WorldWideScience

Sample records for gene variation spectrum

  1. Genetic spectrum of low density lipoprotein receptor gene variations in South Indian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ArulJothi, K N; Suruthi Abirami, B; Devi, Arikketh

    2018-03-01

    Low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) is a membrane bound receptor maintaining cholesterol homeostasis along with Apolipoprotein B (APOB), Proprotein Convertase Subtilisin/Kexin type 9 (PCSK9) and other genes of lipid metabolism. Any pathogenic variation in these genes alters the function of the receptor and leads to Familial Hypercholesterolemia (FH) and other cardiovascular diseases. This study was aimed at screening the LDLR, APOB and PCSK9 genes in Hypercholesterolemic patients to define the genetic spectrum of FH in Indian population. Familial Hypercholesterolemia patients (n=78) of South Indian Tamil population with LDL cholesterol and Total cholesterol levels above 4.9mmol/l and 7.5mmol/l with family history of Myocardial infarction were involved. DNA was isolated by organic extraction method from blood samples and LDLR, APOB and PCSK9 gene exons were amplified using primers that cover exon-intron boundaries. The amplicons were screened using High Resolution Melt (HRM) Analysis and the screened samples were sequenced after purification. This study reports 20 variations in South Indian population for the first time. In this set of variations 9 are novel variations which are reported for the first time, 11 were reported in other studies also. The in silico analysis for all the variations detected in this study were done to predict the probabilistic effect in pathogenicity of FH. This study adds 9 novel variations and 11 recurrent variations to the spectrum of LDLR gene mutations in Indian population. All these variations are reported for the first time in Indian population. This spectrum of variations was different from the variations of previous Indian reports. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Spectrum of sequence variations in the FANCA gene: an International Fanconi Anemia Registry (IFAR) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levran, Orna; Diotti, Raffaella; Pujara, Kanan; Batish, Sat D; Hanenberg, Helmut; Auerbach, Arleen D

    2005-02-01

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is an autosomal recessive disorder that is defined by cellular hypersensitivity to DNA cross-linking agents, and is characterized clinically by developmental abnormalities, progressive bone-marrow failure, and predisposition to leukemia and solid tumors. There is extensive genetic heterogeneity, with at least 11 different FA complementation groups. FA-A is the most common group, accounting for approximately 65% of all affected individuals. The mutation spectrum of the FANCA gene, located on chromosome 16q24.3, is highly heterogeneous. Here we summarize all sequence variations (mutations and polymorphisms) in FANCA described in the literature and listed in the Fanconi Anemia Mutation Database as of March 2004, and report 61 novel FANCA mutations identified in FA patients registered in the International Fanconi Anemia Registry (IFAR). Thirty-eight novel SNPs, previously unreported in the literature or in dbSNP, were also identified. We studied the segregation of common FANCA SNPs in FA families to generate haplotypes. We found that FANCA SNP data are highly useful for carrier testing, prenatal diagnosis, and preimplantation genetic diagnosis, particularly when the disease-causing mutations are unknown. Twenty-two large genomic deletions were identified by detection of apparent homozygosity for rare SNPs. In addition, a conserved SNP haplotype block spanning at least 60 kb of the FANCA gene was identified in individuals from various ethnic groups. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Variations of the candidate SEZ6L2 gene on Chromosome 16p11.2 in patients with autism spectrum disorders and in human populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Konyukh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorders (ASD are a group of severe childhood neurodevelopmental disorders with still unknown etiology. One of the most frequently reported associations is the presence of recurrent de novo or inherited microdeletions and microduplications on chromosome 16p11.2. The analysis of rare variations of 8 candidate genes among the 27 genes located in this region suggested SEZ6L2 as a compelling candidate. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We further explored the role of SEZ6L2 variations by screening its coding part in a group of 452 individuals, including 170 patients with ASD and 282 individuals from different ethnic backgrounds of the Human Genome Diversity Panel (HGDP, complementing the previously reported screening. We detected 7 previously unidentified non-synonymous variations of SEZ6L2 in ASD patients. We also identified 6 non-synonymous variations present only in HGDP. When we merged our results with the previously published, no enrichment of non-synonymous variation in SEZ6L2 was observed in the ASD group compared with controls. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results provide an extensive ascertainment of the genetic variability of SEZ6L2 in human populations and do not support a major role for SEZ6L2 sequence variations in the susceptibility to ASD.

  4. Assessing the spectrum of germline variation in Fanconi anemia genes among patients with head and neck carcinoma before age 50.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekharappa, Settara C; Chinn, Steven B; Donovan, Frank X; Chowdhury, Naweed I; Kamat, Aparna; Adeyemo, Adebowale A; Thomas, James W; Vemulapalli, Meghana; Hussey, Caroline S; Reid, Holly H; Mullikin, James C; Wei, Qingyi; Sturgis, Erich M

    2017-10-15

    Patients with Fanconi anemia (FA) have an increased risk for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). The authors sought to determine the prevalence of undiagnosed FA and FA carriers among patients with HNSCC as well as an age cutoff for FA genetic screening. Germline DNA samples from 417 patients with HNSCC aged <50 years were screened for sequence variants by targeted next-generation sequencing of the entire length of 16 FA genes. The sequence revealed 194 FA gene variants in 185 patients (44%). The variant spectrum was comprised of 183 nonsynonymous point mutations, 9 indels, 1 large deletion, and 1 synonymous variant that was predicted to effect splicing. One hundred eight patients (26%) had at least 1 rare variant that was predicted to be damaging, and 57 (14%) had at least 1 rare variant that was predicted to be damaging and had been previously reported. Fifteen patients carried 2 rare variants or an X-linked variant in an FA gene. Overall, an age cutoff for FA screening was not identified among young patients with HNSCC, because there were no significant differences in mutation rates when patients were stratified by age, tumor site, ethnicity, smoking status, or human papillomavirus status. However, an increased burden, or mutation load, of FA gene variants was observed in carriers of the genes FA complementation group D2 (FANCD2), FANCE, and FANCL in the HNSCC patient cohort relative to the 1000 Genomes population. FA germline functional variants offer a novel area of study in HNSCC tumorigenesis. FANCE and FANCL, which are components of the core complex, are known to be responsible for the recruitment and ubiquitination, respectively, of FANCD2, a critical step in the FA DNA repair pathway. In the current cohort, the increased mutation load of FANCD2, FANCE, and FANCL variants among younger patients with HNSCC indicates the importance of the FA pathway in HNSCC. Cancer 2017;123:3943-54. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  5. Molecular genetic analysis of the calcium sensing receptor gene in patients clinically suspected to have familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia: phenotypic variation and mutation spectrum in a Danish population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Peter H; Christensen, Signe E; Heickendorff, Lene

    2007-01-01

    CONTEXT: The autosomal dominantly inherited condition familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia (FHH) is characterized by elevated plasma calcium levels, relative or absolute hypocalciuria, and normal to moderately elevated plasma PTH. The condition is difficult to distinguish clinically from primary...... hyperparathyroidism and is caused by inactivating mutations in the calcium sensing receptor (CASR) gene. OBJECTIVE: We sought to define the mutation spectrum of the CASR gene in a Danish FHH population and to establish genotype-phenotype relationships regarding the different mutations. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS...

  6. Fast Variations In Spectrum of Comet Halley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borysenko, S. A.

    The goal of this work is to research fast variations of spectral lines intensities in spectra of comet Halley. The present research was made on the basis of more then 500 high- resolution spectrogram obtained by L.M. Shulman and H.K. Nazarchuk in November- December, 1985 at the 6-m telescope (SAO, Russia). Some fast variations with different quasiperiods were detected in all the spectrograms. Quasiperiods of these variations were from 15 - 40 min to 1.5 - 2 hours. As data from spacecraft "Vega-2" show, more fast variations with quasiperiods 5 - 10 min are obviously present in cometary time variations. Only the most important lines so as C2, C3, CN, CH and NH2 were analyzed. False periods were checked by comparison of the power spectra of the variations with the computed spectral window of the data. Only false periods about 400 sec (the avarage period of exposition) were detected. An algorithm for analysis of locally Poisson's time series was proposed. Two types of fast variations are detected: 1)high amplitude variations with more long quasiperiods (1.5 - 2 hours) and the coefficient of crosscorrelations between line intensities about 0.9 - 0.95; 2)low amplitude variations with short periods (15 - 40 min), which look like white noise and have the coefficient of crosscorrelations about 0.1 - 0.3. This difference may be caused by nature of variations. The first type variations may be an effect of both active processes in cometary nucleus and streams of solar protons. Analysis of solar proton flux variation with energies >1 MeV in November - Decem- ber 1985 confirms the above-mentioned version. In the second case it may by only inner processes in the nucleus that generate the observed variations. For determination of general parameters of cometary atmosphere, such as the produc- tion rates of radicals C2, C3, CN, CH, and NH2 it was necessary to estimate the contri- bution of dust grains luminiscence into the continuum of the comet. Space and wave- length distribution

  7. Parkinson's disease and mitochondrial gene variations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andalib, Sasan; Vafaee, Manouchehr Seyedi; Gjedde, Albert

    2014-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common disorder of the central nervous system in the elderly. The pathogenesis of PD is a complex process, with genetics as an important contributing factor. This factor may stem from mitochondrial gene variations and mutations as well as from nuclear gene variations...

  8. Host genetic variation influences gene expression response to rhinovirus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minal Çalışkan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Rhinovirus (RV is the most prevalent human respiratory virus and is responsible for at least half of all common colds. RV infections may result in a broad spectrum of effects that range from asymptomatic infections to severe lower respiratory illnesses. The basis for inter-individual variation in the response to RV infection is not well understood. In this study, we explored whether host genetic variation is associated with variation in gene expression response to RV infections between individuals. To do so, we obtained genome-wide genotype and gene expression data in uninfected and RV-infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs from 98 individuals. We mapped local and distant genetic variation that is associated with inter-individual differences in gene expression levels (eQTLs in both uninfected and RV-infected cells. We focused specifically on response eQTLs (reQTLs, namely, genetic associations with inter-individual variation in gene expression response to RV infection. We identified local reQTLs for 38 genes, including genes with known functions in viral response (UBA7, OAS1, IRF5 and genes that have been associated with immune and RV-related diseases (e.g., ITGA2, MSR1, GSTM3. The putative regulatory regions of genes with reQTLs were enriched for binding sites of virus-activated STAT2, highlighting the role of condition-specific transcription factors in genotype-by-environment interactions. Overall, we suggest that the 38 loci associated with inter-individual variation in gene expression response to RV-infection represent promising candidates for affecting immune and RV-related respiratory diseases.

  9. Host genetic variation influences gene expression response to rhinovirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çalışkan, Minal; Baker, Samuel W; Gilad, Yoav; Ober, Carole

    2015-04-01

    Rhinovirus (RV) is the most prevalent human respiratory virus and is responsible for at least half of all common colds. RV infections may result in a broad spectrum of effects that range from asymptomatic infections to severe lower respiratory illnesses. The basis for inter-individual variation in the response to RV infection is not well understood. In this study, we explored whether host genetic variation is associated with variation in gene expression response to RV infections between individuals. To do so, we obtained genome-wide genotype and gene expression data in uninfected and RV-infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 98 individuals. We mapped local and distant genetic variation that is associated with inter-individual differences in gene expression levels (eQTLs) in both uninfected and RV-infected cells. We focused specifically on response eQTLs (reQTLs), namely, genetic associations with inter-individual variation in gene expression response to RV infection. We identified local reQTLs for 38 genes, including genes with known functions in viral response (UBA7, OAS1, IRF5) and genes that have been associated with immune and RV-related diseases (e.g., ITGA2, MSR1, GSTM3). The putative regulatory regions of genes with reQTLs were enriched for binding sites of virus-activated STAT2, highlighting the role of condition-specific transcription factors in genotype-by-environment interactions. Overall, we suggest that the 38 loci associated with inter-individual variation in gene expression response to RV-infection represent promising candidates for affecting immune and RV-related respiratory diseases.

  10. Geographic Variations in the EPR Spectrum of Tooth Enamel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanyukha, A.A.; Hayes, R.B.; Haskell, E.H.; Kenner, G.H.

    1999-01-01

    The presence of stable radiation-induced radicals in the mineral component of tooth enamel allows use of this material as a biological dosemeter. Estimation of the dose absorbed in tooth enamel can be done by EPR. Generally, for the purpose of dose reconstruction, the EPR spectrum of tooth enamel is interpreted in terms of two main components. The first is a broad background signal often called the native signal centered at a g value of 2.0045. The origin of this signal is not precisely known. The second main component in the tooth enamel spectrum is purely radiation induced and can be used for retrospective dosimetry. Internal structure of the native signal and variations of its amplitude and linewidth were investigated for the samples prepared from modern teeth obtained from different geographic locations (USA and Russia). Possible reasons for the variations observed are discussed as are the potential effects of the variations on the reliability of dose estimation. (author)

  11. De novo mutation in the dopamine transporter gene associates dopamine dysfunction with autism spectrum disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamilton, P J; Campbell, N G; Sharma, S

    2013-01-01

    De novo genetic variation is an important class of risk factors for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Recently, whole-exome sequencing of ASD families has identified a novel de novo missense mutation in the human dopamine (DA) transporter (hDAT) gene, which results in a Thr to Met substitution...

  12. Autism Spectrum Disorder and High Confidence Gene Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Mai, MOCHIZUKI

    2017-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurological developmental disorder whose mechanism isyet unclear. However, recent ASD studies, which employ exome- and genome-wide sequencing,have identified some high-confidence ASD genes. Those ASD studies have revealed that CHD8is likely associated with ASD. In this article, we highlight that CHD8 may regulate othercandidate ASD risk genes. Current research indicates that there exist some thousand autismsusceptibility candidate genes. Moreover, we sugge...

  13. Defining the diverse spectrum of inversions, complex structural variation, and chromothripsis in the morbid human genome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collins, Ryan L; Brand, Harrison; Redin, Claire E.; Hanscom, Carrie; Antolik, Caroline; Stone, Matthew R; Glessner, Joseph T.; Mason, Tamara; Pregno, Giulia; Dorrani, Naghmeh; Mandrile, Giorgia; Giachino, Daniela; Perrin, Danielle; Walsh, Cole; Cipicchio, Michelle; Costello, Maura; Stortchevoi, Alexei; An, Joon Yong; Currall, Benjamin B; Seabra, Catarina M; Ragavendran, Ashok; Margolin, Lauren; Martinez-Agosto, Julian A.; Lucente, Diane; Levy, Brynn; Sanders, Jan-Stephan; Wapner, Ronald J.; Quintero-Rivera, Fabiola; Kloosterman, Wigard; Talkowski, Michael E.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Structural variation (SV) influences genome organization and contributes to human disease. However, the complete mutational spectrum of SV has not been routinely captured in disease association studies. Results: We sequenced 689 participants with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and other

  14. Variation of clinical expression in patients with Stargardt dystrophy and sequence variations in the ABCR gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, G A; Stone, E M; Grover, S; Derlacki, D J; Haines, H L; Hockey, R R

    1999-04-01

    To report the spectrum of ophthalmic findings in patients with Stargardt dystrophy or fundus flavimaculatus who have a specific sequence variation in the ABCR gene. Twenty-nine patients with Stargardt dystrophy or fundus flavimaculatus from different pedigrees were identified with possible disease-causing sequence variations in the ABCR gene from a group of 66 patients who were screened for sequence variations in this gene. Patients underwent a routine ocular examination, including slitlamp biomicroscopy and a dilated fundus examination. Fluorescein angiography was performed on 22 patients, and electroretinographic measurements were obtained on 24 of 29 patients. Kinetic visual fields were measured with a Goldmann perimeter in 26 patients. Single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis and DNA sequencing were used to identify variations in coding sequences of the ABCR gene. Three clinical phenotypes were observed among these 29 patients. In phenotype I, 9 of 12 patients had a sequence change in exon 42 of the ABCR gene in which the amino acid glutamic acid was substituted for glycine (Gly1961Glu). In only 4 of these 9 patients was a second possible disease-causing mutation found on the other ABCR allele. In addition to an atrophic-appearing macular lesion, phenotype I was characterized by localized perifoveal yellowish white flecks, the absence of a dark choroid, and normal electroretinographic amplitudes. Phenotype II consisted of 10 patients who showed a dark choroid and more diffuse yellowish white flecks in the fundus. None exhibited the Gly1961Glu change. Phenotype III consisted of 7 patients who showed extensive atrophic-appearing changes of the retinal pigment epithelium. Electroretinographic cone and rod amplitudes were reduced. One patient showed the Gly1961Glu change. A wide variation in clinical phenotype can occur in patients with sequence changes in the ABCR gene. In individual patients, a certain phenotype seems to be associated with the presence of

  15. PAX6 gene variations associated with aniridia in south India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashikant Shetty

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mutations in the transcription factor gene PAX6 have been shown to be the cause of the aniridia phenotype. The purpose of this study was to analyze patients with aniridia to uncover PAX6 gene mutations in south Indian population. Methods Total genomic DNA was isolated from peripheral blood of twenty-eight members of six clinically diagnosed aniridia families and 60 normal healthy controls. The coding exons of the human PAX6 gene were amplified by PCR and allele specific variations were detected by single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP followed by automated sequencing. Results The sequencing results revealed novel PAX6 mutations in three patients with sporadic aniridia: c.715ins5, [c.1201delA; c.1239A>G] and c.901delA. Two previously reported nonsense mutations were also found: c.482C>A, c.830G>A. A neutral polymorphism was detected (IVS9-12C>T at the boundary of intron 9 and exon 10. The two nonsense mutations found in the coding region of human PAX6 gene are reported for the first time in the south Indian population. Conclusion The genetic analysis confirms that haploinsuffiency of the PAX6 gene causes the classic aniridia phenotype. Most of the point mutations detected in our study results in stop codons. Here we add three novel PAX6 gene mutations in south Indian population to the existing spectrum of mutations, which is not a well-studied ethnic group. Our study supports the hypothesis that a mutation in the PAX6 gene correlates with expression of aniridia.

  16. Chromosomal Abnormalities and Putative Susceptibility Genes in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette Gilling

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) is a heterogeneous group of neurodevelopmental disorders with a significant genetic component as shown by family and twin studies. However, only a few genes have repeatedly been shown to be involved in the development of ASDs. The aim of this study has been...

  17. Topological variation in single-gene phylogenetic trees

    OpenAIRE

    Castresana, Jose

    2007-01-01

    A recent large-scale phylogenomic study has shown the great degree of topological variation that can be found among eukaryotic phylogenetic trees constructed from single genes, highlighting the problems that can be associated with gene sampling in phylogenetic studies.

  18. Analysis of rare, exonic variation amongst subjects with autism spectrum disorders and population controls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Liu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We report on results from whole-exome sequencing (WES of 1,039 subjects diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD and 870 controls selected from the NIMH repository to be of similar ancestry to cases. The WES data came from two centers using different methods to produce sequence and to call variants from it. Therefore, an initial goal was to ensure the distribution of rare variation was similar for data from different centers. This proved straightforward by filtering called variants by fraction of missing data, read depth, and balance of alternative to reference reads. Results were evaluated using seven samples sequenced at both centers and by results from the association study. Next we addressed how the data and/or results from the centers should be combined. Gene-based analyses of association was an obvious choice, but should statistics for association be combined across centers (meta-analysis or should data be combined and then analyzed (mega-analysis? Because of the nature of many gene-based tests, we showed by theory and simulations that mega-analysis has better power than meta-analysis. Finally, before analyzing the data for association, we explored the impact of population structure on rare variant analysis in these data. Like other recent studies, we found evidence that population structure can confound case-control studies by the clustering of rare variants in ancestry space; yet, unlike some recent studies, for these data we found that principal component-based analyses were sufficient to control for ancestry and produce test statistics with appropriate distributions. After using a variety of gene-based tests and both meta- and mega-analysis, we found no new risk genes for ASD in this sample. Our results suggest that standard gene-based tests will require much larger samples of cases and controls before being effective for gene discovery, even for a disorder like ASD.

  19. Analysis of Rare, Exonic Variation amongst Subjects with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Population Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Sabo, Aniko; Neale, Benjamin M.; Nagaswamy, Uma; Stevens, Christine; Lim, Elaine; Bodea, Corneliu A.; Muzny, Donna; Reid, Jeffrey G.; Banks, Eric; Coon, Hillary; DePristo, Mark; Dinh, Huyen; Fennel, Tim; Flannick, Jason; Gabriel, Stacey; Garimella, Kiran; Gross, Shannon; Hawes, Alicia; Lewis, Lora; Makarov, Vladimir; Maguire, Jared; Newsham, Irene; Poplin, Ryan; Ripke, Stephan; Shakir, Khalid; Samocha, Kaitlin E.; Wu, Yuanqing; Boerwinkle, Eric; Buxbaum, Joseph D.; Cook, Edwin H.; Devlin, Bernie; Schellenberg, Gerard D.; Sutcliffe, James S.; Daly, Mark J.; Gibbs, Richard A.; Roeder, Kathryn

    2013-01-01

    We report on results from whole-exome sequencing (WES) of 1,039 subjects diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and 870 controls selected from the NIMH repository to be of similar ancestry to cases. The WES data came from two centers using different methods to produce sequence and to call variants from it. Therefore, an initial goal was to ensure the distribution of rare variation was similar for data from different centers. This proved straightforward by filtering called variants by fraction of missing data, read depth, and balance of alternative to reference reads. Results were evaluated using seven samples sequenced at both centers and by results from the association study. Next we addressed how the data and/or results from the centers should be combined. Gene-based analyses of association was an obvious choice, but should statistics for association be combined across centers (meta-analysis) or should data be combined and then analyzed (mega-analysis)? Because of the nature of many gene-based tests, we showed by theory and simulations that mega-analysis has better power than meta-analysis. Finally, before analyzing the data for association, we explored the impact of population structure on rare variant analysis in these data. Like other recent studies, we found evidence that population structure can confound case-control studies by the clustering of rare variants in ancestry space; yet, unlike some recent studies, for these data we found that principal component-based analyses were sufficient to control for ancestry and produce test statistics with appropriate distributions. After using a variety of gene-based tests and both meta- and mega-analysis, we found no new risk genes for ASD in this sample. Our results suggest that standard gene-based tests will require much larger samples of cases and controls before being effective for gene discovery, even for a disorder like ASD. PMID:23593035

  20. Pattern Recognition of Gene Expression with Singular Spectrum Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Hassani

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Drosophila segmentation as a model organism is one of the most highly studied. Among many maternal segmentation coordinate genes, bicoid protein pattern plays a significant role during Drosophila embryogenesis, since this gradient determines most aspects of head and thorax development. Despite the fact that several models have been proposed to describe the bicoid gradient, due to its association with considerable error, each can only partially explain bicoid characteristics. In this paper, a modified version of singular spectrum analysis is examined for filtering and extracting the bicoid gene expression signal. The results with strong evidence indicate that the proposed technique is able to remove noise more effectively and can be considered as a promising method for filtering gene expression measurements for other applications.

  1. Functional impact of global rare copy number variation in autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Dalila; Pagnamenta, Alistair T; Klei, Lambertus; Anney, Richard; Merico, Daniele; Regan, Regina; Conroy, Judith; Magalhaes, Tiago R; Correia, Catarina; Abrahams, Brett S; Almeida, Joana; Bacchelli, Elena; Bader, Gary D; Bailey, Anthony J; Baird, Gillian; Battaglia, Agatino; Berney, Tom; Bolshakova, Nadia; Bölte, Sven; Bolton, Patrick F; Bourgeron, Thomas; Brennan, Sean; Brian, Jessica; Bryson, Susan E; Carson, Andrew R; Casallo, Guillermo; Casey, Jillian; Chung, Brian H Y; Cochrane, Lynne; Corsello, Christina; Crawford, Emily L; Crossett, Andrew; Cytrynbaum, Cheryl; Dawson, Geraldine; de Jonge, Maretha; Delorme, Richard; Drmic, Irene; Duketis, Eftichia; Duque, Frederico; Estes, Annette; Farrar, Penny; Fernandez, Bridget A; Folstein, Susan E; Fombonne, Eric; Freitag, Christine M; Gilbert, John; Gillberg, Christopher; Glessner, Joseph T; Goldberg, Jeremy; Green, Andrew; Green, Jonathan; Guter, Stephen J; Hakonarson, Hakon; Heron, Elizabeth A; Hill, Matthew; Holt, Richard; Howe, Jennifer L; Hughes, Gillian; Hus, Vanessa; Igliozzi, Roberta; Kim, Cecilia; Klauck, Sabine M; Kolevzon, Alexander; Korvatska, Olena; Kustanovich, Vlad; Lajonchere, Clara M; Lamb, Janine A; Laskawiec, Magdalena; Leboyer, Marion; Le Couteur, Ann; Leventhal, Bennett L; Lionel, Anath C; Liu, Xiao-Qing; Lord, Catherine; Lotspeich, Linda; Lund, Sabata C; Maestrini, Elena; Mahoney, William; Mantoulan, Carine; Marshall, Christian R; McConachie, Helen; McDougle, Christopher J; McGrath, Jane; McMahon, William M; Merikangas, Alison; Migita, Ohsuke; Minshew, Nancy J; Mirza, Ghazala K; Munson, Jeff; Nelson, Stanley F; Noakes, Carolyn; Noor, Abdul; Nygren, Gudrun; Oliveira, Guiomar; Papanikolaou, Katerina; Parr, Jeremy R; Parrini, Barbara; Paton, Tara; Pickles, Andrew; Pilorge, Marion; Piven, Joseph; Ponting, Chris P; Posey, David J; Poustka, Annemarie; Poustka, Fritz; Prasad, Aparna; Ragoussis, Jiannis; Renshaw, Katy; Rickaby, Jessica; Roberts, Wendy; Roeder, Kathryn; Roge, Bernadette; Rutter, Michael L; Bierut, Laura J; Rice, John P; Salt, Jeff; Sansom, Katherine; Sato, Daisuke; Segurado, Ricardo; Sequeira, Ana F; Senman, Lili; Shah, Naisha; Sheffield, Val C; Soorya, Latha; Sousa, Inês; Stein, Olaf; Sykes, Nuala; Stoppioni, Vera; Strawbridge, Christina; Tancredi, Raffaella; Tansey, Katherine; Thiruvahindrapduram, Bhooma; Thompson, Ann P; Thomson, Susanne; Tryfon, Ana; Tsiantis, John; Van Engeland, Herman; Vincent, John B; Volkmar, Fred; Wallace, Simon; Wang, Kai; Wang, Zhouzhi; Wassink, Thomas H; Webber, Caleb; Weksberg, Rosanna; Wing, Kirsty; Wittemeyer, Kerstin; Wood, Shawn; Wu, Jing; Yaspan, Brian L; Zurawiecki, Danielle; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Buxbaum, Joseph D; Cantor, Rita M; Cook, Edwin H; Coon, Hilary; Cuccaro, Michael L; Devlin, Bernie; Ennis, Sean; Gallagher, Louise; Geschwind, Daniel H; Gill, Michael; Haines, Jonathan L; Hallmayer, Joachim; Miller, Judith; Monaco, Anthony P; Nurnberger, John I; Paterson, Andrew D; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A; Schellenberg, Gerard D; Szatmari, Peter; Vicente, Astrid M; Vieland, Veronica J; Wijsman, Ellen M; Scherer, Stephen W; Sutcliffe, James S; Betancur, Catalina

    2010-07-15

    The autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are a group of conditions characterized by impairments in reciprocal social interaction and communication, and the presence of restricted and repetitive behaviours. Individuals with an ASD vary greatly in cognitive development, which can range from above average to intellectual disability. Although ASDs are known to be highly heritable ( approximately 90%), the underlying genetic determinants are still largely unknown. Here we analysed the genome-wide characteristics of rare (variation in ASD using dense genotyping arrays. When comparing 996 ASD individuals of European ancestry to 1,287 matched controls, cases were found to carry a higher global burden of rare, genic copy number variants (CNVs) (1.19 fold, P = 0.012), especially so for loci previously implicated in either ASD and/or intellectual disability (1.69 fold, P = 3.4 x 10(-4)). Among the CNVs there were numerous de novo and inherited events, sometimes in combination in a given family, implicating many novel ASD genes such as SHANK2, SYNGAP1, DLGAP2 and the X-linked DDX53-PTCHD1 locus. We also discovered an enrichment of CNVs disrupting functional gene sets involved in cellular proliferation, projection and motility, and GTPase/Ras signalling. Our results reveal many new genetic and functional targets in ASD that may lead to final connected pathways.

  2. Genomic variation in Salmonella enterica core genes for epidemiological typing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leekitcharoenphon, Pimlapas; Lukjancenko, Oksana; Rundsten, Carsten Friis

    2012-01-01

    Background: Technological advances in high throughput genome sequencing are making whole genome sequencing (WGS) available as a routine tool for bacterial typing. Standardized procedures for identification of relevant genes and of variation are needed to enable comparison between studies and over...... genomes and evaluate their value as typing targets, comparing whole genome typing and traditional methods such as 16S and MLST. A consensus tree based on variation of core genes gives much better resolution than 16S and MLST; the pan-genome family tree is similar to the consensus tree, but with higher...... that there is a positive selection towards mutations leading to amino acid changes. Conclusions: Genomic variation within the core genome is useful for investigating molecular evolution and providing candidate genes for bacterial genome typing. Identification of genes with different degrees of variation is important...

  3. Evidence of novel fine-scale structural variation at autism spectrum disorder candidate loci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedges Dale J

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Autism spectrum disorders (ASD represent a group of neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by a core set of social-communicative and behavioral impairments. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain, acting primarily via the GABA receptors (GABR. Multiple lines of evidence, including altered GABA and GABA receptor expression in autistic patients, indicate that the GABAergic system may be involved in the etiology of autism. Methods As copy number variations (CNVs, particularly rare and de novo CNVs, have now been implicated in ASD risk, we examined the GABA receptors and genes in related pathways for structural variation that may be associated with autism. We further extended our candidate gene set to include 19 genes and regions that had either been directly implicated in the autism literature or were directly related (via function or ancestry to these primary candidates. For the high resolution CNV screen we employed custom-designed 244 k comparative genomic hybridization (CGH arrays. Collectively, our probes spanned a total of 11 Mb of GABA-related and additional candidate regions with a density of approximately one probe every 200 nucleotides, allowing a theoretical resolution for detection of CNVs of approximately 1 kb or greater on average. One hundred and sixty-eight autism cases and 149 control individuals were screened for structural variants. Prioritized CNV events were confirmed using quantitative PCR, and confirmed loci were evaluated on an additional set of 170 cases and 170 control individuals that were not included in the original discovery set. Loci that remained interesting were subsequently screened via quantitative PCR on an additional set of 755 cases and 1,809 unaffected family members. Results Results include rare deletions in autistic individuals at JAKMIP1, NRXN1, Neuroligin4Y, OXTR, and ABAT. Common insertion/deletion polymorphisms were detected at several

  4. Variation in the autism candidate gene GABRB3 modulates tactile sensitivity in typically developing children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tavassoli Teresa

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Autism spectrum conditions have a strong genetic component. Atypical sensory sensitivities are one of the core but neglected features of autism spectrum conditions. GABRB3 is a well-characterised candidate gene for autism spectrum conditions. In mice, heterozygous Gabrb3 deletion is associated with increased tactile sensitivity. However, no study has examined if tactile sensitivity is associated with GABRB3 genetic variation in humans. To test this, we conducted two pilot genetic association studies in the general population, analysing two phenotypic measures of tactile sensitivity (a parent-report and a behavioural measure for association with 43 SNPs in GABRB3. Findings Across both tactile sensitivity measures, three SNPs (rs11636966, rs8023959 and rs2162241 were nominally associated with both phenotypes, providing a measure of internal validation. Parent-report scores were nominally associated with six SNPs (P Conclusions This is the first human study to show an association between GABRB3 variation and tactile sensitivity. This provides support for the evidence from animal models implicating the role of GABRB3 variation in the atypical sensory sensitivity in autism spectrum conditions. Future research is underway to directly test this association in cases of autism spectrum conditions.

  5. Composition and energy spectrum variations of auroral ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynch, J.; Leach, R.; Pulliam, D.; Scherb, F.

    1977-01-01

    We have detected H + ,O + , and He ++ ions with E/q up to 20 keV/charge in a hydrogen aurora over Churchill, Manitoba, during the flight of a Javelin sounding rocket on February 11, 1975, We observed several examples of different types of ion events. One type consisted of bursts of H + and O + ions which arrived simultaneously at all energies within the range of the E/q analyzer. These events were apparently of local origin (distance + ions (O + /H + approximately-greater-than30%). A second type of event consisted of bursts of enhanced H + counting rates but no O + ions. The dispersion in time of the energy spectrum was consistent with an injection and acceleration site located at about 20 R/sub E/ from the earth. An enhancement of the He ++ counting rates was associated with these events, but the He ++ data are of limited statistical significance. A third type of event, consisting of short bursts of H + ions with wide energy spreads, was observed in association with an event in which the energy of the H + ions showed time dispersion. We interpret these short H + bursts as due to ions trapped in traveling waves generated by an explosive injection of plasma in the earth's magnetotail

  6. The visible spectrum of Pluto: secular and longitudinal variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzi, Vania; Pinilla-Alonso, Noemí; Emery, Joshua P.; Licandro, Javier; Cruikshank, Dale P.; Grundy, Will; Binzel, Richard P.

    2015-11-01

    Continuous near-infrared spectroscopic observations during the last 30 years enabled the characterization of the Pluto's surface and the study of its variability. Nevertheless, only few data are available in the visible range, where the nature of the complex-organics can be studied.For this reason, we started an observational campaign to obtain the Pluto's relative reflectance in the visible range, with the aim of characterizing the different components of its surface, and providing ground based observations in support of the New Horizons mission. We observed Pluto on six nights in 2014, with the imager/spectrograph ACAM@WHT (La Palma, Spain). We obtained six spectra in the 0.40 - 0.93 µm range, that covered a whole Pluto's rotational period (6.4 days).To study longitudinal variations, we computed for all the spectra the spectral slope, and the position and the depth of the methane ice absorption bands. Also, to search for secular or seasonal variations we compared our data with previously published results.All the spectra present a red slope, indicating the presence of complex organics on Pluto's surface, and show the methane ice absorption bands between 0.73 and 0.90 μm. We also report the detection of the CH4 absorption band at 0.62 μm, already detected in the spectra of Makemake and Eris. The measurement of the band depth at 0.62 μm in the new spectra of Pluto, and in the spectra of Makemake and Eris, permits us to estimate the Lambert coefficient, not measured yet at this wavelength, at a temperature of 30 K and 40 K.We find that all the CH4 bands present a blue shift. This shift is minimum at the Charon-facing hemisphere, where the CH4 is also more abundant, indicating a higher degree of saturation of CH4 in the CH4:N2 dilution at this hemisphere.Comparing with data in the literature, we found that the longitudinal and secular variations of the parameters measured in our spectra are in accordance with previous results and with the distribution of the dark

  7. Support for calcium channel gene defects in autism spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Ake Tzu-Hui

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alternation of synaptic homeostasis is a biological process whose disruption might predispose children to autism spectrum disorders (ASD. Calcium channel genes (CCG contribute to modulating neuronal function and evidence implicating CCG in ASD has been accumulating. We conducted a targeted association analysis of CCG using existing genome-wide association study (GWAS data and imputation methods in a combined sample of parent/affected child trios from two ASD family collections to explore this hypothesis. Methods A total of 2,176 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP (703 genotyped and 1,473 imputed covering the genes that encode the α1 subunit proteins of 10 calcium channels were tested for association with ASD in a combined sample of 2,781 parent/affected child trios from 543 multiplex Caucasian ASD families from the Autism Genetics Resource Exchange (AGRE and 1,651 multiplex and simplex Caucasian ASD families from the Autism Genome Project (AGP. SNP imputation using IMPUTE2 and a combined reference panel from the HapMap3 and the 1,000 Genomes Project increased coverage density of the CCG. Family-based association was tested using the FBAT software which controls for population stratification and accounts for the non-independence of siblings within multiplex families. The level of significance for association was set at 2.3E-05, providing a Bonferroni correction for this targeted 10-gene panel. Results Four SNPs in three CCGs were associated with ASD. One, rs10848653, is located in CACNA1C, a gene in which rare de novo mutations are responsible for Timothy syndrome, a Mendelian disorder that features ASD. Two others, rs198538 and rs198545, located in CACN1G, and a fourth, rs5750860, located in CACNA1I, are in CCGs that encode T-type calcium channels, genes with previous ASD associations. Conclusions These associations support a role for common CCG SNPs in ASD.

  8. Variation across mitochondrial gene trees provides evidence for systematic error: How much gene tree variation is biological?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Emilie J; Brown, Jeremy M; Barley, Anthony J; Chong, Rebecca A; Thomson, Robert C

    2018-02-19

    The use of large genomic datasets in phylogenetics has highlighted extensive topological variation across genes. Much of this discordance is assumed to result from biological processes. However, variation among gene trees can also be a consequence of systematic error driven by poor model fit, and the relative importance of biological versus methodological factors in explaining gene tree variation is a major unresolved question. Using mitochondrial genomes to control for biological causes of gene tree variation, we estimate the extent of gene tree discordance driven by systematic error and employ posterior prediction to highlight the role of model fit in producing this discordance. We find that the amount of discordance among mitochondrial gene trees is similar to the amount of discordance found in other studies that assume only biological causes of variation. This similarity suggests that the role of systematic error in generating gene tree variation is underappreciated and critical evaluation of fit between assumed models and the data used for inference is important for the resolution of unresolved phylogenetic questions.

  9. A role for gene duplication and natural variation of gene expression in the evolution of metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Kliebenstein

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Most eukaryotic genomes have undergone whole genome duplications during their evolutionary history. Recent studies have shown that the function of these duplicated genes can diverge from the ancestral gene via neo- or sub-functionalization within single genotypes. An additional possibility is that gene duplicates may also undergo partitioning of function among different genotypes of a species leading to genetic differentiation. Finally, the ability of gene duplicates to diverge may be limited by their biological function. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To test these hypotheses, I estimated the impact of gene duplication and metabolic function upon intraspecific gene expression variation of segmental and tandem duplicated genes within Arabidopsis thaliana. In all instances, the younger tandem duplicated genes showed higher intraspecific gene expression variation than the average Arabidopsis gene. Surprisingly, the older segmental duplicates also showed evidence of elevated intraspecific gene expression variation albeit typically lower than for the tandem duplicates. The specific biological function of the gene as defined by metabolic pathway also modulated the level of intraspecific gene expression variation. The major energy metabolism and biosynthetic pathways showed decreased variation, suggesting that they are constrained in their ability to accumulate gene expression variation. In contrast, a major herbivory defense pathway showed significantly elevated intraspecific variation suggesting that it may be under pressure to maintain and/or generate diversity in response to fluctuating insect herbivory pressures. CONCLUSION: These data show that intraspecific variation in gene expression is facilitated by an interaction of gene duplication and biological activity. Further, this plays a role in controlling diversity of plant metabolism.

  10. Population genetic variation in gene expression is associated withphenotypic variation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fay, Justin C.; McCullough, Heather L.; Sniegowski, Paul D.; Eisen, Michael B.

    2004-02-25

    The relationship between genetic variation in gene expression and phenotypic variation observable in nature is not well understood. Identifying how many phenotypes are associated with differences in gene expression and how many gene-expression differences are associated with a phenotype is important to understanding the molecular basis and evolution of complex traits. Results: We compared levels of gene expression among nine natural isolates of Saccharomyces cerevisiae grown either in the presence or absence of copper sulfate. Of the nine strains, two show a reduced growth rate and two others are rust colored in the presence of copper sulfate. We identified 633 genes that show significant differences in expression among strains. Of these genes,20 were correlated with resistance to copper sulfate and 24 were correlated with rust coloration. The function of these genes in combination with their expression pattern suggests the presence of both correlative and causative expression differences. But the majority of differentially expressed genes were not correlated with either phenotype and showed the same expression pattern both in the presence and absence of copper sulfate. To determine whether these expression differences may contribute to phenotypic variation under other environmental conditions, we examined one phenotype, freeze tolerance, predicted by the differential expression of the aquaporin gene AQY2. We found freeze tolerance is associated with the expression of AQY2. Conclusions: Gene expression differences provide substantial insight into the molecular basis of naturally occurring traits and can be used to predict environment dependent phenotypic variation.

  11. MTHFR Gene C677T Polymorphism in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Funda Sener

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Autism is a subgroup of autism spectrum disorders, classified as a heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorder and symptoms occur in the first three years of life. The etiology of autism is largely unknown, but it has been accepted that genetic and environmental factors may both be responsible for the disease. Recent studies have revealed that the genes involved in the folate/homocysteine pathway may be risk factors for autistic children. In particular, C677T polymorphism in the MTHFR gene as a possible risk factor for autism is still controversial. We aimed to investigate the possible effect of C677T polymorphism in a Turkish cohort. Methods. Autism patients were diagnosed by child psychiatrists according to DSM-IV and DSM-V criteria. A total of 98 children diagnosed as autistic and 70 age and sex-matched children who are nonautistic were tested for C677T polymorphism. This polymorphism was studied by using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP methods. Results. MTHFR 677T-allele frequency was found to be higher in autistic children compared with nonautistic children (29% versus 24%, but it was not found statistically significant. Conclusions. We conclude that other MTHFR polymorphisms such as A1298C or other folate/homocysteine pathway genes may be studied to show their possible role in autism.

  12. Measured and Predicted Variations in Fast Neutron Spectrum when Penetrating Laminated Fe-D2O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aalto, E.; Sandlin, R.; Fraeki, R.

    1965-09-01

    Variations of the fast neutron spectrum in thin regions of alternating Fe and D O have been studied using threshold detectors (ln(n, n' ), S(n, p), Al(n, α)). The results have been compared to those calculated by two shielding codes (NRN and RASH D) of multigroup removal-diffusion type. The absolute fast spectrum calculated in our rather complicated configurations was found to agree with measurements within the same accuracy (a factor of two) as did the thermal flux. The calculated spectrum is slightly harder than the measured one, but the detailed variations (covering the range 1:5) in the form of the spectrum when penetrating Fe agree with observations to within 15-20 %. In and Al activities were found to be proportional to the integrated flux over 1 MeV throughout the whole configuration, while S showed the least proportionality

  13. Clock gene variation in Tachycineta swallows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dor, Roi; Cooper, Caren B; Lovette, Irby J; Massoni, Viviana; Bulit, Flor; Liljesthrom, Marcela; Winkler, David W

    2012-01-01

    Many animals use photoperiod cues to synchronize reproduction with environmental conditions and thereby improve their reproductive success. The circadian clock, which creates endogenous behavioral and physiological rhythms typically entrained to photoperiod, is well characterized at the molecular level. Recent work provided evidence for an association between Clock poly-Q length polymorphism and latitude and, within a population, an association with the date of laying and the length of the incubation period. Despite relatively high overall breeding synchrony, the timing of clutch initiation has a large impact on the fitness of swallows in the genus Tachycineta. We compared length polymorphism in the Clock poly-Q region among five populations from five different Tachycineta species that breed across a hemisphere-wide latitudinal gradient (Fig. 1). Clock poly-Q variation was not associated with latitude; however, there was an association between Clock poly-Q allele diversity and the degree of clutch size decline within breeding seasons. We did not find evidence for an association between Clock poly-Q variation and date of clutch initiation in for any of the five Tachycineta species, nor did we found a relationship between incubation duration and Clock genotype. Thus, there is no general association between latitude, breeding phenology, and Clock polymorphism in this clade of closely related birds.Figure 1Photos of Tachycineta swallows that were used in this study: A) T. bicolor from Ithaca, New York, B) T. leucorrhoa from Chascomús, Argentina, C) T. albilinea from Hill Bank, Belize, D) T. meyeni from Puerto Varas, Chile, and E) T. thalassina from Mono Lake, California, Photographers: B: Valentina Ferretti; A, C-E: David Winkler.

  14. Flagellar-phase variation: isolation of the rh1 gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silverman, M.; Zieg, J.; Simon, M.

    1979-01-01

    In Salmonella, expression of flagellar antigen alternates between two serotypes (phases) encoded by two genes, H1 and H2. The mechanism which controls the alternative expression of the H1 and H2 genes was examined by cloning these genes and the genetic elements which control their activity on hybrid vehicles in Escherichia coli. H2 gene activity was shown to be controlled by a recombinational switch located adjacent to the H2 gene. Activity of the H1 gene is thought to be repressed, when the H2 gene is expressed, by the product of another gene, rhl (repressor of H1), which is controlled coordinately with the H2 gene. In this report, we describe the construction of hybrid lambda vehicles which contain, in addition to the H2 gene, a genetic activity corresponding to rhl. Variation of flagellar antigens analogous to that observed in Salmonella was observed when E. coli strains were transduced with the hybrid lambda. By using the lambda H2rhl hybrid to program protein syntheis in uv-irradiated cells, the synthesis of a polypeptide was correlated with rhl gene product activity. We conclude that the H2 region consists of two cotranscribed genes, H2 and rhl. The expression of both gene products is regulated by the same recombinational event

  15. Gene copy number variation throughout the Plasmodium falciparum genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stewart Lindsay B

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene copy number variation (CNV is responsible for several important phenotypes of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, including drug resistance, loss of infected erythrocyte cytoadherence and alteration of receptor usage for erythrocyte invasion. Despite the known effects of CNV, little is known about its extent throughout the genome. Results We performed a whole-genome survey of CNV genes in P. falciparum using comparative genome hybridisation of a diverse set of 16 laboratory culture-adapted isolates to a custom designed high density Affymetrix GeneChip array. Overall, 186 genes showed hybridisation signals consistent with deletion or amplification in one or more isolate. There is a strong association of CNV with gene length, genomic location, and low orthology to genes in other Plasmodium species. Sub-telomeric regions of all chromosomes are strongly associated with CNV genes independent from members of previously described multigene families. However, ~40% of CNV genes were located in more central regions of the chromosomes. Among the previously undescribed CNV genes, several that are of potential phenotypic relevance are identified. Conclusion CNV represents a major form of genetic variation within the P. falciparum genome; the distribution of gene features indicates the involvement of highly non-random mutational and selective processes. Additional studies should be directed at examining CNV in natural parasite populations to extend conclusions to clinical settings.

  16. Pathogenicity gene variations within the order Entomophthorales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grell, Morten Nedergaard; Jensen, Annette Bruun; Lange, Lene

    Fungi within the order Entomophthorales (subphylum Entomophthoromycotina) are obligate biotrophic pathogens of arthropods with a remarkable narrow host range. Infection takes place through the cuticle when conidia hit a susceptible host, facilitated by enzymatic and mechanical mechanisms. In the ...... pathogenicity genes within genera Entomophthora and Pandora, using fungal genomic DNA originating from field-collected, infected insect host species of dipteran (flies, mosquitoes) or hemipteran (aphid) origin.......Fungi within the order Entomophthorales (subphylum Entomophthoromycotina) are obligate biotrophic pathogens of arthropods with a remarkable narrow host range. Infection takes place through the cuticle when conidia hit a susceptible host, facilitated by enzymatic and mechanical mechanisms......, conidia are produced and discharged when humidity gets high—usually during night. In an earlier secretome study of field-collected grain aphids (Sitobion avenae) infected with entomophthoralean fungi, a number of pathogenesis-related, secreted enzymes were discovered (Fungal Genetics and Biology 2011, vol...

  17. Preschool Language Variation, Growth, and Predictors in Children on the Autism Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis Weismer, Susan; Kover, Sara T.

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is wide variation in language abilities among young children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), with some toddlers developing age-appropriate language while others remain minimally verbal after age 5. Conflicting findings exist regarding predictors of language outcomes in ASD and various methodological issues limit the…

  18. Gene transposition causing natural variation for growth in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlad, Daniela; Rappaport, Fabrice; Simon, Matthieu; Loudet, Olivier

    2010-05-13

    A major challenge in biology is to identify molecular polymorphisms responsible for variation in complex traits of evolutionary and agricultural interest. Using the advantages of Arabidopsis thaliana as a model species, we sought to identify new genes and genetic mechanisms underlying natural variation for shoot growth using quantitative genetic strategies. More quantitative trait loci (QTL) still need be resolved to draw a general picture as to how and where in the pathways adaptation is shaping natural variation and the type of molecular variation involved. Phenotypic variation for shoot growth in the Bur-0 x Col-0 recombinant inbred line set was decomposed into several QTLs. Nearly-isogenic lines generated from the residual heterozygosity segregating among lines revealed an even more complex picture, with major variation controlled by opposite linked loci and masked by the segregation bias due to the defective phenotype of SG3 (Shoot Growth-3), as well as epistasis with SG3i (SG3-interactor). Using principally a fine-mapping strategy, we have identified the underlying gene causing phenotypic variation at SG3: At4g30720 codes for a new chloroplast-located protein essential to ensure a correct electron flow through the photosynthetic chain and, hence, photosynthesis efficiency and normal growth. The SG3/SG3i interaction is the result of a structural polymorphism originating from the duplication of the gene followed by divergent paralogue's loss between parental accessions. Species-wide, our results illustrate the very dynamic rate of duplication/transposition, even over short periods of time, resulting in several divergent--but still functional-combinations of alleles fixed in different backgrounds. In predominantly selfing species like Arabidopsis, this variation remains hidden in wild populations but is potentially revealed when divergent individuals outcross. This work highlights the need for improved tools and algorithms to resolve structural variation

  19. SHANK3 as an autism spectrum disorder-associated gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchino, Shigeo; Waga, Chikako

    2013-02-01

    SHANK3 is a synaptic scaffolding protein enriched in the postsynaptic density of excitatory synapses, and plays important roles in the formation, maturation, and maintenance of synapses. Haploinsufficiency of the SHANK3 gene causes a developmental disorder, 22q13.3 deletion syndrome (known as Phelan-McDermid syndrome), that is characterized by severe expressive language and speech delay, hypotonia, global developmental delay, and autistic behavior. Since several SHANK3 mutations have been identified in a particular phenotypic group in patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), the SHANK3 is strongly suspected of being involved in the pathogenesis and neuropathology of ASD. Five CpG-islands have been identified in the SHANK3 gene, and tissue-specific expression of SHANK3 is regulated by DNA methylation in an epigenetic manner. Cumulative evidence has shown that several SHANK3 variants are expressed in the developing rodent brain and that their expression is regulated by DNA methylation of intragenic promoters. We identified novel SHANK3 transcripts whose transcription started at the vicinity of the CpG-island 2 in the mouse brain. Shank3 mutant mice exhibit autistic-like behaviors, including impaired social interaction and repetitive behaviors. In this article we review recent findings in regard to higher brain functions of SHANK3, epigenetic regulation of SHANK3 expression, and SHANK3-related ASD that were obtained from genetic analyses in ASD patients, molecular biological studies using developing mouse brains, and studies of Shank3 mutant mice. Copyright © 2012 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Huntingtin gene repeat size variations affect risk of lifetime depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gardiner, Sarah L.; van Belzen, Martine J.; Boogaard, Merel W.

    2017-01-01

    Huntington disease (HD) is a severe neuropsychiatric disorder caused by a cytosine-adenine-guanine (CAG) repeat expansion in the HTT gene. Although HD is frequently complicated by depression, it is still unknown to what extent common HTT CAG repeat size variations in the normal range could affect...

  1. Examining genotypic variation in autism spectrum disorder and its relationship to parental age and phenotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geier DA

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available David A Geier,1,2 Janet K Kern,1,3 Lisa K Sykes,2 Mark R Geier1,2 1Research Department, The Institute of Chronic Illnesses, Inc, 2Research Department, CoMeD, Inc, Silver Spring, MD, 3Research Department, CONEM US Autism Research Group, Allen, TX, USA Background: Previous studies on genetic testing of chromosomal abnormalities in individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD found that ~80% have negative genetic test results (NGTRs and ~20% have positive genetic test results (PGTRs, of which ~7% were probable de novo mutations (PDNMs. Research suggests that parental age is a risk factor for an ASD diagnosis. This study examined genotypic variation in ASD and its relationship to parental age and phenotype.Methods: Phenotype was derived from detailed clinical information, and genotype was derived from high-resolution blood chromosome and blood whole-genome copy number variant genetic testing on a consecutive cohort (born: 1983–2009 of subjects diagnosed with ASD (N=218.Results: Among the subjects examined, 80.3% had NGTRs and 19.7% had PGTRs, of which 6.9% had PDNMs. NGTR subjects were born more recently (the risk of PDNMs decreasing by 12% per more recent birth year and tended to have an increased male–female ratio compared to PDNM subjects. PDNM subjects had significantly increased mean parental age and paternal age at subject’s birth (the risk of a PDNM increasing by 7%–8% per year of parental or paternal age compared to NGTR subjects. PGTR and NGTR subjects showed significant improvements in speech/language/communication with increasing age. PGTR subjects showed significant improvements in sociability, a core feature of an ASD diagnosis, with increasing age, whereas NGTR subjects showed significant worsening in sociability with increasing age.Conclusion: This study helps to elucidate different phenotypic ASD subtypes and may even indicate the need for differential diagnostic classifications. Keywords: genotype, phenotype

  2. Velocity Spectrum Variation in Central Gulf of Mexico: 9Case Studies for the 2005 Hurricanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, F.; Li, C.

    2012-12-01

    Significant near inertial oscillation caused by hurricanes is common in the ocean. The details of the vertical and temporal variations of hurricane induced near inertial oscillation are usually complicated. We have done a case study of such vertical and temporal variations of velocity spectrum focusing around the inertial frequency for the 2005 hurricane season. Data were from a deep water mooring chain containing a series of current meters and 2 ADCPs from June to November 2005. The velocity spectrum is obtained with a 10-day sliding window at different depths for the 40-hour high-passed data to exclude the low frequency Loop Current variations. This gives a temporal variation of the spectrum at different depths. Such variations in velocity spectrum are resulted from the ocean dynamics influenced by the passage of hurricanes. Our preliminary analysis of the results show that (1) right before the center of the hurricane gets closest to the mooring site, there always exists a 2-peak feature of energy at almost all depths; while during the passage of the hurricane these two peaks will merge Into one peak which has a corresponding period of 30.3 to 25.6 hours, encompassing that corresponding to the inertial frequency in this latitude; (2) after the passage of the hurricane, the decay process of energy is also complicated. It is found that the whole profile can be at least divided into 3 layers: surface to 800m, 800m to 1500m, and 1500m to the bottom, which is consistent with the stratification of the water column. It is also found that shift in the peak frequency to either side of the inertial frequency is very common. The main peak of energy can break into several parts during the decay stage, with blue shift and red shift.; ;

  3. Whole genome sequencing resource identifies 18 new candidate genes for autism spectrum disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Ryan KC; Merico, Daniele; Bookman, Matt; Howe, Jennifer L; Thiruvahindrapuram, Bhooma; Patel, Rohan V; Whitney, Joe; Deflaux, Nicole; Bingham, Jonathan; Wang, Zhuozhi; Pellecchia, Giovanna; Buchanan, Janet A; Walker, Susan; Marshall, Christian R; Uddin, Mohammed; Zarrei, Mehdi; Deneault, Eric; D’Abate, Lia; Chan, Ada JS; Koyanagi, Stephanie; Paton, Tara; Pereira, Sergio L; Hoang, Ny; Engchuan, Worrawat; Higginbotham, Edward J; Ho, Karen; Lamoureux, Sylvia; Li, Weili; MacDonald, Jeffrey R; Nalpathamkalam, Thomas; Sung, Wilson WL; Tsoi, Fiona J; Wei, John; Xu, Lizhen; Tasse, Anne-Marie; Kirby, Emily; Van Etten, William; Twigger, Simon; Roberts, Wendy; Drmic, Irene; Jilderda, Sanne; Modi, Bonnie MacKinnon; Kellam, Barbara; Szego, Michael; Cytrynbaum, Cheryl; Weksberg, Rosanna; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Woodbury-Smith, Marc; Brian, Jessica; Senman, Lili; Iaboni, Alana; Doyle-Thomas, Krissy; Thompson, Ann; Chrysler, Christina; Leef, Jonathan; Savion-Lemieux, Tal; Smith, Isabel M; Liu, Xudong; Nicolson, Rob; Seifer, Vicki; Fedele, Angie; Cook, Edwin H; Dager, Stephen; Estes, Annette; Gallagher, Louise; Malow, Beth A; Parr, Jeremy R; Spence, Sarah J; Vorstman, Jacob; Frey, Brendan J; Robinson, James T; Strug, Lisa J; Fernandez, Bridget A; Elsabbagh, Mayada; Carter, Melissa T; Hallmayer, Joachim; Knoppers, Bartha M; Anagnostou, Evdokia; Szatmari, Peter; Ring, Robert H; Glazer, David; Pletcher, Mathew T; Scherer, Stephen W

    2017-01-01

    We are performing whole genome sequencing (WGS) of families with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) to build a resource, named MSSNG, to enable the sub-categorization of phenotypes and underlying genetic factors involved. Here, we report WGS of 5,205 samples from families with ASD, accompanied by clinical information, creating a database accessible in a cloud platform, and through an internet portal with controlled access. We found an average of 73.8 de novo single nucleotide variants and 12.6 de novo insertion/deletions (indels) or copy number variations (CNVs) per ASD subject. We identified 18 new candidate ASD-risk genes such as MED13 and PHF3, and found that participants bearing mutations in susceptibility genes had significantly lower adaptive ability (p=6×10−4). In 294/2,620 (11.2%) of ASD cases, a molecular basis could be determined and 7.2% of these carried CNV/chromosomal abnormalities, emphasizing the importance of detecting all forms of genetic variation as diagnostic and therapeutic targets in ASD. PMID:28263302

  4. Cytokine Gene Polymorphisms across Tuberculosis Clinical Spectrum in Pakistani Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Ambreen; Talat, Najeeha; Jamil, Bushra; Hasan, Zahra; Razzaki, Tashmeem; Dawood, Ghaffar; Hussain, Rabia

    2009-01-01

    Background Pakistan ranks 7th globally in terms of tuberculosis (TB) disease burden (incidence 181/100000 pop./yr; prevalence of 329/pop./yr). Reports from different populations show variable associations of TB susceptibility and severity with cytokine gene polymorphisms. Tuberculosis clinical severity is multi-factorial and cytokines play a pivotal role in the modulation of disease severity. We have recently reported that the ratio of two key cytokines (IFNγ and IL10) show significant correlation with the severity spectrum of tuberculosis. The objective of the current study was to analyze the frequency of cytokine gene polymorphisms linked to high and low responder phenotypes (IFNγ +874 T hi→A lo and IL10 −1082 G lo→A hi) in tuberculosis patients. Methods and Findings Study groups were stratified according to disease site as well as disease severity: Pulmonary N = 111 (Minimal, PMN = 19; Moderate, PMD = 63; Advance, PAD = 29); Extra-pulmonary N = 67 (Disseminated DTB = 20, Localized LTB = 47) and compared with healthy controls (TBNA = 188). Genotype analyses were carried out using amplification refractory mutation system-PCR (ARMS-PCR) and stimulated whole blood (WB) culture assay was used for assessing cytokine profiles. Our results suggest that the IFNγ +874 TT genotype and T allele was overrepresented in PMN (p = 0.01) and PMD (p = 0.02). IFNγ +874 TT in combination with IL10 GG lo genotypes showed the highest association (χ2 = 6.66, OR = 6.06, 95% CI = 1.31–28.07, p = 0.01). IFNγ AA lo on the other hand in combination with IL10 GG lo increased the risk of PAD (OR = 5.26; p = 0.005) and DTB (OR = 3.59; p = 0.045). Conclusion These findings are consistent with the role of IL10 in reducing collateral tissue damage and the protective role of IFNγ in limiting disease in the lung. PMID:19274101

  5. Effect of α variation on the vibrational spectrum of Sr2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beloy, K.; Hauser, A. W.; Borschevsky, A.; Schwerdtfeger, P.; Flambaum, V. V.

    2011-01-01

    We consider the effect of α variation on the vibrational spectrum of Sr 2 in the context of a planned experiment to test the stability of μ≡m e /m p using optically trapped Sr 2 molecules [Zelevinsky et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 043201 (2008); Kotochigova et al., Phys. Rev. A 79, 012504 (2009)]. We find the prospective experiment to be 3 to 4 times less sensitive to fractional variation in α as it is to fractional variation in μ. Depending on the precision ultimately achieved by the experiment, this result may give justification for the neglect of α variation or, alternatively, may call for its explicit consideration in the interpretation of experimental results.

  6. Serotonin and Early Cognitive Development: Variation in the Tryptophan Hydroxylase 2 Gene Is Associated with Visual Attention in 7-Month-Old Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppanen, Jukka M.; Peltola, Mikko J.; Puura, Kaija; Mantymaa, Mirjami; Mononen, Nina; Lehtimaki, Terho

    2011-01-01

    Background: Allelic variation in the promoter region of a gene that encodes tryptophan hydroxylase isoform 2 (TPH2), a rate-limiting enzyme of serotonin synthesis in the central nervous system, has been associated with variations in cognitive function and vulnerability to affective spectrum disorders. Little is known about the effects of this gene…

  7. Convergence of Genes and Cellular Pathways Dysregulated in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Dalila; Delaby, Elsa; Merico, Daniele; Barbosa, Mafalda; Merikangas, Alison; Klei, Lambertus; Thiruvahindrapuram, Bhooma; Xu, Xiao; Ziman, Robert; Wang, Zhuozhi; Vorstman, Jacob A.S.; Thompson, Ann; Regan, Regina; Pilorge, Marion; Pellecchia, Giovanna; Pagnamenta, Alistair T.; Oliveira, Bárbara; Marshall, Christian R.; Magalhaes, Tiago R.; Lowe, Jennifer K.; Howe, Jennifer L.; Griswold, Anthony J.; Gilbert, John; Duketis, Eftichia; Dombroski, Beth A.; De Jonge, Maretha V.; Cuccaro, Michael; Crawford, Emily L.; Correia, Catarina T.; Conroy, Judith; Conceição, Inês C.; Chiocchetti, Andreas G.; Casey, Jillian P.; Cai, Guiqing; Cabrol, Christelle; Bolshakova, Nadia; Bacchelli, Elena; Anney, Richard; Gallinger, Steven; Cotterchio, Michelle; Casey, Graham; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Wittemeyer, Kerstin; Wing, Kirsty; Wallace, Simon; van Engeland, Herman; Tryfon, Ana; Thomson, Susanne; Soorya, Latha; Rogé, Bernadette; Roberts, Wendy; Poustka, Fritz; Mouga, Susana; Minshew, Nancy; McInnes, L. Alison; McGrew, Susan G.; Lord, Catherine; Leboyer, Marion; Le Couteur, Ann S.; Kolevzon, Alexander; Jiménez González, Patricia; Jacob, Suma; Holt, Richard; Guter, Stephen; Green, Jonathan; Green, Andrew; Gillberg, Christopher; Fernandez, Bridget A.; Duque, Frederico; Delorme, Richard; Dawson, Geraldine; Chaste, Pauline; Café, Cátia; Brennan, Sean; Bourgeron, Thomas; Bolton, Patrick F.; Bölte, Sven; Bernier, Raphael; Baird, Gillian; Bailey, Anthony J.; Anagnostou, Evdokia; Almeida, Joana; Wijsman, Ellen M.; Vieland, Veronica J.; Vicente, Astrid M.; Schellenberg, Gerard D.; Pericak-Vance, Margaret; Paterson, Andrew D.; Parr, Jeremy R.; Oliveira, Guiomar; Nurnberger, John I.; Monaco, Anthony P.; Maestrini, Elena; Klauck, Sabine M.; Hakonarson, Hakon; Haines, Jonathan L.; Geschwind, Daniel H.; Freitag, Christine M.; Folstein, Susan E.; Ennis, Sean; Coon, Hilary; Battaglia, Agatino; Szatmari, Peter; Sutcliffe, James S.; Hallmayer, Joachim; Gill, Michael; Cook, Edwin H.; Buxbaum, Joseph D.; Devlin, Bernie; Gallagher, Louise; Betancur, Catalina; Scherer, Stephen W.

    2014-01-01

    Rare copy-number variation (CNV) is an important source of risk for autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). We analyzed 2,446 ASD-affected families and confirmed an excess of genic deletions and duplications in affected versus control groups (1.41-fold, p = 1.0 × 10−5) and an increase in affected subjects carrying exonic pathogenic CNVs overlapping known loci associated with dominant or X-linked ASD and intellectual disability (odds ratio = 12.62, p = 2.7 × 10−15, ∼3% of ASD subjects). Pathogenic CNVs, often showing variable expressivity, included rare de novo and inherited events at 36 loci, implicating ASD-associated genes (CHD2, HDAC4, and GDI1) previously linked to other neurodevelopmental disorders, as well as other genes such as SETD5, MIR137, and HDAC9. Consistent with hypothesized gender-specific modulators, females with ASD were more likely to have highly penetrant CNVs (p = 0.017) and were also overrepresented among subjects with fragile X syndrome protein targets (p = 0.02). Genes affected by de novo CNVs and/or loss-of-function single-nucleotide variants converged on networks related to neuronal signaling and development, synapse function, and chromatin regulation. PMID:24768552

  8. Expression profiles of variation integration genes in bladder urothelial carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J M; Wang, Y Q; Gao, Z L; Wu, J T; Shi, B K; Yu, C C

    2014-04-30

    Bladder cancer is a common cancer worldwide and its incidence continues to increase. There are approximately 261,000 cases of bladder cancer resulting in 115,000 deaths annually. This study aimed to integrate bladder cancer genome copy number variation information and bladder cancer gene transcription level expression data to construct a causal-target module network of the range of bladder cancer-related genomes. Here, we explored the control mechanism underlying bladder cancer phenotype expression regulation by the major bladder cancer genes. We selected 22 modules as the initial module network to expand the search to screen more networks. After bootstrapping 100 times, we obtained 16 key regulators. These 16 key candidate regulatory genes were further expanded to identify the expression changes of 11,676 genes in 275 modules, which may all have the same regulation. In conclusion, a series of modules associated with the terms 'cancer' or 'bladder' were considered to constitute a potential network.

  9. Partitioning of genetic variation between regulatory and coding gene segments: the predominance of software variation in genes encoding introvert proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchison, A

    1997-01-01

    In considering genetic variation in eukaryotes, a fundamental distinction can be made between variation in regulatory (software) and coding (hardware) gene segments. For quantitative traits the bulk of variation, particularly that near the population mean, appears to reside in regulatory segments. The main exceptions to this rule concern proteins which handle extrinsic substances, here termed extrovert proteins. The immune system includes an unusually large proportion of this exceptional category, but even so its chief source of variation may well be polymorphism in regulatory gene segments. The main evidence for this view emerges from genome scanning for quantitative trait loci (QTL), which in the case of the immune system points to a major contribution of pro-inflammatory cytokine genes. Further support comes from sequencing of major histocompatibility complex (Mhc) class II promoters, where a high level of polymorphism has been detected. These Mhc promoters appear to act, in part at least, by gating the back-signal from T cells into antigen-presenting cells. Both these forms of polymorphism are likely to be sustained by the need for flexibility in the immune response. Future work on promoter polymorphism is likely to benefit from the input from genome informatics.

  10. A part of patients with autism spectrum disorder has haploidy of HPC-1/syntaxin1A gene that possibly causes behavioral disturbance as in experimentally gene ablated mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofuji, Takefumi; Hayashi, Yuko; Fujiwara, Tomonori; Sanada, Masumi; Tamaru, Masao; Akagawa, Kimio

    2017-03-22

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is highly heritable and encompasses a various set of neuropsychiatric disorders with a wide-ranging presentation. HPC-1/syntaxin1A (STX1A) encodes a neuronal plasma membrane protein that regulates the secretion of neurotransmitters and neuromodulators. STX1A gene ablated mice (null and heterozygote mutant) exhibit abnormal behavioral profiles similar to human autistic symptoms, accompanied by reduction of monoamine secretion. To determine whether copy number variation of STX1A gene and the change of its expression correlate with ASD as in STX1A gene ablated mice, we performed copy number assay and real-time quantitative RT-PCR using blood or saliva samples from ASD patients. We found that some ASD patients were haploid for the STX1A gene similar to STX1A heterozygote mutant mice. However, copy number of STX1A gene was normal in the parents and siblings of ASD patients with STX1A gene haploidy. In ASD patients with gene haploidy, STX1A mRNA expression was reduced to about half of their parents. Thus, a part of ASD patients had haploidy of STX1A gene and lower STX1A gene expression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Spectrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgfeldt Hansen, Leif

    2016-01-01

    The publication functions as a proces description of the development and construction of an urban furniture SPECTRUM in the city of Gwangju, Republic of Korea. It is used as the cataloque for the exhibition of Spectrum.......The publication functions as a proces description of the development and construction of an urban furniture SPECTRUM in the city of Gwangju, Republic of Korea. It is used as the cataloque for the exhibition of Spectrum....

  12. Genomic and gene variation in Mycoplasma hominis strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Gunna; Andersen, H; Birkelund, Svend

    1987-01-01

    DNAs from 14 strains of Mycoplasma hominis isolated from various habitats, including strain PG21, were analyzed for genomic heterogeneity. DNA-DNA filter hybridization values were from 51 to 91%. Restriction endonuclease digestion patterns, analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis, revealed...... no identity or cluster formation between strains. Variation within M. hominis rRNA genes was analyzed by Southern hybridization of EcoRI-cleaved DNA hybridized with a cloned fragment of the rRNA gene from the mycoplasma strain PG50. Five of the M. hominis strains showed identical hybridization patterns....... These hybridization patterns were compared with those of 12 other mycoplasma species, which showed a much more complex band pattern. Cloned nonribosomal RNA gene fragments of M. hominis PG21 DNA were analyzed, and the fragments were used to demonstrate heterogeneity among the strains. A monoclonal antibody against...

  13. Genome-wide associations of gene expression variation in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara E Stranger

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The exploration of quantitative variation in human populations has become one of the major priorities for medical genetics. The successful identification of variants that contribute to complex traits is highly dependent on reliable assays and genetic maps. We have performed a genome-wide quantitative trait analysis of 630 genes in 60 unrelated Utah residents with ancestry from Northern and Western Europe using the publicly available phase I data of the International HapMap project. The genes are located in regions of the human genome with elevated functional annotation and disease interest including the ENCODE regions spanning 1% of the genome, Chromosome 21 and Chromosome 20q12-13.2. We apply three different methods of multiple test correction, including Bonferroni, false discovery rate, and permutations. For the 374 expressed genes, we find many regions with statistically significant association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs with expression variation in lymphoblastoid cell lines after correcting for multiple tests. Based on our analyses, the signal proximal (cis- to the genes of interest is more abundant and more stable than distal and trans across statistical methodologies. Our results suggest that regulatory polymorphism is widespread in the human genome and show that the 5-kb (phase I HapMap has sufficient density to enable linkage disequilibrium mapping in humans. Such studies will significantly enhance our ability to annotate the non-coding part of the genome and interpret functional variation. In addition, we demonstrate that the HapMap cell lines themselves may serve as a useful resource for quantitative measurements at the cellular level.

  14. Genome-Wide Associations of Gene Expression Variation in Humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The exploration of quantitative variation in human populations has become one of the major priorities for medical genetics. The successful identification of variants that contribute to complex traits is highly dependent on reliable assays and genetic maps. We have performed a genome-wide quantitative trait analysis of 630 genes in 60 unrelated Utah residents with ancestry from Northern and Western Europe using the publicly available phase I data of the International HapMap project. The genes are located in regions of the human genome with elevated functional annotation and disease interest including the ENCODE regions spanning 1% of the genome, Chromosome 21 and Chromosome 20q12-13.2. We apply three different methods of multiple test correction, including Bonferroni, false discovery rate, and permutations. For the 374 expressed genes, we find many regions with statistically significant association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs with expression variation in lymphoblastoid cell lines after correcting for multiple tests. Based on our analyses, the signal proximal (cis- to the genes of interest is more abundant and more stable than distal and trans across statistical methodologies. Our results suggest that regulatory polymorphism is widespread in the human genome and show that the 5-kb (phase I HapMap has sufficient density to enable linkage disequilibrium mapping in humans. Such studies will significantly enhance our ability to annotate the non-coding part of the genome and interpret functional variation. In addition, we demonstrate that the HapMap cell lines themselves may serve as a useful resource for quantitative measurements at the cellular level.

  15. Autism spectrum disorder model mice: Focus on copy number variation and epigenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakai, Nobuhiro; Otsuka, Susumu; Myung, Jihwan; Takumi, Toru

    2015-10-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is gathering concerns in socially developed countries. ASD is a neuropsychiatric disorder of genetic origin with high prevalence of 1%-2%. The patients with ASD characteristically show impaired social skills. Today, many genetic studies identify numerous susceptible genes and genetic loci associated with ASD. Although some genetic factors can lead to abnormal brain function linked to ASD phenotypes, the pathogenic mechanism of ASD is still unclear. Here, we discuss a new mouse model for ASD as an advanced tool to understand the mechanism of ASD.

  16. Theories of Population Variation in Genes and Genomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Freddy

    This textbook provides an authoritative introduction to both classical and coalescent approaches to population genetics. Written for graduate students and advanced undergraduates by one of the world’s leading authorities in the field, the book focuses on the theoretical background of population...... genetics, while emphasizing the close interplay between theory and empiricism. Traditional topics such as genetic and phenotypic variation, mutation, migration, and linkage are covered and advanced by contemporary coalescent theory, which describes the genealogy of genes in a population, ultimately...... connecting them to a single common ancestor. Effects of selection, particularly genomic effects, are discussed with reference to molecular genetic variation. The book is designed for students of population genetics, bioinformatics, evolutionary biology, molecular evolution, and theoretical biology—as well...

  17. Detection of a surface breaking crack by using the centroid variations of laser ultrasonic spectrums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Seung Kyu; Baik, Sung Hoon; Lim, Chang Hwan; Joo, Young Sang; Jung, Hyun Kyu; Cha, Hyung Ki; Kang, Young June

    2006-01-01

    A laser ultrasonic system is a non-contact inspection device with a wide-band spectrum and a high spatial resolution. It provides absolute measurements of the moving distance and it can be applied to hard-to-access locations including curved or rough surfaces like in a nuclear power plant. In this paper, we have investigated the detection methods of the depth of a surface-breaking crack by using the surface wave of a laser ultrasound. The filtering function of a surface-breaking crack is a kind of a low-pass filter. The higher frequency components are more highly decreased in proportion to the crack depth. Also, the center frequency value of each ultrasound spectrum is decreased in proportion to the crack depth. We extracted the depth information of a surface-breaking crack by observing the centroid variation of the frequency spectrum. We describe the experimental results to detect the crack depth information by using the peak-to-valley values in the time domain and the center frequency values in the frequency domain.

  18. Measured and Predicted Variations in Fast Neutron Spectrum in Massive Shields of Water and Concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aalto, E; Sandlin, R; Fraeki, R

    1965-09-15

    The absolute magnitude, and the variations in form, of the fast neutron spectrum during deep penetration (0.8 - 1.1 metre) in massive shields of water, ordinary and magnetite concrete have been studied by using threshold detectors (In (n, h'), S(n,p), Al(n, {alpha})). The results have been compared with predictions by two rigorous (NIOBE, Moments method) and two non-rigorous (multigroup removal-diffusion) shielding codes (NRN, RASH D). The absolute results predicted were in general within 50% of the measured ones, i. e. showed as good or better accuracy than thermal and epithermal flux predictions in the same small-reactor configurations. No difference in accuracy was found between the rigorous and non-rigorous methods. The changes in the relative form of the spectrum (indicated by variations in the (Al/S) and (In/S) reaction rate ratios and amounting to factors up to 3 - 4 during a one metre penetration in water) were rather accurately (within 10 - 30%) predicted by all of the methods. The photonuclear excitation of the 335 keV level used for detecting the In(n, n') reaction was found to distort completely the In results in water at penetrations > 50 cm.

  19. GeneAnalytics Pathway Analysis and Genetic Overlap among Autism Spectrum Disorder, Bipolar Disorder and Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveen S. Khanzada

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Bipolar disorder (BPD and schizophrenia (SCH show similar neuropsychiatric behavioral disturbances, including impaired social interaction and communication, seen in autism spectrum disorder (ASD with multiple overlapping genetic and environmental influences implicated in risk and course of illness. GeneAnalytics software was used for pathway analysis and genetic profiling to characterize common susceptibility genes obtained from published lists for ASD (792 genes, BPD (290 genes and SCH (560 genes. Rank scores were derived from the number and nature of overlapping genes, gene-disease association, tissue specificity and gene functions subdivided into categories (e.g., diseases, tissues or functional pathways. Twenty-three genes were common to all three disorders and mapped to nine biological Superpathways including Circadian entrainment (10 genes, score = 37.0, Amphetamine addiction (five genes, score = 24.2, and Sudden infant death syndrome (six genes, score = 24.1. Brain tissues included the medulla oblongata (11 genes, score = 2.1, thalamus (10 genes, score = 2.0 and hypothalamus (nine genes, score = 2.0 with six common genes (BDNF, DRD2, CHRNA7, HTR2A, SLC6A3, and TPH2. Overlapping genes impacted dopamine and serotonin homeostasis and signal transduction pathways, impacting mood, behavior and physical activity level. Converging effects on pathways governing circadian rhythms support a core etiological relationship between neuropsychiatric illnesses and sleep disruption with hypoxia and central brain stem dysfunction.

  20. Variations in CCL3L gene cluster sequence and non-specific gene copy numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edberg Jeffrey C

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Copy number variations (CNVs of the gene CC chemokine ligand 3-like1 (CCL3L1 have been implicated in HIV-1 susceptibility, but the association has been inconsistent. CCL3L1 shares homology with a cluster of genes localized to chromosome 17q12, namely CCL3, CCL3L2, and, CCL3L3. These genes are involved in host defense and inflammatory processes. Several CNV assays have been developed for the CCL3L1 gene. Findings Through pairwise and multiple alignments of these genes, we have shown that the homology between these genes ranges from 50% to 99% in complete gene sequences and from 70-100% in the exonic regions, with CCL3L1 and CCL3L3 being identical. By use of MEGA 4 and BioEdit, we aligned sense primers, anti-sense primers, and probes used in several previously described assays against pre-multiple alignments of all four chemokine genes. Each set of probes and primers aligned and matched with overlapping sequences in at least two of the four genes, indicating that previously utilized RT-PCR based CNV assays are not specific for only CCL3L1. The four available assays measured median copies of 2 and 3-4 in European and African American, respectively. The concordance between the assays ranged from 0.44-0.83 suggesting individual discordant calls and inconsistencies with the assays from the expected gene coverage from the known sequence. Conclusions This indicates that some of the inconsistencies in the association studies could be due to assays that provide heterogenous results. Sequence information to determine CNV of the three genes separately would allow to test whether their association with the pathogenesis of a human disease or phenotype is affected by an individual gene or by a combination of these genes.

  1. Sequence variations in the FAD2 gene in seeded pumpkins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Y; Chang, Y; Xu, W L; Cui, C S; Qu, S P

    2015-12-21

    Seeded pumpkins are important economic crops; the seeds contain various unsaturated fatty acids, such as oleic acid and linoleic acid, which are crucial for human and animal nutrition. The fatty acid desaturase-2 (FAD2) gene encodes delta-12 desaturase, which converts oleic acid to linoleic acid. However, little is known about sequence variations in FAD2 in seeded pumpkins. Twenty-seven FAD2 clones from 27 accessions of Cucurbita moschata, Cucurbita maxima, Cucurbita pepo, and Cucurbita ficifolia were obtained (totally 1152 bp; a single gene without introns). More than 90% nucleotide identities were detected among the 27 FAD2 clones. Nucleotide substitution, rather than nucleotide insertion and deletion, led to sequence polymorphism in the 27 FAD2 clones. Furthermore, the 27 FAD2 selected clones all encoded the FAD2 enzyme (delta-12 desaturase) with amino acid sequence identities from 91.7 to 100% for 384 amino acids. The same main-function domain between 47 and 329 amino acids was identified. The four species clustered separately based on differences in the sequences that were identified using the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean. Geographic origin and species were found to be closely related to sequence variation in FAD2.

  2. Oxytocin receptor gene variation predicts subjective responses to MDMA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bershad, Anya K; Weafer, Jessica J; Kirkpatrick, Matthew G; Wardle, Margaret C; Miller, Melissa A; de Wit, Harriet

    2016-12-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, "ecstasy") enhances desire to socialize and feelings of empathy, which are thought to be related to increased oxytocin levels. Thus, variation in the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) may influence responses to the drug. Here, we examined the influence of a single OXTR nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) on responses to MDMA in humans. Based on findings that carriers of the A allele at rs53576 exhibit reduced sensitivity to oxytocin-induced social behavior, we hypothesized that these individuals would show reduced subjective responses to MDMA, including sociability. In this three-session, double blind, within-subjects study, healthy volunteers with past MDMA experience (N = 68) received a MDMA (0, 0.75 mg/kg, and 1.5 mg/kg) and provided self-report ratings of sociability, anxiety, and drug effects. These responses were examined in relation to rs53576. MDMA (1.5 mg/kg) did not increase sociability in individuals with the A/A genotype as it did in G allele carriers. The genotypic groups did not differ in responses at the lower MDMA dose, or in cardiovascular or other subjective responses. These findings are consistent with the idea that MDMA-induced sociability is mediated by oxytocin, and that variation in the oxytocin receptor gene may influence responses to the drug.

  3. Distinguishing the rates of gene activation from phenotypic variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ye; Lv, Cheng; Li, Fangting; Li, Tiejun

    2015-06-18

    Stochastic genetic switching driven by intrinsic noise is an important process in gene expression. When the rates of gene activation/inactivation are relatively slow, fast, or medium compared with the synthesis/degradation rates of mRNAs and proteins, the variability of protein and mRNA levels may exhibit very different dynamical patterns. It is desirable to provide a systematic approach to identify their key dynamical features in different regimes, aiming at distinguishing which regime a considered gene regulatory network is in from their phenotypic variations. We studied a gene expression model with positive feedbacks when genetic switching rates vary over a wide range. With the goal of providing a method to distinguish the regime of the switching rates, we first focus on understanding the essential dynamics of gene expression system in different cases. In the regime of slow switching rates, we found that the effective dynamics can be reduced to independent evolutions on two separate layers corresponding to gene activation and inactivation states, and the transitions between two layers are rare events, after which the system goes mainly along deterministic ODE trajectories on a particular layer to reach new steady states. The energy landscape in this regime can be well approximated by using Gaussian mixture model. In the regime of intermediate switching rates, we analyzed the mean switching time to investigate the stability of the system in different parameter ranges. We also discussed the case of fast switching rates from the viewpoint of transition state theory. Based on the obtained results, we made a proposal to distinguish these three regimes in a simulation experiment. We identified the intermediate regime from the fact that the strength of cellular memory is lower than the other two cases, and the fast and slow regimes can be distinguished by their different perturbation-response behavior with respect to the switching rates perturbations. We proposed a

  4. Haplotypes and Sequence Variation in the Ovine Adiponectin Gene (ADIPOQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-Ming An

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The adiponectin gene (ADIPOQ plays an important role in energy homeostasis. In this study five separate regions (regions 1 to 5 of ovine ADIPOQ were analysed using PCR-SSCP. Four different PCR-SSCP patterns (A1-D1, A2-D2 were detected in region-1 and region-2, respectively, with seven and six SNPs being revealed. In region-3, three different patterns (A3-C3 and three SNPs were observed. Two patterns (A4-B4, A5-B5 and two and one SNPs were observed in region-4 and region-5, respectively. In total, nineteen SNPs were detected, with five of them in the coding region and two (c.46T/C and c.515G/A putatively resulting in amino acid changes (p.Tyr16His and p.Lys172Arg. In region-1, -2 and -3 of 316 sheep from eight New Zealand breeds, variants A1, A2 and A3 were the most common, although variant frequencies differed in the eight breeds. Across region-1 and region-3, nine haplotypes were identified and haplotypes A1-A3, A1-C3, B1-A3 and B1-C3 were most common. These results indicate that the ADIPOQ gene is polymorphic and suggest that further analysis is required to see if the variation in the gene is associated with animal production traits.

  5. De novo mutation in the dopamine transporter gene associates dopamine dysfunction with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, P J; Campbell, N G; Sharma, S; Erreger, K; Herborg Hansen, F; Saunders, C; Belovich, A N; Sahai, M A; Cook, E H; Gether, U; McHaourab, H S; Matthies, H J G; Sutcliffe, J S; Galli, A

    2013-12-01

    De novo genetic variation is an important class of risk factors for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Recently, whole-exome sequencing of ASD families has identified a novel de novo missense mutation in the human dopamine (DA) transporter (hDAT) gene, which results in a Thr to Met substitution at site 356 (hDAT T356M). The dopamine transporter (DAT) is a presynaptic membrane protein that regulates dopaminergic tone in the central nervous system by mediating the high-affinity reuptake of synaptically released DA, making it a crucial regulator of DA homeostasis. Here, we report the first functional, structural and behavioral characterization of an ASD-associated de novo mutation in the hDAT. We demonstrate that the hDAT T356M displays anomalous function, characterized as a persistent reverse transport of DA (substrate efflux). Importantly, in the bacterial homolog leucine transporter, substitution of A289 (the homologous site to T356) with a Met promotes an outward-facing conformation upon substrate binding. In the substrate-bound state, an outward-facing transporter conformation is required for substrate efflux. In Drosophila melanogaster, the expression of hDAT T356M in DA neurons-lacking Drosophila DAT leads to hyperlocomotion, a trait associated with DA dysfunction and ASD. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that alterations in DA homeostasis, mediated by aberrant DAT function, may confer risk for ASD and related neuropsychiatric conditions.

  6. High-Resolution Chromosome Ideogram Representation of Currently Recognized Genes for Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merlin G. Butler

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently, autism-related research has focused on the identification of various genes and disturbed pathways causing the genetically heterogeneous group of autism spectrum disorders (ASD. The list of autism-related genes has significantly increased due to better awareness with advances in genetic technology and expanding searchable genomic databases. We compiled a master list of known and clinically relevant autism spectrum disorder genes identified with supporting evidence from peer-reviewed medical literature sources by searching key words related to autism and genetics and from authoritative autism-related public access websites, such as the Simons Foundation Autism Research Institute autism genomic database dedicated to gene discovery and characterization. Our list consists of 792 genes arranged in alphabetical order in tabular form with gene symbols placed on high-resolution human chromosome ideograms, thereby enabling clinical and laboratory geneticists and genetic counsellors to access convenient visual images of the location and distribution of ASD genes. Meaningful correlations of the observed phenotype in patients with suspected/confirmed ASD gene(s at the chromosome region or breakpoint band site can be made to inform diagnosis and gene-based personalized care and provide genetic counselling for families.

  7. The impact of gene expression variation on the robustness and evolvability of a developmental gene regulatory network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A Garfield

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Regulatory interactions buffer development against genetic and environmental perturbations, but adaptation requires phenotypes to change. We investigated the relationship between robustness and evolvability within the gene regulatory network underlying development of the larval skeleton in the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. We find extensive variation in gene expression in this network throughout development in a natural population, some of which has a heritable genetic basis. Switch-like regulatory interactions predominate during early development, buffer expression variation, and may promote the accumulation of cryptic genetic variation affecting early stages. Regulatory interactions during later development are typically more sensitive (linear, allowing variation in expression to affect downstream target genes. Variation in skeletal morphology is associated primarily with expression variation of a few, primarily structural, genes at terminal positions within the network. These results indicate that the position and properties of gene interactions within a network can have important evolutionary consequences independent of their immediate regulatory role.

  8. Measured and Predicted Variations in Fast Neutron Spectrum when Penetrating Laminated Fe-D{sub 2}O

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aalto, E; Sandlin, R; Fraeki, R

    1965-09-15

    Variations of the fast neutron spectrum in thin regions of alternating Fe and D{sub O} have been studied using threshold detectors (ln(n, n' ), S(n, p), Al(n, {alpha})). The results have been compared to those calculated by two shielding codes (NRN and RASH D) of multigroup removal-diffusion type. The absolute fast spectrum calculated in our rather complicated configurations was found to agree with measurements within the same accuracy (a factor of two) as did the thermal flux. The calculated spectrum is slightly harder than the measured one, but the detailed variations (covering the range 1:5) in the form of the spectrum when penetrating Fe agree with observations to within 15-20 %. In and Al activities were found to be proportional to the integrated flux over 1 MeV throughout the whole configuration, while S showed the least proportionality.

  9. Autism genome-wide copy number variation reveals ubiquitin and neuronal genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glessner, Joseph T; Wang, Kai; Cai, Guiqing; Korvatska, Olena; Kim, Cecilia E; Wood, Shawn; Zhang, Haitao; Estes, Annette; Brune, Camille W; Bradfield, Jonathan P; Imielinski, Marcin; Frackelton, Edward C; Reichert, Jennifer; Crawford, Emily L; Munson, Jeffrey; Sleiman, Patrick M A; Chiavacci, Rosetta; Annaiah, Kiran; Thomas, Kelly; Hou, Cuiping; Glaberson, Wendy; Flory, James; Otieno, Frederick; Garris, Maria; Soorya, Latha; Klei, Lambertus; Piven, Joseph; Meyer, Kacie J; Anagnostou, Evdokia; Sakurai, Takeshi; Game, Rachel M; Rudd, Danielle S; Zurawiecki, Danielle; McDougle, Christopher J; Davis, Lea K; Miller, Judith; Posey, David J; Michaels, Shana; Kolevzon, Alexander; Silverman, Jeremy M; Bernier, Raphael; Levy, Susan E; Schultz, Robert T; Dawson, Geraldine; Owley, Thomas; McMahon, William M; Wassink, Thomas H; Sweeney, John A; Nurnberger, John I; Coon, Hilary; Sutcliffe, James S; Minshew, Nancy J; Grant, Struan F A; Bucan, Maja; Cook, Edwin H; Buxbaum, Joseph D; Devlin, Bernie; Schellenberg, Gerard D; Hakonarson, Hakon

    2009-05-28

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are childhood neurodevelopmental disorders with complex genetic origins. Previous studies focusing on candidate genes or genomic regions have identified several copy number variations (CNVs) that are associated with an increased risk of ASDs. Here we present the results from a whole-genome CNV study on a cohort of 859 ASD cases and 1,409 healthy children of European ancestry who were genotyped with approximately 550,000 single nucleotide polymorphism markers, in an attempt to comprehensively identify CNVs conferring susceptibility to ASDs. Positive findings were evaluated in an independent cohort of 1,336 ASD cases and 1,110 controls of European ancestry. Besides previously reported ASD candidate genes, such as NRXN1 (ref. 10) and CNTN4 (refs 11, 12), several new susceptibility genes encoding neuronal cell-adhesion molecules, including NLGN1 and ASTN2, were enriched with CNVs in ASD cases compared to controls (P = 9.5 x 10(-3)). Furthermore, CNVs within or surrounding genes involved in the ubiquitin pathways, including UBE3A, PARK2, RFWD2 and FBXO40, were affected by CNVs not observed in controls (P = 3.3 x 10(-3)). We also identified duplications 55 kilobases upstream of complementary DNA AK123120 (P = 3.6 x 10(-6)). Although these variants may be individually rare, they target genes involved in neuronal cell-adhesion or ubiquitin degradation, indicating that these two important gene networks expressed within the central nervous system may contribute to the genetic susceptibility of ASD.

  10. Defining the diverse spectrum of inversions, complex structural variation, and chromothripsis in the morbid human genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Ryan L; Brand, Harrison; Redin, Claire E; Hanscom, Carrie; Antolik, Caroline; Stone, Matthew R; Glessner, Joseph T; Mason, Tamara; Pregno, Giulia; Dorrani, Naghmeh; Mandrile, Giorgia; Giachino, Daniela; Perrin, Danielle; Walsh, Cole; Cipicchio, Michelle; Costello, Maura; Stortchevoi, Alexei; An, Joon-Yong; Currall, Benjamin B; Seabra, Catarina M; Ragavendran, Ashok; Margolin, Lauren; Martinez-Agosto, Julian A; Lucente, Diane; Levy, Brynn; Sanders, Stephan J; Wapner, Ronald J; Quintero-Rivera, Fabiola; Kloosterman, Wigard; Talkowski, Michael E

    2017-03-06

    Structural variation (SV) influences genome organization and contributes to human disease. However, the complete mutational spectrum of SV has not been routinely captured in disease association studies. We sequenced 689 participants with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and other developmental abnormalities to construct a genome-wide map of large SV. Using long-insert jumping libraries at 105X mean physical coverage and linked-read whole-genome sequencing from 10X Genomics, we document seven major SV classes at ~5 kb SV resolution. Our results encompass 11,735 distinct large SV sites, 38.1% of which are novel and 16.8% of which are balanced or complex. We characterize 16 recurrent subclasses of complex SV (cxSV), revealing that: (1) cxSV are larger and rarer than canonical SV; (2) each genome harbors 14 large cxSV on average; (3) 84.4% of large cxSVs involve inversion; and (4) most large cxSV (93.8%) have not been delineated in previous studies. Rare SVs are more likely to disrupt coding and regulatory non-coding loci, particularly when truncating constrained and disease-associated genes. We also identify multiple cases of catastrophic chromosomal rearrangements known as chromoanagenesis, including somatic chromoanasynthesis, and extreme balanced germline chromothripsis events involving up to 65 breakpoints and 60.6 Mb across four chromosomes, further defining rare categories of extreme cxSV. These data provide a foundational map of large SV in the morbid human genome and demonstrate a previously underappreciated abundance and diversity of cxSV that should be considered in genomic studies of human disease.

  11. Intraspecific trait variation and the leaf economics spectrum across resource gradients and levels of organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajardo, Alex; Siefert, Andrew

    2018-05-01

    Understanding patterns of functional trait variation across environmental gradients offers an opportunity to increase inference in the mechanistic causes of plant community assembly. The leaf economics spectrum (LES) predicts global tradeoffs in leaf traits and trait-environment relationships, but few studies have examined whether these predictions hold across different levels of organization, particularly within species. Here, we asked (1) whether the main assumptions of the LES (expected trait relationships and shifts in trait values across resource gradients) hold at the intraspecific level, and (2) how within-species trait correlations scale up to interspecific or among-community levels. We worked with leaf traits of saplings of woody species growing across light and soil N and P availability gradients in temperate rainforests of southern Chile. We found that ITV accounted for a large proportion of community-level variation in leaf traits (e.g., LMA and leaf P) and played an important role in driving community-level shifts in leaf traits across environmental gradients. Additionally, intraspecific leaf trait relationships were generally consistent with interspecific and community-level trait relationships and with LES predictions-e.g., a strong negative intraspecific LMA-leaf N correlation-although, most trait relationships varied significantly among species, suggesting idiosyncrasies in the LES at the intraspecific level. © 2018 by the Ecological Society of America.

  12. Candidate gene study of HOXB1 in autism spectrum disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muscarella Lucia A

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HOXB1 plays a major role in brainstem morphogenesis and could partly determine the cranial circumference in conjunction with HOXA1. In our sample, HOXA1 alleles significantly influence head growth rates both in autistic patients and in population controls. An initial report, suggesting that HOXB1 could confer autism vulnerability in interaction with HOXA1, was not confirmed by five small association studies. Methods Our sample includes 269 autistic individuals, belonging to 219 simplex and 28 multiplex families. A mutational analysis of the two exons and flanking intronic sequences of the HOXB1 gene was carried out in 84 autistic patients by denaturing high performance liquid chromatography, followed by DNA sequencing. Identified rare variants were then searched by a restriction analysis in 236 autistic patients and 325-345 controls. Case-control and family-based association studies were performed on two common variants in 169 Italian patients versus 184 Italian controls and in 247 trios. Results We identified three common polymorphisms, rs72338773 [c.82insACAGCGCCC (INS/nINS], rs12939811 [c.309A>T (Q103H], and rs7207109 [c.450G>A (A150A] and three rare variants, namely IVS1+63G>A, rs35115415 [c.702G>A (V234V] and c.872_873delinsAA (S291N. SNPs rs72338773 and rs12939811 were not associated with autism, using either a case-control (alleles, exact P = 0.13 or a family-based design [transmission/disequilibrium test (TDTχ2 = 1.774, P = 0.183]. The rare variants, all inherited from one of the parents, were present in two Italian and in two Caucasian-American families. Autistic probands in two families surprisingly inherited a distinct rare variant from each parent. The IVS1+63A allele was present in 3/690 control chromosomes, whereas rare alleles at rs35115415 and c.872_873delinsAA (S291N were not found in 662 and 650 control chromosomes, respectively. The INS-T309 allele influenced head size, but its effect appears more modest

  13. Conceptual Variation or Incoherence? Textbook Discourse on Genes in Six Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gericke, Niklas M.; Hagberg, Mariana; dos Santos, Vanessa Carvalho; Joaquim, Leyla Mariane; El-Hani, Charbel N.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate in a systematic and comparative way previous results of independent studies on the treatment of genes and gene function in high school textbooks from six different countries. We analyze how the conceptual variation within the scientific domain of Genetics regarding gene function models and gene concepts is…

  14. Polygenic transmission disequilibrium confirms that common and rare variation act additively to create risk for autism spectrum disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weiner, Daniel J; Wigdor, Emilie M; Ripke, Stephan

    2017-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) risk is influenced by common polygenic and de novo variation. We aimed to clarify the influence of polygenic risk for ASD and to identify subgroups of ASD cases, including those with strongly acting de novo variants, in which polygenic risk is relevant. Using a nove...

  15. Polygenic transmission disequilibrium confirms that common and rare variation act additively to create risk for autism spectrum disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weiner, Daniel J.; Wigdor, Emilie M.; Ripke, Stephan; Walters, Raymond K.; Kosmicki, Jack A.; Grove, Jakob; Samocha, Kaitlin E.; Goldstein, Jacqueline I.; Okbay, Aysu; Bybjerg-Grauholm, Jonas; Werge, Thomas; Hougaard, David M.; Taylor, Jacob; Skuse, David; Devlin, Bernie; Anney, Richard; Sanders, Stephan J.; Bishop, Somer; Mortensen, Preben Bo; Børglum, Anders D.; Smith, George Davey; Daly, Mark J.; Robinson, Elise B.; Bækvad-Hansen, Marie; Dumont, Ashley; Hansen, Christine; Hansen, Thomas F.; Howrigan, Daniel; Mattheisen, Manuel; Moran, Jennifer; Mors, Ole; Nordentoft, Merete; Nørgaard-Pedersen, Bent; Poterba, Timothy; Poulsen, Jesper; Stevens, Christine; Anttila, Verneri; Holmans, Peter; Huang, Hailiang; Klei, Lambertus; Lee, Phil H.; Medland, Sarah E.; Neale, Benjamin; Weiss, Lauren A.; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Yu, Timothy W.; Wittemeyer, Kerstin; Willsey, A. Jeremy; Wijsman, Ellen M.; Wassink, Thomas H.; Waltes, Regina; Walsh, Christopher A.; Wallace, Simon; Vorstman, Jacob A.S.; Vieland, Veronica J.; Vicente, Astrid M.; Van Engeland, Herman; Tsang, Kathryn; Thompson, Ann P.; Szatmari, Peter; Svantesson, Oscar; Steinberg, Stacy; Stefansson, Kari; Stefansson, Hreinn; State, Matthew W.; Soorya, Latha; Silagadze, Teimuraz; Scherer, Stephen W.; Schellenberg, Gerard D.; Sandin, Sven; Saemundsen, Evald; Rouleau, Guy A.; Rogé, Bernadette; Roeder, Kathryn; Roberts, Wendy; Reichert, Jennifer; Reichenberg, Abraham; Rehnström, Karola; Regan, Regina; Poustka, Fritz; Poultney, Christopher S.; Piven, Joseph; Pinto, Dalila; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A.; Pejovic-Milovancevic, Milica; Pedersen, Marianne G.; Pedersen, Carsten B.; Paterson, Andrew D.; Parr, Jeremy R.; Pagnamenta, Alistair T.; Oliveira, Guiomar; Nurnberger, John I.; Murtha, Michael T.; Mouga, Susana; Morrow, Eric M.; DeLuca, Daniel Moreno; Monaco, Anthony P.; Minshew, Nancy; Merikangas, Alison; McMahon, William M.; McGrew, Susan G.; Martsenkovsky, Igor; Martin, Donna M.; Mane, Shrikant M.; Magnusson, Pall; Magalhaes, Tiago; Maestrini, Elena; Lowe, Jennifer K.; Lord, Catherine; Levitt, Pat; Martin, Christa Lese; Ledbetter, David H.; Leboyer, Marion; LeCouteur, Ann S.; Ladd-Acosta, Christine; Kolevzon, Alexander; Klauck, Sabine M.; Jacob, Suma; Iliadou, Bozenna; Hultman, Christina M.; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva; Hendren, Robert; Hansen, Christine S.; Haines, Jonathan L.; Guter, Stephen J.; Grice, Dorothy E.; Green, Jonathan M.; Green, Andrew; Goldberg, Arthur P.; Gillberg, Christopher; Gilbert, John; Gallagher, Louise; Freitag, Christine M.; Fombonne, Eric; Folstein, Susan E.; Fernandez, Bridget; Fallin, M. Daniele; Ercan-Sencicek, A. Gulhan; Ennis, Sean; Duque, Frederico; Duketis, Eftichia; Delorme, Richard; DeRubeis, Silvia; DeJonge, Maretha V.; Dawson, Geraldine; Cuccaro, Michael L.; Correia, Catarina T.; Conroy, Judith; Conceição, Inês C.; Chiocchetti, Andreas G.; Celestino-Soper, Patrícia B.S.; Casey, Jillian; Cantor, Rita M.; Cafe, Cátia; Brennan, Sean; Bourgeron, Thomas; Bolton, Patrick F.; Bölte, Sven; Bolshakova, Nadia; Betancur, Catalina; Bernier, Raphael; Beaudet, Arthur L.; Battaglia, Agatino; Bal, Vanessa H.; Baird, Gillian; Bailey, Anthony J.; Bader, Joel S.; Bacchelli, Elena; Anagnostou, Evdokia; Amaral, David; Almeida, Joana; Buxbaum, Joseph D.; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Cook, Edwin H.; Coon, Hilary; Geschwind, Daniel H.; Gill, Michael; Hakonarson, Hakon; Hallmayer, Joachim; Palotie, Aarno; Santangelo, Susan; Sutcliffe, James S.; Arking, Dan E.

    2017-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) risk is influenced by common polygenic and de novo variation. We aimed to clarify the influence of polygenic risk for ASD and to identify subgroups of ASD cases, including those with strongly acting de novo variants, in which polygenic risk is relevant. Using a novel

  16. Variation in Socio-Economic Burden for Caring of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder in Oman: Caregiver Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Farsi, Yahya M.; Waly, Mostafa I.; Al-Sharbati, Marwan M.; Al-Shafaee, Mohamed; Al-Farsi, Omar; Al-Fahdi, Samiya; Ouhtit, Allal; Al-Khaduri, Maha; Al-Adawi, Samir

    2013-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate whether caregiver's variations in socioeconomic status (SES) has direct bearing on challenges of nurturing children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in Oman. A cadre of caregivers (n = 150) from two types of SES (low-income and middle-high income) were compared based on four domains: (1)…

  17. Polymorphisms in leucine-rich repeat genes are associated with autism spectrum disorder susceptibility in populations of European ancestry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sousa Inês

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs are a group of highly heritable neurodevelopmental disorders which are characteristically comprised of impairments in social interaction, communication and restricted interests/behaviours. Several cell adhesion transmembrane leucine-rich repeat (LRR proteins are highly expressed in the nervous system and are thought to be key regulators of its development. Here we present an association study analysing the roles of four promising candidate genes - LRRTM1 (2p, LRRTM3 (10q, LRRN1 (3p and LRRN3 (7q - in order to identify common genetic risk factors underlying ASDs. Methods In order to gain a better understanding of how the genetic variation within these four gene regions may influence susceptibility to ASDs, a family-based association study was undertaken in 661 families of European ancestry selected from four different ASD cohorts. In addition, a case-control study was undertaken across the four LRR genes, using logistic regression in probands with ASD of each population against 295 ECACC controls. Results Significant results were found for LRRN3 and LRRTM3 (P LRRTM3. Conclusions Overall, our findings implicate the neuronal leucine-rich genes LRRN3 and LRRTM3 in ASD susceptibility.

  18. Interactions Between Variation in Candidate Genes and Environmental Factors in the Etiology of Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder: a Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misiak, Błażej; Stramecki, Filip; Gawęda, Łukasz; Prochwicz, Katarzyna; Sąsiadek, Maria M; Moustafa, Ahmed A; Frydecka, Dorota

    2017-08-18

    Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder (BD) are complex and multidimensional disorders with high heritability rates. The contribution of genetic factors to the etiology of these disorders is increasingly being recognized as the action of multiple risk variants with small effect sizes, which might explain only a minor part of susceptibility. On the other site, numerous environmental factors have been found to play an important role in their causality. Therefore, in recent years, several studies focused on gene × environment interactions that are believed to bridge the gap between genetic underpinnings and environmental insults. In this article, we performed a systematic review of studies investigating gene × environment interactions in BD and schizophrenia spectrum phenotypes. In the majority of studies from this field, interacting effects of variation in genes encoding catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and FK506-binding protein 5 (FKBP5) have been explored. Almost consistently, these studies revealed that polymorphisms in COMT, BDNF, and FKBP5 genes might interact with early life stress and cannabis abuse or dependence, influencing various outcomes of schizophrenia spectrum disorders and BD. Other interactions still require further replication in larger clinical and non-clinical samples. In addition, future studies should address the direction of causality and potential mechanisms of the relationship between gene × environment interactions and various categories of outcomes in schizophrenia and BD.

  19. Variation in gene expression within clones of the earthworm Dendrobaena octaedra.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Mustonen

    Full Text Available Gene expression is highly plastic, which can help organisms to both acclimate and adapt to changing environments. Possible variation in gene expression among individuals with the same genotype (among clones is not widely considered, even though it could impact the results of studies that focus on gene expression phenotypes, for example studies using clonal lines. We examined the extent of within and between clone variation in gene expression in the earthworm Dendrobaena octaedra, which reproduces through apomictic parthenogenesis. Five microsatellite markers were developed and used to confirm that offspring are genetic clones of their parent. After that, expression of 12 genes was measured from five individuals each from six clonal lines after exposure to copper contaminated soil. Variation in gene expression was higher over all genotypes than within genotypes, as initially assumed. A subset of the genes was also examined in the offspring of exposed individuals in two of the clonal lines. In this case, variation in gene expression within genotypes was as high as that observed over all genotypes. One gene in particular (chymotrypsin inhibitor also showed significant differences in the expression levels among genetically identical individuals. Gene expression can vary considerably, and the extent of variation may depend on the genotypes and genes studied. Ensuring a large sample, with many different genotypes, is critical in studies comparing gene expression phenotypes. Researchers should be especially cautious inferring gene expression phenotypes when using only a single clonal or inbred line, since the results might be specific to only certain genotypes.

  20. Poxvirus Host Range Genes and Virus–Host Spectrum: A Critical Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Graziele Pereira; Rodrigues, Rodrigo Araújo Lima; Lima, Maurício Teixeira; Drumond, Betânia Paiva; Abrahão, Jônatas Santos

    2017-01-01

    The Poxviridae family is comprised of double-stranded DNA viruses belonging to nucleocytoplasmic large DNA viruses (NCLDV). Among the NCLDV, poxviruses exhibit the widest known host range, which is likely observed because this viral family has been more heavily investigated. However, relative to each member of the Poxviridae family, the spectrum of the host is variable, where certain viruses can infect a large range of hosts, while others are restricted to only one host species. It has been suggested that the variability in host spectrum among poxviruses is linked with the presence or absence of some host range genes. Would it be possible to extrapolate the restriction of viral replication in a specific cell lineage to an animal, a far more complex organism? In this study, we compare and discuss the relationship between the host range of poxvirus species and the abundance/diversity of host range genes. We analyzed the sequences of 38 previously identified and putative homologs of poxvirus host range genes, and updated these data with deposited sequences of new poxvirus genomes. Overall, the term host range genes might not be the most appropriate for these genes, since no correlation between them and the viruses’ host spectrum was observed, and a change in nomenclature should be considered. Finally, we analyzed the evolutionary history of these genes, and reaffirmed the occurrence of horizontal gene transfer (HGT) for certain elements, as previously suggested. Considering the data presented in this study, it is not possible to associate the diversity of host range factors with the amount of hosts of known poxviruses, and this traditional nomenclature creates misunderstandings. PMID:29112165

  1. Poxvirus Host Range Genes and Virus-Host Spectrum: A Critical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Graziele Pereira; Rodrigues, Rodrigo Araújo Lima; Lima, Maurício Teixeira; Drumond, Betânia Paiva; Abrahão, Jônatas Santos

    2017-11-07

    The Poxviridae family is comprised of double-stranded DNA viruses belonging to nucleocytoplasmic large DNA viruses (NCLDV). Among the NCLDV, poxviruses exhibit the widest known host range, which is likely observed because this viral family has been more heavily investigated. However, relative to each member of the Poxviridae family, the spectrum of the host is variable, where certain viruses can infect a large range of hosts, while others are restricted to only one host species. It has been suggested that the variability in host spectrum among poxviruses is linked with the presence or absence of some host range genes. Would it be possible to extrapolate the restriction of viral replication in a specific cell lineage to an animal, a far more complex organism? In this study, we compare and discuss the relationship between the host range of poxvirus species and the abundance/diversity of host range genes. We analyzed the sequences of 38 previously identified and putative homologs of poxvirus host range genes, and updated these data with deposited sequences of new poxvirus genomes. Overall, the term host range genes might not be the most appropriate for these genes, since no correlation between them and the viruses' host spectrum was observed, and a change in nomenclature should be considered. Finally, we analyzed the evolutionary history of these genes, and reaffirmed the occurrence of horizontal gene transfer (HGT) for certain elements, as previously suggested. Considering the data presented in this study, it is not possible to associate the diversity of host range factors with the amount of hosts of known poxviruses, and this traditional nomenclature creates misunderstandings.

  2. Genetic Variation in Melatonin Pathway Enzymes in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Comorbid Sleep Onset Delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veatch, Olivia J.; Pendergast, Julie S.; Allen, Melissa J.; Leu, Roberta M.; Johnson, Carl Hirschie; Elsea, Sarah H.; Malow, Beth A.

    2015-01-01

    Sleep disruption is common in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Genes whose products regulate endogenous melatonin modify sleep patterns and have been implicated in ASD. Genetic factors likely contribute to comorbid expression of sleep disorders in ASD. We studied a clinically unique ASD subgroup, consisting solely of children with…

  3. Increased burden of deleterious variants in essential genes in autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xiao; Kember, Rachel L; Brown, Christopher D; Bućan, Maja

    2016-12-27

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a heterogeneous, highly heritable neurodevelopmental syndrome characterized by impaired social interaction, communication, and repetitive behavior. It is estimated that hundreds of genes contribute to ASD. We asked if genes with a strong effect on survival and fitness contribute to ASD risk. Human orthologs of genes with an essential role in pre- and postnatal development in the mouse [essential genes (EGs)] are enriched for disease genes and under strong purifying selection relative to human orthologs of mouse genes with a known nonlethal phenotype [nonessential genes (NEGs)]. This intolerance to deleterious mutations, commonly observed haploinsufficiency, and the importance of EGs in development suggest a possible cumulative effect of deleterious variants in EGs on complex neurodevelopmental disorders. With a comprehensive catalog of 3,915 mammalian EGs, we provide compelling evidence for a stronger contribution of EGs to ASD risk compared with NEGs. By examining the exonic de novo and inherited variants from 1,781 ASD quartet families, we show a significantly higher burden of damaging mutations in EGs in ASD probands compared with their non-ASD siblings. The analysis of EGs in the developing brain identified clusters of coexpressed EGs implicated in ASD. Finally, we suggest a high-priority list of 29 EGs with potential ASD risk as targets for future functional and behavioral studies. Overall, we show that large-scale studies of gene function in model organisms provide a powerful approach for prioritization of genes and pathogenic variants identified by sequencing studies of human disease.

  4. Huntingtin gene repeat size variations affect risk of lifetime depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, Sarah L; van Belzen, Martine J; Boogaard, Merel W; van Roon-Mom, Willeke M C; Rozing, Maarten P; van Hemert, Albert M; Smit, Johannes H; Beekman, Aartjan T F; van Grootheest, Gerard; Schoevers, Robert A; Oude Voshaar, Richard C; Roos, Raymund A C; Comijs, Hannie C; Penninx, Brenda W J H; van der Mast, Roos C; Aziz, N Ahmad

    2017-12-11

    Huntington disease (HD) is a severe neuropsychiatric disorder caused by a cytosine-adenine-guanine (CAG) repeat expansion in the HTT gene. Although HD is frequently complicated by depression, it is still unknown to what extent common HTT CAG repeat size variations in the normal range could affect depression risk in the general population. Using binary logistic regression, we assessed the association between HTT CAG repeat size and depression risk in two well-characterized Dutch cohorts─the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety and the Netherlands Study of Depression in Older Persons─including 2165 depressed and 1058 non-depressed persons. In both cohorts, separately as well as combined, there was a significant non-linear association between the risk of lifetime depression and HTT CAG repeat size in which both relatively short and relatively large alleles were associated with an increased risk of depression (β = -0.292 and β = 0.006 for the linear and the quadratic term, respectively; both P < 0.01 after adjustment for the effects of sex, age, and education level). The odds of lifetime depression were lowest in persons with a HTT CAG repeat size of 21 (odds ratio: 0.71, 95% confidence interval: 0.52 to 0.98) compared to the average odds in the total cohort. In conclusion, lifetime depression risk was higher with both relatively short and relatively large HTT CAG repeat sizes in the normal range. Our study provides important proof-of-principle that repeat polymorphisms can act as hitherto unappreciated but complex genetic modifiers of depression.

  5. An Improved Biclustering Algorithm and Its Application to Gene Expression Spectrum Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Qu, Hua; Wang, Liu-Pu; Liang, Yan-Chun; Wu, Chun-Guo

    2016-01-01

    Cheng and Church algorithm is an important approach in biclustering algorithms. In this paper, the process of the extended space in the second stage of Cheng and Church algorithm is improved and the selections of two important parameters are discussed. The results of the improved algorithm used in the gene expression spectrum analysis show that, compared with Cheng and Church algorithm, the quality of clustering results is enhanced obviously, the mining expression models are better, and the d...

  6. Mutation analysis of the NSD1 gene in patients with autism spectrum disorders and macrocephaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delorme Richard

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sotos syndrome is an overgrowth syndrome characterized by macrocephaly, advanced bone age, characteristic facial features, and learning disabilities, caused by mutations or deletions of the NSD1 gene, located at 5q35. Sotos syndrome has been described in a number of patients with autism spectrum disorders, suggesting that NSD1 could be involved in other cases of autism and macrocephaly. Methods We screened the NSD1 gene for mutations and deletions in 88 patients with autism spectrum disorders and macrocephaly (head circumference 2 standard deviations or more above the mean. Mutation analysis was performed by direct sequencing of all exons and flanking regions. Dosage analysis of NSD1 was carried out using multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. Results We identified three missense variants (R604L, S822C and E1499G in one patient each, but none is within a functional domain. In addition, segregation analysis showed that all variants were inherited from healthy parents and in two cases were also present in unaffected siblings, indicating that they are probably nonpathogenic. No partial or whole gene deletions/duplications were observed. Conclusion Our findings suggest that Sotos syndrome is a rare cause of autism spectrum disorders and that screening for NSD1 mutations and deletions in patients with autism and macrocephaly is not warranted in the absence of other features of Sotos syndrome.

  7. Estimating variation within the genes and inferring the phylogeny of 186 sequenced diverse Escherichia coli genomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaas, Rolf Sommer; Rundsten, Carsten Friis; Ussery, David

    2012-01-01

    Background Escherichia coli exists in commensal and pathogenic forms. By measuring the variation of individual genes across more than a hundred sequenced genomes, gene variation can be studied in detail, including the number of mutations found for any given gene. This knowledge will be useful...... for creating better phylogenies, for determination of molecular clocks and for improved typing techniques. Results We find 3,051 gene clusters/families present in at least 95% of the genomes and 1,702 gene clusters present in 100% of the genomes. The former 'soft core' of about 3,000 gene families is perhaps...... more biologically relevant, especially considering that many of these genome sequences are draft quality. The E. coli pan-genome for this set of isolates contains 16,373 gene clusters. A core-gene tree, based on alignment and a pan-genome tree based on gene presence/absence, maps the relatedness...

  8. Genetic variation at Exon2 of TLR4 gene and its association with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to analyze the polymorphisms of chicken Toll-like receptors 4(TLR4) gene and aimed to provide a theoretical foundation for a further research on correlation between chicken TLR4 gene and disease resistance. Genetic variations at exon 2 of TLR4 gene in 14 chicken breeds and the red jungle ...

  9. Neurexin gene family variants as risk factors for autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia; Gong, Jianhua; Li, Li; Chen, Yanlin; Liu, Lingfei; Gu, HuaiTing; Luo, Xiu; Hou, Fang; Zhang, Jiajia; Song, Ranran

    2018-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that abnormal synaptic function leads to neuronal developmental disorders and is an important component of the etiology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Neurexins are presynaptic cell-adhesion molecules that affect the function of synapses and mediate the conduction of nerve signals. Thus, neurexins are attractive candidate genes for autism. Since gene families have greater power to reveal genetic association than single genes, we designed this case-control study to investigate six genetic variants in three neurexin genes (NRXN1, NRXN2, and NRXN3) in a Chinese population including 529 ASD patients and 1,923 healthy controls. We found that two SNPs were significantly associated with ASD after false discovery rate (FDR) adjustment for multiple comparisons. The NRXN2 rs12273892 polymorphism T allele and AT genotype were significantly associated with increased risk of ASD (respectively: OR = 1.328, 95% CI = 1.133-1.557, P Autism Res 2018, 11: 37-43. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that is highly heritable, and studies have found a number of candidate genes that might contribute to ASD. Neurexins are presynaptic cell-adhesion molecules that affect the function of synapses and mediate the conduction of nerve signals, and they play an important role in normal brain development and become candidate genes for autism. The purpose of our study is to explore the association between variants of the neurexins gene family and ASD in a Chinese population through a case-control study. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Broad distribution spectrum from Gaussian to power law appears in stochastic variations in RNA-seq data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awazu, Akinori; Tanabe, Takahiro; Kamitani, Mari; Tezuka, Ayumi; Nagano, Atsushi J

    2018-05-29

    Gene expression levels exhibit stochastic variations among genetically identical organisms under the same environmental conditions. In many recent transcriptome analyses based on RNA sequencing (RNA-seq), variations in gene expression levels among replicates were assumed to follow a negative binomial distribution, although the physiological basis of this assumption remains unclear. In this study, RNA-seq data were obtained from Arabidopsis thaliana under eight conditions (21-27 replicates), and the characteristics of gene-dependent empirical probability density function (ePDF) profiles of gene expression levels were analyzed. For A. thaliana and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, various types of ePDF of gene expression levels were obtained that were classified as Gaussian, power law-like containing a long tail, or intermediate. These ePDF profiles were well fitted with a Gauss-power mixing distribution function derived from a simple model of a stochastic transcriptional network containing a feedback loop. The fitting function suggested that gene expression levels with long-tailed ePDFs would be strongly influenced by feedback regulation. Furthermore, the features of gene expression levels are correlated with their functions, with the levels of essential genes tending to follow a Gaussian-like ePDF while those of genes encoding nucleic acid-binding proteins and transcription factors exhibit long-tailed ePDF.

  11. Investigation of SLC6A4 gene expression in autism spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Funda Şener

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Autism is defined as a complex neurodevelopmental disorder. Genetics plays a major role in the etiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASD. The role of the serotonin in the development of autism has been widely investigated. SLC6A4 gene (SERT or 5-HT has an important role reuptaking of serotonin. Because of this, our study examined the expression level of SLC6A4 gene in autism patients. Methods: Thirty-four patients (26 male, 8 female who diagnosed as autism firstly according to DSM-V criteria in the Department of child psychiatry, Erciyes University Medical Faculty and healthy 23 controls (16 male, 7 female were enrolled in this study. Total RNA was isolated from peripheral blood samples using TRIzol. Quantitative Real-time PCR (qRT-PCR was performed to detect SLC6A4 gene expression. Results: SLC6A4 gene expression was found statistically significant and low in autism group compared with controls (p=0,027. Conclusion: The low gene expression in the patient group implied that there is an abnormality of serotonin reuptake. According to our results, we suggest that much more studies may be planned with the expression and methylation profile of this gene combined with gene polymorphisms especially affecting the expression in larger sample sizes. J Clin Exp Invest 2015; 6 (2: 165-169

  12. Mutation analysis of the NRXN1 gene in autism spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onay H

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify the sequence mutations in the Neurexin 1 (NRXN1 gene that has been considered as one of the strong candidate genes. A total of 30 children and adolescents (aged 3-18 with non syndromic autism were enrolled this study. Sequencing of the coding exons and the exon-intron boundaries of the NRXN1 gene was performed. Two known mutations were described in two different cases. Heterozygous S14L was determined in one patient and heterozygous L748I was determined in another patient. The S14L and L748I mutations have been described in the patients with autism before. Both of these mutations were inherited from their father. In this study, two of 30 (6.7% autism spectrum disorder (ASD patients carrying NRXN1 gene mutations were detected. It indicates that variants in the NRXN1 gene might confer a risk of developing nonsyndromic ASD. However, due to the reduced penetrance in the gene, the causal role of the NRXN1 gene mutations must be evaluated carefully in all cases.

  13. Novel Nucleotide Variations, Haplotypes Structure and Associations with Growth Related Traits of Goat AT Motif-Binding Factor ( Gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyan Zhang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The AT motif-binding factor (ATBF1 not only interacts with protein inhibitor of activated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3 (PIAS3 to suppress STAT3 signaling regulating embryo early development and cell differentiation, but is required for early activation of the pituitary specific transcription factor 1 (Pit1 gene (also known as POU1F1 critically affecting mammalian growth and development. The goal of this study was to detect novel nucleotide variations and haplotypes structure of the ATBF1 gene, as well as to test their associations with growth-related traits in goats. Herein, a total of seven novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs (SNP 1-7 within this gene were found in two well-known Chinese native goat breeds. Haplotypes structure analysis demonstrated that there were four haplotypes in Hainan black goat while seventeen haplotypes in Xinong Saanen dairy goat, and both breeds only shared one haplotype (hap1. Association testing revealed that the SNP2, SNP5, SNP6, and SNP7 loci were also found to significantly associate with growth-related traits in goats, respectively. Moreover, one diplotype in Xinong Saanen dairy goats significantly linked to growth related traits. These preliminary findings not only would extend the spectrum of genetic variations of the goat ATBF1 gene, but also would contribute to implementing marker-assisted selection in genetics and breeding in goats.

  14. Phenotypic spectrum associated with mutations of the mitochondrial polymerase gamma gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Rita; Hudson, Gavin; Ferrari, Gianfrancesco; Fütterer, Nancy; Ahola, Sofia; Lamantea, Eleonora; Prokisch, Holger; Lochmüller, Hanns; McFarland, Robert; Ramesh, V; Klopstock, Thomas; Freisinger, Peter; Salvi, Fabrizio; Mayr, Johannes A; Santer, Rene; Tesarova, Marketa; Zeman, Jiri; Udd, Bjarne; Taylor, Robert W; Turnbull, Douglass; Hanna, Michael; Fialho, Doreen; Suomalainen, Anu; Zeviani, Massimo; Chinnery, Patrick F

    2006-07-01

    Mutations in the gene coding for the catalytic subunit of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) polymerase gamma (POLG1) have recently been described in patients with diverse clinical presentations, revealing a complex relationship between genotype and phenotype in patients and their families. POLG1 was sequenced in patients from different European diagnostic and research centres to define the phenotypic spectrum and advance understanding of the recurrence risks. Mutations were identified in 38 cases, with the majority being sporadic compound heterozygotes. Eighty-nine DNA sequence changes were identified, including 2 predicted to alter a splice site, 1 predicted to cause a premature stop codon and 13 predicted to cause novel amino acid substitutions. The majority of children had a mutation in the linker region, often 1399G-->A (A467T), and a mutation affecting the polymerase domain. Others had mutations throughout the gene, and 11 had 3 or more substitutions. The clinical presentation ranged from the neonatal period to late adult life, with an overlapping phenotypic spectrum from severe encephalopathy and liver failure to late-onset external ophthalmoplegia, ataxia, myopathy and isolated muscle pain or epilepsy. There was a strong gender bias in children, with evidence of an environmental interaction with sodium valproate. POLG1 mutations cause an overlapping clinical spectrum of disease with both dominant and recessive modes of inheritance. 1399G-->A (A467T) is common in children, but complete POLG1 sequencing is required to identify multiple mutations that can have complex implications for genetic counselling.

  15. Variability of Creatine Metabolism Genes in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessie M. Cameron

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Creatine deficiency syndrome (CDS comprises three separate enzyme deficiencies with overlapping clinical presentations: arginine:glycine amidinotransferase (GATM gene, glycine amidinotransferase, guanidinoacetate methyltransferase (GAMT gene, and creatine transporter deficiency (SLC6A8 gene, solute carrier family 6 member 8. CDS presents with developmental delays/regression, intellectual disability, speech and language impairment, autistic behaviour, epileptic seizures, treatment-refractory epilepsy, and extrapyramidal movement disorders; symptoms that are also evident in children with autism. The objective of the study was to test the hypothesis that genetic variability in creatine metabolism genes is associated with autism. We sequenced GATM, GAMT and SLC6A8 genes in 166 patients with autism (coding sequence, introns and adjacent untranslated regions. A total of 29, 16 and 25 variants were identified in each gene, respectively. Four variants were novel in GATM, and 5 in SLC6A8 (not present in the 1000 Genomes, Exome Sequencing Project (ESP or Exome Aggregation Consortium (ExAC databases. A single variant in each gene was identified as non-synonymous, and computationally predicted to be potentially damaging. Nine variants in GATM were shown to have a lower minor allele frequency (MAF in the autism population than in the 1000 Genomes database, specifically in the East Asian population (Fisher’s exact test. Two variants also had lower MAFs in the European population. In summary, there were no apparent associations of variants in GAMT and SLC6A8 genes with autism. The data implying there could be a lower association of some specific GATM gene variants with autism is an observation that would need to be corroborated in a larger group of autism patients, and with sub-populations of Asian ethnicities. Overall, our findings suggest that the genetic variability of creatine synthesis/transport is unlikely to play a part in the pathogenesis of autism

  16. Variability of Creatine Metabolism Genes in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Jessie M; Levandovskiy, Valeriy; Roberts, Wendy; Anagnostou, Evdokia; Scherer, Stephen; Loh, Alvin; Schulze, Andreas

    2017-07-31

    Creatine deficiency syndrome (CDS) comprises three separate enzyme deficiencies with overlapping clinical presentations: arginine:glycine amidinotransferase ( GATM gene, glycine amidinotransferase), guanidinoacetate methyltransferase ( GAMT gene), and creatine transporter deficiency ( SLC6A8 gene, solute carrier family 6 member 8). CDS presents with developmental delays/regression, intellectual disability, speech and language impairment, autistic behaviour, epileptic seizures, treatment-refractory epilepsy, and extrapyramidal movement disorders; symptoms that are also evident in children with autism. The objective of the study was to test the hypothesis that genetic variability in creatine metabolism genes is associated with autism. We sequenced GATM , GAMT and SLC6A8 genes in 166 patients with autism (coding sequence, introns and adjacent untranslated regions). A total of 29, 16 and 25 variants were identified in each gene, respectively. Four variants were novel in GATM , and 5 in SLC6A8 (not present in the 1000 Genomes, Exome Sequencing Project (ESP) or Exome Aggregation Consortium (ExAC) databases). A single variant in each gene was identified as non-synonymous, and computationally predicted to be potentially damaging. Nine variants in GATM were shown to have a lower minor allele frequency (MAF) in the autism population than in the 1000 Genomes database, specifically in the East Asian population (Fisher's exact test). Two variants also had lower MAFs in the European population. In summary, there were no apparent associations of variants in GAMT and SLC6A8 genes with autism. The data implying there could be a lower association of some specific GATM gene variants with autism is an observation that would need to be corroborated in a larger group of autism patients, and with sub-populations of Asian ethnicities. Overall, our findings suggest that the genetic variability of creatine synthesis/transport is unlikely to play a part in the pathogenesis of autism spectrum

  17. Genomic Features That Predict Allelic Imbalance in Humans Suggest Patterns of Constraint on Gene Expression Variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fédrigo, Olivier; Haygood, Ralph; Mukherjee, Sayan; Wray, Gregory A.

    2009-01-01

    Variation in gene expression is an important contributor to phenotypic diversity within and between species. Although this variation often has a genetic component, identification of the genetic variants driving this relationship remains challenging. In particular, measurements of gene expression usually do not reveal whether the genetic basis for any observed variation lies in cis or in trans to the gene, a distinction that has direct relevance to the physical location of the underlying genetic variant, and which may also impact its evolutionary trajectory. Allelic imbalance measurements identify cis-acting genetic effects by assaying the relative contribution of the two alleles of a cis-regulatory region to gene expression within individuals. Identification of patterns that predict commonly imbalanced genes could therefore serve as a useful tool and also shed light on the evolution of cis-regulatory variation itself. Here, we show that sequence motifs, polymorphism levels, and divergence levels around a gene can be used to predict commonly imbalanced genes in a human data set. Reduction of this feature set to four factors revealed that only one factor significantly differentiated between commonly imbalanced and nonimbalanced genes. We demonstrate that these results are consistent between the original data set and a second published data set in humans obtained using different technical and statistical methods. Finally, we show that variation in the single allelic imbalance-associated factor is partially explained by the density of genes in the region of a target gene (allelic imbalance is less probable for genes in gene-dense regions), and, to a lesser extent, the evenness of expression of the gene across tissues and the magnitude of negative selection on putative regulatory regions of the gene. These results suggest that the genomic distribution of functional cis-regulatory variants in the human genome is nonrandom, perhaps due to local differences in evolutionary

  18. Association between genetic variation in the oxytocin receptor gene and emotional withdrawal, but not between oxytocin pathway genes and diagnosis in psychotic disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marit eHaram

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Social dysfunction is common in patients with psychotic disorders. Oxytocin is a neuropeptide with a central role in social behaviour. This study aims to explore the relationship between oxytocin pathway genes and symptoms related to social dysfunction in patients with psychotic disorders. We performed association analyses between four oxytocin pathway genes (OXT, OXTR, AVP, CD38 and four areas of social behaviour-related psychopathology as measured by Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS. For this purpose, we used both a polygenic risk score (PGRS and single OXTR candidate SNPs previously reported in the literature (rs53576, rs237902, rs2254298. A total of 734 subjects with DSM-IV psychotic spectrum disorders and 420 healthy controls were included. Oxytocin pathway PGRSs were calculated based on the independent Psychiatric Genomics Consortium study sample. There was a significant association between symptom of Emotional Withdrawal and the previously reported OXTR risk allele A in rs53576. No significant associations between oxytocin pathway gene variants and a diagnosis of psychotic disorder were found. Our findings indicate that while oxytocin pathway genes do not appear to contribute to the susceptibility to psychotic disorders, variations in the OXTR gene might play a role in the development of impaired social behaviour.

  19. Genetic variation in a member of the laminin gene family affects variation in body composition in Drosophila and humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hunter Gary R

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of the present study was to map candidate loci influencing naturally occurring variation in triacylglycerol (TAG storage using quantitative complementation procedures in Drosophila melanogaster. Based on our results from Drosophila, we performed a human population-based association study to investigate the effect of natural variation in LAMA5 gene on body composition in humans. Results We identified four candidate genes that contributed to differences in TAG storage between two strains of D. melanogaster, including Laminin A (LanA, which is a member of the α subfamily of laminin chains. We confirmed the effects of this gene using a viable LanA mutant and showed that female flies homozygous for the mutation had significantly lower TAG storage, body weight, and total protein content than control flies. Drosophila LanA is closely related to human LAMA5 gene, which maps to the well-replicated obesity-linkage region on chromosome 20q13.2-q13.3. We tested for association between three common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the human LAMA5 gene and variation in body composition and lipid profile traits in a cohort of unrelated women of European American (EA and African American (AA descent. In both ethnic groups, we found that SNP rs659822 was associated with weight (EA: P = 0.008; AA: P = 0.05 and lean mass (EA: P= 0.003; AA: P = 0.03. We also found this SNP to be associated with height (P = 0.01, total fat mass (P = 0.01, and HDL-cholesterol (P = 0.003 but only in EA women. Finally, significant associations of SNP rs944895 with serum TAG levels (P = 0.02 and HDL-cholesterol (P = 0.03 were observed in AA women. Conclusion Our results suggest an evolutionarily conserved role of a member of the laminin gene family in contributing to variation in weight and body composition.

  20. Bone Morphogenetic Protein 3 (BMP3) Gene Variation in some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR BRILLIANT

    showed Gst value as 0.013 while gene flow estimates using sequence data information revealed, Delta St ... information that will help in better understanding the relatedness in the functions of the .... differentiated enough across these species.

  1. Variations in angiotensin-converting enzyme gene insertion/deletion ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    single D allele in the genotype enhanced the activity up to 37⋅56 ± 3⋅13%. The results suggested ethnic .... as hypertension, cardiovascular disease, diabetes and neph- ritis. ... Clarkson P 1998 Human gene for physical performance;.

  2. Distinguishing the rates of gene activation from phenotypic variations

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Ye; Lv, Cheng; Li, Fangting; Li, Tiejun

    2015-01-01

    Background Stochastic genetic switching driven by intrinsic noise is an important process in gene expression. When the rates of gene activation/inactivation are relatively slow, fast, or medium compared with the synthesis/degradation rates of mRNAs and proteins, the variability of protein and mRNA levels may exhibit very different dynamical patterns. It is desirable to provide a systematic approach to identify their key dynamical features in different regimes, aiming at distinguishing which r...

  3. Transcriptome analysis reveals novel patterning and pigmentation genes underlying Heliconius butterfly wing pattern variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hines Heather M

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heliconius butterfly wing pattern diversity offers a unique opportunity to investigate how natural genetic variation can drive the evolution of complex adaptive phenotypes. Positional cloning and candidate gene studies have identified a handful of regulatory and pigmentation genes implicated in Heliconius wing pattern variation, but little is known about the greater developmental networks within which these genes interact to pattern a wing. Here we took a large-scale transcriptomic approach to identify the network of genes involved in Heliconius wing pattern development and variation. This included applying over 140 transcriptome microarrays to assay gene expression in dissected wing pattern elements across a range of developmental stages and wing pattern morphs of Heliconius erato. Results We identified a number of putative early prepattern genes with color-pattern related expression domains. We also identified 51 genes differentially expressed in association with natural color pattern variation. Of these, the previously identified color pattern “switch gene” optix was recovered as the first transcript to show color-specific differential expression. Most differentially expressed genes were transcribed late in pupal development and have roles in cuticle formation or pigment synthesis. These include previously undescribed transporter genes associated with ommochrome pigmentation. Furthermore, we observed upregulation of melanin-repressing genes such as ebony and Dat1 in non-melanic patterns. Conclusions This study identifies many new genes implicated in butterfly wing pattern development and provides a glimpse into the number and types of genes affected by variation in genes that drive color pattern evolution.

  4. Mutation spectrum of genes associated with steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome in Chinese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Dang, Xiqiang; He, Qingnan; Zhen, Yan; He, Xiaoxie; Yi, Zhuwen; Zhu, Kuichun

    2017-08-20

    Approximately 20% of children with idiopathic nephrotic syndrome do not respond to steroid therapy. More than 30 genes have been identified as disease-causing genes for the steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS). Few reports were from the Chinese population. The coding regions of genes commonly associated with SRNS were analyzed to characterize the gene mutation spectrum in children with SRNS in central China. The first phase study involved 38 children with five genes (NPHS1, NPHS2, PLCE1, WT1, and TRPC6) by Sanger sequencing. The second phase study involved 33 children with 17 genes by next generation DNA sequencing (NGS. 22 new patients, and 11 patients from first phase study but without positive findings). Overall deleterious or putatively deleterious gene variants were identified in 19 patients (31.7%), including four NPHS1 variants among five patients and three PLCE1 variants among four other patients. Variants in COL4A3, COL4A4, or COL4A5 were found in six patients. Eight novel variants were identified, including two in NPHS1, two in PLCE1, one in NPHS2, LAMB2, COL4A3, and COL4A4, respectively. 55.6% of the children with variants failed to respond to immunosuppressive agent therapy, while the resistance rate in children without variants was 44.4%. Our results show that screening for deleterious variants in some common genes in children clinically suspected with SRNS might be helpful for disease diagnosis as well as prediction of treatment efficacy and prognosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Rotational spectrum of the molecular ion NH+ as a probe for α and me/mp variation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beloy, K.; Borschevsky, A.; Hauser, A. W.; Schwerdtfeger, P.; Kozlov, M. G.; Flambaum, V. V.

    2011-01-01

    We identify the molecular ion NH + as a potential candidate for probing variations in the fine-structure constant α and electron-to-proton mass ratio μ. NH + has an anomalously low-lying excited 4 Σ - state, being only a few hundred cm -1 above the ground 2 Π state. Being a light molecule, this proximity is such that rotational levels of the respective states are highly intermixed for low angular momenta. We find that several low-frequency transitions within the collective rotational spectrum experience enhanced sensitivity to α and μ variation. This is attributable to the close proximity of the 2 Π and 4 Σ - states, as well as the ensuing strong spin-orbit coupling between them. Suggestions that NH + may exist in interstellar space and recent predictions that trapped-ion precision spectroscopy will be adaptable to molecular ions make NH + a promising system for future astrophysical and laboratory studies of α and μ variation.

  6. Association Study between the CD157/BST1 Gene and Autism Spectrum Disorders in a Japanese Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeru Yokoyama

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available CD157, also referred to as bone marrow stromal cell antigen-1 (BST-1, is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored molecule that promotes pre-B-cell growth. Previous studies have reported associations between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs of the CD157/BST1 gene with Parkinson’s disease. In an attempt to determine whether SNPs or haplotypes in the CD157/BST1 are associated with other brain disorders, we performed a case-control study including 147 autism spectrum disorder (ASD patients at Kanazawa University Hospital in Japan and 150 unselected Japanese volunteers by the sequence-specific primer-polymerase chain reaction method combined with fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. Of 93 SNPs examined, two SNPs showed significantly higher allele frequencies in cases with ASDs than in unaffected controls (rs4301112, OR = 6.4, 95% CI = 1.9 to 22, p = 0.0007; and rs28532698, OR = 6.2, 95% CI = 1.8 to 21, p = 0.0012; Fisher’s exact test; p < 0.002 was considered significant after multiple testing correction. In addition, CT genotype in rs10001565 was more frequently observed in the ASD group than in the control group (OR = 15, 95% CI = 2.0 to 117, p = 0.0007; Fisher’s exact test. The present data indicate that genetic variation of the CD157/BST1 gene might confer susceptibility to ASDs.

  7. Positive association of vitamin D receptor gene variations with multiple sclerosis in South East Iranian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narooie-Nejad, Mehrnaz; Moossavi, Maryam; Torkamanzehi, Adam; Moghtaderi, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Among the factors postulated to play a role in MS susceptibility, the role of vitamin D is outstanding. Since the function of vitamin D receptor (VDR) represents the effect of vitamin D on the body and genetic variations in VDR gene may affect its function, we aim to highlight the association of two VDR gene polymorphisms with MS susceptibility. In current study, we recruited 113 MS patients and 122 healthy controls. TaqI (rs731236) and ApaI (rs7975232) genetic variations in these two groups were evaluated using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique. All genotype and allele frequencies in both variations showed association with the disease status. However, to find the definite connection between genetic variations in VDR gene and MS disease in a population of South East of Iran, more researches on gene structure and its function with regard to patients' conditions are required.

  8. Recombination in pe/ppe genes contributes to genetic variation in Mycobacterium tuberculosis lineages

    KAUST Repository

    Phelan, Jody E.; Coll, Francesc; Bergval, Indra; Anthony, Richard M.; Warren, Rob; Sampson, Samantha L.; Gey van Pittius, Nicolaas C.; Glynn, Judith R.; Crampin, Amelia C.; Alves, Adriana; Bessa, Theolis Barbosa; Campino, Susana; Dheda, Keertan; Grandjean, Louis; Hasan, Rumina; Hasan, Zahra; Miranda, Anabela; Moore, David; Panaiotov, Stefan; Perdigao, Joao; Portugal, Isabel; Sheen, Patricia; de Oliveira Sousa, Erivelton; Streicher, Elizabeth M.; van Helden, Paul D.; Viveiros, Miguel; Hibberd, Martin L.; Pain, Arnab; McNerney, Ruth; Clark, Taane G.

    2016-01-01

    . tuberculosis complex genomes and long read sequence data were used to validate the approach. SNP analysis revealed that variation in the majority of the 168 pe/ppe genes studied was consistent with lineage. Several recombination hotspots were identified

  9. A survey of genomic studies supports association of circadian clock genes with bipolar disorder spectrum illnesses and lithium response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J McCarthy

    Full Text Available Circadian rhythm abnormalities in bipolar disorder (BD have led to a search for genetic abnormalities in circadian "clock genes" associated with BD. However, no significant clock gene findings have emerged from genome-wide association studies (GWAS. At least three factors could account for this discrepancy: complex traits are polygenic, the organization of the clock is more complex than previously recognized, and/or genetic risk for BD may be shared across multiple illnesses. To investigate these issues, we considered the clock gene network at three levels: essential "core" clock genes, upstream circadian clock modulators, and downstream clock controlled genes. Using relaxed thresholds for GWAS statistical significance, we determined the rates of clock vs. control genetic associations with BD, and four additional illnesses that share clinical features and/or genetic risk with BD (major depression, schizophrenia, attention deficit/hyperactivity. Then we compared the results to a set of lithium-responsive genes. Associations with BD-spectrum illnesses and lithium-responsiveness were both enriched among core clock genes but not among upstream clock modulators. Associations with BD-spectrum illnesses and lithium-responsiveness were also enriched among pervasively rhythmic clock-controlled genes but not among genes that were less pervasively rhythmic or non-rhythmic. Our analysis reveals previously unrecognized associations between clock genes and BD-spectrum illnesses, partly reconciling previously discordant results from past GWAS and candidate gene studies.

  10. Looking on the bright side of serotonin transporter gene variation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Homberg, J.R.; Lesch, K.P.

    2011-01-01

    Converging evidence indicates an association of the short (s), low-expressing variant of the repeat length polymorphism, serotonin transporter-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR), in the human serotonin transporter gene (5-HTT, SERT, SLC6A4) with anxiety-related traits and increased risk for

  11. Structural variations in the H-2 genes of AKR lymphomas.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Hui; L. Minamide; N. Prandoni; H. Festenstein; F.G. Grosveld (Frank)

    1986-01-01

    textabstractK36.16 is an AKR H-2k thymoma which expresses an aberrant H-2Dd-like allospecificity, does not have a detectable amount of the H-2Kk syngeneic antigen and grows very easily in syngeneic mice. By DNA-mediated gene transfer experiments, we were able to obtain transformed clones which do

  12. Short communication Identification of gene variation within porcine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    characteristics and possible biological function of porcine PRDM16 gene have been less reported. ... included the heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, brain, longissimus dorsi muscle, interior fat, stomach, small ... al., 2008), and the copy number of PRDM16 molecules of patients with osteosarcoma was .... BMC Cancer 4, 45.

  13. The Study of Radio Flux Density Variations of the Quasar OJ 287 by the Wavelet and the Singular Spectrum Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donskykh Ganna

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Flux density variations of the extragalactic radio source OJ 287 are studied by applying the wavelet and the singular spectrum methods to the long-term monitoring data at 14.5, 8.0 and 4.8 GHz acquired at the University of Michigan Radio Astronomy Observatory during 40 years. This monitoring significantly supplements the episodic VLBI data. The wavelet analysis at all three frequencies revealed the presence of quasiperiods within the intervals 6.0–7.4 and 1.2–1.8 years. The singular spectrum analysis revealed the presence of quasiperiods within the intervals 6–10 and 1.6–4.0 years. For each quasiperiod the time interval of its existence was determined.

  14. Parental Sleep Concerns in Autism Spectrum Disorders: Variations from Childhood to Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Suzanne E.; Richdale, Amanda L.; Clemons, Traci; Malow, Beth A.

    2012-01-01

    Sleep problems of adolescents and older children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) were compared to toddlers and young children in 1,859 children. Sleep was measured with the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire. Total sleep problems were significant across all age groups, however the factors contributing to these problems differed. Adolescents…

  15. Transcriptomic variation among six Arabidopsis thaliana accessions identified several novel genes controlling aluminium tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusunoki, Kazutaka; Nakano, Yuki; Tanaka, Keisuke; Sakata, Yoichi; Koyama, Hiroyuki; Kobayashi, Yuriko

    2017-02-01

    Differences in the expression levels of aluminium (Al) tolerance genes are a known determinant of Al tolerance among plant varieties. We combined transcriptomic analysis of six Arabidopsis thaliana accessions with contrasting Al tolerance and a reverse genetic approach to identify Al-tolerance genes responsible for differences in Al tolerance between accession groups. Gene expression variation increased in the signal transduction process under Al stress and in growth-related processes in the absence of stress. Co-expression analysis and promoter single nucleotide polymorphism searching suggested that both trans-acting polymorphisms of Al signal transduction pathway and cis-acting polymorphisms in the promoter sequences caused the variations in gene expression associated with Al tolerance. Compared with the wild type, Al sensitivity increased in T-DNA knockout (KO) lines for five genes, including TARGET OF AVRB OPERATION1 (TAO1) and an unannotated gene (At5g22530). These were identified from 53 Al-inducible genes showing significantly higher expression in tolerant accessions than in sensitive accessions. These results indicate that the difference in transcriptional signalling is partly associated with the natural variation in Al tolerance in Arabidopsis. Our study also demonstrates the feasibility of comparative transcriptome analysis by using natural genetic variation for the identification of genes responsible for Al stress tolerance. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Natural variation of rice blast resistance gene Pi-d2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studying natural variation of rice resistance (R) genes in cultivated and wild rice relatives can predict resistance stability to rice blast fungus. In the present study, the protein coding regions of rice R gene Pi-d2 in 35 rice accessions of subgroups, aus (AUS), indica (IND), temperate japonica (...

  17. Common Genetic Variation in Circadian Rhythm Genes and Risk of Epithelial Ovarian Cancer (EOC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jim, Heather S L; Lin, Hui-Yi; Tyrer, Jonathan P

    2016-01-01

    Disruption in circadian gene expression, whether due to genetic variation or environmental factors (e.g., light at night, shiftwork), is associated with increased incidence of breast, prostate, gastrointestinal and hematologic cancers and gliomas. Circadian genes are highly expressed in the ovari...

  18. New ALS-Related Genes Expand the Spectrum Paradigm of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabatelli, Mario; Marangi, Giuseppe; Conte, Amelia; Tasca, Giorgio; Zollino, Marcella; Lattante, Serena

    2016-03-01

    Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is characterized by the degeneration of upper and lower motor neurons. Clinical heterogeneity is a well-recognized feature of the disease as age of onset, site of onset and the duration of the disease can vary greatly among patients. A number of genes have been identified and associated to familial and sporadic forms of ALS but the majority of cases remains still unexplained. Recent breakthrough discoveries have demonstrated that clinical manifestations associated with ALS-related genes are not circumscribed to motor neurons involvement. In this view, ALS appears to be linked to different conditions over a continuum or spectrum in which overlapping phenotypes may be identified. In this review, we aim to examine the increasing number of spectra, including ALS/Frontotemporal Dementia and ALS/Myopathies spectra. Considering all these neurodegenerative disorders as different phenotypes of the same spectrum can help to identify common pathological pathways and consequently new therapeutic targets in these incurable diseases. © 2016 International Society of Neuropathology.

  19. Association of aryl hydrocarbon receptor-related gene variants with the severity of autism spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi X. Fujisawa

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to environmental chemicals, such as dioxin, is known to have adverse effects on the homeostasis of gonadal steroids, thereby potentially altering the sexual differentiation of the brain to express autistic traits. Dioxin-like chemicals act on the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR, polymorphisms and mutations of AhR-related gene may exert pathological influences on sexual differentiation of the brain, causing autistic traits. To ascertain the relationship between AhR-related gene polymorphisms and autism susceptibility, we identified genotypes of them in patients and controls and determined whether there are different gene and genotype distributions between both groups. In addition, to clarify the relationships between the polymorphisms and the severity of autism, we compared the two genotypes of AhR-related genes (rs2066853, rs2228099 with the severity of autistic symptoms. Although no statistically significant difference was found between autism spectrum disorder (ASD patients and control individuals for the genotypic distribution of any of the polymorphisms studied herein, a significant difference in the total score of severity was observed in rs2228099 polymorphism, suggesting that the polymorphism modifies the severity of ASD symptoms but not ASD susceptibility. Moreover, we found that a significant difference in the social communication score of severity was observed. These results suggest that the rs2228099 polymorphism is possibly associated with the severity of social communication impairment among the diverse ASD symptoms.

  20. nef gene sequence variation among HIV-1-infected African children

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chakraborty, R.; Reiniš, Milan; Rostron, T.; Philpott, S.; Dong, T.; D'Agostino, A.; Musoke, R.; de Silva, E.; Stumpf, M.; Weiser, B.; Burger, H.; Rowland-Jones, S.L.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 2 (2006), s. 75-84 ISSN 1464-2662 Grant - others:Fogarty International Center, NIH(US) 3D43TW00915; NIH(US) RO1 AI 42555 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : HIV-1 nef gene * non-clade B * Kenya Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.674, year: 2006

  1. Extensive gene content variation in the Brachypodium distachyon pan-genome correlates with population structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Sean P; Contreras-Moreira, Bruno; Woods, Daniel P; Des Marais, David L; Burgess, Diane; Shu, Shengqiang; Stritt, Christoph; Roulin, Anne C; Schackwitz, Wendy; Tyler, Ludmila; Martin, Joel; Lipzen, Anna; Dochy, Niklas; Phillips, Jeremy; Barry, Kerrie; Geuten, Koen; Budak, Hikmet; Juenger, Thomas E; Amasino, Richard; Caicedo, Ana L; Goodstein, David; Davidson, Patrick; Mur, Luis A J; Figueroa, Melania; Freeling, Michael; Catalan, Pilar; Vogel, John P

    2017-12-19

    While prokaryotic pan-genomes have been shown to contain many more genes than any individual organism, the prevalence and functional significance of differentially present genes in eukaryotes remains poorly understood. Whole-genome de novo assembly and annotation of 54 lines of the grass Brachypodium distachyon yield a pan-genome containing nearly twice the number of genes found in any individual genome. Genes present in all lines are enriched for essential biological functions, while genes present in only some lines are enriched for conditionally beneficial functions (e.g., defense and development), display faster evolutionary rates, lie closer to transposable elements and are less likely to be syntenic with orthologous genes in other grasses. Our data suggest that differentially present genes contribute substantially to phenotypic variation within a eukaryote species, these genes have a major influence in population genetics, and transposable elements play a key role in pan-genome evolution.

  2. Spectrum of PAH gene variants among a population of Han Chinese patients with phenylketonuria from northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ning; Huang, Qiuying; Li, Qingge; Zhao, Dehua; Li, Xiaole; Cui, Lixia; Bai, Ying; Feng, Yin; Kong, Xiangdong

    2017-10-05

    Phenylketonuria (PKU), which primarily results from a deficiency of phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH), is one of the most common inherited inborn errors of metabolism that impairs postnatal cognitive development. The incidence of various PAH variations differs by race and ethnicity. The aim of the present study was to characterize the PAH gene variants of a Han population from Northern China. In total, 655 PKU patients and their families were recruited for this study; each proband was diagnosed both clinically and biochemically with phenylketonuria. Subjects were sequentially screened for single-base variants and exon deletions or duplications within PAH via direct Sanger sequencing and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA). A spectrum of 174 distinct PAH variants was identified: 152 previously documented variants and 22 novel variants. While single-base variants were distributed throughout the 13 exons, they were particularly concentrated in exons 7 (33.3%), 11 (14.2%), 6 (13.2%), 12 (11.0%), 3 (10.4%), and 5 (4.4%). The predominant variant was p.Arg243Gln (17.7%), followed by Ex6-96A > G (8.3%), p.Val399 = (6.4%), p.Arg53His (4.7%), p.Tyr356* (4.7%), p.Arg241Cys (4.6%), p.Arg413Pro (4.6%), p.Arg111* (4.4%), and c.442-1G > A (3.4%). Notably, two patients were also identified as carrying de novo variants. The composition of PAH gene variants in this Han population from Northern China was distinct from those of other ethnic groups. As such, the construction of a PAH gene variant database for Northern China is necessary to lay a foundation for genetic-based diagnoses, prenatal diagnoses, and population screening.

  3. KANSL1 gene disruption associated with the full clinical spectrum of 17q21.31 microdeletion syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno-Igoa, María; Hernández-Charro, Blanca; Bengoa-Alonso, Amaya; Pérez-Juana-del-Casal, Aranzazu; Romero-Ibarra, Carlos; Nieva-Echebarria, Beatriz; Ramos-Arroyo, María Antonia

    2015-01-01

    Background Chromosome 17q21.31 microdeletion syndrome is a multisystem genomic disorder caused by a recurrent 600-kb-long deletion, or haploinsufficiency of the chromatin modifier gene KANSL1, which maps to that region. Patients with KANSL1 intragenic mutations have been reported to display the major clinical features of 17q21.31 microdeletion syndrome. However, they did not exhibit the full clinical spectrum of this disorder, which might indicate that an additional gene or genes, located in ...

  4. Natural genetic variation in Arabidopsis thaliana defense metabolism genes modulates field fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerwin, Rachel; Feusier, Julie; Corwin, Jason; Rubin, Matthew; Lin, Catherine; Muok, Alise; Larson, Brandon; Li, Baohua; Joseph, Bindu; Francisco, Marta; Copeland, Daniel; Weinig, Cynthia; Kliebenstein, Daniel J

    2015-04-13

    Natural populations persist in complex environments, where biotic stressors, such as pathogen and insect communities, fluctuate temporally and spatially. These shifting biotic pressures generate heterogeneous selective forces that can maintain standing natural variation within a species. To directly test if genes containing causal variation for the Arabidopsis thaliana defensive compounds, glucosinolates (GSL) control field fitness and are therefore subject to natural selection, we conducted a multi-year field trial using lines that vary in only specific causal genes. Interestingly, we found that variation in these naturally polymorphic GSL genes affected fitness in each of our environments but the pattern fluctuated such that highly fit genotypes in one trial displayed lower fitness in another and that no GSL genotype or genotypes consistently out-performed the others. This was true both across locations and within the same location across years. These results indicate that environmental heterogeneity may contribute to the maintenance of GSL variation observed within Arabidopsis thaliana.

  5. High-Frequency EEG Variations in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder during Human Faces Visualization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celina A. Reis Paula

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorder (ASD is a neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by the impairment in the social reciprocity, interaction/language, and behavior, with stereotypes and signs of sensory function deficits. Electroencephalography (EEG is a well-established and noninvasive tool for neurophysiological characterization and monitoring of the brain electrical activity, able to identify abnormalities related to frequency range, connectivity, and lateralization of brain functions. This research aims to evidence quantitative differences in the frequency spectrum pattern between EEG signals of children with and without ASD during visualization of human faces in three different expressions: neutral, happy, and angry. Quantitative clinical evaluations, neuropsychological evaluation, and EEG of children with and without ASD were analyzed paired by age and gender. The results showed stronger activation in higher frequencies (above 30 Hz in frontal, central, parietal, and occipital regions in the ASD group. This pattern of activation may correlate with developmental characteristics in the children with ASD.

  6. Mutation spectrum of the Norrie disease pseudoglioma (NDP) gene in Indian patients with FEVR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musada, Ganeswara Rao; Jalali, Subhadra; Hussain, Anjli; Chururu, Anupama Reddy; Gaddam, Pramod Reddy; Chakrabarti, Subhabrata

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Mutations in the Norrie disease pseudoglioma (NDP; Xp11.3) gene have been involved in retinal blood vessel formation and neural differentiation and are implicated in familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR) cases. However, the role of the gene has not been explored in the Indian context. Thus, this study was designed to understand the involvement of NDP among Indian patients with FEVR. Methods The study cohort comprised 225 subjects, including unrelated patients with FEVR (n = 110) and ethnically matched healthy subjects (n = 115) recruited from a tertiary eye care center in India. The entire coding regions, intron–exon boundaries, along with the 5′ and 3′ untranslated regions of NDP were screened with resequencing following standard protocols. The spectrum of the observed variants was analyzed in conjunction with data available from other populations. Results Eight potentially pathogenic mutations (p.His4ArgfsX21, p.Asp23GlufsX9, p.Ile48ValfsX55, p.His50Asp, p.Ser57*, p.Gly113Asp, p.Arg121Gln, and p.Cys126Arg, including five novel ones), were observed in the coding region of the NDP gene in ten unrelated FEVR probands (9%). The novel changes were not observed in the control subjects and were unavailable in the dbSNP, ESP5400, NIEHS95, and ExAC databases. All probands with NDP mutations exhibited classical features of the disease as observed among patients with FEVR worldwide. Conclusions This is perhaps the first study to demonstrate the involvement of NDP among patients with Indian FEVR that further expands its mutation spectrum. The data generated could have broad implications in genetic counseling, disease management, and early intervention for a better prognosis in FEVR. PMID:27217716

  7. Mutation spectrum of the Norrie disease pseudoglioma (NDP) gene in Indian patients with FEVR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musada, Ganeswara Rao; Jalali, Subhadra; Hussain, Anjli; Chururu, Anupama Reddy; Gaddam, Pramod Reddy; Chakrabarti, Subhabrata; Kaur, Inderjeet

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in the Norrie disease pseudoglioma (NDP; Xp11.3) gene have been involved in retinal blood vessel formation and neural differentiation and are implicated in familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR) cases. However, the role of the gene has not been explored in the Indian context. Thus, this study was designed to understand the involvement of NDP among Indian patients with FEVR. The study cohort comprised 225 subjects, including unrelated patients with FEVR (n = 110) and ethnically matched healthy subjects (n = 115) recruited from a tertiary eye care center in India. The entire coding regions, intron-exon boundaries, along with the 5' and 3' untranslated regions of NDP were screened with resequencing following standard protocols. The spectrum of the observed variants was analyzed in conjunction with data available from other populations. Eight potentially pathogenic mutations (p.His4ArgfsX21, p.Asp23GlufsX9, p.Ile48ValfsX55, p.His50Asp, p.Ser57*, p.Gly113Asp, p.Arg121Gln, and p.Cys126Arg, including five novel ones), were observed in the coding region of the NDP gene in ten unrelated FEVR probands (9%). The novel changes were not observed in the control subjects and were unavailable in the dbSNP, ESP5400, NIEHS95, and ExAC databases. All probands with NDP mutations exhibited classical features of the disease as observed among patients with FEVR worldwide. This is perhaps the first study to demonstrate the involvement of NDP among patients with Indian FEVR that further expands its mutation spectrum. The data generated could have broad implications in genetic counseling, disease management, and early intervention for a better prognosis in FEVR.

  8. Genetic risk for autism spectrum disorders and neuropsychiatric variation in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robinson, Elise B; St Pourcain, Beate; Anttila, Verneri

    2016-01-01

    Almost all genetic risk factors for autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) can be found in the general population, but the effects of this risk are unclear in people not ascertained for neuropsychiatric symptoms. Using several large ASD consortium and population-based resources (total n > 38,000), we...... and developmental traits, the severe tail of which can result in diagnosis with an ASD or other neuropsychiatric disorder. A continuum model should inform the design and interpretation of studies of neuropsychiatric disease biology....

  9. Analysis and functional characterization of sequence variations in ligand binding domain of thyroid hormone receptors in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalikiri, Mahesh Kumar; Mamidala, Madhu Poornima; Rao, Ananth N; Rajesh, Vidya

    2017-12-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neuro developmental disorder, reported to be on a rise in the past two decades. Thyroid hormone-T3 plays an important role in early embryonic and central nervous system development. T3 mediates its function by binding to thyroid hormone receptors, TRα and TRβ. Alterations in T3 levels and thyroid receptor mutations have been earlier implicated in neuropsychiatric disorders and have been linked to environmental toxins. Limited reports from earlier studies have shown the effectiveness of T3 treatment with promising results in children with ASD and that the thyroid hormone levels in these children was also normal. This necessitates the need to explore the genetic variations in the components of the thyroid hormone pathway in ASD children. To achieve this objective, we performed genetic analysis of ligand binding domain of THRA and THRB receptor genes in 30 ASD subjects and in age matched controls from India. Our study for the first time reports novel single nucleotide polymorphisms in the THRA and THRB receptor genes of ASD individuals. Autism Res 2017, 10: 1919-1928. ©2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Thyroid hormone (T3) and thyroid receptors (TRα and TRβ) are the major components of the thyroid hormone pathway. The link between thyroid pathway and neuronal development is proven in clinical medicine. Since the thyroid hormone levels in Autistic children are normal, variations in their receptors needs to be explored. To achieve this objective, changes in THRA and THRB receptor genes was studied in 30 ASD and normal children from India. The impact of some of these mutations on receptor function was also studied. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Genetic variation in eleven phase I drug metabolism genes in an ethnically diverse population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solus, Joseph F; Arietta, Brenda J; Harris, James R; Sexton, David P; Steward, John Q; McMunn, Chara; Ihrie, Patrick; Mehall, Janelle M; Edwards, Todd L; Dawson, Elliott P

    2004-10-01

    The extent of genetic variation found in drug metabolism genes and its contribution to interindividual variation in response to medication remains incompletely understood. To better determine the identity and frequency of variation in 11 phase I drug metabolism genes, the exons and flanking intronic regions of the cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoenzyme genes CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2B6, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 were amplified from genomic DNA and sequenced. A total of 60 kb of bi-directional sequence was generated from each of 93 human DNAs, which included Caucasian, African-American and Asian samples. There were 388 different polymorphisms identified. These included 269 non-coding, 45 synonymous and 74 non-synonymous polymorphisms. Of these, 54% were novel and included 176 non-coding, 14 synonymous and 21 non-synonymous polymorphisms. Of the novel variants observed, 85 were represented by single occurrences of the minor allele in the sample set. Much of the variation observed was from low-frequency alleles. Comparatively, these genes are variation-rich. Calculations measuring genetic diversity revealed that while the values for the individual genes are widely variable, the overall nucleotide diversity of 7.7 x 10(-4) and polymorphism parameter of 11.5 x 10(-4) are higher than those previously reported for other gene sets. Several independent measurements indicate that these genes are under selective pressure, particularly for polymorphisms corresponding to non-synonymous amino acid changes. There is relatively little difference in measurements of diversity among the ethnic groups, but there are large differences among the genes and gene subfamilies themselves. Of the three CYP subfamilies involved in phase I drug metabolism (1, 2, and 3), subfamily 2 displays the highest levels of genetic diversity.

  11. Gene expression analysis in lymphoblasts derived from patients with autism spectrum disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuda Yuka

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The autism spectrum disorders (ASDs are complex neurodevelopmental disorders that result in severe and pervasive impairment in the development of reciprocal social interaction and verbal and nonverbal communication skills. In addition, individuals with ASD have stereotypical behavior, interests and activities. Rare mutations of some genes, such as neuroligin (NLGN 3/4, neurexin (NRXN 1, SHANK3, MeCP2 and NHE9, have been reported to be associated with ASD. In the present study, we investigated whether alterations in mRNA expression levels of these genes could be found in lymphoblastoid cell lines derived from patients with ASD. Methods We measured mRNA expression levels of NLGN3/4, NRXN1, SHANK3, MeCP2, NHE9 and AKT1 in lymphoblastoid cells from 35 patients with ASD and 35 healthy controls, as well as from 45 patients with schizophrenia and 45 healthy controls, using real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction assays. Results The mRNA expression levels of NLGN3 and SHANK3 normalized by β-actin or TBP were significantly decreased in the individuals with ASD compared to controls, whereas no difference was found in the mRNA expression level of MeCP2, NHE9 or AKT1. However, normalized NLGN3 and SHANK3 gene expression levels were not altered in patients with schizophrenia, and expression levels of NLGN4 and NRXN1 mRNA were not quantitatively measurable in lymphoblastoid cells. Conclusions Our results provide evidence that the NLGN3 and SHANK3 genes may be differentially expressed in lymphoblastoid cell lines from individuals with ASD compared to those from controls. These findings suggest the possibility that decreased mRNA expression levels of these genes might be involved in the pathophysiology of ASD in a substantial population of ASD patients.

  12. Decoding the contribution of dopaminergic genes and pathways to autism spectrum disorder (ASD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Michael; Roth, Andrew; Kyzar, Evan J; Poudel, Manoj K; Wong, Keith; Stewart, Adam Michael; Kalueff, Allan V

    2014-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a debilitating brain illness causing social deficits, delayed development and repetitive behaviors. ASD is a heritable neurodevelopmental disorder with poorly understood and complex etiology. The central dopaminergic system is strongly implicated in ASD pathogenesis. Genes encoding various elements of this system (including dopamine receptors, the dopamine transporter or enzymes of synthesis and catabolism) have been linked to ASD. Here, we comprehensively evaluate known molecular interactors of dopaminergic genes, and identify their potential molecular partners within up/down-steam signaling pathways associated with dopamine. These in silico analyses allowed us to construct a map of molecular pathways, regulated by dopamine and involved in ASD. Clustering these pathways reveals groups of genes associated with dopamine metabolism, encoding proteins that control dopamine neurotransmission, cytoskeletal processes, synaptic release, Ca(2+) signaling, as well as the adenosine, glutamatergic and gamma-aminobutyric systems. Overall, our analyses emphasize the important role of the dopaminergic system in ASD, and implicate several cellular signaling processes in its pathogenesis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Variation-preserving normalization unveils blind spots in gene expression profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roca, Carlos P.; Gomes, Susana I. L.; Amorim, Mónica J. B.; Scott-Fordsmand, Janeck J.

    2017-01-01

    RNA-Seq and gene expression microarrays provide comprehensive profiles of gene activity, but lack of reproducibility has hindered their application. A key challenge in the data analysis is the normalization of gene expression levels, which is currently performed following the implicit assumption that most genes are not differentially expressed. Here, we present a mathematical approach to normalization that makes no assumption of this sort. We have found that variation in gene expression is much larger than currently believed, and that it can be measured with available assays. Our results also explain, at least partially, the reproducibility problems encountered in transcriptomics studies. We expect that this improvement in detection will help efforts to realize the full potential of gene expression profiling, especially in analyses of cellular processes involving complex modulations of gene expression. PMID:28276435

  14. Observed periodicities and the spectrum of field variations in Holocene magnetic records

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panovska, S.; Finlay, Chris; Hirt, A.M.

    2013-01-01

    , globally observed, periods. Rather we find a continuous broadband spectrum, with a slope corresponding to a power law with exponent of -2.3 ± 0.6 for the period range between 300 and 4000 yr. This is consistent with the hypothesis that chaotic convection in the outer core drives the majority of secular......In order to understand mechanisms that maintain and drive the evolution of the Earth's magnetic field, a characterization of its behavior on time scales of centuries to millennia is required. We have conducted a search for periodicities in Holocene sediment magnetic records, by applying three...

  15. Natural Genetic Variation and Candidate Genes for Morphological Traits in Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreira, Valeria Paula; Mensch, Julián; Hasson, Esteban; Fanara, Juan José

    2016-01-01

    Body size is a complex character associated to several fitness related traits that vary within and between species as a consequence of environmental and genetic factors. Latitudinal and altitudinal clines for different morphological traits have been described in several species of Drosophila and previous work identified genomic regions associated with such variation in D. melanogaster. However, the genetic factors that orchestrate morphological variation have been barely studied. Here, our main objective was to investigate genetic variation for different morphological traits associated to the second chromosome in natural populations of D. melanogaster along latitudinal and altitudinal gradients in Argentina. Our results revealed weak clinal signals and a strong population effect on morphological variation. Moreover, most pairwise comparisons between populations were significant. Our study also showed important within-population genetic variation, which must be associated to the second chromosome, as the lines are otherwise genetically identical. Next, we examined the contribution of different candidate genes to natural variation for these traits. We performed quantitative complementation tests using a battery of lines bearing mutated alleles at candidate genes located in the second chromosome and six second chromosome substitution lines derived from natural populations which exhibited divergent phenotypes. Results of complementation tests revealed that natural variation at all candidate genes studied, invected, Fasciclin 3, toucan, Reticulon-like1, jing and CG14478, affects the studied characters, suggesting that they are Quantitative Trait Genes for morphological traits. Finally, the phenotypic patterns observed suggest that different alleles of each gene might contribute to natural variation for morphological traits. However, non-additive effects cannot be ruled out, as wild-derived strains differ at myriads of second chromosome loci that may interact

  16. 239pu alpha spectrum analysis based on PIPS detector response function and variations with vacuum and distance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui Shi; Xian-Guo Tuo; Huai-Liang Li; Jian-Bo Yang; Yi Cheng; Hong-Long Zheng

    2017-01-01

    Effect factors of the absorption of the source,air,entrance window,and dead layer of a detector must be considered in the measurement of monoenergetic alpha particles,along with statsfical noise and other factors that collectively cause the alpha spectrum to exhibit a well-known low-energy tail.Therefore,the establishment of an alpha spectrum detector response function from the perspective of a signaling system must consider the various factors mentioned above.The detector response function is the convolution of an alphaparticle pulse function,two exponential functions,and a Gaussian function,followed by calculation of the parameters of the detector response function using the weighted leastsquares fitting method as proposed in this paper.In our experiment,239pu alpha spectra were measured by a highresolution,passivated implanted planar silicon (PIPS)detector at 10 levels of vacuum and 10 source-detector distances.The spectrum-fitting results were excellent as evaluated by reduced Chi-square (x2) and correlation coefficients.Finally,the variation of parameters with vacuum level and source-detector distance was studied.Results demonstrate that ο,τ1,and τ2 exhibit no obvious trend of variation with vacuum in the range 2000-20,000 mTorr,and at a confidence level of 95%,the values of τ1 and τ2 decline in a similar fashion with source-detector distance by the power exponential function,while the value of ο declines linearly.

  17. Association of dopamine gene variants, emotion dysregulation and ADHD in autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadow, Kenneth D; Pinsonneault, Julia K; Perlman, Greg; Sadee, Wolfgang

    2014-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association of dopaminergic gene variants with emotion dysregulation (EMD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Three dopamine transporter gene (SLC6A3/DAT1) polymorphisms (intron8 5/6 VNTR, 3'-UTR 9/10 VNTR, rs27072 in the 3'-UTR) and one dopamine D2 receptor gene (DRD2) variant (rs2283265) were selected for genotyping based on à priori evidence of regulatory activity or, in the case of DAT1 9/10 VNTR, commonly reported associations with ADHD. A sample of 110 children with ASD was assessed with a rigorously validated DSM-IV-referenced rating scale. Global EMD severity (parents' ratings) was associated with DAT1 intron8 (ηp(2)=.063) and rs2283265 (ηp(2)=.044). Findings for DAT1 intron8 were also significant for two EMD subscales, generalized anxiety (ηp(2)=.065) and depression (ηp(2)=.059), and for DRD2 rs2283265, depression (ηp(2)=.053). DRD2 rs2283265 was associated with teachers' global ratings of ADHD (ηp(2)=.052). DAT1 intron8 was associated with parent-rated hyperactivity (ηp(2)=.045) and both DAT1 9/10 VNTR (ηp(2)=.105) and DRD2 rs2283265 (ηp(2)=.069) were associated with teacher-rated inattention. These findings suggest that dopaminergic gene polymorphisms may modulate EMD and ADHD symptoms in children with ASD but require replication with larger independent samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Faraday rotation measure variations in the Cygnus region and the spectrum of interstellar plasma turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazio, T. Joseph; Spangler, Steven R.; Cordes, James M.

    1990-01-01

    Linear polarization observations were made of eight double-lobed radio galaxies viewed through the galactic plane in the Cygnus region. These observations have been used to determine intra- and intersource rotation measure differences; in some cases, unambiguous rotation measures have been extracted. The rotation measures are dominated by foreground magnetoionic material. The differences in rotation measure between pairs of sources correlate with angular separation for separations from 10 arcsec to 1.5 deg. These rotation measure fluctuations are consistent with a model in which the electron density varies on roughly 0.1-200 pc scales. The amplitudes of these variations are, in turn, consistent with those electron density variations that cause diffractive interstellar scattering on scales less than 10 to the 11th cm.

  19. Variation method for optimization of Raman fiber amplifier pumped by continuous-spectrum radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghasempour Ardekani, A.; Bahrampour, A. R.; Feizpour, A.

    2007-01-01

    In Raman fiber amplifiers, reduction of gain ripple versus frequency has a great importance. In this article using variational method and continuous pump, gain ripple is optimized. It is shown here that for a 40 km line the average gain is 1.3dB and the gain ripple is 0.12 dB, that is lower than the latest published data.

  20. Meiotic gene-conversion rate and tract length variation in the human genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padhukasahasram, Badri; Rannala, Bruce

    2013-02-27

    Meiotic recombination occurs in the form of two different mechanisms called crossing-over and gene-conversion and both processes have an important role in shaping genetic variation in populations. Although variation in crossing-over rates has been studied extensively using sperm-typing experiments, pedigree studies and population genetic approaches, our knowledge of variation in gene-conversion parameters (ie, rates and mean tract lengths) remains far from complete. To explore variability in population gene-conversion rates and its relationship to crossing-over rate variation patterns, we have developed and validated using coalescent simulations a comprehensive Bayesian full-likelihood method that can jointly infer crossing-over and gene-conversion rates as well as tract lengths from population genomic data under general variable rate models with recombination hotspots. Here, we apply this new method to SNP data from multiple human populations and attempt to characterize for the first time the fine-scale variation in gene-conversion parameters along the human genome. We find that the estimated ratio of gene-conversion to crossing-over rates varies considerably across genomic regions as well as between populations. However, there is a great degree of uncertainty associated with such estimates. We also find substantial evidence for variation in the mean conversion tract length. The estimated tract lengths did not show any negative relationship with the local heterozygosity levels in our analysis.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 27 February 2013; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2013.30.

  1. Sex Differences in Drosophila Somatic Gene Expression: Variation and Regulation by doublesex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle N. Arbeitman

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Sex differences in gene expression have been widely studied in Drosophila melanogaster. Sex differences vary across strains, but many molecular studies focus on only a single strain, or on genes that show sexually dimorphic expression in many strains. How extensive variability is and whether this variability occurs among genes regulated by sex determination hierarchy terminal transcription factors is unknown. To address these questions, we examine differences in sexually dimorphic gene expression between two strains in Drosophila adult head tissues. We also examine gene expression in doublesex (dsx mutant strains to determine which sex-differentially expressed genes are regulated by DSX, and the mode by which DSX regulates expression. We find substantial variation in sex-differential expression. The sets of genes with sexually dimorphic expression in each strain show little overlap. The prevalence of different DSX regulatory modes also varies between the two strains. Neither the patterns of DSX DNA occupancy, nor mode of DSX regulation explain why some genes show consistent sex-differential expression across strains. We find that the genes identified as regulated by DSX in this study are enriched with known sites of DSX DNA occupancy. Finally, we find that sex-differentially expressed genes and genes regulated by DSX are highly enriched on the fourth chromosome. These results provide insights into a more complete pool of potential DSX targets, as well as revealing the molecular flexibility of DSX regulation.

  2. Regulatory Architecture of Gene Expression Variation in the Threespine Stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, Victoria L; Viitaniemi, Heidi M; McCairns, R J Scott; Merilä, Juha; Nikinmaa, Mikko; Primmer, Craig R; Leder, Erica H

    2017-01-05

    Much adaptive evolutionary change is underlain by mutational variation in regions of the genome that regulate gene expression rather than in the coding regions of the genes themselves. An understanding of the role of gene expression variation in facilitating local adaptation will be aided by an understanding of underlying regulatory networks. Here, we characterize the genetic architecture of gene expression variation in the threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus), an important model in the study of adaptive evolution. We collected transcriptomic and genomic data from 60 half-sib families using an expression microarray and genotyping-by-sequencing, and located expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) underlying the variation in gene expression in liver tissue using an interval mapping approach. We identified eQTL for several thousand expression traits. Expression was influenced by polymorphism in both cis- and trans-regulatory regions. Trans-eQTL clustered into hotspots. We did not identify master transcriptional regulators in hotspot locations: rather, the presence of hotspots may be driven by complex interactions between multiple transcription factors. One observed hotspot colocated with a QTL recently found to underlie salinity tolerance in the threespine stickleback. However, most other observed hotspots did not colocate with regions of the genome known to be involved in adaptive divergence between marine and freshwater habitats. Copyright © 2017 Pritchard et al.

  3. Regulatory Architecture of Gene Expression Variation in the Threespine Stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria L. Pritchard

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Much adaptive evolutionary change is underlain by mutational variation in regions of the genome that regulate gene expression rather than in the coding regions of the genes themselves. An understanding of the role of gene expression variation in facilitating local adaptation will be aided by an understanding of underlying regulatory networks. Here, we characterize the genetic architecture of gene expression variation in the threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus, an important model in the study of adaptive evolution. We collected transcriptomic and genomic data from 60 half-sib families using an expression microarray and genotyping-by-sequencing, and located expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL underlying the variation in gene expression in liver tissue using an interval mapping approach. We identified eQTL for several thousand expression traits. Expression was influenced by polymorphism in both cis- and trans-regulatory regions. Trans-eQTL clustered into hotspots. We did not identify master transcriptional regulators in hotspot locations: rather, the presence of hotspots may be driven by complex interactions between multiple transcription factors. One observed hotspot colocated with a QTL recently found to underlie salinity tolerance in the threespine stickleback. However, most other observed hotspots did not colocate with regions of the genome known to be involved in adaptive divergence between marine and freshwater habitats.

  4. Common Genetic Variation In Cellular Transport Genes and Epithelial Ovarian Cancer (EOC) Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Chornokur, Ganna; Lin, Hui-Yi; Tyrer, Jonathan P.; Lawrenson, Kate; Dennis, Joe; Amankwah, Ernest K.; Qu, Xiaotao; Tsai, Ya-Yu; Jim, Heather S. L.; Chen, Zhihua; Chen, Ann Y.; Permuth-Wey, Jennifer; Aben, Katja KH.; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Antonenkova, Natalia

    2015-01-01

    Background\\ud \\ud Defective cellular transport processes can lead to aberrant accumulation of trace elements, iron, small molecules and hormones in the cell, which in turn may promote the formation of reactive oxygen species, promoting DNA damage and aberrant expression of key regulatory cancer genes. As DNA damage and uncontrolled proliferation are hallmarks of cancer, including epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), we hypothesized that inherited variation in the cellular transport genes contribu...

  5. Gene X Environment Interactions in Autism Spectrum Disorders: Role of Epigenetic Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie eTordjman

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Several studies support currently the hypothesis that autism etiology is based on a polygenic and epistatic model. However, despite advances in epidemiological, molecular and clinical genetics, the genetic risk factors remain difficult to identify, with the exception of a few chromosomal disorders and several single gene disorders associated with an increased risk for autism. Furthermore, several studies suggest a role of environmental factors in autism spectrum disorders (ASD. First, arguments for a genetic contribution to autism, based on updated family and twin studies, are examined. Second, a review of possible prenatal, perinatal and postnatal environmental risk factors for ASD are presented. Then, the hypotheses are discussed concerning the underlying mechanisms related to a role of environmental factors in the development of ASD in association with genetic factors. In particular, epigenetics as a candidate biological mechanism for gene X environment interactions is considered and the possible role of epigenetic mechanisms reported in genetic disorders associated with ASD is discussed. Furthermore, the example of in utero exposure to valproate provides a good illustration of epigenetic mechanisms involved in ASD and innovative therapeutic strategies. Epigenetic remodeling by environmental factors opens new perspectives for a better understanding, prevention and early therapeutic intervention of ASD.

  6. Spectrum of mismatch repair gene mutations and clinical presentation of Hispanic individuals with Lynch syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunga, Annette Y; Ricker, Charité; Espenschied, Carin R; Castillo, Danielle; Melas, Marilena; Herzog, Josef; Bannon, Sarah; Cruz-Correa, Marcia; Lynch, Patrick; Solomon, Ilana; Gruber, Stephen B; Weitzel, Jeffrey N

    2017-04-01

    Lynch syndrome (LS), the most common hereditary colorectal cancer syndrome, is caused by mismatch repair (MMR) gene mutations. However, data about MMR mutations in Hispanics are limited. This study aims to describe the spectrum of MMR mutations in Hispanics with LS and explore ancestral origins. This case series involved an IRB-approved retrospective chart review of self-identified Hispanic patients (n = 397) seen for genetic cancer risk assessment at four collaborating academic institutions in California, Texas, and Puerto Rico who were evaluated by MMR genotyping and/or tumor analysis. A literature review was conducted for all mutations identified. Of those who underwent clinical genetic testing (n = 176), 71 had MMR gene mutations. Nine mutations were observed more than once. One third (3/9) of recurrent mutations and two additional mutations (seen only once) were previously reported in Spain, confirming the influence of Spanish ancestry on MMR mutations in Hispanic populations. The recurrent mutations identified (n = 9) included both previously reported mutations as well as unique mutations not in the literature. This is the largest report of Hispanic MMR mutations in North America; however, a larger sample and haplotype analyses are needed to better understand recurrent MMR mutations in Hispanic populations. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. The association of environmental, individual factors, and dopamine pathway gene variation with smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Suyun; Wang, Qiang; Pan, Lulu; Yang, Xiaorong; Li, Huijie; Jiang, Fan; Zhang, Nan; Han, Mingkui; Jia, Chongqi

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to examine whether dopamine (DA) pathway gene variation were associated with smoking cessation, and compare the relative importance of infulence factors on smoking cessation. Participants were recruited from 17 villages of Shandong Province, China. Twenty-five single nucleotide polymorphisms in 8 DA pathway genes were genotyped. Weighted gene score of each gene was used to analyze the whole gene effect. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (OR) of the total gene score for smoking cessation. Dominance analysis was employed to compare the relative importance of individual, heaviness of smoking, psychological and genetic factors on smoking cessation. 415 successful spontaneous smoking quitters served as the cases, and 404 unsuccessful quitters served as the controls. A significant negative association of total DA pathway gene score and smoking cessation was observed (p smoking cessation was heaviness of smoking score (42%), following by individual (40%), genetic (10%) and psychological score (8%). In conclusion, although the DA pathway gene variation was significantly associated with successful smoking cessation, heaviness of smoking and individual factors had bigger effect than genetic factors on smoking cessation.

  8. Short-time-scale Doppler and intensity variations in the spectrum of SS 433

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, R.M.; Newsom, G.H.; Foltz, C.B.; Byard, P.L.

    1981-01-01

    Spectroscopic observations of SS 433 were obtained on ten consecutive nights in 1981 May. Measurements of the equivalent widths of the spectral lines and Doppler shifts of the moving lines are presented. Not only does the 6-day period in the wavelengths of the moving lines appear quite clearly, but the data strongly suggest that this period is decreasing at a rate of (3.0 +- 1.1) x 10 -5 days/day. In addition, large equivalent width variations of the stationary lines are observed

  9. Facing the facts: The Runx2 gene is associated with variation in facial morphology in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritzman, Terrence B; Banovich, Nicholas; Buss, Kaitlin P; Guida, Jennifer; Rubel, Meagan A; Pinney, Jennifer; Khang, Bao; Ravosa, Matthew J; Stone, Anne C

    2017-10-01

    The phylogenetic and adaptive factors that cause variation in primate facial form-including differences among the major primate clades and variation related to feeding and/or social behavior-are relatively well understood. However, comparatively little is known about the genetic mechanisms that underlie diversity in facial form in primates. Because it is essential for osteoblastic differentiation and skeletal development, the runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) is one gene that may play a role in these genetic mechanisms. Specifically, polymorphisms in the QA ratio (determined by the ratio of the number of polyglutamines to polyalanines in one functional domain of Runx2) have been shown to be correlated with variation in facial length and orientation in other mammal groups. However, to date, the relationship between variation in this gene and variation in facial form in primates has not been explicitly tested. To test the hypothesis that the QA ratio is correlated with facial form in primates, the current study quantified the QA ratio, facial length, and facial angle in a sample of 33 primate species and tested for correlation using phylogenetic generalized least squares. The results indicate that the QA ratio of the Runx2 gene is positively correlated with variation in relative facial length in anthropoid primates. However, no correlation was found in strepsirrhines, and there was no correlation between facial angle and the QA ratio in any groups. These results suggest that, in primates, the QA ratio of the Runx2 gene may play a role in modulating facial size, but not facial orientation. This study therefore provides important clues about the genetic and developmental mechanisms that may underlie variation in facial form in primates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Genetic variation in genes of the fatty acid synthesis pathway and breast cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campa, Daniele; McKay, James; Sinilnikova, Olga

    2009-01-01

    and FASN) is related to breast cancer risk and body-mass index (BMI) by studying 1,294 breast cancer cases and 2,452 controls from the European Prospective Investigation on Cancer (EPIC). We resequenced the FAS gene and combined information of SNPs found by resequencing and SNPs from public databases....... Using a tagging approach and selecting 20 SNPs, we covered all the common genetic variation of these genes. In this study we were not able to find any statistically significant association between the SNPs in the FAS, ChREBP and SREPB-1 genes and an increased risk of breast cancer overall...

  11. Sequencing of sporadic Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) identifies novel and potentially pathogenic de novo variants and excludes overlap with genes associated with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Daniel Seung; Burt, Amber A; Ranchalis, Jane E; Wilmot, Beth; Smith, Joshua D; Patterson, Karynne E; Coe, Bradley P; Li, Yatong K; Bamshad, Michael J; Nikolas, Molly; Eichler, Evan E; Swanson, James M; Nigg, Joel T; Nickerson, Deborah A; Jarvik, Gail P

    2017-06-01

    Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) has high heritability; however, studies of common variation account for ADHD variance. Using data from affected participants without a family history of ADHD, we sought to identify de novo variants that could account for sporadic ADHD. Considering a total of 128 families, two analyses were conducted in parallel: first, in 11 unaffected parent/affected proband trios (or quads with the addition of an unaffected sibling) we completed exome sequencing. Six de novo missense variants at highly conserved bases were identified and validated from four of the 11 families: the brain-expressed genes TBC1D9, DAGLA, QARS, CSMD2, TRPM2, and WDR83. Separately, in 117 unrelated probands with sporadic ADHD, we sequenced a panel of 26 genes implicated in intellectual disability (ID) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) to evaluate whether variation in ASD/ID-associated genes were also present in participants with ADHD. Only one putative deleterious variant (Gln600STOP) in CHD1L was identified; this was found in a single proband. Notably, no other nonsense, splice, frameshift, or highly conserved missense variants in the 26 gene panel were identified and validated. These data suggest that de novo variant analysis in families with independently adjudicated sporadic ADHD diagnosis can identify novel genes implicated in ADHD pathogenesis. Moreover, that only one of the 128 cases (0.8%, 11 exome, and 117 MIP sequenced participants) had putative deleterious variants within our data in 26 genes related to ID and ASD suggests significant independence in the genetic pathogenesis of ADHD as compared to ASD and ID phenotypes. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Variation of the Solar Microwave Spectrum in the Last Half Century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimojo, Masumi; Saito, Masao [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ), National Institutes of Natural Sciences (NINS), Mitaka, Tokyo, 181-8588 (Japan); Iwai, Kazumasa [Institute for Space-Earth Environmental Research (ISEE), Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, 464-8601 (Japan); Asai, Ayumi [Kwasan and Hida Observatories, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto, 606-8502 (Japan); Nozawa, Satoshi [Department of Science, Ibaraki University, Mito, Ibaraki, 310-8512 (Japan); Minamidani, Tetsuhiro, E-mail: masumi.shimojo@nao.ac.jp [Department of Astronomical Science, School of Physical Science, SOKENDAI (The Graduate University of Advanced Studies), Mitaka, Tokyo, 181-8588 (Japan)

    2017-10-10

    The total solar fluxes at 1, 2, 3.75, and 9.4 GHz were observed continuously from 1957 to 1994 at Toyokawa, Japan, and from 1994 until now at Nobeyama, Japan, with the current Nobeyama Radio Polarimeters. We examined the multi-frequency and long-term data sets, and found that not only the microwave solar flux but also its monthly standard deviation indicate the long-term variation of solar activity. Furthermore, we found that the microwave spectra at the solar minima of Cycles 20–24 agree with each other. These results show that the average atmospheric structure above the upper chromosphere in the quiet-Sun has not varied for half a century, and suggest that the energy input for atmospheric heating from the sub-photosphere to the corona have not changed in the quiet-Sun despite significantly differing strengths of magnetic activity in the last five solar cycles.

  13. Sequence variation in TgROP7 gene among Toxoplasma gondii ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-03-27

    Mar 27, 2012 ... Toxoplasma gondii can infect a wide range of hosts including mammals and birds, causing toxoplasmosis which is one of the most common parasitic zoonoses worldwide. The present study examined sequence variation in rhoptry 7 (ROP7) gene among different T. gondii isolates from different hosts and ...

  14. Variations in Spike Glycoprotein Gene of MERS-CoV, South Korea, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae-Won; Kim, You-Jin; Park, Sung Han; Yun, Mi-Ran; Yang, Jeong-Sun; Kang, Hae Ji; Han, Young Woo; Lee, Han Saem; Kim, Heui Man; Kim, Hak; Kim, A-Reum; Heo, Deok Rim; Kim, Su Jin; Jeon, Jun Ho; Park, Deokbum; Kim, Joo Ae; Cheong, Hyang-Min; Nam, Jeong-Gu; Kim, Kisoon; Kim, Sung Soon

    2016-01-01

    An outbreak of nosocomial infections with Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus occurred in South Korea in May 2015. Spike glycoprotein genes of virus strains from South Korea were closely related to those of strains from Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. However, virus strains from South Korea showed strain-specific variations.

  15. The Ser311Cys variation in the paraoxonase 2 gene increases the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Supplementary data: The Ser311Cys variation in the paraoxonase 2 gene increases the risk of type 2 diabetes in northern Chinese. Yanchun Qu, Ze Yang, Feng Jin, Liang Sun, Chuanfang Zhang, Linong Ji, Hong Sun, Binyou Wang and Li Wang. J. Genet. 87, 165–169. Table 1. Clinical characteristics of case and control.

  16. Variation in the PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 gene associated ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    with the increase risk of type 2 diabetes in northern Chinese. YANCHUN QU1†∗ ... and genetic variation analysis have indicated the involvement of PINK1 gene in the ... Qualitative variables were analysed by a chi-squared test. The level of ...

  17. CAG repeat length variation in the polymerase gamma (POLG) gene: effect on semen quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerveld, G. H.; Kaaij-Visser, L.; Tanck, M.; van der Veen, F.; Repping, S.

    2008-01-01

    Several case-control studies have investigated the effect of CAG repeat length variation in the POLG gene on male fertility and semen quality. Some described an association between the homozygous not10 CAG-repeat genotype and male subfertility and/or reduced semen quality, whereas others did not.

  18. Genetic variation of the Borrelia burgdorferi gene vlsE involves cassette-specific, segmental gene conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J R; Norris, S J

    1998-08-01

    The Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi possesses 15 silent vls cassettes and a vls expression site (vlsE) encoding a surface-exposed lipoprotein. Segments of the silent vls cassettes have been shown to recombine with the vlsE cassette region in the mammalian host, resulting in combinatorial antigenic variation. Despite promiscuous recombination within the vlsE cassette region, the 5' and 3' coding sequences of vlsE that flank the cassette region are not subject to sequence variation during these recombination events. The segments of the silent vls cassettes recombine in the vlsE cassette region through a unidirectional process such that the sequence and organization of the silent vls loci are not affected. As a result of recombination, the previously expressed segments are replaced by incoming segments and apparently degraded. These results provide evidence for a gene conversion mechanism in VlsE antigenic variation.

  19. Rate variation in parasitic plants: correlated and uncorrelated patterns among plastid genes of different function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    dePamphilis Claude W

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The analysis of synonymous and nonsynonymous rates of DNA change can help in the choice among competing explanations for rate variation, such as differences in constraint, mutation rate, or the strength of genetic drift. Nonphotosynthetic plants of the Orobanchaceae have increased rates of DNA change. In this study 38 taxa of Orobanchaceae and relatives were used and 3 plastid genes were sequenced for each taxon. Results Phylogenetic reconstructions of relative rates of sequence evolution for three plastid genes (rbcL, matK and rps2 show significant rate heterogeneity among lineages and among genes. Many of the non-photosynthetic plants have increases in both synonymous and nonsynonymous rates, indicating that both (1 selection is relaxed, and (2 there has been a change in the rate at which mutations are entering the population in these species. However, rate increases are not always immediate upon loss of photosynthesis. Overall there is a poor correlation of synonymous and nonsynonymous rates. There is, however, a strong correlation of synonymous rates across the 3 genes studied and the lineage-speccific pattern for each gene is strikingly similar. This indicates that the causes of synonymous rate variation are affecting the whole plastid genome in a similar way. There is a weaker correlation across genes for nonsynonymous rates. Here the picture is more complex, as could be expected if there are many causes of variation, differing from taxon to taxon and gene to gene. Conclusions The distinctive pattern of rate increases in Orobanchaceae has at least two causes. It is clear that there is a relaxation of constraint in many (though not all non-photosynthetic lineages. However, there is also some force affecting synonymous sites as well. At this point, it is not possible to tell whether it is generation time, speciation rate, mutation rate, DNA repair efficiency or some combination of these factors.

  20. Systematic Prioritization and Integrative Analysis of Copy Number Variations in Schizophrenia Reveal Key Schizophrenia Susceptibility Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xiongjian; Huang, Liang; Han, Leng; Luo, Zhenwu; Hu, Fang; Tieu, Roger; Gan, Lin

    2014-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a common mental disorder with high heritability and strong genetic heterogeneity. Common disease-common variants hypothesis predicts that schizophrenia is attributable in part to common genetic variants. However, recent studies have clearly demonstrated that copy number variations (CNVs) also play pivotal roles in schizophrenia susceptibility and explain a proportion of missing heritability. Though numerous CNVs have been identified, many of the regions affected by CNVs show poor overlapping among different studies, and it is not known whether the genes disrupted by CNVs contribute to the risk of schizophrenia. By using cumulative scoring, we systematically prioritized the genes affected by CNVs in schizophrenia. We identified 8 top genes that are frequently disrupted by CNVs, including NRXN1, CHRNA7, BCL9, CYFIP1, GJA8, NDE1, SNAP29, and GJA5. Integration of genes affected by CNVs with known schizophrenia susceptibility genes (from previous genetic linkage and association studies) reveals that many genes disrupted by CNVs are also associated with schizophrenia. Further protein-protein interaction (PPI) analysis indicates that protein products of genes affected by CNVs frequently interact with known schizophrenia-associated proteins. Finally, systematic integration of CNVs prioritization data with genetic association and PPI data identifies key schizophrenia candidate genes. Our results provide a global overview of genes impacted by CNVs in schizophrenia and reveal a densely interconnected molecular network of de novo CNVs in schizophrenia. Though the prioritized top genes represent promising schizophrenia risk genes, further work with different prioritization methods and independent samples is needed to confirm these findings. Nevertheless, the identified key candidate genes may have important roles in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia, and further functional characterization of these genes may provide pivotal targets for future therapeutics and

  1. Genetic and epigenetic variation in 5S ribosomal RNA genes reveals genome dynamics in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Lauriane; Rabanal, Fernando A; Dubos, Tristan; Oliver, Cecilia; Lauber, Damien; Poulet, Axel; Vogt, Alexander; Mandlbauer, Ariane; Le Goff, Samuel; Sommer, Andreas; Duborjal, Hervé; Tatout, Christophe; Probst, Aline V

    2018-04-06

    Organized in tandem repeat arrays in most eukaryotes and transcribed by RNA polymerase III, expression of 5S rRNA genes is under epigenetic control. To unveil mechanisms of transcriptional regulation, we obtained here in depth sequence information on 5S rRNA genes from the Arabidopsis thaliana genome and identified differential enrichment in epigenetic marks between the three 5S rDNA loci situated on chromosomes 3, 4 and 5. We reveal the chromosome 5 locus as the major source of an atypical, long 5S rRNA transcript characteristic of an open chromatin structure. 5S rRNA genes from this locus translocated in the Landsberg erecta ecotype as shown by linkage mapping and chromosome-specific FISH analysis. These variations in 5S rDNA locus organization cause changes in the spatial arrangement of chromosomes in the nucleus. Furthermore, 5S rRNA gene arrangements are highly dynamic with alterations in chromosomal positions through translocations in certain mutants of the RNA-directed DNA methylation pathway and important copy number variations among ecotypes. Finally, variations in 5S rRNA gene sequence, chromatin organization and transcripts indicate differential usage of 5S rDNA loci in distinct ecotypes. We suggest that both the usage of existing and new 5S rDNA loci resulting from translocations may impact neighboring chromatin organization.

  2. A Multi-Variate Fit to the Chemical Composition of the Cosmic-Ray Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisch, Jonathan

    Since the discovery of cosmic rays over a century ago, evidence of their origins has remained elusive. Deflected by galactic magnetic fields, the only direct evidence of their origin and propagation remain encoded in their energy distribution and chemical composition. Current models of galactic cosmic rays predict variations of the energy distribution of individual elements in an energy region around 3x1015 eV known as the knee. This work presents a method to measure the energy distribution of individual elemental groups in the knee region and its application to a year of data from the IceCube detector. The method uses cosmic rays detected by both IceTop, the surface-array component, and the deep-ice component of IceCube during the 2009-2010 operation of the IC-59 detector. IceTop is used to measure the energy and the relative likelihood of the mass composition using the signal from the cosmic-ray induced extensive air shower reaching the surface. IceCube, 1.5 km below the surface, measures the energy of the high-energy bundle of muons created in the very first interactions after the cosmic ray enters the atmosphere. These event distributions are fit by a constrained model derived from detailed simulations of cosmic rays representing five chemical elements. The results of this analysis are evaluated in terms of the theoretical uncertainties in cosmic-ray interactions and seasonal variations in the atmosphere. The improvements in high-energy cosmic ray hadronic-interaction models informed by this analysis, combined with increased data from subsequent operation of the IceCube detector, could provide crucial limits on the origin of cosmic rays and their propagation through the galaxy. In the course of developing this method, a number of analysis and statistical techniques were developed to deal with the difficulties inherent in this type of measurement. These include a composition-sensitive air shower reconstruction technique, a method to model simulated event

  3. Disseminated cysticercosis: clinical spectrum, Toll-like receptor-4 gene polymorphisms and role of albendazole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qavi, Abdul; Garg, Ravindra Kumar; Malhotra, Hardeep Singh; Jain, Amita; Kumar, Neeraj; Malhotra, Kiran Preet; Srivastava, Pradeep Kumar; Verma, Rajesh; Sharma, Praveen Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In this study, we describe clinical and imaging spectrum, and the natural course of patients with disseminated cysticercosis. How albendazole affects the course of disease has also been evaluated. We assessed the Toll-like receptor-4 gene polymorphisms, to know the reason for the apparently higher prevalence of disseminated cysticercosis in India. Sixty consecutive patients with disseminated cysticercosis were enrolled. Sixty age-and-sex-matched healthy controls were also enrolled for the purpose of genetic study. Twenty patients, who gave consent, were treated with albendazole along with corticosteroids. Forty patients did not give consent for antiparasitic therapy. Assessment for Toll-like receptor-4 gene polymorphisms (Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile genes) was done. Patients were followed for 6 months. We also performed a literature search of cases published in English language using PubMed electronic database and analyzed 56 cases thus available. There was an increased risk (6.63 fold and 4.61 fold) of disseminated cysticercosis in the presence of Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile polymorphisms in Toll-like receptor-4, respectively. The allelic frequency of Gly (11% vs. 3%, P = 0.024, odds ratio [OR] = 3.52) and Ile alleles (11% vs. 2%, P = 0.009, OR = 4.738) in disseminated cysticercosis was high. Albendazole resulted in complete disappearance of all cerebral lesions in 35% (7/20) patients and reduction in lesion load in remaining 65% (13/20) patients. No significant change in number of cysticercal lesion was noted in patients who did not receive albendazole. No major adverse reaction following antiparasitic treatment was noted. Three deaths were recorded in patients who did not receive antiparasitic treatment. Of the 56 cases reported in PubMed, 33 patients received antiparasitic treatment with follow-up data available for 31 patients. Most (24) of these patients received albendazole. A significant clinical and/or imaging improvements, on follow up, were observed in

  4. Interplanetary Magnetic Field Power Spectrum Variations in the Inner Heliosphere: A Wind and MESSENGER Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, Adam; Koval, A.

    2011-01-01

    The newly reprocessed high time resolution (11/22 vectors/sec) Wind mission interplanetary magnetic field data and the similar observations made by the MESSENGER spacecraft in the inner heliosphere affords an opportunity to compare magnetic field power spectral density variations as a function of radial distance from the Sun under different solar wind conditions. In the reprocessed Wind Magnetic Field Investigation (MFI) data, the spin tone and its harmonics are greatly reduced that allows the meaningful fitting of power spectra to the approx.2 Hz limit above which digitization noise becomes apparent. The powe'r spectral density is computed and the spectral index is fitted for the MHD and ion inertial regime separately along with the break point between the two for various solar wind conditions. Wind and MESSENGER magnetic fluctuations are compared for times when the two spacecraft are close to radial and Parker field alignment. The functional dependence of the ion inertial spectral index and break point on solar wind plasma and magnetic field conditions will be discussed.

  5. Geographic Variation in Advertisement Calls in a Tree Frog Species: Gene Flow and Selection Hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Yikweon; Hahm, Eun Hye; Lee, Hyun-Jung; Park, Soyeon; Won, Yong-Jin; Choe, Jae C.

    2011-01-01

    Background In a species with a large distribution relative to its dispersal capacity, geographic variation in traits may be explained by gene flow, selection, or the combined effects of both. Studies of genetic diversity using neutral molecular markers show that patterns of isolation by distance (IBD) or barrier effect may be evident for geographic variation at the molecular level in amphibian species. However, selective factors such as habitat, predator, or interspecific interactions may be critical for geographic variation in sexual traits. We studied geographic variation in advertisement calls in the tree frog Hyla japonica to understand patterns of variation in these traits across Korea and provide clues about the underlying forces for variation. Methodology We recorded calls of H. japonica in three breeding seasons from 17 localities including localities in remote Jeju Island. Call characters analyzed were note repetition rate (NRR), note duration (ND), and dominant frequency (DF), along with snout-to-vent length. Results The findings of a barrier effect on DF and a longitudinal variation in NRR seemed to suggest that an open sea between the mainland and Jeju Island and mountain ranges dominated by the north-south Taebaek Mountains were related to geographic variation in call characters. Furthermore, there was a pattern of IBD in mitochondrial DNA sequences. However, no comparable pattern of IBD was found between geographic distance and call characters. We also failed to detect any effects of habitat or interspecific interaction on call characters. Conclusions Geographic variations in call characters as well as mitochondrial DNA sequences were largely stratified by geographic factors such as distance and barriers in Korean populations of H. japoinca. Although we did not detect effects of habitat or interspecific interaction, some other selective factors such as sexual selection might still be operating on call characters in conjunction with restricted gene

  6. The role of β3 integrin gene variants in Autism Spectrum Disorders--diagnosis and symptomatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuch, Jaqueline Bohrer; Muller, Diana; Endres, Renata Giuliani; Bosa, Cleonice Alves; Longo, Dânae; Schuler-Faccini, Lavinia; Ranzan, Josiane; Becker, Michele Michelin; dos Santos Riesgo, Rudimar; Roman, Tatiana

    2014-12-10

    Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) represent a group of very complex early-onset neurodevelopmental diseases. In this study, we analyzed 5 SNPs (rs2317385, rs5918, rs15908, rs12603582, rs3809865) at the β3 integrin locus (ITGB3), which has been suggested as a possible susceptibility gene, both as single markers and as part of haplotypes in 209 ASD children and their biological parents. We tested for association with the following: a) DSM-IV ASD diagnosis; b) clinical symptoms common in ASD patients (repetitive behaviors, echolalia, seizures and epilepsy, mood instability, aggression, psychomotor agitation, sleep disorders); and c) dimensional scores obtained with the Autism Screening Questionnaire and the Childhood Autism Rating Scale. These hypotheses were investigated using family-based tests, logistic regression models and analysis of covariance. The family-based tests showed an association with the H5 haplotype (composed by GTCGA alleles, the order of SNPs as above), which was transmitted less often than expected by chance (P=0.006; Pcorr=0.036). The analyses of the clinical symptoms showed a trend for an association with rs12603582 (P=0.008; Pcorr=0.064) and positive results for the haplotype composed of rs15908 and rs12603582 (Pglcorr=0.048; Pindcorr=0.015), both in symptoms of echolalia. Other nominal associations with different variants were found and involved epilepsy/seizures, aggression symptoms and higher ASQ scores. Although our positive results are not definitive, they suggest small effect associations of the ITGB3 gene with both ASD diagnosis and symptoms of echolalia. Other studies are nonetheless needed to fully understand the involvement of this locus on the etiology of ASDs and its different clinical aspects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Sequence Variation in Toxoplasma gondii rop17 Gene among Strains from Different Hosts and Geographical Locations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nian-Zhang Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic diversity of T. gondii is a concern of many studies, due to the biological and epidemiological diversity of this parasite. The present study examined sequence variation in rhoptry protein 17 (ROP17 gene among T. gondii isolates from different hosts and geographical regions. The rop17 gene was amplified and sequenced from 10 T. gondii strains, and phylogenetic relationship among these T. gondii strains was reconstructed using maximum parsimony (MP, neighbor-joining (NJ, and maximum likelihood (ML analyses. The partial rop17 gene sequences were 1375 bp in length and A+T contents varied from 49.45% to 50.11% among all examined T. gondii strains. Sequence analysis identified 33 variable nucleotide positions (2.1%, 16 of which were identified as transitions. Phylogeny reconstruction based on rop17 gene data revealed two major clusters which could readily distinguish Type I and Type II strains. Analyses of sequence variations in nucleotides and amino acids among these strains revealed high ratio of nonsynonymous to synonymous polymorphisms (>1, indicating that rop17 shows signs of positive selection. This study demonstrated the existence of slightly high sequence variability in the rop17 gene sequences among T. gondii strains from different hosts and geographical regions, suggesting that rop17 gene may represent a new genetic marker for population genetic studies of T. gondii isolates.

  8. Replication of type 2 diabetes candidate genes variations in three geographically unrelated Indian population groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Shafat; Chopra, Rupali; Manvati, Siddharth; Singh, Yoginder Pal; Kaul, Nabodita; Behura, Anita; Mahajan, Ankit; Sehajpal, Prabodh; Gupta, Subash; Dhar, Manoj K; Chainy, Gagan B N; Bhanwer, Amarjit S; Sharma, Swarkar; Bamezai, Rameshwar N K

    2013-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a syndrome of multiple metabolic disorders and is genetically heterogeneous. India comprises one of the largest global populations with highest number of reported type 2 diabetes cases. However, limited information about T2D associated loci is available for Indian populations. It is, therefore, pertinent to evaluate the previously associated candidates as well as identify novel genetic variations in Indian populations to understand the extent of genetic heterogeneity. We chose to do a cost effective high-throughput mass-array genotyping and studied the candidate gene variations associated with T2D in literature. In this case-control candidate genes association study, 91 SNPs from 55 candidate genes have been analyzed in three geographically independent population groups from India. We report the genetic variants in five candidate genes: TCF7L2, HHEX, ENPP1, IDE and FTO, are significantly associated (after Bonferroni correction, ppopulation. Interestingly, SNP rs7903146 of the TCF7L2 gene passed the genome wide significance threshold (combined P value = 2.05E-08) in the studied populations. We also observed the association of rs7903146 with blood glucose (fasting and postprandial) levels, supporting the role of TCF7L2 gene in blood glucose homeostasis. Further, we noted that the moderate risk provided by the independently associated loci in combined population with Odds Ratio (OR)<1.38 increased to OR = 2.44, (95%CI = 1.67-3.59) when the risk providing genotypes of TCF7L2, HHEX, ENPP1 and FTO genes were combined, suggesting the importance of gene-gene interactions evaluation in complex disorders like T2D.

  9. Replication of type 2 diabetes candidate genes variations in three geographically unrelated Indian population groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafat Ali

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes (T2D is a syndrome of multiple metabolic disorders and is genetically heterogeneous. India comprises one of the largest global populations with highest number of reported type 2 diabetes cases. However, limited information about T2D associated loci is available for Indian populations. It is, therefore, pertinent to evaluate the previously associated candidates as well as identify novel genetic variations in Indian populations to understand the extent of genetic heterogeneity. We chose to do a cost effective high-throughput mass-array genotyping and studied the candidate gene variations associated with T2D in literature. In this case-control candidate genes association study, 91 SNPs from 55 candidate genes have been analyzed in three geographically independent population groups from India. We report the genetic variants in five candidate genes: TCF7L2, HHEX, ENPP1, IDE and FTO, are significantly associated (after Bonferroni correction, p<5.5E-04 with T2D susceptibility in combined population. Interestingly, SNP rs7903146 of the TCF7L2 gene passed the genome wide significance threshold (combined P value = 2.05E-08 in the studied populations. We also observed the association of rs7903146 with blood glucose (fasting and postprandial levels, supporting the role of TCF7L2 gene in blood glucose homeostasis. Further, we noted that the moderate risk provided by the independently associated loci in combined population with Odds Ratio (OR<1.38 increased to OR = 2.44, (95%CI = 1.67-3.59 when the risk providing genotypes of TCF7L2, HHEX, ENPP1 and FTO genes were combined, suggesting the importance of gene-gene interactions evaluation in complex disorders like T2D.

  10. Natural variation in gene expression in the early development of dauer larvae of Caenorhabditis elegans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barker Gary LA

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans makes a developmental decision based on environmental conditions: larvae either arrest as dauer larva, or continue development into reproductive adults. There is natural variation among C. elegans lines in the sensitivity of this decision to environmental conditions; that is, there is variation in the phenotypic plasticity of dauer larva development. We hypothesised that these differences may be transcriptionally controlled in early stage larvae. We investigated this by microarray analysis of different C. elegans lines under different environmental conditions, specifically the presence and absence of dauer larva-inducing pheromone. Results There were substantial transcriptional differences between four C. elegans lines under the same environmental conditions. The expression of approximately 2,000 genes differed between genetically different lines, with each line showing a largely line-specific transcriptional profile. The expression of genes that are markers of larval moulting suggested that the lines may be developing at different rates. The expression of a total of 89 genes was putatively affected by dauer larva or non-dauer larva-inducing conditions. Among the upstream regions of these genes there was an over-representation of DAF-16-binding motifs. Conclusion Under the same environmental conditions genetically different lines of C. elegans had substantial transcriptional differences. This variation may be due to differences in the developmental rates of the lines. Different environmental conditions had a rather smaller effect on transcription. The preponderance of DAF-16-binding motifs upstream of these genes was consistent with these genes playing a key role in the decision between development into dauer or into non-dauer larvae. There was little overlap between the genes whose expression was affected by environmental conditions and previously identified loci involved in

  11. Pulmonary phenotypes associated with genetic variation in telomere-related genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Thijs W; van Moorsel, Coline H M; Borie, Raphael; Crestani, Bruno

    2018-05-01

    Genomic mutations in telomere-related genes have been recognized as a cause of familial forms of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). However, it has become increasingly clear that telomere syndromes and telomere shortening are associated with various types of pulmonary disease. Additionally, it was found that also single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in telomere-related genes are risk factors for the development of pulmonary disease. This review focuses on recent updates on pulmonary phenotypes associated with genetic variation in telomere-related genes. Genomic mutations in seven telomere-related genes cause pulmonary disease. Pulmonary phenotypes associated with these mutations range from many forms of pulmonary fibrosis to emphysema and pulmonary vascular disease. Telomere-related mutations account for up to 10% of sporadic IPF, 25% of familial IPF, 10% of connective-tissue disease-associated interstitial lung disease, and 1% of COPD. Mixed disease forms have also been found. Furthermore, SNPs in TERT, TERC, OBFC1, and RTEL1, as well as short telomere length, have been associated with several pulmonary diseases. Treatment of pulmonary disease caused by telomere-related gene variation is currently based on disease diagnosis and not on the underlying cause. Pulmonary phenotypes found in carriers of telomere-related gene mutations and SNPs are primarily pulmonary fibrosis, sometimes emphysema and rarely pulmonary vascular disease. Genotype-phenotype relations are weak, suggesting that environmental factors and genetic background of patients determine disease phenotypes to a large degree. A disease model is presented wherever genomic variation in telomere-related genes cause specific pulmonary disease phenotypes whenever triggered by environmental exposure, comorbidity, or unknown factors.

  12. Steps toward broad-spectrum therapeutics: discovering virulence-associated genes present in diverse human pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Rochefort Anna

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background New and improved antimicrobial countermeasures are urgently needed to counteract increased resistance to existing antimicrobial treatments and to combat currently untreatable or new emerging infectious diseases. We demonstrate that computational comparative genomics, together with experimental screening, can identify potential generic (i.e., conserved across multiple pathogen species and novel virulence-associated genes that may serve as targets for broad-spectrum countermeasures. Results Using phylogenetic profiles of protein clusters from completed microbial genome sequences, we identified seventeen protein candidates that are common to diverse human pathogens and absent or uncommon in non-pathogens. Mutants of 13 of these candidates were successfully generated in Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and the potential role of the proteins in virulence was assayed in an animal model. Six candidate proteins are suggested to be involved in the virulence of Y. pseudotuberculosis, none of which have previously been implicated in the virulence of Y. pseudotuberculosis and three have no record of involvement in the virulence of any bacteria. Conclusion This work demonstrates a strategy for the identification of potential virulence factors that are conserved across a number of human pathogenic bacterial species, confirming the usefulness of this tool.

  13. Lack of influence of GTP cyclohydrolase gene (GCH1 variations on pain sensitivity in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dionne Raymond A

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives To assess the effect of variations in GTP cyclohydrolase gene (GCH1 on pain sensitivity in humans. Methods Thermal and cold pain sensitivity were evaluated in a cohort of 735 healthy volunteers. Among this cohort, the clinical pain responses of 221 subjects after the surgical removal of impacted third molars were evaluated. Genotyping was done for 38 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs whose heterozygosity > 0.2 in GCH1. Influence of the genetic variations including SNPs and haplotypes on pain sensitivity were analyzed. Results Minor allele frequencies and linkage disequilibrium show significant differences in European Americans, African Americans, Hispanic Americans and Asian Americans. Association analyses in European Americans do not replicate the previously reported important influence of GCH1 variations on pain sensitivity. Conclusion Considering population stratification, previously reported associations between GCH1 genetic variations and pain sensitivity appear weak or negligible in this well characterized model of pain.

  14. Natural genetic variation in Arabidopsis thaliana defense metabolism genes modulates field fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerwin, Rachel; Feusier, Julie; Corwin, Jason; Rubin, Matthew; Lin, Catherine; Muok, Alise; Larson, Brandon; Li, Baohua; Joseph, Bindu; Francisco, Marta; Copeland, Daniel; Weinig, Cynthia; Kliebenstein, Daniel J

    2015-01-01

    Natural populations persist in complex environments, where biotic stressors, such as pathogen and insect communities, fluctuate temporally and spatially. These shifting biotic pressures generate heterogeneous selective forces that can maintain standing natural variation within a species. To directly test if genes containing causal variation for the Arabidopsis thaliana defensive compounds, glucosinolates (GSL) control field fitness and are therefore subject to natural selection, we conducted a multi-year field trial using lines that vary in only specific causal genes. Interestingly, we found that variation in these naturally polymorphic GSL genes affected fitness in each of our environments but the pattern fluctuated such that highly fit genotypes in one trial displayed lower fitness in another and that no GSL genotype or genotypes consistently out-performed the others. This was true both across locations and within the same location across years. These results indicate that environmental heterogeneity may contribute to the maintenance of GSL variation observed within Arabidopsis thaliana. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.05604.001 PMID:25867014

  15. The Orphan Gene dauerless Regulates Dauer Development and Intraspecific Competition in Nematodes by Copy Number Variation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie G Mayer

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Many nematodes form dauer larvae when exposed to unfavorable conditions, representing an example of phenotypic plasticity and a major survival and dispersal strategy. In Caenorhabditis elegans, the regulation of dauer induction is a model for pheromone, insulin, and steroid-hormone signaling. Recent studies in Pristionchus pacificus revealed substantial natural variation in various aspects of dauer development, i.e. pheromone production and sensing and dauer longevity and fitness. One intriguing example is a strain from Ohio, having extremely long-lived dauers associated with very high fitness and often forming the most dauers in response to other strains' pheromones, including the reference strain from California. While such examples have been suggested to represent intraspecific competition among strains, the molecular mechanisms underlying these dauer-associated patterns are currently unknown. We generated recombinant-inbred-lines between the Californian and Ohioan strains and used quantitative-trait-loci analysis to investigate the molecular mechanism determining natural variation in dauer development. Surprisingly, we discovered that the orphan gene dauerless controls dauer formation by copy number variation. The Ohioan strain has one dauerless copy causing high dauer formation, whereas the Californian strain has two copies, resulting in strongly reduced dauer formation. Transgenic animals expressing multiple copies do not form dauers. dauerless is exclusively expressed in CAN neurons, and both CAN ablation and dauerless mutations increase dauer formation. Strikingly, dauerless underwent several duplications and acts in parallel or downstream of steroid-hormone signaling but upstream of the nuclear-hormone-receptor daf-12. We identified the novel or fast-evolving gene dauerless as inhibitor of dauer development. Our findings reveal the importance of gene duplications and copy number variations for orphan gene function and suggest daf-12 as

  16. Temporal gene expression variation associated with eyespot size plasticity in Bicyclus anynana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey C Oliver

    Full Text Available Seasonal polyphenism demonstrates an organism's ability to respond to predictable environmental variation with alternative phenotypes, each presumably better suited to its respective environment. However, the molecular mechanisms linking environmental variation to alternative phenotypes via shifts in development remain relatively unknown. Here we investigate temporal gene expression variation in the seasonally polyphenic butterfly Bicyclus anynana. This species shows drastic changes in eyespot size depending on the temperature experienced during larval development. The wet season form (larvae reared over 24°C has large ventral wing eyespots while the dry season form (larvae reared under 19°C has much smaller eyespots. We compared the expression of three proteins, Notch, Engrailed, and Distal-less, in the future eyespot centers of the two forms to determine if eyespot size variation is associated with heterochronic shifts in the onset of their expression. For two of these proteins, Notch and Engrailed, expression in eyespot centers occurred earlier in dry season than in wet season larvae, while Distal-less showed no temporal difference between the two forms. These results suggest that differences between dry and wet season adult wings could be due to a delay in the onset of expression of these eyespot-associated genes. Early in eyespot development, Notch and Engrailed may be functioning as repressors rather than activators of the eyespot gene network. Alternatively, temporal variation in the onset of early expressed genes between forms may have no functional consequences to eyespot size regulation and may indicate the presence of an 'hourglass' model of development in butterfly eyespots.

  17. Global and disease-associated genetic variation in the human Fanconi anemia gene family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Kai J; Fu, Wenqing; Akey, Joshua M; Monnat, Raymond J

    2014-12-20

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is a human recessive genetic disease resulting from inactivating mutations in any of 16 FANC (Fanconi) genes. Individuals with FA are at high risk of developmental abnormalities, early bone marrow failure and leukemia. These are followed in the second and subsequent decades by a very high risk of carcinomas of the head and neck and anogenital region, and a small continuing risk of leukemia. In order to characterize base pair-level disease-associated (DA) and population genetic variation in FANC genes and the segregation of this variation in the human population, we identified 2948 unique FANC gene variants including 493 FA DA variants across 57,240 potential base pair variation sites in the 16 FANC genes. We then analyzed the segregation of this variation in the 7578 subjects included in the Exome Sequencing Project (ESP) and the 1000 Genomes Project (1KGP). There was a remarkably high frequency of FA DA variants in ESP/1KGP subjects: at least 1 FA DA variant was identified in 78.5% (5950 of 7578) individuals included in these two studies. Six widely used functional prediction algorithms correctly identified only a third of the known, DA FANC missense variants. We also identified FA DA variants that may be good candidates for different types of mutation-specific therapies. Our results demonstrate the power of direct DNA sequencing to detect, estimate the frequency of and follow the segregation of deleterious genetic variation in human populations. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Common Genetic Variation In Cellular Transport Genes and Epithelial Ovarian Cancer (EOC) Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chornokur, Ganna; Lin, Hui-Yi; Tyrer, Jonathan P

    2015-01-01

    . As DNA damage and uncontrolled proliferation are hallmarks of cancer, including epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), we hypothesized that inherited variation in the cellular transport genes contributes to EOC risk. METHODS: In total, DNA samples were obtained from 14,525 case subjects with invasive EOC......BACKGROUND: Defective cellular transport processes can lead to aberrant accumulation of trace elements, iron, small molecules and hormones in the cell, which in turn may promote the formation of reactive oxygen species, promoting DNA damage and aberrant expression of key regulatory cancer genes...... and from 23,447 controls from 43 sites in the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium (OCAC). Two hundred seventy nine SNPs, representing 131 genes, were genotyped using an Illumina Infinium iSelect BeadChip as part of the Collaborative Oncological Gene-environment Study (COGS). SNP analyses were conducted...

  19. Heritable Variation, With Little or No Maternal Effect, Accounts for Recurrence Risk to Autism Spectrum Disorder in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Benjamin Hon Kei; Bai, Dan; Mahjani, Behrang; Klei, Lambertus; Pawitan, Yudi; Hultman, Christina M; Grice, Dorothy E; Roeder, Kathryn; Buxbaum, Joseph D; Devlin, Bernie; Reichenberg, Abraham; Sandin, Sven

    2018-04-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has both genetic and environmental origins, including potentially maternal effects. Maternal effects describe the association of one or more maternal phenotypes with liability to ASD in progeny that are independent of maternally transmitted risk alleles. While maternal effects could play an important role, consistent with association to maternal traits such as immune status, no study has estimated maternal, additive genetic, and environmental effects in ASD. Using a population-based sample consisting of all children born in Sweden from 1998 to 2007 and their relatives, we fitted statistical models to family data to estimate the variance in ASD liability originating from maternal, additive genetic, and shared environmental effects. We calculated sibling and cousin family recurrence risk ratio as a direct measure of familial, genetic, and environmental risk factors and repeated the calculations on diagnostic subgroups, specifically autistic disorder (AD) and spectrum disorder (SD), which included Asperger's syndrome and/or pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified. The sample consisted of 776,212 children of whom 11,231 had a diagnosis of ASD: 4554 with AD, 6677 with SD. We found support for large additive genetic contribution to liability; heritability (95% confidence interval [CI]) was estimated to 84.8% (95% CI: 73.1-87.3) for ASD, 79.6% (95% CI: 61.2-85.1) for AD, and 76.4% (95% CI: 63.0-82.5) for SD. There was modest, if any, contribution of maternal effects to liability for ASD, including subtypes AD and SD, and there was no support for shared environmental effects. These results show liability to ASD arises largely from additive genetic variation. Copyright © 2017 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Polymorphic Variation in Double Strand Break Repair Gene in Indian Population: A Comparative Approach with Worldwide Ethnic Group Variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Raju Kumar; Mittal, Rama Devi

    2018-04-01

    DNA repair capacity is essential in maintaining cellular functions and homeostasis. Identification of genetic polymorphisms responsible for reduced DNA repair capacity may allow better cancer prevention. Double strand break repair pathway plays critical roles in maintaining genome stability. Present study was conducted to determine distribution of XRCC3 Exon 7 (C18067T, rs861539) and XRCC7 Intron 8 (G6721T, rs7003908) gene polymorphisms in North Indian population and compare with different populations globally. The genotype assays were performed in 224 normal healthy individuals of similar ethnicity using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Allelic frequencies of wild type were 79% (C) in XRCC3 Exon 7 C > T and 57% (G) in XRCC7 Intron 8 (G > T) 57% (G) observed. On the other hand, the variant allele frequency were 21% (T) in XRCC3 Exon 7 C > T and 43% (T) in XRCC7 Intron 8 G > T respectively. Major differences from other ethnic populations were observed. Our results suggest that frequency in these DNA repair genes exhibit distinctive pattern in India that could be attributed to ethnicity variation. This could assist in high-risk screening of humans exposed to environmental carcinogens and cancer predisposition in different ethnic groups.

  1. Variation in the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) is associated with differences in moral judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhard, Regan M; Chaponis, Jonathan; Siburian, Richie; Gallagher, Patience; Ransohoff, Katherine; Wikler, Daniel; Perlis, Roy H; Greene, Joshua D

    2016-12-01

    Moral judgments are produced through the coordinated interaction of multiple neural systems, each of which relies on a characteristic set of neurotransmitters. Genes that produce or regulate these neurotransmitters may have distinctive influences on moral judgment. Two studies examined potential genetic influences on moral judgment using dilemmas that reliably elicit competing automatic and controlled responses, generated by dissociable neural systems. Study 1 (N = 228) examined 49 common variants (SNPs) within 10 candidate genes and identified a nominal association between a polymorphism (rs237889) of the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) and variation in deontological vs utilitarian moral judgment (that is, judgments favoring individual rights vs the greater good). An association was likewise observed for rs1042615 of the arginine vasopressin receptor gene (AVPR1A). Study 2 (N = 322) aimed to replicate these findings using the aforementioned dilemmas as well as a new set of structurally similar medical dilemmas. Study 2 failed to replicate the association with AVPR1A, but replicated the OXTR finding using both the original and new dilemmas. Together, these findings suggest that moral judgment is influenced by variation in the oxytocin receptor gene and, more generally, that single genetic polymorphisms can have a detectable effect on complex decision processes. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press.

  2. Understanding gene sequence variation in the context of transcription regulation in yeast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irit Gat-Viks

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available DNA sequence polymorphism in a regulatory protein can have a widespread transcriptional effect. Here we present a computational approach for analyzing modules of genes with a common regulation that are affected by specific DNA polymorphisms. We identify such regulatory-linkage modules by integrating genotypic and expression data for individuals in a segregating population with complementary expression data of strains mutated in a variety of regulatory proteins. Our procedure searches simultaneously for groups of co-expressed genes, for their common underlying linkage interval, and for their shared regulatory proteins. We applied the method to a cross between laboratory and wild strains of S. cerevisiae, demonstrating its ability to correctly suggest modules and to outperform extant approaches. Our results suggest that middle sporulation genes are under the control of polymorphism in the sporulation-specific tertiary complex Sum1p/Rfm1p/Hst1p. In another example, our analysis reveals novel inter-relations between Swi3 and two mitochondrial inner membrane proteins underlying variation in a module of aerobic cellular respiration genes. Overall, our findings demonstrate that this approach provides a useful framework for the systematic mapping of quantitative trait loci and their role in gene expression variation.

  3. A relative variation-based method to unraveling gene regulatory networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yali Wang

    Full Text Available Gene regulatory network (GRN reconstruction is essential in understanding the functioning and pathology of a biological system. Extensive models and algorithms have been developed to unravel a GRN. The DREAM project aims to clarify both advantages and disadvantages of these methods from an application viewpoint. An interesting yet surprising observation is that compared with complicated methods like those based on nonlinear differential equations, etc., methods based on a simple statistics, such as the so-called Z-score, usually perform better. A fundamental problem with the Z-score, however, is that direct and indirect regulations can not be easily distinguished. To overcome this drawback, a relative expression level variation (RELV based GRN inference algorithm is suggested in this paper, which consists of three major steps. Firstly, on the basis of wild type and single gene knockout/knockdown experimental data, the magnitude of RELV of a gene is estimated. Secondly, probability for the existence of a direct regulation from a perturbed gene to a measured gene is estimated, which is further utilized to estimate whether a gene can be regulated by other genes. Finally, the normalized RELVs are modified to make genes with an estimated zero in-degree have smaller RELVs in magnitude than the other genes, which is used afterwards in queuing possibilities of the existence of direct regulations among genes and therefore leads to an estimate on the GRN topology. This method can in principle avoid the so-called cascade errors under certain situations. Computational results with the Size 100 sub-challenges of DREAM3 and DREAM4 show that, compared with the Z-score based method, prediction performances can be substantially improved, especially the AUPR specification. Moreover, it can even outperform the best team of both DREAM3 and DREAM4. Furthermore, the high precision of the obtained most reliable predictions shows that the suggested algorithm may be

  4. Novel Variations of FANCA Gene Provokes Fanconi Anemia: Molecular Diagnosis in a Special Chinese Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Niu; Song, Aiyun; Ding, Lixia; Zhu, Hua; Li, Guoqiang; Miao, Yan; Wang, Jian; Li, Benshang; Chen, Jing

    2018-07-01

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is a rare autosomal recessive or X-linked disorder with highly variable clinical manifestations and an incidence of ∼1 to 5 in 1 million births. To date, 15 bona fide FA genes have been reported to be responsible for the known FA complementation groups and the FANCA gene accounts for almost 60%. In the present study, we report a special Chinese family, which has 2 children with classic FA characteristics. Via 2-step analysis of the whole-exome sequencing data and verification using multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification test, one child was found to have a novel compound heterozygous mutation of a splicing variant (c.1471-1G>A) and a large intragenic deletion (exons 23-30 del) of the FANCA gene. The other child had the same splicing variant and another novel large deletion (exons 1-18 del) in the FANCA gene. Clone sequencing showed the c.1471-1G>A variant generate an altered transcript with 1 cryptic splice site in intron 15, resulting in a premature termination codon (p.Val490HisfsX6). This study not only shows the complexity of FA molecular diagnosis via comprehensively studying the FA pathogenic genes and the mutational spectrum, but also has significant reference value for the future molecular diagnosis of FA.

  5. Race/Ethnic Based Genetic Variations in Human Genes: Defining the Genetic Evidence for Disparity of Prostate Cancer Risk and Mortality Between Different Populations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Franklin, John

    1999-01-01

    .... The study will evaluate variations in androgen receptor gene, the vitamin D receptor gene, and the APOJ/clusterin gene by amplifying specific DNA segments from certain genes utilizing a commonly used...

  6. Melanopsin Gene Variations Interact With Season to Predict Sleep Onset and Chronotype

    OpenAIRE

    Roecklein, Kathryn A.; Wong, Patricia M.; Franzen, Peter L.; Hasler, Brant P.; Wood-Vasey, W. Michael; Nimgaonkar, Vishwajit L.; Miller, Megan A.; Kepreos, Kyle M.; Ferrell, Robert E.; Manuck, Stephen B.

    2012-01-01

    The human melanopsin gene has been reported to mediate risk for seasonal affective disorder (SAD), which is hypothesized to be caused by decreased photic input during winter when light levels fall below threshold, resulting in differences in circadian phase and/or sleep. However, it is unclear if melanopsin increases risk of SAD by causing differences in sleep or circadian phase, or if those differences are symptoms of the mood disorder. To determine if melanopsin sequence variations are asso...

  7. Selected vitamin D metabolic gene variants and risk for autism spectrum disorder in the CHARGE Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Rebecca J; Hansen, Robin L; Hartiala, Jaana; Allayee, Hooman; Sconberg, Jaime L; Schmidt, Linda C; Volk, Heather E; Tassone, Flora

    2015-08-01

    Vitamin D is essential for proper neurodevelopment and cognitive and behavioral function. We examined associations between autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and common, functional polymorphisms in vitamin D pathways. Children aged 24-60 months enrolled from 2003 to 2009 in the population-based CHARGE case-control study were evaluated clinically and confirmed to have ASD (n=474) or typical development (TD, n=281). Maternal, paternal, and child DNA samples for 384 (81%) families of children with ASD and 234 (83%) families of TD children were genotyped for: TaqI, BsmI, FokI, and Cdx2 in the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene, and CYP27B1 rs4646536, GC rs4588, and CYP2R1 rs10741657. Case-control logistic regression, family-based log-linear, and hybrid log-linear analyses were conducted to produce risk estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for each allelic variant. Paternal VDR TaqI homozygous variant genotype was significantly associated with ASD in case-control analysis (odds ratio [OR] [CI]: 6.3 [1.9-20.7]) and there was a trend towards increased risk associated with VDR BsmI (OR [CI]: 4.7 [1.6-13.4]). Log-linear triad analyses detected parental imprinting, with greater effects of paternally-derived VDR alleles. Child GC AA-genotype/A-allele was associated with ASD in log-linear and ETDT analyses. A significant association between decreased ASD risk and child CYP2R1 AA-genotype was found in hybrid log-linear analysis. There were limitations of low statistical power for less common alleles due to missing paternal genotypes. This study provides preliminary evidence that paternal and child vitamin D metabolism could play a role in the etiology of ASD; further research in larger study populations is warranted. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  8. Lack of association between NLGN3, NLGN4, SHANK2 and SHANK3 gene variants and autism spectrum disorder in a Chinese population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanyan Liu

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorder (ASD is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by deficits in social communication, absence or delay in language development, and stereotyped or repetitive behaviors. Genetic studies show that neurexin-neuroligin (NRXN-NLGN pathway genes contribute susceptibility to ASD, which include cell adhesion molecules NLGN3, NLGN4 and scaffolding proteins SHANK2 and SHANK3. Neuroligin proteins play an important role in synaptic function and trans-synaptic signaling by interacting with presynaptic neurexins. Shank proteins are scaffolding molecules of excitatory synapses, which function as central organizers of the postsynaptic density. Sequence level mutations and structural variations in these genes have been identified in ASD cases, while few studies were performed in Chinese population. In this study, we examined the copy numbers of four genes NLGN4, NLGN3, SHANK2, and SHANK3 in 285 ASD cases using multiplex fluorescence competitive polymerase chain reaction (PCR. We also screened the regulatory region including the promoter region and 5'/3' untranslated regions (UTR and the entire coding region of NLGN4 in a cohort of 285 ASD patients and 384 controls by direct sequencing of genomic DNA using the Sanger method. DNA copy number calculation in four genes showed no deletion or duplication in our cases. No missense mutations in NLGN4 were identified in our cohort. Association analysis of 6 common SNPs in NLGN4 did not find significant difference between ASD cases and controls. These findings showed that these genes may not be major disease genes in Chinese ASD cases.

  9. Candidate gene approach for parasite resistance in sheep--variation in immune pathway genes and association with fecal egg count.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathiravan Periasamy

    Full Text Available Sheep chromosome 3 (Oar3 has the largest number of QTLs reported to be significantly associated with resistance to gastro-intestinal nematodes. This study aimed to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs within candidate genes located in sheep chromosome 3 as well as genes involved in major immune pathways. A total of 41 SNPs were identified across 38 candidate genes in a panel of unrelated sheep and genotyped in 713 animals belonging to 22 breeds across Asia, Europe and South America. The variations and evolution of immune pathway genes were assessed in sheep populations across these macro-environmental regions that significantly differ in the diversity and load of pathogens. The mean minor allele frequency (MAF did not vary between Asian and European sheep reflecting the absence of ascertainment bias. Phylogenetic analysis revealed two major clusters with most of South Asian, South East Asian and South West Asian breeds clustering together while European and South American sheep breeds clustered together distinctly. Analysis of molecular variance revealed strong phylogeographic structure at loci located in immune pathway genes, unlike microsatellite and genome wide SNP markers. To understand the influence of natural selection processes, SNP loci located in chromosome 3 were utilized to reconstruct haplotypes, the diversity of which showed significant deviations from selective neutrality. Reduced Median network of reconstructed haplotypes showed balancing selection in force at these loci. Preliminary association of SNP genotypes with phenotypes recorded 42 days post challenge revealed significant differences (P<0.05 in fecal egg count, body weight change and packed cell volume at two, four and six SNP loci respectively. In conclusion, the present study reports strong phylogeographic structure and balancing selection operating at SNP loci located within immune pathway genes. Further, SNP loci identified in the study were found to have

  10. Association of variation in Fc gamma receptor 3B gene copy number with rheumatoid arthritis in Caucasian samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McKinney, Cushla; Fanciulli, Manuela; Merriman, Marilyn E.; Phipps-Green, Amanda; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z.; Koeleman, Bobby P. C.; Dalbeth, Nicola; Gow, Peter J.; Harrison, Andrew A.; Highton, John; Jones, Peter B.; Stamp, Lisa K.; Steer, Sophia; Barrera, Pilar; Coenen, Marieke J. H.; Franke, Barbara; van Riel, Piet L. C. M.; Vyse, Tim J.; Aitman, Tim J.; Radstake, Timothy R. D. J.; Merriman, Tony R.

    2010-01-01

    Objective There is increasing evidence that variation in gene copy number (CN) influences clinical phenotype. The low-affinity Fc gamma receptor 3B (FCGR3B) located in the FCGR gene cluster is a CN polymorphic gene involved in the recruitment to sites of inflammation and activation of

  11. Association of variation in Fcgamma receptor 3B gene copy number with rheumatoid arthritis in Caucasian samples.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McKinney, C.; Fanciulli, M.; Merriman, M.E.; Phipps-Green, A.; Alizadeh, B.Z.; Koeleman, B.P.; Dalbeth, N.; Gow, P.J.; Harrison, A.A.; Highton, J.; Jones, P.B.; Stamp, L.K.; Steer, S.; Barrera, P.; Coenen, M.J.H.; Franke, B.; Riel, P.L.C.M. van; Vyse, T.J.; Aitman, T.J.; Radstake, T.R.D.J.; Merriman, T.R.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: There is increasing evidence that variation in gene copy number (CN) influences clinical phenotype. The low-affinity Fcgamma receptor 3B (FCGR3B) located in the FCGR gene cluster is a CN polymorphic gene involved in the recruitment to sites of inflammation and activation of

  12. Effects of abhydrolase domain containing 5 gene (ABHD5) expression and variations on chicken fat metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Hongjia; Liu, Qing; Xu, Jiguo; Zeng, Fang; Pang, Xiaolin; Jebessa, Endashaw; Liang, Shaodong; Nie, Qinghua; Zhang, Xiquan

    2016-01-01

    Abhydrolase domain containing 5 gene (ABHD5), also known as comparative gene identification 58 (CGI-58), is a member of the α/β-hydrolase family as a protein cofactor of ATGL stimulating its triacylglycerol hydrolase activity. In this study, we aim to characterize the expression and variations of ABHD5 and to study their functions in chicken fat metabolism. We compared the ABHD5 expression level in various tissues and under different nutrition conditions, identified the variations of ABHD5, and associated them with production traits in an F2 resource population of chickens. Overexpression analysis with two different genotypes and siRNA interfering analysis of ABHD5 were performed in chicken preadipocytes. Chicken ABDH5 was expressed widely and most predominantly in adipose tissue. Five SNPs of the ABHD5 gene were identified and genotyped in the F2 resource population. The c.490C > T SNP was associated with subcutaneous fat thickness (P  C SNP was also associated with chicken body weight (P chicken preadipocytes, overexpression of wild type ABDH5 did not affect the mRNA level of ATGL (adipose triglyceride lipase) but markedly decreased (P chickens with a high fat diet. These results suggest that expression and variations of ABHD5 may affect fat metabolism through regulating the activity of ATGL in chickens. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  13. Common Genetic Variation in Circadian Rhythm Genes and Risk of Epithelial Ovarian Cancer (EOC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jim, Heather S L; Lin, Hui-Yi; Tyrer, Jonathan P; Lawrenson, Kate; Dennis, Joe; Chornokur, Ganna; Chen, Zhihua; Chen, Ann Y; Permuth-Wey, Jennifer; Aben, Katja Kh; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Antonenkova, Natalia; Bruinsma, Fiona; Bandera, Elisa V; Bean, Yukie T; Beckmann, Matthias W; Bisogna, Maria; Bjorge, Line; Bogdanova, Natalia; Brinton, Louise A; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Bunker, Clareann H; Butzow, Ralf; Campbell, Ian G; Carty, Karen; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Cook, Linda S; Cramer, Daniel W; Cunningham, Julie M; Cybulski, Cezary; Dansonka-Mieszkowska, Agnieszka; du Bois, Andreas; Despierre, Evelyn; Sieh, Weiva; Doherty, Jennifer A; Dörk, Thilo; Dürst, Matthias; Easton, Douglas F; Eccles, Diana M; Edwards, Robert P; Ekici, Arif B; Fasching, Peter A; Fridley, Brooke L; Gao, Yu-Tang; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Giles, Graham G; Glasspool, Rosalind; Goodman, Marc T; Gronwald, Jacek; Harter, Philipp; Hasmad, Hanis N; Hein, Alexander; Heitz, Florian; Hildebrandt, Michelle A T; Hillemanns, Peter; Hogdall, Claus K; Hogdall, Estrid; Hosono, Satoyo; Iversen, Edwin S; Jakubowska, Anna; Jensen, Allan; Ji, Bu-Tian; Karlan, Beth Y; Kellar, Melissa; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Krakstad, Camilla; Kjaer, Susanne K; Kupryjanczyk, Jolanta; Vierkant, Robert A; Lambrechts, Diether; Lambrechts, Sandrina; Le, Nhu D; Lee, Alice W; Lele, Shashi; Leminen, Arto; Lester, Jenny; Levine, Douglas A; Liang, Dong; Lim, Boon Kiong; Lissowska, Jolanta; Lu, Karen; Lubinski, Jan; Lundvall, Lene; Massuger, Leon F A G; Matsuo, Keitaro; McGuire, Valerie; McLaughlin, John R; McNeish, Ian; Menon, Usha; Milne, Roger L; Modugno, Francesmary; Thomsen, Lotte; Moysich, Kirsten B; Ness, Roberta B; Nevanlinna, Heli; Eilber, Ursula; Odunsi, Kunle; Olson, Sara H; Orlow, Irene; Orsulic, Sandra; Palmieri Weber, Rachel; Paul, James; Pearce, Celeste L; Pejovic, Tanja; Pelttari, Liisa M; Pike, Malcolm C; Poole, Elizabeth M; Schernhammer, Eva; Risch, Harvey A; Rosen, Barry; Rossing, Mary Anne; Rothstein, Joseph H; Rudolph, Anja; Runnebaum, Ingo B; Rzepecka, Iwona K; Salvesen, Helga B; Schwaab, Ira; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Shvetsov, Yurii B; Siddiqui, Nadeem; Song, Honglin; Southey, Melissa C; Spiewankiewicz, Beata; Sucheston-Campbell, Lara; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Terry, Kathryn L; Thompson, Pamela J; Tangen, Ingvild L; Tworoger, Shelley S; van Altena, Anne M; Vergote, Ignace; Walsh, Christine S; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Whittemore, Alice S; Wicklund, Kristine G; Wilkens, Lynne R; Wu, Anna H; Wu, Xifeng; Woo, Yin-Ling; Yang, Hannah; Zheng, Wei; Ziogas, Argyrios; Amankwah, Ernest; Berchuck, Andrew; Schildkraut, Joellen M; Kelemen, Linda E; Ramus, Susan J; Monteiro, Alvaro N A; Goode, Ellen L; Narod, Steven A; Gayther, Simon A; Pharoah, Paul D P; Sellers, Thomas A; Phelan, Catherine M

    Disruption in circadian gene expression, whether due to genetic variation or environmental factors (e.g., light at night, shiftwork), is associated with increased incidence of breast, prostate, gastrointestinal and hematologic cancers and gliomas. Circadian genes are highly expressed in the ovaries where they regulate ovulation; circadian disruption is associated with several ovarian cancer risk factors (e.g., endometriosis). However, no studies have examined variation in germline circadian genes as predictors of ovarian cancer risk and invasiveness. The goal of the current study was to examine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in circadian genes BMAL1, CRY2, CSNK1E, NPAS2, PER3, REV1 and TIMELESS and downstream transcription factors KLF10 and SENP3 as predictors of risk of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) and histopathologic subtypes. The study included a test set of 3,761 EOC cases and 2,722 controls and a validation set of 44,308 samples including 18,174 (10,316 serous) cases and 26,134 controls from 43 studies participating in the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium (OCAC). Analysis of genotype data from 36 genotyped SNPs and 4600 imputed SNPs indicated that the most significant association was rs117104877 in BMAL1 (OR = 0.79, 95% CI = 0.68-0.90, p = 5.59 × 10 -4 ]. Functional analysis revealed a significant down regulation of BMAL1 expression following cMYC overexpression and increasing transformation in ovarian surface epithelial (OSE) cells as well as alternative splicing of BMAL1 exons in ovarian and granulosa cells. These results suggest that variation in circadian genes, and specifically BMAL1 , may be associated with risk of ovarian cancer, likely through disruption of hormonal pathways.

  14. Associations between dopamine D4 receptor gene variation with both infidelity and sexual promiscuity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Justin R; MacKillop, James; Aller, Edward L; Merriwether, Ann M; Wilson, David Sloan; Lum, J Koji

    2010-11-30

    Human sexual behavior is highly variable both within and between populations. While sex-related characteristics and sexual behavior are central to evolutionary theory (sexual selection), little is known about the genetic bases of individual variation in sexual behavior. The variable number tandem repeats (VNTR) polymorphism in exon III of the human dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4) has been correlated with an array of behavioral phenotypes and may be predicatively responsible for variation in motivating some sexual behaviors, particularly promiscuity and infidelity. We administered an anonymous survey on personal history of sexual behavior and intimate relationships to 181 young adults. We also collected buccal wash samples and genotyped the DRD4 VNTR. Here we show that individuals with at least one 7-repeat allele (7R+) report a greater categorical rate of promiscuous sexual behavior (i.e., having ever had a "one-night stand") and report a more than 50% increase in instances of sexual infidelity. DRD4 VNTR genotype varies considerably within and among populations and has been subject to relatively recent, local selective pressures. Individual differences in sexual behavior are likely partially mediated by individual genetic variation in genes coding for motivation and reward in the brain. Conceptualizing these findings in terms of r/K selection theory suggests a mechanism for selective pressure for and against the 7R+ genotype that may explain the considerable global allelic variation for this polymorphism.

  15. Associations between Dopamine D4 Receptor Gene Variation with Both Infidelity and Sexual Promiscuity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Justin R.; MacKillop, James; Aller, Edward L.; Merriwether, Ann M.; Wilson, David Sloan; Lum, J. Koji

    2010-01-01

    Background Human sexual behavior is highly variable both within and between populations. While sex-related characteristics and sexual behavior are central to evolutionary theory (sexual selection), little is known about the genetic bases of individual variation in sexual behavior. The variable number tandem repeats (VNTR) polymorphism in exon III of the human dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4) has been correlated with an array of behavioral phenotypes and may be predicatively responsible for variation in motivating some sexual behaviors, particularly promiscuity and infidelity. Methodology/Principal Findings We administered an anonymous survey on personal history of sexual behavior and intimate relationships to 181 young adults. We also collected buccal wash samples and genotyped the DRD4 VNTR. Here we show that individuals with at least one 7-repeat allele (7R+) report a greater categorical rate of promiscuous sexual behavior (i.e., having ever had a “one-night stand”) and report a more than 50% increase in instances of sexual infidelity. Conclusions/Significance DRD4 VNTR genotype varies considerably within and among populations and has been subject to relatively recent, local selective pressures. Individual differences in sexual behavior are likely partially mediated by individual genetic variation in genes coding for motivation and reward in the brain. Conceptualizing these findings in terms of r/K selection theory suggests a mechanism for selective pressure for and against the 7R+ genotype that may explain the considerable global allelic variation for this polymorphism. PMID:21152404

  16. Associations between dopamine D4 receptor gene variation with both infidelity and sexual promiscuity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin R Garcia

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Human sexual behavior is highly variable both within and between populations. While sex-related characteristics and sexual behavior are central to evolutionary theory (sexual selection, little is known about the genetic bases of individual variation in sexual behavior. The variable number tandem repeats (VNTR polymorphism in exon III of the human dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4 has been correlated with an array of behavioral phenotypes and may be predicatively responsible for variation in motivating some sexual behaviors, particularly promiscuity and infidelity.We administered an anonymous survey on personal history of sexual behavior and intimate relationships to 181 young adults. We also collected buccal wash samples and genotyped the DRD4 VNTR. Here we show that individuals with at least one 7-repeat allele (7R+ report a greater categorical rate of promiscuous sexual behavior (i.e., having ever had a "one-night stand" and report a more than 50% increase in instances of sexual infidelity.DRD4 VNTR genotype varies considerably within and among populations and has been subject to relatively recent, local selective pressures. Individual differences in sexual behavior are likely partially mediated by individual genetic variation in genes coding for motivation and reward in the brain. Conceptualizing these findings in terms of r/K selection theory suggests a mechanism for selective pressure for and against the 7R+ genotype that may explain the considerable global allelic variation for this polymorphism.

  17. Inherited Variation in Cytokine, Acute Phase Response, and Calcium Metabolism Genes Affects Susceptibility to Infective Endocarditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia V. Ponasenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Infective endocarditis (IE is a septic inflammation of the endocardium. Recognition of microbial patterns, cytokine and acute phase responses, hemostasis features, and alterations in plasma lipid and calcium profile all have been reported to affect pathogenesis and clinical course of IE. Having recruited 123 patients with IE and 300 age-, sex-, and ethnicity-matched healthy blood donors, we profiled their genomic DNA for 35 functionally significant polymorphisms within the 22 selected genes involved in the abovementioned pathways, with the further genetic association analysis. We found that the G/A genotype of the rs1143634 polymorphism within the IL1B gene, the G/T genotype of the rs3212227 polymorphism within the IL12B gene, the A/G genotype of the rs1130864 polymorphism within the CRP gene, and the G allele of the rs1801197 polymorphism within the CALCR gene were associated with a decreased risk of IE whereas the T/T genotype of the rs1205 polymorphism within the CRP gene was associated with a higher risk of IE. Furthermore, heterozygous genotypes of the rs1143634 and rs3212227 polymorphisms were associated with the higher plasma levels of IL-1β and IL-12, respectively. Our results indicate that inherited variation in the cytokine, acute phase response, and calcium metabolism pathways may be linked to IE.

  18. Inherited Variation in Cytokine, Acute Phase Response, and Calcium Metabolism Genes Affects Susceptibility to Infective Endocarditis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkovskaya, Natalia V.; Kondyukova, Natalia V.; Odarenko, Yuri N.; Kazachek, Yana V.; Tsepokina, Anna V.; Barbarash, Leonid S.

    2017-01-01

    Infective endocarditis (IE) is a septic inflammation of the endocardium. Recognition of microbial patterns, cytokine and acute phase responses, hemostasis features, and alterations in plasma lipid and calcium profile all have been reported to affect pathogenesis and clinical course of IE. Having recruited 123 patients with IE and 300 age-, sex-, and ethnicity-matched healthy blood donors, we profiled their genomic DNA for 35 functionally significant polymorphisms within the 22 selected genes involved in the abovementioned pathways, with the further genetic association analysis. We found that the G/A genotype of the rs1143634 polymorphism within the IL1B gene, the G/T genotype of the rs3212227 polymorphism within the IL12B gene, the A/G genotype of the rs1130864 polymorphism within the CRP gene, and the G allele of the rs1801197 polymorphism within the CALCR gene were associated with a decreased risk of IE whereas the T/T genotype of the rs1205 polymorphism within the CRP gene was associated with a higher risk of IE. Furthermore, heterozygous genotypes of the rs1143634 and rs3212227 polymorphisms were associated with the higher plasma levels of IL-1β and IL-12, respectively. Our results indicate that inherited variation in the cytokine, acute phase response, and calcium metabolism pathways may be linked to IE. PMID:28659664

  19. Diversity and population-genetic properties of copy number variations and multicopy genes in cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickhart, Derek M.; Xu, Lingyang; Hutchison, Jana L.; Cole, John B.; Null, Daniel J.; Schroeder, Steven G.; Song, Jiuzhou; Garcia, Jose Fernando; Sonstegard, Tad S.; Van Tassell, Curtis P.; Schnabel, Robert D.; Taylor, Jeremy F.; Lewin, Harris A.; Liu, George E.

    2016-01-01

    The diversity and population genetics of copy number variation (CNV) in domesticated animals are not well understood. In this study, we analysed 75 genomes of major taurine and indicine cattle breeds (including Angus, Brahman, Gir, Holstein, Jersey, Limousin, Nelore, and Romagnola), sequenced to 11-fold coverage to identify 1,853 non-redundant CNV regions. Supported by high validation rates in array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) and qPCR experiments, these CNV regions accounted for 3.1% (87.5 Mb) of the cattle reference genome, representing a significant increase over previous estimates of the area of the genome that is copy number variable (∼2%). Further population genetics and evolutionary genomics analyses based on these CNVs revealed the population structures of the cattle taurine and indicine breeds and uncovered potential diversely selected CNVs near important functional genes, including AOX1, ASZ1, GAT, GLYAT, and KRTAP9-1. Additionally, 121 CNV gene regions were found to be either breed specific or differentially variable across breeds, such as RICTOR in dairy breeds and PNPLA3 in beef breeds. In contrast, clusters of the PRP and PAG genes were found to be duplicated in all sequenced animals, suggesting that subfunctionalization, neofunctionalization, or overdominance play roles in diversifying those fertility-related genes. These CNV results provide a new glimpse into the diverse selection histories of cattle breeds and a basis for correlating structural variation with complex traits in the future. PMID:27085184

  20. Sweet taste receptor gene variation and aspartame taste in primates and other species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xia; Bachmanov, Alexander A; Maehashi, Kenji; Li, Weihua; Lim, Raymond; Brand, Joseph G; Beauchamp, Gary K; Reed, Danielle R; Thai, Chloe; Floriano, Wely B

    2011-06-01

    Aspartame is a sweetener added to foods and beverages as a low-calorie sugar replacement. Unlike sugars, which are apparently perceived as sweet and desirable by a range of mammals, the ability to taste aspartame varies, with humans, apes, and Old World monkeys perceiving aspartame as sweet but not other primate species. To investigate whether the ability to perceive the sweetness of aspartame correlates with variations in the DNA sequence of the genes encoding sweet taste receptor proteins, T1R2 and T1R3, we sequenced these genes in 9 aspartame taster and nontaster primate species. We then compared these sequences with sequences of their orthologs in 4 other nontasters species. We identified 9 variant sites in the gene encoding T1R2 and 32 variant sites in the gene encoding T1R3 that distinguish aspartame tasters and nontasters. Molecular docking of aspartame to computer-generated models of the T1R2 + T1R3 receptor dimer suggests that species variation at a secondary, allosteric binding site in the T1R2 protein is the most likely origin of differences in perception of the sweetness of aspartame. These results identified a previously unknown site of aspartame interaction with the sweet receptor and suggest that the ability to taste aspartame might have developed during evolution to exploit a specialized food niche.

  1. Variations in testosterone pathway genes and susceptibility to testicular cancer in Norwegian men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristiansen, W; Aschim, E L; Andersen, J M; Witczak, O; Fosså, S D; Haugen, T B

    2012-12-01

    Imbalance between the oestrogen and androgen levels in utero is hypothesized to influence testicular cancer (TC) risk. Thus, variation in genes involved in the action of sex hormones may contribute to variability of an individual's susceptibility to TC. Mutations in testosterone pathway genes may alter the level of testosterone in vivo and hypothetically the risk of developing TC. Luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR), 5α-reductase II (SRD5A2) and androgen receptor (AR) are key elements in androgen action. A case-control study comprising 651 TC cases and 313 controls in a Norwegian population was conducted for investigation of polymorphisms in the LHR, SRD5A and AR genes and their possible association with TC. A statistical significant difference was observed in patients being heterozygous for the LHR Asn312Ser polymorphism when comparing genotypes between all TC cases and controls (OR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.48-0.89, p(adj) = 0.049). No statistically significant difference between the histological subtypes seminoma and non-seminoma was observed. Our results may suggest a possible association between genetic variation in the LHR gene and the risk of developing TC. © 2012 The Authors. International Journal of Andrology © 2012 European Academy of Andrology.

  2. Genetic variation in mitotic regulatory pathway genes is associated with breast tumor grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purrington, Kristen S.; Slettedahl, Seth; Bolla, Manjeet K.; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Czene, Kamila; Nevanlinna, Heli; Bojesen, Stig E.; Andrulis, Irene L.; Cox, Angela; Hall, Per; Carpenter, Jane; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Haiman, Christopher A.; Fasching, Peter A.; Mannermaa, Arto; Winqvist, Robert; Brenner, Hermann; Lindblom, Annika; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Benitez, Javier; Swerdlow, Anthony; Kristensen, Vessela; Guénel, Pascal; Meindl, Alfons; Darabi, Hatef; Eriksson, Mikael; Fagerholm, Rainer; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Nielsen, Sune F.; Flyger, Henrik; Wang, Xianshu; Olswold, Curtis; Olson, Janet E.; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Knight, Julia A.; Tchatchou, Sandrine; Reed, Malcolm W.R.; Cross, Simon S.; Liu, Jianjun; Li, Jingmei; Humphreys, Keith; Clarke, Christine; Scott, Rodney; Fostira, Florentia; Fountzilas, George; Konstantopoulou, Irene; Henderson, Brian E.; Schumacher, Fredrick; Le Marchand, Loic; Ekici, Arif B.; Hartmann, Arndt; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Hartikainen, Jaana M.; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Kataja, Vesa; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Pylkäs, Katri; Kauppila, Saila; Dieffenbach, Aida Karina; Stegmaier, Christa; Arndt, Volker; Margolin, Sara; Balleine, Rosemary; Arias Perez, Jose Ignacio; Pilar Zamora, M.; Menéndez, Primitiva; Ashworth, Alan; Jones, Michael; Orr, Nick; Arveux, Patrick; Kerbrat, Pierre; Truong, Thérèse; Bugert, Peter; Toland, Amanda E.; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Labrèche, France; Goldberg, Mark S.; Dumont, Martine; Ziogas, Argyrios; Lee, Eunjung; Dite, Gillian S.; Apicella, Carmel; Southey, Melissa C.; Long, Jirong; Shrubsole, Martha; Deming-Halverson, Sandra; Ficarazzi, Filomena; Barile, Monica; Peterlongo, Paolo; Durda, Katarzyna; Jaworska-Bieniek, Katarzyna; Tollenaar, Robert A.E.M.; Seynaeve, Caroline; Brüning, Thomas; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Van Deurzen, Carolien H.M.; Martens, John W.M.; Kriege, Mieke; Figueroa, Jonine D.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Lissowska, Jolanta; Tomlinson, Ian; Kerin, Michael J.; Miller, Nicola; Schneeweiss, Andreas; Tapper, William J.; Gerty, Susan M.; Durcan, Lorraine; Mclean, Catriona; Milne, Roger L.; Baglietto, Laura; dos Santos Silva, Isabel; Fletcher, Olivia; Johnson, Nichola; Van'T Veer, Laura J.; Cornelissen, Sten; Försti, Asta; Torres, Diana; Rüdiger, Thomas; Rudolph, Anja; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Nickels, Stefan; Weltens, Caroline; Floris, Giuseppe; Moisse, Matthieu; Dennis, Joe; Wang, Qin; Dunning, Alison M.; Shah, Mitul; Brown, Judith; Simard, Jacques; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Hopper, John L.; Bogdanova, Natalia; Dörk, Thilo; Zheng, Wei; Radice, Paolo; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Devillee, Peter; Brauch, Hiltrud; Hooning, Maartje; García-Closas, Montserrat; Sawyer, Elinor; Burwinkel, Barbara; Marmee, Frederick; Eccles, Diana M.; Giles, Graham G.; Peto, Julian; Schmidt, Marjanka; Broeks, Annegien; Hamann, Ute; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Lambrechts, Diether; Pharoah, Paul D.P.; Easton, Douglas; Pankratz, V. Shane; Slager, Susan; Vachon, Celine M.; Couch, Fergus J.

    2014-01-01

    Mitotic index is an important component of histologic grade and has an etiologic role in breast tumorigenesis. Several small candidate gene studies have reported associations between variation in mitotic genes and breast cancer risk. We measured associations between 2156 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 194 mitotic genes and breast cancer risk, overall and by histologic grade, in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC) iCOGS study (n = 39 067 cases; n = 42 106 controls). SNPs in TACC2 [rs17550038: odds ratio (OR) = 1.24, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.16–1.33, P = 4.2 × 10−10) and EIF3H (rs799890: OR = 1.07, 95% CI 1.04–1.11, P = 8.7 × 10−6) were significantly associated with risk of low-grade breast cancer. The TACC2 signal was retained (rs17550038: OR = 1.15, 95% CI 1.07–1.23, P = 7.9 × 10−5) after adjustment for breast cancer risk SNPs in the nearby FGFR2 gene, suggesting that TACC2 is a novel, independent genome-wide significant genetic risk locus for low-grade breast cancer. While no SNPs were individually associated with high-grade disease, a pathway-level gene set analysis showed that variation across the 194 mitotic genes was associated with high-grade breast cancer risk (P = 2.1 × 10−3). These observations will provide insight into the contribution of mitotic defects to histological grade and the etiology of breast cancer. PMID:24927736

  3. Association of interleukin-1 gene variations with moderate to severe chronic periodontitis in multiple ethnicities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, X; Offenbacher, S; Lόpez, N J; Chen, D; Wang, H-Y; Rogus, J; Zhou, J; Beck, J; Jiang, S; Bao, X; Wilkins, L; Doucette-Stamm, L; Kornman, K

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective Genetic markers associated with disease are often non-functional and generally tag one or more functional “causative” variants in linkage disequilibrium. Markers may not show tight linkage to the causative variants across multiple ethnicities due to evolutionary divergence, and therefore may not be informative across different population groups. Validated markers of disease suggest causative variants exist in the gene and, if the causative variants can be identified, it is reasonable to hypothesize that such variants will be informative across diverse populations. The aim of this study was to test that hypothesis using functional Interleukin-1 (IL-1) gene variations across multiple ethnic populations to replace the non-functional markers originally associated with chronic adult periodontitis in Caucasians. Material and Methods Adult chronic periodontitis cases and controls from four ethnic groups (Caucasians, African Americans, Hispanics and Asians) were recruited in the USA, Chile and China. Genotypes of IL1B gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), including three functional SNPs (rs16944, rs1143623, rs4848306) in the promoter and one intronic SNP (rs1143633), were determined using a single base extension method or TaqMan 5′ nuclease assay. Logistic regression and other statistical analyses were used to examine the association between moderate to severe periodontitis and IL1B gene variations, including SNPs, haplotypes and composite genotypes. Genotype patterns associated with disease in the discovery study were then evaluated in independent validation studies. Results Significant associations were identified in the discovery study, consisting of Caucasians and African Americans, between moderate to severe adult chronic periodontitis and functional variations in the IL1B gene, including a pattern of four IL1B SNPs (OR = 1.87, p < 0.0001). The association between the disease and this IL1B composite genotype pattern was validated

  4. A general scenario of Hox gene inventory variation among major sarcopterygian lineages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Chaolin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hox genes are known to play a key role in shaping the body plan of metazoans. Evolutionary dynamics of these genes is therefore essential in explaining patterns of evolutionary diversity. Among extant sarcopterygians comprising both lobe-finned fishes and tetrapods, our knowledge of the Hox genes and clusters has largely been restricted in several model organisms such as frogs, birds and mammals. Some evolutionary gaps still exist, especially for those groups with derived body morphology or occupying key positions on the tree of life, hindering our understanding of how Hox gene inventory varied along the sarcopterygian lineage. Results We determined the Hox gene inventory for six sarcopterygian groups: lungfishes, caecilians, salamanders, snakes, turtles and crocodiles by comprehensive PCR survey and genome walking. Variable Hox genes in each of the six sarcopterygian group representatives, compared to the human Hox gene inventory, were further validated for their presence/absence by PCR survey in a number of related species representing a broad evolutionary coverage of the group. Turtles, crocodiles, birds and placental mammals possess the same 39 Hox genes. HoxD12 is absent in snakes, amphibians and probably lungfishes. HoxB13 is lost in frogs and caecilians. Lobe-finned fishes, amphibians and squamate reptiles possess HoxC3. HoxC1 is only present in caecilians and lobe-finned fishes. Similar to coelacanths, lungfishes also possess HoxA14, which is only found in lobe-finned fishes to date. Our Hox gene variation data favor the lungfish-tetrapod, turtle-archosaur and frog-salamander relationships and imply that the loss of HoxD12 is not directly related to digit reduction. Conclusions Our newly determined Hox inventory data provide a more complete scenario for evolutionary dynamics of Hox genes along the sarcopterygian lineage. Limbless, worm-like caecilians and snakes possess similar Hox gene inventories to animals with

  5. Genomic variation and its impact on gene expression in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Massouras

    Full Text Available Understanding the relationship between genetic and phenotypic variation is one of the great outstanding challenges in biology. To meet this challenge, comprehensive genomic variation maps of human as well as of model organism populations are required. Here, we present a nucleotide resolution catalog of single-nucleotide, multi-nucleotide, and structural variants in 39 Drosophila melanogaster Genetic Reference Panel inbred lines. Using an integrative, local assembly-based approach for variant discovery, we identify more than 3.6 million distinct variants, among which were more than 800,000 unique insertions, deletions (indels, and complex variants (1 to 6,000 bp. While the SNP density is higher near other variants, we find that variants themselves are not mutagenic, nor are regions with high variant density particularly mutation-prone. Rather, our data suggest that the elevated SNP density around variants is mainly due to population-level processes. We also provide insights into the regulatory architecture of gene expression variation in adult flies by mapping cis-expression quantitative trait loci (cis-eQTLs for more than 2,000 genes. Indels comprise around 10% of all cis-eQTLs and show larger effects than SNP cis-eQTLs. In addition, we identified two-fold more gene associations in males as compared to females and found that most cis-eQTLs are sex-specific, revealing a partial decoupling of the genomic architecture between the sexes as well as the importance of genetic factors in mediating sex-biased gene expression. Finally, we performed RNA-seq-based allelic expression imbalance analyses in the offspring of crosses between sequenced lines, which revealed that the majority of strong cis-eQTLs can be validated in heterozygous individuals.

  6. Differential susceptibility to plasticity: a 'missing link' between gene-culture co-evolution and neuropsychiatric spectrum disorders?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wurzman Rachel

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Brüne's proposal that erstwhile 'vulnerability' genes need to be reconsidered as 'plasticity' genes, given the potential for certain environments to yield increased positive function in the same domain as potential dysfunction, has implications for psychiatric nosology as well as a more dynamic understanding of the relationship between genes and culture. In addition to validating neuropsychiatric spectrum disorder nosologies by calling for similar methodological shifts in gene-environment-interaction studies, Brüne's position elevates the importance of environmental contexts - inclusive of socio-cultural variables - as mechanisms that contribute to clinical presentation. We assert that when models of susceptibility to plasticity and neuropsychiatric spectrum disorders are concomitantly considered, a new line of inquiry emerges into the co-evolution and co-determination of socio-cultural contexts and endophenotypes. This presents potentially unique opportunities, benefits, challenges, and responsibilities for research and practice in psychiatry. Please see related manuscript: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/10/38

  7. Recombination in pe/ppe genes contributes to genetic variation in Mycobacterium tuberculosis lineages

    KAUST Repository

    Phelan, Jody E.

    2016-02-29

    Background Approximately 10 % of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome is made up of two families of genes that are poorly characterized due to their high GC content and highly repetitive nature. The PE and PPE families are typified by their highly conserved N-terminal domains that incorporate proline-glutamate (PE) and proline-proline-glutamate (PPE) signature motifs. They are hypothesised to be important virulence factors involved with host-pathogen interactions, but their high genetic variability and complexity of analysis means they are typically disregarded in genome studies. Results To elucidate the structure of these genes, 518 genomes from a diverse international collection of clinical isolates were de novo assembled. A further 21 reference M. tuberculosis complex genomes and long read sequence data were used to validate the approach. SNP analysis revealed that variation in the majority of the 168 pe/ppe genes studied was consistent with lineage. Several recombination hotspots were identified, notably pe_pgrs3 and pe_pgrs17. Evidence of positive selection was revealed in 65 pe/ppe genes, including epitopes potentially binding to major histocompatibility complex molecules. Conclusions This, the first comprehensive study of the pe and ppe genes, provides important insight into M. tuberculosis diversity and has significant implications for vaccine development.

  8. Gene-set analysis shows association between FMRP targets and autism spectrum disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Arija; Dieleman, Gwen C; Smit, August B; Verhage, Matthijs; Verhulst, Frank C; Polderman, Tinca J C; Posthuma, Danielle

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by problems with social interaction, communication, and repetitive and restricted behavior. Despite its high heritability and the substantial progress made in elucidating genetic associations, the corresponding

  9. The Genetic Variation of Bali Cattle (Bos javanicus Based on Sex Related Y Chromosome Gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Winaya

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Bali cattle is very popular Indonesian local beef related to their status in community living process of farmers in Indonesia, especially as providers of meat and exotic animal. Bali cattle were able to adapt the limited environment and becoming local livestock that existed until recently.  In our early study by microsatellites showed that Bali cattle have specific allele. In this study we analyzed the variance of partly sex related Y (SRY gene sequence in Bali cattle bull as a source of cement for Artificial Insemination (AI.  Blood from 17 two location of AI center, Singosari, Malang and Baturiti, Bali was collected and then extracted to get the DNA genome.  PCR reaction was done to amplify partially of SRY gene segment and followed by sequencing PCR products to get the DNA sequence of SRY gene. The SRY gene sequence was used to determine the genetic variation and phylogenetic relationship.  We found that Bali cattle bull from Singosari has relatively closed genetic relationship with Baturiti. It is also supported that in early data some Bali bulls of Singosari were came from Baturiti. It has been known that Baturiti is the one source of Bali cattle bull with promising genetic potential. While, in general that Bali bull where came from two areas were not different on reproductive performances. It is important to understand about the genetic variation of Bali cattle in molecular level related to conservation effort and maintaining the genetic characters of the local cattle. So, it will not become extinct or even decreased the genetic quality of Indonesian indigenous cattle.   Key Words : Bali cattle, SRY gene, artificial insemination, phylogenetic, allele   Animal Production 13(3:150-155 (2011

  10. Evaluation of bovine chemerin (RARRES2 gene variation on beef cattle production traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda K Lindholm-Perry

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A previous study in cattle based on >48,000 markers identified markers on chromosome 4 near the chemerin gene associated with average daily feed intake (ADFI in steers (P<0.008. Chemerin is an adipokine associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome in humans, representing a strong candidate gene potentially underlying the observed association. To evaluate whether the bovine chemerin gene is involved in feed intake, 16 markers within and around the gene were tested for association in the same resource population. Eleven were nominally significant for ADFI (P<0.05 and two were significant after Bonferroni correction. Two and five SNP in this region were nominally significant for the related traits of average daily gain (ADG and residual feed intake (RFI, respectively. All markers were evaluated for effects on meat quality and carcass phenotypes. Many of the markers associated with ADFI were associated with hot carcass weight (HCW, adjusted fat thickness (AFT, and marbling (P<0.05. Marker alleles that were associated with lower ADFI were also associated with lower HCW, AFT, and marbling. Markers associated with ADFI were genotyped in a validation population of steers representing 14 breeds to determine predictive merit across populations. No consistent relationships for ADFI were detected. To determine whether cattle feed intake or growth phenotypes might be related to chemerin transcript abundance, the expression of chemerin was evaluated in adipose of 114 heifers that were siblings of the steers in the discovery population. Relative chemerin transcript abundance was not correlated with ADFI, ADG, or RFI, but associations with body condition score and yearling weight were observed. We conclude that variation in the chemerin gene may underlie observed association in the resource population, but that additional research is required to determine if this variation is widespread among breeds and to develop robust markers with predictive merit across

  11. Cholecystokinin A receptor (CCKAR gene variation is associated with language lateralization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Ocklenburg

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is a psychiatric disorder associated with atypical handedness and language lateralization. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these functional changes are still poorly understood. Therefore, the present study was aimed at investigating whether variation in schizophrenia-related genes modulates individual lateralization patterns. To this end, we genotyped 16 single nucleotide polymorphisms that have previously been linked to schizophrenia on a meta-analysis level in a sample of 444 genetically unrelated healthy participants and examined the association of these polymorphisms with handedness, footedness and language lateralization. We found a significant association of the cholecystokinin-A receptor (CCKAR gene variation rs1800857 and language lateralization assessed using the dichotic listening task. Individuals carrying the schizophrenia risk allele C of this polymorphism showed a marked reduction of the typical left-hemispheric dominance for language processing. Since the cholecystokinin A receptor is involved in dopamine release in the central nervous system, these findings suggest that genetic variation in this receptor may modulate language lateralization due to its impact on dopaminergic pathways.

  12. Schooling and variation in the COMT gene: the devil is in the details.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Daniel; Bick, Johanna; Yrigollen, Carolyn M; Lee, Maria; Joseph, Antony; Chang, Joseph T; Grigorenko, Elena L

    2013-10-01

    Schooling is considered one of the major contributors to the development of intelligence within societies and individuals. Genetic variation might modulate the impact of schooling and explain, at least partially, the presence of individual differences in classrooms. We studied a sample of 1,502 children (mean age = 11.7 years) from Zambia. Approximately 57% of these children were enrolled in school, and the rest were not. To quantify genetic variation, we investigated a number of common polymorphisms in the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene that controls the production of the protein thought to account for >60% of the dopamine degradation in the prefrontal cortex. Haplotype analyses generated results ranging from the presence to absence of significant interactions between a number of COMT haplotypes and indicators of schooling (i.e., in- vs. out-of-school and grade completed) in the prediction of nonverbal intelligence, depending on the parameter specification. However, an investigation of the distribution of corresponding p-values suggested that these positive results were false. Convincing evidence that the variation in the COMT gene is associated with individual differences in nonverbal intelligence either directly or through interactions with schooling was not found. p-values produced by the method of testing for haplotype effects employed here may be sensitive to parameter settings, invalid under default settings, and should be checked for validity through simulation. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry © 2013 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  13. Dietary Variation and Evolution of Gene Copy Number among Dog Breeds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor Reiter

    Full Text Available Prolonged human interactions and artificial selection have influenced the genotypic and phenotypic diversity among dog breeds. Because humans and dogs occupy diverse habitats, ecological contexts have likely contributed to breed-specific positive selection. Prior to the advent of modern dog-feeding practices, there was likely substantial variation in dietary landscapes among disparate dog breeds. As such, we investigated one type of genetic variant, copy number variation, in three metabolic genes: glucokinase regulatory protein (GCKR, phytanol-CoA 2-hydroxylase (PHYH, and pancreatic α-amylase 2B (AMY2B. These genes code for proteins that are responsible for metabolizing dietary products that originate from distinctly different food types: sugar, meat, and starch, respectively. After surveying copy number variation among dogs with diverse dietary histories, we found no correlation between diet and positive selection in either GCKR or PHYH. Although it has been previously demonstrated that dogs experienced a copy number increase in AMY2B relative to wolves during or after the dog domestication process, we demonstrate that positive selection continued to act on amylase copy number in dog breeds that consumed starch-rich diets in time periods after domestication. Furthermore, we found that introgression with wolves is not responsible for deterioration of positive selection on AMY2B among diverse dog breeds. Together, this supports the hypothesis that the amylase copy number expansion is found universally in dogs.

  14. [Genetic variation analysis of canine parvovirus VP2 gene in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Li; Cheng, Shi-Peng; Yan, Xi-Jun; Wang, Jian-Ke; Luo, Bin

    2009-11-01

    To recognize the molecular biology character, phylogenetic relationship and the state quo prevalent of Canine parvovirus (CPV), Faecal samnples from pet dogs with acute enteritis in the cities of Beijing, Wuhan, and Nanjing were collected and tested for CPV by PCR and other assay between 2006 and 2008. There was no CPV to FPV (MEV) variation by PCR-RFLP analysis in all samples. The complete ORFs of VP2 genes were obtained by PCR from 15 clinical CPVs and 2 CPV vaccine strains. All amplicons were cloned and sequenced. Analysis of the VP2 sequences showed that clinical CPVs both belong to CPV-2a subtype, and could be classified into a new cluster by amino acids contrasting which contains Tyr-->Ile (324) mutation. Besides the 2 CPV vaccine strains belong to CPV-2 subtype, and both of them have scattered variation in amino acids residues of VP2 protein. Construction of the phylogenetic tree based on CPV VP2 sequence showed these 15 CPV clinical strains were in close relationship with Korea strain K001 than CPV-2a isolates in other countries at early time, It is indicated that the canine parvovirus genetic variation was associated with location and time in some degree. The survey of CPV capsid protein VP2 gene provided the useful information for the identification of CPV types and understanding of their genetic relationship.

  15. [Variation of CAG repeats in coding region of ATXN2 gene in different ethnic groups].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-Chen; Sun, Hao; Mi, Dong-Qing; Huang, Xiao-Qin; Lin, Ke-Qin; Yi, Wen; Yu, Liang; Shi, Lei; Shi, Li; Yang, Zhao-Qing; Chu, Jia-You

    2011-04-01

    Toinvestigate CAG repeats variation of ATXN2 gene coding region in six ethnic groups that live in comparatively different environments, to evaluate whether these variations are under positive selection, and to find factors driving selection effects, 291 unrelated healthy individuals were collected from six ethnic groups and their STR geneotyping was performed. The frequencies of alleles and genotypes were counted and thereby Slatkin's linearized Fst values were calculated. The UPGMA tree against this gene was constructed. The MDS analysis among these groups was carried out as well. The results from the linearized Fst values indicated that there were significant evolutionary differences of the STR in ATXN2 gene between Hui and Yi groups, but not among the other 4 groups. Further analysis was performed by combining our data with published data obtained from other groups. These results indicated that there were significant differences between Japanese and other groups including Hui, Hani, Yunnan Mongolian, and Inner Mongolian. Both Hui and Mongolian from Inner Mongolia were significantly different from Han. In conclusion, the six ethnic groups had their own distribution characterizations of allelic frequencies of ATXN2 STR, and the potential cause of frequency changes in rare alleles could be the consequence of positive selection.

  16. Natural variation and gene regulatory basis for the responses of asparagus beans to soil drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Pei; Moshelion, Menachem; Wu, XiaoHua; Halperin, Ofer; Wang, BaoGen; Luo, Jie; Wallach, Rony; Wu, Xinyi; Lu, Zhongfu; Li, Guojing

    2015-01-01

    Asparagus bean (Vigna unguiculata ssp. sesquipedalis) is the Asian subspecies of cowpea, a drought-resistant legume crop native to Africa. In order to explore the genetic variation of drought responses in asparagus bean, we conducted multi-year phenotyping of drought resistance traits across the Chinese asparagus bean mini-core. The phenotypic distribution indicated that the ssp. sesquipedalis subgene pool has maintained high natural variation in drought responses despite known domestic bottleneck. Thirty-nine SNP loci were found to show an association with drought resistance via a genome-wide association study (GWAS). Whole-plant water relations were compared among four genotypes by lysimetric assay. Apparent genotypic differences in transpiration patterns and the critical soil water threshold in relation to dehydration avoidance were observed, indicating a delicate adaptive mechanism for each genotype to its own climate. Microarray gene expression analyses revealed that known drought resistance pathways such as the ABA and phosphate lipid signaling pathways are conserved between different genotypes, while differential regulation of certain aquaporin genes and hormonal genes may be important for the genotypic differences. Our results suggest that divergent sensitivity to soil water content is an important mechanism configuring the genotypic specific responses to water deficit. The SNP markers identified provide useful resources for marker-assisted breeding. PMID:26579145

  17. Natural variation and gene regulatory basis for the responses of asparagus beans to soil drought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei eXu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Asparagus bean (Vigna unguiculata ssp. sesquipedalis is the Asian subspecies of cowpea, a drought-resistant legume crop native to Africa. In order to explore the genetic variation of drought responses in asparagus bean, we conducted multi-year phenotyping of drought resistance traits across the Chinese asparagus bean mini-core. The phenotypic distribution indicated that the ssp. sesquipedalis subgene pool has maintained high natural variation in drought responses despite known domestic bottleneck. Thirty-nine SNP loci were found to show an association with drought resistance via a genome-wide association study (GWAS. Whole-plant water relations were compared among four genotypes by lysimetric assay. Apparent genotypic differences in transpiration patterns and the critical soil water threshold in relation to dehydration avoidance were observed, indicating a delicate adaptive mechanism for each genotype to its own climate. Microarray gene expression analyses revealed that known drought resistance pathways such as the ABA and phosphate lipid signaling pathways are conserved between genotypes, while differential regulation of certain aquaporin genes and hormonal genes may be important for the genotypic differences. Our results suggest that divergent sensitivity to soil water content is an important mechanism configuring the genotypic specific responses to water deficit. The SNP markers identified provide useful resources for marker-assisted breeding.

  18. Common Variation in the DOPA Decarboxylase (DDC) Gene and Human Striatal DDC Activity In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Daniel P; Kohn, Philip D; Hegarty, Catherine E; Ianni, Angela M; Kolachana, Bhaskar; Gregory, Michael D; Masdeu, Joseph C; Berman, Karen F

    2016-08-01

    The synthesis of multiple amine neurotransmitters, such as dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin, and trace amines, relies in part on DOPA decarboxylase (DDC, AADC), an enzyme that is required for normative neural operations. Because rare, loss-of-function mutations in the DDC gene result in severe enzymatic deficiency and devastating autonomic, motor, and cognitive impairment, DDC common genetic polymorphisms have been proposed as a source of more moderate, but clinically important, alterations in DDC function that may contribute to risk, course, or treatment response in complex, heritable neuropsychiatric illnesses. However, a direct link between common genetic variation in DDC and DDC activity in the living human brain has never been established. We therefore tested for this association by conducting extensive genotyping across the DDC gene in a large cohort of 120 healthy individuals, for whom DDC activity was then quantified with [(18)F]-FDOPA positron emission tomography (PET). The specific uptake constant, Ki, a measure of DDC activity, was estimated for striatal regions of interest and found to be predicted by one of five tested haplotypes, particularly in the ventral striatum. These data provide evidence for cis-acting, functional common polymorphisms in the DDC gene and support future work to determine whether such variation might meaningfully contribute to DDC-mediated neural processes relevant to neuropsychiatric illness and treatment.

  19. Shaped 3D Singular Spectrum Analysis for Quantifying Gene Expression, with Application to the Early Zebrafish Embryo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Shlemov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent progress in microscopy technologies, biological markers, and automated processing methods is making possible the development of gene expression atlases at cellular-level resolution over whole embryos. Raw data on gene expression is usually very noisy. This noise comes from both experimental (technical/methodological and true biological sources (from stochastic biochemical processes. In addition, the cells or nuclei being imaged are irregularly arranged in 3D space. This makes the processing, extraction, and study of expression signals and intrinsic biological noise a serious challenge for 3D data, requiring new computational approaches. Here, we present a new approach for studying gene expression in nuclei located in a thick layer around a spherical surface. The method includes depth equalization on the sphere, flattening, interpolation to a regular grid, pattern extraction by Shaped 3D singular spectrum analysis (SSA, and interpolation back to original nuclear positions. The approach is demonstrated on several examples of gene expression in the zebrafish egg (a model system in vertebrate development. The method is tested on several different data geometries (e.g., nuclear positions and different forms of gene expression patterns. Fully 3D datasets for developmental gene expression are becoming increasingly available; we discuss the prospects of applying 3D-SSA to data processing and analysis in this growing field.

  20. Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Caregiver Education » Fact Sheets Autism Spectrum Disorder Fact Sheet What is autism spectrum disorder? What are some ... of mutations in individual genes but rather spontaneous coding mutations across many genes. De novo mutations may ...

  1. Genetic variation of Taenia pisiformis collected from Sichuan, China, based on the mitochondrial cytochrome B gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Deying; Ren, Yongjun; Fu, Yan; Xie, Yue; Nie, Huaming; Nong, Xiang; Gu, Xiaobin; Wang, Shuxian; Peng, Xuerong; Yang, Guangyou

    2013-08-01

    Taenia pisiformis is one of the most important parasites of canines and rabbits. T. pisiformis cysticercus (the larval stage) causes severe damage to rabbit breeding, which results in huge economic losses. In this study, the genetic variation of T. pisiformis was determined in Sichuan Province, China. Fragments of the mitochondrial cytochrome b (cytb) (922 bp) gene were amplified in 53 isolates from 8 regions of T. pisiformis. Overall, 12 haplotypes were found in these 53 cytb sequences. Molecular genetic variations showed 98.4% genetic variation derived from intra-region. FST and Nm values suggested that 53 isolates were not genetically differentiated and had low levels of genetic diversity. Neutrality indices of the cytb sequences showed the evolution of T. pisiformis followed a neutral mode. Phylogenetic analysis revealed no correlation between phylogeny and geographic distribution. These findings indicate that 53 isolates of T. pisiformis keep a low genetic variation, which provide useful knowledge for monitoring changes in parasite populations for future control strategies.

  2. Gene

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes,...

  3. Common Genetic Variation in Circadian Rhythm Genes and Risk of Epithelial Ovarian Cancer (EOC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jim, Heather S L; Lin, Hui-Yi; Tyrer, Jonathan P

    2015-01-01

    where they regulate ovulation; circadian disruption is associated with several ovarian cancer risk factors (e.g., endometriosis). However, no studies have examined variation in germline circadian genes as predictors of ovarian cancer risk and invasiveness. The goal of the current study was to examine...... single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in circadian genes BMAL1, CRY2, CSNK1E, NPAS2, PER3, REV1 and TIMELESS and downstream transcription factors KLF10 and SENP3 as predictors of risk of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) and histopathologic subtypes. The study included a test set of 3,761 EOC cases and 2......,722 controls and a validation set of 44,308 samples including 18,174 (10,316 serous) cases and 26,134 controls from 43 studies participating in the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium (OCAC). Analysis of genotype data from 36 genotyped SNPs and 4600 imputed SNPs indicated that the most significant...

  4. Auditory and communicative abilities in the auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder and mutation in the Otoferlin gene: clinical cases study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Nayara Thais de Oliveira; Martinho-Carvalho, Ana Claudia; Cunha, Maria Claudia; Lewis, Doris Ruthi

    2012-01-01

    This study had the aim to investigate the auditory and communicative abilities of children diagnosed with Auditory Neuropathy Spectrum Disorder due to mutation in the Otoferlin gene. It is a descriptive and qualitative study in which two siblings with this diagnosis were assessed. The procedures conducted were: speech perception tests for children with profound hearing loss, and assessment of communication abilities using the Behavioral Observation Protocol. Because they were siblings, the subjects in the study shared family and communicative context. However, they developed different communication abilities, especially regarding the use of oral language. The study showed that the Auditory Neuropathy Spectrum Disorder is a heterogeneous condition in all its aspects, and it is not possible to make generalizations or assume that cases with similar clinical features will develop similar auditory and communicative abilities, even when they are siblings. It is concluded that the acquisition of communicative abilities involves subjective factors, which should be investigated based on the uniqueness of each case.

  5. Natural Variation of Epstein-Barr Virus Genes, Proteins, and Primary MicroRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Samantha; Palser, Anne; Elgueta Karstegl, Claudio; Middeldorp, Jaap M; Ramayanti, Octavia; Cohen, Jeffrey I; Hildesheim, Allan; Fellner, Maria Dolores; Wiels, Joelle; White, Robert E; Kellam, Paul; Farrell, Paul J

    2017-08-01

    Viral gene sequences from an enlarged set of about 200 Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) strains, including many primary isolates, have been used to investigate variation in key viral genetic regions, particularly LMP1, Zp, gp350, EBNA1, and the BART microRNA (miRNA) cluster 2. Determination of type 1 and type 2 EBV in saliva samples from people from a wide range of geographic and ethnic backgrounds demonstrates a small percentage of healthy white Caucasian British people carrying predominantly type 2 EBV. Linkage of Zp and gp350 variants to type 2 EBV is likely to be due to their genes being adjacent to the EBNA3 locus, which is one of the major determinants of the type 1/type 2 distinction. A novel classification of EBNA1 DNA binding domains, named QCIGP, results from phylogeny analysis of their protein sequences but is not linked to the type 1/type 2 classification. The BART cluster 2 miRNA region is classified into three major variants through single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the primary miRNA outside the mature miRNA sequences. These SNPs can result in altered levels of expression of some miRNAs from the BART variant frequently present in Chinese and Indonesian nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) samples. The EBV genetic variants identified here provide a basis for future, more directed analysis of association of specific EBV variations with EBV biology and EBV-associated diseases. IMPORTANCE Incidence of diseases associated with EBV varies greatly in different parts of the world. Thus, relationships between EBV genome sequence variation and health, disease, geography, and ethnicity of the host may be important for understanding the role of EBV in diseases and for development of an effective EBV vaccine. This paper provides the most comprehensive analysis so far of variation in specific EBV genes relevant to these diseases and proposed EBV vaccines. By focusing on variation in LMP1, Zp, gp350, EBNA1, and the BART miRNA cluster 2, new relationships with the known

  6. Genetic variation in the serotonin transporter gene influences ERP old/new effects during recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Robert S; Medrano, Paolo; Boyle, Kaitlin; Smolen, Andrew; Curran, Tim; Nyhus, Erika

    2015-11-01

    Recognition memory is defined as the ability to recognize a previously encountered stimulus and has been associated with spatially and temporally distinct event-related potentials (ERPs). Allelic variations of the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4) have recently been shown to impact memory performance. Common variants of the serotonin transporter-linked polymorphic region (5HTTLPR) of the SLC6A4 gene result in long (l) and short (s) allelic variants with carriers of the s allele having lowered transcriptional efficiency. Thus, the current study examines the effects polymorphisms of the SLC6A4 gene have on performance and ERP amplitudes commonly associated with recognition memory. Electroencephalogram (EEG), genetic, and behavioral data were collected from sixty participants as they performed an item and source memory recognition task. In both tasks, participants studied and encoded 200 words, which were then mixed with 200 new words during retrieval. Participants were monitored with EEG during the retrieval portion of each memory task. EEG electrodes were grouped into four ROIs, left anterior superior, right anterior superior, left posterior superior, and right posterior superior. ERP mean amplitudes during hits in the item and source memory task were compared to correctly recognizing new items (correct rejections). Results show that s-carriers have decreased mean hit amplitudes in both the right anterior superior ROI 1000-1500ms post stimulus during the source memory task and the left anterior superior ROI 300-500ms post stimulus during the item memory task. These results suggest that individual differences due to genetic variation of the serotonin transporter gene influences recognition memory. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Genetic Variation and Population Structure in Jamunapari Goats Using Microsatellites, Mitochondrial DNA, and Milk Protein Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rout, P. K.; Thangraj, K.; Mandal, A.; Roy, R.

    2012-01-01

    Jamunapari, a dairy goat breed of India, has been gradually declining in numbers in its home tract over the years. We have analysed genetic variation and population history in Jamunapari goats based on 17 microsatellite loci, 2 milk protein loci, mitochondrial hypervariable region I (HVRI) sequencing, and three Y-chromosomal gene sequencing. We used the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mismatch distribution, microsatellite data, and bottleneck tests to infer the population history and demography. The mean number of alleles per locus was 9.0 indicating that the allelic variation was high in all the loci and the mean heterozygosity was 0.769 at nuclear loci. Although the population size is smaller than 8,000 individuals, the amount of variability both in terms of allelic richness and gene diversity was high in all the microsatellite loci except ILST 005. The gene diversity and effective number of alleles at milk protein loci were higher than the 10 other Indian goat breeds that they were compared to. Mismatch analysis was carried out and the analysis revealed that the population curve was unimodal indicating the expansion of population. The genetic diversity of Y-chromosome genes was low in the present study. The observed mean M ratio in the population was above the critical significance value (Mc) and close to one indicating that it has maintained a slowly changing population size. The mode-shift test did not detect any distortion of allele frequency and the heterozygosity excess method showed that there was no significant departure from mutation-drift equilibrium detected in the population. However, the effects of genetic bottlenecks were observed in some loci due to decreased heterozygosity and lower level of M ratio. There were two observed genetic subdivisions in the population supporting the observations of farmers in different areas. This base line information on genetic diversity, bottleneck analysis, and mismatch analysis was obtained to assist the conservation

  8. Genetic variation in mitotic regulatory pathway genes is associated with breast tumor grade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Purrington, Kristen S; Slettedahl, Seth; Bolla, Manjeet K

    2014-01-01

    polymorphisms (SNPs) from 194 mitotic genes and breast cancer risk, overall and by histologic grade, in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC) iCOGS study (n = 39 067 cases; n = 42 106 controls). SNPs in TACC2 [rs17550038: odds ratio (OR) = 1.24, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.16-1.33, P = 4.2 × 10......Mitotic index is an important component of histologic grade and has an etiologic role in breast tumorigenesis. Several small candidate gene studies have reported associations between variation in mitotic genes and breast cancer risk. We measured associations between 2156 single nucleotide......(-10)) and EIF3H (rs799890: OR = 1.07, 95% CI 1.04-1.11, P = 8.7 × 10(-6)) were significantly associated with risk of low-grade breast cancer. The TACC2 signal was retained (rs17550038: OR = 1.15, 95% CI 1.07-1.23, P = 7.9 × 10(-5)) after adjustment for breast cancer risk SNPs in the nearby FGFR2 gene...

  9. Prevalence of variations in melanoma susceptibility genes among Slovenian melanoma families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Besic Nikola

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two high-risk genes have been implicated in the development of CM (cutaneous melanoma. Germline mutations of the CDKN2A gene are found in CDK4 gene reported to date. Beside those high penetrance genes, certain allelic variants of the MC1R gene modify the risk of developing the disease. The aims of our study were: to determine the prevalence of germline CDKN2A mutations and variants in members of families with familial CM and in patients with multiple primary CM; to search for possible CDK4 mutations, and to determine the frequency of variations in the MC1R gene. Methods From January 2001 until January 2007, 64 individuals were included in the study. The group included 28 patients and 7 healthy relatives belonging to 25 families, 26 patients with multiple primary tumors and 3 children with CM. Additionally 54 healthy individuals were included as a control group. Mutations and variants of the melanoma susceptibility genes were identified by direct sequencing. Results Seven families with CDKN2A mutations were discovered (7/25 or 28.0%. The L94Q mutation found in one family had not been previously reported in other populations. The D84N variant, with possible biological impact, was discovered in the case of patient without family history but with multiple primary CM. Only one mutation carrier was found in the control group. Further analysis revealed that c.540C>T heterozygous carriers were more common in the group of CM patients and their healthy relatives (11/64 vs. 2/54. One p14ARF variant was discovered in the control group and no mutations of the CDK4 gene were found. Most frequently found variants of the MC1R gene were T314T, V60L, V92M, R151C, R160W and R163Q with frequencies slightly higher in the group of patients and their relatives than in the group of controls, but the difference was statistically insignificant. Conclusion The present study has shown high prevalence of p16INK4A mutations in Slovenian population of

  10. Immune function genes CD99L2, JARID2 and TPO show association with autism spectrum disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramos Paula S

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A growing number of clinical and basic research studies have implicated immunological abnormalities as being associated with and potentially responsible for the cognitive and behavioral deficits seen in autism spectrum disorder (ASD children. Here we test the hypothesis that immune-related gene loci are associated with ASD. Findings We identified 2,012 genes of known immune-function via Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. Family-based tests of association were computed on the 22,904 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs from the 2,012 immune-related genes on 1,510 trios available at the Autism Genetic Resource Exchange (AGRE repository. Several SNPs in immune-related genes remained statistically significantly associated with ASD after adjusting for multiple comparisons. Specifically, we observed significant associations in the CD99 molecule-like 2 region (CD99L2, rs11796490, P = 4.01 × 10-06, OR = 0.68 (0.58-0.80, in the jumonji AT rich interactive domain 2 (JARID2 gene (rs13193457, P = 2.71 × 10-06, OR = 0.61 (0.49-0.75, and in the thyroid peroxidase gene (TPO (rs1514687, P = 5.72 × 10-06, OR = 1.46 (1.24-1.72. Conclusions This study suggests that despite the lack of a general enrichment of SNPs in immune function genes in ASD children, several novel genes with known immune functions are associated with ASD.

  11. Analysis of Copy Number Variation in the Abp Gene Regions of Two House Mouse Subspecies Suggests Divergence during the Gene Family Expansions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezer, Željka; Chung, Amanda G; Karn, Robert C; Laukaitis, Christina M

    2017-06-01

    The Androgen-binding protein ( Abp ) gene region of the mouse genome contains 64 genes, some encoding pheromones that influence assortative mating between mice from different subspecies. Using CNVnator and quantitative PCR, we explored copy number variation in this gene family in natural populations of Mus musculus domesticus ( Mmd ) and Mus musculus musculus ( Mmm ), two subspecies of house mice that form a narrow hybrid zone in Central Europe. We found that copy number variation in the center of the Abp gene region is very common in wild Mmd , primarily representing the presence/absence of the final duplications described for the mouse genome. Clustering of Mmd individuals based on this variation did not reflect their geographical origin, suggesting no population divergence in the Abp gene cluster. However, copy number variation patterns differ substantially between Mmd and other mouse taxa. Large blocks of Abp genes are absent in Mmm , Mus musculus castaneus and an outgroup, Mus spretus , although with differences in variation and breakpoint locations. Our analysis calls into question the reliance on a reference genome for interpreting the detailed organization of genes in taxa more distant from the Mmd reference genome. The polymorphic nature of the gene family expansion in all four taxa suggests that the number of Abp genes, especially in the central gene region, is not critical to the survival and reproduction of the mouse. However, Abp haplotypes of variable length may serve as a source of raw genetic material for new signals influencing reproductive communication and thus speciation of mice. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  12. A comprehensive review of the prevalence of beta globin gene variations and the co-inheritance of related gene variants in Saudi Arabians with beta-thalassemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaithan, Mousa A.; AbdulAzeez, Sayed; Borgio, J. Francis

    2018-01-01

    Beta-thalassemia is a genetic disorder that is caused by variations in the beta-hemoglobin (HBB) gene. Saudi Arabia is among the countries most affected by beta-thalassemia, and this is particularly problematic in the Eastern regions. This review article is an attempt to compile all the reported mutations to facilitate further national-level studies to prepare a Saudi repository of HBB gene variations. In Saudi Arabians, IVSI-5 (G>C) and Cd 39 (C>T) are the most prevalent HBB gene variations out of 42 variations. The coinheritance of HBB gene variations with ATRX, HBA1, HBA2, HBA12, AHSP, and KLF1 gene variations were observed to be common in the Saudi population. National surveys on the molecular nature of hemoglobinopathies should be set up through collaborations between research centers from various regions to create a well-documented molecular data bank. This data bank can be used to develop a premarital screening program and lead to the best treatment and prevention strategies for beta-thalassemia. PMID:29619482

  13. MHC class II genes in the European badger (Meles meles) : Characterization, patterns of variation, and transcription analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sin, Yung Wa; Dugdale, Hannah L.; Newman, Chris; Macdonald, David W.; Burke, Terry

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) comprises many genes, some of which are polymorphic with numerous alleles. Sequence variation among alleles is most pronounced in exon 2 of the class II genes, which encodes the alpha 1 and beta 1 domains that form the antigen-binding site (ABS) for the

  14. Whole genome sequencing resource identifies 18 new candidate genes for autism spectrum disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yuen, Ryan K C; Merico, Daniele; Bookman, Matt; Howe, Jennifer L.; Thiruvahindrapuram, Bhooma; Patel, Rohan V.; Whitney, Joe; Deflaux, Nicole; Bingham, Jonathan; Wang, Zhuozhi; Pellecchia, Giovanna; Buchanan, Janet A.; Walker, Susan; Marshall, Christian R.; Uddin, Mohammed; Zarrei, Mehdi; Deneault, Eric; D'Abate, Lia; Chan, Ada J S; Koyanagi, Stephanie; Paton, Tara; Pereira, Sergio L.; Hoang, Ny; Engchuan, Worrawat; Higginbotham, Edward J.; Ho, Karen; Lamoureux, Sylvia; Li, Weili; MacDonald, Jeffrey R.; Nalpathamkalam, Thomas; Sung, Wilson W L; Tsoi, Fiona J.; Wei, John; Xu, Lizhen; Tasse, Anne Marie; Kirby, Emily; Van Etten, William; Twigger, Simon; Roberts, Wendy; Drmic, Irene; Jilderda, Sanne; Modi, Bonnie Mackinnon; Kellam, Barbara; Szego, Michael; Cytrynbaum, Cheryl; Weksberg, Rosanna; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Woodbury-Smith, Marc; Brian, Jessica; Senman, Lili; Iaboni, Alana; Doyle-Thomas, Krissy; Thompson, Ann; Chrysler, Christina; Leef, Jonathan; Savion-Lemieux, Tal; Smith, Isabel M.; Liu, Xudong; Nicolson, Rob; Seifer, Vicki; Fedele, Angie; Cook, Edwin H.; Dager, Stephen; Estes, Annette; Gallagher, Louise; Malow, Beth A.; Parr, Jeremy R.; Spence, Sarah J.; Vorstman, Jacob; Frey, Brendan J.; Robinson, James T.; Strug, Lisa J.; Fernandez, Bridget A.; Elsabbagh, Mayada; Carter, Melissa T.; Hallmayer, Joachim; Knoppers, Bartha M.; Anagnostou, Evdokia; Szatmari, Peter; Ring, Robert H.; Glazer, David; Pletcher, Mathew T.; Scherer, Stephen W.

    2017-01-01

    We are performing whole-genome sequencing of families with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) to build a resource (MSSNG) for subcategorizing the phenotypes and underlying genetic factors involved. Here we report sequencing of 5,205 samples from families with ASD, accompanied by clinical information,

  15. Allelic variation of the FRMD7 gene in congenital idiopathic nystagmus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Self, James E; Shawkat, Fatima; Malpas, Crispin T; Thomas, N Simon; Harris, Christopher M; Hodgkins, Peter R; Chen, Xiaoli; Trump, Dorothy; Lotery, Andrew J

    2007-09-01

    To perform a genotype-phenotype correlation study in an X-linked congenital idiopathic nystagmus pedigree (pedigree 1) and to assess the allelic variance of the FRMD7 gene in congenital idiopathic nystagmus. Subjects from pedigree 1 underwent detailed clinical examination including nystagmology. Screening of FRMD7 was undertaken in pedigree 1 and in 37 other congenital idiopathic nystagmus probands and controls. Direct sequencing confirmed sequence changes. X-inactivation studies were performed in pedigree 1. The nystagmus phenotype was extremely variable in pedigree 1. We identified 2 FRMD7 mutations. However, 80% of X-linked families and 96% of simplex cases showed no mutations. X-inactivation studies demonstrated no clear causal link between skewing and variable penetrance. We confirm profound phenotypic variation in X-linked congenital idiopathic nystagmus pedigrees. We demonstrate that other congenital nystagmus genes exist besides FRMD7. We show that the role of X inactivation in variable penetrance is unclear in congenital idiopathic nystagmus. Clinical Relevance We demonstrate that phenotypic variation of nystagmus occurs in families with FRMD7 mutations. While FRMD7 mutations may be found in some cases of X-linked congenital idiopathic nystagmus, the diagnostic yield is low. X-inactivation assays are unhelpful as a test for carrier status for this disease.

  16. Allelic variation of bile salt hydrolase genes in Lactobacillus salivarius does not determine bile resistance levels.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fang, Fang

    2009-09-01

    Commensal lactobacilli frequently produce bile salt hydrolase (Bsh) enzymes whose roles in intestinal survival are unclear. Twenty-six Lactobacillus salivarius strains from different sources all harbored a bsh1 allele on their respective megaplasmids. This allele was related to the plasmid-borne bsh1 gene of the probiotic strain UCC118. A second locus (bsh2) was found in the chromosomes of two strains that had higher bile resistance levels. Four Bsh1-encoding allele groups were identified, defined by truncations or deletions involving a conserved residue. In vitro analyses showed that this allelic variation was correlated with widely varying bile deconjugation phenotypes. Despite very low activity of the UCC118 Bsh1 enzyme, a mutant lacking this protein had significantly lower bile resistance, both in vitro and during intestinal transit in mice. However, the overall bile resistance phenotype of this and other strains was independent of the bsh1 allele type. Analysis of the L. salivarius transcriptome upon exposure to bile and cholate identified a multiplicity of stress response proteins and putative efflux proteins that appear to broadly compensate for, or mask, the effects of allelic variation of bsh genes. Bsh enzymes with different bile-degrading kinetics, though apparently not the primary determinants of bile resistance in L. salivarius, may have additional biological importance because of varying effects upon bile as a signaling molecule in the host.

  17. Constitutional sequence variation in the Fanconi anaemia group C (FANCC) gene in childhood acute myeloid leukaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Lisa M; McGrath, Helen E N; Meyer, Stefan; Will, Andrew M; Birch, Jillian M; Eden, Osborn B; Taylor, G Malcolm

    2003-04-01

    The extent to which genetic susceptibility contributes to the causation of childhood acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) is not known. The inherited bone marrow failure disorder Fanconi anaemia (FA) carries a substantially increased risk of AML, raising the possibility that constitutional variation in the FA (FANC) genes is involved in the aetiology of childhood AML. We have screened genomic DNA extracted from remission blood samples of 97 children with sporadic AML and 91 children with sporadic acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL), together with 104 cord blood DNA samples from newborn children, for variations in the Fanconi anaemia group C (FANCC) gene. We found no evidence of known FANCC pathogenic mutations in children with AML, ALL or in the cord blood samples. However, we detected 12 different FANCC sequence variants, of which five were novel to this study. Among six FANCC variants leading to amino-acid substitutions, one (S26F) was present at a fourfold greater frequency in children with AML than in the cord blood samples (odds ratio: 4.09, P = 0.047; 95% confidence interval 1.08-15.54). Our results thus do not exclude the possibility that this polymorphic variant contributes to the risk of a small proportion of childhood AML.

  18. Nucleotide variation at the dopa decarboxylase (Ddc) gene in natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatarenkov, Andrey; Ayala, Francisco J

    2007-08-01

    We studied nucleotide sequence variation at the gene coding for dopa decarboxylase (Ddc) in seven populations of Drosophila melanogaster. Strength and pattern of linkage disequilibrium are somewhat distinct in the extensively sampled Spanish and Raleigh populations. In the Spanish population, a few sites are in strong positive association, whereas a large number of sites in the Raleigh population are associated nonrandomly but the association is not strong. Linkage disequilibrium analysis shows presence of two groups of haplotypes in the populations, each of which is fairly diverged, suggesting epistasis or inversion polymorphism. There is evidence of two forms of natural selection acting on Ddc. The McDonald-Kreitman test indicates a deficit of fixed amino acid differences between D. melanogaster and D. simulans, which may be due to negative selection. An excess of derived alleles at high frequency, significant according to the H-test, is consistent with the effect of hitchhiking. The hitchhiking may have been caused by directional selection downstream of the locus studied, as suggested by a gradual decrease of the polymorphism-to-divergence ratio. Altogether, the Ddc locus exhibits a complicated pattern of variation apparently due to several evolutionary forces. Such a complex pattern may be a result of an unusually high density of functionally important genes.

  19. Differential effects of ADORA2A gene variations in pre-attentive visual sensory memory subprocesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beste, Christian; Stock, Ann-Kathrin; Ness, Vanessa; Epplen, Jörg T; Arning, Larissa

    2012-08-01

    The ADORA2A gene encodes the adenosine A(2A) receptor that is highly expressed in the striatum where it plays a role in modulating glutamatergic and dopaminergic transmission. Glutamatergic signaling has been suggested to play a pivotal role in cognitive functions related to the pre-attentive processing of external stimuli. Yet, the precise molecular mechanism of these processes is poorly understood. Therefore, we aimed to investigate whether ADORA2A gene variation has modulating effects on visual pre-attentive sensory memory processing. Studying two polymorphisms, rs5751876 and rs2298383, in 199 healthy control subjects who performed a partial-report paradigm, we find that ADORA2A variation is associated with differences in the efficiency of pre-attentive sensory memory sub-processes. We show that especially the initial visual availability of stimulus information is rendered more efficiently in the homozygous rare genotype groups. Processes related to the transfer of information into working memory and the duration of visual sensory (iconic) memory are compromised in the homozygous rare genotype groups. Our results show a differential genotype-dependent modulation of pre-attentive sensory memory sub-processes. Hence, we assume that this modulation may be due to differential effects of increased adenosine A(2A) receptor signaling on glutamatergic transmission and striatal medium spiny neuron (MSN) interaction. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  20. Variation in the γ-glutamyltransferase 1 gene and risk of chronic pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Harrison; Diergaarde, Brenda; O'Connell, Michael R; Whitcomb, David C; Brand, Randall E

    2013-07-01

    Individuals with chronic pancreatitis are at increased risk for pancreatic cancer. We hypothesized that genetic variation in the γ-glutamyltransferase 1 (GGT1) gene, which was recently reported associated with pancreatic cancer risk in a genome-wide association study, is also associated with risk of chronic pancreatitis. Associations between common polymorphisms in GGT1 and chronic pancreatitis were evaluated using data and samples from the North American Pancreatitis Study 2. Patients (n = 496) and control subjects (n = 465) were genotyped for 4 single-nucleotide polymorphisms: rs4820599, rs2017869, rs8135987, and rs5751901. Odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for chronic pancreatitis risk were calculated using multiple logistic regression models. Interactions with cigarette smoking and alcohol use were explored. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms rs8135987 and rs4820599 were both statistically significantly associated with risk of chronic pancreatitis; compared with common allele homozygotes, individuals with at least 1 minor allele were at increased risk (rs8135987: OR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.03-1.80 [P(trend) = 0.01]; rs4820599: OR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.04-1.84 [P(trend) = 0.0]; adjusted for age, sex, race, smoking status, and alcohol use). No significant interactions with cigarette smoking and alcohol use were observed. Our results suggest that common variation in the GGT1 gene may also affect risk of chronic pancreatitis.

  1. Common Genetic Variation In Cellular Transport Genes and Epithelial Ovarian Cancer (EOC) Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chornokur, Ganna; Lin, Hui-Yi; Tyrer, Jonathan P; Lawrenson, Kate; Dennis, Joe; Amankwah, Ernest K; Qu, Xiaotao; Tsai, Ya-Yu; Jim, Heather S L; Chen, Zhihua; Chen, Ann Y; Permuth-Wey, Jennifer; Aben, Katja K H; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Antonenkova, Natalia; Bruinsma, Fiona; Bandera, Elisa V; Bean, Yukie T; Beckmann, Matthias W; Bisogna, Maria; Bjorge, Line; Bogdanova, Natalia; Brinton, Louise A; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Bunker, Clareann H; Butzow, Ralf; Campbell, Ian G; Carty, Karen; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Cook, Linda S; Cramer, Daniel W; Cunningham, Julie M; Cybulski, Cezary; Dansonka-Mieszkowska, Agnieszka; du Bois, Andreas; Despierre, Evelyn; Dicks, Ed; Doherty, Jennifer A; Dörk, Thilo; Dürst, Matthias; Easton, Douglas F; Eccles, Diana M; Edwards, Robert P; Ekici, Arif B; Fasching, Peter A; Fridley, Brooke L; Gao, Yu-Tang; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Giles, Graham G; Glasspool, Rosalind; Goodman, Marc T; Gronwald, Jacek; Harrington, Patricia; Harter, Philipp; Hein, Alexander; Heitz, Florian; Hildebrandt, Michelle A T; Hillemanns, Peter; Hogdall, Claus K; Hogdall, Estrid; Hosono, Satoyo; Jakubowska, Anna; Jensen, Allan; Ji, Bu-Tian; Karlan, Beth Y; Kelemen, Linda E; Kellar, Mellissa; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Krakstad, Camilla; Kjaer, Susanne K; Kupryjanczyk, Jolanta; Lambrechts, Diether; Lambrechts, Sandrina; Le, Nhu D; Lee, Alice W; Lele, Shashi; Leminen, Arto; Lester, Jenny; Levine, Douglas A; Liang, Dong; Lim, Boon Kiong; Lissowska, Jolanta; Lu, Karen; Lubinski, Jan; Lundvall, Lene; Massuger, Leon F A G; Matsuo, Keitaro; McGuire, Valerie; McLaughlin, John R; McNeish, Iain; Menon, Usha; Milne, Roger L; Modugno, Francesmary; Moysich, Kirsten B; Ness, Roberta B; Nevanlinna, Heli; Eilber, Ursula; Odunsi, Kunle; Olson, Sara H; Orlow, Irene; Orsulic, Sandra; Weber, Rachel Palmieri; Paul, James; Pearce, Celeste L; Pejovic, Tanja; Pelttari, Liisa M; Pike, Malcolm C; Poole, Elizabeth M; Risch, Harvey A; Rosen, Barry; Rossing, Mary Anne; Rothstein, Joseph H; Rudolph, Anja; Runnebaum, Ingo B; Rzepecka, Iwona K; Salvesen, Helga B; Schernhammer, Eva; Schwaab, Ira; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Shvetsov, Yurii B; Siddiqui, Nadeem; Sieh, Weiva; Song, Honglin; Southey, Melissa C; Spiewankiewicz, Beata; Sucheston, Lara; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Terry, Kathryn L; Thompson, Pamela J; Thomsen, Lotte; Tangen, Ingvild L; Tworoger, Shelley S; van Altena, Anne M; Vierkant, Robert A; Vergote, Ignace; Walsh, Christine S; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Whittemore, Alice S; Wicklund, Kristine G; Wilkens, Lynne R; Wu, Anna H; Wu, Xifeng; Woo, Yin-Ling; Yang, Hannah; Zheng, Wei; Ziogas, Argyrios; Hasmad, Hanis N; Berchuck, Andrew; Iversen, Edwin S; Schildkraut, Joellen M; Ramus, Susan J; Goode, Ellen L; Monteiro, Alvaro N A; Gayther, Simon A; Narod, Steven A; Pharoah, Paul D P; Sellers, Thomas A; Phelan, Catherine M

    2015-01-01

    Defective cellular transport processes can lead to aberrant accumulation of trace elements, iron, small molecules and hormones in the cell, which in turn may promote the formation of reactive oxygen species, promoting DNA damage and aberrant expression of key regulatory cancer genes. As DNA damage and uncontrolled proliferation are hallmarks of cancer, including epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), we hypothesized that inherited variation in the cellular transport genes contributes to EOC risk. In total, DNA samples were obtained from 14,525 case subjects with invasive EOC and from 23,447 controls from 43 sites in the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium (OCAC). Two hundred seventy nine SNPs, representing 131 genes, were genotyped using an Illumina Infinium iSelect BeadChip as part of the Collaborative Oncological Gene-environment Study (COGS). SNP analyses were conducted using unconditional logistic regression under a log-additive model, and the FDR q<0.2 was applied to adjust for multiple comparisons. The most significant evidence of an association for all invasive cancers combined and for the serous subtype was observed for SNP rs17216603 in the iron transporter gene HEPH (invasive: OR = 0.85, P = 0.00026; serous: OR = 0.81, P = 0.00020); this SNP was also associated with the borderline/low malignant potential (LMP) tumors (P = 0.021). Other genes significantly associated with EOC histological subtypes (p<0.05) included the UGT1A (endometrioid), SLC25A45 (mucinous), SLC39A11 (low malignant potential), and SERPINA7 (clear cell carcinoma). In addition, 1785 SNPs in six genes (HEPH, MGST1, SERPINA, SLC25A45, SLC39A11 and UGT1A) were imputed from the 1000 Genomes Project and examined for association with INV EOC in white-European subjects. The most significant imputed SNP was rs117729793 in SLC39A11 (per allele, OR = 2.55, 95% CI = 1.5-4.35, p = 5.66x10-4). These results, generated on a large cohort of women, revealed associations between inherited cellular transport

  2. Common Genetic Variation In Cellular Transport Genes and Epithelial Ovarian Cancer (EOC Risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganna Chornokur

    Full Text Available Defective cellular transport processes can lead to aberrant accumulation of trace elements, iron, small molecules and hormones in the cell, which in turn may promote the formation of reactive oxygen species, promoting DNA damage and aberrant expression of key regulatory cancer genes. As DNA damage and uncontrolled proliferation are hallmarks of cancer, including epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC, we hypothesized that inherited variation in the cellular transport genes contributes to EOC risk.In total, DNA samples were obtained from 14,525 case subjects with invasive EOC and from 23,447 controls from 43 sites in the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium (OCAC. Two hundred seventy nine SNPs, representing 131 genes, were genotyped using an Illumina Infinium iSelect BeadChip as part of the Collaborative Oncological Gene-environment Study (COGS. SNP analyses were conducted using unconditional logistic regression under a log-additive model, and the FDR q<0.2 was applied to adjust for multiple comparisons.The most significant evidence of an association for all invasive cancers combined and for the serous subtype was observed for SNP rs17216603 in the iron transporter gene HEPH (invasive: OR = 0.85, P = 0.00026; serous: OR = 0.81, P = 0.00020; this SNP was also associated with the borderline/low malignant potential (LMP tumors (P = 0.021. Other genes significantly associated with EOC histological subtypes (p<0.05 included the UGT1A (endometrioid, SLC25A45 (mucinous, SLC39A11 (low malignant potential, and SERPINA7 (clear cell carcinoma. In addition, 1785 SNPs in six genes (HEPH, MGST1, SERPINA, SLC25A45, SLC39A11 and UGT1A were imputed from the 1000 Genomes Project and examined for association with INV EOC in white-European subjects. The most significant imputed SNP was rs117729793 in SLC39A11 (per allele, OR = 2.55, 95% CI = 1.5-4.35, p = 5.66x10-4.These results, generated on a large cohort of women, revealed associations between inherited cellular

  3. Common Genetic Variation In Cellular Transport Genes and Epithelial Ovarian Cancer (EOC) Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chornokur, Ganna; Lin, Hui-Yi; Tyrer, Jonathan P.; Lawrenson, Kate; Dennis, Joe; Amankwah, Ernest K.; Qu, Xiaotao; Tsai, Ya-Yu; Jim, Heather S. L.; Chen, Zhihua; Chen, Ann Y.; Permuth-Wey, Jennifer; Aben, Katja KH.; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Antonenkova, Natalia; Bruinsma, Fiona; Bandera, Elisa V.; Bean, Yukie T.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Bisogna, Maria; Bjorge, Line; Bogdanova, Natalia; Brinton, Louise A.; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Bunker, Clareann H.; Butzow, Ralf; Campbell, Ian G.; Carty, Karen; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Cook, Linda S.; Cramer, Daniel W.; Cunningham, Julie M.; Cybulski, Cezary; Dansonka-Mieszkowska, Agnieszka; du Bois, Andreas; Despierre, Evelyn; Dicks, Ed; Doherty, Jennifer A.; Dörk, Thilo; Dürst, Matthias; Easton, Douglas F.; Eccles, Diana M.; Edwards, Robert P.; Ekici, Arif B.; Fasching, Peter A.; Fridley, Brooke L.; Gao, Yu-Tang; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Giles, Graham G.; Glasspool, Rosalind; Goodman, Marc T.; Gronwald, Jacek; Harrington, Patricia; Harter, Philipp; Hein, Alexander; Heitz, Florian; Hildebrandt, Michelle A. T.; Hillemanns, Peter; Hogdall, Claus K.; Hogdall, Estrid; Hosono, Satoyo; Jakubowska, Anna; Jensen, Allan; Ji, Bu-Tian; Karlan, Beth Y.; Kelemen, Linda E.; Kellar, Mellissa; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.; Krakstad, Camilla; Kjaer, Susanne K.; Kupryjanczyk, Jolanta; Lambrechts, Diether; Lambrechts, Sandrina; Le, Nhu D.; Lee, Alice W.; Lele, Shashi; Leminen, Arto; Lester, Jenny; Levine, Douglas A.; Liang, Dong; Lim, Boon Kiong; Lissowska, Jolanta; Lu, Karen; Lubinski, Jan; Lundvall, Lene; Massuger, Leon F. A. G.; Matsuo, Keitaro; McGuire, Valerie; McLaughlin, John R.; McNeish, Iain; Menon, Usha; Milne, Roger L.; Modugno, Francesmary; Moysich, Kirsten B.; Ness, Roberta B.; Nevanlinna, Heli; Eilber, Ursula; Odunsi, Kunle; Olson, Sara H.; Orlow, Irene; Orsulic, Sandra; Weber, Rachel Palmieri; Paul, James; Pearce, Celeste L.; Pejovic, Tanja; Pelttari, Liisa M.; Pike, Malcolm C.; Poole, Elizabeth M.; Risch, Harvey A.; Rosen, Barry; Rossing, Mary Anne; Rothstein, Joseph H.; Rudolph, Anja; Runnebaum, Ingo B.; Rzepecka, Iwona K.; Salvesen, Helga B.; Schernhammer, Eva; Schwaab, Ira; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Shvetsov, Yurii B.; Siddiqui, Nadeem; Sieh, Weiva; Song, Honglin; Southey, Melissa C.; Spiewankiewicz, Beata; Sucheston, Lara; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Terry, Kathryn L.; Thompson, Pamela J.; Thomsen, Lotte; Tangen, Ingvild L.; Tworoger, Shelley S.; van Altena, Anne M.; Vierkant, Robert A.; Vergote, Ignace; Walsh, Christine S.; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Whittemore, Alice S.; Wicklund, Kristine G.; Wilkens, Lynne R.; Wu, Anna H.; Wu, Xifeng; Woo, Yin-Ling; Yang, Hannah; Zheng, Wei; Ziogas, Argyrios; Hasmad, Hanis N.; Berchuck, Andrew; Iversen, Edwin S.; Schildkraut, Joellen M.; Ramus, Susan J.; Goode, Ellen L.; Monteiro, Alvaro N. A.; Gayther, Simon A.; Narod, Steven A.; Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Sellers, Thomas A.; Phelan, Catherine M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Defective cellular transport processes can lead to aberrant accumulation of trace elements, iron, small molecules and hormones in the cell, which in turn may promote the formation of reactive oxygen species, promoting DNA damage and aberrant expression of key regulatory cancer genes. As DNA damage and uncontrolled proliferation are hallmarks of cancer, including epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), we hypothesized that inherited variation in the cellular transport genes contributes to EOC risk. Methods In total, DNA samples were obtained from 14,525 case subjects with invasive EOC and from 23,447 controls from 43 sites in the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium (OCAC). Two hundred seventy nine SNPs, representing 131 genes, were genotyped using an Illumina Infinium iSelect BeadChip as part of the Collaborative Oncological Gene-environment Study (COGS). SNP analyses were conducted using unconditional logistic regression under a log-additive model, and the FDR q<0.2 was applied to adjust for multiple comparisons. Results The most significant evidence of an association for all invasive cancers combined and for the serous subtype was observed for SNP rs17216603 in the iron transporter gene HEPH (invasive: OR = 0.85, P = 0.00026; serous: OR = 0.81, P = 0.00020); this SNP was also associated with the borderline/low malignant potential (LMP) tumors (P = 0.021). Other genes significantly associated with EOC histological subtypes (p<0.05) included the UGT1A (endometrioid), SLC25A45 (mucinous), SLC39A11 (low malignant potential), and SERPINA7 (clear cell carcinoma). In addition, 1785 SNPs in six genes (HEPH, MGST1, SERPINA, SLC25A45, SLC39A11 and UGT1A) were imputed from the 1000 Genomes Project and examined for association with INV EOC in white-European subjects. The most significant imputed SNP was rs117729793 in SLC39A11 (per allele, OR = 2.55, 95% CI = 1.5-4.35, p = 5.66x10-4). Conclusion These results, generated on a large cohort of women, revealed associations

  4. Rare Copy Number Variations in Adults with Tetralogy of Fallot Implicate Novel Risk Gene Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costain, Gregory; Merico, Daniele; Migita, Ohsuke; Liu, Ben; Yuen, Tracy; Rickaby, Jessica; Thiruvahindrapuram, Bhooma; Marshall, Christian R.; Scherer, Stephen W.; Bassett, Anne S.

    2012-01-01

    Structural genetic changes, especially copy number variants (CNVs), represent a major source of genetic variation contributing to human disease. Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) is the most common form of cyanotic congenital heart disease, but to date little is known about the role of CNVs in the etiology of TOF. Using high-resolution genome-wide microarrays and stringent calling methods, we investigated rare CNVs in a prospectively recruited cohort of 433 unrelated adults with TOF and/or pulmonary atresia at a single centre. We excluded those with recognized syndromes, including 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. We identified candidate genes for TOF based on converging evidence between rare CNVs that overlapped the same gene in unrelated individuals and from pathway analyses comparing rare CNVs in TOF cases to those in epidemiologic controls. Even after excluding the 53 (10.7%) subjects with 22q11.2 deletions, we found that adults with TOF had a greater burden of large rare genic CNVs compared to controls (8.82% vs. 4.33%, p = 0.0117). Six loci showed evidence for recurrence in TOF or related congenital heart disease, including typical 1q21.1 duplications in four (1.18%) of 340 Caucasian probands. The rare CNVs implicated novel candidate genes of interest for TOF, including PLXNA2, a gene involved in semaphorin signaling. Independent pathway analyses highlighted developmental processes as potential contributors to the pathogenesis of TOF. These results indicate that individually rare CNVs are collectively significant contributors to the genetic burden of TOF. Further, the data provide new evidence for dosage sensitive genes in PLXNA2-semaphorin signaling and related developmental processes in human cardiovascular development, consistent with previous animal models. PMID:22912587

  5. Allelic diversity in an NLR gene BPH9 enables rice to combat planthopper variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Huang, Jin; Wang, Zhizheng; Jing, Shengli; Wang, Yang; Ouyang, Yidan; Cai, Baodong; Xin, Xiu-Fang; Liu, Xin; Zhang, Chunxiao; Pan, Yufang; Ma, Rui; Li, Qiaofeng; Jiang, Weihua; Zeng, Ya; Shangguan, Xinxin; Wang, Huiying; Du, Bo; Zhu, Lili; Xu, Xun; Feng, Yu-Qi; He, Sheng Yang; Chen, Rongzhi; Zhang, Qifa; He, Guangcun

    2016-10-24

    Brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens Stål, is one of the most devastating insect pests of rice (Oryza sativa L.). Currently, 30 BPH-resistance genes have been genetically defined, most of which are clustered on specific chromosome regions. Here, we describe molecular cloning and characterization of a BPH-resistance gene, BPH9, mapped on the long arm of rice chromosome 12 (12L). BPH9 encodes a rare type of nucleotide-binding and leucine-rich repeat (NLR)-containing protein that localizes to the endomembrane system and causes a cell death phenotype. BPH9 activates salicylic acid- and jasmonic acid-signaling pathways in rice plants and confers both antixenosis and antibiosis to BPH. We further demonstrated that the eight BPH-resistance genes that are clustered on chromosome 12L, including the widely used BPH1, are allelic with each other. To honor the priority in the literature, we thus designated this locus as BPH1/9 These eight genes can be classified into four allelotypes, BPH1/9-1, -2, -7, and -9 These allelotypes confer varying levels of resistance to different biotypes of BPH. The coding region of BPH1/9 shows a high level of diversity in rice germplasm. Homologous fragments of the nucleotide-binding (NB) and leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domains exist, which might have served as a repository for generating allele diversity. Our findings reveal a rice plant strategy for modifying the genetic information to gain the upper hand in the struggle against insect herbivores. Further exploration of natural allelic variation and artificial shuffling within this gene may allow breeding to be tailored to control emerging biotypes of BPH.

  6. Expanding the genotype-phenotype spectrum in hereditary colorectal cancer by gene panel testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohlin, Anna; Rambech, Eva; Kvist, Anders

    2017-01-01

    Hereditary syndromes causing colorectal cancer include both polyposis and non-polyposis syndromes. Overlapping phenotypes between the syndromes have been recognized and this make targeted molecular testing for single genes less favorable, instead there is a gaining interest for multi-gene panel...

  7. Polymorphic genes of major effect: consequences for variation, selection and evolution in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinchcombe, John R; Weinig, Cynthia; Heath, Katy D; Brock, Marcus T; Schmitt, Johanna

    2009-07-01

    The importance of genes of major effect for evolutionary trajectories within and among natural populations has long been the subject of intense debate. For example, if allelic variation at a major-effect locus fundamentally alters the structure of quantitative trait variation, then fixation of a single locus can have rapid and profound effects on the rate or direction of subsequent evolutionary change. Using an Arabidopsis thaliana RIL mapping population, we compare G-matrix structure between lines possessing different alleles at ERECTA, a locus known to affect ecologically relevant variation in plant architecture. We find that the allele present at ERECTA significantly alters G-matrix structure-in particular the genetic correlations between branch number and flowering time traits-and may also modulate the strength of natural selection on these traits. Despite these differences, however, when we extend our analysis to determine how evolution might differ depending on the ERECTA allele, we find that predicted responses to selection are similar. To compare responses to selection between allele classes, we developed a resampling strategy that incorporates uncertainty in estimates of selection that can also be used for statistical comparisons of G matrices.

  8. A SPITZER TRANSMISSION SPECTRUM FOR THE EXOPLANET GJ 436b, EVIDENCE FOR STELLAR VARIABILITY, AND CONSTRAINTS ON DAYSIDE FLUX VARIATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knutson, Heather A.; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Cowan, Nicolas B.; Christiansen, Jessie L.; Agol, Eric; Deming, Drake; Desert, Jean-Michel; Charbonneau, David; Henry, Gregory W.; Homeier, Derek; Laughlin, Gregory; Langton, Jonathan; Seager, Sara

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a uniform analysis of eight transits and eleven secondary eclipses of the extrasolar planet GJ 436b obtained in the 3.6, 4.5, and 8.0 μm bands using the IRAC instrument on the Spitzer Space Telescope between UT 2007 June 29 and UT 2009 February 4. We find that the best-fit transit depths for visits in the same bandpass can vary by as much as 8% of the total (4.7σ significance) from one epoch to the next. Although we cannot entirely rule out residual detector effects or a time-varying, high-altitude cloud layer in the planet's atmosphere as the cause of these variations, we consider the occultation of active regions on the star in a subset of the transit observations to be the most likely explanation. We find that for the deepest 3.6 μm transit the in-transit data have a higher standard deviation than the out-of-transit data, as would be expected if the planet occulted a star spot. We also compare all published transit observations for this object and find that transits observed in the infrared typically have smaller timing offsets than those observed in visible light. In this case, the three deepest Spitzer transits are all measured within a period of five days, consistent with a single epoch of increased stellar activity. We reconcile the presence of magnetically active regions with the lack of significant visible or infrared flux variations from the star by proposing that the star's spin axis is tilted with respect to our line of sight and that the planet's orbit is therefore likely to be misaligned. In contrast to the results reported by Beaulieu et al., we find no convincing evidence for methane absorption in the planet's transmission spectrum. If we exclude the transits that we believe to be most affected by stellar activity, we find that we prefer models with enhanced CO and reduced methane, consistent with GJ 436b's dayside composition from Stevenson et al. It is also possible that all transits are significantly affected by this

  9. Natural Variation in Synthesis and Catabolism Genes Influences Dhurrin Content in Sorghum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad M. Hayes

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Cyanogenic glucosides are natural compounds found in more than 1000 species of angiosperms that produce HCN and are deemed undesirable for agricultural use. However, these compounds are important components of the primary defensive mechanisms of many plant species. One of the best-studied cyanogenic glucosides is dhurrin [(--hydroxymandelonitrile-β--glucopyranoside], which is produced primarily in sorghum [ (L. Moench]. The biochemical basis for dhurrin metabolism is well established; however, little information is available on its genetic control. Here, we dissect the genetic control of leaf dhurrin content through a genome-wide association study (GWAS using a panel of 700 diverse converted sorghum lines (conversion panel previously subjected to pre-breeding and selected for short stature (∼1 m in height and photoperiod insensitivity. The conversion panel was grown for 2 yr in three environments. Wide variation for leaf dhurrin content was found in the sorghum conversion panel, with the Caudatum group exhibiting the highest dhurrin content and the Guinea group showing the lowest dhurrin content. A GWAS using a mixed linear model revealed significant associations (a false discovery rate [FDR] < 0.05 close to both UGT 185B1 in the canonical biosynthetic gene cluster on chromosome 1 and close to the catabolic dhurrinase loci on chromosome 8. Dhurrin content was associated consistently with biosynthetic genes in the two N-fertilized environments, while dhurrin content was associated with catabolic loci in the environment without supplemental N. These results suggest that genes for both biosynthesis and catabolism are important in determining natural variation for leaf dhurrin in sorghum in different environments.

  10. Genetic variation in hormone metabolizing genes and risk of testicular germ cell tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Jonine D; Sakoda, Lori C; Graubard, Barry I; Chanock, Stephen; Rubertone, Mark V; Erickson, R Loren; McGlynn, Katherine A

    2008-11-01

    Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT) that arise in young men are composed of two histologic types, seminomas and nonseminomas. Risk patterns for the two types appear to be similar and may be related to either endogenous or exogenous hormonal exposures in utero. Why similar risk patterns would result in different histologic types is unclear, but could be related to varying genetic susceptibility profiles. Genetic variation in hormone metabolizing genes could potentially modify hormonal exposures, and thereby affect which histologic type a man develops. To examine this hypothesis, 33 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in four hormone metabolism candidate genes (CYP1A1, CYP17A1, HSD17B1, HSD17B4) and the androgen receptor gene (AR) were genotyped. Associations with TGCT were evaluated among 577 TGCT cases (254 seminoma, 323 nonseminoma) and 707 controls from the US Servicemen's Testicular Tumor Environmental and Endocrine Determinants (STEED) study. There were no significant associations with TGCT overall based on a test using an additive model. However, compared to homozygotes of the most common allele, two nonredundant SNPs in CYP1A1 were inversely associated with nonseminoma: CYP1A1 promoter SNP rs4886605 OR = 0.75 (95% CI = 0.54-1.04) among the heterozygotes and OR = 0.37, 95% CI = 0.12-1.11 among the homozygotes with a p-value for trend = 0.02; rs2606345 intron 1 SNP, OR = 0.69 (95% CI = 0.51-0.93) among heterozygotes and OR = 0.70 (95% CI = 0.42-1.17) among homozygotes, with a p-value for trend = 0.02. Caution in interpretation is warranted until findings are replicated in other studies; however, the results suggest that genetic variation in CYP1A1 may be associated with nonseminoma.

  11. Clinical Relevance of Gene Copy Number Variation in Metastatic Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouhaud, François-Xavier; Blanchard, France; Sesboue, Richard; Flaman, Jean-Michel; Sabourin, Jean-Christophe; Pfister, Christian; Di Fiore, Frédéric

    2018-02-23

    Gene copy number variations (CNVs) have been reported to be frequent in renal cell carcinoma (RCC), with potential prognostic value for some. However, their clinical utility, especially to guide treatment of metastatic disease remains to be established. Our objectives were to assess CNVs on a panel of selected genes and determine their clinical relevance in patients who underwent treatment of metastatic RCC. The genetic assessment was performed on frozen tissue samples of clear cell metastatic RCC using quantitative multiplex polymerase chain reaction of short fluorescent fragment method to detect CNVs on a panel of 14 genes of interest. The comparison of the electropherogram obtained from both tumor and normal renal adjacent tissue allowed for CNV identification. The clinical, biologic, and survival characteristics were assessed for their associations with the most frequent CNVs. Fifty patients with clear cell metastatic RCC were included. The CNV rate was 21.4%. The loss of CDKN2A and PLG was associated with a higher tumor stage (P relevance, especially those located on CDKN2A, PLG, and ALDOB, in a homogeneous cohort of patients with clear cell metastatic RCC. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Variations in KIR Genes: A Study in HIV-1 Serodiscordant Couples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay R. Chavan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. NK cells have anti-HIV activity mediated through killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs. The current prospective cohort study evaluated whether variation in KIR genes is associated with HIV infection in discordant couples (DCs, where one spouse remains seronegative (HSN despite repeated exposure to the HIV. Methods. KIR was genotyped using PCR SSP. Viral load and CD4 counts were estimated using commercially available reagents. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. Results. Among the 47 DCs, HSN spouses had significantly (P=0.006 higher frequencies of KIR3DS1. Regression analysis revealed significant (P=0.009 association of KIR2DS1 with low viral load. KIR2DS4 variant was associated (P=0.032 with high viral load. Three pairs of KIR genes were in strong LD in HSNs and two pairs in HSPs. There were 60 KIR genotypes, and 16 are reported the first time in the Indian population. Exclusive genotypes were present either in HSPs (N=22, 11 unique genotypes or in HSNs (n=27, 9 unique genotypes. Conclusions. This study highlights for the first time in the Indian population an association of KIR genes in HIV infection where presence of exclusive and unique genotypes indicates possible association with either HIV infection or with protection.

  13. Progranulin gene variation affects serum progranulin levels differently in Danish bipolar individuals compared with healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttenschøn, Henriette N; Nielsen, Marit N; Thotakura, Gangadaar; Lee, Chris W; Nykjær, Anders; Mors, Ole; Glerup, Simon

    2017-06-01

    The identification of peripheral biomarkers for bipolar disorder is of great importance and has the potential to improve diagnosis, treatment and prognosis. Recent studies have reported lower plasma progranulin levels in bipolar individuals compared with controls and association with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the progranulin gene (GRN). In the present study, we investigated the effect of GRN and sortilin (SORT1) gene variation on serum progranulin levels in bipolar individuals and controls. In a Danish cohort of individuals with bipolar disorder and controls, we analysed the serum progranulin level (nbipolar=80, ncontrols=76) and five SNPs located within GRN and two SNPs near the SORT1 gene encoding sortilin, a progranulin scavenger receptor known to affect circulating progranulin levels (nbipolar=166, ncontrols=186). We observed no significant difference in the serum progranulin level between cases and controls and none of the analysed SNPs located within GRN or close to SORT1 were associated with bipolar disorder. Crude and adjusted (adjusted for case-control status, sex and age) linear regression analyses showed no effect of any SNPs on the serum progranulin level. However, we observed that the mean serum progranulin level in cases and controls is affected differently depending on the genotypes of two SNPs within GRN (rs2879096 and rs4792938). The sample size is relatively small and detailed information on medication and polarity of the disorder is not available. No correction for multiple testing was performed. Our study suggests that the potential of progranulin as a biomarker for bipolar disorder is genotype dependent.

  14. Variation in Cilia Protein Genes and Progression of Lung Disease in Cystic Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blue, Elizabeth; Louie, Tin L; Chong, Jessica X; Hebbring, Scott J; Barnes, Kathleen C; Rafaels, Nicholas M; Knowles, Michael R; Gibson, Ronald L; Bamshad, Michael J; Emond, Mary J

    2018-04-01

    Cystic fibrosis, like primary ciliary dyskinesia, is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by abnormal mucociliary clearance and obstructive lung disease. We hypothesized that genes underlying the development or function of cilia may modify lung disease severity in persons with cystic fibrosis. To test this hypothesis, we compared variants in 93 candidate genes in both upper and lower tertiles of lung function in a large cohort of children and adults with cystic fibrosis with those of a population control dataset. Variants within candidate genes were tested for association using the SKAT-O test, comparing cystic fibrosis cases defined by poor (n = 127) or preserved (n = 127) lung function with population controls (n = 3,269 or 3,148, respectively). Associated variants were then tested for association with related phenotypes in independent datasets. Variants in DNAH14 and DNAAF3 were associated with poor lung function in cystic fibrosis, whereas variants in DNAH14 and DNAH6 were associated with preserved lung function in cystic fibrosis. Associations between DNAH14 and lung function were replicated in disease-related phenotypes characterized by obstructive lung disease in adults. Genetic variants within DNAH6, DNAH14, and DNAAF3 are associated with variation in lung function among persons with cystic fibrosis.

  15. Genetic variation in DNA repair gene XRCC7 (G6721T) and susceptibility to breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasiri, Meysam; Saadat, Iraj; Omidvari, Shahpour; Saadat, Mostafa

    2012-08-15

    The human XRCC7 is a DNA double-strand break (DSBs) repair gene, involved in non-homologous end joining (NHEJ). It is speculated that DNA DSBs repair have an important role during development of breast cancer. The human XRCC7 is a NHEJ DSBs repair gene. Genetic variation G6721T of XRCC7 (rs7003908) is located in the intron 8 of the gene. This polymorphism may regulate splicing and cause mRNA instability. In the present study, we specifically investigated whether common G6721T genetic variant of XRCC7 was associated with an altered risk of breast cancer. The present study included 362 females with breast cancer. Age frequency-matched controls (362 persons) were randomly selected from the healthy female blood donors, according to the age distribution of the cases. Using RFLP-PCR based method, the polymorphism of XRCC7 was determined. The TG (OR=1.20, 95% CI: 0.83-1.74, P=0.320) and TT (OR=1.01, 95% CI: 0.67-1.53, P=0.933) genotypes had no significant effect on risk of breast cancer, in comparison with the GG genotype. Our present findings indicate that the TT and TG genotypes were not associated with an altered breast cancer risk. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Attachment style and oxytocin receptor gene variation interact in influencing social anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notzon, S; Domschke, K; Holitschke, K; Ziegler, C; Arolt, V; Pauli, P; Reif, A; Deckert, J; Zwanzger, P

    2016-01-01

    Social anxiety has been suggested to be promoted by an insecure attachment style. Oxytocin is discussed as a mediator of trust and social bonding as well as a modulator of social anxiety. Applying a gene-environment (G × E) interaction approach, in the present pilot study the main and interactive effects of attachment styles and oxytocin receptor (OXTR) gene variation were probed in a combined risk factor model of social anxiety in healthy probands. Participants (N = 388; 219 females, 169 males; age 24.7 ± 4.7 years) were assessed for anxiety in social situations (Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory) depending on attachment style (Adult Attachment Scale, AAS) and OXTR rs53576 A/G genotype. A less secure attachment style was significantly associated with higher social anxiety. This association was partly modulated by OXTR genotype, with a stronger negative influence of a less secure attachment style on social anxiety in A allele carriers as compared to GG homozygotes. The present pilot data point to a strong association of less secure attachment and social anxiety as well as to a gene-environment interaction effect of OXTR rs53576 genotype and attachment style on social anxiety possibly constituting a targetable combined risk marker of social anxiety disorder.

  17. The expanding spectrum of COL2A1 gene variants IN 136 patients with a skeletal dysplasia phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barat-Houari, Mouna; Dumont, Bruno; Fabre, Aurélie; Them, Frédéric Tm; Alembik, Yves; Alessandri, Jean-Luc; Amiel, Jeanne; Audebert, Séverine; Baumann-Morel, Clarisse; Blanchet, Patricia; Bieth, Eric; Brechard, Marie; Busa, Tiffany; Calvas, Patrick; Capri, Yline; Cartault, François; Chassaing, Nicolas; Ciorca, Vidrica; Coubes, Christine; David, Albert; Delezoide, Anne-Lise; Dupin-Deguine, Delphine; El Chehadeh, Salima; Faivre, Laurence; Giuliano, Fabienne; Goldenberg, Alice; Isidor, Bertrand; Jacquemont, Marie-Line; Julia, Sophie; Kaplan, Josseline; Lacombe, Didier; Lebrun, Marine; Marlin, Sandrine; Martin-Coignard, Dominique; Martinovic, Jelena; Masurel, Alice; Melki, Judith; Mozelle-Nivoix, Monique; Nguyen, Karine; Odent, Sylvie; Philip, Nicole; Pinson, Lucile; Plessis, Ghislaine; Quélin, Chloé; Shaeffer, Elise; Sigaudy, Sabine; Thauvin, Christel; Till, Marianne; Touraine, Renaud; Vigneron, Jacqueline; Baujat, Geneviève; Cormier-Daire, Valérie; Le Merrer, Martine; Geneviève, David; Touitou, Isabelle

    2016-07-01

    Heterozygous COL2A1 variants cause a wide spectrum of skeletal dysplasia termed type II collagenopathies. We assessed the impact of this gene in our French series. A decision tree was applied to select 136 probands (71 Stickler cases, 21 Spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia congenita cases, 11 Kniest dysplasia cases, and 34 other dysplasia cases) before molecular diagnosis by Sanger sequencing. We identified 66 different variants among the 71 positive patients. Among those patients, 18 belonged to multiplex families and 53 were sporadic. Most variants (38/44, 86%) were located in the triple helical domain of the collagen chain and glycine substitutions were mainly observed in severe phenotypes, whereas arginine to cysteine changes were more often encountered in moderate phenotypes. This series of skeletal dysplasia is one of the largest reported so far, adding 44 novel variants (15%) to published data. We have confirmed that about half of our Stickler patients (46%) carried a COL2A1 variant, and that the molecular spectrum was different across the phenotypes. To further address the question of genotype-phenotype correlation, we plan to screen our patients for other candidate genes using a targeted next-generation sequencing approach.

  18. dbMDEGA: a database for meta-analysis of differentially expressed genes in autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuyun; Deng, Libin; Jia, Qiyue; Huang, Shaoting; Gu, Junwang; Zhou, Fankun; Gao, Meng; Sun, Xinyi; Feng, Chang; Fan, Guangqin

    2017-11-16

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are hereditary, heterogeneous and biologically complex neurodevelopmental disorders. Individual studies on gene expression in ASD cannot provide clear consensus conclusions. Therefore, a systematic review to synthesize the current findings from brain tissues and a search tool to share the meta-analysis results are urgently needed. Here, we conducted a meta-analysis of brain gene expression profiles in the current reported human ASD expression datasets (with 84 frozen male cortex samples, 17 female cortex samples, 32 cerebellum samples and 4 formalin fixed samples) and knock-out mouse ASD model expression datasets (with 80 collective brain samples). Then, we applied R language software and developed an interactive shared and updated database (dbMDEGA) displaying the results of meta-analysis of data from ASD studies regarding differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the brain. This database, dbMDEGA ( https://dbmdega.shinyapps.io/dbMDEGA/ ), is a publicly available web-portal for manual annotation and visualization of DEGs in the brain from data from ASD studies. This database uniquely presents meta-analysis values and homologous forest plots of DEGs in brain tissues. Gene entries are annotated with meta-values, statistical values and forest plots of DEGs in brain samples. This database aims to provide searchable meta-analysis results based on the current reported brain gene expression datasets of ASD to help detect candidate genes underlying this disorder. This new analytical tool may provide valuable assistance in the discovery of DEGs and the elucidation of the molecular pathogenicity of ASD. This database model may be replicated to study other disorders.

  19. Genetic variation at hair length candidate genes in elephants and the extinct woolly mammoth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tisdale Michele

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Like humans, the living elephants are unusual among mammals in being sparsely covered with hair. Relative to extant elephants, the extinct woolly mammoth, Mammuthus primigenius, had a dense hair cover and extremely long hair, which likely were adaptations to its subarctic habitat. The fibroblast growth factor 5 (FGF5 gene affects hair length in a diverse set of mammalian species. Mutations in FGF5 lead to recessive long hair phenotypes in mice, dogs, and cats; and the gene has been implicated in hair length variation in rabbits. Thus, FGF5 represents a leading candidate gene for the phenotypic differences in hair length notable between extant elephants and the woolly mammoth. We therefore sequenced the three exons (except for the 3' UTR and a portion of the promoter of FGF5 from the living elephantid species (Asian, African savanna and African forest elephants and, using protocols for ancient DNA, from a woolly mammoth. Results Between the extant elephants and the mammoth, two single base substitutions were observed in FGF5, neither of which alters the amino acid sequence. Modeling of the protein structure suggests that the elephantid proteins fold similarly to the human FGF5 protein. Bioinformatics analyses and DNA sequencing of another locus that has been implicated in hair cover in humans, type I hair keratin pseudogene (KRTHAP1, also yielded negative results. Interestingly, KRTHAP1 is a pseudogene in elephantids as in humans (although fully functional in non-human primates. Conclusion The data suggest that the coding sequence of the FGF5 gene is not the critical determinant of hair length differences among elephantids. The results are discussed in the context of hairlessness among mammals and in terms of the potential impact of large body size, subarctic conditions, and an aquatic ancestor on hair cover in the Proboscidea.

  20. Molecular variation at a candidate gene implicated in the regulation of fire ant social behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dietrich Gotzek

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The fire ant Solenopsis invicta and its close relatives display an important social polymorphism involving differences in colony queen number. Colonies are headed by either a single reproductive queen (monogyne form or multiple queens (polygyne form. This variation in social organization is associated with variation at the gene Gp-9, with monogyne colonies harboring only B-like allelic variants and polygyne colonies always containing b-like variants as well. We describe naturally occurring variation at Gp-9 in fire ants based on 185 full-length sequences, 136 of which were obtained from S. invicta collected over much of its native range. While there is little overall differentiation between most of the numerous alleles observed, a surprising amount is found in the coding regions of the gene, with such substitutions usually causing amino acid replacements. This elevated coding-region variation may result from a lack of negative selection acting to constrain amino acid replacements over much of the protein, different mutation rates or biases in coding and non-coding sequences, negative selection acting with greater strength on non-coding than coding regions, and/or positive selection acting on the protein. Formal selection analyses provide evidence that the latter force played an important role in the basal b-like lineages coincident with the emergence of polygyny. While our data set reveals considerable paraphyly and polyphyly of S. invicta sequences with respect to those of other fire ant species, the b-like alleles of the socially polymorphic species are monophyletic. An expanded analysis of colonies containing alleles of this clade confirmed the invariant link between their presence and expression of polygyny. Finally, our discovery of several unique alleles bearing various combinations of b-like and B-like codons allows us to conclude that no single b-like residue is completely predictive of polygyne behavior and, thus, potentially causally

  1. Genetic variation of clock genes and cancer risk: a field synopsis and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benna, Clara; Helfrich-Förster, Charlotte; Rajendran, Senthilkumar; Monticelli, Halenya; Pilati, Pierluigi; Nitti, Donato; Mocellin, Simone

    2017-04-04

    The number of studies on the association between clock genes' polymorphisms and cancer susceptibility has increased over the last years but the results are often conflicting and no comprehensive overview and quantitative summary of the evidence in this field is available. Literature search identified 27 eligible studies comprising 96756 subjects (cases: 38231) and investigating 687 polymorphisms involving 14 clock genes. Overall, 1025 primary and subgroup meta-analyses on 366 gene variants were performed. Study distribution by tumor was as follows: breast cancer (n=15), prostate cancer (n=3), pancreatic cancer (n=2), non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (n=2), glioma (n=1), chronic lymphocytic leukemia (n=1), colorectal cancer (n=1), non-small cell lung cancer (n=1) and ovarian cancer (n=1).We identified 10 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) significantly associated with cancer risk: NPAS2 rs10165970 (mixed and breast cancer shiftworkers), rs895520 (mixed), rs17024869 (breast) and rs7581886 (breast); CLOCK rs3749474 (breast) and rs11943456 (breast); RORA rs7164773 (breast and breast cancer postmenopausal), rs10519097 (breast); RORB rs7867494 (breast cancer postmenopausal), PER3 rs1012477 (breast cancer subgroups) and assessed the level of quality evidence to be intermediate. We also identified polymorphisms with lower quality statistically significant associations (n=30). Our work supports the hypothesis that genetic variation of clock genes might affect cancer risk. These findings also highlight the need for more efforts in this research field in order to fully establish the contribution of clock gene variants to the risk of developing cancer. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the evidence on the association between clock genes' germline variants and the risk of developing cancer. To assess result credibility, summary evidence was graded according to the Venice criteria and false positive report probability (FPRP) was calculated to further validate

  2. Novel sequence variations in LAMA2 and SGCG genes modulating cis-acting regulatory elements and RNA secondary structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olfa Siala

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we detected new sequence variations in LAMA2 and SGCG genes in 5 ethnic populations, and analysed their effect on enhancer composition and mRNA structure. PCR amplification and DNA sequencing were performed and followed by bioinformatics analyses using ESEfinder as well as MFOLD software. We found 3 novel sequence variations in the LAMA2 (c.3174+22_23insAT and c.6085 +12delA and SGCG (c.*102A/C genes. These variations were present in 210 tested healthy controls from Tunisian, Moroccan, Algerian, Lebanese and French populations suggesting that they represent novel polymorphisms within LAMA2 and SGCG genes sequences. ESEfinder showed that the c.*102A/C substitution created a new exon splicing enhancer in the 3'UTR of SGCG genes, whereas the c.6085 +12delA deletion was situated in the base pairing region between LAMA2 mRNA and the U1snRNA spliceosomal components. The RNA structure analyses showed that both variations modulated RNA secondary structure. Our results are suggestive of correlations between mRNA folding and the recruitment of spliceosomal components mediating splicing, including SR proteins. The contribution of common sequence variations to mRNA structural and functional diversity will contribute to a better study of gene expression.

  3. MAINTENANCE OF ECOLOGICALLY SIGNIFICANT GENETIC VARIATION IN THE TIGER SWALLOWTAIL BUTTERFLY THROUGH DIFFERENTIAL SELECTION AND GENE FLOW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossart, J L; Scriber, J M

    1995-12-01

    Differential selection in a heterogeneous environment is thought to promote the maintenance of ecologically significant genetic variation. Variation is maintained when selection is counterbalanced by the homogenizing effects of gene flow and random mating. In this study, we examine the relative importance of differential selection and gene flow in maintaining genetic variation in Papilio glaucus. Differential selection on traits contributing to successful use of host plants (oviposition preference and larval performance) was assessed by comparing the responses of southern Ohio, north central Georgia, and southern Florida populations of P. glaucus to three hosts: Liriodendron tulipifera, Magnolia virginiana, and Prunus serotina. Gene flow among populations was estimated using allozyme frequencies from nine polymorphic loci. Significant genetic differentiation was observed among populations for both oviposition preference and larval performance. This differentiation was interpreted to be the result of selection acting on Florida P. glaucus for enhanced use of Magnolia, the prevalent host in Florida. In contrast, no evidence of population differentiation was revealed by allozyme frequencies. F ST -values were very small and Nm, an estimate of the relative strengths of gene flow and genetic drift, was large, indicating that genetic exchange among P. glaucus populations is relatively unrestricted. The contrasting patterns of spatial differentiation for host-use traits and lack of differentiation for electrophoretically detectable variation implies that differential selection among populations will be counterbalanced by gene flow, thereby maintaining genetic variation for host-use traits. © 1995 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  4. High natural gene expression variation in the reef-building coral Acropora millepora: potential for acclimative and adaptive plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granados-Cifuentes, Camila; Bellantuono, Anthony J; Ridgway, Tyrone; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove; Rodriguez-Lanetty, Mauricio

    2013-04-08

    Ecosystems worldwide are suffering the consequences of anthropogenic impact. The diverse ecosystem of coral reefs, for example, are globally threatened by increases in sea surface temperatures due to global warming. Studies to date have focused on determining genetic diversity, the sequence variability of genes in a species, as a proxy to estimate and predict the potential adaptive response of coral populations to environmental changes linked to climate changes. However, the examination of natural gene expression variation has received less attention. This variation has been implicated as an important factor in evolutionary processes, upon which natural selection can act. We acclimatized coral nubbins from six colonies of the reef-building coral Acropora millepora to a common garden in Heron Island (Great Barrier Reef, GBR) for a period of four weeks to remove any site-specific environmental effects on the physiology of the coral nubbins. By using a cDNA microarray platform, we detected a high level of gene expression variation, with 17% (488) of the unigenes differentially expressed across coral nubbins of the six colonies (jsFDR-corrected, p natural variation between reef corals when assessing experimental gene expression differences. The high transcriptional variation detected in this study is interpreted and discussed within the context of adaptive potential and phenotypic plasticity of reef corals. Whether this variation will allow coral reefs to survive to current challenges remains unknown.

  5. The dopamine transporter gene, a spectrum of most common risky behaviors, and the legal status of the behaviors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang Guo

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This study tests the specific hypothesis that the 9R/9R genotype in the VNTR of the dopamine transporter gene (DAT1 exerts a general protective effect against a spectrum of risky behaviors in comparison to the 10R/9R and 10R/10R genotypes, drawing on three-time repeated measures of risky behaviors in adolescence and young adulthood on about 822 non-Hispanic white males from the Add Health study. Our data have established two empirical findings. The first is a protective main effect in the DAT1 gene against risky behaviors. The second finding is that the protective effect varies over age, with the effect prominent at ages when a behavior is illegal and the effect largely vanished at ages when the behavior becomes legal or more socially tolerated. Both the protective main effect and the gene-lifecourse interaction effect are replicated across a spectrum of most common risky behaviors: delinquency, variety of sexual partners, binge drinking, drinking quantity, smoking quantity, smoking frequency, marijuana use, cocaine use, other illegal drug use, and seatbelt non-wearing. We also compared individuals with the protective genotype and individuals without it in terms of age, physical maturity, verbal IQ, GPA, received popularity, sent popularity, church attendance, two biological parents, and parental education. These comparisons indicate that the protective effect of DAT1*9R/9R cannot be explained away by these background characteristics. Our work demonstrates how legal/social contexts can enhance or reduce a genetic effect on risky behaviors.

  6. Considerations in the construction of an instrument to assess attitudes regarding critical illness gene variation research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Bradley D; Kennedy, Carie R; Bolcic-Jankovic, Dragana; Eastman, Alexander; Iverson, Ellen; Shehane, Erica; Celious, Aaron; Barillas, Jennifer; Clarridge, Brian

    2012-02-01

    Clinical studies conducted in intensive care units are associated with logistical and ethical challenges. Diseases investigated are precipitous and life-threatening, care is highly technological, and patients are often incapacitated and decision-making is provided by surrogates. These investigations increasingly involve collection of genetic data. The manner in which the exigencies of critical illness impact attitudes regarding genetic data collection is unstudied. Given interest in understanding stakeholder preferences as a foundation for the ethical conduct of research, filling this knowledge gap is timely. The conduct of opinion research in the critical care arena is novel. This brief report describes the development of parallel patient/surrogate decision-maker quantitative survey instruments for use in this environment. Future research employing this instrument or a variant of it with diverse populations promises to inform research practices in critical illness gene variation research.

  7. Intra and Interspecific Variations of Gene Expression Levels in Yeast Are Largely Neutral: (Nei Lecture, SMBE 2016, Gold Coast).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jian-Rong; Maclean, Calum J; Park, Chungoo; Zhao, Huabin; Zhang, Jianzhi

    2017-09-01

    It is commonly, although not universally, accepted that most intra and interspecific genome sequence variations are more or less neutral, whereas a large fraction of organism-level phenotypic variations are adaptive. Gene expression levels are molecular phenotypes that bridge the gap between genotypes and corresponding organism-level phenotypes. Yet, it is unknown whether natural variations in gene expression levels are mostly neutral or adaptive. Here we address this fundamental question by genome-wide profiling and comparison of gene expression levels in nine yeast strains belonging to three closely related Saccharomyces species and originating from five different ecological environments. We find that the transcriptome-based clustering of the nine strains approximates the genome sequence-based phylogeny irrespective of their ecological environments. Remarkably, only ∼0.5% of genes exhibit similar expression levels among strains from a common ecological environment, no greater than that among strains with comparable phylogenetic relationships but different environments. These and other observations strongly suggest that most intra and interspecific variations in yeast gene expression levels result from the accumulation of random mutations rather than environmental adaptations. This finding has profound implications for understanding the driving force of gene expression evolution, genetic basis of phenotypic adaptation, and general role of stochasticity in evolution. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  8. Ancestral Variations of the PCDHG Gene Cluster Predispose to Dyslexia in a Multiplex Family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teesta Naskar

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Dyslexia is a heritable neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by difficulties in reading and writing. In this study, we describe the identification of a set of 17 polymorphisms located across 1.9 Mb region on chromosome 5q31.3, encompassing genes of the PCDHG cluster, TAF7, PCDH1 and ARHGAP26, dominantly inherited with dyslexia in a multi-incident family. Strikingly, the non-risk form of seven variations of the PCDHG cluster, are preponderant in the human lineage, while risk alleles are ancestral and conserved across Neanderthals to non-human primates. Four of these seven ancestral variations (c.460A > C [p.Ile154Leu], c.541G > A [p.Ala181Thr], c.2036G > C [p.Arg679Pro] and c.2059A > G [p.Lys687Glu] result in amino acid alterations. p.Ile154Leu and p.Ala181Thr are present at EC2: EC3 interacting interface of γA3-PCDH and γA4-PCDH respectively might affect trans-homophilic interaction and hence neuronal connectivity. p.Arg679Pro and p.Lys687Glu are present within the linker region connecting trans-membrane to extracellular domain. Sequence analysis indicated the importance of p.Ile154, p.Arg679 and p.Lys687 in maintaining class specificity. Thus the observed association of PCDHG genes encoding neural adhesion proteins reinforces the hypothesis of aberrant neuronal connectivity in the pathophysiology of dyslexia. Additionally, the striking conservation of the identified variants indicates a role of PCDHG in the evolution of highly specialized cognitive skills critical to reading.

  9. The architecture of gene regulatory variation across multiple human tissues: the MuTHER study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra C Nica

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available While there have been studies exploring regulatory variation in one or more tissues, the complexity of tissue-specificity in multiple primary tissues is not yet well understood. We explore in depth the role of cis-regulatory variation in three human tissues: lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCL, skin, and fat. The samples (156 LCL, 160 skin, 166 fat were derived simultaneously from a subset of well-phenotyped healthy female twins of the MuTHER resource. We discover an abundance of cis-eQTLs in each tissue similar to previous estimates (858 or 4.7% of genes. In addition, we apply factor analysis (FA to remove effects of latent variables, thus more than doubling the number of our discoveries (1,822 eQTL genes. The unique study design (Matched Co-Twin Analysis--MCTA permits immediate replication of eQTLs using co-twins (93%-98% and validation of the considerable gain in eQTL discovery after FA correction. We highlight the challenges of comparing eQTLs between tissues. After verifying previous significance threshold-based estimates of tissue-specificity, we show their limitations given their dependency on statistical power. We propose that continuous estimates of the proportion of tissue-shared signals and direct comparison of the magnitude of effect on the fold change in expression are essential properties that jointly provide a biologically realistic view of tissue-specificity. Under this framework we demonstrate that 30% of eQTLs are shared among the three tissues studied, while another 29% appear exclusively tissue-specific. However, even among the shared eQTLs, a substantial proportion (10%-20% have significant differences in the magnitude of fold change between genotypic classes across tissues. Our results underline the need to account for the complexity of eQTL tissue-specificity in an effort to assess consequences of such variants for complex traits.

  10. Spectrum of mutations in the renin-angiotensin system genes in autosomal recessive renal tubular dysgenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gribouval, Olivier; Morinière, Vincent; Pawtowski, Audrey

    2012-01-01

    , pulmonary hypoplasia, and refractory arterial hypotension. The disease is linked to mutations in the genes encoding several components of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS): AGT (angiotensinogen), REN (renin), ACE (angiotensin-converting enzyme), and AGTR1 (angiotensin II receptor type 1). Here, we review...... the series of 54 distinct mutations identified in 48 unrelated families. Most of them are novel and ACE mutations are the most frequent, observed in two-thirds of families (64.6%). The severity of the clinical course was similar whatever the mutated gene, which underlines the importance of a functional RAS...

  11. Variation in oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) polymorphisms is associated with emotional and behavioral reactions to betrayal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabak, Benjamin A; McCullough, Michael E; Carver, Charles S; Pedersen, Eric J; Cuccaro, Michael L

    2014-06-01

    Variations in the gene that encodes the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) have been associated with many aspects of social cognition as well as several prosocial behaviors. However, potential associations of OXTR variants with reactions to betrayals of trust while cooperating for mutual benefit have not yet been explored. We examined how variations in 10 single-nucleotide polymorphisms on OXTR were associated with behavior and emotional reactions after a betrayal of trust in an iterated Prisoner's Dilemma Game. After correction for multiple testing, one haplotype (C-rs9840864, T-rs2268494) was significantly associated with faster retaliation post-betrayal-an association that appeared to be due to this haplotype's intermediate effect of exacerbating people's anger after they had been betrayed. Furthermore, a second haplotype (A-rs237887, C-rs2268490) was associated with higher levels of post-betrayal satisfaction, and a third haplotype (G-rs237887, C-rs2268490) was associated with lower levels of post-betrayal satisfaction. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Antigenic variation of Anaplasma marginale msp2 occurs by combinatorial gene conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brayton, Kelly A; Palmer, Guy H; Lundgren, Anna; Yi, Jooyoung; Barbet, Anthony F

    2002-03-01

    The rickettsial pathogen Anaplasma marginale establishes lifelong persistent infection in the mammalian reservoir host, during which time immune escape variants continually arise in part because of variation in the expressed copy of the immunodominant outer membrane protein MSP2. A key question is how the small 1.2 Mb A. marginale genome generates sufficient variants to allow long-term persistence in an immunocompetent reservoir host. The recombination of whole pseudogenes into the single msp2 expression site has been previously identified as one method of generating variants, but is inadequate to generate the number of variants required for persistent infection. In the present study, we demonstrate that recombination of a whole pseudogene is followed by a second level of variation in which small segments of pseudogenes recombine into the expression site by gene conversion. Evidence for four short sequential changes in the hypervariable region of msp2 coupled with the identification of nine pseudogenes from a single strain of A. marginale provides for a combinatorial number of possible expressed MSP2 variants sufficient for lifelong persistence.

  13. Altering the spectrum of immunoglobulin V gene somatic hypermutation by modifying the active site of AID.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meng; Rada, Cristina; Neuberger, Michael S

    2010-01-18

    High-affinity antibodies are generated by somatic hypermutation with nucleotide substitutions introduced into the IgV in a semirandom fashion, but with intrinsic mutational hotspots strategically located to optimize antibody affinity maturation. The process is dependent on activation-induced deaminase (AID), an enzyme that can deaminate deoxycytidine in DNA in vitro, where its activity is sensitive to the identity of the 5'-flanking nucleotide. As a critical test of whether such DNA deamination activity underpins antibody diversification and to gain insight into the extent to which the antibody mutation spectrum is dependent on the intrinsic substrate specificity of AID, we investigated whether it is possible to change the IgV mutation spectrum by altering AID's active site such that it prefers a pyrimidine (rather than a purine) flanking the targeted deoxycytidine. Consistent with the DNA deamination mechanism, B cells expressing the modified AID proteins yield altered IgV mutation spectra (exhibiting a purine-->pyrimidine shift in flanking nucleotide preference) and altered hotspots. However, AID-catalyzed deamination of IgV targets in vitro does not yield the same degree of hotspot dominance to that observed in vivo, indicating the importance of features beyond AID's active site and DNA local sequence environment in determining in vivo hotspot dominance.

  14. Molecular genetic variations in vitamin D receptor gene with risk of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahid, S.; Tahir, M.; Ahmed, S.

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the association of Vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphisms and development of osteoporosis. Methodology: This case-control study was conducted at Sir Ganga Hospital and Sheikh Zayed Hospital, Lahore, Pakistan from January 2015 to August 2015. A total of 136 postmenopausal women between 46-75 years of age were included in the study while women with serious internal disease and premature (surgical) menopause before the age of 45 years were excluded. Genotyping of VDR ApaI, TaqI and BsmI loci was done using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Levels of ionized calcium, C-reactive protein, alkaline phosphatase were measured and body mass index was calculated. Statistical analysis was done by using SPSS version 16.0. Results: Percentage of AA genotype was higher (28%) as compared to controls (16.6%). The postmenopausal cases showed 54% TT, 42%Tt and 4% tt genotype. The Bb genotype (42.6 %) was most frequent in both cases and controls. Postmenopausal cases and controls showed non-significant difference in alkaline phosphatase, C-reactive protein and ionized calcium levels. Conclusions: Findings explained the earlier inconsistent association results and no particular genetic variation in Vitamin D receptor gene had pronounced effect in predisposition to osteoporosis. (author)

  15. Association between ghrelin gene variations and blood pressure in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mager, Ursula; Kolehmainen, Marjukka; Lindström, Jaana; Eriksson, Johan G; Valle, Timo T; Hämäläinen, Helena; Ilanne-Parikka, Pirjo; Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka; Tuomilehto, Jaakko O; Pulkkinen, Leena; Uusitupa, Matti I

    2006-09-01

    Ghrelin is a gut-brain hormone, which stimulates food intake and controls energy balance. Recently, it has been shown that ghrelin may also play a role in the regulation of blood pressure (BP) by acting at the sympathetic nervous system. In the present study we genotyped six variants of the ghrelin gene and its promoter, and tested whether these single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were associated with BP levels in participants of the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study. The Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study was a longitudinal study where 522 subjects with impaired glucose tolerance were randomized into either an intervention or control group. DNA was available from 507 subjects (mean body mass index [BMI] 31.2+/-4.5 kg/m2, age 55+/-7 years). All six SNPs were screened by the restriction fragment length polymorphism method. Subjects with the most common genotype combination of the following four SNPs, -604G/A, -501A/C, Leu72Met, and Gln90Leu, had the lowest systolic (131+/-11 v 137+/-13 mm Hg, P=.003) and diastolic BP levels (79+/-7 v 83+/-7 mm Hg, P=.004) at the baseline of the study and during 3 years of follow-up compared to all other genotypes. Adjustments for age, gender, antihypertensive medication, BMI, waist circumference, and alcohol intake did not change this association. Several ghrelin gene variations were associated with BP levels in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance.

  16. Application of heteroduplex analysis for detecting variation within the growth hormone 2 gene in Salmo trutta L. (brown trout).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, R; Nilsson, J

    1995-03-01

    A new method to detect variation at a single copy nuclear gene in brown trout, Salmo trutta L., is provided. The technique entails (i) selective gene amplification by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), (ii) digestion of amplification products by restriction endonucleases to obtain fragments of suitable size, (iii) hybridization with heterologous DNA followed by denaturation and reannealing to obtain heteroduplex molecules, and (iv) screening for variation in polyacrylamide gels. Variation was studied within a growth hormone 2 gene 1489 bp segment and polymorphism was detected in two HinfI-digested fragments. Formation of different heteroduplex patterns in experimental mixtures of digested amplification products from brown trout and Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., allowed us to determine the genotype of the brown trout. Polymorphism was observed in four out of six studied populations.

  17. Phenotypic spectrum of autosomal recessive cone-rod dystrophies caused by mutations in the ABCA4 (ABCR) gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klevering, B Jeroen; Blankenagel, Anita; Maugeri, Alessandra; Cremers, Frans P M; Hoyng, Carel B; Rohrschneider, Klaus

    2002-06-01

    To describe the phenotype of 12 patients with autosomal recessive or isolated cone-rod types of progressive retinal degeneration (CRD) caused by mutations in the ABCA4 gene. The charts of patients who had originally received a diagnosis of isolated or autosomal recessive CRD were reviewed after molecular analysis revealed mutations in the ABCA4 gene. In two of the patients both the photopic and scotopic electroretinogram were nonrecordable. In the remainder, the photopic cone b-wave amplitudes appeared to be more seriously affected than the scotopic rod b-wave amplitudes. Although the clinical presentation was heterogeneous, all patients experienced visual loss early in life, impaired color vision, and a central scotoma. Fundoscopy revealed evidence of early-onset maculopathy, sometimes accompanied by involvement of the retinal periphery in the later stages of the disease. Mutations in the ABCA4 gene are the pathologic cause of the CRD-like dystrophy in these patients, and the resultant clinical pictures are complex and heterogeneous. Given this wide clinical spectrum of CRD-like phenotypes associated with ABCA4 mutations, detailed clinical subclassifications are difficult and may not be very useful.

  18. Marker-assisted introgression of broad-spectrum blast resistance genes into the cultivated MR219 rice variety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, Gous; Rafii, Mohd Y; Ismail, Mohd R; Puteh, Adam B; Rahim, Harun A; Latif, Mohammad A

    2017-07-01

    The rice cultivar MR219 is famous for its better yield and long and fine grain quality; however, it is susceptible to blast disease. The main objective of this study was to introgress blast resistance genes into MR219 through marker-assisted selection (MAS). The rice cultivar MR219 was used as the recurrent parent, and Pongsu Seribu 1 was used as the donor. Marker-assisted foreground selection was performed using RM6836 and RM8225 to identify plants possessing blast resistance genes. Seventy microsatellite markers were used to estimate recurrent parent genome (RPG) recovery. Our analysis led to the development of 13 improved blast resistant lines with Piz, Pi2 and Pi9 broad-spectrum blast resistance genes and an MR219 genetic background. The RPG recovery of the selected improved lines was up to 97.70% with an average value of 95.98%. Selected improved lines showed a resistance response against the most virulent blast pathogen pathotype, P7.2. The selected improved lines did not express any negative effect on agronomic traits in comparison with MR219. The research findings of this study will be a conducive approach for the application of different molecular techniques that may result in accelerating the development of new disease-resistant rice varieties, which in turn will match rising demand and food security worldwide. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Drug Metabolizing Enzyme and Transporter Gene Variation, Nicotine Metabolism, Prospective Abstinence, and Cigarette Consumption.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew W Bergen

    Full Text Available The Nicotine Metabolite Ratio (NMR, ratio of trans-3'-hydroxycotinine and cotinine, has previously been associated with CYP2A6 activity, response to smoking cessation treatments, and cigarette consumption. We searched for drug metabolizing enzyme and transporter (DMET gene variation associated with the NMR and prospective abstinence in 2,946 participants of laboratory studies of nicotine metabolism and of clinical trials of smoking cessation therapies. Stage I was a meta-analysis of the association of 507 common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs at 173 DMET genes with the NMR in 449 participants of two laboratory studies. Nominally significant associations were identified in ten genes after adjustment for intragenic SNPs; CYP2A6 and two CYP2A6 SNPs attained experiment-wide significance adjusted for correlated SNPs (CYP2A6 PACT=4.1E-7, rs4803381 PACT=4.5E-5, rs1137115, PACT=1.2E-3. Stage II was mega-regression analyses of 10 DMET SNPs with pretreatment NMR and prospective abstinence in up to 2,497 participants from eight trials. rs4803381 and rs1137115 SNPs were associated with pretreatment NMR at genome-wide significance. In post-hoc analyses of CYP2A6 SNPs, we observed nominally significant association with: abstinence in one pharmacotherapy arm; cigarette consumption among all trial participants; and lung cancer in four case:control studies. CYP2A6 minor alleles were associated with reduced NMR, CPD, and lung cancer risk. We confirmed the major role that CYP2A6 plays in nicotine metabolism, and made novel findings with respect to genome-wide significance and associations with CPD, abstinence and lung cancer risk. Additional multivariate analyses with patient variables and genetic modeling will improve prediction of nicotine metabolism, disease risk and smoking cessation treatment prognosis.

  20. Gene expression patterns of chicken neuregulin 3 in association with copy number variation and frameshift deletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Hideaki; Aoya, Daiki; Takeuchi, Hiro-Aki; Inoue-Murayama, Miho

    2017-07-21

    Neuregulin 3 (NRG3) plays a key role in central nervous system development and is a strong candidate for human mental disorders. Thus, genetic variation in NRG3 may have some impact on a variety of phenotypes in non-mammalian vertebrates. Recently, genome-wide screening for short insertions and deletions in chicken (Gallus gallus) genomes has provided useful information about structural variation in functionally important genes. NRG3 is one such gene that has a putative frameshift deletion in exon 2, resulting in premature termination of translation. Our aims were to characterize the structure of chicken NRG3 and to compare expression patterns between NRG3 isoforms. Depending on the presence or absence of the 2-bp deletion in chicken NRG3, 3 breeds (red junglefowl [RJF], Boris Brown [BB], and Hinai-jidori [HJ]) were genotyped using flanking primers. In the commercial breeds (BB and HJ), approximately 45% of individuals had at least one exon 2 allele with the 2-bp deletion, whereas there was no deletion allele in RJF. The lack of a homozygous mutant indicated the existence of duplicated NRG3 segments in the chicken genome. Indeed, highly conserved elements consisting of exon 1, intron 1, exon 2, and part of intron 2 were found in the reference RJF genome, and quantitative PCR detected copy number variation (CNV) between breeds as well as between individuals. The copy number of conserved elements was significantly higher in chicks harboring the 2-bp deletion in exon 2. We identified 7 novel transcript variants using total mRNA isolated from the amygdala. Novel isoforms were found to lack the exon 2 cassette, which probably harbored the premature termination codon. The relative transcription levels of the newly identified isoforms were almost the same between chick groups with and without the 2-bp deletion, while chicks with the deletion showed significant suppression of the expression of previously reported isoforms. A putative frameshift deletion and CNV in chicken

  1. Melanopsin gene variations interact with season to predict sleep onset and chronotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roecklein, Kathryn A; Wong, Patricia M; Franzen, Peter L; Hasler, Brant P; Wood-Vasey, W Michael; Nimgaonkar, Vishwajit L; Miller, Megan A; Kepreos, Kyle M; Ferrell, Robert E; Manuck, Stephen B

    2012-10-01

    The human melanopsin gene has been reported to mediate risk for seasonal affective disorder (SAD), which is hypothesized to be caused by decreased photic input during winter when light levels fall below threshold, resulting in differences in circadian phase and/or sleep. However, it is unclear if melanopsin increases risk of SAD by causing differences in sleep or circadian phase, or if those differences are symptoms of the mood disorder. To determine if melanopsin sequence variations are associated with differences in sleep-wake behavior among those not suffering from a mood disorder, the authors tested associations between melanopsin gene polymorphisms and self-reported sleep timing (sleep onset and wake time) in a community sample (N = 234) of non-Hispanic Caucasian participants (age 30-54 yrs) with no history of psychological, neurological, or sleep disorders. The authors also tested the effect of melanopsin variations on differences in preferred sleep and activity timing (i.e., chronotype), which may reflect differences in circadian phase, sleep homeostasis, or both. Daylength on the day of assessment was measured and included in analyses. DNA samples were genotyped for melanopsin gene polymorphisms using fluorescence polarization. P10L genotype interacted with daylength to predict self-reported sleep onset (interaction p sleep onset among those with the TT genotype was later in the day when individuals were assessed on longer days and earlier in the day on shorter days, whereas individuals in the other genotype groups (i.e., CC and CT) did not show this interaction effect. P10L genotype also interacted in an analogous way with daylength to predict self-reported morningness (interaction p sleep onset and chronotype as a function of daylength, whereas other genotypes at P10L do not seem to have effects that vary by daylength. A better understanding of how melanopsin confers heightened responsivity to daylength may improve our understanding of a broad range of

  2. Common Genetic Variants Found in HLA and KIR Immune Genes in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony R Torres

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The common variant - common disease hypothesis was proposed to explain diseases with strong inheritance. This model suggests that a genetic disease is the result of the combination of several common genetic variants. Common genetic variants are described as a 5% frequency differential between diseased versus matched control populations. This theory was recently supported by an epidemiology paper stating that about 50% of genetic risk for autism resides in common variants. However, rare variants, rather than common variants, have been found in numerous genome wide genetic studies and many have concluded that the common variant—common disease hypothesis is incorrect. One interpretation is that rare variants are major contributors to genetic diseases and autism involves the interaction of many rare variants, especially in the brain. It is obvious there is much yet to be learned about autism genetics.Evidence has been mounting over the years indicating immune involvement in autism, particularly the HLA genes on chromosome 6 and KIR genes on chromosome 19. These two large multigene complexes have important immune functions and have been shown to interact to eliminate unwanted virally infected and malignant cells. HLA proteins have important functions in antigen presentation in adaptive immunity and specific epitopes on HLA class I proteins act as cognate ligands for KIR receptors in innate immunity. Data suggests that HLA alleles and KIR activating genes/haplotypes are common variants in different autism populations. For example, class I allele (HLA-A2 and HLA-G 14bp-indel frequencies are significantly increased by more than 5% over control populations (Table2. The HLA-DR4 Class II and shared epitope frequencies are significantly above the control populations (Table 2. Three activating KIR genes: 3DS1, 2DS1 and 2DS2 have increased frequencies of 15%, 22% and 14% in autism populations, respectively. There is a 6% increase in total activating KIR

  3. Spectrum of EGFR gene mutations in Vietnamese patients with non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Hoang Anh; Xinh, Phan Thi; Ha, Hua Thi Ngoc; Hanh, Ngo Thi Tuyet; Bach, Nguyen Duc; Thao, Doan Thi Phuong; Dat, Ngo Quoc; Trung, Nguyen Sao

    2016-03-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutational status is a crucial biomarker for prediction of response to tyrosine kinase inhibitors in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Although these mutations have been well characterized in other countries, little is known about the frequency or spectrum of EGFR mutations in Vietnamese NSCLC patients. Using Sanger DNA sequencing, we investigated mutations in EGFR exons 18-21 from 332 patients diagnosed with NSCLC at University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. DNA was extracted from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues, followed by PCR amplification and sequencing. EGFR mutations were detected in 135 samples (40.7%), of which eight samples carried double mutations. In total, 46 different types of EGFR mutations were found, including six novel mutations (p.K713E, p.K714R, p.P794S, p.R803W, p.P848S, and p.K867E). Among the four exons investigated, exon 19 was most frequently mutated (63 out of 332 patients, 19%), with the p.E746_A750del appearing in 43 samples. Exon 21 was mutated in 56 samples (16.9%), of which 47 were p.L858R. Each of exons 18 and 20 was mutated in 12 samples (3.6%). The frequency of EGFR mutations was higher in females than in males (48.9% vs 35%, P = 0.012), but not statistically different between adenocarcinomas and other histological types of NSCLC (41.3% vs 34.5%, P = 0.478). DNA sequencing detected EGFR mutations with high frequency and revealed a broad spectrum of mutation type in Vietnamese patients with NSCLC. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  4. Genetic variations of MMP9 gene and intracerebral hemorrhage susceptibility: a case-control study in Chinese Han population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jie; Wu, Bo; Lin, Sen; Zhou, Junshan; Li, Yingbin; Dong, Wei; Arima, Hisatomi; Zhang, Chanfei; Liu, Yukai; Liu, Ming

    2014-06-15

    To investigate the association between genetic variations of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) gene and intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) susceptibility in Chinese Han population. The clinical data and peripheral blood samples from the patients with ICH and hypertension, and controlled subjects with hypertension only, were collected. MassARRAY Analyzer was used to genotype the tagger single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of MMP9 gene. Haploview4.2 and Unphased3.1.7 were employed to construct haplotypes and to analyze the association between genetic variations (alleles, genotypes and haplotypes) of MMP9 gene and ICH susceptibility. 181 patients with ICH and hypertension, and 197 patients with hypertension only, were recruited between Sep 2009 and Oct 2010. Patients in the ICH group were younger (61.80 ± 13.27 vs. 72.44 ± 12.71 years, ppopulation. Our logistical regression analysis showed that there were no significant associations between genetic variations of the MPP9 gene and ICH susceptibility (all p>0.05). The genetic variations of MMP9 gene were not significantly associated with ICH susceptibility in the Chinese Han population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Polymorphisms in the WNK1 gene are associated with blood pressure variation and urinary potassium excretion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Newhouse

    Full Text Available WNK1--a serine/threonine kinase involved in electrolyte homeostasis and blood pressure (BP control--is an excellent candidate gene for essential hypertension (EH. We and others have previously reported association between WNK1 and BP variation. Using tag SNPs (tSNPs that capture 100% of common WNK1 variation in HapMap, we aimed to replicate our findings with BP and to test for association with phenotypes relating to WNK1 function in the British Genetics of Hypertension (BRIGHT study case-control resource (1700 hypertensive cases and 1700 normotensive controls. We found multiple variants to be associated with systolic blood pressure, SBP (7/28 tSNPs min-p = 0.0005, diastolic blood pressure, DBP (7/28 tSNPs min-p = 0.002 and 24 hour urinary potassium excretion (10/28 tSNPs min-p = 0.0004. Associations with SBP and urine potassium remained significant after correction for multiple testing (p = 0.02 and p = 0.01 respectively. The major allele (A of rs765250, located in intron 1, demonstrated the strongest evidence for association with SBP, effect size 3.14 mmHg (95%CI:1.23-4.9, DBP 1.9 mmHg (95%CI:0.7-3.2 and hypertension, odds ratio (OR: 1.3 [95%CI: 1.0-1.7].We genotyped this variant in six independent populations (n = 14,451 and replicated the association between rs765250 and SBP in a meta-analysis (p = 7 x 10(-3, combined with BRIGHT data-set p = 2 x 10(-4, n = 17,851. The associations of WNK1 with DBP and EH were not confirmed. Haplotype analysis revealed striking associations with hypertension and BP variation (global permutation p10 mmHg reduction and risk for hypertension (OR<0.60. Our data indicates that multiple rare and common WNK1 variants contribute to BP variation and hypertension, and provide compelling evidence to initiate further genetic and functional studies to explore the role of WNK1 in BP regulation and EH.

  6. Expansion of the clinical ocular spectrum of Wolfram Syndrome in a family carrying a novel WFS1 gene deletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacón-Camacho, Oscar; Arce-Gonzalez, Rocio; Granillo-Alvarez, Mariella; Flores-Limas, Sanjuanita; Ramírez, Magdalena; Zenteno, Juan C

    2013-12-01

    To present the results of the clinical and molecular analyses of a familial case of Wolfram Syndrome (WFS) associated with a novel ocular anomaly. Full ophthalmologic examination was performed in two WFS siblings. Visante OCT imaging was used for assessing anterior segment anomalies. Genetic analysis included PCR amplification and exon-by-exon nucleotide sequencing of the WFS1 gene. Ocular anomalies in both affected siblings included congenital cataract, glaucoma, and optic atrophy. Interestingly, microspherophakia, a feature that has not been previously associated with WFS, was observed in both siblings. Genetic analysis disclosed a novel c.1525_1539 homozygous deletion in exon 8 of WFS1 in DNA from both affected patients. The recognition of microspherophakia in two siblings carrying a novel WFS1 mutation expands the clinical and molecular spectrum of Wolfram syndrome.

  7. Variation in extracellular matrix genes is associated with weight regain after weight loss in a sex-specific manner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roumans, Nadia J T; Vink, Roel G; Gielen, Marij

    2015-01-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) of adipocytes is important for body weight regulation. Here, we investigated whether genetic variation in ECM-related genes is associated with weight regain among participants of the European DiOGenes study. Overweight and obese subjects (n = 469, 310 females, 159 m.......40-5.63). Concluding, variants of ECM genes are associated with weight regain after weight loss in a sex-specific manner....

  8. A Restricted Spectrum of Mutations in the SMAD4 Tumor-Suppressor Gene Underlies Myhre Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputo, Viviana; Cianetti, Luciano; Niceta, Marcello; Carta, Claudio; Ciolfi, Andrea; Bocchinfuso, Gianfranco; Carrani, Eugenio; Dentici, Maria Lisa; Biamino, Elisa; Belligni, Elga; Garavelli, Livia; Boccone, Loredana; Melis, Daniela; Andria, Generoso; Gelb, Bruce D.; Stella, Lorenzo; Silengo, Margherita; Dallapiccola, Bruno; Tartaglia, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Myhre syndrome is a developmental disorder characterized by reduced growth, generalized muscular hypertrophy, facial dysmorphism, deafness, cognitive deficits, joint stiffness, and skeletal anomalies. Here, by performing exome sequencing of a single affected individual and coupling the results to a hypothesis-driven filtering strategy, we establish that heterozygous mutations in SMAD4, which encodes for a transducer mediating transforming growth factor β and bone morphogenetic protein signaling branches, underlie this rare Mendelian trait. Two recurrent de novo SMAD4 mutations were identified in eight unrelated subjects. Both mutations were missense changes altering Ile500 within the evolutionary conserved MAD homology 2 domain, a well known mutational hot spot in malignancies. Structural analyses suggest that the substituted residues are likely to perturb the binding properties of the mutant protein to signaling partners. Although SMAD4 has been established as a tumor suppressor gene somatically mutated in pancreatic, gastrointestinal, and skin cancers, and germline loss-of-function lesions and deletions of this gene have been documented to cause disorders that predispose individuals to gastrointestinal cancer and vascular dysplasias, the present report identifies a previously unrecognized class of mutations in the gene with profound impact on development and growth. PMID:22243968

  9. Determining the Lyapunov Spectrum of Continuous-Time 1D and 2D Multiscroll Chaotic Oscillators via the Solution of m-PWL Variational Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus Manuel Munoz-Pacheco

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An algorithm to compute the Lyapunov exponents of piecewise linear function-based multidirectional multiscroll chaotic oscillators is reported. Based on the m regions in the piecewise linear functions, the suggested algorithm determines the individual expansion rate of Lyapunov exponents from m-piecewise linear variational equations and their associated m-Jacobian matrices whose entries remain constant during all computation cycles. Additionally, by considering OpAmp-based chaotic oscillators, we study the impact of two analog design procedures on the magnitude of Lyapunov exponents. We focus on analyzing variations of both frequency bandwidth and voltage/current dynamic range of the chaotic signals at electronic system level. As a function of the design parameters, a renormalization factor is proposed to estimate correctly the Lyapunov spectrum. Numerical simulation results in a double-scroll type chaotic oscillator and complex chaotic oscillators generating multidirectional multiscroll chaotic attractors on phase space confirm the usefulness of the reported algorithm.

  10. QTL replication and targeted association highlight the nerve growth factor gene for nonverbal communication deficits in autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, A T-H; Yoon, J; Geschwind, D H; Cantor, R M

    2013-02-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) has a heterogeneous etiology that is genetically complex. It is defined by deficits in communication and social skills and the presence of restricted and repetitive behaviors. Genetic analyses of heritable quantitative traits that correlate with ASD may reduce heterogeneity. With this in mind, deficits in nonverbal communication (NVC) were quantified based on items from the Autism Diagnostic Interview Revised. Our previous analysis of 228 families from the Autism Genetics Research Exchange (AGRE) repository reported 5 potential quantitative trait loci (QTL). Here we report an NVC QTL replication study in an independent sample of 213 AGRE families. One QTL was replicated (Panalysis of 476 haplotype blocks with 708 AGRE families using the Family Based Association Test (FBAT). Blocks in two QTL genes were associated with NVC with a P-value of 0.001. Three associated haplotype blocks were intronic to the Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) gene (P=0.001, 0.001, 0.002), and one was intronic to KCND3 (P=0.001). Individual haplotypes within the associated blocks drove the associations (0.003, 0.0004 and 0.0002) for NGF and 0.0001 for KCND3. Using the same methods, these genes were tested for association with NVC in an independent sample of 1517 families from an Autism Genome Project (AGP). NVC was associated with a haplotype in an adjacent NGF block (P=0.0005) and one 46 kb away from the associated block in KCND3 (0.008). These analyses illustrate the value of QTL and targeted association studies for genetically complex disorders such as ASD. NGF is a promising risk gene for NVC deficits.

  11. Spectrum of ABCA4 (ABCR) gene mutations in Spanish patients with autosomal recessive macular dystrophies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paloma, E; Martínez-Mir, A; Vilageliu, L; Gonzàlez-Duarte, R; Balcells, S

    2001-06-01

    The ABCA4 gene has been involved in several forms of inherited macular dystrophy. In order to further characterize the complex genotype-phenotype relationships involving this gene, we have performed a mutation analysis of ABCA4 in 14 Spanish patients comprising eight STGD (Stargardt), four FFM (fundus flavimaculatus), and two CRD (Cone-rod dystrophy) patients. SSCP (single-strand conformation polymorphism) analysis and DNA sequencing of the coding and 5' upstream regions of this gene allowed the identification of 16 putatively pathogenic alterations, nine of which are novel. Most of these were missense changes, and no patient was found to carry two null alleles. Overall, the new data agree with a working model relating the different pathogenic phenotypes to the severity of the mutations. When considering the information presented here together with that of previous reports, a picture of the geographic distribution of three particular mutations emerges. The R212C change has been found in French, Italian, Dutch, German, and Spanish but not in British patients. In the Spanish collection, R212C was found in a CRD patient, indicating that it may be a rather severe change. In contrast, c.2588G>C, a very common mild allele in the Dutch population, is rarely found in Southern Europe. Interestingly, the c.2588G>C mutation has been found in a double mutant allele together with the missense R1055W. Finally, the newly described L1940P was found in two unrelated Spanish patients, and may be a moderate to severe allele. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Mutation spectrum of the rhodopsin gene among patients with autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dryja, T.P.; Han, L.B.; Cowley, G.S.; McGee, T.L.; Berson, E.L.

    1991-01-01

    The authors searched for point mutations in every exon of the rhodopsin gene in 150 patients from separate families with autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa. Including the 4 mutations the authors reported previously, they found a total of 17 different mutations that correlate with the disease. Each of these mutations is a single-base substitution corresponding to a single amino acid substitution. Based on current models for the structure of rhodopsin, 3 of the 17 mutant amino acids are normally located on the cytoplasmic side of the protein, 6 in transmembrane domains, and 8 on the intradiscal side. Forty-three of the 150 patients (29%) carry 1 of these mutations, and no patient has more than 1 mutation. In every family with a mutation so far analyzed, the mutation cosegregates with the disease. They found one instance of a mutation in an affected patient that was absent in both unaffected parents (i.e., a new germ-line mutation), indicating that some isolate cases of retinitis pigmentosa carry a mutation of the rhodopsin gene

  13. Persistent fifth arch anomalies - broadening the spectrum to include a variation of double aortic arch vascular ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newman, Beverley; Chan, Frandics [Stanford Children' s Hospital and Stanford University, Department of Radiology, Stanford, CA (United States); Hanneman, Kate [University of Toronto, Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2016-12-15

    Fifth arch anomalies are rare and complex and frequently misdiagnosed or mistaken for other entities. We report a double arch vascular ring that is thought to consist of right fourth arch and left fifth arch components, a previously undescribed persistent fifth arch variant. The currently recognized spectrum and classification of fifth arch vascular anomalies are expanded along with illustrative images to justify the proposed changes. Reviewing and expanding the classification of fifth arch anomalies to include a double arch ring variant will promote recognition, correct diagnosis and appropriate management of these anomalies. (orig.)

  14. Adenosine A(2A) receptor gene (ADORA2A) variants may increase autistic symptoms and anxiety in autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitag, Christine M; Agelopoulos, Konstantin; Huy, Ellen; Rothermundt, Matthias; Krakowitzky, Petra; Meyer, Jobst; Deckert, Jürgen; von Gontard, Alexander; Hohoff, Christa

    2010-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are heterogeneous disorders presenting with increased rates of anxiety. The adenosine A(2A) receptor gene (ADORA2A) is associated with panic disorder and is located on chromosome 22q11.23. Its gene product, the adenosine A(2A) receptor, is strongly expressed in the caudate nucleus, which also is involved in ASD. As autistic symptoms are increased in individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, and large 22q11.2 deletions and duplications have been observed in ASD individuals, in this study, 98 individuals with ASD and 234 control individuals were genotyped for eight single-nucleotide polymorphisms in ADORA2A. Nominal association with the disorder was observed for rs2236624-CC, and phenotypic variability in ASD symptoms was influenced by rs3761422, rs5751876 and rs35320474. In addition, association of ADORA2A variants with anxiety was replicated for individuals with ASD. Findings point toward a possible mediating role of ADORA2A variants on phenotypic expression in ASD that need to be replicated in a larger sample.

  15. Ovine leukocyte profiles do not associate with variation in the prion gene, but are breed-dependent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prion genotype in sheep confer resistance to scrapie. In cattle, lymphocyte profile has been found to be associated with prion genotype. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine if variations in the sheep prion gene were associated with leukocyte populations as measured by complete blood ce...

  16. Common Variation in the NOS1AP Gene Is Associated With Drug-Induced QT Prolongation and Ventricular Arrhythmia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jamshidi, Yalda; Nolte, Ilja M.; Dalageorgou, Chrysoula; Zheng, Dongling; Johnson, Toby; Bastiaenen, Rachel; Ruddy, Suzanne; Talbott, Daniel; Norris, Kris J.; Snieder, Harold; George, Alfred L.; Marshall, Vanessa; Shakir, Saad; Kannankeril, Prince J.; Munroe, Patricia B.; Camm, A. John; Jeffery, Steve; Roden, Dan M.; Behr, Elijah R.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives This study sought to determine whether variations in NOS1AP affect drug-induced long QT syndrome (LQTS). Background Use of antiarrhythmic drugs is limited by the high incidence of serious adverse events including QT prolongation and torsades de pointes. NOS1AP gene variants play a role in

  17. Analysis of Temporal-spatial Co-variation within Gene Expression Microarray Data in an Organogenesis Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehler, Martin; Rajapakse, Vinodh; Zeeberg, Barry; Brooks, Brian; Brown, Jacob; Czaja, Wojciech; Bonner, Robert F.

    The gene networks underlying closure of the optic fissure during vertebrate eye development are poorly understood. We used a novel clustering method based on Laplacian Eigenmaps, a nonlinear dimension reduction method, to analyze microarray data from laser capture microdissected (LCM) cells at the site and developmental stages (days 10.5 to 12.5) of optic fissure closure. Our new method provided greater biological specificity than classical clustering algorithms in terms of identifying more biological processes and functions related to eye development as defined by Gene Ontology at lower false discovery rates. This new methodology builds on the advantages of LCM to isolate pure phenotypic populations within complex tissues and allows improved ability to identify critical gene products expressed at lower copy number. The combination of LCM of embryonic organs, gene expression microarrays, and extracting spatial and temporal co-variations appear to be a powerful approach to understanding the gene regulatory networks that specify mammalian organogenesis.

  18. Detection of a Mixed Infection in a Culture-Negative Brain Abscess by Broad-Spectrum Bacterial 16S rRNA Gene PCR ▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Peter M.; Rampini, Silvana K.; Bloemberg, Guido V.

    2010-01-01

    We describe the identification of two bacterial pathogens from a culture-negative brain abscess by the use of broad-spectrum 16S rRNA gene PCR. Simultaneous detection of Fusobacterium nucleatum and Porphyromonas endodontalis was possible due to a 24-bp length difference of their partially amplified 16S rRNA genes, which allowed separation by high-resolution polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. PMID:20392909

  19. Genetic variation in selenoprotein genes, lifestyle, and risk of colon and rectal cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha L Slattery

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Associations between selenium and cancer have directed attention to role of selenoproteins in the carcinogenic process. METHODS: We used data from two population-based case-control studies of colon (n = 1555 cases, 1956 controls and rectal (n = 754 cases, 959 controls cancer. We evaluated the association between genetic variation in TXNRD1, TXNRD2, TXNRD3, C11orf31 (SelH, SelW, SelN1, SelS, SepX, and SeP15 with colorectal cancer risk. RESULTS: After adjustment for multiple comparisons, several associations were observed. Two SNPs in TXNRD3 were associated with rectal cancer (rs11718498 dominant OR 1.42 95% CI 1.16,1.74 pACT 0.0036 and rs9637365 recessive 0.70 95% CI 0.55,0.90 pACT 0.0208. Four SNPs in SepN1 were associated with rectal cancer (rs11247735 recessive OR 1.30 95% CI 1.04,1.63 pACT 0.0410; rs2072749 GGvsAA OR 0.53 95% CI 0.36,0.80 pACT 0.0159; rs4659382 recessive OR 0.58 95% CI 0.39,0.86 pACT 0.0247; rs718391 dominant OR 0.76 95% CI 0.62,0.94 pACT 0.0300. Interaction between these genes and exposures that could influence these genes showed numerous significant associations after adjustment for multiple comparisons. Two SNPs in TXNRD1 and four SNPs in TXNRD2 interacted with aspirin/NSAID to influence colon cancer; one SNP in TXNRD1, two SNPs in TXNRD2, and one SNP in TXNRD3 interacted with aspirin/NSAIDs to influence rectal cancer. Five SNPs in TXNRD2 and one in SelS, SeP15, and SelW1 interacted with estrogen to modify colon cancer risk; one SNP in SelW1 interacted with estrogen to alter rectal cancer risk. Several SNPs in this candidate pathway influenced survival after diagnosis with colon cancer (SeP15 and SepX1 increased HRR and rectal cancer (SepX1 increased HRR. CONCLUSIONS: Findings support an association between selenoprotein genes and colon and rectal cancer development and survival after diagnosis. Given the interactions observed, it is likely that the impact of cancer susceptibility from genotype is

  20. Variations in host genes encoding adhesion molecules and susceptibility to falciparum malaria in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyagi Prajesh K

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Host adhesion molecules play a significant role in the pathogenesis of Plasmodium falciparum malaria and changes in their structure or levels in individuals can influence the outcome of infection. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of SNPs of three adhesion molecule genes, ICAM1, PECAM1 and CD36, with severity of falciparum malaria in a malaria-endemic and a non-endemic region of India. Methods The frequency distribution of seven selected SNPs of ICAM1, PECAM1 and CD36 was determined in 552 individuals drawn from 24 populations across India. SNP-disease association was analysed in a case-control study format. Genotyping of the population panel was performed by Sequenom mass spectroscopy and patient/control samples were genotyped by SNaPshot method. Haplotypes and linkage disequilibrium (LD plots were generated using PHASE and Haploview, respectively. Odds-ratio (OR for risk assessment was estimated using EpiInfo™ version 3.4. Results Association of the ICAM1 rs5498 (exon 6 G allele and the CD36 exon 1a A allele with increased risk of severe malaria was observed (severe versus control, OR = 1.91 and 2.66, P = 0.02 and 0.0012, respectively. The CD36 rs1334512 (-53 T allele as well as the TT genotype associated with protection from severe disease (severe versus control, TT versus GG, OR = 0.37, P = 0.004. Interestingly, a SNP of the PECAM1 gene (rs668, exon 3, C/G with low minor allele frequency in populations of the endemic region compared to the non-endemic region exhibited differential association with disease in these regions; the G allele was a risk factor for malaria in the endemic region, but exhibited significant association with protection from disease in the non-endemic region. Conclusion The data highlights the significance of variations in the ICAM1, PECAM1 and CD36 genes in the manifestation of falciparum malaria in India. The PECAM1 exon 3 SNP exhibits altered association with disease in the

  1. Spectrum interpretation problems with well-type Ge(Li) detectors due to self-absorption variations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruin, M. de; Korthoven, P.J.M.; Bode, P.

    1979-01-01

    For use in instrumental neutron activation analysis, a well-type Ge(Li) detector compares favourably with a comparable detector without well. It combines a good energy resolution with a relatively high detector efficiency. Moreover, this efficiency is almost independent of sample dimensions. But the use of a well-type Ge(Li) detector also has been some drawbacks, as large summation effects will result from the high detector efficiency. The least severe aspect of this summation is the additional formation of many extra sum peaks in gamma-ray spectra of nuclides with moderate or highly complex decay schemes. This leads to higher computation times, but in general, the accuracy of the analysis will not be affected. A far more important aspect of the summation is found in the fact that the intensity ratios between high energy peaks and the sum peaks of self-absorption effects, which in a flat detector is limited to only the low energy part of the spectrum, may be extended to the high energy region. This leads to sample-dependent distortion of the high energy part of the gamma-ray spectrum which may result in misinterpretation of instrumental neutron activation analysis data. The only solution to this problem seems to be to prevent the relevant low energy photons from reaching the detector. This can be accomplished by using a high Z absorber inside the detector well. (Auth.)

  2. Longevity is independent of common variations in genes associated with cardiovascular risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladbjerg, E M; Andersen-Ranberg, K; Maat, M de

    1999-01-01

    Do extremely old persons have a genetically favourable profile which has protected them from cardiovascular death? We have tried to answer this question by measuring DNA polymorphisms of selected cardiovascular risk indicators [factor VII, FVII (R/Q353, intron 7 (37bp)n, and -323ins10), beta fibr......, ACE (intron 16 ins287), and angiotensinogen (M/T235)]. Blood was collected from 187 unselected Danish centenarians, and 201 healthy Danish blood donors, aged 20-64 years (mean age 42 years). Genomic DNA was amplified using PCR and the genotype was determined by RFLP methods or allele.......33; for ACE 0.52; and for angiotensinogen 0.36. Comparable frequencies were observed in the blood donors. Subgroup analysis of men and women separately gave similar results. The genotype frequencies in the centenarians and the blood donors were similar for all polymorphisms, and this study suggests...... that common variations in genes associated with cardiovascular risk do not contribute significantly to longevity....

  3. Mutation spectrum of β-globin gene in thalassemia patients at Hasan Sadikin Hospital - West Java Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maskoen, Ani Melani; Rahayu, Nurul S; Reniarti, Lelani; Susanah, Susi; Laksono, Bremmy; Fauziah, Prima Nanda; Zada, Almira; Hidayat, Dadang S

    2017-12-30

    Thalassemia is the most common hereditary haemolytic anemia in Southeast Asia, in which Indonesia is among countries that are at a high risk for thalassemia. It has been reported that mutation in the beta-globin gene is responsible in severe Thalassemia. However, the spectrum of beta-globin gene mutations in Indonesian population varies in different regions . Thus, this study aimed to identify the most prevalent mutation of Thalassemia patients from the Hasan Sadikin Hospital, Bandung, using this as a reference hospital for Thalassemia in West Java. The three most prevalent mutations of beta globin (IVS1nt5, Cd26 (HbE), and IVS1nt1), were conducted in the beginning of this study. Mutations of 291 samples were detected by PCR-RFLP in the Molecular Genetic Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine Universitas Padjadjaran, Bandung. The prevalence of the beta globin gene mutation types were 47.4% IVS1nt5 homozygote, 9.9% compound heterozygote IVS1nt5/HbE, 5.4% compound heterozygote IVS1nt5/IVS1nt1, 1.4% compound heterozygote HbE/IVS1nt1, 1% HbE homozygote, 14.4% Compound heterzygote IVS1nt5/… (no paired mutation), 2.06% compound heterozygote HbE/… (no paired mutation), 1.3% compound heterozygote IVS1nt1/… (no paired mutation), and 7 samples were unidentified. The thalassemia mutation IVS1nt5 homozygote is the most common mutation found in Thalassemia patients at Hasan Sadikin Hospital, Bandung. The samples with unidentified results might carry mutations other than the three that are observed in the present study.

  4. Role of Metabolic Genes in Blood Aluminum Concentrations of Jamaican Children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad H. Rahbar

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum is a neurotoxic metal with known health effects in animals and humans. Glutathione-S-transferase (GST genes and enzymes play a major role in detoxification of several heavy metals. Besides a direct relationship with oxidative stress; aluminum decreases GST enzyme activities. Using data from 116 Jamaican children; age 2–8 years; with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD and 116 sex- and age-matched typically developing (TD children; we investigated the association of polymorphisms in three GST genes (GSTP1; GSTM1; and GSTT1 with mean blood aluminum concentrations in children with and without ASD. Using log-transformed blood aluminum concentration as the dependent variable in a linear regression model; we assessed the additive and interactive effects of ASD status and polymorphisms in the three aforementioned GST genes in relation to blood aluminum concentrations. Although none of the additive effects were statistically significant (all p > 0.16; we observed a marginally significant interaction between GSTP1 Ile105Val (rs1695 and ASD status (p = 0.07; even after controlling for parental education level and consumption of avocado; root vegetables; and tuna (canned fish. Our findings indicate a significantly lower (p < 0.03 adjusted geometric mean blood aluminum concentration for TD children who had the Val/Val genotype (14.57 µg/L; compared with those with Ile/Ile or Ile/Val genotypes who had an adjusted geometric mean of 23.75 µg/L. However; this difference was not statistically significant among the ASD cases (p = 0.76. Our findings indicate that ASD status may be a potential effect modifier when assessing the association between GSTP1 rs1695 and blood aluminum concentrations among Jamaican children. These findings require replication in other populations.

  5. Natural variation in rosette size under salt stress conditions corresponds to developmental differences between Arabidopsis accessions and allelic variation in the LRR-KISS gene

    KAUST Repository

    Julkowska, Magdalena

    2016-02-11

    Natural variation among Arabidopsis accessions is an important genetic resource to identify mechanisms underlying plant development and stress tolerance. To evaluate the natural variation in salinity stress tolerance, two large-scale experiments were performed on two populations consisting of 160 Arabidopsis accessions each. Multiple traits, including projected rosette area, and fresh and dry weight were collected as an estimate for salinity tolerance. Our results reveal a correlation between rosette size under salt stress conditions and developmental differences between the accessions grown in control conditions, suggesting that in general larger plants were more salt tolerant. This correlation was less pronounced when plants were grown under severe salt stress conditions. Subsequent genome wide association study (GWAS) revealed associations with novel candidate genes for salinity tolerance such as LRR-KISS (At4g08850), flowering locus KH-domain containing protein and a DUF1639-containing protein. Accessions with high LRR-KISS expression developed larger rosettes under salt stress conditions. Further characterization of allelic variation in candidate genes identified in this study will provide more insight into mechanisms of salt stress tolerance due to enhanced shoot growth.

  6. [Association of the genetic variations of bone morphogenetic protein 7 gene with diabetes and insulin resistance in Xinjiang Uygur population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhi-tao; Li, Nan-fang; Guo, Yan-ying; Yao, Xiao-guang; Wang, Hong-mei; Hu, Jun-li

    2011-06-01

    To investigate the association between the genetic variations of the functional region in bone morphogenetic protein gene (BMP7) with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Chinese Uygur individuals. A case-control study was conducted based on epidemiological investigation. A total of 717 Uygur subjects (276 males and 441 females) were selected and divided into two groups: diabetes mellitus group (n = 502, 191 males and 311 females) and control group (n = 215, 85 males and 130 females). All exons, flanking introns and the promoter regions of (BMP7) gene were sequenced in 48 Uygur diabetics. Representative variations were selected according to the minor allele frequency (MAF) and linkage disequilibrium and genotyped using the TaqMan polymerase chain reaction method in 717 Uygur individuals, a relatively isolated general population in a relatively homogeneous environment and a case-control study was conducted to test the association between the genetic variations of (BMP7) gene and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Five novel and 8 known variations in the (BMP7) gene were identified. All genotype distributions were tested for deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P> 0.05). There was significant difference of genotype distribution of rs6025422 between type 2 diabetes mellitus and control groups in the male population (P 0.05), but there was no difference in total and female population (P> 0.05). And the means of fasting blood glucose (FBG), fasting insulin and HOMA-index significantly decreased in individuals with AA, AG and GG genotypes of rs6025422 in male population (Ppopulation (P> 0.05). The logistic regression analysis showed that GG genotype of rs6025422 variation might be a protective factor for diabetes in male (OR= 0.637, 95% confidence interval 0.439-0.923, P< 0.05). The present study suggests that the rs6025422 polymorphism in (BMP7) gene may be associated with diabetes mellitus and insulin resistance in Uygur men.

  7. Random phenotypic variation of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) single-gene knockouts fits a double pareto-lognormal distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, John H; Robb, Daniel T; Poe, Amy R

    2012-01-01

    Distributed robustness is thought to influence the buffering of random phenotypic variation through the scale-free topology of gene regulatory, metabolic, and protein-protein interaction networks. If this hypothesis is true, then the phenotypic response to the perturbation of particular nodes in such a network should be proportional to the number of links those nodes make with neighboring nodes. This suggests a probability distribution approximating an inverse power-law of random phenotypic variation. Zero phenotypic variation, however, is impossible, because random molecular and cellular processes are essential to normal development. Consequently, a more realistic distribution should have a y-intercept close to zero in the lower tail, a mode greater than zero, and a long (fat) upper tail. The double Pareto-lognormal (DPLN) distribution is an ideal candidate distribution. It consists of a mixture of a lognormal body and upper and lower power-law tails. If our assumptions are true, the DPLN distribution should provide a better fit to random phenotypic variation in a large series of single-gene knockout lines than other skewed or symmetrical distributions. We fit a large published data set of single-gene knockout lines in Saccharomyces cerevisiae to seven different probability distributions: DPLN, right Pareto-lognormal (RPLN), left Pareto-lognormal (LPLN), normal, lognormal, exponential, and Pareto. The best model was judged by the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC). Phenotypic variation among gene knockouts in S. cerevisiae fits a double Pareto-lognormal (DPLN) distribution better than any of the alternative distributions, including the right Pareto-lognormal and lognormal distributions. A DPLN distribution is consistent with the hypothesis that developmental stability is mediated, in part, by distributed robustness, the resilience of gene regulatory, metabolic, and protein-protein interaction networks. Alternatively, multiplicative cell growth, and the mixing of

  8. Effects of vertebral number variations on carcass traits and genotyping of Vertnin candidate gene in Kazakh sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhifeng Zhang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective The vertebral number is associated with body length and carcass traits, which represents an economically important trait in farm animals. The variation of vertebral number has been observed in a few mammalian species. However, the variation of vertebral number and quantitative trait loci in sheep breeds have not been well addressed. Methods In our investigation, the information including gender, age, carcass weight, carcass length and the number of thoracic and lumbar vertebrae from 624 China Kazakh sheep was collected. The effect of vertebral number variation on carcass weight and carcass length was estimated by general linear model. Further, the polymorphic sites of Vertnin (VRTN gene were identified by sequencing, and the association of the genotype and vertebral number variation was analyzed by the one-way analysis of variance model. Results The variation of thoracolumbar vertebrae number in Kazakh sheep (18 to 20 was smaller than that in Texel sheep (17 to 21. The individuals with 19 thoracolumbar vertebrae (T13L6 were dominant in Kazakh sheep (79.2%. The association study showed that the numbers of thoracolumbar vertebrae were positively correlated with the carcass length and carcass weight, statistically significant with carcass length. To investigate the association of thoracolumbar vertebrae number with VRTN gene, we genotyped the VRTN gene. A total of 9 polymorphic sites were detected and only a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP (rs426367238 was suggested to associate with thoracic vertebral number statistically. Conclusion The variation of thoracolumbar vertebrae number positively associated with the carcass length and carcass weight, especially with the carcass length. VRTN gene polymorphism of the SNP (rs426367238 with significant effect on thoracic vertebral number could be as a candidate marker to further evaluate its role in influence of thoracolumbar vertebral number.

  9. Effects of vertebral number variations on carcass traits and genotyping of Vertnin candidate gene in Kazakh sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhifeng; Sun, Yawei; Du, Wei; He, Sangang; Liu, Mingjun; Tian, Changyan

    2017-09-01

    The vertebral number is associated with body length and carcass traits, which represents an economically important trait in farm animals. The variation of vertebral number has been observed in a few mammalian species. However, the variation of vertebral number and quantitative trait loci in sheep breeds have not been well addressed. In our investigation, the information including gender, age, carcass weight, carcass length and the number of thoracic and lumbar vertebrae from 624 China Kazakh sheep was collected. The effect of vertebral number variation on carcass weight and carcass length was estimated by general linear model. Further, the polymorphic sites of Vertnin ( VRTN ) gene were identified by sequencing, and the association of the genotype and vertebral number variation was analyzed by the one-way analysis of variance model. The variation of thoracolumbar vertebrae number in Kazakh sheep (18 to 20) was smaller than that in Texel sheep (17 to 21). The individuals with 19 thoracolumbar vertebrae (T13L6) were dominant in Kazakh sheep (79.2%). The association study showed that the numbers of thoracolumbar vertebrae were positively correlated with the carcass length and carcass weight, statistically significant with carcass length. To investigate the association of thoracolumbar vertebrae number with VRTN gene, we genotyped the VRTN gene. A total of 9 polymorphic sites were detected and only a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (rs426367238) was suggested to associate with thoracic vertebral number statistically. The variation of thoracolumbar vertebrae number positively associated with the carcass length and carcass weight, especially with the carcass length. VRTN gene polymorphism of the SNP (rs426367238) with significant effect on thoracic vertebral number could be as a candidate marker to further evaluate its role in influence of thoracolumbar vertebral number.

  10. Patterns of gene variation in central and marginal populations of Drosophila robusta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, S

    1973-10-01

    follows: (1) The allele frequencies are similar in all populations at the XDH, Pep-1 and Hex-1 loci. (2) The alleles at the Est-1, Est-2, Amy loci and the AP-4(1.0) and the LAP-1(.90) alleles show north south clinal change in frequency. (3) There is north south and east west differentiation at the Pt-5, Pt-8 and Pt-9 loci and the allele AP-4(.81). (4) Polymorphism at loci such as Fum, B.Ox, Hex-8, Pep-2 and Pep-3 are restricted to only one or two of the populations. (5) Allele frequencies at the MDH and ODH loci fluctuate between populations. (6) Allele frequencies at many polymorphic loci such as Est-1, Est-2, LAP-1, AP-4, Pt-5, Pt-8, Pt-9, Pt-16, MDH, Fum change clinally within a gene arrangement. The pattern of gene variation in D. robusta is very complex and cannot be easily explained due to migration of neutral alleles between once-isolated populations or to semi-isolation of neutral alleles. The observations of the pattern of allele variation in different populations, high levels of polymorphism in the marginal populations which have small population size and low levels of polymorphism of the X chromosome loci all support the argument in favor of balancing selection as the main mechanism for the maintenance of these polymorphisms. Environmental factors must play a role in the maintenance of a great deal of these polymorphisms, since we observe clinal allele frequency changes even within a given inversion type.

  11. Mismatch repair gene mutation spectrum in the Swedish Lynch syndrome population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lagerstedt-Robinson, Kristina; Rohlin, Anna; Aravidis, Christos

    2016-01-01

    Lynch syndrome caused by constitutional mismatch‑repair defects is one of the most common hereditary cancer syndromes with a high risk for colorectal, endometrial, ovarian and urothelial cancer. Lynch syndrome is caused by mutations in the mismatch repair (MMR) genes i.e., MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 and PMS2...... Lynch syndrome families. These mutations affected MLH1 in 40%, MSH2 in 36%, MSH6 in 18% and PMS2 in 6% of the families. A large variety of mutations were identified with splice site mutations being the most common mutation type in MLH1 and frameshift mutations predominating in MSH2 and MSH6. Large...... deletions of one or several exons accounted for 21% of the mutations in MLH1 and MSH2 and 22% in PMS2, but were rare (4%) in MSH6. In 66% of the Lynch syndrome families the variants identified were private and the effect from founder mutations was limited and predominantly related to a Finnish founder...

  12. High Incidence of ACE/PAI-1 in Association to a Spectrum of Other Polymorphic Cardiovascular Genes Involving PBMCs Proinflammatory Cytokines in Hypertensive Hypercholesterolemic Patients: Reversibility with a Combination of ACE Inhibitor and Statin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlBacha, Jeanne d'Arc; Khoury, Mira; Mouawad, Charbel; Haddad, Katia; Hamoui, Samar; Azar, Albert; Fajloun, Ziad; Makdissy, Nehman

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are significantly high in the Lebanese population with the two most predominant forms being atherosclerosis and venous thrombosis. The purpose of our study was to assess the association of a spectrum of CVD related genes and combined state of hypertension hypercholesterolemia (HH) in unrelated Lebanese. Twelve polymorphisms were studied by multiplex PCR and reverse hybridization of DNA from 171 healthy individuals and 144 HH subjects. Two genes were significantly associated with HH: ACE (OR: 9.20, PACE activity and PAI-I increased significantly with Del/Del and 4G/5G genotypes. The co-expression of Del/4G(+/+) was detected in 113 out of 171 (66.0%) controls and 125 out of 144 (86.8%) HH subjects. Del/4G(-/-) was detected in only 6 (3.5%) controls and undetected in the HH group. Three venous thrombosis related genes [FV(Leiden), MTHFR(A1298C) and FXIII(V34L)] were significantly related to the prominence of the co-expression of Del/4G(+/+). A range of 2 to 8 combined polymorphisms co-expressed per subject where 5 mutations were the most detected. In Del/4G(+/+) subjects, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) produced significant elevated levels of IFN-γ and TNF-α contrary to IL-10, and no variations occurred for IL-4. ACE inhibitor (ramipril) in combination with statin (atorvastatin) and not alone reversed significantly the situation. This first report from Lebanon sheds light on an additional genetic predisposition of a complex spectrum of genes involved in CVD and suggests that the most requested gene FVL by physicians may not be sufficient to diagnose eventual future problems that can occur in the cardiovascular system. Subjects expressing the double mutations (Del/4G) are at high risk for the onset of CVDs.

  13. Gene expression profiles deciphering rice phenotypic variation between Nipponbare (Japonica and 93-11 (Indica during oxidative stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengxia Liu

    Full Text Available Rice is a very important food staple that feeds more than half the world's population. Two major Asian cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L. subspecies, japonica and indica, show significant phenotypic variation in their stress responses. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this phenotypic variation are still largely unknown. A common link among different stresses is that they produce an oxidative burst and result in an increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS. In this study, methyl viologen (MV as a ROS agent was applied to investigate the rice oxidative stress response. We observed that 93-11 (indica seedlings exhibited leaf senescence with severe lesions under MV treatment compared to Nipponbare (japonica. Whole-genome microarray experiments were conducted, and 1,062 probe sets were identified with gene expression level polymorphisms between the two rice cultivars in addition to differential expression under MV treatment, which were assigned as Core Intersectional Probesets (CIPs. These CIPs were analyzed by gene ontology (GO and highlighted with enrichment GO terms related to toxin and oxidative stress responses as well as other responses. These GO term-enriched genes of the CIPs include glutathine S-transferases (GSTs, P450, plant defense genes, and secondary metabolism related genes such as chalcone synthase (CHS. Further insertion/deletion (InDel and regulatory element analyses for these identified CIPs suggested that there may be some eQTL hotspots related to oxidative stress in the rice genome, such as GST genes encoded on chromosome 10. In addition, we identified a group of marker genes individuating the japonica and indica subspecies. In summary, we developed a new strategy combining biological experiments and data mining to study the possible molecular mechanism of phenotypic variation during oxidative stress between Nipponbare and 93-11. This study will aid in the analysis of the molecular basis of quantitative traits.

  14. Consecutive analysis of mutation spectrum in the dystrophin gene of 507 Korean boys with Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy in a single center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Anna; Seong, Moon-Woo; Lim, Byung Chan; Lee, Hwa Jeen; Byeon, Jung Hye; Kim, Seung Soo; Kim, Soo Yeon; Choi, Sun Ah; Wong, Ai-Lynn; Lee, Jeongho; Kim, Jon Soo; Ryu, Hye Won; Lee, Jin Sook; Kim, Hunmin; Hwang, Hee; Choi, Ji Eun; Kim, Ki Joong; Hwang, Young Seung; Hong, Ki Ho; Park, Seungman; Cho, Sung Im; Lee, Seung Jun; Park, Hyunwoong; Seo, Soo Hyun; Park, Sung Sup; Chae, Jong Hee

    2017-05-01

    Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophies (DMD and BMD) are allelic X-linked recessive muscle diseases caused by mutations in the large and complex dystrophin gene. We analyzed the dystrophin gene in 507 Korean DMD/BMD patients by multiple ligation-dependent probe amplification and direct sequencing. Overall, 117 different deletions, 48 duplications, and 90 pathogenic sequence variations, including 30 novel variations, were identified. Deletions and duplications accounted for 65.4% and 13.3% of Korean dystrophinopathy, respectively, suggesting that the incidence of large rearrangements in dystrophin is similar among different ethnic groups. We also detected sequence variations in >100 probands. The small variations were dispersed across the whole gene, and 12.3% were nonsense mutations. Precise genetic characterization in patients with DMD/BMD is timely and important for implementing nationwide registration systems and future molecular therapeutic trials in Korea and globally. Muscle Nerve 55: 727-734, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Genetic variation in the HSD17B1 gene and risk of prostate cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Kraft

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Steroid hormones are believed to play an important role in prostate carcinogenesis, but epidemiological evidence linking prostate cancer and steroid hormone genes has been inconclusive, in part due to small sample sizes or incomplete characterization of genetic variation at the locus of interest. Here we report on the results of a comprehensive study of the association between HSD17B1 and prostate cancer by the Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium, a large collaborative study. HSD17B1 encodes 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1, an enzyme that converts dihydroepiandrosterone to the testosterone precursor Delta5-androsterone-3beta,17beta-diol and converts estrone to estradiol. The Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium researchers systematically characterized variation in HSD17B1 by targeted resequencing and dense genotyping; selected haplotype-tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (htSNPs that efficiently predict common variants in U.S. and European whites, Latinos, Japanese Americans, and Native Hawaiians; and genotyped these htSNPs in 8,290 prostate cancer cases and 9,367 study-, age-, and ethnicity-matched controls. We found no evidence that HSD17B1 htSNPs (including the nonsynonymous coding SNP S312G or htSNP haplotypes were associated with risk of prostate cancer or tumor stage in the pooled multiethnic sample or in U.S. and European whites. Analyses stratified by age, body mass index, and family history of disease found no subgroup-specific associations between these HSD17B1 htSNPs and prostate cancer. We found significant evidence of heterogeneity in associations between HSD17B1 haplotypes and prostate cancer across ethnicity: one haplotype had a significant (p < 0.002 inverse association with risk of prostate cancer in Latinos and Japanese Americans but showed no evidence of association in African Americans, Native Hawaiians, or whites. However, the smaller numbers of Latinos and Japanese Americans in this study makes

  16. Variation in the MC4R gene is associated with bone phenotypes in elderly Swedish women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Garg

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is characterized by reduced bone mineral density (BMD and increased fracture risk. Fat mass is a determinant of bone strength and both phenotypes have a strong genetic component. In this study, we examined the association between obesity associated polymorphisms (SNPs with body composition, BMD, Ultrasound (QUS, fracture and biomarkers (Homocysteine (Hcy, folate, Vitamin D and Vitamin B12 for obesity and osteoporosis. Five common variants: rs17782313 and rs1770633 (melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R; rs7566605 (insulin induced gene 2 (INSIG2; rs9939609 and rs1121980 (fat mass and obesity associated (FTO were genotyped in 2 cohorts of Swedish women: PEAK-25 (age 25, n = 1061 and OPRA (age 75, n = 1044. Body mass index (BMI, total body fat and lean mass were strongly positively correlated with QUS and BMD in both cohorts (r(2 = 0.2-0.6. MC4R rs17782313 was associated with QUS in the OPRA cohort and individuals with the minor C-allele had higher values compared to T-allele homozygotes (TT vs. CT vs.100 vs. 103 vs. 103; p = 0.002; (SOS: 1521 vs. 1526 vs. 1524; p = 0.008; (Stiffness index: 69 vs. 73 vs. 74; p = 0.0006 after adjustment for confounders. They also had low folate (18 vs. 17 vs. 16; p = 0.03 and vitamin D (93 vs. 91 vs. 90; p = 0.03 and high Hcy levels (13.7 vs 14.4 vs. 14.5; p = 0.06. Fracture incidence was lower among women with the C-allele, (52% vs. 58%; p = 0.067. Variation in MC4R was not associated with BMD or body composition in either OPRA or PEAK-25. SNPs close to FTO and INSIG2 were not associated with any bone phenotypes in either cohort and FTO SNPs were only associated with body composition in PEAK-25 (p≤0.001. Our results suggest that genetic variation close to MC4R is associated with quantitative ultrasound and risk of fracture.

  17. Immune gene expression in Bombus terrestris: signatures of infection despite strong variation among populations, colonies, and sister workers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska S Brunner

    Full Text Available Ecological immunology relies on variation in resistance to parasites. Colonies of the bumblebee Bombus terrestris vary in their susceptibility to the trypanosome gut parasite Crithidia bombi, which reduces colony fitness. To understand the possible origin of this variation in resistance we assayed the expression of 28 immunologically important genes in foraging workers. We deliberately included natural variation of the host "environment" by using bees from colonies collected in two locations and sampling active foraging workers that were not age controlled. Immune gene expression patterns in response to C. bombi showed remarkable variability even among genetically similar sisters. Nevertheless, expression varied with parasite exposure, among colonies and, perhaps surprisingly, strongly among populations (collection sites. While only the antimicrobial peptide abaecin is universally up regulated upon exposure, linear discriminant analysis suggests that the overall exposure effect is driven by a combination of several immune pathways and further immune functions such as ROS regulation. Also, the differences among colonies in their immune gene expression profiles provide clues to the mechanistic basis of well-known inter-colony variation in susceptibility to this parasite. Our results show that transcriptional responses to parasite exposure can be detected in ecologically heterogeneous groups despite strong background noise.

  18. Colony-level behavioural variation correlates with differences in expression of the foraging gene in red imported fire ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockoven, Alison A; Coates, Craig J; Eubanks, Micky D

    2017-11-01

    Among social insects, colony-level variation is likely to be widespread and has significant ecological consequences. Very few studies, however, have documented how genetic factors relate to behaviour at the colony level. Differences in expression of the foraging gene have been associated with differences in foraging and activity of a wide variety of organisms. We quantified expression of the red imported fire ant foraging gene (sifor) in workers from 21 colonies collected across the natural range of Texas fire ant populations, but maintained under standardized, environmentally controlled conditions. Colonies varied significantly in their behaviour. The most active colonies had up to 10 times more active foragers than the least active colony and more than 16 times as many workers outside the nest. Expression differences among colonies correlated with this colony-level behavioural variation. Colonies with higher sifor expression in foragers had, on average, significantly higher foraging activity, exploratory activity and recruitment to nectar than colonies with lower expression. Expression of sifor was also strongly correlated with worker task (foraging vs. working in the interior of the nest). These results provide insight into the genetic and physiological processes underlying collective differences in social behaviour. Quantifying variation in expression of the foraging gene may provide an important tool for understanding and predicting the ecological consequences of colony-level behavioural variation. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Variations and classification of toxic epitopes related to celiac disease among α-gliadin genes from four Aegilops genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Wang, Shunli; Li, Shanshan; Ge, Pei; Li, Xiaohui; Ma, Wujun; Zeller, F J; Hsam, Sai L K; Yan, Yueming

    2012-07-01

    The α-gliadins are associated with human celiac disease. A total of 23 noninterrupted full open reading frame α-gliadin genes and 19 pseudogenes were cloned and sequenced from C, M, N, and U genomes of four diploid Aegilops species. Sequence comparison of α-gliadin genes from Aegilops and Triticum species demonstrated an existence of extensive allelic variations in Gli-2 loci of the four Aegilops genomes. Specific structural features were found including the compositions and variations of two polyglutamine domains (QI and QII) and four T cell stimulatory toxic epitopes. The mean numbers of glutamine residues in the QI domain in C and N genomes and the QII domain in C, N, and U genomes were much higher than those in Triticum genomes, and the QI domain in C and N genomes and the QII domain in C, M, N, and U genomes displayed greater length variations. Interestingly, the types and numbers of four T cell stimulatory toxic epitopes in α-gliadins from the four Aegilops genomes were significantly less than those from Triticum A, B, D, and their progenitor genomes. Relationships between the structural variations of the two polyglutamine domains and the distributions of four T cell stimulatory toxic epitopes were found, resulting in the α-gliadin genes from the Aegilops and Triticum genomes to be classified into three groups.

  20. Variation in MHC class II B genes in marbled murrelets: implications for delineating conservation units

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. Vásquez-Carrillo; V. Friesen; L. Hall; M.Z. Peery

    2013-01-01

    Conserving genetic variation is critical for maintaining the evolutionary potential and viability of a species. Genetic studies seeking to delineate conservation units, however, typically focus on characterizing neutral genetic variation and may not identify populations harboring local adaptations. Here, variation at two major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II...

  1. Sequence variation in mitochondrial cox1 and nad1 genes of ascaridoid nematodes in cats and dogs from Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikaeili, F; Mirhendi, H; Mohebali, M; Hosseini, M; Sharbatkhori, M; Zarei, Z; Kia, E B

    2015-07-01

    The study was conducted to determine the sequence variation in two mitochondrial genes, namely cytochrome c oxidase 1 (pcox1) and NADH dehydrogenase 1 (pnad1) within and among isolates of Toxocara cati, Toxocara canis and Toxascaris leonina. Genomic DNA was extracted from 32 isolates of T. cati, 9 isolates of T. canis and 19 isolates of T. leonina collected from cats and dogs in different geographical areas of Iran. Mitochondrial genes were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequenced. Sequence data were aligned using the BioEdit software and compared with published sequences in GenBank. Phylogenetic analysis was performed using Bayesian inference and maximum likelihood methods. Based on pairwise comparison, intra-species genetic diversity within Iranian isolates of T. cati, T. canis and T. leonina amounted to 0-2.3%, 0-1.3% and 0-1.0% for pcox1 and 0-2.0%, 0-1.7% and 0-2.6% for pnad1, respectively. Inter-species sequence variation among the three ascaridoid nematodes was significantly higher, being 9.5-16.6% for pcox1 and 11.9-26.7% for pnad1. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis of the pcox1 and pnad1 genes indicated that there is significant genetic diversity within and among isolates of T. cati, T. canis and T. leonina from different areas of Iran, and these genes can be used for studying genetic variation of ascaridoid nematodes.

  2. Sequence Variation in Rhoptry Neck Protein 10 Gene among Toxoplasma gondii Isolates from Different Hosts and Geographical Locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yu; Zhou, Donghui; Chen, Jia; Sun, Xiaolin

    2017-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii, as a eukaryotic parasite of the phylum Apicomplexa, can infect almost all the warm-blooded animals and humans, causing toxoplasmosis. Rhoptry neck proteins (RONs) play a key role in the invasion process of T. gondii and are potential vaccine candidate molecules against toxoplasmosis. The present study examined sequence variation in the rhoptry neck protein 10 (TgRON10) gene among 10 T. gondii isolates from different hosts and geographical locations from Lanzhou province during 2014, and compared with the corresponding sequences of strains ME49 and VEG obtained from the ToxoDB database, using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification, sequence analysis, and phylogenetic reconstruction by Bayesian inference (BI) and maximum parsimony (MP). Analysis of all the 12 TgRON10 genomic and cDNA sequences revealed 7 exons and 6 introns in the TgRON10 gDNA. The complete genomic sequence of the TgRON10 gene ranged from 4759 bp to 4763 bp, and sequence variation was 0-0.6% among the 12 T. gondii isolates, indicating a low sequence variation in TgRON10 gene. Phylogenetic analysis of TgRON10 sequences showed that the cluster of the 12 T. gondii isolates was not completely consistent with their respective genotypes. TgRON10 gene is not a suitable genetic marker for the differentiation of T. gondii isolates from different hosts and geographical locations, but may represent a potential vaccine candidate against toxoplasmosis, worth further studies.

  3. Characterization of genomic variations in SNPs of PE_PGRS genes reveals deletions and insertions in extensively drug resistant (XDR) M. tuberculosis strains from Pakistan

    KAUST Repository

    Kanji, Akbar; Hasan, Zahra; Ali, Asho; McNerney, Ruth; Mallard, Kim; Coll, Francesc; Hill-Cawthorne, Grant A.; Nair, Mridul; Clark, Taane G.; Zaver, Ambreen; Jafri, Sana; Hasan, Rumina

    2015-01-01

    Genetic diversity in PE_PGRS genes contributes to antigenic variability and may result in increased immunogenicity of strains. This is the first study identifying variations in nsSNPs and INDELs in the PE_PGRS genes of XDR-TB strains from Pakistan. It highlights common genetic variations which may contribute to persistence.

  4. Sex bias in copy number variation of olfactory receptor gene family depends on ethnicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh eShadravan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Gender plays a pivotal role in the human genetic identity and is also manifested in many genetic disorders particularly mental retardation. In this study its effect on copy number variation (CNV, known to cause genetic disorders was explored. As the olfactory receptor (OR repertoire comprises the largest human gene family, it was selected for this study, which was carried out within and between three populations, derived from 150 individuals from the 1000 Genome Project. Analysis of 3872 CNVs detected among 791 OR loci, in which 307 loci showed CNV, revealed the following novel findings: Sex bias in CNV was significantly more prevalent in uncommon than common CNV variants of OR pseudogenes, in which the male genome showed more CNVs; and in one-copy number loss compared to complete deletion of OR pseudogenes; both findings implying a more recent evolutionary role for gender. Sex bias in copy number gain was also detected. Another novel finding was that the observed six bias was largely dependent on ethnicity and was in general absent in East Asians. Using a CNV public database for sick children (ISCA the application of these findings for improving clinical molecular diagnostics is discussed by showing an example of sex bias in CNV among kids with autism. Additional clinical relevance is discussed, as the most polymorphic CNV-enriched OR cluster in the human genome, located on chr 15q11.2, is found near the PWS/AS bi-directionally imprinted region associated with two well-known mental retardation syndromes. As olfaction represents the primitive cognition in most mammals, arguably in competition with the development of a larger brain, the extensive retention of OR pseudogenes in females of this study, might point to a parent-of-origin indirect regulatory role for OR pseudogenes in the embryonic development of human brain. Thus any perturbation in the temporal regulation of olfactory system could lead to developmental delay disorders including

  5. Quantitative variation in obesity-related traits and insulin precursors linked to the OB gene region on human chromosome 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duggirala, R.; Stern, M.P.; Reinhart, L.J. [Univ. of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX (United States)] [and others

    1996-09-01

    Despite the evidence that human obesity has strong genetic determinants, efforts at identifying specific genes that influence human obesity have largely been unsuccessful. Using the sibship data obtained from 32 low-income Mexican American pedigrees ascertained on a type II diabetic proband and a multipoint variance-components method, we tested for linkage between various obesity-related traits plus associated metabolic traits and 15 markers on human chromosome 7. We found evidence for linkage between markers in the OB gene region and various traits, as follows: D7S514 and extremity skinfolds (LOD = 3.1), human carboxypeptidase A1 (HCPA1) and 32,33-split proinsulin level (LOD = 4.2), and HCPA1 and proinsulin level (LOD = 3.2). A putative susceptibility locus linked to the marker D7S514 explained 56% of the total phenotypic variation in extremity skinfolds. Variation at the HCPA1 locus explained 64% of phenotypic variation in proinsulin level and {approximately}73% of phenotypic variation in split proinsulin concentration, respectively. Weaker evidence for linkage to several other obesity-related traits (e.g., waist circumference, body-mass index, fat mass by bioimpedance, etc.) was observed for a genetic location, which is {approximately}15 cM telomeric to OB. In conclusion, our study reveals that the OB region plays a significant role in determining the phenotypic variation of both insulin precursors and obesity-related traits, at least in Mexican Americans. 66 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. Candidate genes revealed by a genome scan for mosquito resistance to a bacterial insecticide: sequence and gene expression variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Jean-Philippe

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome scans are becoming an increasingly popular approach to study the genetic basis of adaptation and speciation, but on their own, they are often helpless at identifying the specific gene(s or mutation(s targeted by selection. This shortcoming is hopefully bound to disappear in the near future, thanks to the wealth of new genomic resources that are currently being developed for many species. In this article, we provide a foretaste of this exciting new era by conducting a genome scan in the mosquito Aedes aegypti with the aim to look for candidate genes involved in resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti insecticidal toxins. Results The genome of a Bti-resistant and a Bti-susceptible strains was surveyed using about 500 MITE-based molecular markers, and the loci showing the highest inter-strain genetic differentiation were sequenced and mapped on the Aedes aegypti genome sequence. Several good candidate genes for Bti-resistance were identified in the vicinity of these highly differentiated markers. Two of them, coding for a cadherin and a leucine aminopeptidase, were further examined at the sequence and gene expression levels. In the resistant strain, the cadherin gene displayed patterns of nucleotide polymorphisms consistent with the action of positive selection (e.g. an excess of high compared to intermediate frequency mutations, as well as a significant under-expression compared to the susceptible strain. Conclusion Both sequence and gene expression analyses agree to suggest a role for positive selection in the evolution of this cadherin gene in the resistant strain. However, it is unlikely that resistance to Bti is conferred by this gene alone, and further investigation will be needed to characterize other genes significantly associated with Bti resistance in Ae. aegypti. Beyond these results, this article illustrates how genome scans can build on the body of new genomic information (here, full

  7. Parenting stress and salivary cortisol in parents of children with autism spectrum disorder: Longitudinal variations in the context of a service dog's presence in the family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fecteau, Stéphanie-M; Boivin, Louise; Trudel, Marcel; Corbett, Blythe A; Harrell, Frank E; Viau, Robert; Champagne, Noël; Picard, Frédéric

    2017-02-01

    A significant portion of parents of children with autism spectrum disorder report high levels of stress related to parenting responsibilities, which have been linked to abnormal cortisol patterns. This study seeks to better understand the parents' adaptation to caregiving demands and use of a service dog, by taking into account longitudinal variations in salivary cortisol and perception of parental stress. Salivary cortisol was collected one day per week for 15 weeks by 98 primary caregivers of children with ASD. Overall, parents perceived high levels of stress at baseline. Mean morning cortisol increase was below expected levels for healthy adults, and perception of stress predicted morning cortisol activity. Hypocorticolism related to chronic stress may be present in parents of children with ASD. Longitudinal analysis revealed that the presence of a service dog in the family had an effect on parenting stress, wakening and morning cortisol levels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Single-nucleotide variations in the genes encoding the mitochondrial Hsp60/Hsp10 chaperone system and their disease-causing potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bross, Peter; Li, Zhijie; Hansen, Jakob

    2007-01-01

    for variations in the HSPD1 and HSPE1 genes encoding the mitochondrial Hsp60/Hsp10 chaperone complex: two patients with multiple mitochondrial enzyme deficiency, 61 sudden infant death syndrome cases (MIM: #272120), and 60 patients presenting with ethylmalonic aciduria carrying non-synonymous susceptibility...... variations in the ACADS gene (MIM: *606885 and #201470). Besides previously reported variations we detected six novel variations: two in the bidirectional promoter region, and one synonymous and three non-synonymous variations in the HSPD1 coding region. One of the non-synonymous variations was polymorphic...... in patient and control samples, and the rare variations were each only found in single patients and absent in 100 control chromosomes. Functional investigation of the effects of the variations in the promoter region and the non-synonymous variations in the coding region indicated that none of them had...

  9. [Association between variations in protocadherin 15 gene and occupational noise-induced hearing loss].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, X R; Yang, Q Y; Jiao, J; Zheng, Y X; He, L H; Yu, S F; Gu, G Z; Chen, G S; Zhou, W H; Wu, H; Li, Y H; Zhang, H L; Zhang, Z R

    2017-01-06

    or CNE when the noise exposure level was>85 dB (A), compared with cases with the AA genotype of rs10825113, individuals with the GA/GG genotype had a 2.63-fold increased risk of NIHL (95% CI: 1.12- 6.14). When the CNE was ≤ 98 dB(A), compared with cases with the TT genotype of rs11004085, individuals with the CC/CT genotype had a 2.96-fold increased risk of NIHL (95% CI: 1.33- 6.56). However, these differences were not significant after Bonferroni correction had been applied. Conclusions: The results confirmed that genetic variation within the PCDH15 gene may affect the susceptibility to NIHL.

  10. Copy number variation in VEGF gene as a biomarker of susceptibility to age-related macular degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norshakimah Md Bakri

    2018-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several studies in various populations have been conducted to determine candidate genes that could contribute to age-related macular degeneration (AMD pathogenesis. Objective: The present study was undertaken to determine the association of high temperature requirement A-1 (HTRA1, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and very-low-density receptor (VLDR genes with wet AMD subjects in Malaysia. Methods: A total of 125 subjects with wet AMD and 120 subjects without AMD from the Malaysian population were selected for this study. Genomic DNA was extracted and copy number variations (CNVs were determined using quantitative real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR and comparison between the two groups was done. The demographic characteristics were also recorded. Statistical analysis was carried out using software where a level of P  0.05. Conclusion: Observations of an association between CNVs of VEGF gene and wet AMD have revealed that the CNVs of VEGF gene appears to be a possible contributor to wet AMD subjects in Malaysia. Keywords: Age-related macular degeneration, Copy number variations, VEGF, HTRA1, VLDR genes and Malaysia

  11. No association between a common single nucleotide polymorphism, rs4141463, in the MACROD2 gene and autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Sarah; Bolton, Patrick; Rozsnyai, Kinga; Chiocchetti, Andreas; Klauck, Sabine M; Duketis, Eftichia; Poustka, Fritz; Schlitt, Sabine; Freitag, Christine M; Lee, Irene; Muglia, Pierandrea; Poot, Martin; Staal, Wouter; de Jonge, Maretha V; Ophoff, Roel A; Lewis, Cathryn; Skuse, David; Mandy, Will; Vassos, Evangelos; Fossdal, Ragnheidur; Magnusson, Páll; Hreidarsson, Stefan; Saemundsen, Evald; Stefansson, Hreinn; Stefansson, Kari; Collier, David

    2011-09-01

    The Autism Genome Project (AGP) Consortium recently reported genome-wide significant association between autism and an intronic single nucleotide polymorphism marker, rs4141463, within the MACROD2 gene. In the present study we attempted to replicate this finding using an independent case-control design of 1,170 cases with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (874 of which fulfilled narrow criteria for Autism (A)) from five centers within Europe (UK, Germany, the Netherlands, Italy, and Iceland), and 35,307 controls. The combined sample size gave us a non-centrality parameter (NCP) of 11.9, with 93% power to detect allelic association of rs4141463 at an alpha of 0.05 with odds ratio of 0.84 (the best odds ratio estimate of the AGP Consortium data), and for the narrow diagnosis of autism, an NCP of 8.9 and power of 85%. Our case-control data were analyzed for association, stratified by each center, and the summary statistics were combined using the meta-analysis program, GWAMA. This resulted in an odds ratio (OR) of 1.03 (95% CI 0.944-1.133), with a P-value of 0.5 for ASD and OR of 0.99 (95% CI 0.88-1.11) with P-value = 0.85 for the Autism (A) sub-group. Therefore, this study does not provide support for the reported association between rs4141463 and autism. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Role of Metabolic Genes in Blood Arsenic Concentrations of Jamaican Children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad H. Rahbar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic is a toxic metalloid with known adverse effects on human health. Glutathione-S-transferase (GST genes, including GSTT1, GSTP1, and GSTM1, play a major role in detoxification and metabolism of xenobiotics. We investigated the association between GST genotypes and whole blood arsenic concentrations (BASC in Jamaican children with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD. We used data from 100 ASD cases and their 1:1 age- and sex-matched typically developing (TD controls (age 2–8 years from Jamaica. Using log-transformed BASC as the dependent variable in a General Linear Model, we observed a significant interaction between GSTP1 and ASD case status while controlling for several confounding variables. However, for GSTT1 and GSTM1 we did not observe any significant associations with BASC. Our findings indicate that TD children who had the Ile/Ile or Ile/Val genotype for GSTP1 had a significantly higher geometric mean BASC than those with genotype Val/Val (3.67 µg/L vs. 2.69 µg/L, p < 0.01. Although, among the ASD cases, this difference was not statistically significant, the direction of the observed difference was consistent with that of the TD control children. These findings suggest a possible role of GSTP1 in the detoxification of arsenic.

  13. Leveraging long sequencing reads to investigate R-gene clustering and variation in sugar beet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Host-pathogen interactions are of prime importance to modern agriculture. Plants utilize various types of resistance genes to mitigate pathogen damage. Identification of the specific gene responsible for a specific resistance can be difficult due to duplication and clustering within R-gene families....

  14. Variations of the high-level Balmer line spectrum of the helium-strong star σ Orionis E

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M. A.; Bohlender, D. A.

    2007-12-01

    Using the high-level Balmer lines and continuum, we trace the density structure of two magnetospheric disk segments of the prototypical Bp star σ Orionis E (B2p) as these segments occult portions of the star during the rotational cycle. High-resolution spectra of the Balmer lines ≥H9 and Balmer edge were obtained on seven nights in January-February 2007 at an average sampling of 0.01 cycles. We measured equivalent width variations due to the star occultations by two disk segments 0.4 cycles apart and constructed differential spectra of the migrations of the corresponding absorptions across the Balmer line profiles. We first estimated the rotational and magnetic obliquity angles. We then simulated the observed Balmer jump variation using the model atmosphere codes synspec/circus and evaluated the disk geometry and gas thermodynamics. We find that the two occultations are caused by two disk segments. The first of these transits quickly, indicating that the segment resides in a range of distances, perhaps 2.5-6 R*, from the star. The second consists of a more slowly moving segment situated closer to the surface and causing two semi-resolved absorbing maxima. During its transit this segment brushes across the star's “lower” limb. Judging from the line visibility up to H23-H24 during the occultations, both disk segments have mean densities near 1012 cm-3 and are opaque in the lines and continuum. They have semiheights less than 1/2 R*, and their temperatures are near 10 500 K and 12 000 K, respectively. In all, the disks of Bp stars have a much more complicated geometry than has been anticipated, as evidenced by their (sometimes) non-coplanarity, de-centerness, and from star to star, differences in disk height. Based on observations obtained at the the Dominion Astrophysical Observatory, Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, National Research Council of Canada.

  15. Investigation of the effect of ionizing radiation on gene expression variation by the 'DNA chips': feasibility of a biological dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruel, G.

    2005-01-01

    After having described the different biological effects of ionizing radiation and the different approaches to biological dosimetry, and introduced 'DNA chips' or DNA micro-arrays, the author reports the characterization of gene expression variations in the response of cells to a gamma irradiation. Both main aspects of the use DNA chips are investigated: fundamental research and diagnosis. This research thesis thus proposes an analysis of the effect of ionizing radiation using DNA chips, notably by comparing gene expression modifications measured in mouse irradiated lung, heart and kidney. It reports a feasibility study of bio-dosimeter based on expression profiles

  16. Sequence variation in the alpha-toxin encoding plc gene of Clostridium perfringens strains isolated from diseased and healthy chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildgaard, L; Engberg, RM; Pedersen, Karl

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyse the genetic diversity of the alpha-toxin encoding plc gene and the variation in a-toxin production of Clostridium perfringens type A strains isolated from presumably healthy chickens and chickens suffering from either necrotic enteritis (NE) or cholangio......-hepatitis. The a-toxin encoding plc genes from 60 different pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) types (strains) of C perfringens were sequenced and translated in silico to amino acid sequences and the a-toxin production was investigated in batch cultures of 45 of the strains using an enzyme...

  17. Genetic Variation and Divergence of Genes Involved in Leaf Adaxial-abaxial Polarity Establishment in Brassica rapa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianli eLiang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Alterations in leaf adaxial–abaxial (ad-ab polarity are one of the main factors that are responsible for leaf curvature. In Chinese cabbage, to form a leafy head, leaf incurvature is an essential prerequisite. Identifying ad-ab patterning genes and investigating its genetic variations will facilitate in elucidating the mechanism underlying leaf incurvature during head formation. In the present study we conducted comparative genomic analysis of the identification of 45 leaf ad-ab patterning genes in Brassica rapa based on 26 homologs in Arabidopsis thaliana, indicating that these genes underwent expansion and were retained after whole genome triplication (WGT. We also assessed the nucleotide diversity and selection footprints of these 45 genes in a collection of 94 Brassica rapa accessions that were composed of heading and non-heading morphotypes. Six of the 45 genes showed significant negative Tajima’s D indices and nucleotide diversity reduction in heading accessions compared to that in non-heading accessions, indicating that these underwent purifying selection. Further testing of the BrARF3.1 gene, which was one of the selection signals from a larger collection, confirmed that purifying selection did occur. Our results provide genetic evidence that ad-ab patterning genes are involved in leaf incurvature that is associated in the formation of a leafy head, as well as promote an understanding of the genetic mechanism underlying leafy head formation in Chinese cabbage.

  18. Robust assignment of cancer subtypes from expression data using a uni-variate gene expression average as classifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauss, Martin; Frigyesi, Attila; Ryden, Tobias; Höglund, Mattias

    2010-01-01

    Genome wide gene expression data is a rich source for the identification of gene signatures suitable for clinical purposes and a number of statistical algorithms have been described for both identification and evaluation of such signatures. Some employed algorithms are fairly complex and hence sensitive to over-fitting whereas others are more simple and straight forward. Here we present a new type of simple algorithm based on ROC analysis and the use of metagenes that we believe will be a good complement to existing algorithms. The basis for the proposed approach is the use of metagenes, instead of collections of individual genes, and a feature selection using AUC values obtained by ROC analysis. Each gene in a data set is assigned an AUC value relative to the tumor class under investigation and the genes are ranked according to these values. Metagenes are then formed by calculating the mean expression level for an increasing number of ranked genes, and the metagene expression value that optimally discriminates tumor classes in the training set is used for classification of new samples. The performance of the metagene is then evaluated using LOOCV and balanced accuracies. We show that the simple uni-variate gene expression average algorithm performs as well as several alternative algorithms such as discriminant analysis and the more complex approaches such as SVM and neural networks. The R package rocc is freely available at http://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/rocc/index.html

  19. Molecular Evolution and Genetic Variation of G2-Like Transcription Factor Genes in Maize.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Liu

    Full Text Available The productivity of maize (Zea mays L. depends on the development of chloroplasts, and G2-like transcription factors play a central role in regulating chloroplast development. In this study, we identified 59 G2-like genes in the B73 maize genome and systematically analyzed these genes at the molecular and evolutionary levels. Based on gene structure character, motif compositions and phylogenetic analysis, maize G2-like genes (ZmG1- ZmG59 were divided into seven groups (I-VII. By synteny analysis, 18 collinear gene pairs and strongly conserved microsyntny among regions hosting G2-like genes across maize and sorghum were found. Here, we showed that the vast majority of ZmG gene duplications resulted from whole genome duplication events rather than tandem duplications. After gene duplication events, some ZmG genes were silenced. The functions of G2-like genes were multifarious and most genes that are expressed in green tissues may relate to maize photosynthesis. The qRT-PCR showed that the expression of these genes was sensitive to low temperature and drought. Furthermore, we analyzed differences of ZmGs specific to cultivars in temperate and tropical regions at the population level. Interestingly, the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP analysis revealed that nucleotide polymorphism associated with different temperature zones. Above all, G2-like genes were highly conserved during evolution, but polymorphism could be caused due to a different geographical location. Moreover, G2-like genes might be related to cold and drought stresses.

  20. Gene set of nuclear-encoded mitochondrial regulators is enriched for common inherited variation in obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadja Knoll

    Full Text Available There are hints of an altered mitochondrial function in obesity. Nuclear-encoded genes are relevant for mitochondrial function (3 gene sets of known relevant pathways: (1 16 nuclear regulators of mitochondrial genes, (2 91 genes for oxidative phosphorylation and (3 966 nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA showed no association with type 2 diabetes mellitus in these gene sets. Here we performed a GSEA for the same gene sets for obesity. Genome wide association study (GWAS data from a case-control approach on 453 extremely obese children and adolescents and 435 lean adult controls were used for GSEA. For independent confirmation, we analyzed 705 obesity GWAS trios (extremely obese child and both biological parents and a population-based GWAS sample (KORA F4, n = 1,743. A meta-analysis was performed on all three samples. In each sample, the distribution of significance levels between the respective gene set and those of all genes was compared using the leading-edge-fraction-comparison test (cut-offs between the 50(th and 95(th percentile of the set of all gene-wise corrected p-values as implemented in the MAGENTA software. In the case-control sample, significant enrichment of associations with obesity was observed above the 50(th percentile for the set of the 16 nuclear regulators of mitochondrial genes (p(GSEA,50 = 0.0103. This finding was not confirmed in the trios (p(GSEA,50 = 0.5991, but in KORA (p(GSEA,50 = 0.0398. The meta-analysis again indicated a trend for enrichment (p(MAGENTA,50 = 0.1052, p(MAGENTA,75 = 0.0251. The GSEA revealed that weak association signals for obesity might be enriched in the gene set of 16 nuclear regulators of mitochondrial genes.

  1. Gene expression variation resolves species and individual strains among coral-associated dinoflagellates within the genus Symbiodinium

    KAUST Repository

    Parkinson, John Everett

    2016-02-11

    Reef-building corals depend on symbiotic mutualisms with photosynthetic dinoflagellates in the genus Symbiodinium. This large microalgal group comprises many highly divergent lineages (“Clades A-I”) and hundreds of undescribed species. Given their ecological importance, efforts have turned to genomic approaches to characterize the functional ecology of Symbiodinium. To date, investigators have only compared gene expression between representatives from separate clades—the equivalent of contrasting genera or families in other dinoflagellate groups—making it impossible to distinguish between clade-level and species-level functional differences. Here, we examined the transcriptomes of four species within one Symbiodinium clade (Clade B) at ~20,000 orthologous genes, as well as multiple isoclonal cell lines within species (i.e. cultured strains). These species span two major adaptive radiations within Clade B, each encompassing both host-specialized and ecologically cryptic taxa. Species-specific expression differences were consistently enriched for photosynthesis-related genes, likely reflecting selection pressures driving niche diversification. Transcriptional variation among strains involved fatty acid metabolism and biosynthesis pathways. Such differences among individuals are potentially a major source of physiological variation, contributing to the functional diversity of coral holobionts composed of unique host-symbiont genotype pairings. Our findings expand the genomic resources available for this important symbiont group and emphasize the power of comparative transcriptomics as a method for studying speciation processes and inter-individual variation in non-model organisms.

  2. Gene expression variation resolves species and individual strains among coral-associated dinoflagellates within the genus Symbiodinium

    KAUST Repository

    Parkinson, John Everett; Baumgarten, Sebastian; Michell, Craig; Baums, Iliana B.; LaJeunesse, Todd C.; Voolstra, Christian R.

    2016-01-01

    Reef-building corals depend on symbiotic mutualisms with photosynthetic dinoflagellates in the genus Symbiodinium. This large microalgal group comprises many highly divergent lineages (“Clades A-I”) and hundreds of undescribed species. Given their ecological importance, efforts have turned to genomic approaches to characterize the functional ecology of Symbiodinium. To date, investigators have only compared gene expression between representatives from separate clades—the equivalent of contrasting genera or families in other dinoflagellate groups—making it impossible to distinguish between clade-level and species-level functional differences. Here, we examined the transcriptomes of four species within one Symbiodinium clade (Clade B) at ~20,000 orthologous genes, as well as multiple isoclonal cell lines within species (i.e. cultured strains). These species span two major adaptive radiations within Clade B, each encompassing both host-specialized and ecologically cryptic taxa. Species-specific expression differences were consistently enriched for photosynthesis-related genes, likely reflecting selection pressures driving niche diversification. Transcriptional variation among strains involved fatty acid metabolism and biosynthesis pathways. Such differences among individuals are potentially a major source of physiological variation, contributing to the functional diversity of coral holobionts composed of unique host-symbiont genotype pairings. Our findings expand the genomic resources available for this important symbiont group and emphasize the power of comparative transcriptomics as a method for studying speciation processes and inter-individual variation in non-model organisms.

  3. Differentially expressed genes linked to natural variation in long-term memory formation in Cotesia parasitic wasps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joke J. F. A. Van Vugt

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Even though learning and memory are universal traits in the Animal Kingdom, closely related species reveal substantial variation in learning rate and memory dynamics. To determine the genetic background of this natural variation, we studied two congeneric parasitic wasp species, Cotesia glomerata and C. rubecula, which lay their eggs in caterpillars of the large and small cabbage white butterfly. A successful egg laying event serves as an unconditioned stimulus in a classical conditioning paradigm, where plant odors become associated to the encounter of a suitable host caterpillar. Depending on the host species, the number of conditioning trials and the parasitic wasp species, three different types of transcription-dependent long-term memory (LTM and one type of transcription-independent, anesthesia-resistant memory (ARM can be distinguished. To identify transcripts underlying these differences in memory formation, we isolated mRNA from parasitic wasp heads at three different time points between induction and consolidation of each of the four memory types, and for each sample three biological replicates, where after strand-specific paired-end 100 bp deep sequencing. Transcriptomes were assembled de novo and differential expression was determined for each memory type and time point after conditioning, compared to unconditioned wasps. Most differentially expressed (DE genes and antisense transcripts were only DE in one of the LTM types. Among the DE genes that were DE in two or more LTM types, were many protein kinases and phosphatases, small GTPases, receptors and ion channels. Some genes were DE in opposing directions between any of the LTM memory types and ARM, suggesting that ARM in Cotesia requires the transcription of genes inhibiting LTM or vice versa. We discuss our findings in the context of neuronal functioning, including RNA splicing and transport, epigenetic regulation, neurotransmitter/peptide synthesis and antisense transcription. In

  4. Inherited variation in circadian rhythm genes and risks of prostate cancer and three other cancer sites in combined cancer consortia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Fangyi; Zhang, Han; Hyland, Paula L; Berndt, Sonja; Gapstur, Susan M; Wheeler, William; Ellipse Consortium, The; Amos, Christopher I; Bezieau, Stephane; Bickeböller, Heike; Brenner, Hermann; Brennan, Paul; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Conti, David V; Doherty, Jennifer Anne; Gruber, Stephen B; Harrison, Tabitha A; Hayes, Richard B; Hoffmeister, Michael; Houlston, Richard S; Hung, Rayjean J; Jenkins, Mark A; Kraft, Peter; Lawrenson, Kate; McKay, James; Markt, Sarah; Mucci, Lorelei; Phelan, Catherine M; Qu, Conghui; Risch, Angela; Rossing, Mary Anne; Wichmann, H-Erich; Shi, Jianxin; Schernhammer, Eva; Yu, Kai; Landi, Maria Teresa; Caporaso, Neil E

    2017-11-01

    Circadian disruption has been linked to carcinogenesis in animal models, but the evidence in humans is inconclusive. Genetic variation in circadian rhythm genes provides a tool to investigate such associations. We examined associations of genetic variation in nine core circadian rhythm genes and six melatonin pathway genes with risk of colorectal, lung, ovarian and prostate cancers using data from the Genetic Associations and Mechanisms in Oncology (GAME-ON) network. The major results for prostate cancer were replicated in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) cancer screening trial, and for colorectal cancer in the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium (GECCO). The total number of cancer cases and controls was 15,838/18,159 for colorectal, 14,818/14,227 for prostate, 12,537/17,285 for lung and 4,369/9,123 for ovary. For each cancer site, we conducted gene-based and pathway-based analyses by applying the summary-based Adaptive Rank Truncated Product method (sARTP) on the summary association statistics for each SNP within the candidate gene regions. Aggregate genetic variation in circadian rhythm and melatonin pathways were significantly associated with the risk of prostate cancer in data combining GAME-ON and PLCO, after Bonferroni correction (p pathway  circadian rhythm pathway in GAME-ON (p pathway  = 0.021); this association was not confirmed in GECCO (p pathway  = 0.76) or the combined data (p pathway  = 0.17). No significant association was observed for ovarian and lung cancer. These findings support a potential role for circadian rhythm and melatonin pathways in prostate carcinogenesis. Further functional studies are needed to better understand the underlying biologic mechanisms. © 2017 UICC.

  5. Social context-induced song variation affects female behavior and gene expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah C Woolley

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Social cues modulate the performance of communicative behaviors in a range of species, including humans, and such changes can make the communication signal more salient. In songbirds, males use song to attract females, and song organization can differ depending on the audience to which a male sings. For example, male zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata change their songs in subtle ways when singing to a female (directed song compared with when they sing in isolation (undirected song, and some of these changes depend on altered neural activity from a specialized forebrain-basal ganglia circuit, the anterior forebrain pathway (AFP. In particular, variable activity in the AFP during undirected song is thought to actively enable syllable variability, whereas the lower and less-variable AFP firing during directed singing is associated with more stereotyped song. Consequently, directed song has been suggested to reflect a "performance" state, and undirected song a form of vocal motor "exploration." However, this hypothesis predicts that directed-undirected song differences, despite their subtlety, should matter to female zebra finches, which is a question that has not been investigated. We tested female preferences for this natural variation in song in a behavioral approach assay, and we found that both mated and socially naive females could discriminate between directed and undirected song-and strongly preferred directed song. These preferences, which appeared to reflect attention especially to aspects of song variability controlled by the AFP, were enhanced by experience, as they were strongest for mated females responding to their mate's directed songs. We then measured neural activity using expression of the immediate early gene product ZENK, and found that social context and song familiarity differentially modulated the number of ZENK-expressing cells in telencephalic auditory areas. Specifically, the number of ZENK-expressing cells in the

  6. Genetic variations in the MCT1 (SLC16A1) gene in the Chinese population of Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lean, Choo Bee; Lee, Edmund Jon Deoon

    2009-01-01

    MCT1(SLC16A1) is the first member of the monocarboxylate transporter (MCT) and its family is involved in the transportation of metabolically important monocarboxylates such as lactate, pyruvate, acetate and ketone bodies. This study identifies genetic variations in SLC16A1 in the ethnic Chinese group of the Singaporean population (n=95). The promoter, coding region and exon-intron junctions of the SLC16A1 gene encoding the MCT1 transporter were screened for genetic variation in the study population by DNA sequencing. Seven genetic variations of SLC16A1, including 4 novel ones, were found: 2 in the promoter region, 2 in the coding exons (both nonsynonymous variations), 2 in the 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) and 1 in the intron. Of the two mutations detected in the promoter region, the -363-855T>C is a novel mutation. The 1282G>A (Val(428)Ile) is a novel SNP and was found as heterozygotic in 4 subjects. The 1470T>A (Asp(490)Glu) was found to be a common polymorphism in this study. Lastly, IVS3-17A>C in intron 3 and 2258 (755)A>G in 3'UTR are novel mutations found to be common polymorphisms in the local Chinese population. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a comprehensive analysis on the MCT1 gene in any population.

  7. Common Gene Variants Account for Most Genetic Risk for Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gene variants account for most genetic risk for autism Roles of heritability, mutations, environment estimated – NIH-funded study. The bulk of risk, or liability, for autism spectrum disorders (ASD) was traced to inherited variations ...

  8. Gene expression variations during Drosophila metamorphosis in space: The GENE experiment in the Spanish cervantes missions to the ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herranz, Raul; Benguria, Alberto; Medina, Javier; Gasset, Gilbert; van Loon, Jack J.; Zaballos, Angel; Marco, Roberto

    2005-08-01

    The ISS expedition 8, a Soyuz Mission, flew to the International Space Station (ISS) to replace the two- member ISS crew during October 2003. During this crew exchanging flight, the Spanish Cervantes Scientific Mission took place. In it some biological experiments were performed among them three proposed by our Team. The third member of the expedition, the Spanish born ESA astronaut Pedro Duque, returned within the Soyuz 7 capsule carrying the experiment containing transport box after almost 11 days in microgravity. In one of the three experiments, the GENE experiment, we intended to determine how microgravity affects the gene expression pattern of Drosophila with one of the current more powerful technologies , a complete Drosophila melanogaster genome microarray (AffymetrixTM, version 1.0). Due to the constrains in the current ISS experiments, we decided to limit our experiment to the organism rebuilding processes that occurs during Drosophila metamorphosis. In addition to the ISS samples, several control experiments have been performed including a 1g Ground control parallel to the ISS flight samples, a Random Position Machine microgravity simulated control and a parallel Hypergravity (10g) experiment. Extracted RNA from the samples was used to test the differences in gene expression during Drosophila development. A preliminary analysis of the results indicates that around five hundred genes change their expression profiles, many of them belonging to particular ontology classification groups.

  9. Multi-allelic major effect genes interact with minor effect QTLs to control adaptive color pattern variation in Heliconius erato.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Papa

    Full Text Available Recent studies indicate that relatively few genomic regions are repeatedly involved in the evolution of Heliconius butterfly wing patterns. Although this work demonstrates a number of cases where homologous loci underlie both convergent and divergent wing pattern change among different Heliconius species, it is still unclear exactly how many loci underlie pattern variation across the genus. To address this question for Heliconius erato, we created fifteen independent crosses utilizing the four most distinct color pattern races and analyzed color pattern segregation across a total of 1271 F2 and backcross offspring. Additionally, we used the most variable brood, an F2 cross between H. himera and the east Ecuadorian H. erato notabilis, to perform a quantitative genetic analysis of color pattern variation and produce a detailed map of the loci likely involved in the H. erato color pattern radiation. Using AFLP and gene based markers, we show that fewer major genes than previously envisioned control the color pattern variation in H. erato. We describe for the first time the genetic architecture of H. erato wing color pattern by assessing quantitative variation in addition to traditional linkage mapping. In particular, our data suggest three genomic intervals modulate the bulk of the observed variation in color. Furthermore, we also identify several modifier loci of moderate effect size that contribute to the quantitative wing pattern variation. Our results are consistent with the two-step model for the evolution of mimetic wing patterns in Heliconius and support a growing body of empirical data demonstrating the importance of major effect loci in adaptive change.

  10. Associations of GBP2 gene copy number variations with growth traits and transcriptional expression in Chinese cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gui-Min; Zheng, Li; He, Hua; Song, Cheng-Chuang; Zhang, Zi-Jing; Cao, Xiu-Kai; Lei, Chu-Zhao; Lan, Xian-Yong; Qi, Xing-Lei; Chen, Hong; Huang, Yong-Zhen

    2018-03-20

    Copy number variations (CNVs) recently have been recognized as another important genetic variability followed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). The guanylate binding protein 2 (GBP2) gene plays an important role in cell proliferation. This study was performed to determine the presence of GBP2 CNV (relative to Angus cattle) in 466 individuals representing six main cattle breeds from China, identify its relationship with growth, and explore the biological effects of gene expression. There were two CNV regions in the GBP2 gene, for three types, CNV1 loss type (relative to Angus cattle) was more frequent in XN than other breeds, and CNV2 loss type (relative to Angus cattle) was more frequent in XN and CDM than other breeds. Though the GBP2 gene copy number presented no correlation with the transcriptional expression of JX (P > .05), but the transcriptional expression in heart is higher than other tissues, and the copy number in muscles and fat of JX is higher than others breeds. Statistical analysis revealed that the GBP2 gene CNV1 and CNV2 were significantly associated with growth traits (P cattle breeds, and our results suggested that the CNVs in GBP2 gene may be considered markers for the molecular breeding of Chinese beef cattle. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. AIRE variations in Addison's disease and autoimmune polyendocrine syndromes (APS): partial gene deletions contribute to APS I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bøe Wolff, A S; Oftedal, B; Johansson, S; Bruland, O; Løvås, K; Meager, A; Pedersen, C; Husebye, E S; Knappskog, P M

    2008-03-01

    Autoimmune Addison's disease (AAD) is often associated with other components in autoimmune polyendocrine syndromes (APS). Whereas APS I is caused by mutations in the AIRE gene, the susceptibility genes for AAD and APS II are unclear. In the present study, we investigated whether polymorphisms or copy number variations in the AIRE gene were associated with AAD and APS II. First, nine SNPs in the AIRE gene were analyzed in 311 patients with AAD and APS II and 521 healthy controls, identifying no associated risk. Second, in a subgroup of 25 of these patients, AIRE sequencing revealed three novel polymorphisms. Finally, the AIRE copy number was determined by duplex quantitative PCR in 14 patients with APS I, 161 patients with AAD and APS II and in 39 healthy subjects. In two Scandinavian APS I patients previously reported to be homozygous for common AIRE mutations, we identified large deletions of the AIRE gene covering at least exon 2 to exon 8. We conclude that polymorphisms in the AIRE gene are not associated with AAD and APS II. We further suggest that DNA analysis of the parents of patients found to be homozygous for mutations in AIRE, always should be performed.

  12. No Association between Variation in Longevity Candidate Genes and Aging-related Phenotypes in Oldest-old Danes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette; Nygaard, Marianne; Debrabant, Birgit

    2016-01-01

    additional genes repeatedly considered as candidates for human longevity: APOE, APOA4, APOC3, ACE, CETP, HFE, IL6, IL6R, MTHFR, TGFB1, SIRTs 1, 3, 6; and HSPAs 1A, 1L, 14. Altogether, 1,049 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped in 1,088 oldest-old (age 92-93 years) Danes and analysed......In this study we explored the association between aging-related phenotypes previously reported to predict survival in old age and variation in 77 genes from the DNA repair pathway, 32 genes from the growth hormone 1/ insulin-like growth factor 1/insulin (GH/IGF-1/INS) signalling pathway and 16...... in the relevant phenotype over time (7 years of follow-up) and none of the SNPs could be confirmed in a replication sample of 1,281 oldest-old Danes (age 94-100). Hence, our study does not support association between common variation in the investigated longevity candidate genes and aging-related phenotypes...

  13. No Association between Variation in Longevity Candidate Genes and Aging-related Phenotypes in Oldest-old Danes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soerensen, Mette; Nygaard, Marianne; Debrabant, Birgit; Mengel-From, Jonas; Dato, Serena; Thinggaard, Mikael; Christensen, Kaare; Christiansen, Lene

    2016-06-01

    In this study we explored the association between aging-related phenotypes previously reported to predict survival in old age and variation in 77 genes from the DNA repair pathway, 32 genes from the growth hormone 1/ insulin-like growth factor 1/insulin (GH/IGF-1/INS) signalling pathway and 16 additional genes repeatedly considered as candidates for human longevity: APOE, APOA4, APOC3, ACE, CETP, HFE, IL6, IL6R, MTHFR, TGFB1, SIRTs 1, 3, 6; and HSPAs 1A, 1L, 14. Altogether, 1,049 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped in 1,088 oldest-old (age 92-93 years) Danes and analysed with phenotype data on physical functioning (hand grip strength), cognitive functioning (mini mental state examination and a cognitive composite score), activity of daily living and self-rated health. Five SNPs showed association to one of the phenotypes; however, none of these SNPs were associated with a change in the relevant phenotype over time (7 years of follow-up) and none of the SNPs could be confirmed in a replication sample of 1,281 oldest-old Danes (age 94-100). Hence, our study does not support association between common variation in the investigated longevity candidate genes and aging-related phenotypes consistently shown to predict survival. It is possible that larger sample sizes are needed to robustly reveal associations with small effect sizes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Fine Physical Bin Mapping of the Powdery Mildew Resistance Gene Pm21 Based on Chromosomal Structural Variations in Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanying Zhu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Pm21, derived from wheat wild relative Dasypyrum villosum, is one of the most effective powdery mildew resistance genes and has been widely applied in wheat breeding in China. Mapping and cloning Pm21 are of importance for understanding its resistance mechanism. In the present study, physical mapping was performed using different genetic stocks involving in structural variations of chromosome 6VS carrying Pm21. The data showed that 6VS could be divided into eight distinguishable chromosomal bins, and Pm21 was mapped to the bin FLb4–b5/b6 closely flanked by the markers 6VS-08.6 and 6VS-10.2. Comparative genomic mapping indicated that the orthologous regions of FLb4–b5/b6 carrying Pm21 were narrowed to a 117.7 kb genomic region harboring 19 genes in Brachypodium and a 37.7 kb region harboring 5 genes in rice, respectively. The result was consistent with that given by recent genetic mapping in diploid D. villosum. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that physical mapping based on chromosomal structural variations is an efficient method for locating alien genes in wheat background.

  15. Variation of antibiotic resistance genes in municipal wastewater treatment plant with A(2)O-MBR system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jing; Geng, Jinju; Ren, Hongqiang; Ding, Lili; Xu, Ke; Zhang, Yan

    2015-03-01

    The variation of five antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs)-tetG, tetW, tetX, sul1, and intI1-in a full-scale municipal wastewater treatment plant with A(2)O-MBR system was studied. The concentrations of five resistance genes both in influent and in membrane bioreactor (MBR) effluent decreased as sul1 > intI1 > tetX > tetG > tetW, and an abundance of sul1 was statistically higher than three other tetracycline resistance genes (tetG, tetW, and tetX) (p MBR effluent. The reduction of tetW, intI1, and sul1 was all significantly positively correlated with the reduction of 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) in the wastewater treatment process (p MBR was observed for all ARGs.

  16. Balancing Selection at the Tomato RCR3 Guardee Gene Family Maintains Variation in Strength of Pathogen Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hörger, Anja C.; Ilyas, Muhammad; Stephan, Wolfgang; Tellier, Aurélien; van der Hoorn, Renier A. L.; Rose, Laura E.

    2012-01-01

    Coevolution between hosts and pathogens is thought to occur between interacting molecules of both species. This results in the maintenance of genetic diversity at pathogen antigens (or so-called effectors) and host resistance genes such as the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) in mammals or resistance (R) genes in plants. In plant–pathogen interactions, the current paradigm posits that a specific defense response is activated upon recognition of pathogen effectors via interaction with their corresponding R proteins. According to the “Guard-Hypothesis,” R proteins (the “guards”) can sense modification of target molecules in the host (the “guardees”) by pathogen effectors and subsequently trigger the defense response. Multiple studies have reported high genetic diversity at R genes maintained by balancing selection. In contrast, little is known about the evolutionary mechanisms shaping the guardee, which may be subject to contrasting evolutionary forces. Here we show that the evolution of the guardee RCR3 is characterized by gene duplication, frequent gene conversion, and balancing selection in the wild tomato species Solanum peruvianum. Investigating the functional characteristics of 54 natural variants through in vitro and in planta assays, we detected differences in recognition of the pathogen effector through interaction with the guardee, as well as substantial variation in the strength of the defense response. This variation is maintained by balancing selection at each copy of the RCR3 gene. Our analyses pinpoint three amino acid polymorphisms with key functional consequences for the coevolution between the guardee (RCR3) and its guard (Cf-2). We conclude that, in addition to coevolution at the “guardee-effector” interface for pathogen recognition, natural selection acts on the “guard-guardee” interface. Guardee evolution may be governed by a counterbalance between improved activation in the presence and prevention of auto

  17. Balancing selection at the tomato RCR3 Guardee gene family maintains variation in strength of pathogen defense.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja C Hörger

    Full Text Available Coevolution between hosts and pathogens is thought to occur between interacting molecules of both species. This results in the maintenance of genetic diversity at pathogen antigens (or so-called effectors and host resistance genes such as the major histocompatibility complex (MHC in mammals or resistance (R genes in plants. In plant-pathogen interactions, the current paradigm posits that a specific defense response is activated upon recognition of pathogen effectors via interaction with their corresponding R proteins. According to the "Guard-Hypothesis," R proteins (the "guards" can sense modification of target molecules in the host (the "guardees" by pathogen effectors and subsequently trigger the defense response. Multiple studies have reported high genetic diversity at R genes maintained by balancing selection. In contrast, little is known about the evolutionary mechanisms shaping the guardee, which may be subject to contrasting evolutionary forces. Here we show that the evolution of the guardee RCR3 is characterized by gene duplication, frequent gene conversion, and balancing selection in the wild tomato species Solanum peruvianum. Investigating the functional characteristics of 54 natural variants through in vitro and in planta assays, we detected differences in recognition of the pathogen effector through interaction with the guardee, as well as substantial variation in the strength of the defense response. This variation is maintained by balancing selection at each copy of the RCR3 gene. Our analyses pinpoint three amino acid polymorphisms with key functional consequences for the coevolution between the guardee (RCR3 and its guard (Cf-2. We conclude that, in addition to coevolution at the "guardee-effector" interface for pathogen recognition, natural selection acts on the "guard-guardee" interface. Guardee evolution may be governed by a counterbalance between improved activation in the presence and prevention of auto-immune responses in

  18. Cancer spectrum in DNA mismatch repair gene mutation carriers: results from a hospital based Lynch syndrome registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pande, Mala; Wei, Chongjuan; Chen, Jinyun; Amos, Christopher I; Lynch, Patrick M; Lu, Karen H; Lucio, Laura A; Boyd-Rogers, Stephanie G; Bannon, Sarah A; Mork, Maureen E; Frazier, Marsha L

    2012-09-01

    The spectrum of cancers seen in a hospital based Lynch syndrome registry of mismatch repair gene mutation carriers was examined to determine the distribution of cancers and examine excess cancer risk. Overall there were 504 cancers recorded in 368 mutation carriers from 176 families. These included 236 (46.8 %) colorectal and 268 (53.2 %) extracolonic cancers. MLH1 mutation carriers had a higher frequency of colorectal cancers whereas MSH2, MSH6 and PMS2 mutation carriers had more extracolonic cancers although these differences were not statistically significant. Men had fewer extracolonic cancers than colorectal (45.3 vs. 54.7 %), whereas women had more extracolonic than colorectal cancers (59.0 vs. 41.0 %). The mean age at diagnosis overall for extracolonic cancers was older than for colorectal, 49.1 versus 44.8 years (P ≤ 0.001). As expected, the index cancer was colorectal in 58.1 % of patients and among the extracolonic index cancers, endometrial was the most common (13.8 %). A significant number of non-Lynch syndrome index cancers were recorded including breast (n = 5) prostate (n = 3), thyroid (n = 3), cervix (n = 3), melanoma (n = 3), and 1 case each of thymoma, sinus cavity, and adenocarcinoma of the lung. However, standardized incidence ratios calculated to assess excess cancer risk showed that only those cancers known to be associated with Lynch syndrome were significant in our sample. We found that Lynch syndrome patients can often present with cancers that are not considered part of Lynch syndrome. This has clinical relevance both for diagnosis of Lynch syndrome and surveillance for cancers of different sites during follow-up of these patients.

  19. A comprehensive candidate gene approach identifies genetic variation associated with osteosarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirabello, Lisa; Grotmol, Tom; Douglass, Chester; Hayes, Richard B; Hoover, Robert N; Savage, Sharon A; Yu, Kai; Berndt, Sonja I; Burdett, Laurie; Wang, Zhaoming; Chowdhury, Salma; Teshome, Kedest; Uzoka, Arinze; Hutchinson, Amy

    2011-01-01

    Osteosarcoma (OS) is a bone malignancy which occurs primarily in adolescents. Since it occurs during a period of rapid growth, genes important in bone formation and growth are plausible modifiers of risk. Genes involved in DNA repair and ribosomal function may contribute to OS pathogenesis, because they maintain the integrity of critical cellular processes. We evaluated these hypotheses in an OS association study of genes from growth/hormone, bone formation, DNA repair, and ribosomal pathways. We evaluated 4836 tag-SNPs across 255 candidate genes in 96 OS cases and 1426 controls. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Twelve SNPs in growth or DNA repair genes were significantly associated with OS after Bonferroni correction. Four SNPs in the DNA repair gene FANCM (ORs 1.9-2.0, P = 0.003-0.004) and 2 SNPs downstream of the growth hormone gene GH1 (OR 1.6, P = 0.002; OR 0.5, P = 0.0009) were significantly associated with OS. One SNP in the region of each of the following genes was significant: MDM2, MPG, FGF2, FGFR3, GNRH2, and IGF1. Our results suggest that several SNPs in biologically plausible pathways are associated with OS. Larger studies are required to confirm our findings

  20. Variation of DNA methylation patterns associated with gene expression in rice (Oryza sativa) exposed to cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Sheng Jun; Liu, Xue Song; Tao, Hua; Tan, Shang Kun; Chu, Shan Shan; Oono, Youko; Zhang, Xian Duo; Chen, Jian; Yang, Zhi Min

    2016-12-01

    We report genome-wide single-base resolution maps of methylated cytosines and transcriptome change in Cd-exposed rice. Widespread differences were identified in CG and non-CG methylation marks between Cd-exposed and Cd-free rice genomes. There are 2320 non-redundant differentially methylated regions detected in the genome. RNA sequencing revealed 2092 DNA methylation-modified genes differentially expressed under Cd exposure. More genes were found hypermethylated than those hypomethylated in CG, CHH and CHG (where H is A, C or T) contexts in upstream, gene body and downstream regions. Many of the genes were involved in stress response, metal transport and transcription factors. Most of the DNA methylation-modified genes were transcriptionally altered under Cd stress. A subset of loss of function mutants defective in DNA methylation and histone modification activities was used to identify transcript abundance of selected genes. Compared with wide type, mutation of MET1 and DRM2 resulted in general lower transcript levels of the genes under Cd stress. Transcripts of OsIRO2, OsPR1b and Os09g02214 in drm2 were significantly reduced. A commonly used DNA methylation inhibitor 5-azacytidine was employed to investigate whether DNA demethylation affected physiological consequences. 5-azacytidine provision decreased general DNA methylation levels of selected genes, but promoted growth of rice seedlings and Cd accumulation in rice plant. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Variation in sequence and location of the fumonisin mycotoxin niosynthetic gene cluster in Fusarium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Proctor, R.H.; Hove, van F.; Susca, A.; Stea, A.; Busman, M.; Lee, van der T.A.J.; Waalwijk, C.; Moretti, A.

    2010-01-01

    In Fusarium, the ability to produce fumonisins is governed by a 17-gene fumonisin biosynthetic gene (FUM) cluster. Here, we examined the cluster in F. oxysporum strain O-1890 and nine other species selected to represent a wide range of the genetic diversity within the GFSC.

  2. Variation in the DNA methylation pattern of expressed and nonexpressed genes in chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, D N; Errington, L H; Clayton, R M

    1983-01-01

    Using methyl-sensitive and -insensitive restriction enzymes, Hpa II and Msp I, the methylation status of various chicken genes was examined in different tissues and developmental stages. Tissue-specific differences in methylation were found for the delta-crystallin, beta-tubulin, G3PDH, rDNA, and actin genes but not for the histone genes. Developmental decreases in methylation were noted for the delta-crystallin and actin genes in chicken kidney between embryo and adult. Since most of the sequences examined were housekeeping genes, transcriptional differences are apparently not a necessary accompaniment to changes in DNA methylation at the CpG sites examined. The only exception is sperm DNA where the delta-crystallin, beta-tubulin, and actin genes are highly methylated and almost certainly not transcribed. However the G3PDH genes are no more highly methylated in sperm than in other somatic tissues. Many sequences homologous to the rDNA and histone probes used are unmethylated in all tissues examined including sperm, but a methylated rDNA subfraction is more heavily methylated in sperm than in other tissues. We speculate as to the significance of these differences in sperm DNA methylation in the light of possible requirements for early gene activation and the probable deleterious mutagenic effects of heavy methylation within coding sequences.

  3. Occurrence of Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamases, Plasmid-Mediated Quinolone Resistance, and Disinfectant Resistance Genes in Escherichia coli Isolated from Ready-To-Eat Meat Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Lili; Ye, Lei; Kromann, Sofie

    2017-01-01

    There are growing concerns about the coselection of resistance against antibiotics and disinfectants in bacterial pathogens. The aim of this study was to characterize the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles, the prevalence of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs), plasmid-mediated quinolone...... resistance genes (PMQRs), and quaternary ammonium compound resistance genes (QACs) in Escherichia coli isolated from ready-to-eat (RTE) meat products obtained in Guangzhou, China, and to determine whether these genes were colocalized in the isolates. A total of 64 E. coli isolates were obtained from 720 RTE...... isolates from RTE meat products. The E. coli isolates with multiple antimicrobial resistance genes may transmit to humans through food chain and thus require further investigation and increased awareness....

  4. Association of the gene expression variation of tumor necrosis factor-α and expressions changes of dopamine receptor genes in progression of diabetic severe foot ulcers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajar Vaseghi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s:Regulation of pro-inflammatory factors such as TNF-, which are secreted by the immune cells through induction of their several receptors including dopamine receptors (especially DRD2 and DRD3 is one of the noticeable problems in diabetic severe foot ulcer healing. This study was conducted to evaluate the alteration of TNF- in plasma as well as DRD2 and DRD3 changes in PBMCs of diabetics with severe foot ulcers. Materials and Methods: Peripheral blood samples were collected from 31 subjects with ulcers, 29 without ulcers, and 25 healthy individuals. Total mRNA was extracted from PBMCs for the study of DRD2, DRD3, and TNF- gene expression variations. Expression patterns of these genes were evaluated by real-time PCR. Consequently, concentration of TNF- was investigated in plasma. Results: Significant decrease in gene expression and plasma concentration of TNF- in PBMCs was observed in both patient groups at P Conclusion: We concluded that DRD2 and DRD3 expression alteration and presence of new DRD3 transcripts can be effective in reduction of TNF-α expression as a pro-inflammatory factor. Performing complementary studies, may explain that variations in DRD2 and DRD3 are prognostic and effective markers attributed to the development of diabetes severe foot ulcers.

  5. Removal of unwanted variation reveals novel patterns of gene expression linked to sleep homeostasis in murine cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason R. Gerstner

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Why we sleep is still one of the most perplexing mysteries in biology. Strong evidence indicates that sleep is necessary for normal brain function and that sleep need is a tightly regulated process. Surprisingly, molecular mechanisms that determine sleep need are incompletely described. Moreover, very little is known about transcriptional changes that specifically accompany the accumulation and discharge of sleep need. Several studies have characterized differential gene expression changes following sleep deprivation. Much less is known, however, about changes in gene expression during the compensatory response to sleep deprivation (i.e. recovery sleep. Results In this study we present a comprehensive analysis of the effects of sleep deprivation and subsequent recovery sleep on gene expression in the mouse cortex. We used a non-traditional analytical method for normalization of genome-wide gene expression data, Removal of Unwanted Variation (RUV. RUV improves detection of differential gene expression following sleep deprivation. We also show that RUV normalization is crucial to the discovery of differentially expressed genes associated with recovery sleep. Our analysis indicates that the majority of transcripts upregulated by sleep deprivation require 6 h of recovery sleep to return to baseline levels, while the majority of downregulated transcripts return to baseline levels within 1–3 h. We also find that transcripts that change rapidly during recovery (i.e. within 3 h do so on average with a time constant that is similar to the time constant for the discharge of sleep need. Conclusions We demonstrate that proper data normalization is essential to identify changes in gene expression that are specifically linked to sleep deprivation and recovery sleep. Our results provide the first evidence that recovery sleep is comprised of two waves of transcriptional regulation that occur at different times and affect functionally

  6. Development of 25 near-isogenic lines (NILs) with ten BPH resistance genes in rice (Oryza sativa L.): production, resistance spectrum, and molecular analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jena, Kshirod K; Hechanova, Sherry Lou; Verdeprado, Holden; Prahalada, G D; Kim, Sung-Ryul

    2017-11-01

    A first set of 25 NILs carrying ten BPH resistance genes and their pyramids was developed in the background of indica variety IR24 for insect resistance breeding in rice. Brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens Stal.) is one of the most destructive insect pests in rice. Development of near-isogenic lines (NILs) is an important strategy for genetic analysis of brown planthopper (BPH) resistance (R) genes and their deployment against diverse BPH populations. A set of 25 NILs with 9 single R genes and 16 multiple R gene combinations consisting of 11 two-gene pyramids and 5 three-gene pyramids in the genetic background of the susceptible indica rice cultivar IR24 was developed through marker-assisted selection. The linked DNA markers for each of the R genes were used for foreground selection and confirming the introgressed regions of the BPH R genes. Modified seed box screening and feeding rate of BPH were used to evaluate the spectrum of resistance. BPH reaction of each of the NILs carrying different single genes was variable at the antibiosis level with the four BPH populations of the Philippines. The NILs with two- to three-pyramided genes showed a stronger level of antibiosis (49.3-99.0%) against BPH populations compared with NILs with a single R gene NILs (42.0-83.5%) and IR24 (10.0%). Background genotyping by high-density SNPs markers revealed that most of the chromosome regions of the NILs (BC 3 F 5 ) had IR24 genome recovery of 82.0-94.2%. Six major agronomic data of the NILs showed a phenotypically comparable agronomic performance with IR24. These newly developed NILs will be useful as new genetic resources for BPH resistance breeding and are valuable sources of genes in monitoring against the emerging BPH biotypes in different rice-growing countries.

  7. Variation in the Williams syndrome GTF2I gene and anxiety proneness interactively affect prefrontal cortical response to aversive stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbi, M; Chen, Q; Turner, N; Kohn, P; White, M; Kippenhan, J S; Dickinson, D; Kolachana, B; Mattay, V; Weinberger, D R; Berman, K F

    2015-08-18

    Characterizing the molecular mechanisms underlying the heritability of complex behavioral traits such as human anxiety remains a challenging endeavor for behavioral neuroscience. Copy-number variation (CNV) in the general transcription factor gene, GTF2I, located in the 7q11.23 chromosomal region that is hemideleted in Williams syndrome and duplicated in the 7q11.23 duplication syndrome (Dup7), is associated with gene-dose-dependent anxiety in mouse models and in both Williams syndrome and Dup7. Because of this recent preclinical and clinical identification of a genetic influence on anxiety, we examined whether sequence variation in GTF2I, specifically the single-nucleotide polymorphism rs2527367, interacts with trait and state anxiety to collectively impact neural response to anxiety-laden social stimuli. Two hundred and sixty healthy adults completed the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire Harm Avoidance (HA) subscale, a trait measure of anxiety proneness, and underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while matching aversive (fearful or angry) facial identity. We found an interaction between GTF2I allelic variations and HA that affects brain response: in individuals homozygous for the major allele, there was no correlation between HA and whole-brain response to aversive cues, whereas in heterozygotes and individuals homozygous for the minor allele, there was a positive correlation between HA sub-scores and a selective dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) responsivity during the processing of aversive stimuli. These results demonstrate that sequence variation in the GTF2I gene influences the relationship between trait anxiety and brain response to aversive social cues in healthy individuals, supporting a role for this neurogenetic mechanism in anxiety.

  8. Mutational screening of CHX10, GDF6, OTX2, RAX and SOX2 genes in 50 unrelated microphthalmia-anophthalmia-coloboma (MAC) spectrum cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Rodriguez, J; Pelcastre, E L; Tovilla-Canales, J L; Garcia-Ortiz, J E; Amato-Almanza, M; Villanueva-Mendoza, C; Espinosa-Mattar, Z; Zenteno, J C

    2010-08-01

    Microphthalmia-anophthalmia-coloboma (MAC) are congenital eye malformations causing a significant percentage of visually impairments in children. Although these anomalies can arise from prenatal exposure to teratogens, mutations in well-defined genes originate potentially heritable forms of MAC. Mutations in genes such as CHX10, GDF6, RAX, SOX2 and OTX2, among others, have been recognised in dominant or recessive MAC. SOX2 and OTX2 are the two most commonly mutated genes in monogenic MAC. However, as more numerous samples of MAC subjects would be analysed, a better estimation of the actual involvement of specific MAC-genes could be made. Here, a comprehensive mutational analysis of the CHX10, GDF6, RAX, SOX2 and OTX2 genes was performed in 50 MAC subjects. PCR amplification and direct automated DNA sequencing of all five genes in 50 unrelated subjects. Eight mutations (16% prevalence) were recognised, including four GDF6 mutations (one novel), two novel RAX mutations, one novel OTX2 mutation and one SOX2 mutation. Anophthalmia and nanophthalmia, not previously associated with GDF6 mutations, were observed in two subjects carrying defects in this gene, expanding the spectrum of GDF6-linked ocular anomalies. Our study underscores the importance of genotyping large groups of patients from distinct ethnic origins for improving the estimation of the global involvement of particular MAC-causing genes.

  9. Sequence Variation in Rhoptry Neck Protein 10 Gene among Toxoplasma gondii Isolates from Different Hosts and Geographical Locations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu ZHAO

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Toxoplasma gondii, as a eukaryotic parasite of the phylum Apicomplexa, can infect almost all the warm-blooded animals and humans, causing toxoplasmosis. Rhoptry neck proteins (RONs play a key role in the invasion process of T. gondii and are potential vaccine candidate molecules against toxoplasmosis.Methods: The present study examined sequence variation in the rhoptry neck protein 10 (TgRON10 gene among 10 T. gondii isolates from different hosts and geographical locations from Lanzhou province during 2014, and compared with the corresponding sequences of strains ME49 and VEG obtained from the ToxoDB database, using polymerase chain reaction (PCR amplification, sequence analysis, and phylogenetic reconstruction by Bayesian inference (BI and maximum parsimony (MP. Results: Analysis of all the 12 TgRON10 genomic and cDNA sequences revealed 7 exons and 6 introns in the TgRON10 gDNA. The complete genomic sequence of the TgRON10 gene ranged from 4759 bp to 4763 bp, and sequence variation was 0-0.6% among the 12 T. gondii isolates, indicating a low sequence variation in TgRON10 gene. Phylogenetic analysis of TgRON10 sequences showed that the cluster of the 12 T. gondii isolates was not completely consistent with their respective genotypes.Conclusion: TgRON10 gene is not a suitable genetic marker for the differentiation of T. gondii isolates from different hosts and geographical locations, but may represent a potential vaccine candidate against toxoplasmosis, worth further studies.

  10. No association between type 1 diabetes and genetic variation in vitamin D metabolism genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Steffen U; Mortensen, Henrik B; Carstensen, Bendix

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Vitamin D, certain single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the vitamin D-receptor (VDR) gene and vitamin D metabolism genes have been associated with type 1 diabetes (T1D). OBJECTIVE: We wanted to examine if the most widely studied SNPs in genes important for production, transport......, and action of vitamin D were associated with T1D or to circulating levels of vitamin D 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] in a juvenile Danish population. METHODS: We genotyped eight SNPs in five vitamin D metabolism genes in 1467 trios. 25(OH)D status were analyzed in 1803 children (907 patients and 896 siblings......). RESULTS: We did not demonstrate association with T1D for SNPs in the following genes: CYP27B1, VDR, GC, CYP2R1, DHCR7, and CYP24A1. Though, variants in the GC gene were significantly associated with 25(OH)D levels in the joint model. CONCLUSION: Some of the most examined SNPs in vitamin D metabolism genes...

  11. Genome-wide copy number variation study associates metabotropic glutamate receptor gene networks with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elia, Josephine; Glessner, Joseph T; Wang, Kai; Takahashi, Nagahide; Shtir, Corina J; Hadley, Dexter; Sleiman, Patrick M A; Zhang, Haitao; Kim, Cecilia E; Robison, Reid; Lyon, Gholson J; Flory, James H; Bradfield, Jonathan P; Imielinski, Marcin; Hou, Cuiping; Frackelton, Edward C; Chiavacci, Rosetta M; Sakurai, Takeshi; Rabin, Cara; Middleton, Frank A; Thomas, Kelly A; Garris, Maria; Mentch, Frank; Freitag, Christine M; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Todorov, Alexandre A; Reif, Andreas; Rothenberger, Aribert; Franke, Barbara; Mick, Eric O; Roeyers, Herbert; Buitelaar, Jan; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Banaschewski, Tobias; Ebstein, Richard P; Mulas, Fernando; Oades, Robert D; Sergeant, Joseph; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund; Renner, Tobias J; Romanos, Marcel; Romanos, Jasmin; Warnke, Andreas; Walitza, Susanne; Meyer, Jobst; Pálmason, Haukur; Seitz, Christiane; Loo, Sandra K; Smalley, Susan L; Biederman, Joseph; Kent, Lindsey; Asherson, Philip; Anney, Richard J L; Gaynor, J William; Shaw, Philip; Devoto, Marcella; White, Peter S; Grant, Struan F A; Buxbaum, Joseph D; Rapoport, Judith L; Williams, Nigel M; Nelson, Stanley F; Faraone, Stephen V; Hakonarson, Hakon

    2014-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common, heritable neuropsychiatric disorder of unknown etiology. We performed a whole-genome copy number variation (CNV) study on 1,013 cases with ADHD and 4,105 healthy children of European ancestry using 550,000 SNPs. We evaluated statistically significant findings in multiple independent cohorts, with a total of 2,493 cases with ADHD and 9,222 controls of European ancestry, using matched platforms. CNVs affecting metabotropic glutamate receptor genes were enriched across all cohorts (P = 2.1 × 10−9). We saw GRM5 (encoding glutamate receptor, metabotropic 5) deletions in ten cases and one control (P = 1.36 × 10−6). We saw GRM7 deletions in six cases, and we saw GRM8 deletions in eight cases and no controls. GRM1 was duplicated in eight cases. We experimentally validated the observed variants using quantitative RT-PCR. A gene network analysis showed that genes interacting with the genes in the GRM family are enriched for CNVs in ~10% of the cases (P = 4.38 × 10−10) after correction for occurrence in the controls. We identified rare recurrent CNVs affecting glutamatergic neurotransmission genes that were overrepresented in multiple ADHD cohorts. PMID:22138692

  12. Supplementary Material for: Recombination in pe/ppe genes contributes to genetic variation in Mycobacterium tuberculosis lineages

    KAUST Repository

    Phelan, Jody

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Approximately 10 % of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome is made up of two families of genes that are poorly characterized due to their high GC content and highly repetitive nature. The PE and PPE families are typified by their highly conserved N-terminal domains that incorporate proline-glutamate (PE) and proline-proline-glutamate (PPE) signature motifs. They are hypothesised to be important virulence factors involved with host-pathogen interactions, but their high genetic variability and complexity of analysis means they are typically disregarded in genome studies. Results To elucidate the structure of these genes, 518 genomes from a diverse international collection of clinical isolates were de novo assembled. A further 21 reference M. tuberculosis complex genomes and long read sequence data were used to validate the approach. SNP analysis revealed that variation in the majority of the 168 pe/ppe genes studied was consistent with lineage. Several recombination hotspots were identified, notably pe_pgrs3 and pe_pgrs17. Evidence of positive selection was revealed in 65 pe/ppe genes, including epitopes potentially binding to major histocompatibility complex molecules. Conclusions This, the first comprehensive study of the pe and ppe genes, provides important insight into M. tuberculosis diversity and has significant implications for vaccine development.

  13. Transcription through the eye of a needle: daily and annual cyclic gene expression variation in Douglas-fir needles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronn, Richard; Dolan, Peter C; Jogdeo, Sanjuro; Wegrzyn, Jill L; Neale, David B; St Clair, J Bradley; Denver, Dee R

    2017-07-24

    Perennial growth in plants is the product of interdependent cycles of daily and annual stimuli that induce cycles of growth and dormancy. In conifers, needles are the key perennial organ that integrates daily and seasonal signals from light, temperature, and water availability. To understand the relationship between seasonal cycles and seasonal gene expression responses in conifers, we examined diurnal and circannual needle mRNA accumulation in Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) needles at diurnal and circannual scales. Using mRNA sequencing, we sampled 6.1 × 10 9 reads from 19 trees and constructed a de novo pan-transcriptome reference that includes 173,882 tree-derived transcripts. Using this reference, we mapped RNA-Seq reads from 179 samples that capture daily and annual variation. We identified 12,042 diurnally-cyclic transcripts, 9299 of which showed homology to annotated genes from other plant genomes, including angiosperm core clock genes. Annual analysis revealed 21,225 circannual transcripts, 17,335 of which showed homology to annotated genes from other plant genomes. The timing of maximum gene expression is associated with light intensity at diurnal scales and photoperiod at annual scales, with approximately half of transcripts reaching maximum expression +/- 2 h from sunrise and sunset, and +/- 20 days from winter and summer solstices. Comparisons with published studies from other conifers shows congruent behavior in clock genes with Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria), and a significant preservation of gene expression patterns for 2278 putative orthologs from Douglas-fir during the summer growing season, and 760 putative orthologs from spruce (Picea) during the transition from fall to winter. Our study highlight the extensive diurnal and circannual transcriptome variability demonstrated in conifer needles. At these temporal scales, 29% of expressed transcripts show a significant diurnal cycle, and 58.7% show a significant circannual cycle. Remarkably

  14. Balancing selection and recombination as evolutionary forces caused population genetic variations in golden pheasant MHC class I genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Qian-Qian; He, Ke; Sun, Dan-Dan; Ma, Mei-Ying; Ge, Yun-Fa; Fang, Sheng-Guo; Wan, Qiu-Hong

    2016-02-18

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes are vital partners in the acquired immune processes of vertebrates. MHC diversity may be directly associated with population resistance to infectious pathogens. Here, we screened for polymorphisms in exons 2 and 3 of the IA1 and IA2 genes in 12 golden pheasant populations across the Chinese mainland to characterize their genetic variation levels, to understand the effects of historical positive selection and recombination in shaping class I diversity, and to investigate the genetic structure of wild golden pheasant populations. Among 339 individual pheasants, we identified 14 IA1 alleles in exon 2 (IA1-E2), 11 IA1-E3 alleles, 27 IA2-E2 alleles, and 28 IA2-E3 alleles. The non-synonymous substitution rate was significantly greater than the synonymous substitution rate at sequences in the IA2 gene encoding putative peptide-binding sites but not in the IA1 gene; we also found more positively selected sites in IA2 than in IA1. Frequent recombination events resulted in at least 9 recombinant IA2 alleles, in accordance with the intermingling pattern of the phylogenetic tree. Although some IA alleles are widely shared among studied populations, large variation occurs in the number of IA alleles across these populations. Allele frequency analysis across 2 IA loci showed low levels of genetic differentiation among populations on small geographic scales; however, significant genetic differentiation was observed between pheasants from the northern and southern regions of the Yangtze River. Both STRUCTURE analysis and F-statistic (F ST ) value comparison classified those populations into 2 major groups: the northern region of the Yangtze River (NYR) and the southern region of the Yangtze River (SYR). More extensive polymorphisms in IA2 than IA1 indicate that IA2 has undergone much stronger positive-selection pressure during evolution. Moreover, the recombination events detected between the genes and the intermingled phylogenetic

  15. Spatial and temporal variation in selection of genes associated with pearl millet varietal quantitative traits in situ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cedric Mariac

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Ongoing global climate changes imply new challenges for agriculture. Whether plants and crops can adapt to such rapid changes is still a widely debated question. We previously showed adaptation in the form of earlier flowering in pearl millet at the scale of a whole country over three decades. However, this analysis did not deal with variability of year to year selection. To understand and possibly manage plant and crop adaptation, we need more knowledge of how selection acts in situ. Is selection gradual, abrupt, and does it vary in space and over time? In the present study, we tracked the evolution of allele frequency in two genes associated with pearl millet phenotypic variation in situ. We sampled 17 populations of cultivated pearl millet over a period of two years. We tracked changes in allele frequencies in these populations by genotyping more than seven thousand individuals. We demonstrate that several allele frequencies changes are compatible with selection, by correcting allele frequency changes associated with genetic drift. We found marked variation in allele frequencies from year to year, suggesting a variable selection effect in space and over time. We estimated the strength of selection associated with variations in allele frequency. Our results suggest that the polymorphism maintained at the genes we studied is partially explained by the spatial and temporal variability of selection. In response to environmental changes, traditional pearl millet varieties could rapidly adapt thanks to this available functional variability.

  16. The effect of genetic variation of the serotonin 1B receptor gene on impulsive aggressive behavior and suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zouk, Hana; McGirr, Alexander; Lebel, Véronique; Benkelfat, Chawky; Rouleau, Guy; Turecki, Gustavo

    2007-12-05

    Impulsive-aggressive behaviors (IABs) are regarded as possible suicide intermediate phenotypes, mediating the relationship between genes and suicide outcome. In this study, we aimed to investigate the putative relationship between genetic variation at the 5-HT1B receptor gene, which in animal models is involved in impulse-aggression control, IABs, and suicide risk. We investigated the relationship of variation at five 5-HT1B loci and IAB measures in a sample of 696 subjects, including 338 individuals who died by suicide and 358 normal epidemiological controls. We found that variation at the 5-HT1B promoter A-161T locus had a significant effect on levels of IABs, as measured by the Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory (BDHI). Suicides also differed from controls in distribution of variants at this locus. The A-161T locus, which seems to impact 5-HT1B transcription, could play a role in suicide predisposition by means of mediating impulsive-aggressive behaviors. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Wild rodents as a model to discover genes and pathways underlying natural variation in infectious disease susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, A K; Paterson, S

    2013-11-01

    Individuals vary in their susceptibility to infectious disease, and it is now well established that host genetic factors form a major component of this variation. The discovery of genes underlying susceptibility has the potential to lead to improved disease control, through the identification and management of vulnerable individuals and the discovery of novel therapeutic targets. Laboratory rodents have proved invaluable for ascertaining the function of genes involved in immunity to infection. However, these captive animals experience conditions very different to the natural environment, lacking the genetic diversity and environmental pressures characteristic of natural populations, including those of humans. It has therefore often proved difficult to translate basic laboratory research to the real world. In order to further our understanding of the genetic basis of infectious disease resistance, and the evolutionary forces that drive variation in susceptibility, we propose that genetic research traditionally conducted on laboratory animals is expanded to the more ecologically valid arena of natural populations. In this article, we highlight the potential of using wild rodents as a new resource for biomedical research, to link the functional genetic knowledge gained from laboratory rodents with the variation in infectious disease susceptibility observed in humans and other natural populations. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Variation of gene effects of six agronomic traits with water regimes in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    yahia

    2013-04-10

    Apr 10, 2013 ... generations mean analyses revealed that gene effects were ... fluctuation of precipitations and absence of tolerant ... excellent grain protein content (P2). ... and arc-sine of square root had no effect on data distribution or in.

  19. Lack of variation of ATTCT pentanucleotide repeats at ATXN10 gene ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ized incoordination of gait, speech and limb movements. (Tang et ... ataxia (SCA); ATXN10 gene; nucleotide repeat; mutation detection; capillary electrophoresis; human genetics. ... Southern blot analysis using EcoRI was performed to distin-.

  20. Diversity from genes to ecosystems: A unifying framework to study variation across biological metrics and scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biological diversity is a key concept in the life sciences and plays a fundamental role in many ecological and evolutionary processes. Although biodiversity is inherently a hierarchical concept covering different levels of organization (genes, population, species, ecological communities and ecosyst...

  1. Genetic variation of Pit-1 gene in Chinese indigenous and Western ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-07-20

    Jul 20, 2009 ... regulates pituitary development and expression of the growth hormone, prolactin and thyrotropin β- submit genes. Pit-1 ... mice (Camper et al., 1990), as well as including the .... logy Company, Shanghai, China). Statistical ...

  2. Genetic Variation in the Matrix Metalloproteinase Genes and Diabetic Nephropathy in Type 1 Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Kure, Masahiko; Pezzolesi, Marcus G.; Poznik, G. David; Katavetin, Pisut; Skupien, Jan; Dunn, Jonathon S.; Mychaleckyj, Josyf C.; Warram, James H.; Krolewski, Andrzej S.

    2011-01-01

    Genetic data support the notion that polymorphisms in members of the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family of genes play an important role in extracellular matrix remodeling and contribute to the pathogenesis of vascular disease. To identify novel genetic markers for diabetic nephropathy (DN), we examined the relationship between MMP gene polymorphisms and DN in the Genetics of Kidneys in Diabetes (GoKinD) population. Genotypic data from the Genetic Association Information Network (GAIN) type...

  3. Genetic variation in a DNA double strand break repair gene in saudi population: a comparative study with worldwide ethnic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Areeshi, Mohammed Yahya

    2013-01-01

    DNA repair capacity is crucial in maintaining cellular functions and homeostasis. However, it can be altered based on DNA sequence variations in DNA repair genes and this may lead to the development of many diseases including malignancies. Identification of genetic polymorphisms responsible for reduced DNA repair capacity is necessary for better prevention. Homologous recombination (HR), a major double strand break repair pathway, plays a critical role in maintaining the genome stability. The present study was performed to determine the frequency of the HR gene XRCC3 Exon 7 (C18067T, rs861539) polymorphisms in Saudi Arabian population in comparison with epidemiological studies by "MEDLINE" search to equate with global populations. The variant allelic (T) frequency of XRCC3 (C>T) was found to be 39%. Our results suggest that frequency of XRCC3 (C>T) DNA repair gene exhibits distinctive patterns compared with the Saudi Arabian population and this might be attributed to ethnic variation. The present findings may help in high-risk screening of humans exposed to environmental carcinogens and cancer predisposition in different ethnic groups.

  4. SLC26A4 gene copy number variations in Chinese patients with non-syndromic enlarged vestibular aqueduct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Jiandong

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many patients with enlarged vestibular aqueduct (EVA have either only one allelic mutant of the SLC26A4 gene or lack any detectable mutation. In this study, multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA was used to screen for copy number variations (CNVs of SLC26A4 and to reveal the pathogenic mechanisms of non-syndromic EVA (NSEVA. Methods Between January 2003 and March 2010, 923 Chinese patients (481 males, 442 females with NSEVA were recruited. Among these, 68 patients (7.4% were found to carry only one mutant allele of SLC26A4 and 39 patients (4.2% lacked any detectable mutation in SLC26A4; these 107 patients without double mutant alleles were assigned to the patient group. Possible copy number variations in SLC26A4 were detected by SALSA MLPA. Results Using GeneMapper, no significant difference was observed between the groups, as compared with the standard probe provided in the assay. The results of the capillary electrophoresis showed no significant difference between the patients and controls. Conclusion Our results suggest that CNVs and the exon deletion in SLC26A4 are not important factors in NSEVA. However, it would be premature to conclude that CNVs have no role in EVA. Genome-wide studies to explore CNVs within non-coding regions of the SLC26A4 gene and neighboring regions are warranted, to elucidate their roles in NSEVA etiology.

  5. Unraveling the effects of selection and demography on immune gene variation in free-ranging plains zebra (Equus quagga) populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamath, Pauline L; Getz, Wayne M

    2012-01-01

    Demography, migration and natural selection are predominant processes affecting the distribution of genetic variation among natural populations. Many studies use neutral genetic markers to make inferences about population history. However, the investigation of functional coding loci, which directly reflect fitness, is critical to our understanding of species' ecology and evolution. Immune genes, such as those of the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC), play an important role in pathogen recognition and provide a potent model system for studying selection. We contrasted diversity patterns of neutral data with MHC loci, ELA-DRA and -DQA, in two southern African plains zebra (Equus quagga) populations: Etosha National Park, Namibia, and Kruger National Park, South Africa. Results from neutrality tests, along with observations of elevated diversity and low differentiation across populations, supported previous genus-level evidence for balancing selection at these loci. Despite being low, MHC divergence across populations was significant and may be attributed to drift effects typical of geographically separated populations experiencing little to no gene flow, or alternatively to shifting allele frequency distributions driven by spatially variable and fluctuating pathogen communities. At the DRA, zebra exhibited geographic differentiation concordant with microsatellites and reduced levels of diversity in Etosha due to highly skewed allele frequencies that could not be explained by demography, suggestive of spatially heterogeneous selection and local adaptation. This study highlights the complexity in which selection affects immune gene diversity and warrants the need for further research on the ecological mechanisms shaping patterns of adaptive variation among natural populations.

  6. Unraveling the effects of selection and demography on immune gene variation in free-ranging plains zebra (Equus quagga populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline L Kamath

    Full Text Available Demography, migration and natural selection are predominant processes affecting the distribution of genetic variation among natural populations. Many studies use neutral genetic markers to make inferences about population history. However, the investigation of functional coding loci, which directly reflect fitness, is critical to our understanding of species' ecology and evolution. Immune genes, such as those of the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC, play an important role in pathogen recognition and provide a potent model system for studying selection. We contrasted diversity patterns of neutral data with MHC loci, ELA-DRA and -DQA, in two southern African plains zebra (Equus quagga populations: Etosha National Park, Namibia, and Kruger National Park, South Africa. Results from neutrality tests, along with observations of elevated diversity and low differentiation across populations, supported previous genus-level evidence for balancing selection at these loci. Despite being low, MHC divergence across populations was significant and may be attributed to drift effects typical of geographically separated populations experiencing little to no gene flow, or alternatively to shifting allele frequency distributions driven by spatially variable and fluctuating pathogen communities. At the DRA, zebra exhibited geographic differentiation concordant with microsatellites and reduced levels of diversity in Etosha due to highly skewed allele frequencies that could not be explained by demography, suggestive of spatially heterogeneous selection and local adaptation. This study highlights the complexity in which selection affects immune gene diversity and warrants the need for further research on the ecological mechanisms shaping patterns of adaptive variation among natural populations.

  7. Allelic Variations at Four Major Maturity E Genes and Transcriptional Abundance of the E1 Gene Are Associated with Flowering Time and Maturity of Soybean Cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yueqiang; Chen, Xin; Ren, Haixiang; Yang, Jiayin; Cheng, Wen; Zong, Chunmei; Gu, Heping; Qiu, Hongmei; Wu, Hongyan; Zhang, Xingzheng; Cui, Tingting; Xia, Zhengjun

    2014-01-01

    The time to flowering and maturity are ecologically and agronomically important traits for soybean landrace and cultivar adaptation. As a typical short-day crop, long day conditions in the high-latitude regions require soybean cultivars with photoperiod insensitivity that can mature before frost. Although the molecular basis of four major E loci (E1 to E4) have been deciphered, it is not quite clear whether, or to what degree, genetic variation and the expression level of the four E genes are associated with the time to flowering and maturity of soybean cultivars. In this study, we genotyped 180 cultivars at E1 to E4 genes, meanwhile, the time to flowering and maturity of those cultivars were investigated at six geographic locations in China from 2011 to 2012 and further confirmed in 2013. The percentages of recessive alleles at E1, E2, E3 and E4 loci were 38.34%, 84.45%, 36.33%, and 7.20%, respectively. Statistical analysis showed that allelic variations at each of four loci had a significant effect on flowering time as well as maturity. We classified the 180 cultivars into eight genotypic groups based on allelic variations of the four major E loci. The genetic group of e1-nf representing dysfunctional alleles at the E1 locus flowered earliest in all the geographic locations. In contrast, cultivars in the E1E2E3E4 group originated from the southern areas flowered very late or did not flower before frost at high latitude locations. The transcriptional abundance of functional E1 gene was significantly associated with flowering time. However, the ranges of time to flowering and maturity were quite large within some genotypic groups, implying the presence of some other unknown genetic factors that are involved in control of flowering time or maturity. Known genes (e.g. E3 and E4) and other unknown factors may function, at least partially, through regulation of the expression of the E1 gene. PMID:24830458

  8. Expression profiles of sugarcane under drought conditions: Variation in gene regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio César Farias de Andrade

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractDrought is a major factor in decreased sugarcane productivity because of the resulting morphophysiological effects that it causes. Gene expression studies that have examined the influence of water stress in sugarcane have yielded divergent results, indicating the absence of a fixed pattern of changes in gene expression. In this work, we investigated the expression profiles of 12 genes in the leaves of a drought-tolerant genotype (RB72910 of sugarcane and compared the results with those of other studies. The genotype was subjected to 80–100% water availability (control condition and 0–20% water availability (simulated drought. To analyze the physiological status, the SPAD index, Fv/Fm ratio, net photosynthesis (A, stomatal conductance (gs and stomatal transpiration (E were measured. Total RNA was extracted from leaves and the expression of SAMDC, ZmPIP2-1 protein, ZmTIP4-2 protein, WIP protein, LTP protein, histone H3, DNAj, ferredoxin I, β-tubulin, photosystem I, gene 1 and gene 2 was analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR (RT-PCR. Important differences in the expression profiles of these genes were observed when compared with other genotypes, suggesting that complex defense mechanisms are activated in response to water stress. However, there was no recognizable pattern for the changes in expression of the different proteins associated with tolerance to drought stress.

  9. The association of telomere length and genetic variation in telomere biology genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirabello, Lisa; Yu, Kai; Kraft, Peter; De Vivo, Immaculata; Hunter, David J; Prescott, Jennifer; Wong, Jason Y Y; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Hayes, Richard B; Savage, Sharon A

    2010-09-01

    Telomeres cap chromosome ends and are critical for genomic stability. Many telomere-associated proteins are important for telomere length maintenance. Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes encoding telomere-associated proteins (RTEL1 and TERT-CLPTM1) as markers of cancer risk. We conducted an association study of telomere length and 743 SNPs in 43 telomere biology genes. Telomere length in peripheral blood DNA was determined by Q-PCR in 3,646 participants from the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial and Nurses' Health Study. We investigated associations by SNP, gene, and pathway (functional group). We found no associations between telomere length and SNPs in TERT-CLPTM1L or RTEL1. Telomere length was not significantly associated with specific functional groups. Thirteen SNPs from four genes (MEN1, MRE11A, RECQL5, and TNKS) were significantly associated with telomere length. The strongest findings were in MEN1 (gene-based P=0.006), menin, which associates with the telomerase promoter and may negatively regulate telomerase. This large association study did not find strong associations with telomere length. The combination of limited diversity and evolutionary conservation suggest that these genes may be under selective pressure. More work is needed to explore the role of genetic variants in telomere length regulation. Published 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Gene expression variation to predict 10-year survival in lymph-node-negative breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlsson, Elin; Delle, Ulla; Danielsson, Anna; Olsson, Björn; Abel, Frida; Karlsson, Per; Helou, Khalil

    2008-01-01

    It is of great significance to find better markers to correctly distinguish between high-risk and low-risk breast cancer patients since the majority of breast cancer cases are at present being overtreated. 46 tumours from node-negative breast cancer patients were studied with gene expression microarrays. A t-test was carried out in order to find a set of genes where the expression might predict clinical outcome. Two classifiers were used for evaluation of the gene lists, a correlation-based classifier and a Voting Features Interval (VFI) classifier. We then evaluated the predictive accuracy of this expression signature on tumour sets from two similar studies on lymph-node negative patients. They had both developed gene expression signatures superior to current methods in classifying node-negative breast tumours. These two signatures were also tested on our material. A list of 51 genes whose expression profiles could predict clinical outcome with high accuracy in our material (96% or 89% accuracy in cross-validation, depending on type of classifier) was developed. When tested on two independent data sets, the expression signature based on the 51 identified genes had good predictive qualities in one of the data sets (74% accuracy), whereas their predictive value on the other data set were poor, presumably due to the fact that only 23 of the 51 genes were found in that material. We also found that previously developed expression signatures could predict clinical outcome well to moderately well in our material (72% and 61%, respectively). The list of 51 genes derived in this study might have potential for clinical utility as a prognostic gene set, and may include candidate genes of potential relevance for clinical outcome in breast cancer. According to the predictions by this expression signature, 30 of the 46 patients may have benefited from different adjuvant treatment than they recieved. The research on these tumours was approved by the Medical Faculty Research

  11. Variation in the fumonisin biosynthetic gene cluster in fumonisin-producing and nonproducing black aspergilli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susca, Antonia; Proctor, Robert H; Butchko, Robert A E; Haidukowski, Miriam; Stea, Gaetano; Logrieco, Antonio; Moretti, Antonio

    2014-12-01

    The ability to produce fumonisin mycotoxins varies among members of the black aspergilli. Previously, analyses of selected genes in the fumonisin biosynthetic gene (fum) cluster in black aspergilli from California grapes indicated that fumonisin-nonproducing isolates of Aspergillus welwitschiae lack six fum genes, but nonproducing isolates of Aspergillus niger do not. In the current study, analyses of black aspergilli from grapes from the Mediterranean Basin indicate that the genomic context of the fum cluster is the same in isolates of A. niger and A. welwitschiae regardless of fumonisin-production ability and that full-length clusters occur in producing isolates of both species and nonproducing isolates of A. niger. In contrast, the cluster has undergone an eight-gene deletion in fumonisin-nonproducing isolates of A. welwitschiae. Phylogenetic analyses suggest each species consists of a mixed population of fumonisin-producing and nonproducing individuals, and that existence of both production phenotypes may provide a selective advantage to these species. Differences in gene content of fum cluster homologues and phylogenetic relationships of fum genes suggest that the mutation(s) responsible for the nonproduction phenotype differs, and therefore arose independently, in the two species. Partial fum cluster homologues were also identified in genome sequences of four other black Aspergillus species. Gene content of these partial clusters and phylogenetic relationships of fum sequences indicate that non-random partial deletion of the cluster has occurred multiple times among the species. This in turn suggests that an intact cluster and fumonisin production were once more widespread among black aspergilli. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Population genetic implications from sequence variation in four Y chromosome genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, P; Wang, F; Underhill, P A; Franco, C; Yang, W H; Roxas, A; Sung, R; Lin, A A; Hyman, R W; Vollrath, D; Davis, R W; Cavalli-Sforza, L L; Oefner, P J

    2000-06-20

    Some insight into human evolution has been gained from the sequencing of four Y chromosome genes. Primary genomic sequencing determined gene SMCY to be composed of 27 exons that comprise 4,620 bp of coding sequence. The unfinished sequencing of the 5' portion of gene UTY1 was completed by primer walking, and a total of 20 exons were found. By using denaturing HPLC, these two genes, as well as DBY and DFFRY, were screened for polymorphic sites in 53-72 representatives of the five continents. A total of 98 variants were found, yielding nucleotide diversity estimates of 2.45 x 10(-5), 5. 07 x 10(-5), and 8.54 x 10(-5) for the coding regions of SMCY, DFFRY, and UTY1, respectively, with no variant having been observed in DBY. In agreement with most autosomal genes, diversity estimates for the noncoding regions were about 2- to 3-fold higher and ranged from 9. 16 x 10(-5) to 14.2 x 10(-5) for the four genes. Analysis of the frequencies of derived alleles for all four genes showed that they more closely fit the expectation of a Luria-Delbrück distribution than a distribution expected under a constant population size model, providing evidence for exponential population growth. Pairwise nucleotide mismatch distributions date the occurrence of population expansion to approximately 28,000 years ago. This estimate is in accord with the spread of Aurignacian technology and the disappearance of the Neanderthals.

  13. Genetic and molecular analyses of natural variation indicate CBF2 as a candidate gene for underlying a freezing tolerance quantitative trait locus in Arabidopsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alonso-Blanco, C.; Gomez-Mena, C.; Llorente, F.; Koornneef, M.; Salinas, J.; Martinez-Zapater, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    Natural variation for freezing tolerance is a major component of adaptation and geographic distribution of plant species. However, little is known about the genes and molecular mechanisms that determine its naturally occurring diversity. We have analyzed the intraspecific freezing tolerance

  14. Neurodevelopmental disorders associated with dosage imbalance of ZBTB20 correlate with the morbidity spectrum of ZBTB20 candidate target genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Malene B; Nielsen, Jakob V; Lourenço, Charles M

    2014-01-01

    (SRO) involved five RefSeq genes, including the transcription factor gene ZBTB20 and the dopamine receptor gene DRD3, considered as candidate genes for the syndrome. METHODS AND RESULTS: We used array comparative genomic hybridization and next-generation mate-pair sequencing to identify key structural...... patient with developmental delay and autism, we detected the first microdeletion at 3q13.31, which truncated ZBTB20 but did not involve DRD3 or the other genes within the previously defined SRO. Zbtb20 directly represses 346 genes in the developing murine brain. Of the 342 human orthologous ZBTB20...

  15. Contribution of Myostatin gene polymorphisms to normal variation in lean mass, fat mass and peak BMD in Chinese male offspring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua YUE; Miao LI; Yu-juan LIU; Song-hua WU; Zhen-lin ZHANG; Jin-wei HE; Hao ZHANG; Chun WANG; Wei-wei HU; Jie-mei GU; Yao-hua KE; Wen-zhen FU; Yun-qiu HU

    2012-01-01

    Myostatin gene is a member of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) family that negatively regulates skeletal muscle growth.Genetic polymorphisms in Myostatin were found to be associated with the peak bone mineral density (BMD) in Chinese women.The purpose of this study was to investigate whether Myostatin played a role in the normal variation in peak BMD,lean mass (LM),and fat mass (FM) of Chinese men.Methods:Four hundred male-offspring nuclear families of Chinese Han ethnic group were recruited.Anthropometric measurements,includingthe peak BMD,body LM and FM were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA).The single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) studied were tag-SNPs selected by sequencing.Both rs2293284 and +2278G>A were genotyped using TaqMan assay,and rs3791783 was genotyped with PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis.The associations of the SNPs with anthropometfic variations were analyzed using the quantitative transmission disequilibrium test (QTDT).Results:Using QTDT to detect within-family associations,neither single SNP nor haplotype was found to be associated with peak BMD at any bone site.However,rs3791783 was found to be significantly associated with fat mass of the trunk (P<0.001).Moreover,for within-family associations,haplotypes AGG,AAA,and TGG were found to be significantly associated with the trunk fat mass (all P<0.001).Conclusion:Our results suggest that genetic variation within Myostatin may play a role in regulating the variation in fat mass in Chinese males.Additionally,the Myostatin gene may be a candidate that determines body fat mass in Chinese men.

  16. Polymorphisms in leucine-rich repeat genes are associated with autism spectrum disorder susceptibility in populations of European ancestry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sousa, Ines; Clark, Taane G.; Holt, Richard; Pagnamenta, Alistair T.; Mulder, Erik J.; Minderaa, Ruud B.; Bailey, Anthony J.; Battaglia, Agatino; Klauck, Sabine M.; Poustka, Fritz; Monaco, Anthony P.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are a group of highly heritable neurodevelopmental disorders which are characteristically comprised of impairments in social interaction, communication and restricted interests/behaviours. Several cell adhesion transmembrane leucine-rich repeat (LRR)

  17. Common genetic variations in the CYP2R1 and GC genes are determinants of vitamin D status in Danes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Ioanna

    Vitamin D is considered a key fat-soluble vitamin critically important for good bone- and overall health throughout life. Vitamin D deficiency increases the risk of developing rickets, osteomalacia and osteoporosis, and moreover increases the risk of various non-skeletal adverse health outcomes......), after 6 months intake of vitamin D3-fortified bread and milk (paper II) and in 92 participants in the VitDgen study after artificial UVB irradiation during winter (paper III). Common genetic variations in the CYP2R1 and GC genes were found to be important determinants of vitamin D status in three out...

  18. Endocannabinoid receptor 1 gene variations increase risk for obesity and modulate body mass index in European populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benzinou, Michael; Chèvre, Jean-Claude; Ward, Kirsten J

    2008-01-01

    The therapeutic effects of cannabinoid receptor blockade on obesity-associated phenotypes underline the importance of the endocannabinoid pathway on the energy balance. Using a staged-approach, we examined the contribution of the endocannabinoid receptor 1 gene (CNR1) on obesity and body mass ind...... variations increase the risk for obesity and modulate BMI in our European population. As CB1 is a drug target for obesity, a pharmacogenetic analysis of the endocannabinoid blockade obesity treatment may be of interest to identify best responders....

  19. Plasticity of the Leishmania genome leading to gene copy number variations and drug resistance [version 1; referees: 5 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Claude N. Laffitte

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Leishmania has a plastic genome, and drug pressure can select for gene copy number variation (CNV. CNVs can apply either to whole chromosomes, leading to aneuploidy, or to specific genomic regions. For the latter, the amplification of chromosomal regions occurs at the level of homologous direct or inverted repeated sequences leading to extrachromosomal circular or linear amplified DNAs. This ability of Leishmania to respond to drug pressure by CNVs has led to the development of genomic screens such as Cos-Seq, which has the potential of expediting the discovery of drug targets for novel promising drug candidates.

  20. Porcine MYF6 gene: sequence, homology analysis, and variation in the promoter region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyszyńska-Koko, J; Kurył, J

    2004-01-01

    MYF6 gene codes for the bHLH transcription factor belonging to MyoD family. Its expression accompanies the processes of differentiation and maturation of myotubes during embriogenesis and continues on a relatively high level after birth, affecting the muscle phenotype. The porcine MYF6 gene was amplified and sequenced and compared with MYF6 gene sequences of other species. The amino acid sequence was deduced and an interspecies homology analysis was performed. Myf-6 protein shows a high conservation among species of 99 and 97% identity when comparing pig with cow and human, respectively, and of 93% when comparing pig with mouse and rat. The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) was revealed within the promoter region, which appeared to be T --> C transition recognized by a MspI restriction enzyme.

  1. Molecular determination of extended spectrum b-lactamases antibiotics resistance genes in E.coli isolated from diarrhea in cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghassan Khudhair Ismaeel

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available None response to the treatment by an antibiotic called antibiotics resistance result from some genes called resistance genes .This mechanism is widespread in most of the bacteria, like E.coli . All of the extended resistance genes called (ESBIS is a typical example for study of some genes that resistance beta-lactam antibiotic is subject of this research. Fifty feces sample were collected from cattle suffering from diarrhea in alqaissiyah city were cultured on selective media for E.coli , then DNA was extracted from all E.coli isolates for antibiotic resistance gene detection by PCR ; The results of this study revealed the prevalence of B-lactamase gene four B-lactamases genes in E.coli blaAmpc gene were (91.4%, the blactx-m gene were (80%, blaTem were (62.8% and finally and blaSHV gene were (22% among isolates E.coli ; blaAMPC gene has high prevalence than others genes while blaSHV was a lower percentage than other genes

  2. Variation at the Calpain 3 gene is associated with meat tenderness in zebu and composite breeds of cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bunch Rowan J

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL affecting meat tenderness have been reported on Bovine chromosome 10. Here we examine variation at the Calpain 3 (CAPN3 gene in cattle, a gene located within the confidence interval of the QTL, and which is a positional candidate gene based on the biochemical activity of the protein. Results We identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP in the genomic sequence of the CAPN3 gene and tested three of these in a sample of 2189 cattle. Of the three SNP genotyped, the CAPN3:c.1538+225G>T had the largest significant additive effect, with an allele substitution effect in the Brahman of α = -0.144 kg, SE = 0.060, P = 0.016, and the polymorphism explained 1.7% of the residual phenotypic variance in that sample of the breed. Significant haplotype substitution effects were found for all three breeds, the Brahman, the Belmont Red, and the Santa Gertrudis. For the common haplotype, the haplotype substitution effect in the Brahman was α = 0.169 kg, SE = 0.056, P = 0.003. The effect of this gene was compared to Calpastatin in the same sample. The SNP show negligible frequencies in taurine breeds and low to moderate minor allele frequencies in zebu or composite animals. Conclusion These associations confirm the location of a QTL for meat tenderness in this region of bovine chromosome 10. SNP in or near this gene may be responsible for part of the overall difference between taurine and zebu breeds in meat tenderness, and the greater variability in meat tenderness found in zebu and composite breeds. The evidence provided so far suggests that none of these tested SNP are causative mutations.

  3. Diversity and population-genetic properties of copy number variations and multicopy genes in cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    The diversity and population-genetics of copy number variation (CNV) in domesticated animals are not well understood. In this study, we analyzed 75 genomes of major taurine and indicine cattle breeds (including Angus, Brahman, Gir, Holstein, Jersey, Limousin, Nelore, Romagnola), sequenced to 11-fold...

  4. Analysis of indel variations in the human disease-associated genes ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. insertion–deletion variations; haematological disease; tumours; human genetics. Journal of Genetics ... domly selected healthy Korean individuals using a blood genomic DNA ... Bioinformatics annotation and 3-D protein structure analysis. In this study ..... 2009 A genome-wide meta-analysis identifies. Journal of ...

  5. Interindividual variation in gene expression responses and metabolite formation in acetaminophen-exposed primary human hepatocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jetten, M.J.A.; Blanco Garcia, Ainhoa; Coonen, M.L.J.; Claessen, Sandra; Herwijnen, van M.H.M.; Lommen, Arjen; Delft, van J.H.M.; Peijnenburg, A.A.C.M.; Kleinjans, J.C.S.

    2016-01-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP) is a readily available over-the-counter drug and is one of the most commonly used analgesics/antipyretics worldwide. Large interindividual variation in susceptibility toward APAP-induced liver failure has been reported. However, the exact underlying factors causing this

  6. Schooling and Variation in the "COMT" Gene: The Devil Is in the Details

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Daniel; Bick, Johanna; Yrigollen, Carolyn M.; Lee, Maria; Joseph, Antony; Chang, Joseph T.; Grigorenko, Elena L.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Schooling is considered one of the major contributors to the development of intelligence within societies and individuals. Genetic variation might modulate the impact of schooling and explain, at least partially, the presence of individual differences in classrooms. Method: We studied a sample of 1,502 children (mean age = 11.7 years)…

  7. Structural defects and variations in the HIV-1 nef gene from rapid, slow and non-progressor children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casartelli, Nicoletta; Di Matteo, Gigliola; Argentini, Claudio; Cancrini, Caterina; Bernardi, Stefania; Castelli, Guido; Scarlatti, Gabriella; Plebani, Anna; Rossi, Paolo; Doria, Margherita

    2003-06-13

    Evaluation of sequence evolution as well as structural defects and mutations of the human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 (HIV-1) nef gene in relation to disease progression in infected children. We examined a large number of nef alleles sequentially derived from perinatally HIV-1-infected children with different rates of disease progression: six non-progressors (NPs), four rapid progressors (RPs), and three slow progressors (SPs). Nef alleles (182 total) were isolated from patients' peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), sequenced and analysed for their evolutionary pattern, frequency of mutations and occurrence of amino acid variations associated with different stages of disease. The evolution rate of the nef gene apparently correlated with CD4+ decline in all progression groups. Evidence for rapid viral turnover and positive selection for changes were found only in two SPs and two RPs respectively. In NPs, a higher proportion of disrupted sequences and mutations at various functional motifs were observed. Furthermore, NP-derived Nef proteins were often changed at residues localized in the folded core domain at cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) epitopes (E(105), K(106), E(110), Y(132), K(164), and R(200)), while other residues outside the core domain are more often changed in RPs (A(43)) and SPs (N(173) and Y(214)). Our results suggest a link between nef gene functions and the progression rate in HIV-1-infected children. Moreover, non-progressor-associated variations in the core domain of Nef, together with the genetic analysis, suggest that nef gene evolution is shaped by an effective immune system in these patients.

  8. Genetic Variation of Goat Interferon Regulatory Factor 3 Gene and Its Implication in Goat Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okpeku, Moses; Esmailizadeh, Ali; Adeola, Adeniyi C; Shu, Liping; Zhang, Yesheng; Wang, Yangzi; Sanni, Timothy M; Imumorin, Ikhide G; Peters, Sunday O; Zhang, Jiajin; Dong, Yang; Wang, Wen

    2016-01-01

    The immune systems are fundamentally vital for evolution and survival of species; as such, selection patterns in innate immune loci are of special interest in molecular evolutionary research. The interferon regulatory factor (IRF) gene family control many different aspects of the innate and adaptive immune responses in vertebrates. Among these, IRF3 is known to take active part in very many biological processes. We assembled and evaluated 1356 base pairs of the IRF3 gene coding region in domesticated goats from Africa (Nigeria, Ethiopia and South Africa) and Asia (Iran and China) and the wild goat (Capra aegagrus). Five segregating sites with θ value of 0.0009 for this gene demonstrated a low diversity across the goats' populations. Fu and Li tests were significantly positive but Tajima's D test was significantly negative, suggesting its deviation from neutrality. Neighbor joining tree of IRF3 gene in domesticated goats, wild goat and sheep showed that all domesticated goats have a closer relationship than with the wild goat and sheep. Maximum likelihood tree of the gene showed that different domesticated goats share a common ancestor and suggest single origin. Four unique haplotypes were observed across all the sequences, of which, one was particularly common to African goats (MOCH-K14-0425, Poitou and WAD). In assessing the evolution mode of the gene, we found that the codon model dN/dS ratio for all goats was greater than one. Phylogenetic Analysis by Maximum Likelihood (PAML) gave a ω0 (dN/dS) value of 0.067 with LnL value of -6900.3 for the first Model (M1) while ω2 = 1.667 in model M2 with LnL value of -6900.3 with positive selection inferred in 3 codon sites. Mechanistic empirical combination (MEC) model for evaluating adaptive selection pressure on particular codons also confirmed adaptive selection pressure in three codons (207, 358 and 408) in IRF3 gene. Positive diversifying selection inferred with recent evolutionary changes in domesticated goat IRF3

  9. Homoeologous exchange is a major cause of gene presence/absence variation in the amphidiploid Brassica napus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurgobin, Bhavna; Golicz, Agnieszka A; Bayer, Philipp E; Chan, Chon-Kit Kenneth; Tirnaz, Soodeh; Dolatabadian, Aria; Schiessl, Sarah V; Samans, Birgit; Montenegro, Juan D; Parkin, Isobel A P; Pires, J Chris; Chalhoub, Boulos; King, Graham J; Snowdon, Rod; Batley, Jacqueline; Edwards, David

    2018-07-01

    Homoeologous exchanges (HEs) have been shown to generate novel gene combinations and phenotypes in a range of polyploid species. Gene presence/absence variation (PAV) is also a major contributor to genetic diversity. In this study, we show that there is an association between these two events, particularly in recent Brassica napus synthetic accessions, and that these represent a novel source of genetic diversity, which can be captured for the improvement of this important crop species. By assembling the pangenome of B. napus, we show that 38% of the genes display PAV behaviour, with some of these variable genes predicted to be involved in important agronomic traits including flowering time, disease resistance, acyl lipid metabolism and glucosinolate metabolism. This study is a first and provides a detailed characterization of the association between HEs and PAVs in B. napus at the pangenome level. © 2017 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Genetic variation of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC class II B gene in the threatened Hume's pheasant, Syrmaticus humiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weicai Chen

    Full Text Available Major histocompatibility complex (MHC genes are the most polymorphic genes in vertebrates and encode molecules that play a crucial role in pathogen resistance. As a result of their diversity, they have received much attention in the fields of evolutionary and conservation biology. Here, we described the genetic variation of MHC class II B (MHCIIB exon 2 in a wild population of Hume's pheasant (Syrmaticus humiae, which has suffered a dramatic decline in population over the last three decades across its ranges in the face of heavy exploitation and habitat loss. Twenty-four distinct alleles were found in 73 S. humiae specimens. We found seven shared alleles among four geographical groups as well as six rare MHCIIB alleles. Most individuals displayed between one to five alleles, suggesting that there are at least three MHCIIB loci of the Hume's pheasant. The dN ⁄ dS ratio at putative antigen-binding sites (ABS was significantly greater than one, indicating balancing selection is acting on MHCIIB exon 2. Additionally, recombination and gene conversion contributed to generating MHCIIB diversity in the Hume's pheasant. One to three recombination events and seventy-five significant gene conversion events were observed within the Hume's pheasant MHCIIB loci. The phylogenetic tree and network analysis revealed that the Hume's pheasant alleles do not cluster together, but are scattered through the tree or network indicating a trans-species evolutionary mode. These findings revealed the evolution of the Hume's pheasant MHC after suffering extreme habitat fragmentation.

  11. A Novel Pathogenic Variant in the MITF Gene Segregating with a Unique Spectrum of Ocular Findings in an Extended Iranian Waardenburg Syndrome Kindred.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalilian, Nazanin; Tabatabaiefar, Mohammad A; Bahrami, Tayyeb; Karbasi, Golaleh; Bahramian, Mohammad H; Salimpoor, Abdolrahman; Noori-Daloii, Mohammad R

    2017-06-01

    Waardenburg syndrome (WS) is a rare genetic disorder characterized by abnormal pigmentation of the hair, skin, and iris as well as sensorineural hearing loss. WS is subdivided into 4 major types (WS1-4), where WS2 is characterized by the absence of dystopia canthorum. This study was launched to investigate clinical and molecular characteristics of WS in an extended Iranian WS2 family. A comprehensive clinical investigation was performed. Peripheral blood samples were collected and genomic DNA was extracted. Affected members of the family were studied for possible mutations within the SOX10 , MITF , and SNAI2 genes. Six WS2 individuals affected from a large Iranian WS2 kindred were enrolled. All affected members carried the novel substitution c.877C>T at exon 9 in the MITF gene, which resulted in p.Arg293* at the protein level. None of the healthy members and also of 50 ethnically matched controls had this variant. In addition, a spectrum of unique ocular findings, including nystagmus, chorioretinal degeneration, optic disc hypoplasia, astigmatism, and myopia, was segregated with the mutant allele in the pedigree. Our data provide insight into the genotypic and phenotypic spectrum of WS2 in an Iranian family and could further expand the spectrum of MITF mutations and have implications for genetic counseling on WS in Iran.

  12. Genetic Variation in the Leptin Receptor Gene, Leptin, and Weight Gain in Young Dutch Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossum, van C.T.M.; Hoebee, B.; Baak, van M.A.; Mars, M.; Saris, W.H.M.; Seidell, J.C.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the association between leptin levels, polymorphisms in the leptin receptor (LEPR) gene, and weight gain. Research Methods and Procedures: From two large prospective cohorts in The Netherlands (n = 17, 500), we compared the baseline leptin of 259 subjects who had gained an

  13. Molecular cloning and variation of ω-gliadin genes from a somatic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    repetitive domain, which hampers cloning. Further analysis of ω-gliadins at the DNA level would provide more informa- tion to define the evolution and function of this gene family. (Hassania et al. 2008). ∗For correspondence. E-mail: fanguo2002@sdu.edu.cn. Agropyron elongatum (Host) Nevishi (syn. Thinopyrum ponticum ...

  14. Natural variation of histone modification and its impact on gene expression in the rat genome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rintisch, Carola; Heinig, Matthias; Bauerfeind, Anja; Schafer, Sebastian; Mieth, Christin; Patone, Giannino; Hummel, Oliver; Chen, Wei; Cook, Stuart; Cuppen, Edwin; Colomé-Tatché, Maria; Johannes, Frank; Jansen, Ritsert C; Neil, Helen; Werner, Michel; Pravenec, Michal; Vingron, Martin; Hubner, Norbert

    Histone modifications are epigenetic marks that play fundamental roles in many biological processes including the control of chromatin-mediated regulation of gene expression. Little is known about interindividual variability of histone modification levels across the genome and to what extent they

  15. Variations in estrogen receptor ? gene and risk of dementia, and brain volumes on MRI.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.C.E. Schuit (Stephanie); A. Hofman (Albert); P.J. Koudstaal (Peter Jan); C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); H.A.P. Pols (Huib); M.M.B. Breteler (Monique); J.B.J. van Meurs (Joyce); T. den Heijer (Tom)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThe role of estrogens in Alzheimer's disease (AD) is controversial. We investigated the association between well-recognized, and potentially functional, polymorphisms in the estrogen receptor (ER) gene and the risk of AD in a prospective study of 6056 Caucasian older men and women aged

  16. Dopamine Receptor D4 Gene Variation Predicts Preschoolers' Developing Theory of Mind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackner, Christine; Sabbagh, Mark A.; Hallinan, Elizabeth; Liu, Xudong; Holden, Jeanette J. A.

    2012-01-01

    Individual differences in preschoolers' understanding that human action is caused by internal mental states, or representational theory of mind (RTM), are heritable, as are developmental disorders such as autism in which RTM is particularly impaired. We investigated whether polymorphisms of genes affecting dopamine (DA) utilization and metabolism…

  17. Variation of gene effects of six agronomic traits with water regimes in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Separate generations mean analyses revealed that gene effects were dependent upon water regime. Under irrigated regime, only additive and dominance effects were implicated in inheritance of all traits, except plant height in the two crosses and grains per spike in the cross Razzek × Chili. However, under rainfed ...

  18. Variation in genes related to hepatic lipid metabolism and changes in waist circumference and body weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meidtner, Karina; Fisher, Eva; Angquist, Lars

    2014-01-01

    We analysed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) tagging the genetic variability of six candidate genes (ATF6, FABP1, LPIN2, LPIN3, MLXIPL and MTTP) involved in the regulation of hepatic lipid metabolism, an important regulatory site of energy balance for associations with body mass index (BMI...

  19. Common Genetic Variation In Cellular Transport Genes and Epithelial Ovarian Cancer (EOC) Risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chornokur, G.; Lin, H.Y.; Tyrer, J.P.; Lawrenson, K.; Dennis, J.; Amankwah, E.K.; Qu, X.; Tsai, Y.Y.; Jim, H.S.; Chen, Z.; Chen, A.Y.; Permuth-Wey, J.; Aben, K.; Anton-Culver, H.; Antonenkova, N.; Bruinsma, F.; Bandera, E.V.; Bean, Y.T.; Beckmann, M.W.; Bisogna, M.; Bjorge, L.; Bogdanova, N.; Brinton, L.A.; Brooks-Wilson, A.; Bunker, C.H.; Butzow, R.; Campbell, I.G.; Carty, K.; Chang-Claude, J.; Cook, L.S.; Cramer, D.W; Cunningham, J.M.; Cybulski, C.; Dansonka-Mieszkowska, A.; Bois, A. du; Despierre, E.; Dicks, E.; Doherty, J.A.; Dork, T.; Durst, M.; Easton, D.F.; Eccles, D.M.; Edwards, R.P.; Ekici, A.B.; Fasching, P.A.; Fridley, B.L.; Gao, Y.T.; Gentry-Maharaj, A.; Giles, G.G.; Glasspool, R.; Goodman, M.T.; Gronwald, J.; Harrington, P.; Harter, P.; Hein, A.; Heitz, F.; Hildebrandt, M.A.T.; Hillemanns, P.; Hogdall, C.K.; Hogdall, E.; Hosono, S.; Jakubowska, A.; Jensen, A.; Ji, B.T.; Karlan, B.Y.; Kelemen, L.E.; Kellar, M.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Krakstad, C.; Kjaer, S.K.; Kupryjanczyk, J.; Lambrechts, D.; Lambrechts, S.; Le, N.D.; Lee, A.W.; Lele, S.; Leminen, A.; Lester, J.; Levine, D.A.; Liang, D.; Lim, B.K.; Lissowska, J.; Lu, K.; Lubinski, J.; Lundvall, L.; Massuger, L.F.A.G.; Matsuo, K.; McGuire, V.; McLaughlin, J.R.; McNeish, I.; Menon, U.; Milne, R.L.; Modugno, F.; Moysich, K.B.; Ness, R.B.; Nevanlinna, H.; Eilber, U.; Odunsi, K.; Olson, S.H.; Orlow, I., et al.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Defective cellular transport processes can lead to aberrant accumulation of trace elements, iron, small molecules and hormones in the cell, which in turn may promote the formation of reactive oxygen species, promoting DNA damage and aberrant expression of key regulatory cancer genes. As

  20. Association Mapping and Nucleotide Sequence Variation in Five Drought Tolerance Candidate Genes in Spring Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erena A. Edae

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Functional markers are needed for key genes involved in drought tolerance to improve selection for crop yield under moisture stress conditions. The objectives of this study were to (i characterize five drought tolerance candidate genes, namely dehydration responsive element binding 1A (, enhanced response to abscisic acid ( and , and fructan 1-exohydrolase ( and , in wheat ( L. for nucleotide and haplotype diversity, Tajima’s D value, and linkage disequilibrium (LD and (ii associate within-gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs with phenotypic traits in a spring wheat association mapping panel ( = 126. Field trials were grown under contrasting moisture regimes in Greeley, CO, and Melkassa, Ethiopia, in 2010 and 2011. Genome-specific amplification and DNA sequence analysis of the genes identified SNPs and revealed differences in nucleotide and haplotype diversity, Tajima’s D, and patterns of LD. showed associations (false discovery rate adjusted probability value = 0.1 with normalized difference vegetation index, heading date, biomass, and spikelet number. Both and were associated with harvest index, flag leaf width, and leaf senescence. was associated with grain yield, and was associated with thousand kernel weight and test weight. If validated in relevant genetic backgrounds, the identified marker–trait associations may be applied to functional marker-assisted selection.

  1. Genetic variation among the Mapuche Indians from the Patagonian region of Argentina: mitochondrial DNA sequence variation and allele frequencies of several nuclear genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginther, C; Corach, D; Penacino, G A; Rey, J A; Carnese, F R; Hutz, M H; Anderson, A; Just, J; Salzano, F M; King, M C

    1993-01-01

    DNA samples from 60 Mapuche Indians, representing 39 maternal lineages, were genetically characterized for (1) nucleotide sequences of the mtDNA control region; (2) presence or absence of a nine base duplication in mtDNA region V; (3) HLA loci DRB1 and DQA1; (4) variation at three nuclear genes with short tandem repeats; and (5) variation at the polymorphic marker D2S44. The genetic profile of the Mapuche population was compared to other Amerinds and to worldwide populations. Two highly polymorphic portions of the mtDNA control region, comprising 650 nucleotides, were amplified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and directly sequenced. The 39 maternal lineages were defined by two or three generation families identified by the Mapuches. These 39 lineages included 19 different mtDNA sequences that could be grouped into four classes. The same classes of sequences appear in other Amerinds from North, Central, and South American populations separated by thousands of miles, suggesting that the origin of the mtDNA patterns predates the migration to the Americas. The mtDNA sequence similarity between Amerind populations suggests that the migration throughout the Americas occurred rapidly relative to the mtDNA mutation rate. HLA DRB1 alleles 1602 and 1402 were frequent among the Mapuches. These alleles also occur at high frequency among other Amerinds in North and South America, but not among Spanish, Chinese or African-American populations. The high frequency of these alleles throughout the Americas, and their specificity to the Americas, supports the hypothesis that Mapuches and other Amerind groups are closely related.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Molecular characterisation of the broad-spectrum resistance to powdery mildew conferred by the Stpk-V gene from the wild species Haynaldia villosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, C; Cui, C; Wang, X; Zhou, C; Hu, P; Li, M; Li, R; Xiao, J; Wang, X; Chen, P; Xing, L; Cao, A

    2017-11-01

    A key member of the Pm21 resistance gene locus, Stpk-V, derived from Haynaldia villosa, was shown to confer broad-spectrum resistance to wheat powdery mildew. The present study was planned to investigate the resistance mechanism mediated by Stpk-V. Transcriptome analysis was performed in Stpk-V transgenic plants and recipient Yangmai158 upon Bgt infection, and detailed histochemical observations were conducted. Chromosome location of Stpk-V orthologous genes in Triticeae species was conducted for evolutionary study and over-expression of Stpk-V both in barley and Arabidopsis was performed for functional study. The transcriptome results indicate, at the early infection stage, the ROS pathway, JA pathway and some PR proteins associated with the SA pathway were activated in both the resistant Stpk-V transgenic plants and susceptible Yangmai158. However, at the later infection stage, the genes up-regulated at the early stage were continuously held only in the transgenic plants, and a large number of new genes were also activated in the transgenic plants but not in Yangmai158. Results indicate that sustained activation of the early response genes combined with later-activated genes mediated by Stpk-V is critical for resistance in Stpk-V transgenic plants. Stpk-V orthologous genes in the representative grass species are all located on homologous group six chromosomes, indicating that Stpk-V is an ancient gene in the grasses. Over-expression of Stpk-V enhanced host resistance to powdery mildew in barley but not in Arabidopsis. Our results enable a better understanding of the resistance mechanism mediated by Stpk-V, and establish a solid foundation for its use in cereal breeding as a gene resource. © 2017 German Society for Plant Sciences and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  3. Investigating the potential role of genetic and epigenetic variation of DNA methyltransferase genes in hyperplastic polyposis syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Drini

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Hyperplastic Polyposis Syndrome (HPS is a condition associated with multiple serrated polyps, and an increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC. At least half of CRCs arising in HPS show a CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP, potentially linked to aberrant DNA methyltransferase (DNMT activity. CIMP is associated with methylation of tumor suppressor genes including regulators of DNA mismatch repair (such as MLH1, MGMT, and negative regulators of Wnt signaling (such as WIF1. In this study, we investigated the potential for interaction of genetic and epigenetic variation in DNMT genes, in the aetiology of HPS.We utilized high resolution melting (HRM analysis to screen 45 cases with HPS for novel sequence variants in DNMT1, DNMT3A, DNMT3B, and DNMT3L. 21 polyps from 13 patients were screened for BRAF and KRAS mutations, with assessment of promoter methylation in the DNMT1, DNMT3A, DNMT3B, DNMT3L MLH1, MGMT, and WIF1 gene promoters.No pathologic germline mutations were observed in any DNA-methyltransferase gene. However, the T allele of rs62106244 (intron 10 of DNMT1 gene was over-represented in cases with HPS (p<0.01 compared with population controls. The DNMT1, DNMT3A and DNMT3B promoters were unmethylated in all instances. Interestingly, the DNMT3L promoter showed low levels of methylation in polyps and normal colonic mucosa relative to matched disease free cells with methylation level negatively correlated to expression level in normal colonic tissue. DNMT3L promoter hypomethylation was more often found in polyps harbouring KRAS mutations (p = 0.0053. BRAF mutations were common (11 out of 21 polyps, whilst KRAS mutations were identified in 4 of 21 polyps.Genetic or epigenetic alterations in DNMT genes do not appear to be associated with HPS, but further investigation of genetic variation at rs62106244 is justified given the high frequency of the minor allele in this case series.

  4. Sequence Variation of MHC Class II DQB Gene in Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops truncatus from Taiwanese Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Cheng Yang

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The major histocompatibility complex (MHC is a large multigene coding for glycoproteins that play a key role in the initiation of immune responses in vertebrates. For a better understanding of the immunologic diversity in thriving marine mammal species, the sequence variation of the exon 2 region of MHC DQB locus was analyzed in 42 bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus collected from strandings and fishery bycatch in Taiwanese waters. The 172 bp sequences amplified showed no more than two alleles in each individual. The high proportion of non-synonymous nucleotide substitutions and the moderate amount of variation suggest positive selection pressure on this locus, arguing against a reduction in the marine environment selection pressure. The phylogenetic relationship among DQB exon 2 sequences of T. truncatus and other cetaceans did not coincide with taxonomic relationship, indicating a trans-species evolutionary pattern.

  5. Spectrum of CFTR gene mutations in Ecuadorian cystic fibrosis patients: the second report of the p.H609R mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Sofía C; Aguirre, Santiago J; Flores, Sofía; Maldonado, Claudio; Mejía, Juan; Salinas, Lilian

    2017-11-01

    High heterogeneity in the CFTR gene mutations disturbs the molecular diagnosis of cystic fibrosis (CF). In order to improve the diagnosis of CF in our country, the present study aims to define a panel of common CFTR gene mutations by sequencing 27 exons of the gene in Ecuadorian Cystic Fibrosis patients. Forty-eight Ecuadorian individuals with suspected/confirmed CF diagnosis were included. Twenty-seven exons of CFTR gene were sequenced to find sequence variations. Prevalence of pathogenic variations were determined and compared with other countries' data. We found 70 sequence variations. Eight of these are CF-causing mutations: p.F508del, p.G85E, p.G330E, p.A455E, p.G970S, W1098X, R1162X, and N1303K. Also this study is the second report of p.H609R in Ecuadorian population. Mutation prevalence differences between Ecuadorian population and other Latin America countries were found. The panel of mutations suggested as an initial screening for the Ecuadorian population with cystic fibrosis should contain the mutations: p.F508del, p.G85E, p.G330E, p.A455E, p.G970S, W1098X, R1162X, and N1303K. © 2017 NETLAB Laboratorios Especializados. Molecular Genetics & Genomic Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Common variation in the autism risk gene CNTNAP2, brain structural connectivity and multisensory speech integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Lars A; Del Bene, Victor A; Molholm, Sophie; Jae Woo, Young; Andrade, Gizely N; Abrahams, Brett S; Foxe, John J

    2017-11-01

    Three lines of evidence motivated this study. 1) CNTNAP2 variation is associated with autism risk and speech-language development. 2) CNTNAP2 variations are associated with differences in white matter (WM) tracts comprising the speech-language circuitry. 3) Children with autism show impairment in multisensory speech perception. Here, we asked whether an autism risk-associated CNTNAP2 single nucleotide polymorphism in neurotypical adults was associated with multisensory speech perception performance, and whether such a genotype-phenotype association was mediated through white matter tract integrity in speech-language circuitry. Risk genotype at rs7794745 was associated with decreased benefit from visual speech and lower fractional anisotropy (FA) in several WM tracts (right precentral gyrus, left anterior corona radiata, right retrolenticular internal capsule). These structural connectivity differences were found to mediate the effect of genotype on audiovisual speech perception, shedding light on possible pathogenic pathways in autism and biological sources of inter-individual variation in audiovisual speech processing in neurotypicals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Deep Sequencing of 71 Candidate Genes to Characterize Variation Associated with Alcohol Dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Shaunna L; McClay, Joseph L; Adkins, Daniel E; Kumar, Gaurav; Aberg, Karolina A; Nerella, Srilaxmi; Xie, Linying; Collins, Ann L; Crowley, James J; Quackenbush, Corey R; Hilliard, Christopher E; Shabalin, Andrey A; Vrieze, Scott I; Peterson, Roseann E; Copeland, William E; Silberg, Judy L; McGue, Matt; Maes, Hermine; Iacono, William G; Sullivan, Patrick F; Costello, Elizabeth J; van den Oord, Edwin J

    2017-04-01

    Previous genomewide association studies (GWASs) have identified a number of putative risk loci for alcohol dependence (AD). However, only a few loci have replicated and these replicated variants only explain a small proportion of AD risk. Using an innovative approach, the goal of this study was to generate hypotheses about potentially causal variants for AD that can be explored further through functional studies. We employed targeted capture of 71 candidate loci and flanking regions followed by next-generation deep sequencing (mean coverage 78X) in 806 European Americans. Regions included in our targeted capture library were genes identified through published GWAS of alcohol, all human alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenases, reward system genes including dopaminergic and opioid receptors, prioritized candidate genes based on previous associations, and genes involved in the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of drugs. We performed single-locus tests to determine if any single variant was associated with AD symptom count. Sets of variants that overlapped with biologically meaningful annotations were tested for association in aggregate. No single, common variant was significantly associated with AD in our study. We did, however, find evidence for association with several variant sets. Two variant sets were significant at the q-value <0.10 level: a genic enhancer for ADHFE1 (p = 1.47 × 10 -5 ; q = 0.019), an alcohol dehydrogenase, and ADORA1 (p = 5.29 × 10 -5 ; q = 0.035), an adenosine receptor that belongs to a G-protein-coupled receptor gene family. To our knowledge, this is the first sequencing study of AD to examine variants in entire genes, including flanking and regulatory regions. We found that in addition to protein coding variant sets, regulatory variant sets may play a role in AD. From these findings, we have generated initial functional hypotheses about how these sets may influence AD. Copyright © 2017 by the Research Society on

  8. Allelic Variation of Bile Salt Hydrolase Genes in Lactobacillus salivarius Does Not Determine Bile Resistance Levels▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Fang; Li, Yin; Bumann, Mario; Raftis, Emma J.; Casey, Pat G.; Cooney, Jakki C.; Walsh, Martin A.; O'Toole, Paul W.

    2009-01-01

    Commensal lactobacilli frequently produce bile salt hydrolase (Bsh) enzymes whose roles in intestinal survival are unclear. Twenty-six Lactobacillus salivarius strains from different sources all harbored a bsh1 allele on their respective megaplasmids. This allele was related to the plasmid-borne bsh1 gene of the probiotic strain UCC118. A second locus (bsh2) was found in the chromosomes of two strains that had higher bile resistance levels. Four Bsh1-encoding allele groups were identified, defined by truncations or deletions involving a conserved residue. In vitro analyses showed that this allelic variation was correlated with widely varying bile deconjugation phenotypes. Despite very low activity of the UCC118 Bsh1 enzyme, a mutant lacking this protein had significantly lower bile resistance, both in vitro and during intestinal transit in mice. However, the overall bile resistance phenotype of this and other strains was independent of the bsh1 allele type. Analysis of the L. salivarius transcriptome upon exposure to bile and cholate identified a multiplicity of stress response proteins and putative efflux proteins that appear to broadly compensate for, or mask, the effects of allelic variation of bsh genes. Bsh enzymes with different bile-degrading kinetics, though apparently not the primary determinants of bile resistance in L. salivarius, may have additional biological importance because of varying effects upon bile as a signaling molecule in the host. PMID:19592587

  9. Variations among Japanese of the factor IX gene (F9) detected by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satoh, Chiyoko; Takahashi, Norio; Asakawa, Junichi; Hiyama, Keiko; Kodaira, Meiko (Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Hiroshima (Japan))

    1993-01-01

    In the course of feasibility studies to examine the efficiencies and practicalities of various techniques for screening for genetic variations, the human coagulation factor IX (F9) genes of 63 Japanese families were examined by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE). Four target sequences with lengths of 983-2,891 bp from the F9 genes of 126 unrelated individuals from Hiroshima and their 100 children were amplified by PCR, digested with restriction enzymes to approximately 500-bp fragments, and examined by DGGE - a total of 6,724 bp being examined per individual. GC-rich sequences (GC-clamps) of 40 bp were attached to both ends of the target sequences, as far as was feasible. Eleven types of new nucleotide substitutions were detected in the population, none of which produced RFLPs or caused hemophilia B. By examining two target sequences in a single lane, approximately 8,000 bp in a diploid individual could be examined. This approach is very effective for the detection of variations in DNA and is applicable to large-scale population studies. 46 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Mechanism and Effect of Temperature on Variations in Antibiotic Resistance Genes during Anaerobic Digestion of Dairy Manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei; Qian, Xun; Gu, Jie; Wang, Xiao-Juan; Duan, Man-Li

    2016-07-01

    Animal manure comprises an important reservoir for antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), but the variation in ARGs during anaerobic digestion at various temperatures and its underlying mechanism remain unclear. Thus, we performed anaerobic digestion using dairy manure at three temperature levels (moderate: 20 °C, mesophilic: 35 °C, and thermophilic: 55 °C), to analyze the dynamics of ARGs and bacterial communities by quantitative PCR and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. We found that 8/10 detected ARGs declined and 5/10 decreased more than 1.0 log during thermophilic digestion, whereas only four and five ARGs decreased during moderate and mesophilic digestion, respectively. The changes in ARGs and bacterial communities were similar under the moderate and mesophilic treatments, but distinct from those in the thermophilic system. Potential pathogens such as Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, and Corynebacterium were removed by thermophilic digestion but not by moderate and mesophilic digestion. The bacterial community succession was the dominant mechanism that influenced the variation in ARGs and integrons during anaerobic digestion. Thermophilic digestion decreased the amount of mesophilic bacteria (Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria) carrying ARGs. Anaerobic digestion generally decreased the abundance of integrons by eliminating the aerobic hosts of integrons (Actinomycetales and Bacilli). Thermophilic anaerobic digestion is recommended for the treatment and reuse of animal manure.

  11. Mechanism and Effect of Temperature on Variations in Antibiotic Resistance Genes during Anaerobic Digestion of Dairy Manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei; Qian, Xun; Gu, Jie; Wang, Xiao-Juan; Duan, Man-Li

    2016-07-22

    Animal manure comprises an important reservoir for antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), but the variation in ARGs during anaerobic digestion at various temperatures and its underlying mechanism remain unclear. Thus, we performed anaerobic digestion using dairy manure at three temperature levels (moderate: 20 °C, mesophilic: 35 °C, and thermophilic: 55 °C), to analyze the dynamics of ARGs and bacterial communities by quantitative PCR and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. We found that 8/10 detected ARGs declined and 5/10 decreased more than 1.0 log during thermophilic digestion, whereas only four and five ARGs decreased during moderate and mesophilic digestion, respectively. The changes in ARGs and bacterial communities were similar under the moderate and mesophilic treatments, but distinct from those in the thermophilic system. Potential pathogens such as Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, and Corynebacterium were removed by thermophilic digestion but not by moderate and mesophilic digestion. The bacterial community succession was the dominant mechanism that influenced the variation in ARGs and integrons during anaerobic digestion. Thermophilic digestion decreased the amount of mesophilic bacteria (Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria) carrying ARGs. Anaerobic digestion generally decreased the abundance of integrons by eliminating the aerobic hosts of integrons (Actinomycetales and Bacilli). Thermophilic anaerobic digestion is recommended for the treatment and reuse of animal manure.

  12. Mechanism and Effect of Temperature on Variations in Antibiotic Resistance Genes during Anaerobic Digestion of Dairy Manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei; Qian, Xun; Gu, Jie; Wang, Xiao-Juan; Duan, Man-Li

    2016-01-01

    Animal manure comprises an important reservoir for antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), but the variation in ARGs during anaerobic digestion at various temperatures and its underlying mechanism remain unclear. Thus, we performed anaerobic digestion using dairy manure at three temperature levels (moderate: 20 °C, mesophilic: 35 °C, and thermophilic: 55 °C), to analyze the dynamics of ARGs and bacterial communities by quantitative PCR and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. We found that 8/10 detected ARGs declined and 5/10 decreased more than 1.0 log during thermophilic digestion, whereas only four and five ARGs decreased during moderate and mesophilic digestion, respectively. The changes in ARGs and bacterial communities were similar under the moderate and mesophilic treatments, but distinct from those in the thermophilic system. Potential pathogens such as Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, and Corynebacterium were removed by thermophilic digestion but not by moderate and mesophilic digestion. The bacterial community succession was the dominant mechanism that influenced the variation in ARGs and integrons during anaerobic digestion. Thermophilic digestion decreased the amount of mesophilic bacteria (Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria) carrying ARGs. Anaerobic digestion generally decreased the abundance of integrons by eliminating the aerobic hosts of integrons (Actinomycetales and Bacilli). Thermophilic anaerobic digestion is recommended for the treatment and reuse of animal manure. PMID:27444518

  13. Alterations in the Spectrum of Spontaneous Rifampicin-Resistance Mutations in the Bacillus subtilis rpoB Gene after Cultivation in the Human Spaceflight Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajardo-Cavazos, Patricia; Leehan, Joshua D; Nicholson, Wayne L

    2018-01-01

    The effect of Bacillus subtilis exposure to the human spaceflight environment on growth, mutagenic frequency, and spectrum of mutations to rifampicin resistance (Rif R ) was investigated. B. subtilis cells were cultivated in Biological Research in Canister-Petri Dish Fixation Units (BRIC-PDFUs) on two separate missions to the International Space Station (ISS), dubbed BRIC-18 and BRIC-21, with matching asynchronous ground controls. No statistically significant difference in either growth or in the frequency of mutation to Rif R was found in either experiment. However, nucleotide sequencing of the Rif R regions of the rpoB gene from Rif R mutants revealed dramatic differences in the spectrum of mutations between flight (FL) and ground control (GC) samples, including two newly discovered rpoB alleles in the FL samples (Q137R and L489S). The results strengthen the idea that exposure to the human spaceflight environment causes unique stresses on bacteria, leading to alterations in their mutagenic potential.

  14. Association between variations in the disrupted in schizophrenia 1 gene and schizophrenia: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yiliang; Ren, Jun; Ye, Haihong

    2018-04-20

    Schizophrenia is a severe psychiatric disorder. Genetic and functional studies have strongly implicated the disrupted in schizophrenia 1 gene (DISC1) as a candidate susceptibility gene for schizophrenia. Moreover, recent association studies have indicated that several DISC1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are associated with schizophrenia. However, the association is hardly replicate in different ethnic group. Here, we performed a meta-analysis of the association between DISC1 SNPs and schizophrenia in which the samples were divided into subgroups according to ethnicity. Both rs3738401 and rs821616 showed not significantly association with schizophrenia in the Caucasian, Asian, Japanese or Han Chinese populations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Gene flow and geographic variation in natural populations of Alnus acuminata ssp. arguta (Fagales: Betulaceae in Costa Rica and Panama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olman Murillo

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Seventeen natural populations in Costa Rica and Panama were used to asses gene flow and geographic patterns of genetic variation in this tree species. Gene flow analysis was based on the methods of rare alleles and FST (Index of genetic similarity M, using the only four polymorphic gene loci among 22 investigated (PGI-B, PGM-A, MNR-A and IDH-A. The geographic variation analysis was based on Pearson`s correlations between four geographic and 14 genetic variables. Some evidence of isolation by distance and a weak gene flow among geographic regions was found. Patterns of clinal variation in relation to altitude (r = -0.62 for genetic diversity and latitude (r= -0.77 for PGI-B3 were also observed, supporting the hypothesis of isolation by distance. No private alleles were found at the single population level.Diecisiete poblaciones naturales de esta especie forestal en Costa Rica y Panamá, fueron investigadas en relación con sus patrones de flujo genético y de variación geográfica. El análisis de flujo genético fue basado en los métodos de los alelos raros y de FST (Indice de similaridad genética M. Los análisis fueron a su vez basados en los únicos cuatro loci genéticos de un total de 22 investigados que mostraron polimorfismo (PGI-B, PGM-A, MNR-A and IDH-A. Los análisis de variación geográfica fueron basados en el desarrollo de correlaciones de Pearson entre 4 variables geográficas y 14 variables genéticas. Alguna evidencia de aislamiento por distancia así como un débil flujo genético entre regiones geográficas fue encontrado. Fueron también observados patrones de variación clinal en relación con la altitud (r = -0.62 para la diversidad genética y latitud (r= -0.77 en PGI-B3, que apoyan la hipotesis de aislamiento por distancia para esta especie. No se encontraron alelos privados en ninguna de las poblaciones investigadas.

  16. Genes and genetic variations involved in the development of hypertension: focusing on a Greek patient cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouremenos, Nikolaos; Zacharopoulou, Ioanna V; Triantafyllidi, Helen; Zacharopoulos, Georgios V; Mornos, Cristian; Filippatos, Gerasimos; Lekakis, John; Kremastinos, Dimitrios; Manolis, Athanasios I; Gavras, Haralambos

    2014-01-01

    Essential hypertension (HTN) is a multifactorial disease involving environmental, genetic and other factors. Over the past years, genetic studies of essential HTN have increased dramatically but the molecular mechanisms involved are still unknown. As part of a research program coordinated by Boston university (USA), we studied the role of various genes and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the inheritance or the onset of HTN in African-American, Caucasian-American and Greek families. Among 128 Greek families with a history of HTN, we studied 1474 people. Of the total examined, 273 men and 286 women were hypertensive. Based on 410 DNA samples from the hypertensive subjects, different SNPs were examined. An overall meta-analysis of the results from the Greek families, as well as a comparison with the 2 other groups (African-Americans and Caucasian-Americans), was performed. We report SNPs that are associated with the inheritance of HTN and are located either at the promoters of N-methyltransferase and catalase genes, or within the coding region of NEDD4L ubiquitin ligase gene, or SNPs in mitochondrial DNA of hypertensive probands. Furthermore, we clarified the role of hereditary predisposition in the development of HTN, showing that the presence of maternal HTN was significantly higher in African-Americans and Greeks compared to Caucasian-Americans (81.7%, 84.8%, and 65%), while the paternal HTN showed no such difference (50%, 48.3% and 44.9%), respectively. Although genetic factors that were correlated with HTN were identified, it was not possible to identify a single gene that should be targeted for the treatment of HTN. Nevertheless, the important role of the maternal hereditary predisposition to HTN in the Greek patients and the responsible genetic factors involved should be further examined.

  17. Natural variation of histone modification and its impact on gene expression in the rat genome

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rintisch, C.; Heinig, M.; Bauerfeind, A.; Schafer, S.; Mieth, Ch.; Patone, G.; Hummel, O.; Chen, W.; Cook, S.; Cuppen, E.; Colomé-Tatché, M.; Johannes, F.; Jansen, R. C.; Neil, H.; Werner, M.; Pravenec, Michal; Vingron, M.; Hubner, N.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 24, JUN (2014), s. 942-953 ISSN 1088-9051 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 7E10067; GA ČR(CZ) GAP301/10/0290; GA MŠk(CZ) LL1204 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : ChIP-seq * histone modification * gene expression * genetic linkage analysis Subject RIV: EB - Genetic s ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 14.630, year: 2014

  18. Global and disease-associated genetic variation in the human Fanconi anemia gene family

    OpenAIRE

    Rogers, Kai J.; Fu, Wenqing; Akey, Joshua M.; Monnat, Raymond J.

    2014-01-01

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is a human recessive genetic disease resulting from inactivating mutations in any of 16 FANC (Fanconi) genes. Individuals with FA are at high risk of developmental abnormalities, early bone marrow failure and leukemia. These are followed in the second and subsequent decades by a very high risk of carcinomas of the head and neck and anogenital region, and a small continuing risk of leukemia. In order to characterize base pair-level disease-associated (DA) and population gen...

  19. Genetic variations and haplotype diversity of the UGT1 gene cluster in the Chinese population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Yang

    Full Text Available Vertebrates require tremendous molecular diversity to defend against numerous small hydrophobic chemicals. UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs are a large family of detoxification enzymes that glucuronidate xenobiotics and endobiotics, facilitating their excretion from the body. The UGT1 gene cluster contains a tandem array of variable first exons, each preceded by a specific promoter, and a common set of downstream constant exons, similar to the genomic organization of the protocadherin (Pcdh, immunoglobulin, and T-cell receptor gene clusters. To assist pharmacogenomics studies in Chinese, we sequenced nine first exons, promoter and intronic regions, and five common exons of the UGT1 gene cluster in a population sample of 253 unrelated Chinese individuals. We identified 101 polymorphisms and found 15 novel SNPs. We then computed allele frequencies for each polymorphism and reconstructed their linkage disequilibrium (LD map. The UGT1 cluster can be divided into five linkage blocks: Block 9 (UGT1A9, Block 9/7/6 (UGT1A9, UGT1A7, and UGT1A6, Block 5 (UGT1A5, Block 4/3 (UGT1A4 and UGT1A3, and Block 3' UTR. Furthermore, we inferred haplotypes and selected their tagSNPs. Finally, comparing our data with those of three other populations of the HapMap project revealed ethnic specificity of the UGT1 genetic diversity in Chinese. These findings have important implications for future molecular genetic studies of the UGT1 gene cluster as well as for personalized medical therapies in Chinese.

  20. Variations in mismatch repair genes and colorectal cancer risk and clinical outcome

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vymetálková, Veronika; Pardini, B.; Rosa, F.; Di Gaetano, C.; Novotný, J.; Levý, M.; Buchler, T.; Slyšková, Jana; Vodičková, Ludmila; Naccarati, Alessio; Vodička, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 4 (2014), s. 259-265 ISSN 0267-8357 R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP304/11/P715; GA ČR GAP304/10/1286; GA MZd NT12025 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : colorectal cancer , , * mismatch repair genes * miRNA Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.793, year: 2014

  1. Genetic variation and epigenetic modification of the prodynorphin gene in peripheral blood cells in alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Addario, Claudio; Shchetynsky, Klementy; Pucci, Mariangela; Cifani, Carlo; Gunnar, Agneta; Vukojević, Vladana; Padyukov, Leonid; Terenius, Lars

    2017-06-02

    Dynorphins are critically involved in the development, maintenance and relapse of alcoholism. Alcohol-induced changes in the prodynorphin gene expression may be influenced by both gene polymorphisms and epigenetic modifications. The present study of human alcoholics aims to evaluate DNA methylation patterns in the prodynorphin gene (PDYN) promoter and to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with alcohol dependence and with altered DNA methylation. Genomic DNA was isolated from peripheral blood cells of alcoholics and healthy controls, and DNA methylation was studied in the PDYN promoter by bisulfite pyrosequencing. In alcoholics, DNA methylation increased in three of the seven CpG sites investigated, as well as in the average of the seven CpG sites. Data stratification showed lower increase in DNA methylation levels in individuals reporting craving and with higher levels of alcohol consumption. Association with alcoholism was observed for rs2235751 and the presence of the minor allele G was associated with reduced DNA methylation at PDYN promoter in females and younger subjects. Genetic and epigenetic factors within PDYN are related to risk for alcoholism, providing further evidence of its involvement on ethanol effects. These results might be of relevance for developing new biomarkers to predict disease trajectories and therapeutic outcome. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Gene expression profiling in the Cynomolgus macaque Macaca fascicularis shows variation within the normal birth range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vickers Mark H

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although an adverse early-life environment has been linked to an increased risk of developing the metabolic syndrome, the molecular mechanisms underlying altered disease susceptibility as well as their relevance to humans are largely unknown. Importantly, emerging evidence suggests that these effects operate within the normal range of birth weights and involve mechanisms of developmental palsticity rather than pathology. Method To explore this further, we utilised a non-human primate model Macaca fascicularis (Cynomolgus macaque which shares with humans the same progressive history of the metabolic syndrome. Using microarray we compared tissues from neonates in the average birth weight (50-75th centile to those of lower birth weight (5-25th centile and studied the effect of different growth trajectories within the normal range on gene expression levels in the umbilical cord, neonatal liver and skeletal muscle. Results We identified 1973 genes which were differentially expressed in the three tissue types between average and low birth weight animals (P Conclusion These differences in gene expression levels between animals in the upper and lower percentiles of the normal birth weight range may point towards early life metabolic adaptations that in later life result in differences in disease risk.

  3. Comparative metabolomics in primates reveals the effects of diet and gene regulatory variation on metabolic divergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blekhman, Ran; Perry, George H; Shahbaz, Sevini; Fiehn, Oliver; Clark, Andrew G; Gilad, Yoav

    2014-07-28

    Human diets differ from those of non-human primates. Among few obvious differences, humans consume more meat than most non-human primates and regularly cook their food. It is hypothesized that a dietary shift during human evolution has been accompanied by molecular adaptations in metabolic pathways. Consistent with this notion, comparative studies of gene expression levels in primates have found that the regulation of genes with metabolic functions tend to evolve rapidly in the human lineage. The metabolic consequences of these regulatory differences, however, remained unknown. To address this gap, we performed a comparative study using a combination of gene expression and metabolomic profiling in livers from humans, chimpanzees, and rhesus macaques. We show that dietary differences between species have a strong effect on metabolic concentrations. In addition, we found that differences in metabolic concentration across species are correlated with inter-species differences in the expression of the corresponding enzymes, which control the same metabolic reaction. We identified a number of metabolic compounds with lineage-specific profiles, including examples of human-species metabolic differences that may be directly related to dietary differences.

  4. Inherited variations in the SOD and GPX gene families and cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuzhalin, Arseniy E; Kutikhin, Anton G

    2012-05-01

    Antioxidant defence enzymes are essential protectors of living organisms against oxidative stress. These enzymes are involved in the detoxification and decomposition of harmful chemical compounds called reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are, first and foremost, a source of intracellular oxidative stress. ROS directly promote the oxidative damage of genes resulting in aberrant regulation of many vital cell processes. As a consequence, the presence of ROS can lead to genomic instability, deregulation of transcription, induction of mitogenic signal transduction pathways and replication errors, all of which may increase the risk of cancer development. Single nucleotide polymorphisms of antioxidant defence genes may significantly modify the functional activity of the encoded proteins; therefore, certain alleles can be established as risk factors for particular cancer types. In the future, these risk alleles may be utilized as genomic markers of cancer predisposition to allow for early prevention measures among carriers of these alleles. The review is devoted to common single nucleotide polymorphisms of the superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) gene families and their impact on carcinogenesis. The predictive significance of several polymorphisms was determined, and these polymorphisms were recommended for further in-depth research.

  5. Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor α4 Subunit Gene Variation Associated with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Xuezhu; XU Yong; LI Qianqian; LIU Pozi; YANG Yuan; ZHANG Fuquan; GUO Tianyou; YANG Chuang; GUO Lanting

    2009-01-01

    Previous pharmacological, human genetics, and animal models have implicated the nicotinic ace-tylcholine receptor a4 subunit (CHRNA4) gene in the pathogenesis of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The objective of this study is to examine the genetic association between single nucleotide poly-morphisms in the CHRNA4 gene (rs2273502, rs1044396, rs1044397, and rs3827020 loci) and ADHD. Both case-control and family-based designs are used. Children aged 6 to 16 years were interviewed and as-sessed with the children behavior checklist and the revised conner' parent rating scale to identify probands. No significant differences in the frequency distribution of genotypes or alleles were found between the case and control groups. However, further haplotype analyses showed the CCGG haplotype on dsk for ADHD in 164 case-control samples and the standard transmission disequilibrium test analyses suggest that the allele C of rs2273502 was over-transferred in 98 ADHD parent-offspring tdos. These findings suggest that the CHRNA4 gene may play a role in the pathogenesis of ADHD.

  6. Copy number variation and association analysis of SHANK3 as a candidate gene for autism in the IMGSAC collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykes, Nuala H; Toma, Claudio; Wilson, Natalie; Volpi, Emanuela V; Sousa, Inês; Pagnamenta, Alistair T; Tancredi, Raffaella; Battaglia, Agatino; Maestrini, Elena; Bailey, Anthony J; Monaco, Anthony P

    2009-10-01

    SHANK3 is located on chromosome 22q13.3 and encodes a scaffold protein that is found in excitatory synapses opposite the pre-synaptic active zone. SHANK3 is a binding partner of neuroligins, some of whose genes contain mutations in a small subset of individuals with autism. In individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), several studies have found SHANK3 to be disrupted by deletions ranging from hundreds of kilobases to megabases, suggesting that 1% of individuals with ASDs may have these chromosomal aberrations. To further analyse the involvement of SHANK3 in ASD, we screened the International Molecular Genetic Study of Autism Consortium (IMGSAC) multiplex family sample, 330 families, for SNP association and copy number variants (CNVs) in SHANK3. A collection of 76 IMGSAC Italian probands from singleton families was also examined by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification for CNVs. No CNVs or SNP associations were found within the sample set, although sequencing of the gene was not performed. Our data suggest that SHANK3 deletions may be limited to lower functioning individuals with autism.

  7. Variation in soil aluminium tolerance genes is associated with local adaptation to soils at the Park Grass Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Billie; McCouch, Susan; Geber, Monica

    2014-12-01

    Studies of the wild grass Anthoxanthum odoratum at the long-term Park Grass Experiment (PGE, Harpenden, UK) document a well-known example of rapid plant evolution in response to environmental change. Repeated fertilizer applications have acidified the soil in some experimental plots over the past 150+ years, and Anthoxanthum subpopulations have quickly become locally adapted. Early reciprocal transplants showed subpopulation differentiation specifically in response to soil aluminium (Al) toxicity across the experiment, even at small (30 m) spatial scales. Almost 40 years after its original measurement, we reassessed the degree of local adaptation to soil Al at the PGE using updated phenotyping methods and identified genes with variation linked to the tolerance trait. Root growth assays show that plants are locally adapted to soil Al at both the seedling and adult growth stages, but to a smaller extent than previously inferred. Among a large suite of candidate loci that were previously shown to have Al-sensitive expression differences between sensitive and tolerant plants, three loci contained SNPs that are associated with both Al tolerance and soil acidity: an Al-sensitive malate transporter (ALMT), a tonoplast intrinsic protein (TIP) and the putative homolog of the rice cell-wall modification gene STAR1. Natural genetic variation at these loci is likely to have contributed to the recent rapid evolution at PGE. Continued study of Al tolerance variants in Anthoxanthum will allow us to test hypotheses about the nature and source of genetic variation that enables some species to adapt to soil acidification and other types of rapid environmental change. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Genetic analysis of a novel broad-spectrum powdery mildew resistance gene from the wheat-Agropyron cristatum introgression line Pubing 74.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yuqing; Yao, Miaomiao; Zhang, Jinpeng; Song, Liqiang; Liu, Weihua; Yang, Xinming; Li, Xiuquan; Li, Lihui

    2016-09-01

    A novel broad-spectrum powdery mildew resistance gene PmPB74 was identified in wheat- Agropyron cristatum introgression line Pubing 74. Development of wheat cultivars with broad-spectrum, durable resistance to powdery mildew has been restricted by lack of superior genetic resources. In this study, a wheat-A. cristatum introgression line Pubing 74, originally selected from a wide cross between the common wheat cultivar Fukuhokomugi (Fukuho) and Agropyron cristatum (L.) Gaertn (2n = 4x = 28; genome PPPP), displayed resistance to powdery mildew at both the seedling and adult stages. The putative alien chromosomal fragment in Pubing 74 was below the detection limit of genomic in situ hybridization (GISH), but evidence for other non-GISH-detectable introgressions was provided by the presence of three STS markers specific to A. cristatum. Genetic analysis indicated that Pubing 74 carried a single dominant gene for powdery mildew resistance, temporarily designated PmPB74. Molecular mapping showed that PmPB74 was located on wheat chromosome arm 5DS, and flanked by markers Xcfd81 and HRM02 at genetic distances of 2.5 and 1.7 cM, respectively. Compared with other lines with powdery mildew resistance gene(s) on wheat chromosome arm 5DS, Pubing 74 was resistant to all 28 Blumeria graminis f. sp tritici (Bgt) isolates from different wheat-producing regions of northern China. Allelism tests indicated that PmPB74 was not allelic to PmPB3558 or Pm2. Our work showed that PmPB74 is a novel gene with broad resistance to powdery mildew, and hence will be helpful in broadening the genetic basis of powdery mildew resistance in wheat.

  9. Spectrum of Phenylalanine Hydroxylase Gene Mutations in Hamadan and Lorestan Provinces of Iran and Their Associations with Variable Number of Tandem Repeat Alleles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Alibakhshi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Phenylketonuria (PKU is one of the most common known inherited metabolic diseases. The present study aimed to investigate the status of molecular defects in phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH gene in western Iranian PKU patients (predominantly from Kermanshah, Hamadan, and Lorestan provinces during 2014-2016. Additionally, the results were compared with similar studies in Iran. Nucleotide sequence analysis of all 13 exons and their flanking intronic regions of the PAH gene was performed in 18 western Iranian PKU patients. Moreover, a variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR located in the PAH gene was studied. The results revealed a mutational spectrum encompassing 11 distinct mutations distributed along the PAH gene sequence on 34 of the 36 mutant alleles (diagnostic efficiency of 94.4%. Also, four PAH VNTR alleles (with repeats of 3, 7, 8 and 9 were detected. The three most frequent mutations were IVS9+5G>A, IVS7-5T>C, and p.P281L with the frequency of 27.8%, 11%, and 11%, respectively. The results showed that there is not only a consanguineous relation, but also a difference in PAH characters of mutations between Kermanshah and the other two parts of western Iran (Hamadan and Lorestan. Also, it seems that the spectrum of mutations in western Iran is relatively distinct from other parts of the country, suggesting that this region might be a special PAH gene distribution region. Moreover, our findings can be useful in the identification of genotype to phenotype relationship in patients, and provide future abilities for confirmatory diagnostic testing, prognosis, and predict the severity of PKU patients.

  10. Spectrum of Phenylalanine Hydroxylase Gene Mutations in Hamadan and Lorestan Provinces of Iran and Their Associations with Variable Number of Tandem Repeat Alleles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alibakhshi, Reza; Moradi, Keivan; Biglari, Mostafa; Shafieenia, Samaneh

    2018-05-01

    Phenylketonuria (PKU) is one of the most common known inherited metabolic diseases. The present study aimed to investigate the status of molecular defects in phenylalanine hydroxylase ( PAH ) gene in western Iranian PKU patients (predominantly from Kermanshah, Hamadan, and Lorestan provinces) during 2014-2016. Additionally, the results were compared with similar studies in Iran. Nucleotide sequence analysis of all 13 exons and their flanking intronic regions of the PAH gene was performed in 18 western Iranian PKU patients. Moreover, a variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) located in the PAH gene was studied. The results revealed a mutational spectrum encompassing 11 distinct mutations distributed along the PAH gene sequence on 34 of the 36 mutant alleles (diagnostic efficiency of 94.4%). Also, four PAH VNTR alleles (with repeats of 3, 7, 8 and 9) were detected. The three most frequent mutations were IVS9+5G>A, IVS7-5T>C, and p.P281L with the frequency of 27.8%, 11%, and 11%, respectively. The results showed that there is not only a consanguineous relation, but also a difference in PAH characters of mutations between Kermanshah and the other two parts of western Iran (Hamadan and Lorestan). Also, it seems that the spectrum of mutations in western Iran is relatively distinct from other parts of the country, suggesting that this region might be a special PAH gene distribution region. Moreover, our findings can be useful in the identification of genotype to phenotype relationship in patients, and provide future abilities for confirmatory diagnostic testing, prognosis, and predict the severity of PKU patients.

  11. Prevalence and spectrum of large deletions or duplications in the major long QT syndrome-susceptibility genes and implications for long QT syndrome genetic testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tester, David J; Benton, Amber J; Train, Laura; Deal, Barbara; Baudhuin, Linnea M; Ackerman, Michael J

    2010-10-15

    Long QT syndrome (LQTS) is a cardiac channelopathy associated with syncope, seizures, and sudden death. Approximately 75% of LQTS is due to mutations in genes encoding for 3 cardiac ion channel α-subunits (LQT1 to LQT3). However, traditional mutational analyses have limited detection capabilities for atypical mutations such as large gene rearrangements. We set out to determine the prevalence and spectrum of large deletions/duplications in the major LQTS-susceptibility genes in unrelated patients who were mutation negative after point mutation analysis of LQT1- to LQT12-susceptibility genes. Forty-two unrelated, clinically strong LQTS patients were analyzed using multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification, a quantitative fluorescent technique for detecting multiple exon deletions and duplications. The SALSA multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification LQTS kit from MRC-Holland was used to analyze the 3 major LQTS-associated genes, KCNQ1, KCNH2, and SCN5A, and the 2 minor genes, KCNE1 and KCNE2. Overall, 2 gene rearrangements were found in 2 of 42 unrelated patients (4.8%, confidence interval 1.7 to 11). A deletion of KCNQ1 exon 3 was identified in a 10-year-old Caucasian boy with a corrected QT duration of 660 ms, a personal history of exercise-induced syncope, and a family history of syncope. A deletion of KCNQ1 exon 7 was identified in a 17-year-old Caucasian girl with a corrected QT duration of 480 ms, a personal history of exercise-induced syncope, and a family history of sudden cardiac death. In conclusion, because nearly 5% of patients with genetically elusive LQTS had large genomic rearrangements involving the canonical LQTS-susceptibility genes, reflex genetic testing to investigate genomic rearrangements may be of clinical value. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Triarchic Psychopathy Dimensions in Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes: Investigating Associations with Genetic