WorldWideScience

Sample records for gene-based technologies directed

  1. Applications of gene-based technologies for improving animal production and health in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makkar, H.P.S.; Viljoen, G.J.

    2005-01-01

    This book provides a compilation of peer-reviewed scientific contributions from authoritative researchers attending an international symposium convened by the Animal Production and Health Sub-programme of the Animal Production and Health (APH), Joint FAO/IAEA Programme in cooperation with the Animal Production and Health Division of the FAO. These Proceedings contain invaluable information on the role and future potential of gene-based technologies for improving animal production and health, possible applications and constraints in the use of this technology in developing countries and their specific research needs

  2. A potential disruptive technology in vaccine development: gene-based vaccines and their application to infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaslow, David C

    2004-10-01

    Vaccine development requires an amalgamation of disparate disciplines and has unique economic and regulatory drivers. Non-viral gene-based delivery systems, such as formulated plasmid DNA, are new and potentially disruptive technologies capable of providing 'cheaper, simpler, and more convenient-to-use' vaccines. Typically and somewhat ironically, disruptive technologies have poorer product performance, at least in the near-term, compared with the existing conventional technologies. Because successful product development requires that the product's performance must meet or exceed the efficacy threshold for a desired application, the appropriate selection of the initial product applications for a disruptive technology is critical for its successful evolution. In this regard, the near-term successes of gene-based vaccines will likely be for protection against bacterial toxins and acute viral and bacterial infections. Recent breakthroughs, however, herald increasing rather than languishing performance improvements in the efficacy of gene-based vaccines. Whether gene-based vaccines ultimately succeed in eliciting protective immunity in humans to persistent intracellular pathogens, such as HIV, malaria and tuberculosis, for which the conventional vaccine technologies have failed, remains to be determined. A success against any one of the persistent intracellular pathogens would be sufficient proof that gene-based vaccines represent a disruptive technology against which future vaccine technologies will be measured.

  3. Gene-based technologies for livestock industries in the 3rd millennium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunningham, E.P.

    2005-01-01

    The first complete genome sequence of an organism was for yeast, in 1996. Since then, the much larger task of doing a complete human sequence has been completed. Those of major domestic animals are following rapidly. It will always be impossible to foresee the full potential of such an explosion in knowledge, but aspects of gene-based technologies are already beginning to have an impact in the livestock sector. The first and most obvious area of impact concerns feed supply, which constitutes 50-75 percent of total costs in many livestock systems. Production costs for maize and soybean are being reduced by genetic modification of the crop for herbicide and insect resistance. Maize has been modified to reduce phosphorous and nitrogen excretion in swine and poultry, and also to provide a more valuable amino acid balance. Genetic modification of the animal is also possible. Most dramatically, the insertion of a growth hormone in the DNA of fish accelerates growth. However, in this and all other cases, the genetic modification (GM) of animals has produced profound physiological disturbances. At the same time, the administration of GM-produced growth hormone to dairy cows is now routine in the United States of America and several other countries. This is not permitted in Europe, where the attitude to all GM technologies has been much more cautious. Conventional selection programmes continue to deliver steady genetic improvement in all animal populations. New molecular methods offer the prospect of enhancing genetic gains, particularly for traits that are difficult or expensive to measure, or which have low heritability. Gene technologies have much to contribute to the control of disease in animals. As pressure to reduce antibiotic and drug use increases, genetically modified vaccines with proven specificity and distinguishable from natural infections are already in use. DNA typing is helping with rapid and precise diagnosis. In addition, the interaction of some pathogens

  4. Intellectual property rights and gene-based technologies for animal production and health. Issues for developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutfield, G.

    2005-01-01

    Intellectual property rights (IPR) are legal and institutional devices to protect creations of the mind. With respect to gene-based innovation, the most significant IPR is patents. Appropriate patent regimes have the potential to foster innovation in animal biotechnology and the transfer of gene-based technologies. Inappropriate patent systems may be counter-productive. Indeed, many critics are doubtful that the current international patent standards, based as they are on a combination of the United States of America' and European regimes, can help countries that lack the capacity to do much life science and biotechnology research to become more innovative o r contribute to the acquisition, absorption and, where desirable, the adaptation of new gene-based technologies from outside. Present legislation in Europe, North America and internationally is considered, together with the controversies and important policy questions for developing countries, and the choices facing countries seeking to enhance their scientific and technological capacities in these areas. (author)

  5. Geothermal Technologies Program: Direct Use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2004-08-01

    This general publication describes geothermal direct use systems, and how they have been effectively used throughout the country. It also describes the DOE program R&D efforts in this area, and summarizes several projects using direct use technology.

  6. Objectives, capabilities and dangers in the role of international organizations and funding agencies in promoting gene-based technologies for livestock in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodges, J.

    2005-01-01

    Gene-based technologies offer the world unprecedented opportunities for improving quality of life, or for reducing it in irreversible ways. The basic question addressed in this paper is the position and response of international bodies and donors on whether or not to provide gene-based technologies to developing countries. It will not be easy to attain a responsible and coherent answer to this challenging question. Gaining an objective understanding of the essential issues is hard when controversy rages across the supposedly neutral scientific facts. Nevertheless, the outcome of the discussion is of prime importance at a global level. This paper seeks to bring light into this arena. After the Introduction, three principle concerns are examined which should be at the top of the agenda of these international institutions. Following this, short reviews of the critical issues are presented covering: the scientific characteristics and uncertainties associated with gene-based technologies; the nature of target areas in which they may be applied; and the considerable disquiet in society generally. These short outlines highlight the possible benefits and dangers associated with the critical issues. It is concluded that the objectives, capabilities, opportunities and dangers cannot be evaluated at the scientific level alone; they must be evaluated as matters of high policy by all stakeholders before gene-based technologies are implemented on the ground. In view of these perspectives, at the end of the paper it is proposed that scientists should place a moratorium on the development of gene-based technologies for the development of transgenic animals. It is also proposed that, during the moratorium, the United Nations should carry out a global referendum on the desirability of gene-based technologies being applied to the food chain. Meanwhile it is recommended that international organizations and funding bodies should not promote these techniques. (author)

  7. FAO/IAEA international symposium on applications of gene-based technologies for improving animal production and health in developing countries. Book of extended synopses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    Genetic engineering is at the forefront of much biological research - basic, adaptive and applied or near market. Manipulation of genes to bring about the expression of a specific product, or to produce a characteristic or trait, offers exciting possibilities within both the plant and the animal kingdom. The opportunities, in terms of improving livestock productivity or reducing losses from disease, lie in a number of areas. In almost all areas of this research, isotopic markers are extensively used and are in most cases essential for achieving the levels of sensitivity required for genetic characterization and manipulation. Genetic engineering has the potential to solve many problems relating to animal productivity and health. At present the focus is on the problems that face livestock producers in the developed world. If the full benefit of this technology is to be realized globally, the problems confronting livestock farmers in developing countries will have to be considered. The characterization and application of methods in these regions has to be managed and exploited. It is hoped that this Symposium will stimulate the international exchange of information and ideas that contribute to greater accessibility and enhanced use of gene based technologies in animal agriculture in developing countries. OBJECTIVES: To create an interactive environment to discuss the role and future potential of gene based technologies for improving animal production and health; To identify constraints in the use of gene based technologies in developing countries and to determine how to use these technologies in a simple, practical way; To identify and prioritize specific research needs; To explore the possibility of international co-ordination in the area of gene based technologies in animal agriculture; To examine ethical, technological, policy and environmental issues and the role of nuclear techniques in the further development and application of gene based technologies with

  8. FAO/IAEA international symposium on applications of gene-based technologies for improving animal production and health in developing countries. Book of extended synopses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Genetic engineering is at the forefront of much biological research - basic, adaptive and applied or near market. Manipulation of genes to bring about the expression of a specific product, or to produce a characteristic or trait, offers exciting possibilities within both the plant and the animal kingdom. The opportunities, in terms of improving livestock productivity or reducing losses from disease, lie in a number of areas. In almost all areas of this research, isotopic markers are extensively used and are in most cases essential for achieving the levels of sensitivity required for genetic characterization and manipulation. Genetic engineering has the potential to solve many problems relating to animal productivity and health. At present the focus is on the problems that face livestock producers in the developed world. If the full benefit of this technology is to be realized globally, the problems confronting livestock farmers in developing countries will have to be considered. The characterization and application of methods in these regions has to be managed and exploited. It is hoped that this Symposium will stimulate the international exchange of information and ideas that contribute to greater accessibility and enhanced use of gene based technologies in animal agriculture in developing countries. OBJECTIVES: To create an interactive environment to discuss the role and future potential of gene based technologies for improving animal production and health; To identify constraints in the use of gene based technologies in developing countries and to determine how to use these technologies in a simple, practical way; To identify and prioritize specific research needs; To explore the possibility of international co-ordination in the area of gene based technologies in animal agriculture; To examine ethical, technological, policy and environmental issues and the role of nuclear techniques in the further development and application of gene based technologies with

  9. New directions for veterinary technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadderdon, Linda M; Lloyd, James W; Pazak, Helene E

    2014-01-01

    Veterinary technology has generally established itself well in companion-animal and mixed-animal veterinary medical practice, but the career's growth trajectory is uncertain. Michigan State University (MSU) convened a national conference, "Creating the Future of Veterinary Technology-A National Dialogue," in November 2011 to explore ways to elevate the veterinary technician/technologist's role in the veterinary medical profession and to identify new directions in which the career could expand. Veterinary technicians/technologists might advance their place in private practice by not only improving their clinical skills, but by also focusing on areas such as practice management, leadership training, business training, conflict resolution, information technology, and marketing/communications. Some new employment settings for veterinary technicians/technologists include more participation within laboratory animal medicine and research, the rural farm industry, regulatory medicine, and shelter medicine. Achieving these ends would call for new training options beyond the current 2-year and 4-year degree programs. Participants suggested specialty training programs, hybrid programs of various types, online programs, veterinary technician residency programs of 12-18 months, and more integration of veterinary technician/technology students and veterinary medicine students at colleges of veterinary medicine.

  10. Direct digital conversion detector technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandl, William J.; Fedors, Richard

    1995-06-01

    Future imaging sensors for the aerospace and commercial video markets will depend on low cost, high speed analog-to-digital (A/D) conversion to efficiently process optical detector signals. Current A/D methods place a heavy burden on system resources, increase noise, and limit the throughput. This paper describes a unique method for incorporating A/D conversion right on the focal plane array. This concept is based on Sigma-Delta sampling, and makes optimum use of the active detector real estate. Combined with modern digital signal processors, such devices will significantly increase data rates off the focal plane. Early conversion to digital format will also decrease the signal susceptibility to noise, lowering the communications bit error rate. Computer modeling of this concept is described, along with results from several simulation runs. A potential application for direct digital conversion is also reviewed. Future uses for this technology could range from scientific instruments to remote sensors, telecommunications gear, medical diagnostic tools, and consumer products.

  11. MBR Technology: future research directions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, H.; Temmink, B.G.; Remy, M.J.J.; Geilvoet, S.

    2005-01-01

    Cutting down the operational costs of MBR technology will be the key driver for research. This article outlines some research areas and specific topics that potentially will contribute to lower costs. Special attention to these topics should be given the coming years. Long term research should focus

  12. Challenges and opportunities for controlling and preventing animal diseases in developing countries through gene-based technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowther, J.R.; Jeggo, M.H.

    2005-01-01

    Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) technology allows scientist to amplify, copy, identify, characterize and manipulate genes in a relatively simple way. Exploitation of the technology to devise new products and translate these to the commercial sector has been remarkable. Molecular technologies are not difficult to establish and use, and can appear to offer developing countries many opportunities. However, developing countries should look in a different way at the apparent advantages offered. Whilst molecular biological science appears to offer solutions to many problems, there are a number of drawbacks. This desire to adopt the latest technology often overrides any considerations of the use of more conventional technologies to address needs. The conventional, and often more practical, methods already provide many specific tools in the disease control area. Changing the technology can also deflect critical resources into the molecular field in terms of laboratory funding and training. This may cause redundancy of staff, limit further development in conventional techniques, and polarize scientists into the older (less glossy) and newer (molecular) camps. Animal disease diagnosis still primarily utilizes conventional techniques such as Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). This will not change drastically in developing countries, but developments will combine such methods with more discriminatory molecular techniques, and a balanced and parallel development is needed. An understanding of the use and possible advantages of the various technologies is required by both scientists and policy-makers in developing nations. Vaccines based on molecular science could have a real impact in developing countries, but 'vaccinology' needs to examine both the animal (immunology of target species) and the disease agent itself. This is a research-based science and, as such, is expensive, with no surety of success. Developing countries should exploit links with developed countries

  13. A Gene-Based Prognostic for Hepatocellular Carcinoma Patient Response to Adjuvant Transcatheter Arterial Chemoembolization | NCI Technology Transfer Center | TTC

    Science.gov (United States)

    The gold standard of care for hepatocellular carcinoma patients with intermediate- to locally advanced tumors is transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE), a procedure whereby the tumor is targeted both with local chemotherapy and restriction of local blood supply. NCI scientists have identified a 14-gene signature predictive of response to TACE, and NCI seeks licensees or co-development partners to develop the technology toward commercialization.

  14. 1997 Annual report. Technological Research Direction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares

    1998-01-01

    This document describes the results for one year of work. Here is presented the goals of the Technological Research Direction of the National Institute of Nuclear Research in Mexico, which is promoting and developing the production of high technologies in the nuclear sciences and related disciplines as well as to generate the technologies, products, quality insume for academic organizations, health, industrial and commercial that are required. (Author)

  15. Directed-energy process technology efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, P.

    1985-01-01

    A summary of directed-energy process technology for solar cells was presented. This technology is defined as directing energy or mass to specific areas on solar cells to produce a desired effect in contrast to exposing a cell to a thermal or mass flow environment. Some of these second generation processing techniques are: ion implantation; microwave-enhanced chemical vapor deposition; rapid thermal processing; and the use of lasers for cutting, assisting in metallization, assisting in deposition, and drive-in of liquid dopants. Advantages of directed energy techniques are: surface heating resulting in the bulk of the cell material being cooler and unchanged; better process control yields; better junction profiles, junction depths, and metal sintering; lower energy consumption during processing and smaller factory space requirements. These advantages should result in higher-efficiency cells at lower costs. The results of the numerous contracted efforts were presented as well as the application potentials of these new technologies.

  16. Nanoscale Science, Engineering and Technology Research Directions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowndes, D. H.; Alivisatos, A. P.; Alper, M.; Averback, R. S.; Jacob Barhen, J.; Eastman, J. A.; Imre, D.; Lowndes, D. H.; McNulty, I.; Michalske, T. A.; Ho, K-M; Nozik, A. J.; Russell, T. P.; Valentin, R. A.; Welch, D. O.; Barhen, J.; Agnew, S. R.; Bellon, P.; Blair, J.; Boatner, L. A.; Braiman, Y.; Budai, J. D.; Crabtree, G. W.; Feldman, L. C.; Flynn, C. P.; Geohegan, D. B.; George, E. P.; Greenbaum, E.; Grigoropoulos, C.; Haynes, T. E.; Heberlein, J.; Hichman, J.; Holland, O. W.; Honda, S.; Horton, J. A.; Hu, M. Z.-C.; Jesson, D. E.; Joy, D. C.; Krauss, A.; Kwok, W.-K.; Larson, B. C.; Larson, D. J.; Likharev, K.; Liu, C. T.; Majumdar, A.; Maziasz, P. J.; Meldrum, A.; Miller, J. C.; Modine, F. A.; Pennycook, S. J.; Pharr, G. M.; Phillpot, S.; Price, D. L.; Protopopescu, V.; Poker, D. B.; Pui, D.; Ramsey, J. M.; Rao, N.; Reichl, L.; Roberto, J.; Saboungi, M-L; Simpson, M.; Strieffer, S.; Thundat, T.; Wambsganss, M.; Wendleken, J.; White, C. W.; Wilemski, G.; Withrow, S. P.; Wolf, D.; Zhu, J. H.; Zuhr, R. A.; Zunger, A.; Lowe, S.

    1999-01-01

    This report describes important future research directions in nanoscale science, engineering and technology. It was prepared in connection with an anticipated national research initiative on nanotechnology for the twenty-first century. The research directions described are not expected to be inclusive but illustrate the wide range of research opportunities and challenges that could be undertaken through the national laboratories and their major national scientific user facilities with the support of universities and industry.

  17. Five disruptive technology directions for 5G

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boccardi, Federico; W. Heath Jr., Robert; Lozano, Angel

    2014-01-01

    New research directions will lead to fundamental changes in the design of future fifth generation (5G) cellular networks. This article describes five technologies that could lead to both architectural and component disruptive design changes: device-centric architectures, millimeter wave, massive ...

  18. HTGR technology development: status and direction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasten, P.R.

    1982-01-01

    During the last two years there has been an extensive and comprehensive effort expended primarily by General Atomic (GA) in generating a revised technology development plan. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has assisted in this effort, primarily through its interactions over the past years in working together with GA in technology development, but also through detailed review of the initial versions of the technology development plan as prepared by GA. The plan covers Fuel Technology, Materials Technology (including metals, graphite, and ceramics), Plant Technology (including methods, safety, structures, systems, heat exchangers, control and electrical, and mechanical), and Component Design Verification and Support areas

  19. Emerging Education Technologies and Research Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spector, J. Michael

    2013-01-01

    Two recent publications report the emerging technologies that are likely to have a significant impact on learning and instruction: (a) New Media Consortium's "2011 Horizon Report" (Johnson, Smith, Willis, Levine & Haywood, 2011), and (b) "A Roadmap for Education Technology" funded by the National Science Foundation in…

  20. Exploration Technology Program plans and directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldrich, A.; Rosen, R.; Craig, M.; Mankins, J. C.

    During the first part of the next century, the United States will return to the Moon to create a permanent lunar base, and, before the year 2019, we will send a human mission to Mars. In addition to these human operations, the Space Exploration Initiative will integrally incorporate robotic lunar and Mars missions. In achieving these efforts to expand human presence and activity in space and also exerted and frontiers of human knowledge, the SEI will require an array of new technologies. Mission architecture definition is still underway, but previous studies indicate that the SEI will require developments in areas such as advanced engines for space transportation, in-space assembly and construction to support permanent basing of exploration systems in space, and advanced surface operations capabilities including adequate levels of power and surface roving vehicles, and technologies to support safely long-duration human operations in space. Plans are now being put into place to implement an Exploration Technology Program (ETP) which will develop the major technologies needed for SEI. In close coordination with other ongoing U.S. government research and development efforts, the ETP will provide in the near term clear demonstrations of potential exploration technologies, research results to support SEI architecture decisions, and a foundation of mature technology that is ready to be applied in the first round of SEI missions. In addition to the technology needed for the first round of SEI missions, the ETP will also put in place a foundation of research for longer-term technology needs—ultimately leading the human missions to Mars. The Space Exploration Initiative and the Exploration Technology Program will challenge the best and the brightest minds across government, industry and academia, inspiring students of all ages and making possible future terrestial applications of SEI technologies that may create whole new industries for the future.

  1. Direct metal laser sintering: a digitised metal casting technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesh, K Vijay; Nandini, V Vidyashree

    2013-12-01

    Dental technology is undergoing advancements at a fast pace and technology is being imported from various other fields. One such imported technology is direct metal laser sintering technology for casting metal crowns. This article will discuss the process of laser sintering for making metal crowns and fixed partial dentures with a understanding of their pros and cons.

  2. Direct Metal Laser Sintering: A Digitised Metal Casting Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Venkatesh, K. Vijay; Nandini, V. Vidyashree

    2013-01-01

    Dental technology is undergoing advancements at a fast pace and technology is being imported from various other fields. One such imported technology is direct metal laser sintering technology for casting metal crowns. This article will discuss the process of laser sintering for making metal crowns and fixed partial dentures with a understanding of their pros and cons.

  3. Readout technologies for directional WIMP Dark Matter detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battat, J.B.R.; Irastorza, I.G.; Aleksandrov, A.; Asada, T.; Baracchini, E.; Billard, J.; Bosson, G.; Bourrion, O.; Bouvier, J.; Buonaura, A.; Burdge, K.; Cebrián, S.

    2016-01-01

    The measurement of the direction of WIMP-induced nuclear recoils is a compelling but technologically challenging strategy to provide an unambiguous signature of the detection of Galactic dark matter. Most directional detectors aim to reconstruct the dark-matter-induced nuclear recoil tracks, either in gas or solid targets. The main challenge with directional detection is the need for high spatial resolution over large volumes, which puts strong requirements on the readout technologies. In this paper we review the various detector readout technologies used by directional detectors. In particular, we summarize the challenges, advantages and drawbacks of each approach, and discuss future prospects for these technologies.

  4. Center for Direct Reading and Sensor Technologies

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Direct-reading methods and sensors are being used more frequently in many different settings ranging from personal monitoring of individual health to applications in...

  5. Technology Transfer, Foreign Direct Investment and Economic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study is to investigate the long-run equilibrium relationship between various international factors and economic growth, as well as to assess the short-term impact of inward FDI, trade and economic growth on international technology transfer to Nigeria. To achieve this, the study used a time series data from ...

  6. Technology Transfer, Foreign Direct Investment and International Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Leonard K. Cheng

    2000-01-01

    By developing a Ricardian trade model that features technology transfer via foreign direct investment (FDI), we show that technology transfer via multinational enterprises (MNEs) increases world output and trade in goods and services. When there are many goods a continuous reduction in the cost of technology transfer will cause increasingly more technologically advanced goods to go through the product cycle, i.e., goods initially produced in the advanced North are later produced in the backwa...

  7. Direct block scheduling technology: Analysis of Avidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Ribeiro Souza

    Full Text Available Abstract This study is focused on Direct Block Scheduling testing (Direct Multi-Period Scheduling methodology which schedules mine production considering the correct discount factor of each mining block, resulting in the final pit. Each block is analyzed individually in order to define the best target period. This methodology presents an improvement of the classical methodology derived from Lerchs-Grossmann's initial proposition improved by Whittle. This paper presents the differences between these methodologies, specially focused on the algorithms' avidity. Avidity is classically defined by the voracious search algorithms, whereupon some of the most famous greedy algorithms are Branch and Bound, Brutal Force and Randomized. Strategies based on heuristics can accentuate the voracity of the optimizer system. The applied algorithm use simulated annealing combined with Tabu Search. The most avid algorithm can select the most profitable blocks in early periods, leading to higher present value in the first periods of mine operation. The application of discount factors to blocks on the Lerchs-Grossmann's final pit has an accentuated effect with time, and this effect may make blocks scheduled for the end of the mine life unfeasible, representing a trend to a decrease in reported reserves.

  8. Directed Vapor Deposition: Low Vacuum Materials Processing Technology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Groves, J. F; Mattausch, G; Morgner, H; Hass, D. D; Wadley, H. N

    2000-01-01

    Directed vapor deposition (DVD) is a recently developed electron beam-based evaporation technology designed to enhance the creation of high performance thick and thin film coatings on small area surfaces...

  9. Technology-based suicide prevention: current applications and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luxton, David D; June, Jennifer D; Kinn, Julie T

    2011-01-01

    This review reports on current and emerging technologies for suicide prevention. Technology-based programs discussed include interactive educational and social networking Web sites, e-mail outreach, and programs that use mobile devices and texting. We describe innovative applications such as virtual worlds, gaming, and text analysis that are currently being developed and applied to suicide prevention and outreach programs. We also discuss the benefits and limitations of technology-based applications and discuss future directions for their use.

  10. Bridging the Gap: Self-Directed Staff Technology Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayla L. Quinney

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Undergraduates, as members of the Millennial Generation, are proficient in Web 2.0 technology and expect to apply these technologies to their coursework—including scholarly research. To remain relevant, academic libraries need to provide the technology that student patrons expect, and academic librarians need to learn and use these technologies themselves. Because leaders at the Harold B. Lee Library of Brigham Young University (HBLL perceived a gap in technology use between students and their staff and faculty, they developed and implemented the Technology Challenge, a self-directed technology training program that rewarded employees for exploring technology daily. The purpose of this paper is to examine the Technology Challenge through an analysis of results of surveys given to participants before and after the Technology Challenge was implemented. The program will also be evaluated in terms of the adult learning theories of andragogy and selfdirected learning. HBLL found that a self-directed approach fosters technology skills that librarians need to best serve students. In addition, it promotes lifelong learning habits to keep abreast of emerging technologies. This paper offers some insights and methods that could be applied in other libraries, the most valuable of which is the use of self-directed and andragogical training methods to help academic libraries better integrate modern technologies.

  11. 77 FR 46855 - Small Business Technology Transfer Program Policy Directive

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-06

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Chapter I RIN 3245-AF45 Small Business Technology Transfer Program Policy Directive AGENCY: Small Business Administration. ACTION: Final policy directive with request for comments. SUMMARY: The U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA) is amending its Small Business...

  12. PRODUCTION OF PROTOTYPE PARTS USING DIRECT METAL LASER SINTERING TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Sedlak

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Unconventional methods of modern materials preparation include additive technologies which involve the sintering of powders of different chemical composition, granularity, physical, chemical and other utility properties. The technology called Rapid Prototyping, which uses different technological principles of producing components, belongs to this type of material preparation. The Rapid Prototyping technology facilities use photopolymers, thermoplastics, specially treated paper or metal powders. The advantage is the direct production of metal parts from input data and the fact that there is no need for the production of special tools (moulds, press tools, etc.. Unused powder from sintering technologies is re-used for production 98% of the time, which means that the process is economical, as well as ecological.The present paper discusses the technology of Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS, which falls into the group of additive technologies of Rapid Prototyping (RP. The major objective is a detailed description of DMLS, pointing out the benefits it offers and its application in practice. The practical part describes the production and provides an economic comparison of several prototype parts that were designed for testing in the automotive industry.

  13. Commentary on ``Future directions: Building technologies and design tools``

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quadrel, R.W.

    1992-08-10

    This paper presents a number of interesting and thought-provoking scenarios about the future use of advanced technology in the design and operation of commercial buildings. I will express my reactions in the following series of short paragraphs. These thoughts will, I hope, raise some new questions and offer fruitful directions for further exploration.

  14. Does Foreign Direct Investment Transfer Technology Across Borders? A Reexamination

    OpenAIRE

    Jürgen Bitzer; Monika Kerekes

    2005-01-01

    Reexamining foreign direct investment (FDI) as a potential channel for knowledge diffusion -- based on industry data from seventeen OECD countries during the period 1973-2000 -- we find that FDI-receiving countries benefit strongly from FDI-related knowledge spillovers. We do not find evidence for positive FDI-related technology sourcing effects. Instead, our results suggest that outward FDI might have negative effects on the output of the FDI-sending country.

  15. State of technology of direct contact heat exchanging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vallario, R.W.; DeBellis, D.E.

    1984-05-01

    Specific objectives of this study were to assess the state of technology development and to identify and evaluate the constraints to wider use of direct contact heat exchanger (DCHE) technology in the U.S. The scope of this study is relatively broad; it includes many types of generic systems and end-use applications, both current and future. Domestic and foreign experience with DCHE technology are compared, although the primary focus is on domestic experience. Twenty-two distinct applications of DCHE technology were identified in this study and are examined in this report. The general format is to describe each system, explore its potential applications, discuss current and past research activities and identify major implementation barriers. Finally, as a result of discussions with principal users of DCHE systems and with other knowledgeable sources, generic and specific R and D needs to overcome specific implementation barriers have been identified. The following list of DCHE systems/concepts has been classified into four major end-uses; there is also a category for specialized (other) applications.

  16. Attending to others: how digital technologies direct young people's nightlife

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Truong

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available It is a growing phenomenon that young people use mobile information and communication technologies during their nightlife. This article offers an empirical examination of how young people's nightlife is shaped by engagement with the mobile phone application WhatsApp. Drawing on Sara Ahmed's phenomenological concept of orientation, I examine how WhatsApp extends young people's nightlife and how young people become orientated therein. On the one hand, I show that nightlife acquires new boundaries and fixities that encourage young people to direct their attention towards missing social relations and absent nightlife places. On the other hand, I find that young people create new perceptions of how to inhabit and spend leisure time and space. I argue that digital technologies reorientate young people, which I suggest offers novel means of addressing young people's contemporary nightlife practices, places, spaces, and social relations.

  17. Technological advances in site-directed spin labeling of proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbell, Wayne L; López, Carlos J; Altenbach, Christian; Yang, Zhongyu

    2013-10-01

    Molecular flexibility over a wide time range is of central importance to the function of many proteins, both soluble and membrane. Revealing the modes of flexibility, their amplitudes, and time scales under physiological conditions is the challenge for spectroscopic methods, one of which is site-directed spin labeling EPR (SDSL-EPR). Here we provide an overview of some recent technological advances in SDSL-EPR related to investigation of structure, structural heterogeneity, and dynamics of proteins. These include new classes of spin labels, advances in measurement of long range distances and distance distributions, methods for identifying backbone and conformational fluctuations, and new strategies for determining the kinetics of protein motion. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Drilling a better pair : new technologies in SAGD directional drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmer, C.; Richter, D. [Statoil Canada Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Person, J.; Tilley, J.; Bittar, M. [Halliburton Energy Services, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    The Leismer Demonstration Project (LDP) is the first of 8 proposed major steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) projects for Statoil's Kai Kos Dehseh (KKD) asset in the Athabasca oil sands deposit. The bitumen resources are expected to produce approximately 2.2 billion barrels of oil over approximately 35 years with a peak production of 220,000 bbl/day. To date, 23 well pairs have been drilled on 4 drilling pads. The precise placement of well pairs is among the most important factors in a successful SAGD drilling program. The producer well must be placed in relation to the reservoir boundaries. It must also be accurately twinned with the injector well. A strong focus on technological innovation is needed in order to deliver on these high expectations in unconsolidated formations, such as the McMurray oil sands. Lateral SAGD pairs are often drilled with conventional steerable mud motors and logging-while-drilling (LWD) resistivity measurements, but this combination imposes certain limitations in terms of wellbore quality and placement. Several industry firsts were successfully implemented at the Statoil LDP, including a combination of the newest and most cutting-edge directional, measurement, and LWD technology. The keystone of these industry firsts was the use of a soft formation modified, point-the-bit rotary steerable system (RSS), used on 20 horizontal wells. The RRS was combined with an ultra deep azimuthal resistivity sensor to provide precise geosteering along the bottom bed boundary in the producer wells, resulting in improved reservoir capture and reservoir characterization. This paper described the new drilling system and its impact on the progressive future of directional drilling in SAGD. 8 refs., 1 tab., 22 figs.

  19. NATIONAL TECHNOLOGICAL INITIATIVE AS THE STRATEGIC DIRECTION OF THE TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT OF RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Sibirskaya

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Russia, having lost a significant part of a high-tech industrial complex during the reforms (1993–2000, sharply reducing the state support of scientific research and development, has turned into a power dependent on the conjuncture in the hydrocarbon energy market and from foreign sup-plies of technologies, consumption goods, including those necessary for life support, thus being on the "technological needle". The main factor of development was the resource-producing complex. This situation had a negative impact on the pace of the country's development, on its defense capability and created real prerequisites for the loss of technological, economic, and, in the long run, political sovereignty and disintegration of the state. Nevertheless, the availability of natural resources along with human capi-tal and geographic location is a global competitive advantage of theRussian Federation, and the task is to use this advantage maximally as one of the first echelon countries in the emerging world order. One of the most important tasks was the search for such a direction of technological devel-opment that allows, on the one hand, to preserve Russia's position in the world market of traditional products; on the other – to strengthen positions in the markets of products with a higher degree of processing of Russian raw materials (oil and gas complex and agro-industrial complex; and finally – to master new "growth points" (services, new markets, talents, technologies in the world market of high-tech products and services. The set tasks assume several solutions. First, scientific and technological development should be based on the strategy of scientific and technological development of theRussian Federationand the national technological initiative, as it sets both resource constraints and priorities in the needs of the economy in new products and new technological solutions. Secondly,Russiashould take into account existing and emerging trends in the

  20. Advances and Research Directions in Data-Warehousing Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Mohania

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available Information is one of the most valuable assets of an organisation and when used properly can assist in intelligent decision making that can significantly improve the functioning of an organisation. Data Warehousing is a recent technology that allows information to be easily and efficiently accessed for decision-making activities by collecting data from many operational, legacy and possibly heterogeneous data sources. On-Line Analytical Processing (OLAP tools are well-suited for complex data analysis, such as multi-dimensional data analysis, and to assist in decision support activities while data mining tools take the process one step further and actively search the data for patterns and hidden knowledge in the data held in the warehouse. Many organisations are building, or are planning to develop, a data warehouse for their operational and decision support needs. In this paper, we present an overview of data warehousing, multi-dimensional databases, OLAP and data mining technology and discuss the directions of current research in the area. We also discuss recent developments in data warehouse modelling, view selection and maintenance, indexing schemes, parallel query processing and data mining issues. A number of technical issues for exploratory research are presented and possible solutions are also discussed.

  1. Manufacturing technologies for direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gluesen, Andreas; Mueller, Martin; Kimiaie, Nicola; Konradi, Irene; Mergel, Juergen; Stolten, Detlef [Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany). Inst. of Energy Research - IEF-3: Fuel Cells

    2010-07-01

    Fuel cell research is focussing on increasing power density and lifetime and reducing costs of the whole fuel cell system. In order to reach these aims, it is necessary to develop appropriately designed components outgoing from high quality materials, a suitable manufacturing process and a well balanced system. To make use of the advantages that can be obtained by developing production technology, we are mainly improving the coating and assembling techniques for polymer electrolyte fuel cells, especially Direct Methanol Fuel Cells (DMFCs). Coating is used for making fuel cell electrodes as well as highly conductive contacts. Assembling is used to join larger components like membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) and bipolar units consisting of flow fields and the separator plate, as well as entire stacks. On the one hand a reproducible manufacturing process is required to study fine differences in fuel cell performance affected by new materials or new designs. On the other hand a change in each parameter of the manufacturing process itself can change product properties and therefore affect fuel cell performance. As a result, gas diffusion electrodes (GDEs) are now produced automatically in square-meter batches, the hot-pressing of MEAs is a fully automated process and by pre-assembling the number of parts that have to be assembled in a stack was reduced by a factor of 10. These achievements make DMFC manufacturing more reproducible and less error-prone. All these and further developments of manufacturing technology are necessary to make DMFCs ready for the market. (orig.)

  2. Technology Spillover from Foreign Direct Investment in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özcan Karahan

    2016-12-01

    quarterly data for the period of 2002 and 2015 in Turkey. Thus we try to examine whether technological diffusion generated by FDI inflows to Turkey enhances the innovative capability of the country or not. Design/methodology/approach – The variables Foreign Direct Investment (FDI and Gross Domestic Product (GDP are sourced from Electronic Data Delivery System (EDDS in Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey. FDI series consist of values called "Net Incurrence of Liabilities" in Balance of Payments Analytical Presentation while GDP series gather from the expenditure based GDP data in EDDS. Both Johansen Cointegration Test and Granger Causality Test are applied to examine between Foreign Direct Investment flows and economic growth in Turkey. Findings – Results reveal that there is not any significant link among the FDI and economic growth during the studied time period in Turkey. It seems that FDI inflows to Turkey is not complementary to economic growth, which shows that positive spillover effect sourced from FDI inflows to Turkey does not exist. Research limitations/implications – Policymakers should recognize that technology spillover effects of FDI do not occur without greater absorptive capacity. Attracting FDI is only one part of the story and thus not yield the desired benefits itself. Positive effects of FDI depends on the overall incentive and capacity structure of the host country. Then the key policy implication here is that policymakers should give same weight of policies aimed at attracting FDI versus those that seek to improve local economic conditions. Originality/value – This study insight the spillover effects of FDI based on Turkish experience that benefits from FDI do not occur automatically and effortlessly in developing countries.

  3. Teachers and Technology: Present Practice and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCoito, Isha; Richardson, Tasha

    2018-01-01

    Technology cannot be effective in the classroom without teachers who are knowledgeable about both the technology itself and its implementation to meet educational goals. While technology use in the classroom is increasing, improving learning through its application should remain the goal. In this study, the authors explored 74 middle school…

  4. Science and technology of plasma activated direct wafer bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberds, Brian Edward

    This dissertation studied the kinetics of silicon direct wafer bonding with emphasis on low temperature bonding mechanisms. The project goals were to understand the topological requirements for initial bonding, develop a tensile test to measure the bond strength as a function of time and temperature and, using the kinetic information obtained, develop lower temperature methods of bonding. A reproducible surface metrology metric for bonding was best described by power spectral density derived from atomic force microscopy measurements. From the tensile strength kinetics study it was found that low annealing temperatures could be used to obtain strong bonds, but at the expense of longer annealing times. Three models were developed to describe the kinetics. A diffusion controlled model and a reaction rate controlled model were developed for the higher temperature regimes (T > 600sp°C), and an electric field assisted oxidation model was proposed for the low temperature range. An in situ oxygen plasma treatment was used to further enhance the field-controlled mechanism which resulted in dramatic increases in the low temperature bonding kinetics. Multiple internal transmission Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (MIT-FTIR) was used to monitor species evolution at the bonded interface and a capacitance-voltage (CV) study was undertaken to investigate charge distribution and surface states resulting from plasma activation. A short, less than a minute, plasma exposure prior to contacting the wafers was found to obtain very strong bonds for hydrophobic silicon wafers at very low temperatures (100sp°C). This novel bonding method may enable new technologies involving heterogeneous material systems or bonding partially fabricated devices to become realities.

  5. Youth, Technology and HIV: Recent Advances and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hightow-Weidman, Lisa B.; Muessig, Kathryn E.; Bauermeister, Jose; Zhang, Chen; LeGrand, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Technology, including mobile technologies and social media, offers powerful tools to reach, engage, and retain youth and young adults in HIV prevention and care interventions both in the United States and globally. In this report we focus on HIV, technology, and youth, presenting a synthesis of recently published (Jan 2014-May 2015) observational and experimental studies relevant for understanding and intervening on HIV risk, prevention and care. We present findings from a selection of the 66 relevant citations identified, highlighting studies that demonstrate a novel approach to technology interventions among youth in regard to content, delivery, target population or public health impact. We discuss current trends globally and in the US in how youth are using technology, as well as emergent research issues in this field – including the need for new theories for developing technology-based HIV interventions and new metrics of engagement, exposure, and evaluation. PMID:26385582

  6. A Framework for Developing Self-Directed Technology Use for Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chun

    2013-01-01

    Critical to maximizing the potential of technology for learning is enhancing language learners' self-directed use of technology for learning purposes. This study aimed to enhance our understanding of the determinants of self-directed technology use through the construction of a structural equation modelling (SEM) framework of factors and…

  7. Technology Directions for the 21st Century. Vol. 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crimi, Giles F.; Verheggen, Henry; Malinowski, John; Malinowski, Robert; Botta, Robert

    1996-01-01

    The Office of Space Communications (OSC) is tasked by NASA to conduct a planning process to meet NASA's science mission and other communications and data processing requirements. A set of technology trend studies was undertaken by Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) for OSC to identify quantitative data that can be used to predict performance of electronic equipment in the future to assist in the planning process. Only commercially available, off-the-shelf technology was included. For each technology area considered, the current state of the technology is discussed, future applications that could benefit from use of the technology are identified, and likely future developments of the technology are described. The impact of each technology area on NASA operations is presented together with a discussion of the feasibility and risk associated with its development. An approximate timeline is given for the next 15 to 25 years to indicate the anticipated evolution of capabilities within each of the technology areas considered. This volume contains four chapters: one each on technology trends for database systems, computer software, neural and fuzzy systems, and artificial intelligence. The principal study results are summarized at the beginning of each chapter.

  8. Mode of foreign entry, technology transfer, and foreign direct investment policy

    OpenAIRE

    Mattoo, Aaditya; Olarreaga, Marcelo; Saggi, Kamal

    2001-01-01

    Foreign direct investment can take place through the direct entry of foreign firms or the acquisition of existing domestic firms. Mattoo, Olarreaga, and Saggi examine the preferences of a foreign firm and the host country government with respect to these two modes of foreign direct investment in the presence of costly technology transfer. The tradeoff between technology transfer and market...

  9. The Potential of Directed Instruction to Teach Effectively Technology Usage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Currently, teacher educational systems tend to develop their teachers' knowledge to effectively integrate technology in teaching. Consequently, numerous studies have attempted to describe strategies, models and approaches to develop teachers' knowledge for teaching with technology. However, most teachers are still following their traditional…

  10. CRISPR technologies for bacterial systems: Current achievements and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kyeong Rok; Lee, Sang Yup

    2016-11-15

    Throughout the decades of its history, the advances in bacteria-based bio-industries have coincided with great leaps in strain engineering technologies. Recently unveiled clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated proteins (Cas) systems are now revolutionizing biotechnology as well as biology. Diverse technologies have been derived from CRISPR/Cas systems in bacteria, yet the applications unfortunately have not been actively employed in bacteria as extensively as in eukaryotic organisms. A recent trend of engineering less explored strains in industrial microbiology-metabolic engineering, synthetic biology, and other related disciplines-is demanding facile yet robust tools, and various CRISPR technologies have potential to cater to the demands. Here, we briefly review the science in CRISPR/Cas systems and the milestone inventions that enabled numerous CRISPR technologies. Next, we describe CRISPR/Cas-derived technologies for bacterial strain development, including genome editing and gene expression regulation applications. Then, other CRISPR technologies possessing great potential for industrial applications are described, including typing and tracking of bacterial strains, virome identification, vaccination of bacteria, and advanced antimicrobial approaches. For each application, we note our suggestions for additional improvements as well. In the same context, replication of CRISPR/Cas-based chromosome imaging technologies developed originally in eukaryotic systems is introduced with its potential impact on studying bacterial chromosomal dynamics. Also, the current patent status of CRISPR technologies is reviewed. Finally, we provide some insights to the future of CRISPR technologies for bacterial systems by proposing complementary techniques to be developed for the use of CRISPR technologies in even wider range of applications. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Students' Perceptions of Self-Directed Learning and Collaborative Learning with and without Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, K.; Tsai, P.-S.; Chai, C. S.; Koh, J. H. L.

    2014-01-01

    This study explored students' perceptions of self-directed learning (SDL) and collaborative learning (CL) with/without technology in an information and communications technology-supported classroom environment. The factors include SDL, CL, SDL supported by technology, and CL supported by technology. Based on the literature review, this study…

  12. Information Technology in the Home Barriers, Opportunities, and Research Directions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lewis, Rosalind

    2000-01-01

    ...; but what are the implications of increased Information Technology (IT) in the home? Can increased in-home IT create opportunities that will change the way we live and function within our homes and communities and facilitate greater societal benefits...

  13. CRISPR technologies for bacterial systems: Current achievements and future directions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Kyeong Rok; Lee, Sang Yup

    2016-01-01

    Throughout the decades of its history, the advances in bacteria-based bio-industries have coincided with great leaps in strain engineering technologies. Recently unveiled clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated proteins (Cas) systems are now revolution......Throughout the decades of its history, the advances in bacteria-based bio-industries have coincided with great leaps in strain engineering technologies. Recently unveiled clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated proteins (Cas) systems are now...... revolutionizing biotechnology as well as biology. Diverse technologies have been derived from CRISPR/Cas systems in bacteria, yet the applications unfortunately have not been actively employed in bacteria as extensively as in eukaryotic organisms. A recent trend of engineering less explored strains in industrial...... microbiology-metabolic engineering, synthetic biology, and other related disciplines-is demanding facile yet robust tools, and various CRISPR technologies have potential to cater to the demands. Here, we briefly review the science in CRISPR/Cas systems and the milestone inventions that enabled numerous CRISPR...

  14. Transitions in the wrong direction? Digital technologies and daily life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge; Christensen, Toke Haunstrup

    2013-01-01

    The environmental implications of information and communication technology (ICT) have been the subject of study since the early 1990s. Although previous research covers energy issues quite extensively, the treatment of the energy impacts of ICT integration in everyday life is still inadequate. Th...

  15. Producer firms, technology diffusion and spillovers to local suppliers : Examining the effects of Foreign Direct Investment and the technology gap

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jordaan, J.A.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we conduct a detailed examination of the effects of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) and the technology gap on local technology dissemination and spillovers. Using unique firm level data from surveys among FDI firms and domestic producer firms and a random sample of their suppliers in

  16. Future Directions for Building Services Technologies in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marsh, Rob

    2008-01-01

    strategies for the effective integration of building services, and by developing new industrialised solutions for building services. The paper is based on the current Danish situation, and is based on linking research on building services, user needs, building design and new industrial processes.  ......  The hypothesis of this paper is that industrial transformation in the Danish construction sector needs in the future to focus on integrating building services technologies into the buildings. This can be illustrated by analysing historical developments in building services usage, exploring design...

  17. Cascading Events, Technology and the Floods Directive: future challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pescaroli Gianluca

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cascading events can be referred to multidimensional disasters, where a primary trigger generates a nonlinear series of secondary emergencies that escalate in time, becoming eventually the priority to tackle. In this process, critical infrastructure can be handled as roots of vulnerabilities, because they accumulate both physical attributes and functional nodes. When compromised, they produce widespread breakdowns of society, but also orient emergency responses and long-term recovery. Although floods have been widely associated to the failure of vulnerable equipments or to the disruption of strategic sectors such as energy, communication and transportation, their integration with the emerging concept of cascading has been limited. This open topic presents many challenges for scholars, researchers and practitioners, in particular when the implementation of the EU Floods Directive is considered. The paper presents an overview of the Floods Directive and its relation with the cascading events, using case studies and examples from the existing literature to point out missing links and gaps in the legislation. Conclusions argue that the Directive considers only local geographical scales and limited temporal horizons, which can be result inadequate to limit the escalation of events.

  18. Technology Directions for the 21st Century. Volume 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crimi, Giles F.; Botta, Robert; Ditanna, Thomas; Verheggen, Henry; Stancati, Michael; Feingold, Harvey; Jacobs, Mark

    1996-01-01

    New technologies will unleash the huge capacity of fiber-optic cable to meet growing demands for bandwidth. Companies will continue to replace private networks with public network bandwidth-on-demand. Although asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) is the transmission technology favored by many, its penetration will be slower than anticipated. Hybrid networks - e.g., a mix of ATM, frame relay, and fast Ethernet - may predominate, both as interim and long-term solutions, based on factors such as availability, interoperability, and cost. Telecommunications equipment and services prices will decrease further due to increased supply and more competition. Explosive Internet growth will continue, requiring additional backbone transmission capacity and enhanced protocols, but it is not clear who will fund the upgrade. Within ten years, space-based constellations of satellites in Low Earth orbit (LEO) will serve mobile users employing small, low-power terminals. 'Little LEO's' will provide packet transmission services and geo-position determination. 'Big LEO's' will function as global cellular telephone networks, with some planning to offer video and interactive multimedia services. Geosynchronous satellites also are proposed for mobile voice grade links and high-bandwidth services. NASA may benefit from resulting cost reductions in components, space hardware, launch services, and telecommunications services.

  19. Direct Injection Compression Ignition Diesel Automotive Technology Education GATE Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Carl L

    2006-09-25

    The underlying goal of this prqject was to provide multi-disciplinary engineering training for graduate students in the area of internal combustion engines, specifically in direct injection compression ignition engines. The program was designed to educate highly qualified engineers and scientists that will seek to overcome teclmological barriers preventing the development and production of cost-effective high-efficiency vehicles for the U.S. market. Fu1iher, these highly qualified engineers and scientists will foster an educational process to train a future workforce of automotive engineering professionals who are knowledgeable about and have experience in developing and commercializing critical advanced automotive teclmologies. Eight objectives were defmed to accomplish this goal: 1. Develop an interdisciplinary internal co1nbustion engine curriculum emphasizing direct injected combustion ignited diesel engines. 2. Encourage and promote interdisciplinary interaction of the faculty. 3. Offer a Ph.D. degree in internal combustion engines based upon an interdisciplinary cuniculum. 4. Promote strong interaction with indusuy, develop a sense of responsibility with industry and pursue a self sustaining program. 5. Establish collaborative arrangements and network universities active in internal combustion engine study. 6. Further Enhance a First Class educational facility. 7. Establish 'off-campus' M.S. and Ph.D. engine programs of study at various indusuial sites. 8. Extend and Enhance the Graduate Experience.

  20. Diamond bits for directional drilling of wells and technology of using them

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romanov, V P; Steblev, B Ye; Sumaneyev, N N

    1979-01-01

    Characteristics are presented for a diamond bit for directional drilling ADN-08. Technology of using it is described, as well as cutter bits for directional drilling. Based on specially developed technique, the economic effect of using the diamond bits is calculated. This indicates that the use of the diamond bits in rocks of the VIII category significantly improves the quality of directional drilling.

  1. Direct hydrocarbon exploration and gas reservoir development technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwak, Young Hoon; Oh, Jae Ho; Jeong, Tae Jin [Korea Inst. of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); and others

    1995-12-01

    In order to enhance the capability of petroleum exploration and development techniques, three year project (1994 - 1997) was initiated on the research of direct hydrocarbon exploration and gas reservoir development. This project consists of four sub-projects. (1) Oil(Gas) - source rock correlation technique: The overview of bio-marker parameters which are applicable to hydrocarbon exploration has been illustrated. Experimental analysis of saturated hydrocarbon and bio-markers of the Pohang E and F core samples has been carried out. (2) Study on surface geochemistry and microbiology for hydrocarbon exploration: the test results of the experimental device for extraction of dissolved gases from water show that the device can be utilized for the gas geochemistry of water. (3) Development of gas and gas condensate reservoirs: There are two types of reservoir characterization. For the reservoir formation characterization, calculation of conditional simulation was compared with that of unconditional simulation. In the reservoir fluid characterization, phase behavior calculations revealed that the component grouping is more important than the increase of number of components. (4) Numerical modeling of seismic wave propagation and full waveform inversion: Three individual sections are presented. The first one is devoted to the inversion theory in general sense. The second and the third sections deal with the frequency domain pseudo waveform inversion of seismic reflection data and refraction data respectively. (author). 180 refs., 91 figs., 60 tabs.

  2. Rational design of gene-based vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barouch, Dan H

    2006-01-01

    Vaccine development has traditionally been an empirical discipline. Classical vaccine strategies include the development of attenuated organisms, whole killed organisms, and protein subunits, followed by empirical optimization and iterative improvements. While these strategies have been remarkably successful for a wide variety of viruses and bacteria, these approaches have proven more limited for pathogens that require cellular immune responses for their control. In this review, current strategies to develop and optimize gene-based vaccines are described, with an emphasis on novel approaches to improve plasmid DNA vaccines and recombinant adenovirus vector-based vaccines. Copyright 2006 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Direct disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The current status of technology January 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheelton, I.S.; Kelly, B.R.; Wood, E.

    1987-02-01

    The Study assesses the degree and status of research and development worldwide on Direct Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel. It is limited to technological, radiological and waste management aspects appertaining to Light Water and AGR Reactor Systems and reviews the 'State of the Art' in terms of applicability to the United Kingdom. The report concludes that much technology exists both at National and International level which the UK can apply to the subject of Direct Disposal. (author)

  4. Self-Directed Learning: College Students' Technology Preparedness Change in the Last 10 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caravello, Michael J.; Jiménez, Joel R.; Kahl, Lois J.; Brachio, Brian; Morote, Elsa-Sofia

    2015-01-01

    This study compares a sample of approximately 44 first year college students in 2005 and 2015 on Long Island, New York, in their technology preparedness and self-directed instruction. The researchers used a survey instrument including demographic information focused upon students' preparation for classroom technology in high school and college.…

  5. 1997 Annual report. Technological Research Direction; Informe Anual 1997. Direccion de Investigacion Tecnologica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    This document describes the results for one year of work. Here is presented the goals of the Technological Research Direction of the National Institute of Nuclear Research in Mexico, which is promoting and developing the production of high technologies in the nuclear sciences and related disciplines as well as to generate the technologies, products, quality insume for academic organizations, health, industrial and commercial that are required. (Author)

  6. Digital technology use in ELT classrooms and self-directed learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nehir Sert

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The digital era is a new challenge for teachers. While children get acquainted with digital technology before the age of six, teachers, who have encountered the digital world at a later time in their lives, struggle with it. Self-directed learning, which is crucial for lifelong learning, can be enhanced by the use of technology within and beyond classroom settings. The aim of this study was to examine the difference between the perceptions of students in low- and high-income groups about their use of technology in a general sense and their teachers’ use of technology in ELT classrooms. It also tested the correlation between the perceptions of their self-directed learning behaviours and their own/their teachers’ technology use. The population of the study consisted of 75 students from high- and 70 students from low-income groups. Causal comparative and correlational research methods were adopted in the study. The surveys to measure the students’ perceptions about technology use were developed by the researchers. A scale, established by Demirtas and Sert (2010, was used to identify the level of self-directed learning views of the students. The data were collected at the beginning of the first term of the 2015-2016 school year. The results indicated that there was no significant difference between perceptions of the low- and high-income students regarding their own technology use. Likewise, perceptions of the low- and high-income students did not differ regarding their teachers’ technology use. There was no correlation between the perceptions of the low-/high-income mixed group regarding their use of technology and their teachers’ use of technology. Lastly, self-directed learning perceptions of the low-/high-income mixed group did not correlate with their perceptions on any aspects of technology use. The educational implications of these results were discussed and suggestions were put forward in order to produce more effective learning

  7. Foreign direct investment and technology spillovers in Mexico: 20 years of NAFTA

    OpenAIRE

    Armas, Enrique; Rodríguez, José Carlos

    2017-01-01

    This article analyses the development of technology capabilities in the manufacturing sector of Mexico during the last two decades. It has been argued that the inclusion of Mexico in the North America Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) in 1994 would be enough to catch up with Canada and the United States. In this regard, trade liberalisation and foreign direct investment (FDI) would have been two strategic tools to close the technology gap between Mexico and its commercial partners in North America...

  8. Field demonstration and transition of SCAPS direct push VOC in-situ sensing technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, William M.

    1999-01-01

    This project demonstrated two in-situ volatile organic compound (VOC) samplers in combination with the direct sampling ion trap mass spectrometer (DSITMS). The technologies chosen were the Vadose Sparge and the Membrane Interface Probe (MIP) sensing systems. Tests at two demonstration sites showed the newer VOC technologies capable of providing in situ contaminant measurements at two to four times the rate of the previously demonstrated Hydrosparge sensor. The results of this project provide initial results supporting the utility of these new technologies to provide rapid site characterization of VOC contaminants in the subsurface

  9. Horizontal directional drilling: a green and sustainable technology for site remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubrecht, Michael D

    2012-03-06

    Sustainability has become an important factor in the selection of remedies to clean up contaminated sites. Horizontal directional drilling (HDD) is a relatively new drilling technology that has been successfully adapted to site remediation. In addition to the benefits that HDD provides for the logistics of site cleanup, it also delivers sustainability advantages, compared to alternative construction methods.

  10. Commentary on Future directions: Building technologies and design tools''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quadrel, R.W.

    1992-08-10

    This paper presents a number of interesting and thought-provoking scenarios about the future use of advanced technology in the design and operation of commercial buildings. I will express my reactions in the following series of short paragraphs. These thoughts will, I hope, raise some new questions and offer fruitful directions for further exploration.

  11. Dynamic effects of social influence and direct marketing on the adoption of high-technology products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Risselada, H.; Verhoef, P.C.; Bijmolt, T.H.A.

    Many firms capitalize on their customers' social networks to improve the success rate of their new products. In this article, the authors analyze the dynamic effects of social influence and direct marketing on the adoption of a new high-technology product. Social influence is likely to play a role

  12. Technologies for direct production of flexible H2/CO synthesis gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Xueping; Guo Zhancheng

    2006-01-01

    The use of synthesis gas offers the opportunity to furnish a broad range of environmentally clean fuels and high value chemicals. However, synthesis gas manufacturing systems based on natural gas are capital intensive, and hence, there is great interest in technologies for cost effective synthesis gas production. Direct production of synthesis gas with flexible H 2 /CO ratio, which is in agreement with the stoichiometric ratios required by major synthesis gas based petrochemicals, can decrease the capital investment as well as the operating cost. Although CO 2 reforming and catalytic partial oxidation can directly produce desirable H 2 /CO synthesis gas, they are complicated and continued studies are necessary. In fact, direct production of flexible H 2 /CO synthesis gas can be obtained by optimizing the process schemes based on steam reforming and autothermal reforming as well as partial oxidation. This paper reviews the state of the art of the technologies

  13. Environmental Measurement-While-Drilling System and Horizontal Directional Drilling Technology Demonstration, Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, C.V.; Lockwood, G.J.; Normann, R.A.; Myers, D.A.; Gardner, M.G.; Williamson, T.; Huffman, J.

    1999-01-01

    The Environmental Measurement-While-Drilling (EMWD) system and Horizontal Directional Drilling (HDD) were successfully demonstrated at the Mock Tank Leak Simulation Site and the Drilling Technology Test Site, Hanford, Washington. The use of directional drilling offers an alternative to vertical drilling site characterization. Directional drilling can develop a borehole under a structure, such as a waste tank, from an angled entry and leveling off to horizontal at the desired depth. The EMWD system represents an innovative blend of new and existing technology that provides the capability of producing real-time environmental and drill bit data during drilling operations. The technology demonstration consisted of the development of one borehole under a mock waste tank at a depth of approximately minus8 m (minus27 ft.), following a predetermined drill path, tracking the drill path to within a radius of approximately1.5 m (5 ft.), and monitoring for zones of radiological activity using the EMWD system. The purpose of the second borehole was to demonstrate the capability of drilling to a depth of ∼ -21 m (-70 ft.), the depth needed to obtain access under the Hanford waste tanks, and continue drilling horizontally. This report presents information on the HDD and EMWD technologies, demonstration design, results of the demonstrations, and lessons learned

  14. Digital technology use in ELT classrooms and self-directed learning

    OpenAIRE

    Nehir Sert; Ebru Boynueğri

    2016-01-01

    The digital era is a new challenge for teachers. While children get acquainted with digital technology before the age of six, teachers, who have encountered the digital world at a later time in their lives, struggle with it. Self-directed learning, which is crucial for lifelong learning, can be enhanced by the use of technology within and beyond classroom settings. The aim of this study was to examine the difference between the perceptions of students in low- and high-income groups about thei...

  15. Novel Direct Steelmaking by Combining Microwave, Electric Arc, and Exothermal Heating Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Xiaodi Huang; Dr. J. Y. Hwang

    2005-03-28

    Steel is a basic material broadly used by perhaps every industry and individual. It is critical to our nation's economy and national security. Unfortunately, the American steel industry is losing competitiveness in the world steel production field. There is an urgent need to develop the next generation of steelmaking technology for the American steel industry. Direct steelmaking through the combination of microwave, electric arc, and exothermal heating is a revolutionary change from current steelmaking technology. This technology can produce molten steel directly from a shippable agglomerate, consisting of iron oxide fines, powdered coal, and ground limestone. This technology is projected to eliminate many current intermediate steelmaking steps including coking, pellet sintering, blast furnace (BF) ironmaking, and basic oxygen furnace (BOF) steelmaking. This technology has the potential to (a) save up to 45% of the energy consumed by conventional steelmaking; (b) dramatically reduce the emission of CO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, VOCs, fine particulates, and air toxics; (c) substantially reduce waste and emission control costs; (d) greatly lower capital cost; and (e) considerably reduce steel production costs. This technology is based on the unique capability of microwaves to rapidly heat steelmaking raw materials to elevated temperature, then rapidly reduce iron oxides to metal by volumetric heating. Microwave heating, augmented with electric arc and exothermal reactions, is capable of producing molten steel. This technology has the components necessary to establish the ''future'' domestic steel industry as a technology leader with a strong economically competitive position in world markets. The project goals were to assess the utilization of a new steelmaking technology for its potential to achieve better overall energy efficiency, minimize pollutants and wastes, lower capital and operating costs, and increase the competitiveness of the

  16. Prospects of power conversion technology of direct-cycle helium gas turbine for MHTGR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yong; Zhang Zuoyi

    1999-01-01

    The modular high temperature gas cooled reactor (MHTGR) is a modern passively safe reactor. The reactor and helium gas turbine may be combined for high efficiency's power conversion, because MHTGR has high outlet temperature up to 950 degree C. Two different schemes are planed separately by USA and South Africa. the helium gas turbine methodologies adopted by them are mainly based on the developed heavy duty industrial and aviation gas turbine technology. The author introduces the differences of two technologies and some design issues in the design and manufacture. Moreover, the author conclude that directly coupling a closed Brayton cycle gas turbine concept to the passively safe MHTGR is the developing direction of MHTGR due to its efficiency which is much higher than that of using steam turbine

  17. Directions of Increasing Competition in Clothes and Textiles Industry on the Basis of Information Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daina Jansevičiūtė

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The importance of the clothes and textile sector in Lithuanian economy is discussed and declining trends of the sector values for the economy warns about the problems of competitiveness in the current economic conditions. The main factors behind the decline in the competitiveness of the sector are provided; and directions of the development, which are associated with the intensified use of information technologies to create new competitive advantages of the sector, are analysed.Article in Lithuanian

  18. Histology-directed and imaging mass spectrometry: an emerging technology in ectopic calcification

    OpenAIRE

    Taverna, Domenico; Boraldi, Federica; De Santis, Giorgio; Caprioli, Richard M; Quaglino, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    The present study was designed to demonstrate the potential of an optimized histology directed protein identification combined with imaging mass spectrometry technology to reveal and identify molecules associated to ectopic calcification in human tissue. As a proof of concept, mineralized and non-mineralized areas were compared within the same dermal tissue obtained from a patient affected by Pseudoxanthoma elasticum, a genetic disorder characterized by calcification only at specific sites of...

  19. THE SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC DIRECTIONS OF DEVELOPMENT OF IT-TECHNOLOGIES IN SYSTEM OF INTERNET BANKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Sergeevna Vinnikova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Relevance of work is caused by active introduction of IT-technologies in various spheres of economic activity and in particular the bank environment, and also social and economic problems of use of information systems which arose along with a world economic crisis, sanctions and growth of the competition.Purpose: to define the main social and economic problems and the directions of development of IT-technologies in system of Internet banking at the present stage.Methodology: general scientific methods were used: analysis and synthesis, comparison, generalization, system approach.Results. Features of development of IT-technologies within remote bank customer service in Russia are defined. The directions of development of IT-technologies of the BSS company from a position of dynamic distribution of Internet banking in the future and from a position of development of the relations with clients are presented.Practical implications: results of research will be demanded by the scientists dealing with problems of Internet banking, heads of the commercial banks dealing with issues of remote bank service, students, undergraduates and graduate students of higher educational institutions.

  20. Direction of Technology Development for Nuclear Power Plants at the O and M Phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Insu; Park, Hwanpyo; Kim, Younghyun [Korea Institute of Construction Technology, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Recently, Korea has attempted to advance overseas markets by securing competitive power in nuclear power technology. In order to develop and operate overall construction management systems with Korea's own brand equipped with sufficient applicability and competitive power in the market abroad and to ensure equal competitive power with other foreign advanced companies of nuclear power plants, Korea has launched a project called 'Data Centric Integration/Automation Technology for NP Project Management System' since July 2011. This project is divided into two phases: the first phase from 2012 to 2016 realizes EPCS stage, and the second phase from 2017 to 2020 extends to O and M stage. Appropriate technology development planning must be established if 'Data Centric Integration/Automation Technology for NP Project Management System' conducted at the first phase would extend to O and M stage at the second phase. Therefore, this study aimed at drawing out the direction of technology development based on present analysis of process at the operational phase of nuclear power plants in Korea conducted as previous study. This study analyzed current operation and maintenance systems first, analyzing the results of differences between the operation process of nuclear plants in Korea which was suggested at the previous study and the process of the Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd. (hereafter referred to as 'KHNP') and drawing out the direction of technology development for nuclear power plants at the operational phase from the viewpoint of life cycle.

  1. Direction of Technology Development for Nuclear Power Plants at the O and M Phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Insu; Park, Hwanpyo; Kim, Younghyun

    2014-01-01

    Recently, Korea has attempted to advance overseas markets by securing competitive power in nuclear power technology. In order to develop and operate overall construction management systems with Korea's own brand equipped with sufficient applicability and competitive power in the market abroad and to ensure equal competitive power with other foreign advanced companies of nuclear power plants, Korea has launched a project called 'Data Centric Integration/Automation Technology for NP Project Management System' since July 2011. This project is divided into two phases: the first phase from 2012 to 2016 realizes EPCS stage, and the second phase from 2017 to 2020 extends to O and M stage. Appropriate technology development planning must be established if 'Data Centric Integration/Automation Technology for NP Project Management System' conducted at the first phase would extend to O and M stage at the second phase. Therefore, this study aimed at drawing out the direction of technology development based on present analysis of process at the operational phase of nuclear power plants in Korea conducted as previous study. This study analyzed current operation and maintenance systems first, analyzing the results of differences between the operation process of nuclear plants in Korea which was suggested at the previous study and the process of the Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd. (hereafter referred to as 'KHNP') and drawing out the direction of technology development for nuclear power plants at the operational phase from the viewpoint of life cycle

  2. Design and investigation of planar technology based ultra-wideband antenna with directional radiation patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meena, M. L., E-mail: madan.meena.ece@gamil.com; Parmar, Girish, E-mail: girish-parmar2002@yahoo.com; Kumar, Mithilesh, E-mail: mith-kr@yahoo.com [Department of Electronics Engineering, Rajasthan Technical University, Kota (India)

    2016-03-09

    A novel design technique based on planar technology for ultra-wideband (UWB) antennas with different ground shape having directional radiation pattern is being presented here. Firstly, the L-shape corner reflector ground plane antenna is designed with microstrip feed line in order to achieve large bandwidth and directivity. Thereafter, for the further improvement in the directivity as well as for better impedance matching the parabolic-shape ground plane has been introduced. The coaxial feed line is given for the proposed directional antenna in order to achieve better impedance matching with 50 ohm transmission line. The simulation analysis of the antenna is done on CST Microwave Studio software using FR-4 substrate having thickness of 1.6 mm and dielectric constant of 4.4. The simulated result shows a good return loss (S11) with respect to -10 dB. The radiation pattern characteristic, angular width, directivity and bandwidth performance of the antenna have also been compared at different resonant frequencies. The designed antennas exhibit low cost, low reflection coefficient and better directivity in the UWB frequency band.

  3. Foreign direct investment and technology spillovers in Mexico: 20 years of NAFTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Armas

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the development of technology capabilities in the manufacturing sector of Mexico during the last two decades. It has been argued that the inclusion of Mexico in the North America Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA in 1994 would be enough to catch up with Canada and the United States. In this regard, trade liberalisation and foreign direct investment (FDI would have been two strategic tools to close the technology gap between Mexico and its commercial partners in North America. Yet, after twenty years of NAFTA, it has been demonstrated that many indigenous firms in Mexico must develop an absorptive capacity to benefit from FDI. This paper suggests that the debate on the Asian miracle in the 1990s could be an adequate theoretical framework to discuss technology development and industrialisation in the case of emerging economies. In fact, this debate reveals two alternative approaches to explain the development of technology capabilities: (i the accumulation view of growth, and (ii the assimilation view of growth. Therefore, the Asian miracle exemplifies how entrepreneurship, learning and a supporting innovation policy could be an adequate strategy to benefit from FDI and technology spillovers in the case of emerging economies.

  4. The main directions of technologic modernization in the field of subsurface resources management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyacheslav Petrovich Pakhomov

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the priorities of Russia's transition to post-industrial development is the upgrade of mineral resources sector as a major system-building industry which includes exploration, extraction, refining, transportation and processing of minerals. The main directions of modernization in the subsoil resources management are improvement of methods and technologies under exploration, automation and computerization of work and equipment at the stages of production and transportation of mineral resources, improvement of equipment and technology with the use of nanotechnology in the stages of enrichment and processing of mineral raw materials. Actual direction of modernization in the ore mining industry today is creation and improvement of techniques and technologies to work in the northern climate according to the Program of subsoil resources development of the North and the Arctic shelf. Due to the exhaustion of large raw mineral deposits and geological complexity of the conditions of mining, there is a need for new types of mining and extraction equipment in the industry and development of processes to extract minerals from the non-traditional raw materials.

  5. Financing investment in environmentally sound technologies: Foreign direct investment versus foreign debt finance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anyangah, Joshua Okeyo

    2010-01-01

    This paper develops a screening model to examine the relationship between alternative sources of private capital and investment in environmentally sound technologies (ESTs). In the model, a polluter (agent) must secure investment funds from the international financial markets in order to upgrade its production and abatement technology. The requisite capital can be obtained via either market loans (debt finance) or foreign direct investment (FDI). Under debt finance, the foreign financier supplies only capital and the relationship between the two parties is more 'arms-length'. By contrast, under FDI, the investor delivers both capital and managerial skills. We use the model to derive the implications of debt finance for optimal investment decisions and compare them to those obtained under FDI. Investment incentives are more pronounced under debt finance. (author)

  6. Direct sulfation of limestone based on oxy-fuel combustion technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, C.M.; Zhao, C.S.; Liu, S.T.; Wang, C.B. [North China Electric Power University, Baoding (China)

    2009-10-15

    With limestone as the sorbent, the sulfation reaction can proceed via two different routes depending on whether calcination of the limestone takes place under the given reaction conditions. The direct sulfation reaction is defined as the sulfation reaction between sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and limestone in an uncalcined state. This reaction, based on oxyfuel combustion technology, was studied by thermogravimetric analysis. Surface morphologies of the limestone particles after sulfation were examined by a scanning electron microscope. Results show that there are more pores or gaps in the product layer formed by direct sulfation of limestone than by indirect sulfation, which can be attributed to the generation of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) at a reaction interface. Compared with indirect sulfation, direct sulfation of limestone can yield much higher conversion and has a much higher reaction rate. For direct sulfation, the greater porosity in the product layer greatly reduces the solid-state ion diffusion distance, resulting in a higher reaction rate and higher conversion.

  7. A Possible Technology Development Path to Direct Imaging of Exo-Earths from Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegler, Nicholas

    2018-01-01

    We describe a possible roadmap to achieving the technological capability to search for biosignatures on an Earth-like exoplanet from a future space telescope. The detection of Earth-like exoplanets in the habitable zone of their stars, and their spectroscopic characterization in a search for biosignatures, requires starlight suppression that exceeds the current best ground-based performance by orders of magnitude. The required planet/star brightness ratio of order 1e-10 at visible wavelengths can be obtained by blocking stellar photons with an occulter, either externally (a starshade) or internally (a coronagraph) to the telescope system, and managing diffracted starlight, so as to directly image the exoplanet in reflected starlight. Coronagraph instruments require advancement in telescope aperture (either monolithic or segmented), aperture obscurations (obscured by secondary mirror and its support struts), and wavefront error sensitivity (e.g. line-of-sight jitter, telescope vibration, polarization). The starshade, which has never been used in a science application, benefits a mission by being decoupled from the telescope, allowing a loosening of telescope stability requirements. In doing so, it transfers the difficult technology from the telescope system to a large deployable structure (tens of meters to greater than ~ 100 m in diameter) that must be positioned precisely at a distance of tens of thousands of kilometers from the telescope. Two ongoing mission concept studies, HabEx and LUVOIR, include the direct imaging of Earth-sized habitable exoplanets as a central science theme.

  8. Direct chemical oxidation: a non-thermal technology for the destruction of organic wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balazs, G.B.; Cooper, J. F.; Lewis, P. R.; Adamson, M. G.

    1998-02-01

    Direct Chemical Oxidation (DCO) is a non-thermal, ambient pressure, aqueous-based technology for the oxidative destruction of the organic components of hazardous or mixed waste streams. The process has been developed for applications in waste treatment and chemical demilitarization and decontamination at LLNL since 1992, and is applicable to the destruction of virtually all solid or liquid organics, including: chlorosolvents, oils and greases, detergents, organic-contaminated soils or sludges, explosives, chemical and biological warfare agents, and PCB's. [1-15] The process normally operates at 80-100 C, a heating requirement which increases the difficulty of surface decontamination of large objects or, for example, treatment of a wide area contaminated soil site. The driver for DCO work in FY98 was thus to investigate the use of catalysts to demonstrate the effectiveness of the technology for organics destruction at temperatures closer to ambient. In addition, DCO is at a sufficiently mature stage of development that technology transfer to a commercial entity was a logical next step, and was thus included in FY98 tasks.

  9. Food waste-to-energy conversion technologies: current status and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Thi Phuong Thuy; Kaushik, Rajni; Parshetti, Ganesh K; Mahmood, Russell; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar

    2015-04-01

    Food waste represents a significantly fraction of municipal solid waste. Proper management and recycling of huge volumes of food waste are required to reduce its environmental burdens and to minimize risks to human health. Food waste is indeed an untapped resource with great potential for energy production. Utilization of food waste for energy conversion currently represents a challenge due to various reasons. These include its inherent heterogeneously variable compositions, high moisture contents and low calorific value, which constitute an impediment for the development of robust, large scale, and efficient industrial processes. Although a considerable amount of research has been carried out on the conversion of food waste to renewable energy, there is a lack of comprehensive and systematic reviews of the published literature. The present review synthesizes the current knowledge available in the use of technologies for food-waste-to-energy conversion involving biological (e.g. anaerobic digestion and fermentation), thermal and thermochemical technologies (e.g. incineration, pyrolysis, gasification and hydrothermal oxidation). The competitive advantages of these technologies as well as the challenges associated with them are discussed. In addition, the future directions for more effective utilization of food waste for renewable energy generation are suggested from an interdisciplinary perspective. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Environmental Application of Reporter-Genes Based Biosensors for Chemical Contamination Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matejczyk Marzena

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of research concerning possibilities of applications of reporter-genes based microorganisms, including the selective presentation of defects and advantages of different new scientific achievements of methodical solutions in genetic system constructions of biosensing elements for environmental research. The most robust and popular genetic fusion and new trends in reporter genes technology – such as LacZ (β-galactosidase, xylE (catechol 2,3-dioxygenase, gfp (green fluorescent proteins and its mutated forms, lux (prokaryotic luciferase, luc (eukaryotic luciferase, phoA (alkaline phosphatase, gusA and gurA (β-glucuronidase, antibiotics and heavy metals resistance are described. Reporter-genes based biosensors with use of genetically modified bacteria and yeast successfully work for genotoxicity, bioavailability and oxidative stress assessment for detection and monitoring of toxic compounds in drinking water and different environmental samples, surface water, soil, sediments.

  11. Experience with novel technologies for direct measurement of atmospheric NO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hueglin, Christoph; Hundt, Morten; Mueller, Michael; Schwarzenbach, Beat; Tuzson, Bela; Emmenegger, Lukas

    2017-04-01

    Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is an air pollutant that has a large impact on human health and ecosystems, and it plays a key role in the formation of ozone and secondary particulate matter. Consequently, legal limit values for NO2 are set in the EU and elsewhere, and atmospheric observation networks typically include NO2 in their measurement programmes. Atmospheric NO2 is principally measured by chemiluminescence detection, an indirect measurement technique that requires conversion of NO2 into nitrogen monoxide (NO) and finally calculation of NO2 from the difference between total nitrogen oxides (NOx) and NO. Consequently, NO2 measurements with the chemiluminescence method have a relatively high measurement uncertainty and can be biased depending on the selectivity of the applied NO2 conversion method. In the past years, technologies for direct and selective measurement of NO2 have become available, e.g. cavity attenuated phase shift spectroscopy (CAPS), cavity enhanced laser absorption spectroscopy and quantum cascade laser absorption spectrometry (QCLAS). These technologies offer clear advantages over the indirect chemiluminescence method. We tested the above mentioned direct measurement techniques for NO2 over extended time periods at atmospheric measurement stations and report on our experience including comparisons with co-located chemiluminescence instruments equipped with molybdenum as well as photolytic NO2 converters. A still open issue related to the direct measurement of NO2 is instrument calibration. Accurate and traceable reference standards and NO2 calibration gases are needed. We present results from the application of different calibration strategies based on the use of static NO2 calibration gases as well as dynamic NO2 calibration gases produced by permeation and by gas-phase titration (GPT).

  12. Real-time positioning technology in horizontal directional drilling based on magnetic gradient tensor measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Guoqing; Yao, Aiguo

    2017-04-01

    Horizontal directional drilling (HDD) technology has been widely used in Civil Engineering. The dynamic position of the drill bit during construction is one of significant facts determining the accuracy of the trajectory of HDD. A new method now has been proposed to detecting the position of drill bit by measuring the magnetic gradient tensor of the ground solenoid magnetic beacon. Compared with traditional HDD positioning technologies, this new model is much easier to apply with lower request for construction sites and higher positioning efficiency. A direct current (DC) solenoid as a magnetic dipole is placed on ground near the drill bit, and related sensors array which contains four Micro-electromechanical Systems (MEMS ) tri-axial magnetometers, one MEMS tri-axial accelerometer and one MEMS tri-axial gyroscope is set up for measuring the magnetic gradient tensor of the magnetic dipole. The related HDD positioning model has been established and simulation experiments have been carried out to verify the feasibility and reliability of the proposed method. The experiments show that this method has good positioning accuracy in horizontal and vertical direction, and totally avoid the impact of the environmental magnetic field. It can be found that the posture of the magnetic beacon will impact the remote positioning precision within valid positioning range, and the positioning accuracy is higher with longer baseline for limited space in drilling tools. The results prove that the relative error can be limited in 2% by adjusting position of the magnetic beacon, the layers of the enameled coil, the sensitive of magnetometers and the baseline distance. Conclusion can be made that this new method can be applied in HDD positioning with better effect and wider application range than traditional method.

  13. Contradictory directionalities of digital learning technology and its implications for the scope of imaginable possibilities for collaborating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chimirri, Niklas Alexander

    Contradictory learning directionalities are immanent to digital learning technology: Any technology suggests a limited multiplicity of situated uses in a learning practice, of understandings of how to learn and of what learning should be about. Herewith any technology offers a scope of imaginable...... possibilities for acting through it. Sociomaterially maintained learning directionalities – among others through the intended uses of learning technology in educational arrangements – afford the enactment of a delimited ensemble of experiential modes, sensualities, epistemologies, knowledges, and future hopes....... Next to offering opportunities to expand the learners’ scope of possibilities for transforming these learning directionalities together, digital learning technology thus also promotes the taken for grantedness of particular understandings of (most often instrumental) learning. They may consequently...

  14. Directed technical change and the adoption of CO2 abatement technology. The case of CO2 capture and storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otto, Vincent M.; Reilly, John

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies the cost-effectiveness of combining traditional environmental policy, such as CO 2 -trading schemes, and technology policy that has aims of reducing the cost and speeding the adoption of CO 2 abatement technology. For this purpose, we develop a dynamic general equilibrium model that captures empirical links between CO 2 emissions associated with energy use, directed technical change and the economy. We specify CO 2 capture and storage (CCS) as a discrete CO 2 abatement technology. We find that combining CO 2 -trading schemes with an adoption subsidy is the most effective instrument to induce adoption of the CCS technology. Such a subsidy directly improves the competitiveness of the CCS technology by compensating for its markup over the cost of conventional electricity. Yet, introducing R and D subsidies throughout the entire economy leads to faster adoption of the CCS technology as well and in addition can be cost-effective in achieving the abatement target. (author)

  15. Enhancing Learners' Self-Directed Use of Technology for Language Learning: The Effectiveness of an Online Training Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chun; Shum, Mark; Tian, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Enhancing self-directed use of technology for language learning is essential for maximizing the potential of technology for language learning. Understanding how to construct learner training to promote this critical competency is of great significance. This study examined the effectiveness of an online training platform aimed at enhancing the…

  16. Developing technology-enhanced active learning for medical education: challenges, solutions, and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Lise; Pettit, Robin K; Lewis, Joy H; Bennett, Thomas; Carrasco, Noel; Brysacz, Stanley; Makin, Inder Raj S; Hutman, Ryan; Schwartz, Frederic N

    2015-04-01

    Growing up in an era of video games and Web-based applications has primed current medical students to expect rapid, interactive feedback. To address this need, the A.T. Still University-School of Osteopathic Medicine in Arizona (Mesa) has developed and integrated a variety of approaches using technology-enhanced active learning for medical education (TEAL-MEd) into its curriculum. Over the course of 3 years (2010-2013), the authors facilitated more than 80 implementations of games and virtual patient simulations into the education of 550 osteopathic medical students. The authors report on 4 key aspects of the TEAL-MEd initiative, including purpose, portfolio of tools, progress to date regarding challenges and solutions, and future directions. Lessons learned may be of benefit to medical educators at academic and clinical training sites who wish to implement TEAL-MEd activities.

  17. Material challenges for solar cells in the twenty-first century: directions in emerging technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delamarre, Amaury; Jehl, Zacharie; Suchet, Daniel; Cojocaru, Ludmila; Giteau, Maxime; Behaghel, Benoit; Julian, Anatole; Ibrahim, Camille; Tatry, Léa; Wang, Haibin; Kubo, Takaya; Uchida, Satoshi; Segawa, Hiroshi; Miyashita, Naoya; Tamaki, Ryo; Shoji, Yasushi; Yoshida, Katsuhisa; Ahsan, Nazmul; Watanabe, Kentaro; Inoue, Tomoyuki; Sugiyama, Masakazu; Nakano, Yoshiaki; Hamamura, Tomofumi; Toupance, Thierry; Olivier, Céline; Chambon, Sylvain; Vignau, Laurence; Geffroy, Camille; Cloutet, Eric; Hadziioannou, Georges; Cavassilas, Nicolas; Rale, Pierre; Cattoni, Andrea; Collin, Stéphane; Gibelli, François; Paire, Myriam; Lombez, Laurent; Aureau, Damien; Bouttemy, Muriel; Etcheberry, Arnaud; Okada, Yoshitaka

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Photovoltaic generation has stepped up within the last decade from outsider status to one of the important contributors of the ongoing energy transition, with about 1.7% of world electricity provided by solar cells. Progress in materials and production processes has played an important part in this development. Yet, there are many challenges before photovoltaics could provide clean, abundant, and cheap energy. Here, we review this research direction, with a focus on the results obtained within a Japan–French cooperation program, NextPV, working on promising solar cell technologies. The cooperation was focused on efficient photovoltaic devices, such as multijunction, ultrathin, intermediate band, and hot-carrier solar cells, and on printable solar cell materials such as colloidal quantum dots. PMID:29707072

  18. An ultra-high-speed direct digital frequency synthesizer implemented in GaAs HBT technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Gaopeng; Wu Danyu; Jin Zhi; Liu Xinyu

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a 10-GHz 8-bit direct digital synthesizer (DDS) microwave monolithic integrated circuit implemented in 1 μm GaAs HBT technology. The DDS takes a double-edge-trigger (DET) 8-stage pipeline accumulator with sine-weighted DAC-based ROM-less architecture, which can maximize the utilization ratio of the GaAs HBT's high-speed potential. With an output frequency up to 5 GHz, the DDS gives an average spurious free dynamic range of 23.24 dBc through the first Nyquist band, and consumes 2.4 W of DC power from a single -4.6 V DC supply. Using 1651 GaAs HBT transistors, the total area of the DDS chip is 2.4 x 2.0 mm 2 . (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  19. Material challenges for solar cells in the twenty-first century: directions in emerging technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almosni, Samy; Delamarre, Amaury; Jehl, Zacharie; Suchet, Daniel; Cojocaru, Ludmila; Giteau, Maxime; Behaghel, Benoit; Julian, Anatole; Ibrahim, Camille; Tatry, Léa; Wang, Haibin; Kubo, Takaya; Uchida, Satoshi; Segawa, Hiroshi; Miyashita, Naoya; Tamaki, Ryo; Shoji, Yasushi; Yoshida, Katsuhisa; Ahsan, Nazmul; Watanabe, Kentaro; Inoue, Tomoyuki; Sugiyama, Masakazu; Nakano, Yoshiaki; Hamamura, Tomofumi; Toupance, Thierry; Olivier, Céline; Chambon, Sylvain; Vignau, Laurence; Geffroy, Camille; Cloutet, Eric; Hadziioannou, Georges; Cavassilas, Nicolas; Rale, Pierre; Cattoni, Andrea; Collin, Stéphane; Gibelli, François; Paire, Myriam; Lombez, Laurent; Aureau, Damien; Bouttemy, Muriel; Etcheberry, Arnaud; Okada, Yoshitaka; Guillemoles, Jean-François

    2018-01-01

    Photovoltaic generation has stepped up within the last decade from outsider status to one of the important contributors of the ongoing energy transition, with about 1.7% of world electricity provided by solar cells. Progress in materials and production processes has played an important part in this development. Yet, there are many challenges before photovoltaics could provide clean, abundant, and cheap energy. Here, we review this research direction, with a focus on the results obtained within a Japan-French cooperation program, NextPV, working on promising solar cell technologies. The cooperation was focused on efficient photovoltaic devices, such as multijunction, ultrathin, intermediate band, and hot-carrier solar cells, and on printable solar cell materials such as colloidal quantum dots.

  20. Membrane-based processes for wastewater nutrient recovery: Technology, challenges, and future direction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Ming; Shon, Ho Kyong; Gray, Stephen R; Elimelech, Menachem

    2016-02-01

    Wastewater nutrient recovery holds promise for more sustainable water and agricultural industries. We critically review three emerging membrane processes - forward osmosis (FO), membrane distillation (MD) and electrodialysis (ED) - that can advance wastewater nutrient recovery. Challenges associated with wastewater nutrient recovery were identified. The advantages and challenges of applying FO, MD, and ED technologies to wastewater nutrient recovery are discussed, and directions for future research and development are identified. Emphasis is given to exploration of the unique mass transfer properties of these membrane processes in the context of wastewater nutrient recovery. We highlight that hybridising these membrane processes with existing nutrient precipitation process will lead to better management of and more diverse pathways for near complete nutrient recovery in wastewater treatment facilities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Environmental Regulation, Foreign Direct Investment and Green Technological Progress—Evidence from Chinese Manufacturing Industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jiangfeng; Wang, Zhao; Lian, Yuehan; Huang, Qinghua

    2018-01-01

    This study examines the spillover effects of foreign direct investment (FDI) on green technology progress rate (as measured by the green total factor productivity). The analysis utilizes two measures of FDI, labor-based FDI and capital-based FDI, and separately investigates four sets of industry classifications—high/low discharge regulation and high/low emission standard regulation. The results indicate that in the low discharge regulation and low emission standard regulation industry, labor-based FDI has a significant negative spillover effect, and capital-based FDI has a significant positive spillover effect. However, in the high-intensity environmental regulation industry, the negative influence of labor-based FDI is completely restrained, and capital-based FDI continues to play a significant positive green technological spillover effects. These findings have clear policy implications: the government should be gradually reducing the labor-based FDI inflow or increasing stringency of environmental regulation in order to reduce or eliminate the negative spillover effect of the labor-based FDI. PMID:29382112

  2. Environmental Regulation, Foreign Direct Investment and Green Technological Progress—Evidence from Chinese Manufacturing Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangfeng Hu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the spillover effects of foreign direct investment (FDI on green technology progress rate (as measured by the green total factor productivity. The analysis utilizes two measures of FDI, labor-based FDI and capital-based FDI, and separately investigates four sets of industry classifications—high/low discharge regulation and high/low emission standard regulation. The results indicate that in the low discharge regulation and low emission standard regulation industry, labor-based FDI has a significant negative spillover effect, and capital-based FDI has a significant positive spillover effect. However, in the high-intensity environmental regulation industry, the negative influence of labor-based FDI is completely restrained, and capital-based FDI continues to play a significant positive green technological spillover effects. These findings have clear policy implications: the government should be gradually reducing the labor-based FDI inflow or increasing stringency of environmental regulation in order to reduce or eliminate the negative spillover effect of the labor-based FDI.

  3. Environmental Regulation, Foreign Direct Investment and Green Technological Progress-Evidence from Chinese Manufacturing Industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jiangfeng; Wang, Zhao; Lian, Yuehan; Huang, Qinghua

    2018-01-29

    This study examines the spillover effects of foreign direct investment (FDI) on green technology progress rate (as measured by the green total factor productivity). The analysis utilizes two measures of FDI, labor-based FDI and capital-based FDI, and separately investigates four sets of industry classifications-high/low discharge regulation and high/low emission standard regulation. The results indicate that in the low discharge regulation and low emission standard regulation industry, labor-based FDI has a significant negative spillover effect, and capital-based FDI has a significant positive spillover effect. However, in the high-intensity environmental regulation industry, the negative influence of labor-based FDI is completely restrained, and capital-based FDI continues to play a significant positive green technological spillover effects. These findings have clear policy implications: the government should be gradually reducing the labor-based FDI inflow or increasing stringency of environmental regulation in order to reduce or eliminate the negative spillover effect of the labor-based FDI.

  4. Desalination and reuse of high-salinity shale gas produced water: drivers, technologies, and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Devin L; Arias Chavez, Laura H; Ben-Sasson, Moshe; Romero-Vargas Castrillón, Santiago; Yip, Ngai Yin; Elimelech, Menachem

    2013-09-03

    In the rapidly developing shale gas industry, managing produced water is a major challenge for maintaining the profitability of shale gas extraction while protecting public health and the environment. We review the current state of practice for produced water management across the United States and discuss the interrelated regulatory, infrastructure, and economic drivers for produced water reuse. Within this framework, we examine the Marcellus shale play, a region in the eastern United States where produced water is currently reused without desalination. In the Marcellus region, and in other shale plays worldwide with similar constraints, contraction of current reuse opportunities within the shale gas industry and growing restrictions on produced water disposal will provide strong incentives for produced water desalination for reuse outside the industry. The most challenging scenarios for the selection of desalination for reuse over other management strategies will be those involving high-salinity produced water, which must be desalinated with thermal separation processes. We explore desalination technologies for treatment of high-salinity shale gas produced water, and we critically review mechanical vapor compression (MVC), membrane distillation (MD), and forward osmosis (FO) as the technologies best suited for desalination of high-salinity produced water for reuse outside the shale gas industry. The advantages and challenges of applying MVC, MD, and FO technologies to produced water desalination are discussed, and directions for future research and development are identified. We find that desalination for reuse of produced water is technically feasible and can be economically relevant. However, because produced water management is primarily an economic decision, expanding desalination for reuse is dependent on process and material improvements to reduce capital and operating costs.

  5. Direct printing of miniscule aluminum alloy droplets and 3D structures by StarJet technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerdes, B.; Zengerle, R.; Koltay, P.; Riegger, L.

    2018-07-01

    Drop-on demand printing of molten metal droplets could be used for prototyping 3D objects as a promising alternative to laser melting technologies. However, to date, only few printheads have been investigated for this purpose, and they used only a limited range of materials. The pneumatically actuated StarJet technology enables the direct and non-contact printing of molten metal microdroplets from metal melts at high temperatures. StarJet printheads utilize nozzle chips featuring a star-shaped orifice geometry that leads to formation of droplets inside the nozzle with high precision. In this paper, we present a novel StarJet printhead for printing aluminum (Al) alloys featuring a hybrid design with a ceramic reservoir for the molten metal and an outer shell fabricated from stainless steel. The micro machined nozzle chip is made from silicon carbide (SiC). This printhead can be operated at up to 950 °C, and is capable of printing high melting point metals like Al alloys in standard laboratory conditions. In this work, an aluminum–silicon alloy that features 12% silicon (AlSi12) is printed. The printhead, nozzle, and peripheral actuation system are optimized for stable generation of AlSi12 droplets with high monodispersity, low angular deviation, and miniaturized droplet diameters. As a result, a stable drop-on-demand printing of droplets exhibiting diameters of d droplet  =  702 µm  ±  1% is demonstrated at 5 Hz with a low angular deviation of 0.3°, when a nozzle chip with 500 µm orifice diameter is used. Furthermore, AlSi12 droplets featuring d droplet  =  176 µm  ±  7% are printed when using a nozzle chip with an orifice diameter of 130 µm. Moreover, we present directly printed objects from molten Al alloy droplets, such as high aspect ratio, free-standing walls (aspect ratio 12:1), and directly printed, flexible springs, to demonstrate the principle of 3D printing with molten metal droplets.

  6. Comparison of Heat Transfer Fluid and Direct Steam Generation technologies for Integrated Solar Combined Cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rovira, Antonio; Montes, María José; Varela, Fernando; Gil, Mónica

    2013-01-01

    At present time and in the medium term, Solar Thermal Power Plants are going to share scenario with conventional energy generation technologies, like fossil and nuclear. In such a context, Integrated Solar Combined Cycles (ISCCs) may be an interesting choice since integrated designs may lead to a very efficient use of the solar and fossil resources. In this work, different ISCC configurations including a solar field based on parabolic trough collectors and working with the so-called Heat Transfer Fluid (HTF) and Direct Steam Generation (DSG) technologies are compared. For each technology, four layouts have been studied: one in which solar heat is used to evaporate part of the high pressure steam of a bottoming Rankine cycle with two pressure levels, another that incorporates a preheating section to the previous layout, the third one that includes superheating instead of preheating and the last one including both preheating and superheating in addition to the evaporation. The analysis is made with the aim of finding out which of the different layouts reaches the best performance. For that purpose, three types of comparisons have been performed. The first one assesses the benefits of including a solar steam production fixed at 50 MW th . The second one compares the configurations with a standardised solar field size instead of a fixed solar steam production. Finally, the last one consists on an even more homogeneous comparison considering the same steam generator size for all the configurations as well as standardised solar fields. The configurations are studied by mean of exergy analyses. Several figures of merit are used to correctly assess the configurations. Results reveal that the only-evaporative DSG configuration becomes the best choice, since it benefits of both low irreversibility at the heat recovery steam generator and high thermal efficiency in the solar field. Highlights: ► ISCC configurations with DSG and HTF technologies are compared. ► Four

  7. Enteric methane mitigation technologies for ruminant livestock: a synthesis of current research and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Amlan Kumar

    2012-04-01

    Enteric methane (CH(4)) emission in ruminants, which is produced via fermentation of feeds in the rumen and lower digestive tract by methanogenic archaea, represents a loss of 2% to 12% of gross energy of feeds and contributes to global greenhouse effects. Globally, about 80 million tonnes of CH(4) is produced annually from enteric fermentation mainly from ruminants. Therefore, CH(4) mitigation strategies in ruminants have focused to obtain economic as well as environmental benefits. Some mitigation options such as chemical inhibitors, defaunation, and ionophores inhibit methanogenesis directly or indirectly in the rumen, but they have not confirmed consistent effects for practical use. A variety of nutritional amendments such as increasing the amount of grains, inclusion of some leguminous forages containing condensed tannins and ionophore compounds in diets, supplementation of low-quality roughages with protein and readily fermentable carbohydrates, and addition of fats show promise for CH(4) mitigation. These nutritional amendments also increase the efficiency of feed utilization and, therefore, are most likely to be adopted by farmers. Several new potential technologies such as use of plant secondary metabolites, probiotics and propionate enhancers, stimulation of acetogens, immunization, CH(4) oxidation by methylotrophs, and genetic selection of low CH(4)-producing animals have emerged to decrease CH(4) production, but these require extensive research before they can be recommended to livestock producers. The use of bacteriocins, bacteriophages, and development of recombinant vaccines targeting archaeal-specific genes and cell surface proteins may be areas worthy of investigation for CH(4) mitigation as well. A combination of different CH(4) mitigation strategies should be adopted in farm levels to substantially decrease methane emission from ruminants. Evidently, comprehensive research is needed to explore proven and reliable CH(4) mitigation technologies

  8. Next generation DIRCM for 2.1-2.3 micron wavelength based on direct-diode GaSb technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvinelis, Edgaras; Naujokaitė, Greta; Greibus, Mindaugas; Trinkūnas, Augustinas; Vizbaras, Kristijonas; Vizbaras, Augustinas

    2018-02-01

    Continuous advances in low-cost MANPAD heat-seeking missile technology over the past 50 years remains the number one hostile threat to airborne platforms globally responsible for over 60 % of casualties. Laser based directional countermeasure (DIRCM) technology have been deployed to counter the threat. Ideally, a laser based DIRCM system must involve a number of lasers emitting at different spectral bands mimicking the spectral signature of the airborne platform. Up to now, near and mid infrared spectral bands have been covered with semiconductor laser technology and only SWIR band remained with bulky fiber laser technology. Recent technology developments on direct-diode GaSb laser technology at Brolis Semiconductors offer a replacement for the fiber laser source leading to significant improvements by few orders of magnitude in weight, footprint, efficiency and cost. We demonstrate that with careful engineering, several multimode emitters can be combined to provide a directional laser beam with radiant intensity from 10 kW/sr to 60 kW/sr in an ultra-compact hermetic package with weight < 30 g and overall efficiency of 15 % in the 2.1- 2.3 micron spectral band offering 150 times improvement in efficiency and reduction in footprint. We will discuss present results, challenges and future developments for such next-generation integrated direct diode DIRCM modules for SWIR band.

  9. Use of nuclear space technology of direct energy conversion for terrestrial application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chitaykin, V.I.; Meleta, Ye.A.; Yarygin, V.I.; Mikheyev, A.S.; Tulin, S.M.

    2000-01-01

    In due time the SSC RF-IPPE exercised the scientific supervision and directly participated in the development, fabrication, space flight test and maintenance of the direct energy conversion nuclear power plants (NPP) for space application under the 'BUK' and 'TOPAZ' programs. We have used the acquired experience and the high technologies developed for the 'BUK' NPP with a thermoelectric conversion of thermal (nuclear) energy into electrical one in the development under the order of RAO 'GAZPROM' of the natural gas fired self contained thermoelectric current sources (AIT-500) and heat and electricity sources (TEP-500). These are intended for electrochemical rust protection of gas pipelines and for the electricity and heat supply to the telemetric and microwave-link systems located along the gas pipelines. Of special interest at the moment are the new developments of self contained current sources with the electrical output of ∼500 Wel for new gas pipelines being constructed under the projects such as the 'Yamal-Europe' project. The electrochemical rust protection of gas pipelines laying on unsettled and non-electrified territory of arctic regions of Russia is performed by means of the so-called Cathodic Protection Stations (CPS). Accounting for a complex of rather rigid requirements imposed by arctic operating conditions, the most attractive sources of electricity supply to the CPS are the thermoelectric heat-into-electricity converters and the generators (TEG). This paper deals with the essential results of the development, investigation and testing of unconventional TEGs using the low-temperature bismuth-tellurium thermoelectric batteries assembled together as tubular thermoelectric batteries with a radial ring geometry built into the gas-heated thermoelectric modules, which are collected to make up either the thermoelectric plants for heat and electricity supply or the self contained power sources. One of the peculiarities of these plants is the combination of

  10. Ka-band Technologies for Small Spacecraft Communications via Relays and Direct Data Downlink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budinger, James M.; Niederhaus, Charles; Reinhart, Richard; Downey, Joe; Roberts, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    As the scientific capabilities and number of small spacecraft missions in the near Earth region increase, standard yet configurable user spacecraft terminals operating in Ka-band are needed to lower mission cost and risk and enable significantly higher data return than current UHF or S-band terminals. These compact Ka-band terminals are intended to operate with both the current and next generation of Ka-band relay satellites and via direct data communications with near Earth tracking terminals. This presentation provides an overview of emerging NASA-sponsored and commercially provided technologies in software defined radios (SDRs), transceivers, and electronically steered antennas that will enable data rates from hundreds of kbps to over 1 Gbps and operate in multiple frequency bands (such as S- and X-bands) and expand the use of NASA's common Ka-bands frequencies: 22.55-23.15 GHz for forward data or uplink; and 25.5-27.0 GHz for return data or downlink. Reductions in mass, power and volume come from integration of multiple radio functions, operations in Ka-band, high efficiency amplifiers and receivers, and compact, flat and vibration free electronically steered narrow beam antennas for up to + 60 degrees field of regard. The software defined near Earth space transceiver (SD-NEST) described in the presentation is intended to be compliant with NASA's space telecommunications radio system (STRS) standard for communications waveforms and hardware interoperability.

  11. High-voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission - a key technology for our power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorn, J.

    2016-01-01

    The phasing-out of nuclear power in some countries and the aspirations of reducing carbon dioxide emissions have far-reaching implications for electric power generation in Europe. In the future, renewable electricity generation will account for a considerable share of the energy mix, but this type of production is often far from the load centers. In Germany, for example, large quantities of wind energy are already generated in the north and in the North Sea, but large load centers are located several hundred kilometers south of there. This requires an expansion of the transmission network with innovative solutions. High-voltage direct-current (HVDC) transmission plays an important role, since it brings a number of advantages over conventional AC technology and makes certain requirements feasible, for example Cable transmission over longer distances. The lecture presents the advantages of HVDC, the semiconductors used as well as the basic functions and typical performance of the used converter topopologies. The plant configurations and main components are illustrated using current projects. (rössner) [de

  12. Influence of University Level Direct Instruction on Educators' Use of Technology in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Angie M.; Bonds-Raacke, Jennifer M.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research regarding technology integration in education has indicated that when technology is integrated into the classroom with fidelity it can enhance educational experiences. Research has also indicated, however that despite the growing presence of technology in classrooms, it is not being effectively utilized. The present study…

  13. Directions of innovative educational technologies implemented in formation of the students’ competences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barabas Dmytro Oleksandrovych

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The article summarizes important competences for the modern specialist. It characterises prior directions in introduction of innovative methods of training at universities. These directions are linked to the core competences of students each direction allows to form. The tools for implementing these directions are specified in the article.

  14. Seven Years after the Manifesto: Literature Review and Research Directions for Technologies in Animal Computer Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilyena Hirskyj-Douglas

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available As technologies diversify and become embedded in everyday lives, the technologies we expose to animals, and the new technologies being developed for animals within the field of Animal Computer Interaction (ACI are increasing. As we approach seven years since the ACI manifesto, which grounded the field within Human Computer Interaction and Computer Science, this thematic literature review looks at the technologies developed for (non-human animals. Technologies that are analysed include tangible and physical, haptic and wearable, olfactory, screen technology and tracking systems. The conversation explores what exactly ACI is whilst questioning what it means to be animal by considering the impact and loop between machine and animal interactivity. The findings of this review are expected to form the first grounding foundation of ACI technologies informing future research in animal computing as well as suggesting future areas for exploration.

  15. Technology-assisted Interventions for Parents of Young Children: Emerging Practices, Current Research, and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Cristin M; Bierman, Karen L

    Technology can potentially expand the reach and cut the costs of providing effective, evidence-based interventions. This paper reviews existing publications that describe the application and evaluation of technology-assisted interventions for parents of young children. A broad review of the early childhood literature revealed 48 studies describing technology-assisted parent education and interventions. Across these studies, multiple forms of technology were used, including web-based platforms, discussion forums, mobile devices, and video conferencing. Results are described moving from feasibility and acceptability of technology-based delivery systems to more rigorous evaluations examining their impact on parent and child outcomes. Potential exists for technology to deliver interventions to parents. Limitations are discussed including differential acceptability and elevated attrition associated with internet-only intervention delivery.

  16. Direct effect of ownership and technology import: Firm level evidence from large and medium-enterprises in Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Pingfang; LI Lei

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores the direct effect of ownership and technology imports under the fiamework of neoclassical economic theory.The econometric analysis is based on panel data from a random sample of large and mediumenterprises in Shanghai,during the period of 1998 to 2003.The results show that Sino-foreign joint ventures,Sino-foralgn cooperative enterprises and foreignfunded enterprises (SANZI) enjoy higher labor productivity and total factor productlvity (TFP) than domestic enterprises.Intra-firm diffusion of non-codified technology,proxied by ovwnership,is the main source of their better performance,whereas internally transferred codified technology makes little contribution to TFP.For state-owned enterprises,codified technology imports have significantly raised both labor productivity and TFP,but such positive effect is significantly dependent on the S&T human resource.In contrast,no evidence supports that introduction of foreign technology has enhanced the productivity in domestic nonstate-owned enterprises.The empirical results indicate that SANZI do not have a distinct advantage in their codified technology.In addition,inadequate investment in assimilation process and research and development together with inefficient management of science and technology activities,may impede the use of imported technology.

  17. CURRENT DIRECTIONS OF RESEARCH IN INFORMATION- COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE FIELD OF PEDAGOGICAL SCIENCE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.N. Spirin

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In the publication modern research areas of information-communication technologies in pedagogical science are identified. The basic requirements of the new passport for the specialty 13.00.10 - Information and Communication Technologies in Education are described. On this specialty the defence of the degree of doctor and candidate of pedagogical science may be carried out.

  18. Using Technology to Direct Learning in Higher Education: The Way Forward?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turney, C. S. M.; Robinson, D.; Lee, M.; Soutar, A.

    2009-01-01

    Improvements in technology appear to provide an unprecedented opportunity to improve learning and teaching within the higher education system. At present, however, opinions are divided over the efficacy of such an approach and the extent to which technology should be embraced in teaching. Over a period of two years, we have developed a new…

  19. Residual DNA analysis in biologics development: review of measurement and quantitation technologies and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xing; Morgan, Donna M; Wang, Gan; Mozier, Ned M

    2012-02-01

    Residual DNA (rDNA) is comprised of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) fragments and longer length molecules originating from the host organism that may be present in samples from recombinant biological processes. Although similar in basic structural base pair units, rDNA may exist in different sizes and physical forms. Interest in measuring rDNA in recombinant products is based primarily on demonstration of effective purification during manufacturing, but also on some hypothetical concerns that, in rare cases, depending on the host expression system, some DNA sequences may be potentially infectious or oncogenic (e.g., HIV virus and the Ras oncogene, respectively). Recent studies suggest that a sequence known as long interspersed nucleotide element-1 (LINE-1), widely distributed in the mammalian genome, is active as a retrotransposon that can be transcribed to RNA, reverse-transcribed into DNA and inserts into a new site in genome. This integration process could potentially disrupt critical gene functions or induce tumorigenesis in mammals. Genomic DNA from microbial sources, on the other hand, could add to risk of immunogenicity to the target recombinant protein being expressed, due to the high CpG content and unmethylated DNA sequence. For these and other reasons, it is necessary for manufacturers to show clearance of DNA throughout production processes and to confirm low levels in the final drug substance using an appropriately specific and quantitative analytical method. The heterogeneity of potential rDNA sequences that might be makes the testing of all potential analytes challenging. The most common methodology for rDNA quantitation used currently is real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), a robust and proven technology. Like most rDNA quantitation methods, the specificity of RT-PCR is limited by the sequences to which the primers are directed. To address this, primase-based whole genome amplification is introduced herein. This paper will review the recent

  20. Additive manufacturing technologies 3D printing, rapid prototyping, and direct digital manufacturing

    CERN Document Server

    Gibson, Ian; Stucker, Brent

    2015-01-01

    This book covers in detail the various aspects of joining materials to form parts. A conceptual overview of rapid prototyping and layered manufacturing is given,  beginning with the fundamentals so that readers can get up to speed quickly. Unusual and emerging applications such as micro-scale manufacturing, medical applications, aerospace, and rapid manufacturing are also discussed. This book provides a comprehensive overview of rapid prototyping technologies as well as support technologies such as software systems, vacuum casting, investment casting, plating, infiltration and other systems. This book also: Reflects recent developments and trends and adheres to the ASTM, SI, and other standards Includes chapters on automotive technology, aerospace technology and low-cost AM technologies Provides a broad range of technical questions to ensure comprehensive understanding of the concepts covered  

  1. A comprehensive guide of remediation technologies for oil contaminated soil - Present works and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Mee Wei; Lau, Ee Von; Poh, Phaik Eong

    2016-08-15

    Oil spills result in negative impacts on the environment, economy and society. Due to tidal and waves actions, the oil spillage affects the shorelines by adhering to the soil, making it difficult for immediate cleaning of the soil. As shoreline clean-up is the most costly component of a response operation, there is a need for effective oil remediation technologies. This paper provides a review on the remediation technologies for soil contaminated with various types of oil, including diesel, crude oil, petroleum, lubricating oil, bitumen and bunker oil. The methods discussed include solvent extraction, bioremediation, phytoremediation, chemical oxidation, electrokinetic remediation, thermal technologies, ultrasonication, flotation and integrated remediation technologies. Each of these technologies was discussed, and associated with their advantages, disadvantages, advancements and future work in detail. Nonetheless, it is important to note that no single remediation technology is considered the best solution for the remediation of oil contaminated soil. This review provides a comprehensive literature on the various remediation technologies studied in the removal of different oil types from soil. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Technology for America's economic growth : a new direction to build economic strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-02-22

    Investing in technology is investing in America's future: a growing economy with more high-skill, high-wage jobs for American workers; a cleaner environment where energy efficiency increases profits and reduces pollution; a stronger, more competitive...

  3. Rad-hard Reconfigurable Bi-Directional Level Shifters Technology for Micro- and Nanosatellites, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Various technologies available to space system designers that operate at different voltage levels. It is, however, important to interface, maintain, and update these...

  4. Future directions of defense programs high-level waste technology programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chee, T.C.; Shupe, M.W.; Turner, D.A.; Campbell, M.H.

    1987-01-01

    The Department of Energy has been managing high-level waste from the production of nuclear materials for defense activities over the last forty years. An objective for the Defense Waste and Transportation Management program is to develop technology which ensures the safe, permanent disposal of all defense radioactive wastes. Technology programs are underway to address the long-term strategy for permanent disposal of high-level waste generated at each Department of Energy site. Technology is being developed for assessing the hazards, environmental impacts, and costs of each long-term disposal alternative for selection and implementation. This paper addresses key technology development areas, and consideration of recent regulatory requirements associated with the long-term management of defense radioactive high-level waste

  5. The Global Rise of Zero Liquid Discharge for Wastewater Management: Drivers, Technologies, and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Tiezheng; Elimelech, Menachem

    2016-07-05

    Zero liquid discharge (ZLD)-a wastewater management strategy that eliminates liquid waste and maximizes water usage efficiency - has attracted renewed interest worldwide in recent years. Although implementation of ZLD reduces water pollution and augments water supply, the technology is constrained by high cost and intensive energy consumption. In this critical review, we discuss the drivers, incentives, technologies, and environmental impacts of ZLD. Within this framework, the global applications of ZLD in the United States and emerging economies such as China and India are examined. We highlight the evolution of ZLD from thermal- to membrane-based processes, and analyze the advantages and limitations of existing and emerging ZLD technologies. The potential environmental impacts of ZLD, notably greenhouse gas emission and generation of solid waste, are discussed and the prospects of ZLD technologies and research needs are highlighted.

  6. Perspectives of Students on Acceptance of Tablets and Self-directed Learning with Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Gokcearslan, Sahin

    2017-01-01

    Recent mobile learning technologies offer the opportunity for students to take charge ofthe learning process both inside and outside the classroom. One of these tools is the tabletPC (hereafter ‘tablet’). In parallel with increased access to e-content, the role of tablets inlearning has recently begun to be examined. This study aims to reveal the relationshipbetween the level of acceptance of tablets (TAM) and the level of selfdirectedlearning with technology (SDLT) of students and to differe...

  7. Working Group 2: Future Directions for Safeguards and Verification, Technology, Research and Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zykov, S.; Blair, D.

    2013-01-01

    For traditional safeguards it was recognized that the hardware presently available is, in general, addressing adequately fundamental IAEA needs, and that further developments should therefore focus mainly on improving efficiencies (i.e. increasing cost economies, reliability, maintainability and user-friendliness, keeping abreast of continual advancements in technologies and of the evolution of verification approaches). Specific technology areas that could benefit from further development include: -) Non-destructive measurement systems (NDA), in particular, gamma-spectroscopy and neutron counting techniques; -) Containment and surveillance tools, such as tamper indicating seals, video-surveillance, surface identification methods, etc.; -) Geophysical methods for design information verification (DIV) and safeguarding of geological repositories; and -) New tools and methods for real-time monitoring. Furthermore, the Working Group acknowledged that a 'building block' (or modular) approach should be adopted towards technology development, enabling equipment to be upgraded efficiently as technologies advance. Concerning non-traditional safeguards, in the area of satellite-based sensors, increased spatial resolution and broadened spectral range were identified as priorities. In the area of wide area surveillance, the development of LIDAR-like tools for atmospheric sensing was discussed from the perspective of both potential benefits and certain limitations. Recognizing the limitations imposed by the human brain in terms of information assessment and analysis, technologies are needed that will enable the more effective utilization of all information, regardless of its format and origin. The paper is followed by the slides of the presentation. (A.C.)

  8. Remediation approaches for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contaminated soils: Technological constraints, emerging trends and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuppusamy, Saranya; Thavamani, Palanisami; Venkateswarlu, Kadiyala; Lee, Yong Bok; Naidu, Ravi; Megharaj, Mallavarapu

    2017-02-01

    For more than a decade, the primary focus of environmental experts has been to adopt risk-based management approaches to cleanup PAH polluted sites that pose potentially destructive ecological consequences. This focus had led to the development of several physical, chemical, thermal and biological technologies that are widely implementable. Established remedial options available for treating PAH contaminated soils are incineration, thermal conduction, solvent extraction/soil washing, chemical oxidation, bioaugmentation, biostimulation, phytoremediation, composting/biopiles and bioreactors. Integrating physico-chemical and biological technologies is also widely practiced for better cleanup of PAH contaminated soils. Electrokinetic remediation, vermiremediation and biocatalyst assisted remediation are still at the development stage. Though several treatment methods to remediate PAH polluted soils currently exist, a comprehensive overview of all the available remediation technologies to date is necessary so that the right technology for field-level success is chosen. The objective of this review is to provide a critical overview in this respect, focusing only on the treatment options available for field soils and ignoring the spiked ones. The authors also propose the development of novel multifunctional green and sustainable systems like mixed cell culture system, biosurfactant flushing, transgenic approaches and nanoremediation in order to overcome the existing soil- contaminant- and microbial-associated technological limitations in tackling high molecular weight PAHs. The ultimate objective is to ensure the successful remediation of long-term PAH contaminated soils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Experiences from operation of Pomorzany EBFGT plant and directions of technology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paweleca, A.; Chmielewskia, A.G.; Tyminskia, B.; Zimek, Z.; Licki, J.; Mazurekc, L.; Sobolewskic, R.; Kostrzewskic, J.

    2011-01-01

    Electron beam flue gas treatment technology is one of the most advanced technologies among new generation air pollution control processes. It is the only one process for simultaneous removal of SO 2 and NO x , applied in the industrial scale. Moreover other pollutants as acidic compounds, VOC and dioxins can be removed in one step. Among the other advantages a fully usable by-product – a fertilizer is created in the process. The industrial demonstrational plant was constructed in EPS Pomorzany in Szczecin (Poland). The facility treats the flue gases of maximum flow of 270.000 Nm 3 /h, which are irradiated by four accelerators of 700 keV electron energy and 260 kW beam power each. The removal efficiency of SO 2 in this installation may reach 95%, while removal efficiency of NO x – 70%. Apart of technical analysis also economical calculations of investment and operational costs of EBFGT installations, based on the data obtained on the Polish installation, was performed. The results show that in the case of multi-pollutant control the electron beam technology is strongly competitive to conventional technologies. Description of the experiences obtained during the operation of the plant and further possibilities of the technology development are presented in this paper. (author)

  10. Experiences from operation of Pomorzany EBFGT plant and directions of technology development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paweleca, A.; Chmielewskia, A. G.; Tyminskia, B.; Zimek, Z. [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw (Poland); Licki, J. [Institute of Atomic Energy, Otwock-Świerk (Poland); Mazurekc, L.; Sobolewskic, R.; Kostrzewskic, J. [Dolna Odra Group, Pomorzany Power Plant, Szczecin (Poland)

    2011-07-01

    Electron beam flue gas treatment technology is one of the most advanced technologies among new generation air pollution control processes. It is the only one process for simultaneous removal of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}, applied in the industrial scale. Moreover other pollutants as acidic compounds, VOC and dioxins can be removed in one step. Among the other advantages a fully usable by-product – a fertilizer is created in the process. The industrial demonstrational plant was constructed in EPS Pomorzany in Szczecin (Poland). The facility treats the flue gases of maximum flow of 270.000 Nm{sup 3}/h, which are irradiated by four accelerators of 700 keV electron energy and 260 kW beam power each. The removal efficiency of SO{sub 2} in this installation may reach 95%, while removal efficiency of NO{sub x} – 70%. Apart of technical analysis also economical calculations of investment and operational costs of EBFGT installations, based on the data obtained on the Polish installation, was performed. The results show that in the case of multi-pollutant control the electron beam technology is strongly competitive to conventional technologies. Description of the experiences obtained during the operation of the plant and further possibilities of the technology development are presented in this paper. (author)

  11. CO2 capture technologies: current status and new directions using supported ionic liquid phase (SILP) absorbers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolding, Helene; Fehrmann, Rasmus; Riisager, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Current state-of-the-art techniques for CO2 capture are presented and discussed. Post-combustion capture of CO2 by absorption is the technology most easily retrofitted to existing installations, but at present this is not economically viable to install and run. Using ionic liquids instead...... of aqueous amine solutions overcomes the major thermodynamic issues. By applying SILP technology further advances, in terms of ease of handling and sorption dynamics, are obtained. Initial experimental studies showed that ionic liquids such as tetrahexylammonium prolinate, [N6666][Pro], provide a good...... candidate for CO2 absorption using SILP technology. Thus a solid SILP absorber comprised of 40 wt% [N6666][Pro] loaded on precalcined silica quantitatively takes up about 1.2 mole CO2 per mole of ionic liquid in consecutive absorption-desorption cycles in a flow-experiment performed with 0.09 bar of CO2 (9...

  12. Mass spectrometry-based proteomics: basic principles and emerging technologies and directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Riper, Susan K; de Jong, Ebbing P; Carlis, John V; Griffin, Timothy J

    2013-01-01

    As the main catalytic and structural molecules within living systems, proteins are the most likely biomolecules to be affected by radiation exposure. Proteomics, the comprehensive characterization of proteins within complex biological samples, is therefore a research approach ideally suited to assess the effects of radiation exposure on cells and tissues. For comprehensive characterization of proteomes, an analytical platform capable of quantifying protein abundance, identifying post-translation modifications and revealing members of protein complexes on a system-wide level is necessary. Mass spectrometry (MS), coupled with technologies for sample fractionation and automated data analysis, provides such a versatile and powerful platform. In this chapter we offer a view on the current state of MS-proteomics, and focus on emerging technologies within three areas: (1) New instrumental methods; (2) New computational methods for peptide identification; and (3) Label-free quantification. These emerging technologies should be valuable for researchers seeking to better understand biological effects of radiation on living systems.

  13. Direction of reprocessing technology development based on 30 years operation of Tokai reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, S; Tanaka, T.; Ohshima, H.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Full text: Recent global interest focuses the possibility of recycling of spent fuel with advanced fast reactor fuel cycle system. Goal of closed fuel cycle is to achieve the maximum use of uranium resources and minimum disposal of waste by multi recycle of TRU as a competitive nuclear energy system. The future reprocessing and fuel fabrication system should be synchronized completely with the advanced reactor system and waste treatment and disposal back-end system to complete closed fuel cycle. To realize such system, current reprocessing system should be changed to handle Pu-U-Minor Actinide with more reductions in the cost and less waste volume, as well as an inherent proliferation resistance. For the successful industrialization of advanced reprocessing technology, it is necessary to combine three key elements of R and D efforts, engineering base demonstration and experiences of plant operation. Tokai Reprocessing Facilities licensed a maximum capacity of 0.7tHM/day began a hot operation in 1977 and reprocessed l,100tHM U02 spent fuel and 20tHM ATR-MOX with a continuous technological improvements under IAEA full scope safeguards. With 30 years experience, candidate of key technologies proposed for realizing the next advanced reprocessing are as follows: 1) Simplified co-extraction process of Pu-Np-U by using multistage centrifugal extractors in stead of pulsed columns; 2) Corrosion free components in acid condition by using corrosion resistant refractory alloys and ceramics; 3) Co-conversion technology to MA containing MOX powder by micro-wave heating method for a short process for MA containing MOX pellets fabrication; 4) Advanced verification of high level radioactive liquid waste combining separation technology of TRU and LLFP elements; 5) Advanced chemical analysis and monitoring system for TRU elements in a plant. These advanced reprocessing technologies will be applied mainly to reprocess the LWR spent fuel accumulated past and future

  14. E-beam direct write versus reticle/stepper technology for ASICS in small volume production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheeler, M.J.

    1987-01-01

    The pros and cons of using e-beam direct writing or reticles plus optical/UV steppers in fast prototyping and the small volume production of ASICs are discussed. The main conclusion is that fast prototyping is best achieved by e-beam direct write whereas small volume production of ASICs is best done via reticles and optical/UV stepping provided that the reticles are made in-house rather than by commercial maskhouses

  15. Proceedings of the advanced research and technology development direct utilization, instrumentation and diagnostics contractors' review meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geiling, D.W. (USDOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center, WV (USA)); Goldberg, P.M. (eds.) (USDOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (USA))

    1990-01-01

    The 1990 Advanced Research and Technology Development (AR TD) Direct Utilization, and Instrumentation and Diagnostics Contractors Review Meeting was held September 16--18, 1990, at the Hyatt at Chatham Center in Pittsburgh, PA. The meeting was sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Fossil Energy, and the Pittsburgh and Morgantown Energy Technology Centers. Each year the meeting provides a forum for the exchange of information among the DOE AR TD contractors and interested parties. This year's meeting was hosted by the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center and was attended by 120 individuals from industry, academia, national laboratories, and other governmental agencies. Papers were presented on research addressing coal surface, science, devolatilization and combustion, ash behavior, emission controls for gases particulates, fluid bed combustion and utilization in diesels and turbines. Individual reports are processed separately for the data bases.

  16. Perspectives of Students on Acceptance of Tablets and Self-Directed Learning with Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokcearslan, Sahin

    2017-01-01

    Recent mobile learning technologies offer the opportunity for students to take charge of the learning process both inside and outside the classroom. One of these tools is the tablet PC (hereafter "tablet"). In parallel with increased access to e-content, the role of tablets in learning has recently begun to be examined. This study aims…

  17. Use of micro-emulsion technology for the directed evolution of antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhr, Diane L; Acca, Felicity E; Holland, Erika G; Johnson, Katie; Maksymiuk, Gail M; Vaill, Ada; Kay, Brian K; Weitz, David A; Weiner, Michael P; Kiss, Margaret M

    2012-09-01

    Affinity reagents, such as antibodies, are needed to study protein expression patterns, sub-cellular localization, and post-translational modifications in complex mixtures and tissues. Phage Emulsion, Secretion, and Capture (ESCape) is a novel micro-emulsion technology that utilizes water-in-oil (W/O) emulsions for the identification and isolation of cells secreting phage particles that display desirable antibodies. Using this method, a large library of antibody-displaying phage will bind to beads in individual compartments. Rather than using biopanning on a large mixed population, phage micro-emulsion technology allows us to individually query clonal populations of amplified phage against the antigen. The use of emulsions to generate microdroplets has the promise of accelerating phage selection experiments by permitting fine discrimination of kinetic parameters for binding to targets. In this study, we demonstrate the ability of phage micro-emulsion technology to distinguish two scFvs with a 300-fold difference in binding affinities (100nM and 300pM, respectively). In addition, we describe the application of phage micro-emulsion technology for the selection of scFvs that are resistant to elevated temperatures. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. A New Direction for Technology-Based Economic Development: The Role of Innovation Intermediaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendis, Richard A.; Seline, Richard S.; Byler, Ethan J.

    2008-01-01

    Accelerating innovation to drive economic growth is the foremost goal for technology-based economic development organizations today. Realizing this goal through programmes is challenged by limited and outdated operating models. The authors outline their 21st Century Innovation Intermediary model, which pairs commercialization with regional…

  19. Beyond Preservation: New Directions for Technological Innovation through Intangible Cultural Heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    While many digitization projects are currently underway, to help preserve Indigenous traditions, few explore the full potential of the development of digital media and networked technology through Indigenous cultures. This paper outlines the three phases necessary for a robust digital preservation, promotion and growth project: 1) Straightforward…

  20. Strategic planning of the National Direction of Nuclear Technology: period 2002-2005 last report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-06-01

    The final report of strategic planning describes the uses and applications of the Nuclear Technology, situation, tendencies so much at international level as national, institutional organization of the Nuclear Sector in the Uruguay, assignment of the DNTN, nuclear politics of the Uruguay, development of the Net or Nuclear Sector and model proposed for Uruguay, general conclusions and Strategic Plan

  1. Future Directions in Medical Physics: Models, Technology, and Translation to Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siewerdsen, Jeffrey

    The application of physics in medicine has been integral to major advances in diagnostic and therapeutic medicine. Two primary areas represent the mainstay of medical physics research in the last century: in radiation therapy, physicists have propelled advances in conformal radiation treatment and high-precision image guidance; and in diagnostic imaging, physicists have advanced an arsenal of multi-modality imaging that includes CT, MRI, ultrasound, and PET as indispensible tools for noninvasive screening, diagnosis, and assessment of treatment response. In addition to their role in building such technologically rich fields of medicine, physicists have also become integral to daily clinical practice in these areas. The future suggests new opportunities for multi-disciplinary research bridging physics, biology, engineering, and computer science, and collaboration in medical physics carries a strong capacity for identification of significant clinical needs, access to clinical data, and translation of technologies to clinical studies. In radiation therapy, for example, the extraction of knowledge from large datasets on treatment delivery, image-based phenotypes, genomic profile, and treatment outcome will require innovation in computational modeling and connection with medical physics for the curation of large datasets. Similarly in imaging physics, the demand for new imaging technology capable of measuring physical and biological processes over orders of magnitude in scale (from molecules to whole organ systems) and exploiting new contrast mechanisms for greater sensitivity to molecular agents and subtle functional / morphological change will benefit from multi-disciplinary collaboration in physics, biology, and engineering. Also in surgery and interventional radiology, where needs for increased precision and patient safety meet constraints in cost and workflow, development of new technologies for imaging, image registration, and robotic assistance can leverage

  2. Canonical correlation analysis for gene-based pleiotropy discovery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose A Seoane

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies have identified a wealth of genetic variants involved in complex traits and multifactorial diseases. There is now considerable interest in testing variants for association with multiple phenotypes (pleiotropy and for testing multiple variants for association with a single phenotype (gene-based association tests. Such approaches can increase statistical power by combining evidence for association over multiple phenotypes or genetic variants respectively. Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA measures the correlation between two sets of multidimensional variables, and thus offers the potential to combine these two approaches. To apply CCA, we must restrict the number of attributes relative to the number of samples. Hence we consider modules of genetic variation that can comprise a gene, a pathway or another biologically relevant grouping, and/or a set of phenotypes. In order to do this, we use an attribute selection strategy based on a binary genetic algorithm. Applied to a UK-based prospective cohort study of 4286 women (the British Women's Heart and Health Study, we find improved statistical power in the detection of previously reported genetic associations, and identify a number of novel pleiotropic associations between genetic variants and phenotypes. New discoveries include gene-based association of NSF with triglyceride levels and several genes (ACSM3, ERI2, IL18RAP, IL23RAP and NRG1 with left ventricular hypertrophy phenotypes. In multiple-phenotype analyses we find association of NRG1 with left ventricular hypertrophy phenotypes, fibrinogen and urea and pleiotropic relationships of F7 and F10 with Factor VII, Factor IX and cholesterol levels.

  3. Climatic change, technological, financial and commercial flows : new directions in input-output analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cloutier, L.M.; DeBresson, C.; Dietzenbacher, E.

    2004-01-01

    This book presents the recent work of prominent economists who used the latest input-output analysis techniques to examine complex and interdependent problems such as global warming, climate change and greenhouse gas reduction. It proposes solutions to Solow's Paradox regarding information and communication technologies and examines the role of technological and financial flows. It also proposes theoretical applications for use in Quebec and Canada. The work of young economists who participated at the Leontief International Input-Output Association was also presented. The book is mainly intended for analysts of economic policies and for young researchers looking for advanced input-output analysis techniques. It offers a useful, realistic and systematic analysis of various issues facing contemporary companies. refs., tabs., figs

  4. Prospective directions of information and communication systems and technologies development in logistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Pustynnikova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available At present time the high trade turnover is typical of the Russian economy, which in turn, activates a sufficient intensity of goods movement. Logistics, as a goods movement path in the context of a variety of delivery methods: road, air, water, pipeline, railroad transport, including across the customs border, is acutely affected by all kinds of economic transformation. Therefore, the creation of stable conditions for movement of goods under the terms of mutually beneficial cooperation is a priority for logistics. Trends of economic development are characterized by growth of integration processes which have expressed themselves positively and proven their economic suitability. Such transformations denote the necessity of the control mechanisms improvement, including logistics. The actual issue of business processes information support in circumstances of logistical integration is considered in this article. The basis of the information system consists of information and communication resources, tools and technologies, the use of which is aimed at solving specific problems for the shaping of information infrastructure, business process reengineering, supporting economic security of business. In process of this issue studying are becoming obvious undeniable advantages of information and communication technologies use in logistics operations, the gaining of which is possible as a result of an integrated system’s interests harmonization. The article provides evidence that the market has a certain influence on the improvement of information and communication systems and technologies for complex carrying out logistical operations, which, in turn, optimizes the duration of the movement of goods and related with this process costs, thereby determines the improvement of logistic conditions in terms of business growth and competitiveness development The article provides evidence that the market has a certain influence on the improvement of information

  5. Assessment of diagnostic technology in health care: rationale, methods, problems, and directions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sox, Harold C

    1989-01-01

    ... Rationale, Methods, Problems, and Directions Harold Sox, Susan Stern, Douglas Owens, and Herbert L. Abrams Institute of Medicine NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS WASHINGTON, D.C. 1989 Copyrightthe cannot be not from book, paper however, version for formatting, original authoritative the typesetting-specific the as from created publication files XML from...

  6. Suppressing a Sea of Starlight : enabling technology for the direct imaging of exoplanets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otten, G.P.P.L.

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis we present multiple techniques to suppress starlight in order to better directly image planets around other stars. We propose a laboratory setup to test a new focal-plane wavefront sensing technique. We also show an optical device that suppresses starlight using liquid crystals (the

  7. Directed International Technological Change and Climate Policy: New Methods for Identifying Robust Policies Under Conditions of Deep Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Perez, Edmundo

    It is widely recognized that international environmental technological change is key to reduce the rapidly rising greenhouse gas emissions of emerging nations. In 2010, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Conference of the Parties (COP) agreed to the creation of the Green Climate Fund (GCF). This new multilateral organization has been created with the collective contributions of COP members, and has been tasked with directing over USD 100 billion per year towards investments that can enhance the development and diffusion of clean energy technologies in both advanced and emerging nations (Helm and Pichler, 2015). The landmark agreement arrived at the COP 21 has reaffirmed the key role that the GCF plays in enabling climate mitigation as it is now necessary to align large scale climate financing efforts with the long-term goals agreed at Paris 2015. This study argues that because of the incomplete understanding of the mechanics of international technological change, the multiplicity of policy options and ultimately the presence of climate and technological change deep uncertainty, climate financing institutions such as the GCF, require new analytical methods for designing long-term robust investment plans. Motivated by these challenges, this dissertation shows that the application of new analytical methods, such as Robust Decision Making (RDM) and Exploratory Modeling (Lempert, Popper and Bankes, 2003) to the study of international technological change and climate policy provides useful insights that can be used for designing a robust architecture of international technological cooperation for climate change mitigation. For this study I developed an exploratory dynamic integrated assessment model (EDIAM) which is used as the scenario generator in a large computational experiment. The scope of the experimental design considers an ample set of climate and technological scenarios. These scenarios combine five sources of uncertainty

  8. Controlled drilling technology for HLW management. Directional drilling and mechanics/stress measurements in the borehole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiho, Kenzo; Shin, Koichi; Okada, Tetsuji; Obuchi, Yasuyoshi; Sunaga, Takayuki; Hase, Kazunori

    2013-01-01

    Since 2000, Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI) has been conducting the project on controlled drilling and the logging/measurement technologies in its boreholes. Especially borehole pressure meter and bore hole stress measurement apparatus which can apply to the controlled drilling system was developed. The bore hole was drilled to the 1000 m long in order to intersect the Omagari fault located at Horonobe town in Hokkaido and its core recovery was 99.8% as of FY. 2011. Using borehole logging/measurement/survey, the geological, hydrological, geo-mechanical, geophysical and geochemical data were collected and the Omagari fault was characterized. (author)

  9. Point-of-care testing in the diagnosis of gastrointestinal cancers: current technology and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huddy, Jeremy R; Ni, Melody Z; Markar, Sheraz R; Hanna, George B

    2015-04-14

    Point-of-care (POC) tests enable rapid results and are well established in medical practice. Recent advances in analytical techniques have led to a new generation of POC devices that will alter gastrointestinal diagnostic pathways. This review aims to identify current and new technologies for the POC diagnosis of gastrointestinal cancer. A structured search of the Embase and Medline databases was performed. Papers reporting diagnostic tests for gastrointestinal cancer available as a POC device or containing a description of feasibility for POC application were included. Studies recovered were heterogeneous and therefore results are presented as a narrative review. Six diagnostic methods were identified (fecal occult blood, fecal proteins, volatile organic compounds, pyruvate kinase isoenzyme type M2, tumour markers and DNA analysis). Fecal occult blood testing has a reported sensitivity of 66%-85% and specificity greater than 95%. The others are at a range of development and clinical application. POC devices have a proven role in the diagnosis of gastrointestinal cancer. Barriers to their implementation exist and the transition from experimental to clinical medicine is currently slow. New technologies demonstrate potential to provide accurate POC tests and an ability to diagnose gastrointestinal cancer at an early stage with improved clinical outcome and survival.

  10. Digital Technologies in the Treatment of Anxiety: Recent Innovations and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firth, Joseph; Torous, John; Carney, Rebekah; Newby, Jill; Cosco, Theodore D; Christensen, Helen; Sarris, Jerome

    2018-05-19

    This review aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the efficacy, limitations, and future of e-health treatments for anxiety. Within this, we provide detail on "first-generation" e-health approaches, such as computerized therapies. Additionally, we assess the emergence and early efficacy of newer methods of treatment delivery, including smartphone apps and virtual reality interventions, discussing the potential and pitfalls for each. There is now substantial clinical research demonstrating the efficacy of internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy in the treatment of anxiety. However, the ability of these interventions for engaging patients in "real-world" settings is unclear. Recently, smartphone apps for anxiety have presented a more popular and ubiquitous method of intervention delivery, although the evidence base supporting these newer approaches drastically falls behind the extensive marketing and commercialization efforts currently driving their development. Meanwhile, the increasing availability of novel technologies, such as "virtual reality" (VR), introduces further potential of e-health treatments for generalized anxiety and anxiety-related disorders such as phobias and obsessive compulsive disorder, while also creating additional challenges for research. Although still in its infancy, e-health research is already presenting several promising avenues for delivering effective and scalable treatments for anxiety. Nonetheless, several important steps must be taken in order for academic research to keep pace with continued technological advances.

  11. Assessment of High-Voltage Photovoltaic Technologies for the Design of a Direct Drive Hall Effect Thruster Solar Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikellides, I. G.; Jongeward, G. A.; Schneider, T.; Carruth, M. R.; Peterson, T.; Kerslake, T. W.; Snyder, D.; Ferguson, D.; Hoskins, A.

    2004-01-01

    A three-year program to develop a Direct Drive Hall-Effect Thruster system (D2HET) begun in 2001 as part of the NASA Advanced Cross-Enterprise Technology Development initiative. The system, which is expected to reduce significantly the power processing, complexity, weight, and cost over conventional low-voltage systems, will employ solar arrays that operate at voltages higher than (or equal to) 300 V. The lessons learned from the development of the technology also promise to become a stepping-stone for the production of the next generation of power systems employing high voltage solar arrays. This paper summarizes the results from experiments conducted mainly at the NASA Marshal Space Flight Center with two main solar array technologies. The experiments focused on electron collection and arcing studies, when the solar cells operated at high voltages. The tests utilized small coupons representative of each solar array technology. A hollow cathode was used to emulate parts of the induced environment on the solar arrays, mostly the low-energy charge-exchange plasma (1012-1013 m-3 and 0.5-1 eV). Results and conclusions from modeling of electron collection are also summarized. The observations from the total effort are used to propose a preliminary, new solar array design for 2 kW and 30-40 kW class, deep space missions that may employ a single or a cluster of Hall- Effect thrusters.

  12. A research proposal for investigating the effect of foreign direct investments on technology transfer in the Arabian Gulf (GCC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahat, Kaher; Whelan, Susan

    2015-02-01

    In terms of hosting countries perspectives, Foreign Direct Investments (FDI) could have a positive effect on its developing economy, by transferring, both: resources of finance in addition to the international technology (ITT) (Choi, 1997). Multinational companies (MNC) are engaging in the transferring of the new technology, internally as well as licensing older one; they create "Spillover" (Knowledge) for facilitating the transfer of ITT in line with geographical location, period of investment, and the type of industry. Furthermore, the effect of these spillovers depends on the level of transferring this knowledge based on FDI attraction policies of the host country (Huang, 2009). Considering the Arabian Gulf council countries (GCC) as "FDI- rich hosting countries", who are not seeking for financial resources, i.e., they already have a huge financial capacity for funding their different projects, even though FDI has been powerfully presented in GCC . They saw noticeable increases in FDI inflows beginning in 2002, (www.unctad.org.fdistatistics). Therefore by assumption, FDI inflows to GCC could positively affect their economic growth through transferring the advanced technology, in order to build up their level of technology (productivity growth) as well as their economic diversification strategy. If so how this Knowledge could be diffused and measured in order to maximize its benefit and enhancing the productivity growth, and what is the current status of (GCC).

  13. Emplacement technology for the direct disposal of spent fuel into deep vertical boreholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollingerfehr, W.; Filbert, W.; Wehrmann, J.

    2008-01-01

    In the early sixties it was decided to investigate salt formations on its suitability to host heat generating radioactive waste in Germany. In the reference repository concept consequently the emplacement of vitrified waste canisters in deep vertical boreholes inside a salt mine was considered whereas spent fuel should be disposed of in self shielding casks (type POLLUX) in horizontal drifts. The POLLUX casks, 65 t heavy carbon steel casks, will be laid down on the floor of a horizontal drift in one of the disposal zones to be constructed in the salt dome at the 870 m level. The space between casks and drift walls will be backfilled with crushed salt. The transport, the handling und the emplacement of POLLUX casks were subject of successfully performed demonstration and in situ tests in the nineties and resulted in an adjustment of the atomic law. The borehole disposal concept comprises the emplacement of unshielded canisters with vitrified HLW in boreholes with a diameter of 60 cm and a depth of up to 300 m. In order to facilitate the fast encapsulation of the waste canister by the host rock (rock salt), no lining of the boreholes is planned. With regard to harmonize and optimize the emplacement technology for both categories of packages (vitrified waste and spent fuel) alternatives were developed. In this context the borehole emplacement technique for consolidated spent fuel as already foreseen for high-level reprocessing waste was reconsidered. This review resulted in the design of a new disposal package, a fuel rod canister (type 'BSK 3'), and an appropriate modified transport and emplacement technology. This concept (called BSK 3-concept) provides the following optimization possibilities: (i) A new steel canister of the same diameter (43 cm) as the standardized HLW canisters applied for high-level waste and compacted technological waste from reprocessing abroad can be filled with fuel rods of 3 PWR or 9 BWR fuel assemblies. (II) The standardized canister

  14. Horizontal Directional Drilling-Length Detection Technology While Drilling Based on Bi-Electro-Magnetic Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudan Wang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The drilling length is an important parameter in the process of horizontal directional drilling (HDD exploration and recovery, but there has been a lack of accurate, automatically obtained statistics regarding this parameter. Herein, a technique for real-time HDD length detection and a management system based on the electromagnetic detection method with a microprocessor and two magnetoresistive sensors employing the software LabVIEW are proposed. The basic principle is to detect the change in the magnetic-field strength near a current coil while the drill stem and drill-stem joint successively pass through the current coil forward or backward. The detection system consists of a hardware subsystem and a software subsystem. The hardware subsystem employs a single-chip microprocessor as the main controller. A current coil is installed in front of the clamping unit, and two magneto resistive sensors are installed on the sides of the coil symmetrically and perpendicular to the direction of movement of the drill pipe. Their responses are used to judge whether the drill-stem joint is passing through the clamping unit; then, the order of their responses is used to judge the movement direction. The software subsystem is composed of a visual software running on the host computer and a software running in the slave microprocessor. The host-computer software processes, displays, and saves the drilling-length data, whereas the slave microprocessor software operates the hardware system. A combined test demonstrated the feasibility of the entire drilling-length detection system.

  15. Micro tooling technologies for polymer micro replication: direct, indirect and hybrid process chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosello, Guido; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2009-01-01

    The increasing employment of micro products, of products containing micro parts and of products with micro-structured surfaces calls for mass fabrication technologies based on replication processes. In many cases, a suitable solution is given by the use of polymer micro products, whose production...... and performance of the corresponding micro mould. Traditional methods of micro tooling, such as various machining processes (e.g. micro milling, micro electrical discharge machining) have already reached their limitations with decreasing dimensions of mould inserts and cavities. To this respect, tooling process...... chains based on combination of micro manufacturing processes (defined as hybrid tooling) have been established in order to obtain further features miniaturization and increased accuracy. In this paper, examples and performance of different hybrid tooling approaches as well as challenges, opportunities...

  16. Direct imaging and new technologies to search for substellar companions around MGs cool dwarfs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burningham B.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available We describe here our project based in a search for sub-stellar companions (brown dwarfs and exo-planets around young ultra-cool dwarfs (UCDs and characterise their properties. We will use current and future technology (high contrast imaging, high-precision Doppler determinations from the ground and space (VLT, ELT and JWST, to find companions to young objects. Members of young moving groups (MGs have clear advantages in this field. We compiled a catalogue of young UCD objects and studied their membership to five known young moving groups: Local Association (Pleiades moving group, 20–150 Myr, Ursa Mayor group (Sirius supercluster, 300 Myr, Hyades supercluster (600 Myr, IC 2391 supercluster (35 Myr and Castor moving group (200 Myr. To assess them as members we used different kinematic and spectroscopic criteria.

  17. Proton exchange membrane materials for the advancement of direct methanol fuel-cell technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, Christopher J [Albuquerque, NM

    2006-04-04

    A new class of hybrid organic-inorganic materials, and methods of synthesis, that can be used as a proton exchange membrane in a direct methanol fuel cell. In contrast with Nafion.RTM. PEM materials, which have random sulfonation, the new class of materials have ordered sulfonation achieved through self-assembly of alternating polyimide segments of different molecular weights comprising, for example, highly sulfonated hydrophilic PDA-DASA polyimide segment alternating with an unsulfonated hydrophobic 6FDA-DAS polyimide segment. An inorganic phase, e.g., 0.5 5 wt % TEOS, can be incorporated in the sulfonated polyimide copolymer to further improve its properties. The new materials exhibit reduced swelling when exposed to water, increased thermal stability, and decreased O.sub.2 and H.sub.2 gas permeability, while retaining proton conductivities similar to Nafion.RTM.. These improved properties may allow direct methanol fuel cells to operate at higher temperatures and with higher efficiencies due to reduced methanol crossover.

  18. 2D temperature field measurement in a direct-injection engine using LIF technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongfeng; Tian, Hongsen; Yang, Jianwei; Sun, Jianmin; Zhu, Aihua

    2011-12-01

    A new multi-spectral detection strategy for temperature laser- induced- fluorescence (LIF) 2-D imaging measurements is reported for high pressure flames in high-speed diesel engine. Schematic of the experimental set-up is outlined and the experimental data on the diesel engine is summarized. Experiment injection system is a third generation Bosch high-pressure common rail featuring a maximum pressure of 160MPa. The injector is equipped with a six-hole nozzle, where each hole has a diameter of 0.124 mm. and slightly offset to the center of the cylinder axis to allow a better cooling of the narrow bridge between the exhaust valves. The measurement system includes a blower, which supplied the intake flow rate, and a prototype single-valve direct injection diesel engine head modified to lay down the swirled-type injector. 14-bit digital CCD cameras are employed to achieve a greater level of accuracy in comparison to the results of previous measurements. The temperature field spatial distributions in the cylinder for different crank angle degrees are carried out in a single direct-injection diesel engine.

  19. The alkali metal thermoelectric converter /AMTEC/ - A new direct energy conversion technology for aerospace power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankston, C. P.; Cole, T.; Jones, R.; Ewell, R.

    1982-01-01

    A thermally regenerative electrochemical device for the direct conversion of heat to electrical energy, the alkali metal thermoelectric converter (AMTEC), is characterized by potential efficiencies on the order of 15-40% and possesses no moving parts, making it a candidate for space power system applications. Device conversion efficiency is projected on the basis of experimental voltage vs current curves exhibiting power densities of 0.7 W/sq cm and measured electrode efficiencies of up to 40%. Preliminary radiative heat transfer measurements presented may be used in an investigation of methods for the reduction of AMTEC parasitic radiation losses. AMTEC assumes heat input and rejection temperatures of 900-1300 K and 400-800 K, respectively. The working fluid is liquid sodium, and the porous electrode employed is of molybdenum.

  20. A high-throughput readout architecture based on PCI-Express Gen3 and DirectGMA technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rota, L.; Vogelgesang, M.; Perez, L.E. Ardila; Caselle, M.; Chilingaryan, S.; Dritschler, T.; Zilio, N.; Kopmann, A.; Balzer, M.; Weber, M.

    2016-01-01

    Modern physics experiments produce multi-GB/s data rates. Fast data links and high performance computing stages are required for continuous data acquisition and processing. Because of their intrinsic parallelism and computational power, GPUs emerged as an ideal solution to process this data in high performance computing applications. In this paper we present a high-throughput platform based on direct FPGA-GPU communication. The architecture consists of a Direct Memory Access (DMA) engine compatible with the Xilinx PCI-Express core, a Linux driver for register access, and high- level software to manage direct memory transfers using AMD's DirectGMA technology. Measurements with a Gen3 x8 link show a throughput of 6.4 GB/s for transfers to GPU memory and 6.6 GB/s to system memory. We also assess the possibility of using the architecture in low latency systems: preliminary measurements show a round-trip latency as low as 1 μs for data transfers to system memory, while the additional latency introduced by OpenCL scheduling is the current limitation for GPU based systems. Our implementation is suitable for real-time DAQ system applications ranging from photon science and medical imaging to High Energy Physics (HEP) systems

  1. Wombat reproduction (Marsupialia; Vombatidae): an update and future directions for the development of artificial breeding technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Lindsay A; Janssen, Tina; Johnston, Stephen D

    2013-06-01

    This review provides an update on what is currently known about wombat reproductive biology and reports on attempts made to manipulate and/or enhance wombat reproduction as part of the development of artificial reproductive technology (ART) in this taxon. Over the last decade, the logistical difficulties associated with monitoring a nocturnal and semi-fossorial species have largely been overcome, enabling new features of wombat physiology and behaviour to be elucidated. Despite this progress, captive propagation rates are still poor and there are areas of wombat reproductive biology that still require attention, e.g. further characterisation of the oestrous cycle and oestrus. Numerous advances in the use of ART have also been recently developed in the Vombatidae but despite this research, practical methods of manipulating wombat reproduction for the purposes of obtaining research material or for artificial breeding are not yet available. Improvement of the propagation, genetic diversity and management of wombat populations requires a thorough understanding of Vombatidae reproduction. While semen collection and cryopreservation in wombats is fairly straightforward there is currently an inability to detect, induce or synchronise oestrus/ovulation and this is an impeding progress in the development of artificial insemination in this taxon.

  2. Large-screen display industry: market and technology trends for direct view and projection displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellano, Joseph A.; Mentley, David E.

    1996-03-01

    Large screen information displays are defined as dynamic electronic displays that can be viewed by more than one person and are at least 2-feet wide. These large area displays for public viewing provide convenience, entertainment, security, and efficiency to the viewers. There are numerous uses for large screen information displays including those in advertising, transportation, traffic control, conference room presentations, computer aided design, banking, and military command/control. A noticeable characteristic of the large screen display market is the interchangeability of display types. For any given application, the user can usually choose from at least three alternative technologies, and sometimes from many more. Some display types have features that make them suitable for specific applications due to temperature, brightness, power consumption, or other such characteristic. The overall worldwide unit consumption of large screen information displays of all types and for all applications (excluding consumer TV) will increase from 401,109 units in 1995 to 655,797 units in 2002. On a unit consumption basis, applications in business and education represent the largest share of unit consumption over this time period; in 1995, this application represented 69.7% of the total. The market (value of shipments) will grow from DOL3.1 billion in 1995 to DOL3.9 billion in 2002. The market will be dominated by front LCD projectors and LCD overhead projector plates.

  3. Information technology in pharmacovigilance: Benefits, challenges, and future directions from industry perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengwu Lu

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Zhengwu LuClinical Research Department, Abbott Vascular, Santa Clara, CA, USAAbstract: Risk assessment during clinical product development needs to be conducted in a thorough and rigorous manner. However, it is impossible to identify all safety concerns during controlled clinical trials. Once a product is marketed, there is generally a large increase in the number of patients exposed, including those with comorbid conditions and those being treated with concomitant medications. Therefore, postmarketing safety data collection and clinical risk assessment based on observational data are critical for evaluating and characterizing a product’s risk profile and for making informed decisions on risk minimization. Information science promises to deliver effective e-clinical or e-health solutions to realize several core benefits: time savings, high quality, cost reductions, and increased efficiencies with safer and more efficacious medicines. The development and use of standard-based pharmacovigilance system with integration connection to electronic medical records, electronic health records, and clinical data management system holds promise as a tool for enabling early drug safety detections, data mining, results interpretation, assisting in safety decision making, and clinical collaborations among clinical partners or different functional groups. The availability of a publicly accessible global safety database updated on a frequent basis would further enhance detection and communication about safety issues. Due to recent high-profile drug safety problems, the pharmaceutical industry is faced with greater regulatory enforcement and increased accountability demands for the protection and welfare of patients. This changing climate requires biopharmaceutical companies to take a more proactive approach in dealing with drug safety and pharmacovigilance.Keywords: information technology, pharmacovigilance, safety, standard, risk management, adverse event

  4. Exploration of suitable dry etch technologies for directed self-assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Fumiko; Nishimura, Eiichi; Yatsuda, Koichi; Mochiki, Hiromasa; Bannister, Julie

    2012-03-01

    Directed self-assembly (DSA) has shown the potential to replace traditional resist patterns and provide a lower cost alternative for sub-20-nm patterns. One of the possible roadblocks for DSA implementation is the ability to etch the polymers to produce quality masks for subsequent etch processes. We have studied the effects of RF frequency and etch chemistry for dry developing DSA patterns. The results of the study showed a capacitively-coupled plasma (CCP) reactor with very high frequency (VHF) had superior pattern development after the block co-polymer (BCP) etch. The VHF CCP demonstrated minimal BCP height loss and line edge roughness (LER)/line width roughness (LWR). The advantage of CCP over ICP is the low dissociation so the etch rate of BCP is maintained low enough for process control. Additionally, the advantage of VHF is the low electron energy with a tight ion energy distribution that enables removal of the polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) with good selectivity to polystyrene (PS) and minimal LER/LWR. Etch chemistries were evaluated on the VHF CCP to determine ability to treat the BCPs to increase etch resistance and feature resolution. The right combination of RF source frequencies and etch chemistry can help overcome the challenges of using DSA patterns to create good etch results.

  5. Recent advances in severe accident technology - direct containment heating in advanced light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontana, M.H.

    1993-01-01

    The issues affecting high-pressure melt ejection (HPME) and the consequential containment pressurization from direct containment heating (DCH), as they affect advanced light water reactors (ALWRs), specifically advanced pressurized water reactors (APWRs), were reviewed by the U.S. Department of Energy Advanced Reactor Severe Accident Program (ARSAP). Recommendations from ARSAP regarding the design of APWRs to minimize DCH are embodied within the Electric Power Research Institute ALWR Utility Requirements Document, which specifies (a) a large, strong containment; (b) an in-containment refueling water storage tank; (c) a reactor cavity configuration that minimizes energy transport to the containment atmosphere; and (d) a reactor coolant system depressurization system. Experimental and analytical efforts, which have focused on current-generation plants, and analyses for APWRs were reviewed. Although DCH is a subject of continuous research and considerable uncertainties remain, it is the judgment of the ARSAP that reactors complying with the recommended design requirements would have a low probability of early containment failure due to HPME and DCH

  6. Side-by-side comparison of gene-based smallpox vaccine with MVA in nonhuman primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Joseph W; Josleyn, Matthew; Mucker, Eric M; Hung, Chien-Fu; Loudon, Peter T; Wu, T C; Hooper, Jay W

    2012-01-01

    Orthopoxviruses remain a threat as biological weapons and zoonoses. The licensed live-virus vaccine is associated with serious health risks, making its general usage unacceptable. Attenuated vaccines are being developed as alternatives, the most advanced of which is modified-vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA). We previously developed a gene-based vaccine, termed 4pox, which targets four orthopoxvirus antigens, A33, B5, A27 and L1. This vaccine protects mice and non-human primates from lethal orthopoxvirus disease. Here, we investigated the capacity of the molecular adjuvants GM-CSF and Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) to enhance the efficacy of the 4pox gene-based vaccine. Both adjuvants significantly increased protective antibody responses in mice. We directly compared the 4pox plus LT vaccine against MVA in a monkeypox virus (MPXV) nonhuman primate (NHP) challenge model. NHPs were vaccinated twice with MVA by intramuscular injection or the 4pox/LT vaccine delivered using a disposable gene gun device. As a positive control, one NHP was vaccinated with ACAM2000. NHPs vaccinated with each vaccine developed anti-orthopoxvirus antibody responses, including those against the 4pox antigens. After MPXV intravenous challenge, all control NHPs developed severe disease, while the ACAM2000 vaccinated animal was well protected. All NHPs vaccinated with MVA were protected from lethality, but three of five developed severe disease and all animals shed virus. All five NHPs vaccinated with 4pox/LT survived and only one developed severe disease. None of the 4pox/LT-vaccinated animals shed virus. Our findings show, for the first time, that a subunit orthopoxvirus vaccine delivered by the same schedule can provide a degree of protection at least as high as that of MVA.

  7. Side-by-side comparison of gene-based smallpox vaccine with MVA in nonhuman primates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph W Golden

    Full Text Available Orthopoxviruses remain a threat as biological weapons and zoonoses. The licensed live-virus vaccine is associated with serious health risks, making its general usage unacceptable. Attenuated vaccines are being developed as alternatives, the most advanced of which is modified-vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA. We previously developed a gene-based vaccine, termed 4pox, which targets four orthopoxvirus antigens, A33, B5, A27 and L1. This vaccine protects mice and non-human primates from lethal orthopoxvirus disease. Here, we investigated the capacity of the molecular adjuvants GM-CSF and Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin (LT to enhance the efficacy of the 4pox gene-based vaccine. Both adjuvants significantly increased protective antibody responses in mice. We directly compared the 4pox plus LT vaccine against MVA in a monkeypox virus (MPXV nonhuman primate (NHP challenge model. NHPs were vaccinated twice with MVA by intramuscular injection or the 4pox/LT vaccine delivered using a disposable gene gun device. As a positive control, one NHP was vaccinated with ACAM2000. NHPs vaccinated with each vaccine developed anti-orthopoxvirus antibody responses, including those against the 4pox antigens. After MPXV intravenous challenge, all control NHPs developed severe disease, while the ACAM2000 vaccinated animal was well protected. All NHPs vaccinated with MVA were protected from lethality, but three of five developed severe disease and all animals shed virus. All five NHPs vaccinated with 4pox/LT survived and only one developed severe disease. None of the 4pox/LT-vaccinated animals shed virus. Our findings show, for the first time, that a subunit orthopoxvirus vaccine delivered by the same schedule can provide a degree of protection at least as high as that of MVA.

  8. Gene-based testing of interactions in association studies of quantitative traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ma

    Full Text Available Various methods have been developed for identifying gene-gene interactions in genome-wide association studies (GWAS. However, most methods focus on individual markers as the testing unit, and the large number of such tests drastically erodes statistical power. In this study, we propose novel interaction tests of quantitative traits that are gene-based and that confer advantage in both statistical power and biological interpretation. The framework of gene-based gene-gene interaction (GGG tests combine marker-based interaction tests between all pairs of markers in two genes to produce a gene-level test for interaction between the two. The tests are based on an analytical formula we derive for the correlation between marker-based interaction tests due to linkage disequilibrium. We propose four GGG tests that extend the following P value combining methods: minimum P value, extended Simes procedure, truncated tail strength, and truncated P value product. Extensive simulations point to correct type I error rates of all tests and show that the two truncated tests are more powerful than the other tests in cases of markers involved in the underlying interaction not being directly genotyped and in cases of multiple underlying interactions. We applied our tests to pairs of genes that exhibit a protein-protein interaction to test for gene-level interactions underlying lipid levels using genotype data from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study. We identified five novel interactions that are not evident from marker-based interaction testing and successfully replicated one of these interactions, between SMAD3 and NEDD9, in an independent sample from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. We conclude that our GGG tests show improved power to identify gene-level interactions in existing, as well as emerging, association studies.

  9. A direct observation method for auditing large urban centers using stratified sampling, mobile GIS technology and virtual environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafontaine, Sean J V; Sawada, M; Kristjansson, Elizabeth

    2017-02-16

    With the expansion and growth of research on neighbourhood characteristics, there is an increased need for direct observational field audits. Herein, we introduce a novel direct observational audit method and systematic social observation instrument (SSOI) for efficiently assessing neighbourhood aesthetics over large urban areas. Our audit method uses spatial random sampling stratified by residential zoning and incorporates both mobile geographic information systems technology and virtual environments. The reliability of our method was tested in two ways: first, in 15 Ottawa neighbourhoods, we compared results at audited locations over two subsequent years, and second; we audited every residential block (167 blocks) in one neighbourhood and compared the distribution of SSOI aesthetics index scores with results from the randomly audited locations. Finally, we present interrater reliability and consistency results on all observed items. The observed neighbourhood average aesthetics index score estimated from four or five stratified random audit locations is sufficient to characterize the average neighbourhood aesthetics. The SSOI was internally consistent and demonstrated good to excellent interrater reliability. At the neighbourhood level, aesthetics is positively related to SES and physical activity and negatively correlated with BMI. The proposed approach to direct neighbourhood auditing performs sufficiently and has the advantage of financial and temporal efficiency when auditing a large city.

  10. Environmental policy and technological change: The effects of economic incentives and direct regulation on energy-saving innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, Richard G., Jr.

    Over the long run, the impacts of environmental policies will be greatly affected by the influence these policies have on the rate and direction of technological change. In particular, the roles played by energy prices and product regulation in energy-saving technology innovation are exceptionally important considerations in modeling climate change and evaluating alternative policy options. We analyze the effects of energy prices and energy-efficiency regulations on the menu of air conditioner and water heater models available on the market over a period of more than three decades, measuring their innovation in terms of improvements in the products' underlying characteristics. Through estimation of a series of "characteristics transformation surfaces," we find that during less than four decades, substantial innovation in these products reduced the total capital and operating costs of air conditioning by one-half and water heating by more than one-fifth. Although the overall rate of innovation in these products appears to be independent of energy prices and regulations, the evidence suggests that the direction of innovation may be responsive to energy price changes. This would imply that energy price increases induced innovation in a direction that lowered the capital cost tradeoffs inherent in producing more energy-efficient products. The evidence supporting "regulation-induced" changes in these tradeoffs is much weaker. Our estimates indicate that about one- to two-fifths of the energy-efficiency improvements in these products from 1973 to 1993 were associated with historical changes in energy prices. We also find that this responsiveness to price changes increased substantially after product labeling requirements came into effect, and that minimum efficiency standards had a significant positive effect on average efficiency levels. Nonetheless, a sizeable portion of historical efficiency improvements in these technologies is associated with the products' overall

  11. 75 FR 10694 - Airworthiness Directives; AeroSpace Technologies of Australia Pty Ltd Models N22B, N22S, and N24A...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-09

    ... Airworthiness Directives; AeroSpace Technologies of Australia Pty Ltd Models N22B, N22S, and N24A Airplanes... authority for Australia, has issued AD GAF-N22-52, Amendment 1, dated January 2010 (referred to after this... examining the MCAI in the AD docket. Relevant Service Information AeroSpace Technologies of Australia...

  12. Direct fabrication through electron beam melting technology of custom cranial implants designed in a PHANToM-based haptic environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzoli, Alida; Germani, Michele; Raffaeli, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    Repairing critical human skull injuries requires the production and use of customized cranial implants and involves the integration of computer aided design and manufacturing (CAD and CAM). The main causes for large cranial defects are trauma, cranial tumors, infected craniotomy bone flaps and external neurosurgical decompression. The success of reconstructive cranial surgery depends upon: the preoperative evaluation of the defect, the design and manufacturing of the implant, and the skill of the operating surgeon. Cranial implant design is usually carried out manually using CAD although this process is very time-consuming and the quality of the end product depends wholly upon the skill of the operator. This paper presents an alternative automated method for the design of custom-made cranial plates in a PHANToM ® -based haptic environment, and their direct fabrication in biocompatible metal using electron beam melting (EBM) technology.

  13. A Comprehensive Study of Key Electric Vehicle (EV Components, Technologies, Challenges, Impacts, and Future Direction of Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuad Un-Noor

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Electric vehicles (EV, including Battery Electric Vehicle (BEV, Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV, Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV, Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle (FCEV, are becoming more commonplace in the transportation sector in recent times. As the present trend suggests, this mode of transport is likely to replace internal combustion engine (ICE vehicles in the near future. Each of the main EV components has a number of technologies that are currently in use or can become prominent in the future. EVs can cause significant impacts on the environment, power system, and other related sectors. The present power system could face huge instabilities with enough EV penetration, but with proper management and coordination, EVs can be turned into a major contributor to the successful implementation of the smart grid concept. There are possibilities of immense environmental benefits as well, as the EVs can extensively reduce the greenhouse gas emissions produced by the transportation sector. However, there are some major obstacles for EVs to overcome before totally replacing ICE vehicles. This paper is focused on reviewing all the useful data available on EV configurations, battery energy sources, electrical machines, charging techniques, optimization techniques, impacts, trends, and possible directions of future developments. Its objective is to provide an overall picture of the current EV technology and ways of future development to assist in future researches in this sector.

  14. Potential of direct metal deposition technology for manufacturing thick functionally graded coatings and parts for reactors components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thivillon, L.; Bertrand, Ph.; Laget, B.; Smurov, I.

    2009-01-01

    Direct metal deposition (DMD) is an automated 3D deposition process arising from laser cladding technology with co-axial powder injection to refine or refurbish parts. Recently DMD has been extended to manufacture large-size near-net-shape components. When applied for manufacturing new parts (or their refinement), DMD can provide tailored thermal properties, high corrosion resistance, tailored tribology, multifunctional performance and cost savings due to smart material combinations. In repair (refurbishment) operations, DMD can be applied for parts with a wide variety of geometries and sizes. In contrast to the current tool repair techniques such as tungsten inert gas (TIG), metal inert gas (MIG) and plasma welding, laser cladding technology by DMD offers a well-controlled heat-treated zone due to the high energy density of the laser beam. In addition, this technology may be used for preventative maintenance and design changes/up-grading. One of the advantages of DMD is the possibility to build functionally graded coatings (from 1 mm thickness and higher) and 3D multi-material objects (for example, 100 mm-sized monolithic rectangular) in a single-step manufacturing cycle by using up to 4-channel powder feeder. Approved materials are: Fe (including stainless steel), Ni and Co alloys, (Cu,Ni 10%), WC compounds, TiC compounds. The developed coatings/parts are characterized by low porosity (<1%), fine microstructure, and their microhardness is close to the benchmark value of wrought alloys after thermal treatment (Co-based alloy Stellite, Inox 316L, stainless steel 17-4PH). The intended applications concern cooling elements with complex geometry, friction joints under high temperature and load, light-weight mechanical support structures, hermetic joints, tubes with complex geometry, and tailored inside and outside surface properties, etc

  15. Potential of direct metal deposition technology for manufacturing thick functionally graded coatings and parts for reactors components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thivillon, L.; Bertrand, Ph.; Laget, B. [Ecole Nationale d' Ingenieurs de Saint-Etienne (ENISE), DIPI Laboratory, 58 rue Jean Parot, 42023 Saint-Etienne cedex 2 (France); Smurov, I. [Ecole Nationale d' Ingenieurs de Saint-Etienne (ENISE), DIPI Laboratory, 58 rue Jean Parot, 42023 Saint-Etienne cedex 2 (France)], E-mail: smurov@enise.fr

    2009-03-31

    Direct metal deposition (DMD) is an automated 3D deposition process arising from laser cladding technology with co-axial powder injection to refine or refurbish parts. Recently DMD has been extended to manufacture large-size near-net-shape components. When applied for manufacturing new parts (or their refinement), DMD can provide tailored thermal properties, high corrosion resistance, tailored tribology, multifunctional performance and cost savings due to smart material combinations. In repair (refurbishment) operations, DMD can be applied for parts with a wide variety of geometries and sizes. In contrast to the current tool repair techniques such as tungsten inert gas (TIG), metal inert gas (MIG) and plasma welding, laser cladding technology by DMD offers a well-controlled heat-treated zone due to the high energy density of the laser beam. In addition, this technology may be used for preventative maintenance and design changes/up-grading. One of the advantages of DMD is the possibility to build functionally graded coatings (from 1 mm thickness and higher) and 3D multi-material objects (for example, 100 mm-sized monolithic rectangular) in a single-step manufacturing cycle by using up to 4-channel powder feeder. Approved materials are: Fe (including stainless steel), Ni and Co alloys, (Cu,Ni 10%), WC compounds, TiC compounds. The developed coatings/parts are characterized by low porosity (<1%), fine microstructure, and their microhardness is close to the benchmark value of wrought alloys after thermal treatment (Co-based alloy Stellite, Inox 316L, stainless steel 17-4PH). The intended applications concern cooling elements with complex geometry, friction joints under high temperature and load, light-weight mechanical support structures, hermetic joints, tubes with complex geometry, and tailored inside and outside surface properties, etc.

  16. Potential of direct metal deposition technology for manufacturing thick functionally graded coatings and parts for reactors components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thivillon, L.; Bertrand, Ph.; Laget, B.; Smurov, I.

    2009-03-01

    Direct metal deposition (DMD) is an automated 3D deposition process arising from laser cladding technology with co-axial powder injection to refine or refurbish parts. Recently DMD has been extended to manufacture large-size near-net-shape components. When applied for manufacturing new parts (or their refinement), DMD can provide tailored thermal properties, high corrosion resistance, tailored tribology, multifunctional performance and cost savings due to smart material combinations. In repair (refurbishment) operations, DMD can be applied for parts with a wide variety of geometries and sizes. In contrast to the current tool repair techniques such as tungsten inert gas (TIG), metal inert gas (MIG) and plasma welding, laser cladding technology by DMD offers a well-controlled heat-treated zone due to the high energy density of the laser beam. In addition, this technology may be used for preventative maintenance and design changes/up-grading. One of the advantages of DMD is the possibility to build functionally graded coatings (from 1 mm thickness and higher) and 3D multi-material objects (for example, 100 mm-sized monolithic rectangular) in a single-step manufacturing cycle by using up to 4-channel powder feeder. Approved materials are: Fe (including stainless steel), Ni and Co alloys, (Cu,Ni 10%), WC compounds, TiC compounds. The developed coatings/parts are characterized by low porosity (<1%), fine microstructure, and their microhardness is close to the benchmark value of wrought alloys after thermal treatment (Co-based alloy Stellite, Inox 316L, stainless steel 17-4PH). The intended applications concern cooling elements with complex geometry, friction joints under high temperature and load, light-weight mechanical support structures, hermetic joints, tubes with complex geometry, and tailored inside and outside surface properties, etc.

  17. Development of prostate cancer research database with the clinical data warehouse technology for direct linkage with electronic medical record system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, In Young; Park, Seungho; Park, Bumjoon; Chung, Byung Ha; Kim, Choung-Soo; Lee, Hyun Moo; Byun, Seok-Soo; Lee, Ji Youl

    2013-01-01

    In spite of increased prostate cancer patients, little is known about the impact of treatments for prostate cancer patients and outcome of different treatments based on nationwide data. In order to obtain more comprehensive information for Korean prostate cancer patients, many professionals urged to have national system to monitor the quality of prostate cancer care. To gain its objective, the prostate cancer database system was planned and cautiously accommodated different views from various professions. This prostate cancer research database system incorporates information about a prostate cancer research including demographics, medical history, operation information, laboratory, and quality of life surveys. And, this system includes three different ways of clinical data collection to produce a comprehensive data base; direct data extraction from electronic medical record (EMR) system, manual data entry after linking EMR documents like magnetic resonance imaging findings and paper-based data collection for survey from patients. We implemented clinical data warehouse technology to test direct EMR link method with St. Mary's Hospital system. Using this method, total number of eligible patients were 2,300 from 1997 until 2012. Among them, 538 patients conducted surgery and others have different treatments. Our database system could provide the infrastructure for collecting error free data to support various retrospective and prospective studies.

  18. Gene-based single nucleotide polymorphism markers for genetic and association mapping in common bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeano, Carlos H; Cortés, Andrés J; Fernández, Andrea C; Soler, Álvaro; Franco-Herrera, Natalia; Makunde, Godwill; Vanderleyden, Jos; Blair, Matthew W

    2012-06-26

    In common bean, expressed sequence tags (ESTs) are an underestimated source of gene-based markers such as insertion-deletions (Indels) or single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). However, due to the nature of these conserved sequences, detection of markers is difficult and portrays low levels of polymorphism. Therefore, development of intron-spanning EST-SNP markers can be a valuable resource for genetic experiments such as genetic mapping and association studies. In this study, a total of 313 new gene-based markers were developed at target genes. Intronic variation was deeply explored in order to capture more polymorphism. Introns were putatively identified after comparing the common bean ESTs with the soybean genome, and the primers were designed over intron-flanking regions. The intronic regions were evaluated for parental polymorphisms using the single strand conformational polymorphism (SSCP) technique and Sequenom MassARRAY system. A total of 53 new marker loci were placed on an integrated molecular map in the DOR364 × G19833 recombinant inbred line (RIL) population. The new linkage map was used to build a consensus map, merging the linkage maps of the BAT93 × JALO EEP558 and DOR364 × BAT477 populations. A total of 1,060 markers were mapped, with a total map length of 2,041 cM across 11 linkage groups. As a second application of the generated resource, a diversity panel with 93 genotypes was evaluated with 173 SNP markers using the MassARRAY-platform and KASPar technology. These results were coupled with previous SSR evaluations and drought tolerance assays carried out on the same individuals. This agglomerative dataset was examined, in order to discover marker-trait associations, using general linear model (GLM) and mixed linear model (MLM). Some significant associations with yield components were identified, and were consistent with previous findings. In short, this study illustrates the power of intron-based markers for linkage and association mapping in

  19. Use of integrated technology in team sports: a review of opportunities, challenges, and future directions for athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellaserra, Carla L; Gao, Yong; Ransdell, Lynda

    2014-02-01

    Integrated technology (IT), which includes accelerometers, global positioning systems (GPSs), and heart rate monitors, has been used frequently in public health. More recently, IT data have been used in sports settings to assess training and performance demands. However, the impact of IT in sports settings is yet to be evaluated, particularly in field-based team sports. This narrative-qualitative review provides an overview of the emerging impact of IT in sports settings. Twenty electronic databases (e.g., Medline, SPORTdiscus, and ScienceDirect), print publications (e.g., Signal Processing Magazine and Catapult Innovations news releases), and internet resources were searched using different combinations of keywords as follows: accelerometers, heart rate monitors, GPS, sport training, and field-based sports for relevant articles published from 1990 to the present. A total of 114 publications were identified, and 39 that examined a field-based team sport using a form of IT were analyzed. The articles chosen for analysis examined a field-based team sport using a form of IT. The uses of IT can be divided into 4 categories: (a) quantifying movement patterns (n = 22), (b) assessing the differences between demands of training and competition (n = 12), (c) measuring physiological and metabolic responses (n = 16), and (d) determining a valid definition for velocity and a sprint effort (n = 8). Most studies used elite adult male athletes as participants and analyzed the sports of Australian Rules football, field hockey, cricket, and soccer, with sample sizes between 5 and 20 participants. The limitations of IT in a sports setting include scalability issues, cost, and the inability to receive signals within indoor environments. Integrated technology can contribute to significant improvements in the preparation, training, and recovery aspects of field-based team sports. Future research should focus on using IT with female athlete populations and developing resources to use IT

  20. Comparative health technology assessment of robotic-assisted, direct manual laparoscopic and open surgery: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turchetti, Giuseppe; Pierotti, Francesca; Palla, Ilaria; Manetti, Stefania; Freschi, Cinzia; Ferrari, Vincenzo; Cuschieri, Alfred

    2017-02-01

    Despite many publications reporting on the increased hospital cost of robotic-assisted surgery (RAS) compared to direct manual laparoscopic surgery (DMLS) and open surgery (OS), the reported health economic studies lack details on clinical outcome, precluding valid health technology assessment (HTA). The present prospective study reports total cost analysis on 699 patients undergoing general surgical, gynecological and thoracic operations between 2011 and 2014 in the Italian Public Health Service, during which period eight major teaching hospitals treated the patients. The study compared total healthcare costs of RAS, DMLS and OS based on prospectively collected data on patient outcome in addition to healthcare costs incurred by the three approaches. The cost of RAS operations was significantly higher than that of OS and DMLS for both gynecological and thoracic operations (p DMLS. Total costs of general surgery RAS were significantly higher than those of OS (p DMLS general surgery. Indirect costs were significantly lower in RAS compared to both DMLS general surgery and OS gynecological surgery due to the shorter length of hospital stay of RAS approach (p < 0.001). Additionally, in all specialties compared to OS, patients treated by RAS experienced a quicker recovery and significantly less pain during the hospitalization and after discharge. The present HTA while confirming higher total healthcare costs for RAS operations identified significant clinical benefits which may justify the increased expenditure incurred by this approach.

  1. Characterization of Cr-O cermet solar selective coatings deposited by using direct-current magnetron sputtering technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kil Dong

    2006-01-01

    Cr-O (Cr-CrO) cermet solar selective coatings with a double cermet layer film structure were prepared by using a special direct-current (dc) magnetron sputtering technology. The typical film structure from the surface to the bottom substrate was an Al 2 O 3 anti-reflection layer on a double Cr-O cermet layer on an Al metal infrared reflection layer. The deposited Cr-O cermet solar selective coating had an absorptance of α = 0.93 - 0.95 and an emittance of ε = 0.09 - 0.10(100 .deg. C). The absorption layers of the Cr-O cermet coatings deposited on glass and silicon substrates were identified as being amorphous by using X-ray diffraction (XRD). Atomic force microscopy (AFM) showed that Cr-O cermet layers were very smooth and that their grain sizes were very small. The result of thermal stability test showed that the Cr-O cermet solar selective coating was stable for use at temperatures of under 400 .deg. C.

  2. Process Design and Costing of Bioethanol Technology: A Tool for Determining the Status and Direction of Research and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooley; Ruth; Glassner; Sheehan

    1999-10-01

    Bioethanol is a fuel-grade ethanol made from trees, grasses, and waste materials. It represents a sustainable substitute for gasoline in today's passenger cars. Modeling and design of processes for making bioethanol are critical tools used in the U.S. Department of Energy's bioethanol research and development program. We use such analysis to guide new directions for research and to help us understand the level at which and the time when bioethanol will achieve commercial success. This paper provides an update on our latest estimates for current and projected costs of bioethanol. These estimates are the result of very sophisticated modeling and costing efforts undertaken in the program over the past few years. Bioethanol could cost anywhere from $1.16 to $1.44 per gallon, depending on the technology and the availability of low cost feedstocks for conversion to ethanol. While this cost range opens the door to fuel blending opportunities, in which ethanol can be used, for example, to improve the octane rating of gasoline, it is not currently competitive with gasoline as a bulk fuel. Research strategies and goals described in this paper have been translated into cost savings for ethanol. Our analysis of these goals shows that the cost of ethanol could drop by 40 cents per gallon over the next ten years by taking advantage of exciting new tools in biotechnology that will improve yield and performance in the conversion process.

  3. Gender Gap in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM): Current Knowledge, Implications for Practice, Policy, and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ming-Te; Degol, Jessica L

    2017-03-01

    Although the gender gap in math course-taking and performance has narrowed in recent decades, females continue to be underrepresented in math-intensive fields of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM). Career pathways encompass the ability to pursue a career as well as the motivation to employ that ability. Individual differences in cognitive capacity and motivation are also influenced by broader sociocultural factors. After reviewing research from the fields of psychology, sociology, economics, and education over the past 30 years, we summarize six explanations for US women's underrepresentation in math-intensive STEM fields: (a) cognitive ability, (b) relative cognitive strengths, (c) occupational interests or preferences, (d) lifestyle values or work-family balance preferences, (e) field-specific ability beliefs, and (f) gender-related stereotypes and biases. We then describe the potential biological and sociocultural explanations for observed gender differences on cognitive and motivational factors and demonstrate the developmental period(s) during which each factor becomes most relevant. We then propose evidence-based recommendations for policy and practice to improve STEM diversity and recommendations for future research directions.

  4. Rapid process development of chromatographic process using direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry as a process analytical technology tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Binjun; Chen, Teng; Xu, Zhilin; Qu, Haibin

    2014-06-01

    The concept of quality by design (QbD) is widely applied in the process development of pharmaceuticals. However, the additional cost and time have caused some resistance about QbD implementation. To show a possible solution, this work proposed a rapid process development method, which used direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry (DART-MS) as a process analytical technology (PAT) tool for studying the chromatographic process of Ginkgo biloba L., as an example. The breakthrough curves were fast determined by DART-MS at-line. A high correlation coefficient of 0.9520 was found between the concentrations of ginkgolide A determined by DART-MS and HPLC. Based on the PAT tool, the impacts of process parameters on the adsorption capacity were discovered rapidly, which showed a decreased adsorption capacity with the increase of the flow rate. This work has shown the feasibility and advantages of integrating PAT into QbD implementation for rapid process development. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Direct or Directed: Orchestrating a More Harmonious Approach to Teaching Technology within an Art & Design Higher Education Curriculum with Special Reference to Visual Communications Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Lindsey; Meachem, Lester

    2007-01-01

    In this scoping study we have investigated the integration of subject-specific software into the structure of visual communications courses. There is a view that the response within visual communications courses to the rapid developments in technology has been linked to necessity rather than by design. Through perceptions of staff with day-to-day…

  6. Expanding the experience of using non-stationary waterflooding technology with changing direction of the filtration flow in the example of the Northern Buzachi field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.M. Almukhametova

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The last few years, work has been carried out to study the effectiveness of non-stationary exposure in the highly viscous oil field Northern Buzachi (Republic of Kazakhstan. It has been proved that this technology is quite effective in the development of highly viscous oil reservoirs, however, in order to constantly maintain high technological effect, a constant modification of this technology is required, since it has a characteristic feature of rapid «aging». Further search for the conditions of effective application of non-stationary exposure on highly-viscous oil deposits can be carried out in two directions: the implementation of non-stationary exposure in new areas with other reservoir parameters and the change in the parameters of non-stationary exposure technology (including combining with other technologies in areas where this technology is already in use. Both approaches are used on the Northern Buzachi field. Thus, the positive experience of using non-stationary waterflooding in combination with changing direction of the filtration flow in the section of the seventh block of the Northern Buzachi field allowed us to recommend new sites for the implementation of this technology. With the participation of the author of this work, a non-stationary waterflooding program was developed and implemented on the site of the sixth block (south of the first operational facility.

  7. Direct implantation of rapamycin-eluting stents with bioresorbable drug carrier technology utilising the Svelte coronary stent-on-a-wire: the DIRECT II study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verheye, Stefan; Khattab, Ahmed A; Carrie, Didier; Stella, Pieter; Slagboom, Ton; Bartunek, Jozef; Onuma, Yoshinobu; Serruys, Patrick W

    2016-08-05

    Our aim was to demonstrate the safety and efficacy of the Svelte sirolimus-eluting coronary stent-on-a-wire Integrated Delivery System (IDS) with bioresorbable drug coating compared to the Resolute Integrity zotarolimus-eluting stent with durable polymer in patients with de novo coronary artery lesions. Direct stenting, particularly in conjunction with transradial intervention (TRI), has been associated with reduced bleeding complications, procedure time, radiation exposure and contrast administration compared to conventional stenting with wiring and predilatation. The low-profile Svelte IDS is designed to facilitate TRI and direct stenting, reducing the number of procedural steps, time and cost associated with coronary stenting. DIRECT II was a prospective, multicentre trial which enrolled 159 patients to establish non-inferiority of the Svelte IDS versus Resolute Integrity using a 2:1 randomisation. The primary endpoint was angiographic in-stent late lumen loss (LLL) at six months. Target vessel failure (TVF), as well as secondary clinical endpoints, will be assessed annually up to five years. At six months, in-stent LLL was 0.09±0.31 mm in the Svelte IDS group compared to 0.13±0.27 mm in the Resolute Integrity group (p<0.001 for non-inferiority). TVF at one year was similar across the Svelte IDS and Resolute Integrity groups (6.5% vs. 9.8%, respectively). DIRECT II demonstrated the non-inferiority of the Svelte IDS to Resolute Integrity with respect to in-stent LLL at six months. Clinical outcomes at one year were comparable between the two groups.

  8. First Complete Genomic Sequence of a Rabies Virus from the Republic of Tajikistan Obtained Directly from a Flinders Technology Associates Card

    OpenAIRE

    Goharriz, H.; Marston, D. A.; Sharifzoda, F.; Ellis, R. J.; Horton, D. L.; Khakimov, T.; Whatmore, A.; Khamroev, K.; Makhmadshoev, A. N.; Bazarov, M.; Fooks, A. R.; Banyard, A. C.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT A brain homogenate derived from a rabid dog in the district of Tojikobod, Republic of Tajikistan, was applied to a Flinders Technology Associates (FTA) card. A full-genome sequence of rabies virus (RABV) was generated from the FTA card directly without extraction, demonstrating the utility of these cards for readily obtaining genetic data.

  9. Students' Perceptions of Teacher Impact on Their Self-Directed Language Learning with Technology beyond the Classroom: Cases of Hong Kong and U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chun; Li, Xiaoshi; Wang, Qiu

    2017-01-01

    Teachers are important social agents who affect students' cognitive and social behaviors, including students' self-directed use of technology for language learning outside the classroom. However, how teachers influence student behaviors may vary across cultures, and understanding how teacher influences vary across different cultures is critical to…

  10. Toward Understanding the Role of Web 2.0 Technology in Self-Directed Learning and Job Performance in a Single Organizational Setting: A Qualitative Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Shirley J.

    2016-01-01

    This single instrumental qualitative case study explores and thickly describes job performance outcomes based upon the manner in which self-directed learning activities of a purposefully selected sample of 3 construction managers are conducted, mediated by the use of Web 2.0 technology. The data collected revealed that construction managers are…

  11. First Complete Genomic Sequence of a Rabies Virus from the Republic of Tajikistan Obtained Directly from a Flinders Technology Associates Card.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goharriz, H; Marston, D A; Sharifzoda, F; Ellis, R J; Horton, D L; Khakimov, T; Whatmore, A; Khamroev, K; Makhmadshoev, A N; Bazarov, M; Fooks, A R; Banyard, A C

    2017-07-06

    A brain homogenate derived from a rabid dog in the district of Tojikobod, Republic of Tajikistan, was applied to a Flinders Technology Associates (FTA) card. A full-genome sequence of rabies virus (RABV) was generated from the FTA card directly without extraction, demonstrating the utility of these cards for readily obtaining genetic data. © Crown copyright 2017.

  12. Scalable Solution Processing of Pristine Carbon Nanotubes for Self-Assembled, Tunable Materials with Direct Application to Space Technologies

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Current material technologies limit space exploration and vehicle performance due to often unnecessary mass increase from copper wiring or heavy structural...

  13. Directed technical change and the adoption of CO{sub 2} abatement technology. The case of CO{sub 2} capture and storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otto, Vincent M.; Reilly, John [Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2008-11-15

    This paper studies the cost-effectiveness of combining traditional environmental policy, such as CO{sub 2}-trading schemes, and technology policy that has aims of reducing the cost and speeding the adoption of CO{sub 2} abatement technology. For this purpose, we develop a dynamic general equilibrium model that captures empirical links between CO{sub 2} emissions associated with energy use, directed technical change and the economy. We specify CO{sub 2} capture and storage (CCS) as a discrete CO{sub 2} abatement technology. We find that combining CO{sub 2}-trading schemes with an adoption subsidy is the most effective instrument to induce adoption of the CCS technology. Such a subsidy directly improves the competitiveness of the CCS technology by compensating for its markup over the cost of conventional electricity. Yet, introducing R and D subsidies throughout the entire economy leads to faster adoption of the CCS technology as well and in addition can be cost-effective in achieving the abatement target. (author)

  14. DIRECTIONS OF PREPARATION OF FUTURE TEACHERS TO THE USE OF DISTANCE LEARNING TECHNOLOGIES IN PROFESSIONAL ACTIVITY (PRAXIOLOGICAL ASPECT OF THE ACTIVITY APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana A. Boronenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to demonstrate the need of preparing future teachers to use distance learning technologies in the professional activities. Introduction in educational process of distance learning technologies contributes to improving the quality of education. Methods. The authors’ technique of preparation of students of pedagogical specialities to work in the information-educational environment is designed on the basis of the analysis and generalisation of numerous scientific publications. Results. The system of training to implementation of the distance learning technologies in the teaching activity is developed and described, consisting of the following directions: realisation within the program of the principal educational program of specialised training courses in variable-based curriculum parts; the organisation of educational and research activity of students with the use of distance learning technologies; classroom-based and extracurricular independent work of students directed to designing of teaching and learning aids and materials on the basis of distance learning technologies; application of elements of distance learning technologies for students’ teaching; attraction of students to formation of corpus of multimedia educational resources of university. The purposes, the content and expected results of each direction are specified. Scientific novelty. The authors point out that concrete scientifically wellfounded methodical recommendations for the future teachers on implementation of distance learning technologies haven’t been presented in the Russian literature till now; despite an abundance of scientifically-information sources of distance learning technologies and sufficiently high-leveled degree knowledge of the issues of its efficiency in educational activity, conditions of introduction of such technologies in high school, construction of models of distance training. Authors of article have tried to close this

  15. Weight-loss study in African-American Women: lessons learned from project take HEED and future, technologically enhanced directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Pamala J; Williams, Roger L

    2013-01-01

    African-American women are more overweight and have greater difficulty maintaining weight loss than do Caucasian women. Evidence suggests that African-American women are more successful with culturally tailored weight-loss programs. Begun in 2005, an 18-month randomized clinical trial, Project Take HEED (Healthy Eating and Exercise Decisions), culturally adapted an evidence-based dietary approach and exercise program to fit the female African-American population in an attempt to improve program attrition rates. The study was conducted with 223 African-American women (120 women in the experimental group; 103 controls), age 35 to 65 years, with a body mass index of 30 kg/m(2) or higher. The experimental group received education and instruction at 24 group sessions and were asked to record their daily food intake and physical activity. Cultural adaptation included social and spiritual components. Controls received usual care (referral to a dietitian). After 18 months, Project Take HEED demonstrated the following outcomes: ATTRITION: the treatment group consisted of 12 African-American women at the end of month 18-(an attrition rate of 87%). (It had been 70% at the end of month 15.)FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO ATTRITION INCLUDED: caregiver responsibilities, transportation difficulties, work schedules, and others. Those clients that did remain, however, provided the impetus for our next study. The remaining participants had, by and large, begun the study as being low in self-efficacy regarding weight loss and weight loss maintenance. Initial Findings: The high self-efficacy that some women had at the beginning of the intervention did not translate into the desired behavior change. The inverse relationship seen in this study suggests that treatments that improve participants' self-efficacy may result in greater weight loss. New Directions: A new study, commencing in 2013, will use at-home Web-based and virtual reality technology (avatars) in an attempt to enhance client

  16. Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Online-Offline, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on technology, on advances in such areas as aeronautics, electronics, physics, the space sciences, as well as computers and the attendant progress in medicine, robotics, and artificial intelligence. Describes educational resources for elementary and middle school students, including Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videotapes, books,…

  17. Tipping the Proteome with Gene-Based Vaccines: Weighing in on the Role of Nano materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores, K.J.; Craig, M.; Smith, J.J.; DeLong, R.K.; Wanekaya, A.; Dong, L.

    2012-01-01

    Since the first generation of DNA vaccines was introduced in 1988, remarkable improvements have been made to improve their efficacy and immunogenicity. Although human clinical trials have shown that delivery of DNA vaccines is well tolerated and safe, the potency of these vaccines in humans is somewhat less than optimal. The development of a gene-based vaccine that was effective enough to be approved for clinical use in humans would be one of, if not the most important, advance in vaccines to date. This paper highlights the literature relating to gene-based vaccines, specifically DNA vaccines, and suggests possible approaches to boost their performance. In addition, we explore the idea that combining RNA and nano materials may hold the key to successful gene-based vaccines for prevention and treatment of disease

  18. 3D technology of Sony Bloggie has no advantage in decision-making of tennis serve direction: A randomized placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sicong; Ritchie, Jason; Sáenz-Moncaleano, Camilo; Ward, Savanna K; Paulsen, Cody; Klein, Tyler; Gutierrez, Oscar; Tenenbaum, Gershon

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed at exploring whether 3D technology enhances tennis decision-making under the conceptual framework of human performance model. A 3 (skill-level: varsity, club, recreational) × 3 (experimental condition: placebo, weak 3D [W3D], strong 3D [S3D]) between-participant design was used. Allocated to experimental conditions by a skill-level stratified randomization, 105 tennis players judged tennis serve direction from video scenarios and rated their perceptions of enjoyment, flow, and presence during task performance. Results showed that varsity players made more accurate decisions than less skilled ones. Additionally, applying 3D technology to typical video displays reduced tennis players' decision-making accuracy, although wearing the 3D glasses led to a placebo effect that shortened the decision-making reaction time. The unexpected negative effect of 3D technology on decision-making was possibly due to participants being more familiar to W3D than to S3D, and relatedly, a suboptimal task-technology match. Future directions for advancing this area of research are offered. Highlights 3D technology augments binocular depth cues to tradition video displays, and thus results in the attainment of more authentic visual representation. This process enhances task fidelity in researching perceptual-cognitive skills in sports. The paper clarified both conceptual and methodological difficulties in testing 3D technology in sports settings. Namely, the nomenclature of video footage (with/without 3D technology) and the possible placebo effect (arising from wearing glasses of 3D technology) merit researchers' attention. Participants varying in level of domain-specific expertise were randomized into viewing conditions using a placebo-controlled design. Measurement consisted of both participants' subjective experience (i.e., presence, flow, and enjoyment) and objective performance (i.e., accuracy and reaction time) in a decision-making task. Findings revealed that

  19. Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Jing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional answer card reading method using OMR (Optical Mark Reader, most commonly, OMR special card special use, less versatile, high cost, aiming at the existing problems proposed a method based on pattern recognition of the answer card identification method. Using the method based on Line Segment Detector to detect the tilt of the image, the existence of tilt image rotation correction, and eventually achieve positioning and detection of answers to the answer sheet .Pattern recognition technology for automatic reading, high accuracy, detect faster

  20. DEFINITION OF PERSPECTIVE DIRECTIONS OF TRANSFERT OF TECHNOLOGIES AT THE BASE OF SWOT-ANALYSIS OF SCIENTIFIC ORGANIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    A.F. Suhovey

    2008-01-01

    This article describes approbating at Sverdlovsk region methodic of analysis of strength and weakness sides of scientific organization. Using this methodic is give possibility to define perspective directions of foundation innovation infrastructure of region.

  1. DEFINITION OF PERSPECTIVE DIRECTIONS OF TRANSFERT OF TECHNOLOGIES AT THE BASE OF SWOT-ANALYSIS OF SCIENTIFIC ORGANIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.F. Suhovey

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This article describes approbating at Sverdlovsk region methodic of analysis of strength and weakness sides of scientific organization. Using this methodic is give possibility to define perspective directions of foundation innovation infrastructure of region.

  2. Study on the generation technology of Li brocade pattern mutant genes based on the AI and Java technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuping; Zhang, Qi

    2018-04-01

    In the information environment, digital and information processing to Li brocade patterns reveals an important means of Li ethnic style and inheriting the national culture. Adobe Illustrator CS3 and Java language were used in the paper to make "variation" processing to Li brocade patterns, and generate "Li brocade pattern mutant genes". The generation of pattern mutant genes includes color mutation, shape mutation, adding and missing transform, and twisted transform, etc. Research shows that Li brocade pattern mutant genes can be generated by using the Adobe Illustrator CS3 and the image processing tools of Java language edit, etc.

  3. Flicker noise comparison of direct conversion mixers using Schottky and HBT dioderings in SiGe:C BiCMOS technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michaelsen, Rasmus Schandorph; Johansen, Tom Keinicke; Tamborg, Kjeld

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present flicker noise measurements of two X-band direct conversion mixers implemented in a SiGe:C BiCMOS technology. Both mixers use a ring structure with either Schottky diodes or diode-connected HBTs for double balanced operation. The mixers are packaged in a metal casing on a...... circuit demonstrates a 1/f noise corner frequency around 10 kHz....

  4. Competence formation of engineering directions students in the field of energy saving as a way to create new generation technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmanshin, I. R.; Gilmanshina, S. I.

    2017-09-01

    The urgency of the formation of competence in the field of energy saving in the process of studying engineering and technical disciplines at the university is substantiated. The author’s definition of the competence in the field of energy saving is given, allowing to consider the necessity of its formation among students - future engineers as a way to create technologies of a new generation. The essence of this competence is revealed. The system of work, pedagogical conditions and technologies of its formation in the conditions of the federal university is substantiated.

  5. Pea Marker Database (PMD) - A new online database combining known pea (Pisum sativum L.) gene-based markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulaeva, Olga A; Zhernakov, Aleksandr I; Afonin, Alexey M; Boikov, Sergei S; Sulima, Anton S; Tikhonovich, Igor A; Zhukov, Vladimir A

    2017-01-01

    Pea (Pisum sativum L.) is the oldest model object of plant genetics and one of the most agriculturally important legumes in the world. Since the pea genome has not been sequenced yet, identification of genes responsible for mutant phenotypes or desirable agricultural traits is usually performed via genetic mapping followed by candidate gene search. Such mapping is best carried out using gene-based molecular markers, as it opens the possibility for exploiting genome synteny between pea and its close relative Medicago truncatula Gaertn., possessing sequenced and annotated genome. In the last 5 years, a large number of pea gene-based molecular markers have been designed and mapped owing to the rapid evolution of "next-generation sequencing" technologies. However, the access to the complete set of markers designed worldwide is limited because the data are not uniformed and therefore hard to use. The Pea Marker Database was designed to combine the information about pea markers in a form of user-friendly and practical online tool. Version 1 (PMD1) comprises information about 2484 genic markers, including their locations in linkage groups, the sequences of corresponding pea transcripts and the names of related genes in M. truncatula. Version 2 (PMD2) is an updated version comprising 15944 pea markers in the same format with several advanced features. To test the performance of the PMD, fine mapping of pea symbiotic genes Sym13 and Sym27 in linkage groups VII and V, respectively, was carried out. The results of mapping allowed us to propose the Sen1 gene (a homologue of SEN1 gene of Lotus japonicus (Regel) K. Larsen) as the best candidate gene for Sym13, and to narrow the list of possible candidate genes for Sym27 to ten, thus proving PMD to be useful for pea gene mapping and cloning. All information contained in PMD1 and PMD2 is available at www.peamarker.arriam.ru.

  6. Determining the directions of increasing the innovative potential of the region by developing innovative technologies and competences when preparing and implementing large investment projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timur V. Kramin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective to determine the directions of increasing the innovative potential of a region through the development of innovative technologies and competences in the process of preparation and implementation of large investment projects in the Republic of Tatarstan. Methods methodology of project management institutional approach. Results it is proved that the main largescale directions of innovative potential development in the Republic of Tatarstan as a result of preparation and implementing of Universiade 2013 in Kazan are knowledge management information technologies risk management. It is shown that in the framework of the considered innovative areas a complete system was formed of competences of employees and managers in the fields of education trade hospitality and service. Scientific novelty the key directions were defined of increasing the innovative potential of a region through the development of innovative technologies and competences in the process of preparation and implementation of large investment projects by the example of the World Summer Student Games in Kazan in 2013. Practical significance on the basis of specific examples the authors illustrate the practiceoriented mechanism of innovative potential development of a region as a result of implementation of large investment projects. nbsp

  7. Machine learning approaches to supporting the identification of photoreceptor-enriched genes based on expression data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simpson David

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Retinal photoreceptors are highly specialised cells, which detect light and are central to mammalian vision. Many retinal diseases occur as a result of inherited dysfunction of the rod and cone photoreceptor cells. Development and maintenance of photoreceptors requires appropriate regulation of the many genes specifically or highly expressed in these cells. Over the last decades, different experimental approaches have been developed to identify photoreceptor enriched genes. Recent progress in RNA analysis technology has generated large amounts of gene expression data relevant to retinal development. This paper assesses a machine learning methodology for supporting the identification of photoreceptor enriched genes based on expression data. Results Based on the analysis of publicly-available gene expression data from the developing mouse retina generated by serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE, this paper presents a predictive methodology comprising several in silico models for detecting key complex features and relationships encoded in the data, which may be useful to distinguish genes in terms of their functional roles. In order to understand temporal patterns of photoreceptor gene expression during retinal development, a two-way cluster analysis was firstly performed. By clustering SAGE libraries, a hierarchical tree reflecting relationships between developmental stages was obtained. By clustering SAGE tags, a more comprehensive expression profile for photoreceptor cells was revealed. To demonstrate the usefulness of machine learning-based models in predicting functional associations from the SAGE data, three supervised classification models were compared. The results indicated that a relatively simple instance-based model (KStar model performed significantly better than relatively more complex algorithms, e.g. neural networks. To deal with the problem of functional class imbalance occurring in the dataset, two data re

  8. Gender Gap in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM): Current Knowledge, Implications for Practice, Policy, and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ming-Te; Degol, Jessica L.

    2017-01-01

    Although the gender gap in math course-taking and performance has narrowed in recent decades, females continue to be underrepresented in math-intensive fields of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM). Career pathways encompass the ability to pursue a career as well as the motivation to employ that ability. Individual differences…

  9. Information and Communication Technology to Facilitate Learning for Students in the Health Professions: Current Uses, Gaps, and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Ellen; Corcoran, Mary; Barnett, Jacqueline S.; Birkmeier, Marisa; Cohn, Rhea; Ekmekci, Ozgur; Falk, Nancy L.; Harrod, Thomas; Herrmann, Debra; Robinson, Sean; Walker, Bryan

    2014-01-01

    Changes in the U.S. Healthcare System along with the need for institutions of higher education to prepare a work force ready to address the challenges of today and tomorrow have highlighted the need to incorporate technology in its broadest sense as part of the student learning experience. In health professional education, this becomes challenging…

  10. OVERVIEW OF THE HISTORY, PRESENT STATUS, AND FUTURE DIRECTION OF SOLIDIFICATION/STABILIZATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solidification/stabilization (S/S) technology processes are currently being utilized in the United States to treat inorganic and organic hazardous waste and radioactive waste. These wastes are generated from operating industry or have resulted from the uncontrolled management of ...

  11. Nanopore sequencing technology and tools for genome assembly: computational analysis of the current state, bottlenecks and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senol Cali, Damla; Kim, Jeremie S; Ghose, Saugata; Alkan, Can; Mutlu, Onur

    2018-04-02

    Nanopore sequencing technology has the potential to render other sequencing technologies obsolete with its ability to generate long reads and provide portability. However, high error rates of the technology pose a challenge while generating accurate genome assemblies. The tools used for nanopore sequence analysis are of critical importance, as they should overcome the high error rates of the technology. Our goal in this work is to comprehensively analyze current publicly available tools for nanopore sequence analysis to understand their advantages, disadvantages and performance bottlenecks. It is important to understand where the current tools do not perform well to develop better tools. To this end, we (1) analyze the multiple steps and the associated tools in the genome assembly pipeline using nanopore sequence data, and (2) provide guidelines for determining the appropriate tools for each step. Based on our analyses, we make four key observations: (1) the choice of the tool for basecalling plays a critical role in overcoming the high error rates of nanopore sequencing technology. (2) Read-to-read overlap finding tools, GraphMap and Minimap, perform similarly in terms of accuracy. However, Minimap has a lower memory usage, and it is faster than GraphMap. (3) There is a trade-off between accuracy and performance when deciding on the appropriate tool for the assembly step. The fast but less accurate assembler Miniasm can be used for quick initial assembly, and further polishing can be applied on top of it to increase the accuracy, which leads to faster overall assembly. (4) The state-of-the-art polishing tool, Racon, generates high-quality consensus sequences while providing a significant speedup over another polishing tool, Nanopolish. We analyze various combinations of different tools and expose the trade-offs between accuracy, performance, memory usage and scalability. We conclude that our observations can guide researchers and practitioners in making conscious

  12. European ErP Directive. Total condensing technology: the solution for heating and DHW units in the hotel sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martín, G.

    2016-01-01

    Since 26 September 2015, the Ecodesign ErP Directive has been of compulsory application for EU Member States as regards the design of Energy-related Products (ErP) and as from its entry into force only those products manufactured according to the ErP requirements can be sold with the EC label. Although this directive affects over 1,000 product categories, for those relating to HVAC and DHW production, it covers boilers, heat pumps, accumulators, cogeneration systems, combined products systems, establishing their minimum efficiency levels, the maximum levels of NOX emissions, the minimum insulation for accumulators and the maximum level of acoustic emissions for heat pumps. (Author)

  13. Application of nanodisc technology for direct electrochemical investigation of plant cytochrome P450s and their NADPH P450 oxidoreductase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bavishi, Krutika; Laursen, Tomas; Martinez, Karen Laurence

    2016-01-01

    Direct electrochemistry of cytochrome P450 containing systems has primarily focused on investigating enzymes from microbes and animals for bio-sensing applications. Plant P450s receive electrons from NADPH P450 oxidoreductase (POR) to orchestrate the bio-synthesis of a plethora of commercially...... was electro-catalytically active while the P450s generated hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). These nanodisc-based investigations lay the prospects and guidelines for construction of a simplified platform to perform mediator-free, direct electrochemistry of non-engineered cytochromes P450 under native-like conditions...

  14. Actionable gene-based classification toward precision medicine in gastric cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Ichikawa

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intertumoral heterogeneity represents a significant hurdle to identifying optimized targeted therapies in gastric cancer (GC. To realize precision medicine for GC patients, an actionable gene alteration-based molecular classification that directly associates GCs with targeted therapies is needed. Methods A total of 207 Japanese patients with GC were included in this study. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE tumor tissues were obtained from surgical or biopsy specimens and were subjected to DNA extraction. We generated comprehensive genomic profiling data using a 435-gene panel including 69 actionable genes paired with US Food and Drug Administration-approved targeted therapies, and the evaluation of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV infection and microsatellite instability (MSI status. Results Comprehensive genomic sequencing detected at least one alteration of 435 cancer-related genes in 194 GCs (93.7% and of 69 actionable genes in 141 GCs (68.1%. We classified the 207 GCs into four The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA subtypes using the genomic profiling data; EBV (N = 9, MSI (N = 17, chromosomal instability (N = 119, and genomically stable subtype (N = 62. Actionable gene alterations were not specific and were widely observed throughout all TCGA subtypes. To discover a novel classification which more precisely selects candidates for targeted therapies, 207 GCs were classified using hypermutated phenotype and the mutation profile of 69 actionable genes. We identified a hypermutated group (N = 32, while the others (N = 175 were sub-divided into six clusters including five with actionable gene alterations: ERBB2 (N = 25, CDKN2A, and CDKN2B (N = 10, KRAS (N = 10, BRCA2 (N = 9, and ATM cluster (N = 12. The clinical utility of this classification was demonstrated by a case of unresectable GC with a remarkable response to anti-HER2 therapy in the ERBB2 cluster. Conclusions This actionable gene-based

  15. A Comprehensive Study of Key Electric Vehicle (EV) Components, Technologies, Challenges, Impacts, and Future Direction of Development

    OpenAIRE

    Fuad Un-Noor; Sanjeevikumar Padmanaban; Lucian Mihet-Popa; Mohammad Nurunnabi Mollah; Eklas Hossain

    2017-01-01

    Electric vehicles (EV), including Battery Electric Vehicle (BEV), Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV), Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV), Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle (FCEV), are becoming more commonplace in the transportation sector in recent times. As the present trend suggests, this mode of transport is likely to replace internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles in the near future. Each of the main EV components has a number of technologies that are currently in use or can become prominent in...

  16. Review of Design of Speech Recognition and Text Analytics based Digital Banking Customer Interface and Future Directions of Technology Adoption

    OpenAIRE

    Saha, Amal K

    2017-01-01

    Banking is one of the most significant adopters of cutting-edge information technologies. Since its modern era beginning in the form of paper based accounting maintained in the branch, adoption of computerized system made it possible to centralize the processing in data centre and improve customer experience by making a more available and efficient system. The latest twist in this evolution is adoption of natural language processing and speech recognition in the user interface between the hum...

  17. Current and future possibilities of V2V and I2V technologies: an analysis directed toward Augmented Reality systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancur, J. A.; Osorio-Gómez, Gilberto; Arnedo, Aida; Yarce Botero, Andrés.

    2014-06-01

    Nowadays, it is very important to explore the qualitative characteristics of autonomous mobility systems in automobiles, especially disruptive technology like Vehicle to Vehicle (V2V) and Infrastructure to Vehicle (I2V), in order to comprehend how the next generation of automobiles will be developed. In this sense, this research covers a general review about active safety in automobiles where V2V and I2V systems have been implemented; identifying the more realistic possibilities related to V2V and I2V technology and analyzing the current applications, some systems in development process and some future conceptual proposals. Mainly, it is notorious the potential development of mixing V2V and I2V systems pointing to increase the driver's attention; therefore, a configuration between these two technologies and some augmented reality system for automobiles (Head-Up Display and Head-Down Display) is proposed. There is a huge potential of implementation for this kind of configuration once the normative and the roadmap for its development can be widely established.

  18. N2Vision technology application for direct identification of commercial hydrocarbons in Trenton-Black River Formations of Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agou, S. [Productive Geoscience Exploration Inc., Whitby, ON (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    N2Vision seismic signal interpretation technology has been used to evaluate the petroleum and natural gas potential in the Trenton-Black River (TBR) formations of Ontario. The technology was developed in Russia in the 1980s to solve complex problems in frontier exploration. The N2Vision neural networks algorithm is a multilayer feed-forward neural network (MFFN) for pattern recognition and is based on data from existing wells collected over 20 years of method application. The algorithm recognizes hydrocarbons by establishing relationships between all attributes of the seismic field and data from existing wells. In Ontario, the algorithm was trained on data from many productive and non-productive wells from the researched and adjacent fields, as well as on seismic patterns of geological features obtained from the Yurubchen-Tokhom oil field in easter Siberia. The 2D seismic data was collected by different companies. It targeted shallower horizons and had non-consistent quality. The results of N2Vision were shown to be well correlated with the objective data. The common geological features of southern Ontario, Yurubchen field and the Baltic Syneclise were presented in this paper. All 3 regions are found in specific geodynamically prestressed and heated up zones that are represented primarily by shallow carbonates, leaching dolomites and highly permeable reservoirs with vertical fracturing. This paper demonstrated that the technology can greatly reduce the risk of selecting drilling locations, while significantly decreasing the cost of hydrocarbon exploration. tabs., figs.

  19. A Study on the Relationship between Self Directed Learning and Achievement in Information Technology of Students at Secondary Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaleel, Sajna; O. M., Anuroofa

    2017-01-01

    Education at any level has normally been based on some image of the future; that was not impossible in a world that was changing slowly. Today, educators are preparing learners for a world we cannot even predict, and self-directed learning has become an essential foundation for 21st century learners. In recent years teachers are giving importance…

  20. Foreign direct investment and technology spillovers in low and middle-income countries : a comparative cross-sectoral analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacob, J.; Sasso, S.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we analyse the trends in Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) flows worldwide across sectors and across value-chain activities, with a particular focus on low- and middle-income countries in comparison with advanced countries. We begin by discussing the growing fragmentation of global

  1. Demonstration of Air-Power-Assist Engine Technology for Clean Combustion and Direct Energy Recovery in Heavy Duty Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyungsuk Kang; Chun Tai

    2010-05-01

    The first phase of the project consists of four months of applied research, starting from September 1, 2005 and was completed by December 31, 2005. During this time, the project team heavily relied on highly detailed numerical modeling techniques to evaluate the feasibility of the APA technology. Specifically, (i) A GT-Power{sup TM}engine simulation model was constructed to predict engine efficiency at various operating conditions. Efficiency was defined based on the second-law thermodynamic availability. (ii) The engine efficiency map generated by the engine simulation was then fed into a simplified vehicle model, which was constructed in the Matlab/Simulink environment, to predict fuel consumption of a refuse truck on a simple collection cycle. (iii) Design and analysis work supporting the concept of retrofitting an existing Sturman Industries Hydraulic Valve Actuation (HVA) system with the modifications that are required to run the HVA system with Air Power Assist functionality. A Matlab/Simulink model was used to calculate the dynamic response of the HVA system. Computer aided design (CAD) was done in Solidworks for mechanical design and hydraulic layout. At the end of Phase I, 11% fuel economy improvement was predicted. During Phase II, the engine simulation group completed the engine mapping work. The air handling group made substantial progress in identifying suppliers and conducting 3D modelling design. Sturman Industries completed design modification of the HVA system, which was reviewed and accepted by Volvo Powertrain. In Phase II, the possibility of 15% fuel economy improvement was shown with new EGR cooler design by reducing EGR cooler outlet temperature with APA engine technology from Air Handling Group. In addition, Vehicle Simulation with APA technology estimated 4 -21% fuel economy improvement over a wide range of driving cycles. During Phase III, the engine experimental setup was initiated at VPTNA, Hagerstown, MD. Air Handling system and HVA

  2. A direct comparison amongst different technologies (aerobic granular sludge, SBR and MBR) for the treatment of wastewater contaminated by 4-chlorophenol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carucci, Alessandra; Milia, Stefano; Cappai, Giovanna; Muntoni, Aldo

    2010-01-01

    Environmental concern on chlorinated phenols is rising due to their extreme toxicity even at low concentrations and their persistency in water and soils. Since the high amount of published data often lacks in terms of uniformity, direct comparisons amongst different treatment technologies are very difficult, or even impossible. In this study, granular sludge developed in an acetate-fed Granular sludge Sequencing Batch Reactor (GSBR) was used for the aerobic degradation of low chlorinated 4-chlorophenol (4CP), with readily biodegradable sodium acetate (NaAc) as growth substrate. A conventional Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) and a Membrane BioReactor (MBR) were operated in parallel under the same 4CP influent concentrations and/or 4CP volumetric organic loading rates as the GSBR, in order to carry out a direct comparison in terms of 4CP removal efficiencies and specific removal rates, effluent quality, waste sludge production, system simplicity, land area requirement, start-up times, NaAc dosage as growth substrate and maximum applied 4CP volumetric organic loading rate. A decision matrix was built to define the best technology to suit different scenarios: the GSBR was proved to be the most suitable technology when system simplicity, low land area requirement and short start-up times were considered as critical parameters for decision making.

  3. Evaluation of PMS-PCR technology for detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis directly from bovine fecal specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado, M; Steuer, P; Troncoso, E; Collins, M T

    2013-12-27

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) causes paratuberculosis, or Johne's disease, in animals. Diagnosis of MAP infection is challenging because of the pathogen's fastidious in vitro growth requirements and low-level intermittent shedding in feces during the preclinical phase of the infection. Detection of these "low-shedders" is important for effective control of paratuberculosis as these animals serve as sources of infection for susceptible calves. Magnetic separation technology, used in combination with culture or molecular methods for the isolation and detection of pathogenic bacteria, enhances the analytical sensitivity and specificity of detection methods. The aim of the present study was to evaluate peptide-mediated magnetic separation (PMS) capture technology coupled with IS900 PCR using the Roche real-time PCR system (PMS-PCR), in comparison with fecal culture using BACTEC-MGIT 960 system, for detection of MAP in bovine fecal samples. Among the 351 fecal samples 74.9% (263/351) were PMS-PCR positive while only 12.3% (43/351) were MGIT culture-positive (p=0.0001). All 43 MGIT culture-positive samples were also positive by PMS-PCR. Mean PMS-PCR crossing-point (Cp) values for the 13 fecal samples with the highest number of MAP, based on time to detection, (26.3) were significantly lower than for the 17 fecal samples with technology provided results in a shorter time and yielded a higher number of positive results than MGIT culture. Earlier and faster detection of animals shedding MAP by PMS-PCR should significantly strengthen control efforts for MAP-infected cattle herds by helping to limit infection transmission at earlier stages of the infection. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Investigation of isotopic signals in the unsaturated zone with the use of direct push technology and azaeotropic distillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Kallioras

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper contributes to the investigation of the unsaturated zone, through the application of combined field and lab techniques. The results show that direct push methods, which are considered ideal for multilevel sampling of undisturbed soil in the unsaturated zone, proved to be effective also for the consequent extraction of the pore water for further isotopic determination. This ultimate goal can be achieved thank to the application of azaetropic distillation, which has the least isotopic fractionation effects on groundwater samples.

  5. Gene-based meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies implicates new loci involved in obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hägg, Sara; Ganna, Andrea; Van Der Laan, Sander W

    2015-01-01

    ) approach to assign variants to genes and to calculate gene-based P-values based on simulations. The VEGAS method was applied to each cohort separately before a gene-based meta-analysis was performed. In Stage 1, two known (FTO and TMEM18) and six novel (PEX2, MTFR2, SSFA2, IARS2, CEP295 and TXNDC12) loci...

  6. Development of advanced pump impeller fabrication technology using direct nano- ceramic dispersion casting for long time erosion durability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhee, Chang Kyu; Lee, Min Ku; Park, Jin Ju

    2008-09-01

    Many components of pump impeller of nuclear power plants is generally made of stainless steel and Al-bronze with superior corrosion resistance to sea water. However, they should be replaced by one- to five-year period because of material damage by a very big cavitation impact load, even though their designed durability is twenty years. Especially, in case of Young-Gwang nuclear power plant located at the west sea, damage of components of pump impeller is so critical due to the additional damage by solid particle erosion and hence their replacement period is very short as several months compared to other nuclear power plants. In addition, it is very difficult to maintain and repair the components of pump impeller since there is no database on the exact durability and damage mechanism. Therefore, in this study, fabrication technology of new advanced materials modified by dispersion of nano-carbide and -oxide ceramics into the matrix is developed first. Secondly, technology to estimate the dynamic damage by solid particle erosion is established and hence applied to the prediction of the service life of the components of pump impeller

  7. Social Media Technology and Public Health in Ontario: Findings from a Planning Meeting Exploring Current Practices and Future Research Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Richard; McMurray, Josephine; Regan, Sandra; Kothari, Anita; Donelle, Lorie; McBride, Susan; Sobel, Annette; Hall, Jodi; Fraser, Robert; Foisey, Lyndsay

    2017-01-01

    In the province of Ontario, many of the public health units (PHUs) now possess and use social media as part of their daily health promotion and communication operations. To explore this topic, a planning meeting was held to generate deeper insights toward the use of these forms of technology for preventative services delivery. The planning meeting was held with 50 participants, comprising representatives from 20 of the 36 PHUs in Ontario, interested academics, students and government representatives. A nominal group technique (NGT) was used to build consensus related to future research needs, as related to public health and social media. Participants generated a range of insights around the use of social media, including the need for: leadership buy-in and resource allocation; social media policy and governance structure; performance measurement and evaluation; practices related to engagement with program recipients and addressing the lack of resources faced by many health units. Future research priorities were also generated, related to evaluating the cost-benefit of social media activities and understanding behaviour change implications. Further research is needed to evaluate the functionality, leadership and competency requirements and impact(s) of these new forms of health communication technology within public health service delivery. Copyright © 2017 Longwoods Publishing.

  8. Power plant ash and slag waste management technological direction when Kansk-Achinsk brown coal is burned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihach Snejana A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Today resource efficiency technology development in all industries where conventional raw material is being replaced by local natural resources and industrial waste is an essential matter. Along with that most producing operations are overload with wide range of waste produced during technological process. Thermal power stations are real world evidence. Their main waste is ash and slag which accumulated in great amounts in often overfull ash dumps. The goal of present work is to find perspective ash dump waste utilization methods. The study will be based on experimentally obtained data: elementary compound and properties of Kansk-Achinsk brown coal. Research methods: experimental, chemical silicate analysis, mineralogical forms identification within samples by using ASM X-ray diffraction analysis. Experiments resulted with the following conclusions: silica is ash main component, and ash has the form of ore concentrate analogy in a number of elements. We think that ASM main properties which make it useful for utilization are: high content of calcium oxide; high ash sorption properties; ASM radiation safety class which makes them safe to be used in materials, goods, and structures production for residence and public buildings construction and reconstruction; sufficiently high content of individual elements.

  9. 多向可调节柔性连接式石材幕墙施工技术%Multi Direction Adjustable Connection Stone Curtain Wall Construction Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨军

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces a new type of surface stone curtain wall construction technology, the technology used to adjust the flexible back bolt of the multi direction can be adjusted, improved the construction efficiency of special⁃shaped curved surface stone, irregular curved surface stone curtain wall facade effect can be better.%介绍了一种新的异形曲面石材幕墙施工技术,该技术运用多向可调节柔性背栓的多向可调节性,提高了异形曲面石材的施工效率,异形曲面石材幕墙的外立面效果得以更好呈现。

  10. Justification of directions of technological and price audit systems changes for the purpose of high-rise construction innovating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogacheva, Yana; Panenkov, Andrey; Petrikova, Zinaida; Nezhnikova, Ekaterina

    2018-03-01

    Improving the quality of high-rise buildings under modern conditions should be based not only on compliance with the norms of technical regulations, but also on ensuring energy efficiency, environmental friendliness, and intellectuality, which can be achieved only through the introduction of innovations at all stages of the life cycle of the investment project. Authors of this article justified the need for a mechanism of technological and price audit of projects. They also suggested the model of life cycle of organizational and economic changes, connected with implantation of the mechanism of projects audit. They showed innovation character of ecological high-rise construction for the whole life cycle. Authors also made proposals to change the audit system for high-rise construction projects in the focus of its environmental friendliness.

  11. Justification of directions of technological and price audit systems changes for the purpose of high-rise construction innovating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogacheva Yana

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Improving the quality of high-rise buildings under modern conditions should be based not only on compliance with the norms of technical regulations, but also on ensuring energy efficiency, environmental friendliness, and intellectuality, which can be achieved only through the introduction of innovations at all stages of the life cycle of the investment project. Authors of this article justified the need for a mechanism of technological and price audit of projects. They also suggested the model of life cycle of organizational and economic changes, connected with implantation of the mechanism of projects audit. They showed innovation character of ecological high-rise construction for the whole life cycle. Authors also made proposals to change the audit system for high-rise construction projects in the focus of its environmental friendliness.

  12. A comparative efficacy study of photic driving brainwave entrainment technology with a novel form of more direct entrainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Richard Thomas

    This exploratory study compared the efficacy of a novel brainwave electromagnetic (EM) entrainment technology against a more conventional technology utilizing the photic-driving technique. Both experimental conditions were also compared with a 7-minute control session that took place immediately before each stimulation session. The Schumann Resonance (SR) frequency was selected as the delivery signal and was chosen because of previous findings suggesting that entrainment to this frequency can often produce transpersonal if not paranormal, experiences in the entrainee, which sometimes resemble remote viewing or out-of-body experiences. A pilot study determined which of two novel entrainment modalities (a copper coil or a 16-solenoid headset) worked most effectively for use with the rest of the study. In the main study, an artificial SR signal at 7.8Hz was delivered during the photic-driving sessions, but a recording of the real-time SR was used to deliver the entrainment signal during sessions devoted to the electromagnetic entrainment modality. Sixteen participants were recruited from the local area, and EEG recordings were acquired via a 32-channel Deymed electroencephalography system. Comparative analyses were performed between the control and experimental portions of each session to assess for efficacy of the novel entrainment modality used, and, in the main study, between the electromagnetic and photic-driving sessions, to assess for differential entrainment efficacy between these groups. A follow-up study was additionally performed primarily to determine whether responders could replicate their entrainment effect from the main study. Results showed that EM entrainment appeared to be possible but is not nearly as robust or reliable as photic driving. Additionally, no profound transpersonal or paranormal experiences were elicited during the course of the study, and, when asked, participants were not able to determine with any degree of success, when the

  13. A novel safety device with metal counter meshing gears discriminator directly driven by axial flux permanent magnet micromotors based on MEMS technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weiping; Chen, Wenyuan; Zhao, Xiaolin; Li, Shengyong; Jiang, Yong

    2005-08-01

    In a novel safety device based on MEMS technology for high consequence systems, the discriminator consists of two groups of metal counter meshing gears and two pawl/ratchet wheel mechanisms. Each group of counter meshing gears is onepiece and driven directly by an axial flux permanent magnet micromotor respectively. The energy-coupling element is an optical shutter with two collimators and a coupler wheel. The safety device's probability is less than 1/106. It is fabricated by combination of an LiGA-like process and precision mechanical engineering. The device has simple structure, few dynamic problems, high strength and strong reliability.

  14. UNIVERSITY RESEARCH PROGRAMS IN ROBOTICS, TECHNOLOGIES FOR MICROELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS IN DIRECTED STOCKPILE WORK RADIATION AND ENGINEERING CAMPAIGNS - 2005-06 FINAL ANNUAL REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James S. Tulenko; Dean Schoenfeld; David Hintenlang; Carl Crane; Shannon Ridgeway; Jose Santiago; Charles Scheer

    2006-11-30

    The research performed by the University of Florida (UF) is directed to the development of technologies that can be utilized at a micro-scale in varied environments. Work is focused on micro-scale energy systems, visualization, and mechanical devices. This work will impact the NNSA need related to micro-assembly operations. The URPR activities are executed in a University environment, yet many applications of the resulting technologies may be classified or highly restrictive in nature. The NNSA robotics technologists apply an NNSA needs focus to the URPR research, and actively work to transition relevant research into the deployment projects in which they are involved. This provides a “Research to Development to Application” structure within which innovative research has maximum opportunity for impact without requiring URPR researchers to be involved in specific NNSA projects. URPR researchers need to be aware of the NNSA applications in order to ensure the research being conducted has relevance, the URPR shall rely upon the NNSA sites for direction.

  15. Future technology of the spark-ignition engine: spray-guided direct injection with piezo injector; Die Zukunftstechnologie des Ottomotors: Strahlgefuehrte Direkteinspritzung mit Piezo-Injektor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waltner, A.; Lueckert, P.; Schaupp, U.; Rau, E.; Kemmler, R.; Weller, R. [DaimlerChrysler AG, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    The completely new-style second-generation direct-injection for spark-ignition engines from Mercedes-Benz offers clear improvements in fuel consumption, power and emission levels. Faced with the necessity of further reducing fuel consumption, primarily in spark-ignition engines, the Mercedes-Benz combustion system represents a significant leap in technology. It was possible to noticeably expand the mapping range in which stratified operation can be used compared with the first generation. This significant improvement in efficiency results in more useable energy and a substantial reduction in consumption in city traffic, and also on cross-country and highway trips at roughly constant speeds. These benefits make themselves felt not only in the test cycle, but also in the real-world consumption achieved by the customer. Development proceeded from the base aspirated engine on the principle of the modular expansion of technology. Since production development of this combustion system was not possible using the hydraulic and ignition components available on the market, a new outward-opening piezo fuel injector had to be developed for production readiness, along with a 200-bar high-pressure fuel system, which is being introduced here for the first time world-wide. The injection spray stability and excellent mixture preparation that it achieves produce an optimally combustible mixture at the spark plug. The potential of multiple injection, along with stability in stratified operation, brings further benefits and possibilities for direct injection in fuel consumption and emissions. (orig.)

  16. UNIVERSITY RESEARCH PROGRAMS IN ROBOTICS, TECHNOLOGIES FOR MICROELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS IN DIRECTED STOCKPILE WORK RADIATION AND ENGINEERING CAMPAIGNS - 2005-2006 FINAL ANNUAL REPORT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James S. Tulenko; Dean Schoenfeld; David Hintenlang; Carl Crane; Shannon Ridgeway; Jose Santiago; Charles Scheer

    2006-01-01

    The research performed by the University of Florida (UF) is directed to the development of technologies that can be utilized at a micro-scale in varied environments. Work is focused on micro-scale energy systems, visualization, and mechanical devices. This work will impact the NNSA need related to micro-assembly operations. The URPR activities are executed in a University environment, yet many applications of the resulting technologies may be classified or highly restrictive in nature. The NNSA robotics technologists apply an NNSA needs focus to the URPR research, and actively work to transition relevant research into the deployment projects in which they are involved. This provides a ''Research to Development to Application'' structure within which innovative research has maximum opportunity for impact without requiring URPR researchers to be involved in specific NNSA projects. URPR researchers need to be aware of the NNSA applications in order to ensure the research being conducted has relevance, the URPR shall rely upon the NNSA sites for direction

  17. A State-of-the-Art Review on Soil Reinforcement Technology Using Natural Plant Fiber Materials: Past Findings, Present Trends and Future Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivakumar Gowthaman

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Incorporating sustainable materials into geotechnical applications increases day by day due to the consideration of impacts on healthy geo-environment and future generations. The environmental issues associated with conventional synthetic materials such as cement, plastic-composites, steel and ashes necessitate alternative approaches in geotechnical engineering. Recently, natural fiber materials in place of synthetic material have gained momentum as an emulating soil-reinforcement technique in sustainable geotechnics. However, the natural fibers are innately different from such synthetic material whereas behavior of fiber-reinforced soil is influenced not only by physical-mechanical properties but also by biochemical properties. In the present review, the applicability of natural plant fibers as oriented distributed fiber-reinforced soil (ODFS and randomly distributed fiber-reinforced soil (RDFS are extensively discussed and emphasized the inspiration of RDFS based on the emerging trend. Review also attempts to explore the importance of biochemical composition of natural-fibers on the performance in subsoil reinforced conditions. The treatment methods which enhances the behavior and lifetime of fibers, are also presented. While outlining the current potential of fiber reinforcement technology, some key research gaps have been highlighted at their importance. Finally, the review briefly documents the future direction of the fiber reinforcement technology by associating bio-mediated technological line.

  18. A State-of-the-Art Review on Soil Reinforcement Technology Using Natural Plant Fiber Materials: Past Findings, Present Trends and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowthaman, Sivakumar; Nakashima, Kazunori; Kawasaki, Satoru

    2018-04-04

    Incorporating sustainable materials into geotechnical applications increases day by day due to the consideration of impacts on healthy geo-environment and future generations. The environmental issues associated with conventional synthetic materials such as cement, plastic-composites, steel and ashes necessitate alternative approaches in geotechnical engineering. Recently, natural fiber materials in place of synthetic material have gained momentum as an emulating soil-reinforcement technique in sustainable geotechnics. However, the natural fibers are innately different from such synthetic material whereas behavior of fiber-reinforced soil is influenced not only by physical-mechanical properties but also by biochemical properties. In the present review, the applicability of natural plant fibers as oriented distributed fiber-reinforced soil (ODFS) and randomly distributed fiber-reinforced soil (RDFS) are extensively discussed and emphasized the inspiration of RDFS based on the emerging trend. Review also attempts to explore the importance of biochemical composition of natural-fibers on the performance in subsoil reinforced conditions. The treatment methods which enhances the behavior and lifetime of fibers, are also presented. While outlining the current potential of fiber reinforcement technology, some key research gaps have been highlighted at their importance. Finally, the review briefly documents the future direction of the fiber reinforcement technology by associating bio-mediated technological line.

  19. Remotely-Supervised Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS for Clinical Trials: Guidelines for Technology and Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leigh E Charvet

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS is cumulative. Treatment protocols typically require multiple consecutive sessions spanning weeks or months. However, traveling to clinic for a tDCS session can present an obstacle to subjects and their caregivers. With modified devices and headgear, tDCS treatment can be administered remotely under clinical supervision, potentially enhancing recruitment, throughput, and convenience. Here we propose standards and protocols for clinical trials utilizing remotely-supervised tDCS with the goal of providing safe, reproducible and well-tolerated stimulation therapy outside of the clinic. The recommendations include: 1 training of staff in tDCS treatment and supervision, 2 assessment of the user’s capability to participate in tDCS remotely, 3 ongoing training procedures and materials including assessments of the user and/or caregiver, 4 simple and fail-safe electrode preparation techniques and tDCS headgear, 5 strict dose control for each session, 6 ongoing monitoring to quantify compliance (device preparation, electrode saturation/placement, stimulation protocol, with corresponding corrective steps as required, 7 monitoring for treatment-emergent adverse effects, 8 guidelines for discontinuation of a session and/or study participation including emergency failsafe procedures tailored to the treatment population’s level of need. These guidelines are intended to provide a minimal level of methodological rigor for clinical trials seeking to apply tDCS outside a specialized treatment center. We outline indication-specific applications (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Depression, Multiple Sclerosis, Palliative Care following these recommendations that support a standardized framework for evaluating the tolerability and reproducibility of remote-supervised tDCS that, once established, will allow for translation of tDCS clinical trials to a greater size and range of patient populations.

  20. A Nonlinear Model for Gene-Based Gene-Environment Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Sa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A vast amount of literature has confirmed the role of gene-environment (G×E interaction in the etiology of complex human diseases. Traditional methods are predominantly focused on the analysis of interaction between a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP and an environmental variable. Given that genes are the functional units, it is crucial to understand how gene effects (rather than single SNP effects are influenced by an environmental variable to affect disease risk. Motivated by the increasing awareness of the power of gene-based association analysis over single variant based approach, in this work, we proposed a sparse principle component regression (sPCR model to understand the gene-based G×E interaction effect on complex disease. We first extracted the sparse principal components for SNPs in a gene, then the effect of each principal component was modeled by a varying-coefficient (VC model. The model can jointly model variants in a gene in which their effects are nonlinearly influenced by an environmental variable. In addition, the varying-coefficient sPCR (VC-sPCR model has nice interpretation property since the sparsity on the principal component loadings can tell the relative importance of the corresponding SNPs in each component. We applied our method to a human birth weight dataset in Thai population. We analyzed 12,005 genes across 22 chromosomes and found one significant interaction effect using the Bonferroni correction method and one suggestive interaction. The model performance was further evaluated through simulation studies. Our model provides a system approach to evaluate gene-based G×E interaction.

  1. KMgene: a unified R package for gene-based association analysis for complex traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Qi; Fang, Zhou; Chen, Wei; Stegle, Oliver

    2018-02-09

    In this report, we introduce an R package KMgene for performing gene-based association tests for familial, multivariate or longitudinal traits using kernel machine (KM) regression under a generalized linear mixed model (GLMM) framework. Extensive simulations were performed to evaluate the validity of the approaches implemented in KMgene. http://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/KMgene. qi.yan@chp.edu or wei.chen@chp.edu. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press.

  2. Preparation of BAT (best available technology) instruction sheets for the EIPPC Directive; Erarbeiten von BVT(Beste-Verfuegbare-Technik)-Merkblaettern zur EG-IVU-Richtlinie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lange, M.; Reichel, A. [Umweltbundesamt, Berlin (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    Council Directive 96/61/EC of 24/09/1996, which deals with integrated pollution prevention and control (IPPC Directive), aims for a high standard of protection for the environment as a whole: thus, it makes the construction of large industrial plants contingent on an integrated licensing procedure with public participation. Determining emission limit values on the basis of the best available technology (BAT) forms the core element of the licensing procedure. The requirements of the IPPC Directive are to be transposed into national law by 30/10/1999. To provide a framework for Article 16 (2), the European Commission has swiftly and purposefully organised an exchange of information for determining what is to be considered the best technology available. This has involved the preparation of BTA instruction sheets for industrial sectors affected by the IPPC Directive. This paper reports on the organisational structure and content of the information exchange accompanying the preparation of the BAT instruction sheets. It also provides information on the goals and organisation of the German contribution, in which the Federal Environmental Office plays a pivotal role as ''National Focal Point''. [German] Die Richtlinie 96/61/EG des Rates vom 24.09.1996 ueber die integrierte Vermeidung und Verminderung der Umweltverschmutzung (IVU-Richtlinie) zielt auf ein hohes Schutzniveau fuer die Umwelt als Ganzes; sie verlangt fuer grosse Industrieanlagen eine integrierte Genehmigung mit Oeffentlichkeitsbeteiligung. Kernelement der Anlagengenehmigung ist die Festlegung von Emissionsgrenzwerten auf der Grundlage der Besten Verfuegbaren Techniken (BVT). Die Anforderungen der IVU-Richtlinie sind bis zum 30.10.1999 in nationales Recht umzusetzen. Die Europaeische Kommission hat fruehzeitig und zielstrebig zur Ausfuellung von Artikel 16(2) im Hinblick auf die Ermittlung der Besten Verfuegbaren Techniken einen Informationsaustausch organisiert. Dabei werden BVT

  3. Twelve-bit 20-GHz reduced size pipeline accumulator in 0.25 μm SiGe:C technology for direct digital synthesiser applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Brian Sveistrup; Khafaji, M. M.; Johansen, T. K.

    2012-01-01

    /Fmax of 180/220 GHz. The accumulator architecture omits the pre-skewing registers of the pipeline, thereby lowering both power consumption and circuit complexity. Some limitations to this design are discussed and the necessary equations for determining the phase jump encountered each time the control word...... (synthesised frequency) is changed are presented. For many applications employing signal processing after detection, this phase shift can then be corrected for. Compared to a full pipeline architecture (omitting the input circuitry for the most significant bit, as is customary for such designs......This article presents a 20 GHz, 12-bit pipeline accumulator with a reduced number of registers, suitable for direct digital synthesiser (DDS) applications. The accumulator is implemented in the IHP SG25H1 (0.25 μm) SiGe:C technology featuring heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBTs) with Ft...

  4. Twelve-bit 20-GHz reduced size pipeline accumulator in 0.25 µm SiGe:C technology for direct digital synthesiser applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Brian Sveistrup; Khafaji, M. Mahdi; Johansen, Tom Keinicke

    2012-01-01

    /Fmax of 180/220 GHz respectively. The accumulator architecture omits the pre-skewing registers of the pipeline, thereby lowering both power consumption and circuit complexity. Some limitations to this design are discussed and the necessary equations for determining the phase jump encountered each time......This article presents a 20 GHz, 12-bit pipeline accumulator with a reduced number of registers, suitable for direct digital synthesizer (DDS) applications. The accumulator is implemented in the IHP SG25H1 (0.25um) SiGe:C technology featuring heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBT) with Ft...... the control word (synthesized frequency) is changed are presented. For many applications employing signal processing after detection, this phase shift can then be corrected for. Compared to a full pipeline architecture, the implemented 12-bit accumulator reduces the number of registers by 55% and the power...

  5. Weighted functional linear regression models for gene-based association analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belonogova, Nadezhda M; Svishcheva, Gulnara R; Wilson, James F; Campbell, Harry; Axenovich, Tatiana I

    2018-01-01

    Functional linear regression models are effectively used in gene-based association analysis of complex traits. These models combine information about individual genetic variants, taking into account their positions and reducing the influence of noise and/or observation errors. To increase the power of methods, where several differently informative components are combined, weights are introduced to give the advantage to more informative components. Allele-specific weights have been introduced to collapsing and kernel-based approaches to gene-based association analysis. Here we have for the first time introduced weights to functional linear regression models adapted for both independent and family samples. Using data simulated on the basis of GAW17 genotypes and weights defined by allele frequencies via the beta distribution, we demonstrated that type I errors correspond to declared values and that increasing the weights of causal variants allows the power of functional linear models to be increased. We applied the new method to real data on blood pressure from the ORCADES sample. Five of the six known genes with P models. Moreover, we found an association between diastolic blood pressure and the VMP1 gene (P = 8.18×10-6), when we used a weighted functional model. For this gene, the unweighted functional and weighted kernel-based models had P = 0.004 and 0.006, respectively. The new method has been implemented in the program package FREGAT, which is freely available at https://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/FREGAT/index.html.

  6. Nano technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, In Sik

    2002-03-01

    This book is introduction of nano technology, which describes what nano technology is, alpha and omega of nano technology, the future of Korean nano technology and human being's future and nano technology. The contents of this book are nano period is coming, a engine of creation, what is molecular engineering, a huge nano technology, technique on making small things, nano materials with exorbitant possibility, the key of nano world the most desirable nano technology in bio industry, nano development plan of government, the direction of development for nano technology and children of heart.

  7. Directions in advanced reactor technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golay, M.W.

    1990-01-01

    Successful nuclear power plant concepts must simultaneously performance in terms of both safety and economics. To be attractive to both electric utility companies and the public, such plants must produce economical electric energy consistent with a level of safety which is acceptable to both the public and the plant owner. Programs for reactor development worldwide can be classified according to whether the reactor concept pursues improved safety or improved economic performance as the primary objective. When improved safety is the primary goal, safety enters the solution of the design problem as a constraint which restricts the set of allowed solutions. Conversely, when improved economic performance is the primary goal, it is allowed to be pursued only to an extent which is compatible with stringent safety requirements. The three major reactor coolants under consideration for future advanced reactor use are water, helium and sodium. Reactor development programs focuses upon safety and upon economics using each coolant are being pursued worldwide. These programs are discussed

  8. Technologies for hydrogen production based on direct contact of gaseous hydrocarbons and evaporated water with Molten Pb or Pb-Bi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulevich, A. V.; Martynov, P. N.; Gulevsky, V. A.; Ulyanov, V. V.

    2007-01-01

    Results of studies intended for the substantiation of a new energy-saving and safe technology for low cost hydrogen production have been presented. The technology's basis is direct mixing of water and (or) gaseous hydrocarbons with heavy liquid metal coolants (HLMC) Pb or Pb-Bi. Preliminary research has been done on thermal dynamics and kinetics of the processes taking place in the interaction of HLMC with hydrocarbon-containing gases. It has been shown as a result that water and gaseous hydrocarbons interact with molten Pb and Pb-Bi relatively quietly in chemical aspect (without ignition and explosions). Therefore, (and taking into account the thermal physics, physical and chemical properties of HLMC such as low pressure of saturated vapor of Pb and Pb- Bi in enhanced temperatures, their good heat conductivity and heat capacity, low viscosity, etc.) heat transfer is possible from the molten metal to water and hydrocarbons without heat transferring partitions (that is, by direct contact of the working media). Devices to implement this method of heating liquid and gaseous media provide essential advantages: - A simple design; - None heat-transferring surfaces subject to corrosion, contamination, thermal fatigue, vibration impacts; - A high effectiveness owing to a larger heat exchanging surface per volume unit; - A small hydraulic resistance. The possibility and effectiveness of heating various gaseous and liquid media in their direct contact with molten Pb and Pb-Bi has been substantiated convincingly by experimental results at IPPE. Besides, the following processes of hydrogen-containing media conversion have been proved feasible thereby. 1. Water decomposition into hydrogen and oxygen. The process can develop at temperatures of 400-1000 degree C. It is necessary to provide constant removal of oxygen from the reaction zone and maintain a minimum possible content of chemically active oxygen in the melt. 2. Pyrolytic decomposition of hydrocarbons into carbon and

  9. Future direction of direct writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nam-Soo; Han, Kenneth N.

    2010-11-01

    Direct write technology using special inks consisting of finely dispersed metal nanoparticles in liquid is receiving an undivided attention in recent years for its wide range of applicability in modern electronic industry. The application of this technology covers radio frequency identification-tag (RFID-tag), flexible-electronics, organic light emitting diodes (OLED) display, e-paper, antenna, bumpers used in flip-chip, underfilling, frit, miniresistance applications and biological uses, artificial dental applications and many more. In this paper, the authors have reviewed various direct write technologies on the market and discussed their advantages and shortfalls. Emphasis has given on microdispensing deposition write (MDDW), maskless mesoscale materials deposition (M3D), and ink-jet technologies. All of these technologies allow printing various patterns without employing a mask or a resist with an enhanced speed with the aid of computer. MDDW and M3D are capable of drawing patterns in three-dimension and MDDW, in particular, is capable of writing nanoinks with high viscosity. However, it is still far away for direct write to be fully implemented in the commercial arena. One of the hurdles to overcome is in manufacturing conductive inks which are chemically and physically stable, capable of drawing patterns with acceptable conductivity, and also capable of drawing patterns with acceptable adhesiveness with the substrates. The authors have briefly discussed problems involved in manufacturing nanometal inks to be used in various writing devices. There are numerous factors to be considered in manufacturing such inks. They are reducing agents, concentrations, oxidation, compact ability allowing good conductivity, and stability in suspension.

  10. Identification and characterization of gene-based SSR markers in date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Yongli

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L. is an important tree in the Middle East and North Africa due to the nutritional value of its fruit. Molecular Breeding would accelerate genetic improvement of fruit tree through marker assisted selection. However, the lack of molecular markers in date palm restricts the application of molecular breeding. Results In this study, we analyzed 28,889 EST sequences from the date palm genome database to identify simple-sequence repeats (SSRs and to develop gene-based markers, i.e. expressed sequence tag-SSRs (EST-SSRs. We identified 4,609 ESTs as containing SSRs, among which, trinucleotide motifs (69.7% were the most common, followed by tetranucleotide (10.4% and dinucleotide motifs (9.6%. The motif AG (85.7% was most abundant in dinucleotides, while motifs AGG (26.8%, AAG (19.3%, and AGC (16.1% were most common among trinucleotides. A total of 4,967 primer pairs were designed for EST-SSR markers from the computational data. In a follow up laboratory study, we tested a sample of 20 random selected primer pairs for amplification and polymorphism detection using genomic DNA from date palm cultivars. Nearly one-third of these primer pairs detected DNA polymorphism to differentiate the twelve date palm cultivars used. Functional categorization of EST sequences containing SSRs revealed that 3,108 (67.4% of such ESTs had homology with known proteins. Conclusion Date palm EST sequences exhibits a good resource for developing gene-based markers. These genic markers identified in our study may provide a valuable genetic and genomic tool for further genetic research and varietal development in date palm, such as diversity study, QTL mapping, and molecular breeding.

  11. Study of device mass production capability of the character projection based electron beam direct writing process technology toward 14 nm node and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Yoshinori; Takahashi, Yasushi; Takakuwa, Masaki; Ohshio, Shuzo; Sugatani, Shinji; Tujimura, Ryo; Takita, Hiroshi; Ogino, Kozo; Hoshino, Hiromi; Ito, Yoshio; Miyajima, Masaaki; Kon, Jun-ichi

    2012-03-01

    Techniques to appropriately control the key factors for a character projection (CP) based electron beam direct writing (EBDW) technology for mass production are shown and discussed. In order to achieve accurate CD control, the CP technique using the master CP is adopted. Another CP technique, the Packed CP, is used to obtain suitable shot count. For the alignment on the some critical layers which have the normally an even surface, the alignment methodology differ from photolithography is required. The process that etches the SiO2 material in the shallow trench isolation is added and then the alignment marks can be detected using electron beam even at the gate layer, which is normally on an even surface. The proximity effect correction using the simplified electron energy flux model and the hybrid exposure are used to obtain enough process margins. As a result, the sufficient CD accuracy, overlay accuracy, and yield are obtained on the 65 nm node device. The condition in our system is checked using self-diagnosis on a regular basis, and scheduled maintenances have been properly performed. Due to the proper system control, more than 10,000 production wafers have been successfully exposed so far without any major system downtime. It is shown that those techniques can be adapted to the 32 nm node production with slight modifications. For the 14 nm node and beyond, however, the drastic increment of the shot count becomes more of a concern. The Multi column cell (MCC) exposure method, the key concept of which is the parallelization of the electron beam columns with a CP, can overcome this concern. It is expected that by using the MCC exposure system, those techniques will be applicable to the rapid establishment for the 14 nm node technology.

  12. Direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry, a process analytical technology tool for real-time process monitoring in botanical drug manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Zeng, Shanshan; Chen, Teng; Qu, Haibin

    2014-03-01

    A promising process analytical technology (PAT) tool has been introduced for batch processes monitoring. Direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry (DART-MS), a means of rapid fingerprint analysis, was applied to a percolation process with multi-constituent substances for an anti-cancer botanical preparation. Fifteen batches were carried out, including ten normal operations and five abnormal batches with artificial variations. The obtained multivariate data were analyzed by a multi-way partial least squares (MPLS) model. Control trajectories were derived from eight normal batches, and the qualification was tested by R(2) and Q(2). Accuracy and diagnosis capability of the batch model were then validated by the remaining batches. Assisted with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) determination, process faults were explained by corresponding variable contributions. Furthermore, a batch level model was developed to compare and assess the model performance. The present study has demonstrated that DART-MS is very promising in process monitoring in botanical manufacturing. Compared with general PAT tools, DART-MS offers a particular account on effective compositions and can be potentially used to improve batch quality and process consistency of samples in complex matrices. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The application of gene-based technologies in the study of Newcastle disease virus isolates from Uganda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otim, M.O.; Bisgaard, M.; Christensen, H.; Jorgensen, P.; Handberg, K.

    2005-01-01

    Molecular techniques were used to characterize 16 Newcastle disease (ND) Virus (NDV) isolates from ND outbreaks in chickens in eastern Uganda in 2001, and evaluate ND epidemiology, with emphasis on molecular aspects. F and HN genes, which are the major determinants of virulence, were studied. Strain pathogenicity was derived from genetic analysis of the F gene sequence and intracerebral pathogenicity index (ICPI). Comparative genetic and phylogenetic tree analyses were performed on the HN genes of the isolates and some strains selected from GenBank. ClustalX 1.81 and Phylip were used for gene alignment analysis and the final phylogeny was produced by the neighbour-joining method. F gene cleavage site sequence analysis, phylogenetic analysis and biological characterization showed that the strains were very virulent and closely related, being of common ancestry. All the Ugandan NDV isolates formed separate clades from the currently known genotypes, suggesting that they are a novel genotype, unrelated to those that have caused previous pandemics. (author)

  14. Sensitive detection of novel Indian isolate of BTV 21 using ns1 gene based real-time PCR assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaya Prasad

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study was conducted to develop ns1 gene based sensitive real-time RT-PCR assay for diagnosis of India isolates of bluetongue virus (BTV. Materials and Methods: The BTV serotype 21 isolate (KMNO7 was isolated from Andhra Pradesh and propagated in BHK-21 cell line in our laboratory. The Nucleic acid (dsRNA of virus was extracted using Trizol method and cDNA was prepared using a standard protocol. The cDNA was allowed to ns1 gene based group specific PCR to confirm the isolate as BTV. The viral RNA was diluted 10 folds and the detection limit of ns1 gene based RT-PCR was determined. Finally the tenfold diluted viral RNA was subjected to real-time RT-PCR using ns1 gene primer and Taq man probe to standardized the reaction and determine the detection limit. Results: The ns1 gene based group specific PCR showed a single 366bp amplicon in agarose gel electrophoresis confirmed the sample as BTV. The ns1 gene RT-PCR using tenfold diluted viral RNA showed the detection limit of 70.0 fg in 1%agarose gel electrophoresis. The ns1 gene based real time RT-PCR was successfully standardized and the detection limit was found to be 7.0 fg. Conclusion: The ns1 gene based real-time RT-PCR was successfully standardized and it was found to be 10 times more sensitive than conventional RT-PCR. Key words: bluetongue, BTV21, RT-PCR, Real time RT-PCR, ns1 gene [Vet World 2013; 6(8.000: 554-557

  15. Shikonin enhances efficacy of a gene-based cancer vaccine via induction of RANTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Hui-Ming

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Shikonin, a phytochemical purified from Lithospermum erythrorhizon, has been shown to confer diverse pharmacological activities, including accelerating granuloma formation, wound healing, anti-inflammation and others, and is explored for immune-modifier activities for vaccination in this study. Transdermal gene-based vaccine is an attractive approach for delivery of DNA transgenes encoding specific tumor antigens to host skin tissues. Skin dendritic cells (DCs, a potent antigen-presenting cell type, is known to play a critical role in transmitting and orchestrating tumor antigen-specific immunities against cancers. The present study hence employs these various components for experimentation. Method The mRNA and protein expression of RANTES were detected by RT-PCR and ELISA, respectively. The regional expression of RANTES and tissue damage in test skin were evaluated via immunohistochemistry assay. Fluorescein isothiocyanate sensitization assay was performed to trace the trafficking of DCs from the skin vaccination site to draining lymph nodes. Adjuvantic effect of shikonin on gene gun-delivered human gp100 (hgp100 DNA cancer vaccine was studied in a human gp100-transfected B16 (B16/hgp100 tumor model. Results Among various phytochemicals tested, shikonin induced the highest level of expression of RANTES in normal skin tissues. In comparison, mouse RANTES cDNA gene transfection induced a higher level of mRANTES expression for a longer period, but caused more extensive skin damage. Topical application of shikonin onto the immunization site before gene gun-mediated vaccination augmented the population of skin DCs migrating into the draining lymph nodes. A hgp100 cDNA gene vaccination regimen with shikonin pretreatment as an adjuvant in a B16/hgp100 tumor model increased cytotoxic T lymphocyte activities in splenocytes and lymph node cells on target tumor cells. Conclusion Together, our findings suggest that shikonin can

  16. The contribution of Earth observation technologies to the reporting obligations of the Habitats Directive and Natura 2000 network in a protected wetland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Regos

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Wetlands are highly productive systems that supply a host of ecosystem services and benefits. Nonetheless, wetlands have been drained and filled to provide sites for building houses and roads and for establishing farmland, with an estimated worldwide loss of 64–71% of wetland systems since 1900. In Europe, the Natura 2000 network is the cornerstone of current conservation strategies. Every six years, Member States must report on implementation of the European Habitats Directive. The present study aims to illustrate how Earth observation (EO technologies can contribute to the reporting obligations of the Habitats Directive and Natura 2000 network in relation to wetland ecosystems. Methods We analysed the habitat changes that occurred in a protected wetland (in NW Spain, 13 years after its designation as Natura 2000 site (i.e., between 2003 and 2016. For this purpose, we analysed optical multispectral bands and water-related and vegetation indices derived from data acquired by Landsat 7 TM, ETM+ and Landsat 8 OLI sensors. To quantify the uncertainty arising from the algorithm used in the classification procedure and its impact on the change analysis, we compared the habitat change estimates obtained using 10 different classification algorithms and two ensemble classification approaches (majority and weighted vote. Results The habitat maps derived from the ensemble approaches showed an overall accuracy of 94% for the 2003 data (Kappa index of 0.93 and of 95% for the 2016 data (Kappa index of 0.94. The change analysis revealed important temporal dynamics between 2003 and 2016 for the habitat classes identified in the study area. However, these changes depended on the classification algorithm used. The habitat maps obtained from the two ensemble classification approaches showed a reduction in habitat classes dominated by salt marshes and meadows (24.6–26.5%, natural and semi-natural grasslands (25.9–26.5% or sand dunes (20.7–20

  17. Gene-based vaccine development for improving animal production in developing countries. Possibilities and constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egerton, J.R.

    2005-01-01

    For vaccine production, recombinant antigens must be protective. Identifying protective antigens or candidate antigens is an essential precursor to vaccine development. Even when a protective antigen has been identified, cloning of its gene does not lead directly to vaccine development. The fimbrial protein of Dichelobacter nodosus, the agent of foot-rot in ruminants, was known to be protective. Recombinant vaccines against this infection are ineffective if expressed protein subunits are not assembled as mature fimbriae. Antigenic competition between different, but closely related, recombinant antigens limited the use of multivalent vaccines based on this technology. Recombinant antigens may need adjuvants to enhance response. DNA vaccines, potentiated with genes for different cytokines, may replace the need for aggressive adjuvants, and especially where cellular immunity is essential for protection. The expression of antigens from animal pathogens in plants and the demonstration of some immunity to a disease like rinderpest after ingestion of these, suggests an alternative approach to vaccination by injection. Research on disease pathogenesis and the identification of candidate antigens is specific to the disease agent. The definition of expression systems and the formulation of a vaccine for each disease must be followed by research to establish safety and efficacy. Where vaccines are based on unique gene sequences, the intellectual property is likely to be protected by patent. Organizations, licensed to produce recombinant vaccines, expect to recover their costs and to make a profit. The consequence is that genetically-derived vaccines are expensive. The capacity of vaccines to help animal owners of poorer countries depends not only on quality and cost but also on the veterinary infrastructure where they are used. Ensuring the existence of an effective animal health infrastructure in developing countries is as great a challenge for the developed world as

  18. Optimal consistency in microRNA expression analysis using reference-gene-based normalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xi; Gardiner, Erin J; Cairns, Murray J

    2015-05-01

    Normalization of high-throughput molecular expression profiles secures differential expression analysis between samples of different phenotypes or biological conditions, and facilitates comparison between experimental batches. While the same general principles apply to microRNA (miRNA) normalization, there is mounting evidence that global shifts in their expression patterns occur in specific circumstances, which pose a challenge for normalizing miRNA expression data. As an alternative to global normalization, which has the propensity to flatten large trends, normalization against constitutively expressed reference genes presents an advantage through their relative independence. Here we investigated the performance of reference-gene-based (RGB) normalization for differential miRNA expression analysis of microarray expression data, and compared the results with other normalization methods, including: quantile, variance stabilization, robust spline, simple scaling, rank invariant, and Loess regression. The comparative analyses were executed using miRNA expression in tissue samples derived from subjects with schizophrenia and non-psychiatric controls. We proposed a consistency criterion for evaluating methods by examining the overlapping of differentially expressed miRNAs detected using different partitions of the whole data. Based on this criterion, we found that RGB normalization generally outperformed global normalization methods. Thus we recommend the application of RGB normalization for miRNA expression data sets, and believe that this will yield a more consistent and useful readout of differentially expressed miRNAs, particularly in biological conditions characterized by large shifts in miRNA expression.

  19. Selective area growth of InAs nanowires from SiO2/Si(1 1 1) templates direct-written by focused helium ion beam technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Che-Wei; Chen, Wei-Chieh; Chou, Chieh; Lin, Hao-Hsiung

    2018-02-01

    We report on the selective area growth of InAs nanowires on patterned SiO2/Si (1 1 1) nano-holes, prepared by focused helium ion beam technology. We used a single spot mode, in which the focused helium ion beam was fixed on a single point with a He+-ion dosage, ranging from 1.5 pC to 8 pC, to drill the nano-holes. The smallest hole diameter achieved is ∼8 nm. We found that low He+-ion dosage is able to facilitate the nucleation of (1 1 1)B InAs on the highly mismatched Si, leading to the vertical growth of InAs nanowires (NWs). High He-ion dosage, on the contrary, severely damaged Si surface, resulting in tilted and stripe-like NWs. In addition to titled NW grown from (1 1 1)A InAs domain, a new titled growth direction due to defect induced twinning was observed. Cross-sectional TEM images of vertical NWs show mixed wurtizite (WZ) and zincblende (ZB) phases, while WZ phase dominants. The stacking faults resulting from the phase change is proportional to NW diameter, suggesting that the critical diameter of phase turning is larger than 110 nm, the maximum diameter of our NWs. Period of misfit dislocation at the InAs/Si interface of vertical NW is also found larger than the theoretical value when the diameter of heterointerface is smaller than 50 nm, indicating that the small contact area is able to accommodate the large lattice and thermal mismatch between InAs and Si.

  20. Additive manufacturing technology (direct metal laser sintering) as a novel approach to fabricate functionally graded titanium implants: preliminary investigation of fabrication parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wei-Shao; Starr, Thomas L; Harris, Bryan T; Zandinejad, Amirali; Morton, Dean

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the preliminary findings of the mechanical properties of functionally graded titanium with controlled distribution of porosity and a reduced Young's modulus on the basis of a computeraided design (CAD) file, using the rapid-prototyping, direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) technique. Sixty specimens of Ti-6Al-4V were created using a DMLS machine (M270) following the standard for tensile testing of metals. One group was fabricated with only 170 W of laser energy to create fully dense specimens (control group). The remaining specimens all featured an outer fully dense "skin" layer and a partially sintered porous inner "core" region. The outer "skin" of each specimen was scanned at 170 W and set at a thickness of 0.35, 1.00, or 1.50 mm for different specimen groups. The inner "core" of each specimen was scanned at a lower laser power (43 or 85 W). The partially sintered core was clearly visible in all specimens, with somewhat greater porosity with the lower laser power. However, the amount of porosity in the core region was not related to the laser power alone; thinner skin layers resulted in higher porosity for the same power values in the core structure. The lowest Young's modulus achieved, 35 GPa, is close to that of bone and was achieved with a laser power of 43 W and a skin thickness of 0.35 mm, producing a core that comprised 74% of the total volume. Additive manufacturing technology may provide an efficient alternative way to fabricate customized dental implants based on a CAD file with a functionally graded structure that may minimize stress shielding and improve the long-term performance of dental implants.

  1. Statistics on gene-based laser speckles with a small number of scatterers: implications for the detection of polymorphism in the Chlamydia trachomatis omp1 gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulyanov, Sergey S.; Ulianova, Onega V.; Zaytsev, Sergey S.; Saltykov, Yury V.; Feodorova, Valentina A.

    2018-04-01

    The transformation mechanism for a nucleotide sequence of the Chlamydia trachomatis gene into a speckle pattern has been considered. The first and second-order statistics of gene-based speckles have been analyzed. It has been demonstrated that gene-based speckles do not obey Gaussian statistics and belong to the class of speckles with a small number of scatterers. It has been shown that gene polymorphism can be easily detected through analysis of the statistical characteristics of gene-based speckles.

  2. Tsw gene-based resistance is triggered by a functional RNA silencing suppressor protein of the Tomato spotted wilt virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ronde, de D.; Butterbach, P.B.E.; Lohuis, H.; Hedil, M.; Lent, van J.W.M.; Kormelink, R.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    As a result of contradictory reports, the avirulence (Avr) determinant that triggers Tsw gene-based resistance in Capsicum annuum against the Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) is still unresolved. Here, the N and NSs genes of resistance-inducing (RI) and resistance-breaking (RB) isolates were cloned

  3. Illustrating, Quantifying, and Correcting for Bias in Post-hoc Analysis of Gene-Based Rare Variant Tests of Association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelsey E. Grinde

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available To date, gene-based rare variant testing approaches have focused on aggregating information across sets of variants to maximize statistical power in identifying genes showing significant association with diseases. Beyond identifying genes that are associated with diseases, the identification of causal variant(s in those genes and estimation of their effect is crucial for planning replication studies and characterizing the genetic architecture of the locus. However, we illustrate that straightforward single-marker association statistics can suffer from substantial bias introduced by conditioning on gene-based test significance, due to the phenomenon often referred to as “winner's curse.” We illustrate the ramifications of this bias on variant effect size estimation and variant prioritization/ranking approaches, outline parameters of genetic architecture that affect this bias, and propose a bootstrap resampling method to correct for this bias. We find that our correction method significantly reduces the bias due to winner's curse (average two-fold decrease in bias, p < 2.2 × 10−6 and, consequently, substantially improves mean squared error and variant prioritization/ranking. The method is particularly helpful in adjustment for winner's curse effects when the initial gene-based test has low power and for relatively more common, non-causal variants. Adjustment for winner's curse is recommended for all post-hoc estimation and ranking of variants after a gene-based test. Further work is necessary to continue seeking ways to reduce bias and improve inference in post-hoc analysis of gene-based tests under a wide variety of genetic architectures.

  4. Low-Power, Rad-hard Reconfigurable, Bi-directional Flexfet™ Level Shifter ReBiLS for Multiple Generation Technology Integration for Space Exploration, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The many different generations of integrated circuit (IC) technologies required for new space exploration systems demand designs operate at multiple and often...

  5. INTERACTIVE 3D SYSTEMS OF VIRTUAL REALITY AS ONE OF THE DIRECTIONS FOR EVOLUTION OF DISTANCE LEARNING TECHNOLOGIES IN HIGHER SCOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Д В Сенашенко

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article describes history of 3D virtual interactive technology developing and gives story of it’s using for different business companies and universities. Statistical analysis of target audience is provided. Features of such systems are described. Particularly author mentions functionality and advantages of 3D-systmes as one of long-term distant learning technology during educational program realization and formulates arguments for introduction of this technology to distant education systems of Russian Higher school. Discusses usability of it for distance learning in high school.

  6. Comparison of Current Regulatory Status for Gene-Based Vaccines in the U.S., Europe and Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshikazu Nakayama

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Gene-based vaccines as typified by plasmid DNA vaccines and recombinant viral-vectored vaccines are expected as promising solutions against infectious diseases for which no effective prophylactic vaccines exist such as HIV, dengue virus, Ebola virus and malaria, and for which more improved vaccines are needed such as tuberculosis and influenza virus. Although many preclinical and clinical trials have been conducted to date, no DNA vaccines or recombinant viral-vectored vaccines expressing heterologous antigens for human use have yet been licensed in the U.S., Europe or Japan. In this research, we describe the current regulatory context for gene-based prophylactic vaccines against infectious disease in the U.S., Europe, and Japan. We identify the important considerations, in particular, on the preclinical assessments that would allow these vaccines to proceed to clinical trials, and the differences on the regulatory pathway for the marketing authorization in each region.

  7. Radiation Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The conference was organized to evaluate the application directions of radiation technology in Vietnam and to utilize the Irradiation Centre in Hanoi with the Co-60 source of 110 kCi. The investigation and study of technico-economic feasibility for technology development to various items of food and non-food objects was reported. (N.H.A)

  8. Illustrating, Quantifying, and Correcting for Bias in Post-hoc Analysis of Gene-Based Rare Variant Tests of Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinde, Kelsey E.; Arbet, Jaron; Green, Alden; O'Connell, Michael; Valcarcel, Alessandra; Westra, Jason; Tintle, Nathan

    2017-01-01

    To date, gene-based rare variant testing approaches have focused on aggregating information across sets of variants to maximize statistical power in identifying genes showing significant association with diseases. Beyond identifying genes that are associated with diseases, the identification of causal variant(s) in those genes and estimation of their effect is crucial for planning replication studies and characterizing the genetic architecture of the locus. However, we illustrate that straightforward single-marker association statistics can suffer from substantial bias introduced by conditioning on gene-based test significance, due to the phenomenon often referred to as “winner's curse.” We illustrate the ramifications of this bias on variant effect size estimation and variant prioritization/ranking approaches, outline parameters of genetic architecture that affect this bias, and propose a bootstrap resampling method to correct for this bias. We find that our correction method significantly reduces the bias due to winner's curse (average two-fold decrease in bias, p bias and improve inference in post-hoc analysis of gene-based tests under a wide variety of genetic architectures. PMID:28959274

  9. Evaluation of Gene-Based Family-Based Methods to Detect Novel Genes Associated With Familial Late Onset Alzheimer Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria V. Fernández

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Gene-based tests to study the combined effect of rare variants on a particular phenotype have been widely developed for case-control studies, but their evolution and adaptation for family-based studies, especially studies of complex incomplete families, has been slower. In this study, we have performed a practical examination of all the latest gene-based methods available for family-based study designs using both simulated and real datasets. We examined the performance of several collapsing, variance-component, and transmission disequilibrium tests across eight different software packages and 22 models utilizing a cohort of 285 families (N = 1,235 with late-onset Alzheimer disease (LOAD. After a thorough examination of each of these tests, we propose a methodological approach to identify, with high confidence, genes associated with the tested phenotype and we provide recommendations to select the best software and model for family-based gene-based analyses. Additionally, in our dataset, we identified PTK2B, a GWAS candidate gene for sporadic AD, along with six novel genes (CHRD, CLCN2, HDLBP, CPAMD8, NLRP9, and MAS1L as candidate genes for familial LOAD.

  10. Rapid, simple and direct detection of Meloidogyne hapla from infected root galls using loop-mediated isothermal amplification combined with FTA technology

    OpenAIRE

    Peng, Huan; Long, Haibo; Huang, Wenkun; Liu, Jing; Cui, Jiangkuan; Kong, Lingan; Hu, Xianqi; Gu, Jianfeng; Peng, Deliang

    2017-01-01

    The northern root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne hapla) is a damaging nematode that has caused serious economic losses worldwide. In the present study, a sensitive, simple and rapid method was developed for detection of M. hapla in infested plant roots by combining a Flinders Technology Associates (FTA) card with loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP). The specific primers of LAMP were designed based on the distinction of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences between M. hapla and oth...

  11. Rapid, simple and direct detection of Meloidogyne hapla from infected root galls using loop-mediated isothermal amplification combined with FTA technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Huan; Long, Haibo; Huang, Wenkun; Liu, Jing; Cui, Jiangkuan; Kong, Lingan; Hu, Xianqi; Gu, Jianfeng; Peng, Deliang

    2017-04-03

    The northern root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne hapla) is a damaging nematode that has caused serious economic losses worldwide. In the present study, a sensitive, simple and rapid method was developed for detection of M. hapla in infested plant roots by combining a Flinders Technology Associates (FTA) card with loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP). The specific primers of LAMP were designed based on the distinction of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences between M. hapla and other Meloidogyne spp. The LAMP assay can detect nematode genomic DNA at concentrations low to 1/200 000, which is 100 times more sensitive than conventional PCR. The LAMP was able to highly specifically distinguish M. hapla from other closely related nematode species. Furthermore, the advantages of the FTA-LAMP assay to detect M. hapla were demonstrated by assaying infected root galls that were artificially inoculated. In addition, M. hapla was successfully detected from six of forty-two field samples using FTA-LAMP technology. This study was the first to provide a simple diagnostic assay for M. hapla using the LAMP assay combined with FTA technology. In conclusion, the new FTA-LAMP assay has the potential for diagnosing infestation in the field and managing the pathogen M. hapla.

  12. Quantifying the direct and indirect rebound effects for consumers as a response to energy-saving technologies in the EU-27

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, J.; Poliakov, E.V.

    2015-01-01

    We estimate the rebound effect for residential space heating at the EU-27 level, which occurs when an improvement in energy efficiency results in additional energy consumption. Three types of rebound effects are distinguished, namely the direct effect, indirect effect and the embodied energy. We

  13. Transcriptome sequencing of different narrow-leafed lupin tissue types provides a comprehensive uni-gene assembly and extensive gene-based molecular markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamphuis, Lars G; Hane, James K; Nelson, Matthew N; Gao, Lingling; Atkins, Craig A; Singh, Karam B

    2015-01-01

    Narrow-leafed lupin (NLL; Lupinus angustifolius L.) is an important grain legume crop that is valuable for sustainable farming and is becoming recognized as a human health food. NLL breeding is directed at improving grain production, disease resistance, drought tolerance and health benefits. However, genetic and genomic studies have been hindered by a lack of extensive genomic resources for the species. Here, the generation, de novo assembly and annotation of transcriptome datasets derived from five different NLL tissue types of the reference accession cv. Tanjil are described. The Tanjil transcriptome was compared to transcriptomes of an early domesticated cv. Unicrop, a wild accession P27255, as well as accession 83A:476, together being the founding parents of two recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations. In silico predictions for transcriptome-derived gene-based length and SNP polymorphic markers were conducted and corroborated using a survey assembly sequence for NLL cv. Tanjil. This yielded extensive indel and SNP polymorphic markers for the two RIL populations. A total of 335 transcriptome-derived markers and 66 BAC-end sequence-derived markers were evaluated, and 275 polymorphic markers were selected to genotype the reference NLL 83A:476 × P27255 RIL population. This significantly improved the completeness, marker density and quality of the reference NLL genetic map. PMID:25060816

  14. Primary Care DirectConnect: How the Marriage of Call Center Technology and the EMR Brought Dramatic Results—A Service Quality Improvement Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Brent; Smith, Scott

    2010-01-01

    Of the key Health Plan patient satisfaction measures used in Kaiser Permanente Colorado, ease of contacting the physician's office with a medical question was consistently rated as the lowest quarterly patient satisfaction measure. Furthermore, medical office staff had become dissatisfied with their inability to contact patients who had previously left messages. In addition to the shear volume of messages, the return calls were often unanswered, leading to subsequent attempts to reach patients, creating additional work for medical office staff. DirectConnect—the project name for a system and set of processes focused on improving patient satisfaction with the ability to contact Primary Care delivery teams by telephone—focuses on isolating medical advice calls from the other types of calls handled by the centralized Call Center. The system identifies the patient using his/her unique electronic medical record number, then automatically routes medical advice calls directly to the appropriate Primary Care Physician (PCP) or staff. The clinician may then evaluate and respond to the patient's need quickly, thus managing more of their panel's requests in real time. How is DirectConnect different from simply having the patient contact their PCP's office directly? The primary difference is “one-number” convenience that allows all patients to dial one number to access their PCP's team. In addition, calls are routed to various staff as available to reduce long telephone queues and wait times. The DirectConnect system has resulted in statistically significant improvement in key service quality measures. Patient satisfaction improved from a pre-implementation nine quarter mean of 55.9% to a post-implementation 12 quarter mean of 70.2%. Fourteen percent to 17% of all Primary Care calls are now handled by the patient's home medical office team, creating a 54% improvement in the centralized Call Center's speed of answering calls in the first quarter post implementation

  15. Direct stamp of technology or origin on the genotypic and phenotypic variation of indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae population in a natural model of boiled grape juice fermentation into traditional Msalais wine in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Li-Xia; Wang, Guan-Qiong; Xue, Ju-Lan; Gou, Dong-Qi; Duan, Chang-Qing

    2017-08-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains worldwide show genetic and phenotypic diversity and their population substructures are greatly affected by their technological application or geographical origins. Msalais is a traditional wine obtained via a unique method of spontaneous fermentation of local boiled grape juice in Southern Xinjiang. We analyzed 436 indigenous S. cerevisiae strains associated with Msalais fermentation. These strains were highly diverse with respect to the interdelta region and 24 phenotypic traits, with apparent differentiation according to strain origins and technologies used to produce Msalais. The genetic and phenotypic diversity of strains from traditional workshops was higher than in strains from modern plants. These local strains had different origin- or technology-specific fermentative characteristics. Strains growing in large-scale fermentation tanks tolerated high temperature, whereas strains from traditional workshops tolerated high alcohol content (16%) and low temperature (13°C). Almost all the strains were characterized by the highest fermenting vigor, with weak H2S production and no histamine, cadaverine, phenethylamine and tryptamine production. Majority of strains had pronounced autolytic activity with high β-glucosidase and polygalacturonase activity and alcohol production. Our study reveals a direct stamp of technology or origin on genotypic and phenotypic variation of an indigenous S. cerevisiae population. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. The main directions in technology investigation of soid oxide fuel cell in Russian Federal Research Center Institute of Physics & Power Engineering (IPPE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ievleva, J.I.; Kolesnikov, V.P.; Mezhertisky, G.S. [and others

    1996-04-01

    The main direction of science investigations for creation of efficient solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) in IPPE are considered in this work. The development program of planar SOFC with thin-film electrolyte is shown. General design schemes of experimental SOFC units are presented. The flow design schemes of processes for initial materials and electrodes fabrication are shown. The results of investigations for creation thin-film solid oxide electrolyte at porous cathode by magnetron sputtering from complex metal target in oxidative environment are presented.

  17. Encoded library technology as a source of hits for the discovery and lead optimization of a potent and selective class of bactericidal direct inhibitors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis InhA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Encinas, Lourdes; O'Keefe, Heather; Neu, Margarete; Remuiñán, Modesto J; Patel, Amish M; Guardia, Ana; Davie, Christopher P; Pérez-Macías, Natalia; Yang, Hongfang; Convery, Maire A; Messer, Jeff A; Pérez-Herrán, Esther; Centrella, Paolo A; Alvarez-Gómez, Daniel; Clark, Matthew A; Huss, Sophie; O'Donovan, Gary K; Ortega-Muro, Fátima; McDowell, William; Castañeda, Pablo; Arico-Muendel, Christopher C; Pajk, Stane; Rullás, Joaquín; Angulo-Barturen, Iñigo; Alvarez-Ruíz, Emilio; Mendoza-Losana, Alfonso; Ballell Pages, Lluís; Castro-Pichel, Julia; Evindar, Ghotas

    2014-02-27

    Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the world's oldest and deadliest diseases, killing a person every 20 s. InhA, the enoyl-ACP reductase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is the target of the frontline antitubercular drug isoniazid (INH). Compounds that directly target InhA and do not require activation by mycobacterial catalase peroxidase KatG are promising candidates for treating infections caused by INH resistant strains. The application of the encoded library technology (ELT) to the discovery of direct InhA inhibitors yielded compound 7 endowed with good enzymatic potency but with low antitubercular potency. This work reports the hit identification, the selected strategy for potency optimization, the structure-activity relationships of a hundred analogues synthesized, and the results of the in vivo efficacy studies performed with the lead compound 65.

  18. Screening, early detection, education, and trends for melanoma: current status (2007-2013) and future directions: Part I. Epidemiology, high-risk groups, clinical strategies, and diagnostic technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Jonathan E; Swetter, Susan M; Fu, Teresa; Geller, Alan C

    2014-10-01

    While most cancers have shown both decreased incidence and mortality over the past several decades, the incidence of melanoma has continued to grow, and mortality has only recently stabilized in the United States and in many other countries. Certain populations, such as men >60 years of age and lower socioeconomic status groups, face a greater burden from disease. For any given stage and across all ages, men have shown worse melanoma survival than women, and low socioeconomic status groups have increased levels of mortality. Novel risk factors can help identify populations at greatest risk for melanoma and can aid in targeted early detection. Risk assessment tools have been created to identify high-risk patients based on various factors, and these tools can reduce the number of patients needed to screen for melanoma detection. Diagnostic techniques, such as dermatoscopy and total body photography, and new technologies, such as multispectral imaging, may increase the accuracy and reliability of early melanoma detection. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Gene-Based Genome-Wide Association Analysis in European and Asian Populations Identified Novel Genes for Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Zhu

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is a complex autoimmune disease. Using a gene-based association research strategy, the present study aims to detect unknown susceptibility to RA and to address the ethnic differences in genetic susceptibility to RA between European and Asian populations.Gene-based association analyses were performed with KGG 2.5 by using publicly available large RA datasets (14,361 RA cases and 43,923 controls of European subjects, 4,873 RA cases and 17,642 controls of Asian Subjects. For the newly identified RA-associated genes, gene set enrichment analyses and protein-protein interactions analyses were carried out with DAVID and STRING version 10.0, respectively. Differential expression verification was conducted using 4 GEO datasets. The expression levels of three selected 'highly verified' genes were measured by ELISA among our in-house RA cases and controls.A total of 221 RA-associated genes were newly identified by gene-based association study, including 71'overlapped', 76 'European-specific' and 74 'Asian-specific' genes. Among them, 105 genes had significant differential expressions between RA patients and health controls at least in one dataset, especially for 20 genes including 11 'overlapped' (ABCF1, FLOT1, HLA-F, IER3, TUBB, ZKSCAN4, BTN3A3, HSP90AB1, CUTA, BRD2, HLA-DMA, 5 'European-specific' (PHTF1, RPS18, BAK1, TNFRSF14, SUOX and 4 'Asian-specific' (RNASET2, HFE, BTN2A2, MAPK13 genes whose differential expressions were significant at least in three datasets. The protein expressions of two selected genes FLOT1 (P value = 1.70E-02 and HLA-DMA (P value = 4.70E-02 in plasma were significantly different in our in-house samples.Our study identified 221 novel RA-associated genes and especially highlighted the importance of 20 candidate genes on RA. The results addressed ethnic genetic background differences for RA susceptibility between European and Asian populations and detected a long list of overlapped or ethnic specific RA

  20. 圆阵列MUSIC算法快速测向技术%Fast Direction Finding Technology Based on MUSIC Algorithm with Circular Array

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张兴良; 阮怀林; 王树亮

    2011-01-01

    大量的乘法运算和三角函数求值是MUSIC算法实时处理能力不足的主要原因.对MUSIC算法复数乘法进行分解并构造两个实值向量,利用Hermite矩阵的性质去掉冗余乘法运算.在此基础上,提出两种查表法代替三角函数求值:直接查表法,完全避免三角函数求值运算;间接查表法,即对方位角信息和俯仰角信息分别查表,具有较好的信号频率适应性.利用圆阵列结构特征和三角函数对称性减少查表法的数据量,直接查表法仍需较大的存储空间,而间接查表法只需要很小的存储空间.仿真实验结果表明查表法大幅提高了MUSIC算法的计算速率.%The MUSIC algorithm is abundant in the multiplication and the evaluation of trigonometric functions. It is the main reason why it is weak in real-time processing. The complex multiplication of MUSIC algorithm is decomposed and two real vectors are constructed.The redundant multiplication is removed by the properties of Hermite matrix. Based on this,two look-up-table methods are proposed to replace the evaluations of trigonometric functions.One is the direct method, in which all the evaluations of trigonometric functions are avoided.The other is the indirect method, in which the information of azimuth angle and the information of elevation angle are looked up respectively. The latter method has the better adaptability of signal frequency. Using the structural features of circular array and the symmetry properties of trigonometric functions, the data quantity of look-up-table is reduced. The direct method needs much more memory space than the indirect one. Simulation results show that these methods raise the rate of MUSIC algorithm dramatically.

  1. Generation of Novel Single-Chain Antibodies by Phage-Display Technology to Direct Imaging Agents Highly Selective to Pancreatic β- or α-Cells In Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueberberg, Sandra; Meier, Juris J.; Waengler, Carmen; Schechinger, Wolfgang; Dietrich, Johannes W.; Tannapfel, Andrea; Schmitz, Inge; Schirrmacher, Ralf; Köller, Manfred; Klein, Harald H.; Schneider, Stephan

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Noninvasive determination of pancreatic β-cell mass in vivo has been hampered by the lack of suitable β-cell–specific imaging agents. This report outlines an approach for the development of novel ligands homing selectively to islet cells in vivo. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS To generate agents specifically binding to pancreatic islets, a phage library was screened for single-chain antibodies (SCAs) on rat islets using two different approaches. 1) The library was injected into rats in vivo, and islets were isolated after a circulation time of 5 min. 2) Pancreatic islets were directly isolated, and the library was panned in the islets in vitro. Subsequently, the identified SCAs were extensively characterized in vitro and in vivo. RESULTS We report the generation of SCAs that bind highly selective to either β- or α-cells. These SCAs are internalized by target cells, disappear rapidly from the vasculature, and exert no toxicity in vivo. Specific binding to β- or α-cells was detected in cell lines in vitro, in rats in vivo, and in human tissue in situ. Electron microscopy demonstrated binding of SCAs to the endoplasmatic reticulum and the secretory granules. Finally, in a biodistribution study the labeling intensity derived from [125I]-labeled SCAs after intravenous administration in rats strongly predicted the β-cell mass and was inversely related to the glucose excursions during an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test. CONCLUSIONS Our data provide strong evidence that the presented SCAs are highly specific for pancreatic β-cells and enable imaging and quantification in vivo. PMID:19592622

  2. Regional energy efficiency, carbon emission performance and technology gaps in China: A meta-frontier non-radial directional distance function analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Xin; Zhou, Hongchen; Zhang, Aizhen; Li, Aijun

    2015-01-01

    At present, China is the largest primary energy consumer and carbon emitter in the world. Meantime, China is a large transitional economy with significant regional gaps. Against such backgrounds, the calculated results of energy and carbon performance indicators may be biased, without considering heterogeneity across regions. To this end, after incorporating region-heterogeneity, this paper provides detailed information, regarding energy efficiency, carbon emission performance and the potential of carbon emission reductions from regional perspectives, which may be important and useful for policy makers. Our main findings are as follows. Firstly, there is significant group-heterogeneity across regions in China, in terms of energy efficiency and carbon emission performance. Secondly, there are no considerable differences between total-factor and single-factor performance indices, since there is limited substitutability between energy inputs and other production inputs. Finally, significant carbon emission reductions can be made by “catching up” for regions with low energy efficiency and carbon emission performance. Looking ahead, the Chinese government should adopt measures to promote improvements in terms of energy efficiency and carbon emission performance in the short term. -- Highlights: •We adopt a meta-frontier non-radial directional distance function analysis. •We provide detailed information regarding energy and carbon emission performance. •We find that there is significant region-heterogeneity in China. •There are no large differences between total- and single-factor performance indices. •It can make great contributions to carbon emission reductions by “catching up”

  3. Launching technological innovations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Talke, Katrin; Salomo, Søren

    2009-01-01

    have received less attention. This study considers the interdependencies between strategic, internally and externally, directed tactical launch activities and investigates both direct and indirect performance effects. The analysis is based upon data from 113 technological innovations launched...

  4. Direct Democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beramendi, Virginia; Ellis, Andrew; Kaufman, Bruno

    While many books on direct democracy have a regional or national approach, or simply focus on one of the many mechanisms associated with direct democracy, this Handbook delves into a global comparison of direct democracy mechanisms, including referendums, citizens' initiatives, agenda initiatives...... learned. In addition, the uniquely comprehensive world survey outlines direct democracy provisions in 214 countries and territories and indicates which, if any, of these provisions are used by each country or territory at both the national and sub-national levels. Furthermore, the world survey includes...

  5. Directing 101.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintoff, Ernest

    Providing an introduction to anyone considering directing as a field of study or career, this book takes a broad look at the process of directing and encourages students and professionals alike to look outside of the movie industry for inspiration. Chapters in the book discuss selecting and acquiring material; budgeting and financing; casting and…

  6. Expanding educational access and opportunities: The globalization and foreign direct investment of multinational corporations and their influence on STEM, project-based learning and the national science and technology fair in schools in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Joaquin G.

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine the influence of globalization and the foreign direct investment (FDI) of multinational corporations (MNCs) on the curriculum in schools in Costa Rica. The study focused primarily on Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM), Project-Based Learning (PBL), 21st century skills, and the national science and technology fair. The high influx of MNCs such as Intel has changed the global and educational culture of the country increasing the number of knowledge-based workers in Costa Rica. As a result, policy changes have been instituted in education to mirror the demands of sustaining the country's global economy. This study was supported by the creation of three research questions that would attempt to answer 1) the extent that teachers implementing STEM curriculum trace their practices back to policy, globalization, and multinational corporations as well as the extent to which the economic growth of Costa Rica and STEM education are related, 2) how mandating the national science and technology fair has influenced 21st century skills through project-based learning and the use of technology by teachers and its impact on curriculum and instruction, and 3) how has the national science and technology fair policy changed the value of STEM education for students, teachers, and educational leaders. To further understand the outcome of this study, four theoretical frameworks were applied that included, Spring's theory of world educational culture, Friedman's world flatteners, Wagner's 21st century skills and partnerships for 21st century skills, and Slough and Milam's STEM project-based learning theoretical framework. Each framework was applied to support the changes to the educational system; survival skills necessary to compete in the global job market; application of 21st century skills in the classroom and in the science projects students created. A research team comprised of 14 doctoral students, led by Dr

  7. Directing Creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darsø, Lotte; Ibbotson, Piers

    2008-01-01

    In this article we argue that leaders facing complex challenges can learn from the arts, specifically that leaders can learn by examining how theatre directors direct creativity through creative constraints. We suggest that perceiving creativity as a boundary phenomenon is helpful for directing it....... Like leaders, who are caught in paradoxical situations where they have to manage production and logistics simultaneously with making space for creativity and innovation, theatre directors need to find the delicate balance between on one hand renewal of perceptions, acting and interaction...... and on the other hand getting ready for the opening night. We conclude that the art of directing creativity is linked to developing competencies of conscious presence, attention and vigilance, whereas the craft of directing creativity concerns communication, framing and choice....

  8. Spinodal Theory: A Common Rupturing Mechanism in Spinodal Dewetting and Surface Directed Phase Separation (Some Technological Aspects: Spatial Correlations and the Significance of Dipole-Quadrupole Interaction in Spinodal Dewetting)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, S.P.; Singh, S.P.

    2011-01-01

    The emerging structures in spinodal dewetting of thin nano films and spinodal decomposition of binary mixtures are found to be similar with certain differences attributed to the nonlinearities inherent in the wetting forces. This paper deals with the technological aspects of the spinodal processes by giving a brief account of the theory and to correlate the two phenomena termed as spinodal dewetting of thin nano films and surface-directed phase separation. The MC simulation micrographs at early stage of spinodal dewetting of a (linear) polymer film confined between two hard walls (using FENE potential between the beads on same chain and Morse potential between inter and intra chain beads) show similarities with surface-directed phase separation (using metropolis algorithm) in creation of holes. The spinodal dewetting is also criticized on the basis of global minimization of free energy emerging from dipole-quadrupole interactions. A novel molecular scale-driving mechanism coming from asymmetric interface formation in spinodal processes is also proposed. It can be believed that the modeling done with the films under confinement of two walls works as a classical mathematical Ansatz to the dipole-quadrupole interaction coming from quantum origins and giving rise to lateral interactions in the process reflecting a colossal behavior in thin nano films though weak in nature

  9. Spinodal Theory: A Common Rupturing Mechanism in Spinodal Dewetting and Surface Directed Phase Separation (Some Technological Aspects: Spatial Correlations and the Significance of Dipole-Quadrupole Interaction in Spinodal Dewetting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satya Pal Singh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The emerging structures in spinodal dewetting of thin nano films and spinodal decomposition of binary mixtures are found to be similar with certain differences attributed to the nonlinearities inherent in the wetting forces. This paper deals with the technological aspects of the spinodal processes by giving a brief account of the theory and to correlate the two phenomena termed as spinodal dewetting of thin nanofilms and surface-directed phase separation. The MC simulation micrographs at early stage of spinodal dewetting of a (linear polymer film confined between two hard walls (using FENE potential between the beads on same chain and Morse potential between inter and intra chain beads show similarities with surface-directed phase separation (using metropolis algorithm in creation of holes. The spinodal dewetting is also criticized on the basis of global minimization of free energy emerging from dipole-quadrupole interactions. A novel molecular scale-driving mechanism coming from asymmetric interface formation in spinodal processes is also proposed. It can be believed that the modeling done with the films under confinement of two walls works as a classical mathematical ansatz to the dipole-quadrupole interaction coming from quantum origins and giving rise to lateral interactions in the process reflecting a colossal behavior in thin nano films though weak in nature.

  10. Rapid, Automated, and Specific Immunoassay to Directly Measure Matrix Metalloproteinase-9–Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-1 Interactions in Human Plasma Using AlphaLISA Technology: A New Alternative to Classical ELISA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Pulido-Olmo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The protocol describes a novel, rapid, and no-wash one-step immunoassay for highly sensitive and direct detection of the complexes between matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs and their tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMPs based on AlphaLISA® technology. We describe two procedures: (i one approach is used to analyze MMP-9–TIMP-1 interactions using recombinant human MMP-9 with its corresponding recombinant human TIMP-1 inhibitor and (ii the second approach is used to analyze native or endogenous MMP-9–TIMP-1 protein interactions in samples of human plasma. Evaluating native MMP-9–TIMP-1 complexes using this approach avoids the use of indirect calculations of the MMP-9/TIMP-1 ratio for which independent MMP-9 and TIMP-1 quantifications by two conventional ELISAs are needed. The MMP-9–TIMP-1 AlphaLISA® assay is quick, highly simplified, and cost-effective and can be completed in less than 3 h. Moreover, the assay has great potential for use in basic and preclinical research as it allows direct determination of native MMP-9–TIMP-1 complexes in circulating blood as biofluid.

  11. Direct Heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lienau, P J

    1990-01-01

    Potential resources and applications of earth heat in the form of geothermal energy are large. United States direct uses amount to 2,100 MWt thermal and worldwide 8,850 MWt above a reference temperature of 35 degrees Celsius. Space and district heating are the major direct uses of geothermal energy. Equipment employed in direct use projects is of standard manufacture and includes downhole and circulation pumps, transmission and distribution pipelines, heat exchangers and convectors, heat pumps and chillers. Direct uses of earth heat discussed are space and district heating, greenhouse heating and fish farming, process and industrial applications. The economic feasibility of direct use projects is governed by site specific factors such as location of user and resource, resource quality, system load factor and load density, as well as financing. Examples are presented of district heating in Klamath Falls, and Elko. Further developments of direct uses of geothermal energy will depend on matching user needs to the resource, and improving load factors and load density.

  12. Evolutionary signatures amongst disease genes permit novel methods for gene prioritization and construction of informative gene-based networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nolan Priedigkeit

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Genes involved in the same function tend to have similar evolutionary histories, in that their rates of evolution covary over time. This coevolutionary signature, termed Evolutionary Rate Covariation (ERC, is calculated using only gene sequences from a set of closely related species and has demonstrated potential as a computational tool for inferring functional relationships between genes. To further define applications of ERC, we first established that roughly 55% of genetic diseases posses an ERC signature between their contributing genes. At a false discovery rate of 5% we report 40 such diseases including cancers, developmental disorders and mitochondrial diseases. Given these coevolutionary signatures between disease genes, we then assessed ERC's ability to prioritize known disease genes out of a list of unrelated candidates. We found that in the presence of an ERC signature, the true disease gene is effectively prioritized to the top 6% of candidates on average. We then apply this strategy to a melanoma-associated region on chromosome 1 and identify MCL1 as a potential causative gene. Furthermore, to gain global insight into disease mechanisms, we used ERC to predict molecular connections between 310 nominally distinct diseases. The resulting "disease map" network associates several diseases with related pathogenic mechanisms and unveils many novel relationships between clinically distinct diseases, such as between Hirschsprung's disease and melanoma. Taken together, these results demonstrate the utility of molecular evolution as a gene discovery platform and show that evolutionary signatures can be used to build informative gene-based networks.

  13. Advanced Technology Direction and Control Communications Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-07-16

    Leupert amesD./Morrell ~I~ Frederick . euprJae DCPAaol-78-C-1 259] ,. IERFORMlk6 ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS %a. P ROGRAM ELEMiENT. PROJIECT. TASK AREA...without the change in communicatios LCciniLlucs b•;i,,g aipiarci-IL. A JTIDS net is organized on the principle of time division. Various elements are...sideband (DSB-AI) "* Amplitude modulation, vestigial sideband (VSB-AM) * Frequency sI Shift modulation (FSK) "* Phase shift modulation (PSK) Ti DSB

  14. Data-Driven Education: Technologies and Directions

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    An educational program of study can be viewed as a knowledge graph consisting of learning units and relationships between them. Such a knowledge graph provides the core data structure for organizing and navigating learning experiences. We address three issues in this talk. First, how can we synthesize the knowledge graph, given a set of concepts to be covered in the study program. Next, how can we use data mining to identify and correct deficiencies in a knowledge graph. Finally, how can we use data mining to form study groups with the goal of maximizing overall learning. We conclude by pointing out some open research problems.   BIOGRAPHY OF RAKESH AGRAWAL Rakesh Agrawal is the President and Founder of the Data Insights Laboratories, San Jose, USA. He is also the Rukmini Visiting Chair Professor at the Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India and an Invited Professor at EPFL, Lausanne, Switzerland. He is a member of the National Academy of Engineering, both USA and India, a...

  15. Technology Transfer, Foreign Direct Investment and Economic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-05-29

    May 29, 2015 ... Investment and Economic Growth in Nigeria. Omojola ... view of FDI and trade, towards a more friendly view, by using FDI and trade as ..... the automatically selected Schwarz Info Criterion and the maximum lags, in ..... National Bureau of Statistics [NBS], 2007, 'National account of Nigeria: 1981-. 2006' ...

  16. Directed polymers versus directed percolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpin-Healy, Timothy

    1998-10-01

    Universality plays a central role within the rubric of modern statistical mechanics, wherein an insightful continuum formulation rises above irrelevant microscopic details, capturing essential scaling behaviors. Nevertheless, occasions do arise where the lattice or another discrete aspect can constitute a formidable legacy. Directed polymers in random media, along with its close sibling, directed percolation, provide an intriguing case in point. Indeed, the deep blood relation between these two models may have sabotaged past efforts to fully characterize the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang universality class, to which the directed polymer belongs.

  17. Group technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rome, C.P.

    1976-01-01

    Group Technology has been conceptually applied to the manufacture of batch-lots of 554 machined electromechanical parts which now require 79 different types of metal-removal tools. The products have been grouped into 7 distinct families which require from 8 to 22 machines in each machine-cell. Throughput time can be significantly reduced and savings can be realized from tooling, direct-labor, and indirect-labor costs

  18. Persuasive Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book constitutes the proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Persuasive Technology, PERSUASIVE 2010, held in Copenhagen Denmark in June 2010. The 25 papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 80 submissions. In addition three keynote papers are included in this vol......This book constitutes the proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Persuasive Technology, PERSUASIVE 2010, held in Copenhagen Denmark in June 2010. The 25 papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 80 submissions. In addition three keynote papers are included...... in this volume. The topics covered are emotions and user experience, ambient persuasive systems, persuasive design, persuasion profiles, designing for health, psychology of persuasion, embodied and conversational agents, economic incentives, and future directions for persuasive technology....

  19. Selecting Security Technology Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Tod

    2009-01-01

    The world of security technology holds great promise, but it is fraught with opportunities for expensive missteps and misapplications. The quality of the security technology consultants and system integrators one uses will have a direct bearing on how well his school masters this complex subject. Security technology consultants help determine…

  20. Direct marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čičić Muris

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Direct Marketing (DM is usually treated as unworthy activity, with actions at the edge of legality and activities minded cheating. Despite obvious problems regarding ethics and privacy threat, DM with its size, importance and role in a concept of integrated marketing communication deserves respect and sufficient analysis and review

  1. Genome-wide and gene-based association studies of anxiety disorders in European and African American samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Otowa

    Full Text Available Anxiety disorders (ADs are common mental disorders caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Since ADs are highly comorbid with each other, partially due to shared genetic basis, studying AD phenotypes in a coordinated manner may be a powerful strategy for identifying potential genetic loci for ADs. To detect these loci, we performed genome-wide association studies (GWAS of ADs. In addition, as a complementary approach to single-locus analysis, we also conducted gene- and pathway-based analyses. GWAS data were derived from the control sample of the Molecular Genetics of Schizophrenia (MGS project (2,540 European American and 849 African American subjects genotyped on the Affymetrix GeneChip 6.0 array. We applied two phenotypic approaches: (1 categorical case-control comparisons (CC based upon psychiatric diagnoses, and (2 quantitative phenotypic factor scores (FS derived from a multivariate analysis combining information across the clinical phenotypes. Linear and logistic models were used to analyse the association with ADs using FS and CC traits, respectively. At the single locus level, no genome-wide significant association was found. A trans-population gene-based meta-analysis across both ethnic subsamples using FS identified three genes (MFAP3L on 4q32.3, NDUFAB1 and PALB2 on 16p12 with genome-wide significance (false discovery rate (FDR] <5%. At the pathway level, several terms such as transcription regulation, cytokine binding, and developmental process were significantly enriched in ADs (FDR <5%. Our approaches studying ADs as quantitative traits and utilizing the full GWAS data may be useful in identifying susceptibility genes and pathways for ADs.

  2. Functional gene-based discovery of phenazines from the actinobacteria associated with marine sponges in the South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karuppiah, Valliappan; Li, Yingxin; Sun, Wei; Feng, Guofang; Li, Zhiyong

    2015-07-01

    Phenazines represent a large group of nitrogen-containing heterocyclic compounds produced by the diverse group of bacteria including actinobacteria. In this study, a total of 197 actinobacterial strains were isolated from seven different marine sponge species in the South China Sea using five different culture media. Eighty-seven morphologically different actinobacterial strains were selected and grouped into 13 genera, including Actinoalloteichus, Kocuria, Micrococcus, Micromonospora, Mycobacterium, Nocardiopsis, Prauserella, Rhodococcus, Saccharopolyspora, Salinispora, Serinicoccus, and Streptomyces by the phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene. Based on the screening of phzE genes, ten strains, including five Streptomyces, two Nocardiopsis, one Salinispora, one Micrococcus, and one Serinicoccus were found to be potential for phenazine production. The level of phzE gene expression was highly expressed in Nocardiopsis sp. 13-33-15, 13-12-13, and Serinicoccus sp. 13-12-4 on the fifth day of fermentation. Finally, 1,6-dihydroxy phenazine (1) from Nocardiopsis sp. 13-33-15 and 13-12-13, and 1,6-dimethoxy phenazine (2) from Nocardiopsis sp. 13-33-15 were isolated and identified successfully based on ESI-MS and NMR analysis. The compounds 1 and 2 showed antibacterial activity against Bacillus mycoides SJ14, Staphylococcus aureus SJ51, Escherichia coli SJ42, and Micrococcus luteus SJ47. This study suggests that the integrated approach of gene screening and chemical analysis is an effective strategy to find the target compounds and lays the basis for the production of phenazine from the sponge-associated actinobacteria.

  3. Practical consequences of the Water Framework Directive implementation for combustion plants. New water cleaning technologies and methods for improvement of effluent discharges; Praktiska konsekvenser foer foerbraenningsanlaeggningar vid infoerandet av Vattendirektivet. Nya reningstekniker och foerbaettringsaatgaerder vid utslaepp till vatten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Axby, Fredrik; Hansson, Christina [Carl Bro Energikonsult AB, Malmoe (Sweden)

    2004-11-01

    trading. Plant owners could make an impact by participating in development of environmental quality standards plans and programs by representation in public consultations and cooperative groups. Methods for improvement to meet the new standards are presented in the categories fuel, combustion, flue gas- and flue gas condensate treatment. The prioritized substances shouldn't be introduced or generated in the system to avoid costly investments of advanced technologies. Heavy metals are reduced by the choice of fuel and complete combustion generates less PAH. Both of the substances could be reduced by the separation of particles. An example of an appropriateness assessment according to a model considering the overall plant conditions including technological, economic and organizational aspects is demonstrated. For a 'standard plant' the best choice of fuel would be wood chips combined with stable combustion. Given the prerequisites of the model, the most appropriate flue gas treatment were a bag filter without chemical dosing and the most appropriate flue gas condensate-, slug-, wash-, and soot water treatment would be sand- or lamella filter with pH-adjustment, together with leach water treatment by sedimentation and sand filter. If another type of plant would be considered, other methods would be more optimal Hence, the model should be used in a 'plant specific' manner and then be a useful tool in negotiations with authorities if/when measures will be taken to reach the standards of the Water Framework Directive.

  4. Physics and high technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao Liqin; Ma Junru.

    1992-01-01

    At present, the development of high technology has opened a new chapter in world's history of science and technology. This review describes the great impact of physics on high technology in six different fields (energy technology, new materials, information technology, biotechnology, space technology, and Ocean technology). It is shown that the new concepts and new methods created in physics and the special conditions and measurements established for physics researches not only deepen human's knowledge about nature but also point out new directions for engineering and technology. The achievements in physics have been more and more applied to high technology, while the development of high technology has explored some new research areas and raised many novel, important projects for physics. Therefore, it is important for us to strengthen the research on these major problems in physics

  5. Methodology and technology for peripheral and central blood pressure and blood pressure variability measurement: current status and future directions - Position statement of the European Society of Hypertension Working Group on blood pressure monitoring and cardiovascular variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stergiou, George S; Parati, Gianfranco; Vlachopoulos, Charalambos; Achimastos, Apostolos; Andreadis, Emanouel; Asmar, Roland; Avolio, Alberto; Benetos, Athanase; Bilo, Grzegorz; Boubouchairopoulou, Nadia; Boutouyrie, Pierre; Castiglioni, Paolo; de la Sierra, Alejandro; Dolan, Eamon; Head, Geoffrey; Imai, Yutaka; Kario, Kazuomi; Kollias, Anastasios; Kotsis, Vasilis; Manios, Efstathios; McManus, Richard; Mengden, Thomas; Mihailidou, Anastasia; Myers, Martin; Niiranen, Teemu; Ochoa, Juan Eugenio; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Omboni, Stefano; Padfield, Paul; Palatini, Paolo; Papaioannou, Theodore; Protogerou, Athanasios; Redon, Josep; Verdecchia, Paolo; Wang, Jiguang; Zanchetti, Alberto; Mancia, Giuseppe; O'Brien, Eoin

    2016-09-01

    Office blood pressure measurement has been the basis for hypertension evaluation for almost a century. However, the evaluation of blood pressure out of the office using ambulatory or self-home monitoring is now strongly recommended for the accurate diagnosis in many, if not all, cases with suspected hypertension. Moreover, there is evidence that the variability of blood pressure might offer prognostic information that is independent of the average blood pressure level. Recently, advancement in technology has provided noninvasive evaluation of central (aortic) blood pressure, which might have attributes that are additive to the conventional brachial blood pressure measurement. This position statement, developed by international experts, deals with key research and practical issues in regard to peripheral blood pressure measurement (office, home, and ambulatory), blood pressure variability, and central blood pressure measurement. The objective is to present current achievements, identify gaps in knowledge and issues concerning clinical application, and present relevant research questions and directions to investigators and manufacturers for future research and development (primary goal).

  6. Direct Reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Austern, N. [University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1963-01-15

    In order to give a unified presentation of one point of view, these lectures are devoted only to a detailed development of the standard theories of direct reactions, starting from basic principles. Discussion is given of the present status of the theories, of the techniques used for practical calculation, and of possible future developments. The direct interaction (DI) aspects of a reaction are those which involve only a few of the many degrees of freedom of a nucleus. In fact the minimum number of degrees of freedom which must be involved in a reaction are those required to describe the initial and final channels, and DI studies typically consider these degrees of freedom and no others. Because of this simplicity DI theories may be worked out in painstaking detail. DI processes concern only part of the wave function for a problem. The other part involves complicated excitations of many degrees of freedom, and gives the compound nucleus (CN) effects. While it is extremely interesting to learn how to separate DI and CN effects in an orderly manner, if they are both present in a reaction, no suitable method has yet been found. Instead, current work stresses the kinds of reactions and the kinds of final states in which DI effects dominate and in which CN effects may almost be forgotten. The DI cross-sections which are studied are often extremely large, comparable to elastic scattering cross-sections. (author)

  7. Technology Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Nanette R.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this summer's work was to attempt to enhance Technology Application Group (TAG) ability to measure the outcomes of its efforts to transfer NASA technology. By reviewing existing literature, by explaining the economic principles involved in evaluating the economic impact of technology transfer, and by investigating the LaRC processes our William & Mary team has been able to lead this important discussion. In reviewing the existing literature, we identified many of the metrics that are currently being used in the area of technology transfer. Learning about the LaRC technology transfer processes and the metrics currently used to track the transfer process enabled us to compare other R&D facilities to LaRC. We discuss and diagram impacts of technology transfer in the short run and the long run. Significantly, it serves as the basis for analysis and provides guidance in thinking about what the measurement objectives ought to be. By focusing on the SBIR Program, valuable information regarding the strengths and weaknesses of this LaRC program are to be gained. A survey was developed to ask probing questions regarding SBIR contractors' experience with the program. Specifically we are interested in finding out whether the SBIR Program is accomplishing its mission, if the SBIR companies are providing the needed innovations specified by NASA and to what extent those innovations have led to commercial success. We also developed a survey to ask COTR's, who are NASA employees acting as technical advisors to the SBIR contractors, the same type of questions, evaluating the successes and problems with the SBIR Program as they see it. This survey was developed to be implemented interactively on computer. It is our hope that the statistical and econometric studies that can be done on the data collected from all of these sources will provide insight regarding the direction to take in developing systematic evaluations of programs like the SBIR Program so that they can

  8. Community analysis of chronic wound bacteria using 16S rRNA gene-based pyrosequencing: impact of diabetes and antibiotics on chronic wound microbiota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lance B Price

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bacterial colonization is hypothesized to play a pathogenic role in the non-healing state of chronic wounds. We characterized wound bacteria from a cohort of chronic wound patients using a 16S rRNA gene-based pyrosequencing approach and assessed the impact of diabetes and antibiotics on chronic wound microbiota. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We prospectively enrolled 24 patients at a referral wound center in Baltimore, MD; sampled patients' wounds by curette; cultured samples under aerobic and anaerobic conditions; and pyrosequenced the 16S rRNA V3 hypervariable region. The 16S rRNA gene-based analyses revealed an average of 10 different bacterial families in wounds--approximately 4 times more than estimated by culture-based analyses. Fastidious anaerobic bacteria belonging to the Clostridiales family XI were among the most prevalent bacteria identified exclusively by 16S rRNA gene-based analyses. Community-scale analyses showed that wound microbiota from antibiotic treated patients were significantly different from untreated patients (p = 0.007 and were characterized by increased Pseudomonadaceae abundance. These analyses also revealed that antibiotic use was associated with decreased Streptococcaceae among diabetics and that Streptococcaceae was more abundant among diabetics as compared to non-diabetics. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The 16S rRNA gene-based analyses revealed complex bacterial communities including anaerobic bacteria that may play causative roles in the non-healing state of some chronic wounds. Our data suggest that antimicrobial therapy alters community structure--reducing some bacteria while selecting for others.

  9. PR Interval Associated Genes, Atrial Remodeling and Rhythm Outcome of Catheter Ablation of Atrial Fibrillation—A Gene-Based Analysis of GWAS Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Husser

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: PR interval prolongation has recently been shown to associate with advanced left atrial remodeling and atrial fibrillation (AF recurrence after catheter ablation. While different genome-wide association studies (GWAS have implicated 13 loci to associate with the PR interval as an AF endophenotype their subsequent associations with AF remodeling and response to catheter ablation are unknown. Here, we perform a gene-based analysis of GWAS data to test the hypothesis that PR interval candidate genes also associate with left atrial remodeling and arrhythmia recurrence following AF catheter ablation.Methods and Results: Samples from 660 patients with paroxysmal (n = 370 or persistent AF (n = 290 undergoing AF catheter ablation were genotyped for ~1,000,000 SNPs. Gene-based association was investigated using VEGAS (versatile gene-based association study. Among the 13 candidate genes, SLC8A1, MEIS1, ITGA9, SCN5A, and SOX5 associated with the PR interval. Of those, ITGA9 and SOX5 were significantly associated with left atrial low voltage areas and left atrial diameter and subsequently with AF recurrence after radiofrequency catheter ablation.Conclusion: This study suggests contributions of ITGA9 and SOX5 to AF remodeling expressed as PR interval prolongation, low voltage areas and left atrial dilatation and subsequently to response to catheter ablation. Future and larger studies are necessary to replicate and apply these findings with the aim of designing AF pathophysiology-based multi-locus risk scores.

  10. Applied Semantic Web Technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Sugumaran, Vijayan

    2011-01-01

    The rapid advancement of semantic web technologies, along with the fact that they are at various levels of maturity, has left many practitioners confused about the current state of these technologies. Focusing on the most mature technologies, Applied Semantic Web Technologies integrates theory with case studies to illustrate the history, current state, and future direction of the semantic web. It maintains an emphasis on real-world applications and examines the technical and practical issues related to the use of semantic technologies in intelligent information management. The book starts with

  11. Gene-based SSR markers for common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) derived from root and leaf tissue ESTs: an integration of the BMc series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Matthew W; Hurtado, Natalia; Chavarro, Carolina M; Muñoz-Torres, Monica C; Giraldo, Martha C; Pedraza, Fabio; Tomkins, Jeff; Wing, Rod

    2011-03-22

    Granada and Mesoamerica subgroup 1 (black beans) both with regards to gene expression and as sources of markers. However, we found few differences between SSR type and frequency between the G19833 leaf and DOR364 root tissue-derived ESTs. Overall, our work adds to the analysis of microsatellite frequency evaluation for common bean and provides a new set of 120 BMc markers which combined with the 248 previously developed BMc markers brings the total in this series to 368 markers. Once we include BMd markers, which are derived from GenBank sequences, the current total of gene-based markers from our laboratory surpasses 500 markers. These markers are basic for studies of the transcriptome of common bean and can form anchor points for genetic mapping studies in the future.

  12. Laser Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauger, Robert

    1993-01-01

    Describes lasers and indicates that learning about laser technology and creating laser technology activities are among the teacher enhancement processes needed to strengthen technology education. (JOW)

  13. Digital Sensor Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ted Quinn; Jerry Mauck; Richard Bockhorst; Ken Thomas

    2013-07-01

    The nuclear industry has been slow to incorporate digital sensor technology into nuclear plant designs due to concerns with digital qualification issues. However, the benefits of digital sensor technology for nuclear plant instrumentation are substantial in terms of accuracy, reliability, availability, and maintainability. This report demonstrates these benefits in direct comparisons of digital and analog sensor applications. It also addresses the qualification issues that must be addressed in the application of digital sensor technology.

  14. Offshore Transmission Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-10-15

    The purpose of this document is to give an overview of offshore electricity transmission technologies. In particular this document is concerned with the use of High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) systems and more specifically with the development of Voltage Source Converter (VSC) technology. This report outlines the current state of the main technology groups required for offshore HVDC transmission as well as giving examples of offshore projects (both current and future). Finally some indications of likely unit costs for HV assets are given.

  15. Spillovers from Foreign Direct Investment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Klaus E.; Sinani, Evis

    2005-01-01

    The extensive empirical literature analyzing productivity spillovers from foreign direct investment to local firms provides inconclusive results. Some studies find that foreign presence has a positive impact on the productivity of domestic firms, while others find no evidence or a negative effect...... for industrialized countries in the 1990s. Transition economies may experience spillovers, but these have been declining in recent years. Keywords: developing countries, transition economies, spillovers, foreign direct investment, technology transfer, meta-analysis...

  16. Identification of novel risk genes associated with type 1 diabetes mellitus using a genome-wide gene-based association analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Ying-Hua; Deng, Fei-Yan; Li, Min-Jing; Lei, Shu-Feng

    2014-11-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus is a serious disorder characterized by destruction of pancreatic β-cells, culminating in absolute insulin deficiency. Genetic factors contribute to the susceptibility of type 1 diabetes mellitus. The aim of the present study was to identify more susceptibility genes of type 1 diabetes mellitus. We carried out an initial gene-based genome-wide association study in a total of 4,075 type 1 diabetes mellitus cases and 2,604 controls by using the Gene-based Association Test using Extended Simes procedure. Furthermore, we carried out replication studies, differential expression analysis and functional annotation clustering analysis to support the significance of the identified susceptibility genes. We identified 452 genes associated with type 1 diabetes mellitus, even after adapting the genome-wide threshold for significance (P diabetes mellitus, which were ignored in single-nucleotide polymorphism-based association analysis and were not previously reported. We found that 53 genes have supportive evidence from replication studies and/or differential expression studies. In particular, seven genes including four non-human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes (RASIP1, STRN4, BCAR1 and MYL2) are replicated in at least one independent population and also differentially expressed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells or monocytes. Furthermore, the associated genes tend to enrich in immune-related pathways or Gene Ontology project terms. The present results suggest the high power of gene-based association analysis in detecting disease-susceptibility genes. Our findings provide more insights into the genetic basis of type 1 diabetes mellitus.

  17. A gene-based radiation hybrid map of the gilthead sea bream Sparus aurata refines and exploits conserved synteny with Tetraodon nigroviridis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsalavouta Matina

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comparative teleost studies are of great interest since they are important in aquaculture and in evolutionary issues. Comparing genomes of fully sequenced model fish species with those of farmed fish species through comparative mapping offers shortcuts for quantitative trait loci (QTL detections and for studying genome evolution through the identification of regions of conserved synteny in teleosts. Here a comparative mapping study is presented by radiation hybrid (RH mapping genes of the gilthead sea bream Sparus aurata, a non-model teleost fish of commercial and evolutionary interest, as it represents the worldwide distributed species-rich family of Sparidae. Results An additional 74 microsatellite markers and 428 gene-based markers appropriate for comparative mapping studies were mapped on the existing RH map of Sparus aurata. The anchoring of the RH map to the genetic linkage map resulted in 24 groups matching the karyotype of Sparus aurata. Homologous sequences to Tetraodon were identified for 301 of the gene-based markers positioned on the RH map of Sparus aurata. Comparison between Sparus aurata RH groups and Tetraodon chromosomes (karyotype of Tetraodon consists of 21 chromosomes in this study reveals an unambiguous one-to-one relationship suggesting that three Tetraodon chromosomes correspond to six Sparus aurata radiation hybrid groups. The exploitation of this conserved synteny relationship is furthermore demonstrated by in silico mapping of gilthead sea bream expressed sequence tags (EST that give a significant similarity hit to Tetraodon. Conclusion The addition of primarily gene-based markers increased substantially the density of the existing RH map and facilitated comparative analysis. The anchoring of this gene-based radiation hybrid map to the genome maps of model species broadened the pool of candidate genes that mainly control growth, disease resistance, sex determination and reversal, reproduction as well

  18. A gene-based analysis of variants in the serum/glucocorticoid regulated kinase (SGK genes with blood pressure responses to sodium intake: the GenSalt Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changwei Li

    Full Text Available Serum and glucocorticoid regulated kinase (SGK plays a critical role in the regulation of renal sodium transport. We examined the association between SGK genes and salt sensitivity of blood pressure (BP using single-marker and gene-based association analysis.A 7-day low-sodium (51.3 mmol sodium/day followed by a 7-day high-sodium intervention (307.8 mmol sodium/day was conducted among 1,906 Chinese participants. BP measurements were obtained at baseline and each intervention using a random-zero sphygmomanometer. Additive associations between each SNP and salt-sensitivity phenotypes were assessed using a mixed linear regression model to account for family dependencies. Gene-based analyses were conducted using the truncated p-value method. The Bonferroni-method was used to adjust for multiple testing in all analyses.In single-marker association analyses, SGK1 marker rs2758151 was significantly associated with diastolic BP (DBP response to high-sodium intervention (P = 0.0010. DBP responses (95% confidence interval to high-sodium intervention for genotypes C/C, C/T, and T/T were 2.04 (1.57 to 2.52, 1.79 (1.42 to 2.16, and 0.85 (0.30 to 1.41 mmHg, respectively. Similar trends were observed for SBP and MAP responses although not significant (P = 0.15 and 0.0026, respectively. In addition, gene-based analyses demonstrated significant associations between SGK1 and SBP, DBP and MAP responses to high sodium intervention (P = 0.0002, 0.0076, and 0.00001, respectively. Neither SGK2 nor SGK3 were associated with the salt-sensitivity phenotypes in single-maker or gene-based analyses.The current study identified association of the SGK1 gene and BP salt-sensitivity in the Han Chinese population. Further studies are warranted to identify causal SGK1 gene variants.

  19. Direcionamentos da tecnologia industrial de células a combustível de óxidos sólidos Directions of the industrial development of the solid oxide fuel cells technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Z. de Florio

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This manuscript shows an overview of the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC technology based on industrial developments. The information presented has been collected mostly at conferences that the authors attended. It is observed that several companies have been pursuing the development of the SOFC technology. Significant advances in stability and power density have raised the economic interest in this technology recently. It is revealed that the SOFC materials are essentially the same ones that have been used in the past decades, and that the two most important designs of pre-commercial SOFC prototypes are the tubular and planar ones.

  20. The Framework for an Information Technology Strategic Roadmap for the United States Marine Corps: How Current Acquisitions Align to the Current Strategic Direction of the Department of Defense, Department of the Navy, and United States Marine Corps

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garcia, Richard D; Sloan, Joshua K

    2008-01-01

    ... (IT) roadmap may comprise a "tipping point" for future warfighting effectiveness. This thesis begins the basis for a framework for an information technology strategic roadmap for the United States Marine Corps...

  1. The Framework for an Information Technology Strategic Roadmap for the United States Marine Corps: How Current Acquisitions Align to the Current Strategic Direction of the Department of Defense, Department of the Navy, and United States Marine Corps

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK xv ACKNOWLEDGMENTS We would like to thank Mr. Clint Swett (Director, Technology Services Organization, DFAS- KC ) and...Major Jeffrey Thiry (Deputy Director, Technology Services Organization, DFAS- KC ) for their help and support. Their guidance proved invaluable in... Teo (1996) define alignment as the “coordination between the business and IS planning functions and activities”. Luftman, Papp and Brier (1999

  2. Gene-based association identifies SPATA13-AS1 as a pharmacogenomic predictor of inhaled short-acting beta-agonist response in multiple population groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padhukasahasram, B; Yang, J J; Levin, A M; Yang, M; Burchard, E G; Kumar, R; Kwok, P-Y; Seibold, M A; Lanfear, D E; Williams, L K

    2014-08-01

    Inhaled short-acting beta-agonist (SABA) medication is commonly used in asthma patients to rapidly reverse airway obstruction and improve acute symptoms. We performed a genome-wide association study of SABA medication response using gene-based association tests. A linear mixed model approach was first used for single-nucleotide polymorphism associations, and the results were later combined using GATES to generate gene-based associations. Our results identified SPATA13-AS1 as being significantly associated with SABA bronchodilator response in 328 healthy African Americans. In replication, this gene was associated with SABA response among the two separate groups of African Americans with asthma (n=1073, P=0.011 and n=1968, P=0.014), 149 healthy African Americans (P=0.003) and 556 European Americans with asthma (P=0.041). SPATA13-AS1 was also associated with longitudinal SABA medication usage in the two separate groups of African Americans with asthma (n=658, P=0.047 and n=1968, P=0.025). Future studies are needed to delineate the precise mechanism by which SPATA13-AS1 may influence SABA response.

  3. Educational technology in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Heeyoung; Resch, David S; Kovach, Regina A

    2013-01-01

    This article aims to review the past practices of educational technology and envision future directions for medical education. The discussion starts with a historical review of definitions and perspectives of educational technology, in which the authors propose that educators adopt a broader process-oriented understanding of educational technology. Future directions of e-learning, simulation, and health information technology are discussed based on a systems view of the technological process. As new technologies continue to arise, this process-oriented understanding and outcome-based expectations of educational technology should be embraced. With this view, educational technology should be valued in terms of how well the technological process informs and facilitates learning, and the acquisition and maintenance of clinical expertise.

  4. Robot technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vertut, Jean; Coiffet, Philippe.

    1985-01-01

    Teleoperation is concerned with the exploration and exploitation of of spaces which do not allow, because of their inaccessibility or hostility, direct access to man. This volume (Parts 2, 3 and 4) covers the contribution of computer science and automatic control to this technology. Part 2 includes a description of teleoperation systems followed by chapters on the operator substitution function by computer feedback to the operator. Part 3 has chapters on performance evaluation of teleoperation systems and the human operator in the teleoperation system. Part 4 is about applications of teleoperation in the nuclear industry, underwater, in space, in medicine, in industry and in security and civil protection. The nuclear applications include research and pilot facilities, reactor operation and maintenance, reactor decommissioning and dismantling and in emergencies, for example following a reactor accident. (U.K.)

  5. Efficient Placement of Directional Antennas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Feng [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kasiviswanathan, Shiva [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-09-20

    Directional antenna is an technology for the proliferation of wireless networks. In centralized wireless network, wireless devices communicate through base stations. Directed antennas are placed on base stations and form a backbone of communication. The communication between base stations and wireless devices can be interfered due to a large number of wireless device. Methodically positioning and orienting directed antennas can help to reduce the interference while saving energy. An integer linear programming is developed for siting and directing antennas on multiple base stations, and this formulation can be extended to model non-overlapping channels. Through the integer programming formulation, optimal antenna positions can be used to analyze the performance of directed antennas with different parameters like the number base stations and the number of non-overlapping channels.

  6. Mediated Effects of Technology Competencies and Experiences on Relations among Attitudes Towards Technology Use, Technology Ownership, and Self Efficacy about Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerdelen-Damar, Sevda; Boz, Yezdan; Aydın-Günbatar, Sevgi

    2017-08-01

    This study examined the relations of preservice science teachers' attitudes towards technology use, technology ownership, technology competencies, and experiences to their self-efficacy beliefs about technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK). The present study also investigated interrelations among preservice teachers' attitudes towards technology use, technology ownership, technology competencies, and experiences. The participants of study were 665 elementary preservice science teachers (467 females, 198 males) from 7 colleges in Turkey. The proposed model based on educational technology literature was tested using structural equation modeling. The model testing results revealed that preservice teachers' technology competencies and experiences mediated the relation of technology ownership to their TPACK self efficacy beliefs. The direct relation of their possession of technology to their TPACK self efficacy beliefs was insignificant while the indirect relation through their technology competencies and experiences was significant. The results also indicated there were significant direct effects of preservice teachers' attitudes towards technology use, technology competencies, and experiences on their TPACK self efficacy beliefs.

  7. INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES IN ECONOMIC EDUCATION

    OpenAIRE

    I.A. Kinash

    2011-01-01

    In the article the basic aspects of the use of modern information technologies in an educational process are examined. Described directions of introduction of information technologies in economic education. Problems which are related to practice of professional preparation of specialists of economic specialities are examined. The role of information technologies in professional activity of specialists of economic type is underlined.

  8. INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES IN ECONOMIC EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A. Kinash

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In the article the basic aspects of the use of modern information technologies in an educational process are examined. Described directions of introduction of information technologies in economic education. Problems which are related to practice of professional preparation of specialists of economic specialities are examined. The role of information technologies in professional activity of specialists of economic type is underlined.

  9. An interview with Margaret A Liu: the future of gene-based vaccines and immunotherapies, and other musings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Margaret A; Rees, Jenaid

    2015-02-01

    Interview by Jenaid Rees, commissioning editor. Margaret A Liu is best known for her pioneering work in the area of DNA vaccines. A world renowned scientist, Liu was named one of 'The 50 Most Important Women Scientists' by Discover magazine in 2002. Liu obtained her M.D. from Harvard Medical School, and has held positions at numerous institutions including Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, University of Pennsylvania, UCSF, and the Karolinska Institutet in Stockholm. In her career she has served as Senior Advisor in Vaccinology at the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and Executive Vice-Chair of the International Vaccine Institute in Seoul, Korea and worked for companies including Merck, Transgène and Chiron Corporation. Her research achievements have led to her receipt of honorary lectureships, and she has held many board positions throughout her career. Liu currently consults in the fields of vaccines and immunotherapy for companies, universities, and non-governmental and governmental scientific organizations, and is a Foreign Adjunct Professor at the Karolinska Institutet in Stockholm, and an Adjunct Professor at the University of California, San Francisco.

  10. Development of Gene-Based SSR Markers in Rice Bean (Vigna umbellata L. Based on Transcriptome Data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honglin Chen

    Full Text Available Rice bean (Vigna umbellata (Thunb. Ohwi & Ohashi is a warm season annual legume mainly grown in East Asia. Only scarce genomic resources are currently available for this legume crop species and no simple sequence repeat (SSR markers have been specifically developed for rice bean yet. In this study, approximately 26 million high quality cDNA sequence reads were obtained from rice bean using Illumina paired-end sequencing technology and assembled into 71,929 unigenes with an average length of 986 bp. Of these unigenes, 38,840 (33.2% showed significant similarity to proteins in the NCBI non-redundant protein and nucleotide sequence databases. Furthermore, 30,170 (76.3% could be classified into gene ontology categories, 25,451 (64.4% into Swiss-Prot categories and 21,982 (55.6% into KOG database categories (E-value < 1.0E-5. A total of 9,301 (23.5% were mapped onto 118 pathways using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genome (KEGG pathway database. A total of 3,011 genic SSRs were identified as potential molecular markers. AG/CT (30.3%, AAG/CTT (8.1% and AGAA/TTCT (20.0% are the three main repeat motifs. A total of 300 SSR loci were randomly selected for validation by using PCR amplification. Of these loci, 23 primer pairs were polymorphic among 32 rice bean accessions. A UPGMA dendrogram revealed three major clusters among 32 rice bean accessions. The large number of SSR-containing sequences and genic SSRs in this study will be valuable for the construction of high-resolution genetic linkage maps, association or comparative mapping and genetic analyses of various Vigna species.

  11. Avirulence (AVR) Gene-Based Diagnosis Complements Existing Pathogen Surveillance Tools for Effective Deployment of Resistance (R) Genes Against Rice Blast Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selisana, S M; Yanoria, M J; Quime, B; Chaipanya, C; Lu, G; Opulencia, R; Wang, G-L; Mitchell, T; Correll, J; Talbot, N J; Leung, H; Zhou, B

    2017-06-01

    Avirulence (AVR) genes in Magnaporthe oryzae, the fungal pathogen that causes the devastating rice blast disease, have been documented to be major targets subject to mutations to avoid recognition by resistance (R) genes. In this study, an AVR-gene-based diagnosis tool for determining the virulence spectrum of a rice blast pathogen population was developed and validated. A set of 77 single-spore field isolates was subjected to pathotype analysis using differential lines, each containing a single R gene, and classified into 20 virulent pathotypes, except for 4 isolates that lost pathogenicity. In all, 10 differential lines showed low frequency (95%), inferring the effectiveness of R genes present in the respective differential lines. In addition, the haplotypes of seven AVR genes were determined by polymerase chain reaction amplification and sequencing, if applicable. The calculated frequency of different AVR genes displayed significant variations in the population. AVRPiz-t and AVR-Pii were detected in 100 and 84.9% of the isolates, respectively. Five AVR genes such as AVR-Pik-D (20.5%) and AVR-Pik-E (1.4%), AVRPiz-t (2.7%), AVR-Pita (0%), AVR-Pia (0%), and AVR1-CO39 (0%) displayed low or even zero frequency. The frequency of AVR genes correlated almost perfectly with the resistance frequency of the cognate R genes in differential lines, except for International Rice Research Institute-bred blast-resistant lines IRBLzt-T, IRBLta-K1, and IRBLkp-K60. Both genetic analysis and molecular marker validation revealed an additional R gene, most likely Pi19 or its allele, in these three differential lines. This can explain the spuriously higher resistance frequency of each target R gene based on conventional pathotyping. This study demonstrates that AVR-gene-based diagnosis provides a precise, R-gene-specific, and differential line-free assessment method that can be used for determining the virulence spectrum of a rice blast pathogen population and for predicting the

  12. Sport Technology

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kirkbride, T

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Technology is transforming the games themselves and at times with dire consequences. Tony Kirkbride, Head: CSIR Technology Centre said there are a variety of sports technologies and there have been advances in material sciences and advances...

  13. Assistive Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Page Resize Text Printer Friendly Online Chat Assistive Technology Assistive technology (AT) is any service or tool that helps ... be difficult or impossible. For older adults, such technology may be a walker to improve mobility or ...

  14. Report on surveys and researches in fiscal 2000 for directionality of technological needs and seeds in IT zone; IT ryoiki ni okeru gijutsu needs to seeds no hokosei ni kansuru chosa kenkyu hokoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    In order to put the assignments in the electronics and information technology fields into order, and to search elementary technologies and system technologies to become the focus of the future research and development, an IT workshop was held where researchers in the industrial, academic and governmental areas can meet together in one room. The social needs toward IT may include, as the correspondence to families with smaller number of children and greater number of persons of advanced age, the correspondence to digital devices, assurance of openness of information contents, enhancement of levels in medical technologies, enhancement of levels in medical services using remote medical systems, enhancement of welfare services, efficiency improvement in welfare services, and reduction of burdens therein. Enumerated in the use of educational information are the enlightenment and proliferation of IT literacy, development of user-friendly information terminals, education open to everybody, enhancement of the education contents, and enhancement of research activities. With regard to elimination of concentration into large urban areas, activation of local economies, homogenization of living environments, dissolution of traffic congestion, and strengthening of disaster preventing functions were pointed out. Also indicated is the assurance of security including the electronic trading, unjust invasion, and privacy protection. (NEDO)

  15. Strategic planning of the National Direction of Nuclear Technology: period 2002-2005 last report; Planificacion estrategica de la Direccion Nacional de Tecnologia Nuclear: periodo 2002-2005 informe final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-06-01

    The final report of strategic planning describes the uses and applications of the Nuclear Technology, situation, tendencies so much at international level as national, institutional organization of the Nuclear Sector in the Uruguay, assignment of the DNTN, nuclear politics of the Uruguay, development of the Net or Nuclear Sector and model proposed for Uruguay, general conclusions and Strategic Plan.

  16. General survey of Korean advanced technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-05-01

    This book includes advanced technology, world trend of advanced technology, technological innovation study for strengthening international competitiveness, patterns of Korea industrialization and its causes, structures of Korea electronic equipment and development direction, middle and long-term prospects of home appliance, the world of computer, current situation and prospect of robot industry, homework for strengthening international competitiveness of machine industry, direction for rationalization of materials industry, current situations of technical textile, future technology of developed countries, and trend of Korea technological activities.

  17. Rover Technologies

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Develop and mature rover technologies supporting robotic exploration including rover design, controlling rovers over time delay and for exploring . Technology...

  18. Direct access to INIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheludev, I.S.; Romanenko, A.G.

    1981-01-01

    Librarians, researchers, and information specialists throughout the world now have the opportunity for direct access to coverage of almost 95% of the world's literature dealing with the peaceful uses of atomic energy and nuclear science. This opportunity has been provided by the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) of the IAEA. INIS, with the voluntary collaboration of more than 60 of the Agency's Member States, maintains a comprehensive, computer-resident data-base, containing the bibliographic details plus informative abstracts of the bulk of the world's literature on nuclear science and technology. Since this data-base is growing at a rate of 75,000 items per year, and already contains more than 500,000 items, it is obviously important to be able to search this collection conveniently and efficiently. The usefulness of this ability is enhanced when other data-bases on related subjects are made available on an information network. During the early 1970s, on-line interrogation of large bibliographic data-bases became the accepted method for searching this type of information resource. Direct interaction between the searcher and the data-base provides quick feed-back resulting in improved literature listings for launching research and development projects. On-line access enables organizations which cannot store a large data-base on their own computer to expand the information resources at their command. Because of these advantages, INIS undertook to extend to interested Member States on-line access to its data-base in Vienna

  19. Heading in the right direction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, Ashok

    2011-01-15

    Statoil has developed a new directional technology which optimizes well positioning for unconsolidated geological formations, which addresses a crucial part for the implementation of a steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) program. This technology includes a rotary steerable system which, combined with an ultra-deep resistivity sensor, provides precise geosteering resulting therefore in in better well reservoir capture and characterization. Using this technique increases drilling efficiency, thus reducing the drilling time. The company's strategy is to provide cutting edge development to the oil sector and they have created a new research center in Calgary.

  20. SWPhylo - A Novel Tool for Phylogenomic Inferences by Comparison of Oligonucleotide Patterns and Integration of Genome-Based and Gene-Based Phylogenetic Trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaoyu; Reva, Oleg N

    2018-01-01

    Modern phylogenetic studies may benefit from the analysis of complete genome sequences of various microorganisms. Evolutionary inferences based on genome-scale analysis are believed to be more accurate than the gene-based alternative. However, the computational complexity of current phylogenomic procedures, inappropriateness of standard phylogenetic tools to process genome-wide data, and lack of reliable substitution models which correlates with alignment-free phylogenomic approaches deter microbiologists from using these opportunities. For example, the super-matrix and super-tree approaches of phylogenomics use multiple integrated genomic loci or individual gene-based trees to infer an overall consensus tree. However, these approaches potentially multiply errors of gene annotation and sequence alignment not mentioning the computational complexity and laboriousness of the methods. In this article, we demonstrate that the annotation- and alignment-free comparison of genome-wide tetranucleotide frequencies, termed oligonucleotide usage patterns (OUPs), allowed a fast and reliable inference of phylogenetic trees. These were congruent to the corresponding whole genome super-matrix trees in terms of tree topology when compared with other known approaches including 16S ribosomal RNA and GyrA protein sequence comparison, complete genome-based MAUVE, and CVTree methods. A Web-based program to perform the alignment-free OUP-based phylogenomic inferences was implemented at http://swphylo.bi.up.ac.za/. Applicability of the tool was tested on different taxa from subspecies to intergeneric levels. Distinguishing between closely related taxonomic units may be enforced by providing the program with alignments of marker protein sequences, eg, GyrA.

  1. SWPhylo – A Novel Tool for Phylogenomic Inferences by Comparison of Oligonucleotide Patterns and Integration of Genome-Based and Gene-Based Phylogenetic Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaoyu; Reva, Oleg N

    2018-01-01

    Modern phylogenetic studies may benefit from the analysis of complete genome sequences of various microorganisms. Evolutionary inferences based on genome-scale analysis are believed to be more accurate than the gene-based alternative. However, the computational complexity of current phylogenomic procedures, inappropriateness of standard phylogenetic tools to process genome-wide data, and lack of reliable substitution models which correlates with alignment-free phylogenomic approaches deter microbiologists from using these opportunities. For example, the super-matrix and super-tree approaches of phylogenomics use multiple integrated genomic loci or individual gene-based trees to infer an overall consensus tree. However, these approaches potentially multiply errors of gene annotation and sequence alignment not mentioning the computational complexity and laboriousness of the methods. In this article, we demonstrate that the annotation- and alignment-free comparison of genome-wide tetranucleotide frequencies, termed oligonucleotide usage patterns (OUPs), allowed a fast and reliable inference of phylogenetic trees. These were congruent to the corresponding whole genome super-matrix trees in terms of tree topology when compared with other known approaches including 16S ribosomal RNA and GyrA protein sequence comparison, complete genome-based MAUVE, and CVTree methods. A Web-based program to perform the alignment-free OUP-based phylogenomic inferences was implemented at http://swphylo.bi.up.ac.za/. Applicability of the tool was tested on different taxa from subspecies to intergeneric levels. Distinguishing between closely related taxonomic units may be enforced by providing the program with alignments of marker protein sequences, eg, GyrA. PMID:29511354

  2. The power of gene-based rare variant methods to detect disease-associated variation and test hypotheses about complex disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loukas Moutsianas

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Genome and exome sequencing in large cohorts enables characterization of the role of rare variation in complex diseases. Success in this endeavor, however, requires investigators to test a diverse array of genetic hypotheses which differ in the number, frequency and effect sizes of underlying causal variants. In this study, we evaluated the power of gene-based association methods to interrogate such hypotheses, and examined the implications for study design. We developed a flexible simulation approach, using 1000 Genomes data, to (a generate sequence variation at human genes in up to 10K case-control samples, and (b quantify the statistical power of a panel of widely used gene-based association tests under a variety of allelic architectures, locus effect sizes, and significance thresholds. For loci explaining ~1% of phenotypic variance underlying a common dichotomous trait, we find that all methods have low absolute power to achieve exome-wide significance (~5-20% power at α = 2.5 × 10(-6 in 3K individuals; even in 10K samples, power is modest (~60%. The combined application of multiple methods increases sensitivity, but does so at the expense of a higher false positive rate. MiST, SKAT-O, and KBAC have the highest individual mean power across simulated datasets, but we observe wide architecture-dependent variability in the individual loci detected by each test, suggesting that inferences about disease architecture from analysis of sequencing studies can differ depending on which methods are used. Our results imply that tens of thousands of individuals, extensive functional annotation, or highly targeted hypothesis testing will be required to confidently detect or exclude rare variant signals at complex disease loci.

  3. A gene-based linkage map for Bicyclus anynana butterflies allows for a comprehensive analysis of synteny with the lepidopteran reference genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Beldade

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Lepidopterans (butterflies and moths are a rich and diverse order of insects, which, despite their economic impact and unusual biological properties, are relatively underrepresented in terms of genomic resources. The genome of the silkworm Bombyx mori has been fully sequenced, but comparative lepidopteran genomics has been hampered by the scarcity of information for other species. This is especially striking for butterflies, even though they have diverse and derived phenotypes (such as color vision and wing color patterns and are considered prime models for the evolutionary and developmental analysis of ecologically relevant, complex traits. We focus on Bicyclus anynana butterflies, a laboratory system for studying the diversification of novelties and serially repeated traits. With a panel of 12 small families and a biphasic mapping approach, we first assigned 508 expressed genes to segregation groups and then ordered 297 of them within individual linkage groups. We also coarsely mapped seven color pattern loci. This is the richest gene-based map available for any butterfly species and allowed for a broad-coverage analysis of synteny with the lepidopteran reference genome. Based on 462 pairs of mapped orthologous markers in Bi. anynana and Bo. mori, we observed strong conservation of gene assignment to chromosomes, but also evidence for numerous large- and small-scale chromosomal rearrangements. With gene collections growing for a variety of target organisms, the ability to place those genes in their proper genomic context is paramount. Methods to map expressed genes and to compare maps with relevant model systems are crucial to extend genomic-level analysis outside classical model species. Maps with gene-based markers are useful for comparative genomics and to resolve mapped genomic regions to a tractable number of candidate genes, especially if there is synteny with related model species. This is discussed in relation to the identification of

  4. Skylab medical technology utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stonesifer, J. C.

    1974-01-01

    To perform the extensive medical experimentation on man in a long-term, zero-g environment, new medical measuring and monitoring equipment had to be developed, new techniques in training and operations were required, and new methods of collecting and analyzing the great amounts of medical data were developed. Examples of technology transfers to the public sector resulted from the development of new equipment, methods, techniques, and data. This paper describes several of the examples that stemmed directly from Skylab technology.

  5. University Research Program in Robotics - "Technologies for Micro-Electrical-Mechanical Systems in directed Stockpile Work (DSW) Radiation and Campaigns", Final Technical Annual Report, Project Period 9/1/06 - 8/31/07

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James S. Tulenko; Carl D. Crane

    2007-12-13

    The University Research Program in Robotics (URPR) is an integrated group of universities performing fundamental research that addresses broad-based robotics and automation needs of the NNSA Directed Stockpile Work (DSW) and Campaigns. The URPR mission is to provide improved capabilities in robotics science and engineering to meet the future needs of all weapon systems and other associated NNSA/DOE activities.

  6. An introduction to direct access storage devices

    CERN Document Server

    Sierra, Hugh M

    2012-01-01

    This book presents an exposition of the technology, design, organization, and structure of direct access storage devices (disk drives). It includes a discussion of the evolution of the technology (magnetic recording) and an assessment of other storage technologies, including optical recording. Examples of codes used in past implementations of disk drives as well as an application of disk drive usage dictated by reliability considerations are also included. The presentation assumes a minimum knowledge of magnetic recording, servomechanism design, and coding.

  7. Electronic technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Su

    2010-07-01

    This book is composed of five chapters, which introduces electronic technology about understanding of electronic, electronic component, radio, electronic application, communication technology, semiconductor on its basic, free electron and hole, intrinsic semiconductor and semiconductor element, Diode such as PN junction diode, characteristic of junction diode, rectifier circuit and smoothing circuit, transistor on structure of transistor, characteristic of transistor and common emitter circuit, electronic application about electronic equipment, communication technology and education, robot technology and high electronic technology.

  8. Cask technology program activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, G.C. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    The civilian waste cask technology program consists of five major activities: (1) technical issue resolution directed toward NRC and DOT concerns, (2) system concept evaluations to determine the benefits of proposals made to DOE for transportation improvements, (3) applied technology and technical data tasks that provide independent information and enhance technology transfer between cask contractors, (4) standards development and code benchmarking that provide a service to DOE and cask contractors, and (5) testing to ensure the adequacy of cask designs. The program addresses broad issues that affect several cask development contractors and areas where independent technical input could enhance the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management goals

  9. Cask technology program activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, G.C. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    The civilian waste cask technology program consists of five major activities: Technical issue resolution directed toward NRC and DOT concerns; system concept evaluations to determine the benefits of proposals made to DOE for transportation improvements; applied technology and technical data tasks that provide independent information and enhance technology transfer between cask contractors; standards development and code benchmarking that provide a service to DOE and cask contractors; and testing to ensure the adequacy of cask designs. This paper addresses broad issues that affect several cask development contractors and areas where independent technical input could enhance OCRWM goals

  10. Fusion technology programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finken, D.

    1985-05-01

    In the current Fusion Technology Programme of the European Community the KfK association is working at present on 16 R and D contracts. Most of the work is strongly oriented towards the Next European Torus. Direct support to NET is given by three KfK delegates being member of the NET study group. In addition to the R and D contracts the association is working on 11 NET study contracts. Though KfK contributes to all areas defined in fusion technology, the main emphasis is put on superconducting magnet and breeding blanket development. Other important fields are tritium technology, materials research, and remote handling. (orig./GG)

  11. Educational technology, reimagined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Michael

    2010-01-01

    "Educational technology" is often equated in the popular imagination with "computers in the schools." But technology is much more than merely computers, and education is much more than mere schooling. The landscape of child-accessible technologies is blossoming in all sorts of directions: tools for communication, for physical construction and fabrication, and for human-computer interaction. These new systems and artifacts allow educational designers to think much more creatively about when and where learning takes place in children's lives, both within and outside the classroom.

  12. Information Technology Service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ageron, M.; Boninchi, V.; Chartoire, M.; Combroux, A.; Giraud, N.; Jacquet, G.; Lagrange, B.; Malleret, S.; Martin, C.; Mas, J.; Morgue, M.; Ollivier, T.

    1998-01-01

    The information technology service works out the choices concerning the information technology systems of general use in the laboratory: computers, network, peripherals, workstations, software. It intervenes at the same time in the definition of the procedures and equipment specific to the research groups. The entire data acquisition is centralized by the service. The personnel is sharing the following two large directions of activities: - management of information technology park (setup, configuration and maintenance of the materials and soft ensemble, training and assistance afforded to users); - participation in software projects either in elaboration of applications or in realization and maintenance of specific tools

  13. Direction of Heavy Water Projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-07-01

    Summary of the activities performed by the Heavy Water Projects Direction of the Argentine Atomic Energy Commission from 1950 to 1983. It covers: historical data; industrial plant (based on ammonia-hydrogen isotopic exchange); experimental plant (utilizing hydrogen sulfides-water process); Module-80 plant (2-3 tons per year experimental plant with national technology) and other related tasks on research and development (E.A.C.) [es

  14. Working around technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dupret, Katia

    2017-01-01

    in Denmark. The aim and contribution of the study is twofold. First, it attempts to revitalise the discussion on technology workaround strategies as responsible professionalism. Second, it will direct attention to and contribute to an understanding of how the normativity embedded in technological development...... expressions of professionals’ active encounter with the complexity of work situations, and can therefore be important signs of professional ethical judgement. Drawing on science and technology studies and the concept of invisible work, the study discusses workaround situations that arise in health care work......This study discusses how professionalism and work ethics influence how health care professionals work around new technologies. When people avoid using technologies, they are not necessarily ceasing to engage in their work activities. The workaround strategies presented here are rather practical...

  15. Technology Time Machine 2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehner, Wolfgang; Fettweis, Gerhard; Fitzek, Frank

    2013-01-01

    The IEEE Technology Time Machine (TTM) is a unique event for industry leaders, academics, and decision making government officials who direct R&D activities, plan research programs or manage portfolios of research activities. This report covers the main topics of the 2nd Symposium of future...... technologies. The Symposium brought together world renowned experts to discuss the evolutionary and revolutionary advances in technology landscapes as we look towards 2020 and beyond. TTM facilitated informal discussions among the participants and speakers thus providing an excellent opportunity for informal...... interaction between attendees, senior business leaders, world-renowned innovators, and the press. The goal of the Symposium is to discover key critical innovations across technologies which will alter the research and application space of the future. Topics covered the future of Wireless Technology, Smart...

  16. Technology research and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, G.M.; Abdov, M.A.; Baker, C.C.; Beuligmann, R.F.

    1985-01-01

    The U.S. Dept. of Energy discusses the new program plan, the parameters of which are a broad scientific and technology knowledge base, an attractive plasma configuration to be determined, and other issues concerning uncertainty as to what constitutes attractive fusion options to be determined in the future, and increased collaboration. Tables show changing directions in magnetic fusion energy, two examples of boundary condition impacts on long-term technology development, and priority classes of the latter. The Argonne National Laboratory comments on the relationship between science, technology and the engineering aspects of the fusion program. UCLA remarks on the role of fusion technology in the fusion program plan, particularly on results from the recent studies of FINESSE. General Dynamics offers commentary on the issues of a reduced budget, and new emphasis on science which creates an image of the program. A table illustrates technology research and development in the program plan from an industrial perspective

  17. Direct Marketing Communication at SEAL Communication Company

    OpenAIRE

    Wachtler, Kamilla Dóra

    2010-01-01

    The appearance of the Internet and new, rapidly changing emerging online technologies have led to some fundamental changes in marketing -- especially direct marketing. Besides the growing popularity of the Internet, the appearance of databases and one-to-one marketing are challenging traditional marketing methods. This thesis attempts to illustrate how direct marketing techniques can be implemented in an IT company. It starts with an overview of the concepts of direct marketing and its techni...

  18. Integration of gene-based markers in a pearl millet genetic map for identification of candidate genes underlying drought tolerance quantitative trait loci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sehgal Deepmala

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identification of genes underlying drought tolerance (DT quantitative trait loci (QTLs will facilitate understanding of molecular mechanisms of drought tolerance, and also will accelerate genetic improvement of pearl millet through marker-assisted selection. We report a map based on genes with assigned functional roles in plant adaptation to drought and other abiotic stresses and demonstrate its use in identifying candidate genes underlying a major DT-QTL. Results Seventy five single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP and conserved intron spanning primer (CISP markers were developed from available expressed sequence tags (ESTs using four genotypes, H 77/833-2, PRLT 2/89-33, ICMR 01029 and ICMR 01004, representing parents of two mapping populations. A total of 228 SNPs were obtained from 30.5 kb sequenced region resulting in a SNP frequency of 1/134 bp. The positions of major pearl millet linkage group (LG 2 DT-QTLs (reported from crosses H 77/833-2 × PRLT 2/89-33 and 841B × 863B were added to the present consensus function map which identified 18 genes, coding for PSI reaction center subunit III, PHYC, actin, alanine glyoxylate aminotransferase, uridylate kinase, acyl-CoA oxidase, dipeptidyl peptidase IV, MADS-box, serine/threonine protein kinase, ubiquitin conjugating enzyme, zinc finger C- × 8-C × 5-C × 3-H type, Hd3, acetyl CoA carboxylase, chlorophyll a/b binding protein, photolyase, protein phosphatase1 regulatory subunit SDS22 and two hypothetical proteins, co-mapping in this DT-QTL interval. Many of these candidate genes were found to have significant association with QTLs of grain yield, flowering time and leaf rolling under drought stress conditions. Conclusions We have exploited available pearl millet EST sequences to generate a mapped resource of seventy five new gene-based markers for pearl millet and demonstrated its use in identifying candidate genes underlying a major DT-QTL in this species. The reported gene-based

  19. Exploiting transcriptome data for the development and characterization of gene-based SSR markers related to cold tolerance in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yong; Zhou, Lixia; Xia, Wei; Mason, Annaliese S; Yang, Yaodong; Ma, Zilong; Peng, Ming

    2014-12-19

    The oil palm (Elaeis guineensis, 2n = 32) has the highest oil yield of any crop species, as well as comprising the richest dietary source of provitamin A. For the tropical species, the best mean growth temperature is about 27°C, with a minimal growth temperature of 15°C. Hence, the plantation area is limited into the geographical ranges of 10°N to 10°S. Enhancing cold tolerance capability will increase the total cultivation area and subsequently oil productivity of this tropical species. Developing molecular markers related to cold tolerance would be helpful for molecular breeding of cold tolerant Elaeis guineensis. In total, 5791 gene-based SSRs were identified in 51,452 expressed sequences from Elaeis guineensis transcriptome data: approximately one SSR was detected per 10 expressed sequences. Of these 5791 gene-based SSRs, 916 were derived from expressed sequences up- or down-regulated at least two-fold in response to cold stress. A total of 182 polymorphic markers were developed and characterized from 442 primer pairs flanking these cold-responsive SSR repeats. The polymorphic information content (PIC) of these polymorphic SSR markers across 24 lines of Elaeis guineensis varied from 0.08 to 0.65 (mean = 0.31 ± 0.12). Using in-silico mapping, 137 (75.3%) of the 182 polymorphic SSR markers were located onto the 16 Elaeis guineensis chromosomes. Total coverage of 473 Mbp was achieved, with an average physical distance of 3.4 Mbp between adjacent markers (range 96 bp - 20.8 Mbp). Meanwhile, Comparative analysis of transcriptome under cold stress revealed that one ICE1 putative ortholog, five CBF putative orthologs, 19 NAC transcription factors and four cold-induced orhologs were up-regulated at least two fold in response to cold stress. Interestingly, 5' untranslated region of both Unigene21287 (ICE1) and CL2628.Contig1 (NAC) both contained an SSR markers. In the present study, a series of SSR markers were developed based on sequences

  20. Sandia National Laboratories: Microsystems Science & Technology Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Management System Pollution Prevention History 60 impacts Diversity Locations Facts & Figures Programs Nuclear Weapons About Nuclear Weapons Safety & Security Weapons Science & Technology Robotics R&D 100 Awards Laboratory Directed Research & Development Technology Deployment Centers

  1. Casting Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Michael D.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Three articles discuss (1) casting technology as it relates to industry, with comparisons of shell casting, shell molding, and die casting; (2) evaporative pattern casting for metals; and (3) high technological casting with silicone rubber. (JOW)

  2. Living Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    This book is aimed at anyone who is interested in learning more about living technology, whether coming from business, the government, policy centers, academia, or anywhere else. Its purpose is to help people to learn what living technology is, what it might develop into, and how it might impact...... our lives. The phrase 'living technology' was coined to refer to technology that is alive as well as technology that is useful because it shares the fundamental properties of living systems. In particular, the invention of this phrase was called for to describe the trend of our technology becoming...... increasingly life-like or literally alive. Still, the phrase has different interpretations depending on how one views what life is. This book presents nineteen perspectives on living technology. Taken together, the interviews convey the collective wisdom on living technology's power and promise, as well as its...

  3. Technology transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    On the base of technological opportunities and of the environmental target of the various sectors of energy system this paper intend to conjugate the opportunity/objective with economic and social development through technology transfer and information dissemination [it

  4. Technology and Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Joan Marie

    1997-01-01

    Describes four open-ended activities for students in grades 4-12 designed to encourage thought, discussion, and decision making in classes dealing with issues in ethics and technology. Provides teacher directions, describes activities, and outlines debriefing sessions for lessons in copyright infringement, network security, artificial…

  5. Earthing Technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, Vincent

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we reflect on the conditions under which new technologies emerge in the Anthropocene and raise the question of how to conceptualize sustainable technologies therein. To this end, we explore an eco-centric approach to technology development, called biomimicry. We discuss opposing

  6. Technology Tiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Christer

    2015-01-01

    A technology tier is a level in a product system: final product, system, subsystem, component, or part. As a concept, it contrasts traditional “vertical” special technologies (for example, mechanics and electronics) and focuses “horizontal” feature technologies such as product characteristics...

  7. Technology or Process First?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siurdyban, Artur Henryk; Svejvig, Per; Møller, Charles

    Enterprise Systems Management (ESM) and Business Pro- cess Management (BPM), although highly correlated, have evolved as alternative and mutually exclusive approaches to corporate infrastruc- ture. As a result, companies struggle to nd the right balance between technology and process factors...... in infrastructure implementation projects. The purpose of this paper is articulate a need and a direction to medi- ate between the process-driven and the technology-driven approaches. Using a cross-case analysis, we gain insight into two examples of sys- tems and process implementation. We highlight the dierences...... between them using strategic alignment, Enterprise Systems and Business Process Management theories. We argue that the insights from these cases can lead to a better alignment between process and technology. Implications for practice include the direction towards a closer integration of process...

  8. Fusion technology programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finken, D.

    1984-10-01

    The KfK-Association has continued work on 17 R and D contracts of the Fusion Technology Programme. An effort of 94 manyears per year is at present contributed by 10 KfK departments, covering all aereas defined in the Fusion Technology Programme. The dominant part of the work is directed towards the need of the NET design or supporting experiments. Some additional effort addresses long term technological issues and system studies relevant to DEMO or confinement schemes alternative to tokamaks. Direct contribution to the NET team has increased by augmentation of NET study contracts and delegation of personnel, three KfK delegates being at present members of the NET team. In reverse, specifications and design guidelines worked out by NET have started to have an impact on the current R and D-work in the laboratory. (orig./GG)

  9. EDITORIAL: Molecular Imaging Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asai, Keisuke; Okamoto, Koji

    2006-06-01

    'Molecular Imaging Technology' focuses on image-based techniques using nanoscale molecules as sensor probes to measure spatial variations of various species (molecular oxygen, singlet oxygen, carbon dioxide, nitric monoxide, etc) and physical properties (pressure, temperature, skin friction, velocity, mechanical stress, etc). This special feature, starting on page 1237, contains selected papers from The International Workshop on Molecular Imaging for Interdisciplinary Research, sponsored by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) in Japan, which was held at the Sendai Mediatheque, Sendai, Japan, on 8 9 November 2004. The workshop was held as a sequel to the MOSAIC International Workshop that was held in Tokyo in 2003, to summarize the outcome of the 'MOSAIC Project', a five-year interdisciplinary project supported by Techno-Infrastructure Program, the Special Coordination Fund for Promotion of Science Technology to develop molecular sensor technology for aero-thermodynamic research. The workshop focused on molecular imaging technology and its applications to interdisciplinary research areas. More than 110 people attended this workshop from various research fields such as aerospace engineering, automotive engineering, radiotechnology, fluid dynamics, bio-science/engineering and medical engineering. The purpose of this workshop is to stimulate intermixing of these interdisciplinary fields for further development of molecular sensor and imaging technology. It is our pleasure to publish the seven papers selected from our workshop as a special feature in Measurement and Science Technology. We will be happy if this issue inspires people to explore the future direction of molecular imaging technology for interdisciplinary research.

  10. Let nuclear technology create new brilliancy for china's sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Xiangwan

    2008-01-01

    This paper summarizes the development and application directions of nuclear technology, including five aspects: nuclear technology and energy nuclear technology and medicine, nuclear anclear analysis technology, nuclear radiation technology, astronautics and voyage's nuclear power, etc. The paper discusses the importance of them to sustainable development and generalizes the development trilogy of nuclear science and technology and its prospect. (authors)

  11. Materials and technology in sport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caine, Mike; Blair, Kim; Vasquez, Mike

    2012-08-01

    An evolution from natural to highly engineered materials has drastically changed the way in which athletes train and compete. Thanks to challenging technological problems and unconventional commercialization pathways, universities can make a direct impact on the development of sporting goods.

  12. SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY PARKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Milutinović

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The establishment of science and technology parks is necessarily accompanied by the establishment of a base of professional staff as the foundation of the park and the base of the potential management that will manage the park and the professional staff. Science and Technology Park is a broader term used to describe a variety of attempts directed at enhancing the entrepreneurship development by means of establishing knowledge – based, small and medium-sized enterprises. The enterprise at the top of the technology pyramid receives support in the form of capital, administration, space and access to new information technologies. The overall objective of the development of industrial enterprises in the technology park is the introduction of economically profitable production with the efficient usage of nonrenewable resources and the application of the highest environmental standards. Achieving the primary developmental objective of the Technology Park includes: creating a favorable business atmosphere in the local community, attractive to both foreign and domestic investors – providing support to the establishment of small and medium-sized enterprises using different models of joint ventures and direct foreign investment.

  13. Population Abundance of Potentially Pathogenic Organisms in Intestinal Microbiome of Jungle Crow (Corvus macrorhynchos Shown with 16S rRNA Gene-Based Microbial Community Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isamu Maeda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Jungle Crows (Corvus macrorhynchos prefer human habitats because of their versatility in feeding accompanied with human food consumption. Therefore, it is important from a public health viewpoint to characterize their intestinal microbiota. However, no studies have been involved in molecular characterization of the microbiota based on huge and reliable number of data acquisition. In this study, 16S rRNA gene-based microbial community analysis coupled with the next-generation DNA sequencing techniques was applied to the taxonomic classification of intestinal microbiome for three jungle crows. Clustering of the reads into 130 operational taxonomic units showed that at least 70% of analyzed sequences for each crow were highly homologous to Eimeria sp., which belongs to the protozoan phylum Apicomplexa. The microbiotas of three crows also contained potentially pathogenic bacteria with significant percentages, such as the genera Campylobacter and Brachyspira. Thus, the profiling of a large number of 16S rRNA gene sequences in crow intestinal microbiomes revealed the high-frequency existence or vestige of potentially pathogenic microorganisms.

  14. Development of 101 Gene-based Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Markers in Sea Cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Lu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs are currently the marker of choice in a variety of genetic studies. Using the high resolution melting (HRM genotyping approach, 101 gene-based SNP markers were developed for Apostichopus japonicus, a sea cucumber species with economic significance for the aquaculture industry in East Asian countries. HRM analysis revealed that all the loci showed polymorphisms when evaluated using 40 A. japonicus individuals collected from a natural population. The minor allele frequency ranged from 0.035 to 0.489. The observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.050 to 0.833 and 0.073 to 0.907, respectively. Thirteen loci were found to depart significantly from Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium (HWE after Bonferroni corrections. Significant linkage disequilibrium (LD was detected in one pair of markers. These SNP markers are expected to be useful for future quantitative trait loci (QTL analysis, and to facilitate marker-assisted selection (MAS in A. japonicus.

  15. Influence of menstruation on the microbiota of healthy women's labia minora as analyzed using a 16S rRNA gene-based clone library method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraishi, Tsukasa; Fukuda, Kazumasa; Morotomi, Nobuo; Imamura, Yuri; Mishima, Junko; Imai, Shigeo; Miyazawa, Kiyoshi; Taniguchi, Hatsumi

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of menstruation on the bacterial population of healthy Japanese women's vulvas, especially the labia minora. Labia minora swabs were obtained from 10 premenopausal, nonpregnant Japanese women at premenstruation and on day 2 of menstruation. Vaginal swabs were also obtained from 3 out of the 10 women. No significant difference was found in the average bacterial cell count between the menstruation and premenstruation samples. Molecular analysis using a 16S rRNA gene-based clone library method detected 22 genera from the labia minora swabs (total 20), with the genus Lactobacillus being predominant at both premenstruation and during menstruation in 7 out of the 10 women. Of the other 3 women, 2 showed various kinds of bacterial species, including oral and fecal bacteria, with Atopobium vaginae and Gardnerella vaginalis predominating in the remaining woman's vulva in both conditions. In total, 6 out of 10 cases (60%) showed significantly different microbiota of the labia minora between the two conditions. These results imply that menstruation may promote a distortion of the bacterial flora around the vulva, although it causes no significant increase of the bacterial count.

  16. 16S rRNA and Omp31 Gene Based Molecular Characterization of Field Strains of B. melitensis from Aborted Foetus of Goats in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ajay; Gupta, Vivek Kumar; Kumar, Amit; Singh, Vikas Kumar; Nayakwadi, Shivasharanappa

    2013-01-01

    Brucellosis is a reemerging infectious zoonotic disease of worldwide importance. In human, it is mainly caused by Brucella melitensis, a natural pathogen for goats. In India, a large number of goats are reared in semi-intensive to intensive system within the close vicinity of human being. At present, there is no vaccination and control strategy for caprine brucellosis in the country. Thus, to formulate an effective control strategy, the status of etiological agent is essential. To cope up with these, the present study was conducted to isolate and identify the prevalent Brucella species in caprine brucellosis in India. The 30 samples (fetal membrane, fetal stomach content and vaginal swabs) collected throughout India from the aborted fetus of goats revealed the isolation of 05 isolates all belonging to Brucella melitensis biovars 3. All the isolates produced amplification products of 1412 and 720 bp in polymerase chain reaction with genus and species specific 16S rRNA and omp31 gene based primers, respectively. Moreover, the amplification of omp31 gene in all the isolates confirmed the presence of immuno dominant outer membrane protein (31 kDa omp) in all the field isolates of B. melitensis in aborted foetus of goats in India. These findings can support the development of omp31 based specific serodiagnostic test as well as vaccine for the control of caprine brucellosis in India. PMID:24453799

  17. Rejuvenating direct modulation and direct detection for modern optical communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Di; Li, An; Chen, Xi; Hu, Qian; Shieh, William

    2018-02-01

    High-speed transoceanic optical fiber transmission using direct modulation (DM) and direct detection (DD) was one of the most stirring breakthroughs for telecommunication in 1990s, which drove the internet as a global phenomenon. However, the later evolution of optical coherent communications in 2000s gradually took over the long-haul applications, due to its superior optical spectral efficiency. Nowadays, DM-DD systems are dominant mainly in cost- and power-sensitive short-reach applications, because of its natural characteristics-the simplicity. This paper reviews the recent advances of DM-DD transceivers from both hardware and signal processing perspectives. It introduces a variety of modified DM and/or DD systems for 3 application scenarios: very-short-reach interconnect with little fiber channel impact; single or a few spans of fiber transmission up to several hundred km; and distance beyond the 2nd scenario. Besides the DM-DD and multi-dimension DM-DD with polarization diversity, this paper focuses on how to rejuvenate traditional DM and DD technologies in order to bridge the transmission application gap between DM-DD and coherent transceivers, using technologies such as dispersion compensation, signal field recovery from the intensity-only DD receiver, and complex direct modulation with coherent detection. More than 30 years since the birth, DM and DD still hold indispensable roles in modern optical communications.

  18. Sensemaking technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Charlotte Øland

    Research scope: The scope of the project is to study technological implementation processes by using Weick's sensemaking concept (Weick, 1995). The purpose of using a social constructivist approach to investigate technological implementation processes is to find out how new technologies transform......, Orlikowski 2000). Viewing the use of technology as a process of enactment opens up for investigating the social processes of interpreting new technology into the organisation (Orlikowski 2000). The scope of the PhD project will therefore be to gain a deeper understanding of how the enactment of new...... & Brass, 1990; Kling 1991; Orlikowski 2000). It also demonstrates that technology is a flexible variable adapted to the organisation's needs, culture, climate and management philosophy, thus leading to different uses and outcomes of the same technology in different organisations (Barley 1986; 1990...

  19. Technology roadmaps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearson, B. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). CANMET Energy Technology Centre

    2003-07-01

    The purpose of a technology road map is to define the state of a current technology, relevant market issues, and future market needs; to develop a plan that industry can follow to provide these new products and services; and to map technology pathways and performance goals for bringing these products and services to market. The three stages (planning, implementation, and reviewing and updating), benefits, and status of the Clean Coal Technology Roadmap are outlined. Action Plan 2000, a $1.7 million 2000 Climate Change Technology and Innovation Program, which uses the technology roadmapping process, is described. The members of the management steering committee for the Clean Coal Technology Roadmap are listed. A flowsheet showing activities until November 2004, when the final clean coal road map is due, is included.

  20. Appropriate Technology as Indian Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Tom

    1979-01-01

    Describes the mounting enthusiasm of Indian communities for appropriate technology as an inexpensive means of providing much needed energy and job opportunities. Describes the development of several appropriate technology projects, and the goals and activities of groups involved in utilizing low scale solar technology for economic development on…

  1. Technology applications bulletins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koncinski, W. Jr.

    1989-02-01

    Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems), operates five facilities for the US Department of Energy (DOE): the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), which is a large, multidisciplinary research and development (R and D) center whose primary mission is energy research; the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, which engages in defense research, development, and production; and the uranium-enrichment plants at Oak Ridge; Paducah, Kentucky; and Portsmouth, Ohio. Much of the research carried out at these facilities is of interest to industry and to state or local governments. To make information about this research available, the Energy Systems Office of Technology Applications publishes brief descriptions of selected technologies and reports. These technology applications bulletins describe the new technology and inform the reader about how to obtain further information, gain access to technical resources, and initiate direct contact with Energy Systems researchers

  2. Technology certification and technology acceptance: Promoting interstate cooperation and market development for innovative technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brockbank, B.R.

    1995-03-01

    In the past two years, public and private efforts to promote development and deployment of innovative environmental technologies have shifted from the analysis of barriers to the implementation of a variety of initiatives aimed at surmounting those barriers. Particular attention has been directed at (1) streamlining fragmented technology acceptance processes within and among the states, and (2) alleviating disincentives, created by inadequate or unverified technology cost and performance data, for users and regulators to choose innovative technologies. Market fragmentation currently imposes significant cost burdens on technology developers and inhibits the investment of private capital in environmental technology companies. Among the responses to these problems are state and federal technology certification/validation programs, efforts to standardize cost/performance data reporting, and initiatives aimed at promoting interstate cooperation in technology testing and evaluation. This paper reviews the current status of these initiatives, identifies critical challenges to their success, and recommends strategies for addressing those challenges

  3. Practical applications of interactive voice technologies: Some accomplishments and prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, Michael W.; Hicklin, M. B.; Porter, J. E.

    1977-01-01

    A technology assessment of the application of computers and electronics to complex systems is presented. Three existing systems which utilize voice technology (speech recognition and speech generation) are described. Future directions in voice technology are also described.

  4. Technology '90

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) laboratories have a long history of excellence in performing research and development in a number of areas, including the basic sciences, applied-energy technology, and weapons-related technology. Although technology transfer has always been an element of DOE and laboratory activities, it has received increasing emphasis in recent years as US industrial competitiveness has eroded and efforts have increased to better utilize the research and development resources the laboratories provide. This document, Technology '90, is the latest in a series that is intended to communicate some of the many opportunities available for US industry and universities to work with the DOE and its laboratories in the vital activity of improving technology transfer to meet national needs. Technology '90 is divided into three sections: Overview, Technologies, and Laboratories. The Overview section describes the activities and accomplishments of the DOE research and development program offices. The Technologies section provides descriptions of new technologies developed at the DOE laboratories. The Laboratories section presents information on the missions, programs, and facilities of each laboratory, along with a name and telephone number of a technology transfer contact for additional information. Separate papers were prepared for appropriate sections of this report

  5. Soulful Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fausing, Bent

    2010-01-01

    Samsung introduced in 2008 a mobile phone called "Soul" made with a human touch and including itself a "magic touch". Through the analysis of a Nokia mobile phone TV-commercials I want to examine the function and form of digital technology in everyday images. The mobile phone and its digital camera...... and other devices are depicted by everyday aesthetics as capable of producing a unique human presence and interaction. The medium, the technology is a necessary helper of this very special and lost humanity. Without the technology, no special humanity, no soul - such is the prophecy. This personification...... or anthropomorphism is important for the branding of new technology. Technology is seen as creating a techno-transcendence towards a more qualified humanity which is in contact with fundamental human values like intuition, vision, and sensing; all the qualities that technology, industrialization, and rationalization...

  6. Comparison of high-definition oscillometry -- a non-invasive technology for arterial blood pressure measurement -- with a direct invasive method using radio-telemetry in awake healthy cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, Eric; Egner, Beate; Brown, Scott A; King, Jonathan N; Laveissiere, Arnaud; Champeroux, Pascal; Richard, Serge

    2013-12-01

    This study compared indirect blood pressure measurements using a non-invasive method, high-definition oscillometry (HDO), with direct measurements using a radio-telemetry device in awake cats. Paired measurements partitioned to five sub-ranges were collected in six cats using both methods. The results were analysed for assessment of correlation and agreement between the two methods, taking into account all pressure ranges, and with data separated in three sub-groups, low, normal and high ranges of systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure. SBP data displayed a mean correlation coefficient of 0.92 ± 0.02 that was reduced for low SBP. The agreement level evaluated from the whole data set was high and slightly reduced for low SBP values. The mean correlation coefficient of DBP was lower than for SBP (ie, 0.81 ± 0.02). The bias for DBP between the two methods was 22.3 ± 1.6 mmHg, suggesting that HDO produced lower values than telemetry. These results suggest that HDO met the validation criteria defined by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine consensus panel and provided a faithful measurement of SBP in conscious cats. For DBP, results suggest that HDO tended to underestimate DBP. This finding is clearly inconsistent with the good agreement reported in dogs, but is similar to outcomes achieved in marmosets and cynomolgus monkeys, suggesting that this is not related to HDO but is species related. The data support that the HDO is the first and only validated non-invasive blood pressure device and, as such, it is the only non-invasive reference technique that should be used in future validation studies.

  7. Globalization & technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Narula, Rajneesh

    Technology and globalization are interdependent processes. Globalization has a fundamental influence on the creation and diffusion of technology, which, in turn, affects the interdependence of firms and locations. This volume examines the international aspect of this interdependence at two levels...... of innovation" understanding of learning. Narula and Smith reconcile an important paradox. On the one hand, locations and firms are increasingly interdependent through supranational organisations, regional integration, strategic alliances, and the flow of investments, technologies, ideas and people...

  8. Army Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    that allows them to perform applied research under the Institute for Biotechnology research team 1 2 3 20 | ARMY TECHNOLOGY MAGAZINE ...DASA(R&T) Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Army for Research and Technology Download the magazine , view online or read each individual story with...Army photo by Conrad Johnson) Front and back cover designs by Joe Stephens EXECUTIVE DEPUTY TO THE COMMANDING GENERAL Army Technology Magazine is an

  9. Technology alliances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torgerson, D.F.; Boczar, P.G.; Kugler, G.

    1991-10-01

    In the field of nuclear technology, Canada and Korea developed a highly successful relationship that could serve as a model for other high-technology industries. This is particularly significant when one considers the complexity and technical depth required to design, build and operate a nuclear reactor. This paper will outline the overall framework for technology transfer and cooperation between Canada and Korea, and will focus on cooperation in nuclear R and D between the two countries

  10. Technological risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinke, A.; Renn, O.

    1998-01-01

    The empirical part about the technological risks deals with different technologies: nuclear energy, early warning systems of nuclear weapons and NBC-weapons, and electromagnetic fields. The potential of damage, the contemporary management strategies and the relevant characteristics will be described for each technology: risks of nuclear energy; risks of early warning systems of nuclear weapons and NBC-weapons; risks of electromagnetic fields. (authors)

  11. Technological risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klinke, A.; Renn, O. [Center of Technology Assessment in Baden-Wuerttemberg, Stuttgart (Germany)

    1998-07-01

    The empirical part about the technological risks deals with different technologies: nuclear energy, early warning systems of nuclear weapons and NBC-weapons, and electromagnetic fields. The potential of damage, the contemporary management strategies and the relevant characteristics will be described for each technology: risks of nuclear energy; risks of early warning systems of nuclear weapons and NBC-weapons; risks of electromagnetic fields. (authors)

  12. 77 FR 46805 - Small Business Innovation Research Program Policy Directive

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-06

    ... Vol. 77 Monday, No. 151 August 6, 2012 Part II Small Business Administration 13 CFR Chapter I Small Business Innovation Research Program Policy Directive; Small Business Technology Transfer Program Policy Directive; Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program and Small Business Technology...

  13. Chemistry Technology

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Chemistry technology experts at NCATS engage in a variety of innovative translational research activities, including:Design of bioactive small molecules.Development...

  14. A sweetpotato gene index established by de novo assembly of pyrosequencing and Sanger sequences and mining for gene-based microsatellite markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solis Julio

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas (L. Lam., a hexaploid outcrossing crop, is an important staple and food security crop in developing countries in Africa and Asia. The availability of genomic resources for sweetpotato is in striking contrast to its importance for human nutrition. Previously existing sequence data were restricted to around 22,000 expressed sequence tag (EST sequences and ~ 1,500 GenBank sequences. We have used 454 pyrosequencing to augment the available gene sequence information to enhance functional genomics and marker design for this plant species. Results Two quarter 454 pyrosequencing runs used two normalized cDNA collections from stems and leaves from drought-stressed sweetpotato clone Tanzania and yielded 524,209 reads, which were assembled together with 22,094 publically available expressed sequence tags into 31,685 sets of overlapping DNA segments and 34,733 unassembled sequences. Blastx comparisons with the UniRef100 database allowed annotation of 23,957 contigs and 15,342 singletons resulting in 24,657 putatively unique genes. Further, 27,119 sequences had no match to protein sequences of UniRef100database. On the basis of this gene index, we have identified 1,661 gene-based microsatellite sequences, of which 223 were selected for testing and 195 were successfully amplified in a test panel of 6 hexaploid (I. batatas and 2 diploid (I. trifida accessions. Conclusions The sweetpotato gene index is a useful source for functionally annotated sweetpotato gene sequences that contains three times more gene sequence information for sweetpotato than previous EST assemblies. A searchable version of the gene index, including a blastn function, is available at http://www.cipotato.org/sweetpotato_gene_index.

  15. Direct Bonded Pontic (Laporan Kasus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhandi Sidjaja

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Advanced science and technology in dentistry enable dental practitioners to modified she bonding techniques in tooth replacement. A pontic made of composite resin bonded to etched enamel of the adjacent teeth can be used in the replacement of one missing anterior tooth with a virgin or sowed adpicent tooth. The advantages of this technique include a one visit treatment, cow cost, good esthetics, less side effects and easy repair or rebounding. Clinical evaluation showed a high success rate therefore with a proper diagnosis and a perfect skill of the direct bonded technique this treatment can be used as an alternative restoration.

  16. Studies of direct electroinsulating enamels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siwulski, S.; Gruszka, B.; Nocun, M.

    1998-01-01

    The results of studies on the influence of chemical composition of direct electroinsulating enamel on its properties were presented. The influence of alkaline Li 2 O, Na 2 O, K 2 O and adhesion promoting oxides CoO, NiO, CuO, MoO 3 on the frits properties were estimated. The characteristic temperature T g and T m as well as flowability were measured. The dielectric properties of frits and prepared enamels were also measured. Enamel substrates were prepared and tested for application in thick hybrid circuit technology. (author)

  17. Advanced exhaust nozzle technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glidewell, R J; Warburton, R E

    1981-01-01

    Recent developments in turbine engine exhaust nozzle technology include nonaxisymmetric nozzles, thrust reversing, and thrust vectoring. Trade studies have been performed to determine the impact of these developments on the thrust-to-weight ratio and specific fuel consumption of an advanced high performance, augmented turbofan engine. Results are presented in a manner which provides an understanding of the sources and magnitudes of differences in the basic elements of nozzle internal performance and weight as they relate to conventional, axisymmetric nozzle technology. Conclusions are presented and recommendations are made with regard to future directions of advanced development and demonstration. 5 refs.

  18. Geothermal Power Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montagud, Maria E. Mondejar; Chamorro, C.R.

    2017-01-01

    Although geothermal energy has been widely deployed for direct use in locations with especial geologic manifestations, its potential for power generation has been traditionally underestimated. Recent technology developments in drilling techniques and power conversion technologies from low......-temperature heat resources are bringing geothermal energy to the spotlight as a renewable baseload energy option for a sustainable energy mix. Although the environmental impact and economic viability of geothermal exploitation must be carefully evaluated for each case, the use of deep low-temperature geothermal...... reservoirs could soon become an important contributor to the energy generation around the world....

  19. Technology Catalogue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    The Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) is responsible for remediating its contaminated sites and managing its waste inventory in a safe and efficient manner. EM's Office of Technology Development (OTD) supports applied research and demonstration efforts to develop and transfer innovative, cost-effective technologies to its site clean-up and waste management programs within EM's Office of Environmental Restoration and Office of Waste Management. The purpose of the Technology Catalogue is to provide performance data on OTD-developed technologies to scientists and engineers assessing and recommending technical solutions within the Department's clean-up and waste management programs, as well as to industry, other federal and state agencies, and the academic community. OTD's applied research and demonstration activities are conducted in programs referred to as Integrated Demonstrations (IDs) and Integrated Programs (IPs). The IDs test and evaluate.systems, consisting of coupled technologies, at specific sites to address generic problems, such as the sensing, treatment, and disposal of buried waste containers. The IPs support applied research activities in specific applications areas, such as in situ remediation, efficient separations processes, and site characterization. The Technology Catalogue is a means for communicating the status. of the development of these innovative technologies. The FY93 Technology Catalogue features technologies successfully demonstrated in the field through IDs and sufficiently mature to be used in the near-term. Technologies from the following IDs are featured in the FY93 Technology Catalogue: Buried Waste ID (Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho); Mixed Waste Landfill ID (Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico); Underground Storage Tank ID (Hanford, Washington); Volatile organic compound (VOC) Arid ID (Richland, Washington); and VOC Non-Arid ID (Savannah River Site, South Carolina)

  20. Sensing roughness and polish direction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Michael Linde; Olesen, Anders Sig; Larsen, Henning Engelbrecht

    2016-01-01

    As a part of the work carried out in a project supported by the Danish Council for Technology and Innovation, we have investigated the option of smoothing standard CNC-machined surfaces. In the process of constructing optical prototypes, involving custom-designed optics, the development cost...... and time consumption can become prohibitive in a research budget. Machining the optical surfaces directly is expensive and time consuming. Alternatively, a more standardized and cheaper machining method can be used, calling for the object to be manually polished. During the polishing process, the operator...... needs information about the RMS-value of the surface roughness and the current direction of the scratches introduced by the polishing process. The RMS-value indicates to the operator how far he is from the final finish, and the scratch orientation is often specified by the customer in order to avoid...

  1. Thermally activated technologies: Technology Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2003-05-01

    The purpose of this Technology Roadmap is to outline a set of actions for government and industry to develop thermally activated technologies for converting America’s wasted heat resources into a reservoir of pollution-free energy for electric power, heating, cooling, refrigeration, and humidity control. Fuel flexibility is important. The actions also cover thermally activated technologies that use fossil fuels, biomass, and ultimately hydrogen, along with waste heat.

  2. Technology Exhibition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1979-09-15

    Linked to the 25th Anniversary celebrations, an exhibition of some of CERN's technological achievements was opened on 22 June. Set up in a new 600 m{sup 2} Exhibition Hall on the CERN site, the exhibition is divided into eight technology areas — magnets, vacuum, computers and data handling, survey and alignment, radiation protection, beam monitoring and handling, detectors, and workshop techniques.

  3. Technology Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Heather; McGilll, Toria

    2011-01-01

    Social networking and other technologies, if used judiciously, present the means to integrate 21st century skills into the classroom curriculum. But they also introduce challenges that educators must overcome. Increased concerns about plagiarism and access to technology can test educators' creativity and school resources. Air Academy High School,…

  4. Maritime Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Herman

    1997-01-01

    Elementary introduction to the subject "Maritime Technology".The contents include drawings, sketches and references in English without any supplementary text.......Elementary introduction to the subject "Maritime Technology".The contents include drawings, sketches and references in English without any supplementary text....

  5. Sensemaking technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Charlotte Øland

    Research objective: The object of the LOK research project is to gain a better understanding of the technological strategic processes in organisations by using the concept/metaphor of sensemaking. The project will investigate the technological strategies in organisations in order to gain a deeper...... understanding of the cognitive competencies and barriers towards implementing new technology in organisations. The research will therefore concentrate on researching the development process in the organisation's perception of the external environmental elements of customers, suppliers, competitors, internal...... and external technology and legislation and the internal environmental elements of structure, power relations and political arenas. All of these variables have influence on which/how technologies are implemented thus creating different outcomes all depending on the social dynamics that are triggered by changes...

  6. PROTOTIPE VIDEO EDITOR DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN DIRECT X DAN DIRECT SHOW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djoni Haryadi Setiabudi

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Technology development had given people the chance to capture their memorable moments in video format. A high quality digital video is a result of a good editing process. Which in turn, arise the new need of an editor application. In accordance to the problem, here the process of making a simple application for video editing needs. The application development use the programming techniques often applied in multimedia applications, especially video. First part of the application will begin with the video file compression and decompression, then we'll step into the editing part of the digital video file. Furthermore, the application also equipped with the facilities needed for the editing processes. The application made with Microsoft Visual C++ with DirectX technology, particularly DirectShow. The application provides basic facilities that will help the editing process of a digital video file. The application will produce an AVI format file after the editing process is finished. Through the testing process of this application shows the ability of this application to do the 'cut' and 'insert' of video files in AVI, MPEG, MPG and DAT formats. The 'cut' and 'insert' process only can be done in static order. Further, the aplication also provide the effects facility for transition process in each clip. Lastly, the process of saving the new edited video file in AVI format from the application. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Perkembangan teknologi memberi kesempatan masyarakat untuk mengabadikan saat - saat yang penting menggunakan video. Pembentukan video digital yang baik membutuhkan proses editing yang baik pula. Untuk melakukan proses editing video digital dibutuhkan program editor. Berdasarkan permasalahan diatas maka pada penelitian ini dibuat prototipe editor sederhana untuk video digital. Pembuatan aplikasi memakai teknik pemrograman di bidang multimedia, khususnya video. Perencanaan dalam pembuatan aplikasi tersebut dimulai dengan pembentukan

  7. Direct selling particularities

    OpenAIRE

    Greifová, Daniela

    2009-01-01

    Bachelor thesis is focused on the parcularities of direct selling, self regulation of this industry, multi-level marketing which is the most used sales method in the field of direct selling. The part of the thesis is dedicated to the issue of customer psychology that is very important for achieving success in direct selling. Main goals are to provide readers with the general view of direct selling and analysis of growing possibilities of the industry in the future.

  8. Directed Energy Weapons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    future business . In defense systems, the key to future business is the existence of funded programs. Military commanders understand the lethality and...directed energp capabilities that can provide visibiliy into the likey futur business case for sustaining directed energy industry capabilities...the USD (I) staff to be afocalpointfor advocating improvement in all dimensions of directed energy intelligence. - The Director, Defense Inteligence

  9. Key Technologies in Massive MIMO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Qiang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The explosive growth of wireless data traffic in the future fifth generation mobile communication system (5G has led researchers to develop new disruptive technologies. As an extension of traditional MIMO technology, massive MIMO can greatly improve the throughput rate and energy efficiency, and can effectively improve the link reliability and data transmission rate, which is an important research direction of 5G wireless communication. Massive MIMO technology is nearly three years to get a new technology of rapid development and it through a lot of increasing the number of antenna communication, using very duplex communication mode, make the system spectrum efficiency to an unprecedented height.

  10. Information technology resources assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, D.F. [ed.

    1992-01-01

    This year`s Information Technology Resources Assessment (ITRA) is something of a departure from traditional practice. Past assessments have concentrated on developments in fundamental technology, particularly with respect to hardware. They form an impressive chronicle of decreasing cycle times, increasing densities, decreasing costs (or, equivalently, increasing capacity and capability per dollar spent), and new system architectures, with a leavening of operating systems and languages. Past assessments have aimed -- and succeeded -- at putting information technology squarely in the spotlight; by contrast, in the first part of this assessment, we would like to move it to the background, and encourage the reader to reflect less on the continuing technological miracles of miniaturization in space and time and more on the second- and third-order implications of some possible workplace applications of these miracles. This Information Technology Resources Assessment is intended to provide a sense of technological direction for planners in projecting the hardware, software, and human resources necessary to support the diverse IT requirements of the various components of the DOE community. It is also intended to provide a sense of our new understanding of the place of IT in our organizations.

  11. Information technology resources assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, D.F. (ed.)

    1992-01-01

    This year's Information Technology Resources Assessment (ITRA) is something of a departure from traditional practice. Past assessments have concentrated on developments in fundamental technology, particularly with respect to hardware. They form an impressive chronicle of decreasing cycle times, increasing densities, decreasing costs (or, equivalently, increasing capacity and capability per dollar spent), and new system architectures, with a leavening of operating systems and languages. Past assessments have aimed -- and succeeded -- at putting information technology squarely in the spotlight; by contrast, in the first part of this assessment, we would like to move it to the background, and encourage the reader to reflect less on the continuing technological miracles of miniaturization in space and time and more on the second- and third-order implications of some possible workplace applications of these miracles. This Information Technology Resources Assessment is intended to provide a sense of technological direction for planners in projecting the hardware, software, and human resources necessary to support the diverse IT requirements of the various components of the DOE community. It is also intended to provide a sense of our new understanding of the place of IT in our organizations.

  12. Art : accessible, renewable technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Middleton, C.D.

    2004-01-01

    This paper focuses on the role of non-governmental organization (NGO) citizen groups in Ontario in the use and production of electricity. NGOs have the potential to act both directly on their own accord, and indirectly by pressuring government and others. Current demand for electricity is divided between industrial, commercial and residential users. Citizens have an important role to play in reducing energy demand. On the supply side, there is a revival of interest in renewable energy based on wind, photovoltaic and local-hydro technologies as a result of the escalating environmental and economic costs of coal and nuclear generation. However, citizen groups have greater interest and enthusiasm than technical expertise, creating a mismatch between technological solutions and human need or use of them. This paper discusses how this mismatch applies to renewable-energy technologies, many of which are not especially user-friendly, or accessible. While alternative technologies are increasingly welcomed by government, industry is developing a large and growing array of technological devices. In between this is the citizen, who, despite keen interest, can be overwhelmed by the complexity of the situation. This paper links the theoretical perspective to the real world with a discussion of the dynamics between people and renewable energy in citizen groups and makes particular reference to one group, Citizens for Renewable Energy, that has been making renewable energy technology more accessible to its members for over a decade

  13. Wind measurement via direct detection lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afek, I.; Sela, N.; Narkiss, N.; Shamai, G.; Tsadka, S.

    2013-10-01

    Wind sensing Lidar is considered a promising technology for high quality wind measurements required for various applications such as hub height wind resource assessment, power curve measurements and advanced, real time, forward looking turbine control. Until recently, the only available Lidar technology was based on coherent Doppler shift detection, whose market acceptance has been slow primarily due to its exuberant price. Direct detection Lidar technology provides an alternative to remote sensing of wind by incorporating high precision measurement, a robust design and an affordable price tag.

  14. Electric transmission technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, K.R.

    1990-01-01

    Electric transmission technology has matured and can transmit bulk power more reliably and economically than the technology 10 years ago.In 1882, Marcel Depres transmitted 15 kW electric power at 2 kV, using a constant direct current; present transmission voltages have risen to ± 600 kV direct current (DC) and 765 kV alternating current (AC), and it is now possible to transmit bulk electric power at voltages as high as ± 1000 kV DC and 1500 kV AC. Affordable computer systems are now available to optimize transmission reliably. New materials have reduced the bulk of insulation for lines and equipment. New conducting materials and configurations have reduced losses in transmission. Advances in line structures and conductor motion, understanding of flashover characteristics of insulators and air-gaps and electrical performance of lines have resulted in more compact urban transmission lines. (author). 15 refs., 7 tabs., 11 figs

  15. Technology integration plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry, R.; Sumpter, K.C.

    1995-01-01

    In 1992, the Secretary of Energy directed the Assistant Secretary for Environmental Management (EM) to develop an integrated, long-term, spent nuclear fuel (SNF) management program. In response, EM created the Integrated SNF Program to assess the US Department of Energy (DOE) SNF and SNF storage facilities. As shown in Figure 1 the Integrated SNF Program is responsible for life-cycle management of DOE SNF; that is characterization, processing, interim storage and preparation for disposal. In order to implement the Program it was recognized that technology needs must be identified. A Technology Integration Program was formed to integrate the DOE complex-wide efforts for establishing timely, cost effective and consistent technical criteria for the development of technical solutions. The program is directed toward identification of: (a) what activities need to be done, (b) when they need to be completed, and (c) what priority should be assigned to the various activities

  16. Firms, Technology and Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Caldera Sanchez, Aida

    2010-01-01

    This doctoral dissertation studies the effect of economic integration on the performance of firms. The ongoing process of global economic integration has been characterized by dismantling of trade barriers and openness to foreign direct investments (FDI). These changes have not only brought opportunities to firms in terms of market access and the possibility to learn about foreign technologies brought in by foreign counterparts. The new economic environment has also posed new challenges throu...

  17. Ergonomics technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, W. L.

    1977-01-01

    Major areas of research and development in ergonomics technology for space environments are discussed. Attention is given to possible applications of the technology developed by NASA in industrial settings. A group of mass spectrometers for gas analysis capable of fully automatic operation has been developed for atmosphere control on spacecraft; a version for industrial use has been constructed. Advances have been made in personal cooling technology, remote monitoring of medical information, and aerosol particle control. Experience gained by NASA during the design and development of portable life support units has recently been applied to improve breathing equipment used by fire fighters.

  18. Current Direct Neutrino Mass Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Drexlin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this contribution, we review the status and perspectives of direct neutrino mass experiments, which investigate the kinematics of β-decays of specific isotopes (3H, 187Re, 163Ho to derive model-independent information on the averaged electron (antineutrino mass. After discussing the kinematics of β-decay and the determination of the neutrino mass, we give a brief overview of past neutrino mass measurements (SN1987a-ToF studies, Mainz and Troitsk experiments for 3H, cryobolometers for 187Re. We then describe the Karlsruhe Tritium Neutrino (KATRIN experiment currently under construction at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, which will use the MAC-E-Filter principle to push the sensitivity down to a value of 200 meV (90% C.L.. To do so, many technological challenges have to be solved related to source intensity and stability, as well as precision energy analysis and low background rate close to the kinematic endpoint of tritium β-decay at 18.6 keV. We then review new approaches such as the MARE, ECHO, and Project8 experiments, which offer the promise to perform an independent measurement of the neutrino mass in the sub-eV region. Altogether, the novel methods developed in direct neutrino mass experiments will provide vital information on the absolute mass scale of neutrinos.

  19. Communications Received from Certain Member States Regarding Guidelines for Transfers of Nuclear-related Dual-use Equipment, Materials, Software and Related Technology; Communications recues de certains Etats Membres concernant les directives applicables aux transferts d'equipements, de matieres et de logiciels a double usage dans le domaine nucleaire, ainsi que de technologies connexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-04-10

    The Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency has received Notes Verbales, dated 1 December 2005, from the Resident Representatives to the Agency of Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Republic of Korea, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Poland, Portugal, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the United States of America, relating to transfers of nuclear-related dual-use equipment, materials, software and related technology [French] Le Directeur general de l'Agence internationale de l'energie atomique a recu des notes verbales datees du 1er decembre 2006 des representants permanents aupres de l'Agence des Etats suivants : Afrique du Sud, Allemagne, Argentine, Australie, Autriche, Belarus, Belgique, Bresil, Bulgarie, Canada, Croatie, Espagne, Estonie, Etats-Unis d'Amerique, Finlande, France, Grece, Hongrie, Irlande, Italie, Japon, Lettonie, Lituanie, Luxembourg, Malte, Nouvelle-Zelande, Pays-Bas, Pologne, Portugal, Republique de Coree, Republique tcheque, Royaume-Uni de Grande-Bretagne et d'Irlande du Nord, Slovenie, Suede, Suisse, Turquie et Ukraine, au sujet des transferts d'equipements, de matieres et de logiciels e double usage dans le domaine nucleaire, ainsi que de technologies connexes.

  20. Developing human technology curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teija Vainio

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available During the past ten years expertise in human-computer interaction has shifted from humans interacting with desktop computers to individual human beings or groups of human beings interacting with embedded or mobile technology. Thus, humans are not only interacting with computers but with technology. Obviously, this shift should be reflected in how we educate human-technology interaction (HTI experts today and in the future. We tackle this educational challenge first by analysing current Master’s-level education in collaboration with two universities and second, discussing postgraduate education in the international context. As a result, we identified core studies that should be included in the HTI curriculum. Furthermore, we discuss some practical challenges and new directions for international HTI education.

  1. The technological conception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parrochia, D.

    1998-01-01

    The 'technological conception' examines how a project can be concretized or how it is possible to 'conceive', i.e. to produce operative ideas that can be directly use. The first part of this book, called 'concepts and methods', analyzes the logics of conceiving and its philosophy in the construction of its objects and in the management of its programs or projects. The second part is devoted to some exemplary technologies: roads, tunnels, bridges, dams, nuclear power plants, aerospace constructions, and analyzes different concrete logics of technological conception. Finally, the author shows how todays conception faces the risks and complexity increase of systems and considers the possibility of an entirely automated manufacturing shop in the future. (J.S.)

  2. Technology development for safeguards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ho Dong; Kang, H. Y.; Song, D. Y. [and others

    2005-04-01

    The objective of this project are to establish the safeguards technology of the nuclear proliferation resistance to the facilities which handle with high radioactivity nuclear materials like the spent fuel, to provide the foundation of the technical independency for the establishment of the effective management of domestic spent fuels, and to construct the base of the early introduction of the key technology relating to the back-end nuclear fuel cycle through the development of the safeguards technology of the DFDF of the nuclear non-proliferation. The essential safeguards technologies of the facility such as the measurement and account of nuclear materials and the C/S technology were carried out in this stage (2002-2004). The principal results of this research are the development of error reduction technology of the NDA equipment and a new NDA system for the holdup measurement of process materials, the development of the intelligent surveillance system based on the COM, the evaluation of the safeguardability of the Pyroprocessing facility which is the core process of the nuclear fuel cycle, the derivation of the research and development items which are necessary to satisfy the safeguards criteria of IAEA, and the presentation of the direction of the technology development relating to the future safeguards of Korea. This project is the representative research project in the field of the Korea's safeguards. The safeguards technology and equipment developed while accomplishing this project can be applied to other nuclear fuel cycle facilities as well as DFDF and will be contributed to increase the international confidence in the development of the nuclear fuel cycle facility of Korea and its nuclear transparency.

  3. EMI Architecture and Technology Development Plan

    CERN Document Server

    Balazs, K.

    2013-01-01

    This document provides a brief overview of the EMI architecture and the technology development directions presented by the four EMI technology areas and by EMI partners. The report represents the final revision of EMI technology planning covering a time period beyond the project end.

  4. Technology and Environmental Education: Friend or Foe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athman, Julie; Bates, Tim

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the pros and cons often mentioned concerning technology in education. Describes measures of effectiveness of technology-enhanced educational programs, ranging from active learning and multidisciplinary tasks to performance-based assessments. Argues that technology should enhance rather than replace direct experiences. (PVD)

  5. Early Childhood Technology Education: A Sociocultural Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Kin Wai Michael; Lam, Mei Seung

    2005-01-01

    We are living in a fast-changing, technology-driven world, where technology affects the daily lives of every person, directly or indirectly. While the importance of providing young children with technological knowledge and experience has been well-recognized, how the curriculum should be developed deserves greater study. Using early childhood…

  6. Shippingport station decommissioning project technology transfer program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKernan, M.L.

    1989-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project (SSDP) decontaminated and dismantled the world's first nuclear-fueled, commercial-size electric power plant. The SSDP programmatic goal direction for technology transfer is documentation of project management and operations experience. The objective is to provide future nuclear facility decommissioning projects with pertinent SSDP performance data for project assessment, planning, and operational implementation. This paper sets out access and availability directions for SSDP technology acquisition. Discusses are technology transfer definition; technology transfer products including topical and other project reports, professional-technical society presentations, other project liaison and media relations, visual documentation, and technology transfer data base; and retrieving SSDP information

  7. ANSTO - achievements and future directions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garnett, H. M.

    1997-01-01

    In the opening keynote address to the conference, Professor Helen Garnett, Executive Director of ANSTO, outlined the Organisation's main achievements and its future directions. In the ten years which have elapsed since its inception in 1987, ANSTO has evolved into a forward thinking, proactive nuclear science and technology Organisation. Its vision for the future is for nuclear science and technology to be accepted as benefiting all Australians and for ANSTO to be acknowledged as the premier nuclear science and technology organisation within the Asia Pacific Region. At the same time the organisation has continually reviewed and evaluated what it was doing and how it was doing. At the end of its first decade, it has enhanced the productivity from its research and development activities, received a positive evaluation on the impact that the application of this knowledge is having on the minerals and other industrial sectors, and focussed its research and development into a few areas where substantial teams of ANSTO staff, working cooperatively with staff from universities, other national organisations and industry, can have significant impact. ANSTO now has four parallel activities: the conduct of research and development, the provision of expert technical advice, the operation of national nuclear facilities and the commercial marketing of products and services. The recent announcement by Australian Government to replace HIFAR reactor with a leading medium flux reactor facility, will enable ANSTO to develop world class capability in selected areas of neutron science and to became an acknowledged regional centre, particular in cold neutron science

  8. Technology Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA produces innovative technologies and facilitates their creation in line with the Agency mission to create products such as the stormwater calculator, remote sensing, innovation clusters, and low-cost air sensors.

  9. Technology | FNLCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Frederick National Laboratory develops and applies advanced, next-generation technologies to solve basic and applied problems in the biomedical sciences, and serves as a national resource of shared high-tech facilities.

  10. Plasma technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drouet, M.G.

    1984-03-01

    IREQ was contracted by the Canadian Electrical Association to review plasma technology and assess the potential for application of this technology in Canada. A team of experts in the various aspects of this technology was assembled and each team member was asked to contribute to this report on the applications of plasma pertinent to his or her particular field of expertise. The following areas were examined in detail: iron, steel and strategic-metals production; surface treatment by spraying; welding and cutting; chemical processing; drying; and low-temperature treatment. A large market for the penetration of electricity has been identified. To build up confidence in the technology, support should be provided for selected R and D projects, plasma torch demonstrations at full power, and large-scale plasma process testing

  11. Exploration technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roennevik, H.C. [Saga Petroleum A/S, Forus (Norway)

    1996-12-31

    The paper evaluates exploration technology. Topics discussed are: Visions; the subsurface challenge; the creative tension; the exploration process; seismic; geology; organic geochemistry; seismic resolution; integration; drilling; value creation. 4 refs., 22 figs.

  12. Shippingport station decommissioning project technology transfer program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKernan, M.L.

    1988-01-01

    US Department of Energy (DOE) Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project (SSDP) decommissioned, decontaminated, and dismantled the world's first, nuclear fueled, commercial size, electric power plant. SSDP programmatic goal direction for technology transfer is documentation of project management and operations experience. Objective is to provide future nuclear facility decommissioning projects with pertinent SSDP performance data for project assessment, planning, and operational implementation. This paper presents a working definition for technology transfer. Direction is provided for access and availability for SSDP technology acquisition

  13. Technological risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dierkes, M; Coppock, R; Edwards, S

    1980-01-01

    The book begins with brief statements from representatives of political organizations. Part II presents an overview of the discussion about the control and management of technological progress. Parts III and IV discuss important elements in citizens' perception of technological risks and the development of consensus on how to deal with them. In Part V practical problems in the application of risk assessment and management, and in Part VI additional points are summarized.

  14. Lasers technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The Laser Technology Program of IPEN is developed by the Center for Lasers and Applications (CLA) and is committed to the development of new lasers based on the research of new optical materials and new resonator technologies. Laser applications and research occur within several areas such as Nuclear, Medicine, Dentistry, Industry, Environment and Advanced Research. Additional goals of the Program are human resource development and innovation, in association with Brazilian Universities and commercial partners

  15. Technological risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dierkes, M.; Coppock, R.; Edwards, S.

    1980-01-01

    The book begins with brief statements from representatives of political organizations. Part II presents an overview of the discussion about the control and management of technological progress. Parts III and IV discuss important elements in citizens' perception of technological risks and the development of consensus on how to deal with them. In Part V practical problems in the application of risk assessment and management, and in Part VI additional points are summarized. (DG)

  16. Cognitive technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Mello, Alan; Figueiredo, Fabrício; Figueiredo, Rafael

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on the next generation optical networks as well as mobile communication technologies. The reader will find chapters on Cognitive Optical Network, 5G Cognitive Wireless, LTE, Data Analysis and Natural Language Processing. It also presents a comprehensive view of the enhancements and requirements foreseen for Machine Type Communication. Moreover, some data analysis techniques and Brazilian Portuguese natural language processing technologies are also described here. .

  17. Directed Technical Change and Climate Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otto, V.M.; Löschel, A.; Reilly, J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper studies the cost effectiveness of climate policy if there are technology externalities. For this purpose, we develop a forward-looking CGE model that captures empirical links between CO2 emissions associated with energy use, directed technical change and the economy. We find the

  18. Two or three decades of passive directions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the direction of passive solar architecture. The topics of the paper include design temperatures for buildings, active vs passive, fuel vs philosophy, engineering vs architecture, the thermal scale: heating vs cooling, fuel subsidies, divergent practices, sustainability, lighting, health, the place of passive technology

  19. Strategic Directions in Object-Oriented Programming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aksit, Mehmet; Guerroui, Rachid

    1996-01-01

    This paper has provided an overview of the field of object-oriented programming. After presenting a historical perspective and some major achievements in the field, four research directions were introduced: technologies integration, software components, distributed programming, and new paradigms. In

  20. Directed Energy Anechoic Chamber

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Directed Energy Anechoic Chamber comprises a power anechoic chamber and one transverse electromagnetic cell for characterizing radiofrequency (RF) responses of...

  1. Records Management Directive

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — The Office of Personnel Management (OPM) Records Management Directive provides guidelines for the management of OPM records, and identifies the records management...

  2. BNL Direct Wind Superconducting Magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, B.; Anerella, M.; Escallier, J.; Ghosh, A.; Jain, A.; Marone, A.; Muratore, A.; Wanderer, P.

    2011-09-12

    BNL developed Direct Wind magnet technology is used to create a variety of complex multi-functional multi-layer superconducting coil structures without the need for creating custom production tooling and fixturing for each new project. Our Direct Wind process naturally integrates prestress into the coil structure so external coil collars and yokes are not needed; the final coil package transverse size can then be very compact. Direct Wind magnets are produced with very good field quality via corrections applied during the course of coil winding. The HERA-II and BEPC-II Interaction Region (IR) magnet, J-PARC corrector and Alpha antihydrogen magnetic trap magnets and our BTeV corrector magnet design are discussed here along with a full length ILC IR prototype magnet presently in production and the coils that were wound for an ATF2 upgrade at KEK. A new IR septum magnet design concept for a 6.2 T combined-function IR magnet for eRHIC, a future RHIC upgrade, is introduced here.

  3. The Strategic Direction for Army Science and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    systems, specifically the development of greater understanding of the complex behavior of mass transport in microporous systems with protection and...dielectrics and insulators for capacitors and device packaging are geared towards developing novel dielectric polymer formulations that effectively

  4. Promotional Strategies Direct Marketing and Technological Innovations in Banking

    OpenAIRE

    Valeria Arina BALACEANU

    2011-01-01

    Modern advertising strategies involve the use of a bank's media and consumer incentives, so that banking institution, and thus offer products/services to cause favorable changes in mentality and their consumption habits, also important is the establishment an effective communication with employees, shareholders, competitors. Promotion strategies are essential to business success. Success is guaranteed if the message is sent to the right people at the right time. Promotion has a special place ...

  5. 78 FR 76035 - Airworthiness Directives; Maule Aerospace Technology, Inc. Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-16

    ..., 2013) or on the determination of the cost to the public. Conclusion We reviewed the relevant data and... 39-10669 (63 FR 39018, July 21, 1998), was issued, the AD format has been revised, and certain... back and forth and experiment with the angle of contact to produce the lowest thickness reading...

  6. Crosswell Imaging Technology & Advanced DSR Navigation for Horizontal Directional Drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larry Stolarczyk

    2008-08-08

    The objective of Phase II is to develop and demonstrate real-time measurement-while-drilling (MWD) for guidance and navigation of drill strings during horizontal drilling operations applicable to both short and long holes. The end product of Phase II is a functional drill-string assembly outfitted with a commercial version of Drill String Radar (DSR). Project Objectives Develop and demonstrate a dual-phase methodology of in-seam drilling, imaging, and structure confirmation. This methodology, illustrated in Figure 1, includes: (1) Using RIM to image between drill holes for seam thickness estimates and in-seam structures detection. Completed, February 2005; and (2) Using DSR for real-time MWD guidance and navigation of drillstrings during horizontal drilling operations. Completed, November 2008. As of November 2008, the Phase II portion of Contract DE-FC26-04NT42085 is about 99% complete, including milestones and tasks original outlined as Phase II work. The one percent deficiency results from MSHA-related approvals which have yet to be granted (at the time of reporting). These approvals are pending and are do not negatively impact the scope of work or project objectives.

  7. Status, direction, and critical issues of waste treatment technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knowlton, D.E.; Bonner, W.F.

    1983-06-01

    Nuclear power production and related activities generate radioactive wastes that must be safely managed to protect workers and the general public. The liquid-fed ceramic melting (LFCM) vitrification process is the reference process for vitrifying high-level nuclear waste in the US as well as in Japan and India. The French are currently using a rotary kiln calciner/metallic melter system at their reprocessing facility. Compaction or controlled-air incineration are the currently preferred options for low-level waste solids, followed by immobilization in an appropriate matrix. The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 is a significant step in proceeding with waste treatment and disposal. Programs can now build on past work to assure that public safety and regulations atre met in a cost-effective manner. 7 references, 2 figures, 3 tables

  8. Direct Utilization Technology, State-of-the-Art

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, Gene P

    1981-01-01

    This paper is intended to convey some ideas as to how a geothermal project develops, and to point out considerations that lead to the selection of the actual hardware. Today’s “state-of-the-art” provides a wide variety of materials and equipment that can be used in various combinations and configurations to perform a specific geothermal function. Most of the hardware is “off-the-shelf,” and there is seldom need for custom designed specialty items. To illustrate project development and equipment selection, an actual on-the-line geothermal application has been selected for discussion. This application involves space heating, potable hot water, and swimming pool heat for a small condominium. The four level condominium contains 11 units, a laundry, storage area, and a recreation room. The first thing discussed will be the geothermal well.

  9. 78 FR 49207 - Airworthiness Directives; Maule Aerospace Technology, Inc. Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-13

    ... Park, Georgia 30337; phone: (404) 474-5551; fax: (404) 474-5606; email: [email protected] inspector certified using the guidelines established by the American Society for Non-destructive Testing or..., 1701 Columbia Avenue, College Park, Georgia 30337; phone: (404) 474-5551; fax: (404) 474- 5606; email...

  10. Status, direction, and critical issues of waste treatment technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knowles, D.E.; Bonner, W.F.

    1983-01-01

    Nuclear power production and related activities generate radioactive wastes that must be safely managed to protect workers and the general public. The liquid-fed ceramic melting (LFCM) vitrification process is the reference process for vitrifying high-level nuclear waste in the U.S. as well as in Japan and India. The French are currently using a rotary kiln calciner/metallic melter system at their reprocessing facility. Compaction or controlled-air incineration are the currently preferred options for low-level waste solids, followed by immobilization in an appropriate matrix. The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 is a significant step in proceeding with waste treatment and disposal. Programs can now build on past work to assure that public safety and regulations are met in a cost-effective manner

  11. Technology cycles and technology revolutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paganetto, Luigi; Scandizzo, Pasquale Lucio

    2010-09-15

    Technological cycles have been characterized as the basis of long and continuous periods economic growth through sustained changes in total factor productivity. While this hypothesis is in part consistent with several theories of growth, the sheer magnitude and length of the economic revolutions experienced by humankind seems to indicate surmise that more attention should be given to the origin of major technological and economic changes, with reference to one crucial question: role of production and use of energy in economic development.

  12. Buried waste integrated demonstration technology integration process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, J.S.; Ferguson, J.E.

    1992-04-01

    A Technology integration Process was developed for the Idaho National Energy Laboratories (INEL) Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) Program to facilitate the transfer of technology and knowledge from industry, universities, and other Federal agencies into the BWID; to successfully transfer demonstrated technology and knowledge from the BWID to industry, universities, and other Federal agencies; and to share demonstrated technologies and knowledge between Integrated Demonstrations and other Department of Energy (DOE) spread throughout the DOE Complex. This document also details specific methods and tools for integrating and transferring technologies into or out of the BWID program. The document provides background on the BWID program and technology development needs, demonstrates the direction of technology transfer, illustrates current processes for this transfer, and lists points of contact for prospective participants in the BWID technology transfer efforts. The Technology Integration Process was prepared to ensure compliance with the requirements of DOE's Office of Technology Development (OTD)

  13. Direct Conversion of Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corliss, William R.

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by the United States Atomic Energy Commission. Direct energy conversion involves energy transformation without moving parts. The concepts of direct and dynamic energy conversion plus the laws governing energy conversion are investigated. Among the topics…

  14. Decisions Concerning Directional Dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Eye, Alexander; DeShon, Richard P.

    2012-01-01

    In this rejoinder, von Eye and DeShon discuss the decision strategies proposed in their original article ("Directional Dependence in Developmental Research," this issue), as well as the ones proposed by the authors of the commentary (Pornprasertmanit and Little, "Determining Directional Dependency in Causal Associations," this issue). In addition,…

  15. Laboratory Directed Research ampersand Development Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogeka, G.J.; Romano, A.J.

    1993-12-01

    At Brookhaven National Laboratory the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program is a discretionary research and development tool critical in maintaining the scientific excellence and vitality of the laboratory. It is also a means to stimulate the scientific community, fostering new science and technology ideas, which is the major factor in achieving and maintaining staff excellence, and a means to address national needs, within the overall mission of the Department of Energy and Brookhaven National Laboratory. This report summarizes research which was funded by this program during fiscal year 1993. The research fell in a number of broad technical and scientific categories: new directions for energy technologies; global change; radiation therapies and imaging; genetic studies; new directions for the development and utilization of BNL facilities; miscellaneous projects. Two million dollars in funding supported 28 projects which were spread throughout all BNL scientific departments

  16. An Assistive Technology Design Framework for ADHD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Tobias; Marshall, Paul; Obel, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present a design framework for ADHD assistive technologies that aims to give researchers grounding in the background research on the condition, to provide a lingua franca, and to highlight potential research directions for HCI researchers within assistive technology. The design ...... map existing assistive technologies and potential new research efforts to the framework concepts. This way we show how it is used to support and advance the research and development of novel assistive technologies for the ADHD domain....

  17. Smart technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruckner, D.G.

    1991-01-01

    The success of smart technology in the pursuit of the Gulf War has accentuated the awareness of how the Safeguards and Security disciplines are changing in response to new weaponry. Throughout the Department of Energy Integrated Complex (IC) Safeguards and Security efforts such as: Protection Programs Operations; Materials, Controls and Accountability; Information Security; Computer Security; Operational Security; Personnel Security, Safeguards and/or Security (S and S) surveys, and Inspections and Evaluations are undergoing a reassessment and refocusing. Some of this is in response to such things as the DOE initiated Freeze Report and the Drell Report. An important aspect is also technological, adjusting the way business is done in light of the weapons, tools and processes/procedures becoming available. This paper addresses the S and S issues with the promise of using smart technology to develop new approaches and equipment across the IC

  18. Seafood Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børresen, Torger

    This presentation will fill the total picture of this conference between fisheries and aquaculture, blue biotech and bioconservation, by considering the optimal processing technology of marine resources from the raw material until the seafood reaches the plate of the consumer. The situation today...... must be performed such that total traceability and authenticity of the final products can be presented on demand. The most important aspects to be considered within seafood technology today are safety, healthy products and high eating quality. Safety can be divided into microbiological safety...... and not presenting any safety risk per se. Seafood is healthy due to the omega-3 fatty acids and the nutritional value of vitamins, peptides and proteins. The processing technology must however be performed such that these valuable features are not lost during production. The same applies to the eating quality. Any...

  19. Technology Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilkington, Alan

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports a bibliometric analysis (co-citation network analysis) of 10 journals in the management of technology (MOT) field. As well as introducing various bibliometric ideas, network analysis tools identify and explore the concepts covered by the field and their inter-relationships. Spe......This paper reports a bibliometric analysis (co-citation network analysis) of 10 journals in the management of technology (MOT) field. As well as introducing various bibliometric ideas, network analysis tools identify and explore the concepts covered by the field and their inter......-relationships. Specific results from different levels of analysis show the different dimensions of technology management: • Co-word terms identify themes • Journal co-citation network: linking to other disciplines • Co-citation network show concentrations of themes The analysis shows that MOT has a bridging role...

  20. Superconducting technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Superconductivity has a long history of about 100 years. Over the past 50 years, progress in superconducting materials has been mainly in metallic superconductors, such as Nb, Nb-Ti and Nb 3 Sn, resulting in the creation of various application fields based on the superconducting technologies. High-T c superconductors, the first of which was discovered in 1986, have been changing the future vision of superconducting technology through the development of new application fields such as power cables. On basis of these trends, future prospects of superconductor technology up to 2040 are discussed. In this article from the viewpoints of material development and the applications of superconducting wires and electronic devices. (author)

  1. Directed Technical Change and Economic Growth Effects of Environmental Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse-Andersen, Peter Kjær

    2016-01-01

    A Schumpeterian growth model is developed to investigate how environmental policy affects economic growth when environmental policy also affects the direction of technical change. In contrast to previous models, production and pollution abatement technologies are embodied in separate intermediate...... unambiguously directs research efforts toward pollution abatement technologies and away from production technologies. This directed technical change reduces economic growth and pollution emission growth. Simulation results indicate that even large environmental policy reforms have small economic growth effects....... However, these economic growth effects have relatively large welfare effects which suggest that static models and exogenous growth models leave out an important welfare effect of environmental policy....

  2. Technological Inovattion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Bostan

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The spectacular development of technology within the field of informatics and telecommunicationfor the last decade, associated with a postindustrial revolution, has solidly contributed to the globalization ofthe contemporary international economic life. A very important factor in promoting the globalization ofproduction and the financial globalization is the recent progress from the technology of information andcommunication which has a strong impact on the economic, social and cultural life. The postindustrialrevolution marks the transfer from an industrial based culture to a culture based on information,communication and experience.

  3. Architectural technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2005-01-01

    The booklet offers an overall introduction to the Institute of Architectural Technology and its projects and activities, and an invitation to the reader to contact the institute or the individual researcher for further information. The research, which takes place at the Institute of Architectural...... Technology at the Roayl Danish Academy of Fine Arts, School of Architecture, reflects a spread between strategic, goal-oriented pilot projects, commissioned by a ministry, a fund or a private company, and on the other hand projects which originate from strong personal interests and enthusiasm of individual...

  4. Playful Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Stine Liv; Eriksson, Eva

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the design of future services for children in Danish public libraries is discussed, in the light of new challenges and opportunities in relation to new media and technologies. The Danish government has over the last few years initiated and described a range of initiatives regarding...... in the library, the changing role of the librarians and the library space. We argue that intertwining traditional library services with new media forms and engaging play is the core challenge for future design in physical public libraries, but also that it is through new media and technology that new...

  5. Communication technologies in smart grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miladinović Nikola

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of communication technologies in Smart Grid lies in integration of large number of devices into one telecommunication system. This paper provides an overview of the technologies currently in use in electric power grid, that are not necessarily in compliance with the Smart Grid concept. Considering that the Smart Grid is open to the flow of information in all directions, it is necessary to provide reliability, protection and security of information.

  6. Technology Transfer: Marketing Tomorrow's Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tcheng, Erene

    1995-01-01

    The globalization of the economy and the end of the Cold War have triggered many changes in the traditional practices of U.S. industry. To effectively apply the resources available to the United States, the federal government has firmly advocated a policy of technology transfer between private industry and government labs, in this case the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). NASA Administrator Daniel Goldin is a strong proponent of this policy and has organized technology transfer or commercialization programs at each of the NASA field centers. Here at Langley Research Center, the Technology Applications Group (TAG) is responsible for facilitating the transfer of Langley developed research and technology to U.S. industry. Entering the program, I had many objectives for my summer research with TAG. Certainly, I wanted to gain a more thorough understanding of the concept of technology transfer and Langley's implementation of a system to promote it to both the Langley community and the community at large. Also, I hoped to become more familiar with Langley's research capabilities and technology inventory available to the public. More specifically, I wanted to learn about the technology transfer process at Langley. Because my mentor is a member of Materials and Manufacturing marketing sector of the Technology Transfer Team, another overriding objective for my research was to take advantage of his work and experience in materials research to learn about the Advanced Materials Research agency wide and help market these developments to private industry. Through the various projects I have been assigned to work on in TAG, I have successfully satisfied the majority of these objectives. Work on the Problem Statement Process for TAG as well as the development of the Advanced Materials Research Brochure have provided me with the opportunity to learn about the technology transfer process from the outside looking in and the inside looking out. Because TAG covers

  7. Health technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolas, Delphine; Dangleant, Caroline; Ganier, Aude; Kaczmarek, Delphine

    2008-01-01

    The CEA is an organization with a primarily technological focus, and one of the key areas in which it carries out research is Health Technology. This field of research was recognized and approved by the French Atomic Energy Committee on July 20, 2004. The expectations of both the public and health care professionals relate to demands for the highest standards of health care, at minimum risk. This implies a need to diagnose illness and disease as accurately and as at early a stage as possible, to target surgery precisely to deal only with damaged organs or tissues, to minimize the risk of side effects, allergies and hospital-acquired infections, to follow-up and, as far as possible, tailor the health delivery system to each individual's needs and his or her lifestyle. The health care sector is subject to rapid changes and embraces a vast range of scientific fields. It now requires technological developments that will serve to gather increasing quantities of useful information, analyze and integrate it to obtain a full understanding of highly complex processes and to be able to treat the human body as un-invasively as possible. All the technologies developed require assessment, especially in the hospital environment. (authors)

  8. Technology transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boury, C.

    1986-01-01

    This paper emphasizes in the specific areas of design, engineering and component production. This paper presents what Framatome has to offer in these areas and its export oriented philosophy. Then, a typical example of this technology transfer philosophy is the collaboration with the South Korean firm, Korea Heavy Industries Corporation (KHIC) for the supply of KNU 9 and KNU 10 power stations

  9. Manufacturing technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The Manufacturing Technologies Center is an integral part of Sandia National Laboratories, a multiprogram engineering and science laboratory, operated for the Department of Energy (DOE) with major facilities at Albuquerque, New Mexico, and Livermore, California. Our Center is at the core of Sandia`s Advanced Manufacturing effort which spans the entire product realization process.

  10. Energy Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, William W.

    Reviewed are technological problems faced in energy production including locating, recovering, developing, storing, and distributing energy in clean, convenient, economical, and environmentally satisfactory manners. The energy resources of coal, oil, natural gas, hydroelectric power, nuclear energy, solar energy, geothermal energy, winds, tides,…

  11. (Environmental technology)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boston, H.L.

    1990-10-12

    The traveler participated in a conference on environmental technology in Paris, sponsored by the US Embassy-Paris, US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the French Environmental Ministry, and others. The traveler sat on a panel for environmental aspects of energy technology and made a presentation on the potential contributions of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to a planned French-American Environmental Technologies Institute in Chattanooga, Tennessee, and Evry, France. This institute would provide opportunities for international cooperation on environmental issues and technology transfer related to environmental protection, monitoring, and restoration at US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. The traveler also attended the Fourth International Conference on Environmental Contamination in Barcelona. Conference topics included environmental chemistry, land disposal of wastes, treatment of toxic wastes, micropollutants, trace organics, artificial radionuclides in the environment, and the use biomonitoring and biosystems for environmental assessment. The traveler presented a paper on The Fate of Radionuclides in Sewage Sludge Applied to Land.'' Those findings corresponded well with results from studies addressing the fate of fallout radionuclides from the Chernobyl nuclear accident. There was an exchange of new information on a number of topics of interest to DOE waste management and environmental restoration needs.

  12. Directionality of dog vocalizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frommolt, Karl-Heinz; Gebler, Alban

    2004-07-01

    The directionality patterns of sound emission in domestic dogs were measured in an anechoic environment using a microphone array. Mainly long-distance signals from four dogs were investigated. The radiation pattern of the signals differed clearly from an omnidirectional one with average differences in sound-pressure level between the frontal and rear position of 3-7 dB depending from the individual. Frequency dependence of directionality was shown for the range from 250 to 3200 Hz. The results indicate that when studying acoustic communication in mammals, more attention should be paid to the directionality pattern of sound emission.

  13. Together in the same direction

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    It’s sometimes difficult to explain the nature of global collaboration in particle physics: how fierce competition coexists with collaboration, and how, whatever our differences, we all pull in the same direction. But this week gave us two strong examples.   Firstly, on Wednesday, the Technical Design Report (TDR) for the International Linear Collider (ILC) was officially delivered to the International Committee for Future Accelerators, ICFA, the global body that oversees the development of major projects in particle physics. This event marks the culmination of years of effort through close global collaboration between labs around the world. It has seen tough collective decisions being taken between competing technologies, with all participating labs lining up behind the chosen option. And on Wednesday this week, it saw the linear collider community choosing CERN as one of the three venues for the official handover, despite the fact that CERN was not one of the original core labs ...

  14. New directions in gas processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    Papers presented at the Insight conference held on January 30, 1996 in Calgary, Alberta, were contained in this volume. The conference was devoted to a discussion of new directions in the gas processing business, the changing business environment, new processing technologies, and means by which current facilities agreements can be adapted to the new commercial reality. High operating costs which have resulted in the downsizing and restructuring of the industry, and partnering with a third party in the gathering and processing operations, with apparently beneficial result both to plant owners, as well to third party processors, received the most attention. The relationship between the gas processor and the gas producer as they relate to the Petroleum Joint Venture Association (PJVA) Gas Processing Agreement, which defines the obligations of third parties, was the center of discussion. Regulatory changes and the industry's response to the changes was also on the agenda. Refs., tabs., figs

  15. Photovoltaic technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagnall, Darren M.; Boreland, Matt

    2008-01-01

    Photovoltaics is already a billion dollar industry. It is experiencing rapid growth as concerns over fuel supplies and carbon emissions mean that governments and individuals are increasingly prepared to ignore its current high costs. It will become truly mainstream when its costs are comparable to other energy sources. At the moment, it is around four times too expensive for competitive commercial production. Three generations of photovoltaics have been envisaged that will take solar power into the mainstream. Currently, photovoltaic production is 90% first-generation and is based on silicon wafers. These devices are reliable and durable, but half of the cost is the silicon wafer and efficiencies are limited to around 20%. A second generation of solar cells would use cheap semiconductor thin films deposited on low-cost substrates to produce devices of slightly lower efficiency. A number of thin-film device technologies account for around 5-6% of the current market. As second-generation technology reduces the cost of active material, the substrate will eventually be the cost limit and higher efficiency will be needed to maintain the cost-reduction trend. Third-generation devices will use new technologies to produce high-efficiency devices. Advances in nanotechnology, photonics, optical metamaterials, plasmonics and semiconducting polymer sciences offer the prospect of cost-competitive photovoltaics. It is reasonable to expect that cost reductions, a move to second-generation technologies and the implementation of new technologies and third-generation concepts can lead to fully cost-competitive solar energy in 10-15 years. (author)

  16. Vacuum Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biltoft, P J

    2004-10-15

    The environmental condition called vacuum is created any time the pressure of a gas is reduced compared to atmospheric pressure. On earth we typically create a vacuum by connecting a pump capable of moving gas to a relatively leak free vessel. Through operation of the gas pump the number of gas molecules per unit volume is decreased within the vessel. As soon as one creates a vacuum natural forces (in this case entropy) work to restore equilibrium pressure; the practical effect of this is that gas molecules attempt to enter the evacuated space by any means possible. It is useful to think of vacuum in terms of a gas at a pressure below atmospheric pressure. In even the best vacuum vessels ever created there are approximately 3,500,000 molecules of gas per cubic meter of volume remaining inside the vessel. The lowest pressure environment known is in interstellar space where there are approximately four molecules of gas per cubic meter. Researchers are currently developing vacuum technology components (pumps, gauges, valves, etc.) using micro electro mechanical systems (MEMS) technology. Miniature vacuum components and systems will open the possibility for significant savings in energy cost and will open the doors to advances in electronics, manufacturing and semiconductor fabrication. In conclusion, an understanding of the basic principles of vacuum technology as presented in this summary is essential for the successful execution of all projects that involve vacuum technology. Using the principles described above, a practitioner of vacuum technology can design a vacuum system that will achieve the project requirements.

  17. Communication Received from Certain Member States Regarding Guidelines for Transfers of Nuclear-related Dual-use Equipment, Material, Software and Related Technology; Communication recue de certains Etats Membres concernant les directives applicables aux transferts d'equipements, de matieres et de logiciels a double usage dans le domaine nucleaire, ainsi que de technologies connexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-09-09

    The Agency has received a Note Verbale from the Permanent Mission of Hungary, dated 14 June 2010, in which it requests that the Agency circulate to all Member States a letter of 7 May 2010 from the Chairman of the Nuclear Suppliers Group, Ambassador Ms. Gyorgyi Martin Zanathy, to the Director General, on behalf of the Governments of Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, China, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Kazakhstan, Republic of Korea, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxemburg, Malta, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russian Federation, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the United States of America,1 providing further information on those Governments' Guidelines for Nuclear Transfers [French] L'Agence a recu une note verbale de la mission permanente de la Hongrie, en date du 14 juin 010, lui demandant de communiquer a tous les Etats Membres une lettre du 7 mai 2010 du president du Groupe des fournisseurs nucleaires, l'ambassadeur Gyorgyi Martin Zanathy, adressee au Directeur general au nom des gouvernements des Etats suivants : Afrique du Sud, Allemagne, Argentine, Australie, Autriche, Belarus, Belgique, Bresil, Bulgarie, Canada, Chine, Croatie, Chypre, Danemark, Espagne, Estonie, Etats-Unis d'Amerique, Federation de Russie, Finlande, France, Grece, Hongrie, Irlande, Islande, Italie, Japon, Kazakhstan, Lettonie, Lituanie, Luxembourg, Malte, Norvege, Nouvelle-Zelande, Pays-Bas, Pologne, Portugal, Republique de Coree, Republique tcheque, Roumanie, Royaume-Uni de Grande-Bretagne et d'Irlande du Nord, Slovaquie, Slovenie, Suede, Suisse, Turquie et Ukraine1. Cette lettre apporte des informations supplementaires sur les Directives de ces gouvernements applicables aux transferts nucleaires.

  18. FAA Directives System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-08-26

    Consistent with the Federal Aviation Administration's mission to foster a safe, : secure, and efficient aviation system is the need for an effective and efficient : process for communitcating policy and procedures. The FAA Directives System : provide...

  19. Assessing directionality in context

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kate H

    In support of first-language interpreting as the exclusive interpreting direction, ... some light on the possible interaction between two independent variables, .... the “local context” refers to the setting, genre, participants, and aims of the event.

  20. Directed line liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamien, R.D.

    1992-01-01

    This thesis is devoted to the study of ensembles of dense directed lines. These lines are principally to be thought of as polymers, though they also have the morphology of flux lines in high temperature superconductors, strings of colloidal spheres in electrorheological fluids and the world lines of quantum mechanical bosons. The authors discuss how directed polymer melts, string-like formations in electrorheological and ferro-fluids, flux lines in high temperature superconductors and the world lines of quantum mechanical bosons all share similar descriptions. They study a continuous transition in all of these systems, and then study the critical mixing properties of binary mixtures of directed polymers through the renormalization group. They predict the exponents for a directed polymer blend consolute point and a novel two-phase superfluid liquid-gas critical point

  1. The ''energy tax'' directive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2003-01-01

    As Austria dropped its reservation, U.E. Economics and Finance Ministers gave, on 20 March at Brussels, their political agreement to the proposed Directive on a Community framework for the taxation of energy products. (author)

  2. Directed GF-spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.G. Arenas

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we introduce the concept of directed fractal structure, which is a generalization of the concept of fractal structure (introduced by the authors. We study the relation with transitive quasiuniformities and inverse limits of posets. We define the concept of GF-compactification and apply it to prove that the Stone-Cech compactification can be obtained as the GF-compactification of the directed fractal structure associated to the Pervin quasi-uniformity.

  3. Quantum imaging technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, M.; Boyd, R.W.

    2014-01-01

    Over the past three decades, quantum mechanics has allowed the development of technologies that provide unconditionally secure communication. In parallel, the quantum nature of the transverse electromagnetic field has spawned the field of quantum imaging that encompasses technologies such as quantum lithography, quantum ghost imaging, and high-dimensional quantum key distribution (QKD). The emergence of such quantum technologies also highlights the need for the development of accurate and efficient methods of measuring and characterizing the elusive quantum state itself. In this paper, we describe new technologies that use the quantum properties of light for security. The first of these is a technique that extends the principles behind QKD to the field of imaging and optical ranging. By applying the polarization-based BB84 protocol to individual photons in an active imaging system, we obtained images that are secure against any interceptresend jamming attacks. The second technology presented in this article is based on an extension of quantum ghost imaging, a technique that uses position-momentum entangled photons to create an image of an object without directly obtaining any spatial information from it. We used a holographic filtering technique to build a quantum ghost image identification system that uses a few pairs of photons to identify an object from a set of known objects. The third technology addressed in this document is a high-dimensional QKD system that uses orbital-angular-momentum (OAM) modes of light for encoding. Moving to a high-dimensional state space in QKD allows one to impress more information on each photon, as well as introduce higher levels of security. We discuss the development of two OAM-QKD protocols based on the BB84 and Ekert protocols of QKD. The fourth and final technology presented in this article is a relatively new technique called direct measurement that uses sequential weak and strong measurements to characterize a quantum state

  4. Laboratory directed research and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-11-15

    The purposes of Argonne's Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program are to encourage the development of novel concepts, enhance the Laboratory's R D capabilities, and further the development of its strategic initiatives. Among the aims of the projects supported by the Program are establishment of engineering proof-of-principle''; development of an instrumental prototype, method, or system; or discovery in fundamental science. Several of these project are closely associated with major strategic thrusts of the Laboratory as described in Argonne's Five Year Institutional Plan, although the scientific implications of the achieved results extend well beyond Laboratory plans and objectives. The projects supported by the Program are distributed across the major programmatic areas at Argonne. Areas of emphasis are (1) advanced accelerator and detector technology, (2) x-ray techniques in biological and physical sciences, (3) advanced reactor technology, (4) materials science, computational science, biological sciences and environmental sciences. Individual reports summarizing the purpose, approach, and results of projects are presented.

  5. Technological literacy and innovation education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansbøl, Mikala

    Lately, in Denmark and internationally, there has been an increased focus on welfare technology and innovation. The Danish healthcare system is being fundamentally restructured and re-formed, the health professions are dealing with increased speed on the introductions of new political strategies...... on innovation education and educational activities fostering technological literacy. While focus on technological literacy has often (historically) taken a functionalist direction, and mainly been related to ICT and development of non- vocational curricula, more recent developments of approaches...... to technological literacy emphasizes profession oriented relational technological literacy. Furthermore, new definitions of 21st century competencies and skills emphasize creative learning and innovation skills and competencies as central ingredients in the 21st century labor market, and call for innovation...

  6. Directions in future cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tigner, M.

    1987-01-01

    Basic research in general, and particle physics in particular, influences culture in at least three ways. Most importantly, the results of the research strongly affect their understanding and appreciation of the physical world and their place in it. The results of the research and the technology developments created to carry out the research increase economic wealth, inspire youth to devote themselves to scientific careers and train cadres of scientific and technical works will contribute to the technical economy. In addition, the pursuit of the science and accompanying technology creates a medium of cultural exchange which transcends barriers of language, ethnic culture and ideology

  7. Technology Programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batistoni, Paola; De Marco, Francesco; Pieroni, Leonardo [ed.

    2005-07-01

    The technology activities carried out by the Euratom-ENEA Association in the framework of the European Fusion Development Agreement concern the Next Step (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor - ITER), the Long-Term Programme (breeder blanket, materials, International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility - IFMIF), Power Plant Conceptual Studies and Socio-Economic Studies. The Underlying Technology Programme was set up to complement the fusion activities as well to develop technologies with a wider range of interest. The Technology Programme mainly involves staff from the Frascati laboratories of the Fusion Technical and Scientific Unit and from the Brasimone laboratories of the Advanced Physics Technologies Unit. Other ENEA units also provide valuable contributions to the programme. ENEA is heavily engaged in component development/testing and in design and safety activities for the European Fusion Technology Programme. Although the work documented in the following covers a large range of topics that differ considerably because they concern the development of extremely complex systems, the high level of integration and coordination ensures the capability to cover the fusion system as a whole. In 2004 the most significant testing activities concerned the ITER primary beryllium-coated first wall. In the field of high-heat-flux components, an important achievement was the qualification of the process for depositing a copper liner on carbon fibre composite (CFC) hollow tiles. This new process, pre-brazed casting (PBC), allows the hot radial pressing (HRP) joining procedure to be used also for CFC-based armour monoblock divertor components. The PBC and HRP processes are candidates for the construction of the ITER divertor. In the materials field an important milestone was the commissioning of a new facility for chemical vapour infiltration/deposition, used for optimising silicon carbide composite (SiCf/SiC) components. Eight patents were deposited during 2004

  8. Technology Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batistoni, Paola; De Marco, Francesco; Pieroni, Leonardo

    2005-01-01

    The technology activities carried out by the Euratom-ENEA Association in the framework of the European Fusion Development Agreement concern the Next Step (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor - ITER), the Long-Term Programme (breeder blanket, materials, International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility - IFMIF), Power Plant Conceptual Studies and Socio-Economic Studies. The Underlying Technology Programme was set up to complement the fusion activities as well to develop technologies with a wider range of interest. The Technology Programme mainly involves staff from the Frascati laboratories of the Fusion Technical and Scientific Unit and from the Brasimone laboratories of the Advanced Physics Technologies Unit. Other ENEA units also provide valuable contributions to the programme. ENEA is heavily engaged in component development/testing and in design and safety activities for the European Fusion Technology Programme. Although the work documented in the following covers a large range of topics that differ considerably because they concern the development of extremely complex systems, the high level of integration and coordination ensures the capability to cover the fusion system as a whole. In 2004 the most significant testing activities concerned the ITER primary beryllium-coated first wall. In the field of high-heat-flux components, an important achievement was the qualification of the process for depositing a copper liner on carbon fibre composite (CFC) hollow tiles. This new process, pre-brazed casting (PBC), allows the hot radial pressing (HRP) joining procedure to be used also for CFC-based armour monoblock divertor components. The PBC and HRP processes are candidates for the construction of the ITER divertor. In the materials field an important milestone was the commissioning of a new facility for chemical vapour infiltration/deposition, used for optimising silicon carbide composite (SiCf/SiC) components. Eight patents were deposited during 2004

  9. Development of Multimodal Human Interface Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Michitaka

    About 20 years have passed since the word “Virtual Reality” became popular. During these two decades, novel human interface technology so called “multimodal interface technology” has been formed. In this paper, firstly, recent progress in realtime CG, BCI and five senses IT is quickly reviewed. Since the life cycle of the information technology is said to be 20 years or so, novel directions and paradigms of VR technology can be found in conjunction with the technologies forementioned. At the end of the paper, these futuristic directions such as ultra-realistic media are briefly introduced.

  10. Innovative Technology in Automotive Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, John

    2007-01-01

    Automotive Technology combines hands-on training along with a fully integrated, interactive, computerized multistationed facility. Our program is a competency based, true open-entry/open-exit program that utilizes flexible self-paced course outlines. It is designed around an industry partnership that promotes community and economic development,…

  11. Prospects for Accelerator Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Alan

    2011-02-01

    Accelerator technology today is a greater than US$5 billion per annum business. Development of higher-performance technology with improved reliability that delivers reduced system size and life cycle cost is expected to significantly increase the total accelerator technology market and open up new application sales. Potential future directions are identified and pitfalls in new market penetration are considered. Both of the present big market segments, medical radiation therapy units and semiconductor ion implanters, are approaching the "maturity" phase of their product cycles, where incremental development rather than paradigm shifts is the norm, but they should continue to dominate commercial sales for some time. It is anticipated that large discovery-science accelerators will continue to provide a specialty market beset by the unpredictable cycles resulting from the scale of the projects themselves, coupled with external political and economic drivers. Although fraught with differing market entry difficulties, the security and environmental markets, together with new, as yet unrealized, industrial material processing applications, are expected to provide the bulk of future commercial accelerator technology growth.

  12. Gas utilization technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biljetina, R.

    1994-01-01

    One of the constant challenges facing the research community is the identification of technology needs 5 to 15 years from now. A look back into history indicates that the forces driving natural gas research have changed from decade to decade. In the 1970s research was driven by concerns for adequate supply; in the 1980s research was aimed at creating new markets for natural gas. What then are the driving forces for the 1990s? Recent reports from the natural gas industry have helped define a new direction driven primarily by market demand for natural gas. A study prepared by the Interstate Natural Gas Association of America Foundation entitled ''Survey of Natural Research, Development, and Demonstration RD ampersand D Priorities'' indicated that in the 1990s the highest research priority should be for natural gas utilization and that technology development efforts should not only address efficiency and cost, but environmental and regulatory issues as well. This study and others, such as the report by the American Gas Association (A.G.A.) entitled ''Strategic Vision for Natural Gas Through the Year 2000,'' clearly identify the market sectors driving today's technology development needs. The biggest driver is the power generation market followed by the industrial, transportation, appliance, and gas cooling markets. This is best illustrated by the GRI 1994 Baseline Projection on market growth in various sectors between the year 1992 and 2010. This paper highlights some of the recent technology developments in each one of these sectors

  13. On Validation of Directional Wave Predictions: Review and Discussion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rogers, W. E; Wang, David W

    2006-01-01

    This report consists of supplementary materials for an article, accepted for publication in the "Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology," dealing with directional wave model validation by the same authors...

  14. Attracting Foreign Direct Investment for Growth and Development in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) plays an important role in fostering economic growth ... growth and development efforts, it also brings with it skills and new technology. ... Malaysia, Thailand and China, FDI inflows into sub-Saharan Africa pale.

  15. Direct Numerical Simulations of Statistically Stationary Turbulent Premixed Flames

    KAUST Repository

    Im, Hong G.; Arias, Paul G.; Chaudhuri, Swetaprovo; Uranakara, Harshavardhana A.

    2016-01-01

    Direct numerical simulations (DNS) of turbulent combustion have evolved tremendously in the past decades, thanks to the rapid advances in high performance computing technology. Today’s DNS is capable of incorporating detailed reaction mechanisms

  16. 1996 Laboratory directed research and development annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyers, C.E.; Harvey, C.L.; Lopez-Andreas, L.M.; Chavez, D.L.; Whiddon, C.P. [comp.

    1997-04-01

    This report summarizes progress from the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program during fiscal year 1996. In addition to a programmatic and financial overview, the report includes progress reports from 259 individual R&D projects in seventeen categories. The general areas of research include: engineered processes and materials; computational and information sciences; microelectronics and photonics; engineering sciences; pulsed power; advanced manufacturing technologies; biomedical engineering; energy and environmental science and technology; advanced information technologies; counterproliferation; advanced transportation; national security technology; electronics technologies; idea exploration and exploitation; production; and science at the interfaces - engineering with atoms.

  17. Technology for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Sixteen research centres in the Federal German Republic are associated in the ''Working Pool of Research Centres'' (AGF). As national research centres these institutions engage in scientific-technical and biological-medical research and development based on interdisciplinary cooperation and intensive deployment of personnel, capital, and technical equipment. They make substantial contributions to state-promoted programmes in the following areas: energy research and technology; basic nuclear research; transport and traffic systems; aerospace research and polar research; data processing and applied computer science; environment protection and health; biology and medicine; and marine engineering and geosciences. The authors of this new volume of AGF topics deal with so-called key technologies, i.e., developments determining the direction of future activities. Topics relevant to energy are solar research and fusion research. (orig./UA) [de

  18. Technological fantasies of Nao

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Stina Marie Hasse; Tafdrup, Oliver Alexander

    2017-01-01

    This article will through a ‘what-if’ scenario involving the humanoid robot, Nao, as a museum guide, discuss the potential benefits of theorizing social robots through a perspective grounded in critical design and postphenomenology. Within Science and Technology-studies (STS) postphenomenology has...... been the ‘go-to’ theory when discussing the philosophical aspects of human-technology relations. Postphenomenology directly addresses how humans on a phenomenological level relate to robots through an ‘alterity-relation’ that establishes the robot as a ‘quasi-other’. A methodological discussion of how...... to conduct empirical postphenomenological research into robotics, has, however, not been thoroughly unfolded, although the question of a general postphenomenological methodology has been touched upon. This article provides a contribution to the debate on how to enquire into human-robot relations...

  19. Technological elixir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snieckus, Darius

    2000-07-01

    In a short article, the aim of Pilot (formerly the Oil and Gas Industry Task Force) is discussed with respect to extending the productive life of the North Sea. The head of Pilot is the Industry Facilitator MD David Ellix and he believes that the new technology will restore the North Sea to its former level of productivity. The problems, and how they are to be addressed, are discussed.

  20. Technology transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Illustrated by the example of the FRG's nuclear energy exports, it is shown that the nuclear technology transfer leads to new dimensions of intergovernmental relations, which hold within themselves on account of multiple state-to-state, scientific, industrial and - last but not least - personal contacts the chance of far-reaching friendships between countries and people. If the chance is taken, this can also be seen as an important contribution towards maintaining the peace. (orig.) [de