WorldWideScience

Sample records for gene-orchestrated life functions

  1. Isotope-based medical research in the post genome era: Gene-orchestrated life functions in medicine seen and affected by isotopes. Workshop report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feinendegen, L.E.

    1997-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Institutes of Health (NIH) conducted a workshop on Isotope-Based Medical Research in the Post Genome Era at NIH, Bethesda, Maryland, November 12--14, 1997. The workshop aimed at identifying the role of stable and radioisotopes for advanced diagnosis and therapy of a wide range of illnesses using the new information that comes from the human genome program. In this sense, the agenda addressed the challenge of functional genomics in humans. The workshop addressed: functional genomics in clinical medicine; new diagnostic potentials; new therapy potentials; challenge to tracer- and effector-pharmaceutical chemistry; and project plans for joint ventures

  2. Isotope-based medical research in the post genome era: Gene-orchestrated life functions in medicine seen and affected by isotopes. Workshop report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feinendegen, L.E.

    1997-12-31

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Institutes of Health (NIH) conducted a workshop on Isotope-Based Medical Research in the Post Genome Era at NIH, Bethesda, Maryland, November 12--14, 1997. The workshop aimed at identifying the role of stable and radioisotopes for advanced diagnosis and therapy of a wide range of illnesses using the new information that comes from the human genome program. In this sense, the agenda addressed the challenge of functional genomics in humans. The workshop addressed: functional genomics in clinical medicine; new diagnostic potentials; new therapy potentials; challenge to tracer- and effector-pharmaceutical chemistry; and project plans for joint ventures.

  3. A Dual-Promoter Gene Orchestrates the Sucrose-Coordinated Synthesis of Starch and Fructan in Barley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Yunkai; Fei, Mingliang; Rosenquist, Sara; Jin, Lu; Gohil, Suresh; Sandström, Corine; Olsson, Helena; Persson, Cecilia; Höglund, Anna-Stina; Fransson, Gunnel; Ruan, Ying; Åman, Per; Jansson, Christer; Liu, Chunlin; Andersson, Roger; Sun, Chuanxin

    2017-12-01

    Starch and fructan are two important carbohydrates in many flowering plants and in human diets. Understanding how plants allocate photosynthates and how they prioritize synthesis of different carbohydrates during development is essential in efforts to improve cereals for increased stress tolerance and for desirable carbohydrate compositions in food and feed. We report the coordinated synthesis of starch and fructan in barley, orchestrated by two functionally opposing transcription factors encoded from two alternative promoters, one intronic/exonic, harbored on a single gene. . This dual-transcription factor system employs an autoregulatory, antagonsitic mechanism in sensing sucrose at one promoter, potentially via sucrose/glucose/fructose/trehalose 6-phosphate signaling, and conduct a coordinated synthesis of starch and fructan synthesis by competitive transcription factor binding to the second promoter The finding of an intron/exon-spanning promoter in a hosting gene, resulting in proteins with distinct functions, contributes to our appreciation of the complexity of the plant genome As a case in point for the physiological role of the antagonistic transcription factor system, we have demonstrated that it can be exploited in breeding barley with tailored amounts of fructan for production of specialty food ingredients.

  4. [Life style diseases and functional foods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Tsuyoshi; Kawada, Teruo

    2016-03-01

    In Japan the onset of lifestyle-related diseases has increased, the people interests in "food and health", and the movement of the food industry is actively to respond to it. Healthy life expectancy is essential for mitigation of social medical expenses and improvement of the personal QOL in the super-aged society. Daily diet becomes the nucleus of healthy life expectancy. Historically, the concept of "functional food" system was born in the mid-1980s in ahead of our country in the world. Administration as a response to it to allow on that review, "food for specified health uses" was born. Furthermore, foods with a prevention function of lifestyle-related diseases, such as "Foods with Function Claims" system have been developing from 2015. In this paper, we want to further describe these circumstances, the current situation and the outlook.

  5. [Masticatory function and life style in aged].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, I

    1998-03-01

    Elderly people gain enjoyment in their remaining years from eating, speaking and tasting things, and they find that the oral function is necessary to arouse in them a desire to work for society, in addition to looking after their own health, they find that over function is important. Recently, more attention has come to be paid to one's external appearance. Even if function is impaired, appearance has a strong influence on the feeling of leading a worth-while life. Though increasing age brings a steady loss of teeth, it is unlikely that physiological change resulting from tooth decay and disease are the cause of tooth loss. Degradation of the hard tissue caused by decay is unavoidable. Unless the decayed area is removed and the teeth are repaired with artificial materials, the function of the affected tooth is permanently lost. Moreover, as decay progresses and periodontal disease worsens the state of a given area, extraction becomes necessary. This is the process by which teeth are lost. However, even if teeth are lost, masticatory function may be restored through the use of dentures. Recently, we carried out a survey which showed that a group of elderly people with good masticatory functions were more healthy and lived longer than a group of elderly people with reduced physical functions (weight, grasping strength, balance, bone salt volume) and poor masticatory function.

  6. Neuropsychological functioning in late-life depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gro Strømnes Dybedal

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The literature describing neurocognitive function in patients with late-life depression (LLD show inconsistent findings in regard to incidence and main deficits. Reduced information processing speed is in some studies found to explain deficits in higher order cognitive function, while other studies report specific deficits in memory and executive function. Our aim was to determine the characteristics of neuropsychological functioning in non-demented LLD patients.Methods; A comprehensive neuropsychological battery was administered to a group of hospitalized LLD patients and healthy control subjects. Thirty-nine patients without dementia, 60 years or older meeting DSM-IV criteria for current episode of major depression, and 18 nondepressed control subjects were included. The patient group was characterized by having a long lasting current depressive episode of late-onset depression and by being non-responders to treatment with antidepressants. Neurocognitive scores were calculated for the domains of information processing speed, verbal memory, visuospatial memory, executive function, and language. Number of impairments (performance below the 10th percentile of the control group per domain for each participant was calculated. Results: Nearly half of the patients had a clinically significant cognitive impairment in at least one neurocognitive domain. Relative to healthy control subjects, LLD patients performed significantly poorer in the domains of information processing speed and executive function. Executive abilities were most frequently impaired in the patient group (39 % of the patients. Even when controlling for differences in processing speed, patients showed more executive deficits than controls. CONCLUSIONS: Controlling for processing speed, patients still showed impaired executive function compared to healthy controls. Reduced executive function thus appears to be the core neurocognitive deficit in LLD. Executive function seems

  7. Life's Impact on the Soil Production Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Emma; Willenbring, Jane; Brocard, Gilles

    2016-04-01

    Soil melds life and lithology, but the top-down production of soil by the incorporation of organic matter has typically been viewed through a lens of soil biogeochemistry and the bottom-up weathering of bedrock viewed from a geomorphologic perspective. We merge these perspectives by developing a variation on the classic geomorphological soil production function [1] that accounts for the influence of top-down soil production by additions of organic material. In the classic view [1], production rate of soil from bedrock weathering is a function of the thickness of the soil horizon. Under steady state conditions, this thickness is controlled by a constant coefficient of diffusion and by the hillslope curvature. Across the globe, equilibrium landscapes can be hard to find. We explore the many ways that biota influence the upper soil horizons and move the soil-hillslope system out of steady state using measurements of in situ 10Be at depth in soil profiles. Our empirical case study is in the Luquillo Critical Zone Observatory of northeastern Puerto Rico, where long term ecological monitoring suggests an average of 375 m My-1 of litter fall [2] and as much as 17.5 m My-1 of dust [3] is contributed to the forest floor. This substantial volume of material forms an active surficial layer, functionally increasing the residence time of grains deeper in the soil profile. Litter recycling influences the cosmogenic dose rate to be higher by increasing the residence time of grains and to be lower by increasing environmental shielding. In unconstrained systems, probabilistic modeling can determine a range of solutions for the ages of grains determined with 10Be depth profiles[4]. We compare the probabilistic outcomes to actual measurements of the in situ 10Be at depth in soil profiles from the Luquillo Mountains. Life living in the soil, rather than on it, is of equal importance in the Luquillo Mountains. On average, the soil is occupied by 200 individual earthworms per m2 [5

  8. The Value Function with Life Satisfaction Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kanninen, Ohto; Mahler, Daniel Gerszon

    2017-01-01

    evaluated with life satisfaction. We nd that the mapping from changes in earnings to life satisfaction mimics the predicted S-curve remarkably well when the reference point is generated from individuals' past earnings. This nding is robust to a large set of alternative specications. In congruence...... with experimental evidence, we nd that earnings losses have around 2 times greater impact on life satisfaction than earnings gains. We emphasize that the S-curve we nd need not be causal, since the changes in earnings were based on observational data. However, we can rule out that certain other factors produced...

  9. Indicators for functional service life of building structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, R.; Teuffel, P.

    2014-01-01

    The Estimated Service Life, ESL, is of a major influence in many building assessments. The comparison and optimization of design alternatives depend on the accuracy of this ESL. More and more the Functional Service Life rather than the Technical Service Life is decisive in how long a building can be

  10. functional outcome and quality of life after surgical management

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the functional outcome and quality of life of acetabular ... Outcome measures: Modified Merle d'Aubigne scale and “Squat and Smile” test for functional outcome. ..... limited number of implants, few surgical instruments.

  11. Gini coefficient as a life table function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a toolkit for measuring and analyzing inter-individual inequality in length of life by Gini coefficient. Gini coefficient and four other inequality measures are defined on the length-of-life distribution. Properties of these measures and their empirical testing on mortality data suggest a possibility for different judgements about the direction of changes in the degree of inequality by using different measures. A new computational procedure for the estimation of Gini coefficient from life tables is developed and tested on about four hundred real life tables. The estimates of Gini coefficient are precise enough even for abridged life tables with the final age group of 85+. New formulae have been developed for the decomposition of differences between Gini coefficients by age and cause of death. A new method for decomposition of age-components into effects of mortality and composition of population by group is developed. Temporal changes in the effects of elimination of causes of death on Gini coefficient are analyzed. Numerous empirical examples show: Lorenz curves for Sweden, Russia and Bangladesh in 1995, proportional changes in Gini coefficient and four other measures of inequality for the USA in 1950-1995 and for Russia in 1959-2000. Further shown are errors of estimates of Gini coefficient when computed from various types of mortality data of France, Japan, Sweden and the USA in 1900-95, decompositions of the USA-UK difference in life expectancies and Gini coefficients by age and cause of death in 1997. As well, effects of elimination of major causes of death in the UK in 1951-96 on Gini coefficient, age-specific effects of mortality and educational composition of the Russian population on changes in life expectancy and Gini coefficient between 1979 and 1989. Illustrated as well are variations in life expectancy and Gini coefficient across 32 countries in 1996-1999 and associated changes in life expectancy and Gini

  12. Relationships between functional herd life and conformation traits in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The genetic relationship between conformation traits and functional herd life of the South African Jersey population was investigated. Data on conformation traits (n = 46 238) and functional herd life (n = 90 530) on registered South African Jersey cows calving between 1989 and 2008 were obtained from the Integrated ...

  13. Functional Independence in Late-Life: Maintaining Physical Functioning in Older Adulthood Predicts Daily Life Function after Age 80.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Leslie; Leng, Xiaoyan; La Monte, Michael J; Tindle, Hilary A; Cochrane, Barbara B; Shumaker, Sally A

    2016-03-01

    We examined physical functioning (PF) trajectories (maintaining, slowly declining, and rapidly declining) spanning 15 years in older women aged 65-80 and protective factors that predicted better current levels and less decline in functional independence outcomes after age 80. Women's Health Initiative extension participants who met criteria (enrolled in either the clinical trial or observational study cohort, >80 years at the data release cutoff, PF survey data from initial enrollment to age 80, and functional independence survey data after age 80) were included in these analyses (mean [SD] age = 84.0 [1.4] years; N = 10,478). PF was measured with the SF-36 (mean = 4.9 occasions). Functional independence was measured by self-reported level of dependence in basic and instrumental activities of daily living (ADLs and IADLs) (mean = 3.4 and 3.3 occasions). Maintaining consistent PF in older adulthood extends functional independence in ADL and IADL in late-life. Protective factors shared by ADL and IADL include maintaining PF over time, self-reported excellent or very good health, no history of hip fracture after age 55, and no history of cardiovascular disease. Better IADL function is uniquely predicted by a body mass index less than 25 and no depression. Less ADL and IADL decline is predicted by better self-reported health, and less IADL decline is uniquely predicted by having no history of hip fracture after age 55. Maintaining or improving PF and preventing injury and disease in older adulthood (ages 65-80) has far-reaching implications for improving late-life (after age 80) functional independence. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Functions of personal and vicarious life stories: Identity and empathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Majse; Thomsen, Dorthe Kirkegaard

    2018-01-01

    The present study investigates functions of personal and vicarious life stories focusing on identity and empathy. Two-hundred-and-forty Danish high school students completed two life story questionnaires: One for their personal life story and one for a close other’s life story. In both...... questionnaires, they identified up to 10 chapters and self-rated the chapters on valence and valence of causal connections. In addition, they completed measures of identity disturbance and empathy. More positive personal life stories were related to lower identity disturbance and higher empathy. Vicarious life...... stories showed a similar pattern with respect to identity but surprisingly were unrelated to empathy. In addition, we found positive correlations between personal and vicarious life stories for number of chapters, chapter valence, and valence of causal connections. The study indicates that both personal...

  15. [Functional impairment and quality of life after rectal cancer surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Laura; Zarate, Alba; Serra-Aracil, Xavier; Pallisera, Anna; Serra, Sheila; Navarro-Soto, Salvador

    2018-01-01

    This study determines the quality of life and the anorectal function of these patients. Observational study of two cohorts comparing patients undergoing rectal tumor surgery using TaETM or conventional ETM after a minimum of six months of intestinal transit reconstruction. EORTC-30, EORTC-29 quality of life questionnaires and the anorectal function assessment questionnaire (LARS score) are applied. General variables are also collected. 31 patients between 2011 and 2014: 15 ETM group and 16 TaETM. We do not find statistically significant differences in quality of life questionnaires or in anorectal function. Statistically significant general variables: longer surgical time in the TaETM group. Nosocomial infection and minor suture failure in the TaETM group. The performance of TaETM achieves the same results in terms of quality of life and anorectal function as conventional ETM. Copyright: © 2018 Permanyer.

  16. Early Life Events Predict Adult Testicular Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hart, Roger J; Doherty, Dorota A; Keelan, Jeffrey A

    2016-01-01

    ) and 190.0 × 10(6) vs 106.0 × 10(6) (P = .012), respectively. Men with favorable fetal growth patterns in utero were less likely to have total motile sperm counts within the lowest quartile (P = .011), and men born prematurely had reduced serum T levels in adulthood (13.4 vs 16.6nmol/L, P = .024...... = .003) in adulthood. CONCLUSIONS: Exposures to maternal smoking and higher cord blood estrogens at delivery were associated with a reduced sperm output in adulthood. Optimal adult testicular function depends on being born at or above average weight, and maintaining optimal growth and adiposity......). Fetal growth measurements (n = 137), umbilical cord estrogen concentrations (n = 128), cord testosterone (T) (n = 125), and child-adulthood growth charts (n = 395) were available. RESULTS: Median sperm output for the 18.6% of men exposed in utero to smoking was lower than nonexposed (82.4 × 10(6) vs 123...

  17. Stressful Life Events in Children With Functional Defecation Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philips, Elise M; Peeters, Babette; Teeuw, Arianne H; Leenders, Arnold G E; Boluyt, Nicole; Brilleslijper-Kater, Sonja N; Benninga, Marc A

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of stressful life events including (sexual) abuse in children with functional defecation disorders by performing a systematic review. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsycINFO for cohort, case-control and cross-sectional studies investigating the prevalence of stressful life events, including (sexual) abuse in children with functional defecation disorders. The search yielded 946 articles, of which 8 were included with data from 654 children with functional constipation and 1931 children with (constipation-associated) fecal incontinence (FI). Overall, children with functional defecation disorders had been significantly more exposed to stressful life events than healthy children, with prevalence rates ranging from 1.6% to 90.9%. Being bullied, being a relational victim, interruption of toilet training, punishment by parents during toilet training, and hospitalization were significantly related to FI, whereas separation from the best friend, failure in an examination, severe illness in a close family member, loss of job by a parent, frequent punishment, and living in a war-affected area were significantly related to constipation. Only 1 study measured the prevalence of child abuse, which reported a significantly higher prevalence of child (sexual) abuse in children with FI compared with controls. The prevalence of stressful life events, including (sexual) abuse is significantly higher in children with functional defecation disorders compared with healthy children. To gain more insight into the true prevalence of child (sexual) abuse in children with functional defecation disorders, more studies are clearly needed.

  18. Progressive multiple sclerosis, cognitive function, and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Højsgaard Chow, Helene; Schreiber, Karen; Magyari, Melinda; Ammitzbøll, Cecilie; Börnsen, Lars; Romme Christensen, Jeppe; Ratzer, Rikke; Soelberg Sørensen, Per; Sellebjerg, Finn

    2018-02-01

    Patients with progressive multiple sclerosis (MS) often have cognitive impairment in addition to physical impairment. The burden of cognitive and physical impairment progresses over time, and may be major determinants of quality of life. The aim of this study was to assess to which degree quality of life correlates with physical and cognitive function in progressive MS. This is a retrospective study of 52 patients with primary progressive ( N  = 18) and secondary progressive MS ( N  = 34). Physical disability was assessed using the Expanded Disability Status Scale, Timed 25 Foot Walk (T25FW) test and 9-Hole Peg Test (9HPT). Cognitive function was assessed using Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT), Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test, and Trail Making Test B (TRAIL-B). In addition, quality of life was assessed by the Short Form 36 (SF-36) questionnaire. Only measures of cognitive function correlated with the overall SF-36 quality of life score and the Mental Component Summary score from the SF-36. The only physical measure that correlated with a measure of quality of life was T25FW test, which correlated with the Physical Component Summary from the SF-36. We found no other significant correlations between the measures of cognitive function and the overall physical measures but interestingly, we found a possible relationship between the 9HPT score for the nondominant hand and the SDMT and TRAIL-B. Our findings support inclusion of measures of cognitive function in the assessment of patients with progressive MS as these correlated closer with quality of life than measures of physical impairment.

  19. Stressful Life Events in Children With Functional Defecation Disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Philips, Elise M.; Peeters, Babette; Teeuw, Arianne H.; Leenders, Arnold G. E.; Boluyt, Nicole; Brilleslijper-Kater, Sonja N.; Benninga, Marc A.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of stressful life events including (sexual) abuse in children with functional defecation disorders by performing a systematic review. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsycINFO for cohort, case-control and cross-sectional studies investigating the

  20. Assessment of inbreeding depression for functional herd life in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of inbreeding depression on functional herd life in the South African Jersey population based on individual level and rate of inbreeding. A pedigree file of the South African Jersey breed (n = 912 638) was obtained from the Integrated Registration and Genetic ...

  1. Early life linguistic ability, late life cognitive function, and neuropathology: findings from the Nun Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Kathryn P; Snowdon, David A; Desrosiers, Mark F; Markesbery, William R

    2005-03-01

    The relationships between early life variables, cognitive function, and neuropathology were examined in participants in the Nun Study who were between the ages of 75 and 95. Our early life variable was idea density, which is a measure of linguistic ability, derived from autobiographies written at a mean age of 22 years. Six discrete categories of cognitive function, including mild cognitive impairments, were evaluated, using the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease (CERAD) battery of cognitive tests. Neuropathologic data included Braak staging, neurofibrillary tangle and senile plaque counts, brain weight, degree of cerebral atrophy, severity of atherosclerosis, and the presence of brain infarcts. Early-life idea density was significantly related to the categories of late-life cognitive function, including mild cognitive impairments: low idea density was associated with greater impairment. Low idea density also was significantly associated with lower brain weight, higher degree of cerebral atrophy, more severe neurofibrillary pathology, and the likelihood of meeting neuropathologic criteria for Alzheimer's disease.

  2. Impact of chronic kidney disease on quality of life, lung function, and functional capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Guimarães Teixeira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact of the chronic kidney disease (CKD on quality of life, from the children's and their parents' perspective, respiratory muscle strength, lung function, and functional capacity in children and adolescents. METHOD: Cross-sectional study of children with CKD aged 8 to 17 years. Those incapable of taking the tests were excluded. After an interview, quality of life by Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQLTM, muscular strength, pulmonary function tests, and the 6-minute walking test (6MWT were applied. Student's t-test, ANOVA (difference in means, and Pearson's coefficient of correlation were used. The level of significance was set at 5%. RESULTS: Of the 40 patients, the mean distance walked at the 6MWT was 396 meters, and the mean final score at the quality of life test as perceived by the children and parents was 50.9 and 51, respectively. From the children's perspective, the transplanted patients had a higher quality of life score when compared to those undergoing hemodialysis (p < 0.001; those who practiced physical activity had better quality of life when compared to the sedentary children (p < 0.001. From the children's and the parents' perspectives, the male gender had a higher quality of life score (p < 0.05. There was a positive correlation between the distance walked at the 6MWT and age, height, final PedsQLTM, forced vital capacity (FVC, and forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1, as well as a negative correlation between FEV1/FVC and the distance walked. CONCLUSION: A significant reduction in the quality of life and the functional capacity was observed in children with CKD, influenced by the type of treatment, gender, and sedentary life style.

  3. Impact of chronic kidney disease on quality of life, lung function, and functional capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Carolina Guimarães; Duarte, Maria do Carmo M B; Prado, Cecília Maciel; Albuquerque, Emídio Cavalcanti de; Andrade, Lívia B

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of the chronic kidney disease (CKD) on quality of life, from the children's and their parents' perspective, respiratory muscle strength, lung function, and functional capacity in children and adolescents. Cross-sectional study of children with CKD aged 8 to 17 years. Those incapable of taking the tests were excluded. After an interview, quality of life by Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory) (PedsQL(TM)), muscular strength, pulmonary function tests, and the 6-minute walking test (6MWT) were applied. Student's t-test, ANOVA (difference in means), and Pearson's coefficient of correlation were used. The level of significance was set at 5%. Of the 40 patients, the mean distance walked at the 6MWT was 396 meters, and the mean final score at the quality of life test as perceived by the children and parents was 50.9 and 51, respectively. From the children's perspective, the transplanted patients had a higher quality of life score when compared to those undergoing hemodialysis (plife when compared to the sedentary children (plife score (plife and the functional capacity was observed in children with CKD, influenced by the type of treatment, gender, and sedentary life style. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  4. Biological catalysis of the hydrological cycle: life's thermodynamic function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaelian, K.

    2011-01-01

    Darwinian theory depicts life as being overwhelmingly consumed by a fight for survival in a hostile environment. However, from a thermodynamic perspective, life is a dynamic out of equilibrium process, stabilizing and coevolving in concert with its abiotic environment. The living component of the biosphere on the surface of the Earth of greatest biomass, the plants and cyanobacteria, are involved in the transpiration of a vast amount of water. Transpiration is part of the global water cycle, and it is this cycle that distinguishes Earth from its apparently life barren neighboring planets, Venus and Mars. The dissipation of sunlight into heat by organic molecules in the biosphere and its coupling to the water cycle (as well as other abiotic processes), is by far the greatest entropy producing process occurring on Earth. Life, from this perspective, can be viewed as performing an important thermodynamic function; acting as a dynamic catalyst by aiding irreversible abiotic process such as the water cycle, hurricanes, and ocean and wind currents to produce entropy. The role of animals in this view is that of unwitting but dedicated servants of the plants and cyanobacteria, helping them to grow and to spread into initially inhospitable areas.

  5. Intensity of recreational physical activity throughout life and later life cognitive functioning in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, Mary C; Moineddin, Rahim; Morra, Angela; Manson, Judith; Blake, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Long-term physical activity may affect risk of cognitive impairment but few studies have examined later life cognition in relation to intensity of life-long physical activity. We examined the associations between the intensity of long-term recreational physical activity and neuropsychological functioning in 90 healthy postmenopausal women on tests found to be useful in the early identification of dementia. Information was collected about their participation in strenuous and moderate activities between high school and menopause. Summary measures of long-term strenuous and moderate activity were constructed for each participant. All analyses were adjusted for relevant covariates. The six linear regression analyses showed significant positive associations between moderate activity and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale Revised (WAIS-R), Digit Span backward, WAIS-R Digit Symbol, and Trail Making Test Part B. Significant negative relationships were found between strenuous activity and Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test delayed verbal recall, Complex Figure Test delayed visual memory, WAIS-R Digit Span backward, category fluency, and WAIS-R Digit Symbol. The associations found in the present study suggest that while moderate activity may be protective, long-term strenuous activity before menopause may lower cognitive performance later in life. These results support further investigation of the effects of life-long exercise intensity on cognition in later life.

  6. Physical function, pain, quality of life and life satisfaction of amputees from the 2008 Sichuan earthquake: A prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ling; Reinhardt, Jan D; Zhang, Xia; Pennycott, Andrew; Zhao, Zhengen; Zeng, Xianmen; Li, Jianan

    2015-05-01

    To examine the development and determinants of long-term outcomes for earthquake victims with amputations, including physical function, pain, quality of life and life satisfaction. Prospective cohort study with 2-3 measurement points. A total of 72 people who underwent amputations following the 2008 Sichuan Earthquake and resided in Mianzhu County, Sichuan Province, China were enrolled in the study. Of these, 27 people were lost to follow-up. Data on pain (visual analogue scale) and physical function (Barthel Index) were collected at 3 measurement points (2009, 2010 and 2012), and data on quality of life (Medical Outcomes Short-Form 36) and life satisfaction (Life Satisfaction Questionnaire-11) were collected at 2 measurement points (2010 and 2012). Data were analysed with mixed effects regression. Pain severity declined significantly and physical function increased by 2012. Quality of life and life satisfaction remained relatively stable between 2010 and 2012, while quality of life was significantly lower than reference values from the general population. Illiteracy and lower extremity amputations were associated with lower quality of life and life satisfaction in several domains. While amputees' functioning and pain were improved over time, quality of life and life satisfaction did not change. Illiterate earthquake survivors and those with lower extremity amputations are at particular risk of low quality of life and life satisfaction, and may require additional attention in future earthquake rehabilitation programs.

  7. Relationships between quality of life and family function in caregiver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez-Marcos Manuel Á

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are caregivers who see their quality of life (QoL impaired due to the demands of their caregiving tasks, while others manage to adapt and overcome the crises successfully. The influence of the family function in the main caregiver's situation has not been the subject of much evaluation. The aim of this study is to analyse the relationship between the functionality of the family and the QoL of caregivers of dependent relatives. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study including 153 caregivers. Setting: Two health centers in the city of Salamanca(Spain. Caregiver variables analysed: demographic characteristics, care recipient features; family functionality (Family APGAR-Q and QoL (Ruiz-Baca-Q perceived by the caregiver. Five multiple regressions are performed considering global QoL and each of the four QoL dimensions as dependent variables. The Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA was used to study the influence of the family function questionnaire on QoL. Results Family function is the only one of the variables evaluated that presented an association both with global QoL and with each of the four individual dimensions (p Conclusion We find an association between family functionality and the caregiver's QoL. This relation holds for both the global measure of QoL and each of its four individual dimensions.

  8. Functional Interface Considerations within an Exploration Life Support System Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Jay L.; Sargusingh, Miriam J.; Toomarian, Nikzad

    2016-01-01

    As notional life support system (LSS) architectures are developed and evaluated, myriad options must be considered pertaining to process technologies, components, and equipment assemblies. Each option must be evaluated relative to its impact on key functional interfaces within the LSS architecture. A leading notional architecture has been developed to guide the path toward realizing future crewed space exploration goals. This architecture includes atmosphere revitalization, water recovery and management, and environmental monitoring subsystems. Guiding requirements for developing this architecture are summarized and important interfaces within the architecture are discussed. The role of environmental monitoring within the architecture is described.

  9. Politics drives human functioning, dignity, and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Brian K; Spellings, Carolyn; McNeely, Clea; Page, Paul D; Giacaman, Rita; Arafat, Cairo; Daher, Mahmoud; El Sarraj, Eyad; Mallouh, Mohammed Abu

    2014-12-01

    Too little is known about human functioning amidst chronic adversity. We addressed that need by studying adult Palestinians in the occupied Palestinian territories (oPt), a population that has experienced longstanding economic and political hardships. Fourteen group interviews were conducted in February, 2010 in Arabic by local fieldworkers with 68 participants representing the main stratifications of Palestinian society: gender, region, refugee status, and political affiliation. Interview tasks included each participant: describing someone doing well and not well, free listing domains of functioning, and prioritizing domains to the three most important. Thematic analyses highlighted the dominating role of the political domain of functioning (e.g., political structures, constraints, effects, identity, and activism) and the degree to which political conditions impacted all other realms of functioning (economic, education, family, psychological, etc.). The discussion links the findings to relevant theory and empirical work that has called attention to the need to include the political in frameworks of quality of life. It also emphasized that values, such as justice, rights, dignity and self-determination, that underlie political structures and policies, are key elements of human functioning. This is the case not only in the oPt, but in any society where power imbalances marginalize segments of the population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Quality of Life Scale: A Measure of Function for People with Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quality Of Life Scale A Measure Of Function For People With Pain 0 Non-functioning 1 2 3 4 ... the week Active on weekends 9 10 Normal Quality of Life Work/volunteer/be active eight hours daily Take ...

  11. Optimal Wonderful Life Utility Functions in Multi-Agent Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolpert, David H.; Tumer, Kagan; Swanson, Keith (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The mathematics of Collective Intelligence (COINs) is concerned with the design of multi-agent systems so as to optimize an overall global utility function when those systems lack centralized communication and control. Typically in COINs each agent runs a distinct Reinforcement Learning (RL) algorithm, so that much of the design problem reduces to how best to initialize/update each agent's private utility function, as far as the ensuing value of the global utility is concerned. Traditional team game solutions to this problem assign to each agent the global utility as its private utility function. In previous work we used the COIN framework to derive the alternative Wonderful Life Utility (WLU), and experimentally established that having the agents use it induces global utility performance up to orders of magnitude superior to that induced by use of the team game utility. The WLU has a free parameter (the clamping parameter) which we simply set to zero in that previous work. Here we derive the optimal value of the clamping parameter, and demonstrate experimentally that using that optimal value can result in significantly improved performance over that of clamping to zero, over and above the improvement beyond traditional approaches.

  12. Sexual functioning, beliefs about sexual functioning and quality of life of women with infertility problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prathibha Agustus

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The study was conducted in the background of paucity of studies examining the sexual and psychosocial functioning of women with infertility. Aims: The study explored sexual functioning in women with infertility problems, their beliefs about sexuality and their quality of life. Settings and Design: A single group exploratory design with non-probability purposive sampling was used. A total of 30 participants diagnosed with primary infertility were included in the study. Materials and Methods: The data were obtained by individual administration of the following tools: Semi-structured interview schedule, Female Sexual Functioning Inventory, Sexual Dysfunctional Beliefs Questionnaire, World Health Organization Quality of Life Scale − BREF Version and General Health Questionnaire-12. The data obtained were analyzed using descriptive statistics and non-parametric tests. Results: About half of the participants had sexual dysfunction. Pain-related problems were most commonly reported (50%. Factors contributing to dysfunction included inadequate knowledge about sex, sexual stimulation and sexual communication. Along with inadequate self-image, negative childhood experiences, financial difficulties and marital discord in parents influenced the perception of self. Majority of the women had dysfunctional beliefs about sexuality (56%, and greater beliefs were found to be in the domain of sexual conservatism. The overall quality of life was poor, and 56% of women experienced psychological distress. There was significant positive correlation between sexual conservatism and experience of pain and overall sexual functioning. Conclusion: Women with infertility bear dysfunctional beliefs and suffer from problems in sexual functioning, have low quality of life and high psychological distress.

  13. Linguistic ability in early life and cognitive function and Alzheimer's disease in late life. Findings from the Nun Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowdon, D A; Kemper, S J; Mortimer, J A; Greiner, L H; Wekstein, D R; Markesbery, W R

    1996-02-21

    To determine if linguistic ability in early life is associated with cognitive function and Alzheimer's disease in late life. Two measures of linguistic ability in early life, idea density and grammatical complexity, were derived from autobiographies written at a mean age of 22 years. Approximately 58 years later, the women who wrote these autobiographies participated in an assessment of cognitive function, and those who subsequently died were evaluated neuropathologically. Convents in the United States participating in the Nun Study; primarily convents in the Milwaukee, Wis, area. Cognitive function was investigated in 93 participants who were aged 75 to 95 years at the time of their assessments, and Alzheimer's disease was investigated in the 14 participants who died at 79 to 96 years of age. Seven neuropsychological tests and neuropathologically confirmed Alzheimer's disease. Low idea density and low grammatical complexity in autobiographies written in early life were associated with low cognitive test scores in late life. Low idea density in early life had stronger and more consistent associations with poor cognitive function than did low grammatical complexity. Among the 14 sisters who died, neuropathologically confirmed Alzheimer's disease was present in all of those with low idea density in early life and in none of those with high idea density. Low linguistic ability in early life was a strong predictor of poor cognitive function and Alzheimer's disease in late life.

  14. The relationship between motor function, cognition, independence and quality of life in myelomeningocele patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, Carolina Lundberg; Moura, Maria Clara Drummond Soares de; Becker, Karine Kyomi; Teixeira, Rosani Aparecida Antunes; Voos, Mariana Callil; Hasue, Renata Hydee

    2017-08-01

    Motor function, cognition, functional independence and quality of life have been described in myelomeningocele patients, but no study has investigated their relationships. We aimed to investigate the relationships between motor function, cognition, functional independence, quality of life, age, and lesion level in myelomeningocele patients, and investigate the influence of hydrocephalus on these variables. We assessed 47 patients with the Gross Motor Function Measure (motor function), Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices (cognition), Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (functional independence) and the Autoquestionnaire Qualité de vie Enfant Imagé (quality of life). Spearman's correlation tests determined relationships between the variables. The Friedman ANOVAs determined the influence of hydrocephalus. Motor function was strongly related to mobility and lesion level, and moderately related to cognition, self-care and social function. Cognition and quality of life were moderately related to functional independence. Age correlated moderately with functional independence and quality of life. Hydrocephalus resulted in poorer motor/cognitive outcomes and lower functional independence.

  15. Associations Between Quality of Life and Functioning in an Assertive Community Treatment Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausen, Hanne; Landheim, Anne; Odden, Sigrun; Heiervang, Kristin Sverdvik; Stuen, Hanne Kilen; Killaspy, Helen; Šaltytė Benth, Jurate; Ruud, Torleif

    2015-11-01

    Level of functioning is positively associated with subjective quality of life for people with severe mental illness, but a detailed relationship between functioning and satisfaction with various life domains is largely unknown, and this gap prompted this study. Demographic and clinical data were obtained from 149 patients engaged with 12 assertive community treatment teams in Norway. Multivariate regression analyses were used to explore associations between subjective quality of life and patient characteristics. Analyses confirmed positive associations between quality of life and age, functioning, and weekly contact with family and friends and a negative association with anxiety and depressive symptoms. Positive associations between several areas of practical and social functioning and satisfaction with related life domains also were found. Although a causal direction of the associations between functioning and life satisfaction has not been determined in this study, the positive findings might indicate that programs aiming to improve functioning could affect patients' quality of life.

  16. Association of pain intensity with quality of life and functional disability in university students with lumbago

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatima, A.; Tanveer, F.; Ahmed, A.; Gillani, S.A.

    2017-01-01

    To determine an association of pain intensity with quality of life and functional disability in university students with lumbago. Methodology: In this cross sectional study 213 students participated. Standard questionnaire Numeric pain rating scale, Utian quality of life scale Oswestry Low Back Pain Disability Questionnaire were used for the data collection. Results: Mean age of students was 21.0 +- 1.970 years (range 18-24). Out of 213 students, 143 had lower quality of life. There was an association between pain intensity and quality of life (p=0.006). Out of 213 students, 120 had minimal disability with lower quality of life. There was strong association (p=0.015) between quality of life and functional disability. Conclusion: There was a strong association between pain intensity and quality of life, pain intensity and functional disability, quality of life and functional disability in university students with low back ache. (author)

  17. Prospective longitudinal evaluation of lung function during the first year of life after extracorporeal membrane oxygenation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofhuis, W.; Hanekamp, M.N.; Ijsselstijn, H.; Nieuwhof, E.M.; Hop, W.C.J.; Tibboel, D.; Jongste, J.C. de; Merkus, P.J.F.M.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To collect longitudinal data on lung function in the first year of life after extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and to evaluate relationships between lung function and perinatal factors. Longitudinal data on lung function in the first year of life after extracorporeal membrane

  18. Heterogeneity of late-life depression : relationship with cognitive functioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korten, Nicole C M; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Kok, Rob M; Stek, Max L; Oude Voshaar, Richard C; Deeg, Dorly J H; Comijs, Hannie C

    BACKGROUND: Late-life depression is a heterogeneous disorder, whereby cognitive impairments are often observed. This study examines which clinical characteristics and symptom dimensions of late-life depression are especially impacting on specific cognitive domains. METHODS: Cross-sectional data of

  19. Heterogeneity of late-life depression : relationship with cognitive functioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korten, Nicole C. M.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Kok, Rob M.; Stek, Max L.; Oude Voshaar, Richard; Deeg, Dorly J. H.; Comijs, Hannie C.

    Background: Late-life depression is a heterogeneous disorder, whereby cognitive impairments are often observed. This study examines which clinical characteristics and symptom dimensions of late-life depression are especially impacting on specific cognitive domains. Methods: Cross-sectional data of

  20. Relative likelihood for life as a function of cosmic time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loeb, Abraham [Astronomy department, Harvard University, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Batista, Rafael A.; Sloan, David, E-mail: aloeb@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: rafael.alvesbatista@physics.ox.ac.uk, E-mail: david.sloan@physics.ox.ac.uk [Department of Physics - Astrophysics, University of Oxford, DWB, Keble Road, OX1 3RH, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2016-08-01

    Is life most likely to emerge at the present cosmic time near a star like the Sun? We address this question by calculating the relative formation probability per unit time of habitable Earth-like planets within a fixed comoving volume of the Universe, dP ( t )/ dt , starting from the first stars and continuing to the distant cosmic future. We conservatively restrict our attention to the context of ''life as we know it'' and the standard cosmological model, ΛCDM . We find that unless habitability around low mass stars is suppressed, life is most likely to exist near ∼ 0.1 M {sub ⊙} stars ten trillion years from now. Spectroscopic searches for biosignatures in the atmospheres of transiting Earth-mass planets around low mass stars will determine whether present-day life is indeed premature or typical from a cosmic perspective.

  1. Relative likelihood for life as a function of cosmic time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loeb, Abraham; Batista, Rafael A.; Sloan, David

    2016-01-01

    Is life most likely to emerge at the present cosmic time near a star like the Sun? We address this question by calculating the relative formation probability per unit time of habitable Earth-like planets within a fixed comoving volume of the Universe, dP ( t )/ dt , starting from the first stars and continuing to the distant cosmic future. We conservatively restrict our attention to the context of ''life as we know it'' and the standard cosmological model, ΛCDM . We find that unless habitability around low mass stars is suppressed, life is most likely to exist near ∼ 0.1 M ⊙ stars ten trillion years from now. Spectroscopic searches for biosignatures in the atmospheres of transiting Earth-mass planets around low mass stars will determine whether present-day life is indeed premature or typical from a cosmic perspective.

  2. Evaluating natural resource amenities in a human life expectancy production function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neelam C. Poudyal; Donald G. Hodges; J.M. Bowker; H.K. Cordell

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the effect of natural resource amenities on human life expectancy. Extending theexisting model of the life expectancy production function, and correcting for spatial dependence, weevaluated the determinants of life expectancy using county level data. Results indicate that after controlling

  3. Recovery to Preinterventional Functioning, Return-to-Work, and Life Satisfaction After Treatment of Unruptured Aneurysms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Backes, Daan; Rinkel, Gabriel J. E.; van der Schaaf, Irene C.; Bijvank, Jenny A. Nij; Verweij, Bon H.; Visser-Meily, Johanna M. A.; Post, Marcel W.; Algra, Ale; Vergouwen, Mervyn D. I.

    Background and Purpose-The eventual goal of preventive treatment of unruptured intracranial aneurysms is to increase the number of life years with high life satisfaction. Insight in the time with reduced functioning, working capacity, and life satisfaction after aneurysm treatment is pivotal to

  4. Recovery to Preinterventional Functioning, Return-to-Work, and Life Satisfaction After Treatment of Unruptured Aneurysms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Backes, D.; Rinkel, G.J.; Van der Schaaf, I.C.; Bijvank, J.A.; Verweij, B.H.; Visser-Meily, J.M.A.; Post, Marcel W.M.; Algra, A.; Vergouwen, M.D.

    Background and Purpose—The eventual goal of preventive treatment of unruptured intracranial aneurysms is to increase the number of life years with high life satisfaction. Insight in the time with reduced functioning, working capacity, and life satisfaction after aneurysm treatment is pivotal to

  5. Life stress versus traumatic stress: The impact of life events on psychological functioning in children with and without serious illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willard, Victoria W; Long, Alanna; Phipps, Sean

    2016-01-01

    To determine the differential impact of potentially traumatic events (PTEs) and other stressful life events on psychological functioning in 2 groups of children: those with cancer and those without history of serious illness. Children with cancer age 8-17 (n = 254) and age-, sex-, and race/ethnicity-matched controls (n = 142) completed self-report measures of stressful life events and psychological functioning. Stressful life events included those that may meet Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) A1 criteria (PTEs; 9 events) and others that would likely not (other events; 21 events). Children with cancer endorsed significantly more PTEs than control children. There were no differences between groups in number of other events experienced. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that number of other events accounted for significant variance in psychological functioning, above and beyond group status, demographic factors (age and socioeconomic status), and number of PTEs. The number of cumulative other events experienced is a significant predictor of psychological functioning in both youth with serious illness and controls. In contrast, cumulative PTEs appear to have a minor (albeit significant) impact on children's psychological functioning. Assessment of psychological functioning would benefit from a thorough history of stressful life events, regardless of their potential traumatic impact. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Life event stress in duodenal ulcer compared with functional dyspepsia: A case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Abdel Hafeiz Hassan; Al Quorain Abdulaziz; Karim Ahmed; Al-Mangoor Shuaa

    1997-01-01

    This is a prospective study of life event stress in 80 duodenal ulcer patients compared with 80 patients with functional dyspepsia and 80 healthy controls; matched for age, sex and marital status. A semi structured psychiatric interview was used in the psychiatric assessment of the dyspeptic patients and controls. A modified version of Life Events Scale by Tennant and Andrews was used in the assessment of life event stress. More dyspeptic patients reported life events than the controls, but, ...

  7. Sexual, marital, and general life functioning in couples coping with colorectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Traa, Marjan J.; Braeken, Johan; Vries, De Jolanda; Roukema, Jan A.; Slooter, Gerrit D.; Crolla, Rogier M.P.H.; Borremans, Monique P.M.; Oudsten, Den Brenda L.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study evaluated the following: (a) levels of sexual, marital, and general life functioning for both patients and partners; (b) interdependence between both members of the couple; and (c) longitudinal change in sexual, marital, and general life functioning and longitudinal

  8. Life History Theory and Social Deviance: The Mediating Role of Executive Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenner, C. J.; Bianchi, J.; Figueredo, A. J.; Rushton, J. Philippe; Jacobs, W. J.

    2013-01-01

    The present work examined predicted relations among Life History strategies, Executive Functions, socially antagonistic attitudes, socially antagonistic behaviors, and general intelligence. Life History (LH) theory predicts that Executive Functions and socially antagonistic attitudes and behaviors underpin an interrelated and coherent set of…

  9. Sprain of the neck : Quality of life and psychological functioning. A 4-year retrospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versteegen, GJ; Dijkstra, PU; Jaspers, JPC; Meijler, WJ; ten Duis, HJ; Klip, EC

    Aim of the study was to analyse quality of life and psychological functioning in patients with sprain of the neck, to analyse the relationship between complaints, quality of life, psychological functioning and personality factors, and to analyse the pro. le of patients with whiplash associated

  10. A real-life, ecologically valid test of executive functioning : The executive secretarial task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamberts, Kirsten F.; Evans, Jonathan J.; Spikman, Jacoba M.

    2010-01-01

    A major goal of neuropsychological assessment is predicting a person's level of functioning in daily life. Making predictions about everyday executive functioning based on tests is problematic because of the contrast between demands made in the test environment and demands made in everyday life

  11. Racism-Related Stress, General Life Stress, and Psychological Functioning among Black American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieterse, Alex L.; Carter, Robert T.; Ray, Kilynda V.

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between general life stress, perceived racism, and psychological functioning was explored in a sample of 118 Black American women. Findings indicate that racism-related stress was not a significant predictor of psychological functioning when controlling for general life stress. Perceived racism was positively associated with…

  12. Functional Linkages for the Pace of Life, Life-history, and Environment in Birds

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Joseph B.; Miller, Richard A.; Harper, James M.; Wiersma, Popko

    2010-01-01

    For vertebrates, body mass underlies much of the variation in metabolism, but among animals of the same body mass, metabolism varies six-fold. Understanding how natural selection can influence variation in metabolism remains a central focus of Physiological Ecologists. Life-history theory postulates that many physiological traits, such as metabolism, may be understood in terms of key maturational and reproductive characteristics over an organism’s life-span. Although it is widely acknowledged...

  13. Interaction between asthma and lung function growth in early life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Hans; Jensen, Signe Marie; Bønnelykke, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    The causal direction between asthma and lung function deficit is unknown, but important for the focus of preventive measures and research into the origins of asthma.......The causal direction between asthma and lung function deficit is unknown, but important for the focus of preventive measures and research into the origins of asthma....

  14. Health-related quality of life in children with high-functioning autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potvin, Marie-Christine; Snider, Laurie; Prelock, Patricia A; Wood-Dauphinee, Sharon; Kehayia, Eva

    2015-01-01

    The health-related quality of life of school-aged children with high-functioning autism is poorly understood. The objectives of this study were to compare the health-related quality of life of children with high-functioning autism to that of typically developing peers and to compare child-self and parent-proxy reports of health-related quality of life of children. A cross-sectional study of children with high-functioning autism (n = 30) and peers (n = 31) was conducted using the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory 4.0 Generic Core Scales. Children with high-functioning autism had significantly poorer health-related quality of life than peers whether reported by themselves (p children and parental scores suggested variance in points of view. This study specifically investigated health-related quality of life in children with high-functioning autism as compared to a sample of peers, from the child's perspective. It strengthens earlier findings that children with high-functioning autism experience poorer health-related quality of life than those without this disorder and points to the importance of clinicians working with families to identify areas in a child's life that promote or hinder their sense of well-being. © The Author(s) 2013.

  15. The Long-Term Impact of Autoimmune Pancreatitis on Pancreatic Function, Quality of Life, and Life Expectancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijs, Jorie; Cahen, Djuna L.; van Heerde, Marianne J.; Rauws, Erik A.; de Buy Wenniger, Lucas J. Maillette; Hansen, Bettina E.; Biermann, Katharina; Verheij, Joanne; Vleggaar, Frank P.; Brink, Menno A.; Beuers, Ulrich H. W.; van Buuren, Henk R.; Bruno, Marco J.

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the long-term outcome of autoimmune pancreatitis. Patients with at least 2 years of follow-up were included. Information was collected regarding disease characteristics, treatment outcome, diagnosed malignancies, and mortality. In addition, pancreatic function and quality of life were

  16. The secret life of kinases: functions beyond catalysis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Rauch, Jens

    2011-10-28

    Abstract Protein phosphorylation participates in the regulation of all fundamental biological processes, and protein kinases have been intensively studied. However, while the focus was on catalytic activities, accumulating evidence suggests that non-catalytic properties of protein kinases are essential, and in some cases even sufficient for their functions. These non-catalytic functions include the scaffolding of protein complexes, the competition for protein interactions, allosteric effects on other enzymes, subcellular targeting, and DNA binding. This rich repertoire often is used to coordinate phosphorylation events and enhance the specificity of substrate phosphorylation, but also can adopt functions that do not rely on kinase activity. Here, we discuss such kinase independent functions of protein and lipid kinases focussing on kinases that play a role in the regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and motility.

  17. Depression, functional disability and quality of life among Nigerian older adults: Prevalences and relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akosile, Christopher Olusanjo; Mgbeojedo, Ukamaka Gloria; Maruf, Fatai Adesina; Okoye, Emmanuel Chiebuka; Umeonwuka, Ifeanyi Chuka; Ogunniyi, Adesola

    2018-01-01

    Ageing is associated with increased morbidity, depression and decline in function. These may consequently impair the quality of life (QoL) of older adults. This study was used to investigate the prevalence of functional disability, depression, and level of quality of life of older adults residing in Uyo metropolis and its environs, Nigeria. This cross sectional survey involved 206 (116 females and 90 males) older adults with mean age of 69.8±6.7. The World Health Organization Quality of Life-OLD, Functional status Questionnaire (FSQ) and Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) were used to measure quality of life, functional disability and depression respectively. Data was analysed using frequency counts and percentages and Spearman rank-order correlation coefficient, at 0.05 alpha level. 45.5% of participants had depression, and at least 30% had functional disability in at least one domain, but their quality of life was fairly good (>60.0%) across all domains. Significant correlation existed between depression scores and individual quality of life and functional disability domains and between overall QoL and each functional disability domain (pquality of life of the older adults. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Attentional avoidance of fearful facial expressions following early life stress is associated with impaired social functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, Kathryn L; Kircanski, Katharina; Colich, Natalie L; Gotlib, Ian H

    2016-10-01

    Early life stress is associated with poorer social functioning. Attentional biases in response to threat-related cues, linked to both early experience and psychopathology, may explain this association. To date, however, no study has examined attentional biases to fearful facial expressions as a function of early life stress or examined these biases as a potential mediator of the relation between early life stress and social problems. In a sample of 154 children (ages 9-13 years) we examined the associations among interpersonal early life stressors (i.e., birth through age 6 years), attentional biases to emotional facial expressions using a dot-probe task, and social functioning on the Child Behavior Checklist. High levels of early life stress were associated with both greater levels of social problems and an attentional bias away from fearful facial expressions, even after accounting for stressors occurring in later childhood. No biases were found for happy or sad facial expressions as a function of early life stress. Finally, attentional biases to fearful faces mediated the association between early life stress and social problems. Attentional avoidance of fearful facial expressions, evidenced by a bias away from these stimuli, may be a developmental response to early adversity and link the experience of early life stress to poorer social functioning. © 2016 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  19. Functional linkages for the pace of life, life-history, and environment in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Joseph B; Miller, Richard A; Harper, James M; Wiersma, Popko

    2010-11-01

    For vertebrates, body mass underlies much of the variation in metabolism, but among animals of the same body mass, metabolism varies six-fold. Understanding how natural selection can influence variation in metabolism remains a central focus of Physiological Ecologists. Life-history theory postulates that many physiological traits, such as metabolism, may be understood in terms of key maturational and reproductive characteristics over an organism's life-span. Although it is widely acknowledged that physiological processes serve as a foundation for life-history trade-offs, the physiological mechanisms that underlie the diversification of life-histories remain elusive. Data show that tropical birds have a reduced basal metabolism (BMR), field metabolic rate, and peak metabolic rate compared with temperate counterparts, results consistent with the idea that a low mortality, and therefore increased longevity, and low productivity is associated with low mass-specific metabolic rate. Mass-adjusted BMR of tropical and temperate birds was associated with survival rate, in accordance with the view that animals with a slow pace of life tend to have increased life spans. To understand the mechanisms responsible for a reduced rate of metabolism in tropical birds compared with temperate species, we summarized an unpublished study, based on data from the literature, on organ masses for both groups. Tropical birds had smaller hearts, kidneys, livers, and pectoral muscles than did temperate species of the same body size, but they had a relatively larger skeletal mass. Direct measurements of organ masses for tropical and temperate birds showed that the heart, kidneys, and lungs were significantly smaller in tropical birds, although sample sizes were small. Also from an ongoing study, we summarized results to date on connections between whole-organism metabolism in tropical and temperate birds and attributes of their dermal fibroblasts grown in cell culture. Cells derived from

  20. Functional outcome and quality of life after surgical management of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Outcome measures: Modified Merle d'Aubigne scale and “Squat and Smile” test for functional outcome. ... d' Aubigne, “no problems” on the EQ-5D, and were able to perform a full squat. ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  1. Mediators of the relationship between life events and memory functioning in a community sample of adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korten, N.C.M.; Sliwinski, M.J.; Comijs, H.C.; Smyth, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The present study examines the association of frequency and severity of life events with memory functioning in a community sample of adults. We tested the hypothesis that stress-related cognitive interference mediated the effects of recent life events on cognition, in addition to examining the

  2. Fetal hyperglycemia changes human preadipocyte function in adult life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ninna Schiøler; Strasko, Klaudia Stanislawa; Hjort, Line

    2017-01-01

    Context: Offspring of women with gestational diabetes (O-GDM) or type 1 diabetes mellitus (O-T1DM) have been exposed to hyperglycemia in utero and have an increased risk of developing metabolic disease in adulthood. Design: In total, we recruited 206 adult offspring comprising the two fetal...... acid supply. Conclusions: Taken together, these findings show that intrinsic epigenetic and functional changes exist in preadipocyte cultures from individuals exposed to fetal hyperglycemia who are at increased risk of developing metabolic disease....

  3. Applications of majorization and Schur functions in reliability and life testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proschan, F.

    1975-01-01

    This is an expository paper presenting basic definitions and properties of majorization and Schur functions, and displaying a variety of applications of these concepts in reliability prediction and modelling, and in reliability inference and life testing

  4. Quality of life and cognitive function in patients with pituitary insufficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burman, P.; Deijen, J.B.

    1998-01-01

    This review is concerned with the psychosocial functioning and the quality of life in patients with pituitary insufficiency who are receiving conventional hormone replacement therapy. The possible negative effects of pituitary surgery, treatment with irradiation, and suboptimal replacement regimens

  5. Health-Related Quality of Life in Children with High-Functioning Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potvin, Marie-Christine; Snider, Laurie; Prelock, Patricia A.; Wood-Dauphinee, Sharon; Kehayia, Eva

    2015-01-01

    The health-related quality of life of school-aged children with high-functioning autism is poorly understood. The objectives of this study were to compare the health-related quality of life of children with high-functioning autism to that of typically developing peers and to compare child-self and parent-proxy reports of health-related quality of…

  6. The effects of balneotherapy on disease activity, functional status, pulmonary function and quality of life in patients with ankylosing spondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydemir, Koray; Tok, Fatih; Peker, Fatma; Safaz, Ismail; Taskaynatan, Mehmet Ali; Ozgul, Ahmet

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the effects of balneotherapy on disease activity, functional status, metrology index, pulmonary function and quality of life in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). The study included 28 patients (27 male and 1 female) diagnosed with AS according to modified New York criteria. The patients were treated with balneotherapy for 3 weeks (30 min/day, 5 days/week). The patients were evaluated using the global index, Bath ankylosing spondylitis disease activity index (BASDAI), disease functional index (BASFI), metrology index (BASMI), chest expansion measures, pulmonary function testing, and the medical outcomes study-short form-36 Health Survey (SF-36) (measure of quality of life) before balneotherapy and 1 month after treatment. Post balneotherapy BASDAI and global index decreased, BASMI parameters improved, chest expansion increased, and some SF-36 parameters improved; however, none of these changes were statistically significant (P > 0.05), except for the decrease in BASMI total score (P balneotherapy 6 patients had restrictive pulmonary disorder, according to pulmonary function test results. Pulmonary function test results in 3 (50%) patients were normalized following balneotherapy; however, as for the other index, balneotherapy did not significantly affect pulmonary function test results. The AS patients' symptoms, clinical findings, pulmonary function test results, and quality of life showed a trend to improve following balneotherapy, although without reaching significant differences. Comprehensive randomized controlled spa intervention studies with longer follow-up periods may be helpful in further delineating the therapeutic efficacy of balneotherapy in AS patients.

  7. Ant brood function as life preservers during floods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Purcell

    Full Text Available Social organisms can surmount many ecological challenges by working collectively. An impressive example of such collective behavior occurs when ants physically link together into floating 'rafts' to escape from flooded habitat. However, raft formation may represent a social dilemma, with some positions posing greater individual risks than others. Here, we investigate the position and function of different colony members, and the costs and benefits of this functional geometry in rafts of the floodplain-dwelling ant Formica selysi. By causing groups of ants to raft in the laboratory, we observe that workers are distributed throughout the raft, queens are always in the center, and 100% of brood items are placed on the base. Through a series of experiments, we show that workers and brood are extremely resistant to submersion. Both workers and brood exhibit high survival rates after they have rafted, suggesting that occupying the base of the raft is not as costly as expected. The placement of all brood on the base of one cohesive raft confers several benefits: it preserves colony integrity, takes advantage of brood buoyancy, and increases the proportion of workers that immediately recover after rafting.

  8. Functional preservation and quality of life in head and neck radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harari, Paul M.; Connor, Nadine P.; Grau, Cai

    2009-01-01

    This book focuses on functional treatment outcomes in head and neck cancer patients from the perspective of experts from around the world in medical and allied health fields. Recent advances in management strategies are presented as they relate to functional preservation and quality of life. Clinical and research knowledge is organized in an approachable manner by means of short chapters, key point tables, and high-quality illustrations and graphics. This method of presentation is very effective for busy clinical practitioners and researchers. Information is provided on site-specific epidemiology and treatment outcome, the impact of different treatment techniques and toxicities on quality of life, and the relationship of toxicity prevention, rehabilitation, and supportive care to quality of life after treatment, Among literature on the treatment of head and neck cancer, this book is unique because of the outstanding list of contributors and the specific focus on functional preservation and quality of life. (orig.)

  9. Quality of life and emotional functioning in youth with chronic migraine and juvenile fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashikar-Zuck, Susmita; Zafar, Marium; Barnett, Kimberly A; Aylward, Brandon S; Strotman, Daniel; Slater, Shalonda K; Allen, Janelle R; Lecates, Susan L; Kabbouche, Marielle A; Ting, Tracy V; Hershey, Andrew D; Powers, Scott W

    2013-12-01

    Chronic pain in children is associated with significant negative impact on social, emotional, and school functioning. Previous studies on the impact of pain on children's functioning have primarily used mixed samples of pain conditions or single pain conditions (eg, headache and abdominal pain) with relatively small sample sizes. As a result, the similarities and differences in the impact of pain in subgroups of children with chronic pain have not been closely examined. To compare pain characteristics, quality of life, and emotional functioning among youth with pediatric chronic migraine (CM) and juvenile fibromyalgia (JFM). We combined data obtained during screening of patients for 2 relatively large intervention studies of youth (age range, 10 to 18 y) with CM (N=153) and JFM (N=151). Measures of pain intensity, quality of life (Pediatric Quality of Life; PedsQL, child and parent-proxy), depressive symptoms (Children's Depression Inventory), and anxiety symptoms (Adolescent Symptom Inventory-4-Anxiety subscale) were completed by youth and their parent. A multivariate analysis of covariance controlling for effects of age and sex was performed to examine differences in quality of life and emotional functioning between the CM and JFM groups. Youth with JFM had significantly higher anxiety and depressive symptoms, and lower quality of life in all domains. Among children with CM, overall functioning was higher but school functioning was a specific area of concern. Results indicate important differences in subgroups of pediatric pain patients and point to the need for more intensive multidisciplinary intervention for JFM patients.

  10. Cognitive function in childhood and early adulthood and injuries later in life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osler, Merete; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Laursen, Bjarne

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that cognitive function in childhood is a modifiable risk factor for adult injury. This study examines the relationship between cognitive function measured at the age of 12 and 18 years and fatal and non-fatal injuries later in adult life. METHODS: A total of 11 ...

  11. Upper extremity function and quality of life in patients with breast cancer related lymphedema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojinović-Rodić Dragana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Upper limb lymphedema is one of the most frequent chronic complications after breast cancer treatment with a significant impact on the upper extremity function and quality of life (QoL. The aim of this study was to estimate health-related quality of life (HRQoL in patients with breast-cancer-related lymphedema and its correlation with upper limb function and the size of edema. Methods. The cross-sectional study included 54 breast-cancer-related lymphedema patients. The quality of life was evaluated by the Short Form 36-Item Health Survey (SF-36. Upper limb function was assessed by the Quick Disability of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand questionnaire (Quick DASH. The size of lymphedema was determined by the arm circumference. Results. The higher HRQoL score was assessed for mental health (47.0 ± 12.2 than for physical one (42.2 ± 7.5. The highest values of SF-36 were found in the domains of Mental Health (67.7 ± 22.9 and Social Function (70.1 ± 23.1. The lowest scores were registered in the domains of Role Physical (46.9 ± 39.1 and General Health (49.3 ± 20.1. Upper extremity function statistically significantly correlated with the domains Role Physical, Bodily Pain and Physical Composite Summary and also, with the domain Role Emotional (p 0.05. Conclusions. Physical disability in patients with breast cancer-related lymphedema influences quality of life more than mental health. Upper limb function has a significant impact on quality of life, not only on the physical, but also on the mental component. The presence of breast-cancer-related lymphedema certainly affects upper limb function and quality of life, but in this study no significant correlation between the size of edema and quality of life was found.

  12. The Temporal Association Between Executive Function and Life-Space Mobility in Old Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poranen-Clark, Taina; von Bonsdorff, Mikaela B; Rantakokko, Merja; Portegijs, Erja; Eronen, Johanna; Pynnönen, Katja; Eriksson, Johan G; Viljanen, Anne; Rantanen, Taina

    2018-05-09

    Life-space mobility, an indicator of community mobility, describes person's movements in terms of the distance from home, the frequency of movement, and the need of assistance for movement. Executive function (EF) is a higher-order cognitive function that supervises motor control and plays a key role in a person's ability to function independently. Cognitive impairment often co-occurs with restricted life-space mobility; however, the direction of the longitudinal associations between EF and life-space mobility is unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the temporal associations between EF and life-space mobility among community-dwelling older people. One hundred eight community-dwelling persons aged 76 to 91 years participated in the 2 year follow-up study. EF was measured with the Trail Making Test. The Life-Space Assessment (range 0-120, higher scores indicate more mobility) was used to assess life-space mobility. Cross-lagged model design was used to examine longitudinal relationship between EF and life-space mobility. The model was adjusted for age and gender. Average age of participants at baseline was 82.2 (SD 4.1) years and 59% were women. Better EF at baseline predicted higher life-space mobility at follow-up (path coefficient = 3.81, 95% confidential interval; 0.84, 6.78, p = .012), whereas baseline life-space mobility did not predict EF at follow-up. EF was a determinant of life-space mobility. Supporting EF may enhance maintaining independence and active participation in old age.

  13. Active Life Expectancy and Functional Health Transition among Filipino Older People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace T. Cruz

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The study provides a baseline information on the functional health transition patterns of older people and computes for the Active Life Expectancy (ALE using a multistate life table method. Findings on ALE demonstrate that females and urban residents live longer and have a greater proportion of their remaining life in active state compared to their counterparts. Health transition analysis indicates a significant proportion experiencing recovery. Age, sex, place of residence and health status/behavior indicators (self-assessed health, drinking and exercise display a significant influence on future health and mortality trajectories although surprisingly, education did not show any significant effect.

  14. Neuropsychological functioning, coping, and quality of life among returning war veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martindale, Sarah L; Morissette, Sandra B; Kimbrel, Nathan A; Meyer, Eric C; Kruse, Marc I; Gulliver, Suzy B; Dolan, Sara L

    2016-08-01

    The present research tested the hypothesis that action- and emotion-focused coping strategies would mediate the relationship between neuropsychological functioning and quality of life among a sample of returning Iraq/Afghanistan veterans. Veterans (N = 130) who served as part of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan completed a diagnostic assessment of PTSD, a battery of questionnaires assessing coping style, traumatic brain injury (TBI), and quality of life, and neuropsychological tests measuring attention, learning and memory, working memory, inhibition, executive control, and visual motor coordination. Executive control, immediate and delayed verbal recall, and visual motor coordination were associated with quality of life. However, after controlling for the effects of combat exposure, PTSD, and probable TBI, no measure of neuropsychological functioning was directly associated with quality of life. Mediation analyses indicated that delayed verbal recall influenced quality of life through its effect on action-focused coping. Although replication is needed, these findings indicate that delayed verbal recall may indirectly influence quality of life among Iraq/Afghanistan veterans through its association with action-focused coping strategies. Psychologists who are working with veterans that are experiencing memory difficulties and poor quality of life may consider focusing on improving coping skills prior to rehabilitation of memory deficits. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Neuropsychological Functioning, Coping, and Quality of Life among Returning War Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martindale, Sarah L.; Morissette, Sandra B.; Kimbrel, Nathan A.; Meyer, Eric C.; Kruse, Marc I.; Gulliver, Suzy B.; Dolan, Sara L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The present research tested the hypothesis that action- and emotion-focused coping strategies would mediate the relationship between neuropsychological functioning and quality of life among a sample of returning Iraq/Afghanistan veterans. Method Veterans (N = 130) who served as part of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, completed a diagnostic assessment of PTSD, a battery of questionnaires assessing coping style, traumatic brain injury (TBI), and quality of life, and neuropsychological tests measuring attention, learning and memory, working memory, inhibition, executive control, and visual motor coordination. Results Executive control, immediate and delayed verbal recall, and visual motor coordination were associated with quality of life. However, after controlling for the effects of combat exposure, PTSD, and probable TBI, no measure of neuropsychological functioning was directly associated with quality of life. Mediation analyses indicated that delayed verbal recall influenced quality of life through its effect on action-focused coping. Conclusions Although replication is needed, these findings indicate that delayed verbal recall may indirectly influence quality of life among Iraq/Afghanistan veterans through its association with action-focused coping strategies. Psychologists who are working with veterans that are experiencing memory difficulties and poor quality of life may consider focusing on improving coping skills prior to rehabilitation of memory deficits. PMID:26891248

  16. Like cognitive function, decision making across the life span shows profound age-related changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tymula, Agnieszka; Rosenberg Belmaker, Lior A; Ruderman, Lital; Glimcher, Paul W; Levy, Ifat

    2013-10-15

    It has long been known that human cognitive function improves through young adulthood and then declines across the later life span. Here we examined how decision-making function changes across the life span by measuring risk and ambiguity attitudes in the gain and loss domains, as well as choice consistency, in an urban cohort ranging in age from 12 to 90 y. We identified several important age-related patterns in decision making under uncertainty: First, we found that healthy elders between the ages of 65 and 90 were strikingly inconsistent in their choices compared with younger subjects. Just as elders show profound declines in cognitive function, they also show profound declines in choice rationality compared with their younger peers. Second, we found that the widely documented phenomenon of ambiguity aversion is specific to the gain domain and does not occur in the loss domain, except for a slight effect in older adults. Finally, extending an earlier report by our group, we found that risk attitudes across the life span show an inverted U-shaped function; both elders and adolescents are more risk-averse than their midlife counterparts. Taken together, these characterizations of decision-making function across the life span in this urban cohort strengthen the conclusions of previous reports suggesting a profound impact of aging on cognitive function in this domain.

  17. Patient with stroke: hospital discharge planning, functionality and quality of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique José Mendes Nunes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Stroke still causes high levels of human inability and suffering, and it is one of the main causes of death in developed countries, including Portugal. Objective: analyze the strategies of hospital discharge planning for these patients, increasing the knowledge related to hospitalhome transition, discharge planning processes and the main impact on the quality of life and functionality. Method: integrative literature review using the PICOD criteria, with database research. Results: 19 articles were obtained, using several approaches and contexts. For quality of life, the factors related to the patient satisfaction with care and the psychoemotional aspects linked with functionality are the most significant. Conclusion: during the hospitalization period, a careful hospital discharge planning and comprehensive care to patients and caregivers - in particular the functional and psychoemotional aspects - tend to have an impact on the quality of life of patients.

  18. Caregiver Quality of Life and Daily Functioning in Relation to Ventilating Tube Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heidemann, Christian Hamilton; Lauridsen, Henrik Hein; Kjeldsen, Anette Drøhse

    2014-01-01

    and to investigate possible predictors for clinical success. STUDY DESIGN: Longitudinal observational study. SETTING: Secondary care units. METHODS: Four hundred ninety-one families were enrolled in the study. The Caregiver Impact Questionnaire was applied in the assessment of caregiver quality of life. Caregivers......OBJECTIVE: Caregiver quality of life and daily functioning may improve after ventilating tube treatment in children with otitis media. The aims of this study are to assess possible changes in caregiver quality of life and daily functioning in relation to ventilating tube treatment...... completed questionnaires at baseline and at 1, 3, 6, 12, and 18 months' follow-up. Variables on caregiver daily functioning comprised 4 weeks' history of number of interrupted nights, absenteeism, cancelled social activities, and doctor visits as a result of otitis media in the child. RESULTS: Response...

  19. Quality of life and functioning of Hispanic patients with Major Depressive Disorder before and after treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Enrique; Steiner, Alexander J; Manier, Karra; Shapiro, Bryan B; Vanle, Brigitte; Parisi, Thomas; Dang, Jonathan; Chang, Tiffany; Ganjian, Shaina; Mirocha, James; Danovitch, Itai; IsHak, Waguih William

    2018-01-01

    Similar rates of remission from Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) have been documented between ethnic groups in response to antidepressant treatment. However, ethnic differences in functional outcomes, including patient-reported quality of life (QOL) and functioning, have not been well-characterized. We compared symptomatic and functional outcomes of antidepressant treatment in Hispanic and non-Hispanic patients with MDD. We analyzed 2280 nonpsychotic treatment-seeking adults with MDD who received citalopram monotherapy in Level 1 of the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression study. All subjects (239 Hispanic, 2041 non-Hispanic) completed QOL, functioning, and depressive symptom severity measures at entry and exit. Hispanic participants had significantly worse QOL scores at entry and exit (p depressive symptom severity or functioning. Both groups had significant improvements in depressive symptom severity, QOL, and functioning from entry to exit (all p values depressive symptom severity, greater QOL, and better functioning at exit compared to patients without private insurance. This study was a retrospective data analysis, and the Hispanic group was relatively small compared to the non-Hispanic group. Hispanic and non-Hispanic participants with MDD had similar responses to antidepressant treatment as measured by depressive symptom severity scores, quality of life, and functioning. Nevertheless, Hispanic patients reported significantly worse quality of life at entry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Stressful life events predict delayed functional recovery following treatment for mania in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan-Meier, Leslie; Eberhart, Nicole K; Hammen, Constance L; Gitlin, Michael; Sokolski, Kenneth; Altshuler, Lori

    2011-04-30

    Identifying predictors of functional recovery in bipolar disorder is critical to treatment efforts to help patients re-establish premorbid levels of role adjustment following an acute manic episode. The current study examined the role of stressful life events as potential obstacles to recovery of functioning in various roles. 65 patients with bipolar I disorder participated in a longitudinal study of functional recovery following clinical recovery from a manic episode. Stressful life events were assessed as predictors of concurrent vs. delayed recovery of role functioning in 4 domains (friends, family, home duties, work/school). Despite clinical recovery, a subset of patients experienced delayed functional recovery in various role domains. Moreover, delayed functional recovery was significantly associated with presence of one or more stressors in the prior 3 months, even after controlling for mood symptoms. Presence of a stressor predicted longer time to functional recovery in life domains, up to 112 days in work/school. Interventions that provide monitoring, support, and problem-solving may be needed to help prevent or mitigate the effects of stress on functional recovery. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. [Kinesiotherapy effect on quality of life, sexual function and climacteric symptoms in women with fibromyalgia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisboa, Lilian Lira; Sonehara, Elisa; Oliveira, Katia Cristina Araújo Nogueira de; Andrade, Sandra Cristina de; Azevedo, George Dantas

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of the kinesiotherapy in the quality of life, sexual function and menopause-related symptoms and compare in climacteric women with and without fibromyalgia (FM). the group was composed of 90 climacteric women divided in 2 groups: FM (47) and control (43). The patients were analyzed on their quality of life (Utian Quality of Life [UQoL]), sexual function (Sexual Quotient-Female Version [SQ-F] questionnaire) and intensity of the climacteric symptoms (Blatt-Kupperman menopausal index [BKMI]). Both groups performed pelvic floor kinesiotherapy, composed of 20 sessions, twice a week. Statistical analysis was performed using Student's t-test, mixed-design analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Cohen's Kappa. In the quality of life, an improvement was noticed in both groups for all domains analyzed. In the comparison between groups it was noticed a difference in the emotional (p=0.01), health (p=0.03) and sexual (p=0.001) domains with considerable gains verified in the control group. Improvement was also noticed in the sexual function. In the analysis between groups, FM group showed a lower score compared to the control group (p quality of life, sexual function and climacteric symptoms in women with and without fibromyalgia in the climacteric period; however, fibromyalgia seems to be a limiting factor to achieve better results in some of the aspects evaluated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  2. Stressful life events as predictors of functioning: findings from the Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorders Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagano, M. E.; Skodol, A. E.; Stout, R. L.; Shea, M. T.; Yen, S.; Grilo, C. M.; Sanislow, C. A.; Bender, D. S.; McGlashan, T. H.; Zanarini, M. C.; Gunderson, J. G.

    2008-01-01

    Objective Although much attention has been given to the effects of adverse childhood experiences on the development of personality disorders (PDs), we know far less about how recent life events influence the ongoing course of functioning. We examined the extent to which PD subjects differ in rates of life events and the extent to which life events impact psychosocial functioning. Method A total of 633 subjects were drawn from the Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorders Study (CLPS), a multi-site study of four personality disorders – schizotypal (STPD), borderline (BPD), avoidant (AVPD), obsessive-compulsive (OCPD) – and a comparison group of major depressive disorders (MDD) without PD. Results Borderline personality disorder subjects reported significantly more total negative life events than other PDs or subjects with MDD. Negative events, especially interpersonal events, predicted decreased psychosocial functioning over time. Conclusion Our findings indicate higher rates of negative events in subjects with more severe PDs and suggest that negative life events adversely impact multiple areas of psychosocial functioning. PMID:15521826

  3. Living Arrangement and Life Satisfaction in Older Malaysians: The Mediating Role of Social Support Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooshiar, Hadi; Yahaya, Nurizan; Hamid, Tengku Aizan; Abu Samah, Asnarulkhadi; Sedaghat Jou, Vajiheh

    2012-01-01

    Background This cross-sectional and correlational survey examines the association between different types of living arrangements and life satisfaction in older Malaysians, while taking into account the mediating effects of social support function. Methodology and Findings A total of 1880 of older adults were selected by multistage stratified sampling. Life satisfaction and social support were measured with the Philadelphia Geriatric Center Morale Scale and Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Survey. The result shows living with children as the commonest type of living arrangement for older adults in peninsular Malaysia. Compared to living alone, living only with a spouse especially and then co-residency with children were both associated with better life satisfaction (psocial support function (psocial support function enhanced the relation between living arrangements and life satisfaction. Conclusion This study revealed that types of living arrangement directly, and indirectly through social support function, play an important role in predicting life satisfaction for older adults in Malaysia. This study makes remarkable contributions to the Convoy model in older Malaysians. PMID:22912806

  4. Preserving Cognition, Quality of Life, Physical Health and Functional Ability in Alzheimer's Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Kristine; Frederiksen, Kristian S; Sobol, Nanna Aue

    2013-01-01

    ('Preserving Cognition, Quality of Life, Physical Health and Functional Ability in Alzheimer's Disease: the Effect of Physical Exercise') trial is to establish whether aerobic exercise is effective in improving cognition as well as in reducing the prevalence of psychiatric symptoms among patients......Exercise is hypothesized to improve cognition, physical performance, functional ability and quality of life, but evidence is scarce. Previous studies were of short duration, often underpowered and involving home-based light exercise programs in patients with undefined dementia. The aim of the ADEX...

  5. Prospective evaluation of quality of life and sexual functioning after laparoscopic total mesorectal excision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breukink, S O; van der Zaag-Loonen, H J; Bouma, E M C; Pierie, J P E N; Hoff, C; Wiggers, T; Meijerink, W J H J

    2007-02-01

    This study was designed to investigate how the quality of life of patients with rectal cancer changes with time after laparoscopic total mesorectal excision. Patients completed the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36 and the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire and a colorectal-specific European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer quality of life questionnaire before laparoscopic total mesorectal excision, on discharge from the hospital and at 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively. Patients were treated by laparoscopic low anterior resection or laparoscopic abdominoperineal resection. Fifty-one patients (mean age, 64 years; 29 males (57 percent)) participated in this study, of whom 38 (75 percent) underwent laparoscopic low anterior resection and 13 (25 percent) laparoscopic abdominoperineal resection. Compared with preoperative scores on the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36, patients reported a deterioration in physical functioning (74 vs. 80; P = 0.009), and improved mental functioning (76 vs. 70; P = 0.007) at three months. Improvement in emotional well-being was reported both on the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36 (78 vs. 53; P = 0.006) and the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (84 vs. 69; P < 0.001). At one year, improvements in global quality of life (82 vs. 68; P = 0.001) and symptoms, such as fatigue (18 vs. 32; P < 0.001), pain (5 vs. 12; P = 0.009), and appetite loss (3 vs. 13; P = 0.01), were reported. Sexual functioning was worse from three months onward until one year after surgery (47 vs. 66; P = 0.004). Patients who underwent low anterior resection experienced less sexual dysfunction than patients after abdominoperineal resection (21 vs. 56; P = 0.004). One year after laparoscopic total mesorectal excision for rectal cancer, patients reported improvement in some important quality of life outcomes, including global quality

  6. Prospective longitudinal evaluation of lung function during the first year of life after extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofhuis, Ward; Hanekamp, Manon N; Ijsselstijn, Hanneke; Nieuwhof, Eveline M; Hop, Wim C J; Tibboel, Dick; de Jongste, Johan C; Merkus, Peter J F M

    2011-03-01

    To collect longitudinal data on lung function in the first year of life after extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and to evaluate relationships between lung function and perinatal factors. Longitudinal data on lung function in the first year of life after extracorporeal membrane oxygenation are lacking. Prospective longitudinal cohort study. Outpatient clinic of a tertiary level pediatric hospital. The cohort consisted of 64 infants; 33 received extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for meconium aspiration syndrome, 14 for congenital diaphragmatic hernia, four for sepsis, six for persistent pulmonary hypertension of the neonate, and seven for respiratory distress syndrome of infancy. Evaluation was at 6 mos and 12 mos; 39 infants were evaluated at both time points . None. Functional residual capacity and forced expiratory flow at functional residual capacity were measured and expressed as z score. Mean (sem) functional residual capacities in z score were 0.0 (0.2) and 0.2 (0.2) at 6 mos and 12 mos, respectively. Mean (sem) forced expiratory flow was significantly below average (z score = 0) (p capacity significantly above normal: mean (sem) z score = 1.2 (0.5). Infants treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation have normal lung volumes and stable forced expiratory flows within normal range, although below average, within the first year of life. There is reason to believe, therefore, that extracorporeal membrane oxygenation either ameliorates the harmful effects of mechanical ventilation or somehow preserves lung function in the very ill neonate.

  7. Influence of childhood scleroderma on physical function and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baildam, Eileen M; Ennis, Holly; Foster, Helen E; Shaw, Lindsay; Chieng, Alice S E; Kelly, Jane; Herrick, Ariane L; Richards, Helen L

    2011-01-01

    there have been few studies of quality of life in childhood scleroderma and these focused predominantly on self-perception and the influence of skin lesions. Our cross-sectional study aimed to describe the influence of childhood scleroderma on physical function and quality of life in relation to clinical and demographic measures. children with either localized scleroderma or systemic sclerosis (SSc) attending pediatric rheumatology clinics, together with their parents or guardians, were asked to complete a set of 4 validated measures. Clinical and demographic data were provided by consultant pediatric rheumatologists. in total, 28 children and their parents/guardians participated in the study (68% female, median age 13 yrs; 86% localized scleroderma, 14% SSc). The median Child Health Assessment Questionnaire (CHAQ) score was 0.1 (range 0-3, 0 indicating no impairment), the median Child Dermatology Life Quality Index (CDLQI) score was 5 (range 0-30, 0 indicating no impairment), and the median Child Quality of Life Questionnaire (CQOL) function score was 26 (range 0-105, 0 indicating no impairment). Family activity, measured by the Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ-PF50), was also moderately impaired by scleroderma, with a median score of 83 (0-100, 100 indicating no impairment). scleroderma had only a moderate effect on quality of life and physical function as measured by the 4 validated instruments. Although a small number of children reported greater impairment, this is an encouraging finding, given its potential disfiguring and debilitating effects.

  8. Psychometric properties of the Late-Life Function and Disability Instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beauchamp, Marla K; Schmidt, Catherine T; Pedersen, Mette M

    2014-01-01

    The choice of measure for use as a primary outcome in geriatric research is contingent upon the construct of interest and evidence for its psychometric properties. The Late-Life Function and Disability Instrument (LLFDI) has been widely used to assess functional limitations and disability...... in studies with older adults. The primary aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the current available evidence for the psychometric properties of the LLFDI....

  9. Mid-term shoulder functional and quality of life outcomes after shoulder replacement in obese patients

    OpenAIRE

    Vincent, Heather K.; Struk, Aimee M.; Reed, Austin; Wright, Thomas W.

    2016-01-01

    Background Shoulder pain and loss of function are directly associated with obesity. Questions/purposes We hypothesized that significant interactions would exist between total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA) and reverse total shoulder arthroplasty (RSA) and obesity status on functional and quality of life (QOL) outcomes over the long term. Clinical and QOL outcomes (American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons Evaluation form, Shoulder Pain and Disability Index, University of California at Los Angeles Sho...

  10. A Score Function for Optimizing the Cycle-Life of Battery-Powered Embedded Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wognsen, Erik Ramsgaard; Haverkort, Boudewijn; Jongerden, Marijn

    2015-01-01

    An ever increasing share of embedded systems is powered by rechargeable batteries. These batteries deteriorate with the number of charge/discharge cycles they are subjected to, the so-called cycle life. In this paper, we propose the wear score function to compare and evaluate the relative impact...... of usage (charge and discharge) profiles on cycle life. The wear score function can not only be used to rank different usage profiles, these rankings can also be used as a criterion for optimizing the overall lifetime of a battery-powered system. We perform such an optimization on a nano-satellite case...... checking and reinforcement learning to synthesize near-optimal scheduling strategies subject to possible hard timing-constaints. We use this to study the trade-off between optimal short-term dynamic payload selection and the operational life of the satellite....

  11. Estimation of a monotone percentile residual life function under random censorship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco-Pereira, Alba M; de Uña-Álvarez, Jacobo

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a new estimator of a percentile residual life function with censored data under a monotonicity constraint. Specifically, it is assumed that the percentile residual life is a decreasing function. This assumption is useful when estimating the percentile residual life of units, which degenerate with age. We establish a law of the iterated logarithm for the proposed estimator, and its n-equivalence to the unrestricted estimator. The asymptotic normal distribution of the estimator and its strong approximation to a Gaussian process are also established. We investigate the finite sample performance of the monotone estimator in an extensive simulation study. Finally, data from a clinical trial in primary biliary cirrhosis of the liver are analyzed with the proposed methods. One of the conclusions of our work is that the restricted estimator may be much more efficient than the unrestricted one. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Impact of childhood trauma on functionality and quality of life in HIV-infected women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troeman, Zyrhea C E; Spies, Georgina; Cherner, Mariana; Archibald, Sarah L; Fennema-Notestine, Christine; Theilmann, Rebecca J; Spottiswoode, Bruce; Stein, Dan J; Seedat, Soraya

    2011-09-30

    While there are many published studies on HIV and functional limitations, there are few in the context of early abuse and its impact on functionality and Quality of Life (QoL) in HIV. The present study focused on HIV in the context of childhood trauma and its impact on functionality and Quality of Life (QoL) by evaluating 85 HIV-positive (48 with childhood trauma and 37 without) and 52 HIV-negative (21 with childhood trauma and 31 without) South African women infected with Clade C HIV. QoL was assessed using the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire (Q-LES-Q), the Patient's Assessment of Own Functioning Inventory (PAOFI), the Activities of Daily Living (ADL) scale and the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS). Furthermore, participants were assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) and the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). Subjects had a mean age of 30.1 years. After controlling for age, level of education and CES-D scores, analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) demonstrated significant individual effects of HIV status and childhood trauma on self-reported QoL. No significant interactional effects were evident. Functional limitation was, however, negatively correlated with CD4 lymphocyte count. In assessing QoL in HIV-infected women, we were able to demonstrate the impact of childhood trauma on functional limitations in HIV.

  13. On changing points of mean residual life and failure rate function for some generalized Weibull distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, M.; Goh, T.N.; Tang, Y.

    2004-01-01

    The failure rate function and mean residual life function are two important characteristics in reliability analysis. Although many papers have studied distributions with bathtub-shaped failure rate and their properties, few have focused on the underlying associations between the mean residual life and failure rate function of these distributions, especially with respect to their changing points. It is known that the change point for mean residual life can be much earlier than that of failure rate function. In fact, the failure rate function should be flat for a long period of time for a distribution to be useful in practice. When the difference between the change points is large, the flat portion tends to be longer. This paper investigates the change points and focuses on the difference of the changing points. The exponentiated Weibull, a modified Weibull, and an extended Weibull distribution, all with bathtub-shaped failure rate function will be used. Some other issues related to the flatness of the bathtub curve are discussed

  14. Impact of childhood trauma on functionality and quality of life in HIV-infected women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spottiswoode Bruce

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While there are many published studies on HIV and functional limitations, there are few in the context of early abuse and its impact on functionality and Quality of Life (QoL in HIV. Methods The present study focused on HIV in the context of childhood trauma and its impact on functionality and Quality of Life (QoL by evaluating 85 HIV-positive (48 with childhood trauma and 37 without and 52 HIV-negative (21 with childhood trauma and 31 without South African women infected with Clade C HIV. QoL was assessed using the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire (Q-LES-Q, the Patient's Assessment of Own Functioning Inventory (PAOFI, the Activities of Daily Living (ADL scale and the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS. Furthermore, participants were assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D and the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ. Results Subjects had a mean age of 30.1 years. After controlling for age, level of education and CES-D scores, analysis of covariance (ANCOVA demonstrated significant individual effects of HIV status and childhood trauma on self-reported QoL. No significant interactional effects were evident. Functional limitation was, however, negatively correlated with CD4 lymphocyte count. Conclusions In assessing QoL in HIV-infected women, we were able to demonstrate the impact of childhood trauma on functional limitations in HIV.

  15. Hypermobility in Adolescent Athletes: Pain, Functional Ability, Quality of Life, and Musculoskeletal Injuries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmidt, Heidi; Pedersen, Trine Lykke; Junge, Tina; Engelbert, Raoul; Juul-Kristensen, Birgit

    2017-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional. BACKGROUND: Generalized joint hypermobility (GJH) may increase pain and likelihood of injuries and also decrease function and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in elite-level adolescent athletes. OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of GJH in elite-level adolescent

  16. Evaluation of the Function and Quality of Life after Total Hip Arthroplasty by Different Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Araújo

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: After 24 months post total hip arthroplasty there are no differences between the two approaches with regard to function or quality of life. However, the patients operated by the anterolateral approach had greater muscle strength deficits and higher percentage of positive Trendelenburg test.

  17. The kidney disease quality of life cognitive function subscale and cognitive performance maintenance hemodialysis patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Cognitive impairment is common but often undiagnosed in patients with end-stage renal disease, in part reflecting limited validated and easily administered tools to assess cognitive function in dialysis patients. Accordingly, we assessed the utility of the Kidney Disease Quality of Life ...

  18. Social functioning and the quality of life of patients diagnosed with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewelina Dziwota

    2018-03-01

    Therapy, any psychosocial impact as well as rehabilitation, neutralizes the causes for patients’ withdrawal from social life. Training of social skills is necessary which teaches patients to return to the situation when they would be able to function properly in their environment.

  19. A Score Function for Optimizing the Cycle-Life of Battery-Powered Embedded Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wognsen, Erik Ramsgaard; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.; Jongerden, M.R.; Hansen, René Rydhof; Larsen, K.G.; Sankaranarayanan, Sriram; Vicario, Enrico

    An ever increasing share of embedded systems is powered by rechargeable batteries. These batteries deteriorate with the number of charge/discharge cycles they are subjected to, the so-called cycle life. In this paper, we propose the wear score function to compare and evaluate the relative impact of

  20. Health related quality of life, cognitive functioning and behaviour problems in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrijmoet-Wiersma, C.M.J.; Kooloos, V.M.; Koopman, H.M.; Kolk, A.M.; van der Laan, I.; Grootenhuis, M.A.; Egeler, R.M.

    2009-01-01

    Background: This study was designed to evaluate generic and disease-specific health-related quality of life (HRQoL), cognitive functioning and behaviour problems of children with Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis (LCH). Furthermore, we investigated which medical determinants and social demographic

  1. Health-related quality of life in pediatric patients with functional and organic gastrointestinal diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of our study was to compare health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in pediatric patients with functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) and organic gastrointestinal (GI) diseases with an age-, sex-, and race/ethnicity-matched healthy sample across GI diagnostic groups and with one ...

  2. Education, Functional Limitations, and Life Satisfaction among Older Adults in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun-Kyoung Othelia; Lee, Jungui

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the associations of educational level with functioning and life satisfaction among community-dwelling older adults in South Korea ("n" = 4,152). The sample was drawn from Wave I of the Korean Longitudinal Study on Aging. To examine educational disparities, separate analyses were run to note predictors in less educated…

  3. The Forms and Functions of Real-Life Moral Decision-Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, Dennis L.; Denton, Kathy; Wark, Gillian

    1997-01-01

    Observes that the Kohlbergian model of morality does not give a good account of the ways in which people make moral decisions in their everyday lives. Argues that a functional model of moral judgment and moral behavior derived from evolutionary theory may supply a better account of real-life morality. (DSK)

  4. Quality of Life and Behavioral Functioning in Dutch Children with a History of Kawasaki Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tacke, Carline E.; Haverman, Lotte; Berk, Birgit M.; van Rossum, Marion A.; Kuipers, Irene M.; Grootenhuis, Martha A.; Kuijpers, Taco W.

    2012-01-01

    Objective The authors evaluated health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and behavioral functioning in patients with a history of Kawasaki disease (KD). Study design A cross-sectional study was conducted at a tertiary referral center for KD follow-up in 280 patients (mean age 8.6 years, 60.0% male).

  5. Quality of Life after Total Laryngectomy: Functioning, Psychological Well-Being and Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Alison; Casey, Erica; Cotton, Sue

    2015-01-01

    Background: Quality of life (QoL) is an important construct when assessing treatment outcomes. Aims: To examine the relative contributions of functioning, psychological well-being and self-efficacy on self-perceived QoL with a sample of total laryngectomy patients in Australia who had surgery for advanced laryngeal cancer. Methods &…

  6. Quality of life and functional outcome after resection of pancreatic cystic neoplasm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Gaag, Niels A.; Berkhemer, Olvert A.; Sprangers, Mirjam A.; Busch, Olivier R. C.; Bruno, Marco J.; de Castro, Steve M.; van Gulik, Thomas M.; Gouma, Dirk J.

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the long-term quality of life (QOL) after the resection of a primary pancreatic cyst and to determine predictors of outcome. Secondary outcomes were pancreatic function and survival. One hundred eight consecutive patients, who underwent resection between

  7. Functional Capillary Density Decreases after the First Week of Life in Term Neonates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Top, A. P. C.; van Dijk, M.; van Velzen, J. E.; Ince, C.; Tibboel, D.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Changes in the microcirculation have been recognized to play a crucial role in many disease processes. In premature neonates, functional capillary density (FCD) decreases during the first months of life. Objectives: The aims of this study were to obtain microcirculatory parameters in

  8. Functional capillary density decreases after the first week of life in term neonates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.P.C. Top (Anke); M. van Dijk (Monique); J.E. van Velzen; C. Ince (Can); D. Tibboel (Dick)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Changes in the microcirculation have been recognized to play a crucial role in many disease processes. In premature neonates, functional capillary density (FCD) decreases during the first months of life. Objectives: The aims of this study were to obtain microcirculatory

  9. Quality of life and cognitive function in Fontan patients, a population-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Idorn, Lars; Jensen, Annette S; Juul, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: After the Fontan procedure patients are at risk for reduced quality of life (QoL) and cognitive function. We aimed to assess these important factors in Danish Fontan patients and to compare the results with a group of healthy controls. METHODS: All Fontan patients living in Denmark we...

  10. The relation between attitudes toward functional foods and satisfaction with food-related life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnettler, Berta; Adasme-Berríos, Cristian; Grunert, Klaus G

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to assess the effect of attitudes towards functional foods (AFF) on university students’ satisfaction with food-related life (SWFL) and to distinguish student typologies, considering that the AFF are not homogeneous among consumers. Design/methodology/approach...

  11. Differential item functioning (DIF) analyses of health-related quality of life instruments using logistic regression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scott, Neil W.; Fayers, Peter M.; Aaronson, Neil K.

    2010-01-01

    Differential item functioning (DIF) methods can be used to determine whether different subgroups respond differently to particular items within a health-related quality of life (HRQoL) subscale, after allowing for overall subgroup differences in that scale. This article reviews issues that arise...

  12. Characteristics and Changes in Health Status and Life Function among Female Elderly Participants of Group Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimoto, Hiromi; Yamada, Kazuko; Morioka, Ikuharu

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the characteristics of female elderly participants of a group exercise organized by the participants themselves and the changes in their physical, mental, and social health, and life function. Findings of this study will be used for promoting effective preventive care. The subjects whose characteristics were analyzed were 394 participants and 757 nonparticipants of the group exercise. Those whose changes in health were analyzed were 52 participants and 114 nonparticipants. Locomotion Check and self-rated health score were used as indices of physical health. World Health Organization-Five well-being (S-WHO-5-J) index and self-rated life satisfaction level were used as indices of mental health. Satisfaction level of social activities was one of indices of social health. The Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Index of Competence was used as an index of life function. The health-examination data analyzed were Body Mass Index, waist circumference, blood pressure, lipid profiles, and HbA1c level. In the participant group, the proportions of those who lived alone, who were affluent, and who had no job were higher than those in the nonparticipant group. The indices of physical, mental and social health and life function were higher in the participant group. There was no significant difference in the 5-year trend of health-examination data between the two groups. There was no significant difference in the yearly change in the indices of physical health and life function. The S-WHO-5-J index, self-rated life satisfaction level, and satisfaction level of social activities were maintained or improved in the participant group. The results suggest the possible usefulness of the group exercise for maintaining the mental and social health of elderly women.

  13. The effect of Buspirone on symptoms and quality of life in patients with functional dyspepsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed masood Tabib

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Functional dyspepsia (FD is a heterogeneous disorder of yet unknown etiology which causes a significant reduction in the quality of life. In this study, we compared the effect of buspirone as an agonist of serotonin 5HT1A receptor with amitriptyline and placebo on improving the symptoms and quality of life in patients with functional dyspepsia. Methods: This study was a double-blinded, randomized controlled clinical trial. Using a sequential sampling, patients with the diagnostic criteria of Rome 2 and normal gastrointestinal findings were selected. The subjects were randomly divided into three therapeutic groups receiving amitriptyline, buspirone, and placebo. We used Nepean Dyspepsia Inde (NDI to evaluate the quality of life before and after the treatment. Results: The mean age of subjects was 35.38±12.94 years. Symptom and quality of life scores of the three groups were equal at the beginning but at the end of treatment, these scores were different. Buspirone was more effective than both amitriptyline and placebo in reducing the symptom of early satiety. Buspirone showed a better improvement in quality of life compared to placebo. Both Buspirone and amitriptyline were more effective than placebo in decreasing the symptom of epigastric pain. Conclusion: Our study confirmed the positive effect of buspirone on the quality of life and symptoms (like early satiety and abdominal pain in patients with functional dyspepsia. Since the mechanism of action of buspirone and also the pathophysiology of functional dyspepsia are still unknown, further studies are necessary to clarify every aspect of the disease and therapeutic effects of various treatments on it.

  14. In your eyes: does theory of mind predict impaired life functioning in bipolar disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Amanda L; Phillips, Mary; Gruber, June

    2013-12-01

    Deficits in emotion perception and social functioning are strongly implicated in bipolar disorder (BD). Examining theory of mind (ToM) may provide one potential mechanism to explain observed socio-emotional impairments in this disorder. The present study prospectively investigated the relationship between theory of mind performance and life functioning in individuals diagnosed with BD compared to unipolar depression and healthy control groups. Theory of mind (ToM) performance was examined in 26 individuals with remitted bipolar I disorder (BD), 29 individuals with remitted unipolar depression (UD), and 28 healthy controls (CTL) using a well-validated advanced theory of mind task. Accuracy and response latency scores were calculated from the task. Life functioning was measured during a 12 month follow-up session. No group differences for ToM accuracy emerged. However, the BD group exhibited significantly shorter response times than the UD and CTL groups. Importantly, quicker response times in the BD group predicted greater life functioning impairment at a 12-month follow-up, even after controlling for baseline symptoms. The stimuli were static representations of emotional states and do not allow for evaluating the appropriateness of context during emotional communication; due to sample size, neither specific comorbidities nor medication effects were analyzed for the BD and UD groups; preliminary status of theory of mind as a construct. Results suggest that quickened socio-emotional decision making may represent a risk factor for future functional impairment in BD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Olfactory function and quality of life after olfaction rehabilitation in total laryngectomees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Christiane Gouvêa Dos; Bergmann, Anke; Coça, Kaliani Lima; Garcia, Angela Albuquerque; Valente, Tânia Cristina de Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of olfaction rehabilitation in the olfactory function and quality of life of total laryngectomized patients. Pre-post intervention clinical study conducted with total laryngectomees submitted to olfaction rehabilitation by means of the Nasal Airflow-Inducing Maneuver (NAIM) using the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT), Olfactory Acuity Questionnaires, a Monitoring Questionnaire, and the University of Washington Quality of Life Questionnaire (UW-QOL). Participants were 45 total laryngectomees. Before olfaction rehabilitation, 48.9% of the participants had their olfactic abilities classified as anosmia, 46.8% as microsmia, and 4.4% were considered within the normal range. After olfaction rehabilitation, 4.4% of the participants were classified as anosmia and 31.1% were within the normal range. In the Smell Identification Test, the mean score after rehabilitation showed statistically significant improvement. Reponses to the Olfactory Acuity Questionnaires after rehabilitation showed improvement in the frequency of perception regarding smell, taste, and the ability to smell perfume, food, leaking gas, and smoke, after learning the maneuver. Although the scores in the Quality of Life Questionnaire already indicated good quality of life before the surgery, post-intervention values were statistically significant. Olfaction rehabilitation improves olfactory function and has a positive impact on the activities of daily living and quality of life of total laryngectomized patients.

  16. Association of quality of life of carers with quality of life and functional independence of stroke survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Ganjiwale

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stroke has a great impact not only on patients′ but also on their caregivers′ lives. Carers may experience high levels of burden that can result in deterioration of their health status, social life, and well-being. Association between quality of life (QOL of carers and that of stroke survivors in Indian setting is not much researched. Aims and Settings: To find out QOL and mental health of caregivers of individuals with stroke visiting Physiotherapy Department of Tertiary Care Center in Western India. Design and Methodology: A cross-sectional survey to find QOL and mental health of caregiver of stroke survivors, self-administered screening instrument WHO-QOL BREF, functional independence measurement (FIM scale, and BRIEF COPE were used for data collection on adult populations. Statistical Analysis Used: The statistical analysis was performed by descriptive analysis and correlation. Result: Fifty-four stroke patients and their caregivers (all adults were included in the study. Average FIM score was 83.75 (18.46 while median was 90 (25. FIM score of patients did not much affect QOL of caregivers. Discussion: Analysis of QOL data showed that QOL of caregivers was good in all domains, but patient′s QOL was good only in social relations. There was no correlation found in QOL of carers and stroke survivors. Nine percent of change in caregivers social relationship scores can be attributed to patients′ sphincter scores. Conclusion: QOL of carers and stroke survivors may be independent. Stroke patients in the study required a moderate assistance for their functional independence which does not seem to affect the caregivers QOL significantly.

  17. Neuro-cognition and social cognition elements of social functioning and social quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasson-Ohayon, Ilanit; Mashiach-Eizenberg, Michal; Arnon-Ribenfeld, Nitzan; Kravetz, Shlomo; Roe, David

    2017-12-01

    Previous studies have shown that deficits in social cognition mediate the association between neuro-cognition and functional outcome. Based on these findings, the current study presents an examination of the mediating role of social cognition and includes two different outcomes: social functioning assessed by objective observer and social quality of life assessed by subjective self-report. Instruments measuring different aspects of social cognition, cognitive ability, social functioning and social quality of life were administered to 131 participants who had a diagnosis of a serious mental illness. Results showed that emotion recognition and attributional bias were significant mediators such that cognitive assessment was positively related to both, which in turn, were negatively related to SQoL. While one interpretation of the data suggests that deficits in emotion recognition may serve as a possible defense mechanism, future studies should re-assess this idea. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Recovery to Preinterventional Functioning, Return-to-Work, and Life Satisfaction After Treatment of Unruptured Aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backes, Daan; Rinkel, Gabriel J E; van der Schaaf, Irene C; Nij Bijvank, Jenny A; Verweij, Bon H; Visser-Meily, Johanna M A; Post, Marcel W; Algra, Ale; Vergouwen, Mervyn D I

    2015-06-01

    The eventual goal of preventive treatment of unruptured intracranial aneurysms is to increase the number of life years with high life satisfaction. Insight in the time with reduced functioning, working capacity, and life satisfaction after aneurysm treatment is pivotal to balance the pros and cons of preventive aneurysm occlusion. We sent a questionnaire on time-to-recovery to preintervention functioning and return-to-work and life satisfaction to patients treated for an unruptured aneurysm between 2000 and 2013. Changes in life satisfaction before treatment, during recovery, and at follow-up were assessed with Wilcoxon signed-rank tests. The questionnaire was sent to 159 patients of whom 110 (69%) responded. The mean follow-up time after aneurysm treatment was 6 years (SD 4). Fifty-four patients had endovascular and 56 had microsurgical occlusion. Complete recovery to preintervention functioning was reported by 81% (95% confidence interval [CI], 74-88) of patients, with a median time-to-recovery of 3 months (range 0-48). Complete work recovery was reported by 78% (95% CI, 66-87) of patients. The proportion of patients with high life satisfaction reduced from 76% (95% CI, 67-84) before treatment to 52% (95% CI, 43-61) during the period of recovery (PLife satisfaction is significantly reduced during the period of recovery after treatment of unruptured aneurysms. In the long-term, ≈1 out of 5 patients reports incomplete recovery. These treatment effects should be kept in mind when considering preventive aneurysm treatment. Prospective studies are needed to better compare these losses in patients treated for unruptured aneurysms with those who had subarachnoid hemorrhage. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. Family Functions and Life Quality of Parents of Children With Cleft Lip and Palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Belma I; Gülşen, Ayşe; Tirank, Şadiye B; Findikçioğlu, Kemal; Uzuner, F Deniz; Tutar, Hakan; Üçüncü, Neslihan

    2018-05-15

    This study was designed to identify variables affecting family functions and life quality of parents with cleft lip and/or palate children. Family Assesment Scale (FAS) and short form of World Health Organization quality of life (WHOQOL-BREF-TR) were used to measure family functions and life quality of parents. Questionnaire Forms were given to 146 parents: 74 having cleft lip and/or palate children (cleft-group), and the other 72 with healthy children (control-group). Parents were divided into 3 subgroups according to children's age as 0 to 6, 7 to 12, and 13 to 18 years. Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests were used to evaluate differences between the groups. Behavior of cleft patients' parents was found to be problematic in behavioral control, required attention and role areas at 0 to 6 years, required attention area at ages 7 to 12 and 13 to 18 years. When compared to control group, significant differences were detected in required attention at ages 0 to 6 years, problem-solving, and communication areas at 7 to 12 years. Findings of life quality were found to be over medium level in physical, social, psychological and environmental areas in cleft group at all age groups; however, life quality was found better in control group in physical, psychological, and social subtests at age 13 to 18 years. Cleft children influence family functions in behavioral control, required attention and role areas at early childhood, and continue to affect required attention through adolescence. Also social, physical, and psychological fields of life quality were found lower in cleft parents compared to control group at adolescence.

  20. Pulmonary function and health-related quality of life 1-year follow up after cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerdahl, Elisabeth; Jonsson, Marcus; Emtner, Margareta

    2016-07-08

    Pulmonary function is severely reduced in the early period after cardiac surgery, and impairments have been described up to 4-6 months after surgery. Evaluation of pulmonary function in a longer perspective is lacking. In this prospective study pulmonary function and health-related quality of life were investigated 1 year after cardiac surgery. Pulmonary function measurements, health-related quality of life (SF-36), dyspnoea, subjective breathing and coughing ability and pain were evaluated before and 1 year after surgery in 150 patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting, valve surgery or combined surgery. One year after surgery the forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in 1 s were significantly decreased (by 4-5 %) compared to preoperative values (p < 0.05). Saturation of peripheral oxygen was unchanged 1 year postoperatively compared to baseline. A significantly improved health-related quality of life was found 1 year after surgery, with improvements in all eight aspects of SF-36 (p < 0.001). Sternotomy-related pain was low 1 year postoperatively at rest (median 0 [min-max; 0-7]), while taking a deep breath (0 [0-4]) and while coughing (0 [0-8]). A more pronounced decrease in pulmonary function was associated with dyspnoea limitations and impaired subjective breathing and coughing ability. One year after cardiac surgery static and dynamic lung function measurements were slightly decreased, while health-related quality of life was improved in comparison to preoperative values. Measured levels of pain were low and saturation of peripheral oxygen was same as preoperatively.

  1. Safeguard assessment for life extension in nuclear power plants (NPPs) using a production function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, Tae-Ho; Lee, Un-Chul

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → The numerical value is constructed for the secure operation. → As the power increases, the NSEF increases. → Specific month could be indicated by the relative value of NSEF. → It is suggested for the better power in NPPs. → There is another possibility for the secure operation factors. - Abstract: Life extension is investigated as a safeguard assessment for the stability on the operation of the nuclear power plants (NPPs). The Cobb-Douglas function, one of the production functions, is modified for the nuclear safeguard in NPPs, which was developed for the life quality of the social and natural objects. Nuclear Safeguard Estimator Function (NSEF) is developed for the application in NPPs. The cases of NPPs are compared with each other in the aspect of the secure performance. The results are obtained by the standard productivity comparisons with the designed power operations. The range of secure life extension is between 1.008 and 5.353 in 2000 MW e and the range is between 0.302 and 0.994 in 600 MW e . So, the successfulness of the power operation increases about 5 times higher than that of the interested power in this study, which means that the safeguard assessment has been performed in the life extension of the NPPs. The technology assessment (TA) is suggested for the safe operation which is an advanced method comparing conventional probabilistic safety assessment (PSA).

  2. Predictors of psychological functioning in children with cancer: disposition and cumulative life stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard Sharp, Katianne M; Rowe, Anjoli E; Russell, Kathryn; Long, Alanna; Phipps, Sean

    2015-07-01

    This study examined psychological functioning in children with a history of cancer and a matched sample of healthy peers, while exploring the roles of disposition and stressful life events. Participants were 255 children with a history of cancer and 101 demographically matched children (8-17 years). Children completed measures of depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS); history of stressful life events; and dispositional factors, including optimism and a five-factor personality measure. Children with cancer did not differ from peers with regard to depression and PTSS, but reported significantly lower anxiety. In hierarchical regressions, children's depression, anxiety, and PTSS scores were largely predicted by dispositional variables and, to a lesser extent, stressful life events, after controlling for demographics and health status. Children's psychological functioning is predicted primarily by disposition, and secondarily by history of stressful life events, with health status (i.e., cancer versus control) accounting for minimal, and often non-significant variance in children's functioning. These findings further support that children with cancer are generally resilient, with factors predictive of their adjustment difficulties mirroring those of children without history of serious illness. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Dissociable Changes of Frontal and Parietal Cortices in Inherent Functional Flexibility across the Human Life Span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Dazhi; Liu, Wenjing; Zeljic, Kristina; Wang, Zhiwei; Lv, Qian; Fan, Mingxia; Cheng, Wenhong; Wang, Zheng

    2016-09-28

    Extensive evidence suggests that frontoparietal regions can dynamically update their pattern of functional connectivity, supporting cognitive control and adaptive implementation of task demands. However, it is largely unknown whether this flexibly functional reconfiguration is intrinsic and occurs even in the absence of overt tasks. Based on recent advances in dynamics of resting-state functional resonance imaging (fMRI), we propose a probabilistic framework in which dynamic reconfiguration of intrinsic functional connectivity between each brain region and others can be represented as a probability distribution. A complexity measurement (i.e., entropy) was used to quantify functional flexibility, which characterizes heterogeneous connectivity between a particular region and others over time. Following this framework, we identified both functionally flexible and specialized regions over the human life span (112 healthy subjects from 13 to 76 years old). Across brainwide regions, we found regions showing high flexibility mainly in the higher-order association cortex, such as the lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC), lateral parietal cortex, and lateral temporal lobules. In contrast, visual, auditory, and sensory areas exhibited low flexibility. Furthermore, we observed that flexibility of the right LPFC improved during maturation and reduced due to normal aging, with the opposite occurring for the left lateral parietal cortex. Our findings reveal dissociable changes of frontal and parietal cortices over the life span in terms of inherent functional flexibility. This study not only provides a new framework to quantify the spatiotemporal behavior of spontaneous brain activity, but also sheds light on the organizational principle behind changes in brain function across the human life span. Recent neuroscientific research has demonstrated that the human capability of adaptive task control is primarily the result of the flexible operation of frontal brain networks. However

  4. The independent contribution of executive functions to health related quality of life in older women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marra Carlo A

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cognition is a multidimensional construct and to our knowledge, no previous studies have examined the independent contribution of specific domains of cognition to health related quality of life. To determine whether executive functions are independently associated with health related quality of life assessed using Quality Adjusted Life Years (QALYs calculated from the EuroQol EQ-5D (EQ-5D in older women after adjusting for known covariates, including global cognition. Therefore, we conducted a secondary analysis of community-dwelling older women aged 65-75 years who participated in a 12-month randomized controlled trial of resistance training. We assessed global cognition using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE and executive functions using the: 1 Stroop Test; 2 Trail Making Test (Part B and 3 Digits Verbal Span Backwards Test. We calculated QALYs from the EQ-5D administered at baseline, 6 months and 12 months. Results Our multivariate linear regression model demonstrated the specific executive processes of set shifting and working memory, as measured by Trail Making Test (Part B and Digits Verbal Span Backward Test (p Conclusions Our study highlights the specific executive processes of set shifting and working memory were independently associated with QALYs -- a measure of health related quality of life. Given that executive functions explain variability in QALYs, clinicians may need to consider assessing executive functions when measuring health related quality of life. Further, the EQ-5D may be used to track changes in health status over time and serve as a screening tool for clinicians. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00426881.

  5. Comparison of Two Cognitive Training Programs With Effects on Functional Activities and Quality of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagovská, Magdaléna; Dzvoník, Oliver; Olekszyová, Zuzana

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the current study was to compare the effectiveness of two types of cognitive training in 60 older adults with mild cognitive impairment by assessing the impact on functional activities, quality of life (QOL), and various cognitive functions. The primary outcomes were functional activity level and QOL. The secondary outcome was cognitive examination. Group assignment was random. Group A (n = 30) underwent CogniPlus, a computer-based, cognitive training. Group B (n = 30) underwent classical group-based cognitive training. Both programs comprised two 30-minute sessions per week for 10 weeks. After training, group A had better QOL (p effect size [ES] = 0.69) and better attention (increased load score, p functional activity level. Group A demonstrated larger improvements in QOL and attention than group B (i.e., classical cognitive training), but the transfer to functional activities was the same between groups. [Res Gerontol Nurs. 2017; 10(4):172-180.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  6. Increased Functional Half-life of Fibroblast Growth Factor-1 by Recovering a Vestigial Disulfide Bond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihun Lee

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The fibroblast growth factor (FGF family of proteins contains an absolutely conserved Cys residue at position 83 that is present as a buried free cysteine. We have previously shown that mutation of the structurally adjacent residue, Ala66, to cysteine results in the formation of a stabilizing disulfide bond in FGF-1. This result suggests that the conserved free cysteine residue at position 83 in the FGF family of proteins represents a vestigial half-cystine. Here, we characterize the functional half-life and mitogenic activity of the oxidized form of the Ala66Cys mutation to identify the effect of the recovered vestigial disulfide bond between Cys83 and Cys66 upon the cellular function of FGF-1. The results show that the mitogenic activity of this mutant is significantly increased and that its functional half-life is greatly extended. These favorable effects are conferred by the formation of a disulfide bond that simultaneously increases thermodynamic stability of the protein and removes a reactive buried thiol at position 83. Recovering this vestigial disulfide by introducing a cysteine at position 66 is a potentially useful protein engineering strategy to improve the functional half-life of other FGF family members.

  7. Sensory function: insights from Wave 2 of the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Jayant M; Kern, David W; Wroblewski, Kristen E; Chen, Rachel C; Schumm, L Philip; McClintock, Martha K

    2014-11-01

    Sensory function, a critical component of quality of life, generally declines with age and influences health, physical activity, and social function. Sensory measures collected in Wave 2 of the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP) survey focused on the personal impact of sensory function in the home environment and included: subjective assessment of vision, hearing, and touch, information on relevant home conditions and social sequelae as well as an improved objective assessment of odor detection. Summary data were generated for each sensory category, stratified by age (62-90 years of age) and gender, with a focus on function in the home setting and the social consequences of sensory decrements in each modality. Among both men and women, older age was associated with self-reported impairment of vision, hearing, and pleasantness of light touch. Compared with women, men reported significantly worse hearing and found light touch less appealing. There were no gender differences for vision. Overall, hearing loss seemed to have a greater impact on social function than did visual impairment. Sensory function declines across age groups, with notable gender differences for hearing and light touch. Further analysis of sensory measures from NSHAP Wave 2 may provide important information on how sensory declines are related to health, social function, quality of life, morbidity, and mortality in this nationally representative sample of older adults. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Trajectories of Life Satisfaction Over the First 10 Years After Traumatic Brain Injury: Race, Gender, and Functional Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Meredith L C; Elliott, Timothy R; Bogner, Jennifer; Dreer, Laura E; Arango-Lasprilla, Juan Carlos; Kolakowsky-Hayner, Stephanie A; Pretz, Christopher R; Lequerica, Anthony; Perrin, Paul B

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of race, gender, functional ability, and an array of preinjury, injury-related, and sociodemographic variables on life satisfaction trajectories over 10 years following moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). A sample of 3157 individuals with TBI from the TBI Model Systems database was included in this study. Hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) analyses were conducted to examine the trajectories of life satisfaction. The Functional Independence Measure, Glasgow Coma Scale, and the Satisfaction With Life Scale were utilized. Initial models suggested that life satisfaction trajectories increased over the 10-year period and Asian/Pacific Islander participants experienced an increase in life satisfaction over time. In a comprehensive model, time was no longer a significant predictor of increased life satisfaction. Black race, however, was associated with lower life satisfaction, and significant interactions revealed that black participants' life satisfaction trajectory decreased over time while white participants' trajectory increased over the same time period. Life satisfaction trajectories did not significantly differ by gender, and greater motor and cognitive functioning were associated with increasingly positive life satisfaction trajectories over the 10 years. Individuals with more functional impairments are at risk for decreases in life satisfaction over time. Further research is needed to identify the mechanisms and factors that contribute to the lower levels of life satisfaction observed among black individuals post-TBI. This work is needed to determine strategic ways to promote optimal adjustment for these individuals.

  9. Quality of Life and Functional Health Status of Long-Term Meditators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Manocha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. There is very little data describing the long-term health impacts of meditation. Aim. To compare the quality of life and functional health of long-term meditators to that of the normative population in Australia. Method. Using the SF-36 questionnaire and a Meditation Lifestyle Survey, we sampled 343 long-term Australian Sahaja Yoga meditation practitioners and compared their scores to those of the normative Australian population. Results. Six SF-36 subscales (bodily pain, general health, mental health, role limitation—emotional, social functioning, and vitality were significantly better in meditators compared to the national norms whereas two of the subscales (role limitation—physical, physical functioning were not significantly different. A substantial correlation between frequency of mental silence experience and the vitality, general health, and especially mental health subscales (P<0.005 was found. Conclusion. Long-term practitioners of Sahaja yoga meditation experience better functional health, especially mental health, compared to the general population. A relationship between functional health, especially mental health, and the frequency of meditative experience (mental silence exists that may be causal. Evidence for the potential role of this definition of meditation in enhancing quality of life, functional health and wellbeing is growing. Implications for primary mental health prevention are discussed.

  10. Midlife managerial experience is linked to late life hippocampal morphology and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suo, C; Gates, N; Fiatarone Singh, M; Saigal, N; Wilson, G C; Meiklejohn, J; Sachdev, P; Brodaty, H; Wen, W; Singh, N; Baune, B T; Baker, M; Foroughi, N; Wang, Y; Valenzuela, Michael J

    2017-04-01

    An active cognitive lifestyle has been suggested to have a protective role in the long-term maintenance of cognition. Amongst healthy older adults, more managerial or supervisory experiences in midlife are linked to a slower hippocampal atrophy rate in late life. Yet whether similar links exist in individuals with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) is not known, nor whether these differences have any functional implications. 68 volunteers from the Sydney SMART Trial, diagnosed with non-amnestic MCI, were divided into high and low managerial experience (HME/LME) during their working life. All participants underwent neuropsychological testing, structural and resting-state functional MRI. Group comparisons were performed on hippocampal volume, morphology, hippocampal seed-based functional connectivity, memory and executive function and self-ratings of memory proficiency. HME was linked to better memory function (p = 0.024), mediated by larger hippocampal volume (p = 0.025). More specifically, deformation analysis found HME had relatively more volume in the CA1 sub-region of the hippocampus (p < 0.05). Paradoxically, this group rated their memory proficiency worse (p = 0.004), a result correlated with diminished functional connectivity between the right hippocampus and right prefrontal cortex (p < 0.001). Finally, hierarchical regression modelling substantiated this double dissociation.

  11. American Heart Association's Life's Simple 7: Avoiding Heart Failure and Preserving Cardiac Structure and Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folsom, Aaron R; Shah, Amil M; Lutsey, Pamela L; Roetker, Nicholas S; Alonso, Alvaro; Avery, Christy L; Miedema, Michael D; Konety, Suma; Chang, Patricia P; Solomon, Scott D

    2015-09-01

    Many people may underappreciate the role of lifestyle in avoiding heart failure. We estimated whether greater adherence in middle age to American Heart Association's Life's Simple 7 guidelines—on smoking, body mass, physical activity, diet, cholesterol, blood pressure, and glucose—is associated with lower lifetime risk of heart failure and greater preservation of cardiac structure and function in old age. We studied the population-based Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study cohort of 13,462 adults ages 45-64 years in 1987-1989. From the 1987-1989 risk factor measurements, we created a Life's Simple 7 score (range 0-14, giving 2 points for ideal, 1 point for intermediate, and 0 points for poor components). We identified 2218 incident heart failure events using surveillance of hospital discharge and death codes through 2011. In addition, in 4855 participants free of clinical cardiovascular disease in 2011-2013, we performed echocardiography from which we quantified left ventricular hypertrophy and diastolic dysfunction. One in four participants (25.5%) developed heart failure through age 85 years. Yet, this lifetime heart failure risk was 14.4% for those with a middle-age Life's Simple 7 score of 10-14 (optimal), 26.8% for a score of 5-9 (average), and 48.6% for a score of 0-4 (inadequate). Among those with no clinical cardiovascular event, the prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy in late life was approximately 40% as common, and diastolic dysfunction was approximately 60% as common, among those with an optimal middle-age Life's Simple 7 score, compared with an inadequate score. Greater achievement of American Heart Association's Life's Simple 7 in middle age is associated with a lower lifetime occurrence of heart failure and greater preservation of cardiac structure and function. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Esthetic, Functional, and Everyday Life Assessment of Individuals with Cleft Lip and/or Palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkantidis, Nikolaos; Papamanou, Despina A; Karamolegkou, Marina; Dorotheou, Domna

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the level of satisfaction of individuals with cleft lip and/or palate (CLP) and their parents concerning the esthetic and functional treatment outcomes, the impact of the cleft on everyday life, and potential associations with treatment outcome satisfaction. The sample consisted of 33 patients (7 CP, 20 unilateral CLP, and 6 bilateral CLP; median age: 17.1, range: 9.0-33.1 years) and 30 parents, who responded to a questionnaire in an interview-guided session. All participants received their orthodontic treatment at the Department of Orthodontics in the University of Athens. Patients and their parents were quite satisfied with esthetics and function. Patients with UCLP primarily were concerned about nose esthetics (BCLP about lip esthetics and CP about speech). Increased satisfaction was associated with decreased influence of the cleft in everyday life (0.35 < rho < 0.64, P < 0.05). Parents reported significant influence of the cleft on family life, while patients did not. Despite the limited sample size of subgroups, the main concerns of patients with different cleft types and the importance of satisfying lip, nose, and speech outcomes for an undisturbed everyday life were quite evident. Thus, the need for targeted treatment strategies is highlighted for individuals with cleft lip and/or palate.

  13. The reflection of life functional entailment and imminence in relational biology

    CERN Document Server

    Louie, A H

    2013-01-01

    A. H. Louie’s The Reflection of Life: Functional Entailment and Imminence in Relational Biology is a continuation of the exploratory journey in relational biology which began with his 2009 monograph More Than Life Itself: A Synthetic Continuation in Relational Biology. The theme of his first book was ‘What is life?’; the theme of this sequel is “How do two life forms interact?” Biology is a subject concerned with organization of relations. Relational biology is the approach that advocates ‘function dictates structure”, rather than ‘structure implies function’. It is mathematics decoded into biological realizations. The book demonstrates some of the powers of the approach of relational biology, and illustrates how pertinent problems in biology can be better addressed this way. In the first volume the theory was developed by using partially ordered sets, lattices, simulations, models, Aristotle’s four causes, graphs, categories, simple and complex systems, anticipatory systems, and metabolis...

  14. Assessment of personality functioning in the transition from adolescent to adult life: preliminary findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naughton, M; Oppenheim, A; Hill, J

    1996-01-01

    The Adolescent to Adult Personality Functioning Assessment (ADAPFA) a modification of the Adult Personality Functioning Assessment (APFA) is described. It may be used to assess specific and general social dysfunction in the transition from childhood to adult life. Two raters independently rated 38 audiotaped interviews to test the interrater reliability of the instrument. The relationship between dysfunction in specific domains and overall psychosocial dysfunction was examined. Interrater reliabilities for the total ADAPFA score and for the majority of the domains were high. Agreement on type of dysfunction and on categorical ratings indicating the presence of personality disorder were good. The ADAPFA is a useful measure of interpersonal and social role performance in the transition between adolescent and adult life.

  15. The Quality of Life and relevant Approaches based on Capabilities and Functionalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matei Șimandan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent research regarding the quality of life developed different approaches concerning the use of objective and subjective indicators, as well as the relevance of hypotheses, propositions and methods of analysis or of evaluation. Starting from the conceptual difficulties regarding the term of ‘quality of life’, this article focuses upon the contributions of Amartya Sen on the relationships between resources, liberties, capabilities, functionalities and human development. A separate section attempts to capture the shift of accent from the approaches of a quantitative type towards those of a qualitative type, founded on capabilities, functionalities, and the factors of conversion of resources into elements of quality of subjective life. The following sections are consecrated to the contributions to the development of the model proposed by Amartya Sen and to the reception of this model by a few specialists in the field, as well as to its relevance within scientific research and the foundation of public policies.

  16. Healthy Aging After Age 65: A Life-Span Health Production Function Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferdows, Nasim B; Jensen, Gail A; Tarraf, Wassim

    2018-06-01

    This article examines the determinants of healthy aging using Grossman's framework of a health production function. Healthy aging, sometimes described as successful aging, is produced using a variety of inputs, determined in early life, young adulthood, midlife, and later life. A healthy aging production function is estimated using nationally representative data from the 2010 and 2012 Health and Retirement Study on 7,355 noninstitutionalized seniors. Using a simultaneous equation mediation model, we quantify how childhood factors contribute to healthy aging, both directly and indirectly through their effects on mediating adult outcomes. We find that favorable childhood conditions significantly improve healthy aging scores, both directly and indirectly, mediated through education, income, and wealth. We also find that good health habits have positive effects on healthy aging that are larger in magnitude than the effects of childhood factors. Our findings suggest that exercising, maintaining proper weight, and not smoking are likely to translate into healthier aging.

  17. [Hazard function and life table: an introduction to the failure time analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushita, K; Inaba, H

    1987-04-01

    Failure time analysis has become popular in demographic studies. It can be viewed as a part of regression analysis with limited dependent variables as well as a special case of event history analysis and multistate demography. The idea of hazard function and failure time analysis, however, has not been properly introduced to nor commonly discussed by demographers in Japan. The concept of hazard function in comparison with life tables is briefly described, where the force of mortality is interchangeable with the hazard rate. The basic idea of failure time analysis is summarized for the cases of exponential distribution, normal distribution, and proportional hazard models. The multiple decrement life table is also introduced as an example of lifetime data analysis with cause-specific hazard rates.

  18. Nonparametric Bayesian inference for mean residual life functions in survival analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poynor, Valerie; Kottas, Athanasios

    2018-01-19

    Modeling and inference for survival analysis problems typically revolves around different functions related to the survival distribution. Here, we focus on the mean residual life (MRL) function, which provides the expected remaining lifetime given that a subject has survived (i.e. is event-free) up to a particular time. This function is of direct interest in reliability, medical, and actuarial fields. In addition to its practical interpretation, the MRL function characterizes the survival distribution. We develop general Bayesian nonparametric inference for MRL functions built from a Dirichlet process mixture model for the associated survival distribution. The resulting model for the MRL function admits a representation as a mixture of the kernel MRL functions with time-dependent mixture weights. This model structure allows for a wide range of shapes for the MRL function. Particular emphasis is placed on the selection of the mixture kernel, taken to be a gamma distribution, to obtain desirable properties for the MRL function arising from the mixture model. The inference method is illustrated with a data set of two experimental groups and a data set involving right censoring. The supplementary material available at Biostatistics online provides further results on empirical performance of the model, using simulated data examples. © The Author 2018. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Socioeconomic position and cognitive function in the Seychelles: a life course analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobrosly, Roni W; van Wijngaarden, Edwin; Galea, Sandro; Cory-Slechta, Deborah A; Love, Tanzy; Hong, Caroline; Shamlaye, Conrad F; Davidson, Philip W

    2011-01-01

    Poorer socioeconomic conditions early in life have been linked with memory, attention and learning deficits in adulthood, as well as with specific areas of educational achievement. It remains unclear, however, whether these distal associations are mediated by more current socioeconomic factors. In this study, we sought to confirm the relation between early-life socioeconomic position (SEP) and adult cognitive function, and to examine potential mediation by contemporaneous SEP. Data from 463 young adults from the Main Cohort of the Seychelles Child Development Study were analyzed using subtests of the Cambridge Neurological Test Automated Battery and the Woodcock Johnson Test of Scholastic Achievement in relation to maternal Hollingshead Social Status Index scores at study enrollment (infancy), follow-up at 107 months, and follow-up at 17 years. Findings include evidence of a link between infant-period SEP and 17-year memory, which was not mediated by childhood and 17-year SEP. Verbal and mathematical achievement at 17 years was associated with SEP at all points in the life course. SEP at different points during the young-adult life course may affect different cognitive domains later in life, which may provide targets for societal investment in ensuring adequate family resources throughout childhood and adolescence. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Assessment of Functional and Dysfunctional On Implant Stability Measurement for Quality Of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nordin Norshahrizan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the effect of an implant wearer comprising among orthopedic patients as well as the use of implant dentistry in Northern Malaysia. A total of 100 questionnaires were distributed and 70 questionnaires can be used to record, analyze and test hypotheses. Data for all variables were collected through a questionnaire administered alone and analyzed by using SmartPLS V3. A total of four (4 hypotheses have been formulated and the results show that the hypothesis is supported. The results show that: (1 limit the functionality and quality of life was significantly (0.904 in connection with the implant wearer, (2 physical pain was significantly (0.845 relating to the quality of life, (3 physical discomfort was significantly (0.792 in connection with quality of life, and also (4 social discomfort is significant as well (0.809. This finding suggests that there are positive effects on the implant wearer who through life routine. The results of the study may also serve as a basis for reliable decisions related to quality of life and for the implementation of awareness campaign that increase how the need for humanity in the field of quality involvement.

  1. Positive mental health in outpatients with affective disorders: Associations with life satisfaction and general functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seow, Lee Seng Esmond; Vaingankar, Janhavi Ajit; Abdin, Edimansyah; Sambasivam, Rajeswari; Jeyagurunathan, Anitha; Pang, Shirlene; Chong, Siow Ann; Subramaniam, Mythily

    2016-01-15

    Positive mental health (PMH) is an integral and essential component of health that encompasses emotional, psychological and social well-being. The Keyes' two continua model of mental health and illness posits that mental health status is not merely the absence of mental health problems, and it can be enhanced regardless of a diagnosis of mental illness. The present study hypothesized that mentally ill patients with higher levels of PMH would be associated with better life satisfaction and general functioning. 218 outpatients with affective disorders at a tertiary psychiatric hospital were recruited and administered the multidimensional Positive Mental Health instrument, which was validated and developed in Singapore to measure PMH. Depression and anxiety severity were also assessed. Associations of positive mental health with life satisfaction and general functioning were investigated in linear regression models. PMH scores varied largely within patients with depressive and anxiety disorders but did not differ statistically across the two diagnoses, except for emotional support. PMH was associated with both life satisfaction and general functioning with little evidence of confounding by sociodemographic and clinical status. The cross-sectional design of the study could not examine causal relationships. Findings may be restrictive to treatment-seeking population with specific affective disorders. Our study provides evidence to support the notion that a good mental health state is not simply the absence of a mental disorder. Mentally ill patients can also have high levels of PMH that possibly have a moderating or mediating effect on the relationship between patients' clinical symptoms and life satisfaction or general functioning. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Differential item functioning (DIF) analyses of health-related quality of life instruments using logistic regression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scott, Neil W; Fayers, Peter M; Aaronson, Neil K

    2010-01-01

    Differential item functioning (DIF) methods can be used to determine whether different subgroups respond differently to particular items within a health-related quality of life (HRQoL) subscale, after allowing for overall subgroup differences in that scale. This article reviews issues that arise ...... when testing for DIF in HRQoL instruments. We focus on logistic regression methods, which are often used because of their efficiency, simplicity and ease of application....

  3. Depressive mood and quality of life in functional gastrointestinal disorders: differences between functional dyspepsia, irritable bowel syndrome and overlap syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Heon-Jeong; Lee, Sun-Young; Kim, Jeong Hwan; Sung, In-Kyung; Park, Hyung Seok; Jin, Choon Jo; Kang, Seung-Gul; Yoon, Hiejin; Chun, Hoon Jai

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the differences in depressive mood and quality of life in patients with between functional dyspepsia (FD), irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and FD-IBS overlap as diagnosed based on Rome III criteria. The subjects completed a questionnaire based on Rome III criteria, the Beck Depressive Inventory (BDI) including Cognitive Depression Index (CDI) for depressive mood evaluation and the 36-item Short Form general health survey (SF-36) for quality of life assessment. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and colonoscopy were performed to exclude organic disease. Of 279 subjects, 70 and 124 subjects were diagnosed as FD and IBS, respectively. FD-IBS overlap patients (n=42) and FD alone patients (n=28) showed higher BDI scores than normal subjects (n=127) (PIBS alone patients (n=82) did not show difference (P=.17). All the SF-36 subscores of the FD-IBS overlap patients were significantly lower than normal subjects (Pmood was significantly related to FD and FD-IBS overlap but not to IBS based on Rome III criteria. FD-IBS overlap patients have worse quality of life than FD-alone and IBS-alone patients. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Sexual, marital, and general life functioning in couples coping with colorectal cancer : A dyadic study across time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Traa, M.J.; Braeken, J.; de Vries, J.; Roukema, J.A.; Slooter, G.D.; Crolla, R.M.P.H.; Borremans, M.P.M.; den Oudsten, B.L.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study evaluated the following: (a) levels of sexual, marital, and general life functioning for both patients and partners; (b) interdependence between both members of the couple; and (c) longitudinal change in sexual, marital, and general life functioning and longitudinal

  5. Differential Editosome Protein Function between Life Cycle Stages of Trypanosoma brucei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Suzanne M; Guo, Xuemin; Carnes, Jason; Stuart, Kenneth

    2015-10-09

    Uridine insertion and deletion RNA editing generates functional mitochondrial mRNAs in Trypanosoma brucei. The mRNAs are differentially edited in bloodstream form (BF) and procyclic form (PF) life cycle stages, and this correlates with the differential utilization of glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation between the stages. The mechanism that controls this differential editing is unknown. Editing is catalyzed by multiprotein ∼20S editosomes that contain endonuclease, 3'-terminal uridylyltransferase, exonuclease, and ligase activities. These editosomes also contain KREPB5 and KREPA3 proteins, which have no functional catalytic motifs, but they are essential for parasite viability, editing, and editosome integrity in BF cells. We show here that repression of KREPB5 or KREPA3 is also lethal in PF, but the effects on editosome structure differ from those in BF. In addition, we found that point mutations in KREPB5 or KREPA3 differentially affect cell growth, editosome integrity, and RNA editing between BF and PF stages. These results indicate that the functions of KREPB5 and KREPA3 editosome proteins are adjusted between the life cycle stages. This implies that these proteins are involved in the processes that control differential editing and that the 20S editosomes differ between the life cycle stages. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  6. Determinants of life expectancy in eastern mediterranean region: a health production function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayati, Mohsen; Akbarian, Reza; Kavosi, Zahra

    2013-06-01

    Determinants of health or health production function in health economics literature constitute noticeable issues in health promotion. This study aimed at estimating a health production function for East Mediterranean Region (EMR) based on the Grossman theoretical model. This ecological study was performed using the econometric methods. The panel data model was used in order to determine the relationship between life expectancy and socioeconomic factors. The data for 21 EMR countries between 1995 and 2007 were used. Fixed-effect-model was employed to estimate the parameters based on Hausman test. In estimating the health production function, factors such as income per capita (β=0.05, Pdeterminants of health status, proxied by life expectancy at birth. A notable result was the elasticity of life expectancy with respect to the employment rate and its significance level was different between males (β=0.13, P0.001). In order to improve the health status in EMR countries, health policymakers should focus on the factors which lie outside the healthcare system. These factors are mainly associated with economic growth and development level. Thus, the economic stabilisation policies with the aim of increasing the productivity, economic growth, and reducing unemployment play significant roles in the health status of the people of the region.

  7. Threatened fertility and gonadal function after a polytraumatic, life-threatening injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ward Michael

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Trauma literature regarding management of genitalia trauma affecting future fertility and gonadal function in the face of coexisting life-threatening injuries is underdeveloped. We present a unique case that necessitated integrative management of a 24-year-old male who became entangled within the blades of a manure spreader and presented with life-threatening trauma in addition to severe genital trauma, including penile degloving, bilateral testicular avulsion and bilateral spermatic cord laceration. During the initial stabilization and surgical management, urology and plastic surgery were consulted to assess the urogenital injuries. Together, the surgical team orchestrated potentially life-saving interventions while successfully performing both a testicular sperm extraction and a testicular revascularization. Viable sperm was collected on the day of surgery and initial follow-up showed preserved sexual function and adequate perfusion to the testicle. This report presents a case and provides a review discussing the management of traumatic genital injuries and the importance of early involvement of surgical specialties in genitalia trauma to optimize future fertility and gonadal function. The literature search was performed in August 2008 using Medline for articles only in English, including any of the following terms: polytrauma, trauma, penis, testicle, degloving, avulsion, spermatic cord, laceration, fertility, reproduction or revascularization.

  8. Functional unit, technological dynamics, and scaling properties for the life cycle energy of residences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frijia, Stephane; Guhathakurta, Subhrajit; Williams, Eric

    2012-02-07

    Prior LCA studies take the operational phase to include all energy use within a residence, implying a functional unit of all household activities, but then exclude related supply chains such as production of food, appliances, and household chemicals. We argue that bounding the functional unit to provision of a climate controlled space better focuses the LCA on the building, rather than activities that occur within a building. The second issue explored in this article is how technological change in the operational phase affects life cycle energy. Heating and cooling equipment is replaced at least several times over the lifetime of a residence; improved efficiency of newer equipment affects life cycle energy use. The third objective is to construct parametric models to describe LCA results for a family of related products. We explore these three issues through a case study of energy use of residences: one-story and two-story detached homes, 1,500-3,500 square feet in area, located in Phoenix, Arizona, built in 2002 and retired in 2051. With a restricted functional unit and accounting for technological progress, approximately 30% of a building's life cycle energy can be attributed to materials and construction, compared to 0.4-11% in previous studies.

  9. Impact of anxiety, apathy and reduced functional autonomy on perceived quality of life in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Iorio, Alfonsina; Vitale, Carmine; Piscopo, Fausta; Baiano, Chiara; Falanga, Anna Paola; Longo, Katia; Amboni, Marianna; Barone, Paolo; Santangelo, Gabriella

    2017-10-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by a wide spectrum of non-motor symptoms that may impact negatively on the activities of the patient's daily life and reduce Health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The present study explored the impact of specific non-motor symptoms on the HRQoL in PD. Eighty-four outpatients underwent the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) assessing global functioning and several questionnaires to assess depression, apathy, impulse control disorders (ICD), anxiety, anhedonia and functional impact of cognitive impairment. The perceived QoL was assessed by Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire (PDQ-8). The PD sample was divided into patients with high and low HRQoL around the median of PDQ-8 and compared on clinical features, cognitive and neuropsychiatric variables. A linear regression analysis, in which the global functioning, apathy, depression, anxiety, anhedonia, ICD and the functional autonomy scores were entered as independent variables and PDQ-8 score as dependent variable, was applied. Patients with lower HRQoL were more depressed, apathetic, anxious and showed more severe reduction of functional autonomy and global functioning than patients with high HRQoL. The regression analysis revealed that higher level of anxiety, executive apathy and more reduced functional autonomy were significantly associated with higher score on PDQ-8. The finding indicated that anxiety, apathy associated with impaired planning, attention and organization (i.e., executive apathy evaluated by the Dimensional Apathy Scale) and reduced functional autonomy contribute significantly to reduce the HRQoL in PD. Therefore, early identification and management of these neuropsychiatric symptoms should be relevant to preserve HRQoL in PD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Functional capacity, physical activity, and quality of life in hypoxemic patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saglam M

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Melda Saglam,1 Naciye Vardar-Yagli,1 Sema Savci,2 Deniz Inal-Ince,1 Ebru Calik Kutukcu,1 Hülya Arikan,1 Lutfi Coplu3 1Department of Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation, Faculty of Health Sciences, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey; 2School of Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation, Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir, Turkey; 3Department of Chest Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey Background: The risk of hypoxemia increases with the progression of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and the deterioration of pulmonary function. The aim of this study was to compare functional capacity, physical activity, and quality of life in hypoxemic and non-hypoxemic patients with COPD.Methods: Thirty-nine COPD patients (mean age: 62.0±7.03 years were included in this study. Arterial blood gas tensions were measured, and patients were divided into two groups according to oxygen partial pressure (PaO2, the hypoxemic COPD (PaO2 <60 mmHg (n=18, and the control (PaO2 ≥60 mmHg (n=21 groups. Functional exercise capacity was evaluated using the 6-minute walk test (6MWT. Oxygen saturation, dyspnea, and fatigue perception were measured before and after the 6MWT. Physical activity was assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ and an accelerometer. Quality of life was assessed using the St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ.Results: The number of emergency visits and hospitalizations were higher in hypoxemic patients (P<0.05. Lung function parameters, 6MWT distance, exercise oxygen saturation, IPAQ total score, and energy expenditure during daily life were significantly lower, but percentage of maximum heart rate reached during the 6MWT was significantly higher, in hypoxemic COPD patients than in controls (P<0.05.Conclusion: Hypoxemia has a profound effect on functional capacity and physical activity in patients with COPD. Keywords: COPD, hypoxemia, 6-minute walk test

  11. Hand function and quality of life before and after fasciectomy for Dupuytren contracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engstrand, Christina; Krevers, Barbro; Nylander, Göran; Kvist, Joanna

    2014-07-01

    To describe changes in joint motion, sensibility, and scar pliability and to investigate the patients' expectations, self-reported recovery, and satisfaction with hand function, disability, and quality of life after surgery and hand therapy for Dupuytren disease. This prospective cohort study collected measurements before surgery and 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery and hand therapy. Ninety patients with total active extension deficits of 60° or more from Dupuytren contracture were included. Outcomes measures were range of motion; sensibility; scar pliability; self-reported outcomes on expectations, recovery, and satisfaction with hand function; Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand scores; safety and social issues of hand function; physical activity habits; and quality of life with the Euroqol. The extension deficit decreased, and there was a transient decrease in active finger flexion during the first year after surgery. Sensibility remained unaffected. Generally, patients with surgery on multiple fingers had worse scar pliability. The majority of the patients had their expectations met, and at 6 months, 32% considered hand function as fully recovered, and 73% were satisfied with their hand function. Fear of hurting the hand and worry about not trusting the hand function were of greatest concern among safety and social issues. The Disability of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand score and the Euroqol improved over time. After surgery and hand therapy, disability decreased independent of single or multiple operated fingers. The total active finger extension improved enough for the patients to reach a functional range of motion despite an impairment of active finger flexion still present 12 months after treatment. Therapeutic IV. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Physical functioning and life style of 50-65 years’ age hee teachers

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    O.V. Baskevich

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to study life style of 50-65 years’ age university teachers depending on their physical functioning and its connection with behavior habits. Material: questioning of 150 respondents was fulfilled by specially prepared questionnaire. Anthropometric testing was conducted. Results: it was found that most of the questioned spend time watching TV or reading and pay very little attention to physical functioning. We also found that most of respondents deal with household chores but want to do something outdoors (practice public activity. There is a trend to avoid smoking among them. Only 5.0% are cigarette smokers. The rest have never smoked or gave up smoking more than 10 years ago. Among the partners of the questioned there are a lot of smokers (16.2%. Most of the questioned have friends and relatives, who can help to achieve the highest level of physical functioning. 18.9% of partners of the questioned regularly practice sports. Some useful for health habits are observed in life situations of all respondents. Conclusions: the received data witness about purposefulness of seeking of effective ways of pre retirement age HEE teachers’ involvement in active recreational functioning. We have also found that there are time reserves for this purpose.

  13. The Effect of Diabetes Medication on Cognitive Function: Evidence from the PATH Through Life Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pushpani M. Herath

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To examine the effect of diabetes treatment on change of measures of specific cognitive domains over 4 years. Research Design and Methods. The sample was drawn from a population-based cohort study in Australia (the PATH Through Life Study and comprised 1814 individuals aged 65–69 years at first measurement, of whom 211 were diagnosed with diabetes. Cognitive function was measured using 10 neuropsychological tests. The effect of type of diabetes treatment (diet, oral hypoglycemic agents, and insulin on measures of specific cognitive domains was assessed using Generalized Linear Models adjusted for age, sex, education, smoking, physical activity level, BMI, and hypertension. Results. Comparison of cognitive function between diabetes treatment groups showed no significant effect of type of pharmacological treatment on cognitive function compared to diet only group or no diabetes group. Of those on oral hypoglycaemic treatment only, participants who used metformin alone had better cognitive function at baseline for the domains of verbal learning, working memory, and executive function compared to participants on other forms of diabetic treatment. Conclusion. This study did not observe significant effect from type of pharmacological treatment for diabetes on cognitive function except that participants who only used metformin showed significant protective effect from metformin on domain of verbal learning, working memory, and executive function.

  14. Sense of life worth living (ikigai) and incident functional disability in elderly Japanese: The Tsurugaya Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Kentaro; Kaiho, Yu; Tomata, Yasutake; Narita, Mamoru; Tanji, Fumiya; Sugiyama, Kemmyo; Sugawara, Yumi; Tsuji, Ichiro

    2017-04-01

    To test the hypothesis that elderly persons who feel ikigai (a sense of life worth living) have a lower risk of incident functional disability than those who do not. Recent studies have suggested that ikigai impacts on mortality. However, its impact upon disability is unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between ikigai and incident functional disability among elderly persons. We conducted a prospective cohort study of 830 Japanese elderly persons aged ≥70 years as a comprehensive geriatric assessment in 2003. Information on ikigai was collected by self-reported questionnaire. Data on functional disability were retrieved from the public Long-term Care Insurance database in which participants were followed up for 11 years. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for incidence of functional disability were calculated for three groups delineated according to the presence of ikigai (“no”, “uncertain” or “yes”) using the Cox proportional hazards regression model. The 11-year incidence of functional disability was 53.3% (442 cases). As compared with the “no” group, the multiple-adjusted HR (95% CI) of incident functional disability was 0.61 (0.36–1.02) for the “uncertain” group and 0.50 (0.30–0.84) for the “yes” group. A stronger degree of ikigai is significantly associated with a lower risk of incident functional disability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Role of Personality Functioning in the Quality of Life of Patients with Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crempien, Carla; Grez, Marcela; Valdés, Camila; López, María José; de la Parra, Guillermo; Krause, Mariane

    2017-09-01

    Depression is associated with reduced quality of life (QoL), and personality pathology is associated with higher impairment and poorer treatment outcomes in patients with depression. This study aims to analyze the effects of personality functioning on the QoL of patients with depression. Severity of depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory), level of personality functioning (Operationalized Psychodynamic Diagnosis Structure Questionnaire), and QoL (Medical Outcome Study 36-item Short-Form) were assessed in a sample of 84 depressive outpatients. Personality functioning showed main effects on both the mental and physical components of QoL. A moderating effect of personality functioning on the relationship between depressive symptoms and QoL was tested but not confirmed. Severity of depressive symptoms was found to mediate the effect of personality functioning on the mental component of QoL. These results suggest that the effect of personality functioning on the QoL of patients with depression may be related to the higher severity of depressive symptoms found in patients with lower levels of personality functioning.

  16. HESS Opinions "Biological catalysis of the hydrological cycle: life's thermodynamic function"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaelian, K.

    2012-08-01

    Darwinian theory depicts life as being overwhelmingly consumed by a fight for survival in a hostile environment. However, from a thermodynamic perspective, life is a dynamic, out of equilibrium process, stabilizing and coevolving in concert with its abiotic environment. The living components of the biosphere on the Earth's surface of greatest biomass, the plants and cyanobacteria, are involved in the transpiration of a vast amount of water. Transpiration is part of the global water cycle, and it is this cycle that distinguishes Earth from its apparently life-barren neighboring planets, Venus and Mars. The dissipation of sunlight into heat by organic molecules in the biosphere, and its coupling to the water cycle (as well as other abiotic processes), is by far the greatest entropy-producing process occurring on Earth. Life, from this perspective, can be viewed as performing an important thermodynamic function, acting as a dynamic catalyst by aiding irreversible abiotic processes such as the water cycle, hurricanes, and ocean and wind currents to produce entropy. The role of animals in this view is that of unwitting but dedicated servants of the plants and cyanobacteria, helping them to grow, and to spread into initially inhospitable areas.

  17. HESS Opinions "Biological catalysis of the hydrological cycle: life's thermodynamic function"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Michaelian

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Darwinian theory depicts life as being overwhelmingly consumed by a fight for survival in a hostile environment. However, from a thermodynamic perspective, life is a dynamic, out of equilibrium process, stabilizing and coevolving in concert with its abiotic environment. The living components of the biosphere on the Earth's surface of greatest biomass, the plants and cyanobacteria, are involved in the transpiration of a vast amount of water. Transpiration is part of the global water cycle, and it is this cycle that distinguishes Earth from its apparently life-barren neighboring planets, Venus and Mars. The dissipation of sunlight into heat by organic molecules in the biosphere, and its coupling to the water cycle (as well as other abiotic processes, is by far the greatest entropy-producing process occurring on Earth. Life, from this perspective, can be viewed as performing an important thermodynamic function, acting as a dynamic catalyst by aiding irreversible abiotic processes such as the water cycle, hurricanes, and ocean and wind currents to produce entropy. The role of animals in this view is that of unwitting but dedicated servants of the plants and cyanobacteria, helping them to grow, and to spread into initially inhospitable areas.

  18. Bayesian nonparametric inference on quantile residual life function: Application to breast cancer data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Taeyoung; Jeong, Jong-Hyeon; Lee, Jae Won

    2012-08-15

    There is often an interest in estimating a residual life function as a summary measure of survival data. For ease in presentation of the potential therapeutic effect of a new drug, investigators may summarize survival data in terms of the remaining life years of patients. Under heavy right censoring, however, some reasonably high quantiles (e.g., median) of a residual lifetime distribution cannot be always estimated via a popular nonparametric approach on the basis of the Kaplan-Meier estimator. To overcome the difficulties in dealing with heavily censored survival data, this paper develops a Bayesian nonparametric approach that takes advantage of a fully model-based but highly flexible probabilistic framework. We use a Dirichlet process mixture of Weibull distributions to avoid strong parametric assumptions on the unknown failure time distribution, making it possible to estimate any quantile residual life function under heavy censoring. Posterior computation through Markov chain Monte Carlo is straightforward and efficient because of conjugacy properties and partial collapse. We illustrate the proposed methods by using both simulated data and heavily censored survival data from a recent breast cancer clinical trial conducted by the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Comparing Sexual Function and Quality of Life in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Healthy Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vida Shafti

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is one of the most common endocrine disorders that is associated with different metabolic, reproductive and psychological consequences. The main aim of this study was to compare the sexual function and quality of life in women with polycystic ovary syndrome and healthy women.Materials and methods: This is a causal-comparative study in which 129 women with polycystic ovary syndrome were qualified as the research group. The control group consisted of 125 healthy women. The sampling method was convenient and was done using Rotterdam criteria. Women of both research and control groups responded to the FSFI and WHOQOL-BREF questionnaires. Data were analyzed with SPSS software using MANOVA.Results: According to findings, all of quality of life subscales except environment domain were significantly lower in research group than healthy group (p < 0.01, but none of sexual function subscales were significantly different between two groups (p > 0.05.Conclusion: Women with PCOS in term of some quality of life parameters have lower performance than healthy women. Therefore, it seems to be essential to increase awareness about symptoms and psychological consequences and referring process in order to take advantage of the advisory services. 

  20. Spouses of older adults with late-life drinking problems: health, family, and social functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moos, Rudolf H; Brennan, Penny L; Schutte, Kathleen K; Moos, Bernice S

    2010-07-01

    This study focuses on the health, family, and social functioning of spouses of late-life remitted and continuing problem drinkers, and on predictors of spouses' alcohol-related functioning and depressive symptoms. Three groups of spouses were compared at baseline and a 10-year follow-up: (a) spouses (n = 73) of older adults who had no drinking problems at baseline or follow-up, (b) spouses (n = 25) of older adults who had drinking problems at baseline but not follow-up, and (c) spouses (n = 69) of older adults who had drinking problems at both baseline and follow-up. At each contact point, spouses completed an inventory that assessed their alcohol-related, health, family, and social functioning. At baseline, compared with spouses of problem-free individuals, spouses of older adults whose drinking problems later remitted reported more alcohol consumption, poorer health, more depressive symptoms, and less involvement in domestic tasks and social and religious activities. At the 10-year follow-up, spouses of remitted problem drinkers were comparable to spouses of problem-free individuals, but spouses of continuing problem drinkers consumed more alcohol, incurred more alcohol-related consequences, and had friends who approved more of drinking. Overall, spouses whose friends approved more of drinking and whose partners consumed more alcohol and had drinking problems were likely to consume more alcohol and to have drinking problems themselves. Spouses of older adults whose late-life drinking problems remit can attain normal functioning; however, spouses of older adults with continuing late-life drinking problems experience some ongoing deficits.

  1. Spouses of Older Adults With Late-Life Drinking Problems: Health, Family, and Social Functioning*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moos, Rudolf H.; Brennan, Penny L.; Schutte, Kathleen K.; Moos, Bernice S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study focuses on the health, family, and social functioning of spouses of late-life remitted and continuing problem drinkers, and on predictors of spouses' alcohol-related functioning and depressive symptoms. Method: Three groups of spouses were compared at baseline and a 10-year follow-up: (a) spouses (n = 73) of older adults who had no drinking problems at baseline or follow-up, (b) spouses (n = 25) of older adults who had drinking problems at baseline but not follow-up, and (c) spouses (n = 69) of older adults who had drinking problems at both baseline and follow-up. At each contact point, spouses completed an inventory that assessed their alcohol-related, health, family, and social functioning. Results: At baseline, compared with spouses of problem-free individuals, spouses of older adults whose drinking problems later remitted reported more alcohol consumption, poorer health, more depressive symptoms, and less involvement in domestic tasks and social and religious activities. At the 10-year follow-up, spouses of remitted problem drinkers were comparable to spouses of problem-free individuals, but spouses of continuing problem drinkers consumed more alcohol, incurred more alcohol-related consequences, and had friends who approved more of drinking. Overall, spouses whose friends approved more of drinking and whose partners consumed more alcohol and had drinking problems were likely to consume more alcohol and to have drinking problems themselves. Conclusions: Spouses of older adults whose late-life drinking problems remit can attain normal functioning; however, spouses of older adults with continuing late-life drinking problems experience some ongoing deficits. PMID:20553658

  2. Selective neurocognitive deficits and poor life functioning are associated with significant depressive symptoms in alcoholism-HIV infection comorbidity

    OpenAIRE

    Sassoon, Stephanie A.; Rosenbloom, Margaret J.; Fama, Rosemary; Sullivan, Edith V.; Pfefferbaum, Adolf

    2012-01-01

    Alcoholism, HIV, and depressive symptoms frequently co-occur and are associated with impairment in cognition and life function. We administered the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), measures of life function, and neurocognitive tests to 67 alcoholics, 56 HIV+ patients, 63 HIV+ alcoholics, and 64 controls to examine whether current depressive symptom level (significant, BDI-II ≥ 14 vs. minimal, BDI-II < 14) was associated with poorer cognitive or psychosocial function in alcoholism-HIV co...

  3. Abdominal wall reconstruction for incisional hernia optimizes truncal function and quality of life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristian K.; Munim, Kanzah; Kjaer, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the study was to examine abdominal wall function in patients undergoing abdominal wall reconstruction (AWR) for incisional hernia. Background: The literature on abdominal wall function in patients with incisional hernia is sparse. It has been suggested that AWR leads...... to improvement in function, but it is unknown whether this is specific to the abdominal wall or due to an improvement in overall physical fitness. Methods: We performed a prospective case-control study of 18 consecutive patients with large incisional hernia undergoing AWR with linea alba restoration. Truncal...... flexion and extension strength, hand grip strength, leg extension power, and quality of life (SF-36 and Carolinas Comfort Scale) were assessed preoperatively and 1 year postoperatively. Patients were compared with a control group of patients with an intact abdominal wall undergoing colorectal resection (n...

  4. Empirical likelihood based detection procedure for change point in mean residual life functions under random censorship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying-Ju; Ning, Wei; Gupta, Arjun K

    2016-05-01

    The mean residual life (MRL) function is one of the basic parameters of interest in survival analysis that describes the expected remaining time of an individual after a certain age. The study of changes in the MRL function is practical and interesting because it may help us to identify some factors such as age and gender that may influence the remaining lifetimes of patients after receiving a certain surgery. In this paper, we propose a detection procedure based on the empirical likelihood for the changes in MRL functions with right censored data. Two real examples are also given: Veterans' administration lung cancer study and Stanford heart transplant to illustrate the detecting procedure. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Plasmodial Hsp70s are functionally adapted to the malaria parasite life cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jude M Przyborski

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The human malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, encodes a minimal complement of six heat shock protein 70s (PfHSP70s, some of which are highly expressed and are thought to play an important role in the survival and pathology of the parasite. In addition to canonical features of molecular chaperones, these HSP70s possess properties that reflect functional adaptation to a parasitic life style, including resistance to thermal insult during fever periods and host-parasite interactions. The parasite even exports an HSP70 to the host cell where it is likely to be involved in host cell modification. This review focuses on the features of the PfHSP70s, particularly with respect to their adaptation to the malaria parasite life cycle.

  6. Bowel function and quality of life after colostomy in individuals with spinal cord injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bølling Hansen, Rikke; Staun, Michael; Kalhauge, Anna

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of colostomy on bowel function and quality of life (QoL) in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTING: Department for Spinal Cord Injuries and Departments of Gastroenterology and Radiology, Rigshospitalet....... PARTICIPANTS: Eighteen individuals with SCI and a colostomy performed post injury, 12 males, 6 females, 8 with tetraplegia and 10 with paraplegia. Median age at time of study was 49.9 years, years since lesion was 3-56 years, and time since colostomy was performed 0.5 to 20 years. INTERVENTIONS: Questionnaires...... and measurement of gastrointestinal transit time (GITT). OUTCOME MEASURES: Retrospective data collection from patient records, a questionnaire on bowel management pre and post colostomy, quality of life (QoL) by SF-36, and GITT. RESULTS: Seventy-two percent significantly reduced their use of time on bowel...

  7. The impact of therapeutic hypothermia on neurological function and quality of life after cardiac arrest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bro-Jeppesen, John; Kjaergaard, Jesper; Horsted, Tina I

    2008-01-01

    AIMS: To assess the impact of therapeutic hypothermia on cognitive function and quality of life in comatose survivors of out of Hospital Cardiac arrest (OHCA). METHODS: We prospectively studied comatose survivors of OHCA consecutively admitted in a 4-year period. Therapeutic hypothermia......=0.01. No significant differences were found in long-term survival (57% vs. 56% alive at 30 months), MMSE, or SF-36. Therapeutic hypothermia (hazard ratio: 0.15, p=0.007) and bystander CPR (hazard ratio 0.19, p=0.002) were significantly related to survival in the intervention period. CONCLUSION: CPC...... at discharge from hospital was significantly improved following implementation of therapeutic hypothermia in comatose patients resuscitated from OCHA with VF/VT. However, significant improvement in survival, cognitive status or quality of life could not be detected at long-term follow-up....

  8. Association between Birth Characteristics and Cardiovascular Autonomic Function at Mid-Life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelli Perkiömäki

    Full Text Available Low birth weight is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases in adulthood. As abnormal cardiac autonomic function is a common feature in cardiovascular diseases, we tested the hypothesis that low birth weight may also be associated with poorer cardiac autonomic function in middle-aged subjects.At the age of 46, the subjects of the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 were invited to examinations including questionnaires about health status and life style and measurement of vagally-mediated heart rate variability (rMSSD from R-R intervals (RRi and spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity (BRS in both seated and standing positions. Maternal parameters had been collected in 1965-1966 since the 16th gestational week and birth variables immediately after delivery. For rMSSD, 1,799 men and 2,279 women without cardiorespiratory diseases and diabetes were included and 902 men and 1,020 women for BRS. The analyses were adjusted for maternal (age, anthropometry, socioeconomics, parity, gestational smoking and adult variables (life style, anthropometry, blood pressure, glycemic and lipid status potentially confounding the relationship between birth weight and autonomic function.In men, birth weight correlated negatively with seated (r = -0.058, p = 0.014 and standing rMSSD (r = -0.090, p<0.001, as well as with standing BRS (r = -0.092, p = 0.006. These observations were verified using relevant birth weight categories (<2,500 g; 2,500-3,999 g; ≥4,000 g. In women, birth weight was positively correlated with seated BRS (r = 0.081, p = 0.010, but none of the other measures of cardiovascular autonomic function. These correlations remained significant after adjustment for potential confounders (p<0.05 for all.In men, higher birth weight was independently associated with poorer cardiac autonomic function at mid-life. Same association was not observed in women. Our findings suggest that higher, not lower, birth weight in males may contribute to less

  9. Evaluation of sexual function, quality of life, and mental and physical health in pregnant women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Nik-Azin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate sexual function and its relationship with quality of life, and mental and physical health in pregnant women.Obtained results showed that 59 (39/3% pregnant women were "very dissatisfied", 25 (16/7% women were "moderately dissatisfied", 64 (42/7% women were "both satisfied and unsatisfied", only 2 (1/3% women were relatively satisfied, and no one was "very satisfied". There is a significantly negative weak correlation between female sexual function with anxiety and depression, while there is a significantly positive weak correlation between female sexual function with the general quality of life, psychological health and environment dimensions. Only depression predicts female sexual function significantly. The women more than 10 years passed of their marriage showed more sexual satisfaction compared to those less than 10 years passed of their marriage (p< 0.05. The roles of predictive variables in sexual dissatisfaction, as well as the limitations for the study are discussed in the article.Obtained results showed that 59 (39/3% pregnant women were "very dissatisfied", 25 (16/7% women were "moderately dissatisfied", 64 (42/7% women were "both satisfied and unsatisfied", only 2 (1/3% women were relatively satisfied, and no one was "very satisfied". There is a significantly negative weak correlation between female sexual function with anxiety and depression, while there is a significantly positive weak correlation between female sexual function with the general quality of life, psychological health and environment dimensions. Only depression predicts female sexual function significantly. The women more than 10 years passed of their marriage showed more sexual satisfaction compared to those less than 10 years passed of their marriage (p< 0.05. The roles of predictive variables in sexual dissatisfaction, as well as the limitations for the study are discussed in the article.Depression as same as environment heath had an important effect on

  10. [Formula: see text]Executive functioning and health-related quality of life in pediatric sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Taryn M; Anderson, Lindsay M; Rothman, Jennifer A; Bonner, Melanie J

    2017-11-01

    Research consistently indicates that children with sickle cell disease (SCD) face multiple risk factors for neurocognitive impairment. Despite this, no empirical research to date has examined the impact of neurocognitive functioning on quality of life for this pediatric group. Thus, the current study aims to examine the relationship between executive functioning and quality of life in a sample of children with SCD and further explore psychosocial and family/caregiver resources as moderators of this relationship. A total of 45 children with SCD aged 8 to 16 years and their caregivers completed measures of quality of life, behavioral ratings of executive functioning, and psychosocial functioning. Hierarchical linear regression models were utilized to determine the impact of executive functioning on quality of life and further test the interaction effects of proposed moderating variables. Controlling for age, pain, and socioeconomic status (SES), executive functioning was found to significantly predict child- and parent-reported quality of life among youth with SCD. Psychosocial resources of the primary caregiver or family was not found to moderate the relationship between executive functioning and quality of life. These results provide the first empirical evidence that lower executive skills negatively predict quality of life for children with SCD, supporting clinical and research efforts which aim to establish efficacious interventions that target cognitive decrements within this pediatric population.

  11. Effects of loading sequences and size of repeated stress block of loads on fatigue life calculated using fatigue functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schott, G.

    1989-01-01

    It is well-known that collective form, stress intensity and loading sequence of individual stresses as well as size of repeated stress blocks can influence fatigue life, significantly. The basic variant of the consecutive Woehler curve concept will permit these effects to be involved into fatigue life computation. The paper presented will demonstrate that fatigue life computations using fatigue functions reflect the loading sequence effect with multilevel loading precisely and provide reliable fatigue life data. Effects of size of repeated stress block and loading sequence on fatigue life as observed with block program tests can be reproduced using the new computation method. (orig.) [de

  12. Sleep, health-related quality of life, and functional outcomes in adults with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chasens, Eileen R; Sereika, Susan M; Burke, Lora E; Strollo, Patrick J; Korytkowski, Mary

    2014-11-01

    This study explored the association of sleep quality with physical and mental health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and functional outcomes in 116 participants with type 2 diabetes. The study is a secondary analysis of baseline data from a clinical trial that examined treatment of obstructive sleep apnea on physical activity and glucose control. Instruments included the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Medical Outcomes Short-Form Physical Component and Mental Component Scores, and Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire. Higher physical HRQoL was significantly associated with better sleep quality and improved functional outcomes of increased activity and productivity. Higher mental HRQoL was associated with improved sleep quality and improved functional outcomes of increased activity, social interactions, vigilance, and productivity. Poor sleep quality was a predictor of decreased functional outcomes while controlling for age, race, education, BMI, marital status and physical and mental HRQoL. Poor sleep quality is associated with negative physical, mental, and functional outcomes in adults with type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Executive functioning complaints and escitalopram treatment response in late-life depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Kevin J; Alexopoulos, George S; Banerjee, Samprit; Morimoto, Sarah Shizuko; Seirup, Joanna K; Klimstra, Sibel A; Yuen, Genevieve; Kanellopoulos, Theodora; Gunning-Dixon, Faith

    2015-05-01

    Executive dysfunction may play a key role in the pathophysiology of late-life depression. Executive dysfunction can be assessed with cognitive tests and subjective report of difficulties with executive skills. The present study investigated the association between subjective report of executive functioning complaints and time to escitalopram treatment response in older adults with major depressive disorder (MDD). 100 older adults with MDD (58 with executive functioning complaints and 42 without executive functioning complaints) completed a 12-week trial of escitalopram. Treatment response over 12 weeks, as measured by repeated Hamilton Depression Rating Scale scores, was compared for adults with and without executive complaints using mixed-effects modeling. Mixed effects analysis revealed a significant group × time interaction, F(1, 523.34) = 6.00, p = 0.01. Depressed older adults who reported executive functioning complaints at baseline demonstrated a slower response to escitalopram treatment than those without executive functioning complaints. Self-report of executive functioning difficulties may be a useful prognostic indicator for subsequent speed of response to antidepressant medication. Copyright © 2015 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The influence of obesity on functional outcome and quality of life after total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, S; Chen, J Y; Lo, N N; Chia, S L; Tay, D K J; Pang, H N; Hao, Y; Yeo, S J

    2018-05-01

    Aims This study investigated the influence of body mass index (BMI) on patients' function and quality of life ten years after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Patients and Methods A total of 126 patients who underwent unilateral TKA in 2006 were prospectively included in this retrospective study. They were categorized into two groups based on BMI: Quality of life was assessed using the Physical (PCS) and Mental Component Scores (MCS) of the 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey. Results Patients in the obese group underwent TKA at a younger age (mean, 63.0 years, sd 8.0) compared with the control group (mean, 65.6 years, sd 7.6; p = 0.03). Preoperatively, both groups had comparable functional and quality-of-life scores. Ten years postoperatively, the control group had significantly higher OKS and MCS compared with the obese group (OKS, mean 18 (sd 5) vs mean 22 (sd 10), p = 0.03; MCS, mean 56 (sd 10) vs mean 50 (sd 11), p = 0.01). After applying multiple linear regression with the various outcomes scores as dependent variables and age, gender, and Charlson Comorbidity Index as independent variables, there was a clear association between obesity and poorer outcome in KSFS, OKS, and MCS at ten years postoperatively (p quality of life postoperatively, obese patients tend to have smaller improvements in the OKS and MCS ten years postoperatively. It is important to counsel patients on the importance of weight management to achieve a more sustained outcome after TKA. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2018;100-B:579-83.

  15. Functional outcome and quality of life following restorative proctocolectomy for ulcerative colitis in Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somashekar, Uday; Gupta, Subash; Soin, Arvinder; Nundy, Samiran

    2010-08-01

    The functional outcome and quality of life after sphincter-saving operations for ulcerative colitis have not been previously assessed in Indian patients whose dietary habits and socio-cultural practices differ considerably from those in western countries. Between 1996 and 2002, we performed 46 J-pouch ileoanal anastomoses (IPAA), for patients with ulcerative colitis. Thirty-eight of these patients had had their ileostomy closure more than 4 years previously of whom 31 could be assessed by interviews and a telephonic questionnaire. Their quality of life was objectively assessed using the Cleveland Global Quality of Life (CGQL) index, a validated index for IPAA, the score being 1 in normal people. There were 20 males and 11 females with a mean age of 38 years. In the same period, six of the nine patients who did not opt to have an IPAA (permanent stoma) were assessed. These included four males and two females, mean age 45 years (36-52). One patient died in the postoperative period and another died 3 months after surgery from multiple small bowel perforations. Other complications included intestinal obstruction in seven, pouchitis in four and incisional hernia in two. One pouch had to be converted to a permanent ileostomy following development of a fistula because of Crohn's disease. The mean daily postoperative stool frequency was seven (range 2-20). Eighty-one percent had perfect daytime continence and 81% used dietary restrictions. Eighty-four percent rated their pouch function to be excellent or good. All patients preferred IPAA to an ileostomy citing mainly social and cultural reasons and were willing to choose it again. The mean preoperative CGQL score (0.27) increased significantly after colectomy (0.50) and after closure of ileostomy (0.77; p quality of life in Indians with ulcerative colitis and may be the most appropriate procedure for such patients in developing countries.

  16. Quality of life, health status and caregiver burden in Parkinson's disease: relationship to executive functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudlicka, Aleksandra; Clare, Linda; Hindle, John V

    2014-01-01

    High-quality person-centred care for people with Parkinson's disease (PwPD) and their families relies on identifying and addressing factors that specifically impact on quality of life (QoL). Deficits in executive functions (EF) are common in Parkinson's disease, but their impact on PwPD and their caregivers is not well understood. The present study evaluated how EF contributes to QoL and health status for the PwPD and caregiver burden. Sixty-five PwPD completed measures of QoL, health status and EF, and 50 caregivers rated the EF of the PwPD and their own burden. Multiple regression analyses examined predictors of QoL (general life, health and movement disorders domains), health status and caregiver burden. Quality of life in the health and movement disorders domains was best explained by caregiver-rated EF, whereas QoL in the general life domain was best explained by level of depression. Health status was predicted by self-rated EF, with an objective EF measure also included in the regression model. Caregiver burden was best explained by caregiver-rated EF and disease severity, with general cognition and other factors also included in the regression model. Executive functions-related behavioural problems may contribute to QoL and health status in PwPD and affect caregiver burden. The findings support the view that the concepts of subjective QoL and self-assessed health status are only partially related and should not be seen as identical. Adequate strategies to reduce the impact of EF deficits are needed as this may have the potential to improve QoL in PwPD. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Early-Life Exposure to Perfluoroalkyl Substances and Childhood Metabolic Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleisch, Abby F; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Mora, Ana M; Calafat, Antonia M; Ye, Xiaoyun; Luttmann-Gibson, Heike; Gillman, Matthew W; Oken, Emily; Sagiv, Sharon K

    2017-03-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are synthetic chemicals that may persist in the environment and in humans. There is a possible association between early-life PFAS exposure and metabolic dysfunction in later life, but data are limited. We studied 665 mother-child pairs in Project Viva, a Boston, Massachusetts-area cohort recruited 1999-2002. We quantified concentrations of PFASs [perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorononanoate (PFNA), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), and perfluorodecanoate (PFDeA)] in maternal plasma collected at the first prenatal visit (median, 9.6 weeks gestation) and in child plasma from the mid-childhood research visit (median, 7.7 years). We assessed leptin, adiponectin, and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in mid-childhood. We fit covariate-adjusted linear regression models and conducted stratified analyses by child sex. Children with higher PFAS concentrations had lower HOMA-IR [e.g., -10.1% (95% CI: -17.3, -2.3) per interquartile range increment in PFOA]. This inverse association between child PFAS and HOMA-IR was more pronounced in females [e.g., PFOA: -15.6% (95% CI: -25.4, -4.6) vs. -6.1% (95% CI: -16.2, 5.2) for males]. Child PFAS plasma concentrations were not associated with leptin or adiponectin. Prenatal PFAS plasma concentrations were not associated with leptin, adiponectin, or HOMA-IR in offspring. We found no evidence for an adverse effect of early-life PFAS exposure on metabolic function in mid-childhood. In fact, children with higher PFAS concentrations had lower insulin resistance. Citation: Fleisch AF, Rifas-Shiman SL, Mora AM, Calafat AM, Ye X, Luttmann-Gibson H, Gillman MW, Oken E, Sagiv SK. 2017. Early-life exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances and childhood metabolic function. Environ Health Perspect 125:481-487; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP303.

  18. Does colostomy irrigation affect functional outcomes and quality of life in persons with a colostomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Dea J; Long, Mary Arnold; Bauer, Carole

    2015-01-01

    Colostomy irrigation may be used by patients with colostomies to regulate bowel evacuations by stimulating emptying of the colon at regularly scheduled times. This Evidence-Based Report Card reviews the effect of colostomy irrigation on frequency of bowel evacuation, flatus production, odor, and health-related quality of life. We systematically reviewed the literature for studies that evaluated health-related quality of life in persons aged 18 years or older with colostomies of the sigmoid or descending left colon. A professional librarian performed the literature search, which yielded 499 articles using the search terms "colostomy," "colostomies," "therapeutic irrigation," "irrigation," and "irrigator." Following title and abstract reviews, we identified and retrieved 4 studies that met inclusion criteria. Colostomy irrigation reduces the frequency of bowel evacuations when compared to spontaneous evacuation and containment using a pouching system. Regular irrigation is associated with reductions in pouch usage. This change in bowel evacuation function frequently results in absence of bowel evacuations for 24 hours or longer, enabling some to discontinue ongoing use of a pouching system. Subjects using CI report reductions in flatus and odors associated with presence of a colostomy. One study was identified that found persons using CI reported higher health-related quality of life than did those who managed their colostomies with spontaneous evacuation using the Digestive Disease Quality of Life-15, but no differences were found when health-related quality of life was measured using the more generic instrument, the Medical Outcomes Study: Short Form-36. Instruction on principles and techniques of colostomy irrigation should be considered when managing patients with a permanent, left-sided colostomy.

  19. The Functional Breakdown Structure (FBS) and Its Relationship to Life Cycle Cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeHoff, Bryan; Levack, Danie J. H.; Rhodes, Russell E.

    2009-01-01

    The Functional Breakdown Structure (FBS) is a structured, modular breakdown of every function that must be addressed to perform a generic mission. It is also usable for any subset of the mission. Unlike a Work Breakdown Structure (WBS), the FBS is a function-oriented tree, not a product-oriented tree. The FBS details not products, but operations or activities that should be performed. The FBS is not tied to any particular architectural implementation because it is a listing of the needed functions, not the elements, of the architecture. The FBS for Space Transportation Systems provides a universal hierarchy of required functions, which include ground and space operations as well as infrastructure - it provides total visibility of the entire mission. By approaching the systems engineering problem from the functional view, instead of the element or hardware view, the SPST has created an exhaustive list of potential requirements which the architecture designers can use to evaluate the completeness of their designs. This is a new approach that will provide full accountability of all functions required to perform the planned mission. It serves as a giant check list to be sure that no functions are omitted, especially in the early architectural design phase. A significant characteristic of a FBS is that if architecture options are compared using this approach, then any missing or redundant elements of each option will be ' identified. Consequently, valid Life Cycle Costs (LCC) comparisons can be made. For example, one architecture option might not need a particular function while another option does. One option may have individual elements to perform each of three functions while another option needs only one element to perform the three functions. Once an architecture has been selected, the FBS will serve as a guide in development of the work breakdown structure, provide visibility of those technologies that need to be further developed to perform required functions

  20. Quality of life and near vision impairment due to functional presbyopia among rural Chinese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qing; Congdon, Nathan; He, Xiangdong; Murthy, Gudlavalleti V S; Yang, Amy; He, Wei

    2011-06-13

    To evaluate the impact of near-vision impairment on visual functioning and quality of life in a rural adult population in Shenyang, northern China. A population-based, cross-sectional study was conducted among persons aged 40+ years, during which functional presbyopia (correctable presenting near vision vision-related quality of life and spectacle usage questionnaires were administered by trained interviewers to determine the degree of self-rated difficulty with near tasks. A total of 1008 respondents (91.5% of 1102 eligible persons) were examined, and 776 (78%) of completed the questionnaires (mean age, 57.0 ± 10.2 years; 63.3% women). Near-vision spectacle wearers obtained their spectacles primarily from markets (74.5%) and optical shops (21.7%), and only 1.14% from eye clinics. Among 538 (69.3%) persons with functional presbyopia, self-rated overall (distance and near) vision was worse (P vision. Compared to persons without presbyopia, presbyopic persons were more likely to report diminished accomplishment due to vision (P = 0.01, adjusted for age, sex, education, and distance vision.) Difficulties with activities of daily living and resulting social impediments are common due to presbyopia in this setting. Most spectacle wearers with presbyopia in rural China obtain near correction from sources that do not provide comprehensive vision care.

  1. Executive function and health-related quality of life in pediatric epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schraegle, William A; Titus, Jeffrey B

    2016-09-01

    Children and adolescents with epilepsy often show higher rates of executive functioning deficits and are at an increased risk of diminished health-related quality of life (HRQOL). The purpose of the current study was to determine the extent to which executive dysfunction predicts HRQOL in youth with epilepsy. Data included parental ratings on the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) and the Quality of Life in Childhood Epilepsy (QOLCE) questionnaire for 130 children and adolescents with epilepsy (mean age=11years, 6months; SD=3years, 6months). Our results identified executive dysfunction in nearly half of the sample (49%). Moderate-to-large correlations were identified between the BRIEF and the QOLCE subscales of well-being, cognition, and behavior. The working memory subscale on the BRIEF emerged as the sole significant predictor of HRQOL. These results underscore the significant role of executive function in pediatric epilepsy. Proactive screening for executive dysfunction to identify those at risk of poor HRQOL is merited, and these results bring to question the potential role of behavioral interventions to improve HRQOL in pediatric epilepsy by specifically treating and/or accommodating for executive deficits. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Neuro-ophthalmologic evaluation, quality of life, and functional disability in patients with MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Martin, Elena; Rodriguez-Mena, Diego; Herrero, Raquel; Almarcegui, Carmen; Dolz, Isabel; Martin, Jesus; Ara, Jose R; Larrosa, Jose M; Polo, Vicente; Fernández, Javier; Pablo, Luis E

    2013-07-02

    To evaluate correlations between longitudinal changes in neuro-ophthalmologic measures and quality of life (QOL) and disability in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), using optical coherence tomography (OCT), visual evoked potentials (VEP), and visual field examination. Fifty-four patients with relapsing-remitting MS were enrolled in this study and underwent Multiple Sclerosis Quality of Life questionnaire (54 items) (MSQOL-54) and Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) evaluation, as well as complete neuro-ophthalmologic examination including visual field testing and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) measurements using Cirrus and Spectralis OCT and VEP. All patients were re-evaluated at 12, 24, and 36 months. Logistical regression was performed to analyze which measures, if any, could predict QOL. Overall, RNFL thickness results at the baseline evaluation were significantly different from those at 3 years (p ≤ 0.05), but there were no differences in functional measures (visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, color vision, visual field, and VEP). A reduced MSQOL-54 score was associated with an increase in EDSS score and a decrease in both functional and structural parameters. Patients with longer MS duration presented with a lower MSQOL-54 score (reduction in QOL). Patients with progressive axonal loss as seen in RNFL results had a lower QOL and more functional disability.

  3. Quality of life and sexual function of women operated on reproductive system organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. S. Lashkul

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim – to study the effect of planned gynecological operations on the integral characteristics of physical, psychological, emotional, social and sexual functioning of women. Materials and methods. Quality of life and sexual function were studied in 165 patients who underwent planned gynecological operations. Depending on the type of surgical treatment patients were divided into 6 groups: the 1st group – 20 patients (vaginal hysterectomy without FTS, the 2nd group – 23 patients (abdominal hysterectomy without FTS, the 3rd group – 54 patients (laparoscopic operations on the uterine appendages without FTS, the 4th group – 21 patients (vaginal hysterectomy with FTS, the 5th group – 20 patients (abdominal hysterectomy with FTS, the 6th group – 27 patients (laparoscopic operations on the uterine appendages with FTS. To assess the quality of life a short version of the SF-36 questionnaire was used. The questionnaire was developed at the US Institute of Health, author J. E. Ware, and contains 36 items. They are grouped so that they reflect 8 different aspects related to health. The results for each scale are presented in a point scale (from 1 to 100, where a higher score corresponds to a better quality of life. To assess the sexual function a questionnaire was conducted using the female sexual function index (FSFI. The questionnaire includes 19 items that provide of characteristics of desire, excitement, lubrication, orgasm, getting sexual satisfaction and dyspareunia presence assessment. The minimum score is 2, the maximum is 36. Stages of the questionnaire: before the operation and three months after the operation. Results. In patients before and after laparoscopic surgery on uterine appendages without FTS and with FTS, the mean values of the female sexual function index were significantly higher after surgery and reached the maximum value of 36. So, by questionnaire before and after 3 months it has been found that the indicators

  4. Family functioning, parenting stress and quality of life in mothers and fathers of Polish children with high functioning autism or Asperger syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisula, Ewa; Porębowicz-Dörsmann, Anna

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the perception of the family functioning in parents of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) with normal-range intelligence and the relationships between family functioning, parenting stress and quality of life. Dyads of parents of children with ASD without intellectual disability and parents of typically developing children (controls) completed a set of self-report questionnaires. Parents of children with ASD reported lower functioning of the family as a whole and their own functioning as family members; they exhibited higher levels of parenting stress and lower quality of life. Mothers of children with ASD experienced more stress in personal domain than fathers. Relationships between family functioning, parenting stress and quality of life have been established. There were also moderate to strong correlations in mother-father dyads between their assessments of family functioning, parenting stress and QoL in social relationships and environmental domains.

  5. Family functioning, parenting stress and quality of life in mothers and fathers of Polish children with high functioning autism or Asperger syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Pisula

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the perception of the family functioning in parents of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD with normal-range intelligence and the relationships between family functioning, parenting stress and quality of life. Dyads of parents of children with ASD without intellectual disability and parents of typically developing children (controls completed a set of self-report questionnaires. Parents of children with ASD reported lower functioning of the family as a whole and their own functioning as family members; they exhibited higher levels of parenting stress and lower quality of life. Mothers of children with ASD experienced more stress in personal domain than fathers. Relationships between family functioning, parenting stress and quality of life have been established. There were also moderate to strong correlations in mother-father dyads between their assessments of family functioning, parenting stress and QoL in social relationships and environmental domains.

  6. Impact of First Eye versus Second Eye Cataract Surgery on Visual Function and Quality of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekhawat, Nakul S; Stock, Michael V; Baze, Elizabeth F; Daly, Mary K; Vollman, David E; Lawrence, Mary G; Chomsky, Amy S

    2017-10-01

    To compare the impact of first eye versus second eye cataract surgery on visual function and quality of life. Cohort study. A total of 328 patients undergoing separate first eye and second eye phacoemulsification cataract surgeries at 5 veterans affairs centers in the United States. Patients with previous ocular surgery, postoperative endophthalmitis, postoperative retinal detachment, reoperation within 30 days, dementia, anxiety disorder, hearing difficulty, or history of drug abuse were excluded. Patients received complete preoperative and postoperative ophthalmic examinations for first eye and second eye cataract surgeries. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was measured 30 to 90 days preoperatively and postoperatively. Patients completed the National Eye Institute Visual Functioning Questionnaire (NEI-VFQ) 30 to 90 days preoperatively and postoperatively. The NEI-VFQ scores were calculated using a traditional subscale scoring algorithm and a Rasch-refined approach producing visual function and socioemotional subscale scores. Postoperative NEI-VFQ scores and improvement in NEI-VFQ scores comparing first eye versus second eye cataract surgery. Mean age was 70.4 years (±9.6 standard deviation [SD]). Compared with second eyes, first eyes had worse mean preoperative BCVA (0.55 vs. 0.36 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR), P < 0.001), greater mean BCVA improvement after surgery (-0.50 vs. -0.32 logMAR, P < 0.001), and slightly worse postoperative BCVA (0.06 vs. 0.03 logMAR, P = 0.039). Compared with first eye surgery, second eye surgery resulted in higher postoperative NEI-VFQ scores for nearly all traditional subscales (P < 0.001), visual function subscale (-3.85 vs. -2.91 logits, P < 0.001), and socioemotional subscale (-2.63 vs. -2.10 logits, P < 0.001). First eye surgery improved visual function scores more than second eye surgery (-2.99 vs. -2.67 logits, P = 0.021), but both first and second eye surgeries resulted in similar

  7. [Study on the correlation among adolescents' family function, negative life events stress amount and suicide ideation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongdong; Chen, Ling; Yin, Dan; Miao, Jinping; Sun, Yehuan

    2014-07-01

    To explore the correlation between suicide ideation and family function & negative life events, as well as other influential factors in adolescents, thus present a theoretical base for clinicians and school staff to develop intervention for those problems. By adopting current situation random sampling method, Self-Rating Idea of Suicide Scale, Adolescent Self-Rating Life Events Check List and Family APGAR Index were used to assess adolescents at random in a hygiene vocational school in Changzhou City, Jiangsu Province and a collage in Wuhu City, Anhui Province. 3700 questionnaires were granted, 3675 questionnaires were collected, among which 3620 were valid. Chi-square test, t-test, and univariate logistic regression were employed in univariate analysis, multivariate logistic regression was used in multivariate analysis. The detection rate of suicide ideation is 7.0%, and the top five suicide ideation characteristics were: poor academic performance (33.6%), serious family functional impairment (25.8%), lower-middle academic performance (11.7%), bad economic conditions (10.8%) and study in Grade Three (9.9%). Multiple logistic regression showed that the following three high-level stress amount in negative life events are most crucial for suicide ideation. They are "relationships" (OR = 1.135, 95% CI 1.071 - 1. 202), "academic pressure" (OR = 1.169, 95% CI 1.101 - 1.241), and "external events" (OR = 1.278, 95% CI 1.187 - 1.376). What' s more, the stress of attending higher grades (OR = 1.980, 95% CI 1.302 - 3.008), poor academic performance (OR = 7.206, 95% CI 1.745 - 9.789), moderate family functional impairment (OR = 2.562, 95% CI 1.527 - 2.892) and its serious level (OR = 8.287, 95% CI 3.154 - 6.917) are also influential factors for suicide ideation. Severe family functional impairment and high-level stress amount of negative life events produced the main factors of suicide ideation. Therefore, necessary and sufficient support should be given to adolescents by

  8. A method for measuring quality of life through subjective weighting of functional status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stineman, Margaret G; Wechsler, Barbara; Ross, Richard; Maislin, Greg

    2003-04-01

    To apply a new tool to understand the quality of life (QOL) implications of patients' functional status. Results from the Features-Resource Trade-Off Game were used to form utility weights by ranking functional activities by the relative value of achieving independence in each activity compared with all other component activities. The utility weights were combined with patients' actual levels of performance across the same activities to produce QOL-weighted functional status scores and to form "value rulers" to order activities by perceived importance. Persons with severe disabilities living in the community and clinicians practicing in various rehabilitation disciplines. Two panels of 5 consumers with disabilities and 2 panels of 5 rehabilitation clinicians. The 4 panels played the Features Resource Trade-Off Game by using the FIMT(TM) instrument definitions. Utility weights for each of the 18 FIM items, QOL-weighted FIM scores, and value rulers. All 4 panels valued the achievement of independence in cognitive and communication activities more than independence in physical activities. Consequently, the unweighted FIM scores of patients who have severe physical disabilities but relatively intact cognitive skills will underestimate QOL, while inflating QOL in those with low levels of independence in cognition and communication but higher physical function. Independence in some activities is more valued than in others; thus, 2 people with the same numeric functional status score could experience very different QOL. QOL-weighted functional status scores translate objectively measured functional status into its subjective meaning. This new technology for measuring subjective function-related QOL has a variety of applications to clinical, educational, and research practices.

  9. The Effects of Resistance Training on Physical Function and Quality of Life in Breast Cancer Survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Simonavice

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer survivors (BCS exhibit decreased physical function and quality of life (QOL following cancer treatments. Resistance training (RT may elicit positive changes in physical and mental well-being. This study assessed 27 BCS, pre-and post-intervention (six months on the following variables: muscular strength (via one repetition maximum (1RM of chest press and leg extension, physical function (via the Continuous Scale-Physical Functional Performance test and QOL (via the Short Form-36 survey. RT consisted of two days/week of ten exercises including two sets of 8–12 repetitions at 52%–69% of their 1RM. A repeated measures analysis of variance revealed BCS significantly (p < 0.05 increased upper (71 ± 22 to 89 ± 22 kg and lower body (74 ± 18 to 93 ± 24 kg strength, total physical function (65.5 ± 12.1 to 73.6 ± 12.2 units and the subcomponents of physical function: upper body strength (63.5 ± 16.3 to 71.2 ± 16.8 units, lower body strength (58.5 ± 14.9 to 68.6 ± 16.3 units, balance and coordination (66.5 ± 12.2 to 74.6 ± 11.6 units, and endurance (67.2 ± 12.0 to 75.0 ± 11.6 units. No changes were observed over time for subjective measures of physical function and QOL. Results showed RT could be an effective means to improve objective physical function in BCS. Further research is needed to clarify the effects of RT on subjective physical function and QOL.

  10. The effect of treatment on quality of life and functioning in OCD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asnaani, Anu; Kaczkurkin, Antonia N; Alpert, Elizabeth; McLean, Carmen P; Simpson, H Blair; Foa, Edna B

    2017-02-01

    Given that obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is associated with impaired quality of life (QoL) and functioning, it is important examine whether therapeutic recovery from OCD leads to improvements on these important secondary outcomes. Only a few studies have examined how measures of OCD symptom severity relate to QoL and functioning among patients receiving treatment for OCD. OCD severity was measured with the Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory-Revised (OCI-R), a self-report scale of OCD, and the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS), an interview measure of OCD. Participants were 100 adults with a primary diagnosis of OCD on serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs) enrolled in a randomized clinical trial comparing SRI augmentation with either exposure and response prevention (EX/RP) therapy, risperidone, or pill placebo. At baseline, mid-treatment, and post-treatment, patients completed assessments for OCD symptoms and QoL/functioning measures. Multilevel modeling was used to assess changes in QoL/functioning over the course of treatment and to compare such changes across treatment conditions. Improvements in QoL/functioning were significantly greater among those receiving EX/RP compared to those receiving risperidone. Compared to pill placebo, EX/RP performed better on measures of functioning but not QoL. Greater improvement in individual OCI-R scores was associated with greater improvements in QoL/functioning, regardless of condition. In addition, Y-BOCS scores appeared to moderate improvements in QoL over the course of all treatment conditions, such that those with higher Y-BOCS scores showed the greatest improvements in QoL over time. Improvements in QoL/functioning were associated with reduction in OCD symptom severity. The implications on OCD treatment and clinical research are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Inflammatory Bowel Diseases Can Adversely Impact Domains of Sexual Function Such as Satisfaction with Sex Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eluri, Swathi; Cross, Raymond K; Martin, Christopher; Weinfurt, Kevin P; Flynn, Kathryn E; Long, Millie D; Chen, Wenli; Anton, Kristen; Sandler, Robert S; Kappelman, Michael D

    2018-06-01

    Aspects of sexual health, which can be adversely affected by chronic disease, have been inadequately explored in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We evaluated patient-reported interest in sexual activity and satisfaction with sex life in a large cohort of IBD patients. We conducted a cross-sectional study within the Crohn's and Colitis Foundation Partners Internet cohort. Sequential participants completed a 6-question supplemental online survey to examine sexual interest and satisfaction using the Patient-Reported Outcome Measurement Information System ® (PROMIS ® ) Sexual Function and Satisfaction measures. One-sample t tests were used to compare interest and satisfaction scores to general population norms. Among 2569 individuals, 1639 had Crohn's disease (CD), 930 had ulcerative colitis (UC) or indeterminate colitis, and 71% were women. Mean PROMIS scores for sexual interest were comparable to the general US population in men (CD: 49 and UC: 48 vs. population mean 50) and women (CD: 41 and UC: 40 vs. population mean 42). However, sexual satisfaction scores were lower than the US population in men (CD: 48 and UC: 48 vs. 51) and women (CD: 47 and UC: 46 vs. 49), p satisfaction and lowered IBD-specific quality of life. IBD patients in a large online survey had similar levels of sexual interest but decreased sexual satisfaction compared to the general population. Exploring these sexual health domains during clinical encounters can aid in improving IBD quality of life.

  12. Relationship functioning moderates the association between depressive symptoms and life stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trombello, Joseph M; Schoebi, Dominik; Bradbury, Thomas N

    2011-02-01

    Data from 172 newlywed couples were collected over the first 4 years of marriage to test how behaviors demonstrated during marital interactions moderate associations between depressive symptoms and subsequent life stressors. Depressive symptoms and behaviors coded from problem-solving and social support interactions were analyzed as predictors of nonmarital stressors that were interpersonal and dependent on the participant's actions. Behavioral codes were found to moderate 3 of 16 symptom-to-life event associations for husbands. Husbands' reports of more depressive symptoms predicted greater levels of stress when husbands' positive affect and hard negative affect during problem-solving were relatively infrequent and when wives made frequent displays of positive behaviors during husbands' support topics. These effects remained after controlling for marital satisfaction. For wives, behavioral moderators did not interact with depressive symptoms to predict changes in stress, but marital satisfaction consistently interacted with depressive symptoms to predict future stressors beyond interpersonal behaviors. Specifically, for wives, stress generation was more evident when relationship satisfaction was low than when it was high. Our results, though different for men and women, suggest that relationship functioning can alter associations between depressive symptoms and life stress in the early years of marriage. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved). PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.

  13. Quality of Life Related to Visual Function in Three Young Adults with Mucopolysaccharidoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine L. Bergwerk

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The systemic mucopolysaccharidoses are complex syndromes, which may include corneal clouding as a mechanism leading to decreased vision and hence decreased quality of life. This study presents three young adult patients with mucopolysaccharidoses in order to compare their visual status through retrospective chart review, including patient and guardian interview, history, and examination, including a modified form of the VF-14 questionnaire (visual function with 14 questions.When the visual acuity and VF-14 results of the three patients were compared, the results of the VF-14 correlated with the patients� visual acuity status. The two patients who retained clear corneas or underwent penetrating keratoplasty had a wider range of social and physical activities, and an overall better quality of life than did the patient with decreased vision due to opacified corneas.We conclude that close monitoring of the ocular health of patients with storage syndromes that may compromise visual acuity must be stressed, and intervention to insure good vision is of the utmost importance to maintaining a good quality of life for these patients, especially as new therapies assist these patients to achieve increased longevity with better health.

  14. Contribution of Socioeconomic Status at 3 Life-Course Periods to Late-Life Memory Function and Decline: Early and Late Predictors of Dementia Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marden, Jessica R; Tchetgen Tchetgen, Eric J; Kawachi, Ichiro; Glymour, M Maria

    2017-10-01

    Both early life and adult socioeconomic status (SES) predict late-life level of memory; however, evidence is mixed on the relationship between SES and rate of memory decline. Further, the relative importance of different life-course periods for rate of late-life memory decline has not been evaluated. We examined associations between life-course SES and late-life memory function and decline. Health and Retirement Study participants (n = 10,781) were interviewed biennially from 1998-2012 (United States). SES measurements for childhood (composite score including parents' educational attainment), early adulthood (high-school or college completion), and older adulthood (income, mean age 66 years) were all dichotomized. Word-list memory was modeled via inverse-probability weighted longitudinal models accounting for differential attrition, survival, and time-varying confounding, with nonrespondents retained via proxy assessments. Compared to low SES at all 3 points (referent), stable, high SES predicted the best memory function and slowest decline. High-school completion had the largest estimated effect on memory (β = 0.19; 95% confidence interval: 0.15, 0.22), but high late-life income had the largest estimated benefit for slowing declines (for 10-year memory change, β = 0.35; 95% confidence interval: 0.24, 0.46). Both early and late-life interventions are potentially relevant for reducing dementia risk by improving memory function or slowing decline. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Fluctuating functions related to quality of life in advanced Parkinson disease: effects of duodenal levodopa infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isacson, D; Bingefors, K; Kristiansen, I S; Nyholm, D

    2008-12-01

    To assess fluctuations in quality of life (QoL) and motor performance in patients with advanced Parkinson disease (PD) treated with continuous daytime duodenal levodopa/carbidopa infusion or conventional therapy. Of 18 patients completing a 6-week trial (DIREQT), 12 were followed for up to 6 months and assessed using electronic diaries and the PD Questionnaire-39 (PDQ-39). During the trial and follow-up, major diurnal fluctuations were observed, especially for hyperkinesia, 'off' time, ability to walk and depression. Duodenal infusion was associated with significantly more favourable outcomes compared with conventional treatment for satisfaction with overall functioning, 'off' time and ability to walk, with improved outcomes with PDQ-39. Relative to conventional treatment, infusion therapy may stabilize and significantly improve motor function and patient's QoL. The potential for daily fluctuation in PD symptoms means single measures of treatment effectiveness can result in bias in effect estimates and hence repeated measures are recommended.

  16. Self-reported fatigue and physical function in late mid-life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boter, Han; Mänty, Minna; Hansen, Åse Marie

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the association between the 5 subscales of the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI-20) and physical function in late mid-life. Design: Cross-sectional study. Subjects: A population-based sample of adults who participated in the Copenhagen Aging and Midlife Biobank...... population cohort (n = 4,964; age 49-63 years). Methods: Self-reported fatigue was measured using the MFI-20 comprising: general fatigue, physical fatigue, reduced activity, reduced motivation, and mental fatigue. Handgrip strength and chair rise tests were used as measures of physical function. Multiple...... logistic regression analyses were used to determine the associations between handgrip strength and the chair rise test with the MFI-20 subscales, adjusted for potential confounders. Results: After adjustments for potential confounders, handgrip strength was associated with physical fatigue (adjusted odds...

  17. Fluctuating functions related to quality of life in advanced Parkinson disease: effects of duodenal levodopa infusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isacson, D; Bingefors, K; Sønbø Kristiansen, Ivar

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess fluctuations in quality of life (QoL) and motor performance in patients with advanced Parkinson disease (PD) treated with continuous daytime duodenal levodopa/carbidopa infusion or conventional therapy. METHODS: Of 18 patients completing a 6-week trial (DIREQT), 12 were...... followed for up to 6 months and assessed using electronic diaries and the PD Questionnaire-39 (PDQ-39). RESULTS: During the trial and follow-up, major diurnal fluctuations were observed, especially for hyperkinesia, 'off' time, ability to walk and depression. Duodenal infusion was associated...... with significantly more favourable outcomes compared with conventional treatment for satisfaction with overall functioning, 'off' time and ability to walk, with improved outcomes with PDQ-39. CONCLUSIONS: Relative to conventional treatment, infusion therapy may stabilize and significantly improve motor function...

  18. Super-Resolution Molecular and Functional Imaging of Nanoscale Architectures in Life and Materials Science

    KAUST Repository

    Habuchi, Satoshi

    2014-06-12

    Super-resolution (SR) fluorescence microscopy has been revolutionizing the way in which we investigate the structures, dynamics, and functions of a wide range of nanoscale systems. In this review, I describe the current state of various SR fluorescence microscopy techniques along with the latest developments of fluorophores and labeling for the SR microscopy. I discuss the applications of SR microscopy in the fields of life science and materials science with a special emphasis on quantitative molecular imaging and nanoscale functional imaging. These studies open new opportunities for unraveling the physical, chemical, and optical properties of a wide range of nanoscale architectures together with their nanostructures and will enable the development of new (bio-)nanotechnology.

  19. Socioeconomic position in early life, birth weight, childhood cognitive function, and adult mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osler, M; Andersen, A-M N; Due, P

    2003-01-01

    . The data were analysed using Cox regression. SETTING: The metropolitan area of Copenhagen, Denmark. SUBJECTS: 7493 male singletons born in 1953, who completed a questionnaire with various cognitive measures, in school at age 12 years, and for whom birth certificates with data on birth and parental...... with all cause mortality. The association between father's social class and mortality attenuated (HR(working class)1.30 (1.08 to 1.56); HR(unknown class)1.81 (1.30 to 2.52)) after control for birth weight and cognitive function. Mortality from cardiovascular diseases and violent deaths was also......OBJECTIVE: To examine the relation between socioeconomic position in early life and mortality in young adulthood, taking birth weight and childhood cognitive function into account. DESIGN: A longitudinal study with record linkage to the Civil Registration System and Cause of Death Registry...

  20. Functional Status, Quality of Life, and Costs Associated With Fibromyalgia Subgroups: A Latent Profile Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luciano, Juan V; Forero, Carlos G; Cerdà-Lafont, Marta; Peñarrubia-María, María Teresa; Fernández-Vergel, Rita; Cuesta-Vargas, Antonio I; Ruíz, José M; Rozadilla-Sacanell, Antoni; Sirvent-Alierta, Elena; Santo-Panero, Pilar; García-Campayo, Javier; Serrano-Blanco, Antoni; Pérez-Aranda, Adrián; Rubio-Valera, María

    2016-10-01

    Although fibromyalgia syndrome (FM) is considered a heterogeneous condition, there is no generally accepted subgroup typology. We used hierarchical cluster analysis and latent profile analysis to replicate Giesecke's classification in Spanish FM patients. The second aim was to examine whether the subgroups differed in sociodemographic characteristics, functional status, quality of life, and in direct and indirect costs. A total of 160 FM patients completed the following measures for cluster derivation: the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale, the Trait Anxiety Inventory, the Pain Catastrophizing Scale, and the Control over Pain subscale. Pain threshold was measured with a sphygmomanometer. In addition, the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire-Revised, the EuroQoL-5D-3L, and the Client Service Receipt Inventory were administered for cluster validation. Two distinct clusters were identified using hierarchical cluster analysis ("hypersensitive" group, 69.8% and "functional" group, 30.2%). In contrast, the latent profile analysis goodness-of-fit indices supported the existence of 3 FM patient profiles: (1) a "functional" profile (28.1%) defined as moderate tenderness, distress, and pain catastrophizing; (2) a "dysfunctional" profile (45.6%) defined by elevated tenderness, distress, and pain catastrophizing; and (3) a "highly dysfunctional and distressed" profile (26.3%) characterized by elevated tenderness and extremely high distress and catastrophizing. We did not find significant differences in sociodemographic characteristics between the 2 clusters or among the 3 profiles. The functional profile was associated with less impairment, greater quality of life, and lower health care costs. We identified 3 distinct profiles which accounted for the heterogeneity of FM patients. Our findings might help to design tailored interventions for FM patients.

  1. Executive Functions, Time Organization and Quality of Life among Adults with Learning Disabilities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kineret Sharfi

    Full Text Available This study compared the executive functions, organization in time and perceived quality of life (QoL of 55 adults with learning disabilities (LD with those of 55 matched controls (mean age 30 years. Furthermore, relationships and predictive relationships between these variables among the group with LD were examined.All participants completed the Behavioral Rating Inventory of Executive Functions (BRIEF-A, the Time Organization and Participation (TOPS, A-C and the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL questionnaires. Chi-square tests, independent t-tests and MANOVA were used to examine group differences in each of the subscales scores and ratings of each instrument. Pearson correlations and regression predictive models were used to examine the relationships between the variables in the group with LD.Adults with LD had significantly poorer executive functions (BRIEF-A, deficient organization in time abilities (TOPS A-B, accompanied with negative emotional response (TOPS- C, and lower perceived QoL (physical, psychological, social and environmental in comparison to adults without LD. Regression analysis revealed that Initiation (BRIEF-A significantly predicted approximately 15% of the participants' organization in time abilities (TOPS A, B scores beyond group membership. Furthermore, initiation, emotional control (BRIEF-A subscales and emotional responses following unsuccessful organization of time (TOPS-C together accounted for 39% of the variance of psychological QoL beyond the contribution of group membership.Deficits in initiation and emotional executive functions as well as organization in time abilities and emotional responses to impairments in organizing time affect the QoL of adults with LD and thus should be considered in further research as well as in clinical applications.

  2. Executive Functions, Time Organization and Quality of Life among Adults with Learning Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharfi, Kineret; Rosenblum, Sara

    2016-01-01

    This study compared the executive functions, organization in time and perceived quality of life (QoL) of 55 adults with learning disabilities (LD) with those of 55 matched controls (mean age 30 years). Furthermore, relationships and predictive relationships between these variables among the group with LD were examined. All participants completed the Behavioral Rating Inventory of Executive Functions (BRIEF-A), the Time Organization and Participation (TOPS, A-C) and the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL) questionnaires. Chi-square tests, independent t-tests and MANOVA were used to examine group differences in each of the subscales scores and ratings of each instrument. Pearson correlations and regression predictive models were used to examine the relationships between the variables in the group with LD. Adults with LD had significantly poorer executive functions (BRIEF-A), deficient organization in time abilities (TOPS A-B), accompanied with negative emotional response (TOPS- C), and lower perceived QoL (physical, psychological, social and environmental) in comparison to adults without LD. Regression analysis revealed that Initiation (BRIEF-A) significantly predicted approximately 15% of the participants' organization in time abilities (TOPS A, B scores) beyond group membership. Furthermore, initiation, emotional control (BRIEF-A subscales) and emotional responses following unsuccessful organization of time (TOPS-C) together accounted for 39% of the variance of psychological QoL beyond the contribution of group membership. Deficits in initiation and emotional executive functions as well as organization in time abilities and emotional responses to impairments in organizing time affect the QoL of adults with LD and thus should be considered in further research as well as in clinical applications.

  3. Mediation and Moderation: Testing Relationships between Symptom Status, Functional Health, and Quality of Life in HIV Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Ehri; West, Stephen G.; Sousa, Karen H.

    2009-01-01

    We extended Wilson and Cleary's (1995) health-related quality of life model to examine the relationships among symptom status (Symptoms), functional health (Disability), and quality of life (QOL). Using a community sample (N = 956) of male HIV positive patients, we tested a mediation model in which the relationship between Symptoms and QOL is…

  4. Age related differences of executive functioning problems in everyday life of children and adolescents in the autism spectrum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bergh, S.F.W.M.; Scheeren, A.M.; Begeer, S.; Koot, H.M.; Geurts, H.M.

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies investigated executive functioning (EF) problems in people with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) using laboratory EF tasks. As laboratory task performances often differ from real life observations, the current study focused on EF in everyday life of 118 children and adolescents with

  5. On the change points of mean residual life and failure rate functions for some generalized gamma type distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parsa M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mean residual life and failure rate functions are ubiquitously employed in reliability analysis. The term of useful period of lifetime distributions of bathtub-shaped failure rate functions is referred to the flat rigion of this function and has attracted authors and researchers in reliability, actuary, and survival analysis. In recent years, considering the change points of mean residual life and failure rate functions has been extensively utelized in determining the optimum burn-in time. In this paper we investigate the difference between the change points of failure rate and mean residual life functions of some generalized gamma type distributions due to the capability of these distributions in modeling various bathtub-shaped failure rate functions.

  6. INDIVIDUAL PROFILE OF FUNCTIONAL HEMISPHERIC ASYMMETRY AND QUALITY OF LIFE IN PATIENTS WITH PARKINSON'S DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Bykanova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective — to identify the relationship between the individual profile of functional hemispheric asymmetry (IPFA and lateralization of the Parkinson's disease (PD debut, as well as assess of their impact on anxiety and depressive disorders and quality of life of patients.Materials and methods. 70 patients with PD (28 men and 42 women, average age 63,1 ± 8,1 years with disease duration 48 [36, 72] months (Me [25 %; 75 %] were included. We used Hoehn and Yahr, UPDRS, EuroQol, PDQ-39 scales, scale of anxiety and Spielberger–Hanin Hamilton Depression. IPFA was determined using the protocol survey of 48 jobs during the period of inclusion of patients in the study.Results. In patients with right-sided IPFA right-sided debut of PD was more common (p < 0.05 and in patients with mixed IPFA — leftsided(p < 0.05 PD debut. There were no significant differences in levels of reactive, personal anxiety and depression at different IPFA dependingon the side of PD debut (p > 0.05 received. Quality of life scale PDQ-39 showed worse results in patients with right-in right IPFA debut in comparison with those in patients with left debut (p < 0.05. Quality of life by EuroQol-II scale was higher in patients with rightsided IPFA with the left debut of PD than in patients with right-debut (p < 0.05, and in patients with mixed IPFA with right debut compared to patients with left debut (p < 0.05.Conclusion. With the debut of PD in leading limb and preferential involvement of the dominant hemisphere poorer quality of life was observed. IPFA and clinical asymmetry did not affect on the level of anxiety and depressive disorders, which were revealed in more than twothirds of patients with PD.

  7. Effect of Exercise Counseling on Functional Scales Quality of Life in Women with Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Shobeyri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Breast cancer is the most prevalent cancer and the most lethal malignancy among women in the world. Diagnosis, treatment, and treatment complications incur physical, mental and social complications, and consequently reduce the quality of life in these patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of exercise counseling on functional scales in women with breast cancer. Materials & Methods: This quasi-experimental study was conducted on 60 women with breast cancer selected in cancer treatment centers in Hamadan city. Participants were randomly allocated to exercise counseling group (n=30 and control group (n=30. The intervention included two weeks of exercise counseling in the gym and eight weeks of training at home. The data were collected using a demographic questionnaire, QLQ-C30 and QLQ BR-23. Data were analyzed in SPSS.20, using &chi2 Fisher’s exact test, t-test, ANCOVA at a confidence level of p0.05. Conclusion: The functional scales of exercise counseling had a positive effect on the quality of life of women with breast cancer, and led to a significant improvement in patients. This method can be used as a part of the routine therapeutic measures for these patients.

  8. The role of executive functioning in quality of life in pediatric intractable epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Christina Eguizabal; Webbe, Frank; Kim, Gunha; Lee, Ki Hyeong; Westerveld, Michael; Salinas, Christine M

    2016-11-01

    Children with epilepsy are vulnerable to executive dysfunction, but the relationship between executive functioning (EF) and quality of life (QOL) in children with epilepsy is not fully delineated. This exploratory study elucidated the relationship between ecological EF and QOL in pediatric intractable epilepsy. Fifty-four consecutively referred pediatric epilepsy surgery candidates and their parents were administered IQ measures, the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF), and the Quality of Life in Childhood Epilepsy (QOLCE) as part of a comprehensive neuropsychological evaluation. A significant difference was found in QOL between those with and without clinical impairments on the BRIEF [t(52)=3.93; p<.001]. That is, children with executive dysfunction had lower overall QOL. All seizure variables and BRIEF scales were associated with overall QOL [F(12, 40)=6.508; p=.001; R 2 =.661]. Working memory from the BRIEF was the most frequently elevated scale in our sample (57%). Those with executive dysfunction had 9.7 times the risk of having poor QOL. Poor EF control according to behavior ratings is significantly related to QOL in intractable pediatric epilepsy. Identification of executive dysfunction in home environments is an essential component of presurgical evaluations and target for intervention, which may improve QOL. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Teleomechanism redux? Functional physiology and hybrid models of life in early modern natural philosophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Charles T

    2014-01-01

    The distinction between 'mechanical' and 'teleological' has been familiar since Kant; between a fully mechanistic, quantitative science of Nature and a teleological, qualitative approach to living beings, namely 'organisms' understood as purposive or at least functional entities. The beauty of this distinction is that it apparently makes intuitive sense and maps onto historico-conceptual constellations in the life sciences, regarding the status of the body versus that of the machine. I argue that the mechanism-teleology distinction is imprecise and flawed using examples including the 'functional' features present even in Cartesian physiology, the Oxford Physiologists' work on circulation and respiration, the fact that the model of the 'body-machine' is not a mechanistic reduction of organismic properties to basic physical properties but is focused on the uniqueness of organic life; and the concept of 'animal economy' in vitalist medicine, which I present as a 'teleomechanistic' concept of organism (borrowing a term of Lenoir's which he applied to nineteenth-century embryology)--neither mechanical nor teleological.

  10. Internalized stigma among psychiatric outpatients: Associations with quality of life, functioning, hope and self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picco, Louisa; Pang, Shirlene; Lau, Ying Wen; Jeyagurunathan, Anitha; Satghare, Pratika; Abdin, Edimansyah; Vaingankar, Janhavi Ajit; Lim, Susan; Poh, Chee Lien; Chong, Siow Ann; Subramaniam, Mythily

    2016-12-30

    This study aimed to: (i) determine the prevalence, socio-demographic and clinical correlates of internalized stigma and (ii) explore the association between internalized stigma and quality of life, general functioning, hope and self-esteem, among a multi-ethnic Asian population of patients with mental disorders. This cross-sectional, survey recruited adult patients (n=280) who were seeking treatment at outpatient and affiliated clinics of the only tertiary psychiatric hospital in Singapore. Internalized stigma was measured using the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness scale. 43.6% experienced moderate to high internalized stigma. After making adjustments in multiple logistic regression analysis, results revealed there were no significant socio-demographic or clinical correlates relating to internalized stigma. Individual logistic regression models found a negative relationship between quality of life, self-esteem, general functioning and internalized stigma whereby lower scores were associated with higher internalized stigma. In the final regression model, which included all psychosocial variables together, self-esteem was the only variable significantly and negatively associated with internalized stigma. The results of this study contribute to our understanding of the role internalized stigma plays in patients with mental illness, and the impact it can have on psychosocial aspects of their lives. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. The Effects of Massage Therapy on Multiple Sclerosis Patients’ Quality of Life and Leg Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brittany Schroeder

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Massage therapy is a noninvasive treatment that many individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS use to supplement their conventional treatment. Objective. We hypothesize that massage therapy will improve the leg function and overall quality of life (QoL of MS patients. Design. A two-period (rest, massage crossover design was used. Twenty-four individuals with MS ranging from 3.0 to 7.0 on the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS received Swedish massage treatments for four weeks. Exercise capacity and leg function as well as QoL were assessed using the Six-Minute Walk Test (6MWT and the Hamburg Quality of Life in Multiple Sclerosis (HAQUAMS instrument, respectively. Assessments were measured before and after a massage period and a rest period where no massages were employed. Results. The results displayed no significant changes in 6MWT distances or HAQUAMS scores. However, the participants perceived improvement in overall health as expressed in written comments. Conclusions. Massage is a safe, noninvasive treatment that may assist MS patients in managing the stress of their symptoms. Future studies with larger sample size and cortisol measures are warranted.

  12. Attachment Style Predicts Affect, Cognitive Appraisals, and Social Functioning in Daily Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara eSheinbaum

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The way in which attachment styles are expressed in the moment as individuals navigate their real-life settings has remained an area largely untapped by attachment research. The present study examined how adult attachment styles are expressed in daily life using Experience Sampling Methodology (ESM in a sample of 206 Spanish young adults. Participants were administered the Attachment Style Interview and received personal digital assistants that signaled them randomly eight times per day for one week to complete questionnaires about their current experiences and social context. As hypothesized, participants’ momentary affective states, cognitive appraisals, and social functioning varied in meaningful ways as a function of their attachment style. Individuals with an anxious attachment, as compared with securely attached individuals, endorsed experiences that were congruent with hyperactivating tendencies, such as higher negative affect, stress, and perceived social rejection. By contrast, individuals with an avoidant attachment, relative to individuals with a secure attachment, endorsed experiences that were consistent with deactivating tendencies, such as decreased positive states and a decreased desire to be with others when alone. Furthermore, the expression of attachment styles in social contexts was shown to be dependent upon the subjective appraisal of the closeness of social contacts, and not merely upon the presence of social interactions. The findings support the ecological validity of the Attachment Style Interview and the person-by-situation character of attachment theory. Moreover, they highlight the utility of ESM for investigating how the predictions derived from attachment theory play out in the natural flow of real life.

  13. Ozone treatment of shell eggs to preserve functional quality and enhance shelf life during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yüceer, Muhammed; Aday, Mehmet Seçkin; Caner, Cengiz

    2016-06-01

    Eggs have long been recognised as a source of high-quality proteins. Many methods exist to extend shelf life of food and one of them is ozone treatment, which is an emerging technology for disinfecting surfaces in the food industry. This study aimed to extend the shelf life of fresh eggs using gaseous ozone treatments at concentrations of 2, 4 and 6 ppm with exposure times of 2 and 5 min during storage for 6 weeks at 24 °C. The effect of the treatments on interior quality and functional properties of eggs is also reported. Ozone concentration and exposure time significantly affected the Haugh unit (HU), yolk index, albumen pH, relative whipping capacity (RWC), and albumen viscosity of eggs during the storage. Control eggs had the highest albumen pH and lowest albumen viscosity. Attributes such as albumen pH and RWC of eggs exposed to ozone treatments were better than the control samples. The measurement results showed that ozone concentration at 6 ppm and exposure time of 5 min can be applied to fresh eggs and extend shelf life up to 6 weeks at 24 °C storage period. Ozone treatments helped to maintain egg quality for a longer time. Ozone concentrations at 2 and 4 ppm showed promising results in maintaining internal quality and functional properties of fresh eggs during storage. Ozone at high concentration (6 ppm) caused a detrimental effect on eggshell quality. As a result, this study demonstrated that ozone treatments of 2, and especially 4 and 6 ppm concentration maintained eggshell quality during the storage. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. The interplay of early-life stress, nutrition, and immune activation programs adult hippocampal structure and function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeijmakers, Lianne; Lucassen, Paul J.; Korosi, Aniko

    2015-01-01

    Early-life adversity increases the vulnerability to develop psychopathologies and cognitive decline later in life. This association is supported by clinical and preclinical studies. Remarkably, experiences of stress during this sensitive period, in the form of abuse or neglect but also early malnutrition or an early immune challenge elicit very similar long-term effects on brain structure and function. During early-life, both exogenous factors like nutrition and maternal care, as well as endogenous modulators, including stress hormones and mediator of immunological activity affect brain development. The interplay of these key elements and their underlying molecular mechanisms are not fully understood. We discuss here the hypothesis that exposure to early-life adversity (specifically stress, under/malnutrition and infection) leads to life-long alterations in hippocampal-related cognitive functions, at least partly via changes in hippocampal neurogenesis. We further discuss how these different key elements of the early-life environment interact and affect one another and suggest that it is a synergistic action of these elements that shapes cognition throughout life. Finally, we consider different intervention studies aiming to prevent these early-life adversity induced consequences. The emerging evidence for the intriguing interplay of stress, nutrition, and immune activity in the early-life programming calls for a more in depth understanding of the interaction of these elements and the underlying mechanisms. This knowledge will help to develop intervention strategies that will converge on a more complete set of changes induced by early-life adversity. PMID:25620909

  15. Thyroid Function Variations Within the Reference Range Do Not Affect Quality of Life, Mood, or Cognitive Function in Community-Dwelling Older Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Mary H; Kaimal, Rajani; Waring, Avantika; Fink, Howard A; Yaffe, Kristine; Hoffman, Andrew R; Orwoll, Eric; Bauer, Douglas

    2016-09-01

    Variations in thyroid function within the laboratory reference range have been associated with a number of clinical outcomes. However, quality of life, mood, and cognitive function have not been extensively studied, and it is not clear whether mild variations in thyroid function have major effects on these neurocognitive outcomes. Data were analyzed from the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) Study, a cohort of community-dwelling men aged 65 years and older in the United States. A total of 539 participants who were not taking thyroid medications and had age-adjusted TSH levels within the reference range underwent detailed testing of quality of life, mood, and cognitive function at baseline. The same quality of life, mood, and cognitive outcomes were measured again in 193 of the men after a mean follow-up of 6 years. Outcomes were analyzed using thyrotropin (TSH) and free thyroxine (FT4) levels as continuous independent variables, adjusting for relevant covariates. At baseline, there were no associations between TSH or FT4 levels and measures of quality of life, mood, or cognition in the 539 euthyroid men. Baseline thyroid function did not predict changes in these outcomes over a mean of 6 years in the 193 men in the longitudinal analysis. Variations in thyroid function within the age-adjusted laboratory reference range are not associated with variations in quality of life, mood, or cognitive function in community-dwelling older men.

  16. Improvement in quality of life and sexual functioning in a comorbid sample after the unified protocol transdiagnostic group treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ornelas Maia, Ana Claudia Corrêa; Sanford, Jenny; Boettcher, Hannah; Nardi, Antonio E; Barlow, David

    2017-10-01

    Patients with multiple mental disorders often experience sexual dysfunction and reduced quality of life. The unified protocol (UP) is a transdiagnostic treatment for emotional disorders that has the potential to improve quality of life and sexual functioning via improved emotion management. The present study evaluates changes in quality of life and sexual functioning in a highly comorbid sample treated with the UP in a group format. Forty-eight patients were randomly assigned to either a UP active-treatment group or a medication-only control group. Treatment was delivered in 14 sessions over the course of 4 months. Symptoms of anxiety and depression were assessed using the Beck Anxiety Inventory and Beck Depression Inventory. Sexual functioning was assessed by the Arizona Sexual Experience Scale (ASEX), and quality of life was assessed by the World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF scale (WHOQOL-BREF). Quality of life, anxiety and depression all significantly improved among participants treated with the UP. Some improvement in sexual functioning was also noted. The results support the efficacy of the UP in improving quality of life and sexual functioning in comorbid patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The practical impact of differential item functioning analyses in a health-related quality of life instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scott, Neil W; Fayers, Peter M; Aaronson, Neil K

    2009-01-01

    Differential item functioning (DIF) analyses are commonly used to evaluate health-related quality of life (HRQoL) instruments. There is, however, a lack of consensus as to how to assess the practical impact of statistically significant DIF results.......Differential item functioning (DIF) analyses are commonly used to evaluate health-related quality of life (HRQoL) instruments. There is, however, a lack of consensus as to how to assess the practical impact of statistically significant DIF results....

  18. Few items in the thyroid-related quality of life instrument ThyPRO exhibited differential item functioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Watt, Torquil; Grønvold, Mogens; Hegedüs, Laszlo

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the extent of differential item functioning (DIF) within the thyroid-specific quality of life patient-reported outcome measure, ThyPRO, according to sex, age, education and thyroid diagnosis.......To evaluate the extent of differential item functioning (DIF) within the thyroid-specific quality of life patient-reported outcome measure, ThyPRO, according to sex, age, education and thyroid diagnosis....

  19. Effect of Stress Urinary Incontinence on the Sexual Function of Couples and the Quality of Life of Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Renly; Liong, Men Long; Leong, Wing Seng; Khan, Nurzalina Abdul Karim; Yuen, Kah Hay

    2016-07-01

    Studies of the effects of stress urinary incontinence on the sexual function of couples are scarce. We prospectively evaluated couple sexual function and the relationship between sexual function and quality of life. We also compared quality of life in females with vs without stress urinary incontinence. Sexually active females at least 21 years old with or without stress urinary incontinence and their partners were recruited for study. To assess sexual function the couples completed GRISS (Golombok Rust Inventory of Sexual Satisfaction) and a 1-item question on overall sexual experience, "Over the past 4 weeks, how satisfied have you been with your overall sexual life?" Additionally, females completed ICIQ-LUTSqol (International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms Quality of Life) to assess quality of life. For sexual function assessment 66 of 134 couples with (49.3%) and 95 of 176 without (54.0%) stress urinary incontinence were recruited. Females with stress urinary incontinence had lower overall sexual function, lower frequency of sexual intercourse, less satisfaction (each p stress urinary incontinence had more problems with erectile dysfunction (p = 0.027), less satisfaction (p = 0.006) and lower frequency of sexual intercourse (p = 0.001) but no difference in overall GRISS score (p = 0.093). Couples with stress urinary incontinence had poorer overall sexual experience (p stress urinary incontinence had poorer quality of life than those without stress urinary incontinence (120 of 134, response rate 89.6% vs 145 of 176, response rate 82.4%, p life did not significantly correlate (r = 0.001, p = 0.997). Stress urinary incontinence in females is negatively associated not only with female quality of life and sexual function but also with partner sexual function. Copyright © 2016 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The impact of executive function on response to cognitive behavioral therapy in late-life depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodkind, Madeleine S; Gallagher-Thompson, Dolores; Thompson, Larry W; Kesler, Shelli R; Anker, Lauren; Flournoy, John; Berman, Mika P; Holland, Jason M; O'Hara, Ruth M

    2016-04-01

    Late-life depression (LLD) is a common and debilitating condition among older adults. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) has strong empirical support for the treatment of depression in all ages, including in LLD. In teaching patients to identify, monitor, and challenge negative patterns in their thinking, CBT for LLD relies heavily on cognitive processes and, in particular, executive functioning, such as planning, sequencing, organizing, and selectively inhibiting information. It may be that the effectiveness of CBT lies in its ability to train these cognitive areas. Participants with LLD completed a comprehensive neuropsychological battery before enrolling in CBT. The current study examined the relationship between neuropsychological function prior to treatment and response to CBT. When using three baseline measures of executive functioning that quantify set shifting, cognitive flexibility, and response inhibition to predict treatment response, only baseline Wisconsin Card Sort Task performance was associated with a significant drop in depression symptoms after CBT. Specifically, worse performance on the Wisconsin Card Sort Task was associated with better treatment response. These results suggest that CBT, which teaches cognitive techniques for improving psychiatric symptoms, may be especially beneficial in LLD if relative weaknesses in specific areas of executive functioning are present. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Loneliness in late-life depression: structural and functional connectivity during affective processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, N M L; Liu, H-L; Lin, C; Huang, C-M; Wai, Y-Y; Lee, S-H; Lee, T M C

    2016-09-01

    Late-life depression (LLD) in the elderly was reported to present with emotion dysregulation accompanied by high perceived loneliness. Previous research has suggested that LLD is a disorder of connectivity and is associated with aberrant network properties. On the other hand, perceived loneliness is found to adversely affect the brain, but little is known about its neurobiological basis in LLD. The current study investigated the relationships between the structural connectivity, functional connectivity during affective processing, and perceived loneliness in LLD. The current study included 54 participants aged >60 years of whom 31 were diagnosed with LLD. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data and task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data of an affective processing task were collected. Network-based statistics and graph theory techniques were applied, and the participants' perceived loneliness and depression level were measured. The affective processing task included viewing affective stimuli. Structurally, a loneliness-related sub-network was identified across all subjects. Functionally, perceived loneliness was related to connectivity differently in LLD than that in controls when they were processing negative stimuli, with aberrant networking in subcortical area. Perceived loneliness was identified to have a unique role in relation to the negative affective processing in LLD at the functional brain connectional and network levels. The findings increas our understanding of LLD and provide initial evidence of the neurobiological mechanisms of loneliness in LLD. Loneliness might be a potential intervention target in depressive patients.

  2. Flat Foot in a Random Population and its Impact on Quality of Life and Functionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pita-Fernandez, Salvador; Gonzalez-Martin, Cristina; Alonso-Tajes, Francisco; Seoane-Pillado, Teresa; Pertega-Diaz, Sonia; Perez-Garcia, Sergio; Seijo-Bestilleiro, Rocio; Balboa-Barreiro, Vanesa

    2017-04-01

    Flat foot is a common deformity in adults. It is characterized by medial rotation and plantar flexion of the talus, eversion of the calcaneus, collapsed medial arch and abduction of the forefoot. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of flat foot and its impact on quality of life, dependence, foot pain, disability and functional limitation among random population of 40-year-old and above. A cross-sectional study in a random population sample from Cambre (A Coruña-Spain) (n=835) was performed (α =0.05; Precision=±3.4%). The diagnosis of flat foot was stablished by the study of the footprint obtained with a pedograph. Anthropometric variables were studied, Charlson's Comorbidity Index, function and state of foot (Foot Function Index (FFI), Foot Health Status Questionnaire (FHSQ)), quality of life (SF-36), and dependence for activities of daily living (Barthel and Lawton index). A logistic and linear multiple regression analysis was performed. The prevalence of flat foot was 26.62%. Patients with flat foot were significantly older (65.73±11.04 vs 61.03±11.45-year-old), showed a higher comorbidity index (0.92±1.49 vs 0.50±0.98), had a greater BMI (31.45±5.55 vs 28.40±4.17) and greater foot size (25.16±1.66 vs 24.82±1.65). The presence of flat foot diminishes the quality of life, as measured by the FHSQ, and foot function, measured by the FFI. The presence of flat foot does not alter the physical and mental dimension of the SF-36 or the degree of dependence. Flat foot was associated with age, Charlson's Comorbidity Index, BMI and foot size. The SF-36, Barthel and Lawton questionnaires remained unaltered by the presence of flat foot. The FHSQ and FFI questionnaires did prove to be sensitive to the presence of flat foot in a significant manner.

  3. Does Parent Report Gross Motor Function Level of Cerebral Palsy Children Impact on the Quality of Life in these Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashmdarfard, Marzieh; Amini, Malek; Badv, Reza Shervin; Ghaffarzade Namazi, Narges; Rassafiani, Mehdi

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of parent report gross motor function level of cerebral palsy (CP) children on the parent report quality of life of CP children. Sampling of this cross-sectional study was done in occupational therapy clinics and CP children's schools in 2016 in Zanjan, Iran. Samples size was 60 CP children aged 6-12 yr and for sampling method, a non-probability convenience was used. For assessing the quality of life of CP children the cerebral palsy quality of life (CP QOL) questionnaire and for assessing the level of gross motor function of CP children the Gross Motor Function Classification System Family Report Questionnaire (GMFCSFRQ) were used. The average age of children (22 males and 30 females) was 8.92 yr old (minimum 6 yr and maximum 12 yr). The relationship between the level of gross motor function and participation and physical health was direct and significant (r=0.65). The relationship between functioning, access to services and family health with the level of gross motor function was direct but was not significant ( P >0.05) and the relationship between pain and impact of disability and emotional well-being with the level of gross motor function was significant ( P quality of life of children with cerebral palsy. It means that the level of gross motor function cannot be used as a predictor of quality of life for children with cerebral palsy alone.

  4. Loss of Sphingosine Kinase Alters Life History Traits and Locomotor Function in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason P. Chan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Sphingolipid metabolism is important to balance the abundance of bioactive lipid molecules involved in cell signaling, neuronal function, and survival. Specifically, the sphingolipid sphingosine mediates cell death signaling, whereas its phosphorylated form, sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P, mediates cell survival signaling. The enzyme sphingosine kinase produces S1P, and the activity of sphingosine kinase impacts the ability of cells to survive under stress and challenges. To examine the influence of sphingolipid metabolism, particularly enzymes regulating sphingosine and S1P, in mediating aging, neuronal function and stress response, we examined life history traits, locomotor capacities and heat stress responses of young and old animals using the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans. We found that C. elegans sphk-1 mutants, which lack sphingosine kinase, had shorter lifespans, reduced brood sizes, and smaller body sizes compared to wild type animals. By analyzing a panel of young and old animals with genetic mutations in the sphingolipid signaling pathway, we showed that aged sphk-1 mutants exhibited a greater decline in neuromuscular function and locomotor behavior. In addition, aged animals lacking sphk-1 were more susceptible to death induced by acute and prolonged heat exposure. On the other hand, older animals with loss of function mutations in ceramide synthase (hyl-1, which converts sphingosine to ceramide, showed improved neuromuscular function and stress response with age. This phenotype was dependent on sphk-1. Together, our data show that loss of sphingosine kinase contributes to poor animal health span, suggesting that sphingolipid signaling may be important for healthy neuronal function and animal stress response during aging.

  5. Quality of life and functional vision concerns of children with cataracts and their parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castañeda, Y S; Cheng-Patel, C S; Leske, D A; Wernimont, S M; Hatt, S R; Liebermann, L; Birch, E E; Holmes, J M

    2016-09-01

    PurposeTo identify specific health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and functional vision concerns affecting children with cataracts and common associated conditions as expressed by children or one of their parents (proxy), and HRQOL concerns affecting the parents themselves.MethodsIndividual semi-structured interviews were conducted with parents of children with cataracts (N=31) and with the children themselves (ages 5-17 years; N=16). Transcripts of recorded interviews were evaluated using NVivo software. Specific concerns were identified and coded, and broad themes were identified. The frequency of each theme was calculated, with the frequency of specific concerns within each theme.ResultsRegarding the child's experience, 6 themes were identified: Visual Function (mentioned by 16 of 16 children (100%) and by 26 of 31 parents (84%), Social (94 and 65%), Treatment (81 and 90%), Worry (75 and 10%), Emotions (63 and 68%), and Physical Discomfort (63 and 26%). Worry showed the largest discrepancy between child and their parent; although 75% children reported Worry, only 6% of parents reported that their child experienced Worry (P=0.0009). Regarding the parents' own experience, 5 themes were identified: Worry (100%), Compensation for Condition (100%), Treatment (94%), Emotions (90%), and Affects Family (52%).ConclusionsA wide range of concerns were identified from interviews of children with cataracts and their parents. Concerns reflect the impact of cataracts in physical, emotional, and social domains, and specific concerns will be used for the development of questionnaires to quantify the quality of life and functional vision effects of cataracts.

  6. Education and home based training for intermittent claudication: functional effects and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prévost, Alain; Lafitte, Marianne; Pucheu, Yann; Couffinhal, Thierry

    2015-03-01

    Supervised exercise programs increase physical performance in patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD). However, there are a limited number of programs, and to date they have failed to provide evidence of long-term adherence to exercise or any meaningful effect on Quality of Life (QoL). We created a program of therapeutic education and a personalized program of reconditioning exercise for patients with PAD. Patients with an ankle-brachial index (ABI) below 0.9 in at least one limb, and an absolute claudication distance (ACD) ≤500 meters, were included in the study. Quality of Life (QoL) as measured by SF-36, cardiovascular risk factors and functional parameters were evaluated at 0, 3, 6 and 12 months. Forty-six patients completed the program. Cardiovascular risks were controlled and stabilized over time. SF-36 scores improved significantly and remained stable. Initial and absolute claudication distance (ICD and ACD) as well as other functional parameters improved significantly (6 months: +138 m or +203% ICD and +139 m or +84% ACD). Ten patients (22%) did not show improvement in ICD or ACD within the first 3 months, but their SF-36 score did increase at subsequent visits. Interestingly, these patients had a significantly lower ACD at baseline. This study measured beneficial effects of an educational therapeutic program for patients with PAD. The results demonstrate a significant improvement in functional and QoL parameters during the first 3 months of coaching, and long-term persistence of the results even when patients were no longer coached. © The European Society of Cardiology 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  7. Effect of team sports and resistance training on physical function, quality of life, and motivation in older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jacob Vorup

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of team sports and resistance training on physical function, psychological health, quality of life, and motivation in older untrained adults. Twenty-five untrained men and forty-seven untrained women aged 80 (range: 67-93) years were recruited...... curls within 30 seconds (Phealth-related quality of life, as well as decreased anxiety and depression...... interaction during the activity, whereas RG was more motivated by extrinsic factors like health and fitness benefits. In conclusion, both team training and resistance training improved physical function, psychological well-being, and quality of life. However, team sport training motivated the participants...

  8. Sex differences in the association of physical function and cognitive function with life satisfaction in older age: The Rancho Bernardo Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratigan, Amanda; Kritz-Silverstein, Donna; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth

    2016-07-01

    This study examines the cross-sectional associations of cognitive and physical function with life satisfaction in middle-class, community-dwelling adults aged 60 and older. Participants were 632 women and 410 men who had cognitive function tests (CFT) and physical function tasks (PFT) assessed at a clinic visit between 1988 and 1992, and who responded in 1992 to a mailed survey that included life satisfaction measures. Cognitive impairment was defined as ≤24 on MMSE, ≥132 on Trails B, ≤12 on Category Fluency, ≤13 on Buschke long-term recall, and ≤7 on Heaton immediate recall. Physical impairment was defined as participants' self-reported difficulty (yes/no) in performing 10 physical functions. Multiple linear regression examined associations between life satisfaction and impairment on ≥1 CFT or difficulty with ≥1 PFT. The Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS; range:0-26) and Life Satisfaction Index-Z (LSI-Z; range:5-35). Participants' average age was 73.4 years (range=60-94). Categorically defined cognitive impairment was present in 40% of men and 47% of women. Additionally, 30% of men and 43% of women reported difficulty performing any PFT. Adjusting for age and impairment on ≥1 CFT, difficulty performing ≥1 PFT was associated with lower LSI-Z and SWLS scores in men (β=-1.73, -1.26, respectively, page and difficulty with ≥1 PFT. Limited cognitive function was more common than limited physical function; however, limited physical function was more predictive of lower life satisfaction. Interventions to increase or maintain mobility among older adults may improve overall life satisfaction. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  9. [Quality of Life and Functional Outcome after Microsurgical Decompression in Lumbar Spinal Stenosis: a Register Study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarghooni, Kourosh; Beyer, Frank; Papadaki, Joanna; Boese, Christoph Kolja; Siewe, Jan; Schiffer, Gereon; Eysel, Peer; Bredow, Jan

    2017-08-01

    Introduction Because of recent increases in life expectancy, lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) has become one of the most common degenerative changes in the spine. In patients not responding to conservative therapy, microsurgical decompression is the gold standard of operative treatment for degenerative LSS. The goal of the current study is to evaluate quality of life after microsurgical decompression for LSS, using data from the DWG Register (previously Spine Tango). Methods 36 patients were included in this single-center, prospective, observational study from January 2013 to June 2014. Data were collected from the Spine Tango or DWG Register. The core outcome measure index (COMI), Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), and the quality of life questionnaire EuroQoL-5D were used. Data were collected prior to surgery as well as six weeks, six months, and twelve months after the operation. Results The patient cohort comprised 13 females and 23 males (36.1 and 63.9 %). Complete 12-month follow-up data on 21 patients were available for analysis. Compared to preoperative measures, the COMI score increased 8.1 ± 1.5 over the entire follow up, with 4.5 ± 3.1 at 6 weeks (p < 0.001), 4.8 ± 3.1 at 6 months, and 3.8 ± 3.2 at 12 months. ODI scores, measuring spinal function impairment, were significantly better than preoperative values overall (47.5 ± 17.3) and after 6 weeks (29.1 ± 22.4; p < 0.005), 6 months (30.0 ± 19.3), and 12 months (23.8 ± 18.2). Quality of life measures improved in a similar manner (preoperative: 0.36 ± 0.38; 6 weeks: 0.57 ± 0.34 (p < 0.019); 6 months: 0.62 ± 0.28; 12 months: 0.67 ± 0.31). Conclusion Our study shows that LSS patients without previous surgery and neurologic deficits can expect significant pain relief and improved quality of life already six weeks after undergoing stabilizing decompression. There was an increase in positive postoperative effects over 12 months. The DWG

  10. Relationship of physical function and quality of life among persons aging with HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlandson, Kristine M; Allshouse, Amanda A; Jankowski, Catherine M; Mawhinney, Samantha; Kohrt, Wendy M; Campbell, Thomas B

    2014-08-24

    Physical function impairments are seen among aging, HIV-infected persons on effective antiretroviral therapy (ART). The impact of physical function impairments on health-related quality of life (QoL) during ART is unknown. This was a cross-sectional study including 359 HIV-infected patients, aged 45-65 years, on ART for more than 6 months. Patients completed the SF-36 QoL questionnaire, 400-m walk, 5-time chair rise, and grip strength. HIV-associated mortality risk was calculated using the Veterans Aging Cohort Study (VACS) Index. Physical function, physical activity (> 500 versus ≤ 500 kcal/week), and VACS scores were used to estimate QoL in multivariable linear regression. For every 1 m/s increase in gait speed, we saw an estimated 11.8 [95% confidence interval (CI) 8.4, 15.2] point increase in the physical function scale with smaller differences across all subscales. For every 1 rise/s faster chair rise pace, we saw an estimated 16.0 (95% CI 9.1, 22.9) point increase in the physical function scale with smaller differences across all subscales. SF-36 scores were between 2.8 and 5.7 points higher among more physically active compared to less active patients. A 1 kg increase in grip strength was associated with a 0.2 (95% CI 0.01, 0.3) higher mental health score, but there were no differences in other subscales. VACS scores did not improve the model. Faster gait speed and chair rise time, and greater physical activity were associated with greater QoL, independent of HIV-related mortality risk. Targeted exercise programs to increase physical activity and improve speed and power should be evaluated as interventions to improve QoL during ART.

  11. Depression and pain impair daily functioning and quality of life in patients with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ching-Hua; Yen, Yung-Chieh; Chen, Ming-Chao; Chen, Cheng-Chung

    2014-09-01

    Depression and pain frequently occur together. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of depression and pain on the impairment of daily functioning and quality of life (QOL) of depressed patients. We enrolled 131 acutely ill inpatients with major depressive disorder. Depression, pain, and daily functioning were assessed using the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, the Short-Form 36 (SF-36) Body Pain Index, and the Work and Social Adjustment Scale. Health-related QOL was assessed using three primary domains of the SF-36: social functioning, vitality, and general health perceptions. Pearson׳s correlation and structural equation modeling were used to examine relationships among the study variables. Five models were proposed. In all, 129 patients completed all the measures. Model 5, both depression and pain impaired daily functioning and QOL, was the most fitted structural equation model (χ(2)=9.2, df=8, p=0.33, GFI=0.98, AGFI=0.94, TLI=0.99, CFI=0.99, RMSEA=0.03). The correlation between pain and depression was weak (r=-0.27, z=-2.95, p=0.003). This was a cross-sectional study with a small sample size. Depression and pain exert a direct influence on the impairment of daily functioning and QOL of depressed patients; this impairment could be expected regardless of increased pain, depression, or both pain and depression. Pain had a somewhat separate entity from depression. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Validation of DSM-5 age-of-onset criterion of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults: Comparison of life quality, functional impairment, and family function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Ju; Lo, Kuan-Wu; Yang, Li-Kuang; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2015-12-01

    The newly published Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5) elevates the threshold of the ADHD age-of-onset criterion from 7 to 12 years. This study evaluated the quality of life and functional impairment of adults with ADHD who had symptoms onset by or after 7 years and examined the mediation effect of family function and anxiety/depression symptoms between ADHD diagnosis and quality of life and functional impairment. We assessed 189 adults with ADHD and 153 non-ADHD controls by psychiatric interview and self-administered reports on the Adult ADHD Quality of Life Scale, Weiss Functional Impairment Rating Scale, Family APGAR, and Adult Self Report Inventory-4. The ADHD group was divided into early-onset ADHD (onset ADHD (onset between 7 and 12 years, n=42). The mediation analysis was conducted to verify the mediating factors from ADHD to functional impairment and quality of life. The late-onset ADHD had more severe functional impairment at work and poorer family support than early-onset ADHD while they had comparable impairment at other domains. Less perceived family support and current anxiety/depressive symptoms partially mediated the link between ADHD diagnosis and quality of life/functional impairment both in early- and late-onset ADHD. Our data support decreased quality of life and increased functional impairment in adult ADHD, regardless of age of onset, and these adverse outcomes may be mediated by family support and anxiety/depression at adulthood. Our findings also imply that the new DSM-5 ADHD criteria do not over-include individuals without impairment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Report of the substudy assessing the impact of neurocognitive function on quality of life 5 years after cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, M F; Grocott, H P; Mathew, J P; White, W D; Landolfo, K; Reves, J G; Laskowitz, D T; Mark, D B; Blumenthal, J A

    2001-12-01

    The importance of perioperative cognitive decline has long been debated. We recently demonstrated a significant correlation between perioperative cognitive decline and long-term cognitive dysfunction. Despite this association, some still question the importance of these changes in cognitive function to the quality of life of patients and their families. The purpose of our investigation was to determine the association between cognitive dysfunction and long-term quality of life after cardiac surgery. After institutional review board approval and patient informed consent, 261 patients undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass were enrolled and followed for 5 years. Cognitive function was measured with a battery of tests at baseline, discharge, and 6 weeks and 5 years postoperatively. Quality of life was assessed with well-validated, standardized assessments at the 5-year end point. Our results demonstrate significant correlations between cognitive function and quality of life in patients after cardiac surgery. Lower 5-year overall cognitive function scores were associated with lower general health and a less productive working status. Multivariable logistic and linear regression controlling for age, sex, education, and diabetes confirmed this strong association in the majority of areas of quality of life. Five years after cardiac surgery, there is a strong relationship between neurocognitive functioning and quality of life. This has important social and financial implications for preoperative evaluation and postoperative care of patients undergoing cardiac surgery.

  14. Association Between Masticatory Function and Oral Health-Related Quality of Life in Partial Maxillectomy Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, Mohamed Moustafa; Otomaru, Takafumi; Aimaijiang, Yiliyaer; Li, Na; Taniguchi, Hisashi

    The aim of this study was to investigate associations between objectively and subjectively measured masticatory function and oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) in partial maxillectomy patients wearing dentomaxillary prostheses. A sample of 32 consecutively treated patients who had undergone a partial maxillectomy were enrolled. Masticatory function was assessed using two objective measures and one subjective measure. The objective measures were masticatory performance (MP), which was estimated by measuring the glucose extracted from gummy jelly, and food mixing ability (a*), which was assessed using color-changeable chewing gum. The subjective measure was perceived chewing ability, rated as masticatory score (MS) based on the patient's responses to a food intake questionnaire. OHRQoL was assessed using the Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI). Relationships between the masticatory function measures and OHRQoL were analyzed using Spearman rank correlation coefficient. The correlation coefficients (r) obtained were 0.57 (P = .001) for MS and GOHAI, 0.247 (P = .173) for MP and GOHAI, -0.173 (P = .343) for a* and GOHAI, 0.517 (P = .002) for MP and a*, 0.199 (P = .257) for MP and MS, and 0.019 (P = .919) for a* and MS. Subjective MS showed a significant positive correlation with GOHAI score, suggesting that perceived chewing ability could be an important factor in the estimation of OHRQoL in partial maxillectomy patients.

  15. Ibuprofen exposure in early neonatal life does not affect renal function in young adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raaijmakers, Anke; Zhang, Zhen-Yu; Levtchenko, Elena; Simons, Sinno Hp; Cauwenberghs, Nicholas; Heuvel, Lambertus P van den; Jacobs, Lotte; Staessen, Jan A; Allegaert, Karel

    2018-03-01

    Ibuprofen exposure results in acute transient renal dysfunction in preterm neonates, but we are unaware of data on long-term renal safety. In a previously studied cohort of extreme low birth weight (ELBW, ibuprofen. In this post hoc analysis, we linked markers of renal function in young adolescence in ELBW cases with their perinatal (prenatal maternal, setting at birth, treatment modalities including drug prescription during neonatal stay, neonatal creatinine values, postdischarge growth) characteristics, including but not limited to ibuprofen exposure during neonatal stay. Ibuprofen exposure was not associated with significant differences in renal length or eGFR cysC . Moreover, we were unable to identify any other risk factor (perinatal characteristics, postnatal creatinine trends, postdischarge growth) on renal outcome in this cohort. Neonatal exposure to ibuprofen did not affect renal function. Larger studies are needed to explore the confounders of variability in renal function in former ELBW cases. This matters since ELBW relates to risk for hypertension, cardiovascular events and renal disease in later life and identification of risk factors holds the promise of secondary prevention. NCT02147457. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  16. Cumulative contextual and individual disadvantages over the life course and adult functional somatic symptoms in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, Per E; Hammarström, Anne; San Sebastian, Miguel

    2015-08-01

    Disadvantage, originating in one's residential context or in one's past life course, has been shown to impact on health in adulthood. There is however little research on the accumulated health impact of both neighbourhood and individual conditions over the life course. This study aims to examine whether the accumulation of contextual and individual disadvantages from adolescence to middle-age predicts functional somatic symptoms (FSS) in middle-age, taking baseline health into account. The sample is the age 16, 21, 30 and 42 surveys of the prospective Northern Swedish Cohort, with analytical sample size n = 910 (85% of the original cohort). FSS at age 16 and 42, and cumulative socioeconomic disadvantage, social adversity and material adversity between 16 and 42 years were operationalized from questionnaires, and cumulative neighbourhood disadvantage between 16 and 42 years from register data. Results showed accumulation of disadvantages jointly explained 9-12% of FSS variance. In the total sample, cumulative neighbourhood and socioeconomic disadvantage significantly predicted FSS at age 42 in the total sample. In women, neighbourhood disadvantage but not socioeconomic disadvantage contributed significantly, whereas in men, socioeconomic but not neighbourhood disadvantage contributed significantly. In all analyses, associations were largely explained by the parallel accumulation of social and material adversities, but not by symptoms at baseline. In conclusion, the accumulation of diverse forms of disadvantages together plays an important role for somatic complaints in adulthood, independently of baseline health. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  17. Quality, functionality, and shelf life of fermented meat and meat products: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pavan; Chatli, M K; Verma, Akhilesh K; Mehta, Nitin; Malav, O P; Kumar, Devendra; Sharma, Neelesh

    2017-09-02

    Fermentation of meat is a traditional preservation method used widely for improving quality and shelf life of fermented meat products. Fermentation of meat causes a number of physical, biochemical, and microbial changes, which eventually impart functional properties, sensory characteristics, and nutritional aspects to these products and inhibit the growth of various pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms. These changes include acidification (carbohydrate catabolism), solubilization and gelation of myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic proteins of muscle, degradation of proteins and lipids, reduction of nitrate into nitrite, formation of nitrosomyoglobin, and dehydration. Dry-fermented sausages are increasingly being used as carrier of probiotics. The production of biogenic amines during fermentation can be controlled by selecting proper starter cultures and other preventive measures such as quality of raw materials, hygienic measures, temperature, etc.

  18. Etoricoxib improves osteoarthritis pain relief, joint function, and quality of life in the extreme elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Nan Huang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Etoricoxib is a selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor, with a lower risk of gastrointestinal toxicity compared to traditional nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs. We evaluated the effectiveness and tolerability of etoricoxib in extremely elderly patients with chronic pain due to osteoarthritis (OA. A prospective, single-center, single-arm study was conducted, enrolling 19 extremely elderly men with OA (mean age 85.9, range 79-96 years, who responded inadequately to NSAIDs or other analgesics. Patients were switched to etoricoxib, 60 mg once daily for 4 weeks, without prior medication washout. Data were recorded before and after etoricoxib treatment. The primary endpoint was improvement in pain, assessed using the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC after the 4-week treatment. Other endpoints included the Brief Pain Inventory Short Form (BPI-SF, Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medication (TSQM, Short Form 36 (SF36, and European Quality of Life-5 Dimensions (EQ-5D. Safety and tolerability were assessed by collecting adverse events data. Pain and disability scores measured by WOMAC index were lower after treatment (pain, p ≤ 0.001; disability, p = 0.020. BPI-SF showed a significant improvement in joint function when walking and performing normal work (walking, p = 0.021; normal work, p = 0.030. SF36 scores improved for 7 out of 11 items after etoricoxib treatment (#1, p = 0.032; #4, p = 0.026; #5, p = 0.017; #6, p = 0.008; #7, p = 0.009; #8, p = 0.013; and #10, p = 0.038. EQ-5D showed a significant improvement in visual analogue scale scores (p = 0.036. TSQM results demonstrated a higher patient perception of overall satisfaction. No adverse events were reported. Pain relief, joint function, quality of life, and treatment satisfaction improved significantly in elderly patients with OA after etoricoxib administration.

  19. Sexual Function and Health-Related Quality of Life in Long-Term Rectal Cancer Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Virginia; Grant, Marcia; Wendel, Christopher S; McMullen, Carmit K; Bulkley, Joanna E; Herrinton, Lisa J; Hornbrook, Mark C; Krouse, Robert S

    2016-07-01

    Sexual dysfunction is a treatment sequela in survivors of rectal cancer (RC). Differences in health-related quality of life (HRQOL) can occur based on ostomy status (permanent ostomy vs anastomosis). To describe alterations in sexual function and HRQOL based on ostomy status in long-term (≥5 years) survivors of RC. Survivors of RC with an ostomy (n = 181) or anastomosis (n = 394) were surveyed using validated HRQOL and functional status tools. We compared sexuality outcomes between the ostomy and anastomosis groups and reported differences adjusted for clinical and demographic characteristics. Qualitative data from one open-ended question on survivors' greatest challenges since their surgery were analyzed to explore sexuality, symptoms, and relationships. Whether sexually active, satisfaction with sexual activity, and select sexual dysfunction items from the Modified City of Hope Quality of Life-Colorectal. Survivors with a permanent ostomy were more likely to have been sexually inactive after surgery if it occurred before 2000 and experience dissatisfaction with appearance, interference with personal relationships and intimacy, and lower overall HRQOL. Female survivors of RC with an ostomy were more likely to have problems with vaginal strictures and vaginal pain after surgery that persisted at the time of the survey (≥5 years later). Radiation treatment, tumor stage, soilage of garments in bed, and higher Charlson-Deyo comorbidity scores were negatively associated with outcomes. Six qualitative themes emerged: loss of and decreased sexual activity, psychological issues with sexual activity, physical issues with sexual activity, partner rejection, ostomy interference with sexual activity, and positive experiences with sexuality. Sexual dysfunction is a common long-term sequela of RC treatment, with more problems observed in survivors with a permanent ostomy. This warrants widespread implementation of targeted interventions to manage sexual dysfunction and

  20. Adults with corrected oesophageal atresia: is oesophageal function associated with complaints and/or quality of life?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deurloo, J.A.; Klinkenberg, E.C.; Ekkelkamp, S.; Heij, H.A.; Aronson, D.C.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate oesophageal function after correction of oesophageal atresia in adults, and to investigate the association between complaints, oesophageal function and quality of life (QoL). Twenty-five adults were included who participated in previous follow-up studies, during

  1. Validation of reaction time as a measure of cognitive function and quality of life in healthy subjects and patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Lene Holm; Sorensen, Janice Marie; Rask, Ingeborg Krarup

    2011-01-01

    Malnutrition is a common problem in hospitalized patients and is related to decreased cognitive function and impaired quality of life (QoL). We investigated the validity of reaction time as a simple bedside tool for measuring cognitive function in healthy subjects and patients, and additionally...

  2. Early life stress elicits visceral hyperalgesia and functional reorganization of pain circuits in adult rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.P. Holschneider

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Early life stress (ELS is a risk factor for developing functional gastrointestinal disorders, and has been proposed to be related to a central amplification of sensory input and resultant visceral hyperalgesia. We sought to characterize ELS-related changes in functional brain responses during acute noxious visceral stimulation. Neonatal rats (males/females were exposed to limited bedding (ELS or standard bedding (controls on postnatal days 2–9. Age 10–11 weeks, animals were implanted with venous cannulas and transmitters for abdominal electromyography (EMG. Cerebral blood flow (rCBF was mapped during colorectal distension (CRD using [14C]-iodoantipyrine autoradiography, and analyzed in three-dimensionally reconstructed brains by statistical parametric mapping and functional connectivity. EMG responses to CRD were increased after ELS, with no evidence of a sex difference. ELS rats compared to controls showed a greater significant positive correlation of EMG with amygdalar rCBF. Factorial analysis revealed a significant main effect of ‘ELS’ on functional activation of nodes within the pain pathway (somatosensory, insular, cingulate and prefrontal cortices, locus coeruleus/lateral parabrachial n. [LC/LPB], periaqueductal gray, sensory thalamus, as well as in the amygdala, hippocampus and hypothalamus. In addition, ELS resulted in an increase in the number of significant functional connections (i.e. degree centrality between regions within the pain circuit, including the amygdala, LC/LPB, insula, anterior ventral cingulate, posterior cingulate (retrosplenium, and stria terminalis, with decreases noted in the sensory thalamus and the hippocampus. Sex differences in rCBF were less broadly expressed, with significant differences noted at the level of the cortex, amygdala, dorsal hippocampus, raphe, sensory thalamus, and caudate-putamen. ELS showed a sexually dimorphic effect (‘Sex x ELS’ interaction at the LC/LPB complex, globus pallidus

  3. Waiting for total knee replacement surgery: factors associated with pain, stiffness, function and quality of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dionne Clermont E

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent evidences show that education and rehabilitation while waiting for knee replacement have positive effects on the patients' health status. Identification of factors associated with worse pain, function and health-related quality of life (HRQoL while waiting for surgery could help develop pre-surgery rehabilitation interventions that target specifically these factors and prioritize patients that may benefit the most from them. The objectives of this study were to measure pain, stiffness, function and HRQoL in patients at enrolment on waiting lists for knee replacement and to identify demographic, clinical, socioeconomic and psychosocial characteristics associated with these outcomes. Methods This study is part of a broader study measuring the effects of pre-surgery wait in patients scheduled for knee replacement. From 02/2006 to 09/2007, 197 patients newly scheduled for total knee replacement were recruited from the waiting lists of three university hospitals in Quebec City, Canada. Pain, stiffness and function were measured with the Western Ontario and McMaster Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC and HRQoL was measured with the SF-36 Health Survey. Stepwise multiple regression analysis was used to assess the strength of the associations between the independent variables and the WOMAC and SF-36 scores. Results The scores of all eight HRQoL physical and mental domains of the SF-36 were significantly lower than aged matched Canadian normative data (p Conclusion Patients waiting for knee replacement have poor function and HRQoL. Characteristics that were found to be associated with these outcomes could help develop pre-surgery rehabilitation program and prioritize patients that may benefit the most from them. Such programs could include interventions to reduce psychological distress, therapeutic exercises targeting both knees and weight loss management.

  4. Concurrent Hypoparathyroidism Is Associated With Impaired Physical Function and Quality of Life in Hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikjaer, Tanja; Moser, Emil; Rolighed, Lars; Underbjerg, Line; Bislev, Lise Sofie; Mosekilde, Leif; Rejnmark, Lars

    2016-07-01

    Total thyroidectomy causes postsurgical hypothyroidism (HypoT). Besides HypoT, as a complication patients may also develop hypoparathyroidism (HypoPT). The aim of this study was to assess quality of life (QoL), muscle function, and postural stability in patients with postsurgical hypothyroidism and hypoparathyroidism (HypoT+PT) as compared to patients with postsurgical HypoT and healthy controls. Age- and gender-matched patients on treatment for HypoT+PT and HypoT were recruited from our outpatient clinic. Matched healthy controls were recruited from the general background population. Compared with controls, HypoT was associated with a significantly lower mental summary score, whereas patients with HypoT+PT had a significantly lower physical summary score (Short Form 36 Health Survey questionnaire version 2). Moreover, the physical component score was significantly lower in patients with HypoT+PT compared with HypoT. WHO-5 well-being index was significantly lower in both groups of patients compared with controls, but did not differ between groups of patients. Compared with controls, muscle strength and maximal force production was significantly reduced in HypoT+PT, but not in HypoT. In HypoT+PT, the time spent on the Timed Up & Go test and the Repeated Chair Stands test were significantly longer than in the HypoT group and the control group. Postsurgical HypoT+PT is associated with a more severe impairment of QoL, in particular regarding physical functioning, than HypoT. HypoT+PT patients are also hampered by impaired muscle function. Studies on how to improve well-being and muscle function in HypoT+PT patients are warranted. © 2016 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. © 2016 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  5. Mid-term shoulder functional and quality of life outcomes after shoulder replacement in obese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Heather K; Struk, Aimee M; Reed, Austin; Wright, Thomas W

    2016-01-01

    Shoulder pain and loss of function are directly associated with obesity. We hypothesized that significant interactions would exist between total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA) and reverse total shoulder arthroplasty (RSA) and obesity status on functional and quality of life (QOL) outcomes over the long term. Clinical and QOL outcomes (American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons Evaluation form, Shoulder Pain and Disability Index, University of California at Los Angeles Shoulder Rating scale, Medical Outcomes Short Form 12 (SF-12), range of motion (ROM), and strength) were longitudinally compared in patients with low and high body mass index (BMI) after a TSA or a RSA. Prospectively collected data of patients with a TSA or RSA were reviewed (N = 310). Preoperative, 2-year, and final follow-up visits were included (range 3-17 years; mean 5.0 ± 2.5 years). Patient data were stratified for analysis using BMI. Morbidly obese patients had worse preoperative functional scores and QOL compared to the other groups. There were no significant interactions of BMI group by surgery type for any of the outcome variables except for active external rotation ROM. Morbidly obese patients attained lower SF-12 scores compared to the remaining groups at each time point. Both TSA and RSA can be expected to impart positive functional outcomes in patients irrespective of BMI. Morbidly obese patients do not attain the same gains in Medical Outcomes SF-12 scores as the non-morbidly obese patients. The lower improvements in active external ROM may be due to morphological limitations of excessive adiposity. This is a level II study.

  6. Evaluation of Exercise Performance, Cardiac Function, and Quality of Life in Children After Liver Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandekerckhove, Kristof; Coomans, Ilse; De Bruyne, Elke; De Groote, Katya; Panzer, Joseph; De Wolf, Daniel; Boone, Jan; De Bruyne, Ruth

    2016-07-01

    In children, after having liver transplantation (LT), it is important to assess the quality of life (QOL). Physical fitness is an important determinant of QOL, and because cardiac function can influence exercise performance, it is the purpose of the present study to assess these factors. Children in stable follow-up for more than 6 months post-LT were invited to participate in a case control study. Patients underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing and echocardiography to assess systolic and diastolic function, and left ventricular wall dimensions. Health-related QOL was evaluated using child- and adolescent-reported PedsQL questionnaire. Twenty-eight of 31 included patients performed a maximal exercise test (15 boys, 11.6 ± 2.9 years, weight, 40.9 ± 13.1 kg; length, 148.6 ± 17.3 cm; body mass index, 17.6 ± 2.3). Liver transplantation patients had lower maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max/kg) (37.5 ± 9.3 mL/kg per minute vs 44.1 ± 8.8 mL/kg per minute), shorter exercise duration (9.3 ± 2.8 minutes vs 13.3 ± 3 minutes) and lower load (71 ± 14 vs 85 ± 20%). They reached the ventilatory anaerobic threshold earlier (81.4 ± 9.5 vs 88.3 ± 11.9%). Echocardiography demonstrated increased interventricular septal wall thickness (interventricular septum in diastole Z value, +0.45 ± 0.49, P exercise testing. Health-related QOL showed lower overall, emotional, psychosocial, and school functioning scores. Children on antihypertensive medication had impaired physical functioning compared with other LT patients. Lower physical fitness level, more deconditioning and lower health-related QOL in children after LT emphasize the importance of exercise stimulation and fitness programs. Patients on antihypertensive medication seem to be the most vulnerable group suffering from decreased physical fitness.

  7. [Relationship between Quality of Life (QOL) and cognitive function among community-dwelling elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konagaya, Yoko; Watanabe, Tomoyuki; Ohta, Toshiki; Takata, Kazuko

    2009-03-01

    It has become important for elderly to live better rather than to live longer. There have been many reports about quality of life (QOL) of the elderly, but we have no knowledge about the relation between the QOL and the cognitive function. We investigated the relationship between the QOL and the cognitive function among community-dwelling elderly. A total of 12,059 community-dwelling elderly were invited to join a cognitive screening study by telephone (TICS-J) combined with a mailed QOL questionnaire. Among them, 1,920 subjects (age 71.87+/-5.50 (mean+/-SD) years old, duration of education 11.08+/-2.61 years) who completed both TICS-J and QOL questionnaire were actually measured. TICS-J was administered by the previously reported method, and the QOL questionnaire was developed based on the component of QOL proposed by Lawton, and consisted of 6 subscales (daily activity, satisfaction with health, satisfaction with human support, satisfaction with economic state, symptoms of depression, and positive mental attitude). Correlations were analyzed among the scores of TICS-J, age, duration of education, and scores on each QOL subscale. Multiple linear regression analysis was conducted after QOL subscale scores, adjusting for gender, age, and duration of education, were entered as dependent variables. Four out of 6 subscales scores of QOL showed significant differences between men and women. All QOL subscale scores showed significant differences between the two groups in the TICS-J scores. Partial correlations were seen among TICS-J scores and each QOL subscale score. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed significant influence of cognitive function by TICS-J on QOL subscales scores. Cognitive function was considered to have more influence on QOL scores than gender or age. TICS-J and the QOL questionnaire in this study were useful to evaluate the outcome of welfare in community-dwelling elderly.

  8. Early life stress determines the effects of glucocorticoids and stress on hippocampal function: Electrophysiological and behavioral evidence respectively.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Anup G; Arp, Marit; Velzing, Els; Lesuis, Sylvie L; Schmidt, Mathias V; Holsboer, Florian; Joëls, Marian; Krugers, Harm J

    2018-05-01

    Exposure to early-life adversity may program brain function to prepare individuals for adaptation to matching environmental contexts. In this study we tested this hypothesis in more detail by examining the effects of early-life stress - induced by raising offspring with limited nesting and bedding material from postnatal days 2-9 - in various behavioral tasks and on synaptic function in adult mice. Early-life stress impaired adult performance in the hippocampal dependent low-arousing object-in-context recognition memory task. This effect was absent when animals were exposed to a single stressor before training. Early-life stress did not alter high-arousing context and auditory fear conditioning. Early-life stress-induced behavioral modifications were not associated with alterations in the dendritic architecture of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons or principal neurons of the basolateral amygdala. However, early-life stress reduced the ratio of NMDA to AMPA receptor-mediated excitatory postsynaptic currents and glutamate release probability specifically in hippocampal CA1 neurons, but not in the basolateral amygdala. These ex vivo effects in the hippocampus were abolished by acute glucocorticoid treatment. Our findings support that early-life stress can hamper object-in-context learning via pre- and postsynaptic mechanisms that affect hippocampal function but these effects are counteracted by acute stress or elevated glucocorticoid levels. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Life prediction for high temperature low cycle fatigue of two kinds of titanium alloys based on exponential function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, G. Y.; Mi, X. Z.; Wang, F.

    2018-01-01

    The high temperature low cycle fatigue tests of TC4 titanium alloy and TC11 titanium alloy are carried out under strain controlled. The relationships between cyclic stress-life and strain-life are analyzed. The high temperature low cycle fatigue life prediction model of two kinds of titanium alloys is established by using Manson-Coffin method. The relationship between failure inverse number and plastic strain range presents nonlinear in the double logarithmic coordinates. Manson-Coffin method assumes that they have linear relation. Therefore, there is bound to be a certain prediction error by using the Manson-Coffin method. In order to solve this problem, a new method based on exponential function is proposed. The results show that the fatigue life of the two kinds of titanium alloys can be predicted accurately and effectively by using these two methods. Prediction accuracy is within ±1.83 times scatter zone. The life prediction capability of new methods based on exponential function proves more effective and accurate than Manson-Coffin method for two kinds of titanium alloys. The new method based on exponential function can give better fatigue life prediction results with the smaller standard deviation and scatter zone than Manson-Coffin method. The life prediction results of two methods for TC4 titanium alloy prove better than TC11 titanium alloy.

  10. Neurologic Functional and Quality of Life Outcomes after TBI: Clinic Attendees versus Non-Attendees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Mayur B; Wilson, Laura D; Bregman, Jana A; Leath, Taylor C; Humble, Stephen S; Davidson, Mario A; de Riesthal, Michael R; Guillamondegui, Oscar D

    2015-07-01

    This investigation describes the relationship between TBI patient demographics, quality of life outcome, and functional status outcome among clinic attendees and non-attendees. Of adult TBI survivors with intracranial hemorrhage, 63 attended our TBI clinic and 167 did not attend. All were telephone surveyed using the Extended-Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOSE), the Quality of Life after Brain Injury (QOLIBRI) scale, and a post-discharge therapy questionnaire. To determine risk factors for GOSE and QOLIBRI outcomes, we created multivariable regression models employing covariates of age, injury characteristics, clinic attendance, insurance status, post-discharge rehabilitation, and time from injury. Compared with those with severe TBI, higher GOSE scores were identified in individuals with both mild (odds ratio [OR]=2.0; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.1-3.6) and moderate (OR=4.7; 95% CI: 1.6-14.1) TBIs. In addition, survivors with private insurance had higher GOSE scores, compared with those with public insurance (OR=2.0; 95% CI: 1.1-3.6), workers' compensation (OR=8.4; 95% CI: 2.6-26.9), and no insurance (OR=3.1; 95% CI: 1.6-6.2). Compared with those with severe TBI, QOLIBRI scores were 11.7 points (95% CI: 3.7-19.7) higher in survivors with mild TBI and 17.3 points (95% CI: 3.2-31.5) higher in survivors with moderate TBI. In addition, survivors who received post-discharge rehabilitation had higher QOLIBRI scores by 11.4 points (95% CI: 3.7-19.1) than those who did not. Survivors with private insurance had QOLIBRI scores that were 25.5 points higher (95% CI: 11.3-39.7) than those with workers' compensation and 16.8 points higher (95% CI: 7.4-26.2) than those without insurance. Because neurologic injury severity, insurance status, and receipt of rehabilitation or therapy are independent risk factors for functional and quality of life outcomes, future directions will include improving earlier access to post-TBI rehabilitation, social work services, affordable insurance

  11. [Evaluation of the Function and Quality of Life after Total Hip Arthroplasty by Different Approaches].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Paulo; Machado, Luís; Cadavez, Duarte; Mónaco, Lisete; Januário, Filipa; Luís, Lisete; Bártolo, Mafalda

    2017-09-29

    To assess the function and quality of life in patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty distinguishing two surgical approaches (posterior / anterolateral) used by the Orthopedics department of Centro Hospitalar de Leiria. Retrospective study of 94 patients subject to unilateral hip replacement surgery, using the 'Hip Osteoarthritis Outcome Score' (HOOS LK 2.0) questionnaire, the Trendelenburg test and evaluation of muscle strength of the hip abductor muscles with dynamometer. Patients were evaluated at six months, 12 months, 18 months and 24 months after surgery. The study revealed that 97.9% patients completed the rehabilitation program. The postoperative evolution (six to 24 months) does not appear to have any differences in results when comparing both approaches. At six months the patient operated by the anterolateral approach showed worse results when compared with the posterior approach, in particular in Hip Osteoarthritis Outcome Score pain, in Hip Osteoarthritis Outcome Score symptoms and Hip Osteoarthritis Outcome Score activities of daily living. After 24 months, no differences between the two surgical approaches were found. Of the 94 patients evaluated, the Trendelenburg test was positive in 31% of patients of which 81.9% corresponds to patients operated by the anterolateral approach. Muscle strength of the abductors of the operated hip was clearly lower in the anterolateral approach at six months, 12 months, and 24 months. This study showed that, in the first six months after total hip arthroplasty, the patients operated by the posterior approach were, according to the HOOS questionnaire, less symptomatic, and presented with better quality of life and less impact on activities of daily living and in sport and leisure when compared with the patients operated by the anterolateral approach. However, these differences were matched over the 24 months. Moreover, the results of muscle strength of the abductor muscles of the hip were clearly superior in

  12. Family functioning in severe brain injuries: correlations with caregivers' burden, perceived social support and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tramonti, Francesco; Bonfiglio, Luca; Di Bernardo, Carolina; Ulivi, Chiara; Virgillito, Alessandra; Rossi, Bruno; Carboncini, Maria Chiara

    2015-01-01

    Severe brain injuries have long-term consequences on functional status and psychosocial functioning. Family life can be greatly influenced as well, and features of high caregiver burden can emerge. Although the data on caregivers' distress are constantly increasing, less information is available about the role of family functioning. Thirty caregivers of hospitalised patients with severe brain injuries received questionnaires for the evaluation of caregiver burden, family functioning and perceived social support. A semi-structured interview was performed for the evaluation of quality of life. Family cohesion and adaptability positively correlated with caregivers' quality of life and perceived social support. Partner caregivers' scores were significantly higher on the time-dependent burden than those of sons and daughters, whereas the latter scored higher on the emotional burden.

  13. Self-Reported Executive Functioning in Everyday Life in Parkinson's Disease after Three Months of Subthalamic Deep Brain Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Uyen Ha Gia; Andersson, Stein; Toft, Mathias; Pripp, Are Hugo; Konglund, Ane Eidahl; Dietrichs, Espen; Malt, Ulrik Fredrik; Skogseid, Inger Marie; Haraldsen, Ira Ronit Hebolt; Solbakk, Anne-Kristin

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Studies on the effect of subthalamic deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) on executive functioning in Parkinson's disease (PD) are still controversial. In this study we compared self-reported daily executive functioning in PD patients before and after three months of STN-DBS. We also examined whether executive functioning in everyday life was associated with motor symptoms, apathy, and psychiatric symptoms. Method. 40 PD patients were examined with the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult Version (BRIEF-A), the Symptom Checklist 90-Revised (SCL-90-R), and the Apathy Evaluation Scale (AES-S). Results. PD patients reported significant improvement in daily life executive functioning after 3 months of STN-DBS. Anxiety scores significantly declined, while other psychiatric symptoms remained unchanged. The improvement of self-reported executive functioning did not correlate with motor improvement after STN-DBS. Apathy scores remained unchanged after surgery. Only preoperative depressed mood had predictive value to the improvement of executive function and appears to prevent potentially favorable outcomes from STN-DBS on some aspects of executive function. Conclusion. PD patients being screened for STN-DBS surgery should be evaluated with regard to self-reported executive functioning. Depressive symptoms in presurgical PD patients should be treated. Complementary information about daily life executive functioning in PD patients might enhance further treatment planning of STN-DBS.

  14. Functional outcome of gastrointestinal tract and quality of life after esophageal reconstruction of esophagus cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manochehr Aghajanzade; Feizollah Safarpour; M Reza Koohsari; Hadi Tozandehgani; Ghanaei, Farborz M; Bodaghi, Sadigheh M

    2009-01-01

    Information about functional outcome and quality of life after esophagectomy and esophageal reconstruction (ER) for the treatment of esophageal cancer, as evaluated by the patients themselves is limited. We aimed to study the post-surgical outcome of such patients to detect for the development of any complications that may arise from the surgery as well as to evaluate their quality of life following the surgery. From 1993 to 2003, 240 patients with stage 1, 2, or 3 esophageal carcinoma underwent esophagectomy at Razi Teaching Hospital located in the north of Iran. Of these, 192 patients filled out a questionnaire during a 2-year period (ranging from 12 to 48 months after surgical reconstruction). Among them, there were 134 men (69%) and 58 women (31%), and the mean age at the time of ER was 48 years (ranging from 22 to 75 years). Transhiatal esophagectomy, extended esophagectomy (three field operation), and Ivor-Lewis resection were done in 142 (73.95%), 30 (15.62%), and 20 patients (10.42%), respectively. Intestinal continuity after esophageal resection was established with stomach in 154 patients (80%), colon in 28 patients (14%), and small bowel in 10 patients (5.2%). Cervical anastomosis was established in 172 patients (89.6%), while intrathoracic anastomosis was performed in 20 patients (10.4%). After ER, 66 patients (34.4%) suffered from dysphagia to solids and 50 patients (26%) required at least one or three postoperative dilatations for alleviation of symptoms. Gastroesophageal reflux was seen in 32 patients (16.66%) and was more common in thoracic anastomosis patients than in cervical anastomosis patients. Heartburn was present in 33 cases (17%), 30 of whom required medication (37%). The number of meals per day was three to four in 116 patients (60%), more than four in 51 patients (29%), and less than three in 19 patients (9.82%). The number of bowel movement per day increased in 52 patients (27%), decreased in 60 cases (31%), and unchanged in 80 patients

  15. Second-generation long-acting injectable antipsychotics in schizophrenia: patient functioning and quality of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montemagni C

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Cristiana Montemagni,1,2 Tiziana Frieri,1,2 Paola Rocca1,2 1Department of Neuroscience, Unit of Psychiatry, University of Turin, 2Department of Mental Health, Azienda Sanitaria Locale (ASL Torino 1 (TO1, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria (AOU Città della Salute e della Scienza di Torino, Turin, Italy Abstract: Long-acting injectable antipsychotics (LAIs were developed to make treatment easier, improve adherence, and/or signal the clinician when nonadherence occurs. Second-generation antipsychotic LAIs (SGA-LAIs combine the advantages of SGA with a long-acting formulation. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the available literature concerning the impact of SGA-LAIs on patient functioning and quality of life (QOL. Although several studies regarding schizophrenia patients’ functioning and QOL have been performed, the quantity of available data still varies greatly depending on the SGA-LAI under investigation. After reviewing the literature, it seems that SGA-LAIs are effective in ameliorating patient functioning and/or QOL of patients with schizophrenia, as compared with placebo. However, while methodological design controversy exists regarding the superiority of risperidone LAI versus oral antipsychotics, the significant amount of evidence in recently published research demonstrates the beneficial influence of risperidone LAI on patient functioning and QOL in stable patients and no benefit over oral treatment in unstable patients. However, the status of the research on SGA-LAIs is lacking in several aspects that may help physicians in choosing the correct drug therapy. Meaningful differences have been observed between SGA-LAIs in the onset of their clinical efficacy and in the relationships between symptoms and functioning scores. Moreover, head-to-head studies comparing the effects of SGA-LAIs on classical measures of psychopathology and functioning are available mainly on risperidone LAI, while those comparing olanzapine LAI with other

  16. Anorectal Function and Quality of Life in Patients With Early Stage Rectal Cancer Treated With Chemoradiation and Local Excision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Patricio B; Renfro, Lindsay A; Carrero, Xiomara W; Shi, Qian; Strombom, Paul L; Chow, Oliver; Garcia-Aguilar, Julio

    2017-05-01

    Little is known about anorectal function and quality of life after chemoradiation followed by local excision, which is an alternative to total mesorectal excision for selected patients with early rectal cancer. The purpose of this study was to prospectively assess anorectal function and health-related quality of life of patients with T2N0 rectal cancer who were treated with an alternative approach. This was a prospective, phase II trial. The study was multicentric (American College of Surgeons Oncology Group trial Z6041). Patients with stage cT2N0 rectal adenocarcinomas were treated with an oxaliplatin/capecitabine-based chemoradiation regimen followed by local excision. Anorectal function and quality of life were assessed at enrollment and 1 year postoperatively with the Fecal Incontinence Severity Index, Fecal Incontinence Quality of Life scale, and Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Colorectal Questionnaire. Results were compared, and multivariable analysis was performed to identify predictors of outcome. Seventy-one patients (98%) were evaluated at enrollment and 66 (92%) at 1 year. Compared with baseline, no significant differences were found on Fecal Incontinence Severity Index scores at 1 year. Fecal Incontinence Quality of Life results were significantly worse in the lifestyle (p Cancer Therapy overall score, but the physical well-being subscale was significantly worse and emotional well-being was improved after surgery. Treatment with the original chemoradiation regimen predicted worse depression/self-perception and embarrassment scores in the Fecal Incontinence Quality of Life, and male sex was predictive of worse scores in the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy overall score and trial outcome index. Small sample size, relatively short follow-up, and absence of information before cancer diagnosis were study limitations. Chemoradiation followed by local excision had minimal impact on anorectal function 1 year after surgery. Overall quality of

  17. The long-term impact of autoimmune pancreatitis on pancreatic function, quality of life, and life expectancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijs, Jorie; Cahen, Djuna L.; Van Heerde, Marianne J.; Rauws, Erik A.; De Buy Wenniger, Lucas J Maillette; Hansen, Bettina E.; Biermann, Katharina; Verheij, Joanne; Vleggaar, FP; Brink, Menno A.; Beuers, Ulrich H W; Van Buuren, Henk R.; Bruno, Marco J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the long-termoutcome of autoimmune pancreatitis. Methods: Patients with at least 2 years of follow-up were included. Information was collected regarding disease characteristics, treatment outcome, diagnosedmalignancies, andmortality. In addition, pancreatic function and

  18. Model for Predicting Traffic Signs Functional Service Life – The Republic of Croatia Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Babić

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Traffic signs are the basic elements of communication between the relevant road authorities and road users. They manage, regulate, inform and warn road users to ensure their safe movement throughout transport networks. Traffic signs must be timely visible to all traffic participants in all weather and traffic conditions in order to fulfil their function, which means they must have satisfactory retroreflection properties. This paper presents a research of the deterioration of traffic signs retroreflection. The aim of this article is to develop models that will effectively enable predicting the retroreflection of traffic signs and thus optimize the maintenance activities and replacement of road signs to increase road safety. The research included measurements of retroreflection of retroreflective material Classes I and II (white, red and blue colour and Class III (red and yellow colour. Based on the collected data from the City of Zagreb (Republic of Croatia, the authors developed the models to estimate the functional service life of certain colours and materials used to make traffic signs. Considering that the average coefficient of determination for all the models is between 0.55-0.60, they present an effective tool in the traffic sign maintenance system.

  19. Olfactory function and quality of life following microscopic endonasal transsphenoidal pituitary surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shousen; Chen, Yehuang; Li, Jianzhong; Wei, Liangfeng; Wang, Rumi

    2015-01-01

    Olfactory outcomes as well as oronasal postoperative complications of transsphenoidal pituitary surgery have not been well studied. The objective of this study was to investigate nasal symptoms including olfactory function as well as quality of life following transsphenoidal pituitary surgery. The study is designed as a prospective cohort study set in a single tertiary hospital. A total of 53 patients with pituitary adenomas were included. All patients underwent pituitary surgery with the right-sided endonasal transsphenoidal approach. Outcomes were assessed with the Chinese version of the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 (SF-36) to survey patient health, the Chinese version of the 22-item Sinonasal Outcome Test (SNOT-22), and a Toyota and Takagi (T&T) olfactometer. Assessments were carried out before surgery and at 1 week, and 1 and 4 months after surgery. The overall SF-36 scores were significantly lower, but the SNOT-22 scores were higher at 1 week and 1 month postoperatively compared with baseline (all P surgery were independent risk factors for a higher SNOT-22 score at 1 week after surgery. The findings show that microscopic endonasal transsphenoidal pituitary surgery impairs olfactory function in most patients for at least 4 months after surgery.

  20. How emotional abilities modulate the influence of early life stress on hippocampal functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aust, Sabine; Alkan Härtwig, Elif; Koelsch, Stefan; Heekeren, Hauke R; Heuser, Isabella; Bajbouj, Malek

    2014-07-01

    Early life stress (ELS) is known to have considerable influence on brain development, mental health and affective functioning. Previous investigations have shown that alexithymia, a prevalent personality trait associated with difficulties experiencing and verbalizing emotions, is particularly related to ELS. The aim of the present study was to investigate how neural correlates of emotional experiences in alexithymia are altered in the presence and absence of ELS. Therefore, 50 healthy individuals with different levels of alexithymia were matched regarding ELS and investigated with respect to neural correlates of audio-visually induced emotional experiences via functional magnetic resonance imaging. The main finding was that ELS modulated hippocampal responses to pleasant (>neutral) stimuli in high-alexithymic individuals, whereas there was no such modulation in low-alexithymic individuals matched for ELS. Behavioral and psychophysiological results followed a similar pattern. When considered independent of ELS, alexithymia was associated with decreased responses in insula (pleasant > neutral) and temporal pole (unpleasant > neutral). Our results show that the influence of ELS on emotional brain responses seems to be modulated by an individual's degree of alexithymia. Potentially, protective and adverse effects of emotional abilities on brain responses to emotional experiences are discussed. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Quality of life and functionality after non-cemented total hiparthroplasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, Z.A.; Arif, U.; Aslam, M.N.; Bilal, A.; Khan, M.N.B.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the functional outcome of non-cemented total hip arthroplasty in terms of pain relief, functional capacity, range of motion and absence of deformity using Harris hip score. Study Design: Descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: From January 2012 to December 2012, at Nawaz Sharif Social Security Teaching Hospital, Lahore (University College Medicine and Dentistry). Subject and Methods: Thirty patients meeting the inclusion criteria were admitted through orthopedics outpatient department of Nawaz Sharif social security hospital Lahore. Pre operative Harris scoring was done and was compared with the post operative score to find the improvement. Results: Mean age of patients was 52.53 +- 18.21 years, and 17 were males and 13 females. Average pre operative Harris Hip score was 23.77 +- 9.50 and post-operative score 87.90 +- 10.42. Conclusion: It was concluded that THR is a safe surgical procedure with promising results in relieving pain, improving movements and upgrading the quality of life. (author)

  2. Quality of life and functional outcome after resection of pancreatic cystic neoplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Gaag, Niels A; Berkhemer, Olvert A; Sprangers, Mirjam A; Busch, Olivier R C; Bruno, Marco J; de Castro, Steve M; van Gulik, Thomas M; Gouma, Dirk J

    2014-07-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the long-term quality of life (QOL) after the resection of a primary pancreatic cyst and to determine predictors of outcome. Secondary outcomes were pancreatic function and survival. One hundred eight consecutive patients, who underwent resection between 1992 and 2007 and had nearly 60 months follow-up, were reviewed. Questionnaires and function tests were collected during scheduled outpatient clinic visits. At follow-up, 20 patients had died. Five-year overall survival was 94% for benign and 62% for malignant neoplasia. Of 88 living patients, 65 (74%) returned questionnaires. Generic physical and mental QOL scores were equal or better compared with healthy references. None of the disease-specific symptom scales were above mean 50, implicating none to mild complaints. Independent predictors for good generic QOL were young age (P endocrine insufficiency (P Endocrine insufficiency prevalence was 40%, and 59% for exocrine insufficiency. After cyst resection, long-term QOL is equal to healthy references, pancreatic insufficiency is prevalent but does not impair QOL, and survival relates positive compared with solid pancreatic adenocarcinoma. The excellent long-term outcome justifies proceeding with surgery once a medical indication for resection has been established.

  3. Selective neurocognitive deficits and poor life functioning are associated with significant depressive symptoms in alcoholism-HIV infection comorbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassoon, Stephanie A; Rosenbloom, Margaret J; Fama, Rosemary; Sullivan, Edith V; Pfefferbaum, Adolf

    2012-09-30

    Alcoholism, HIV, and depressive symptoms frequently co-occur and are associated with impairment in cognition and life function. We administered the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), measures of life function, and neurocognitive tests to 67 alcoholics, 56 HIV+ patients, 63 HIV+ alcoholics, and 64 controls to examine whether current depressive symptom level (significant, BDI-II>14 vs. minimal, BDI-IIalcoholism-HIV comorbidity. Participants with significant depressive symptoms demonstrated slower manual motor speed and poorer visuospatial memory than those with minimal depressive symptoms. HIV patients with depressive symptoms showed impaired manual motor speed. Alcoholics with depressive symptoms showed impaired visuospatial memory. HIV+ alcoholics with depressive symptoms reported the poorest quality of life; alcoholics with depressive symptoms, irrespective of HIV status, had poorest life functioning. Thus, significant depressive symptoms were associated with poorer selective cognitive and life functioning in alcoholism and in HIV infection, even though depressive symptoms had neither synergistic nor additive effects on cognition in alcoholism-HIV comorbidity. The results suggest the relevance of assessing and treating current depressive symptoms to reduce cognitive compromise and functional disability in HIV infection, alcoholism, and their comorbidity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A longitudinal study of quality of life and functional status in total hip and total knee replacement patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandzuk, Lynda L; McMillan, Diana E; Bohm, Eric R

    2015-05-01

    Primary total hip and primary total knee surgeries are commonly performed to improve patients' quality of life and functional status. This longitudinal retrospective study (N = 851) examined self-reported quality of life and functional status over the preoperative and postoperative periods: 12 months prior to surgery, one month prior to surgery and 12 months following surgery. A linear mixed effects model was used to analyze the changes in quality of life and functional status over the sampling period. Patients in the convenience sample reported improvements in quality of life and functional status utilizing the SF-12 and Oxford Hip and Oxford Knee, although differences were noted by procedure and gender. Total hip patients tended to demonstrate greater improvement than total knee patients and males reported higher levels of physical and mental quality of life as well as functional status when compared to females. Of particular note was that mental health scores were consistently lower in both total hip and total knee replacement patients across the perioperative period and up to one year postoperative. This study identifies an opportunity for health care providers to proactively address the mental health of total hip and total knee replacement patients throughout their joint replacement trajectory. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Late-life deficits in cognitive, physical and emotional functions, childhood intelligence and occupational profile: a life-course examination of the Aberdeen 1936 Birth Cohort (ABC1936).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapko, Dorota; Staff, Roger T; McNeil, Christopher J; Whalley, Lawrence J; Black, Corri; Murray, Alison D

    2016-07-01

    the 'triad of impairment' phenomenon describes the co-occurrence of age-related cognitive, emotional and physical functioning deficits. We investigated how occupational profile and childhood intelligence contribute to the triad of impairment in late life. we analysed data of a subsample of the Aberdeen Birth Cohort of 1936 (n = 346). Data were collected on participants' childhood intelligence, late-life cognitive ability, physical functioning, depressive symptoms and main lifetime occupation. We summarised the various occupational and impairment measures into two latent variables, 'occupational profile' and the 'triad of impairment'. We used a series of data reduction approaches and structural equation models (SEMs) of increasing complexity to test both the validity of the models and to understand causal relationships between the life-course risks for the triad of impairment. occupational profile had a significant effect on the triad of impairment independent of childhood intelligence. Childhood intelligence was the predominant influence on the triad of impairment and exerted its effect directly and indirectly via its influence on occupation. The direct effect of childhood intelligence exceeded the independent influence of the occupational profile on impairment by a factor of 1.7-1.8 and was greater by a factor of ∼4 from the indirect pathway (via occupation). childhood intelligence was the predominant influence on the triad of impairment in late life, independently of the occupational profile. Efforts to reduce impairment in older adults should be informed by a life-course approach with special attention to the early-life environment. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Sleep disturbance relates to neuropsychological functioning in late-life depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naismith, Sharon L; Rogers, Naomi L; Lewis, Simon J G; Terpening, Zoë; Ip, Tony; Diamond, Keri; Norrie, Louisa; Hickie, Ian B

    2011-07-01

    Sleep-wake disturbance in older people is a risk factor for depression onset and recurrence. The aim of this study was to determine if objective sleep-wake disturbance in late-life depression relates to neuropsychological functioning. Forty-four older patients with a lifetime history of major depression and 22 control participants underwent psychiatric, medical and neuropsychological assessments. Participants completed self-report sleep measures, sleep diaries and wore wrist actigraphy for two weeks. Outcome measures included sleep latency, the number and duration of nocturnal awakenings and the overall sleep efficiency. Patients with depression had a greater duration of nocturnal awakenings and poorer sleep efficiency, in comparison to control participants. Sleep disturbance in patients was associated with greater depression severity and later ages of depression onset. It also related to poorer psychomotor speed, poorer verbal and visual learning, poorer semantic fluency as well as poorer performance on tests of executive functioning. These relationships largely remained significant after controlling for depression and estimated apnoea severity. This sample had only mild levels of depression severity and results require replication in patients with moderate to severe depression. The inclusion of polysomnography and circadian markers would be useful to delineate the specific features of sleep-wake disturbance that are critical to cognitive performance. Sleep-wake disturbance in older patients with depression is related to neuropsychological functioning and to later ages of illness onset. This study suggests that common neurobiological changes may underpin these disease features, which may, in turn, warrant early identification and management. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of singing classes on pulmonary function and quality of life of COPD patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Gimenes Bonilha

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Amanda Gimenes Bonilha1, Fernanda Onofre2, Maria Lucia Vieira1, Maria Yuka Almeida Prado2, José Antônio Baddini Martinez11Internal Medicine Department, Medical School of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil; 2Music Department, School of Arts and Communications, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil Trial registered at ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT 00500526Abstract: This study aimed to investigate the effects of weekly singings classes on pulmonary function parameters and quality of life (QoL of COPD patients. Forty-three patients were randomized to weekly classes of singing practice, or handcraft work. They performed spirometry and completed maximal respiratory pressure measurements, evaluations of dyspnea, and the Saint George’s Respiratory Questionnaire, before and after 24 training classes. A functional evaluation, immediately after 10 minutes of singing practice, was also performed at the end of the study. Fifteen subjects completed the study in each group. In comparison to controls the singing group exhibited transitory elevations on the dyspnea Borg scale (p = 0.02, and inspiratory capacity (p = 0.01, and decreases of expiratory reserve volume (p = 0.03, just after a short session of singing. There was a significant difference on changes of maximal expiratory pressures in the comparison between groups at the end of training. While the control group showed deterioration of maximal expiratory pressure, the singing group exhibited a small improvement (p = 0.05. Both groups showed significant improvements of QoL in within group comparisons. We have concluded that singing classes are a well tolerated activity for selected subjects with COPD. Regular practice of singing may improve QoL, and preserve the maximal expiratory pressure of these patients.Keywords: COPD; pulmonary function tests; breathing exercises

  8. Treated and Untreated Remission from Problem Drinking in Late Life: Post-Remission Functioning and Health-Related Quality of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutte, Kathleen K.; Brennan, Penny L.; Moos, Rudolf H.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the post-remission status of older remitted problem drinkers who achieved stable remission without treatment. Method The post-remission drinking behavior, health-related functioning, life context, coping, and help-seeking of older, untreated (n = 330) and treated (n = 120) former problem drinkers who had been remitted for a minimum of six years were compared twice over the course of six-years to each other and to lifetime nonproblem drinkers (n = 232). Analyses considered the impact of severity of drinking problem history. Results Untreated remitters were more likely than treated remitters to continue to drink, exhibited fewer chronic health problems and less depressive symptomatology, and were less likely to smoke. Untreated remitters’ life contexts were somewhat more benign than those of treated ones, and they were less likely to describe a coping motive for drinking and engage in post-remission help-seeking. Although untreated remitters more closely resembled lifetime nonproblem drinkers than did treated remitters, both untreated and treated remitter groups exhibited worse health-related functioning, more financial and interpersonal stressors, and more post-remission help-seeking than did lifetime nonproblem drinkers. Conclusions Regardless of whether late-life remission was gained without or with treatment, prior drinking problems conveyed a legacy of health-related and life context deficits. PMID:18829184

  9. Metabotypes with properly functioning mitochondria and anti-inflammation predict extended productive life span in dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, K.; Dänicke, S.; Rehage, J.; Sauerwein, H.; Otto, W.; Rolle-Kampczyk, U.; von Bergen, M.

    2016-01-01

    The failure to adapt metabolism to the homeorhetic demands of lactation is considered as a main factor in reducing the productive life span of dairy cows. The so far defined markers of production performance and metabolic health in dairy cows do not predict the length of productive life span satisfyingly. This study aimed to identify novel pathways and biomarkers related to productive life in dairy cows by means of (targeted) metabolomics. In a longitudinal study from 42 days before up to 100 days after parturition, we identified metabolites such as long-chain acylcarnitines and biogenic amines associated with extended productive life spans. These metabolites are mainly secreted by the liver and depend on the functionality of hepatic mitochondria. The concentrations of biogenic amines and some acylcarnitines differed already before the onset of lactation thus indicating their predictive potential for continuation or early ending of productive life. PMID:27089826

  10. Late-life functional capacity and health among Finnish war veterans:Veteran Project 1992 and 2004 surveys

    OpenAIRE

    Leskinen, R. (Riitta)

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Becoming involved in war is an experience that has the potential to shape later-life health. The aim of the present study was to explore Finnish Second World War veterans’ health status and the determinants of self-rated health (SRH) and functional capacity, especially the ability to walk, and to identify risk factors and their combinations that predict late-life mortality among veterans. The study population comprised Finnish Second World War veterans who participated in the ...

  11. Bowel function and quality of life after colostomy in individuals with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bølling Hansen, Rikke; Staun, Michael; Kalhauge, Anna; Langholz, Ebbe; Biering-Sørensen, Fin

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate the effect of colostomy on bowel function and quality of life (QoL) in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). Cross-sectional descriptive study. Department for Spinal Cord Injuries and Departments of Gastroenterology and Radiology, Rigshospitalet. Eighteen individuals with SCI and a colostomy performed post injury, 12 males, 6 females, 8 with tetraplegia and 10 with paraplegia. Median age at time of study was 49.9 years, years since lesion was 3-56 years, and time since colostomy was performed 0.5 to 20 years. Questionnaires and measurement of gastrointestinal transit time (GITT). Retrospective data collection from patient records, a questionnaire on bowel management pre and post colostomy, quality of life (QoL) by SF-36, and GITT. Seventy-two percent significantly reduced their use of time on bowel emptying after the colostomy. All but one reported being content with the colostomy. Thirty-nine percent reported one or more problems related to the colostomy. Seventy-five percent had a GITT within normal range for able-bodied populations. When disregarding the physical component, QoL was not significantly lower in the total study group compared to a Danish norm group, but significantly lower when compared the subgroup of persons with tetraplegia. A colostomy reduces the time necessary for bowel management. The majority of individuals with SCI and a colostomy did not perceive bowel management as being a problem. The results indicate that colostomy is a favourable option for individuals with SCI, who spend long hours on bowel management and for whom non-invasive procedures did not improve the situation enough.

  12. The Impact of Ostomy on Quality of Life and Functional Status of Crohn's Disease Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalla, Maisa I; Sandler, Robert S; Kappelman, Michael D; Martin, Christopher F; Chen, Wenli; Anton, Kristen; Long, Millie D

    2016-11-01

    The potential need for an ostomy is a main concern for patients with inflammatory bowel disease. We performed this study to evaluate the impact of a long-term ostomy (≥6 mo duration) on the functional status and specific patient-reported outcomes in a population of patients with Crohn's disease (CD). We performed a cross-sectional analysis within the Crohn's and Colitis Foundation of America Partners cohort. Bivariate analyses and logistic regression models were used to investigate associations between ostomy and various demographic, disease factors, and patient-reported outcomes for health-related quality of life. A total of 402 CD patients with ostomy for a minimum duration of 6 months were compared with 4331 CD patients with no ostomy. Patients with ostomy were more likely to be in clinical remission compared with those without ostomy, 48.5% versus 31.3%, respectively. Having an ostomy did not impact the overall health-related quality of life and was not associated with anxiety, depression, sleep disturbances, or reduced sexual interest and satisfaction. However, the presence of ostomy was associated with reduced social role satisfaction in both patients with controlled and active disease. Additionally, in the subset of patients who did not achieve clinical remission, those with ostomy experienced greater pain interference (odds ratio, 1.63; 95% confidence interval, 1.12-2.35) and fatigue (odds ratio, 1.66; 95% confidence interval, 1.15-2.39). Ostomy is well tolerated in CD patients, particularly when clinical remission is achieved.

  13. Effects of early-life adversity on immune function are mediated by prenatal environment: Role of prenatal alcohol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raineki, Charlis; Bodnar, Tamara S; Holman, Parker J; Baglot, Samantha L; Lan, Ni; Weinberg, Joanne

    2017-11-01

    The contribution of the early postnatal environment to the pervasive effects of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) is poorly understood. Moreover, PAE often carries increased risk of exposure to adversity/stress during early life. Dysregulation of immune function may play a role in how pre- and/or postnatal adversity/stress alters brain development. Here, we combine two animal models to examine whether PAE differentially increases vulnerability to immune dysregulation in response to early-life adversity. PAE and control litters were exposed to either limited bedding (postnatal day [PN] 8-12) to model early-life adversity or normal bedding, and maternal behavior and pup vocalizations were recorded. Peripheral (serum) and central (amygdala) immune (cytokines and C-reactive protein - CRP) responses of PAE animals to early-life adversity were evaluated at PN12. Insufficient bedding increased negative maternal behavior in both groups. Early-life adversity increased vocalization in all animals; however, PAE pups vocalized less than controls. Early-life adversity reduced serum TNF-α, KC/GRO, and IL-10 levels in control but not PAE animals. PAE increased serum CRP, and levels were even higher in pups exposed to adversity. Finally, PAE reduced KC/GRO and increased IL-10 levels in the amygdala. Our results indicate that PAE alters immune system development and both behavioral and immune responses to early-life adversity, which could have subsequent consequences for brain development and later life health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Racial differences in health-related quality of life and functional ability in patients with gout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jasvinder A; Bharat, Aseem; Khanna, Dinesh; Aquino-Beaton, Cleopatra; Persselin, Jay E; Duffy, Erin; Elashoff, David; Khanna, Puja P

    2017-01-01

    To compare the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and the functional ability by race in patients with gout. In a 9-month prospective cohort multicentre study, patients with gout self-reported race, dichotomized as Caucasian or African American (others excluded). We calculated HRQOL/function scores adjusted for age, study site and college education for Short Form-36 (SF-36; generic HRQOL), Gout Impact Scale (GIS; disease-specific HRQOL) and HAQ-disability index (HAQ-DI; functional ability). Longitudinally adjusted scores were computed using multivariable mixed-effect regression models with a random patient effect and fixed sequential visit effect (3-monthly visits). Compared with Caucasians (n = 107), African Americans (n = 60) with gout were younger (61.1 vs 67.3 years) and had higher median baseline serum urate (9.0 vs 7.9 mg/dl) (P gout had worse HRQOL scores on three SF-36 domains, the mental component summary (MCS) and two of the five GIS scales than Caucasians [mean (se); P ⩽ 0.02 for all]: SF-36 mental health, 39.7 (1.1) vs 45.2 (0.9); SF-36 role emotional, 42.1 (4.2) vs 51.4 (4.2); SF-36 social functioning, 36.0 (1.1) vs 40.0 (0.9) (P = 0.04); SF-36 MCS, 43.2 (3.1) vs 50.0 (3.2); GIS unmet treatment need, 37.6 (1.6) vs 31.5 (1.4); and GIS concern during attacks, 53.3 (3.7) vs 47.4 (3.7). Differences between the respective HAQ-DI total scores were not statistically significant; 0.98 (0.1) vs 0.80 (1.0) (P = 0.11). Racial differences in SF-36 mental health, role emotional and MCS scales exceeded, and for HAQ-DI approached, the minimal clinically important difference thresholds. African Americans with gout have significantly worse HRQOL compared with Caucasians. Further research is necessary in the form of studies targeted at African Americans on how best to improve these outcomes. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology 2016. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the

  15. Quality of life and functional capacity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis - Cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa-Gonçalves, Diana; Bernardes, Miguel; Costa, Lúcia

    2017-04-08

    To analyze the Health related Quality of Life (HRQoL) and physical function in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients and compare it with the general population. We also intended to analyze about disease activity influence in HRQoL and functional capacity, as well as determine potential determinants for these outcomes. A cross-sectional study was conducted in RA patients from a university hospital of Portugal. We obtained Short Form 36, EuroQoL 5D, health assessment questionnaire, visual analog scale for pain and patient's assessment of disease activity. Comparisons between SF-36 and EQ-5D values with our population reference values were conducted using the Mann-Whitney test. Data were compared in different levels of disease activity, using Kruskal Wallis test and Fisher's exact test. A multiple regression analysis was conducted to identify the potential determinants of outcomes. RA sample showed significantly lower values than the portuguese general population on physical summary measure of SF-36 (median=32 vs. 50, p<0.001) and EQ-5D (median=0.620 vs. 0.758 respectively; p<0.001). Lower disease activity levels had better PROs and this was true even when compared patients achieving remission with those in low disease activity. The HAQ (r 2 =67%), VAS-P (r 2 =62%) and VAS-DA (r 2 =58%) were the variables that strongly related to SF-36. Considering HAQ, the strongest relation was found with VAS-P, VAS-DA and age (r 2 =60%, 61% and 33%, respectively). Multiple regression analysis identified HAQ, VAS-P and educational status as determinants of the HRQoL; age, female gender, employment, VAS-P and VAS-DA as determinants of physical function. Impairment of HRQoL in RA patients is enormous. We found significant differences between different levels of disease activity, showing higher HRQoL and functional capacity at lower disease activity levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights

  16. Hypermobility in Adolescent Athletes: Pain, Functional Ability, Quality of Life, and Musculoskeletal Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Heidi; Pedersen, Trine Lykke; Junge, Tina; Engelbert, Raoul; Juul-Kristensen, Birgit

    2017-10-01

    Study Design Cross-sectional. Background Generalized joint hypermobility (GJH) may increase pain and likelihood of injuries and also decrease function and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in elite-level adolescent athletes. Objective To assess the prevalence of GJH in elite-level adolescent athletes, and to study the association of GJH with pain, function, HRQoL, and musculoskeletal injuries. Methods A total of 132 elite-level adolescent athletes (36 adolescent boys, 96 adolescent girls; mean ± SD age, 14.0 ± 0.9 years), including ballet dancers (n = 22), TeamGym gymnasts (n = 57), and team handball players (n = 53), participated in the study. Generalized joint hypermobility was classified by Beighton score as GJH4 (4/9 or greater), GJH5 (5/9 or greater), and GJH6 (6/9 or greater). Function of the lower extremity, musculoskeletal injuries, and HRQoL were assessed with self-reported questionnaires, and part of physical performance was assessed by 4 postural-sway tests and 2 single-legged hop-for-distance tests. Results Overall prevalence rates for GJH4, GJH5, and GJH6 were 27.3%, 15.9%, and 6.8%, respectively, with a higher prevalence of GJH4 in ballet dancers (68.2%) and TeamGym gymnasts (24.6%) than in team handball players (13.2%). There was no significant difference in lower extremity function, injury prevalence and related factors (exacerbation, recurrence, and absence from training), HRQoL, or lengths of hop tests for those with and without GJH. However, the GJH group had significantly larger center-of-pressure path length across sway tests. Conclusion For ballet dancers and TeamGym gymnasts, the prevalence of GJH4 was higher than that of team handball players. For ballet dancers, the prevalence of GJH5 and GJH6 was higher than that of team handball players and the general adolescent population. The GJH group demonstrated larger sway in the balance tests, which, in the current cross-sectional study, did not have an association with injuries or HRQo

  17. Impairments in quality of life and cognitive functions in long-term survivors of glioblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chirag Solanki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The incidence of long-term survival in glioblastoma (GBM, i.e., >3 years, ranges from 3% to 5%. Although extensive research is performed in novel therapies for prolonging survival, there is a scarcity of research focusing on the impact of tumor and treatment on cognitive, psychological, and social status of survivors. This study is an attempt to look into this poorly addressed important issue. Materials and Methods: Nine patients (six adults and three children with GBM who had survived >3 years were included in the study. The quality of life (QOL functions were assessed with the World Health Organization QOL Questionnaire BREF questionnaire. The neuropsychological assessment was done using the National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences neuropsychology battery for adults and children. The scores were compared with normative data. Results: The physical and psychological health-related QOL of long-term GBM survivors were affected considerably due to fatigue, poor quality of sleep, inability to concentrate, presence of depression, financial burden with impaired personal and social relationships (P < 0.05. Different domains of cognitions such as motor speed (P = 0.0173, mental speed (P = 0.0022, sustained attention (P = 0.0001, long-term memory (P = 0.0431, mental flexibility (P < 0.05, and planning and executive functions (P < 0.05 were significantly impaired affecting personal, social, and professional lives. Conclusion: The health-related QOL and cognition are significantly impaired in GBM long-term survivors. As the incidence of long-term survival is very less, there is a need for larger multicenter studies to come up with definitive results, which in turn can help in formatting the rehabilitative and support programs for these patients.

  18. Functional gastrointestinal diseases and psychological maladjustment, personality traits and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranasinghe, Nishadi; Devanarayana, Niranga Manjuri; Rajindrajith, Shaman; Perera, Madusanka S; Nishanthinie, Samudu; Warnakulasuriya, Tania; de Zoysa, Piyanjali Thamesha

    2018-02-27

    Chronic abdominal pain is a common worldwide problem and known to be associated with psychological problems. This study evaluated the association between abdominal pain-predominant functional gastrointestinal disorders (AP-FGIDs), psychological maladjustment and personality traits in adolescents. Adolescents aged 13-18 years were recruited from 5 randomly selected schools in Ampara district of Sri Lanka. AP-FGIDs were diagnosed using Rome III criteria. Translated and validated Rome III questionnaire (Child report form), personality questionnaire (PAQ) and PedsQL (Pediatric Quality of Life) inventory were used in data collection. Written consent was obtained from a parent and assent was obtained from every child recruited. The questionnaire was distributed in an examination setting to ensure confidentiality and privacy. Research assistants were present during data collection to assist on any necessary clarifications. A total of 1697 subjects were recruited [males 779 (45.9%), mean age 15.1 years, SD 1.6 years]. AP-FGIDs were present in 202 (11.9%). Those with AP-FGIDs had significantly higher mean scores for all personality traits (hostility and aggression, negative self-esteem, emotional unresponsiveness, emotional instability and negative world view), except dependency. Affected children had lower scores for all 4 domains of HRQoL (physical, emotional, social and school functioning), compared to controls (p PAQ scores within that of psychological maladjustment (p PAQ negatively correlated with scores obtained for HRQoL (r = - 0.52, p PAQ and lower HRQoL scores (p < 0.05). Adolescents with AP-FGIDs have more psychological maladjustment and abnormal personality traits than healthy controls. Affected adolescents with higher psychological maladjustments have lower HRQoL. Greater psychological maladjustment and lower HRQoL are associated with healthcare seeking behaviour in adolescents with AP-FGIDs.

  19. Architecture and Functionality of the Advanced Life Support On-Line Project Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, John A.; Levri, Julie A.; Morrow, Rich; Cavazzoni, Jim; Rodriguez, Luis F.; Riano, Rebecca; Whitaker, Dawn R.

    2004-01-01

    An ongoing effort is underway at NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) to develop an On-line Project Information System (OPIS) for the Advanced Life Support (ALS) Program. The objective of this three-year project is to develop, test, revise and deploy OPIS to enhance the quality of decision-making metrics and attainment of Program goals through improved knowledge sharing. OPIS will centrally locate detailed project information solicited from investigators on an annual basis and make it readily accessible by the ALS Community via a Web-accessible interface. The data will be stored in an object-oriented relational database (created in MySQL) located on a secure server at NASA ARC. OPE will simultaneously serve several functions, including being an research and technology development (R&TD) status information hub that can potentially serve as the primary annual reporting mechanism for ALS-funded projects. Using OPIS, ALS managers and element leads will be able to carry out informed R&TD investment decisions, and allow analysts to perform accurate systems evaluations. Additionally, the range and specificity of information solicited will serve to educate technology developers of programmatic needs. OPIS will collect comprehensive information from all ALS projects as well as highly detailed information specific to technology development in each ALS area (Waste, Water, Air, Biomass, Food, Thermal, Controls and Systems Analysis). Because the scope of needed information can vary dramatically between areas, element-specific technology information is being compiled with the aid of multiple specialized working groups. This paper presents the current development status in terms of the architecture and functionality of OPIS. Possible implementation approaches for OPIS are also discussed.

  20. Architecture and Functionality of the Advanced Life Support On-Line Project Information System (OPIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, John A.; Levri, Julie A.; Morrow, Rich; Cavazzoni, Jim; Rodriquez, Luis F.; Riano, Rebecca; Whitaker, Dawn R.

    2004-01-01

    An ongoing effort is underway at NASA Amcs Research Center (ARC) tu develop an On-line Project Information System (OPIS) for the Advanced Life Support (ALS) Program. The objective of this three-year project is to develop, test, revise and deploy OPIS to enhance the quality of decision-making metrics and attainment of Program goals through improved knowledge sharing. OPIS will centrally locate detailed project information solicited from investigators on an annual basis and make it readily accessible by the ALS Community via a web-accessible interface. The data will be stored in an object-oriented relational database (created in MySQL(Trademark) located on a secure server at NASA ARC. OPE will simultaneously serve several functions, including being an R&TD status information hub that can potentially serve as the primary annual reporting mechanism. Using OPIS, ALS managers and element leads will be able to carry out informed research and technology development investment decisions, and allow analysts to perform accurate systems evaluations. Additionally, the range and specificity of information solicited will serve to educate technology developers of programmatic needs. OPIS will collect comprehensive information from all ALS projects as well as highly detailed information specific to technology development in each ALS area (Waste, Water, Air, Biomass, Food, Thermal, and Control). Because the scope of needed information can vary dramatically between areas, element-specific technology information is being compiled with the aid of multiple specialized working groups. This paper presents the current development status in terms of the architecture and functionality of OPIS. Possible implementation approaches for OPIS are also discussed.

  1. Functional health literacy and quality of life of high-school adolescents in state schools in Belo Horizonte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Poliana Cristina; Rocha, Dálian Cristina; Lemos, Stela Maris Aguiar

    2017-08-10

    To investigate the association between functional health literacy and sociodemographic factors, quality of life, self-perception of health, and perception of contexts of violence in adolescents in state schools in Belo Horizonte. This is a cross-sectional analytical observational study with a probabilistic sample of 384 adolescents between 15 and 19 years old. Data collection was carried out in schools and included self-reporting questionnaires to assess the functional health literacy, socioeconomic classification, self-perceived health, and quality of life. The reliability of internal consistency of the functional health literacy instrument was determined by calculating Cronbach's alpha coefficient. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed using hierarchical data entry according to the level of determination of the theoretical model established. In order to evaluate the association, a significance level of 5% was considered, while the Odds Ratio used as a measure of the magnitude of the associations. The functional health literacy instrument presented a coefficient of 0.766, indicating adequate internal consistency. More than half of teenagers presented good functional health literacy. In the final model of multivariate analysis, the variables not practicing a religion (p = 0.006; OR = 2.108); social domain of quality of life (p = 0.004; OR = 1.022); and educational domain of quality of life (p = 0.009; OR = 1.019) remained associated with functional health literacy. Not practicing a religion and the increase in the scores of social and educational domains of quality of life increased the chances of better functional health literacy.

  2. [Pain in the elderly: Quality of life, functionality and associated factors. SABE Study, Bogotá, Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borda, Miguel Germán; Acevedo González, Juan Carlos; David, David Gabriel; Morros González, Elly; Cano, Carlos Alberto

    2016-01-01

    To determine the impact of pain on the quality of life in older adults and its association with functionality. Data was taken from SABE Bogota study. A cross-sectional study was carried out during 2012, interviewing 2,000 individuals of 60 years and older, as a probabilistic cluster and representative sample. The variable 'presence of pain' to was used to identify associations with sociodemographic factors, self-rated health, comorbidities, functional status, cognitive status, and quality of life. The latter was estimated using a visual analogue scale of the EuroQOL tool (EQ-VAS). The majority of older adults were women (63.4%); the mean age was 71.17 years (SD=8.05), with a higher frequency of individuals in the age group between 60 and 69years (48%). When comparing groups with pain vs. no pain, significantly lower scores were found in the group with pain (P<.001) in both the functionality and quality of life EQ-VAS scales. The strongest associations with pain were: joint diseases (OR: 3.08 [2.24-4.23]), severe depression (OR: 2.80 [1.63-4.79]) and functional impairment of the Basic Activities of Daily Living (BADL) (OR: 2.45 [1.31-4.58]). Pain negatively impacts the functional independence and the perception of the quality of life in older adults, predisposing them to adverse outcomes. Copyright © 2015 SEGG. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  3. Assessing eco-efficiency: A metafrontier directional distance function approach using life cycle analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beltrán-Esteve, Mercedes; Reig-Martínez, Ernest; Estruch-Guitart, Vicent

    2017-01-01

    Sustainability analysis requires a joint assessment of environmental, social and economic aspects of production processes. Here we propose the use of Life Cycle Analysis (LCA), a metafrontier (MF) directional distance function (DDF) approach, and Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), to assess technological and managerial differences in eco-efficiency between production systems. We use LCA to compute six environmental and health impacts associated with the production processes of nearly 200 Spanish citrus farms belonging to organic and conventional farming systems. DEA is then employed to obtain joint economic-environmental farm's scores that we refer to as eco-efficiency. DDF allows us to determine farms' global eco-efficiency scores, as well as eco-efficiency scores with respect to specific environmental impacts. Furthermore, the use of an MF helps us to disentangle technological and managerial eco-inefficiencies by comparing the eco-efficiency of both farming systems with regards to a common benchmark. Our core results suggest that the shift from conventional to organic farming technology would allow a potential reduction in environmental impacts of 80% without resulting in any decline in economic performance. In contrast, as regards farmers' managerial capacities, both systems display quite similar mean scores.

  4. Assessing eco-efficiency: A metafrontier directional distance function approach using life cycle analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beltrán-Esteve, Mercedes, E-mail: mercedes.beltran@uv.es [Department of Applied Economics II, University of Valencia (Spain); Reig-Martínez, Ernest [Department of Applied Economics II, University of Valencia, Ivie (Spain); Estruch-Guitart, Vicent [Department of Economy and Social Sciences, Polytechnic University of Valencia (Spain)

    2017-03-15

    Sustainability analysis requires a joint assessment of environmental, social and economic aspects of production processes. Here we propose the use of Life Cycle Analysis (LCA), a metafrontier (MF) directional distance function (DDF) approach, and Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), to assess technological and managerial differences in eco-efficiency between production systems. We use LCA to compute six environmental and health impacts associated with the production processes of nearly 200 Spanish citrus farms belonging to organic and conventional farming systems. DEA is then employed to obtain joint economic-environmental farm's scores that we refer to as eco-efficiency. DDF allows us to determine farms' global eco-efficiency scores, as well as eco-efficiency scores with respect to specific environmental impacts. Furthermore, the use of an MF helps us to disentangle technological and managerial eco-inefficiencies by comparing the eco-efficiency of both farming systems with regards to a common benchmark. Our core results suggest that the shift from conventional to organic farming technology would allow a potential reduction in environmental impacts of 80% without resulting in any decline in economic performance. In contrast, as regards farmers' managerial capacities, both systems display quite similar mean scores.

  5. Predicting ethnic variation in adaptation to later life: styles of socioemotional functioning and constrained heterotypy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consedine, Nathan S; Magai, Carol; Conway, Francine

    2004-06-01

    It is an axiom of social gerontology that populations of older individuals become increasingly differentiated as they age. Adaptations to physical and social losses and the increased dependency that typically accompany greater age are likely to be similarly heterogeneous, with different individuals adjusting to the aging process in widely diverse ways. In this paper we consider how individuals with diverse emotional and regulatory profiles, different levels of religiosity, and varied patterns of social relatedness fare as they age. Specifically, we examine the relation between ethnicity and patterns of socioemotional adaptation in a large, ethnically diverse sample (N = 1118) of community-dwelling older adults. Cluster analysis was applied to 11 measures of socioemotional functioning. Ten qualitatively different profiles were extracted and then related to a measure of physical resiliency. Consistent with ethnographic and psychological theory, individuals from different ethnic backgrounds were unevenly distributed across the clusters. Resilient participants of African descent (African Americans, Jamaicans, Trinidadians, Barbadians) were more likely to manifest patterns of adaptation characterized by religious beliefs, while resilient US-born Whites and Immigrant Whites were more likely to be resilient as a result of non-religious social connectedness. Taken together, although these data underscore the diversity of adaptation to later life, we suggest that patterns of successful adaptation vary systematically across ethnic groups. Implications for the continued study of ethnicity in aging and directions for future research are given.

  6. Linking Cultural Competence to Functional Life Outcomes in Mental Health Care Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalopoulou, Georgia; Falzarano, Pamela; Butkus, Michael; Zeman, Lori; Vershave, Judy; Arfken, Cynthia

    2014-01-01

    Minorities in the United States have well-documented health disparities. Cultural barriers and biases by health care providers may contribute to lower quality of services which may contribute to these disparities. However, evidence linking cultural competency and health outcomes is lacking. This study, part of an ongoing quality improvement effort, tested the mediation hypothesis that patients' perception of provider cultural competency indirectly influences patients' health outcomes through process of care. Data were from patient satisfaction surveys collected in seven mental health clinics (n=94 minority patients). Consistent with our hypothesis, patients' perception of clinicians' cultural competency was indirectly associated with patients' self-reported improvements in social interactions, improvements in performance at work or school, and improvements in managing life problems through the patients' experience of respect, trust, and communication with the clinician. These findings indicate that process of care characteristics during the clinical encounter influence patients' perceptions of clinicians' cultural competency and affect functional outcomes. © 2013 National Medical Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Activity Pattern Profiles: Relationship With Affect, Daily Functioning, Impairment, and Variables Related to Life Goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteve, Rosa; López-Martínez, Alicia E; Peters, Madelon L; Serrano-Ibáñez, Elena R; Ruíz-Párraga, Gema T; González-Gómez, Henar; Ramírez-Maestre, Carmen

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to identify subgroups of patients on the basis of their activity patterns and to investigate their relationship with life goals, optimism, affect, and functioning. The sample was comprised of 276 patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain. Hierarchical cluster analysis was performed on the activity pattern variables and the resulting clusters were compared using 1-way analysis of variance. The 4-cluster was the optimal solution. The 4 clusters comprised: 1) avoiders: patients with high levels of avoidance and low levels of persistence, who use pacing to reduce pain, 2) doers: patients with high levels of persistence and low levels of pacing and avoidance, 3) extreme cyclers: patients with high levels of avoidance and persistence and low levels of pacing, and 4) medium cyclers: patients with moderately high levels of avoidance and persistence and high levels of pacing. Comparison of the clusters showed that doers had the most adaptive profile, whereas avoiders, followed by extreme cyclers, had unhealthy profiles. Doers showed a high level of optimism and a good balance between goal value, expectancy, and conflict. It is useful to distinguish profiles on the basis of various activity patterns. In contrast to profiles characterized by avoidance, profiles characterized by high persistence and low avoidance were associated with adaptive results. Patients with this profile also showed a high level of optimism and a good balance between goal value, expectancy, and conflict. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The effect of executive function on stress, depression, anxiety, and quality of life in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grech, Lisa B; Kiropoulos, Litza A; Kirby, Katherine M; Butler, Ernest; Paine, Mark; Hester, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The experience of cognitive deficits and emotional dysfunction are prevalent in people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS), although research examining their interaction has provided inconsistent findings. The current study examined the ability of executive function to predict psychosocial adjustment in PwMS. One hundred and seven PwMS underwent cognitive assessment and completed measures of stress, depression, anxiety, and quality of life (QoL). There was limited support for a relationship. There was no relationship between objective cognitive tasks and state or trait anxiety, mental health QoL, overall QoL, or stress frequency. The only relationship with depression was found when the Beck Depression Inventory Fast-Screen was used, with a task of planning when the timing element was removed. A measure of error rates on a task of cognitive flexibility predicted physical health QoL, and severity, but not frequency, of stress was predicted by a task of working memory. The results of this study highlight the need for further research into the relationship between cognitive deficits and psychosocial adjustment because of the conflicting findings between studies and call for a common measurement framework for future investigation.

  9. Regional homogeneity and resting state functional connectivity: associations with exposure to early life stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, Noah S; Kuras, Yuliya I; Valentine, Thomas R; Sweet, Lawrence H; Tyrka, Audrey R; Price, Lawrence H; Carpenter, Linda L

    2013-12-30

    Early life stress (ELS) confers risk for psychiatric illness. Previous literature suggests ELS is associated with decreased resting-state functional connectivity (rs-FC) in adulthood, but there are no studies of resting-state neuronal activity in this population. This study investigated whether ELS-exposed individuals demonstrate resting-state activity patterns similar to those found in PTSD. Twenty-seven adults (14 with at least moderate ELS), who were medication-free and without psychiatric or medical illness, underwent MRI scans during two 4-minute rest periods. Resting-state activity was examined using regional homogeneity (ReHo), which estimates regional activation patterns through indices of localized concordance. ReHo values were compared between groups, followed by rs-FC analyses utilizing ReHo-localized areas as seeds to identify other involved regions. Relative to controls, ELS subjects demonstrated diminished ReHo in the inferior parietal lobule (IPL) and superior temporal gyrus (STG). ReHo values were inversely correlated with ELS severity. Secondary analyses revealed decreased rs-FC between the IPL and right precuneus/posterior cingulate, left fusiform gyrus, cerebellum and caudate in ELS subjects. These findings indicate that ELS is associated with altered resting-state activity and connectivity in brain regions involved in trauma-related psychiatric disorders. Future studies are needed to evaluate whether these associations represent potential imaging biomarkers of stress exposure. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  10. Neurogenic function in rats with unilateral hippocampal sclerosis that experienced early-life status epilepticus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunleavy, Mark; Schindler, Clara K; Shinoda, Sachiko; Crilly, Shane; Henshall, David C

    2014-01-01

    Status epilepticus in the adult brain invariably causes an increase in hippocampal neurogenesis and the appearance of ectopic cells and this has been implicated as a causal factor in epileptogenesis. The effect of status epilepticus on neurogenesis in the developing brain is less well characterized and models of early-life seizures typically do not reproduce the hippocampal damage common to human mesial temporal sclerosis. We recently reported that evoking status epilepticus by intra-amygdala microinjection of kainic acid in post-natal (P) day 10 rats caused substantial acute neuronal death within the ipsilateral hippocampus and rats later developed unilateral hippocampal sclerosis and spontaneous recurrent seizures. Here, we examined the expression of a selection of genes associated with neurogenesis and assessed neurogenic function in this model. Protein levels of several markers of neurogenesis including polysialic acid neural cell adhesion molecule, neuroD and doublecortin were reduced in the hippocampus three days after status epilepticus in P10 rats. In contrast, protein levels of neurogenesis markers were similar to control in rats at P55. Pulse-chase experiments using thymidine analogues suggested there was a reduction in new neurons at 72 h after status epilepticus in P10 rats, whereas numbers of new neurons labelled in epileptic rats at P55 with hippocampal sclerosis were similar to controls. The present study suggests that status epilepticus in the immature brain suppresses neurogenesis but the neurogenic potential is retained in animals that later develop hippocampal sclerosis. PMID:25755841

  11. Better executive function under stress mitigates the effects of recent life stress exposure on health in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Grant S; Moons, Wesley G; Slavich, George M

    2017-01-01

    Executive function is a neuropsychological construct that enables controlled cognitive processing, which has been hypothesized to enhance individuals' resilience to stress. However, little empirical work has directly examined how executive function under different conditions mitigates the negative effects of stress exposure on health. To address this issue, we recruited 110 healthy young adults and assessed their recent life stress exposure, executive function in either a stressful or non-stressful context, and current health complaints. Based on existing research, we hypothesized that individuals exhibiting better executive function following a laboratory-based stressor (but not a control task) would demonstrate weaker associations between recent stress exposure and health because they perceived recent life stressors as being less severe. Consistent with this hypothesis, better executive function during acute stress, but not in the absence of stress, was associated with an attenuated link between participants' recent life stress exposure and their current health complaints. Moreover, this attenuating effect was mediated by lesser perceptions of stressor severity. Based on these data, we conclude that better executive function under stress is associated with fewer health complaints and that these effects may occur by reducing individuals' perceptions of stressor severity. The data thus suggest the possibility of reducing stress-related health problems by enhancing executive function.

  12. Beneficial effects of spa treatment on functional status and quality of life of patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustur Dušan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is a chronic constantly deteriorating disease of unpredictable clinical course, with exacerbations, remissions and damaged joints. It leads to the loss of self-sufficiency, independence in performing many daily activities, decrease of working ability and invalidity. Beside physical factors, which are regarded as most responsible for the poorer quality of life of RA patients, psychological changes are also significant, such as the feeling of helplessness, hopelessness and depression. The goal of the treatment of patients with RA is to decrease illness symptoms, slow down the development of illness progression, improvement of physical functioning and provision of expert help to the RA patients to adapt to life. OBJECTIVE The aim of the study was to assess the influence of spa therapy on the functional condition and life quality of RA patients. METHODS The study involved 69 patients with RA (51 female and 18 male, on average aged 55.2±11.4 years, with illness duration 12.5±7.5 years, and were a part of a cohort from Norway, suffering of inflammatory rheumatism. All the patients came for four-week rehabilitation at the Institute for Physical Medicine, Rehabilitation and Rheumatology "Dr. Simo Milošević" in Igalo, Montenegro. The RA patients underwent treatment with mud compresses, mud, mineral and pearl baths, as well as with underwater shower massage (balneotherapy kinesitherapy and certain forms of electrotherapy with analgesic effects. The evaluation was done on admission and after completed physical therapy when we assessed RA patients' functional condition and quality of life. The functional condition was determined using the Modified Health Assessment Questionnaire (MHAQ, and the quality of life using the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36-item Questionnaire (SF-36, which encompassed eight life domains. RESULTS After completion of 28-dayspa therapy, RA patients showed a significant improvement in

  13. Is functional dependence of Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients determinant of the quality of life and burden of their caregivers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Clara Drummond Soares de Moura

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective The relationship between functional dependence and quality of life (QOL in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD patients and burden and QOL in caregivers is not clear. This study investigated possible relationships between functional dependence/QOL of DMD patients and QOL/burden of caregivers. Method This study included 35 boys (6-17 years and respective caregivers (above 21 years. Caregivers answered to World Health Organization Quality of Life and Zarit Burden Interview questionnaires. Patients were assessed with the Motor Function Measure and the Autoquestionnaire Qualité de vie Enfant Imagé. Spearman correlations and linear regressions were run to investigate relationships between the variables. Results The occurrence of lower QOL and higher burden among the caregivers of patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy was evidenced. The functional dependence of patients was not considered a determinant factor. Higher caregivers’ burden was related to lower caregivers’ QOL and to higher patients’ ages.

  14. Relative emissions intensity of dairy production systems: employing different functional units in life-cycle assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, S A; Topp, C F E; Ennos, R A; Chagunda, M G G

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to assess the merit and suitability of individual functional units (FU) in expressing greenhouse gas emissions intensity in different dairy production systems. An FU provides a clearly defined and measurable reference to which input and output data are normalised. This enables the results from life-cycle assessment (LCA) of different systems to be treated as functionally equivalent. Although the methodological framework of LCA has been standardised, selection of an appropriate FU remains ultimately at the discretion of the individual study. The aim of the present analysis was to examine the effect of different FU on the emissions intensities of different dairy production systems. Analysis was based on 7 years of data (2004 to 2010) from four Holstein-Friesian dairy systems at Scotland's Rural College's long-term genetic and management systems project, the Langhill herd. Implementation of LCA accounted for the environmental impacts of the whole-farm systems and their production of milk from 'cradle to farm gate'. Emissions intensity was determined as kilograms of carbon dioxide equivalents referenced to six FU: UK livestock units, energy-corrected milk yield, total combined milk solids yield, on-farm land used for production, total combined on- and off-farm land used for production, and the proposed new FU-energy-corrected milk yield per hectare of total land used. Energy-corrected milk was the FU most effective for reflecting differences between the systems. Functional unit that incorporated a land-related aspect did not find difference between systems which were managed under the same forage regime, despite their comprising different genetic lines. Employing on-farm land as the FU favoured grazing systems. The proposed dual FU combining both productivity and land use did not differentiate between emissions intensity of systems as effectively as the productivity-based units. However, this dual unit displayed potential to quantify in a simple way

  15. Early thyroxine treatment in Down syndrome and thyroid function later in life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwaveling-Soonawala, Nitash; Witteveen, M Emma; Marchal, Jan Pieter; Klouwer, Femke C C; Ikelaar, Nadine A; Smets, Anne M J B; van Rijn, Rick R; Endert, Erik; Fliers, Eric; van Trotsenburg, A S Paul

    2017-05-01

    The hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis set point develops during the fetal period and first two years of life. We hypothesized that thyroxine treatment during these first two years, in the context of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) in children with Down syndrome, may have influenced the HPT axis set point and may also have influenced the development of Down syndrome-associated autoimmune thyroiditis. We included 123 children with Down syndrome 8.7 years after the end of an RCT comparing thyroxine treatment vs placebo and performed thyroid function tests and thyroid ultrasound. We analyzed TSH and FT4 concentrations in the subgroup of 71 children who were currently not on thyroid medication and had no evidence of autoimmune thyroiditis. TSH concentrations did not differ, but FT4 was significantly higher in the thyroxine-treated group than that in the placebo group (14.1 vs 13.0 pmol/L; P  = 0.02). There was an increase in anti-TPO positivity, from 1% at age 12 months to 6% at age 24 months and 25% at age 10.7 years with a greater percentage of children with anti-TPO positivity in the placebo group (32%) compared with the thyroxine-treated group (18.5%) ( P  = 0.12). Thyroid volume at age 10.7 years (mean: 3.4 mL; range: 0.5-7.5 mL) was significantly lower ( P  treatment during the first two years of life led to a mild increase in FT4 almost 9 years later on and may point to an interesting new mechanism influencing the maturing HPT axis set point. Furthermore, there was a trend toward less development of thyroid autoimmunity in the thyroxine treatment group, suggesting a protective effect of the early thyroxine treatment. Lastly, thyroid volume was low possibly reflecting Down-specific thyroid hypoplasia. © 2017 European Society of Endocrinology.

  16. EFFECTS OF A RESPIRATORY PHYSIOTHERAPY PROTOCOL ON PULMONARY CAPACITY, FUNCTIONAL CAPACITY AND QUALITY OF LIFE IN HEMODIALYSIS PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Taynara dos Santos Ribeiro

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease and own dialysis can result in changes in almost all body systems. In the respiratory system, the changes affect the respiratory drive, lung mechanics, muscle strength and gas exchange. Respiratory physiotherapy may be an important strategy in improving lung function and welfare and satisfaction of patients. The aim of the study was to determine the effects of a program of respiratory physiotherapy in lung capacity, functional capacity and quality of life of patients with chronic kidney disease on hemodialysis. The lung capacity, functional capacity and quality of life were evaluated by the manovacuometer, chest cirtometry, functional capacity's questionnaire (HAQ-20 and specific questionnaire of quality of life for kidney disease (KDOQOL-SF. Patients were evaluated before and after eight weeks of application of respiratory physiotherapy protocol, performed once a week. The study included five patients, four men and one woman, mean age 60 ± 11,29 and an average of hemodialysis treatment of 24 ± 20.35 months. The values obtained in lung capacity and functional capacity presented unchanged. It was observed that the respiratory physiotherapy influenced the improvement of the KDQOL-SF's scores, of the dimensions "Sleep", "Dialysis Staff Encouragement" and "Physical Functioning".

  17. Effects of a respiratory physiotherapy protocol on pulmonary capacity, functional capacity and quality of life in hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Taynara dos Santos Ribeiro

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease and own dialysis can result in changes in almost all body systems. In the respiratory system, the changes affect the respiratory drive, lung mechanics, muscle strength and gas exchange. Respiratory physiotherapy may be an important strategy in improving lung function and welfare and satisfaction of patients. The aim of the study was to determine the effects of a program of respiratory physiotherapy in lung capacity, functional capacity and quality of life of patients with chronic kidney disease on hemodialysis. The lung capacity, functional capacity and quality of life were evaluated by the manovacuometer, chest cirtometry, functional capacity's questionnaire (HAQ-20 and specific questionnaire of quality of life for kidney disease (KDOQOL-SF. Patients were evaluated before and after eight weeks of application of respiratory physiotherapy protocol, performed once a week. The study included five patients, four men and one woman, mean age 60 ± 11,29 and an average of hemodialysis treatment of 24 ± 20.35 months. The values obtained in lung capacity and functional capacity presented unchanged. It was observed that the respiratory physiotherapy influenced the improvement of the KDQOL-SF's scores, of the dimensions "Sleep", "Dialysis Staff Encouragement" and "Physical Functioning".

  18. Comorbidities in Spondyloarthritis associate with poor function, work disability and quality of life: Results from the ASAS-COMOSPA study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nikiphorou, E.; Ramiro, S.; van der Heijde, D.; Norton, S.; Moltó, A.; Dougados, M.; van den Bosch, F.; Landewé, R.

    2017-01-01

    Comorbidities add to the burden of disease and its complexity, and may prevent the achievement of treat-to-target goals. The objective of this study was to study the relationship between comorbidities and key disease outcomes in Spondyloarthritis, namely function, work ability and quality of life.

  19. Persistence of functional protein domains in mycoplasma species and their role in host specificity and synthetic minimal life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamminga, Tjerko; Koehorst, Jasper J.; Vermeij, Paul; Slagman, Simen Jan; Santos, dos Vitor A.P.M.; Bijlsma, Jetta J.E.; Schaap, Peter J.

    2017-01-01

    Mycoplasmas are the smallest self-replicating organisms and obligate parasites of a specific vertebrate host. An in-depth analysis of the functional capabilities of mycoplasma species is fundamental to understand how some of simplest forms of life on Earth succeeded in subverting complex hosts with

  20. The genus Romboutsia : genomic and functional characterization of novel bacteria dedicated to life in the intestinal tract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsen, J.

    2015-01-01

    The genus Romboutsia: genomic and functional characterization of novel bacteria dedicated to life in the intestinal tract

    PhD thesis Jacoline Gerritsen, 2015

    Abstract

    Humans, like other mammals, are not single-species organisms, but they

  1. Biopsychosocial predictors of sexual function and quality of sexual life : A study among patients with colorectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Traa, M.J.; Roukema, J.A.; de Vries, Jolanda; Rutten, H.J.T.; Langenhoff, B.; Jansen, W.; den Oudsten, B.L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: A low sexual function (SF) has been reported in patients with colorectal cancer. However, research often focusses on clinical predictors of SF, hereby omitting patients’ subjective evaluation of SF [i.e., the quality of sexual life (QoSL)] and psychosocial predictors of SF and QoSL. In

  2. Health-related quality of life, cognitive functioning and behaviour problems in children with Langerhans cell histiocytosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrijmoet-Wiersma, C. M. Jantien; Kooloos, Vicky M.; Koopman, Hendrik M.; Kolk, Annemarie M.; van der Laan, Ingrid; Grootenhuis, Martha A.; Egeler, R. Maarten

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study was designed to evaluate generic and disease-specific health-related quality of life (HRQoL), cognitive functioning and behaviour problems of children with Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis (LCH). Furthermore, we investigated which medical determinants and social demographic

  3. Influence of autism traits and executive functioning on quality of life in children with an autism spectrum disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, M.; Geurts, H.

    2015-01-01

    Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) often experience a low Quality of Life (QoL). We studied if IQ, early language development, current autism traits, and daily Executive Functions (EFs) are related to QoL in children (aged 8-12 years) with ASD (N = 120) and typically developing (TD)

  4. Quality of life and health care consultation in 13 to 18 year olds with abdominal pain predominant functional gastrointestinal diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Devanarayana, Niranga Manjuri; Rajindrajith, Shaman; Benninga, Marc A.

    2014-01-01

    Abdominal pain predominant functional gastrointestinal diseases (AP-FGD) are commonly seen in the paediatric age group. It has significant impact on daily activities of affected children. Main objective of this study was to assess the health related quality of life (HRQoL) in children with AP-FGD.

  5. Analysis of the effects of removable dentures on the psychological status, quality of life, and masticatory function of the elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyas, R.; Nathanael, M.; Indrasari, M.; Masulili, C.; Rahardjo, T. B.; Agustin, D.; Hogervorst, E.; Kusdhany, L.

    2017-08-01

    Older age is a major risk factor for diseases of the teeth and mouth and dementia. Diseases of the teeth and mouth can lead to tooth loss. The use of removable dentures can help the elderly to replace lost teeth; therefore, dentures are expected to improve the masticatory function, quality of life, and psychological status of the elderly. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of removable denture usage on the improvement of the psychological status, quality of life, and masticatory function of elderly people. The data was obtained from 30 respondents. The patients answered questionnaires before they used the dentures, 2 weeks after they began using dentures, and 2 months after they started wearing dentures. Four different questionnaires were used: EuroQol Five Dimensions questionnaire (EQ-5D) and Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), to measure psychological status; a mastication questionnaire to measure masticatory function; and a validated quality of life questionnaire. Based on the results of this study, it is clear that after 2 months of denture usage, removable dentures in the elderly can significantly improve their quality of life, masticatory function, and psychological status(p<0.05).

  6. Self-rated health mediates the association between functional status and health-related quality of life in Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saeedian, Radka Ghorbani; Nagyova, Iveta; Klein, Daniel; Skorvanek, Matej; Rosenberger, Jaroslav; Gdovinova, Zuzana; Groothoff, Johan W.; van Dijk, Jitze

    Aims and objectives To explore whether self-rated health acts as a potential mediator in the association between functional status and health-related quality of life in Parkinson's disease. Background Older persons (as most patients with Parkinson's disease are) who reported poor self-rated health

  7. Quality of Communication Life in Adolescents with High-Functioning Autism and Asperger Syndrome: A Feasibility Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Sloane; Turkstra, Lyn S.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study was designed to evaluate the feasibility of using the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association's Quality of Communication Life Scale (QCL; Paul et al., 2004) for a group of individuals with developmental communication disorders--adolescents with high-functioning autism/Asperger syndrome (HFA/AS). Perceptions of quality of…

  8. Exercise, Diet, and Stress Management as Mediators between Functional Disability and Health-Related Quality of Life in Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Connie; Chiu, Chung-Yi; Lee, Eun-Jeong; Bezyak, Jill; Chan, Fong; Muller, Veronica

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to examine the mediational and moderational effect of exercise, diet, and stress management on the relationship between functional disability and health-related quality of life. Quantitative descriptive research design using multiple regression and correlation techniques was used. Participants were 215…

  9. Functional abdominal complaints in pre-school children: Parental reports of health-related quality of life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Oostenbrink (Rianne); H.P. Jongman (Henri); J.M. Landgraf (Jeanne); H. Raat (Hein); H.A. Moll (Henriëtte)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractPurpose The aim of this study is to assess the influence of functional abdominal complaints (FAC) on health-related quality of life in a group of Dutch pre-school children. Methods Parents of children aged up to 6.0 visiting the outpatient pediatric department, Erasmus MC-Sophia,

  10. Prospective randomized controlled intervention trial: Comprehensive Yogic Breathing Improves Cardiac autonomic functions and Quality of life in Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V P Jyotsna

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objectives: To assess the effect of Comprehensive Yogic Breathing Program on glycemic control, quality of life, and cardiac autonomic functions in diabetes. Material and Methods: This is a prospective randomized controlled intervention trial. Cardiac autonomic functions were assessed in 120 diabetics. Patients were randomized into two groups, one group receiving standard therapy for diabetes (n = 56 and the other group receiving standard therapy for diabetes and comprehensive yogic breathing program (n = 64. Standard therapy included advice on diet, walk, and oral antidiabetic drugs. Comprehensive yogic breathing program was an interactive session in which Sudarshan kriya yoga, a rhythmic cyclical breathing, preceded by Pranayam was taught under guidance of a certified teacher. Change in fasting, post prandial blood sugars, glycated hemoglobin, and quality of life were assessed. Cardiac autonomic function tests were done before and six months after intervention. Results: There was significant improvement in psychological (P = 0.006 and social domains (P = 0.04 and total quality of life (P = 0.02 in the group practicing comprehensive yogic breathing program as compared to the group following standard therapy alone. In the group following breathing program, the improvement in sympathetic cardiac autonomic functions was statistically significant (P = 0.01, while the change in the standard group was not significant (P = 0.17. When both parasympathetic and sympathetic cardiac autonomic functions were considered, there was a trend toward improvement in patients following comprehensive yogic breathing program (P = 0.07. In the standard therapy group, no change in cardiac autonomic functions was noted (P = 0.76. The parameters of glycemic control were comparable in both groups. Conclusion: There was significant improvement in quality of life and cardiac autonomic functions in the diabetes patients practicing comprehensive yogic breathing

  11. Social emotion recognition, social functioning, and attempted suicide in late-life depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szanto, Katalin; Dombrovski, Alexandre Y; Sahakian, Barbara J; Mulsant, Benoit H; Houck, Patricia R; Reynolds, Charles F; Clark, Luke

    2012-03-01

    : Lack of feeling connected and poor social problem solving have been described in suicide attempters. However, cognitive substrates of this apparent social impairment in suicide attempters remain unknown. One possible deficit, the inability to recognize others' complex emotional states has been observed not only in disorders characterized by prominent social deficits (autism-spectrum disorders and frontotemporal dementia) but also in depression and normal aging. This study assessed the relationship between social emotion recognition, problem solving, social functioning, and attempted suicide in late-life depression. : There were 90 participants: 24 older depressed suicide attempters, 38 nonsuicidal depressed elders, and 28 comparison subjects with no psychiatric history. We compared performance on the Reading the Mind in the Eyes test and measures of social networks, social support, social problem solving, and chronic interpersonal difficulties in these three groups. : Suicide attempters committed significantly more errors in social emotion recognition and showed poorer global cognitive performance than elders with no psychiatric history. Attempters had restricted social networks: they were less likely to talk to their children, had fewer close friends, and did not engage in volunteer activities, compared to nonsuicidal depressed elders and those with no psychiatric history. They also reported a pattern of struggle against others and hostility in relationships, felt a lack of social support, perceived social problems as impossible to resolve, and displayed a careless/impulsive approach to problems. : Suicide attempts in depressed elders were associated with poor social problem solving, constricted social networks, and disruptive interpersonal relationships. Impaired social emotion recognition in the suicide attempter group was related.

  12. Relating the Learned Knowledge and Acquired Skills to Real Life: Function Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albayrak, Mustafa; Yazici, Nurullah; Simsek, Mertkan

    2017-01-01

    Considering that Mathematics is a multidimensional problem-solving method that can be effective in all areas of cultural life, it is of great importance because of its contribution to other sciences such as physical and social sciences. It is known that the basic concepts of mathematics, which can also be expressed as a way of life, have helped to…

  13. Leisure-Time and Occupational Physical Activity in Early and Late Adulthood in Relation to Later Life Physical Functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulmala, Jenni; Ngandu, Tiia; Pajala, Satu; Lehtisalo, Jenni; Levälahti, Esko; Antikainen, Riitta; Laatikainen, Tiina; Oksa, Heikki; Peltonen, Markku; Rauramaa, Rainer; Soininen, Hilkka; Strandberg, Timo; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Kivipelto, Miia

    2016-10-01

    Physical activity (PA) has beneficial effects on older age physical functioning, but longitudinal studies with follow-ups extending up to decades are few. We investigated the association between leisure-time PA (LTPA) and occupational PA (OPA) from early to late adulthood in relation to later life performance-based physical functioning. The study involved 1260 people aged 60 to 79 years who took part in assessments of physical functioning (Short Physical Performance Battery [SPPB] test, 10-m maximal walking test, and grip strength test). Participants' data on earlier life LTPA/OPA (age range 25 to 74 years) were received from the previous studies (average follow-up 13.4 years). Logistic, linear, and censored regression models were used to assess the associations between LTPA/OPA earlier in life and subsequent physical functioning. A high level of LTPA earlier in life was associated with a lower risk of having difficulties on the SPPB test (odds ratio [OR]: 0.37; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.24-0.58) and especially on the chair rise test (OR: 0.42; 95% CI, 0.27-0.64) in old age. Heavy manual work predicted difficulties on SPPB (OR: 1.91; 95% CI, 1.22-2.98) and the chair rise test (OR: 1.75; 95% CI, 1.14-2.69) and poorer walking speed (β = .10, P = .005). This study highlights the importance of LTPA on later life functioning, but also indicates the inverse effects that may be caused by heavy manual work.

  14. Inappropriate nutrients intake is associated with lower functional status and inferior quality of life in older adults with depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guligowska, Agnieszka; Pigłowska, Małgorzata; Fife, Elizaveta; Kostka, Joanna; Sołtysik, Bartłomiej K; Kroc, Łukasz; Kostka, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    The study is a case-control analysis of whether depression impairs physical and cognitive functioning and quality of life, and whether there is a relationship between nutrient deficiencies and these adverse changes. A total of 130 older subjects participated in the study: 65 with diagnosed depression (16 men and 49 women) and 65 age- and sex-matched controls without depression. All patients underwent comprehensive geriatric assessment. Nutritional state was assessed with the Mini Nutritional Assessment, cognitive performance was evaluated by the Mini-Mental State Examination and physical functioning by the Timed "Up & Go" test and handgrip strength. The pattern of consumption of various nutrients was analyzed in detail. The differences in cognitive functioning observed between the groups were related to specific nutrient intake, as was handgrip strength to some extent. The differences in nutritional status, several functional tests and muscle strength were related to both the presence of depression and inappropriate consumption of certain nutrients. The incidence of falls and poor quality of life may be partially associated with the presence of depression. The inappropriate intake of selected nutrients may impair the functioning and quality of life of older adults with depression, such as the excess consumption of sucrose and insufficient consumption of protein, fiber, eicosapentaenoic acid, niacin and vitamin B6. Particular nutrients should be translated into dietary patterns which allow the individual patient to address these nutrient deficiencies.

  15. Effect of team sports and resistance training on physical function, quality of life, and motivation in older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mogens Theisen; Vorup Petersen, Jacob; Nistrup, Anne

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of team sports and resistance training on physical function, psychological health, quality of life, and motivation in older untrained adults. Twenty-five untrained men and forty-seven untrained women aged 80 (range: 67-93) years were recruited...... levels. No differences between changes in TG and RG were found over the intervention period, neither in physical function tests nor psychological questionnaires. Both TG and RG were highly motivated for training, but TG expressed a higher degree of enjoyment and intrinsic motivation mainly due to social...... interaction during the activity, whereas RG was more motivated by extrinsic factors like health and fitness benefits. In conclusion, both team training and resistance training improved physical function, psychological well-being, and quality of life. However, team sport training motivated the participants...

  16. Association between social contact frequency and negative symptoms, psychosocial functioning and quality of life in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegrist, Karin; Millier, Aurelie; Amri, Ikbal; Aballéa, Samuel; Toumi, Mondher

    2015-12-30

    The lack of social contacts may be an important element in the presumed vicious circle aggravating, or at least stabilising negative symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. A European 2-year cohort study collected negative symptom scores, psychosocial functioning scores, objective social contact frequency scores and quality of life scores every 6 months. Bivariate analyses, correlation analyses, multivariate regressions and random effects regressions were conducted to describe relations between social contact and outcomes of interest and to gain a better understanding of this relation over time. Using data from 1208 patients with schizophrenia, a link between social contact frequency and negative symptom scores, functioning and quality of life at baseline was established. Regression models confirmed the significant association between social contact and negative symptoms as well as psychosocial functioning. This study aimed at demonstrating the importance of social contact for deficient behavioural aspects of schizophrenia. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Inappropriate nutrients intake is associated with lower functional status and inferior quality of life in older adults with depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guligowska A

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Agnieszka Guligowska,1 Małgorzata Pigłowska,1 Elizaveta Fife,1 Joanna Kostka,2 Bartłomiej K Sołtysik,1 Łukasz Kroc,1 Tomasz Kostka1 1Department of Geriatrics, Healthy Ageing Research Centre, Medical University of Lodz, Lodz, Poland; 2Department of Physical Medicine, Medical University of Lodz, Lodz, Poland Objectives: The study is a case-control analysis of whether depression impairs physical and cognitive functioning and quality of life, and whether there is a relationship between nutrient deficiencies and these adverse changes.Patients and methods: A total of 130 older subjects participated in the study: 65 with diagnosed depression (16 men and 49 women and 65 age- and sex-matched controls without depression. All patients underwent comprehensive geriatric assessment. Nutritional state was assessed with the Mini Nutritional Assessment, cognitive performance was evaluated by the Mini-Mental State Examination and physical functioning by the Timed “Up & Go” test and handgrip strength. The pattern of consumption of various nutrients was analyzed in detail.Results: The differences in cognitive functioning observed between the groups were related to specific nutrient intake, as was handgrip strength to some extent. The differences in nutritional status, several functional tests and muscle strength were related to both the presence of depression and inappropriate consumption of certain nutrients.Conclusion: The incidence of falls and poor quality of life may be partially associated with the presence of depression. The inappropriate intake of selected nutrients may impair the functioning and quality of life of older adults with depression, such as the excess consumption of sucrose and insufficient consumption of protein, fiber, eicosapentaenoic acid, niacin and vitamin B6. Particular nutrients should be translated into dietary patterns which allow the individual patient to address these nutrient deficiencies. Keywords: aging, cognitive

  18. Effects of Ai Chi on balance, quality of life, functional mobility, and motor impairment in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt, Emine Eda; Büyükturan, Buket; Büyükturan, Öznur; Erdem, Hatice Rana; Tuncay, Figen

    2018-04-01

    In this study, we aimed to investigate effects of Ai Chi on balance, functional mobility, health-related quality of life, and motor impairment in patients with Parkinson's disease. This study was conducted as an open-label randomized controlled trial (ISRCTN26292510) with repeated measures. Forty patients with Parkinson's disease stages 2 to 3 according to the Hoehn and Yahr Scale were randomly allocated to either an Ai Chi exercise group or a land-based exercise control group for 5 weeks. Balance was measured using the Biodex-3,1 and the Berg Balance Scale. Functional mobility was evaluated using the Timed Up and Go Test. Additionally, health-related quality of life and motor activity were assessed with the Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire-39 and the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale-III. Although patients in both groups showed significant improvement in all outcome variables, improvement of dynamic balance was significantly greater in the Ai Chi group (p Balance Scale (p balance, mobility, motor ability, and quality of life. In addition, Ai Chi exercise was more effective as an intervention than land-based exercise in patients with mild to moderate Parkinson's disease. Implications for rehabilitation Ai Chi exercises (aquatic exercises) may help improve balance, functional mobility, health-related quality of life, and motor ability in patients with mild to moderate Parkinson's disease more efficiently than similar land-based exercises. Ai Chi exercises should be considered as a rehabilitation option for treatment of patients with mild or moderate Parkinson's disease.

  19. Influences of continuous femoral nerve block on knee function and quality of life in patients following total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fen; Zhou, Yingjie; Sun, Jiajun; Yang, Chunxi

    2015-01-01

    Continuous femoral nerve block (CFNB), guided by ultrasound combined nerve stimulations, offers advantages for both sides and provides effective postoperative analgesia after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The objective of this study was to evaluate the medium-term impact of continuous femoral nerve block on knee function and quality of life in patients following TKA. This was a follow-up study. Total 168 adult patients scheduled for elective TKA were randomly allocated to receive postoperative continuous femoral nerve block guided by ultrasound combined nerve stimulator (group CFNB, n = 82) or patient-controlled epidural analgesia (group PCEA, n = 86). Quality of life, knee function, patient satisfaction, pain medication and associated adverse effects were compared at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively. Quality of life was assessed using the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 Health Survey (MOS SF-36), and clinical results were assessed using the Hospital for Special Surgery (HSS) Knee Scoring System. Patient satisfaction scores were divided into four categories. A total of 162 patients completed the 12-month follow-up. The CFNB group patients had significantly improved SF-36 scores and physical function at 1 month postoperatively (P quality of life in patients at one month postoperatively. Continuous femoral nerve block is a good choice for postoperative analgesia after TKA.

  20. Frank A. Beach award: programming of neuroendocrine function by early-life experience: a critical role for the immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilbo, Staci D

    2013-05-01

    Many neuropsychiatric disorders are associated with a strong dysregulation of the immune system, and several have a striking etiology in development as well. Our recent evidence using a rodent model of neonatal Escherichia coli infection has revealed novel insight into the mechanisms underlying cognitive deficits in adulthood, and suggests that the early-life immune history of an individual may be critical to understanding the relative risk of developing later-life mental health disorders in humans. A single neonatal infection programs the function of immune cells within the brain, called microglia, for the life of the rodent such that an adult immune challenge results in exaggerated cytokine production within the brain and associated cognitive deficits. I describe the important role of the immune system, notably microglia, during brain development, and discuss some of the many ways in which immune activation during early brain development can affect the later-life outcomes of neural function, immune function, and cognition. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A Phylogenomic Census of Molecular Functions Identifies Modern Thermophilic Archaea as the Most Ancient Form of Cellular Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arshan Nasir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The origins of diversified life remain mysterious despite considerable efforts devoted to untangling the roots of the universal tree of life. Here we reconstructed phylogenies that described the evolution of molecular functions and the evolution of species directly from a genomic census of gene ontology (GO definitions. We sampled 249 free-living genomes spanning organisms in the three superkingdoms of life, Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya, and used the abundance of GO terms as molecular characters to produce rooted phylogenetic trees. Results revealed an early thermophilic origin of Archaea that was followed by genome reduction events in microbial superkingdoms. Eukaryal genomes displayed extraordinary functional diversity and were enriched with hundreds of novel molecular activities not detected in the akaryotic microbial cells. Remarkably, the majority of these novel functions appeared quite late in evolution, synchronized with the diversification of the eukaryal superkingdom. The distribution of GO terms in superkingdoms confirms that Archaea appears to be the simplest and most ancient form of cellular life, while Eukarya is the most diverse and recent.

  2. A phylogenomic census of molecular functions identifies modern thermophilic archaea as the most ancient form of cellular life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, Arshan; Kim, Kyung Mo; Caetano-Anollés, Gustavo

    2014-01-01

    The origins of diversified life remain mysterious despite considerable efforts devoted to untangling the roots of the universal tree of life. Here we reconstructed phylogenies that described the evolution of molecular functions and the evolution of species directly from a genomic census of gene ontology (GO) definitions. We sampled 249 free-living genomes spanning organisms in the three superkingdoms of life, Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya, and used the abundance of GO terms as molecular characters to produce rooted phylogenetic trees. Results revealed an early thermophilic origin of Archaea that was followed by genome reduction events in microbial superkingdoms. Eukaryal genomes displayed extraordinary functional diversity and were enriched with hundreds of novel molecular activities not detected in the akaryotic microbial cells. Remarkably, the majority of these novel functions appeared quite late in evolution, synchronized with the diversification of the eukaryal superkingdom. The distribution of GO terms in superkingdoms confirms that Archaea appears to be the simplest and most ancient form of cellular life, while Eukarya is the most diverse and recent.

  3. Effect of team sports and resistance training on physical function, quality of life, and motivation in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, M T; Vorup, J; Nistrup, A; Wikman, J M; Alstrøm, J M; Melcher, P S; Pfister, G U; Bangsbo, J

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of team sports and resistance training on physical function, psychological health, quality of life, and motivation in older untrained adults. Twenty-five untrained men and forty-seven untrained women aged 80 (range: 67-93) years were recruited. Fifty-one were assigned to a training group (TRG) of which twenty-five performed team training (TG) and twenty-six resistance training (RG). The remaining twenty-one were allocated to a control group (CG). TRG trained for 1 hour twice a week for 12 weeks. Compared with CG, TRG improved the number of arm curls within 30 seconds (Ppsychological well-being, general quality of life, and health-related quality of life, as well as decreased anxiety and depression levels. No differences between changes in TG and RG were found over the intervention period, neither in physical function tests nor psychological questionnaires. Both TG and RG were highly motivated for training, but TG expressed a higher degree of enjoyment and intrinsic motivation mainly due to social interaction during the activity, whereas RG was more motivated by extrinsic factors like health and fitness benefits. In conclusion, both team training and resistance training improved physical function, psychological well-being, and quality of life. However, team sport training motivated the participants more by intrinsic factors than resistance training. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. One-year sobriety improves satisfaction with life, executive functions and psychological distress among patients with polysubstance use disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Egon; Erga, Aleksander H; Hagen, Katrin P; Nesvåg, Sverre M; McKay, James R; Lundervold, Astri J; Walderhaug, Espen

    2017-05-01

    Polysubstance use disorder is prevalent in treatment-seeking patients with substance use disorder (SUD), with a higher risk of developing comorbid psychiatric symptoms, more pervasive deficits in cognitive functions, and inferior treatment results. The present study investigates if individuals with polysubstance use disorder who achieve at least one year of abstinence show greater improvements in satisfaction with life, executive functions, and psychological distress, compared to relapsers and controls. The prospective recovery from polysubstance use disorder assessed with broad output indicators remains understudied. A better understanding of the pattern of recovery of the chosen output indicators could shed light on the recovery process for this group of patients. We investigated changes in satisfaction with life, executive functions and psychological distress over a period of 12months in patients who remained abstinent and in those who relapsed. Subjects with polysubstance use disorder (N=115) were recruited from outpatient and residential treatment facilities; healthy controls (N=34) were recruited by posters exhibited at social welfare and GP offices. Executive functions were assessed by the Behaviour Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult self-report version (BRIEF-A), psychological distress by the Symptom Checklist-90-R (SCL-90-R), and satisfaction with life by the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS). Substance use was assessed by self-reports on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and the Drug Use Disorders Identification Test (DUDIT). Participants were categorized as "relapsers" if they had AUDIT score ≥8, or DUDIT score ≥2 for women and ≥6 for men. Results indicated that the abstinent group had the greatest improvement on all the indicators compared with relapsers and controls. Participants who successfully quit substance use for one year showed improved satisfaction with life, executive functions, and psychological distress

  5. No beneficial effects of vitamin D supplementation on muscle function or quality of life in primary hyperparathyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rolighed, Lars; Rejnmark, Lars; Sikjaer, Tanja

    2014-01-01

    , quality of life (QoL), and well-being during treatment with vitamin D or placebo before and after parathyroidectomy (PTX) in PHPT patients. Design: Randomized placebo controlled trial. Patients: We included 46 PHPT patients, mean age 58 (range 29-77) years and 35 (76%) were women. Interventions: Daily...... around 50 nmol/L did not benefit from vitamin D supplementation concerning muscle strength, muscle function, postural stability, well-being, or quality of life. Independent of preoperative 25OHD levels, PTX improved these parameters....

  6. Sexual Function and Quality of Life Before and After Penile Prosthesis Implantation Following Radial Forearm Flap Phalloplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Ezekiel E; Friedlander, Daniel; Lue, Kathy; Anele, Uzoma A; Khurgin, Jacob L; Bivalacqua, Trinity J; Burnett, Arthur L; Redett, Richard J; Gearhart, John P

    2017-06-01

    To provide sexual function and quality of life outcomes in patients with severe penile deficiency who underwent radial forearm flap phalloplasty with and without penile prosthesis implantation. Patients with history of severe penile deficiency who underwent microsurgical radial forearm flap phalloplasty with and without penile prosthesis implantation between 2007 and 2014 were identified. They completed a set of web-based validated questionnaires including the International Index of Erectile Function, the Pediatric Penile Perception Score, the Sexual Quality of Life for Men, and several items addressing general quality of life. Outcomes were compared between groups. Nine of the 12 identified patients who had prosthesis after phalloplasty and 4 out of the 7 phalloplasty-only patients completed the survey, resulting in an overall response rate of 68%. Among the phalloplasty-prosthesis patients, 66% reported current sexual activity and 78% reported regular masturbation, whereas 1 of the 4 phalloplasty-only patients reported both. Prosthesis patients scored notably higher in all domains of the International Index of Erectile Function except for sexual desire. In contrast, they demonstrated similar scores of penile perception, as well as general and sexual quality of life. Among patients who have undergone flap phalloplasty, the subsequent placement of penile prosthesis appears to effectively allow for both intercourse and masturbation, resulting in measurable improvements in orgasmic function, intercourse satisfaction, and overall sexual satisfaction. Despite these important benefits, prosthesis placement does not appear to result in improvements in penile perception scores, or general or sexual quality of life. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Early-life sugar consumption has long-term negative effects on memory function in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Emily E; Hsu, Ted M; Liang, Joanna; Kanoski, Scott E

    2017-09-25

    Added dietary sugars contribute substantially to the diet of children and adolescents in the USA, and recent evidence suggests that consuming sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) during early life has deleterious effects on hippocampal-dependent memory function. Here, we test whether the effects of early-life sugar consumption on hippocampal function persist into adulthood when access to sugar is restricted to the juvenile/adolescent phase of development. Male rats were given ad libitum access to an 11% weight-by-volume sugar solution (made with high fructose corn syrup-55) throughout the adolescent phase of development (post-natal day (PN) 26-56). The control group received a second bottle of water instead, and both groups received ad libitum standard laboratory chow and water access throughout the study. At PN 56 sugar solutions were removed and at PN 175 rats were subjected to behavioral testing for hippocampal-dependent episodic contextual memory in the novel object in context (NOIC) task, for anxiety-like behavior in the Zero maze, and were given an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test. Early-life exposure to SSBs conferred long-lasting impairments in hippocampal-dependent memory function later in life- yet had no effect on body weight, anxiety-like behavior, or glucose tolerance. A second experiment demonstrated that NOIC performance was impaired at PN 175 even when SSB access was limited to 2 hours daily from PN 26-56. Our data suggest that even modest SSB consumption throughout early life may have long-term negative consequences on memory function during adulthood.

  8. Assessment of Quality of Life, Psychological and Functional Status and Disease Activity in Patients with Ankylosing Spondylitis and Fibromyalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Caglayan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Anxiety and depression are psychological dis­orders which frequently accompany and affect the course of rheumatic diseases. Quality of life is also affected by psychological status. In this study, we aimed to assess psychological status and quality of life in patients with an­kylosing spondylitis (AS and fibromyalgia (FM and in­vestigate their association with functional status, disease activity and physical limitation. Method: Thirty-seven patients with AS and thirty-four patients with FM were included in this study. The Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI and Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BAS­FI were used for assessment of disease activity and physical functions respectively. The Ankylosing Spondy­litis Quality of Life (ASQoL questionnaire was used for disease-related quality of life in AS patients. Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ was used for assessment of functional status in FM patients. Nottingham Health Pro­file (NHP and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS were, respectively, used for assessment of qual­ity of life and psychological status in groups. Results: There was no significant difference between the groups in HADS-total, HADS-depression and HADS-anxiety scores (p>0.05. However, patients with FM had significantly higher NHP-total and NHP-pain scores com­pared to patients with AS (p<0.05. Conclusion: There was no significant difference be­tween the two groups in psychological distress. Higher NHP-pain scores in patients with FM might have been caused by lower pain threshold in these patients. The generalizability of our findings is also limited because of the relatively small sample size. J Clin Exp Invest 2016; 7 (1: 41-46

  9. FUNCTIONAL ABILITY AND QUALITY OF LIFE IN PATIENTS WITH RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS RECEIVING TOCILIZUMAB THERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Sergeyevna Starkova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is a chronic inflammatory joint disease causing joint dysfunction; reduction of quality of life (QoL; loss of work ability, self-care ability, and executing daily routines in most patients 5–10 years after the disease onset.Objective. To study QoL and the functional status (FS of Russian RA patients receiving tocilizumab (TCZ.Material and Methods. The study involved 42 patients with verified RA diagnosis (moderate or high activity who had earlier undergone inefficient therapy with basic anti-inflammatory medications. The limitation of the FS of the RA patients was determined quantitatively using the Russian-language version of the HAQ questionnaire. QoL was evaluated using the EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D Quality of Life questionnaire prior to treatment and after 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, and 24 weeks.Results. TCZ therapy demonstrated a rapid improvement of the FS of RA patients with a 64% decrease in the HAQ index (ΔHAQ=1.12, which corresponded to a 50% improvement of the health status of patients according to the ACR criteria.The median value [25th; 75th percentile] of the EQ-5D index was 0.52 [-0.02; 0.52]; 27.7% patients assessed their QoL as “worse than death”. The index reliably increased by week 8 of therapy; there were no patients with the negative EQ-5D index by week 24. Depending on QoL, all the patients were subdivided into two groups. Group 1 (n=12 comprised the patients with the EQ-5D no higher than 0; in group 2 patients (n=30, it was higher than 0. The groups were comparable in terms of disease duration, age, disease activity indices, and the previous treatment. The low QoL index in all 12 patients in group 1 was attributed to the infeasibility of performing daily activities and the reliably higher pain level (75.0 [61.0; 86.0] and 66.0 [48.0; 71.0] in groups 1 and 2, respectively; p=0.02. Improved QoL and reduced pain level were observed in both groups as early as after the first TCZ infusion. By week 24

  10. Health-related quality of life before and after pediatric epilepsy surgery: the influence of seizure outcome on changes in physical functioning and social functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titus, Jeffrey B; Lee, Amy; Kasasbeh, Aimen; Thio, Liu Lin; Stephenson, Jennifer; Steger-May, Karen; Limbrick, David D; Smyth, Matthew D

    2013-06-01

    Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is an important outcome in pediatric epilepsy surgery, but there are few studies that utilize presurgical ratings to assess the effect of surgery on HRQOL. We collected parental ratings on the Quality of Life in Childhood Epilepsy (QOLCE) questionnaire for 28 children who participated in neuropsychological assessment before and after epilepsy surgery. Our results revealed significant improvements in overall HRQOL after surgery, especially in physical and social activities. These changes were apparent despite generally unchanged intellectual and psychological functioning. Children with better seizure outcome had more improvement in HRQOL; however, improvements were not statistically different among children with Engel class I, II, and III outcomes. Our results suggest that children can experience significant improvements in HRQOL following epilepsy surgery even when neuropsychological functioning remains unchanged. Moreover, improvements in HRQOL appear evident in children who experience any worthwhile improvement in seizure control (Engel class III or better). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Super-Resolution Molecular and Functional Imaging of Nanoscale Architectures in Life and Materials Science

    KAUST Repository

    Habuchi, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    fluorescence microscopy techniques along with the latest developments of fluorophores and labeling for the SR microscopy. I discuss the applications of SR microscopy in the fields of life science and materials science with a special emphasis on quantitative

  12. Quality of life, functional outcome, and voice handicap index in partial laryngectomy patients for early glottic cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kandogan Tolga

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In this study, we aim to gather information about the quality of life issues, functional outcomes and voice problems facing early glottic cancer patients treated with the surgical techniques such as laryngofissure cordectomy, fronto-lateral laryngectomy, or cricohyoidopexi. In particular, consistency of life and voice quality issues with the laryngeal tissue excised during surgery is examined. In addition, the effects of arytenoidectomy to the life and voice quality are also studied. Methods 29 male patients were enrolled voluntarily in the study. The average age was 53.9 years. Three out of 10 patients with laryngofissure cordectomy also had arytenoidectomy. 11 patients had fronto-lateral laryngectomy with Tucker reconstruction, two of which also had arytenoidectomy. There were eight patients with cricohyoidopexi and bilateral functional neck dissection. Three of these patients also had arytenoidectomy. In bilateral functional neck dissection cases, spinal accessory nerve was preserved and level V of the neck was not dissected. None of the patients had neither radiotherapy nor voice therapy. Cordectomy patients never had a temporary tracheotomy or were connected to a feeding tube. Data was collected for 13 months for the cordectomy group, 14 months for fronto-lateral laryngectomy and cricohyoidopexi groups on average post-operatively. Statistical analysis in this study was carried out using the one-way analysis of variance, and the Post-Hoc group comparisons were made after Bonferroni and Scheffé-procedures. In order to determine the effects of arytenoidectomy, a regression analysis is carried out to see if there are statistical differences in answers given to the survey questions among patients who were arytenoidectomized during their surgeries. Results There was a statistically significant difference between cordectomy and cricohyoidopexi group in answers to the University of Washington- Quality of Life- Revised survey

  13. Quality of life and functional status after revascularization or conservative treatment in patients with intermittent claudication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedeager Momsen, Anne-Mette; Bach Jensen, Martin; Norager, Charlotte Buchard

    2011-01-01

    Revascularization of patients with intermittent claudication (IC) is recommended only for selected patients who have chronic pain or disabling disease. However, improvement in the quality of life (QoL) could justify more widespread use.......Revascularization of patients with intermittent claudication (IC) is recommended only for selected patients who have chronic pain or disabling disease. However, improvement in the quality of life (QoL) could justify more widespread use....

  14. Lower limb lymphedema in gynecological cancer survivors--effect on daily life functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunberger, Gail; Lindquist, Helene; Waldenström, Ann-Charlotte; Nyberg, Tommy; Steineck, Gunnar; Åvall-Lundqvist, Elisabeth

    2013-11-01

    Lower limb lymphedema (LLL) is a common condition after pelvic cancer treatment but few studies have evaluated its effect on the quality of life and its consequences on daily life activities among gynecological cancer survivors. We identified a cohort of 789 eligible women, treated with pelvic radiotherapy alone or as part of combined treatment of gynecological cancer, from 1991 to 2003 at two departments of gynecological oncology in Sweden. As a preparatory study, we conducted in-depth interviews with gynecological cancer survivors and constructed a study-specific questionnaire which we validated face-to-face. The questionnaire covered physical symptoms originating in the pelvis, demographic, psychological, and quality of life factors. In relation to the lymph system, 19 questions were asked. Six hundred sixteen (78 %) gynecological cancer survivors answered the questionnaire and participated in the study. Thirty-six percent (218/606) of the cancer survivors reported LLL. Overall quality of life was significantly lower among cancer survivors with LLL. They were also less satisfied with their sleep, more worried about recurrence of cancer, and more likely to interpret symptoms from the body as recurrence. Cancer survivors reported that LLL kept them from physical activity (45 %) and house work (29 %) and affected their ability to partake in social activities (27 %) or to meet friends (20 %). Lower limb lymphedema has a negative impact on quality of life among gynecological cancer survivors, affecting sleep and daily life activities, yet only a few seek professional help.

  15. Impact of an implantable steroid contraceptive (etonogestrel-releasing implant) on quality of life and sexual function: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Carlo, Costantino; Sansone, Anna; De Rosa, Nicoletta; Gargano, Virginia; Tommaselli, Giovanni Antonio; Nappi, Carmine; Bifulco, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the impact of etonogestrel (ENG)-implant used for contraceptive purpose on Quality of life (QoL) and on sexual function (FSF) of healthy Italian women. The Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) questionnaire and the Short Form-36 (SF-36) validated questionnaire were administered at baseline, 3 and 6 months after insertion of Nexplanon. The implant seems to have a positive impact on QoL after the first three months of therapy. Users showed an improved general health status and physical role status. The implant did not show negative effects on libido and on sexual function. In the first three months of treatment, users experienced a temporary reduction of vitality, mental health, social functioning and emotional role functioning, which seem to disappear after six months of therapy.

  16. The influence of neuropsychiatric and functional changes on quality of life in Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia M.P.C. Novelli

    Full Text Available Abstract To investigate the influence of neuropsychiatric manifestations and functional performance on quality of life (QOL of AD patients and their caregivers/family members. Methods: The QOL-AD scale, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE, Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS, Cornell and Beck Scales for Depression, Physical and Instrumental-Self Maintenance scales (AIDL and ADL and the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI were applied to 60 patients with probable AD, mild (n=30 or moderate (n=30 dementia, according to NINCDS-ADRDA and DSM-III-R criteria, respectively, and to their caregivers/family members. The total scores on the three QOL-AD versions were correlated with the measures previously mentioned. Results: The QOL-AD patients' version displayed significant correlations with GDS (-0.76 p<0.01, Cornell (-0.53 p<0.01 and NPI (-0.46 p<0.05 in the mild dementia subgroup. The caregivers' version about patients' QOL correlated with GDS (-0.48 p<0.01, Cornell (-0.57 p<0.01, NPI (-0.46 p<0.01 and AIDL (-0.36 p<0.05, while the caregivers' version about their own QOL was significantly correlated with NPI (-0.43 p<0.01, AIDL (-0.35 p<0.05 and Beck Depression (-0.67 p<0.01. In the moderate dementia subgroup, significant correlations were observed with GDS (-0.45 p<0.05 and Cornell (-0.46 p<0.01. For the caregivers' version about patients' QOL, significant correlations emerged with Cornell (-0.68 p<0.01, NPI (-0.67 p<0.01, AIDL (-0.41 p<0.05, ADL (-0.49, p<0.01 and Beck Depression (-0.33 p<0.05. For the caregivers' version about their own QOL, significant correlations with Beck Depression (-0.54 p<0.01 and ADL (-0.38, p<0.05 were found. Conclusion: The symptoms presented in AD affected the QOL in patients and caregivers/family members in both mild and moderate dementia.

  17. Amygdala functional connectivity, HPA axis genetic variation, and life stress in children and relations to anxiety and emotion regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagliaccio, David; Luby, Joan L; Bogdan, Ryan; Agrawal, Arpana; Gaffrey, Michael S; Belden, Andrew C; Botteron, Kelly N; Harms, Michael P; Barch, Deanna M

    2015-11-01

    Internalizing pathology is related to alterations in amygdala resting state functional connectivity, potentially implicating altered emotional reactivity and/or emotion regulation in the etiological pathway. Importantly, there is accumulating evidence that stress exposure and genetic vulnerability impact amygdala structure/function and risk for internalizing pathology. The present study examined whether early life stress and genetic profile scores (10 single nucleotide polymorphisms within 4 hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis genes: CRHR1, NR3C2, NR3C1, and FKBP5) predicted individual differences in amygdala functional connectivity in school-age children (9- to 14-year-olds; N = 120). Whole-brain regression analyses indicated that increasing genetic "risk" predicted alterations in amygdala connectivity to the caudate and postcentral gyrus. Experience of more stressful and traumatic life events predicted weakened amygdala-anterior cingulate cortex connectivity. Genetic "risk" and stress exposure interacted to predict weakened connectivity between the amygdala and the inferior and middle frontal gyri, caudate, and parahippocampal gyrus in those children with the greatest genetic and environmental risk load. Furthermore, amygdala connectivity longitudinally predicted anxiety symptoms and emotion regulation skills at a later follow-up. Amygdala connectivity mediated effects of life stress on anxiety and of genetic variants on emotion regulation. The current results suggest that considering the unique and interacting effects of biological vulnerability and environmental risk factors may be key to understanding the development of altered amygdala functional connectivity, a potential factor in the risk trajectory for internalizing pathology. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Are economic recessions at the time of leaving school associated with worse physical functioning in later life?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessel, Philipp; Avendano, Mauricio

    2013-11-01

    To examine whether economic conditions at the time of leaving school or college are associated with physical functioning in later life among cohorts in 11 European countries. Data came from 10,338 participants in the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) aged 50-74 who left school or college between 1956 and 1986. Data on functional limitations, as well as employment, marriage, and fertility retrospective histories were linked to national unemployment rates during the year individuals left school. Models included country-fixed effects and controls for early-life circumstances. Greater unemployment rates during the school-leaving year were associated with fewer functional limitations at ages 50-74 among men (rate ratio 0.63, 95% confidence interval 0.47-0.83), but more physical functioning limitations among women (rate ratio 1.30, 95% confidence interval 1.13-1.50), particularly among those with (post-)secondary education. Economic conditions at the age of leaving school were associated with several labor market, marriage, fertility, and health behavior outcomes, but controlling for these factors did not attenuate associations. Results were similar in models that controlled for selection into higher education due to measured covariates. Worse economic conditions during the school-leaving year predicted better health at later life among men but worse health among women. Both selection and causation mechanisms may explain this association. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Amygdala functional connectivity, HPA axis genetic variation, and life stress in children and relations to anxiety and emotion regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagliaccio, David; Luby, Joan L.; Bogdan, Ryan; Agrawal, Arpana; Gaffrey, Michael S.; Belden, Andrew C.; Botteron, Kelly N.; Harms, Michael P.; Barch, Deanna M.

    2015-01-01

    Internalizing pathology is related to alterations in amygdala resting state functional connectivity, potentially implicating altered emotional reactivity and/or emotion regulation in the etiological pathway. Importantly, there is accumulating evidence that stress exposure and genetic vulnerability impact amygdala structure/function and risk for internalizing pathology. The present study examined whether early life stress and genetic profile scores (10 single nucleotide polymorphisms within four hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis genes: CRHR1, NR3C2, NR3C1, and FKBP5) predicted individual differences in amygdala functional connectivity in school-age children (9–14 year olds; N=120). Whole-brain regression analyses indicated that increasing genetic ‘risk’ predicted alterations in amygdala connectivity to the caudate and postcentral gyrus. Experience of more stressful and traumatic life events predicted weakened amygdala-anterior cingulate cortex connectivity. Genetic ‘risk’ and stress exposure interacted to predict weakened connectivity between the amygdala and the inferior and middle frontal gyri, caudate, and parahippocampal gyrus in those children with the greatest genetic and environmental risk load. Furthermore, amygdala connectivity longitudinally predicted anxiety symptoms and emotion regulation skills at a later follow-up. Amygdala connectivity mediated effects of life stress on anxiety and of genetic variants on emotion regulation. The current results suggest that considering the unique and interacting effects of biological vulnerability and environmental risk factors may be key to understanding the development of altered amygdala functional connectivity, a potential factor in the risk trajectory for internalizing pathology. PMID:26595470

  20. Correlation between cognitive function, gross motor skills and health – Related quality of life in children with Down syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saly Said Abd El-Hady

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Children with Down syndrome (DS have delayed motor and cognitive development and have problems in health related quality of life (HRQOL. Purpose: To evaluate the correlation between cognitive function; attention/concentration, gross motor skills; standing and walking, running, jumping domains and HRQOL in children with DS. Subjects and methods: Seventy children with DS of both sexes (37 boys and 33 girls were selected from El Tarbia El Fekria School for children with Special Needs and Education and National Institute of neuro motor system. They were selected to be ranged in age from 8 to 12 years and to be free from visual, hearing or perceptual problems. They were divided into two age groups; group A (8–10 years, and group B (10–12 years. The Rehacom was used to evaluate the cognitive function (attention/concentration, the Gross Motor Function Measure-88 (GMFM-88 was used to evaluate the gross motor skills and the Pediatric quality of life inventory parent-proxy report (PedsQL TM was used to evaluate the HRQOL. Results: There was a weak to moderate correlation between the cognitive function, GMFM and HRQOL in both age groups. The level of difficulty of attention/concentration was moderate, positively and significantly correlated with GMFM; standing and walking, running, jumping domains in both age groups. There was a moderate, positive and significant correlation was found between the physical score of HRQOL and walking, running, jumping domain in age group B and between the psychosocial score of HRQOL and standing domain in age group A. Conclusion: The cognitive function and HRQOL should be considered in the evaluation of children with DS in addition to gross motor skills as there was a correlation between the cognitive function, HRQOL and GMFM. Keywords: Cognitive function, Gross motor skills, Health – related quality of life, Down syndrome children

  1. Does the Social Functioning Scale reflect real-life social functioning? An experience sampling study in patients with a non-affective psychotic disorder and healthy control individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, M; Reininghaus, U; van Nierop, M; Janssens, M; Myin-Germeys, I

    2017-12-01

    The ecological validity of retrospective measures of social functioning is currently unknown in patients with schizophrenia. In the present study, patients with a diagnosis of non-affective psychosis were compared with controls on two measures of social functioning: the Social Functioning Scale (SFS) and daily-life measures collected with the Experience Sampling Methodology (ESM). The associations between both measures were examined in each group of participants to test for the ecological validity of the SFS. A total of 126 participants with a non-affective psychotic disorder and 109 controls completed the SFS and a 6-day momentary ESM protocol assessing various aspects of social functioning. Multiple linear and multilevel regression analyses were performed to test for group differences in social functioning level and examine associations between the two assessment techniques. Lower social functioning was observed in patients compared with controls on retrospective and momentary measures. The SFS interpersonal domain (social engagement/withdrawal and interpersonal behaviour dimensions) was associated with the percentage of time spent alone and negative appraisal of social interactions. The SFS activity domain (pro-social and recreational activities dimensions) was negatively associated with time spent in leisure activities. The SFS showed some degree of ecological validity at assessing broad aspects of social functioning. Low scores on the SFS social engagement/withdrawal and interpersonal behaviour dimensions captured social isolation and social avoidance in daily life, but not lack of interest in socializing. Ecological validity of the SFS activity domain was low. ESM offers a rich alternative to classical assessment techniques of social functioning.

  2. [Comparative analysis of visual function and the quality of life index with eyeglasses or a progressive contact lens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sant'Anna, Neusa Vidal; Schor, Paulo; Lipener, César; Uras, Ricardo

    2006-01-01

    To compare the visual function and the answers to a questionnaire of quality of life of patients wearing a progressive contact lens or eyeglasses. The Focus Progressive contact lens had been fitted in 35 patients with far visual acuity with progressive-addition eyeglasses equal to zero (log MAR) and near J1 (Jaeger). The far and near visual acuities and the measurement of contrast sensitivity were compared when the patients were wearing the eyeglasses or the contact lens and the patients' results of the scores of the quality of life questionnaire (NEI VFQ-25) were analyzed statistically considering the type of ametropy and the age. The far and near visual acuities and the contrast sensitivity measurement were worse with the contact lens than with eyeglasses. The answers to the questionnaire did not differ when were comparing the same patients wearing eyeglasses or contact lens, no matter the type of ametropy. The myopic and the hyperopic subgroups had worse answers to the quality of life questionnaire when corrected with the contact lens than with eyeglasses, both with age equal to or less than their median. The visual function was worse with the contact lens. The type of ametropy did not influence the answers to the quality of life questionnaire considering the optical correction, but age did.

  3. [The effect of parenteral citicoline on visual functions and life quality of patients with primary open-angle glaucoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frolov, M A; Gonchar, P A; Barashkov, V I; Kumar, V; Morozova, N S; Frolov, A M; Kazakova, K A

    2011-01-01

    The effect of nootropic drug citicoline on visual functions, perimetric indexes of static automated perimetry, morphometric characteristics of retinal tomography and life quality of patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) stage I-III and normalized intraocular pressure (IOP) was studied. 40 patients aged 46-78 years old with POAG stage I-III and normalized IOP were treated with citicoline. Among them there were 24 female and 16 male. The patients were divided into 2 equal groups--experimental and control. Patients of both groups were treated with intravenous citicoline for 10 days. The dose of citicoline in experimental group was 1000 mg/day, in control--500 mg/day. After treatment in both groups visual functions, perimetric indexes of static automated perimetry, morphometric characteristics of retinal tomography and life quality showed improvement. Citicoline has significant neuroprotective effect preventing apoptosis.

  4. Functional limitations and quality of life in schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Viertiö, Satu

    2011-01-01

    There is substantial evidence of the decreased functional capacity, especially everyday functioning, of people with psychotic disorder in clinical settings, but little research about it in the general population. The aim of the present study was to provide information on the magnitude of functional capacity problems in persons with psychotic disorder compared with the general population. It estimated the prevalence and severity of limitations in vision, mobility, everyday functioning and qual...

  5. Perceived family functioning, adolescent psychopathology and quality of life in the general population: a 6-month follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jozefiak, Thomas; Wallander, Jan L

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate whether perceived family functioning of adolescent is moderating or mediating the longitudinal association of adolescent internalizing and externalizing psychopathology with quality of life (QoL) after 6 months in the general population. Using a cluster sampling technique in one Norwegian county 1331, 10- to 16-year-old students were included in the study (51 % girls). Parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist for the assessment of adolescent psychopathology at Time 1. The students completed the General Functioning Scale of the McMaster Family Assessment Device and the Inventory of Life Quality in Children and Adolescents at time 2 6 months later. Psychopathology, family functioning and QoL were treated as latent variables in a structural equation model adjusted for sex, age and parent education. The regression coefficients for paths from psychopathology decreased (β = .199 for the internalizing and β = .102 for the externalizing model) in each case when including the indirect path via family functioning compared with the direct path from psychopathology to QoL. The sum of indirect effects on QoL via family functioning was significant for internalizing β = 0.093 (95 % CI 0.054-0.133) and externalizing β = 0.119 (95 % CI 0.076-0.162) psychopathology. Family functioning significantly mediated the longitudinal association between psychopathology and QoL. Because the family remains an important social domain for adolescents, it must be an important consideration when attempting to reduce or alleviate psychopathology in youth and improve the quality of their life experience throughout this period.

  6. Active life in old age. Combining measures of functional ability and social participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avlund, K; Holstein, B E; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    1999-01-01

    and women, 2) to investigate the association between ALC and life satisfaction and 3) to describe how ALC is determined by socio-demographic, psycho-social, and health factors. DESIGN: A cross-sectional population survey. SETTING: Eleven municipalities in the Western part of Copenhagen County in 1989......: For both men and women an active life (measured by ALC) was significantly associated with life satisfaction. For men only good self-rated health was related to ALC in the multivariate analysis. Among women high income, many social contacts, good self-rated health, good memory and lack of chronic diseases...... for both sexes, and 3) it gives more information than the two concepts used as separate outcome measures....

  7. Model-based prognostics for batteries which estimates useful life and uses a probability density function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Bhaskar (Inventor); Goebel, Kai F. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    This invention develops a mathematical model to describe battery behavior during individual discharge cycles as well as over its cycle life. The basis for the form of the model has been linked to the internal processes of the battery and validated using experimental data. Effects of temperature and load current have also been incorporated into the model. Subsequently, the model has been used in a Particle Filtering framework to make predictions of remaining useful life for individual discharge cycles as well as for cycle life. The prediction performance was found to be satisfactory as measured by performance metrics customized for prognostics for a sample case. The work presented here provides initial steps towards a comprehensive health management solution for energy storage devices.

  8. Influence of Autism Traits and Executive Functioning on Quality of Life in Children with an Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Marieke; Geurts, Hilde

    2015-01-01

    Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) often experience a low Quality of Life (QoL). We studied if IQ, early language development, current autism traits, and daily Executive Functions (EFs) are related to QoL in children (aged 8-12 years) with ASD (N = 120) and typically developing (TD) children (N = 76). Children with ASD showed a lower…

  9. Evaluation of quality of life and sexual functioning of women using levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine contraceptive system--Mirena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrzypulec, Violetta; Drosdzol, Agnieszka

    2008-12-01

    The advantages ensuing from the high contraceptive efficacy, positive effect on the parameters of the menstrual cycle as well as other values of the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system may play an important role in women's sexual life. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system on the quality of life and sexual functioning of women. The research encompassed 200 women aged between 30 and 45. 52 women using the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system were qualified to the study as the research group (Mirena Group). The control groups consisted of 48 women using a different type of intrauterine device (Control Group I--Other IUD) and 50 women using no contraception (Control Group II). A specific questionnaire with a general part concerning socio-demographic conditions, a part dealing with contraception and Polish version of self-evaluation inventories: Short Form-36 Health Survey, Female Sexual Function Index and Mell-Krat Scale was used as a research tool. Quality of life parameters for women using the Mirena system were higher than for the control groups, especially in the aspect of general health, energy/fatigue and emotional well-being. A significant beneficial effect of the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system on sexual functioning (sexual desire and arousal) was also revealed in the study. Sexual dysfunctions were diagnosed in 20.8% of Other IUD, 34.7% of Control Group II and 9.6% of Mirena Group. Levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system increases female quality of life and sexual functioning parameters.

  10. Effect of joint traction on functional improvement and quality of life in patients with severe knee osteoarthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Sedigheh Sadat Naeimee; Abbas Rahimi; Mehdi Rezaee; Alireza Akbarzadeh Baghban; Khosro Khademi Kalantari; ُSomayeh Mahmoudi Aghdam

    2012-01-01

    Background and aim: Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most prevalent joint disease in adults around the world and its incidence rises with age. Patients with severe knee osteoarthritis often complain of pain and severe functional disability. Most of conservative treatments used in this group of patients induce poor improvements. This study evaluated the effect of joint traction on quality of life of patients with severe knee osteoarthritis.Materials and Methods: In this clinical trial study, forty f...

  11. Mental health, life functioning and risk factors among people exposed to frequent natural disasters and chronic poverty in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Pollack, Amie Alley; Weiss, Bahr; Trung, Lam Tu

    2016-01-01

    Background People living in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) are at increased risk for exposure to major natural disasters, which places them at increased risk for mental health problems. Evidence is less clear, however, regarding the effects of less severe but more frequent natural disasters, which are likely to increase due to global climate change. Aims To examine the mental health and life functioning, and their predictors, of people living in central coastal Vietnam ? an area char...

  12. Association between muscle function, cognitive state, depression symptoms and quality of life of older people: evidence from clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gariballa, Salah; Alessa, Awad

    2018-04-01

    Although low muscle function/strength is an important predictor of poor clinical outcome in older patients, information on its impact on mental health in clinical practice is still lacking. The aim of this report is to measure the impact of low muscle function measured by handgrip strength on mental health of older people during both acute illness and recovery. Four hundred and thirty-two randomly selected hospitalized older patients had their baseline demographic and clinical characteristics assessed within 72 h of admission, at 6 weeks and at 6 months. Low muscle strength-handgrip was defined using the European Working Group criteria. Mental health outcome measures including cognitive state, depression symptoms and quality of life were also measured. Among the 432 patients recruited, 308 (79%) had low muscle strength at baseline. Corresponding figures at 6 weeks and at 6 months were 140 (73%) and 158 (75%). Patients with poor muscle strength were significantly older with increased disability and poor nutritional status compared with those with normal muscle strength. After adjustment for age, gender, disability, comorbidity including severity of acute illness and body mass index patients with low muscle strength had worse cognitive function, quality of life and higher depression symptoms compared with those with normal muscle strength over a 6-month period (p older people is associated with poor cognitive state and quality of life and increased depression symptoms during both acute illness and recovery.

  13. Life Cycle and Secondary Production of Four Species from Functional Feeding Groups in a Tropical Stream of South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sankarappan Anbalagan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on life strategies of species from functional feeding groups (FFGs found in a tropical stream of the Sirumalai hills, South India. We examined the life cycle and secondary production of species of shredders (Lepidostoma nuburagangai, scrapers (Baetis sp., collectors (Choroterpes alagarensis, and predators (Neoperla biseriata. In addition, we studied the assemblage structure of functional feeding groups. We found the collectors occupied the highest percentage, followed in turn by scrapers, predators, and shredders. The diversity of FFGs was higher at riffle areas and assemblage with stream substrates differing in each functional group. An asynchronous life cycle was observed for Baetis, C. alagarensis, and N. biseriata, while L. nuburagangai was found in four to five generations per year. We acquired data on secondary production of scraper species of Baetis, which reached the highest values among all investigated species. This observation stresses the importance of scrapers as playing a key role in converting coarse particulate organic matter to fine particulate organic matter with low or high abundances of shredder population and maintaining the food chain in tropical streams.

  14. Does walking improve disability status, function, or quality of life in adults with chronic low back pain? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawford, Belinda J; Walters, Julie; Ferrar, Katia

    2016-06-01

    To establish the effectiveness of walking alone and walking compared to other non-pharmacological management methods to improve disability, quality of life, or function in adults with chronic low back pain. A systematic search of the following databases was undertaken: Medline, Embase, CINAHL, Scopus, Pedro, SportDiscus, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. The following keywords were used: 'back pain' or 'low back pain' or 'chronic low back pain' and 'walk*' or 'ambulation' or 'treadmill*' or 'pedometer*' or 'acceleromet*' or 'recreational' and 'disability' or 'quality of life' or 'function*'. Primary research studies with an intervention focus that investigated walking as the primary intervention compared to no intervention or any other non-pharmacological method in adults with chronic low back pain (duration >3 months). Seven randomised controlled trials involving 869 participants were included in the review. There was no evidence that walking was more effective than other management methods such as usual care, specific strength exercises, medical exercise therapy, or supervised exercise classes. One study found over-ground walking to be superior to treadmill walking, and another found internet-mediated walking to be more beneficial than non-internet-mediated walking in the short term. There is low quality evidence to suggest that walking is as effective as other non-pharmacological management methods at improving disability, function, and quality of life in adults with chronic low back pain. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Parental bereavement during mid-to-later life: pre- to postbereavement functioning and intrapersonal resources for coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, Frank J; Mailick Seltzer, Marsha; Greenberg, Jan S; Song, Jieun

    2013-06-01

    The death of a child when parents are in mid-to-late life is a traumatic event for aging parents. In order to evaluate adjustment, the impact of unanticipated versus anticipated deaths, and the effects of internal resources for coping with bereavement, we examined pre- and postbereavement functioning, using the 1992/94 and 2004/06 waves of the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, for parents (M age = 54 and 65 years, respectively) whose adult child died between these dates (n = 175). The results revealed a general pattern of adaptation in which most bereaved parents were functioning as well as a matched comparison group (n = 175), though more depression symptoms were present both before and after the death of the child for the mothers of children who died from long-term illnesses and the fathers of children who committed suicide, suggesting that conditions predating the death were chronic strains for these parents. Intrapersonal resources, including a sense of purpose in life and high levels of agreeableness, were associated with better functioning, particularly for bereaved parents whose children's deaths were not anticipated. The study places parental bereavement in the context of normative aging and the framework of chronic life strain. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  16. Comparison of Pulmonary Functions, Physical Activity Level and Quality of Life in Obese and Pre-Obese Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rıdvan Aktan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: There are studies regarding pulmonary functions of obese individuals in literature; however, there is insufficient data regarding pre-obese individuals. This study aimed to compare the pulmonary functions, physical activity levels, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL of obese and pre-obese individuals. Methods: The characteristics of 62 subjects participating in the study were recorded All subjects were evaluated using pulmonary function tests (PFT, short form-36 health survey (SF-36, obesity and weight loss quality of life measure (OWLQOL, international physical activity questionnaires (IPAQ, and modified medical research council (mMRC scale. Results: The severity of perceived dyspnea in obese subjects was significantly higher than that in pre-obese subjects. The PFT parameters (FVC, FEV1, PEF, FEF25–75, FEF25–75%, MVV, and MVV% were significantly lower in obese subjects. Although individuals in both groups were inactive, the inactivity levels in obese subjects were significantly higher. HRQOL scores were significantly lower in obese individuals. The body mass index (BMI was significantly correlated with dyspnea severity, SF-36 subscores, OWLQOL scores, and PFT parameters. Conclusion: While an increasing BMI has an adverse effect on the pulmonary functions of pre-obese individuals, increased BMI coupled with reduced pulmonary functions causes a decrease in the physical activity levels and reduces HRQOL of obese individuals.

  17. Exercise interventions in polypathological aging patients that coexist with diabetes mellitus: improving functional status and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadore, Eduardo Lusa; Izquierdo, Mikel

    2015-06-01

    In elderly populations, diabetes is associated with reduced muscle strength, poor muscle quality, and accelerated loss of muscle mass. In addition, diabetes mellitus increases risk for accelerated aging and for the development of frailty syndrome. This disease is also associated with a polypathological condition, and its complications progressively affect quality of life and survival. Exercise interventions, including resistance training, represent the cornerstones of diabetes management, especially in patients at severe functional decline. This review manuscript aimed to describe the beneficial effects of different exercise interventions on the functional capacity of elderly diabetics, including those at polypathological condition. The SciELO, Science Citation Index, MEDLINE, Scopus, SPORTDiscus, and ScienceDirect databases were searched from 1980 to 2015 for articles published from original scientific investigations. In addition to the beneficial effects of exercise interventions on glycemic control, and on the cardiovascular risk factors associated with diabetes, physical exercise is an effective intervention to improve muscle strength, power output, and aerobic power and functional capacity in elderly diabetic patients. Thus, a combination of resistance and endurance training is the most effective exercise intervention to promote overall physical fitness in these patients. In addition, in diabetic patients with frailty and severe functional decline, a multicomponent exercise program including strength and power training, balance exercises, and gait retraining may be an effective intervention to reduce falls and improve functional capacity and quality of life in these patients.

  18. Functional Deficits and Quality of Life Among Cancer Survivors: Implications for Occupational Therapy in Cancer Survivorship Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Eric J; Lokietz, Nicole C; Lozano, Rachel L; Parke, Megan A

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to explore functional deficits and perceived quality of life (QoL) among cancer survivors. Sixty-six participants completed the Post Cancer Outcome Survey developed for the purpose of this study. The results indicated (1) modest to moderate degrees of functional deficits in 28 of the 70 items measuring areas of occupation, performance skills, body functions, and psychosocial well-being within the first year after cancer treatment; (2) significantly lower perceived QoL during the first year of survivorship compared with that before diagnosis, at present, and 5 yr hereafter (p occupational therapy during the first year posttreatment. Functional difficulties and compromised QoL identified in this study indicate the need for occupational therapy among cancer survivors. Increasing clients' awareness of occupational therapy for postcancer care is also suggested. Copyright © 2015 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  19. Self-reported nonrestorative sleep in fibromyalgia – relationship to impairments of body functions, personal function factors, and quality of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liedberg GM

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Gunilla M Liedberg,1 Mathilda Björk,2 Björn Börsbo31Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Linköping University, Norrköping, 2Rehabilitation Centre and Department of Medical and Health Sciences, 3Rehabilitation Medicine, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences (IMH, Linköping University, Linköping, SwedenPurpose: The purpose of this study was: 1 to determine variables that might characterize good or bad sleep; and 2 to describe the relationship between sleep, impairment of body functions, personal function factors, and quality of life based on quality of sleep in women with fibromyalgia (FM. Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study included 224 consecutive patients diagnosed at a specialist center. These patients were mailed a questionnaire concerning sleep, body functions, personal factors, and health-related quality of life. In total, 145 completed questionnaires were collected. Results: Using sleep variables (sleep quality, waking up unrefreshed, and tiredness when getting up, we identified two subgroups – the good sleep subgroup and the bad sleep subgroup – of women with FM. These subgroups exhibited significantly different characteristics concerning pain intensity, psychological variables (depressed mood, anxiety, catastrophizing, and self-efficacy, impairments of body functions, and generic and health-related quality of life. The good sleep subgroup reported a significantly better situation, including higher employment/study rate. The bad sleep subgroup reported a greater use of sleep medication. Five variables determined inclusion into either a good sleep or a bad sleep subgroup: pain in the evening, self-efficacy, anxiety, and according to the Short Form health survey role emotional and physical functioning. Conclusion: This study found that it was possible to identify two subgroups of women with FM based on quality of sleep variables. The two subgroups differed significantly with respect to pain, psychological

  20. Work functioning trajectories in cancer patients: Results from the longitudinal Work Life after Cancer (WOLICA) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorland, Heleen F; Abma, Femke I; Roelen, Corné A M; Stewart, Roy E; Amick, Benjamin C; Ranchor, Adelita V; Bültmann, Ute

    2017-11-01

    More than 60% of cancer patients are able to work after cancer diagnosis. However, little is known about their functioning at work. Therefore, the aims of this study were to (1) identify work functioning trajectories in the year following return to work (RTW) in cancer patients and (2) examine baseline sociodemographic, health-related and work-related variables associated with work functioning trajectories. This longitudinal cohort study included 384 cancer patients who have returned to work after cancer diagnosis. Work functioning was measured at baseline, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months follow-up. Latent class growth modeling (LCGM) was used to identify work functioning trajectories. Associations of baseline variables with work functioning trajectories were examined using univariate and multivariate analyses. LCGM analyses with cancer patients who completed on at least three time points the Work Role Functioning Questionnaire (n = 324) identified three work functioning trajectories: "persistently high" (16% of the sample), "moderate to high" (54%) and "persistently low" work functioning (32%). Cancer patients with persistently high work functioning had less time between diagnosis and RTW and had less often a changed meaning of work, while cancer patients with persistently low work functioning reported more baseline cognitive symptoms compared to cancer patients in the other trajectories. This knowledge has implications for cancer care and guidance of cancer patients at work. © 2017 UICC.

  1. Life after placental dysfunction : the mother's renal function and her child's health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paauw, N.D.

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: over the last decades it has become apparent that implications of pregnancy complications are not limited to the pregnancy itself, but extend to later life, not only for the exposed mother, but also for the exposed child. After placental dysfunction, characterized by the development of

  2. Emotion Regulation Strategies in Preschoolers with Autism: Associations with Parent Quality of Life and Family Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuske, Heather Joy; Hedley, Darren; Tseng, Chen Hsiang; Begeer, Sander; Dissanayake, Cheryl

    2018-01-01

    Children with autism experience challenges with emotion regulation. It is unclear how children's management of their emotions is associated with their family's quality of life. Forty-three preschoolers with autism and 28 typically developing preschoolers were coded on emotion regulation strategies used during low-level stress tasks. Parents…

  3. Life Cycle Assessment of Functionally Enhanced Polymers-Engineered Nanomaterials or Conventional Additives?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miseljic, Mirko; Olsen, Stig Irving

    2016-01-01

    used to enhance material properties. The aim of this study is to perform life cycle assessments (LCAs) on 5 polymer products (polypropylene air-conditioner part for cars, polypropylene garden chair, polypropylene small electrical box for houses, polyvinylchloride-wood outdoor flooring and polystyrene...

  4. The Social Life of Greylag Geese : Patterns, Mechanisms and Evolutionary Function in an Avian Model System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheiber, Isabella; Weiß, Brigitte M.; Hemetsberger, Josef; Kotrschal, Kurt

    The flock of greylag geese established by Konrad Lorenz in Austria in 1973 has become an influential model animal system and one of the few worldwide with complete life-history data spanning several decades. Based on the unique records of nearly 1000 free-living greylag geese, this is a synthesis of

  5. Psychotic reactions to daily life stress and dopamine function in people with severe hearing impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gevonden, M. J.; Myin-Germeys, I.; van den Brink, W.; van Os, J.; Selten, J. P.; Booij, J.

    2015-01-01

    Minor stresses measured in daily life have repeatedly been associated with increased momentary psychotic experiences, both in individuals with psychotic disorders and in persons who are genetically at an increased risk for these disorders. Severe hearing impairment (SHI) is an environmental risk

  6. Maternal Early Life Experiences and Parenting: The Mediating Role of Cortisol and Executive Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Andrea; Jenkins, Jennifer M.; Steiner, Meir; Fleming, Alison S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Research suggests that early life adversity may affect subsequent parenting. Animal studies investigating mechanisms of transmission have focused on biological factors; whereas research in humans has emphasized cognitive and psychosocial factors. We hypothesized that neuropsychological and physiological factors would act as mediators…

  7. Early thyroxine treatment in Down syndrome and thyroid function later in life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwaveling-Soonawala, Nitash; Witteveen, M. Emma; Marchal, Jan Pieter; Klouwer, Femke C. C.; Ikelaar, Nadine A.; Smets, Anne M. J. B.; van Rijn, Rick R.; Endert, Erik; Fliers, Eric; van Trotsenburg, A. S. Paul

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis set point develops during the fetal period and first two years of life. We hypothesized that thyroxine treatment during these first two years, in the context of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) in children with Down syndrome, may have

  8. Resilient Youths Use Humor to Enhance Socioemotional Functioning during a "Day in the Life"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, E. Leslie; Fox, Janice D.; Anderson, Michelle S.; Cameron, Catherine Ann

    2010-01-01

    In order to extend previous early years humor research into early adolescence, the authors adapted an innovative ecological research method such that at-risk adolescents could be filmed during an entire waking day in their life. Community youth advocates nominated one 15-year-old female and one 14-year-old male as doing well despite adverse…

  9. The brain study : Cognition, quality of life and social functioning following preeclampsia; An observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, I. R.; Groen, H.; Easterling, T. R.; Tsigas, E. Z.; Wilson, M. L.; Porcel, J.; Zeeman, G. G.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Previously preeclamptic women may express cognitive difficulties, which have largely been unappreciated or attributed to stresses of a complicated pregnancy. This study aimed to explore the scope of perceived neurocognitive and psychosocial problems as well as quality of life following

  10. Daily Life Satisfaction in Older Adults as a Function of (In)Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Jaclyn P; Conroy, David E

    2017-07-01

    This 14-day daily diary study tested the between-person and within-person associations between sedentary behavior, physical activity, and life satisfaction in community-dwelling older adults. Older adults (n = 100) wore ActivPAL3 activity monitors for 14 days and, at the end of each day, answered questions regarding their health behaviors and life satisfaction. Separate multilevel models were tested for self-reported and objectively measured behavioral data. In the model using objectively measured behavioral data, life satisfaction was (a) negatively associated with sedentary behavior at the within-person level and unassociated with sedentary behavior at the between-person level and (b) unassociated with physical activity at either the between-person or within-person level. In the model using self-reported behavioral data, life satisfaction was (a) unassociated with sedentary behavior at either the between-person or within-person level and (2) positively associated with physical activity at the within-person, but not at the between-person, level. Results indicated that daily deviations in objectively measured sedentary behavior and self-reported physical activity have implications for older adults' well-being. Interventions designed to enhance well-being and quality of life in older adults should consider targeting daily changes in total sedentary behavior and daily changes in the volume or frequency of physical activity. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Effects of Early-Life Adversity on Hippocampal Structures and Associated HPA Axis Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahmen, Brigitte; Puetz, Vanessa B; Scharke, Wolfgang; von Polier, Georg G; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Konrad, Kerstin

    2018-01-01

    Early-life adversity (ELA) is one of the major risk factors for serious mental and physical health risks later in life. ELA has been associated with dysfunctional neurodevelopment, especially in brain structures such as the hippocampus, and with dysfunction of the stress system, including the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Children who have experienced ELA are also more likely to suffer from mental health disorders such as depression later in life. The exact interplay of aberrant neurodevelopment and HPA axis dysfunction as risks for psychopathology is not yet clear. We investigated volume differences in the bilateral hippocampus and in stress-sensitive hippocampal subfields, behavior problems, and diurnal cortisol activity in 24 children who had experienced documented ELA (including out-of-home placement) in a circumscribed duration of adversity only in their first 3 years of life in comparison to data on 25 control children raised by their biological parents. Hippocampal volumes and stress-sensitive hippocampal subfields (Cornu ammonis [CA]1, CA3, and the granule-cell layer of the dentate gyrus [GCL-DG]) were significantly smaller in children who had experienced ELA, taking psychiatric diagnoses and dimensional psychopathological symptoms into account. ELA moderated the relationship between left hippocampal volume and cortisol: in the control group, hippocampal volumes were not related to diurnal cortisol, while in ELA children, a positive linear relationship between left hippocampal volume and diurnal cortisol was present. Our findings show that ELA is associated with altered development of the hippocampus, and an altered relationship between hippocampal volume and HPA axis activity in youth in care, even after they have lived in stable and caring foster family environments for years. Altered hippocampal development after ELA could thus be associated with a risk phenotype for the development of psychiatric disorders later in life. © 2017 S. Karger

  12. Functional bowel disorders in primary care: factors associated with health-related quality of life and doctor consultation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Victoria; Guthrie, Else; Robinson, Andrew; Kennedy, Anne; Tomenson, Barbara; Rogers, Anne; Thompson, David

    2008-02-01

    The role of psychological factors in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) remains unclear, particularly in a primary care setting, where relatively little research on this common and costly condition has been carried out. The aim of this study was to investigate the relative contribution of physical and psychological factors to health-related quality of life and health-care utilization in patients with functional bowel disease (IBS-like symptoms) in primary care. We also wished to establish the relevance of formal diagnostic criteria to IBS in the primary care setting. This study used a cross-sectional design. Four hundred twenty patients with functional bowel disorders in primary care completed a series of measures, including bowel symptom status and severity, severity of psychological distress, personality, and quality of life. The number of visits to a general practitioner (GP) in the previous 12 months was recorded. The following variables were independently and highly significantly associated with health-related quality of life in patients with functional bowel disorders in primary care: total psychological symptom score, diarrhea severity, abdominal pain for >12 weeks, and abdominal distension. A similar pattern emerged between patients who met meet Rome II criteria for IBS and patients who did not meet Rome II criteria for IBS. Relatively few variables (either physical or psychological) had a major impact on the number of GP consultations, with the exception of frequency of bowel movements. This study confirms that psychological factors are significantly associated with health-related quality of life in patients with IBS in primary care. Physical symptom severity is also important. Relatively few symptom measures, either physical or psychological, have a major impact on doctor consultation rates in primary care.

  13. Effect of the long-term care prevention project on the motor functions and daily life activities of the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Yoshihiro; Sakuraba, Keisyoku; Kubota, Atsushi

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to verify the effects of the long-term care prevention project and develop an effective program. [Subjects] A total of 81 elderly people (age, 79 ± 5.1 years; height, 149.2 ± 9.2 cm; weight, 54.2 ± 11.4 kg). [Methods] Grip, knee extension muscular strength, 10 m walking speed, and Timed Up and Go time were measured for evaluation of motor functions, and the "Locomo 25", a 25-question risk assessment questionnaire, was used as the judgment criterion for evaluation of daily life activities, with measurements being taken at the beginning of the project and after three months. [Results] In the motor functions evaluation, significant differences were observed in 10 m walking speed, Timed Up and Go time, and knee extension strength. In the daily life activities evaluation, scores for pain, rising movement, standing movement, indoor walking, outdoor walking, and fear of falling were significantly reduced. In addition, a significant correlation was also observed between motor functions and daily life activities. [Conclusion] The result of this study indicated that the long-term care prevention project is effective in maintaining or improving muscular strength and mitigating pain in the elderly and that it is an effective program for maintaining daily life activities. We were also able to show that it would be effective to develop programs with a low exercise intensity that can be performed on a continuing by the elderly.

  14. A feasibility study of group cognitive rehabilitation for cancer survivors: enhancing cognitive function and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuurs, Alana; Green, Heather J

    2013-05-01

    This research aimed to address the gap in evidence-based treatment available for cancer survivors who are experiencing cognitive dysfunction, through piloting a novel treatment intervention. The overall research question was whether a group cognitive rehabilitation intervention would be feasible for improving cognitive function and quality of life for people who have completed cancer treatment. Three groups of adults were recruited as follows: an intervention group of 23 cancer survivors who completed a 4-week group cognitive rehabilitation treatment, a comparison group of nine cancer survivors, and a community sample of 23 adults who had never experienced cancer. Measures of objective and subjective cognitive function, quality of life, psychosocial distress, and illness perceptions were used. The research design was non-randomised. The results indicated that the intervention was effective in improving overall cognitive function, visuospatial/constructional performance, immediate memory, and delayed memory beyond practice effects alone. It was helpful in reducing participants' perceptions of cognitive impairment and psychosocial distress, as well as promoting social functioning and understanding of cognition. The improvements were maintained at 3 months after the intervention. Participants reported a high level of satisfaction with the treatment. The results provided evidence for the feasibility of a brief group-based cognitive rehabilitation intervention to treat cognitive problems experienced by cancer survivors. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Gender disparity in late-life cognitive functioning in India: findings from the longitudinal aging study in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jinkook; Shih, Regina; Feeney, Kevin; Langa, Kenneth M

    2014-07-01

    To examine gender disparities in cognitive functioning in India and the extent to which education explains this disparity in later life. This study uses baseline interviews of a prospective cohort study of 1,451 community-residing adults 45 years of age or older in four geographically diverse states of India (Karnataka, Kerala, Punjab, Rajasthan). Data collected during home visits includes cognitive performance tests, and rich sociodemographic, health, and psychosocial variables. The cognitive performance tests include episodic memory, numeracy, and a modified version of the Mini-Mental State Examination. We find gender disparity in cognitive function in India, and this disparity is greater in the north than the south. We also find that gender disparities in educational attainment, health, and social and economic activity explain the female cognitive disadvantage in later life. We report significant gender disparities in cognitive functioning among older Indian adults, which differ from gender disparities in cognition encountered in developed countries. Our models controlling for education, health status, and social and economic activity explain the disparity in southern India but not the region-specific disparity in the northern India. North Indian women may face additional sources of stress associated with discrimination against women that contribute to persistent disadvantages in cognitive functioning at older ages. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Impact of conventional radiotherapy on health-related quality of life and critical functions of the head and neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connor, Nadine P.; Cohen, Stacy B. M.A.; Kammer, Rachael E.; Sullivan, Paula A.; Brewer, Kathryn A.; Hong, Theodore S.; Chappell, Richard J.; Harari, Paul M.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Head-and-neck radiotherapy is associated with significant morbidities. Our purpose was to document impact of morbidities by use of multiple objective measures and health-related quality of life (HR-QOL). Methods and Materials: Ten head-and-neck cancer patients were evaluated before receiving conventional head-and-neck radiotherapy and at 1 month and 6 months after treatment. We evaluated weight, saliva production, diet, swallow function, auditory function, and HR-QOL. Results: After radiotherapy, weight was reduced in 89% of subjects. Salivary function was significantly reduced and did not resolve by 6 months. Diet impairment and abnormalities in swallowing function persisted at 6 months. Perception of physical functioning was reduced after treatment, and swallowing, coughing, and dry-mouth symptoms increased. Very few changes were observed in auditory function. Conclusions: Conventional head-and-neck radiotherapy is associated with substantial functional deficits and diminished HR-QOL. Deficits reported here can serve as a baseline for comparison with results derived from new radiotherapy-treatment techniques

  17. Low Respiratory Function Increases the Risk of Depressive Symptoms in Later Life in Men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giltay, E.J.; Nissinen, A.; Giampaoli, S.; Zitman, F.G.; Kromhout, D.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess the risk of depressive symptoms with respect to respiratory function in middle-aged men. Chronic lung diseases are associated with a high prevalence of depression, but the association of poor respiratory function with depressive symptoms has not been established in prospective

  18. Survey of cervical cancer survivors regarding quality of life and sexual function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjuan Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: The QOL and sexual function of cervical cancer survivors were lower than the general population. Treatment-related complications and sexual dysfunction significantly affected patients' QOL. Having health insurance was associated with better QOL. Sexual function was adversely affected by radiotherapy and radical hysterectomy.

  19. Towards a sustainable healthy working life : associations between chronological age, functional age and work outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koolhaas, Wendy; van der Klink, Jac J. L.; Groothoff, Johan W.; Brouwer, Sandra

    Background: The aims of this study were: (i) to determine the relation between chronological and functional age; (ii) to examine the association between chronological age and work outcomes; and (iii) to examine the association between functional age and work outcomes. An overview of the most

  20. Functional Recovery and Life Satisfaction in the First Year After Severe Traumatic Brain Injury: A Prospective Multicenter Study of a Norwegian National Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anke, Audny; Andelic, Nada; Skandsen, Toril; Knoph, Rein; Ader, Tiina; Manskow, Unn; Sigurdardottir, Solrun; Røe, Cecilie

    2015-01-01

    (1) To examine the impact of demographic and acute injury-related variables on functional recovery and life satisfaction after severe traumatic brain injury (sTBI) and (2) to test whether postinjury functioning, postconcussive symptoms, emotional state, and functional improvement are related to life satisfaction. Prospective national multicenter study. Level 1 trauma centers in Norway. 163 adults with sTBI. Functional recovery between 3 and 12 months postinjury measured with Glasgow Outcome Scale Extended, Rivermead Postconcussion Symptoms Questionnaire, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and satisfaction with life situation. 60% of cases experienced functional improvement from 3 to 12 months postinjury. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that discharge to a rehabilitation department from acute care (odds ratio [OR] = 2.14; P life situation. Regression analysis revealed that older age (>65 years), low education, better functional outcome, and the absence of depressive and postconcussion symptoms were significant (P life satisfaction. Functional improvement was significantly associated with emotional state but not to life satisfaction. Following sTBI, approximately two-thirds of survivors improve between 3 and 12 months postinjury and are satisfied with their life. Direct discharge from acute care to specialized rehabilitation appears to increase functional recovery.

  1. Explorative Evaluation of the Impact of Premenstrual Disorder on Daily Functioning and Quality of Life

    OpenAIRE

    Lothar A.J. Heinemann; Thai Do Minh; Anna Filonenko; Kerstin Uhl-Hochgrber

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the effects of premenstrual disorders on health-related quality of life (HR-QOL), hobbies and social activities, and relationships with others in the multinational IMPACT study. Methods: Women aged 15-45 years were screened for suspected premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) and premenstrual syndrome (PMS) and invited to participate in this web-based study. Based on the Daily Record of Severity of Problems (DRSP), prospectively assessed over two observational cycles, pa...

  2. Women Health and Psychological Functioning in Different Periods of Life: Evaluation of Nursing Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fusun Terzioglu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available World Health Organization describes health as the state of being completely fine corporally, socially and psychologically. The state of being completely fine which is indicated in this description of health has been criticised by many scientists and with the idea that noone shall ever realise tha state of being completely fine corporally and psychologically, it was emphasized that individuals could be evaluated to be “healthy” as long as they are productive. Starting from the intrauterine period, woman passes through different periods such as childhood, adolescence, adulthood, elderliness and she experiences some physical, psychological and social differences in each of these periods within the frame of life cycle. While these differences influence productivities and life qualities of women negatively, they also make them more inclined to psychiatric illnesses. Therefore, psychological problems are more common among women and they last longer. Considering the fact that among the medical personnel, it is the nurses who spend time with patients during the phases of diagnosis, treatment and rehabilitation the most, it could be said that nurses have a significant role in intervening in problems that affect the psychological health of woman. The nurse has responsibilities such as determining the problem the woman goes through, providing protective care, getting an early diagnosis, making the convenient remedial intervention and consigning, when necessary. In this article, significant woman health problems that could be experienced starting from the intrauterine life until the end of life by woman, the effects of this problem to the psychological health of the woman and nursing approaches in view of these problems are discussed.

  3. Relationship Functioning Moderates the Association Between Depressive Symptoms and Life Stressors

    OpenAIRE

    Trombello, Joseph M.; Schoebi, Dominik; Bradbury, Thomas N.

    2011-01-01

    Data from 172 newlywed couples were collected over the first 4 years of marriage to test how behaviors demonstrated during marital interactions moderate associations between depressive symptoms and subsequent life stressors. Depressive symptoms and behaviors coded from problem-solving and social support interactions were analyzed as predictors of nonmarital stressors that were interpersonal and dependent on the participant's actions. Behavioral codes were found to moderate 3 of 16 symptom-to-...

  4. Propositional density and cognitive function in later life: findings from the Precursors Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelman, Michal; Agree, Emily M; Meoni, Lucy A; Klag, Michael J

    2010-11-01

    We used longitudinal data from the Johns Hopkins Precursors Study to test the hypothesis that written propositional density measured early in life is lower for people who develop dementia categorized as Alzheimer's disease (AD). This association was reported in 1996 for the Nun Study, and the Precursors Study offered an unprecedented chance to reexamine it among respondents with different gender, education, and occupation profiles. Eighteen individuals classified as AD patients (average age at diagnosis: 74) were assigned 2 sex-and-age matched controls, and propositional density in medical school admission essays (average age at writing: 22) was assessed via Computerized Propositional Idea Density Rater 3 linguistic analysis software. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for the matched case-control study were calculated using conditional (fixed-effects) logistic regression. Mean propositional density is lower for cases than for controls (4.70 vs. 4.99 propositions per 10 words, 1-sided p = .01). Higher propositional density substantially lowers the odds of AD (OR = 0.16, 95% confidence interval = 0.03-0.90, 1-sided p = .02). Propositional density scores in writing samples from early adulthood appear to predict AD in later life for men as well as women. Studies of cognition across the life course might beneficially incorporate propositional density as a potential marker of cognitive reserve.

  5. Effect of joint traction on functional improvement and quality of life in patients with severe knee osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedigheh Sadat Naeimee

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and aim: Osteoarthritis (OA is the most prevalent joint disease in adults around the world and its incidence rises with age. Patients with severe knee osteoarthritis often complain of pain and severe functional disability. Most of conservative treatments used in this group of patients induce poor improvements. This study evaluated the effect of joint traction on quality of life of patients with severe knee osteoarthritis.Materials and Methods: In this clinical trial study, forty female patients with severe knee OA were randomly assigned to two following groups; common physiotherapy treatment and common physiotherapy treatment accompanied by knee distraction. Quality of life was evaluated pre- and post-treatment and also one month follow-up using the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS questionnaire.Results: Common physiotherapy treatment accompanied by knee distraction resulted in significantly better quality of life post-treatment and at 1month follow-up, compared to common physiotherapy treatment alone (P<0.01.Conclusion: Common physiotherapy treatment accompanied by knee distraction induces significant improvement in quality of life in patients with severe knee osteoarthritis compared to common physiotherapy treatment alone.

  6. A pilot survey of sexual function and quality of life following 3D conformal radiotherapy for clinically localized prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roach, Mack; Chinn, Daniel M.; Holland, John; Clarke, Michelle

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the impact of high dose three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D CRT) for prostate cancer on the sexual function-related quality of life of patients and their partners. Methods and Materials: Sixty of 124 consecutive patients (median age 72.3 years) treated with 3D CRT for localized prostate cancer were surveyed and reported being potent prior to treatment. The answers to survey questions assessing the impact of quality of life related to sexual function from these 60 patients and their partners forms the basis for this retrospective analysis. Results: Following 3D CRT, 37 of 60 patients (62%) retained sexual function sufficient for intercourse. Intercourse at least once per month was reduced from 71 to 40%, whereas intercourse less than once per year increased from 12 to 35%. Following treatment, 25% of patients reported that the change in sexual dysfunction negatively affected their relationship or resulted in poor self-esteem. This outcome was associated with impotence following treatment (p < 0.01). Patients who had partners and satisfactory sexual function appeared to be at a higher risk of having a negatively affected relationship or losing self-esteem if they become impotent (p < 0.05). Partners of patients who reported a negatively affected relationship or loss of self-esteem appear to be less likely to return the survey instrument used (p = 0.02). Conclusions: More work is needed to evaluate the impact of radiotherapy and other treatments on the quality of life of patients and their partners to allow adequate informed consent to be given

  7. Proprioception: where are we now? A commentary on clinical assessment, changes across the life course, functional implications and future interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suetterlin, Karen Joan; Sayer, Avan Aihie

    2014-05-01

    Proprioception, the sense of where one is in space, is essential for effective interaction with the environment. A lack of or reduction in proprioceptive acuity has been directly correlated with falls and with reduced functional independence in older people. Proprioceptive losses have also been shown to negatively correlate with functional recovery post stroke and play a significant role in other conditions such as Parkinson's disease. However, despite its central importance to many geriatric syndromes, the clinical assessment of proprioception has remained remarkably static. We look at approaches to the clinical assessment of proprioception, changes in proprioception across the life course, functional implications of proprioception in health and disease and the potential for targeted interventions in the future such as joint taping, and proprioception-specific rehabilitation and footwear.

  8. Effect of moderate- versus high-intensity exercise on vascular function, biomarkers and quality of life in heart transplant recipients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dall, Christian H; Gustafsson, Finn; Christensen, Stefan B

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Growing evidence in long-term treatment of heart transplant (HTx) recipients indicates effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on several parameters, including oxygen uptake, vascular function and psychological distress. In this study we compare the effect of HIIT vs...... continued moderate training (CON) on vascular function, biomarkers and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in HTx recipients. METHODS: A randomized, controlled crossover trial of stable HTx recipients >12 months after transplantation was done on patients with 12 weeks of HIIT or 12 weeks of CON, followed...... by a 5-month washout and crossover. Outcomes included endothelial function, arterial stiffness, biomarkers, HRQoL and markers of anxiety and depression. RESULTS: Sixteen HTx recipients (mean age 52 years, 75% male) completed the study. HIIT increased VO2peak more than CON (between-group difference, p

  9. Impaired financial capacity in late life depression is associated with cognitive performance on measures of executive functioning and attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackin, R Scott; Areán, Patricia A

    2009-09-01

    Few studies have evaluated the prevalence of impairments of financial capacity among individuals with psychiatric disorders. Late life depression (LLD) is a common psychiatric disorder associated with significant disability and cognitive impairment. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the prevalence and cognitive correlates of impairments of financial capacity among individuals with LLD. Participants included 65 LLD individuals and 32 comparison subjects. Assessments included measures of financial capacity, cognitive functioning, and depression symptom severity. Individuals with LLD exhibited a significantly higher rate of impaired financial capacity (22%) than the comparison group (6%). Results of a multiple regression analysis indicated that performance on measures of executive functioning and attention, but not depression severity, were most strongly associated with financial capacity performance in LLD. Our results suggest impairments of financial capacity in LLD are largely explained by cognitive functioning in these domains.

  10. Relief of depression and pain improves daily functioning and quality of life in patients with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ching-Hua; Yen, Yung-Chieh; Chen, Ming-Chao; Chen, Cheng-Chung

    2013-12-02

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of depression relief and pain relief on the improvement in daily functioning and quality of life (QOL) for depressed patients receiving a 6-week treatment of fluoxetine. A total of 131 acutely ill inpatients with major depressive disorder (MDD) were enrolled to receive 20mg of fluoxetine daily for 6 weeks. Depression severity, pain severity, daily functioning, and health-related QOL were assessed at baseline and again at week 6. Depression severity, pain severity, and daily functioning were assessed using the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, the Short-Form 36 (SF-36) Body Pain Index, and the Work and Social Adjustment Scale. Health-related QOL was assessed by three primary domains of the SF-36, including social functioning, vitality, and general health perceptions. Pearson's correlation and structural equation modeling were used to examine relationships among the study variables. Five models were proposed. In model 1, depression relief alone improved daily functioning and QOL. In model 2, pain relief alone improved daily functioning and QOL. In model 3, depression relief, mediated by pain relief, improved daily functioning and QOL. In model 4, pain relief, mediated by depression relief, improved daily functioning and QOL. In model 5, both depression relief and pain relief improved daily functioning and QOL. One hundred and six patients completed all the measures at baseline and at week 6. Model 5 was the most fitted structural equation model (χ(2) = 8.62, df = 8, p = 0.376, GFI = 0.975, AGFI = 0.935, TLI = 0.992, CFI = 0.996, RMSEA = 0.027). Interventions which relieve depression and pain improve daily functioning and QOL among patients with MDD. The proposed model can provide quantitative estimates of improvement in treating patients with MDD. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. DIETOTHERAPY OF FUNCTIONAL DIGESTION DISORDERS IN CHILDREN OF THE FIRST SEVERAL MONTHS OF LIFE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Abramova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors discuss the questions of functional digestion disorders dietotherapy with artificial milk formula «CELIA DIGEST» enriched with probiotics in infants. During the study the composition and the properties of afore-mentioned formula as well as the special features of its usage in dietotherapy of functional digestion disorders in children were examined. The results of the clinical evaluation of this formula efficacy in infants at the age from 0 to 2 months old in comparison to the course of functional digestion disorders symptoms in breast-fed children are represented in the article.

  12. ATTITUDE TO FUNCTIONAL FOOD AMONG ELDER PEOPLE FROM THE WIELKOPOLSKA REGION BASED ON THEIR LIFE ACTIVITY – PILOT STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Jędrusek-Golińska

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the increasing share of the elderly in the population of developed countries and studies that indicate that aging is positively correlated with poorer nutritional status, it would make sense to spread the consumption of functional foods among seniors. The aim of the work was to determine the perception of functional food by elderly people depending on their vital activity. In the study survey questionnaire was used, consisting primarily of closed questions. In direct survey participated 140 people at the age of 65 from the Wielkopolska region. Women accounted for 66% of the respondents. Respondents were divided into 2 groups – active physically and mentally (respondents doing sports every day, leading social and charitable activities, participants in classes at the University of the Third Age, and less-active. The answers were analysed Chi-square test α = 0.05 signifi cance level (Statistica Soft Ware 7.0. On the basis of the carried out study were found better attitudes towards functional foods among people with more active life. More than a half of the “active” respondents had no concern with respect to functional foods, while 20% of the people from “inactive” group believed the products to be promoted as healthy only as an advertising ploy. Most of the “active” respondents associated functional food as pro-healthy food. The application of functional foods can translate into improving health quality of life of older people, which is why it is worthwhile to support activation measures of seniors and increase their knowledge of these products.

  13. A comparison study of psychological, family function marital and life satisfactions of polygamous and monogamous women in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Krenawi, Alean; Graham, John R; Al Gharaibeh, Fakir

    2011-10-01

    This study surveyed a 2009 convenience sampling of 199 women, 93 of whom were first (or senior) wives in polygamous marriages and 106 were wives in monogamous marriages. We deployed the McMaster Family Assessment Device (FAD), ENRICH marital satisfaction questionnaire, SCL-90 mental health symptoms checklist, Rosenberg self-esteem (SE) scale, and Diener, Emmons, Larsen, and Griffin life satisfaction scale, a basic sociodemographic scale, including attitudes towards polygamy. Women from polygamous families experienced more problems in family functioning, marital relations, and reported low self-esteem, less satisfaction with life, and more somatization, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, hostility, paranoid ideation, psychoticism and their general severity index was higher (GSI). More women in polygamous marriages agreed with the practice of polygamy, as compared to their monogamous counterparts. The conclusion considers implications for mental health practice, policy, and further research.

  14. Cognitive function and living situation in COPD: is there a relationship with self-management and quality of life?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulohery, Megan M; Schroeder, Darrell R; Benzo, Roberto P

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive impairment is increasingly being found to be a common comorbidity in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This study sought to understand the relationship of comprehensively measured cognitive function with COPD severity, quality of life, living situation, health care utilization, and self-management abilities. Subjects with COPD were recruited from the outpatient pulmonary clinic. Cognitive function was assessed using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MOCA). Self-management abilities were measured using the Self Management Ability Score 30. Quality of life was measured using the Chronic Respiratory Disease Questionnaire. Pearson correlation was used to assess the bivariate association of the MOCA with other study measures. Multivariate analysis was completed to understand the interaction of the MOCA and living situation on COPD outcomes of hospitalization, quality of life, and self-management ability. This study included 100 participants of mean age 70±9.4 years (63% male, 37% female) with COPD (mean FEV1 [forced expiratory volume in 1 second] percentage predicted 40.4±16.7). Mean MOCA score was 23.8±3.9 with 63% of patients having mild cognitive impairment. The MOCA was negatively correlated with age (r=-0.28, P=0.005) and positively correlated with education (r=+0.24, P=0.012). There was no significant correlation between cognitive function and exacerbations, emergency room (ER) visits, or hospitalizations. There was no association between the MOCA score and self-management abilities or quality of life. We tested the interaction of living situation and the MOCA with self-management abilities and found statistical significance (P=0.017), indicating that individuals living alone with higher cognitive function report lower self-management abilities. Cognitive impairment in COPD does not appear to be meaningfully associated with COPD severity, health outcomes, or self-management abilities. The routine screening for cognitive impairment due to

  15. The secret life of kinases: insights into non-catalytic signalling functions from pseudokinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Annette V; Murphy, James M

    2017-06-15

    Over the past decade, our understanding of the mechanisms by which pseudokinases, which comprise ∼10% of the human and mouse kinomes, mediate signal transduction has advanced rapidly with increasing structural, biochemical, cellular and genetic studies. Pseudokinases are the catalytically defective counterparts of conventional, active protein kinases and have been attributed functions as protein interaction domains acting variously as allosteric modulators of conventional protein kinases and other enzymes, as regulators of protein trafficking or localisation, as hubs to nucleate assembly of signalling complexes, and as transmembrane effectors of such functions. Here, by categorising mammalian pseudokinases based on their known functions, we illustrate the mechanistic diversity among these proteins, which can be viewed as a window into understanding the non-catalytic functions that can be exerted by conventional protein kinases. © 2017 The Author(s); published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  16. The Effect of Antibiotics in Early Life on Brain Function and Behaviour

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Recent evidence in animal models suggests that gut microbiota can influence ... of the microbiota-gut-brain axis related to antibiotic effects on brain function and behaviour ... IDRC and DHSC partner to fight antimicrobial resistance in animals.

  17. Functional profiles of orphan membrane transporters in the life cycle of the malaria parasite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kenthirapalan, S.; Waters, A.P.; Matuschewski, K.; Kooij, T.W.A.

    2016-01-01

    Assigning function to orphan membrane transport proteins and prioritizing candidates for detailed biochemical characterization remain fundamental challenges and are particularly important for medically relevant pathogens, such as malaria parasites. Here we present a comprehensive genetic analysis of

  18. Late-life depression symptom profiles are differentially associated with immunometabolic functioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogelzangs, N.; Comijs, H.C.; Voshaar, R.C.O.; Stek, M.L.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.

    2014-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests immune and metabolic dysregulation among depressed persons, possibly restricted to specific subgroups. This study explores the association between depressive disorders and characteristics with immunometabolic functioning among older persons. Data are from the baseline

  19. [Survival functions and life tables at the origins of actuarial mathematics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spelta, D

    1997-01-01

    "In the determination of death probabilities of an insured subject one can use either statistical data or a mathematical function. In this paper a survey of the relationship between mortality tables and survival functions from the origins until the first half of the nineteenth century is presented. The author has tried to find the methodological grounds which have induced the actuaries to prefer either of these tools." (EXCERPT)

  20. Community mobility among older adults with reduced kidney function: a study of life-space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowling, C Barrett; Muntner, Paul; Sawyer, Patricia; Sanders, Paul W; Kutner, Nancy; Kennedy, Richard; Allman, Richard M

    2014-03-01

    Life-Space Assessment captures community mobility and social participation and quantifies the distance, frequency, and independence obtained as an older adult moves through his or her environment. Reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) is associated with decline in activities of daily living among older adults, but less is known about the association of eGFR with restrictions in mobility. Prospective observational cohort study. Community-dwelling Medicare beneficiaries from the University of Alabama at Birmingham Study of Aging who had serum creatinine measured during a baseline in-home study visit and completed at least one telephone follow-up (N = 390). eGFR ≥ 60, 45-59, and space mobility trajectory. Life-space mobility was evaluated by telephone every 6 months for up to 4.5 years using the previously validated Life-Space Assessment. Scores using this tool range from 0-120 (higher scores indicate greater mobility). Mean age of the 390 participants was 77.6 ± 5.8 (SD) years, 41% were African American, 50.5% were women; 30.0% had eGFR of 45-59 mL/min/1.73 m(2), and 20.2% had eGFR space mobility scores were 64.8(95% CI, 62.0-67.6), 63.8 (95% CI, 60.3-67.4), and 58.3 (95% CI, 53.8-62.7) among those with eGFR categories ≥ 60, 45-59, and space mobility was found among those with eGFRs space mobility among community-dwelling older adults. Findings should be confirmed in a larger population. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Shoulder Pain, Functional Status, and Health-Related Quality of Life after Head and Neck Cancer Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao-Lan Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Head and neck cancer (HNC patients experience treatment-related complications that may interfere with health-related quality of life (HRQOL. The purpose of this study was to describe the symptom experience (shoulder pain and functional status factors that are related to global and domain-specific HRQOL at one month after HNC surgery. In this exploratory study, we examined 29 patients. The outcome variables included global HRQOL as well as physical, functional, emotional, and social well-being. Symptom experience and functional status factors were the independent variables. In the symptom experience variables, shoulder pain distress was negatively associated with physical well-being (R2=0.24. Among the functional status variables, eating impairment was negatively related to global HRQOL (R2=0.18 and physical well-being (R2=0.21. Speaking impairment and impaired body image explained a large amount of the variance in functional well-being (R2=0.45. This study provided initial results regarding symptom experience and functional status factors related to poor HRQOL in the early postoperative period for HNC patients.

  2. Effect of aerobic dance on pain, functional disability and quality of life on patients with chronic low back pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U.A.C. Okafor

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Low back pain (LBP is often an indication of pathologicalcondition of the intervertebral discs, vertebral bodies or supporting soft tissuesof the lower vertebral region. Chronic Low Back Pain (CLBP presents withenormous consequence on the general performance of the sufferer, exerting ahuge cost on the individual, the family and the society. Dance therapy is arelatively new approach in the management of low back pain. This study wastherefore designed to investigate the effect of dance therapy on pain, functionaldisability and quality of life in patients with chronic low back pain.Thirty subjects diagnosed with non-specific CLBP particpated in the study.They were randomly divided into 2 groups, A and B, each comprising 15 subjects.In addition to conventional physiotherapy programme given to both groups,subjects in Group A also received aerobic dance, which comprised a four stage protocol. The entire treatment routinewas administered in a group session three times weekly consecutively for six weeks. Data as obtained in the copies ofcompleted questionnaires (Roland Morris Diability questionnaires and Nottingham Health Profile questionnaires andother measurements were summarized using mean, standard deviation and frequency tables. Student T-test was used toanalyze the data at 95 % confidence interval.There was a statistically significant difference (p<0.05 between the pre- and post- intervention scores for painintensity, functional disability and quality of life within the groups. There was also a statistically significant difference(p<0.05 in the mean change (pre/post intervention scores between Group A and Group B for pain intensity,functional disability and quality of life. Also the opinions and testimonies given by participants formed part of theevidence-based data.Whereas both conventional physiotherapy and aerobic dance showed significant effects in the pre/post-interventionscores, the aerobic dance group reported more significant effect in all

  3. Biological aspects and life table of Uroleucon ambrosiae (Thomas, 1878) as a function of temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Auad Alexander Machado; Moraes Jair Campos de

    2003-01-01

    The aphid Uroleucon ambrosiae (Thomas) is considered a pest of hidroponically-grown lettuce, but basic and applied information on its control are scarce in Brazil. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of different temperatures on biological aspects and life history of U. ambrosiae (Thomas) developing on hydroponic lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) crop. Newly emerged nymphs were placed on 4-cm discs of hydroponic lettuce, var. Verônica, which were maintained on 5-cm Petri dishes, at te...

  4. Changes in physical functioning in the Active Living Every Day program of the Active for Life Initiative®.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baruth, Meghan; Wilcox, Sara; Wegley, Stacy; Buchner, David M; Ory, Marcia G; Phillips, Alisa; Schwamberger, Karen; Bazzarre, Terry L

    2011-09-01

    Physical activity can prevent or delay the onset of physical functional limitations in older adults. There are limited data that evidence-based physical activity interventions can be successfully translated into community programs and result in similar benefits for physical functioning. The purpose of this study is to measure the effects of the Active Living Every Day program on physical functioning and physical functional limitations in a diverse sample of older adults. As a part of the Active for Life initiative, the Council on Aging of Southwestern Ohio implemented Active Living Every Day (ALED), a group-based lifestyle behavior change program designed to increase physical activity. Performance-based physical functioning tests (30-s Chair Stand Test, eight Foot Up-and-Go Test, Chair Sit-and-Reach Test, 30-Foot Walk Test) were administered to participants at baseline and posttest. Baseline to post-program changes in physical functioning and impairment status were examined with repeated measures analysis of covariance. Interactions tested whether change over time differed according to race/ethnicity, body mass index (BMI), and baseline impairment status. Participants significantly increased their performance in all four physical functioning tests. The percentage of participants classified as "impaired" according to normative data significantly decreased over time. Physical functioning improved regardless of BMI, race/ethnicity, or baseline impairment status. ALED is an example of an evidenced-based physical activity program that can be successfully translated into community programs and result in significant and clinically meaningful improvements in performance-based measures of physical functioning.

  5. Assessment of psychological distress and its effect on quality of life and social functioning in cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunaseelan Karunanithi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The diagnosis of cancer and its treatment can make patients psychologically distressed. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the level of psychological distress and social functioning in cancer patients and to assess the association of these parameters with the quality of life (QOL experienced by the patient. Patients and Methods: All cancer patients attending palliative care clinic who can understand and speak English or Tamil language were taken into the study. An interview technique with a questionnaire is used for data collection after informed consent. The questionnaire consisted of four sections, namely, demographic variables, general health questionnaire, WHO QOL-BREF, and SCARF social functioning index. All questionnaires were translated into the Tamil Language and were evaluated by the experts for content validity. Results: The median scores obtained are psychological distress = 44 (11–98, WHO QOL = 64 (36–117, and social function = 51 (29–79. Out of 251 patients, 30% had severe psychological distress, 25.6% had poor QOL, and 23.2% were with severely affected social function. Skilled laborers had better scores compared to unskilled laborers (P < 0.05. Family size (<2 children had a positive impact on the QOL (P = 0.008. Patients from urban locales had better social functioning than rural counterpart (P = 0.047, but no difference was observed in distress level or QOL. Increased growth hormone distress score of the patients had a negative impact on both QOL (r = −0.522 and social function (r = −0.244. QOL correlated positively with social function (r = +0.247. Conclusion: Psychosocial stress associated with cancer and its treatment can impact the QOL and social functioning of the patient and needs to be addressed along with the cancer-directed therapy. Decreasing the symptom burden and distress level by palliative care intervention might improve the QOL and social function.

  6. Assessment of Psychological Distress and its Effect on Quality of Life and Social Functioning in Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunanithi, Gunaseelan; Sagar, Rapole Pragna; Joy, Aswin; Vedasoundaram, Parthasarathy

    2018-01-01

    The diagnosis of cancer and its treatment can make patients psychologically distressed. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the level of psychological distress and social functioning in cancer patients and to assess the association of these parameters with the quality of life (QOL) experienced by the patient. All cancer patients attending palliative care clinic who can understand and speak English or Tamil language were taken into the study. An interview technique with a questionnaire is used for data collection after informed consent. The questionnaire consisted of four sections, namely, demographic variables, general health questionnaire, WHO QOL-BREF, and SCARF social functioning index. All questionnaires were translated into the Tamil Language and were evaluated by the experts for content validity. The median scores obtained are psychological distress = 44 (11-98), WHO QOL = 64 (36-117), and social function = 51 (29-79). Out of 251 patients, 30% had severe psychological distress, 25.6% had poor QOL, and 23.2% were with severely affected social function. Skilled laborers had better scores compared to unskilled laborers ( P < 0.05). Family size (<2 children) had a positive impact on the QOL ( P = 0.008). Patients from urban locales had better social functioning than rural counterpart ( P = 0.047), but no difference was observed in distress level or QOL. Increased growth hormone distress score of the patients had a negative impact on both QOL ( r = -0.522) and social function ( r = -0.244). QOL correlated positively with social function ( r = +0.247). Psychosocial stress associated with cancer and its treatment can impact the QOL and social functioning of the patient and needs to be addressed along with the cancer-directed therapy. Decreasing the symptom burden and distress level by palliative care intervention might improve the QOL and social function.

  7. Determinants of Quality of Life and the Need for Support for the Elderly with Good Physical and Mental Functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talarska, Dorota; Tobis, Sławomir; Kotkowiak, Marta; Strugała, Magdalena; Stanisławska, Joanna; Wieczorowska-Tobis, Katarzyna

    2018-03-19

    BACKGROUND The ageing of population is the reason that there are various strategies developed to help seniors acquire greater independence and a better quality of life. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between the elderly peope's need for assistance and assessed quality of life. MATERIAL AND METHODS The study included 100 participants who were members of a Seniors Club in Poznań, Poland. The cross-sectional study utilized the following instruments: Abbreviated Mental Test Score (AMTS), Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL), EASY-Care Standard 2010 questionnaire, (WHO Quality of Life-BREF (WHOQOL-BREF) questionnaire. RESULTS Members of the Seniors' Club showed good functional condition. In the AMTS test, they scored near maximum values (average 9.39±0.77 points), somewhat poorer results were found in the IADL scale (average 20.92±3.96 points). In the EASY-Care questionnaire, the study participants usually required partial support in the following areas: Mental health and well-being (59%), Staying healthy (29%), Getting around (22%), and Seeing, hearing and communicating (22%). The average score on Independence was 13.13±18.51, The risk of breakdown in care scale was 4.39±3.21. The risk of falls affected 21 participants (21%). Quality of life study using WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire found that the highest scores were achieved in Psychological and Environment domains, and the lowest score in the Physical health domain. CONCLUSIONS Quality of life as well as level of independence, risk of falls, and need for 24-hour care were significantly affected by the following factors: urinary incontinence, difficulties in mobility outside the home, despondency, and forgetfulness.

  8. Raw milk consumption and other early-life farm exposures and adult pulmonary function in the Agricultural Lung Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyss, Annah B; House, John S; Hoppin, Jane A; Richards, Marie; Hankinson, John L; Long, Stuart; Henneberger, Paul K; Beane Freeman, Laura E; Sandler, Dale P; O'Connell, Elizabeth Long; Cummings, Christie Barker; Umbach, David M; London, Stephanie J

    2018-03-01

    Literature suggests that early exposure to the farming environment protects against atopy and asthma; few studies have examined pulmonary function. We evaluated associations between early-life farming exposures and pulmonary function in 3061 adults (mean age=63) from a US farming population using linear regression. Childhood raw milk consumption was associated with higher FEV 1 (β=49.5 mL, 95% CI 2.8 to 96.1 mL, p=0.04) and FVC (β=66.2 mL, 95% CI 13.2 to 119.1 mL, p=0.01). We did not find appreciable associations with other early-life farming exposures. We report a novel association between raw milk consumption and higher pulmonary function that lasts into older adulthood. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  9. How does social support affect functional impairment in late life? Findings of a multicenter prospective cohort study in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajek, André; Brettschneider, Christian; Mallon, Tina; van der Leeden, Carolin; Mamone, Silke; Wiese, Birgitt; Weyerer, Siegfried; Werle, Jochen; Fuchs, Angela; Pentzek, Michael; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G; Stein, Janine; Bickel, Horst; Weeg, Dagmar; Heser, Kathrin; Wagner, Michael; Maier, Wolfgang; Scherer, Martin; Luck, Tobias; König, Hans-Helmut

    2017-09-01

    to investigate how social support affects functional impairment (FI) in late life in a longitudinal approach. in a multicenter prospective cohort study, subjects in old age (≥75 years at baseline) were interviewed every 1.5 years. Social support was quantified in the follow-up (FU) Waves 2 and 4 (FU Wave 2: n = 2,349; FU Wave 4: n = 1,484). FI was assessed by using the Lawton and Brody Instrumental Activities of Daily Living scale. fixed effects regressions showed that a decrease in social support is associated with FI in the total sample and in both sexes. The effect on FI was most pronounced with the dimension social integration, whereas changes in practical support only affected FI in the total sample and changes in emotional support only affected FI in men. our findings emphasise the importance of social support for functional status in late life. Thus, strengthening social support in old age might be effective in maintaining functional abilities. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society.All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  10. Environmental and human health assessment of life cycle of nanoTiO2 functionalized porcelain stoneware tile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pini, Martina; Bondioli, Federica; Montecchi, Rita; Neri, Paolo; Ferrari, Anna Maria

    2017-01-15

    Recently, there has been a rise in the interest in nanotechnology due to its enormous potential for the development of new products and applications with higher performance and new functionalities. However, while nanotechnology might revolutionize a number of industrial and consumer sectors, there are uncertainties and knowledge gaps regarding toxicological effects of this emerging science. The goal of this research concerns the implementation into Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of preliminary frameworks developed to evaluate human toxicity and exposure factors related to the potential nanoparticle releases that could occur during the life cycle steps of a functionalized building material. The present LCA case study examines the ecodesign of nanoTiO 2 functionalized porcelain stoneware tile production. The aim of this investigation is to manufacture new eco-friendly products in order to protect human health and ecosystem quality and to offer the market, materials with higher technological properties obtained by the addition of specific nanomaterials. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Benefits of intradialytic physiotherapy in quality of life, pain, edema and respiratory function of patients with chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Machado Sanchez

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Patients with chronic kidney disease suffer from a decline in quality of life and respiratory function, for various reasons related to this condition. Objective: To verify the influence of intradialytic physiotherapy on the quality of life and respiratory function in chronic renal patients. Methods: The sample was non-probabilistic and consisted of 51 individuals, of both sexes, aged between 30 and 60 years. The WHOQOL-Bref, an evaluation form, the Manovacuometer and Peak Flow were used to detect the impact of the physiotherapeutic intervention before and after an eight-week treatment protocol. Results: There was a difference in the comparison of the general QOL before and after (p = 0.006 the intervention, as well as in the improvement of the maximal forced expiratory flow peak (p = 0.001, the PEmax (p = 0.000, peak forced expiratory flow rate (0.017 and pain (p = 0.006. There was also improvement of edema (p = 0.013 and cramps (p = 0.000. Conclusion: The benefits of intradialytic physiotherapy in improving QOL and respiratory function in chronic kidney patients are explicit.

  12. Effects of the bilateral isokinetic strengthening training on functional parameters, gait, and the quality of life in patients with stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büyükvural Şen, Sıdıka; Özbudak Demir, Sibel; Ekiz, Timur; Özgirgin, Neşe

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of the bilateral isokinetic strengthening training applied to knee and ankle muscles on balance, functional parameters, gait, and the quality of in stroke patients. Fifty patients (33 M, 17 F) with subacute-chronic stroke and 30 healthy subjects were included. Stroke patients were allocated into isokinetic and control groups. Conventional rehabilitation program was applied to all cases; additionally maximal concentric isokinetic strengthening training was applied to the knee-ankle muscles bilaterally to the isokinetic group 5 days a week for 3 weeks. Biodex System 3 Pro Multijoint System isokinetic dynamometer was used for isokinetic evaluation. The groups were assessed by Functional Independence Measure, Stroke Specific Quality of Life Scale, Timed 10-Meter Walk Test, Six-Minute Walk Test, Stair-Climbing Test, Timed up&go Test, Berg Balance Scale, and Rivermead Mobility Index. Compared with baseline, the isokinetic PT values of the knee and ankle on both sides significantly increased in all cases. PT change values were significantly higher in the isokinetic group than the control group (Pisokinetic group (Pisokinetic strengthening training in addition to conventional rehabilitation program after stroke seems to be effective on strengthening muscles on both sides, improving functional parameters, gait, balance and life quality.

  13. Impact of Ospemifene on Quality of Life and Sexual Function in Young Survivors of Cervical Cancer: A Prospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoletta De Rosa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Cervical cancer (CC treatments impact quality of life (QoL and sexual function (SF of survivors. Treatment options to reduce sexual dysfunction are limited. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of ospemifene in CC survivors with clinical signs and symptoms of vulvovaginal atrophy (VVA focusing on their QoL and SF. Materials and Methods. Fifty-two patients with previous diagnosis of stage I-IIa CC suffering from VVA and treated with ospemifene were enrolled into a single arm prospective study. Patient underwent 6 months of therapy. At baseline and after 6 months all subjects performed Vaginal Health Index (VHI. The SF and QoL were measured by The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC Quality of Life Questionnaire (QLQ and the Cervical Cancer Module (CXC-24. Results. After treatment a significant improvement of each parameter of VHI has been demonstrated. Global health status and emotional and social functioning scores improved significantly. On the contrary, general symptoms scales did not show significant difference from baseline data. Sexual activity, sexual vaginal functioning, body image, and sexual enjoyment scores increased significantly. Conclusion. Ospemifene seems to be effective in decreasing the VVA symptoms in CC survivors.

  14. J-pouch versus Roux-en-Y reconstruction after gastrectomy: functional assessment and quality of life (randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zonca P

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Pavel Zonča,1,2 Tomáš Malý,3 Peter Ihnát,1,2 Matus Peteja,1,2 Otakar Kraft,4 Kamil Kuca2,5 1Department of Surgery, University Hospital Ostrava, 2Department of Surgical Studies, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ostrava, Ostrava, 3Department of Surgery, University Hospital Olomouc, Olomouc, 4Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Ostrava, Ostrava, 5Biomedical Research Center, University Hospital Hradec Kralove, Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of life and functional emptying of J-pouch versus Roux-en-Y reconstruction after total gastrectomy for malignancy. Methods: This study was designed as a prospective, nonblinded, randomized, parallel clinical trial (Trial Number: MN Ostrava, 200604. With informed consent, patients undergoing gastrectomy for malignancy were randomized to J-pouch or Roux-en-Y reconstruction. The time taken for a test semisolid meal labeled with 99mTc-sulfur colloid to exit the reconstructed parts was measured by dynamic scintigraphy 1 year after resection. Quality of life was measured using the Eypasch questionnaire at the same time as functional emptying assessment. This trial was investigator-initiated. Results: In all, 72 patients were included into the study. The time taken for the test meal to exit the postgastrectomy reconstruction was 16.5±10.0 minutes (mean ± standard deviation in the Roux-en-Y group and 89.4±37.8 minutes in the “J-pouch” group; the difference was statistically significant (P<0.001. Emptying of the J-pouch appeared to be a linear decreasing function compared to the exponential pattern seen in the Roux-en-Y group. The quality of life measurement showed scores of 106±18.8 points (mean ± standard deviation in the Roux-en-Y group compared to 122±22.5 points in the J-pouch group; the difference was statistically significant (P=0.0016. There were no important adverse events. Conclusion: After total gastrectomy, a J

  15. Health related quality of life in patients with congestive heart failure: comparison with other chronic diseases and relation to functional variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juenger, J; Schellberg, D; Kraemer, S; Haunstetter, A; Zugck, C; Herzog, W; Haass, M

    2002-03-01

    To assess health related quality of life of patients with congestive heart failure; to compare their quality of life with the previously characterised general population and in those with other chronic diseases; and to correlate the different aspects of quality of life with relevant somatic variables. University hospital. A German version of the generic quality of life measure (SF-36) containing eight dimensions was administered to 205 patients with congestive heart failure and systolic dysfunction. Cardiopulmonary evaluation included assessment of New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class, left ventricular ejection fraction, peak oxygen uptake, and the distance covered during a standardised six minute walk test. Quality of life significantly decreased with NYHA functional class (linear trend: p < 0.0001). In NYHA class III, the scores of five of the eight quality of life domains were reduced to around one third of those in the general population. The pattern of reduction was different in patients with chronic hepatitis C and major depression, and similar in patients on chronic haemodialysis. Multiple regression analysis showed that only the NYHA functional class was consistently and closely associated with all quality of life scales. The six minute walk test and peak oxygen uptake added to the explanation of the variance in only one of the eight quality of life domains (physical functioning). Left ventricular ejection fraction, duration of disease, and age showed no clear association with quality of life. In congestive heart failure, quality of life decreases as NYHA functional class worsens. Though NYHA functional class was the most dominant predictor among the somatic variables studied, the major determinants of reduced quality of life remain unknown.

  16. Shelf life assessment of industrial durum wheat bread as a function of packaging system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licciardello, Fabio; Giannone, Virgilio; Del Nobile, Matteo Alessandro; Muratore, Giuseppe; Summo, Carmine; Giarnetti, Mariagrazia; Caponio, Francesco; Paradiso, Vito Michele; Pasqualone, Antonella

    2017-06-01

    This study compared the effect of different packaging systems on industrial durum wheat bread shelf-life, with regard to thermoformed packaging (TF) and flow-packaging (FP). Two TFs having different thickness and one FP were compared by assessing physico-chemical and sensorial properties and volatile compounds of sliced bread during 90days of storage. Texture, a w and bread moisture varied according to a first-order kinetic model, with FP samples ageing faster than TFs. Sensorial features such as consistency, stale odor, and sour odor, increased their intensity during storage. Furans decreased, whereas hexanal increased. The Principal Component Analysis of the whole dataset pointed out that the TF system at reduced thickness could be adopted up to 60days, without compromising the standard commercial life of industrial bread and allowing to save packaging material. The FP system would allow further saving, but it should be preferred when the expected product turnover is within 30days. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Intracavitary afterloading boost in anal canal carcinoma. Results, function and quality of life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vordermark, D.; Flentje, M.; Koelbl, O.; Sailer, M.

    2001-01-01

    Background: First clinical data on a new intracavitary afterloading boost method for anal canal carcinoma is reported. Patients and Methods: 20 consecutive patients (T1 5%, T2 70%, T3 20%, T4 5%; N0 75%, N1 10%, N2 15%; all M0) treated with external beam pelvic radiotherapy (median dose 56 Gy, range 46-64 Gy), simultaneous 5-FU and mitomycin (in 75%) and an intracavitary afterloading boost (one or two fractions of 5 Gy at 5 mm depth) were analyzed after a mean ±SD follow-up for living patients of 4.4±2.1 years. Quality of life (QoL) and anorectal manometry parameters were assessed in ten colostomy-free survivors. Results: Overall, recurrence-free and colostomy-free survival at 5 years were 84%, 79% and 69%, respectively. No death was tumorrelated. The only local failure was successfully salvaged by local excision. All three colostomies were performed for toxicity. Resting pressure and maximum squeeze pressure of the anal sphincter were reduced by 51% and 71%, as compared with control subjects, but quality of life was similar compared to healthy volunteers. Conclusion: the described regimen is highly effective but associated with increased toxicity. (orig.) [de

  18. Vocal parameters and voice-related quality of life in adult women with and without ovarian function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz, Pablo Rodrigo Rocha; Bertoldo, Simão Veras; Costa, Luanne Gabrielle Morais; Serra, Emmeliny Cristini Nogueira; Silva, Eduardo Magalhães; Brito, Luciane Maria Oliveira; Chein, Maria Bethânia da Costa

    2013-05-01

    To identify the perceptual and acoustic parameters of voice in adult women with and without ovarian function and its impact on quality of life related to voice. Cross-sectional and analytical study with 106 women divided into, two groups: G1, with ovarian function (n=43) and G2, without physiological ovarian function (n=63). The women were instructed to sustain the vowel "a" and the sounds of /s/ and /z/ in habitual pitch and loudness. They were also asked to classify their voices and answer the voice-related quality of life (V-RQOL) questionnaire. The perceptual analysis of the vocal samples was performed by three speech-language pathologists using the GRBASI (G: grade; R: roughness; B: breathness; A: asthenia; S: strain; I: instability) scale. The acoustic analysis was carried out with the software VoxMetria 2.7h (CTS Informatica). The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. In the perceptual analysis, both groups showed a mild deviation for the parameters roughness, strain, and instability, but only G2 showed a mild impact for the overall degree of dysphonia. The mean of fundamental frequency was significantly lower for the G2, with a difference of 17.41Hz between the two groups. There was no impact on V-RQOL in any of the V-RQOL domains for this group. With the menopause, there is a change in women's voices, impacting on some voice parameters. However, there is no direct impact on their quality of life related to voice. Copyright © 2013 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Effectiveness of pacemaker tele-monitoring on quality of life, functional capacity, event detection and workload: The PONIENTE trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Villegas, Antonio; Catalan-Matamoros, Daniel; Robles-Musso, Emilio; Peiro, Salvador

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess the effectiveness of the remote monitoring (RM) of older adults with pacemakers on health-related quality of life, functional capacity, feasibility, reliability and safety. The PONIENTE study is a controlled, non-randomized, non-blinded clinical trial, with data collection carried out during the pre-implant stage and after 12 months. Between October of 2012 and November of 2013, 82 patients were assigned to either a remote monitoring group (n = 30) or a conventional hospital monitoring (HM) group (n = 52). The EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D) and the Duke Activity Status Index were used to measure health-related quality of life and functional capacity, respectively. Baseline characteristics and number of hospital visits were also analyzed. The baseline characteristics of the two study groups were similar for both the EQ-5D (RM 0.74, HM 0.67; P = 0.404) and the Duke Activity Status Index (RM 21.42, HM 19.95; P = 0.272). At the 12-month follow up, the EQ-5D utility score was improved for both groups (RM 0.91, HM 0.81; P = 0.154), unlike the EQ-5D Visual Analog Scale (P = 0.043). The Duke Activity Status Index score was similar to the baseline score. The number of in-hospital visits was 27% lower (3 vs 4; P pacemakers in older adults is an equivalent option to hospital monitoring, in terms of health-related quality of life and functional capacity. Furthermore, it allows for the early detection of clinical and pacemaker-related adverse events, and significantly reduces the number of in-hospital visits. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2016; 16: 1188-1195. © 2015 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  20. Potentially modifiable lifestyle factors, cognitive reserve, and cognitive function in later life: A cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yu-Tzu

    2017-01-01

    Background Potentially modifiable lifestyle factors may influence cognitive health in later life and offer potential to reduce the risk of cognitive decline and dementia. The concept of cognitive reserve has been proposed as a mechanism to explain individual differences in rates of cognitive decline, but its potential role as a mediating pathway has seldom been explored using data from large epidemiological studies. We explored the mediating effect of cognitive reserve on the cross-sectional association between lifestyle factors and cognitive function in later life using data from a population-based cohort of healthy older people. Methods and findings We analysed data from 2,315 cognitively healthy participants aged 65 y and over in the Cognitive Function and Ageing Study Wales (CFAS-Wales) cohort collected in 2011–2013. Linear regression modelling was used to investigate the overall associations between five lifestyle factors—cognitive and social activity, physical activity, diet, alcohol consumption, and smoking—and cognition, adjusting for demographic factors and chronic conditions. Mediation analysis tested for indirect effects of the lifestyle factors on cognition via cognitive reserve. After controlling for age, gender, and the presence of chronic conditions, cognitive and social activity, physical activity, healthy diet, and light-to-moderate alcohol consumption were positively associated with cognitive function, together accounting for 20% (95% CI 17%–23%) of variance in cognitive test scores. Cognitive reserve was an important mediator of this association, with indirect effects via cognitive reserve contributing 21% (95% CI 15%–27%) of the overall effect on cognition. The main limitations of the study derive from the cross-sectional nature of the data and the challenges of accurately measuring the latent construct of cognitive reserve. Conclusions Cross-sectional associations support the view that enhancing cognitive reserve may benefit cognition

  1. Lung function, asthma symptoms, and quality of life for children in public housing in Boston: a case-series analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steinbach Suzanne

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Children in urban public housing are at high risk for asthma, given elevated environmental and social exposures and suboptimal medical care. For a multifactorial disease like asthma, design of intervention studies can be influenced by the relative prevalence of key risk factors. To better understand risk factors for asthma morbidity in the context of an environmental intervention study, we conducted a detailed baseline evaluation of 78 children (aged 4–17 years from three public housing developments in Boston. Methods Asthmatic children and their caregivers were recruited between April 2002 and January 2003. We conducted intake interviews that captured a detailed family and medical history, including questions regarding asthma symptom severity, access to health care, medication usage, and psychological stress. Quality of life was evaluated for both the child and caregiver with an asthma-specific scale. Pulmonary function was measured with a portable spirometer, and allergy testing for common indoor and outdoor allergens was conducted with skin testing using the prick puncture method. Exploratory linear and logistic regression models evaluating predictors of respiratory symptoms, quality of life, and pulmonary function were conducted using SAS. Results We found high rates of obesity (56% and allergies to indoor contaminants such as cockroaches (59% and dust mites (59%. Only 36% of children with persistent asthma reported being prescribed any daily controller medication, and most did not have an asthma action plan or a peak flow meter. One-time lung function measures were poorly correlated with respiratory symptoms or quality of life, which were significantly correlated with each other. In multivariate regression models, household size, body mass index, and environmental tobacco smoke exposure were positively associated with respiratory symptom severity (p Conclusion Given the elevated prevalence of multiple risk factors

  2. Potentially modifiable lifestyle factors, cognitive reserve, and cognitive function in later life: A cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Clare

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Potentially modifiable lifestyle factors may influence cognitive health in later life and offer potential to reduce the risk of cognitive decline and dementia. The concept of cognitive reserve has been proposed as a mechanism to explain individual differences in rates of cognitive decline, but its potential role as a mediating pathway has seldom been explored using data from large epidemiological studies. We explored the mediating effect of cognitive reserve on the cross-sectional association between lifestyle factors and cognitive function in later life using data from a population-based cohort of healthy older people.We analysed data from 2,315 cognitively healthy participants aged 65 y and over in the Cognitive Function and Ageing Study Wales (CFAS-Wales cohort collected in 2011-2013. Linear regression modelling was used to investigate the overall associations between five lifestyle factors-cognitive and social activity, physical activity, diet, alcohol consumption, and smoking-and cognition, adjusting for demographic factors and chronic conditions. Mediation analysis tested for indirect effects of the lifestyle factors on cognition via cognitive reserve. After controlling for age, gender, and the presence of chronic conditions, cognitive and social activity, physical activity, healthy diet, and light-to-moderate alcohol consumption were positively associated with cognitive function, together accounting for 20% (95% CI 17%-23% of variance in cognitive test scores. Cognitive reserve was an important mediator of this association, with indirect effects via cognitive reserve contributing 21% (95% CI 15%-27% of the overall effect on cognition. The main limitations of the study derive from the cross-sectional nature of the data and the challenges of accurately measuring the latent construct of cognitive reserve.Cross-sectional associations support the view that enhancing cognitive reserve may benefit cognition, and maintenance of cognitive health

  3. Gender differences in quality of life and functional disability for depression outpatients with or without residual symptoms after acute phase treatment in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Na; Wang, Xiaohong; Wu, Wenyuan; Hu, Yongdong; Niu, Yajuan; Wang, Xueyi; Gao, Chengge; Zhang, Ning; Fang, Yiru; Huang, Jizhong; Liu, Tiebang; Jia, Fujun; Zhu, Xuequan; Hu, Jian; Wang, Gang

    2017-09-01

    Depression is associated with substantial personal suffering and reduced quality of life and functioning. The aim of this study was to investigate gender differences on quality of life and functional impairment of outpatients with depression after acute phase treatment. 1503 depression outpatients were recruited from eleven hospitals in China. Subjects were evaluated with sociodemographic characteristics, history and self-report instruments, related to severity of symptoms, function and quality of life. All data were analyzed to determine the gender differences. Men had a younger age at onset and the first onset age, higher education compared to women in total patients and with or without residual symptoms group. Using regression analysis, it was found that gender was significantly statistically related to severity scores of SDS and had no correlation with Q-LES-Q-SF total scores. In the residual symptoms group, greater functional impairment was noted by men in the area of work and social life. Significant gender differences of mood, work and sexual life in quality of life were observed. This is a cross-sectional study of depressed outpatients and duration of acute phase treatment may not an adequate time to measure changes. Depression appears to affect men more seriously than women after acute phase treatment. Men had a younger age at onset and the first onset age, higher education, more functional impairment and lower satisfaction of quality of life in mood, work and sexual life. Gender differences affect acute treatment, remission and recovery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Cognitive Functions and Health Related Quality of Life of Institutional Autism Spectrum Disorder Children in Dhaka city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahan, M U; Karim, M R; Rahman, A; Akhter, S

    2015-12-01

    In Bangladesh, nearly 10.5 hundred thousand individuals may have autism. Recent figures released by the CDC (2012) show that autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) now affect 1 in 88 children. Cognitive impairment, limited adaptive skills, and severe social impairment as seen in Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) thought to be associated with poorer health related quality of life (HRQoL). The objective of the study was to measure HRQoL and cognitive functioning in a group of autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) children and to relate HRQoL with their socio demographic characteristics and cognitive functioning from parents' perception. This cross sectional study was conducted amongl49 purposively selected parents who have institutionalized autistic children (2 to 18 years old) from January to June 2013. HRQoL was assessed by Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory 4.0 (Vemil998) and cognitive functioning was assessed with The PedsQL TM Cognitive Functioning Scale. Three fourth of the children were male (n=-115, 77.2%) and the mean (SD) age of the children was 7.8(3.06) years. Symptoms of autism appeared at about their 2rd birthday 2.1 (.70) while the average (SD) age of diagnosis was around three years 2.9 (.98). The children were reported to go to school at an early age of 3(1.75) years. Out of 149 respondents, ten percent parents (n=14) had the history of consanguineous marriage. The sample data provides significant difference between the scores by the ability of verbal communication (prelationship between HRQoL and independent variables found significant in univariate analysis. The results of the regression indicated the predictors in the model explained 57 % of the variance (R2=.57, F=23.05, p<.001). It was found that fathers who were doctors and engineers by profession (t=2.34, p= .02), child's ability to communicate with words (t= 2.73, p= .007), age of symptom appearance (t= -2.71, p=.008), and cognitive functioning (t =12.28, p <0.001) significantly predicted HRQol of ASD

  5. Comparison of Visuospatial and Verbal Abilities in First Psychotic Episode of Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorder: Impact on Global Functioning and Quality of Life

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rodriquez, M.; Španiel, F.; Konrádová, L.; Sedláková, K.; Dvorská, K.; Prajsová, J.; Kratochvílová, Z.; Levčík, David; Vlček, Kamil; Fajnerová, Iveta

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 9, Dec 18 (2015), s. 322 ISSN 1662-5153 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NT13386 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : cognitive deficit * first psychotic episode * schizophrenia spectrum disorder * global functioning * quality of life * visuospatial functions * verbal functions * antipsychotic medication Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 3.392, year: 2015

  6. Higher-Level Hand Motor Function in Aging and (Preclinical) Dementia : Its Relationship with (Instrumental) Activities of Daily Life - A Mini-Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scherder, Erik; Dekker, Welmoed; Eggermont, Laura

    2008-01-01

    A causal relationship between physical activity such as walking and cognitive functions - particularly executive functions and memory - has been observed in elderly people with and without dementia. Executive functions play an important role in the (instrumental) activities of daily life [(I)ADL].

  7. Functional connectivity in the first year of life in infants at risk for autism spectrum disorder: an EEG study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Righi

    Full Text Available In the field of autism research, recent work has been devoted to studying both behavioral and neural markers that may aide in early identification of autism spectrum disorder (ASD. These studies have often tested infants who have a significant family history of autism spectrum disorder, given the increased prevalence observed among such infants. In the present study we tested infants at high- and low-risk for ASD (based on having an older sibling diagnosed with the disorder or not at 6- and 12-months-of-age. We computed intrahemispheric linear coherence between anterior and posterior sites as a measure of neural functional connectivity derived from electroencephalography while the infants were listening to speech sounds. We found that by 12-months-of-age infants at risk for ASD showed reduced functional connectivity compared to low risk infants. Moreover, by 12-months-of-age infants later diagnosed with ASD showed reduced functional connectivity, compared to both infants at low risk for the disorder and infants at high risk who were not later diagnosed with ASD. Significant differences in functional connectivity were also found between low-risk infants and high-risk infants who did not go onto develop ASD. These results demonstrate that reduced functional connectivity appears to be related to genetic vulnerability for ASD. Moreover, they provide further evidence that ASD is broadly characterized by differences in neural integration that emerge during the first year of life.

  8. Functional connectivity in the first year of life in infants at risk for autism spectrum disorder: an EEG study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righi, Giulia; Tierney, Adrienne L; Tager-Flusberg, Helen; Nelson, Charles A

    2014-01-01

    In the field of autism research, recent work has been devoted to studying both behavioral and neural markers that may aide in early identification of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). These studies have often tested infants who have a significant family history of autism spectrum disorder, given the increased prevalence observed among such infants. In the present study we tested infants at high- and low-risk for ASD (based on having an older sibling diagnosed with the disorder or not) at 6- and 12-months-of-age. We computed intrahemispheric linear coherence between anterior and posterior sites as a measure of neural functional connectivity derived from electroencephalography while the infants were listening to speech sounds. We found that by 12-months-of-age infants at risk for ASD showed reduced functional connectivity compared to low risk infants. Moreover, by 12-months-of-age infants later diagnosed with ASD showed reduced functional connectivity, compared to both infants at low risk for the disorder and infants at high risk who were not later diagnosed with ASD. Significant differences in functional connectivity were also found between low-risk infants and high-risk infants who did not go onto develop ASD. These results demonstrate that reduced functional connectivity appears to be related to genetic vulnerability for ASD. Moreover, they provide further evidence that ASD is broadly characterized by differences in neural integration that emerge during the first year of life.

  9. Functional Dissociation between Perception and Action Is Evident Early in Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadad, Bat-Sheva; Avidan, Galia; Ganel, Tzvi

    2012-01-01

    The functional distinction between vision for perception and vision for action is well documented in the mature visual system. Ganel and colleagues recently provided direct evidence for this dissociation, showing that while visual processing for perception follows Weber's fundamental law of psychophysics, action violates this law. We tracked the…

  10. Individual differences in executive functions, training effects & quality of life of children with autism spectrum disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, M.

    2015-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) appear to experience executive functioning (EF) problems, but there are large individual differences in EF-profiles in ASD. In the current study the majority of children with ASD (8-12 years) actually experienced no cognitive flexibility deficits.

  11. Immune responses at brain barriers and implications for brain development and neurological function in later life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen B. Stolp

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available For a long time the brain has been considered an immune-privileged site due to a muted inflammatory response and the presence of protective brain barriers. It is now recognised that neuroinflammation may play an important role in almost all neurological disorders and that the brain barriers may be contributing through either normal immune signalling, or disruption of their basic physiological mechanisms. The distinction between normal function and dysfunction at the barriers is difficult to dissect, partly due to a lack of understanding of normal barrier function and partly because of physiological changes that occur as part of normal development and ageing. Brain barriers consist of a number of interacting structural and physiological elements including tight junctions between adjacent barrier cells and an array of influx and efflux transporters. Despite these protective mechanisms, the capacity for immune-surveillance of the brain is maintained, and there is evidence of inflammatory signalling at the brain barriers that may be an important part of the body’s response to damage or infection. This signalling system appears to change both with normal ageing, and during disease. Changes may affect diapedesis of immune cells and active molecular transfer, or cause rearrangement of the tight junctions and an increase in passive permeability across barrier interfaces. Here we review the many elements that contribute to brain barrier functions and how they respond to inflammation, particularly during development and aging. The implications of inflammation–induced barrier dysfunction for brain development and subsequent neurological function are also discussed.

  12. Cognitive functioning and quality of life of atherosclerotic patients following carotid endarterectomy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossema, E.R.; Brand, A.N.; Moll, F.L.; Ackerstaff, R.G.A.; Doornen, L.J.P. van

    2002-01-01

    Background: Carotid endarterectomy (CEA) is a surgical procedure to remove atherosclerotic plaque from one of the carotid arteries in patients with severe stenosis. The purpose is to prevent future cerebral ischemic attacks. Whether patients, in addition, improve in cognitive functions and quality

  13. Accounting for multiple functions in environmental life cycle assessment of storm water management solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brudler, Sarah; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten; Rygaard, Martin

    The wide range of approaches to handle storm water runoff have varying effects on the environment. Local stormwater control measures for retention and treatment are increasingly used components in urban climate adaptation plans. Often, these solutions modify the multiple functions of urban...

  14. Political Imprisonment and Adult Functioning: A Life Event History Analysis of Palestinians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeely, Clea; Barber, Brian K; Spellings, Carolyn; Belli, Robert; Giacaman, Rita; Arafat, Cairo; Daher, Mahmoud; El Sarraj, Eyad; Mallouh, Mohammed Abu

    2015-06-01

    Political imprisonment is a traumatic event, often accompanied by torture and deprivation. This study explores the association of political imprisonment between 1987 and 2011 with political, economic, community, psychological, physical, and family functioning in a population-based sample of Palestinian men ages 32-43 years (N = 884) derived from a dataset collected in 2011. Twenty-six percent (n = 233) had been politically imprisoned. Men imprisoned between 1987 and 2005 reported functioning as well as never-imprisoned men in most domains, suggesting that men imprisoned as youth have moved forward with their lives in ways similar to their nonimprisoned counterparts. In an exception to this pattern, men imprisoned during the Oslo Accords period (1994-1999) reported higher levels of trauma-related stress (B = 0.24, p = .027) compared to never-imprisoned men. Men imprisoned since 2006 reported lower functioning in multiple domains: human insecurity (B = 0.33, p = .023), freedom of public expression (B = -0.48, p = .017), perceived government stability (B = -0.38, p = .009), feeling broken or destroyed (B = 0.59, p = .001), physical limitations (B = 0.55, p = .002), and community belonging (B = -0.33, p = .048). Findings pointed to the value of examining the effects of imprisonment on functioning in multiple domains. © 2015 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  15. Positive affective functioning in anhedonic individuals' daily life : Anything but Flat and Blunted

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heininga, V E; Van Roekel, E; Ahles, J J; Oldehinkel, A J; Mezulis, A H

    2017-01-01

    Background Anhedonia, the decreased interest and pleasure, is often described as 'flat' or 'blunted' positive affect (PA). Yet, little is known about PA functioning in anhedonic individuals' daily lives. The current study investigates PA reactivity to pleasurable experiences in anhedonia together

  16. Biological aspects and life table of Uroleucon ambrosiae (Thomas, 1878 as a function of temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auad Alexander Machado

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The aphid Uroleucon ambrosiae (Thomas is considered a pest of hidroponically-grown lettuce, but basic and applied information on its control are scarce in Brazil. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of different temperatures on biological aspects and life history of U. ambrosiae (Thomas developing on hydroponic lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. crop. Newly emerged nymphs were placed on 4-cm discs of hydroponic lettuce, var. Verônica, which were maintained on 5-cm Petri dishes, at temperatures of 15, 20 and 25ºC and 14 h photophase, and inside a greenhouse, within micro-cages at room temperature. The duration of development in all nymphal stages varied inversely to temperature. Nymphs maintained at 20ºC and 25ºC, had similar development period. However, at fluctuating greenhouse temperatures (daily mean = 21ºC, different results were obtained, which was also true for the pre-reproductive, reproductive and post-reproductive periods. Daily and total fertilities at 20ºC were better in comparison to the other treatments. The highest mortality rate of aphids occurred under greenhouse conditions. The production of 1.28 nymphs per female per day, the time needed for the population to double in size (TD=2.77days, and the intrinsic rate of population increase (r m=0.25, were similar for in insects maintained at 20 and 25ºC. On the other hand, time interval between generations (T and the net reproductive rate (Ro were higher at 20ºC. In the greenhouse, even though T was similar to laboratory conditions at 20 and 25ºC, the R0, r m and l parameters were lower and TD was higher. Based on biological aspects, fertility and life expectancy tables, constant temperature of 20ºC is the most suitable for U. ambrosiae.

  17. Biological half-life of iodine in adults with intact thyroid function and in athyreotic persons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, G.H.; Hauck, B.M.; Chamberlain, M.J

    2002-07-01

    A joint project between the Human Monitoring Laboratory (HML) and the Ottawa Hospital has measured the retention of {sup 131}I in patients who have received the radioiodine diagnostically. Thirty-nine subjects with intact thyroid glands and nine athyreotic subjects were measured in the HML's whole-body/thyroid counter to determine the retention of {sup 131}I following its medical administration. The average biological half-life of {sup 131}I in 26 euthyroid subjects was found to be 66.1{+-}6.3 days which may be statistically significantly lower than the ICRP recommended value of 80 days. Nine hyperthyroid patients had a mean biological half-life of 38.2{+-}8.6 days and in three hypothyroid patients the corresponding value was 29.3{+-}8.8 days. Thyroid {sup 131}I uptake was measured in a conventional clinical fashion at the Ottawa Hospital Civic campus 24 h after oral administration of the radioiodine using a collimated thick sodium iodide detector placed over the neck arteriorly. Measured values were 0.144{+-}0.009, 0.314{+-}0.035 and 0.045{+-}0.010 of the administered dose in euthyroid, hyperthyroid and hypothyroid patients respectively. The euthyroid range at the hospital is 0.06-0.22. Uptake was significantly lower for the euthyroid group than the ICRP value of 0.3. The radioiodine retention in athyreotic subjects followed a two compartment model with biological half-lives of 1.0{+-}0.2 days and 18.4{+-}1.1. days. (author)

  18. Effects of preoperative walking ability and patient's surgical education on quality of life and functional outcomes after total knee arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil K. Dash

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: Prospectively analyze the effect of preoperative walking status and the patient's surgical education on functional outcomes and the three dimensions of quality of life (QoL (pain, physical function, and mental health after elective total knee arthroplasty (TKA. METHODS: A comparative analysis on the QoL and functional outcomes in patients who underwent total knee arthroplasty between January 2014 and June 2015. To compare effects of the patient's walking status and knowledge of the surgical procedure on QoL and functional outcomes following TKA by means of SF-36 questionnaire, CES D10, VAS, KSS, KSFS, WOMAC, as well as Friedmann and Wyman scores, 10MWT, and 30-second timed chair test, assessed before the operation and one, three, and six months after the operation. RESULTS: There were 168 knees in 154 patients: 46.75% men and 53.24% women. 52.38% of knees had grade-III OA and 40.47% of knees had grade-IV OA. Preoperatively, SF-36 PCS was 33.2 and MCS was 35.4. Mean KSS and KSFS in females was 37.3 (16.2 and 31.5 (13.8; in males it was 49.2 (18.4 and 42.5 (15.7, respectively. Mean WOMAC scores were 64.2 in females and 56.5 in males. Mean VAS and CES D10 scores were 8.8 and 8.2 in females, and 6.9 and 6.4 in males, respectively. Post operatively at the first, third, and sixth month, significant improvements in QoL and mean SF-36, CES D10, VAS, KSS, KSFS, WOMAC, and Friedmann and Wyman scores were observed, as well as in the 10MWT and 30 s timed chair test scores. Patients with better preoperative functional activity and satisfactory understanding of TKA presented a better functional performance and achieved a good quality life (p< 0.01. DISCUSSION: Surgeons educate TKA candidates regarding the surgical procedure, the nature of implants, and how the procedure would affect their lifestyle and what their expectations from TKA should be. These crucial considerations should boost their confidence, enhancing their involvement and

  19. Association between Exposure to the Chinese Famine in Different Stages of Early Life and Decline in Cognitive Functioning in Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; An, Yu; Yu, Huanling; Feng, Lingli; Liu, Quanri; Lu, Yanhui; Wang, Hui; Xiao, Rong

    2016-01-01

    To investigate whether exposure to the Chinese Famine in different life stages of early life is associated with cognitive functioning decline in adulthood. We recruited 1366 adults born between 1950 and 1964 and divided them into fetal-exposed, early childhood-exposed (1-3 years old during the famine), mid childhood-exposed (4-6 years old during the famine), late childhood-exposed (7-9 years old during the famine), and non-exposed groups. A selection of cognitive tests was administered to assess their cognitive performance. Association between malnutrition in different famine exposure periods and adult cognitive performance was estimated by multivariate logistic and multiple linear regression analyses. There were significant differences in cognitive performance between subjects exposed to famine during different life stages. For the general cognitive tests, fetal-exposed period was associated with decreased scores of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), and late childhood-exposed with decreased scores of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). We also found exposure to famine during mid and late childhood was associated with worse performance on the Stroop color and word test. Famine exposure in utero and during childhood is associated with overall and specific cognitive decline, affecting selective attention and response inhibition particularly.

  20. Stress perception and depressive symptoms: functionality and impact on the quality of life of women with fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homann, Diogo; Stefanello, Joice Mara Facco; Góes, Suelen Meira; Breda, Chris Andreissy; Paiva, Eduardo dos Santos; Leite, Neiva

    2012-01-01

    Depression is one of the most frequent psychiatric comorbidities in patients with fibromyalgia (FM), and chronic stress might be one of the triggering events of the characteristic FM symptoms. To compare depressive symptoms and stress perception between women with and without FM, in addition to investigate the relationship between those characteristics and the functionality and the impact on the quality of life of those patients. The study included 20 women with FM (FM group) and 20 healthy women (control group). The following instruments were used: Beck Depression Inventory, Perceived Stress Scale-10, Health Assessment Questionnaire, Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire, and Visual Analogue Scale for pain (0-10 cm). The FM group showed higher severity of the depressive symptoms (24.10 ± 11.68) and greater perception of stress (25.10 ± 4.82) as compared with those of the control group (10.20 ± 12.78, P quality of life (r = 0.46, P quality of life of patients with FM.

  1. Improvement in social function and health-related quality of life after shunt surgery for idiopathic normal-pressure hydrocephalus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Jakob; Hellström, Per; Wikkelsø, Carsten; Lundgren-Nilsson, Asa

    2014-10-01

    To investigate the impact of shunt surgery on the activity, participation, autonomy, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of patients with idiopathic normal-pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) as well as the effect on caregiver burden. Thirty-seven patients (median age 70 years, range 50-89 years) with iNPH were evaluated before and 6 months after surgery. Symptoms and signs were assessed by the iNPH scale, activities of daily living (ADL) with the Functional Independence Measure (FIM) and Assessment of Motor and Process Skills (AMPS), autonomy and participation with Impact on Participation and Autonomy (IPA), and caregiver burden with the Caregiver Burden Scale (CBS). HRQOL was evaluated with the EQ-5D (EuroQol Group-5 Dimension health survey). Twenty-four patients (65%) improved clinically (iNPH scale score) and 31 (86%) improved their HRQOL after surgery, almost to the same level as found in the normal population. The patients became more independent in physical and cognitive activities, and participation and autonomy improved. The caregiver burden was decreased among caregivers to male patients but remained unchanged on the overall group level. After shunt surgery, patients with iNPH showed improvement in most aspects of social life, they became more independent, and their quality of life returned to nearly normal.

  2. Effects of Playback Theatre on cognitive function and quality of life in older adults in Singapore: A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Krystal Shu Yi; Lee, Eleena Shi Lynn; Tan, Jia Qi; Teo, Dylan Jin Hao; Lee, Chris Ban Loong; Ee, Sharifah Rose; Sim, Sam Kim Yang; Chee, Chew Sim

    2018-03-01

    This study investigated the effects of Playback Theatre on older adults' cognitive function and well-being, specifically in the Singapore context. Eighteen healthy older adults, older than 50 years of age, participated in the study. Due to practical limitations, a single-group pre-post study design was adopted. Participants completed the outcome measures before and after the training program. There were six weekly sessions in total (about 1.5 hours, once weekly). Participants experienced a significant improvement in their emotional well-being after training. However, there were no significant changes in participants' cognitive function or health-related quality of life. Our results suggest that Playback Theatre as a community program has potential to improve the mental and emotional well-being of older people. © 2018 AJA Inc.

  3. Self-reported quality of life and functional outcome in patients with rectal cancer--QoLiRECT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asplund, Dan; Heath, Jane; González, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    international multicentre study based on a comprehensive, validated questionnaire on functional impairments and QoL administered to an unselected population of 1,500 patients with rectal cancer at diagnosis and after one, two and five years. The clinical characteristics are retrieved from the national quality......INTRODUCTION: The treatment of rectal cancer has improved, and survival rates today exceed those of colon cancer, but functional impairments and other adverse effects of treatment are common among patients. The impact of treatment on patients' quality of life (QoL) remains unclear. Many...... registers. A total of 14 hospitals in Sweden and Denmark are currently involved in the study. Inclusion is ongoing, and new including hospitals are welcome to join. Full accrual is expected within two years. CONCLUSION: This study will provide detailed knowledge about the challenges that patients face...

  4. Self-reported quality of life and functional outcome in patients with rectal cancer – QoLiREC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asplund, Dan; Heath, Jane; González, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    international multicentre study based on a comprehensive, validated questionnaire on functional impairments and QoL administered to an unselected population of 1,500 patients with rectal cancer at diagnosis and after one, two and five years. The clinical characteristics are retrieved from the national quality......INTRODUCTION: The treatment of rectal cancer has improved, and survival rates today exceed those of colon cancer, but functional impairments and other adverse effects of treatment are common among patients. The impact of treatment on patients' quality of life (QoL) remains unclear. Many...... registers. A total of 14 hospitals in Sweden and Denmark are currently involved in the study. Inclusion is ongoing, and new including hospitals are welcome to join. Full accrual is expected within two years. CONCLUSION: This study will provide detailed knowledge about the challenges that patients face...

  5. Quality of life and health care consultation in 13 to 18 year olds with abdominal pain predominant functional gastrointestinal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devanarayana, Niranga Manjuri; Rajindrajith, Shaman; Benninga, Marc A

    2014-08-21

    Abdominal pain predominant functional gastrointestinal diseases (AP-FGD) are commonly seen in the paediatric age group. It has significant impact on daily activities of affected children. Main objective of this study was to assess the health related quality of life (HRQoL) in children with AP-FGD. This was a cross sectional survey conducted in children aged 13-18 years, in four randomly selected schools in Western province of Sri Lanka. Data was collected using a previously validated, self-administered questionnaire. It had questions on symptoms, HRQoL and health care consultation. AP-FGD were diagnosed using Rome III criteria. A total of 1850 questionnaires were included in the analysis [males 1000 (54.1%), mean age 14.4 years and SD 1.3 years]. Of them, 305 (16.5%) had AP-FGD [irritable bowel syndrome = 91(4.9%), functional dyspepsia = 11 (0.6%), abdominal migraine = 37 (1.9%) and functional abdominal pain = 180 (9.7%)]. Lower HRQoL scores for physical (83.6 vs. 91.4 in controls), social (85.0 vs. 92.7), emotional (73.6 vs. 82.7) and school (75.0 vs. 82.5) functioning domains, and lower overall scores (79.6 vs. 88.0) were seen in children with AP-FGD (p abdominal pain (r = -0.24, p abdominal bloating and vomiting (p < 0.05). Children with AP-FGD have lower quality of life in all 4 domains. Those with severe symptoms have lower HRQoL. Approximately 28% of children with AP-FGD seek healthcare for their symptoms.

  6. Later Life Changes in Hippocampal Neurogenesis and Behavioral Functions After Low-Dose Prenatal Irradiation at Early Organogenesis Stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganapathi, Ramya; Manda, Kailash

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate long-term changes in behavioral functions of mice after exposure to low-dose prenatal radiation at an early organogenesis stage. Methods and Materials: Pregnant C57BL/6J mice were irradiated (20 cGy) at postcoitus day 5.5. The male and female offspring were subjected to different behavioral assays for affective, motor, and cognitive functions at 3, 6, and 12 months of age. Behavioral functions were further correlated with the population of CA1 and CA3 pyramidal neurons and immature neurons in hippocampal dentate gyrus. Results: Prenatally exposed mice of different age groups showed a sex-specific pattern of sustained changes in behavioral functions. Male mice showed significant changes in anxiety-like phenotypes, learning, and long-term memory at age 3 months. At 6 months of age such behavioral functions were recovered to a normal level but could not be sustained at age 12 months. Female mice showed an appreciable recovery in almost all behavioral functions at 12 months. Patterns of change in learning and long-term memory were comparable to the population of CA1 and CA3 pyramidal neurons and doublecortin-positive neurons in hippocampus. Conclusion: Our finding suggests that prenatal (early organogenesis stage) irradiation even at a lower dose level (20 cGy) is sufficient to cause potential changes in neurobehavioral function at later stages of life. Male mice showed relatively higher vulnerability to radiation-induced neurobehavioral changes as compared with female.

  7. Later Life Changes in Hippocampal Neurogenesis and Behavioral Functions After Low-Dose Prenatal Irradiation at Early Organogenesis Stage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganapathi, Ramya; Manda, Kailash, E-mail: kailashmanda@gmail.com

    2017-05-01

    Purpose: To investigate long-term changes in behavioral functions of mice after exposure to low-dose prenatal radiation at an early organogenesis stage. Methods and Materials: Pregnant C57BL/6J mice were irradiated (20 cGy) at postcoitus day 5.5. The male and female offspring were subjected to different behavioral assays for affective, motor, and cognitive functions at 3, 6, and 12 months of age. Behavioral functions were further correlated with the population of CA1 and CA3 pyramidal neurons and immature neurons in hippocampal dentate gyrus. Results: Prenatally exposed mice of different age groups showed a sex-specific pattern of sustained changes in behavioral functions. Male mice showed significant changes in anxiety-like phenotypes, learning, and long-term memory at age 3 months. At 6 months of age such behavioral functions were recovered to a normal level but could not be sustained at age 12 months. Female mice showed an appreciable recovery in almost all behavioral functions at 12 months. Patterns of change in learning and long-term memory were comparable to the population of CA1 and CA3 pyramidal neurons and doublecortin-positive neurons in hippocampus. Conclusion: Our finding suggests that prenatal (early organogenesis stage) irradiation even at a lower dose level (20 cGy) is sufficient to cause potential changes in neurobehavioral function at later stages of life. Male mice showed relatively higher vulnerability to radiation-induced neurobehavioral changes as compared with female.

  8. Evolution and functional insights of different ancestral orthologous clades of chitin synthase genes in the fungal tree of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mu eLi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Chitin synthases (CHSs are key enzymes in the biosynthesis of chitin, an important structural component of fungal cell walls that can trigger innate immune responses in host plants and animals. Members of CHS gene family perform various functions in fungal cellular processes. Previous studies focused primarily on classifying diverse CHSs into different classes, regardless of their functional diversification, or on characterizing their functions in individual fungal species. A complete and systematic comparative analysis of CHS genes based on their orthologous relationships will be valuable for elucidating the evolution and functions of different CHS genes in fungi. Here, we identified and compared members of the CHS gene family across the fungal tree of life, including 18 divergent fungal lineages. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the fungal CHS gene family is comprised of at least 10 ancestral orthologous clades, which have undergone multiple independent duplications and losses in different fungal lineages during evolution. Interestingly, one of these CHS clades (class III was expanded in plant or animal pathogenic fungi belonging to different fungal lineages. Two clades (classes VIb and VIc identified for the first time in this study occurred mainly in plant pathogenic fungi from Sordariomycetes and Dothideomycetes. Moreover, members of classes III and VIb were specifically up-regulated during plant infection, suggesting important roles in pathogenesis. In addition, CHS-associated networks conserved among plant pathogenic fungi are involved in various biological processes, including sexual reproduction and plant infection. We also identified specificity-determining sites, many of which are located at or adjacent to important structural and functional sites that are potentially responsible for functional divergence of different CHS classes. Overall, our results provide new insights into the evolution and function of members of CHS gene

  9. Hospitalisation with otitis media in early childhood and cognitive function in young adult life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Marie; Nielsen, Rikke Beck; Fisker, Niels

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Otitis media (OM) is a very common condition in children and occurs during years that are critical to the development of learning, literacy, and math skills. Therefore, among a large cohort of Danish conscripts, we aimed to examine the association between hospitalisation with OM...... in early childhood and cognitive function and educational level in early adulthood. METHODS: We conducted a population-based prevalence study using linked data from healthcare databases and conscription records of Danish men born between 1977 and 1983. We identified all hospitalisations with OM before 8......% CI: 0.78-1.34)]. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, we found that hospitalisation with OM in early childhood was associated with a slightly lower cognitive function in early adulthood. Hospitalisation for OM did not seem to influence the prevalence of GSCE when level of BPP was taken into account....

  10. The influence of exercise training on quality of life and psychosocial functioning in children with congenital heart disease:A review of intervention studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dulfer, K.; Helbing, W.A.; Utens, E.M.W.J.

    Children and adolescents operated upon for congenital heart disease may show reduced exercise capacity and physical activity, associated with lowered quality of life. This review presents intervention studies on the influence of an exercise program on quality of life and psychosocial functioning in

  11. Quality of Life of High-Functioning Children and Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Typically Developing Peers: Self- and Proxy-Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egilson, Snaefrídur T.; Ólafsdóttir, Linda B.; Leósdóttir, Thóra; Saemundsen, Evald

    2017-01-01

    Studies have shown parents to report lower quality of life for their children with autism spectrum disorder than children's self-report scores and the same applies for data on typically developing children. Our objectives were to: (1) explore how high-functioning children with autism spectrum disorder rate their quality of life compared with…

  12. Childhood deprivation and later-life cognitive function in a population-based study of older rural South Africans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Lindsay C; Glymour, M Maria; Kahn, Kathleen; Payne, Collin F; Wagner, Ryan G; Montana, Livia; Mateen, Farrah J; Tollman, Stephen M; Berkman, Lisa F

    2017-10-01

    Little research has evaluated the life course drivers of cognitive aging in South Africa. We investigated the relationships of self-rated childhood health and father's occupation during childhood with later-life cognitive function score and whether educational attainment mediated these relationships among older South Africans living in a former region of Apartheid-era racial segregation. Data were from baseline assessments of "Health and Aging in Africa: A Longitudinal Study of an INDEPTH Community" (HAALSI), a population-based study of 5059 men and women aged ≥40 years in 2015 in rural Agincourt sub-district, South Africa. Childhood health, father's occupation during childhood, and years of education were self-reported in study interviews. Cognitive measures assessed time orientation, numeracy, and word recall, which were included in a z-standardized latent cognitive function score variable. Linear regression models adjusted for age, sex, and country of birth were used to estimate the total and direct effects of each childhood risk factor, and the indirect effects mediated by years of education. Poor childhood health predicted lower cognitive scores (total effect = -0.28; 95% CI = -0.35, -0.21, versus good); this effect was not mediated by educational attainment. Having a father in a professional job during childhood, while rare (3% of sample), predicted better cognitive scores (total effect = 0.25; 95% CI = 0.10, 0.40, versus unskilled manual labor, 29% of sample). Half of this effect was mediated by educational attainment. Education was linearly associated with later-life cognitive function score (0.09; 95% CI = 0.09, 0.10 per year achieved). In this post-Apartheid, rural South African context, older adults with poor self-reported childhood health or whose father worked in unskilled manual labor had relatively poor cognitive outcomes. Educational attainment strongly predicted cognitive outcomes, and appeared to be, in part, a mechanism of social

  13. Influence of balneophysical therapy on activity, functional capacity, and quality of life in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Sonja

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction It has been well known that balneophysical therapy has a therapeutic effect on clinical and biological parameters of disease activity in the patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Objective. To determine the influence of balneophysical therapy on functional capacity, activity and quality of life of the patients with RA primarily treated with some of disease modifying antirheumatic drugs. Methods. The study enrolled 73 patients with RA treated with some of disease modifying antirheumatic drugs (Methotrexate in 85% of patients. During hospitalization at the Clinical Rheumatologic Department of the Institute 'Niska Banja', the patients were treated, beside the medicamentous therapy, by hydrotherapy (oligomineral, homeothermic, low radioactive water, mineral peloid therapy, electrotherapy and kinesiotherapy. Before and after balneotherapy, the patients filled in the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ and the Quality of Life Rheumatoid Arthritis (QOL-RA scale. The Disease Activity Score (DAS 28 was used to measure the disease activity before and after balneotherapy. A possible value of HAQ was from 0 to 3, and QOL-RA from 0 to 10. Results. The mean value of the duration of balneophysical therapy was 14.7±4.8 days. We found significant improvement of functional capacity in the patients with RA. The average HAQ score before balneotherapy was 1.07±0.61, and 0.86±0.55 after balneotherapy, which was statistically significantly lower (p<0.05. DAS 28 after balneotherapy was also statistically significantly lower than DAS 28 before balneotherapy: the mean value of DAS 28 before therapy was 6.30±0.81 and after therapy 5.48±0.75 (p<0.001. The quality of life significantly improved after balneophysical therapy: the mean value of QOL-RA scale before therapy was 5.38±1.62 and after therapy 7.35±1.81 (p<0.05. Conclusion. Balneophysical therapy, when properly dosed, is an effective, adjuvant therapy in the patients with RA of mild disease

  14. Functional constipation - prevalence and life style factors in a district of bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perveen, I; Rahman, M M; Saha, M; Parvin, R; Chowdhury, M

    2015-04-01

    Constipation is a common problem throughout the world and is particularly prevalent in women, children and older adults producing considerable health care expenditure. Data on functional constipation is limited especially in Asian countries. This cross-sectional survey assessed prevalence and association of functional constipation or chronic constipation (FC) with a number of socio-demographic and lifestyle factors. Data were collected from 3000 apparently healthy subjects by personal interview in a home setting with a questionnaire based on Rome III criteria for FC. Persons were selected by cluster sampling method from the population of Sylhet district. Among the 3000 subjects 148 subjects fulfilled the criteria for FC (Male=67, Female=81) giving a prevalence of 4.9%. Functional constipation was more prevalent in elderly (50-60 years, 10.1%, p=0.000), married persons (and widow/widowers, separated) (5.6-9.1%, p=0.000), city dwellers (6.2%), farmers (10.5%, p=0.000), house wives 6.1%, subjects taking vegetable (7.35%) and spices (6.0%) less frequently. The highest prevalent symptoms were feeling of incomplete evacuation (96.6%) and sensation of ano-rectal blockage (93.9%). No significant difference was found in the symptom pattern of FC among men and women. Older age (OR 2.755), female sex (OR 1.249), low intake of vegetable (OR 2.350) and spice (OR 2.050) appeared as important associated factor for FC. BMI and smoking had no significant association with FC. Functional constipation is a less prevalent disorder than IBS in our community. Female gender, old age and low intake of vegetable and spice were important associated factors for FC.

  15. Functional programming of the autonomic nervous system by early life immune exposure: implications for anxiety.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luba Sominsky

    Full Text Available Neonatal exposure of rodents to an immune challenge alters a variety of behavioural and physiological parameters in adulthood. In particular, neonatal lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 0.05 mg/kg, i.p. exposure produces robust increases in anxiety-like behaviour, accompanied by persistent changes in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis functioning. Altered autonomic nervous system (ANS activity is an important physiological contributor to the generation of anxiety. Here we examined the long term effects of neonatal LPS exposure on ANS function and the associated changes in neuroendocrine and behavioural indices. ANS function in Wistar rats, neonatally treated with LPS, was assessed via analysis of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH in the adrenal glands on postnatal days (PNDs 50 and 85, and via plethysmographic assessment of adult respiratory rate in response to mild stress (acoustic and light stimuli. Expression of genes implicated in regulation of autonomic and endocrine activity in the relevant brain areas was also examined. Neonatal LPS exposure produced an increase in TH phosphorylation and activity at both PNDs 50 and 85. In adulthood, LPS-treated rats responded with increased respiratory rates to the lower intensities of stimuli, indicative of increased autonomic arousal. These changes were associated with increases in anxiety-like behaviours and HPA axis activity, alongside altered expression of the GABA-A receptor α2 subunit, CRH receptor type 1, CRH binding protein, and glucocorticoid receptor mRNA levels in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and hypothalamus. The current findings suggest that in addition to the commonly reported alterations in HPA axis functioning, neonatal LPS challenge is associated with a persistent change in ANS activity, associated with, and potentially contributing to, the anxiety-like phenotype. The findings of this study reflect the importance of changes in the perinatal microbial environment on the ontogeny of

  16. Functional programming of the autonomic nervous system by early life immune exposure: implications for anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sominsky, Luba; Fuller, Erin A; Bondarenko, Evgeny; Ong, Lin Kooi; Averell, Lee; Nalivaiko, Eugene; Dunkley, Peter R; Dickson, Phillip W; Hodgson, Deborah M

    2013-01-01

    Neonatal exposure of rodents to an immune challenge alters a variety of behavioural and physiological parameters in adulthood. In particular, neonatal lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 0.05 mg/kg, i.p.) exposure produces robust increases in anxiety-like behaviour, accompanied by persistent changes in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning. Altered autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity is an important physiological contributor to the generation of anxiety. Here we examined the long term effects of neonatal LPS exposure on ANS function and the associated changes in neuroendocrine and behavioural indices. ANS function in Wistar rats, neonatally treated with LPS, was assessed via analysis of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in the adrenal glands on postnatal days (PNDs) 50 and 85, and via plethysmographic assessment of adult respiratory rate in response to mild stress (acoustic and light stimuli). Expression of genes implicated in regulation of autonomic and endocrine activity in the relevant brain areas was also examined. Neonatal LPS exposure produced an increase in TH phosphorylation and activity at both PNDs 50 and 85. In adulthood, LPS-treated rats responded with increased respiratory rates to the lower intensities of stimuli, indicative of increased autonomic arousal. These changes were associated with increases in anxiety-like behaviours and HPA axis activity, alongside altered expression of the GABA-A receptor α2 subunit, CRH receptor type 1, CRH binding protein, and glucocorticoid receptor mRNA levels in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and hypothalamus. The current findings suggest that in addition to the commonly reported alterations in HPA axis functioning, neonatal LPS challenge is associated with a persistent change in ANS activity, associated with, and potentially contributing to, the anxiety-like phenotype. The findings of this study reflect the importance of changes in the perinatal microbial environment on the ontogeny of physiological processes.

  17. Effect of hydrotherapy on quality of life, functional capacity and sleep quality in patients with fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Kyara Morgana Oliveira Moura; Tucano, Silvia Jurema Pereira; Kümpel, Claudia; Castro, Antonio Adolfo Mattos de; Porto, Elias Ferreira

    2012-12-01

    Fibromyalgia affects 8% of the population over the age of 40 years, and 75% of the patients with fibromyalgia have poor sleep quality. To assess the effects of hydrotherapy on the physical function and sleep quality of patients with fibromyalgia. Patients were under clinical care at the UNASP Outpatient Clinic. This study assessed 60 female patients with fibromyalgia aged between 30 and 65 years. Out of the 60 patients assessed, 20 were excluded and 10 left the study because they could not comply with the time schedule. All patients completed the following questionnaires: Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ); Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Training sessions were performed twice a week for two months, each session lasting 60 minutes. Patients' mean age was 45 years, 66% were active workers, and 34% had quit work. Right after the hydrotherapy program, the patients improved the following aspects assessed by use of the FIQ: physical function, work absenteeism, ability to do job, pain intensity, fatigue, morning tiredness, stiffness (P Hydrotherapy improves sleep quality, physical function, professional status, psychological disorders and physical symptoms in patients with fibromyalgia.

  18. Life cycle assessment of sustainable raw material acquisition for functional magnetite bionanoparticle production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadhukhan, Jhuma; Joshi, Nimisha; Shemfe, Mobolaji; Lloyd, Jonathan R

    2017-09-01

    Magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs) have several applications, including use in medical diagnostics, renewable energy production and waste remediation. However, the processes for MNP production from analytical-grade materials are resource intensive and can be environmentally damaging. This work for the first time examines the life cycle assessment (LCA) of four MNP production cases: (i) industrial MNP production system; (ii) a state-of-the-art MNP biosynthesis system; (iii) an optimal MNP biosynthesis system and (iv) an MNP biosynthesis system using raw materials sourced from wastewaters, in order to recommend a sustainable raw material acquisition pathway for MNP synthesis. The industrial production system was used as a benchmark to compare the LCA performances of the bio-based systems (cases ii-iv). A combination of appropriate life cycle impact assessment methods was employed to analyse environmental costs and benefits of the systems comprehensively. The LCA results revealed that the state-of-the-art MNP biosynthesis system, which utilises analytical grade ferric chloride and sodium hydroxide as raw materials, generated environmental costs rather than benefits compared to the industrial MNP production system. Nevertheless, decreases in environmental impacts by six-fold were achieved by reducing sodium hydroxide input from 11.28 to 1.55 in a mass ratio to MNPs and replacing ferric chloride with ferric sulphate (3.02 and 2.59, respectively, in a mass ratio to MNPs) in the optimal biosynthesis system. Thus, the potential adverse environmental impacts of MNP production via the biosynthesis system can be reduced by minimising sodium hydroxide and substituting ferric sulphate for ferric chloride. Moreover, considerable environmental benefits were exhibited in case (iv), where Fe(III) ions were sourced from metal-containing wastewaters and reduced to MNPs by electrons harvested from organic substrates. It was revealed that 14.4 kJ and 3.9 kJ of primary fossil resource

  19. Intracavitary afterloading boost in anal canal carcinoma. Results, function and quality of life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vordermark, D.; Flentje, M.; Koelbl, O. [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Strahlentherapie; Sailer, M. [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Klinik fuer Chirurgie

    2001-05-01

    Background: First clinical data on a new intracavitary afterloading boost method for anal canal carcinoma is reported. Patients and Methods: 20 consecutive patients (T1 5%, T2 70%, T3 20%, T4 5%; N0 75%, N1 10%, N2 15%; all M0) treated with external beam pelvic radiotherapy (median dose 56 Gy, range 46-64 Gy), simultaneous 5-FU and mitomycin (in 75%) and an intracavitary afterloading boost (one or two fractions of 5 Gy at 5 mm depth) were analyzed after a mean {+-}SD follow-up for living patients of 4.4{+-}2.1 years. Quality of life (QoL) and anorectal manometry parameters were assessed in ten colostomy-free survivors. Results: Overall, recurrence-free and colostomy-free survival at 5 years were 84%, 79% and 69%, respectively. No death was tumorrelated. The only local failure was successfully salvaged by local excision. All three colostomies were performed for toxicity. Resting pressure and maximum squeeze pressure of the anal sphincter were reduced by 51% and 71%, as compared with control subjects, but quality of life was similar compared to healthy volunteers. Conclusion: the described regimen is highly effective but associated with increased toxicity. (orig.) [German] Hintergrund: Erste klinische Ergebnisse einer neuen Methode zur intrakavitaeren Afterloading-Boost-Bestrahlung des Analkanalkarzinoms werden vorgestellt. Patienten und Methoden: 20 in Folge behandelte Patienten (T1 5%, T2 70%, T3 20%, T4 5%, N0 75%, N1 10%, N2 15 %; alle M0) erhielten eine perkutane Bestrahlung (mediane Dosis 56 Gy, 46-64 Gy), simultan 5-FU und Mitomycin (75%) und einen intrakavitaeren Afterloading-Boost (eine oder zwei Fraktionen mit je 5 Gy in 5 mm Tiefe). Der mittlere Nachbeobachtungszeitraum lebender Patienten betrug 4,4{+-}2,1 Jahre. Zehn kolostomiefrei Ueberlebende wurden bezueglich Lebensqualitaet und anorektaler Manometriewerte untersucht. Ergebnisse: Gesamtueberleben, rezidivfreies und kolostomiefreies Ueberleben nach 5 Jahren betrugen 84%, 79% und 69%. Kein Todesfall war

  20. Effect of Tai Chi on physical function, fall rates and quality of life among older stroke survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor-Piliae, Ruth E; Hoke, Tiffany M; Hepworth, Joseph T; Latt, L Daniel; Najafi, Bijan; Coull, Bruce M

    2014-05-01

    To examine the effect of a 12-week Tai Chi (TC) intervention on physical function and quality of life. Single-blind, randomized controlled trial. General community. Community-dwelling survivors of stroke (N=145; 47% women; mean age, 70y; time poststroke: 3y; ischemic stroke: 66%; hemiparesis: 73%) who were aged ≥50 years and were ≥3 months poststroke. Yang style 24-posture short-form TC (n=53), strength and range of movement exercises (SS) (n=44), or usual care (UC) (n=48) for 12 weeks. The TC and SS groups attended a 1-hour class 3 times per week, whereas the UC group had weekly phone calls. Physical function: Short Physical Performance Battery, fall rates, and 2-minute step test; quality of life: Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey, Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. During the intervention, TC participants had two thirds fewer falls (5 falls) than the SS (14 falls) and UC (15 falls) groups (χ(2)=5.6, P=.06). There was a significant group by time interaction for the 2-minute step test (F2,142=4.69, Pfall rates than SS or UC interventions. Future studies examining the effectiveness of TC as a fall prevention strategy for community-dwelling survivors of stroke are recommended. Copyright © 2014 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Reversal of Dabigatran Using Idarucizumab in a Septic Patient with Impaired Kidney Function in Real-Life Practice

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    Thomas C. Sauter

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Immediate reversal of anticoagulation is essential when facing severe bleeding or emergency surgery. Although idarucizumab is approved for the reversal of dabigatran in many countries, clinical experiences are lacking, particularly in special patient-populations such as sepsis and impaired renal function. Case Presentation. We present the case of a 67-year-old male septic patient with a multilocular facial abscess and chronic kidney disease (GFR 36.5 mL/min. Thrombin time (TT and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT 15 hours after the last intake of 150 mg dabigatran were both prolonged (>120 sec, resp., 61 sec, as well as unbound dabigatran concentration (119.05 ng/mL. Before immediate emergency surgery dabigatran was antagonised using idarucizumab 2 × 2.5 g. Dabigatran concentration was not detectable 10 min after idarucizumab administration (<30 ng/mL. TT and aPTT time were normalised (16.2 sec, resp., 30.2 sec. Sepsis was controlled after surgery and kidney function remained stable. In the absence of postoperative bleeding, dabigatran was restarted 36 hours after admission. Conclusion. Idarucizumab successfully reversed the effect of dabigatran in real-life practice in a patient with sepsis and renal impairment and allowed emergency surgery with normal haemostasis. Efficacy and safety in real-life practice will nevertheless require prospective registries monitoring.

  2. AMELIORATION OF QUALITY OF LIFE AND LUNG FUNCTION OF CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE BY PRANIC HEALING AS ADJUVANT THERAPY

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    Padukudru Anand Mahesh

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Aims To study the effects of Pranic Healing (PH, as a complementary therapy to improve lung function, physiological condition and quality of life of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD patients. Methods Randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, pilot study. 21 males with a mean age of 61.6 years and COPD stage II were randomly allocated to PH and control groups. The PH group received PH sessions thrice weekly during the study. The control group received Sham PH. Data was collected during baseline and four scheduled visits of the participants during six months. The primary outcome of the study was to access the reduction in COPD symptoms and to increase participation in physical and social activities by evaluating Spirometry, St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ, 6 Minute Walk Test (6MWT and Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD. Results Significant improvement for PH group in Forced Expiratory Volume in the first second (p=0.02, SGRQ domains of Activity (p=0.006, Impact (p=0.002, Total (p=0.000, and non-significant change in Symptom domain (p=0.44. PH group showed a positive tendency in 6 MWT and HRSD scores with insignificant difference between the groups. No serious adverse events occurred during the study. Conclusion PH as an adjunct to conventional treatment can improve lung function and quality of life of COPD subjects.

  3. The Vicious Circle of Illiteracy, Over Population and Poverty--Functional Literacy and Family Life Planning Education Approach to Tackle It

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khajapeer, M.

    1976-01-01

    The interrelated nature of the problems of illiteracy, overpopulation, and poverty in developing countries is explored and an integrated approach to solving these problems in India, the Functional Literacy and Family Life Planning Education program, is described. (MS)

  4. Analysis of quality of life among asthmatic individuals with obesity and its relationship with pulmonary function: cross-sectional study

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    Letícia Baltieri

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: The combined effect of obesity and asthma may lead to significant impairment of quality of life (QOL. The aim here was to evaluate the prevalence of asthma among obese individuals, characterize the severity of impairment of quality of life and measure its relationship with pulmonary function. DESIGN AND SETTING: Observational cross-sectional study in public university hospital. METHODS: Morbidly obese individuals (body mass index > 40 kg/m2 seen in a bariatric surgery outpatient clinic and diagnosed with asthma, were included. Anthropometric data were collected, the Standardized Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (AQLQ(S was applied and spirometry was performed. The subjects were divided into two groups based on the median of the score in the questionnaire (worse < 4 and better > 4 and were compared regarding anthropometric data and pulmonary function. RESULTS: Among the 4791 individuals evaluated, 219 were asthmatic; the prevalence of asthma was 4.57%. Of these, 91 individuals were called to start multidisciplinary follow-up during the study period, of whom 82 answered the questionnaire. The median score in the AQLQ(S was 3.96 points and, thus, the individuals were classified as having moderate impairment of their overall QOL. When divided according to better or worse QOL, there was a statistically difference in forced expiratory flow (FEF 25-75%, with higher values in the better QOL group. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of asthma was 4.57% and QOL was impaired among the asthmatic obese individuals. The worst QOL domain related to environmental stimuli and the best QOL domain to limitations of the activities. Worse QOL was correlated with poorer values for FEF 25-75%.

  5. A study of psychological symptoms, family function, marital and life satisfactions of polygamous and monogamous women: the Palestinian case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Krenawi, Alean

    2012-01-01

    Polygamy is defined as a marriage in which a spouse of either gender has more than one mate at the same time. Polygamy is considered a valid form of marriage in many countries and communities around the globe. The purpose of this study is to examine the psychological symptoms, family function, marital satisfaction, life satisfaction and the degree of agreement with the practice of polygamy among 'senior wives' - the first wife in the polygamous marriage - and women in monogamous marriages in the West Bank, Palestine. A convenience sample of 309 women, 187 from polygamous and 122 from monogamous families, participated in this study. All women from polygamous families were senior wives. The following instruments were deployed: the McMaster Family Assessment Device (FAD), the ENRICH marital satisfaction questionnaire, the SCL-90 mental health symptoms checklist, the Rosenberg self-esteem (SE) scale, the Diener et al. (1985), a life satisfaction scale, and a basic socio-demographic scale, including the degree of agreement of the practice of polygamy. The findings revealed significant differences between senior wives in polygamous marriages and wives in monogamous marriages with regard to family functioning, marital satisfaction, self-esteem and life satisfaction. Likewise, many of the mental health symptoms were different. Particularly noteworthy were somatization, depression, hostility psychotism and the General Severity Index (a global index of distress). More women in polygamous marriages agreed with the practice of polygamy than their monogamous counterparts. Practitioners and policy makers need to be aware of the consequences of polygamy on first wives and on society as whole.

  6. Do supervised weekly exercise programs maintain functional exercise capacity and quality of life, twelve months after pulmonary rehabilitation in COPD?

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    Alison Jennifer A

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pulmonary rehabilitation programs have been shown to increase functional exercise capacity and quality of life in COPD patients. However, following the completion of pulmonary rehabilitation the benefits begin to decline unless the program is of longer duration or ongoing maintenance exercise is followed. Therefore, the aim of this study is to determine if supervised, weekly, hospital-based exercise compared to home exercise will maintain the benefits gained from an eight-week pulmonary rehabilitation program in COPD subjects to twelve months. Methods Following completion of an eight-week pulmonary rehabilitation program, COPD subjects will be recruited and randomised (using concealed allocation in numbered envelopes into either the maintenance exercise group (supervised, weekly, hospital-based exercise or the control group (unsupervised home exercise and followed for twelve months. Measurements will be taken at baseline (post an eight-week pulmonary rehabilitation program, three, six and twelve months. The exercise measurements will include two six-minute walk tests, two incremental shuttle walk tests, and two endurance shuttle walk tests. Oxygen saturation, heart rate and dyspnoea will be monitored during all these tests. Quality of life will be measured using the St George's Respiratory Questionnaire and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Participants will be excluded if they require supplemental oxygen or have neurological or musculoskeletal co-morbidities that will prevent them from exercising independently. Discussion Pulmonary rehabilitation plays an important part in the management of COPD and the results from this study will help determine if supervised, weekly, hospital-based exercise can successfully maintain functional exercise capacity and quality of life following an eight-week pulmonary rehabilitation program in COPD subjects in Australia.

  7. Bowel function and quality of life after superior mesenteric nerve plexus transection in right colectomy with D3 extended mesenterectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorsen, Y; Stimec, B; Andersen, S N; Lindstrom, J C; Pfeffer, F; Oresland, T; Ignjatovic, D

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to ascertain the impact of injury to the superior mesenteric nerve plexus caused by right colectomy with D3 extended mesenterectomy as performed in the prospective multicenter trial: "Safe Radical D3 Right Hemicolectomy for Cancer through Preoperative Biphasic Multi-detector Computed Tomography" in which all soft tissue surrounding the superior mesenteric vessels from the level of the middle colic artery to that of the ileocolic artery was removed. Bowel function and gastrointestinal quality of life in two consecutive cohorts that underwent right colectomy with and without D3 extended mesenterectomy were compared. Main outcome measures were the Diarrhea Assessment Scale (DAS) and Gastrointestinal Quality of Life Index (GIQLI). The data were collected prospectively through telephone interviews. Forty-nine patients per group, comparable for age, sex, length of bowel resected but with significantly shorter follow-up time in the experimental group, were included. There was no difference in total DAS scores, subscores or additional questions except for higher bowel frequency scores in the D3 group (p = 0.02). Comparison of total GIQLI scores and subscales showed no difference between groups. Regression analysis with correction for confounding factors showed 0.48 lower bowel frequency scores in the D2 group (p = 0.022). Within the D3 group presence of jejunal arteries cranial to the D3 dissection area showed 1.78 lower DAS scores and 0.7 lower bowel frequency scores. Small bowel denervation after right colectomy with D3 extended mesenterectomy leads to increased bowel frequency but does not impact gastrointestinal quality of life. Individual anatomical variants can affect postoperative bowel function differently despite standardized surgery.

  8. Effects of music learning and piano practice on cognitive function, mood and quality of life in older adults

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    Sofia eSeinfeld

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Reading music and playing a musical instrument is a complex activity that comprises motor and multisensory (auditory, visual, and somatosensory integration in a unique way. Music has also a well-known impact on the emotional state, while it can be a motivating activity. For those reasons, musical training has become a useful framework to study brain plasticity. Our aim was to study the specific effects of musical training versus the effects of other leisure activities in elderly people. With that purpose we evaluated the impact of piano training on cognitive function, mood and quality of life in older adults. A group of participants that received piano lessons and did daily training for four-month (n=13 was compared to an age-matched control group (n=16 that participated in other types of leisure activities (physical exercise, computer lessons, painting lessons, among other. An exhaustive assessment that included neuropsychological tests as well as mood and quality of life questionnaires was carried out before starting the piano program and immediately after finishing (4 months later in the two groups. We found a significant improvement on the piano training group on the Stroop test that measures executive function, inhibitory control and divided attention. Furthermore, a trend indicating an enhancement of visual scanning and motor ability was also found (Trial Making Test part A. Finally, in our study piano lessons decreased depression, induced positive mood states, and improved the psychological and physical quality of life of the elderly. Our results suggest that playing piano and learning to read music can be a useful intervention in older adults to promote cognitive reserve and improve subjective well-being.

  9. Collaborative care model improves self-care ability, quality of life and cardiac function of patients with chronic heart failure

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    C.Y. Hua

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Chronic heart failure (CHF is a common chronic disease that requires much care. This study aimed to explore the effects of collaborative care model (CCM on patients with CHF. A total of 114 CHF patients were enrolled in this study, and were randomly and equally divided into two groups: control and experimental. Patients in the two groups received either usual care or CCM for 3 continuous months. The impacts of CCM on the self-care ability and quality of life were assessed using self-care of heart failure index and short form health survey 12, respectively. Further, cardiac function was assessed by measuring left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF and the level of N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP, and by the 6-min walking test. Clinical and demographic characteristics of patients in the control and CCM groups were statistically equivalent. Compared with usual care, CCM significantly enhanced self-care abilities of patients with CHF, including self-care maintenance, self-care management and self-care confidence (all P<0.05. The physical and mental quality of life was also significantly improved by CCM (P<0.01 or P<0.05. Compared with usual care, CCM significantly increased the LVEF (P<0.01, decreased the NT-proBNP level (P<0.01, and enhanced exercise capacity (P<0.001. In conclusion, CCM improved the self-care, quality of life and cardiac function of patients with CHF compared with usual care.

  10. Advances in therapeutic Fc engineering - modulation of IgG associated effector functions and serum half-life

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    Abhishek Saxena

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Today monoclonal immunoglobulin gamma (IgG antibodies have become a major option in cancer therapy especially for the patients with advanced or metastatic cancers. Efficacy of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs are achieved through both its antigen binding fragment (Fab and crystallizable fragment (Fc. Fab can specifically recognize tumor associated antigen (TAA and thus modulate TAA-linked downstream signaling pathways that may lead to inhibition of tumor growth, induction of tumor apoptosis and differentiation. The Fc region can further improve mAbs’ efficacy by mediating effector functions such as antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC, complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC and antibody dependent cell-mediated phagocytosis (ADCP. Moreover, Fc is the region interacting with the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn in a pH-dependent manner that can slow down IgG’s degradation and extend its serum half-life. Loss of the antibody Fc region dramatically shortens its serum half-life and weakens its anti-cancer effects. Given the essential roles that the Fc region plays in the modulation of the efficacy of mAb in cancer treatment, Fc engineering has been extensively studied in the past years. This review focuses on the recent advances in therapeutic Fc engineering that modulates its related effector functions and serum half-life. We also discuss the progress made in aglycosylated mAb development that may substantially reduce cost of manufacture but maintain similar efficacies as conventional glycosylated mAb. Finally, we highlight several Fc engineering based mAbs under clinical trials.

  11. Functional chloroplasts in metazoan cells - a unique evolutionary strategy in animal life

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    Krug Patrick J

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among metazoans, retention of functional diet-derived chloroplasts (kleptoplasty is known only from the sea slug taxon Sacoglossa (Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia. Intracellular maintenance of plastids in the slug's digestive epithelium has long attracted interest given its implications for understanding the evolution of endosymbiosis. However, photosynthetic ability varies widely among sacoglossans; some species have no plastid retention while others survive for months solely on photosynthesis. We present a molecular phylogenetic hypothesis for the Sacoglossa and a survey of kleptoplasty from representatives of all major clades. We sought to quantify variation in photosynthetic ability among lineages, identify phylogenetic origins of plastid retention, and assess whether kleptoplasty was a key character in the radiation of the Sacoglossa. Results Three levels of photosynthetic activity were detected: (1 no functional retention; (2 short-term retention lasting about one week; and (3 long-term retention for over a month. Phylogenetic analysis of one nuclear and two mitochondrial loci revealed reciprocal monophyly of the shelled Oxynoacea and shell-less Plakobranchacea, the latter comprising a monophyletic Plakobranchoidea and paraphyletic Limapontioidea. Only species in the Plakobranchoidea expressed short- or long-term kleptoplasty, most belonging to a speciose clade of slugs bearing parapodia (lateral flaps covering the dorsum. Bayesian ancestral character state reconstructions indicated that functional short-term retention arose once in the last common ancestor of Plakobranchoidea, and independently evolved into long-term retention in four derived species. Conclusion We propose a sequential progression from short- to long-term kleptoplasty, with different adaptations involved in each step. Short-term kleptoplasty likely arose as a deficiency in plastid digestion, yielding additional energy via the release of fixed carbon

  12. Association between spasticity and the level of motor function with quality of life in community dwelling Iranian young adults with spastic cerebral palsy

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    Nasrin Salehi Dehno

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available  Abstract Background: Consequences of cerebral palsy in adulthood can affect physical, psychological capabilities and quality of life. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between quality of life with spasticity and level of motor function in Iranian young adults with spastic cerebral palsy who were community dweller. Methods: In an analytical cross sectional study, 77 participants with spastic cerebral palsy (44 women، 33 men with age range of 20 to 40 years; (mean age 26.19±5 yr took part in this study. They were enrolled from three Raad Rehabilitation Goodwill complexes in Tehran and Karaj cities. All subjects were recruited through convenient sampling. Severity of Spasticity for knee flexors was measured with Modified Tardieu Scale. In addition, the level of motor function, and quality of life were assessed respectively through Gross Motor Function Classification System and World Health Organization Quality of life questionnaire (WHOQOL- BREF. To analyze data, Pearson and spearman correlation coefficient was used. Results: No correlation found between quality of life with knee flexor muscles spasticity and level of motor function (p> 0.05. Conclusion: Quality of life as a multi dimensional concept has been impacted by many factors such as physical status, environmental issues and culture. Possibly, severity of spasticity and level of function have a less pronounced effect on quality of life in community dwelling adults with cerebral palsy. 

  13. A Study on the Functional Elements of Configuration Management throughout the Life Cycle of Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeom, C. S.; Cho, Y. S.

    2013-01-01

    Configuration Management (CM) is a technical and management process for maintaining consistency and traceability of any performance, functional and physical attributes of SSCs (Structures, Systems, or Components) with its requirements, design, and operational information. SSCs are the elements which make up a 'facility.' A structure is an element that provides support or enclosure. A system is a collection of components assembled to perform a specific facility function(s). A component is an active or passive item of equipment such as a pump, valve, relay, or an element of a large array such as pipe segments, elbows or reducers. For applying CM to nuclear industry, it is necessary to investigate and define the functional elements comprising CM. The elements can be used in planning and executing CM. Appropriate application of CM elements enables a user to plan and implement a CM program for SSCs of NPP. Although each element is separated, its implementation should not be performed in isolation because the CM elements should be balanced, consistent, and tracked. The degree of CM elements' application varies over the life cycle of NPP. The degree of rigor and techniques used in implementing CM is commensurate with type of NPP and its application environment as defined by the CM program requirements. For the consideration, it is necessary to make a CM STANDARD, and HANDBOOK or GUIDELINE for enabling more effective planning and implementing CM in nuclear industry

  14. The Functional Role of Resignation Orientation on Goal Engagement, Self-Esteem, Life Satisfaction, and Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Kenichi; Ishimura, Ikuo; Kodama, Masahiro

    2014-11-06

    Several studies in Europe and North America have highlighted the importance of resignation or giving up. Research has shown that resignation is as important as goal attainment. Hence, this study examines, using path analysis, the effect of resignation orientation on goal disengagement and reengagement. Furthermore, this study attempts to clarify the implication of resignation orientation for elements of mental well-being. Questionnaires were completed by 261 Japanese college students. Results showed that proactive resignation orientation promotes reestablishment of alternative goals while negative resignation orientation encourages disengagement of the unattainable goals. The findings help explain the functional role of resignation orientation and can inform the development of treatment for resignation-related depression.

  15. Quality of life, anorectal and sexual functions after preoperative radiotherapy for rectal cancer: Report of a randomised trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietrzak, Lucyna; Bujko, Krzysztof; Nowacki, Marek P.; Kepka, Lucyna; Oledzki, Janusz; Rutkowski, Andrzej; Szmeja, Jacek; Kladny, Jozef; Dymecki, Dariusz; W