataxias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manto, Mario

    2012-01-01

    The cerebellum is particularly vulnerable to intoxication and poisoning, especially so the cerebellar cortex and Purkinje neurons. In humans, the most common cause of a toxic lesion to the cerebellar circuitry is alcohol related, but the cerebellum is also a main target of drug exposure (such as anticonvulsants, antineoplastics, lithium salts, calcineurin inhibitors), drug abuse and addiction (such as cocaine, heroin, phencyclidine), and environmental toxins (such as mercury, lead, manganese, toluene/benzene derivatives). Although data for the prevalence and incidence of cerebellar lesions related to intoxication and poisoning are still unknown in many cases, clinicians should keep in mind the list of agents that may cause cerebellar deficits, since toxin-induced cerebellar ataxias are not rare in daily practice. Moreover, the patient's status may require immediate therapies when the intoxication is life-threatening. 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Toxic hazards of underground excavation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.; Chitnis, V.; Damasian, M.; Lemm, M.; Popplesdorf, N.; Ryan, T.; Saban, C.; Cohen, J.; Smith, C.; Ciminesi, F.

    1982-09-01

    Inadvertent intrusion into natural or man-made toxic or hazardous material deposits as a consequence of activities such as mining, excavation or tunnelling has resulted in numerous deaths and injuries in this country. This study is a preliminary investigation to identify and document instances of such fatal or injurious intrusion. An objective is to provide useful insights and information related to potential hazards due to future intrusion into underground radioactive-waste-disposal facilities. The methodology used in this study includes literature review and correspondence with appropriate government agencies and organizations. Key categories of intrusion hazards are asphyxiation, methane, hydrogen sulfide, silica and asbestos, naturally occurring radionuclides, and various mine or waste dump related hazards.

  6. Guidelines for the disposal of dangerous and toxic wastes so as to minimize or prevent environmental and water pollution

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rudd, RT

    1978-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern society is producing ever increasing quantities of dangerous and/or toxic wastes, which require safe and effective disposal if they are not to pose a threat to our water supplies or the environment in general....

  7. Endogenous thiols enhance thallium toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montes, Sergio; Rios, Camilo [Instituto Nacional de Neurologia y Neurocirugia, ' ' Manuel Velasco Suarez' ' , Departamento de Neuroquimica, Mexico, D.F (Mexico); Soriano, Luz; Monroy-Noyola, Antonio [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos, Laboratorio de Neuroproteccion, Facultad de Farmacia, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2007-10-15

    Either L-methionine (L-met) or L-cysteine (L-cys), given alone and in combination with Prussian blue (PB) was characterized as treatment against acute thallium (Tl) toxicity in rats. Animals were intoxicated with 32 mg/kg Tl acetate corresponding to rat LD{sub 50}. Antidotal treatments were administered during 4 days, as follows: (1) vehicle, (2) L-met 100 mg/kg i.p. twice a day, (3) L-cys 100 mg/kg i.p. twice a day, (4) PB 50 mg/kg oral, twice a day, (5) L-met + PB and (6) L-cys + PB. Mortality was as follows: control 50%; L-met 80%; L-cys 80%; PB 20%; L-met + PB 90% and L-cys + PB 100%. In a different experiment, using 16 mg/kg of Tl, tissue levels of this metal were analyzed. PB treatment statistically diminished Tl content in body organs and brain regions (P < 0.01). Whereas, separate treatments of L-met and L-cys failed to decrease Tl content in organs and brain regions; while its administration in combination with PB (L-met + PB and L-cys + PB groups) lowered Tl levels in body organs in the same extent as PB group. Results indicate that L-met and L-cys administered alone or in combination with PB should not be considered suitable treatments against acute Tl toxic effects because this strategy failed to prevent mortality and Tl accumulation in brain. (orig.)

  8. Amiodarone pulmonary toxicity: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasić Nada

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Amiodarone, an antiarrhythmic drug, which contains iodine compound, has a tendency to accumulate in some organs including the lungs. This is age, drug dosage and therapy duration dependent. Case Outline. We present a case of a 73-year-old man, a smoker, who was admitted as emergency case due to severe dyspnea, tachypnea with signs of cyanosis and respiratory insufficiency. Chest x-ray revealed bilateral diffuse pulmonary shadows in the middle and upper parts of the lungs, similar to those in tuberculosis. His illness history showed chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, arterial hypertension, and atrial fibrillation which has been treated with amiodarone for six years. Sputum smears were negative for mycobacteria, and by the diagnostic elimination method for specific, non-specific and malignant disease the diagnosis of amiodarone pulmonary toxicity was made. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy and pathohistological findings of bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia confirmed the diagnosis. As the first therapeutic approach, amiodarone therapy was stopped. Then, systemic therapy with methylprednisolone 21 (sodium succinate 40 mg i.v. daily during the first two weeks was initiated and continued with daily dose of methylprednisolone 30 mg orally during the next three months. The patient showed a marked subjective improvement during the first week, which was followed by the improvement of respiratory function and withdrawal of pulmonary changes with complete radiographic and CT resolution after eight months. Conclusion. Amiodarone pulmonary toxicity should be taken into consideration, especially in elderly patients with respiratory symptoms and pulmonary changes, even if only a low dose of amiodarone is administred over a longer time period.

  9. Electrocardiographic Manifestations of Benzodiazepine Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Kazemzadeh

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the clinical and electrocardiographic (ECG manifestations of benzodiazepines (BZs. Methods: In this retrospective study, all BZ-poisoned patients hospitalized at Loghman Hakim Hospital between September 2010 and March 2011 were evaluated. Patients’ information including age, sex, time elapsed between the ingestion and presentation, and type of the BZ used were extracted from the patients' charts and recorded. ECGs on presentation to the emergency department (ED were evaluated and parameters such as PR interval, QRS duration, corrected QT, amplitude of S wave in lead I, height of R wave and R/S ratio in the lead aVR were also measured and recorded. Results: Oxazepam, chlordiazepoxide, lorazepam, alprazolam, diazepam, and clonazepam were ingested by 9 (3%, 13 (4.4%, 29 (9.9%, 105 (35.8%, 65 (22.2%, and 72 (24.6% patients, respectively. Mean PR interval was reported to be 0.16 ± 0.03 sec and PR interval of greater than 200 msec was detected in 12 (4.5% patients. Mean QRS duration was 0.07 ± 0.01sec and QRS≥120 msec was observed in 7 (2.6% cases. Conclusion: Diazepam is the only BZ that does not cause QRS widening and oxazepam is the only one not causing PR prolongation. It can be concluded that if a patient refers with a decreased level of consciousness and accompanying signs of BZ toxicity, QRS widening in ECG rules out diazepam, whereas PR prolongation rules out oxazepam toxicity.

  10. Reproductive toxicity testing of vaccines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verdier, Francois; Barrow, Paul C.; Burge, Joeelle

    2003-01-01

    Vaccines play a major role in the prevention of human birth defects by protecting the pregnant woman from teratogenic or otherwise harmful infections. Until now, it has not been common practice to perform preclinical developmental toxicity tests for new vaccines. Despite the excellent safety record of vaccines, increased attention is now being given to the feasibility of screening new vaccines for developmental hazards in animals before their use in humans. Contrary to previous assumptions, many vaccines are now given to potentially pregnant women. Any new components of the vaccine formulation (adjuvants, excipients, stabilisers, preservatives, etc...) could also be tested for influences on development, although based on past experience the risks are limited by the very low dosages used. The conferred immunity following vaccination lasts for several years. Therefore, the developing conceptus may theoretically be exposed to the induced antibodies and/or sensitised T-cells, even if the pregnant woman was last vaccinated during childhood (particularly if she encounters the antigen during pregnancy through exposure to infection). However, it should be kept in mind that viral or bacterial infections represent a higher risk for a pregnant woman than the potential adverse effects related to vaccination or the associated immune response. Non-clinical safety studies may be employed as an aid for hazard identification. In these studies interactions of the vaccine with the maternal immune system or with the developmental systems of the offspring are considered. Post-natal examinations are necessary to detect all possible manifestations of developmental toxicity, such as effects on the immune system. Species selection for the preclinical studies is based on immunogenicity to the vaccine and the relative timing and rate of transfer of maternal antibodies to the offspring. A single study design is proposed for the pre- and post-natal developmental assessments of vaccines in

  11. Bioluminescent Vibrio fischeri assays in the assessment of seasonal and spatial patterns in toxicity of contaminated river sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Jarque

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Several bacteria-based assays, notably Vibrio fischeri luminescence assays, are often used as environmental monitoring tool for toxicity in sediments that may serve as both sinks and secondary source of contamination in aquatic ecosystems. In this study, we used 30-s kinetic bioassays based on V. fischeri to evaluate the toxicity associated to sediments from five localities with different contamination inputs (Morava River and its tributary Drevnice River in the south-eastern part of the Czech Republic. Toxicity assessed as half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50 over the course of a year-long sampling was compared in bottom sediments and freshly trapped particulate material. Standard approach based on testing of aqueous elutriates was compared with toxicity of whole sediments (contact suspension toxicity. Bottom sediments showed lower toxicity compared to freshly trapped suspended materials in all cases. On the other hand, standardized elutriates induced generally weaker effects than suspended sediments likely due to losses during the extraction process. Toxicity generally increased during winter reaching maximum peaks in early spring months in all five sites. Total organic carbon (TOC was found to be highly correlated with toxic effects. Toxicity from sites with direct industrial and agricultural water inputs also correlated with concentrations of metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs. Single time point sampling followed by the extraction and testing of elutriates, do not truly reflect the spatial and temporal variability in natural sediments and may lead to underestimation of ecotoxic risks.

  12. An optoelectronic nose for the detection of toxic gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Sung H; Feng, Liang; Kemling, Jonathan W; Musto, Christopher J; Suslick, Kenneth S

    2009-10-01

    We have developed a simple colorimetric sensor array that detects a wide range of volatile analytes and then applied it to the detection of toxic gases. The sensor consists of a disposable array of cross-responsive nanoporous pigments with colours that are changed by diverse chemical interactions with analytes. Although no single chemically responsive pigment is specific for any one analyte, the pattern of colour change for the array is a unique molecular fingerprint. Clear differentiation among 19 different toxic industrial chemicals (TICs) within two minutes of exposure at concentrations immediately dangerous to life or health were demonstrated. Based on the colour change of the array, quantification of each analyte was accomplished easily, and excellent detection limits were achieved, generally below the permissible exposure limits. Different TICs were identified readily using a standard chemometric approach (hierarchical clustering analysis), with no misclassifications over 140 trials.

  13. An Optoelectronic Nose for Detection of Toxic Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Sung H.; Feng, Liang; Kemling, Jonathan W.; Musto, Christopher J.; Suslick, Kenneth S.

    2009-01-01

    We have developed a simple colorimetric sensor array (CSA) for the detection of a wide range of volatile analytes and applied it to the detection of toxic gases. The sensor consists of a disposable array of cross-responsive nanoporous pigments whose colors are changed by diverse chemical interactions with analytes. Although no single chemically responsive pigment is specific for any one analyte, the pattern of color change for the array is a unique molecular fingerprint. Clear differentiation among 19 different toxic industrial chemicals (TICs) within two minutes of exposure at IDLH (immediately dangerous to life or health) concentration has been demonstrated. Quantification of each analyte is easily accomplished based on the color change of the array, and excellent detection limits have been demonstrated, generally below the PELs (permissible exposure limits). Identification of the TICs was readily achieved using a standard chemometric approach, i.e., hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA), with no misclassifications over 140 trials. PMID:20160982

  14. Audience, consequence, and journal selection in toxic-exposure epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rier, David A

    2004-10-01

    Even preliminary toxic-exposure epidemiology papers can spark "media scares" and questionable reactions amongst the public. Concerns for the social consequences of publication can lead epidemiologists--despite the advantages of visible publication--to choose a more obscure outlet for potentially sensitive studies. Interviews with 61 US toxic-exposure epidemiologists indicate that investigators generally sought visible journals to transmit their work to the widest relevant audience. Yet up to 36-46% of this sample sometimes have sought or would seek to keep their research from a public who, they feared, might misuse their results. Implications for the boundaries between science and society (including evidence of hidden scientific activism and "inert" public activism) are discussed, and six hypotheses for further research are proposed.

  15. Grandfather regulations, new source bias, and state air toxics regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levinson, Arik

    1999-01-01

    This paper uses plant-level data from the Census of Manufactures and the variation in toxic air pollution regulations across states to measure the effects of laws that are more stringent for new sources of pollution than for existing sources (so-called 'grandfather' regulations). Of particular interest is the resulting 'new source bias' and its effects on capital vintage and investment. Two industries are examined: commercial printing, which has a local product market; and paint manufacturing, which has a more national market. In general, there seem to be no statistically significant differences in capital vintage or investment between plants in states that grandfather new sources of pollution, plants in states that have no air toxics regulations, and plants in states that regulate both new and existing sources

  16. Whole acute toxicity removal from industrial and domestic effluents treated by electron beam radiation: emphasis on anionic surfactants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moraes, M.C.F.; Romanelli, M.F; Sena, H.C.; Pasqualini da Silva, G.; Sampa, M.H.O.; Borrely, S.I.

    2004-01-01

    Electron beam radiation has been applied to improve real industrial and domestic effluents received by Suzano wastewater treatment plant. Radiation efficacy has been evaluated as toxicity reduction, using two biological assays. Three sites were sampled and submitted for toxicity assays, anionic surfactant determination and electron beam irradiation. This paper shows the reduction of acute toxicity for both test-organisms, the marine bacteria Vibrio fischeri and the crustacean Daphnia similis. The raw toxic effluents exibitted from 0.6 ppm up to 11.67 ppm for anionic surfactant before being treated by the electron beam. Radiation processing resulted in reduction of the acute toxicity as well as surfactant removal. The final biological effluent was in general less toxic than other sites but the presence of anionic surfactants was evidenced

  17. Whole acute toxicity removal from industrial and domestic effluents treated by electron beam radiation: emphasis on anionic surfactants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moraes, M.C.F. E-mail: mariacristinafm@uol.com.br; Romanelli, M.F; Sena, H.C.; Pasqualini da Silva, G.; Sampa, M.H.O.; Borrely, S.I

    2004-10-01

    Electron beam radiation has been applied to improve real industrial and domestic effluents received by Suzano wastewater treatment plant. Radiation efficacy has been evaluated as toxicity reduction, using two biological assays. Three sites were sampled and submitted for toxicity assays, anionic surfactant determination and electron beam irradiation. This paper shows the reduction of acute toxicity for both test-organisms, the marine bacteria Vibrio fischeri and the crustacean Daphnia similis. The raw toxic effluents exibitted from 0.6 ppm up to 11.67 ppm for anionic surfactant before being treated by the electron beam. Radiation processing resulted in reduction of the acute toxicity as well as surfactant removal. The final biological effluent was in general less toxic than other sites but the presence of anionic surfactants was evidenced.

  18. Field Validation of Toxicity Tests to Evaluate the Potential for Beneficial Use of Produced Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph Bidwell; Jonathan Fisher; Naomi Cooper

    2008-03-31

    This study investigated potential biological effects of produced water contamination derived from occasional surface overflow and possible subsurface intrusion at an oil production site along the shore of Skiatook Lake, Oklahoma. We monitored basic chemistry and acute toxicity to a suite of standard aquatic test species (fathead minnow-Pimephales promelas, Daphnia pulex, Daphnia magna, and Ceriodaphnia dubia) in produced water and in samples taken from shallow groundwater wells on the site. Toxicity identification evaluations and ion toxicity modeling were used to identify toxic constituents in the samples. Lake sediment at the oil production site and at a reference site were also analyzed for brine intrusion chemically and by testing sediment toxicity using the benthic invertebrates, Chironomus dilutus, and Hyallela azteca. Sediment quality was also assessed with in situ survival and growth studies with H. azteca and the Asian clam, Corbicula fluminea, and by benthic macroinvertebrate community sampling. The produced water was acutely toxic to the aquatic test organisms at concentrations ranging from 1% to 10% of the whole produced water sample. Toxicity identification evaluation and ion toxicity modeling indicated major ion salts and hydrocarbons were the primary mixture toxicants. The standardized test species used in the laboratory bioassays exhibited differences in sensitivity to these two general classes of contaminants, which underscores the importance of using multiple species when evaluating produced water toxicity. Toxicity of groundwater was greater in samples from wells near a produced water injection well and an evaporation pond. Principle component analyses (PCA) of chemical data derived from the groundwater wells indicated dilution by lake water and possible biogeochemical reactions as factors that ameliorated groundwater toxicity. Elevated concentrations of major ions were found in pore water from lake sediments, but toxicity from these ions was

  19. Reproductive toxicity of Samanea tubulosa on rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Rafaella Luz de Araújo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Samanea tubulosa is a plant used for medicinal and feeding purposes. However, ingestion of S. tubulosa pods has been associated with bovine abortion. Thus, the aim of this work was to investigate the effects of diet containing 5% of S. tubulosa pod meal on male and female Wistar rats. Diet was administered to male rats (n = 10 for 60 days before mating. Female rats (n = 10 received the treatment for 30 days, during cohabitation and from gestational day (GD 0 to GD20. Treated animals were mated with untreated rats. In male rats, plant consumption caused decreased food consumption and 20% fertility index reduction. Litters from treated males presented lower body weight and crown–rump length. Female rats treated with the plant increased water and food intake and body weight. Decreases in fertility, fecundity and gestation indices and increase of placenta weight and mean number of corpora lutea were found. Thus, owing to the possible general and reproductive toxic effects, long-term consumption of S. tubulosa is not recommended for phytotherapic or food purposes.

  20. Toxicity characterization of waste mobile phone plastics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nnorom, I.C.; Osibanjo, O.

    2009-01-01

    Waste plastic housing units (N = 60) of mobile phones (of different models, and brands), were collected and analyzed for lead, cadmium, nickel and silver using atomic absorption spectrophotometry after acid digestion using a 1:1 mixture of H 2 SO 4 and HNO 3 . The mean (±S.D.) and range of the results are 58.3 ± 50.4 mg/kg (5.0-340 mg/kg) for Pb, 69.9 ± 145 mg/kg (4.6-1005 mg/kg) for Cd, 432 ± 1905 mg/kg (5.0-11,000 mg/kg) for Ni, and 403 ± 1888 mg/kg (5.0-12,500 mg/kg) for Ag. Approximately 90% of the results for the various metals were ≤100 mg/kg. Results greater than 300 mg/kg were generally less than 7% for each metal and could be attributed to exogenous contamination of the samples. These results suggest that there may not be any immediate danger from end-of-life (EoL) mobile phone plastic housing if appropriately treated/managed. However, considering the large quantities generated and the present low-end management practices in most developing countries, such as open burning, there appears a genuine concern over the potential for environmental pollution and toxicity to man and the ecology

  1. Toxic organic compounds from energy production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hites, R.A.

    1991-09-20

    The US Department of Energy's Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER) has supported work in our laboratory since 1977. The general theme of this program has been the identification of potentially toxic organic compounds associated with various combustion effluents, following the fates of these compounds in the environment, and improving the analytical methodology for making these measurements. The projects currently investigation include: an improved sampler for semi-volatile compounds in the atmosphere; the wet and dry deposition of dioxins and furans from the atmosphere; the photodegradation and mobile sources of dioxins and furans; and the bioaccumulation of PAH by tree bark. These projects are all responsive to OHER's interest in the pathways and mechanisms by which energy-related agents move through and are modified by the atmosphere''. The projects on gas chromatographic and liquid chromatographic tandem mass spectrometry are both responsive to OHER's interest in new and more sensitive technologies for chemical measurements''. 35 refs., 9 figs.

  2. Consolidating Risk Estimates for Radiation-Induced Complications in Individual Patient: Late Rectal Toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prior, Phillip; Devisetty, Kiran; Tarima, Sergey S.; Lawton, Colleen A.F.; Semenenko, Vladimir A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To test the feasibility of a new approach to synthesize published normal tissue complication data using late rectal toxicity in prostate cancer as an example. Methods and Materials: A data survey was performed to identify the published reports on the dose–response relationships for late rectal toxicity. The risk estimates for Grade 1 or greater, Grade 2 or greater, and Grade 3 or greater toxicity were obtained for a test cohort of patients treated at our institution. The influence of the potential factors that might have affected the reported toxicity levels was investigated. The studies that did not conform to the general data trends were excluded, and single, combined risk estimates were derived for each patient and toxicity level. Results: A total of 21 studies of nonoverlapping patient populations were identified. Three studies provided dose–response models for more than one level of toxicity. Of these 21 studies, 6, 14, and 5 were used to derive the initial risk estimates for Grade 1, 2, and 3 or greater toxicity, respectively. A comparison of risk estimates between the studies reporting rectal bleeding and rectal toxicity (bleeding plus other symptoms) or between studies with follow-up <36 months and ≥36 months did not reveal significant differences (p ≥ .29 for all comparisons). After excluding three reports that did not conform to the general data trends, the combined risk estimates were derived from 5 reports (647 patients), 11 reports (3,369 patients), and 5 reports (1,330 patients) for Grade 1, 2, and 3 or greater toxicity, respectively. Conclusions: The proposed approach is feasible and allows for more systematic use of published dose–response data to estimate the complication risks for the individual patient.

  3. Consolidating Risk Estimates for Radiation-Induced Complications in Individual Patient: Late Rectal Toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prior, Phillip; Devisetty, Kiran [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Tarima, Sergey S. [Division of Biostatistics, Institute for Health and Society, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Lawton, Colleen A.F. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Semenenko, Vladimir A., E-mail: vsemenenko@mcw.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: To test the feasibility of a new approach to synthesize published normal tissue complication data using late rectal toxicity in prostate cancer as an example. Methods and Materials: A data survey was performed to identify the published reports on the dose-response relationships for late rectal toxicity. The risk estimates for Grade 1 or greater, Grade 2 or greater, and Grade 3 or greater toxicity were obtained for a test cohort of patients treated at our institution. The influence of the potential factors that might have affected the reported toxicity levels was investigated. The studies that did not conform to the general data trends were excluded, and single, combined risk estimates were derived for each patient and toxicity level. Results: A total of 21 studies of nonoverlapping patient populations were identified. Three studies provided dose-response models for more than one level of toxicity. Of these 21 studies, 6, 14, and 5 were used to derive the initial risk estimates for Grade 1, 2, and 3 or greater toxicity, respectively. A comparison of risk estimates between the studies reporting rectal bleeding and rectal toxicity (bleeding plus other symptoms) or between studies with follow-up <36 months and {>=}36 months did not reveal significant differences (p {>=} .29 for all comparisons). After excluding three reports that did not conform to the general data trends, the combined risk estimates were derived from 5 reports (647 patients), 11 reports (3,369 patients), and 5 reports (1,330 patients) for Grade 1, 2, and 3 or greater toxicity, respectively. Conclusions: The proposed approach is feasible and allows for more systematic use of published dose-response data to estimate the complication risks for the individual patient.

  4. A comparison of dose-volume constraints derived using peak and longitudinal definitions of late rectal toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulliford, Sarah L.; Partridge, Mike; Sydes, Matthew R.; Andreyev, Jervoise; Dearnaley, David P.

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose: Accurate reporting of complications following radiotherapy is an important part of the feedback loop to improve radiotherapy techniques. The definition of toxicity is normally regarded as the maximum or peak (P) grade of toxicity reported over the follow-up period. An alternative definition (integrated longitudinal toxicity (ILT)) is proposed which takes into account both the severity and the duration of the complication. Methods and materials: In this work, both definitions of toxicity were used to derive dose-volume constraints for six specific endpoints of late rectal toxicity from a cohort of patients who received prostate radiotherapy in the MRC RT01 trial. The dose-volume constraints were derived using ROC analysis for 30, 40, 50, 60, 65 and 70 Gy. Results: Statistically significant dose-volume constraints were not derived for all dose levels tested for each endpoint and toxicity definition. However, where both definitions produced constraints, there was generally good agreement. Variation in the derived dose-volume constraints was observed to be larger between endpoints than between the two definitions of toxicity. For one endpoint (stool frequency (LENT/SOM)) statistically significant dose-volume constraints were only derived using ILT. Conclusions: The longitudinal definition of toxicity (ILT) produced results consistent with those derived using peak toxicity and in some cases provided additional information which was not seen by analysing peak toxicity alone.

  5. TOXICITY BEHAVIORS IN ORGANIZATIONS: STUDY OF RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY OF TOXIC EMOTIONAL EXPERIENCES SCALE

    OpenAIRE

    Bektas, Meral; Erkal, Pinar

    2016-01-01

    In toxic organizations which are mostly destructive instead of being constrictive towards its employees, toxicity behaviors emerge as a result of the formal and informal relationships. Toxicity behaviors are often negatively affect motivation, job satisfaction or performance of the employees in workplace. Basic toxicity behaviors in organizations are: extreme jealousy, biting words, emphasis  superiority emphasis, getting angry, offending employees, strict control, heavy job workload, limited...

  6. Classification of baseline toxicants for QSAR predictions to replace fish acute toxicity studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nendza, Monika; Müller, Martin; Wenzel, Andrea

    2017-03-22

    Fish acute toxicity studies are required for environmental hazard and risk assessment of chemicals by national and international legislations such as REACH, the regulations of plant protection products and biocidal products, or the GHS (globally harmonised system) for classification and labelling of chemicals. Alternative methods like QSARs (quantitative structure-activity relationships) can replace many ecotoxicity tests. However, complete substitution of in vivo animal tests by in silico methods may not be realistic. For the so-called baseline toxicants, it is possible to predict the fish acute toxicity with sufficient accuracy from log K ow and, hence, valid QSARs can replace in vivo testing. In contrast, excess toxicants and chemicals not reliably classified as baseline toxicants require further in silico, in vitro or in vivo assessments. Thus, the critical task is to discriminate between baseline and excess toxicants. For fish acute toxicity, we derived a scheme based on structural alerts and physicochemical property thresholds to classify chemicals as either baseline toxicants (=predictable by QSARs) or as potential excess toxicants (=not predictable by baseline QSARs). The step-wise approach identifies baseline toxicants (true negatives) in a precautionary way to avoid false negative predictions. Therefore, a certain fraction of false positives can be tolerated, i.e. baseline toxicants without specific effects that may be tested instead of predicted. Application of the classification scheme to a new heterogeneous dataset for diverse fish species results in 40% baseline toxicants, 24% excess toxicants and 36% compounds not classified. Thus, we can conclude that replacing about half of the fish acute toxicity tests by QSAR predictions is realistic to be achieved in the short-term. The long-term goals are classification criteria also for further groups of toxicants and to replace as many in vivo fish acute toxicity tests as possible with valid QSAR

  7. Toxicity testing of four silver nanoparticle-coated dental castings in 3-D LO2 cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yi-Ying; Chu, Qiang; Shi, Xu-Er; Zheng, Xiao-Dong; Shen, Xiao-Ting; Zhang, Yan-Zhen

    To address the controversial issue of the toxicity of dental alloys and silver nanoparticles in medical applications, an in vivo-like LO2 3-D model was constructed within polyvinylidene fluoride hollow fiber materials to mimic the microenvironment of liver tissue. The use of microscopy methods and the measurement of liver-specific functions optimized the model for best cell performances and also proved the superiority of the 3-D LO2 model when compared with the traditional monolayer model. Toxicity tests were conducted using the newly constructed model, finding that four dental castings coated with silver nanoparticles were toxic to human hepatocytes after cell viability assays. In general, the toxicity of both the castings and the coated silver nanoparticles aggravated as time increased, yet the nanoparticles attenuated the general toxicity by preventing metal ion release, especially at high concentrations.

  8. Toxic effects on and structure-toxicity relationships of phenylpropanoids, terpenes, and related compounds in Aedes aegypti larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Sandra R L; Silva, Viviane B; Melo, Manuela A; Barbosa, Juliana D F; Santos, Roseli L C; de Sousa, Damião P; Cavalcanti, Sócrates C H

    2010-12-01

    In the search for toxic compounds against Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae, a collection of commercially available aromatic and aliphatic diversely substituted compounds were selected and evaluated. p-Cymene exhibited the highest larvicidal potency LC₅₀ = 51 ppm, whereas 1,8-cineole exhibited the lowest activity value LC₅₀ = 1419 ppm. To aid future work on the search for larvicidal compounds, the structure-toxicity relationships of this collection have been evaluated. The presence of lipophilic groups results in an overall increase in potency. In general, the presence of hydroxyl groups resulted in less potent compounds. However, methylation of such hydroxyls led to an overall increase in potency. The most potent compounds showed comparably good larvicidal activity in A. aegypti larvae as other terpenes, which we assume to be the result of the increased lipophilicity.

  9. Comparative Toxicity of Nanoparticulate CuO and ZnO to Soil Bacterial Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousk, Johannes; Ackermann, Kathrin; Curling, Simon F.; Jones, Davey L.

    2012-01-01

    The increasing industrial application of metal oxide Engineered Nano-Particles (ENPs) is likely to increase their environmental release to soils. While the potential of metal oxide ENPs as environmental toxicants has been shown, lack of suitable control treatments have compromised the power of many previous assessments. We evaluated the ecotoxicity of ENP (nano) forms of Zn and Cu oxides in two different soils by measuring their ability to inhibit bacterial growth. We could show a direct acute toxicity of nano-CuO acting on soil bacteria while the macroparticulate (bulk) form of CuO was not toxic. In comparison, CuSO4 was more toxic than either oxide form. Unlike Cu, all forms of Zn were toxic to soil bacteria, and the bulk-ZnO was more toxic than the nano-ZnO. The ZnSO4 addition was not consistently more toxic than the oxide forms. Consistently, we found a tight link between the dissolved concentration of metal in solution and the inhibition of bacterial growth. The inconsistent toxicological response between soils could be explained by different resulting concentrations of metals in soil solution. Our findings suggested that the principal mechanism of toxicity was dissolution of metal oxides and sulphates into a metal ion form known to be highly toxic to bacteria, and not a direct effect of nano-sized particles acting on bacteria. We propose that integrated efforts toward directly assessing bioavailable metal concentrations are more valuable than spending resources to reassess ecotoxicology of ENPs separately from general metal toxicity. PMID:22479561

  10. Hypofractionated Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Carcinoma of the Prostate: Analysis of Toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coote, Joanna H.; Wylie, James P.; Cowan, Richard A.; Logue, John P.; Swindell, Ric; Livsey, Jacqueline E.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Dose escalation for prostate cancer improves biological control but with a significant increase in late toxicity. Recent estimates of low α/β ratio for prostate cancer suggest that hypofractionation may result in biological advantage. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) should enable dose escalation to the prostate while reducing toxicity to local organs. We report late toxicity data of a hypofractionated IMRT regime. Methods and Materials: Eligible men had T2-3N0M0 adenocarcinoma prostate, and either Gleason score ≥ 7 or prostate-specific antigen 20-50 ng/L. Patients received 57-60 Gy to prostate in 19-20 fractions using five-field IMRT. All received hormonal therapy for 3 months before radiotherapy to a maximum of 6 months. Toxicity was assessed 2 years postradiotherapy using the RTOG criteria, LENT/SOMA, and UCLA prostate index assessment tools. Results: Acute toxicity was favorable with no RTOG Grade 3 or 4 toxicity. At 2 years, there was 4% Grade 2 bowel and 4.25% Grade 2 bladder toxicity. There was no Grade 3 or 4 bowel toxicity; one patient developed Grade 3 bladder toxicity. UCLA data showed a slight improvement in urinary function at 2 years compared with pretreatment. LENT/SOMA assessments demonstrated general worsening of bowel function at 2 years. Patients receiving 60 Gy were more likely to develop problems with bowel function than those receiving 57 Gy. Conclusions: These data demonstrate that hypofractionated radiotherapy using IMRT for prostate cancer is well tolerated with minimal late toxicity at 2 years posttreatment. Ongoing studies are looking at the efficacy of hypofractionated regimes with respect to biological control.

  11. Estimation of Toxicity Equivalent Concentration (TEQ) of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Estimation of Toxicity Equivalent Concentration (TEQ) of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils from Idu Ekpeye playground and University of Port ... Effective soil remediation and detoxification method like Dispersion by chemical reaction technology should be deployed to clean-up sites to avoid soil toxicity ...

  12. Phytochemical screening, proximate analysis and acute toxicity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phytochemical screening results indicate the presence of saponins, flavonoids, phytosterols and phenols. Acute toxicity study showed there was no mortality at 8000 mg/kg of the extract. The results indicate that the plant is rich in phytochemicals and is relatively safe. Key words: Phytochemicals, acute toxicity, proximate ...

  13. National Toxic Substance Incidents Program (NTSIP)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-02-03

    This podcast gives an overview of the three components of the National Toxic Substance Incidents Program: state surveillance, national database, and response teams.  Created: 2/3/2011 by Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry.   Date Released: 2/3/2011.

  14. Chapter 6: Selenium Toxicity to Aquatic Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter addresses the characteristics and nature of organic selenium (Se) toxicity to aquatic organisms, based on the most current state of scientific knowledge. As such, the information contained in this chapter relates to the 'toxicity assessment' phase of aquatic ecologi...

  15. Determination of toxic elements in Malaysian foodstuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamzah, Z.; Wood, A.K.H.; Mahmood, C.S.; Hamzah, S.

    1988-01-01

    This project is concentrating on the analysis of toxic elements content in seafoods including fishes, mussel, squid and prawn. Samples were collected from various places throughout Malay Peninsular. Samples were prepared according to RCA research protocol - nuclear techniques for toxic element in foodstuffs. Techniques used for elemental analysis were neutron activation analysis (instrumental and radiochemical) and anodic stripping voltametry. (author). 9 refs, 9 tabs

  16. Toxicity of Pesticides. Agrichemical Fact Sheet 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hock, Winand K.

    This fact sheet gives the acute oral and dermal toxicity (LD 50) of over 250 pesticides in lab animals. The chemicals are categorized as fungicides, herbicides, insecticides, or miscellaneous compounds. One or more trade names are given for each pesticide. In addition, a brief explanation of toxicity determination is given. (BB)

  17. ACUTE TOXICITY STUDIES AND ANTIDOTAL THERAPY OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACUTE TOXICITY STUDIES AND ANTIDOTAL THERAPY OF ETHANOL EXTRACT OF JATROPHA CURCAS SEEDS IN EXPERIMENTAL ANIMALS. ... with the aim of investigating the toxicity of the ethanol seed extract of JC in rats, mice, and chicks; and also to use conventional antidotes to treat intoxication in rats due to ...

  18. The toxicity of particles from combustion processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henderson, R.F.; Mauderly, J.L.

    1991-01-01

    The pulmonary toxicity of inhaled particles will depend on their size, solubility and inherent toxicity. Many combustion-derived particles, such as soot and fly ash, are of a respirable size and, being poorly soluble, are retained for prolonged periods in the lung. The acute toxicity of fly ash from coal combustion was compared to that of a known toxic particle, alpha-quartz, by exposures of rats to 35 mg/m 3 of each type of particle for 7 hr/day, 5 days/wk for 4 wk. The acute pulmonary toxicity was measured by analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. One year after the exposures, fibrosis with granulomas was observed in the quartz-exposed rats, while little or no fibrosis developed in the fly-ash-exposed rats. The toxicity of soot from diesel exhaust was determined by chronic (30 mo) exposures of rats, 7 hr/day, 5 days/wk to exhaust containing 0.35, 3.5 or 7.0 mg/m 3 soot. The two higher exposures caused persistent pulmonary inflammation, fibrosis and neoplasmas. Rats exposed to the lowest concentration demonstrated no toxic responses and there was no life shortening caused by any exposure. Ongoing comparative studies indicate that pure carbon black particles cause responses similar to those caused by diesel exhaust, indicating that much of the toxicity induced by the diesel soot results from the presence of the large lung burdens of carbonaceous particles

  19. Predictive Model of Systemic Toxicity (SOT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In an effort to ensure chemical safety in light of regulatory advances away from reliance on animal testing, USEPA and L’Oréal have collaborated to develop a quantitative systemic toxicity prediction model. Prediction of human systemic toxicity has proved difficult and remains a ...

  20. Toxicity identification evaluation of cosmetics industry wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo, Elisa Dias; Mounteer, Ann H; Leão, Lucas Henrique de Souza; Bahia, Renata Cibele Barros; Campos, Izabella Maria Ferreira

    2013-01-15

    The cosmetics industry has shown steady growth in many developing countries over the past several years, yet little research exists on toxicity of wastewaters it generates. This study describes a toxicity identification evaluation conducted on wastewater from a small Brazilian hair care products manufacturing plant. Physicochemical and ecotoxicological analyses of three wastewater treatment plant inlet and outlet samples collected over a six month period revealed inefficient operation of the treatment system and thus treated wastewater organic matter, suspended solids and surfactants contents consistently exceeded discharge limits. Treated wastewater also presented high acute toxicity to Daphnia similis and chronic toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia and Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata. This toxicity was associated with suspended solids, volatile or sublatable and non-polar to moderately polar organic compounds that could be recovered in filtration and aeration residues. Seven surfactants used in the largest quantities in the production process were highly toxic to P. subcapitata and D. similis. These results indicated that surfactants, important production raw materials, are a probable source of toxicity, although other possible sources, such as fragrances, should not be discarded. Improved treatment plant operational control may reduce toxicity and lower impact of wastewater discharge to receiving waters. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. ALKALOIDAL COMPOSITION AND TOXICITY STUDIES OF THREE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mattock's test for unsaturated pyrrolizidine alkaloids (hepatotoxic) revealed that only C. retusa contained these alkaloids amongst the three species. This indicated that this is a potentially toxic specie. The alkaloids of C. retusa were toxic to albino (Wistar) rats. Marked microscopic lesions were found, principally in the liver.

  2. Radiation treatment of toxic chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, M.J.; Jung, I.H.; Jo, S.K.

    2010-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were commercially produced from 1920s as complex mixtures containing multiple isomers for a variety of applications. They are very toxic, chemically stable and resist microbial, photochemical, chemical, and thermal degradation. The public, legal, and scientific concerns about PCBs arose from research indicating they were environmental contaminants that had a potential to adversely impact the environment, and, therefore, were undesirable as commercial products. Eventually, most producers reduced or stopped production of PCBs in the 1970s. Stockholm convention on POPs (Persistent Organic Pollutants), which was effective on May 2004 and 151 nations including Korea were joined on June 2005, asked to dispose of PCBs by 2028 with environmental friendly methods. Korean government also has declared to conduct by 2015. According to the Environmental law of Korea, over 2 ppm of PCBs has to be decomposed by legal methods of incineration and thermal destruction. But those are inapplicable owing to the environmental groups. KAERI(Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) has recently developed a remarkable technology for radiation treatment of toxic chemicals including chlorides using an electron beam accelerator. Electron beam accelerator of 2.5 MeV energy and 100 kW power capacity was used to decompose of PCBs having been used as a commercial transformer oil for more than 30 years. The oil were irradiated with ∼ 0.1 percent of TEA (Triethyl Amin) to make chloride ion aparted off from the PCBs into precipitate at the conditions of normal temperature and pressure. The concentrations of PCBs were measured by GC (Gas Chromatography) with ECD (Electron Capture Detector) following the KS (Korean Standard) test procedure. Electron beam should be a useful tool for environmental conservation. Residual concentrations of PCBs after irradiation were depended on the absorption dose of electron beam energy. Advantages comparing to other methods such as

  3. Update on ocular toxicity of ethambutol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla Makunyane

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this review is to update clinicians on available literature on the ocular toxicity of ethambutol and the type of eye care to be provided to patients treated with these medications. Ethambutol is a commonly used first-line anti-tuberculosis drug. Since its first use in the 1960s, ocular toxicity is described as related to dose and duration, and it is reversible on therapy discontinuation. However, the reversibility of the toxic optic neuropathy remains controversial. The mechanism of ocular toxicity owing to ethambutol is still under investigation. Other than discontinuing the drug, no specific treatment is available for the optic neuropathy caused by ethambutol. Doctors prescribing ethambutol should be aware of the ocular toxicity, and the drug should be used with proper patient education and ophthalmic monitoring.

  4. Harmonizing human exposure and toxicity characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fantke, Peter; Jolliet, O.; McKone, T.E.

    2017-01-01

    The UNEP-SETAC Life Cycle Initiative has launched a project to provide global guidance and build consensus on environmental life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) indicators. Human health effects from exposure to toxic chemicals was selected as impact category due to high relevance of human toxicity...... and harmonizing human toxicity characterization in LCIA. Building on initial work for the far-field and indoor air environments, and combining it with latest work on near-field consumer and occupational exposure assessment, dose-response and severity data, we aim at providing revised guidance on the development...... and use of impact factors for toxic chemicals. We propose to couple fate processes in consumer and occupational environments with existing environmental compartments and processes via a consistent and mass balance-based set of transfer fractions to quantify overall aggregated exposure to toxic substances...

  5. Use of a 4-week up-titration regimen of roflumilast in patients with severe COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watz H

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Henrik Watz,1 Nitin Bagul,2 Klaus F Rabe,3,4 Stephen Rennard,5,6 Vijay KT Alagappan,7 Jonas Román,8 Axel Facius,9 Peter MA Calverley10 1Pulmonary Research Institute at LungenClinic Grosshansdorf, Airway Research Center North, German Center for Lung Research, Grosshansdorf, Germany; 2DNA Medical Ltd, Langley, UK; 3Department of Pulmonary Medicine, LungenClinic Grosshansdorf, Airway Research Center North, German Center for Lung Research, Grosshansdorf, 4Department of Medicine, Christian Albrecht University Kiel, Kiel, Germany; 5Department of Internal Medicine, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE, USA; 6AstraZeneca, Cambridge, UK; 7AstraZeneca, Gaithersburg, MD, USA; 8AstraZeneca R&D, Gothenburg, Sweden; 9thinkQ2 AG, Baar, Switzerland; 10Department of Clinical Sciences, Institute of Ageing and Chronic Disease, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK Background: The oral selective phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitor roflumilast (ROF reduces exacerbations in patients with severe COPD. Adverse events (AEs can cause early ROF discontinuation. Alternative dosing strategies may help patients continue their therapy. Methods: In this multicenter, double-blind trial, 1,321 patients with severe COPD were randomized 1:1:1 to 4 weeks’ treatment with ROF 250 µg once daily (OD, 500 µg every other day (EOD, or 500 µg OD, each followed by ROF 500 µg OD for 8 weeks, plus standard therapy. The primary end point was the percentage of patients prematurely discontinuing study treatment. Results: Patients in the 250 µg OD/500 µg OD group had significantly fewer treatment discontinuations (odds ratio [OR] 0.66 [95% CI 0.47–0.93], p=0.017 and lower rates of AEs of interest such as diarrhea, nausea, headache, decreased appetite, insomnia and abdominal pain (OR 0.63 [95% CI 0.47–0.83], p=0.001 compared with those in the 500 µg OD group. Although rates of discontinuation and AEs of interest were numerically lower with ROF 500 µg EOD/500 µg OD, the difference was not significant (OR 0.76, p=0.114, and OR 0.78, p=0.091, respectively compared with ROF 500 µg OD. Conclusion: A dose of ROF 250 µg OD for 4 weeks before escalation to the approved maintenance dose of 500 µg OD resulted in reduced treatment discontinuation and improved tolerability. Keywords: roflumilast, COPD, discontinuation, adverse event

  6. Effect of 4 weeks of Pilates on the body composition of young girls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jago, R; Jonker, ML; Missaghian, M; Baranowski, T

    Background. There is a need to find ways to increase the physical activity levels and improve the body composition and blood pressure of girls. Methods. Thirty 11-year-old girls were recruited from two after school programs in Houston Texas in Spring 2005. Participants from one program (16) were

  7. Intramedullary spinal immature teratoma: resolution of quadriplegia following resection in a 4-week-old infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickols, Hilary Highfield; Chambless, Lola B; Carson, Robert P; Coffin, Cheryl M; Pearson, Matthew M; Abel, Ty W

    2010-12-01

    Intramedullary spinal cord teratomas are rare entities in infants. Management of these lesions is primarily surgical, with outcome dependent on rapid surgical decompression and complete gross-total tumor resection. The lesions are typically of the mature type, with immature teratomas displaying unique pathological features. The authors report a case of an extensive intramedullary immature teratoma in an infant with resolution of quadriplegia following gross-total radical resection. At the 1-year follow-up, there was radiographic evidence of tumor, and surgical reexploration yielded portions of immature teratoma and extensive gliosis.

  8. Very low calorie diet without aspartame in obese subjects: improved metabolic control after 4 weeks treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norén, Erik; Forssell, Henrik

    2014-07-28

    Very low calorie diet (VLCD) is routinely used in programs for treatment of obesity and before bariatric surgery in order to reduce risk of postoperative complications. Aspartame, an artificial sweetener, is commonly used in VLCD and is well approved as a food additive without any adverse effects. The development of a new fructose containing VLCD formula without aspartame raises questions as to effects on glucose and lipid control. As part of an ongoing study of a novel bariatric surgery procedure, twenty-five obese subjects with mean body mass index (BMI) 39.8 kg/m2 and mean age of 48.8 years enrolled in a single center observational study. Seven subjects presented with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The subjects underwent four weeks dietary treatment with VLCD Slanka (Slanka). Blood samples including fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c, cholesterol and triglycerides were performed at start and after four weeks of diet. Blood pressure and weight were noted. All subjects completed the diet without any adverse events. Mean weight reduction was 8.2 kg with 95% confidence interval 7.1-9.2 kg (p = 0.001). Excess weight (i.e. proportion of weight exceeding BMI 25) loss decreased by median 19.5% (inter quartile range (IQR) 16,8-24,2). Median fasting plasma glucose was at inclusion 5,6 mmol/l (IQR 5,3-6,8) and after diet 4.8 mmol/l (IQR 4,6-5,2) (p = 0.001). Median HbA1c changed from 39 mmol/mol (IQR 37-44) to 37 mmol/mol (IQR 35-43) (p = 0.001). There was also significant reduction in cholesterol and triglyceride levels as well as in systolic blood pressure. Changes in other monitored blood chemistry values were without clinical importance. Four weeks treatment with fructose containing VLCD of obese subjects preparing for bariatric surgery gave a substantial weight reduction without any significant negative metabolic effects.

  9. Addressing Common Cloud-Radiation Errors from 4-hour to 4-week Model Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, S.; Sun, S.; Grell, G. A.; Green, B.; Olson, J.; Kenyon, J.; James, E.; Smirnova, T. G.; Brown, J. M.

    2017-12-01

    Cloud-radiation representation in models for subgrid-scale clouds is a known gap from subseasonal-to-seasonal models down to storm-scale models applied for forecast duration of only a few hours. NOAA/ESRL has been applying common physical parameterizations for scale-aware deep/shallow convection and boundary-layer mixing over this wide range of time and spatial scales, with some progress to be reported in this presentation. The Grell-Freitas scheme (2014, Atmos. Chem. Phys.) and MYNN boundary-layer EDMF scheme (Olson / Benjamin et al. 2016 Mon. Wea. Rev.) have been applied and tested extensively for the NOAA hourly updated 3-km High-Resolution Rapid Refresh (HRRR) and 13-km Rapid Refresh (RAP) model/assimilation systems over the United States and North America, with targeting toward improvement to boundary-layer evolution and cloud-radiation representation in all seasons. This representation is critical for both warm-season severe convective storm forecasting and for winter-storm prediction of snow and mixed precipitation. At the same time the Grell-Freitas scheme has been applied also as an option for subseasonal forecasting toward improved US week 3-4 prediction with the FIM-HYCOM coupled model (Green et al 2017, MWR). Cloud/radiation evaluation using CERES satellite-based estimates have been applied to both 12-h RAP (13km) and also during Weeks 1-4 from 32-day FIM-HYCOM (60km) forecasts. Initial results reveal that improved cloud representation is needed for both resolutions and now is guiding further refinement for cloud representation including with the Grell-Freitas scheme and with the updated MYNN-EDMF scheme (both now also in global testing as well as with the 3km HRRR and 13km RAP models).

  10. Spatial and temporal distributions of toxicity in receiving waters around an oil effluent discharge site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, P.R.

    1994-01-01

    Distributions of pollutants from a point source discharge within the water column may vary in both time and space. In this study, they examined the spatial and temporal patterns of toxicity from an oil production effluent (produced water) discharge plume using sea urchin fertilization and development bioassays. Specifically, they tested the sensitivity and response patterns of sea urchin gametes and early life stages exposed to receiving waters sampled along a 1 km transact near an active produced water outfall. Fertilization success and development of larvae to the pluteus stage varied significantly with proximity to the outfall, with reduced fertilization and larval development found closer to the outfall. Although estimated toxicity in receiving water samples, based on fertilization success, was variable in time -- perhaps responding to variation in the quantity or make-up of produced water discharges -- the general spatial pattern of toxicity along the sampling transact remained relatively constant. Strong evidence that field toxicity was directly attributable to produced water effluents was provided by sampling the receiving waters while the produced water discharge was not operating. At such a time, no toxicity was found at any of the field sites. Receiving water toxicity data, along with toxicity data from the effluent itself, were used to prepare a ''map'' of effective effluent concentrations along the sampling transect

  11. A review of toxicity and mechanisms of individual and mixtures of heavy metals in the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiangyang; Cobbina, Samuel J; Mao, Guanghua; Xu, Hai; Zhang, Zhen; Yang, Liuqing

    2016-05-01

    The rational for the study was to review the literature on the toxicity and corresponding mechanisms associated with lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd), and arsenic (As), individually and as mixtures, in the environment. Heavy metals are ubiquitous and generally persist in the environment, enabling them to biomagnify in the food chain. Living systems most often interact with a cocktail of heavy metals in the environment. Heavy metal exposure to biological systems may lead to oxidation stress which may induce DNA damage, protein modification, lipid peroxidation, and others. In this review, the major mechanism associated with toxicities of individual metals was the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Additionally, toxicities were expressed through depletion of glutathione and bonding to sulfhydryl groups of proteins. Interestingly, a metal like Pb becomes toxic to organisms through the depletion of antioxidants while Cd indirectly generates ROS by its ability to replace iron and copper. ROS generated through exposure to arsenic were associated with many modes of action, and heavy metal mixtures were found to have varied effects on organisms. Many models based on concentration addition (CA) and independent action (IA) have been introduced to help predict toxicities and mechanisms associated with metal mixtures. An integrated model which combines CA and IA was further proposed for evaluating toxicities of non-interactive mixtures. In cases where there are molecular interactions, the toxicogenomic approach was used to predict toxicities. The high-throughput toxicogenomics combines studies in genetics, genome-scale expression, cell and tissue expression, metabolite profiling, and bioinformatics.

  12. Advanced epithelial ovarian cancer: toxicity of whole abdominal irradiation after operation, combination chemotherapy, and reoperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schray, M.F.; Martinez, A.; Howes, A.E.; Ballon, S.C.; Podratz, K.C.; Sikic, B.I.; Malkasian, G.D.

    1986-01-01

    Thirty-five patients with advanced ovarian cancer have received, as salvage therapy, irradiation consisting of 30 Gy to the entire abdominal contents with partial liver/kidney shielding and boosts to 42 and 51 Gy for the paraaortic/diaphragmatic and pelvic regions, respectively. These patients had received 6 to 25 cycles (median, 11 cycles) of prior combination chemotherapy (included cisplatin in 30), with second-look laparotomy performed in 33; 24 (68%) had three or more laparotomies. Acute gastrointestinal toxicity was generally mild. Significant hematologic toxicity (leukocytes less than 2000/mm3; or platelets less than 100,000/mm3) was seen in 19 (54%); platelet suppression occurred in 18 of these 19. Nine patients failed to complete the prescribed course of therapy; in seven, this was secondary to hematologic toxicity. Amount of prior chemotherapy and advanced age correlated with degree of hematologic toxicity. Five patients without evidence of disease (laparotomy confirmed) have developed treatment-related bowel obstruction. No other chronic toxicity of clinical significance has been observed. Seven patients have developed bowel obstruction associated with progressive neoplasm. Irradiation was well tolerated symptomatically, but hematologic toxicity associated with prior chemotherapy prevented its completion in 20% of patients. Clinical manifestations of radiation bowel toxicity have been moderate to date and should be interpreted in the context of the aggressive combined modality program

  13. Role of environmental stress in the physiological response to chemical toxicants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, C.J.

    2003-01-01

    Environmental physiology is the study of the physiological mechanisms that allow animals to cope with and adapt to changes in temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, and other natural factors of their physical environment. Nearly all toxicological and pharmacological studies are performed in resting (i.e., non exercising) experimental animals acclimatized to standard environmental conditions that are usually considered ideal to the animal's physiological well-being. These ideal test conditions are clearly not representative of the fluctuations in the natural environment encountered by humans and other animals on a day-to-day basis. It behooves the toxicologist, especially those interested in extrapolating experimental data from laboratory animals to humans, to consider how variations in the natural environment will alter physiological responses to toxicants. Temperature and exercise are the two most well-studied parameters in the fields of environmental physiology and toxicology. In general, high temperatures exacerbate the toxic effects of many environmental toxicants. Moreover, exercising subjects are generally more vulnerable to airborne toxic agents. The prospect of global warming also warrants a better assessment of how higher environmental temperatures may impact on the response of humans and other species to toxic chemicals. Hence, this paper and accompanying papers from the proceedings of a symposium focus on the salient aspects of the interaction between environmental stress and physiological response to toxic agents with particular emphasis on temperature and exercise

  14. Toxic chemical risk acceptance criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, D.K.; Davis, J.; Lee, L.; Lein, P.; Omberg, S.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents recommendations of a subcommittee of the Westinghouse M ampersand 0 Nuclear Facility Safety Committee concerning toxic chemical risk acceptance criteria. Two sets of criteria have been developed, one for use in the hazard classification of facilities, and the second for use in comparing risks in DOE non-reactor nuclear facility Safety Analysis Reports. The Emergency Response Planning Guideline (ERPG) values are intended to provide estimates of concentration ranges for specific chemicals above which exposure would be expected to lead to adverse heath effects of increasing severity for ERPG-1, -2, and -3s. The subcommittee recommends that criteria for hazard class or risk range be based on ERPGs for all chemicals. Probability-based Incremental Cancer Risk (ICR) criteria are recommended for additional analyses of risks from all known or suspected human carcinogens. Criteria are given for both on-site and off-site exposure. The subcommittee also recommends that the 5-minute peak concentration be compared with the relevant criterion with no adjustment for exposure time. Since ERPGs are available for only a limited number of chemicals, the subcommittee has developed a proposed hierarchy of concentration limit parameters for the different criteria

  15. Molecular mechanisms of fluoride toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbier, Olivier; Arreola-Mendoza, Laura; Del Razo, Luz María

    2010-11-05

    Halfway through the twentieth century, fluoride piqued the interest of toxicologists due to its deleterious effects at high concentrations in human populations suffering from fluorosis and in in vivo experimental models. Until the 1990s, the toxicity of fluoride was largely ignored due to its "good reputation" for preventing caries via topical application and in dental toothpastes. However, in the last decade, interest in its undesirable effects has resurfaced due to the awareness that this element interacts with cellular systems even at low doses. In recent years, several investigations demonstrated that fluoride can induce oxidative stress and modulate intracellular redox homeostasis, lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl content, as well as alter gene expression and cause apoptosis. Genes modulated by fluoride include those related to the stress response, metabolic enzymes, the cell cycle, cell-cell communications and signal transduction. The primary purpose of this review is to examine recent findings from our group and others that focus on the molecular mechanisms of the action of inorganic fluoride in several cellular processes with respect to potential physiological and toxicological implications. This review presents an overview of the current research on the molecular aspects of fluoride exposure with emphasis on biological targets and their possible mechanisms of involvement in fluoride cytotoxicity. The goal of this review is to enhance understanding of the mechanisms by which fluoride affects cells, with an emphasis on tissue-specific events in humans. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A toxicity reduction evaluation for an oily waste treatment plant exhibiting episodic effluent toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erten-Unal, M; Gelderloos, A B; Hughes, J S

    1998-07-30

    A Toxicity Reduction Evaluation (TRE) was conducted on the oily wastewater treatment plant (Plant) at a Naval Fuel Depot. The Plant treats ship and ballast wastes, berm water from fuel storage areas and wastes generated in the fuel reclamation plant utilizing physical/chemical treatment processes. In the first period of the project (Period I), the TRE included chemical characterization of the plant wastewaters, monitoring the final effluent for acute toxicity and a thorough evaluation of each treatment process and Plant operating procedures. Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE) procedures were performed as part of the overall TRE to characterize and identify possible sources of toxicity. Several difficulties were encountered because the effluent was saline, test organisms were marine species and toxicity was sporadic and unpredictable. The treatability approach utilizing enhancements, improved housekeeping, and operational changes produced substantial reductions in the acute toxicity of the final effluent. In the second period (Period II), additional acute toxicity testing and chemical characterization were performed through the Plant to assess the long-term effects of major unit process improvements for the removal of toxicity. The TIE procedures were also modified for saline wastewaters to focus on suspected class of toxicants such as surfactants. The TRE was successful in reducing acute toxicity of the final effluent through process improvements and operational modifications. The results indicated that the cause of toxicity was most likely due to combination of pollutants (matrix effect) rather than a single pollutant.

  17. Pesticide Toxicity Index: a tool for assessing potential toxicity of pesticide mixtures to freshwater aquatic organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowell, Lisa H.; Norman, Julia E.; Moran, Patrick W.; Martin, Jeffrey D.; Stone, Wesley W.

    2014-01-01

    Pesticide mixtures are common in streams with agricultural or urban influence in the watershed. The Pesticide Toxicity Index (PTI) is a screening tool to assess potential aquatic toxicity of complex pesticide mixtures by combining measures of pesticide exposure and acute toxicity in an additive toxic-unit model. The PTI is determined separately for fish, cladocerans, and benthic invertebrates. This study expands the number of pesticides and degradates included in previous editions of the PTI from 124 to 492 pesticides and degradates, and includes two types of PTI for use in different applications, depending on study objectives. The Median-PTI was calculated from median toxicity values for individual pesticides, so is robust to outliers and is appropriate for comparing relative potential toxicity among samples, sites, or pesticides. The Sensitive-PTI uses the 5th percentile of available toxicity values, so is a more sensitive screening-level indicator of potential toxicity. PTI predictions of toxicity in environmental samples were tested using data aggregated from published field studies that measured pesticide concentrations and toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia in ambient stream water. C. dubia survival was reduced to ≤ 50% of controls in 44% of samples with Median-PTI values of 0.1–1, and to 0% in 96% of samples with Median-PTI values > 1. The PTI is a relative, but quantitative, indicator of potential toxicity that can be used to evaluate relationships between pesticide exposure and biological condition.

  18. Generalized anxiety disorder: acute and chronic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rynn, Moira A; Brawman-Mintzer, Olga

    2004-10-01

    Clinical and epidemiological data suggest that generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a chronic illness causing patients to suffer for many years leading to significant distress in daily life functioning. The literature suggests the several conclusions. GAD is a disorder in need of appropriate treatment and often has a chronic course with comorbid conditions, such as major depression and other anxiety disorders. Benzodiazepines, while effective anxiolytic agents acutely, when prescribed for >4 weeks cause rebound anxiety and following prolonged therapy may lead to withdrawal symptoms. Antidepressants cause significant anxiety relief compared with placebo and for psychosocial treatment cognitive-behavioral therapy is an efficacious psychosocial treatment. Many GAD patients are in need of long-term medication management. Furthermore, there is limited data for patients diagnosed with GAD the treatment outcome with the combination of medication and psychotherapy both acutely and long-term; how to best sequence these treatments; for those patients who do not meet remission criteria what is the ideal approach for augmentation; and for patients with treatment-refractory GAD the empirical evidence is lacking on medication switching and augmentation strategies. Research is needed in the area of developing treatment strategies for patients suffering from treatment-refractory GAD. There is still an urgent need to explore treatment combinations and duration strategies in the management of patients suffering with GAD.

  19. Making bio-sense of toxicity: new developments in whole-cell biosencors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Søren Johannes; Burmølle, Mette; Hansen, Lars Hestbjerg

    2006-01-01

    Bacterial whole-cell biosensors are very useful for toxicity measurements of various samples. Semi-specific biosensors, containing fusions of stress-regulated promoters and reporter genes, have several advantages over the traditional, general biosensors that are based on constitutively expressed ....... The application of in situ inoculation and single-cell detection, combined with the introduction of new reporter genes and refined detection equipment, could lead to the extensive use of semi-specific, stress-responsive biosensors for toxicity estimations in the future....... reporter genes. Furthermore, semi-specific biosensors are constantly being refined to lower their sensitivity and, in combination, are able to detect a wide range of toxic agents. However, the requirement for a positive response of these biosensors to toxicants can result in false-negative responses...

  20. Multi-Organ toxicity demonstration in a functional human in vitro system composed of four organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleaga, Carlota; Bernabini, Catia; Smith, Alec S T; Srinivasan, Balaji; Jackson, Max; McLamb, William; Platt, Vivien; Bridges, Richard; Cai, Yunqing; Santhanam, Navaneetha; Berry, Bonnie; Najjar, Sarah; Akanda, Nesar; Guo, Xiufang; Martin, Candace; Ekman, Gail; Esch, Mandy B; Langer, Jessica; Ouedraogo, Gladys; Cotovio, Jose; Breton, Lionel; Shuler, Michael L; Hickman, James J

    2016-02-03

    We report on a functional human model to evaluate multi-organ toxicity in a 4-organ system under continuous flow conditions in a serum-free defined medium utilizing a pumpless platform for 14 days. Computer simulations of the platform established flow rates and resultant shear stress within accepted ranges. Viability of the system was demonstrated for 14 days as well as functional activity of cardiac, muscle, neuronal and liver modules. The pharmacological relevance of the integrated modules were evaluated for their response at 7 days to 5 drugs with known side effects after a 48 hour drug treatment regime. The results of all drug treatments were in general agreement with published toxicity results from human and animal data. The presented phenotypic culture model exhibits a multi-organ toxicity response, representing the next generation of in vitro systems, and constitutes a step towards an in vitro "human-on-a-chip" assay for systemic toxicity screening.

  1. Heavy metals toxicity after acute exposure of cultured renal cells. Intracellular accumulation and repartition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khodja, Hicham; Carriere, Marie; Avoscan, Laure; Gouget, Barbara

    2005-01-01

    Lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and uranium (U) present no known biological function but are toxic in various concentration ranges. Pb and Cd lead generally to nephrotoxicity consisting in proximal renal tubular dysfunction and accumulation while U has been reported to induce chemical kidney toxicity, functional and histological damages being as well mainly observed in proximal tubule cells. This work address the question of Cd, Pb, and U cytotoxicity, intracellular accumulation and repartition after acute intoxication of renal proximal tubule epithelial cells. After cells exposure to different concentrations of metals for various times, morphological changes were observed and intracellular concentrations and distributions of toxic metals were specified by PIXE coupled to RBS. Cell viability, measured by biochemical tests, was used as toxicity indicator. A direct correlation between cytotoxicity and intracellular accumulation in renal epithelial cells have been established. Finally, intracellular Pb and U localizations were detected while Cd was found to be uniformly distributed in renal cells. (author)

  2. Comparing rat and rabbit embryo-fetal developmental toxicity ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    A database of embryo-fetal developmental toxicity (EFDT) studies of 379 pharmaceutical compounds in rat and rabbit was analyzed for species differences based on toxicokinetic parameters of area under the curve (AUC) and maximum concentration (Cmax) at the developmental adverse effect level (dLOAEL). For the vast majority of cases (83% based on AUC of n=283), dLOAELs in rats and rabbits were within the same order of magnitude (less than 10-fold different) when compared based on available data on AUC and Cmax exposures. For 13.5% of the compounds the rabbit was more sensitive and for 3.5% of compounds the rat was more sensitive when compared based on AUC exposures. For 12% of the compounds the rabbit was more sensitive and for 1.3% of compounds the rat was more sensitive based on Cmax exposures. When evaluated based on human equivalent dose (HED) conversion using standard factors, the rat and rabbit were equally sensitive. The relative extent of embryo-fetal toxicity in the presence of maternal toxicity was not different between species. Overall effect severity incidences were distributed similarly in rat and rabbit studies. Individual rat and rabbit strains did not show a different general distribution of systemic exposure LOAELs as compared to all strains combined for each species. There were no apparent species differences in the occurrence of embryo-fetal variations. Based on power of detection and given differences in the nature of developmental effects betwe

  3. Toxicity of herbal medicines with interest to SUS: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciciane Pereira Marten Fernandes

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: In Brazil, ever since colonization plants have been used as natural products; thus, the National Health Surveillance Agency has been establishing rules for herbal medicine regulation; in this light, 71 plant species were chosen and empirically used in the country to investigate their medicinal properties. Currently, 12 of these 71 plants have been approved to be used in SUS (Public Health System, the remaining species still need further research. Thusly, this review aimed to seek information from toxicological studies on the plants that have not yet been officially approved, to stimulate new research in the field, promoting an economical and functional impact. In order to obtain the information, the keywords plant name + toxicity and/or toxicological studies were searched in the most prominent databases, both in English and in Portuguese. The ten plants with the most references were included in this review. Among the ten plants assessed, three have all the required studies required by the National Health Surveillance Agency, two of which we recommend the immediate adoption by SUS. In general, three plants have a determined LD50, nine have reproductive toxicity data, and five have not yet shown any sign of toxicity.

  4. Subacute (90 days) oral toxicity studies of Kombucha tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayaraghavan, R; Singh, M; Rao, P V; Bhattacharya, R; Kumar, P; Sugendran, K; Kumar, O; Pant, S C; Singh, R

    2000-12-01

    Kombucha tea (KT) is a popular health beverage and is used as an alternative therapy. KT is prepared by placing the kombucha culture in solution of tea and sugar and allowing to ferment. The inoculum is a fungus consisting of symbiotic colony of yeast and bacteria. KT is consumed in several countries and is believed to have prophylactic and therapeutic benefits in a wide variety of ailments, viz., intestinal disorders, arthritis, ageing and stimulation of immunological system. Though KT is used in several parts of the world its beneficial effects and adverse effects have not been scientifically evaluated. Since there are no animal toxicological data on KT, subacute oral toxicity study was carried out. Five groups of rats were maintained: (a) control group given tap water orally, (b) KT given 2 ml/kg orally, (c) plain tea (PT) given 2 ml/kg orally, (d) KT given in drinking water, 1% (v/v) and (e) PT given in drinking water, 1% (v/v). The rats were given this treatment daily for a period of 90 days. Weekly records of weight, feed intake, water intake and general behaviour were monitored. There was no significant difference in the growth of the animals as evidenced by the progressive body weight change. The organ to body weight ratio and histological evaluation did not show any toxic signs. The haematological and biochemical variables were within the clinical limits. The study indicates that rats fed KT for 90 days showed no toxic effects.

  5. Toxicity tests, antioxidant activity, and antimicrobial activity of chitosan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurniasih, M.; Purwati; Dewi, R. S.

    2018-04-01

    Chitosan is a naturally occurring cationic biopolymer, obtained by alkaline deacetylation of chitin. This research aims to investigate the toxicity, antioxidant activity and antibacterial activity of chitosan from shrimp chitin. In this study, chitin extracted from shrimp waste material. Chitin is then deacetylation with 60% NaOH so that chitosan produced. Degrees of deacetylation, molecular weight, toxicity test, antioxidant activity and antimicrobial activity of chitosan then evaluated. Toxicity test using Brine Shrimp Lethality Test. The antioxidant analysis was performed using DPPH method (2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and FTC method (ferric thiocyanate) in which the radical formed will reduce Ferro to Ferri resulting in a complex with thiocyanate. To determine the antibacterial activity of Staphylococcus aureus, antifungal in Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger by measuring antimicrobial effects and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC). Based on the result of research, the value of degrees of deacetylation, molecular weight, and LC50 values of chitosan synthesis was 94,32, 1052.93 g/mol and 1364.41 ppm, respectively. In general, the antioxidative activities increased as the concentration of chitosan increased. MIC value of chitosan against S. aureus, C. albicans, and A. niger was 10 ppm, 15.6 ppm, and 5 ppm, respectively.

  6. Toxicity of fluorescent tracers and their degradation byproducts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Gombert

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tracer tests are frequently used to delineate catchment area of water supply springs in karstic zones. In the karstic chalk of Normandy, the main tracers used are fluorescent: uranine, sulforhodamine B, naphtionate, and Tinopal®. In this area, a statistical analysis shows that less than half of the injected tracers joins the monitored restitution points and enters the drinking water system where they undergo chlorination. Most of the injected tracers is absorbed in the rock matrix or is thrown out of the aquifer via karstic springs: then it can join superficial waters where it is degraded due to the sun and air action. The paper presents firstly the laboratory degradation of a first batch of fluorescent tracers in contact with chlorine, in order to simulate their passage through a water treatment system for human consumption. A second batch of the same tracers is subjected to agents of natural degradation: ultraviolet illumination, sunlight and air sparging. Most tracers is degraded, and toxicity and ecotoxicity tests (on rats, daphniae and algae are performed on degradation byproducts. These tests do not show any acute toxicity but a low to moderate ecotoxicity. In conclusion, the most used fluorescent tracers of the Normandy karstic chalk and their artificial and natural degradation byproducts do not exhibit significant toxicity to humans and the aquatic environment, at the concentrations generally noted at the restitution points.

  7. Paraquat: model for oxidant-initiated toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bus, J.S.; Gibson, J.E.

    1984-04-01

    Paraquat, a quaternary ammonium bipyridyl herbicide, produces degenerative lesions in the lung after systemic administration to man and animals. The pulmonary toxicity of paraquat resembles in several ways the toxicity of several other lung toxins, including oxygen, nitrofurantoin and bleomycin. Although a definitive mechanism of toxicity of parquat has not been delineated, a cyclic single electron reduction/oxidation of the parent molecule is a critical mechanistic event. The redox cycling of paraquat has two potentially important consequences relevant to the development of toxicity: generation of activated oxygen (e.g., superoxide anion, hydrogen perioxide, hydroxyl radical) which is highly reactive to cellular macromolecules; and/or oxidation of reducing equivalents (e.g., NADPH, reduced glutathione) necessary for normal cell function. Paraquat-induced pulmonary toxicity, therefore, is a potentially useful model for evaluation of oxidant mechanisms of toxicity. Furthermore, characterization of the consequences of intracellular redox cycling of xenobiotics will no doubt provide basic information regarding the role of this phenomena in the development of chemical toxicity. 105 references, 2 figures.

  8. Toxicity of common ions to marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillard, D.A.; DuFresne, D.L.; Evans, J.

    1995-01-01

    Produced waters from oil and gas drilling operations are typically very saline, and these may cause acute toxicity to marine organisms due to osmotic imbalances as well as to an excess or deficiency of specific common ions. In order to better understand the relationship between toxicity and ion concentration, laboratory toxicity tests were conducted using mysid shrimp (Mysidopsis bahia), sheepshead minnow (Cyprinodon variegatus), and inland silverside (Menidia beryllina). For each species the ionic concentration of standard laboratory water was proportionally increased or decreased to produce test solutions with a range of salinities. Organisms were exposed for 48 hours. Individual ions (sodium, potassium, calcium, magnetsium, strontium, chloride, bromide, sulfate, bicarbonate, and borate) were also manipulated to examine individual ion toxicity. The three test species differ in their tolerance of salinity. Mysid shrimp show a marked decrease in survival at salinities less than approximately 5 ppt. Both fish species tolerated low salinity water, however, silversides were less tolerant of saline waters (salinity greater than 40 ppt). There were also significant differences in the responses of the organisms to different ions. The results show that the salinity of the test solution may play an important role in the responses of the organisms to the produced water effluent. Predictable toxicity/ion relationships developed in this study can be used to estimate whether toxicity in a produced water is a result of common ions, salinity, or some other unknown toxicant

  9. Nail toxicity induced by cancer chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbar, Peter; Hain, Alice; Peereboom, Veta-Marie

    2009-09-01

    To provide a comprehensive literature review of chemotherapy-induced nail toxicity, including clinical presentation, implicated drugs and approaches for prevention and management. A search of MEDLINE and EMBASE (1966-2008) databases was conducted using the terms (and variations of the terms) antineoplastic agents, nails, nail toxicity, onycholysis, and paronychia. Bibliographies from selected articles were reviewed for appropriate references. The retrieved literature was reviewed to include all articles relevant to the clinical presentation, diagnosis, incidence, prevention, and treatment of chemotherapy-induced nail toxicity. Nail toxicity is a relatively uncommon adverse effect linked to a number of chemotherapeutic agents. Clinical presentation varies, depending on which nail structure is affected and the severity of the insult. Nail changes may involve all or some nails. Toxicity may be asymptomatic and limited to cosmetic concerns, however, more severe effects, involving pain and discomfort can occur. Taxanes and anthracyclines are the antineoplastic drug groups most commonly implicated. It is suggested that the administration schedule may influence the incidence of nail abnormalities, for example reported cases linked to the weekly administration of paclitaxel.Before instituting chemotherapy, patients should be educated regarding potential nail toxicities and strategies for prevention implemented. Management includes appropriate nail cutting, avoiding potential irritants, topical, or oral antimicrobials, and possibly cessation or dose reduction of the offending agent. Cryotherapy, through the application of frozen gloves or socks, has been beneficial in reducing docetaxel-induced nail toxicity and may be effective for other drugs.

  10. Combinatorial QSAR modeling of chemical toxicants tested against Tetrahymena pyriformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hao; Tropsha, Alexander; Fourches, Denis; Varnek, Alexandre; Papa, Ester; Gramatica, Paola; Oberg, Tomas; Dao, Phuong; Cherkasov, Artem; Tetko, Igor V

    2008-04-01

    Selecting most rigorous quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) approaches is of great importance in the development of robust and predictive models of chemical toxicity. To address this issue in a systematic way, we have formed an international virtual collaboratory consisting of six independent groups with shared interests in computational chemical toxicology. We have compiled an aqueous toxicity data set containing 983 unique compounds tested in the same laboratory over a decade against Tetrahymena pyriformis. A modeling set including 644 compounds was selected randomly from the original set and distributed to all groups that used their own QSAR tools for model development. The remaining 339 compounds in the original set (external set I) as well as 110 additional compounds (external set II) published recently by the same laboratory (after this computational study was already in progress) were used as two independent validation sets to assess the external predictive power of individual models. In total, our virtual collaboratory has developed 15 different types of QSAR models of aquatic toxicity for the training set. The internal prediction accuracy for the modeling set ranged from 0.76 to 0.93 as measured by the leave-one-out cross-validation correlation coefficient ( Q abs2). The prediction accuracy for the external validation sets I and II ranged from 0.71 to 0.85 (linear regression coefficient R absI2) and from 0.38 to 0.83 (linear regression coefficient R absII2), respectively. The use of an applicability domain threshold implemented in most models generally improved the external prediction accuracy but at the same time led to a decrease in chemical space coverage. Finally, several consensus models were developed by averaging the predicted aquatic toxicity for every compound using all 15 models, with or without taking into account their respective applicability domains. We find that consensus models afford higher prediction accuracy for the

  11. The reproductive and developmental toxicity of High Flash Aromatic Naphtha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, R H; Wong, Z A; Schmitt, S; Beatty, P; Swanson, M; Schreiner, C A; Schardein, J L

    1990-01-01

    Catalytic reforming is a refining process that converts naphthenes to aromatics by dehydrogenation to make higher octane gasoline blending components. A portion of this wide boiling range hydrocarbon stream can be separated by distillation and used for other purposes. One such application is a mixture of predominantly 9-carbon aromatic molecules (C9 aromatics, primarily isomers of ethyltoluene and trimethylbenzene), which is removed and used as a solvent--High Flash Aromatic Naphtha. A program was initiated to assess the toxicological properties of High Flash Aromatic Naphtha since there may be human exposure through inhalation or external body contact. The current study was conducted to assess the potential for developmental toxicity in the mouse and for reproductive toxicity in the rat. In the developmental toxicity study in CD-1 mice, exposure of dams by inhalation to near lethal levels (1500 ppm) resulted in fetal mortality, reduced weight, delayed ossification, and an increased incidence of cleft palate. At 500 ppm, a level at which maternal weight gain was slightly reduced, fetal weight gain was also reduced, but there was no other evidence of developmental effects. The lowest exposure level (100 ppm) did not cause any maternal or developmental toxicity. There was no consistent evidence of reproductive toxicity in rats, even at exposure levels which resulted in significantly reduced parental weight gain. In addition, when parental exposure was stopped on GD (gestation day) 20, birth weights as well as postnatal survival were generally similar to control values, even in the 1500 ppm exposure group. Postnatal weight gain was also similar to controls early in weaning, but, if maternal exposure was reinitiated, weight gain was reduced in the high exposure group. However, when exposure was continued until delivery, pups in the high exposure group exhibited reduced litter size, birth weight and poor survival. Thus it was likely that the reduction in fetal weight

  12. Recreating the seawater mixture composition of HOCs in toxicity tests with Artemia franciscana by passive dosing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojo-Nieto, E., E-mail: elisa.rojo@uca.es [Andalusian Centre of Marine Science and Technology (CACYTMAR), Department of Environmental Technologies, University of Cadiz, 11510 Puerto Real (Spain); Smith, K.E.C. [Department of Environmental Science, Aarhus University, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Perales, J.A. [Andalusian Centre of Marine Science and Technology (CACYTMAR), Department of Environmental Technologies, University of Cadiz, 11510 Puerto Real (Spain); Mayer, P. [Department of Environmental Science, Aarhus University, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark)

    2012-09-15

    The toxicity testing of hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) in aquatic media is generally challenging, and this is even more problematic for mixtures. The hydrophobic properties of these compounds make them difficult to dissolve, and subsequently to maintain constant exposure concentrations. Evaporative and sorptive losses are highly compound-specific, which can alter not only total concentrations, but also the proportions between the compounds in the mixture. Therefore, the general aim of this study was to explore the potential of passive dosing for testing the toxicity of a PAH mixture that recreates the mixture composition found in seawater from a coastal area of Spain, the Bay of Algeciras. First, solvent spiking and passive dosing were compared for their suitability to determine the acute toxicity to Artemia franciscana nauplii of several PAHs at their respective solubility limits. Second, passive dosing was applied to recreate the seawater mixture composition of PAHs measured in a Spanish monitoring program, to test the toxicity of this mixture at different levels. HPLC analysis was used to confirm the reproducibility of the dissolved exposure concentrations for the individual PAHs and mixtures. This study shows that passive dosing has some important benefits in comparison with solvent spiking for testing HOCs in aquatic media. These include maintaining constant exposure concentrations, leading to higher reproducibility and a relative increase in toxicity. Passive dosing is also able to faithfully reproduce real mixtures of HOCs such as PAHs, in toxicity tests, reproducing both the levels and proportions of the different compounds. This provides a useful approach for studying the toxicity of environmental mixtures of HOCs, both with a view to investigating their toxicity but also for determining safety factors before such mixtures result in detrimental effects.

  13. Impact of methanol and CNG fuels on motor-vehicle toxic emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, F.; Gabele, P.

    1991-01-01

    The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments require that the Environmental Protection Agency investigate the need for reduction of motor vehicle toxic emissions such as formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, benzene, 1,3-butadiene, and polycyclic organic matter. Toxic organic emissions can be reduced by utilizing the control technologies employed for regulated THC (NMHC) and CO emissions, and by changing fuel composition. The paper examines emissions associated with the use of methanol and compressed natural gas fuels. Both tailpipe and evaporative emissions are examined at varied ambient temperatures ranging from 20 C to 105 F. Tailpipe emissions are also examined over a variety of driving cycles with average speeds ranging from 7 to 48 mph. Results suggest that an equivalent ambient temperatures and average speeds, motor vehicle toxic emissions are generally reduced with methanol and compressed natural gas fuels relative to those with gasoline, except for formaldehyde emissions, which may be elevated. As with gasoline, tailpipe toxic emissions with methanol and compressed natural gas fuels generally increase when ambient temperature or average speed decreases (the sensitivity to these variables is greater with methanol than with compressed natural gas). Evaporative emissions generally increase when fuel volatility or ambient temperature increases (however, the relative contribution of evaporative sources to the aggregate toxic compound emissions is small)

  14. Combined Therapy of Iron Chelator and Antioxidant Completely Restores Brain Dysfunction Induced by Iron Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sripetchwandee, Jirapas; Pipatpiboon, Noppamas; Chattipakorn, Nipon; Chattipakorn, Siriporn

    2014-01-01

    Background Excessive iron accumulation leads to iron toxicity in the brain; however the underlying mechanism is unclear. We investigated the effects of iron overload induced by high iron-diet consumption on brain mitochondrial function, brain synaptic plasticity and learning and memory. Iron chelator (deferiprone) and antioxidant (n-acetyl cysteine) effects on iron-overload brains were also studied. Methodology Male Wistar rats were fed either normal diet or high iron-diet consumption for 12 weeks, after which rats in each diet group were treated with vehicle or deferiprone (50 mg/kg) or n-acetyl cysteine (100 mg/kg) or both for another 4 weeks. High iron-diet consumption caused brain iron accumulation, brain mitochondrial dysfunction, impaired brain synaptic plasticity and cognition, blood-brain-barrier breakdown, and brain apoptosis. Although both iron chelator and antioxidant attenuated these deleterious effects, combined therapy provided more robust results. Conclusion In conclusion, this is the first study demonstrating that combined iron chelator and anti-oxidant therapy completely restored brain function impaired by iron overload. PMID:24400127

  15. Role of carnitine in ameliorating the lead and / or irradiation induced toxicity in male albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sayed, N.M.

    2005-01-01

    This work: aimed to investigate the protective effect of carnitine (3-hydroxy-4-N-trimethyl amino butyric acid) on the contents of total protein, albumin, glucose and lipid peroxides as malonaldehyde (MDA) in serum, in addition to liver glycogen and lipid peroxides content 1, 2, 4 weeks after exposure of rats to a collective dose of 4 Gy whole body gamma irradiation and / or lead treatment. Adult male rats received lead (50 mg/kg body weight) and / or exposed to fractionated dose (4 Gy) of gamma irradiation delivered as 0.5 Gy twice weekly for four weeks. Results of the present study revealed that fractionated whole body gamma irradiation and / or lead administration induced cellular damage manifested by a significant decrease in serum total protein and albumin, and a significant increase in serum glucose and MDA content as well as significant increase in liver glycogen and MDA. Administration of carnitine (200 mg/kg b.wt.) before lead and / or gamma irradiation, has significantly ameliorated the observed changes, indicating the prophylactic action of carnitine on lead and / or irradiation toxicity

  16. Health assessment of gasoline and fuel oxygenate vapors: subchronic inhalation toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Charles R; Schreiner, Ceinwen A; Parker, Craig M; Gray, Thomas M; Hoffman, Gary M

    2014-11-01

    Sprague Dawley rats were exposed via inhalation to vapor condensates of either gasoline or gasoline combined with various fuel oxygenates to assess whether their use in gasoline influences the hazard of evaporative emissions. Test substances included vapor condensates prepared from an EPA described "baseline gasoline" (BGVC), or gasoline combined with methyl tertiary butyl ether (G/MTBE), ethyl t-butyl ether (G/ETBE), t-amyl methyl ether (G/TAME), diisopropyl ether (G/DIPE), ethanol (G/EtOH), or t-butyl alcohol (G/TBA). Target concentrations were 0, 2000, 10,000 or 20,000mg/m(3) and exposures were for 6h/day, 5days/week for 13weeks. A portion of the animals were maintained for a four week recovery period to determine the reversibility of potential adverse effects. Increased kidney weight and light hydrocarbon nephropathy (LHN) were observed in treated male rats in all studies which were reversible or nearly reversible after 4weeks recovery. LHN is unique to male rats and is not relevant to human toxicity. The no observed effect level (NOAEL) in all studies was 10,000mg/m(3), except for G/MTBE (<2000) and G/TBA (2000). The results provide evidence that use of the studied oxygenates are unlikely to increase the hazard of evaporative emissions during refueling, compared to those from gasoline alone. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation of the subchronic toxicity of kefir by oral administration in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz Rosa, Damiana; Gouveia Peluzio, Maria do Carmo; Pérez Bueno, Tania; Vega Cañizares, Ernesto; Sánchez Miranda, Lilian; Mancebo Dorbignyi, Betty; Chong Dubí, Dainé; Espinosa Castaño, Ivette; Marcin Grzes Kowiak, Lukasz; Fortes Ferreira, Célia Lucia de Luces

    2014-06-01

    Kefir is obtained by fermentation of milk with complex microbial populations present in kefir grains. Several health-promoting benefits have been attributed to kefir consumption. The objective of this work was to conduct a subchronic toxicity study, offering the rats normal or high-doses of kefir and evaluating growth, hematology and blood chemistry, as well as assessing bacterial translocation and the integrity of the intestinal mucosa of animals. Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups (n = 6/group): control group received 0.7 mL of water, kefir group received 0.7 mL/day of kefir, (normodose), and Hkefir group received 3.5 mL/day of kefir (fivefold higher dose). Feeding was carried out by gavage. The animals were housed in individual cages and maintained under standard conditions for 4 weeks. The normodose and high-dose of kefir supplementation did not harm the animals since growth, hematology and blood chemistry in rats, as well as the potential pathogenicity in tissues were within normal limits, demonstrating that consumption of normodose and highdose of kefir are safe. In addition, administration of the normodose of kefir reduced cholesterol levels and improved the intestinal mucosa of the rats. These results demonstrate that the consumption of kefir is safe. Importantly, while damages are not seen for the high-dose, the normodose consumption is recommended due to the pronounced beneficial effects, as safety is concerned. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  18. Assessing sediment contamination using six toxicity assays

    OpenAIRE

    Allen G. BURTON Jr.; Carolyn ROWLAND; Renato BAUDO; Monica BELTRAMI

    2001-01-01

    An evaluation of sediment toxicity at Lake Orta, Italy was conducted to compare a toxicity test battery of 6 assays and to evaluate the extent of sediment contamination at various sediment depths. Lake Orta received excessive loadings of copper and ammonia during the 1900’s until a large remediation effort was conducted in 1989-90 using lime addition. Since that time, the lake has shown signs of a steady recovery of biological communities. The study results showed acute toxicity still exists ...

  19. Computerized tomography in acute toxic encephalopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Nobuhiko; Kaneshi, Kunio; Mizuguchi, Masashi; Kurihara, Eiji.

    1983-01-01

    We experienced three cases of acute toxic encephalopathy, including a case of probable Reye syndrome, which had similar and unique CT findings in their acute stage; symmetrical low density area in the thalamus and the dentate nucleus, followed by changes in cerebellar hemispheres and around lateral ventricles. The CT findings, common to probable Reye syndrome and other acute toxic encephalopathy, may suggest the possibility of similar pathogenesis of brain damage in both disorders. The authors propose that present cases are a new subgroup in acute toxic encephalopathy, because of their similar and unique CT features. (author)

  20. Enhanced toxic cloud knockdown spray system for decontamination applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betty, Rita G [Rio Rancho, NM; Tucker, Mark D [Albuquerque, NM; Brockmann, John E [Albuquerque, NM; Lucero, Daniel A [Albuquerque, NM; Levin, Bruce L [Tijeras, NM; Leonard, Jonathan [Albuquerque, NM

    2011-09-06

    Methods and systems for knockdown and neutralization of toxic clouds of aerosolized chemical or biological warfare (CBW) agents and toxic industrial chemicals using a non-toxic, non-corrosive aqueous decontamination formulation.

  1. Acute And Toxicity Effect of The Aqueous Extract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    antidiarrhoeal, antimalarial and antitrypanosomal activities of plants-based products support this ... Experimental design for Acute toxicity Study: The acute toxicity study was .... Lorke, D. (1983). A new approach to practical acute toxicity testing.

  2. Toxicity of seven foliar insecticides to four insect parasitoids attacking citrus and cotton pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhaker, Nilima; Morse, J G; Castle, S J; Naranjo, S E; Henneberry, T J; Toscano, N C

    2007-08-01

    Laboratory studies were carried out to compare the toxicity of seven foliar insecticides to four species of adult beneficial insects representing two families of Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae (Aphytis melinus Debach, Eretmocerus eremicus Rose & Zolnerowich, and Encarsiaformosa Gahan) and Mymaridae (Gonatocerus ashmeadi Girault) that attack California red scale, Aonidiella aurantii (Maskell); sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (both E. eremicus and E. formosa); and glassy-winged sharpshooter, Homalodisca vitripennis (Germar), respectively. Insecticides from four pesticide classes were evaluated using a petri dish bioassay technique across a range of concentrations to develop dosage-mortality regressions. Insecticides tested included acetamiprid (neonicotinoid); chlorpyrifos (organophosphate); bifenthrin, cyfluthrin, and fenpropathrin (pyrethroids); and buprofezin and pyriproxyfen (insect growth regulators [IGRs]). Chlorpyrifos was consistently the most toxic pesticide to all four species of beneficial insects tested based on LC50 values recorded 24 h posttreatment compared with 48-h LC50 values with the neonicotinoid and pyrethroids or 96 h with the IGRs. Among the three pyrethroids, fenpropathrin was usually less toxic (except similar toxicity to A. melinus) than was cyfluthrin, and it was normally less toxic (except similar toxicity with E. formosa) than was bifenthrin. Acetamiprid was generally less toxic than bifenthrin (except similar toxicity with G. ashmeadi). The IGRs buprofezin and pyriproxyfen were usually less toxic than the contact pesticides, but we did not test for possible impacts on female fecundity. For all seven pesticides tested, A. melinus was the most susceptible parasitoid of the four test species. The data presented here will provide pest managers with specific information on the compatibility of select insecticides with natural enemies attacking citrus and cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., pests.

  3. Relationships between soil properties and toxicity of copper and nickel to bok choy and tomato in Chinese soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bo; Zhang, Hongtao; Ma, Yibing; McLaughlin, Mike J

    2013-10-01

    The toxicity of copper (Cu) and nickel (Ni) to bok choy and tomato shoot growth was investigated in a wide range of Chinese soils with and without leaching with artificial rainwater. The results showed that the variations of Ni toxicity induced by soil properties were wider than those of Cu toxicity to both tomato and bok choy plant growth. Leaching generally decreased the toxicity of Cu and Ni added to soils, which also depended on soils, metals, and test plant species. Soil factors controlling metal phytotoxicity were found to be soil pH and soil organic carbon content for Cu, and soil pH for Ni. It was also found that soil pH had stronger effects on Ni toxicity than on Cu toxicity. Predictive toxicity models based on these soil factors were developed. These toxicity models for Cu and Ni toxicity to tomato plant growth were validated using an independent data set for European soils. These models could be applied to predict the Cu and Ni phytotoxicity in not only Chinese soils but also European soils. © 2013 SETAC.

  4. Use of higher plants as screens for toxicity assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristen, U

    1997-01-01

    This review deals with the use of entire plants, seedlings, cell suspension cultures and pollen tubes for the estimation of potential toxicity in the environment, and for risk assessment of chemicals and formulations of human relevance. It is shown that the roots of onions and various crop seedlings, as well as in vitro growing pollen tubes of some mono- and dicotyledonous plants, are most frequently used to obtain toxicity data by determination of root and tube growth inhibition. Both roots and pollen tubes are chloroplast free, non-photosynthetic systems and, therefore, with regard to their cytotoxic reactions are closer to vertebrate tissues and cells than are chloroplast-containing plant organs. Root tips and anthers of flower buds are shown to be applicable to genotoxicity screening by microscopic analysis of mitotic or meiotic aberrations during cell division or microspore development, respectively. The processes of mitosis and meiosis are similar in plants and animals. Therefore, meristematic and sporogenic tissues of plants generally show patterns of cytotoxic response similar to those of embryogenic and spermatogenic tissues of vertebrates. The suitability of root tips, cell suspensions and pollen tubes for the investigation of mechanisms of toxic action and for the analysis of structure-activity relationships is also demonstrated. Two plant-based assays, the Allium test and the pollen tube growth test, both currently being evaluated alongside with established mammalian in vivo and in vitro protocols, are emphasized with regard to their potential use as alternatives to animal in vivo toxicity tests. For both assays, preliminary results indicate that the tips of growing roots and the rapidly elongating pollen tubes of certain higher plant species are as reliable as mammalian cell lines for detecting basal cytotoxicity. It is suggested that seeds and pollen grains, in particular, provide easily storable and convenient systems for inexpensive, relatively

  5. [Toxicity of the combination of salinomycin and tiamulin in swine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, M; Büsing, S; Bollwahn, W

    1997-09-01

    The toxicity of the combination of salinomycin (sal.) and tiamulin (tia.) was investigated in dependence upon dosage and feeding method. In addition the efficacy of a safe dose for prophylactic treatment of dysentery was controlled. Following feed medications were tested for toxic effects in pigs: a) 3 mg sal. + 5 mg tia./kg BW, b) 3 mg sal. + 3 mg tia./kg BW, c) 3 mg sal. + 1 mg tia./kg BW, d) 3 mg sal./kg BW, e) 10 mg tia./kg BW, f) 30 mg tia./kg BW. The daily dose was given for 2 weeks by restricted feeding (twice a day) either as bolus or mixed in the whole ration or by feeding ad libitum. Animals were controlled for clinical symptoms and activities of creatine phosphokinase (CK) and aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT) were evaluated daily. Main clinical signs of poisoning were loss of appetite and locomotor disturbances and could be noticed for dosages of 8, 6 and 4 mg sal. + tia./kg BW. Activities of CK and ASAT were increased dose-related, the feeding method also had an influence on the degree of intoxication. Some animals showed locomotor disturbances without any corresponding changes of CK and ASAT levels. Single pigs remaining without any symptoms even at high dosage pointed to differences in individual susceptibility. Toxicity was not found to be age dependent. Feed medication with 60 ppm sal. + 20 ppm tia. (feeding ad libitum) did not result in any signs of toxicity, however, the transmission of Serpulina hyodysenteriae from infected pigs to healthy, treated control animals could not be inhibited efficiently. Therefore the simultaneous application of salinomycin and tiamulin should be avoided generally, because the risk of intoxication is high and subtherapeutical dosage has an insufficient effectiveness against Serpulina hyodysenteriae.

  6. Dynamic zebrafish interactome reveals transcriptional mechanisms of dioxin toxicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Alexeyenko

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to generate hypotheses regarding the mechanisms by which 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (dioxin causes toxicity, we analyzed global gene expression changes in developing zebrafish embryos exposed to this potent toxicant in the context of a dynamic gene network. For this purpose, we also computationally inferred a zebrafish (Danio rerio interactome based on orthologs and interaction data from other eukaryotes.Using novel computational tools to analyze this interactome, we distinguished between dioxin-dependent and dioxin-independent interactions between proteins, and tracked the temporal propagation of dioxin-dependent transcriptional changes from a few genes that were altered initially, to large groups of biologically coherent genes at later times. The most notable processes altered at later developmental stages were calcium and iron metabolism, embryonic morphogenesis including neuronal and retinal development, a variety of mitochondria-related functions, and generalized stress response (not including induction of antioxidant genes. Within the interactome, many of these responses were connected to cytochrome P4501A (cyp1a as well as other genes that were dioxin-regulated one day after exposure. This suggests that cyp1a may play a key role initiating the toxic dysregulation of those processes, rather than serving simply as a passive marker of dioxin exposure, as suggested by earlier research.Thus, a powerful microarray experiment coupled with a flexible interactome and multi-pronged interactome tools (which are now made publicly available for microarray analysis and related work suggest the hypothesis that dioxin, best known in fish as a potent cardioteratogen, has many other targets. Many of these types of toxicity have been observed in mammalian species and are potentially caused by alterations to cyp1a.

  7. Systemic toxicity of dermally applied crude oils in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feuston, M.H.; Mackerer, C.R.; Schreiner, C.A.; Hamilton, C.E. [Stonybrook Labs., Inc., Princeton, NJ (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Two crude oils, differing in viscosity (V) and nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) content, were evaluated for systemic toxicity, In the Crude I (low V, low N, low S) study, the material was applied to the clipped backs of rats at dose levels of 0, 30, 125, and 500 mg/kg. In the Crude II (high V, high N, moderate S) study, the oil was applied similarly at the same dose levels. The crude oils were applied for 13 wk, 5 d/wk. Exposure sites were not occluded. Mean body weight gain (wk 1-14) was significantly reduced in male rats exposed to Crude II; body weight gain of all other animals was not adversely affected by treatment. An increase in absolute (A) and relative (R) liver weights and a decrease in A and R thymus weights were observed in male and female rats exposed to Crude II at 500 mg/kg; only liver weights (A and R) were adversely affected in male and female rats exposed to Crude I. In general, there was no consistent pattern of toxicity for serum chemistry endpoints; however, more parameters were adversely affected in Crude II-exposed female rats than in the other exposed groups. A consistent pattern of toxicity for hematology endpoints was observed among male rats exposed to Crude I and male and female rats exposed to Crude II. Parameters affected included: Crudes I and II, red blood cell count, hemoglobin, and hematocrit, Crude II, platelet count. Microscopic evaluation of tissues revealed the following treatment-related findings: Crude I, treated skin, thymus, and thyroid; Crude II, bone marrow, treated skin, thymus, and thyroid. The LOEL (lowest observable effect level) for skin irritation and systemic toxicity (based on marginal effects on the thyroid) for both crude oils was 30 mg/kg; effects were more numerous and more pronounced in animals exposed to Crude II. Systemic effects are probably related to concentrations of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAC) found in crude oil.

  8. The anti-caries activity and toxicity of an experimental propolis-containing varnish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Passos DE LUCA

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We investigated the anti-caries effects of an experimental propolis varnish in vivo, and further tested its toxicity against fibroblasts. Fifty-six SPF female Wistar rats were infected with Streptococcus mutans UA159 (SM and allocated into four groups (n = 14/group: G1, propolis varnish (15%/PV; G2, chitosan varnish (CV/vehicle; G3, gold standard (GS/Duraphat®; and G4, untreated. The animals received a single varnish application on their molars and were submitted to a high cariogenic challenge (Diet-2000, 56% sucrose, and 5% sucrose-added water, ad libitum for 4 weeks. Total cultivable microbiota and SM were counted, and smooth-surface and sulcal caries were scored. PV, CV and GS cytotoxic effects were tested against fibroblasts. The data were analyzed using ANOVA with the Tukey-Kramer test (p ≤ 0.05. Total microbiota and SM counts did not differ among the treatments (p = 0.78, or in relation to the untreated group (p = 0.52. PV reduced development of smooth-surface enamel caries compared with the untreated group (p = 0.0018, with no significant difference from GS (p = 0.92; however, the PV effects were no longer observed when the dentin was affected. Neither PV nor GS prevented enamel sulcal lesion onset, but GS significantly reduced the severity of dentinal sulcal lesions (p < 0.0001. No significant difference was observed in fibroblast viability between PV and GS (p < 0.0001. In conclusion, PV prevented smooth-surface enamel caries and showed low cell toxicity. Nevertheless, due to the high cariogenic challenge, its effects were not sustained throughout the experiment. Further studies are encouraged to establish a protocol to sustain the long-term anti-caries activity of PV in the oral cavity.

  9. Electronic Cigarettes Are as Toxic to Skin Flap Survival as Tobacco Cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rau, Aline Sabrina; Reinikovaite, Viktorija; Schmidt, Eric P; Taraseviciene-Stewart, Laima; Deleyiannis, Frederic White-Brown

    2017-07-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have become increasingly popular. However, information about the health risks associated with e-cigarette use is sparse. Currently, no published studies examine the effects of chronic e-cigarette exposure on microcirculation or perfusion. Using a rat skin flap model, we examined the toxic microcirculatory effects e-cigarettes may have in comparison with tobacco cigarettes. Fifty-eight rats were randomized to either exposure to room air, tobacco cigarette smoke, medium-nicotine content (1.2%) e-cigarette vapor, or a high-nicotine content (2.4%) e-cigarette vapor. After 4 weeks of exposure, a random pattern, 3 × 9 cm skin flap was elevated on the dorsum of the rats. At 5 weeks, flap survival was evaluated quantitatively, and the rats were euthanized. Plasma was collected for nicotine and cotinine analysis, and flap tissues were harvested for histopathological analysis. Evaluation of the dorsal skin flaps demonstrated significantly increased necrosis in the vapor and tobacco groups. The average necrosis within the groups was as follows: control 19.23%, high-dose vapor 28.61%, medium-dose vapor 35.93%, and tobacco cigarette 30.15%. Although the e-cigarette and tobacco cigarette groups did not differ significantly, each individual group had significantly more necrosis than the control group (Pe-cigarette exposure groups had similar amounts of flap necrosis and hypoxia when compared with the tobacco cigarette exposure group. Nicotine-containing e-cigarette vapor is similarly toxic to skin flap survival as tobacco cigarettes.

  10. Discovering less toxic ionic liquids by using the Microtox® toxicity test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Fernández, F J; Bayo, J; Pérez de los Ríos, A; Vicente, M A; Bernal, F J; Quesada-Medina, J

    2015-06-01

    New Microtox® toxicity data of 16 ionic liquids of different cationic and anionic composition were determined. The ionic liquids 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium trifluoromethanesulfonate, [BMPyr(+)][TFO(-)], 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium chloride, [BMPyr(+)][Cl(-)], hydroxypropylmethylimidazolium fluoroacetate, [HOPMIM(+)][FCH2COO(-)], and hydroxypropylmethylimidazolium glycolate [HOPMIM(+)][glycolate(-)] were found to be less toxic than conventional organic solvent such as chloroform or toluene, accoding the Microtox® toxicity assays. The toxicity of pyrrolidinium cation was lower than the imidazolium and pyridinium ones. It was found that the inclusion of an hydroxyl group in the alkyl chain length of the cation also reduce the toxicity of the ionic liquid. To sum up, the Microtox® toxicity assays can be used as screening tool to easily determined the toxicity of a wide range of ionic liquids and the toxicity data obtained could allow the obtention of structure-toxicity relationships to design less toxic ionic liquids. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis (SJS/TEN): could retinoids play a causative role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawson, Anthony R; Eriator, Ike; Karre, Sridhar

    2015-01-12

    Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis (SJS/TEN) are overlapping manifestations on a spectrum of acute drug-induced conditions associated with severe blistering, skin peeling, and multi-organ damage. TEN is an eruption resembling severe scalding, with ≥30% skin detachment. SJS is a mild form of TEN, characterized histologically by epidermal keratinocyte apoptosis with dermo-epidermal separation and extensive small blisters with <10% body surface skin detachment. The syndrome can be induced by numerous medications and typically occurs 1-4 weeks after the initiation of therapy. Granulysin is found in the lesions of patients with SJS/TEN and plays a significant pathogenic role in the condition, but the overall mechanisms linking medications, granulysin, and disease manifestations remain obscure. This paper reviews evidence suggesting that the different medications implicated in SJS/TEN have the common property of interacting and synergizing with endogenous retinoids (vitamin A and its congeners), in many instances causing the latter to accumulate in and damage the liver, the main storage organ for vitamin A. It is hypothesized that liver damage leads to the spillage of toxic retinoid compounds into the circulation, resulting in an endogenous form of hypervitaminosis A and cytotoxicity with widespread apoptosis, mediated by granulysin and recognized as SJS/TEN. Subject to testing, the model suggests that symptom worsening could be arrested at onset by lowering the concentration of circulating retinoids and/or granulysin via phlebotomy or plasmapheresis or by pharmacological measures to limit their expression.

  12. Toxicities and effects of involved-field irradiation with concurrent cisplatin for unresectable carcinoma of the pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawakami, Hiroyuki; Uno, Takashi; Isobe, Kouichi; Ueno, Naoyuki; Aruga, Takashi; Sudo, Kentaro; Yamaguchi, Taketo; Saisho, Hiromitsu; Kawata, Tetsuya; Ito, Hisao

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate local effects and acute toxicities of involved field irradiation with concurrent cisplatin (CDDP) for unresectable pancreatic carcinoma. Materials and Methods: Thirty-three patients with unresectable pancreatic carcinoma were treated with chemoradiotherapy. Sixteen were Stage IVA; 17 were Stage IVB. The total prescribed dose of radiotherapy was 50 Gy/25 fractions or 50.4 Gy/28 fractions, using a three-dimensionally determined involved-field that included only the primary tumor and clinically enlarged lymph nodes. Twelve patients received a daily i.v. infusion of CDDP; 21 patients received a combination of CDDP and 5-fluorouracil either i.v. or through the proper hepatic artery. Results: Twenty-seven (82%) patients completed planned chemoradiotherapy. Nausea was the most frequent complaint. No patient experienced Grade 4 toxicities. More than half achieved pain relief. As for the primary site, only 4 patients (12%) achieved a partial response at 4 weeks; however, 3 additional patients attained >50% tumor reduction thereafter. The most frequent site of disease progression was the liver, and only 3 patients developed local progression alone. No regional lymph nodal progression outside the treatment field was seen. Median survival time and survival at 1 year were 7.1 months and 27%, respectively, for the entire group. Difference in overall survival between patients with and without distant metastases was significant (p = 0.01). Conclusions: Involved-field irradiation with concurrent daily CDDP was well tolerated without compromising locoregional effects

  13. Non-Toxic HAN Monopropellant Propulsion, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Non-toxic monopropellants have been developed that provide better performance than toxic hydrazine. Formulations based on hydroxylammonium nitrate (HAN) have...

  14. Understanding Pesticide Risks: Toxicity and Formulation

    OpenAIRE

    Muntz, Helen; Miller, Rhonda; Alston, Diane

    2016-01-01

    This fact sheet provides information about pesticide risks to human health, primary means of pesticide exposure, standardized measures of pesticide toxicity, pesticide signal words and type of pesticide formulations.

  15. Mechanisms of metal toxicity in plants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Küpper, Hendrik; Andresen, Elisa

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 3 (2016), s. 269-285 ISSN 1756-5901 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Hyperaccumulator thlaspi-caerulescens * Induced oxidative stress * Iron toxicity Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 3.975, year: 2016

  16. Subacute Oral Toxicity Assessment of Alchornea cordifolia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    2010-10-21

    Oct 21, 2010 ... Histopathological assessment of liver sections of treated-rats showed normal ... Keywords: Alchornea cordifolia, Rats, Subacute oral toxicity, Neutrophils, Hepatocytes, Hydropic ..... albino rats against acetaminophen-induced.

  17. Toxicity Assessment for EPA's Hydraulic Fracturing Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset contains data used to develop multiple manuscripts on the toxicity of chemicals associated with the hydraulic fracturing industry. These manuscripts...

  18. COMPARATIVE ACUTE TOXICITY OF CHLORPYRIFOS-ETHYL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MR OKEY

    disintegration and low toxicity to birds and mammals (Maud et ... banned in some developed countries, are still being heavily used in Africa, and particularly in Nigeria. Multinational. Corporations continue to market banned products in.

  19. Corneal Toxicity Following Exposure to Asclepias Tuberosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkelsen, Lauge Hjorth; Hamoudi, Hassan; Gül, Cigdem Altuntas; Heegaard, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    To present a case of corneal toxicity following exposure to milky plant latex from Asclepias tuberosa. A 70-year-old female presented with blurred vision and pain in her left eye after handling an Ascepias tuberosa . Clinical examination revealed a corneal stromal oedema with small epithelial defects. The corneal endothelium was intact and folds in Descemets membrane were observed. The oedema was treated with chloramphenicol, dexamethasone and scopolamine. The corneal oedema had appeared after corneal exposure to the plant, Asclepias tuberosa , whose latex contains cardenolides that inhibit the Na + / K + -ATPase in the corneal endothelium. The oedema resolved after 96 hours. After nine months the best corrected visual acuity was 20/20. Corneal toxicity has previously been reported for plants of the Asclepias family. This is a rare case describing severe corneal toxicity caused by exposure to latex from Asclepias tuberosa . Handling of plants of the Asclepias family should be kept as a differential diagnosis in cases of acute corneal toxicity.

  20. A WET TALE: TOXICITY OF COMPLEX EFFLUENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This course covers standards, regulations, policy, guidance and technical aspects of implementing the whole effluent toxicity program. The curriculum incorporates rationale and information on WET test requirements from USEPA documents, such as the Technical Support Document for W...

  1. Developmental toxicity of organotin compounds in animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijiao eWu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Organotin compounds (OTs have been used as biocides in antifouling paints and agriculture. The IMO introduced a global ban on the use of OTs in antifouling systems in 2001 due to their high toxicity. However, OTs have still been detected in the environment and pose a threat to the ecosystem. Several research groups have summarized the analytical methods, environmental fate, biochemistry, reproductive toxicity and mechanisms of actions of OTs. Here, we reviewed the developmental toxicity of OTs in various organisms such as sea urchin, ascidian, mussel and fish. The differences in sensitivity to OT exposure exist not only in different species but also at different stages in the same species. Though some hypotheses have been proposed to explain the developmental toxicity of OTs, the solid evidences are greatly in need.

  2. Mobile source air toxics mitigation measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    In accordance with the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) Interim Guidance Update on Mobile Source Air Toxic Analysis in NEPA Documents (September 30, 2009), transportation projects subject to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) mus...

  3. Anaerobic Toxicity of Cationic Silver Nanoparticles

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Toxicity data for the impact of nano-silver on anaerobic degradation. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Gitipour, A., S. Thiel, K. Scheckel,...

  4. Toxic chemicals: risk prevention through use reduction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Higgins, Thomas E; Sachdev, Jayanti A; Engleman, Stephen A

    2011-01-01

    "Catastrophic events such as the Bhopal, India tragedy and rising incidences of cancer in areas neighboring industrial facilities have heightened concern over the use of toxic chemicals in manufacturing and industry...

  5. Local anaesthetics: Characteris tics, uses and toxicities

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LA in the body plasma, the more toxic it is. ... pain relief. As always, good judgement is necessary – an insulin- ... postgraduate anaesthetic specialisation training in Bloemfontein. ... at 3 - 5-minute intervals; then (or sooner ... Then, attach the fat.

  6. ORIGINAL ARTICLES Nevirapine toxicity- implications for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nevirapine was the first non-nucleoside drug (NNRTI) to be approved by the ... related toxicities in pregnancy were highlighted by a study published in 2004 ..... health, of consumption of scarce financial resources, of concern about doctors ...

  7. Male-mediated developmental toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, Diana

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, the public has become more aware that exposure of males to certain agents can adversely affect their offspring and cause infertility and cancer. The hazards associated with exposure to ionising radiation have been recognised for nearly a century, but interest was aroused when a cluster of leukaemia cases was identified in young children living in Seascale, close to the nuclear processing plant at Sellafield in West Cumbria. There was a civil court case on behalf of two of the alleged victims of paternal irradiation at Seascale against British Nuclear Fuels. The case foundered on 'the balance of probabilities'. Nevertheless, there was support for paternal exposure from Japanese experimental X-ray studies in mice. The tumours were clearly heritable as shown by F2 transmission. Also, effects of a relatively non-toxic dose of radiation (1Gy) on cell proliferation transmitted to the embryo were manifested in the germ line of adult male mice even after two generations. In addition in humans, smoking fathers appear to give rise to tumours in the F 1 generation. Using rodent models, developmental abnormalities/congenital malformations and tumours can be studied after exposure of males in an extended dominant lethal assay and congenital malformations can be determined which have similar manifestations in humans. The foetuses can also be investigated for skeletal malformations and litters can be allowed to develop to adulthood when tumours, if present, can be observed. Karyotype analysis can be performed on foetuses and adult offspring to determine if induced genetic damage can be transmitted. Using this study design, cyclophosphamide, 1,3-butadiene and urethane have been examined and each compound produced positive responses: cyclophosphamide in all endpoints examined, 1,3-butadiene in some and urethane only produced liver tumours in F 1 male offspring. This suggests the endpoints are determined by independent genetic events. The results from heritable

  8. Management of Bottom Sediments Containing Toxic Substances: Proceedings of the U.S./Japan Experts Meeting (11th) Held in Seattle, Washington, on 4-6 November 1985.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-01

    potential environmental impact of organotins and their effect on the dredging permit proenp, Eighteen-day-old mysids were exposed to tributyltin ( TBT ...sediment. The TBT toxicant became a significant deleterious factor by day 8. After 10 days control survival was 100 per- cent with sediment and 95 percent...It is generally accepted that the TBT cation is the toxic component and the anion is not a factor in its toxicity . TBT degradation products are less

  9. Late toxicity in breast cancer radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Coletti, F.; Rafailovici, L.; Filomia, M.L.; Chiozza, J.; Dosoretz, B.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The aim of this study is to describe and classify chronic complications due to radiotherapy in breast cancer. Also the impact of radiotherapy on the quality of life of patients is evaluated. Materials and methods: 50 patients with breast cancer at early stages (78% in situ, 22% I and II) treated with radiotherapy in breast volume plus boost (45/50 Gy + 18/20 Gy) with a follow up over 5 years. Acute toxicities were found retrospectively and chronic toxicities were assessed though physical examination and review of complementary studies. To facilitate data collection, pre printed forms were used. Bibliographic searches were made. Results: 10% received chemotherapy and 64% tamoxifen. The predominant chronic toxicity were found in skin (66%), although grade I and II (hyperpigmentation 26%, dryness 22%, telangiectasia 10% fibrosis, 4%, other 4%). A 50% of the patients showed hypoesthesia in ipsilateral upper limb. The other toxicities were presented in low rate and magnitude: mastodynia 16%; actinic pneumonitis 4%, pyrosis 4%, Tachycardia 2%, among others. Of the patients with acute toxicity, only 30% were grade III. The 70% of the patients had a positive impact of radiotherapy on quality of life. Conclusions: We found low rates and degrees of late toxicity. It was noticed a relationship between acute and chronic toxicity, because those who presented adverse effects during treatment developed late effects. It reflects the importance of integrating monitoring as part of radiation treatment. It should be adopted a single score of late toxicity measurement to unify data from different series. (authors) [es

  10. Toxic Hazards Research Unit Annual Report: 1986

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-01

    mediated hemolysis by mercapto compounds. Journal of Applied Toxicology, Volume 6, Number 5, pages 336-370, 1986. Hydrophobic tributyltin ( TBT ...7 ~OF~ AAMRL-TR-87-020 NMRI-87-2 ’~LRES 4 Iq 1986 TOXIC HAZARDS RESEARCH UNIT ANNUAL REPORT WILLIAM E. HOUSTON, Ph.D. RAYMOND S. KUTZMAN, Ph.D...and is approved for publication. FOR THE COMMANDElRi BRUCE 0. STUART, Ph.D. Director, Toxic Hazards Division Harry G. Armstrong Aerospace Medical

  11. Non-toxic brominated perfluorocarbons radiopaque agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, D.M. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Non-toxic bromofluorocarbon radiopaque agents are disclosed. Certain monobrominated acyclic fluorocarbons, e.g., CF 3 (CF 2 ) 6 CF 2 Br, are improved non-toxic radiopaque agents useful in diagnostic roentgenology, for example in visualizing the gastrointestinal tract, the tracheobronchial tree, the alveolar spaces or parenchyma of the lung, the spleen, the urinary bladder and ureters, the common bile duct and its radicals, the pancreatic ducts, the blood vessels, etc. 13 claims, no drawings

  12. Role of Bioadsorbents in Reducing Toxic Metals

    OpenAIRE

    Mathew, Blessy Baby; Jaishankar, Monisha; Biju, Vinai George; Krishnamurthy Nideghatta Beeregowda

    2016-01-01

    Industrialization and urbanization have led to the release of increasing amounts of heavy metals into the environment. Metal ion contamination of drinking water and waste water is a serious ongoing problem especially with high toxic metals such as lead and cadmium and less toxic metals such as copper and zinc. Several biological materials have attracted many researchers and scientists as they offer both cheap and effective removal of heavy metals from waste water. Therefore it is urgent to st...

  13. Developmental toxicity of engineered nanomaterials in rodents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ema, Makoto, E-mail: ema-makoto@aist.go.jp; Gamo, Masashi; Honda, Kazumasa

    2016-05-15

    We summarized significant effects reported in the literature on the developmental toxicity of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in rodents. The developmental toxicity of ENMs included not only structural abnormalities, but also death, growth retardation, and behavioral and functional abnormalities. Most studies were performed on mice using an injection route of exposure. Teratogenic effects were indicated when multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), and TiO{sub 2}-nanoparticles were administered to mice during early gestation. Reactive oxygen species levels were increased in placentas and malformed fetuses and their placentas after prenatal exposure to MWCNTs and SWCNTs, respectively. The pre- and postnatal mortalities and growth retardation in offspring increased after prenatal exposure to ENMs. Histopathological and functional abnormalities were also induced in placentas after prenatal exposure to ENMs. Maternal exposure to ENMs induced behavioral alterations, histopathological and biochemical changes in the central nervous system, increased susceptibility to allergy, transplacental genotoxicity, and vascular, immunological, and reproductive effects in offspring. The size- and developmental stage-dependent placental transfer of ENMs was noted after maternal exposure. Silver accumulated in the visceral yolk sac after being injected with Ag-NPs during early gestation. Although currently available data has provided initial information on the potential developmental toxicity of ENMs, that on the developmental toxicity of ENMs is still very limited. Further studies using well-characterized ENMs, state-of the-art study protocols, and appropriate routes of exposure are required in order to clarify these developmental effects and provide information suitable for risk assessments of ENMs. - Highlights: • We review the developmental toxicity studies of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs). • Various developmental endpoints have been

  14. Phase II study assessing the effectiveness of Biafine cream as a prophylactic agent for radiation-induced acute skin toxicity to the breast in women undergoing radiotherapy with concomitant CMF chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szumacher, Ewa; Wighton, Anne; Franssen, Edmee; Chow, Edward; Tsao, May; Ackerman, Ida; Andersson, Lourdes; Kim, John; Wojcicka, Anna; Ung, Yee; Sixel, Katharina; Hayter, Charles

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the efficacy of Biafine cream in preventing Grade 2 acute radiation dermatitis, according to the National Cancer Institute of Canada skin radiation toxicity criteria in patients undergoing concomitant adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy to the breast. Methods and Materials: Sixty patients participated in this study. Patients were treated with a lumpectomy followed by concomitant chemotherapy and radiotherapy to the breast. Biafine cream was applied daily, starting on the first day and ending 2 weeks post-radiotherapy. Patients underwent weekly skin assessments throughout radiotherapy and at 2 and 4 weeks after treatment. Outcome measures were assessed using a Skin Assessment Questionnaire that was scored according to the National Cancer Institute of Canada skin radiation toxicity criteria and a self-administered questionnaire that evaluated skin symptoms. Results: The maximum skin toxicity observed during the course of treatment was as follows: less than Grade 2 toxicity, 15% (9 patients); Grade 2, 83% (50 patients); Grade 3, 2% (1 patient); Grade 4, 0% (0 patients). The majority of the radiation dermatitis was observed after 3 weeks of radiotherapy. Conclusion: The majority of patients who underwent concomitant chemo- and radiotherapy for breast cancer developed Grade 2 radiation dermatitis with the use of Biafine cream. However, no treatment delays or interruptions were observed because of skin toxicity

  15. Repeated Intramuscular-dose Toxicity Test of Water-soluble Carthami Flos (WCF Pharmacopuncture in Sprague-Dawley Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoo-min Choi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Water-soluble carthami flos (WCF is a new mixture of Carthami flos (CF pharmacopuncture. We conducted a 4-week toxicity test of repeated intramuscular injections of WCF in Sprague-Dawley rats. Methods: Forty male and 40 female rats were divided into 4 groups of 10 male and 10 female SD rats: The control group received 0.5 mL/animal/day of normal saline whereas the three experimental groups received WCF at doses of 0.125, 0.25, and 0.5 mL/animal/day, respectively. For 4 weeks, the solutions were injected into the femoral muscle of the rats alternating from side to side. Clinical signs, body weights, and food consumption were observed; opthalmological examinations and urinalyses were performed. On day 29, blood samples were taken for hematological and clinical chemistry analyses. Then, necropsy was conducted in all animals to observe weights and external and histopathological changes in the bodily organs. All data were tested using a statistical analysis system (SAS. Results: No deaths were observed. Temporary irregular respiration was observed in male rats of the experimental group for the first 10 days. Body weights, food consumptions, opthalmological examinations, urinalyses, clinical chemistry analyses, organ weights and necropsy produced no findings with toxicological meaning. In the hematological analysis, delay of prothrombin time (PT was observed in male rats of the 0.25- and the 0.5-mL/animal/day groups. In the histopathological test, a dose-dependent inflammatory cell infiltration into the fascia and panniculitis in perimuscular tissues was observed in all animals of the experimental groups. However, those symptoms were limited to local injection points. No toxicological meanings, except localized changes, were noted. Conclusion: WCF solution has no significant toxicological meaning, but does produce localized symptoms. No observed adverse effect level (NOAEL of WCF in male and female rats is expected for doses over 0.5 mL/animal/day.

  16. Intracellular bacteria: the origin of dinoflagellate toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, E S

    1990-01-01

    Dinoflagellate blooms of the same species have been registered either as toxic or nontoxic and, in the latter case, toxicity may be of different types. A hypothesis has been formulated according to which the bacteria having in some way taken part in the toxin formation are either inside the dinoflagellate cell or in the nutritive liquid. The presence of intracellular bacteria in those microorganisms has been studied mainly in material from cultures, a few from the sea, and several strains were isolated from different species. Experiments with crossed inoculations have shown that the bacterial strain from Gonyaulax tamarensis caused the cells of some other species to become toxic. From nontoxic clonal cultures of Prorocentrum balticum, Glenodinium foliaceum, and Gyrodinium instriatum, after inoculation of that bacterial strain, cultures were obtained whose cell extracts showed the same kind of toxicity as G. tamarensis. No toxic action could be found in the extracts of the bacterial cells form the assayed strains. The interference of intracellular bacteria in the metabolism of dinoflagellates must be the main cause of their toxicity.

  17. Assessing sediment contamination using six toxicity assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen G. BURTON Jr.

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available An evaluation of sediment toxicity at Lake Orta, Italy was conducted to compare a toxicity test battery of 6 assays and to evaluate the extent of sediment contamination at various sediment depths. Lake Orta received excessive loadings of copper and ammonia during the 1900’s until a large remediation effort was conducted in 1989-90 using lime addition. Since that time, the lake has shown signs of a steady recovery of biological communities. The study results showed acute toxicity still exists in sediments at a depth of 5 cm and greater. Assays that detected the highest levels of toxicity were two whole sediment exposures (7 d using Hyalella azteca and Ceriodaphnia dubia. The MicrotoxR assay using pore water was the third most sensitive assay. The Thamnotox, Rototox, Microtox solid phase, and Seed Germination-Root Elongation (pore and solid phase assays showed occasional to no toxicity. Based on similarity of responses and assay sensitivity, the two most useful assays were the C. dubia (or H. azteca and Microtox pore water. These assays were effective at describing sediment toxicity in a weight-of-evidence approach.

  18. Toxicity of carbon nanotubes: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Arul Prakash; Devasena, Thiyagarajan

    2018-03-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are widely used in the aerospace, automotive, and electronics industries because of their stability, enhanced metallic, and electrical properties. CNTs are also being investigated for biomedical applications such as drug delivery systems and biosensors. However, the toxic potential of CNTs was reported in various cell lines and animal models. The toxicity depends on diverse properties of the CNTs, such as length, aspect ratio, surface area, degree of aggregation, purity, concentration, and dose. In addition, CNTs and/or associated contaminants were well known for oxidative stress, inflammation, apoptosis, pulmonary inflammation, fibrosis, and granuloma in lungs. The increased production of CNTs likely enhanced the possibility of its exposure in people. Studies on the toxicity of CNTs are mainly focused on the pulmonary effects after intratracheal administration, and only a few studies are reported about the toxicity of CNTs via other routes of exposure. So, it is essential to consider the chronic toxicity of CNTs before using them for various biomedical applications. This review focuses on the potential toxicities of CNTs.

  19. Analysis of Toxic and Non-Toxic Alexandrium (Dinophyceae) Species Using Ribosomal RNA Gene Sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-02-01

    Therriault, J.-C. (1988). Cladistic analysis of electrophoretic variants within the toxic dinoflagellate genus Protogonyaulax. Botanica Marina 31: 39- 51. 8... Botanica Marina 34: 575-587. Halegraeff, G. M., and Bolch, C.J. (1992). Transport of toxic dinoflagellate cysts via ship’s ballast water: implications...analysis of electrophoretic variants within the toxic dinoflagellate genus Protogonv-u.!a,. Botanica Marina 31: 39-51. Curran, J., Baillie, D.L

  20. Metabolic intervention of aflatoxin B1 toxicity by curcumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Sujatha; Sashidhar, R B

    2010-02-17

    Curcumin, bioactive principle of turmeric (Curcuma longa Linn) is an important constituent of Indian traditional medicine. Turmeric has been known to possess several therapeutic properties. The modulatory effect of dietary curcumin (0.05%, w/w) on drug metabolizing and general marker enzymes of liver and formation of AFB(1)-adducts (DNA and protein) due to dietary AFB(1) exposure for a period of 6 weeks in a rodent model, have been evaluated. Drug metabolizing enzymes CYP1A1, GSHT, UGT1A and general marker enzymes (LDH, ALT, AST, ALP and gamma-GT) of liver were estimated by standardized methods. Aflatoxin adducts (DNA and protein) were quantitated by indirect competitive ELISA. Dietary curcumin enhanced GSHT (pcurcumin in the diet normalized the altered activities of LDH and ALT. At molecular level, curcumin significantly reduced AFB(1)-N(7)-guanine adduct (pcurcumin intervention ameliorates the AFB(1) induced toxicity. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Essential and toxic metals in rice and fishes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chowdhury, M.Z.A.; Monir uddin, M.; Alam, F.; Reaz uddin, M.; Hossain, M.J.; Alam, M.S.

    2003-01-01

    The amount of essential metals such as Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu and Mn in some selected rice and fishes consumed largely by the general people of Chittagong are determined by using the flame photometric and atomic absorption spectrophotometric methods, and are found to be in the range of human necessity. The amounts of some metals such as Pb, Cd, As and Cr in the same samples of rice and fishes are also determined with the help of AAS. The concentration of these toxic metals are actually higher than the tolerance limit of human body. Particularly, the samples produced in the land and hinterland of Chittagong are found to contain considerably higher concentration of lead and chromium than the samples collected from the sea. This indicates that the soil, water and air of land are more contaminated by these metals than the sea-water. The possible sources of lead and chromium are pointed out and the possible ways for remaining away from their contaminations are indicated. The information obtained from these studies are expected to be useful to the general people of this region to select any food for their daily diet on the basis of the abundances of the essential metals or to avoid any food by considering the concentration of the toxic metals. (author)

  2. A comparative toxicity assessment of materials used in aquatic construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalonde, Benoit A; Ernst, William; Julien, Gary; Jackman, Paula; Doe, Ken; Schaefer, Rebecca

    2011-10-01

    Comparative toxicity testing was performed on selected materials that may be used in aquatic construction projects. The tests were conducted on the following materials: (1) untreated wood species (hemlock [Tsuga ssp], Western red cedar (Thuja plicata), red oak [Quercus rubra], Douglas fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii], red pine [Pinus resinosa], and tamarack [Larix ssp]); (2) plastic wood; (3) Ecothermo wood hemlock stakes treated with preservatives (e.g., chromated copper arsenate [CCA], creosote, alkaline copper quaternary [ACQ], zinc naphthenate, copper naphthenate, and Lifetime Wood Treatment); (4) epoxy-coated steel; (5) hot-rolled steel; (6) zinc-coated steel; and (7) concrete. Those materials were used in acute lethality tests with rainbow trout, Daphnia magna, Vibrio fischeri and threespine stickleback. The results indicated the following general ranking of the materials (from the lowest to highest LC(50) values); ACQ > creosote > zinc naphthenate > copper naphthenate > CCA (treated at 22.4 kg/m(3)) > concrete > red pine > western red cedar > red oak > zinc-coated steel > epoxy-coated steel > CCA (6.4 kg/m(3)). Furthermore, the toxicity results indicated that plastic wood, certain untreated wood species (hemlock, tamarack, Douglas fir, and red oak), hot-rolled steel, Ecothermo wood, and wood treated with Lifetime Wood Treatment were generally nontoxic to the test species. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

  3. Sediment porewater toxicity assessment studies in the vicinity of offshore oil and gas production in the Gulf of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, R. S.; Chapman, D. C.; Presley, B. J.; Biedenbach, J. M.; Robertson, L.

    1996-01-01

    Sediment chemical analyses and porewater toxicity tests were conducted in the vicinity of five offshore oil and gas platforms in the Gulf of Mexico to determine the potential long-term environmental impacts of offshore oil and gas exploration and production. Evidence of toxicity was obtained from four of the five platforms from data on sea urchin fertilization and embryonic development. The majority of toxic samples were collected within 150 m of the platform. Sediment concentrations of several metals were well in excess of sediment quality assessment guidelines at a number of stations. Porewater metal concentrations were found to be high enough to account for the observed toxicity. The general conclusion reached from these toxicity tests was that the contaminant-induced impacts from the offshore platforms were confined to a limited area in the immediate vicinity of the platform. 23 refs., 8 tabs., 2 figs

  4. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z General Ultrasound Ultrasound imaging uses sound waves to produce ... the limitations of General Ultrasound Imaging? What is General Ultrasound Imaging? Ultrasound is safe and painless, and ...

  5. General Nuclear Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z General Nuclear Medicine Nuclear medicine imaging uses small amounts of radioactive ... of General Nuclear Medicine? What is General Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging ...

  6. Calfornia General Plans

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — We undertook creating the first ever seamless statewide General Plan map for California. All county general plans and many city general plans were integrated into 1...

  7. Toxicity of Single and Mixed Contaminants in Seawater Measured with Acute Toxicity Bioassays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Fernandez-Alba

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Different types of organic pollutants commonly detected in seawater have been evaluated by acute toxicity bioassays. Vibrio fischeri, Daphnia magna, and Selenastrum capricornotum were selected to test toxic effects of individual compounds and mixtures of these compounds, obtaining EC50 values in the range of 0.001 to 28.9 mg/l. In the case of mixtures, synergistic toxic responses were seen for a clear majority of the cases (>60%. Mixtures containing methyl-tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE exhibit accelerated processes that result in a change in concentration required to produce a toxic effect; for example, in the case of mixtures containing MTBE and Diuron and Dichlofluanid.

  8. Active prey selection in two pelagic copepods feeding on potentially toxic and non-toxic dinoflagellates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Mette; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Grazing on two red tide dinoflagellates, the potentially toxic Karenia mikimotoi and the non-toxic Gyrodinium instriatum, was examined in two species of marine copepods, Pseudocalanus elongatus and Temora longicornis. Both copepods cleared K. mikimotoi at rates that were a little lower but compar......Grazing on two red tide dinoflagellates, the potentially toxic Karenia mikimotoi and the non-toxic Gyrodinium instriatum, was examined in two species of marine copepods, Pseudocalanus elongatus and Temora longicornis. Both copepods cleared K. mikimotoi at rates that were a little lower...

  9. Predictive QSAR modelling of algal toxicity of ionic liquids and its interspecies correlation with Daphnia toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Kunal; Das, Rudra Narayan; Popelier, Paul L A

    2015-05-01

    Predictive toxicology using chemometric tools can be very useful in order to fill the data gaps for ionic liquids (ILs) with limited available experimental toxicity information, in view of their growing industrial uses. Though originally promoted as green chemicals, ILs have now been shown to possess considerable toxicity against different ecological endpoints. Against this background, quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models have been developed here for the toxicity of ILs against the green algae Scenedesmus vacuolatus using computed descriptors with definite physicochemical meaning. The final models emerged from E-state indices, extended topochemical atom (ETA) indices and quantum topological molecular similarity (QTMS) indices. The developed partial least squares models support the established mechanism of toxicity of ionic liquids in terms of a surfactant action of cations and chaotropic action of anions. The models have been developed within the guidelines of the Organization of Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) for regulatory QSAR models, and they have been validated both internally and externally using multiple strategies and also tested for applicability domain. A preliminary attempt has also been made, for the first time, to develop interspecies quantitative toxicity-toxicity relationship (QTTR) models for the algal toxicity of ILs with Daphnia toxicity, which should be interesting while predicting toxicity of ILs for an endpoint when the data for the other are available.

  10. Assessing the toxic effects of ethylene glycol ethers using Quantitative Structure Toxicity Relationship models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz, Patricia; Mumtaz, Moiz; Gombar, Vijay

    2011-01-01

    Experimental determination of toxicity profiles consumes a great deal of time, money, and other resources. Consequently, businesses, societies, and regulators strive for reliable alternatives such as Quantitative Structure Toxicity Relationship (QSTR) models to fill gaps in toxicity profiles of compounds of concern to human health. The use of glycol ethers and their health effects have recently attracted the attention of international organizations such as the World Health Organization (WHO). The board members of Concise International Chemical Assessment Documents (CICAD) recently identified inadequate testing as well as gaps in toxicity profiles of ethylene glycol mono-n-alkyl ethers (EGEs). The CICAD board requested the ATSDR Computational Toxicology and Methods Development Laboratory to conduct QSTR assessments of certain specific toxicity endpoints for these chemicals. In order to evaluate the potential health effects of EGEs, CICAD proposed a critical QSTR analysis of the mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, and developmental effects of EGEs and other selected chemicals. We report here results of the application of QSTRs to assess rodent carcinogenicity, mutagenicity, and developmental toxicity of four EGEs: 2-methoxyethanol, 2-ethoxyethanol, 2-propoxyethanol, and 2-butoxyethanol and their metabolites. Neither mutagenicity nor carcinogenicity is indicated for the parent compounds, but these compounds are predicted to be developmental toxicants. The predicted toxicity effects were subjected to reverse QSTR (rQSTR) analysis to identify structural attributes that may be the main drivers of the developmental toxicity potential of these compounds.

  11. Mixture toxicity of wood preservative products in the fish embryo toxicity test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coors, Anja; Dobrick, Jan; Möder, Monika; Kehrer, Anja

    2012-06-01

    Wood preservative products are used globally to protect wood from fungal decay and insects. We investigated the aquatic toxicity of five commercial wood preservative products, the biocidal active substances and some formulation additives contained therein, as well as six generic binary mixtures of the active substances in the fish embryo toxicity test (FET). Median lethal concentrations (LC50) of the single substances, the mixtures, and the products were estimated from concentration-response curves and corrected for concentrations measured in the test medium. The comparison of the experimentally observed mixture toxicity with the toxicity predicted by the concept of concentration addition (CA) showed less than twofold deviation for all binary mixtures of the active substances and for three of the biocidal products. A more than 60-fold underestimation of the toxicity of the fourth product by the CA prediction was detected and could be explained fully by the toxicity of one formulation additive, which had been labeled as a hazardous substance. The reason for the 4.6-fold underestimation of toxicity of the fifth product could not be explained unambiguously. Overall, the FET was found to be a suitable screening tool to verify whether the toxicity of formulated wood preservatives can reliably be predicted by CA. Applied as a quick and simple nonanimal screening test, the FET may support approaches of applying component-based mixture toxicity predictions within the environmental risk assessment of biocidal products, which is required according to European regulations. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  12. The pT-value as environmental policy indicator for the exposure to toxic substances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slooff W; de Zwart D

    1991-01-01

    This report contains a proposal for an indicator to measure the effectivity of the environmental policy with regard to the theme "Verspreiding" of the Directorate-General for Environmental Protection. It is recommended to use a method which indicates the toxicity of organic pollutants as

  13. Comparison of toxicity and disposition of cadmium chloride and cadmium-metallothionein in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groten, J.P.

    1992-01-01

    In Chapter 1 of this thesis a general introduction is presented with a survey of the literature. It gives a brief overview of the factors involved in the absorption, metabolism and toxicity of Cd after oral intake.

    In short, the main source of

  14. Fluoroacetate-mediated toxicity of fluorinated ethanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, D A; Roe, D C; Lieder, P H

    1996-04-01

    A series of 1-(di)halo-2-fluoroethanes reported in the literature to be nontoxic or of low toxicity were found to be highly toxic by the inhalation route. Experiments were performed that showed the compounds, 1,2-difluoroethane, 1-chloro-2-fluoroethane, 1-chloro-1,2-difluoroethane, and 1-bromo-2-fluoroethane to be highly toxic to rats upon inhalation for 4 hr. All four compounds had 4-hr approximate lethal concentrations of difluoroethane (commonly referred to as HFC-152a) has very low acute toxicity with a 4-hr LC50 of > 400,000 ppm in rats. Rats exposed to the selected toxic fluoroethanes showed clinical signs of fluoroacetate toxicity (lethargy, hunched posture, convulsions). 1,2-Difluoroethane, 1-chloro-2-fluoroethane, 1-chloro-1,2-difluoroethane, and 1-bromo-2-fluoroethane were shown to increase concentrations of citrate in serum and heart tissue, a hallmark of fluoroacetate intoxication. 19F NMR analysis confirmed that fluoroacetate was present in the urine of rats exposed to each toxic compound. Fluorocitrate, a condensation product of fluoroacetate and oxaloacetate, was identified in the kidney of rats exposed to 1,2-difluoroethane. There was a concentration-related elevation of serum and heart citrate in rats exposed to 0-1000 ppm 1,2-fluoroethane. Serum citrate was increased up to 5-fold and heart citrate was increased up to 11-fold over control citrate levels. Metabolism of 1,2-difluoroethane by cytochrome P450 (most likely CYP2E1) is suspected because pretreatment of rats or mice with SKF-525F, disulfiram, or dimethyl sulfoxide prevented or delayed the toxicity observed in rats not pretreated. Experimental evidence indicates that the metabolism of the toxic fluoroethanes is initiated at the carbon-hydrogen bond, with metabolism to fluoroacetate via an aldehyde or an acyl fluoride. The results of these studies show that 1-(di)halo-2-fluoroethanes are highly toxic to rats and should be considered a hazard to humans unless demonstrated otherwise.

  15. Generalized Probability Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Souto Martinez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available From the integration of nonsymmetrical hyperboles, a one-parameter generalization of the logarithmic function is obtained. Inverting this function, one obtains the generalized exponential function. Motivated by the mathematical curiosity, we show that these generalized functions are suitable to generalize some probability density functions (pdfs. A very reliable rank distribution can be conveniently described by the generalized exponential function. Finally, we turn the attention to the generalization of one- and two-tail stretched exponential functions. We obtain, as particular cases, the generalized error function, the Zipf-Mandelbrot pdf, the generalized Gaussian and Laplace pdf. Their cumulative functions and moments were also obtained analytically.

  16. The Effect of Digestive Capacity on the Intake Rate of Toxic and Non-Toxic Prey in an Ecological Context.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Oudman

    Full Text Available Digestive capacity often limits food intake rate in animals. Many species can flexibly adjust digestive organ mass, enabling them to increase intake rate in times of increased energy requirement and/or scarcity of high-quality prey. However, some prey species are defended by secondary compounds, thereby forcing a toxin limitation on the forager's intake rate, a constraint that potentially cannot be alleviated by enlarging digestive capacity. Hence, physiological flexibility may have a differential effect on intake of different prey types, and consequently on dietary preferences. We tested this effect in red knots (Calidris canutus canutus, medium-sized migratory shorebirds that feed on hard-shelled, usually mollusc, prey. Because they ingest their prey whole and crush the shell in their gizzard, the intake rate of red knots is generally constrained by digestive capacity. However, one of their main prey, the bivalve Loripes lucinalis, imposes a toxin constraint due to its symbiosis with sulphide-oxidizing bacteria. We manipulated gizzard sizes of red knots through prolonged exposure to hard-shelled or soft foods. We then measured maximum intake rates of toxic Loripes versus a non-toxic bivalve, Dosinia isocardia. We found that intake of Dosinia exponentially increased with gizzard mass, confirming earlier results with non-toxic prey, whereas intake of Loripes was independent of gizzard mass. Using linear programming, we show that this leads to markedly different expected diet preferences in red knots that try to maximize energy intake rate with a small versus a large gizzard. Intra- and inter-individual variation in digestive capacity is found in many animal species. Hence, the here proposed functional link with individual differences in foraging decisions may be general. We emphasize the potential relevance of individual variation in physiology when studying trophic interactions.

  17. Marine toxicity and persistence of surfactants used in the petroleum producing industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maddin, C.M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents a survey of marine toxicity and biodegradability data for surfactants used in the petroleum industry. Surfactants are key chemicals in the formulation of products such as emulsifiers, demulsifiers, dispersants and inhibitors. They are also used directly as foaming and defoaming agents. Because they function at low concentrations, below 1%, and have a tendency to adsorb on solid surfaces, their long-term environmental effects are minimal. In applications such as cementing, surfactants cannot migrate into the environment and, thus, have no bioavailability. The possibility of environmental contamination has caused well operators and regulatory agencies to require fish toxicity and persistence data for products used in servicing wells. This data has been organized for nonionic, anionic, cationic and amphoteric surfactants. Nonionic surfactants are toxic to fish at concentrations below 10 mg/L to over 2500 mg/L depending on their chemical compositions. Anionic surfactants are toxic to fish at concentrations under 1 mg/L to several hundred mg/L depending on their chemical compositions. cationic and amphoteric surfactants are generally toxic to fish at concentrations below 50 mg/L. Overall efforts are aimed at low toxicity and high biodegradability with the least compromise in product efficiency. This requires the continual testing and environmental evaluation of surfactants summarized herein

  18. Impacts of select organic ligands on the colloidal stability, dissolution dynamics, and toxicity of silver nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokhrel, Lok R; Dubey, Brajesh; Scheuerman, Phillip R

    2013-11-19

    Key understanding of potential transformations that may occur on silver nanoparticle (AgNP) surface upon interaction with naturally ubiquitous organic ligands (e.g., -SH (thoil), humic acid, or -COO (carboxylate)) is limited. Herein we investigated how dissolved organic carbon (DOC), -SH (in cysteine, a well-known Ag(+) chelating agent), and -COO (in trolox, a well-known antioxidant) could alter the colloidal stability, dissolution rate, and toxicity of citrate-functionalized AgNPs (citrate-AgNPs) against a keystone crustacean Daphnia magna. Cysteine, DOC, or trolox amendment of citrate-AgNPs differentially modified particle size, surface properties (charge, plasmonic spectra), and ion release dynamics, thereby attenuating (with cysteine or trolox) or promoting (with DOC) AgNP toxicity. Except with DOC amendment, the combined toxicity of AgNPs and released Ag under cysteine or trolox amendment was lower than of AgNO3 alone. The results of this study show that citrate-AgNP toxicity can be associated with oxidative stress, ion release, and the organism biology. Our evidence suggests that specific organic ligands available in the receiving waters can differentially surface modify AgNPs and alter their environmental persistence (changing dissolution dynamics) and subsequently the toxicity; hence, we caveat to generalize that surface modified nanoparticles upon environmental release may not be toxic to receptor organisms.

  19. In Vivo and In Vitro Toxicity Evaluation of Hydroethanolic Extract of Kalanchoe brasiliensis (Crassulaceae) Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Aldilane Gonçalves; Ribeiro Dantas, Luzia Leiros Sena Fernandes; Fernandes, Júlia Morais; Zucolotto, Silvana Maria; Lima, Adley Antoninni Neves; Soares, Luiz Alberto Lira; Rocha, Hugo Alexandre Oliveira; Lemos, Telma Maria Araújo Moura

    2018-01-01

    The species Kalanchoe brasiliensis , known as "Saião , " has anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and antihistamine activities. It also has the quercetin and kaempferol flavonoids, which exert their therapeutic activities. With extensive popular use besides the defined therapeutical properties, the study of possible side effects is indispensable. The objective of this study is to evaluate the toxicity in vitro and in vivo from the hydroethanolic extract of the leaves of K. brasiliensis . The action of the extract (concentrations from 0.1 to 1000 uL/100 uL) in normal and tumor cells was evaluated using the MTT method. Acute toxicity and subchronic toxicity were evaluated in mice with doses of 250 to 1000 mg/kg orally, following recognized protocols. The in vitro results indicated cytotoxic activity for 3T3 cell line (normal) and 786-0 (kidney carcinoma), showing the activity to be concentration-dependent, reaching 92.23% cell inhibition. In vivo , the extract showed no significant toxicity; only liver changes related to acute toxicity and some signs of liver damage, combining biochemical and histological data. In general, the extract showed low or no toxicity, introducing itself as safe for use with promising therapeutic potential.

  20. In Vivo and In Vitro Toxicity Evaluation of Hydroethanolic Extract of Kalanchoe brasiliensis (Crassulaceae Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldilane Gonçalves Fonseca

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The species Kalanchoe brasiliensis, known as “Saião,” has anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and antihistamine activities. It also has the quercetin and kaempferol flavonoids, which exert their therapeutic activities. With extensive popular use besides the defined therapeutical properties, the study of possible side effects is indispensable. The objective of this study is to evaluate the toxicity in vitro and in vivo from the hydroethanolic extract of the leaves of K. brasiliensis. The action of the extract (concentrations from 0.1 to 1000 uL/100 uL in normal and tumor cells was evaluated using the MTT method. Acute toxicity and subchronic toxicity were evaluated in mice with doses of 250 to 1000 mg/kg orally, following recognized protocols. The in vitro results indicated cytotoxic activity for 3T3 cell line (normal and 786-0 (kidney carcinoma, showing the activity to be concentration-dependent, reaching 92.23% cell inhibition. In vivo, the extract showed no significant toxicity; only liver changes related to acute toxicity and some signs of liver damage, combining biochemical and histological data. In general, the extract showed low or no toxicity, introducing itself as safe for use with promising therapeutic potential.