Chang Jeffrey T
Full Text Available Abstract Background The biological phenotype of a cell, such as a characteristic visual image or behavior, reflects activities derived from the expression of collections of genes. As such, an ability to measure the expression of these genes provides an opportunity to develop more precise and varied sets of phenotypes. However, to use this approach requires computational methods that are difficult to implement and apply, and thus there is a critical need for intelligent software tools that can reduce the technical burden of the analysis. Tools for gene expression analyses are unusually difficult to implement in a user-friendly way because their application requires a combination of biological data curation, statistical computational methods, and database expertise. Results We have developed SIGNATURE, a web-based resource that simplifies gene expression signature analysis by providing software, data, and protocols to perform the analysis successfully. This resource uses Bayesian methods for processing gene expression data coupled with a curated database of gene expression signatures, all carried out within a GenePattern web interface for easy use and access. Conclusions SIGNATURE is available for public use at http://genepattern.genome.duke.edu/signature/.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of gene signatures can potentially be of considerable value in the field of clinical diagnosis. However, gene signatures defined with different methods can be quite various even when applied the same disease and the same endpoint. Previous studies have shown that the correct selection of subsets of genes from microarray data is key for the accurate classification of disease phenotypes, and a number of methods have been proposed for the purpose. However, these methods refine the subsets by only considering each single feature, and they do not confirm the association between the genes identified in each gene signature and the phenotype of the disease. We proposed an innovative new method termed Minimize Feature's Size (MFS based on multiple level similarity analyses and association between the genes and disease for breast cancer endpoints by comparing classifier models generated from the second phase of MicroArray Quality Control (MAQC-II, trying to develop effective meta-analysis strategies to transform the MAQC-II signatures into a robust and reliable set of biomarker for clinical applications. Results We analyzed the similarity of the multiple gene signatures in an endpoint and between the two endpoints of breast cancer at probe and gene levels, the results indicate that disease-related genes can be preferably selected as the components of gene signature, and that the gene signatures for the two endpoints could be interchangeable. The minimized signatures were built at probe level by using MFS for each endpoint. By applying the approach, we generated a much smaller set of gene signature with the similar predictive power compared with those gene signatures from MAQC-II. Conclusions Our results indicate that gene signatures of both large and small sizes could perform equally well in clinical applications. Besides, consistency and biological significances can be detected among different gene signatures, reflecting the
Full Text Available Kashin-Beck Disease (KBD is an endemic osteochondropathy with an unknown pathogenesis. Diagnosis of KBD is effective only in advanced cases, which eliminates the possibility of early treatment and leads to an inevitable exacerbation of symptoms. Therefore, we aim to identify an accurate blood-based gene signature for the detection of KBD. Previously published gene expression profile data on cartilage and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs from adults with KBD were compared to select potential target genes. Microarray analysis was conducted to evaluate the expression of the target genes in a cohort of 100 KBD patients and 100 healthy controls. A gene expression signature was identified using a training set, which was subsequently validated using an independent test set with a minimum redundancy maximum relevance (mRMR algorithm and support vector machine (SVM algorithm. Fifty unique genes were differentially expressed between KBD patients and healthy controls. A 20-gene signature was identified that distinguished between KBD patients and controls with 90% accuracy, 85% sensitivity, and 95% specificity. This study identified a 20-gene signature that accurately distinguishes between patients with KBD and controls using peripheral blood samples. These results promote the further development of blood-based genetic biomarkers for detection of KBD.
Full Text Available Discovery of prognostic and diagnostic biomarker gene signatures for diseases, such as cancer, is seen as a major step towards a better personalized medicine. During the last decade various methods, mainly coming from the machine learning or statistical domain, have been proposed for that purpose. However, one important obstacle for making gene signatures a standard tool in clinical diagnosis is the typical low reproducibility of these signatures combined with the difficulty to achieve a clear biological interpretation. For that purpose in the last years there has been a growing interest in approaches that try to integrate information from molecular interaction networks. Here we review the current state of research in this field by giving an overview about so-far proposed approaches.
Full Text Available Several studies have reported gene expression signatures that predict recurrence risk in stage II and III colorectal cancer (CRC patients with minimal gene membership overlap and undefined biological relevance. The goal of this study was to investigate biological themes underlying these signatures, to infer genes of potential mechanistic importance to the CRC recurrence phenotype and to test whether accurate prognostic models can be developed using mechanistically important genes.We investigated eight published CRC gene expression signatures and found no functional convergence in Gene Ontology enrichment analysis. Using a random walk-based approach, we integrated these signatures and publicly available somatic mutation data on a protein-protein interaction network and inferred 487 genes that were plausible candidate molecular underpinnings for the CRC recurrence phenotype. We named the list of 487 genes a NEM signature because it integrated information from Network, Expression, and Mutation. The signature showed significant enrichment in four biological processes closely related to cancer pathophysiology and provided good coverage of known oncogenes, tumor suppressors, and CRC-related signaling pathways. A NEM signature-based Survival Support Vector Machine prognostic model was trained using a microarray gene expression dataset and tested on an independent dataset. The model-based scores showed a 75.7% concordance with the real survival data and separated patients into two groups with significantly different relapse-free survival (p = 0.002. Similar results were obtained with reversed training and testing datasets (p = 0.007. Furthermore, adjuvant chemotherapy was significantly associated with prolonged survival of the high-risk patients (p = 0.006, but not beneficial to the low-risk patients (p = 0.491.The NEM signature not only reflects CRC biology but also informs patient prognosis and treatment response. Thus, the network
Edoardo M Airoldi
Full Text Available Maintaining balanced growth in a changing environment is a fundamental systems-level challenge for cellular physiology, particularly in microorganisms. While the complete set of regulatory and functional pathways supporting growth and cellular proliferation are not yet known, portions of them are well understood. In particular, cellular proliferation is governed by mechanisms that are highly conserved from unicellular to multicellular organisms, and the disruption of these processes in metazoans is a major factor in the development of cancer. In this paper, we develop statistical methodology to identify quantitative aspects of the regulatory mechanisms underlying cellular proliferation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We find that the expression levels of a small set of genes can be exploited to predict the instantaneous growth rate of any cellular culture with high accuracy. The predictions obtained in this fashion are robust to changing biological conditions, experimental methods, and technological platforms. The proposed model is also effective in predicting growth rates for the related yeast Saccharomyces bayanus and the highly diverged yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, suggesting that the underlying regulatory signature is conserved across a wide range of unicellular evolution. We investigate the biological significance of the gene expression signature that the predictions are based upon from multiple perspectives: by perturbing the regulatory network through the Ras/PKA pathway, observing strong upregulation of growth rate even in the absence of appropriate nutrients, and discovering putative transcription factor binding sites, observing enrichment in growth-correlated genes. More broadly, the proposed methodology enables biological insights about growth at an instantaneous time scale, inaccessible by direct experimental methods. Data and tools enabling others to apply our methods are available at http://function.princeton.edu/growthrate.
Paul, Sunirmal; Amundson, Sally A.
Purpose: In a large-scale radiologic emergency, estimates of exposure doses and radiation injury would be required for individuals without physical dosimeters. Current methods are inadequate for the task, so we are developing gene expression profiles for radiation biodosimetry. This approach could provide both an estimate of physical radiation dose and an indication of the extent of individual injury or future risk. Methods and Materials: We used whole genome microarray expression profiling as a discovery platform to identify genes with the potential to predict radiation dose across an exposure range relevant for medical decision making in a radiologic emergency. Human peripheral blood from 10 healthy donors was irradiated ex vivo, and global gene expression was measured both 6 and 24 h after exposure. Results: A 74-gene signature was identified that distinguishes between four radiation doses (0.5, 2, 5, and 8 Gy) and controls. More than one third of these genes are regulated by TP53. A nearest centroid classifier using these same 74 genes correctly predicted 98% of samples taken either 6 h or 24 h after treatment as unexposed, exposed to 0.5, 2, or ≥5 Gy. Expression patterns of five genes (CDKN1A, FDXR, SESN1, BBC3, and PHPT1) from this signature were also confirmed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Conclusion: The ability of a single gene set to predict radiation dose throughout a window of time without need for individual pre-exposure controls represents an important advance in the development of gene expression for biodosimetry
Hallett Robin M
Full Text Available Abstract Background The advent of global gene expression profiling has generated unprecedented insight into our molecular understanding of cancer, including breast cancer. For example, human breast cancer patients display significant diversity in terms of their survival, recurrence, metastasis as well as response to treatment. These patient outcomes can be predicted by the transcriptional programs of their individual breast tumors. Predictive gene signatures allow us to correctly classify human breast tumors into various risk groups as well as to more accurately target therapy to ensure more durable cancer treatment. Results Here we present a novel algorithm to generate gene signatures with predictive potential. The method first classifies the expression intensity for each gene as determined by global gene expression profiling as low, average or high. The matrix containing the classified data for each gene is then used to score the expression of each gene based its individual ability to predict the patient characteristic of interest. Finally, all examined genes are ranked based on their predictive ability and the most highly ranked genes are included in the master gene signature, which is then ready for use as a predictor. This method was used to accurately predict the survival outcomes in a cohort of human breast cancer patients. Conclusions We confirmed the capacity of our algorithm to generate gene signatures with bona fide predictive ability. The simplicity of our algorithm will enable biological researchers to quickly generate valuable gene signatures without specialized software or extensive bioinformatics training.
Full Text Available Background: Breast cancer is intrinsically heterogeneous and is commonly classified into four main subtypes associated with distinct biological features and clinical outcomes. However, currently available data resources and methods are limited in identifying molecular subtyping on protein-coding genes, and little is known about the roles of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs, which occupies 98% of the whole genome. lncRNAs may also play important roles in subgrouping cancer patients and are associated with clinical phenotypes. Methods: The purpose of this project was to identify lncRNA gene signatures that are associated with breast cancer subtypes and clinical outcomes. We identified lncRNA gene signatures from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA RNAseq data that are associated with breast cancer subtypes by an optimized 1-Norm SVM feature selection algorithm. We evaluated the prognostic performance of these gene signatures with a semi-supervised principal component (superPC method. Results: Although lncRNAs can independently predict breast cancer subtypes with satisfactory accuracy, a combined gene signature including both coding and non-coding genes will give the best clinically relevant prediction performance. We highlighted eight potential biomarkers (three from coding genes and five from non-coding genes that are significantly associated with survival outcomes. Conclusion: Our proposed methods are a novel means of identifying subtype-specific coding and non-coding potential biomarkers that are both clinically relevant and biologically significant.
Tan, Jie; Huyck, Matthew; Hu, Dongbo; Zelaya, René A; Hogan, Deborah A; Greene, Casey S
Gene set enrichment analysis and overrepresentation analyses are commonly used methods to determine the biological processes affected by a differential expression experiment. This approach requires biologically relevant gene sets, which are currently curated manually, limiting their availability and accuracy in many organisms without extensively curated resources. New feature learning approaches can now be paired with existing data collections to directly extract functional gene sets from big data. Here we introduce a method to identify perturbed processes. In contrast with methods that use curated gene sets, this approach uses signatures extracted from public expression data. We first extract expression signatures from public data using ADAGE, a neural network-based feature extraction approach. We next identify signatures that are differentially active under a given treatment. Our results demonstrate that these signatures represent biological processes that are perturbed by the experiment. Because these signatures are directly learned from data without supervision, they can identify uncurated or novel biological processes. We implemented ADAGE signature analysis for the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. For the convenience of different user groups, we implemented both an R package (ADAGEpath) and a web server ( http://adage.greenelab.com ) to run these analyses. Both are open-source to allow easy expansion to other organisms or signature generation methods. We applied ADAGE signature analysis to an example dataset in which wild-type and ∆anr mutant cells were grown as biofilms on the Cystic Fibrosis genotype bronchial epithelial cells. We mapped active signatures in the dataset to KEGG pathways and compared with pathways identified using GSEA. The two approaches generally return consistent results; however, ADAGE signature analysis also identified a signature that revealed the molecularly supported link between the MexT regulon and Anr. We designed
Almstrup, Kristian; Leffers, Henrik; Lothe, Ragnhild A
on global gene expression in testicular CIS have been previously published. We have merged the two data sets on CIS samples (n = 6) and identified the shared gene expression signature in relation to expression in normal testis. Among the top-20 highest expressed genes, one-third was transcription factors...... development' were significantly altered and could collectively affect cellular pathways like the WNT signalling cascade, which thus may be disrupted in testicular CIS. The merged CIS data from two different microarray platforms, to our knowledge, provide the most precise CIS gene expression signature to date....
Kruhøffer, M; Jensen, J L; Laiho, P
The majority of microsatellite instable (MSI) colorectal cancers are sporadic, but a subset belongs to the syndrome hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC). Microsatellite instability is caused by dysfunction of the mismatch repair (MMR) system that leads to a mutator phenotype, and MSI...... of 101 stage II and III colorectal cancers (34 MSI, 67 microsatellite stable (MSS)) using high-density oligonucleotide microarrays. From these data, we constructed a nine-gene signature capable of separating the mismatch repair proficient and deficient tumours. Subsequently, we demonstrated...... is correlated to prognosis and response to chemotherapy. Gene expression signatures as predictive markers are being developed for many cancers, and the identification of a signature for MMR deficiency would be of interest both clinically and biologically. To address this issue, we profiled the gene expression...
Full Text Available Gene expression-based signatures help identify pathways relevant to diseases and treatments, but are challenging to construct when there is a diversity of disease mechanisms and treatments in patients with complex diseases. To overcome this challenge, we present a new application of an in silico gene expression deconvolution method, ISOpure-S1, and apply it to identify a common gene expression signature corresponding to response to treatment in 33 juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA patients. Using pre- and post-treatment gene expression profiles only, we found a gene expression signature that significantly correlated with a reduction in the number of joints with active arthritis, a measure of clinical outcome (Spearman rho = 0.44, p = 0.040, Bonferroni correction. This signature may be associated with a decrease in T-cells, monocytes, neutrophils and platelets. The products of most differentially expressed genes include known biomarkers for JIA such as major histocompatibility complexes and interleukins, as well as novel biomarkers including α-defensins. This method is readily applicable to expression datasets of other complex diseases to uncover shared mechanistic patterns in heterogeneous samples.
Full Text Available PURPOSE: Thymoma represents one of the rarest of all malignancies. Stage and completeness of resection have been used to ascertain postoperative therapeutic strategies albeit with limited prognostic accuracy. A molecular classifier would be useful to improve the assessment of metastatic behaviour and optimize patient management. METHODS: qRT-PCR assay for 23 genes (19 test and four reference genes was performed on multi-institutional archival primary thymomas (n = 36. Gene expression levels were used to compute a signature, classifying tumors into classes 1 and 2, corresponding to low or high likelihood for metastases. The signature was validated in an independent multi-institutional cohort of patients (n = 75. RESULTS: A nine-gene signature that can predict metastatic behavior of thymomas was developed and validated. Using radial basis machine modeling in the training set, 5-year and 10-year metastasis-free survival rates were 77% and 26% for predicted low (class 1 and high (class 2 risk of metastasis (P = 0.0047, log-rank, respectively. For the validation set, 5-year metastasis-free survival rates were 97% and 30% for predicted low- and high-risk patients (P = 0.0004, log-rank, respectively. The 5-year metastasis-free survival rates for the validation set were 49% and 41% for Masaoka stages I/II and III/IV (P = 0.0537, log-rank, respectively. In univariate and multivariate Cox models evaluating common prognostic factors for thymoma metastasis, the nine-gene signature was the only independent indicator of metastases (P = 0.036. CONCLUSION: A nine-gene signature was established and validated which predicts the likelihood of metastasis more accurately than traditional staging. This further underscores the biologic determinants of the clinical course of thymoma and may improve patient management.
Purpose: To build a microRNA and gene signature of severe cutaneous adverse drug reactions (SCAR), including Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN). Methods: MicroRNA expression profiles were downloaded from miRNA expression profile of patients' skin suffering from TEN using an ...
Peter J M Openshaw
Full Text Available Peter Openshaw discusses the challenges in advancing respiratory syncytial virus (RSV treatments and the implications of a study by Mejias and colleagues using a newly identified gene signature for diagnosis and prediction of RSV severity. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.
Pal, Mainak; Pal, Amit Kumar; Ghosh, Sayantari; Bose, Indrani
Recently, a large number of studies have been carried out on the early signatures of sudden regime shifts in systems as diverse as ecosystems, financial markets, population biology and complex diseases. The signatures of regime shifts in gene expression dynamics are less systematically investigated. In this paper, we consider sudden regime shifts in the gene expression dynamics described by a fold-bifurcation model involving bistability and hysteresis. We consider two alternative models, models 1 and 2, of competence development in the bacterial population B. subtilis and determine some early signatures of the regime shifts between competence and noncompetence. We use both deterministic and stochastic formalisms for the purpose of our study. The early signatures studied include the critical slowing down as a transition point is approached, rising variance and the lag-1 autocorrelation function, skewness and a ratio of two mean first passage times. Some of the signatures could provide the experimental basis for distinguishing between bistability and excitability as the correct mechanism for the development of competence.
Pal, Mainak; Pal, Amit Kumar; Ghosh, Sayantari; Bose, Indrani
Recently, a large number of studies have been carried out on the early signatures of sudden regime shifts in systems as diverse as ecosystems, financial markets, population biology and complex diseases. The signatures of regime shifts in gene expression dynamics are less systematically investigated. In this paper, we consider sudden regime shifts in the gene expression dynamics described by a fold-bifurcation model involving bistability and hysteresis. We consider two alternative models, models 1 and 2, of competence development in the bacterial population B. subtilis and determine some early signatures of the regime shifts between competence and noncompetence. We use both deterministic and stochastic formalisms for the purpose of our study. The early signatures studied include the critical slowing down as a transition point is approached, rising variance and the lag-1 autocorrelation function, skewness and a ratio of two mean first passage times. Some of the signatures could provide the experimental basis for distinguishing between bistability and excitability as the correct mechanism for the development of competence. (paper)
Minafra, Luigi; Bravatà, Valentina; Cammarata, Francesco P; Russo, Giorgio; Gilardi, Maria C; Forte, Giusi I
In breast cancer (BC) care, radiation therapy (RT) is an efficient treatment to control localized tumor. Radiobiological research is needed to understand molecular differences that affect radiosensitivity of different tumor subtypes and the response variability. The aim of this study was to analyze gene expression profiling (GEP) in primary BC cells following irradiation with doses of 9 Gy and 23 Gy delivered by intraoperative electron radiation therapy (IOERT) in order to define gene signatures of response to high doses of ionizing radiation. We performed GEP by cDNA microarrays and evaluated cell survival after IOERT treatment in primary BC cell cultures. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was performed to validate candidate genes. We showed, for the first time, a 4-gene and a 6-gene signature, as new molecular biomarkers, in two primary BC cell cultures after exposure at 9 Gy and 23 Gy respectively, for which we observed a significantly high survival rate. Gene signatures activated by different doses of ionizing radiation may predict response to RT and contribute to defining a personalized biological-driven treatment plan. Copyright© 2018, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The huge amount of gene expression data generated by microarray and next-generation sequencing technologies present challenges to exploit their biological meanings. When searching for the coexpression genes, the data mining process is largely affected by selection of algorithms. Thus, it is highly desirable to provide multiple options of algorithms in the user-friendly analytical toolkit to explore the gene expression signatures. For this purpose, we developed GESearch, an interactive graphical user interface (GUI toolkit, which is written in MATLAB and supports a variety of gene expression data files. This analytical toolkit provides four models, including the mean, the regression, the delegate, and the ensemble models, to identify the coexpression genes, and enables the users to filter data and to select gene expression patterns by browsing the display window or by importing knowledge-based genes. Subsequently, the utility of this analytical toolkit is demonstrated by analyzing two sets of real-life microarray datasets from cell-cycle experiments. Overall, we have developed an interactive GUI toolkit that allows for choosing multiple algorithms for analyzing the gene expression signatures.
AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0107 TITLE: Tumor Microenvironment Gene Signature as a Prognostic Classifier and Therapeutic Target PRINCIPAL...AND SUBTITLE Tumor Microenvironment Gene Signature as a 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0107 Prognostic Classifier and Therapeutic Target 5b...gene signature that correlates with poor survival in ovarian cancer patients. We are refining this gene signature to develop biomarkers for the
Kanth, Priyanka; Bronner, Mary P.; Boucher, Kenneth M.; Burt, Randall W.; Neklason, Deborah W.; Hagedorn, Curt H.; Delker, Don A.
Sessile serrated colon adenoma/polyps (SSA/Ps) are found during routine screening colonoscopy and may account for 20–30% of colon cancers. However, differentiating SSA/Ps from hyperplastic polyps (HP) with little risk of cancer is challenging and complementary molecular markers are needed. Additionally, the molecular mechanisms of colon cancer development from SSA/Ps are poorly understood. RNA sequencing was performed on 21 SSA/Ps, 10 HPs, 10 adenomas, 21 uninvolved colon and 20 control colon specimens. Differential expression and leave-one-out cross validation methods were used to define a unique gene signature of SSA/Ps. Our SSA/P gene signature was evaluated in colon cancer RNA-Seq data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) to identify a subtype of colon cancers that may develop from SSA/Ps. A total of 1422 differentially expressed genes were found in SSA/Ps relative to controls. Serrated polyposis syndrome (n=12) and sporadic SSA/Ps (n=9) exhibited almost complete (96%) gene overlap. A 51-gene panel in SSA/P showed similar expression in a subset of TCGA colon cancers with high microsatellite instability (MSI-H). A smaller seven-gene panel showed high sensitivity and specificity in identifying BRAF mutant, CpG island methylator phenotype high (CIMP-H) and MLH1 silenced colon cancers. We describe a unique gene signature in SSA/Ps that identifies a subset of colon cancers likely to develop through the serrated pathway. These gene panels may be utilized for improved differentiation of SSA/Ps from HPs and provide insights into novel molecular pathways altered in colon cancer arising from the serrated pathway. PMID:27026680
Zhao, Xi; Naume, Bjørn; Langerød, Anita; Frigessi, Arnoldo; Kristensen, Vessela N.; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Lingjærde, Ole Christian
Background Several gene sets for prediction of breast cancer survival have been derived from whole-genome mRNA expression profiles. Here, we develop a statistical framework to explore whether combination of the information from such sets may improve prediction of recurrence and breast cancer specific death in early-stage breast cancers. Microarray data from two clinically similar cohorts of breast cancer patients are used as training (n = 123) and test set (n = 81), respectively. Gene sets from eleven previously published gene signatures are included in the study. Principal Findings To investigate the relationship between breast cancer survival and gene expression on a particular gene set, a Cox proportional hazards model is applied using partial likelihood regression with an L2 penalty to avoid overfitting and using cross-validation to determine the penalty weight. The fitted models are applied to an independent test set to obtain a predicted risk for each individual and each gene set. Hierarchical clustering of the test individuals on the basis of the vector of predicted risks results in two clusters with distinct clinical characteristics in terms of the distribution of molecular subtypes, ER, PR status, TP53 mutation status and histological grade category, and associated with significantly different survival probabilities (recurrence: p = 0.005; breast cancer death: p = 0.014). Finally, principal components analysis of the gene signatures is used to derive combined predictors used to fit a new Cox model. This model classifies test individuals into two risk groups with distinct survival characteristics (recurrence: p = 0.003; breast cancer death: p = 0.001). The latter classifier outperforms all the individual gene signatures, as well as Cox models based on traditional clinical parameters and the Adjuvant! Online for survival prediction. Conclusion Combining the predictive strength of multiple gene signatures improves prediction of breast
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Several gene sets for prediction of breast cancer survival have been derived from whole-genome mRNA expression profiles. Here, we develop a statistical framework to explore whether combination of the information from such sets may improve prediction of recurrence and breast cancer specific death in early-stage breast cancers. Microarray data from two clinically similar cohorts of breast cancer patients are used as training (n = 123 and test set (n = 81, respectively. Gene sets from eleven previously published gene signatures are included in the study. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To investigate the relationship between breast cancer survival and gene expression on a particular gene set, a Cox proportional hazards model is applied using partial likelihood regression with an L2 penalty to avoid overfitting and using cross-validation to determine the penalty weight. The fitted models are applied to an independent test set to obtain a predicted risk for each individual and each gene set. Hierarchical clustering of the test individuals on the basis of the vector of predicted risks results in two clusters with distinct clinical characteristics in terms of the distribution of molecular subtypes, ER, PR status, TP53 mutation status and histological grade category, and associated with significantly different survival probabilities (recurrence: p = 0.005; breast cancer death: p = 0.014. Finally, principal components analysis of the gene signatures is used to derive combined predictors used to fit a new Cox model. This model classifies test individuals into two risk groups with distinct survival characteristics (recurrence: p = 0.003; breast cancer death: p = 0.001. The latter classifier outperforms all the individual gene signatures, as well as Cox models based on traditional clinical parameters and the Adjuvant! Online for survival prediction. CONCLUSION: Combining the predictive strength of multiple gene signatures improves
Aubin-Horth, Nadia; Letcher, Benjamin H; Hofmann, Hans A
How genomic expression differs as a function of life history variation is largely unknown. Atlantic salmon exhibits extreme alternative life histories. We defined the gene-expression signatures of wild-caught salmon at two different life stages by comparing the brain expression profiles of mature sneaker males and immature males, and early migrants and late migrants. In addition to life-stage-specific signatures, we discovered a surprisingly large gene set that was differentially regulated-at similar magnitudes, yet in opposite direction-in both life history transitions. We suggest that this co-variation is not a consequence of many independent cellular and molecular switches in the same direction but rather represents the molecular equivalent of a physiological shift orchestrated by one or very few master regulators.
Aubin-Horth, N.; Letcher, B.H.; Hofmann, H.A.
How genomic expression differs as a function of life history variation is largely unknown. Atlantic salmon exhibits extreme alternative life histories. We defined the gene-expression signatures of wild-caught salmon at two different life stages by comparing the brain expression profiles of mature sneaker males and immature males, and early migrants and late migrants. In addition to life-stage-specific signatures, we discovered a surprisingly large gene set that was differentially regulated-at similar magnitudes, yet in opposite direction-in both life history transitions. We suggest that this co-variation is not a consequence of many independent cellular and molecular switches in the same direction but rather represents the molecular equivalent of a physiological shift orchestrated by one or very few master regulators. ?? 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Background There are currently three postulated genomic subtypes of the childhood tumour neuroblastoma (NB); Type 1, Type 2A, and Type 2B. The most aggressive forms of NB are characterized by amplification of the oncogene MYCN (MNA) and low expression of the favourable marker NTRK1. Recently, mutations or high expression of the familial predisposition gene Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase (ALK) was associated to unfavourable biology of sporadic NB. Also, various other genes have been linked to NB pathogenesis. Results The present study explores subgroup discrimination by gene expression profiling using three published microarray studies on NB (47 samples). Four distinct clusters were identified by Principal Components Analysis (PCA) in two separate data sets, which could be verified by an unsupervised hierarchical clustering in a third independent data set (101 NB samples) using a set of 74 discriminative genes. The expression signature of six NB-associated genes ALK, BIRC5, CCND1, MYCN, NTRK1, and PHOX2B, significantly discriminated the four clusters (p INSS stage 4 and/or dead of disease, p < 0.05, Fisher's exact test). Conclusions Based on expression profiling we have identified four molecular subgroups of neuroblastoma, which can be distinguished by a 6-gene signature. The fourth subgroup has not been described elsewhere, and efforts are currently made to further investigate this group's specific characteristics. PMID:21492432
Full Text Available Abstract Background There are currently three postulated genomic subtypes of the childhood tumour neuroblastoma (NB; Type 1, Type 2A, and Type 2B. The most aggressive forms of NB are characterized by amplification of the oncogene MYCN (MNA and low expression of the favourable marker NTRK1. Recently, mutations or high expression of the familial predisposition gene Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase (ALK was associated to unfavourable biology of sporadic NB. Also, various other genes have been linked to NB pathogenesis. Results The present study explores subgroup discrimination by gene expression profiling using three published microarray studies on NB (47 samples. Four distinct clusters were identified by Principal Components Analysis (PCA in two separate data sets, which could be verified by an unsupervised hierarchical clustering in a third independent data set (101 NB samples using a set of 74 discriminative genes. The expression signature of six NB-associated genes ALK, BIRC5, CCND1, MYCN, NTRK1, and PHOX2B, significantly discriminated the four clusters (p ALK, BIRC5, and PHOX2B, and was significantly associated with higher tumour stage, poor outcome and poor survival compared to the Type 1-corresponding favourable group (INSS stage 4 and/or dead of disease, p Conclusions Based on expression profiling we have identified four molecular subgroups of neuroblastoma, which can be distinguished by a 6-gene signature. The fourth subgroup has not been described elsewhere, and efforts are currently made to further investigate this group's specific characteristics.
Full Text Available Scleroderma is a clinically heterogeneous disease with a complex phenotype. The disease is characterized by vascular dysfunction, tissue fibrosis, internal organ dysfunction, and immune dysfunction resulting in autoantibody production.We analyzed the genome-wide patterns of gene expression with DNA microarrays in skin biopsies from distinct scleroderma subsets including 17 patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc with diffuse scleroderma (dSSc, 7 patients with SSc with limited scleroderma (lSSc, 3 patients with morphea, and 6 healthy controls. 61 skin biopsies were analyzed in a total of 75 microarray hybridizations. Analysis by hierarchical clustering demonstrates nearly identical patterns of gene expression in 17 out of 22 of the forearm and back skin pairs of SSc patients. Using this property of the gene expression, we selected a set of 'intrinsic' genes and analyzed the inherent data-driven groupings. Distinct patterns of gene expression separate patients with dSSc from those with lSSc and both are easily distinguished from normal controls. Our data show three distinct patient groups among the patients with dSSc and two groups among patients with lSSc. Each group can be distinguished by unique gene expression signatures indicative of proliferating cells, immune infiltrates and a fibrotic program. The intrinsic groups are statistically significant (p<0.001 and each has been mapped to clinical covariates of modified Rodnan skin score, interstitial lung disease, gastrointestinal involvement, digital ulcers, Raynaud's phenomenon and disease duration. We report a 177-gene signature that is associated with severity of skin disease in dSSc.Genome-wide gene expression profiling of skin biopsies demonstrates that the heterogeneity in scleroderma can be measured quantitatively with DNA microarrays. The diversity in gene expression demonstrates multiple distinct gene expression programs in the skin of patients with scleroderma.
Reynier, Frédéric; Petit, Fabien; Paye, Malick; Turrel-Davin, Fanny; Imbert, Pierre-Emmanuel; Hot, Arnaud; Mougin, Bruno; Miossec, Pierre
The analysis of gene expression data shows that many genes display similarity in their expression profiles suggesting some co-regulation. Here, we investigated the co-expression patterns in gene expression data and proposed a correlation-based research method to stratify individuals. Using blood from rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, we investigated the gene expression profiles from whole blood using Affymetrix microarray technology. Co-expressed genes were analyzed by a biclustering method, followed by gene ontology analysis of the relevant biclusters. Taking the type I interferon (IFN) pathway as an example, a classification algorithm was developed from the 102 RA patients and extended to 10 systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients and 100 healthy volunteers to further characterize individuals. We developed a correlation-based algorithm referred to as Classification Algorithm Based on a Biological Signature (CABS), an alternative to other approaches focused specifically on the expression levels. This algorithm applied to the expression of 35 IFN-related genes showed that the IFN signature presented a heterogeneous expression between RA, SLE and healthy controls which could reflect the level of global IFN signature activation. Moreover, the monitoring of the IFN-related genes during the anti-TNF treatment identified changes in type I IFN gene activity induced in RA patients. In conclusion, we have proposed an original method to analyze genes sharing an expression pattern and a biological function showing that the activation levels of a biological signature could be characterized by its overall state of correlation.
Abstract Background There are currently three postulated genomic subtypes of the childhood tumour neuroblastoma (NB); Type 1, Type 2A, and Type 2B. The most aggressive forms of NB are characterized by amplification of the oncogene MYCN (MNA) and low expression of the favourable marker NTRK1. Recently, mutations or high expression of the familial predisposition gene Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase (ALK) was associated to unfavourable biology of sporadic NB. Also, various other genes have been linked to NB pathogenesis. Results The present study explores subgroup discrimination by gene expression profiling using three published microarray studies on NB (47 samples). Four distinct clusters were identified by Principal Components Analysis (PCA) in two separate data sets, which could be verified by an unsupervised hierarchical clustering in a third independent data set (101 NB samples) using a set of 74 discriminative genes. The expression signature of six NB-associated genes ALK, BIRC5, CCND1, MYCN, NTRK1, and PHOX2B, significantly discriminated the four clusters (p < 0.05, one-way ANOVA test). PCA clusters p1, p2, and p3 were found to correspond well to the postulated subtypes 1, 2A, and 2B, respectively. Remarkably, a fourth novel cluster was detected in all three independent data sets. This cluster comprised mainly 11q-deleted MNA-negative tumours with low expression of ALK, BIRC5, and PHOX2B, and was significantly associated with higher tumour stage, poor outcome and poor survival compared to the Type 1-corresponding favourable group (INSS stage 4 and\\/or dead of disease, p < 0.05, Fisher\\'s exact test). Conclusions Based on expression profiling we have identified four molecular subgroups of neuroblastoma, which can be distinguished by a 6-gene signature. The fourth subgroup has not been described elsewhere, and efforts are currently made to further investigate this group\\'s specific characteristics.
Full Text Available Genes involved in the same function tend to have similar evolutionary histories, in that their rates of evolution covary over time. This coevolutionary signature, termed Evolutionary Rate Covariation (ERC, is calculated using only gene sequences from a set of closely related species and has demonstrated potential as a computational tool for inferring functional relationships between genes. To further define applications of ERC, we first established that roughly 55% of genetic diseases posses an ERC signature between their contributing genes. At a false discovery rate of 5% we report 40 such diseases including cancers, developmental disorders and mitochondrial diseases. Given these coevolutionary signatures between disease genes, we then assessed ERC's ability to prioritize known disease genes out of a list of unrelated candidates. We found that in the presence of an ERC signature, the true disease gene is effectively prioritized to the top 6% of candidates on average. We then apply this strategy to a melanoma-associated region on chromosome 1 and identify MCL1 as a potential causative gene. Furthermore, to gain global insight into disease mechanisms, we used ERC to predict molecular connections between 310 nominally distinct diseases. The resulting "disease map" network associates several diseases with related pathogenic mechanisms and unveils many novel relationships between clinically distinct diseases, such as between Hirschsprung's disease and melanoma. Taken together, these results demonstrate the utility of molecular evolution as a gene discovery platform and show that evolutionary signatures can be used to build informative gene-based networks.
Sergeant, Gregory; Eijsden, Rudy van; Roskams, Tania; Van Duppen, Victor; Topal, Baki
Most cancer deaths are caused by metastases, resulting from circulating tumor cells (CTC) that detach from the primary cancer and survive in distant organs. The aim of the present study was to develop a CTC gene signature and to assess its prognostic relevance after surgery for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Negative depletion fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) was developed and validated with spiking experiments using cancer cell lines in whole human blood samples. This FACS-based method was used to enrich for CTC from the blood of 10 patients who underwent surgery for PDAC. Total RNA was isolated from 4 subgroup samples, i.e. CTC, haematological cells (G), original tumour (T), and non-tumoural pancreatic control tissue (P). After RNA quality control, samples of 6 patients were eligible for further analysis. Whole genome microarray analysis was performed after double linear amplification of RNA. ‘Ingenuity Pathway Analysis’ software and AmiGO were used for functional data analyses. A CTC gene signature was developed and validated with the nCounter system on expression data of 78 primary PDAC using Cox regression analysis for disease-free (DFS) and overall survival (OS). Using stringent statistical analysis, we retained 8,152 genes to compare expression profiles of CTC vs. other subgroups, and found 1,059 genes to be differentially expressed. The pathway with the highest expression ratio in CTC was p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) signaling, known to be involved in cancer cell migration. In the p38 MAPK pathway, TGF-β1, cPLA2, and MAX were significantly upregulated. In addition, 9 other genes associated with both p38 MAPK signaling and cell motility were overexpressed in CTC. High co-expression of TGF-β1 and our cell motility panel (≥ 4 out of 9 genes for DFS and ≥ 6 out of 9 genes for OS) in primary PDAC was identified as an independent predictor of DFS (p=0.041, HR (95% CI) = 1.885 (1.025 – 3.559)) and OS (p=0.047, HR
Anders E. Berglund
Full Text Available Background. Many gene-expression signatures exist for describing the biological state of profiled tumors. Principal Component Analysis (PCA can be used to summarize a gene signature into a single score. Our hypothesis is that gene signatures can be validated when applied to new datasets, using inherent properties of PCA. Results. This validation is based on four key concepts. Coherence: elements of a gene signature should be correlated beyond chance. Uniqueness: the general direction of the data being examined can drive most of the observed signal. Robustness: if a gene signature is designed to measure a single biological effect, then this signal should be sufficiently strong and distinct compared to other signals within the signature. Transferability: the derived PCA gene signature score should describe the same biology in the target dataset as it does in the training dataset. Conclusions. The proposed validation procedure ensures that PCA-based gene signatures perform as expected when applied to datasets other than those that the signatures were trained upon. Complex signatures, describing multiple independent biological components, are also easily identified.
Full Text Available Drug induced steatosis (DIS is characterised by excess triglyceride accumulation in the form of lipid droplets (LD in liver cells. To explore mechanisms underlying DIS we interrogated the publically available microarray data from the Japanese Toxicogenomics Project (TGP to study comprehensively whole genome gene expression changes in the liver of treated rats. For this purpose a total of 17 and 12 drugs which are diverse in molecular structure and mode of action were considered based on their ability to cause either steatosis or phospholipidosis, respectively, while 7 drugs served as negative controls. In our efforts we focused on 200 genes which are considered to be mechanistically relevant in the process of lipid droplet biogenesis in hepatocytes as recently published (Sahini and Borlak, 2014. Based on mechanistic considerations we identified 19 genes which displayed dose dependent responses while 10 genes showed time dependency. Importantly, the present study defined 9 genes (ANGPTL4, FABP7, FADS1, FGF21, GOT1, LDLR, GK, STAT3, and PKLR as signature genes to predict DIS. Moreover, cross tabulation revealed 9 genes to be regulated ≥10 times amongst the various conditions and included genes linked to glucose metabolism, lipid transport and lipogenesis as well as signalling events. Additionally, a comparison between drugs causing phospholipidosis and/or steatosis revealed 26 genes to be regulated in common including 4 signature genes to predict DIS (PKLR, GK, FABP7 and FADS1. Furthermore, a comparison between in vivo single dose (3, 6, 9 and 24 h and findings from rat hepatocyte studies (2 h, 8 h, 24 h identified 10 genes which are regulated in common and contained 2 DIS signature genes (FABP7, FGF21. Altogether, our studies provide comprehensive information on mechanistically linked gene expression changes of a range of drugs causing steatosis and phospholipidosis and encourage the screening of DIS signature genes at the preclinical stage.
Wang, Zichen; Monteiro, Caroline D.; Jagodnik, Kathleen M.
Gene expression data are accumulating exponentially in public repositories. Reanalysis and integration of themed collections from these studies may provide new insights, but requires further human curation. Here we report a crowdsourcing project to annotate and reanalyse a large number of gene...... signatures from the entire GEO repository. We develop a web portal to serve these signatures for query, download and visualization....
Liberzon, Arthur; Birger, Chet; Thorvaldsdóttir, Helga; Ghandi, Mahmoud; Mesirov, Jill P; Tamayo, Pablo
The Molecular Signatures Database (MSigDB) is one of the most widely used and comprehensive databases of gene sets for performing gene set enrichment analysis. Since its creation, MSigDB has grown beyond its roots in metabolic disease and cancer to include >10,000 gene sets. These better represent a wider range of biological processes and diseases, but the utility of the database is reduced by increased redundancy across, and heterogeneity within, gene sets. To address this challenge, here we use a combination of automated approaches and expert curation to develop a collection of "hallmark" gene sets as part of MSigDB. Each hallmark in this collection consists of a "refined" gene set, derived from multiple "founder" sets, that conveys a specific biological state or process and displays coherent expression. The hallmarks effectively summarize most of the relevant information of the original founder sets and, by reducing both variation and redundancy, provide more refined and concise inputs for gene set enrichment analysis.
Maud H W Starmans
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Highly parallel analysis of gene expression has recently been used to identify gene sets or 'signatures' to improve patient diagnosis and risk stratification. Once a signature is generated, traditional statistical testing is used to evaluate its prognostic performance. However, due to the dimensionality of microarrays, this can lead to false interpretation of these signatures. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A method was developed to test batches of a user-specified number of randomly chosen signatures in patient microarray datasets. The percentage of random generated signatures yielding prognostic value was assessed using ROC analysis by calculating the area under the curve (AUC in six public available cancer patient microarray datasets. We found that a signature consisting of randomly selected genes has an average 10% chance of reaching significance when assessed in a single dataset, but can range from 1% to ∼40% depending on the dataset in question. Increasing the number of validation datasets markedly reduces this number. CONCLUSIONS: We have shown that the use of an arbitrary cut-off value for evaluation of signature significance is not suitable for this type of research, but should be defined for each dataset separately. Our method can be used to establish and evaluate signature performance of any derived gene signature in a dataset by comparing its performance to thousands of randomly generated signatures. It will be of most interest for cases where few data are available and testing in multiple datasets is limited.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Few overlap between independently developed gene signatures and poor inter-study applicability of gene signatures are two of major concerns raised in the development of microarray-based prognostic gene signatures. One recent study suggested that thousands of samples are needed to generate a robust prognostic gene signature. Results A data set of 1,372 samples was generated by combining eight breast cancer gene expression data sets produced using the same microarray platform and, using the data set, effects of varying samples sizes on a few performances of a prognostic gene signature were investigated. The overlap between independently developed gene signatures was increased linearly with more samples, attaining an average overlap of 16.56% with 600 samples. The concordance between predicted outcomes by different gene signatures also was increased with more samples up to 94.61% with 300 samples. The accuracy of outcome prediction also increased with more samples. Finally, analysis using only Estrogen Receptor-positive (ER+ patients attained higher prediction accuracy than using both patients, suggesting that sub-type specific analysis can lead to the development of better prognostic gene signatures Conclusion Increasing sample sizes generated a gene signature with better stability, better concordance in outcome prediction, and better prediction accuracy. However, the degree of performance improvement by the increased sample size was different between the degree of overlap and the degree of concordance in outcome prediction, suggesting that the sample size required for a study should be determined according to the specific aims of the study.
Hochberg, Irit; Tran, Quynh T.; Barkan, Ariel L.; Saltiel, Alan R.; Chandler, William F.; Bridges, Dave
To study the effect of chronic excess growth hormone on adipose tissue, we performed RNA sequencing in adipose tissue biopsies from patients with acromegaly (n = 7) or non-functioning pituitary adenomas (n = 11). The patients underwent clinical and metabolic profiling including assessment of HOMA-IR. Explants of adipose tissue were assayed ex vivo for lipolysis and ceramide levels. Patients with acromegaly had higher glucose, higher insulin levels and higher HOMA-IR score. We observed several previously reported transcriptional changes (IGF1, IGFBP3, CISH, SOCS2) that are known to be induced by GH/IGF-1 in liver but are also induced in adipose tissue. We also identified several novel transcriptional changes, some of which may be important for GH/IGF responses (PTPN3 and PTPN4) and the effects of acromegaly on growth and proliferation. Several differentially expressed transcripts may be important in GH/IGF-1-induced metabolic changes. Specifically, induction of LPL, ABHD5, and NRIP1 can contribute to enhanced lipolysis and may explain the elevated adipose tissue lipolysis in acromegalic patients. Higher expression of TCF7L2 and the fatty acid desaturases FADS1, FADS2 and SCD could contribute to insulin resistance. Ceramides were not different between the two groups. In summary, we have identified the acromegaly gene expression signature in human adipose tissue. The significance of altered expression of specific transcripts will enhance our understanding of the metabolic and proliferative changes associated with acromegaly. PMID:26087292
Khan, Haseeb Ahmad
Due to versatile diagnostic and prognostic fidelity molecular signatures or fingerprints are anticipated as the most powerful tools for cancer management in the near future. Notwithstanding the experimental advancements in microarray technology, methods for analyzing either whole arrays or gene signatures have not been firmly established. Recently, an algorithm, ArraySolver has been reported by Khan for two-group comparison of microarray gene expression data using two-tailed Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Most of the molecular signatures are composed of two sets of genes (hybrid signatures) wherein up-regulation of one set and down-regulation of the other set collectively define the purpose of a gene signature. Since the direction of a selected gene's expression (positive or negative) with respect to a particular disease condition is known, application of one-tailed statistics could be a more relevant choice. A novel method, ArrayVigil, is described for comparing hybrid signatures using segregated-one-tailed (SOT) Wilcoxon signed-rank test and the results compared with integrated-two-tailed (ITT) procedures (SPSS and ArraySolver). ArrayVigil resulted in lower P values than those obtained from ITT statistics while comparing real data from four signatures.
Lee, Unjin; Frankenberger, Casey; Yun, Jieun; Bevilacqua, Elena; Caldas, Carlos; Chin, Suet-Feung; Rueda, Oscar M; Reinitz, John; Rosner, Marsha Rich
Although triple negative breast cancers (TNBC) are the most aggressive subtype of breast cancer, they currently lack targeted therapies. Because this classification still includes a heterogeneous collection of tumors, new tools to classify TNBCs are urgently required in order to improve our prognostic capability for high risk patients and predict response to therapy. We previously defined a gene expression signature, RKIP Pathway Metastasis Signature (RPMS), based upon a metastasis-suppressive signaling pathway initiated by Raf Kinase Inhibitory Protein (RKIP). We have now generated a new BACH1 Pathway Metastasis gene signature (BPMS) that utilizes targets of the metastasis regulator BACH1. Specifically, we substituted experimentally validated target genes to generate a new BACH1 metagene, developed an approach to optimize patient tumor stratification, and reduced the number of signature genes to 30. The BPMS significantly and selectively stratified metastasis-free survival in basal-like and, in particular, TNBC patients. In addition, the BPMS further stratified patients identified as having a good or poor prognosis by other signatures including the Mammaprint® and Oncotype® clinical tests. The BPMS is thus complementary to existing signatures and is a prognostic tool for high risk ER-HER2- patients. We also demonstrate the potential clinical applicability of the BPMS as a single sample predictor. Together, these results reveal the potential of this pathway-based BPMS gene signature to identify high risk TNBC patients that can respond effectively to targeted therapy, and highlight BPMS genes as novel drug targets for therapeutic development.
Yu, Jack X; Sieuwerts, Anieta M; Zhang, Yi; Martens, John WM; Smid, Marcel; Klijn, Jan GM; Wang, Yixin; Foekens, John A
Published prognostic gene signatures in breast cancer have few genes in common. Here we provide a rationale for this observation by studying the prognostic power and the underlying biological pathways of different gene signatures. Gene signatures to predict the development of metastases in estrogen receptor-positive and estrogen receptor-negative tumors were identified using 500 re-sampled training sets and mapping to Gene Ontology Biological Process to identify over-represented pathways. The Global Test program confirmed that gene expression profilings in the common pathways were associated with the metastasis of the patients. The apoptotic pathway and cell division, or cell growth regulation and G-protein coupled receptor signal transduction, were most significantly associated with the metastatic capability of estrogen receptor-positive or estrogen-negative tumors, respectively. A gene signature derived of the common pathways predicted metastasis in an independent cohort. Mapping of the pathways represented by different published prognostic signatures showed that they share 53% of the identified pathways. We show that divergent gene sets classifying patients for the same clinical endpoint represent similar biological processes and that pathway-derived signatures can be used to predict prognosis. Furthermore, our study reveals that the underlying biology related to aggressiveness of estrogen receptor subgroups of breast cancer is quite different
Barbosa, Valmir C
Analyzing the information content of DNA, though holding the promise to help quantify how the processes of evolution have led to information gain throughout the ages, has remained an elusive goal. Paradoxically, one of the main reasons for this has been precisely the great diversity of life on the planet: if on the one hand this diversity is a rich source of data for information-content analysis, on the other hand there is so much variation as to make the task unmanageable. During the past decade or so, however, succinct fragments of the COI mitochondrial gene, which is present in all animal phyla and in a few others, have been shown to be useful for species identification through DNA barcoding. A few million such fragments are now publicly available through the BOLD systems initiative, thus providing an unprecedented opportunity for relatively comprehensive information-theoretic analyses of DNA to be attempted. Here we show how a generalized form of total correlation can yield distinctive information-theoretic descriptors of the phyla represented in those fragments. In order to illustrate the potential of this analysis to provide new insight into the evolution of species, we performed principal component analysis on standardized versions of the said descriptors for 23 phyla. Surprisingly, we found that, though based solely on the species represented in the data, the first principal component correlates strongly with the natural logarithm of the number of all known living species for those phyla. The new descriptors thus constitute clear information-theoretic signatures of the processes whereby evolution has given rise to current biodiversity, which suggests their potential usefulness in further related studies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Manijak, Mieszko P.; Nielsen, Henrik Bjørn
circumvented by instead matching gene expression signatures to signatures of other experiments. FINDINGS: To facilitate this we present the Functional Association Response by Overlap (FARO) server, that match input signatures to a compendium of 242 gene expression signatures, extracted from more than 1700...... Arabidopsis microarray experiments. CONCLUSIONS: Hereby we present a publicly available tool for robust characterization of Arabidopsis gene expression experiments which can point to similar experimental factors in other experiments. The server is available at http://www.cbs.dtu.dk/services/faro/....
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The traditional staging system is inadequate to identify those patients with stage II colorectal cancer (CRC at high risk of recurrence or with stage III CRC at low risk. A number of gene expression signatures to predict CRC prognosis have been proposed, but none is routinely used in the clinic. The aim of this work was to assess the prediction ability and potential clinical usefulness of these signatures in a series of independent datasets. METHODS: A literature review identified 31 gene expression signatures that used gene expression data to predict prognosis in CRC tissue. The search was based on the PubMed database and was restricted to papers published from January 2004 to December 2011. Eleven CRC gene expression datasets with outcome information were identified and downloaded from public repositories. Random Forest classifier was used to build predictors from the gene lists. Matthews correlation coefficient was chosen as a measure of classification accuracy and its associated p-value was used to assess association with prognosis. For clinical usefulness evaluation, positive and negative post-tests probabilities were computed in stage II and III samples. RESULTS: Five gene signatures showed significant association with prognosis and provided reasonable prediction accuracy in their own training datasets. Nevertheless, all signatures showed low reproducibility in independent data. Stratified analyses by stage or microsatellite instability status showed significant association but limited discrimination ability, especially in stage II tumors. From a clinical perspective, the most predictive signatures showed a minor but significant improvement over the classical staging system. CONCLUSIONS: The published signatures show low prediction accuracy but moderate clinical usefulness. Although gene expression data may inform prognosis, better strategies for signature validation are needed to encourage their widespread use in the clinic.
Full Text Available Many molecular classification and prognostic gene signatures for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC patients have been established based on genome-wide gene expression profiling; however, their generalizability is unclear. Herein, we systematically assessed the prognostic effects of these gene signatures and identified valuable prognostic biomarkers by integrating these gene signatures. With two independent HCC datasets (GSE14520, N = 242 and GSE54236, N = 78, 30 published gene signatures were evaluated, and 11 were significantly associated with the overall survival (OS of postoperative HCC patients in both datasets. The random survival forest models suggested that the gene signatures were superior to clinical characteristics for predicting the prognosis of the patients. Based on the 11 gene signatures, a functional protein-protein interaction (PPI network with 1406 nodes and 10,135 edges was established. With tissue microarrays of HCC patients (N = 60, we determined the prognostic values of the core genes in the network and found that RAD21, CDK1, and HDAC2 expression levels were negatively associated with OS for HCC patients. The multivariate Cox regression analyses suggested that CDK1 was an independent prognostic factor, which was validated in an independent case cohort (N = 78. In cellular models, inhibition of CDK1 by siRNA or a specific inhibitor, RO-3306, reduced cellular proliferation and viability for HCC cells. These results suggest that the prognostic predictive capacities of these gene signatures are reproducible and that CDK1 is a potential prognostic biomarker or therapeutic target for HCC patients.
Full Text Available Computational drug repositioning has been proved as an effective approach to develop new drug uses. However, currently existing strategies strongly rely on drug response gene signatures which scattered in separated or individual experimental data, and resulted in low efficient outputs. So, a fully drug response gene signatures database will be very helpful to these methods. We collected drug response microarray data and annotated related drug and targets information from public databases and scientific literature. By selecting top 500 up-regulated and down-regulated genes as drug signatures, we manually established the DrugSig database. Currently DrugSig contains more than 1300 drugs, 7000 microarray and 800 targets. Moreover, we developed the signature based and target based functions to aid drug repositioning. The constructed database can serve as a resource to quicken computational drug repositioning. Database URL: http://biotechlab.fudan.edu.cn/database/drugsig/.
Nguyen, Minh Nam; Choi, Tae Gyu; Nguyen, Dinh Truong; Kim, Jin-Hwan; Jo, Yong Hwa; Shahid, Muhammad; Akter, Salima; Aryal, Saurav Nath; Yoo, Ji Youn; Ahn, Yong-Joo; Cho, Kyoung Min; Lee, Ju-Seog; Choe, Wonchae; Kang, Insug; Ha, Joohun; Kim, Sung Soo
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third leading cause of global cancer mortality. Recent studies have proposed several gene signatures to predict CRC prognosis, but none of those have proven reliable for predicting prognosis in clinical practice yet due to poor reproducibility and molecular heterogeneity. Here, we have established a prognostic signature of 113 probe sets (CRC-113) that include potential biomarkers and reflect the biological and clinical characteristics. Robustness and accuracy were significantly validated in external data sets from 19 centers in five countries. In multivariate analysis, CRC-113 gene signature showed a stronger prognostic value for survival and disease recurrence in CRC patients than current clinicopathological risk factors and molecular alterations. We also demonstrated that the CRC-113 gene signature reflected both genetic and epigenetic molecular heterogeneity in CRC patients. Furthermore, incorporation of the CRC-113 gene signature into a clinical context and molecular markers further refined the selection of the CRC patients who might benefit from postoperative chemotherapy. Conclusively, CRC-113 gene signature provides new possibilities for improving prognostic models and personalized therapeutic strategies.
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Metastases remain the primary cause of cancer-related death. The acquisition of invasive tumour cell behaviour is thought to be a cornerstone of the metastatic cascade. Therefore, gene signatures related to invasiveness could aid in stratifying patients according to their prognostic profile. In the present study we aimed at identifying an invasiveness gene signature and investigated its biological relevance in breast cancer. METHODS & RESULTS: We collected a set of published gene signatures related to cell motility and invasion. Using this collection, we identified 16 genes that were represented at a higher frequency than observed by coincidence, hereafter named the core invasiveness gene signature. Principal component analysis showed that these overrepresented genes were able to segregate invasive and non-invasive breast cancer cell lines, outperforming sets of 16 randomly selected genes (all P<0.001. When applied onto additional data sets, the expression of the core invasiveness gene signature was significantly elevated in cell lines forced to undergo epithelial-mesenchymal transition. The link between core invasiveness gene expression and epithelial-mesenchymal transition was also confirmed in a dataset consisting of 2420 human breast cancer samples. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analysis demonstrated that CIG expression is not associated with a shorter distant metastasis free survival interval (HR = 0.956, 95%C.I. = 0.896-1.019, P = 0.186. DISCUSSION: These data demonstrate that we have identified a set of core invasiveness genes, the expression of which is associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition in breast cancer cell lines and in human tissue samples. Despite the connection between epithelial-mesenchymal transition and invasive tumour cell behaviour, we were unable to demonstrate a link between the core invasiveness gene signature and enhanced metastatic potential.
Hasselbalch, Hans Carl; Skov, Vibe; Stauffer Larsen, Thomas
Identifying a distinct gene signature for myelofibrosis may yield novel information of the genes, which are responsible for progression of essential thrombocythemia and polycythemia vera towards myelofibrosis. We aimed at identifying a simple gene signature - composed of a few genes - which were...
Skov, Vibe; Burton, Mark; Thomassen, Mads
was performed in 17 and 9 patients diagnosed with ET and PMF, respectively. Using elevated LDH obtained at the time of diagnosis as a marker of prePMF, a 7-gene signature was identified which correctly predicted the prePMF group with a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 89%. The 7 genes included MPO......, CEACAM8, CRISP3, MS4A3, CEACAM6, HEMGN, and MMP8, which are genes known to be involved in inflammation, cell adhesion, differentiation and proliferation. Evaluation of bone marrow biopsies and the 7-gene signature showed a concordance rate of 71%, 79%, 62%, and 38%. Our 7-gene signature may be a useful...
Full Text Available Background Liver hepatocellular carcinoma accounts for the overwhelming majority of primary liver cancers and its belated diagnosis and poor prognosis call for novel biomarkers to be discovered, which, in the era of big data, innovative bioinformatics and computational techniques can prove to be highly helpful in. Methods Big data aggregated from The Cancer Genome Atlas and Natural Language Processing were integrated to generate differentially expressed genes. Relevant signaling pathways of differentially expressed genes went through Gene Ontology enrichment analysis, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes and Panther pathway enrichment analysis and protein-protein interaction network. The pathway ranked high in the enrichment analysis was further investigated, and selected genes with top priority were evaluated and assessed in terms of their diagnostic and prognostic values. Results A list of 389 genes was generated by overlapping genes from The Cancer Genome Atlas and Natural Language Processing. Three pathways demonstrated top priorities, and the one with specific associations with cancers, ‘pathways in cancer,’ was analyzed with its four highlighted genes, namely, BIRC5, E2F1, CCNE1, and CDKN2A, which were validated using Oncomine. The detection pool composed of the four genes presented satisfactory diagnostic power with an outstanding integrated AUC of 0.990 (95% CI [0.982–0.998], P < 0.001, sensitivity: 96.0%, specificity: 96.5%. BIRC5 (P = 0.021 and CCNE1 (P = 0.027 were associated with poor prognosis, while CDKN2A (P = 0.066 and E2F1 (P = 0.088 demonstrated no statistically significant differences. Discussion The study illustrates liver hepatocellular carcinoma gene signatures, related pathways and networks from the perspective of big data, featuring the cancer-specific pathway with priority, ‘pathways in cancer.’ The detection pool of the four highlighted genes, namely BIRC5, E2F1, CCNE1 and CDKN2A, should be
Gant Timothy W
Full Text Available Abstract Background Interaction of a drug or chemical with a biological system can result in a gene-expression profile or signature characteristic of the event. Using a suitably robust algorithm these signatures can potentially be used to connect molecules with similar pharmacological or toxicological properties by gene expression profile. Lamb et al first proposed the Connectivity Map [Lamb et al (2006, Science 313, 1929–1935] to make successful connections among small molecules, genes, and diseases using genomic signatures. Results Here we have built on the principles of the Connectivity Map to present a simpler and more robust method for the construction of reference gene-expression profiles and for the connection scoring scheme, which importantly allows the valuation of statistical significance of all the connections observed. We tested the new method with two randomly generated gene signatures and three experimentally derived gene signatures (for HDAC inhibitors, estrogens, and immunosuppressive drugs, respectively. Our testing with this method indicates that it achieves a higher level of specificity and sensitivity and so advances the original method. Conclusion The method presented here not only offers more principled statistical procedures for testing connections, but more importantly it provides effective safeguard against false connections at the same time achieving increased sensitivity. With its robust performance, the method has potential use in the drug development pipeline for the early recognition of pharmacological and toxicological properties in chemicals and new drug candidates, and also more broadly in other 'omics sciences.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to identify and validate gene signatures that can predict disease free survival (DFS in patients undergoing a radical resection for their colorectal liver metastases (CRLM. METHODS: Tumor gene expression profiles were collected from 119 patients undergoing surgery for their CRLM in the Paul Brousse Hospital (France and the University Medical Center Utrecht (The Netherlands. Patients were divided into high and low risk groups. A randomly selected training set was used to find predictive gene signatures. The ability of these gene signatures to predict DFS was tested in an independent validation set comprising the remaining patients. Furthermore, 5 known clinical risk scores were tested in our complete patient cohort. RESULT: No gene signature was found that significantly predicted DFS in the validation set. In contrast, three out of five clinical risk scores were able to predict DFS in our patient cohort. CONCLUSIONS: No gene signature was found that could predict DFS in patients undergoing CRLM resection. Three out of five clinical risk scores were able to predict DFS in our patient cohort. These results emphasize the need for validating risk scores in independent patient groups and suggest improved designs for future studies.
Jeran K Stratford
Full Text Available Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC remains a lethal disease. For patients with localized PDAC, surgery is the best option, but with a median survival of less than 2 years and a difficult and prolonged postoperative course for most, there is an urgent need to better identify patients who have the most aggressive disease.We analyzed the gene expression profiles of primary tumors from patients with localized compared to metastatic disease and identified a six-gene signature associated with metastatic disease. We evaluated the prognostic potential of this signature in a training set of 34 patients with localized and resected PDAC and selected a cut-point associated with outcome using X-tile. We then applied this cut-point to an independent test set of 67 patients with localized and resected PDAC and found that our signature was independently predictive of survival and superior to established clinical prognostic factors such as grade, tumor size, and nodal status, with a hazard ratio of 4.1 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.7-10.0. Patients defined to be high-risk patients by the six-gene signature had a 1-year survival rate of 55% compared to 91% in the low-risk group.Our six-gene signature may be used to better stage PDAC patients and assist in the difficult treatment decisions of surgery and to select patients whose tumor biology may benefit most from neoadjuvant therapy. The use of this six-gene signature should be investigated in prospective patient cohorts, and if confirmed, in future PDAC clinical trials, its potential as a biomarker should be investigated. Genes in this signature, or the pathways that they fall into, may represent new therapeutic targets. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.
Full Text Available Although triple negative breast cancers (TNBC are the most aggressive subtype of breast cancer, they currently lack targeted therapies. Because this classification still includes a heterogeneous collection of tumors, new tools to classify TNBCs are urgently required in order to improve our prognostic capability for high risk patients and predict response to therapy. We previously defined a gene expression signature, RKIP Pathway Metastasis Signature (RPMS, based upon a metastasis-suppressive signaling pathway initiated by Raf Kinase Inhibitory Protein (RKIP. We have now generated a new BACH1 Pathway Metastasis gene signature (BPMS that utilizes targets of the metastasis regulator BACH1. Specifically, we substituted experimentally validated target genes to generate a new BACH1 metagene, developed an approach to optimize patient tumor stratification, and reduced the number of signature genes to 30. The BPMS significantly and selectively stratified metastasis-free survival in basal-like and, in particular, TNBC patients. In addition, the BPMS further stratified patients identified as having a good or poor prognosis by other signatures including the Mammaprint® and Oncotype® clinical tests. The BPMS is thus complementary to existing signatures and is a prognostic tool for high risk ER-HER2- patients. We also demonstrate the potential clinical applicability of the BPMS as a single sample predictor. Together, these results reveal the potential of this pathway-based BPMS gene signature to identify high risk TNBC patients that can respond effectively to targeted therapy, and highlight BPMS genes as novel drug targets for therapeutic development.
Reis, Patricia P; Simpson, Colleen; Goldstein, David; Brown, Dale; Gilbert, Ralph; Gullane, Patrick; Irish, Jonathan; Jurisica, Igor; Kamel-Reid, Suzanne; Waldron, Levi; Perez-Ordonez, Bayardo; Pintilie, Melania; Galloni, Natalie Naranjo; Xuan, Yali; Cervigne, Nilva K; Warner, Giles C; Makitie, Antti A
Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC) is a major cause of cancer death worldwide, which is mainly due to recurrence leading to treatment failure and patient death. Histological status of surgical margins is a currently available assessment for recurrence risk in OSCC; however histological status does not predict recurrence, even in patients with histologically negative margins. Therefore, molecular analysis of histologically normal resection margins and the corresponding OSCC may aid in identifying a gene signature predictive of recurrence. We used a meta-analysis of 199 samples (OSCCs and normal oral tissues) from five public microarray datasets, in addition to our microarray analysis of 96 OSCCs and histologically normal margins from 24 patients, to train a gene signature for recurrence. Validation was performed by quantitative real-time PCR using 136 samples from an independent cohort of 30 patients. We identified 138 significantly over-expressed genes (> 2-fold, false discovery rate of 0.01) in OSCC. By penalized likelihood Cox regression, we identified a 4-gene signature with prognostic value for recurrence in our training set. This signature comprised the invasion-related genes MMP1, COL4A1, P4HA2, and THBS2. Over-expression of this 4-gene signature in histologically normal margins was associated with recurrence in our training cohort (p = 0.0003, logrank test) and in our independent validation cohort (p = 0.04, HR = 6.8, logrank test). Gene expression alterations occur in histologically normal margins in OSCC. Over-expression of the 4-gene signature in histologically normal surgical margins was validated and highly predictive of recurrence in an independent patient cohort. Our findings may be applied to develop a molecular test, which would be clinically useful to help predict which patients are at a higher risk of local recurrence
Sweeney, Timothy E; Lofgren, Shane; Khatri, Purvesh; Rogers, Angela J
The relevance of animal models to human diseases is an area of intense scientific debate. The degree to which mouse models of lung injury recapitulate human lung injury has never been assessed. Integrating data from both human and animal expression studies allows for increased statistical power and identification of conserved differential gene expression across organisms and conditions. We sought comprehensive integration of gene expression data in experimental acute lung injury (ALI) in rodents compared with humans. We performed two separate gene expression multicohort analyses to determine differential gene expression in experimental animal and human lung injury. We used correlational and pathway analyses combined with external in vitro gene expression data to identify both potential drivers of underlying inflammation and therapeutic drug candidates. We identified 21 animal lung tissue datasets and three human lung injury bronchoalveolar lavage datasets. We show that the metasignatures of animal and human experimental ALI are significantly correlated despite these widely varying experimental conditions. The gene expression changes among mice and rats across diverse injury models (ozone, ventilator-induced lung injury, LPS) are significantly correlated with human models of lung injury (Pearson r = 0.33-0.45, P human lung injury. Predicted therapeutic targets, peptide ligand signatures, and pathway analyses are also all highly overlapping. Gene expression changes are similar in animal and human experimental ALI, and provide several physiologic and therapeutic insights to the disease.
Full Text Available DNA microarray technologies are used extensively to profile the expression levels of thousands of genes under various conditions, yielding extremely large data-matrices. Thus, analyzing this information and extracting biologically relevant knowledge becomes a considerable challenge. A classical approach for tackling this challenge is to use clustering (also known as one-way clustering methods where genes (or respectively samples are grouped together based on the similarity of their expression profiles across the set of all samples (or respectively genes. An alternative approach is to develop biclustering methods to identify local patterns in the data. These methods extract subgroups of genes that are co-expressed across only a subset of samples and may feature important biological or medical implications. In this study we evaluate 13 biclustering and 2 clustering (k-means and hierarchical methods. We use several approaches to compare their performance on two real gene expression data sets. For this purpose we apply four evaluation measures in our analysis: (1 we examine how well the considered (biclustering methods differentiate various sample types; (2 we evaluate how well the groups of genes discovered by the (biclustering methods are annotated with similar Gene Ontology categories; (3 we evaluate the capability of the methods to differentiate genes that are known to be specific to the particular sample types we study and (4 we compare the running time of the algorithms. In the end, we conclude that as long as the samples are well defined and annotated, the contamination of the samples is limited, and the samples are well replicated, biclustering methods such as Plaid and SAMBA are useful for discovering relevant subsets of genes and samples.
Sarah K Meadows
Full Text Available Previous work has demonstrated the potential for peripheral blood (PB gene expression profiling for the detection of disease or environmental exposures.We have sought to determine the impact of several variables on the PB gene expression profile of an environmental exposure, ionizing radiation, and to determine the specificity of the PB signature of radiation versus other genotoxic stresses. Neither genotype differences nor the time of PB sampling caused any lessening of the accuracy of PB signatures to predict radiation exposure, but sex difference did influence the accuracy of the prediction of radiation exposure at the lowest level (50 cGy. A PB signature of sepsis was also generated and both the PB signature of radiation and the PB signature of sepsis were found to be 100% specific at distinguishing irradiated from septic animals. We also identified human PB signatures of radiation exposure and chemotherapy treatment which distinguished irradiated patients and chemotherapy-treated individuals within a heterogeneous population with accuracies of 90% and 81%, respectively.We conclude that PB gene expression profiles can be identified in mice and humans that are accurate in predicting medical conditions, are specific to each condition and remain highly accurate over time.
Janice E Drew
Full Text Available Cancers exhibit abnormal molecular signatures associated with disease initiation and progression. Molecular signatures could improve cancer screening, detection, drug development and selection of appropriate drug therapies for individual patients. Typically only very small amounts of tissue are available from patients for analysis and biopsy samples exhibit broad heterogeneity that cannot be captured using a single marker. This report details application of an in-house custom designed GenomeLab System multiplex gene expression assay, the hCellMarkerPlex, to assess predictive gene signatures of normal, adenomatous polyp and carcinoma colon tissue using archived tissue bank material. The hCellMarkerPlex incorporates twenty-one gene markers: epithelial (EZR, KRT18, NOX1, SLC9A2, proliferation (PCNA, CCND1, MS4A12, differentiation (B4GANLT2, CDX1, CDX2, apoptotic (CASP3, NOX1, NTN1, fibroblast (FSP1, COL1A1, structural (ACTG2, CNN1, DES, gene transcription (HDAC1, stem cell (LGR5, endothelial (VWF and mucin production (MUC2. Gene signatures distinguished normal, adenomatous polyp and carcinoma. Individual gene targets significantly contributing to molecular tissue types, classifier genes, were further characterised using real-time PCR, in-situ hybridisation and immunohistochemistry revealing aberrant epithelial expression of MS4A12, LGR5 CDX2, NOX1 and SLC9A2 prior to development of carcinoma. Identified gene signatures identify aberrant epithelial expression of genes prior to cancer development using in-house custom designed gene expression multiplex assays. This approach may be used to assist in objective classification of disease initiation, staging, progression and therapeutic responses using biopsy material.
Full Text Available Pediatric cancers differ from adult tumors, especially by their very low mutational rate. Therefore, their etiology could be explained in part by other oncogenic mechanisms such as chromosomal rearrangements, supporting the possible implication of fusion genes in the development of pediatric cancers. Fusion genes result from chromosomal rearrangements leading to the juxtaposition of two genes. Consequently, an abnormal activation of one or both genes is observed. The detection of fusion genes has generated great interest in basic cancer research and in the clinical setting, since these genes can lead to better comprehension of the biological mechanisms of tumorigenesis and they can also be used as therapeutic targets and diagnostic or prognostic biomarkers. In this review, we discuss the molecular mechanisms of fusion genes and their particularities in pediatric cancers, as well as their relevance in murine models and in the clinical setting. We also point out the difficulties encountered in the discovery of fusion genes. Finally, we discuss future perspectives and priorities for finding new innovative therapies in childhood cancer.
Full Text Available Prostate cancer (CaP is one of the most relevant causes of cancer death in Western Countries. Although detection of CaP at early curable stage is highly desirable, actual screening methods present limitations and new molecular approaches are needed. Gene expression analysis increases our knowledge about the biology of CaP and may render novel molecular tools, but the identification of accurate biomarkers for reliable molecular diagnosis is a real challenge. We describe here the diagnostic power of a novel 8-genes signature: ornithine decarboxylase (ODC, ornithine decarboxylase antizyme (OAZ, adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (AdoMetDC, spermidine/spermine N(1-acetyltransferase (SSAT, histone H3 (H3, growth arrest specific gene (GAS1, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH and Clusterin (CLU in tumour detection/classification of human CaP.The 8-gene signature was detected by retrotranscription real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR in frozen prostate surgical specimens obtained from 41 patients diagnosed with CaP and recommended to undergo radical prostatectomy (RP. No therapy was given to patients at any time before RP. The bio-bank used for the study consisted of 66 specimens: 44 were benign-CaP paired from the same patient. Thirty-five were classified as benign and 31 as CaP after final pathological examination. Only molecular data were used for classification of specimens. The Nearest Neighbour (NN classifier was used in order to discriminate CaP from benign tissue. Validation of final results was obtained with 10-fold cross-validation procedure. CaP versus benign specimens were discriminated with (80+/-5% accuracy, (81+/-6% sensitivity and (78+/-7% specificity. The method also correctly classified 71% of patients with Gleason score or =7, an important predictor of final outcome.The method showed high sensitivity in a collection of specimens in which a significant portion of the total (13/31, equal to 42% was considered CaP on the basis
Leone, Angelique; Nie, Alex; Brandon Parker, J.; Sawant, Sharmilee; Piechta, Leigh-Anne; Kelley, Michael F., E-mail: email@example.com; Mark Kao, L.; Jim Proctor, S.; Verheyen, Geert; Johnson, Mark D.; Lord, Peter G.; McMillian, Michael K.
Previously we reported a gene expression signature in rat liver for detecting a specific type of oxidative stress (OS) related to reactive metabolites (RM). High doses of the drugs disulfiram, ethinyl estradiol and nimesulide were used with another dozen paradigm OS/RM compounds, and three other drugs flutamide, phenacetin and sulindac were identified by this signature. In a second study, antiepileptic drugs were compared for covalent binding and their effects on OS/RM; felbamate, carbamazepine, and phenobarbital produced robust OS/RM gene expression. In the present study, liver RNA samples from drug-treated rats from more recent experiments were examined for statistical fit to the OS/RM signature. Of all 97 drugs examined, in addition to the nine drugs noted above, 19 more were identified as OS/RM-producing compounds—chlorpromazine, clozapine, cyproterone acetate, dantrolene, dipyridamole, glibenclamide, isoniazid, ketoconazole, methapyrilene, naltrexone, nifedipine, sulfamethoxazole, tamoxifen, coumarin, ritonavir, amitriptyline, valproic acid, enalapril, and chloramphenicol. Importantly, all of the OS/RM drugs listed above have been linked to idiosyncratic hepatotoxicity, excepting chloramphenicol, which does not have a package label for hepatotoxicity, but does have a black box warning for idiosyncratic bone marrow suppression. Most of these drugs are not acutely toxic in the rat. The OS/RM signature should be useful to avoid idiosyncratic hepatotoxicity of drug candidates. - Highlights: • 28 of 97 drugs gave a positive OS/RM gene expression signature in rat liver. • The specificity of the signature for human idiosyncratic hepatotoxicants was 98%. • The sensitivity of the signature for human idiosyncratic hepatotoxicants was 75%. • The signature can help eliminate hepatotoxicants from drug development.
Angelis, A.L.S.; Bartke, J.; Gladysz-Dziadus, E.; Wlodarczyk, Z.
It has been shown, by GEANT simulations, that the energy deposition pattern in deep calorimeters could be the spectacular and unconventional signature of different kinds of stable and unstable strangelets. The CASTOR calorimeter is shown to be the appropriate tool for detection of strongly penetrating objects, such as strangelets possibly produced in the baryon-rich region in central Pb-Pb collisions at LHC energies. (author)
Steiling, Katrina; van den Berge, Maarten; Hijazi, Kahkeshan; Hiemstra, Pieter S.; Postma, Dirkje S.; Lenburg, Marc E.; Spira, Avrum; Woodruff, Prescott G.
Rationale: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a heterogeneous disease and likely includes a subgroup that is biologically comparable to asthma. Studying asthma-associated gene expression changes in COPD could add insight into COPD pathogenesis and reveal biomarkers that predict a favorable response to corticosteroids. Objectives: To determine whether asthma-associated gene signatures are increased in COPD and associated with asthma-related features. Methods: We compared disease-associated airway epithelial gene expression alterations in an asthma cohort (n = 105) and two COPD cohorts (n = 237, 171). The T helper type 2 (Th2) signature (T2S) score, a gene expression metric induced in Th2-high asthma, was evaluated in these COPD cohorts. The T2S score was correlated with asthma-related features and response to corticosteroids in COPD in a randomized, placebo-controlled trial, the Groningen and Leiden Universities study of Corticosteroids in Obstructive Lung Disease (GLUCOLD; n = 89). Measurements and Main Results: The 200 genes most differentially expressed in asthma versus healthy control subjects were enriched among genes associated with more severe airflow obstruction in these COPD cohorts (P COPD cohorts. Higher T2S scores correlated with increased airway wall eosinophil counts (P = 0.003), blood eosinophil percentage (P = 0.03), bronchodilator reversibility (P = 0.01), and improvement in hyperinflation after corticosteroid treatment (P = 0.019) in GLUCOLD. Conclusions: These data identify airway gene expression alterations that can co-occur in asthma and COPD. The association of the T2S score with increased severity and “asthma-like” features (including a favorable corticosteroid response) in COPD suggests that Th2 inflammation is important in a COPD subset that cannot be identified by clinical history of asthma. PMID:25611785
Zhao, Xi; Rødland, Einar Andreas; Sørlie, Therese; Vollan, Hans Kristian Moen; Russnes, Hege G; Kristensen, Vessela N; Lingjærde, Ole Christian; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise
The aim was to assess and compare prognostic power of nine breast cancer gene signatures (Intrinsic, PAM50, 70-gene, 76-gene, Genomic-Grade-Index, 21-gene-Recurrence-Score, EndoPredict, Wound-Response and Hypoxia) in relation to ER status and follow-up time. A gene expression dataset from 947 breast tumors was used to evaluate the signatures for prediction of Distant Metastasis Free Survival (DMFS). A total of 912 patients had available DMFS status. The recently published METABRIC cohort was used as an additional validation set. Survival predictions were fairly concordant across most signatures. Prognostic power declined with follow-up time. During the first 5 years of followup, all signatures except for Hypoxia were predictive for DMFS in ER-positive disease, and 76-gene, Hypoxia and Wound-Response were prognostic in ER-negative disease. After 5 years, the signatures had little prognostic power. Gene signatures provide significant prognostic information beyond tumor size, node status and histological grade. Generally, these signatures performed better for ER-positive disease, indicating that risk within each ER stratum is driven by distinct underlying biology. Most of the signatures were strong risk predictors for DMFS during the first 5 years of follow-up. Combining gene signatures with histological grade or tumor size, could improve the prognostic power, perhaps also of long-term survival
Xi, Ting; Zhang, Guizhi
Understanding the molecular mechanisms represents an important step in the development of diagnostic and therapeutic measures of esophagus adenocarcinoma (NOS). The objective of this study is to identify the epigenetic regulation on gene expression in NOS, shedding light on the molecular mechanisms of NOS. In this study, 78 patients with NOS were included and the data of mRNA, miRNA and DNA methylation of were downloaded from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Differential analysis between NOS and controls was performed in terms of gene expression, miRNA expression, and DNA methylation. Bioinformatic analysis was followed to explore the regulation mechanisms of miRNA and DNA methylationon gene expression. Totally, up to 1320 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and 32 differentially expressed miRNAs were identified. 240 DEGs that were not only the target genes but also negatively correlated with the screened differentially expressed miRNAs. 101 DEGs were found to be highlymethylated in CpG islands. Then, 8 differentially methylated genes (DMGs) were selected, which showed down-regulated expression in NOS. Among of these genes, 6 genes including ADHFE1, DPP6, GRIA4, CNKSR2, RPS6KA6 and ZNF135 were target genes of differentially expressed miRNAs (hsa-mir-335, hsa-mir-18a, hsa-mir-93, hsa-mir-106b and hsa-mir-21). The identified altered miRNA, genes and DNA methylation site may be applied as biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis of NOS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Abel, Frida; Dalevi, Daniel; Nethander, Maria; Jörnsten, Rebecka; De Preter, Katleen; Vermeulen, Joëlle; Stallings, Raymond; Kogner, Per; Maris, John; Nilsson, Staffan
Abstract Background There are currently three postulated genomic subtypes of the childhood tumour neuroblastoma (NB); Type 1, Type 2A, and Type 2B. The most aggressive forms of NB are characterized by amplification of the oncogene MYCN (MNA) and low expression of the favourable marker NTRK1. Recently, mutations or high expression of the familial predisposition gene Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase (ALK) was associated to unfavourable biology of sporadic NB. Also, various other genes have been linke...
Mandruzzato, Susanna; Callegaro, Andrea; Turcatel, Gianluca; Francescato, Samuela; Montesco, Maria C; Chiarion-Sileni, Vanna; Mocellin, Simone; Rossi, Carlo R; Bicciato, Silvio; Wang, Ena; Marincola, Francesco M; Zanovello, Paola
Background Current clinical and histopathological criteria used to define the prognosis of melanoma patients are inadequate for accurate prediction of clinical outcome. We investigated whether genome screening by means of high-throughput gene microarray might provide clinically useful information on patient survival. Methods Forty-three tumor tissues from 38 patients with stage III and stage IV melanoma were profiled with a 17,500 element cDNA microarray. Expression data were analyzed using significance analysis of microarrays (SAM) to identify genes associated with patient survival, and supervised principal components (SPC) to determine survival prediction. Results SAM analysis revealed a set of 80 probes, corresponding to 70 genes, associated with survival, i.e. 45 probes characterizing longer and 35 shorter survival times, respectively. These transcripts were included in a survival prediction model designed using SPC and cross-validation which allowed identifying 30 predicting probes out of the 80 associated with survival. Conclusion The longer-survival group of genes included those expressed in immune cells, both innate and acquired, confirming the interplay between immunological mechanisms and the natural history of melanoma. Genes linked to immune cells were totally lacking in the poor-survival group, which was instead associated with a number of genes related to highly proliferative and invasive tumor cells. PMID:17129373
Rossi Carlo R
Full Text Available Abstract Background Current clinical and histopathological criteria used to define the prognosis of melanoma patients are inadequate for accurate prediction of clinical outcome. We investigated whether genome screening by means of high-throughput gene microarray might provide clinically useful information on patient survival. Methods Forty-three tumor tissues from 38 patients with stage III and stage IV melanoma were profiled with a 17,500 element cDNA microarray. Expression data were analyzed using significance analysis of microarrays (SAM to identify genes associated with patient survival, and supervised principal components (SPC to determine survival prediction. Results SAM analysis revealed a set of 80 probes, corresponding to 70 genes, associated with survival, i.e. 45 probes characterizing longer and 35 shorter survival times, respectively. These transcripts were included in a survival prediction model designed using SPC and cross-validation which allowed identifying 30 predicting probes out of the 80 associated with survival. Conclusion The longer-survival group of genes included those expressed in immune cells, both innate and acquired, confirming the interplay between immunological mechanisms and the natural history of melanoma. Genes linked to immune cells were totally lacking in the poor-survival group, which was instead associated with a number of genes related to highly proliferative and invasive tumor cells.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Postmenopausal hormone therapy (HT influences endogenous hormone concentrations and increases the risk of breast cancer. Gene expression profiling may reveal the mechanisms behind this relationship. Our objective was to explore potential associations between sex hormones and gene expression in whole blood from a population-based, random sample of postmenopausal women Methods Gene expression, as measured by the Applied Biosystems microarray platform, was compared between hormone therapy (HT users and non-users and between high and low hormone plasma concentrations using both gene-wise analysis and gene set analysis. Gene sets found to be associated with HT use were further analysed for enrichment in functional clusters and network predictions. The gene expression matrix included 285 samples and 16185 probes and was adjusted for significant technical variables. Results Gene-wise analysis revealed several genes significantly associated with different types of HT use. The functional cluster analyses provided limited information on these genes. Gene set analysis revealed 22 gene sets that were enriched between high and low estradiol concentration (HT-users excluded. Among these were seven oestrogen related gene sets, including our gene list associated with systemic estradiol use, which thereby represents a novel oestrogen signature. Seven gene sets were related to immune response. Among the 15 gene sets enriched for progesterone, 11 overlapped with estradiol. No significant gene expression patterns were found for testosterone, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH or sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG. Conclusions Distinct gene expression patterns associated with sex hormones are detectable in a random group of postmenopausal women, as demonstrated by the finding of a novel oestrogen signature.
Zhang, Fan; Yang, Kai; Deng, Kui; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Zhao, Weiwei; Xu, Huan; Rong, Zhiwei; Li, Kang
We sought to identify stable single-gene prognostic signatures based on a large collection of advanced stage serous ovarian cancer (AS-OvCa) gene expression data and explore their functions. The empirical Bayes (EB) method was used to remove the batch effect and integrate 8 ovarian cancer datasets. Univariate Cox regression was used to evaluate the association between gene and overall survival (OS). The Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID) tool was used for the functional annotation of genes for Gene Ontology (GO) terms and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways. The batch effect was removed by the EB method, and 1257 patient samples were used for further analysis. We selected 341 single-gene prognostic signatures with FDR matrix organization, focal adhesion and DNA replication which are closely associated with cancer. We used the EB method to remove the batch effect of 8 datasets, integrated these datasets and identified stable prognosis signatures for AS-OvCa.
Silva Paulo JS
Full Text Available Abstract Background One goal of gene expression profiling is to identify signature genes that robustly distinguish different types or grades of tumors. Several tumor classifiers based on expression profiling have been proposed using microarray technique. Due to important differences in the probabilistic models of microarray and SAGE technologies, it is important to develop suitable techniques to select specific genes from SAGE measurements. Results A new framework to select specific genes that distinguish different biological states based on the analysis of SAGE data is proposed. The new framework applies the bolstered error for the identification of strong genes that separate the biological states in a feature space defined by the gene expression of a training set. Credibility intervals defined from a probabilistic model of SAGE measurements are used to identify the genes that distinguish the different states with more reliability among all gene groups selected by the strong genes method. A score taking into account the credibility and the bolstered error values in order to rank the groups of considered genes is proposed. Results obtained using SAGE data from gliomas are presented, thus corroborating the introduced methodology. Conclusion The model representing counting data, such as SAGE, provides additional statistical information that allows a more robust analysis. The additional statistical information provided by the probabilistic model is incorporated in the methodology described in the paper. The introduced method is suitable to identify signature genes that lead to a good separation of the biological states using SAGE and may be adapted for other counting methods such as Massive Parallel Signature Sequencing (MPSS or the recent Sequencing-By-Synthesis (SBS technique. Some of such genes identified by the proposed method may be useful to generate classifiers.
Knauer, Michael; Mook, Stella; Rutgers, Emiel J. T.; Bender, Richard A.; Hauptmann, Michael; van de Vijver, Marc J.; Koornstra, Rutger H. T.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Jolien M.; Linn, Sabine C.; van 't Veer, Laura J.
Multigene assays have been developed and validated to determine the prognosis of breast cancer. In this study, we assessed the additional predictive value of the 70-gene MammaPrint signature for chemotherapy (CT) benefit in addition to endocrine therapy (ET) from pooled study series. For 541
www.plosone.org 11 August 2012 | Volume 7 | Issue 8 | e41659 Human genes Human ACTB mRNA: >gi|168480144|ref|NM_001101.3| Homo sapiens actin, beta...TCCCCCTTTTTTGTCCCCCAACTTGAGATGTATGAAGGCTTTTGGTCTCCCTGGGAGTGGGTGGAGGCAGCCAGGGCTTACCTGTACACTGACTTGAGACCAGTTGAATAAA AGTGCACACCTTAAAAATGAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA Human GAPDH mRNA: >gi|83641890|ref|NM_002046.4| Homo sapiens ...Homo sapiens hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase 1 (HPRT1), mRNA
greater than 30 % of the same patients . Nevertheless, the mechanisms of SJS and TEN are not fully elucidated. MicroRNAs or miRs are single stranded RNAs that are capable of posttranscriptional gene regulation via targeting their Mrna . MicroRNAs are very important regulators in many human diseases, for instance,.
Handkiewicz-Junak, Daria; Rusinek, Dagmara; Oczko-Wojciechowska, Malgorzata; Kowalska, Malgorzata; Jarzab, Barbara [Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and Institute of Oncology, Gliwice Branch, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Endocrine Oncology, Gliwice (Poland); Swierniak, Michal [Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and Institute of Oncology, Gliwice Branch, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Endocrine Oncology, Gliwice (Poland); Medical University of Warsaw, Genomic Medicine, Department of General, Transplant and Liver Surgery, Warsaw (Poland); Dom, Genevieve; Maenhaut, Carine; Detours, Vincent [Universite libre de Bruxelles (ULB), Institute of Interdisciplinary Research, Bruxelles (Belgium); Unger, Kristian [Imperial College London Hammersmith Hospital, Human Cancer Studies Group, Division of Surgery and Cancer, London (United Kingdom); Helmholtz-Zentrum, Research Unit Radiation Cytogenetics, Munich (Germany); Bogdanova, Tetiana [Institute of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Kiev (Ukraine); Thomas, Geraldine [Imperial College London Hammersmith Hospital, Human Cancer Studies Group, Division of Surgery and Cancer, London (United Kingdom); Likhtarov, Ilya [Academy of Technological Sciences of Ukraine, Radiation Protection Institute, Kiev (Ukraine); Jaksik, Roman [Silesian University of Technology, Systems Engineering Group, Faculty of Automatic Control, Electronics and Informatics, Gliwice (Poland); Chmielik, Ewa [Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and Institute of Oncology, Gliwice Branch, Department of Tumour Pathology, Gliwice (Poland); Jarzab, Michal [Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and Institute of Oncology, Gliwice Branch, IIIrd Department of Radiation Therapy, Gliwice (Poland); Swierniak, Andrzej [Silesian University of Technology, Department of Automatic Control, Gliwice (Poland)
Following the nuclear accidents in Chernobyl and later in Fukushima, the nuclear community has been faced with important issues concerning how to search for and diagnose biological consequences of low-dose internal radiation contamination. Although after the Chernobyl accident an increase in childhood papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) was observed, it is still not clear whether the molecular biology of PTCs associated with low-dose radiation exposure differs from that of sporadic PTC. We investigated tissue samples from 65 children/young adults with PTC using DNA microarray (Affymetrix, Human Genome U133 2.0 Plus) with the aim of identifying molecular differences between radiation-induced (exposed to Chernobyl radiation, ECR) and sporadic PTC. All participants were resident in the same region so that confounding factors related to genetics or environment were minimized. There were small but significant differences in the gene expression profiles between ECR and non-ECR PTC (global test, p < 0.01), with 300 differently expressed probe sets (p < 0.001) corresponding to 239 genes. Multifactorial analysis of variance showed that besides radiation exposure history, the BRAF mutation exhibited independent effects on the PTC expression profile; the histological subset and patient age at diagnosis had negligible effects. Ten genes (PPME1, HDAC11, SOCS7, CIC, THRA, ERBB2, PPP1R9A, HDGF, RAD51AP1, and CDK1) from the 19 investigated with quantitative RT-PCR were confirmed as being associated with radiation exposure in an independent, validation set of samples. Significant, but subtle, differences in gene expression in the post-Chernobyl PTC are associated with previous low-dose radiation exposure. (orig.)
Starmans, Maud H.W.; Chu, Kenneth C.; Haider, Syed; Nguyen, Francis; Seigneuric, Renaud; Magagnin, Michael G.; Koritzinsky, Marianne; Kasprzyk, Arek; Boutros, Paul C.; Wouters, Bradly G.
Background and purpose: Recent data suggest that in vitro and in vivo derived hypoxia gene-expression signatures have prognostic power in breast and possibly other cancers. However, both tumour hypoxia and the biological adaptation to this stress are highly dynamic. Assessment of time-dependent gene-expression changes in response to hypoxia may thus provide additional biological insights and assist in predicting the impact of hypoxia on patient prognosis. Materials and methods: Transcriptome profiling was performed for three cell lines derived from diverse tumour-types after hypoxic exposure at eight time-points, which include a normoxic time-point. Time-dependent sets of co-regulated genes were identified from these data. Subsequently, gene ontology (GO) and pathway analyses were performed. The prognostic power of these novel signatures was assessed in parallel with previous in vitro and in vivo derived hypoxia signatures in a large breast cancer microarray meta-dataset (n = 2312). Results: We identified seven recurrent temporal and two general hypoxia signatures. GO and pathway analyses revealed regulation of both common and unique underlying biological processes within these signatures. None of the new or previously published in vitro signatures consisting of hypoxia-induced genes were prognostic in the large breast cancer dataset. In contrast, signatures of repressed genes, as well as the in vivo derived signatures of hypoxia-induced genes showed clear prognostic power. Conclusions: Only a subset of hypoxia-induced genes in vitro demonstrates prognostic value when evaluated in a large clinical dataset. Despite clear evidence of temporal patterns of gene-expression in vitro, the subset of prognostic hypoxia regulated genes cannot be identified based on temporal pattern alone. In vivo derived signatures appear to identify the prognostic hypoxia induced genes. The prognostic value of hypoxia-repressed genes is likely a surrogate for the known importance of
Bortell, Nikki; Basova, Liana; Semenova, Svetlana; Fox, Howard; Ravasi, Timothy; Marcondes, Maria
Abstract Background Astrocyte activation is one of the earliest findings in the brain of methamphetamine (Meth) abusers. Our goal in this study was to identify the characteristics of the astrocytic acute response to the drug, which may be critical in pathogenic outcomes secondary to the use. Methods We developed an integrated analysis of gene expression data to study the acute gene changes caused by the direct exposure to Meth treatment of astrocytes in vitro, and to better understand how astrocytes respond, what are the early molecular markers associated with this response. We examined the literature in search of similar changes in gene signatures that are found in central nervous system disorders. Results We identified overexpressed gene networks represented by genes of an inflammatory and immune nature and that are implicated in neuroactive ligand-receptor interactions. The overexpressed networks are linked to molecules that were highly upregulated in astrocytes by all doses of methamphetamine tested and that could play a role in the central nervous system. The strongest overexpressed signatures were the upregulation of MAP2K5, GPR65, and CXCL5, and the gene networks individually associated with these molecules. Pathway analysis revealed that these networks are involved both in neuroprotection and in neuropathology. We have validated several targets associated to these genes. Conclusions Gene signatures for the astrocytic response to Meth were identified among the upregulated gene pool, using an in vitro system. The identified markers may participate in dysfunctions of the central nervous system but could also provide acute protection to the drug exposure. Further in vivo studies are necessary to establish the role of these gene networks in drug abuse pathogenesis.
BackgroundAstrocyte activation is one of the earliest findings in the brain of methamphetamine (Meth) abusers. Our goal in this study was to identify the characteristics of the astrocytic acute response to the drug, which may be critical in pathogenic outcomes secondary to the use.MethodsWe developed an integrated analysis of gene expression data to study the acute gene changes caused by the direct exposure to Meth treatment of astrocytes in vitro, and to better understand how astrocytes respond, what are the early molecular markers associated with this response. We examined the literature in search of similar changes in gene signatures that are found in central nervous system disorders.ResultsWe identified overexpressed gene networks represented by genes of an inflammatory and immune nature and that are implicated in neuroactive ligand-receptor interactions. The overexpressed networks are linked to molecules that were highly upregulated in astrocytes by all doses of methamphetamine tested and that could play a role in the central nervous system. The strongest overexpressed signatures were the upregulation of MAP2K5, GPR65, and CXCL5, and the gene networks individually associated with these molecules. Pathway analysis revealed that these networks are involved both in neuroprotection and in neuropathology. We have validated several targets associated to these genes.ConclusionsGene signatures for the astrocytic response to Meth were identified among the upregulated gene pool, using an in vitro system. The identified markers may participate in dysfunctions of the central nervous system but could also provide acute protection to the drug exposure. Further in vivo studies are necessary to establish the role of these gene networks in drug abuse pathogenesis.
Bortell, Nikki; Basova, Liana; Semenova, Svetlana; Fox, Howard S.; Ravasi, Timothy; Marcondes, Maria Cecilia G.
BackgroundAstrocyte activation is one of the earliest findings in the brain of methamphetamine (Meth) abusers. Our goal in this study was to identify the characteristics of the astrocytic acute response to the drug, which may be critical in pathogenic outcomes secondary to the use.MethodsWe developed an integrated analysis of gene expression data to study the acute gene changes caused by the direct exposure to Meth treatment of astrocytes in vitro, and to better understand how astrocytes respond, what are the early molecular markers associated with this response. We examined the literature in search of similar changes in gene signatures that are found in central nervous system disorders.ResultsWe identified overexpressed gene networks represented by genes of an inflammatory and immune nature and that are implicated in neuroactive ligand-receptor interactions. The overexpressed networks are linked to molecules that were highly upregulated in astrocytes by all doses of methamphetamine tested and that could play a role in the central nervous system. The strongest overexpressed signatures were the upregulation of MAP2K5, GPR65, and CXCL5, and the gene networks individually associated with these molecules. Pathway analysis revealed that these networks are involved both in neuroprotection and in neuropathology. We have validated several targets associated to these genes.ConclusionsGene signatures for the astrocytic response to Meth were identified among the upregulated gene pool, using an in vitro system. The identified markers may participate in dysfunctions of the central nervous system but could also provide acute protection to the drug exposure. Further in vivo studies are necessary to establish the role of these gene networks in drug abuse pathogenesis.
Stefano Maria Pagnotta
Full Text Available We describe a novel bioinformatic and translational pathology approach, gene Signature Finder Algorithm (gSFA to identify biomarkers associated with Colorectal Cancer (CRC survival. Here a robust set of CRC markers is selected by an ensemble method. By using a dataset of 232 gene expression profiles, gSFA discovers 16 highly significant small gene signatures. Analysis of dichotomies generated by the signatures results in a set of 133 samples stably classified in good prognosis group and 56 samples in poor prognosis group, whereas 43 remain unreliably classified. AKAP12, DCBLD2, NT5E and SPON1 are particularly represented in the signatures and selected for validation in vivo on two independent patients cohorts comprising 140 tumor tissues and 60 matched normal tissues. Their expression and regulatory programs are investigated in vitro. We show that the coupled expression of NT5E and DCBLD2 robustly stratifies our patients in two groups (one of which with 100% survival at five years. We show that NT5E is a target of the TNF-α signaling in vitro; the tumor suppressor PPARγ acts as a novel NT5E antagonist that positively and concomitantly regulates DCBLD2 in a cancer cell context-dependent manner.
Zanello, S. B.; Stevens, B.; Calvillo, E.; Tang, R.; Gutierrez Flores, B.; Hu, L.; Skog, J.; Bershad, E.
While the Visual Impairment and Intracranial Pressure (VIIP) syndrome observations have focused on ocular symptoms, spaceflight has been also associated with a number of other performance and neurologic signs, such as headaches, cognitive changes, vertigo, nausea, sleep/circadian disruption and mood alterations, which, albeit likely multifactorial, can also result from elevation of intracranial pressure (ICP). We therefore hypothesize that these various symptoms are caused by disturbances in the neurophysiology of the brain structures and are correlated with molecular markers in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) as indicators of neurophysiological changes. Exosomes are 30-200 nm microvesicles shed into all biofluids, including blood, urine, and CSF, carrying a highly rich source of intact protein and RNA cargo. Exosomes have been identified in human CSF, and their proteome and RNA pool is a potential new reservoir for biomarker discovery in neurological disorders. The purpose of this study is to investigate changes in brain gene expression via exosome analysis in patients suffering from ICP elevation of varied severity (idiopathic intracranial hypertension -IIH), a condition which shares some of the neuroophthalmological features of VIIP, as a first step toward obtaining evidence suggesting that cognitive function and ICP levels can be correlated with biomarkers in the CSF. Our preliminary work, reported last year, validated the exosomal technology applicable to CSF analysis and demonstrated that it was possible to obtain gene expression evidence of inflammation processes in traumatic brain injury patients. We are now recruiting patients with suspected IIH requiring lumbar puncture at Baylor College of Medicine. Both CSF (5 ml) and human plasma (10 ml) are being collected in order to compare the pattern of differentially expressed genes observed in CSF and in blood. Since blood is much more accessible than CSF, we would like to determine whether plasma biomarkers for
Full Text Available A robust and accurate gene expression signature is essential to assist oncologists to determine which subset of patients at similar Tumor-Lymph Node-Metastasis (TNM stage has high recurrence risk and could benefit from adjuvant therapies. Here we applied a two-step supervised machine-learning method and established a 12-gene expression signature to precisely predict colon adenocarcinoma (COAD prognosis by using COAD RNA-seq transcriptome data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA. The predictive performance of the 12-gene signature was validated with two independent gene expression microarray datasets: GSE39582 includes 566 COAD cases for the development of six molecular subtypes with distinct clinical, molecular and survival characteristics; GSE17538 is a dataset containing 232 colon cancer patients for the generation of a metastasis gene expression profile to predict recurrence and death in COAD patients. The signature could effectively separate the poor prognosis patients from good prognosis group (disease specific survival (DSS: Kaplan Meier (KM Log Rank p = 0.0034; overall survival (OS: KM Log Rank p = 0.0336 in GSE17538. For patients with proficient mismatch repair system (pMMR in GSE39582, the signature could also effectively distinguish high risk group from low risk group (OS: KM Log Rank p = 0.005; Relapse free survival (RFS: KM Log Rank p = 0.022. Interestingly, advanced stage patients were significantly enriched in high 12-gene score group (Fisher’s exact test p = 0.0003. After stage stratification, the signature could still distinguish poor prognosis patients in GSE17538 from good prognosis within stage II (Log Rank p = 0.01 and stage II & III (Log Rank p = 0.017 in the outcome of DFS. Within stage III or II/III pMMR patients treated with Adjuvant Chemotherapies (ACT and patients with higher 12-gene score showed poorer prognosis (III, OS: KM Log Rank p = 0.046; III & II, OS: KM Log Rank p = 0.041. Among stage II/III pMMR patients
Monks, A.; Hose, C.D.; Pezzoli, P.
gene modulation were significantly correlated. A belinostat-gene profile was specific for HDACi in three cell lines when compared with equipotent concentrations of four mechanistically different chemotherapeutic agents: 5-fluorouracil, cisplatin, paclitaxel, and thiotepa. Belinostat- and trichostatin...... in a drug-sensitive tumor than a more resistant model. We have demonstrated a gene signature that is selectively regulated by HDACi when compared with other clinical agents allowing us to distinguish HDACi responses from those related to other mechanisms Udgivelsesdato: 2009/9...
Full Text Available Benign neurofibromas, the main phenotypic manifestations of the rare neurological disorder neurofibromatosis type 1, degenerate to malignant tumors associated to poor prognosis in about 10% of patients. Despite efforts in the field of (epigenomics, the lack of prognostic biomarkers with which to predict disease evolution frustrates the adoption of appropriate early therapeutic measures. To identify potential biomarkers of malignant neurofibroma transformation, we integrated four human experimental studies and one for mouse, using a gene score-based meta-analysis method, from which we obtained a score-ranked signature of 579 genes. Genes with the highest absolute scores were classified as promising disease biomarkers. By grouping genes with similar neurofibromatosis-related profiles, we derived panels of potential biomarkers. The addition of promoter methylation data to gene profiles indicated a panel of genes probably silenced by hypermethylation. To identify possible therapeutic treatments, we used the gene signature to query drug expression databases. Trichostatin A and other histone deacetylase inhibitors, as well as cantharidin and tamoxifen, were retrieved as putative therapeutic means to reverse the aberrant regulation that drives to malignant cell proliferation and metastasis. This in silico prediction corroborated reported experimental results that suggested the inclusion of these compounds in clinical trials. This experimental validation supported the suitability of the meta-analysis method used to integrate several sources of public genomic information, and the reliability of the gene signature associated to the malignant evolution of neurofibromas to generate working hypotheses for prognostic and drug-responsive biomarkers or therapeutic measures, thus showing the potential of this in silico approach for biomarker discovery.
Handkiewicz-Junak, Daria; Swierniak, Michal; Rusinek, Dagmara; Oczko-Wojciechowska, Małgorzata; Dom, Genevieve; Maenhaut, Carine; Unger, Kristian; Detours, Vincent; Bogdanova, Tetiana; Thomas, Geraldine; Likhtarov, Ilya; Jaksik, Roman; Kowalska, Malgorzata; Chmielik, Ewa; Jarzab, Michal; Swierniak, Andrzej; Jarzab, Barbara
Following the nuclear accidents in Chernobyl and later in Fukushima, the nuclear community has been faced with important issues concerning how to search for and diagnose biological consequences of low-dose internal radiation contamination. Although after the Chernobyl accident an increase in childhood papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) was observed, it is still not clear whether the molecular biology of PTCs associated with low-dose radiation exposure differs from that of sporadic PTC. We investigated tissue samples from 65 children/young adults with PTC using DNA microarray (Affymetrix, Human Genome U133 2.0 Plus) with the aim of identifying molecular differences between radiation-induced (exposed to Chernobyl radiation, ECR) and sporadic PTC. All participants were resident in the same region so that confounding factors related to genetics or environment were minimized. There were small but significant differences in the gene expression profiles between ECR and non-ECR PTC (global test, p Chernobyl PTC are associated with previous low-dose radiation exposure.
Aubin-Horth, Nadia; Letcher, Benjamin H.; Hofmann, Hans A.
How genomic expression differs as a function of life history variation is largely unknown. Atlantic salmon exhibits extreme alternative life histories. We defined the gene-expression signatures of wild-caught salmon at two different life stages by comparing the brain expression profiles of mature sneaker males and immature males, and early migrants and late migrants. In addition to life-stage-specific signatures, we discovered a surprisingly large gene set that was differentially regulated - at similar magnitudes, yet in opposite direction - in both life history transitions. We suggest that this co-variation is not a consequence of many independent cellular and molecular switches in the same direction but rather represents the molecular equivalent of a physiological shift orchestrated by one or very few master regulators. PMID:19401203
Warf, M Bryan; Flake, Darl D; Adams, Doug; Gutin, Alexander; Kolquist, Kathryn A; Wenstrup, Richard J; Roa, Benjamin B
These studies were to validate the analytical performance of a gene expression signature that differentiates melanoma and nevi, using RNA expression from 14 signature genes and nine normalization genes that generates a melanoma diagnostic score (MDS). Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded melanocytic lesions were evaluated in these studies. The overall SD of the assay was determined to be 0.69 MDS units. Individual amplicons within the signature had an average amplification efficiency of 92% and a SD less than 0.5 CT. The MDS was reproducible across a 2000-fold dilution range of input RNA. Melanin, an inhibitor of PCR, does not interfere with the signature. These studies indicate this signature is robust and reproducible and is analytically validated on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded melanocytic lesions.
Full Text Available Host gene variants may influence the natural history of hepatitis B virus (HBV infection. The human leukocyte antigen (HLA system, the major histocompatibility complex (MHC in humans, is one of the most important host factors that are correlated with the clinical course of HBV infection. Genome-wide association studies (GWASs have shown that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs near certain HLA gene loci are strongly associated with not only persistent HBV infection but also spontaneous HBV clearance and seroconversion, disease progression, and the development of liver cirrhosis and HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC in chronic hepatitis B (CHB. These variations also influence the efficacy of interferon (IFN and nucleot(side analogue (NA treatment and response to HBV vaccines. Meanwhile, discrepant conclusions were reached with different patient cohorts. It is therefore essential to identify the associations of specific HLA allele variants with disease progression and viral clearance in chronic HBV infection among different ethnic populations. A better understanding of HLA polymorphism relevance in HBV infection outcome would enable us to elucidate the roles of HLA SNPs in the pathogenesis and clearance of HBV in different areas and ethnic groups, to improve strategies for the prevention and treatment of chronic HBV infection.
Full Text Available The functions of key oncogenic transcription factors independent of context have not been fully delineated despite our richer understanding of the genetic alterations in human cancers. The MYC oncogene, which produces the Myc transcription factor, is frequently altered in human cancer and is a major regulatory hub for many cancers. In this regard, we sought to unravel the primordial signature of Myc function by using high-throughput genomic approaches to identify the cell-type independent core Myc target gene signature. Using a model of human B lymphoma cells bearing inducible MYC, we identified a stringent set of direct Myc target genes via chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP, global nuclear run-on assay, and changes in mRNA levels. We also identified direct Myc targets in human embryonic stem cells (ESCs. We further document that a Myc core signature (MCS set of target genes is shared in mouse and human ESCs as well as in four other human cancer cell types. Remarkably, the expression of the MCS correlates with MYC expression in a cell-type independent manner across 8,129 microarray samples, which include 312 cell and tissue types. Furthermore, the expression of the MCS is elevated in vivo in Eμ-Myc transgenic murine lymphoma cells as compared with premalignant or normal B lymphocytes. Expression of the MCS in human B cell lymphomas, acute leukemia, lung cancers or Ewing sarcomas has the highest correlation with MYC expression. Annotation of this gene signature reveals Myc's primordial function in RNA processing, ribosome biogenesis and biomass accumulation as its key roles in cancer and stem cells.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple breast cancer gene expression profiles have been developed that appear to provide similar abilities to predict outcome and may outperform clinical-pathologic criteria; however, the extent to which seemingly disparate profiles provide additive prognostic information is not known, nor do we know whether prognostic profiles perform equally across clinically defined breast cancer subtypes. We evaluated whether combining the prognostic powers of standard breast cancer clinical variables with a large set of gene expression signatures could improve on our ability to predict patient outcomes. Methods Using clinical-pathological variables and a collection of 323 gene expression "modules", including 115 previously published signatures, we build multivariate Cox proportional hazards models using a dataset of 550 node-negative systemically untreated breast cancer patients. Models predictive of pathological complete response (pCR to neoadjuvant chemotherapy were also built using this approach. Results We identified statistically significant prognostic models for relapse-free survival (RFS at 7 years for the entire population, and for the subgroups of patients with ER-positive, or Luminal tumors. Furthermore, we found that combined models that included both clinical and genomic parameters improved prognostication compared with models with either clinical or genomic variables alone. Finally, we were able to build statistically significant combined models for pathological complete response (pCR predictions for the entire population. Conclusions Integration of gene expression signatures and clinical-pathological factors is an improved method over either variable type alone. Highly prognostic models could be created when using all patients, and for the subset of patients with lymph node-negative and ER-positive breast cancers. Other variables beyond gene expression and clinical-pathological variables, like gene mutation status or DNA
Jiang, Hui; Du, Jun; Gu, Jiming; Jin, Liugen; Pu, Yong; Fei, Bojian
The aim of the present study was to examine the molecular factors associated with the prognosis of colon cancer. Gene expression datasets were downloaded from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and Gene Expression Omnibus databases to screen differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between colon cancer samples and normal samples. Survival‑related genes were selected from the DEGs using the Cox regression method. A co‑expression network of survival‑related genes was then constructed, and functional clusters were extracted from this network. The significantly enriched functions and pathways of the genes in the network were identified. Using Bayesian discriminant analysis, a prognostic prediction system was established to distinguish the positive from negative prognostic samples. The discrimination efficacy of the system was validated in the GSE17538 dataset using Kaplan‑Meier survival analysis. A total of 636 and 1,892 DEGs between the colon cancer samples and normal samples were screened from the TCGA and GSE44861 dataset, respectively. There were 155 survival‑related genes selected. The co‑expression network of survival‑related genes included 138 genes, 534 lines (connections) and five functional clusters, including the signaling pathway, cellular response to cAMP, and immune system process functional clusters. The molecular function, cellular components and biological processes were the significantly enriched functions. The peroxisome proliferator‑activated receptor signaling pathway, Wnt signaling pathway, B cell receptor signaling pathway, and cytokine‑cytokine receptor interactions were the significant pathways. A prognostic prediction system based on a 65‑gene signature was established using this co‑expression network. Its discriminatory effect was validated in the TCGA dataset (P=3.56e‑12) and the GSE17538 dataset (P=1.67e‑6). The 65‑gene signature included kallikrein‑related peptidase 6 (KLK6), collagen type XI α1 (COL11A1), cartilage
Full Text Available Intertumoral molecular heterogeneity in glioblastoma identifies four major subtypes based on expression of molecular markers. Among them, the two clinically interrelated subtypes, proneural and mesenchymal, are the most aggressive with proneural liable for conversion to mesenchymal upon therapy. Using two patient-derived novel primary cell culture models (MTA10 and KW10, we developed a minimal but unique four-gene signature comprising genes vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A, vascular endothelial growth factor B (VEGF-B and angiopoietin 1 (ANG1, angiopoietin 2 (ANG2 that effectively segregated the proneural (MTA10 and mesenchymal (KW10 glioblastoma subtypes. The cell culture preclassified as mesenchymal showed elevated expression of genes VEGF-A, VEGF-B and ANG1, ANG2 as compared to the other cell culture model that mimicked the proneural subtype. The differentially expressed genes in these two cell culture models were confirmed by us using TCGA and Verhaak databases and we refer to it as a minimal multigene signature (MMS. We validated this MMS on human glioblastoma tissue sections with the use of immunohistochemistry on preclassified (YKL-40 high or mesenchymal glioblastoma and OLIG2 high or proneural glioblastoma tumor samples (n = 30. MMS segregated mesenchymal and proneural subtypes with 83% efficiency using a simple histopathology scoring approach (p = 0.008 for ANG2 and p = 0.01 for ANG1. Furthermore, MMS expression negatively correlated with patient survival. Importantly, MMS staining demonstrated spatiotemporal heterogeneity within each subclass, adding further complexity to subtype identification in glioblastoma. In conclusion, we report a novel and simple sequencing-independent histopathology-based biomarker signature comprising genes VEGF-A, VEGF-B and ANG1, ANG2 for subtyping of proneural and mesenchymal glioblastoma.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR is a serine/threonine kinase involved in multiple intracellular signaling pathways promoting tumor growth. mTOR is aberrantly activated in a significant portion of breast cancers and is a promising target for treatment. Rapamycin and its analogues are in clinical trials for breast cancer treatment. Patterns of gene expression (metagenes may also be used to simulate a biologic process or effects of a drug treatment. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the gene-expression signature regulated by rapamycin could predict disease outcome for patients with breast cancer. Results Colony formation and sulforhodamine B (IC50 in vitro and in vivo gene expression data identified a signature, termed rapamycin metagene index (RMI, of 31 genes upregulated by rapamycin treatment in vitro as well as in vivo (false discovery rate of 10%. In the Miller dataset, RMI did not correlate with tumor size or lymph node status. High (>75th percentile RMI was significantly associated with longer survival (P = 0.015. On multivariate analysis, RMI (P = 0.029, tumor size (P = 0.015 and lymph node status (P = 0.001 were prognostic. In van 't Veer study, RMI was not associated with the time to develop distant metastasis (P = 0.41. In the Wang dataset, RMI predicted time to disease relapse (P = 0.009. Conclusion Rapamycin-regulated gene expression signature predicts clinical outcome in breast cancer. This supports the central role of mTOR signaling in breast cancer biology and provides further impetus to pursue mTOR-targeted therapies for breast cancer treatment.
Hans Carl Hasselbalch
Full Text Available Identifying a distinct gene signature for myelofibrosis may yield novel information of the genes, which are responsible for progression of essential thrombocythemia and polycythemia vera towards myelofibrosis. We aimed at identifying a simple gene signature - composed of a few genes - which were selectively and highly deregulated in myelofibrosis patients. Gene expression microarray studies have been performed on whole blood from 69 patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms. Amongst the top-20 of the most upregulated genes in PMF compared to controls, we identified 5 genes (DEFA4, ELA2, OLFM4, CTSG, and AZU1, which were highly significantly deregulated in PMF only. None of these genes were significantly regulated in ET and PV patients. However, hierarchical cluster analysis showed that these genes were also highly expressed in a subset of patients with ET (n = 1 and PV (n = 4 transforming towards myelofibrosis and/or being featured by an aggressive phenotype. We have identified a simple 5-gene signature, which is uniquely and highly significantly deregulated in patients in transitional stages of ET and PV towards myelofibrosis and in patients with PMF only. Some of these genes are considered to be responsible for the derangement of bone marrow stroma in myelofibrosis. Accordingly, this gene-signature may reflect key processes in the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of myelofibrosis development.
Christian J Gröger
Full Text Available The epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT represents a crucial event during cancer progression and dissemination. EMT is the conversion of carcinoma cells from an epithelial to a mesenchymal phenotype that associates with a higher cell motility as well as enhanced chemoresistance and cancer stemness. Notably, EMT has been increasingly recognized as an early event of metastasis. Numerous gene expression studies (GES have been conducted to obtain transcriptome signatures and marker genes to understand the regulatory mechanisms underlying EMT. Yet, no meta-analysis considering the multitude of GES of EMT has been performed to comprehensively elaborate the core genes in this process. Here we report the meta-analysis of 18 independent and published GES of EMT which focused on different cell types and treatment modalities. Computational analysis revealed clustering of GES according to the type of treatment rather than to cell type. GES of EMT induced via transforming growth factor-β and tumor necrosis factor-α treatment yielded uniformly defined clusters while GES of models with alternative EMT induction clustered in a more complex fashion. In addition, we identified those up- and downregulated genes which were shared between the multitude of GES. This core gene list includes well known EMT markers as well as novel genes so far not described in this process. Furthermore, several genes of the EMT-core gene list significantly correlated with impaired pathological complete response in breast cancer patients. In conclusion, this meta-analysis provides a comprehensive survey of available EMT expression signatures and shows fundamental insights into the mechanisms that are governing carcinoma progression.
Samantha M Thomas
Full Text Available Renewable in vitro cell cultures, such as lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs, have facilitated studies that contributed to our understanding of genetic influence on human traits. However, the degree to which cell lines faithfully maintain differences in donor-specific phenotypes is still debated. We have previously reported that standard cell line maintenance practice results in a loss of donor-specific gene expression signatures in LCLs. An alternative to the LCL model is the induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC system, which carries the potential to model tissue-specific physiology through the use of differentiation protocols. Still, existing LCL banks represent an important source of starting material for iPSC generation, and it is possible that the disruptions in gene regulation associated with long-term LCL maintenance could persist through the reprogramming process. To address this concern, we studied the effect of reprogramming mature LCL cultures from six unrelated donors to iPSCs on the ensuing gene expression patterns within and between individuals. We show that the reprogramming process results in a recovery of donor-specific gene regulatory signatures, increasing the number of genes with a detectable donor effect by an order of magnitude. The proportion of variation in gene expression statistically attributed to donor increases from 6.9% in LCLs to 24.5% in iPSCs (P < 10-15. Since environmental contributions are unlikely to be a source of individual variation in our system of highly passaged cultured cell lines, our observations suggest that the effect of genotype on gene regulation is more pronounced in iPSCs than in LCLs. Our findings indicate that iPSCs can be a powerful model system for studies of phenotypic variation across individuals in general, and the genetic association with variation in gene regulation in particular. We further conclude that LCLs are an appropriate starting material for iPSC generation.
Gordon, Bradley S; Steiner, Jennifer L; Rossetti, Michael L; Qiao, Shuxi; Ellisen, Leif W; Govindarajan, Subramaniam S; Eroshkin, Alexey M; Williamson, David L; Coen, Paul M
The metabolic stress placed on skeletal muscle by aerobic exercise promotes acute and long-term health benefits in part through changes in gene expression. However, the transducers that mediate altered gene expression signatures have not been completely elucidated. Regulated in development and DNA damage 1 (REDD1) is a stress-induced protein whose expression is transiently increased in skeletal muscle following acute aerobic exercise. However, the role of this induction remains unclear. Because REDD1 altered gene expression in other model systems, we sought to determine whether REDD1 induction following acute exercise altered the gene expression signature in muscle. To do this, wild-type and REDD1-null mice were randomized to remain sedentary or undergo a bout of acute treadmill exercise. Exercised mice recovered for 1, 3, or 6 h before euthanization. Acute exercise induced a transient increase in REDD1 protein expression within the plantaris only at 1 h postexercise, and the induction occurred in both cytosolic and nuclear fractions. At this time point, global changes in gene expression were surveyed using microarray. REDD1 induction was required for the exercise-induced change in expression of 24 genes. Validation by RT-PCR confirmed that the exercise-mediated changes in genes related to exercise capacity, muscle protein metabolism, neuromuscular junction remodeling, and Metformin action were negated in REDD1-null mice. Finally, the exercise-mediated induction of REDD1 was partially dependent upon glucocorticoid receptor activation. In all, these data show that REDD1 induction regulates the exercise-mediated change in a distinct set of genes within skeletal muscle. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.
Yoo, Minjae; Shin, Jimin; Kim, Hyunmin; Kim, Jihye; Kang, Jaewoo; Tan, Aik Choon
Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) has been practiced over thousands of years in China and other Asian countries for treating various symptoms and diseases. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of TCM are poorly understood, partly due to the "multi-component, multi-target" nature of TCM. To uncover the molecular mechanisms of TCM, we perform comprehensive gene expression analysis using connectivity map. We interrogated gene expression signatures obtained 102 TCM components using the next generation Connectivity Map (CMap) resource. We performed systematic data mining and analysis on the mechanism of action (MoA) of these TCM components based on the CMap results. We clustered the 102 TCM components into four groups based on their MoAs using next generation CMap resource. We performed gene set enrichment analysis on these components to provide additional supports for explaining these molecular mechanisms. We also provided literature evidence to validate the MoAs identified through this bioinformatics analysis. Finally, we developed the Traditional Chinese Medicine Drug Repurposing Hub (TCM Hub) - a connectivity map resource to facilitate the elucidation of TCM MoA for drug repurposing research. TCMHub is freely available in http://tanlab.ucdenver.edu/TCMHub. Molecular mechanisms of TCM could be uncovered by using gene expression signatures and connectivity map. Through this analysis, we identified many of the TCM components possess diverse MoAs, this may explain the applications of TCM in treating various symptoms and diseases. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Background Streptococcus is an economically important genus as a number of species belonging to this genus are human and animal pathogens. The genus has been divided into different groups based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity. The variability observed among the members of these groups is low and it is difficult to distinguish them. The present study was taken up to explore 16S rRNA gene sequence to develop methods that can be used for preliminary identification and can supplement the existing methods for identification of clinically-relevant isolates of the genus Streptococcus. Methods 16S rRNA gene sequences belonging to the isolates of S. dysgalactiae, S. equi, S. pyogenes, S. agalactiae, S. bovis, S. gallolyticus, S. mutans, S. sobrinus, S. mitis, S. pneumoniae, S. thermophilus and S. anginosus were analyzed with the purpose to define genetic variability within each species to generate a phylogenetic framework, to identify species-specific signatures and in-silico restriction enzyme analysis. Results The framework based analysis was used to segregate Streptococcus spp. previously identified upto genus level. This segregation was validated using species-specific signatures and in-silico restriction enzyme analysis. 43 uncharacterized Streptococcus spp. could be identified using this approach. Conclusions The markers generated exploring 16S rRNA gene sequences provided useful tool that can be further used for identification of different species of the genus Streptococcus. PMID:21702978
Full Text Available Systemic dimorphic fungi cause more than one million new infections each year, ranking them among the significant public health challenges currently encountered. Penicillium marneffei is a systemic dimorphic fungus endemic to Southeast Asia. The temperature-dependent dimorphic phase transition between mycelium and yeast is considered crucial for the pathogenicity and transmission of P. marneffei, but the underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood. Here, we re-sequenced P. marneffei strain PM1 using multiple sequencing platforms and assembled the genome using hybrid genome assembly. We determined gene expression levels using RNA sequencing at the mycelial and yeast phases of P. marneffei, as well as during phase transition. We classified 2,718 genes with variable expression across conditions into 14 distinct groups, each marked by a signature expression pattern implicated at a certain stage in the dimorphic life cycle. Genes with the same expression patterns tend to be clustered together on the genome, suggesting orchestrated regulations of the transcriptional activities of neighboring genes. Using qRT-PCR, we validated expression levels of all genes in one of clusters highly expressed during the yeast-to-mycelium transition. These included madsA, a gene encoding MADS-box transcription factor whose gene family is exclusively expanded in P. marneffei. Over-expression of madsA drove P. marneffei to undergo mycelial growth at 37°C, a condition that restricts the wild-type in the yeast phase. Furthermore, analyses of signature expression patterns suggested diverse roles of secreted proteins at different developmental stages and the potential importance of non-coding RNAs in mycelium-to-yeast transition. We also showed that RNA structural transition in response to temperature changes may be related to the control of thermal dimorphism. Together, our findings have revealed multiple molecular mechanisms that may underlie the dimorphic transition
Merrick, B Alex; Auerbach, Scott S; Stockton, Patricia S; Foley, Julie F; Malarkey, David E; Sills, Robert C; Irwin, Richard D; Tice, Raymond R
Archival tissues from laboratory studies represent a unique opportunity to explore the relationship between genomic changes and agent-induced disease. In this study, we evaluated the applicability of qPCR for detecting genomic changes in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues by determining if a subset of 14 genes from a 90-gene signature derived from microarray data and associated with eventual tumor development could be detected in archival liver, kidney, and lung of rats exposed to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) for 90 days in feed at 1 ppm. These tissues originated from the same rats used in the microarray study. The 14 genes evaluated were Adam8, Cdh13, Ddit4l, Mybl2, Akr7a3, Akr7a2, Fhit, Wwox, Abcb1b, Abcc3, Cxcl1, Gsta5, Grin2c, and the C8orf46 homologue. The qPCR FFPE liver results were compared to the original liver microarray data and to qPCR results using RNA from fresh frozen liver. Archival liver paraffin blocks yielded 30 to 50 μg of degraded RNA that ranged in size from 0.1 to 4 kB. qPCR results from FFPE and fresh frozen liver samples were positively correlated (p ≤ 0.05) by regression analysis and showed good agreement in direction and proportion of change with microarray data for 11 of 14 genes. All 14 transcripts could be amplified from FFPE kidney RNA except the glutamate receptor gene Grin2c; however, only Abcb1b was significantly upregulated from control. Abundant constitutive transcripts, S18 and β-actin, could be amplified from lung FFPE samples, but the narrow RNA size range (25-500 bp length) prevented consistent detection of target transcripts. Overall, a discrete gene signature derived from prior transcript profiling and representing cell cycle progression, DNA damage response, and xenosensor and detoxication pathways was successfully applied to archival liver and kidney by qPCR and indicated that gene expression changes in response to subchronic AFB1 exposure occurred predominantly in the liver, the primary target for AFB1-induced
Tong, Mengsha; Zheng, Weicheng; Lu, Xingrong; Ao, Lu; Li, Xiangyu; Guan, Qingzhou; Cai, Hao; Li, Mengyao; Yan, Haidan; Guo, You; Chi, Pan; Guo, Zheng
Until recently, few molecular signatures of drug resistance identified in drug-induced resistant cancer cell models can be translated into clinical practice. Here, we defined differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between pre-chemotherapy colorectal cancer (CRC) tissue samples of non-responders and responders for 5-fluorouracil and oxaliplatin-based therapy as clinically relevant drug resistance genes (CRG5-FU/L-OHP). Taking CRG5-FU/L-OHP as reference, we evaluated the clinical relevance of several types of genes derived from HCT116 CRC cells with resistance to 5-fluorouracil and oxaliplatin, respectively. The results revealed that DEGs between parental and resistant cells, when both were treated with the corresponding drug for a certain time, were significantly consistent with the CRG5-FU/L-OHP as well as the DEGs between the post-chemotherapy CRC specimens of responders and non-responders. This study suggests a novel strategy to extract clinically relevant drug resistance genes from both drug-induced resistant cell models and post-chemotherapy cancer tissue specimens.
Full Text Available Gene expression analysis of colon biopsies using high-density oligonucleotide microarrays can contribute to the understanding of local pathophysiological alterations and to functional classification of adenoma (15 samples, colorectal carcinomas (CRC (15 and inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD (14. Total RNA was extracted, amplified and biotinylated from frozen colonic biopsies. Genome-wide gene expression profile was evaluated by HGU133plus2 microarrays and verified by RT-PCR. We applied two independent methods for data normalization and used PAM for feature selection. Leave one-out stepwise discriminant analysis was performed. Top validated genes included collagenIVα1, lipocalin-2, calumenin, aquaporin-8 genes in CRC; CD44, met proto-oncogene, chemokine ligand-12, ADAM-like decysin-1 and ATP-binding casette-A8 genes in adenoma; and lipocalin-2, ubiquitin D and IFITM2 genes in IBD. Best differentiating markers between Ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease were cyclin-G2; tripartite motif-containing-31; TNFR shedding aminopeptidase regulator-1 and AMICA. The discriminant analysis was able to classify the samples in overall 96.2% using 7 discriminatory genes (indoleamine-pyrrole-2,3-dioxygenase, ectodermal-neural cortex, TIMP3, fucosyltransferase-8, collectin sub-family member 12, carboxypeptidase D, and transglutaminase-2. Using routine biopsy samples we successfully performed whole genomic microarray analysis to identify discriminative signatures. Our results provide further insight into the pathophysiological background of colonic diseases. The results set up data warehouse which can be mined further.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The complex balance between environmental and host factors is an important determinant of susceptibility to infection. Disturbances of this equilibrium may result in multifactorial diseases as illustrated by the summer mortality syndrome, a worldwide and complex phenomenon that affects the oysters, Crassostrea gigas. The summer mortality syndrome reveals a physiological intolerance making this oyster species susceptible to diseases. Exploration of genetic basis governing the oyster resistance or susceptibility to infections is thus a major goal for understanding field mortality events. In this context, we used high-throughput genomic approaches to identify genetic traits that may characterize inherent survival capacities in C. gigas. Results Using digital gene expression (DGE, we analyzed the transcriptomes of hemocytes (immunocompetent cells of oysters able or not able to survive infections by Vibrio species shown to be involved in summer mortalities. Hemocytes were nonlethally collected from oysters before Vibrio experimental infection, and two DGE libraries were generated from individuals that survived or did not survive. Exploration of DGE data and microfluidic qPCR analyses at individual level showed an extraordinary polymorphism in gene expressions, but also a set of hemocyte-expressed genes whose basal mRNA levels discriminate oyster capacity to survive infections by the pathogenic V. splendidus LGP32. Finally, we identified a signature of 14 genes that predicted oyster survival capacity. Their expressions are likely driven by distinct transcriptional regulation processes associated or not associated to gene copy number variation (CNV. Conclusions We provide here for the first time in oyster a gene expression survival signature that represents a useful tool for understanding mortality events and for assessing genetic traits of interest for disease resistance selection programs.
He, Haiqi; Ni, Bing; Tian, Yi; Tian, Zhiqiang; Chen, Yanke; Liu, Zhengwen; Yang, Xiaomei; Lv, Yi; Zhang, Yong
CD4(+) FOXP3(+) regulatory T (Treg) cells constitute a heterogeneous and plastic T-cell lineage that plays a pivotal role in maintaining immune homeostasis and immune tolerance. However, the fate of human Treg cells after loss of FOXP3 expression and the epigenetic mechanisms contributing to such a phenotype switch remain to be fully elucidated. In the current study, we demonstrate that human CD4(+) CD25(high) CD127(low/-) Treg cells convert to two subpopulations with distinctive FOXP3(+) and FOXP3(-) phenotypes following in vitro culture with anti-CD3/CD28 and interleukin-2. Digital gene expression analysis showed that upon in vitro expansion, human Treg cells down-regulated Treg cell signature genes, such as FOXP3, CTLA4, ICOS, IKZF2 and LRRC32, but up-regulated a set of T helper lineage-associated genes, especially T helper type 2 (Th2)-associated, such as GATA3, GFI1 and IL13. Subsequent chromatin immunoprecipitation-sequencing of these subpopulations yielded genome-wide maps of their H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 profiles. Surprisingly, reprogramming of Treg cells was associated with differential histone modifications, as evidenced by decreased abundance of permissive H3K4me3 within the down-regulated Treg cell signature genes, such as FOXP3, CTLA4 and LRRC32 loci, and increased abundance of H3K4me3 within the Th2-associated genes, such as IL4 and IL5; however, the H3K27me3 modification profile was not significantly different between the two subpopulations. In conclusion, this study revealed that loss of FOXP3 expression from human Treg cells during in vitro expansion can induce reprogramming to a T helper cell phenotype with a gene expression signature dominated by Th2 lineage-associated genes, and that this cell type conversion may be mediated by histone methylation events. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
He, Haiqi; Ni, Bing; Tian, Yi; Tian, Zhiqiang; Chen, Yanke; Liu, Zhengwen; Yang, Xiaomei; Lv, Yi; Zhang, Yong
CD4+ FOXP3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells constitute a heterogeneous and plastic T-cell lineage that plays a pivotal role in maintaining immune homeostasis and immune tolerance. However, the fate of human Treg cells after loss of FOXP3 expression and the epigenetic mechanisms contributing to such a phenotype switch remain to be fully elucidated. In the current study, we demonstrate that human CD4+ CD25high CD127low/− Treg cells convert to two subpopulations with distinctive FOXP3+ and FOXP3− phenotypes following in vitro culture with anti-CD3/CD28 and interleukin-2. Digital gene expression analysis showed that upon in vitro expansion, human Treg cells down-regulated Treg cell signature genes, such as FOXP3, CTLA4, ICOS, IKZF2 and LRRC32, but up-regulated a set of T helper lineage-associated genes, especially T helper type 2 (Th2)-associated, such as GATA3, GFI1 and IL13. Subsequent chromatin immunoprecipitation-sequencing of these subpopulations yielded genome-wide maps of their H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 profiles. Surprisingly, reprogramming of Treg cells was associated with differential histone modifications, as evidenced by decreased abundance of permissive H3K4me3 within the down-regulated Treg cell signature genes, such as FOXP3, CTLA4 and LRRC32 loci, and increased abundance of H3K4me3 within the Th2-associated genes, such as IL4 and IL5; however, the H3K27me3 modification profile was not significantly different between the two subpopulations. In conclusion, this study revealed that loss of FOXP3 expression from human Treg cells during in vitro expansion can induce reprogramming to a T helper cell phenotype with a gene expression signature dominated by Th2 lineage-associated genes, and that this cell type conversion may be mediated by histone methylation events. PMID:24152290
Melissa A Merritt
Full Text Available The potential role of the cell-of-origin in determining the tumor phenotype has been raised, but not adequately examined. We hypothesized that distinct cells-of-origin may play a role in determining ovarian tumor phenotype and outcome. Here we describe a new cell culture medium for in vitro culture of paired normal human ovarian (OV and fallopian tube (FT epithelial cells from donors without cancer. While these cells have been cultured individually for short periods of time, to our knowledge this is the first long-term culture of both cell types from the same donors. Through analysis of the gene expression profiles of the cultured OV/FT cells we identified a normal cell-of-origin gene signature that classified primary ovarian cancers into OV-like and FT-like subgroups; this classification correlated with significant differences in clinical outcomes. The identification of a prognostically significant gene expression signature derived solely from normal untransformed cells is consistent with the hypothesis that the normal cell-of-origin may be a source of ovarian tumor heterogeneity and the associated differences in tumor outcome.
Pardo, Joaquín; Abba, Martin C; Lacunza, Ezequiel; Ogundele, Olalekan M; Paiva, Isabel; Morel, Gustavo R; Outeiro, Tiago F; Goya, Rodolfo G
In rats, learning and memory performance decline during normal aging, which makes this rodent species a suitable model to evaluate therapeutic strategies. In aging rats, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), is known to significantly improve spatial memory accuracy as compared to control counterparts. A constellation of gene expression changes underlie the hippocampal phenotype of aging but no studies on the effects of IGF-I on the hippocampal transcriptome of old rodents have been documented. Here, we assessed the effects of IGF-I gene therapy on spatial memory performance in old female rats and compared them with changes in the hippocampal transcriptome. In the Barnes maze test, experimental rats showed a significantly higher exploratory frequency of the goal hole than controls. Hippocampal RNA-sequencing showed that 219 genes are differentially expressed in 28-month-old rats intracerebroventricularly injected with an adenovector expressing rat IGF-I as compared with placebo adenovector-injected counterparts. From the differentially expressed genes, 81 were down and 138 upregulated. From those genes, a list of functionally relevant genes, concerning hippocampal IGF-I expression, synaptic plasticity as well as neuronal function was identified. Our results provide an initial glimpse at the molecular mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective actions of IGF-I in the aging brain.
Krzystanek, Marcin; Moldvay, Judit; Szüts, David
Stage I lung adenocarcinoma is usually not treated with adjuvant chemotherapy; however, around half of these patients do not survive 5 years. Therefore, a reliable prognostic biomarker for early stage patients would be critical to identify those most likely to benefit from early additional treatm...... not given adjuvant therapy. Seven genes consistently obtained statistical significance in Cox regression for overall survival. The combined signature has a weighted mean hazard ratio of 3.2 in all cohorts and 3.0 (C.I. 1.3-7.4, p ...
Full Text Available The liver has inherent regenerative capacity via mitotic division of mature hepatocytes or, when the hepatic loss is massive or hepatocyte proliferation is impaired, through activation of hepatic stem/progenitor cells (HSPC. The dramatic clinical course of acute liver failure (ALF has posed major limitations to investigating the molecular mechanisms of liver regeneration and the role of HSPC in this setting. We investigated the molecular mechanisms of liver regeneration in 4 patients who underwent liver transplantation for hepatitis B virus (HBV-associated ALF.Gene expression profiling of 17 liver specimens from the 4 ALF cases and individual specimens from 10 liver donors documented a distinct gene signature for ALF. However, unsupervised multidimensional scaling and hierarchical clustering identified two clusters of ALF that segregated according to histopathological severity massive hepatic necrosis (MHN; 2 patients and submassive hepatic necrosis (SHN; 2 patients. We found that ALF is characterized by a strong HSPC gene signature, along with ductular reaction, both of which are more prominent in MHN. Interestingly, no evidence of further lineage differentiation was seen in MHN, whereas in SHN we detected cells with hepatocyte-like morphology. Strikingly, ALF was associated with a strong tumorigenesis gene signature. MHN had the greatest upregulation of stem cell genes (EpCAM, CK19, CK7, whereas the most up-regulated genes in SHN were related to cellular growth and proliferation. The extent of liver necrosis correlated with an overriding fibrogenesis gene signature, reflecting the wound-healing process.Our data provide evidence for a distinct gene signature in HBV-associated ALF whose intensity is directly correlated with the histopathological severity. HSPC activation and fibrogenesis positively correlated with the extent of liver necrosis. Moreover, we detected a tumorigenesis gene signature in ALF, emphasizing the close relationship between
Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies (GWAS have uncovered numerous genetic variants (SNPs that are associated with blood pressure (BP. Genetic variants may lead to BP changes by acting on intermediate molecular phenotypes such as coded protein sequence or gene expression, which in turn affect BP variability. Therefore, characterizing genes whose expression is associated with BP may reveal cellular processes involved in BP regulation and uncover how transcripts mediate genetic and environmental effects on BP variability. A meta-analysis of results from six studies of global gene expression profiles of BP and hypertension in whole blood was performed in 7017 individuals who were not receiving antihypertensive drug treatment. We identified 34 genes that were differentially expressed in relation to BP (Bonferroni-corrected p<0.05. Among these genes, FOS and PTGS2 have been previously reported to be involved in BP-related processes; the others are novel. The top BP signature genes in aggregate explain 5%-9% of inter-individual variance in BP. Of note, rs3184504 in SH2B3, which was also reported in GWAS to be associated with BP, was found to be a trans regulator of the expression of 6 of the transcripts we found to be associated with BP (FOS, MYADM, PP1R15A, TAGAP, S100A10, and FGBP2. Gene set enrichment analysis suggested that the BP-related global gene expression changes include genes involved in inflammatory response and apoptosis pathways. Our study provides new insights into molecular mechanisms underlying BP regulation, and suggests novel transcriptomic markers for the treatment and prevention of hypertension.
Full Text Available Aging-associated alterations of cellular functions have been implicated in various disorders including cancers. Due to difficulties in identifying aging cells in living tissues, most studies have focused on aging-associated changes in whole tissues or certain cell pools. Thus, it remains unclear what kinds of alterations accumulate in each cell during aging. While analyzing several mouse lines expressing fluorescent proteins (FPs, we found that expression of FPs is gradually silenced in the intestinal epithelium during aging in units of single crypt composed of clonal stem cell progeny. The cells with low FP expression retained the wild-type Apc allele and the tissues composed of them did not exhibit any histological abnormality. Notably, the silencing of FPs was also observed in intestinal adenomas and the surrounding normal mucosae of Apc-mutant mice, and mediated by DNA methylation of the upstream promoter. Our genome-wide analysis then showed that the silencing of FPs reflects specific gene expression alterations during aging, and that these alterations occur in not only mouse adenomas but also human sporadic and hereditary (familial adenomatous polyposis adenomas. Importantly, pharmacological inhibition of DNA methylation, which suppresses adenoma development in Apc-mutant mice, reverted the aging-associated silencing of FPs and gene expression alterations. These results identify aging-associated gene expression signatures that are heterogeneously induced by DNA methylation and precede intestinal tumorigenesis triggered by Apc inactivation, and suggest that pharmacological inhibition of the signature genes could be a novel strategy for the prevention and treatment of intestinal tumors.
Maria Teresa Landi
Full Text Available Tobacco smoking is responsible for over 90% of lung cancer cases, and yet the precise molecular alterations induced by smoking in lung that develop into cancer and impact survival have remained obscure.We performed gene expression analysis using HG-U133A Affymetrix chips on 135 fresh frozen tissue samples of adenocarcinoma and paired noninvolved lung tissue from current, former and never smokers, with biochemically validated smoking information. ANOVA analysis adjusted for potential confounders, multiple testing procedure, Gene Set Enrichment Analysis, and GO-functional classification were conducted for gene selection. Results were confirmed in independent adenocarcinoma and non-tumor tissues from two studies. We identified a gene expression signature characteristic of smoking that includes cell cycle genes, particularly those involved in the mitotic spindle formation (e.g., NEK2, TTK, PRC1. Expression of these genes strongly differentiated both smokers from non-smokers in lung tumors and early stage tumor tissue from non-tumor tissue (p1.5, for each comparison, consistent with an important role for this pathway in lung carcinogenesis induced by smoking. These changes persisted many years after smoking cessation. NEK2 (p<0.001 and TTK (p = 0.002 expression in the noninvolved lung tissue was also associated with a 3-fold increased risk of mortality from lung adenocarcinoma in smokers.Our work provides insight into the smoking-related mechanisms of lung neoplasia, and shows that the very mitotic genes known to be involved in cancer development are induced by smoking and affect survival. These genes are candidate targets for chemoprevention and treatment of lung cancer in smokers.
Anastassiou, Dimitris; Rumjantseva, Viktoria; Cheng, Weiyi; Huang, Jianzhong; Canoll, Peter D; Yamashiro, Darrell J; Kandel, Jessica J
The biological mechanisms underlying cancer cell motility and invasiveness remain unclear, although it has been hypothesized that they involve some type of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). We used xenograft models of human cancer cells in immunocompromised mice, profiling the harvested tumors separately with species-specific probes and computationally analyzing the results. Here we show that human cancer cells express in vivo a precise multi-cancer invasion-associated gene expression signature that prominently includes many EMT markers, among them the transcription factor Slug, fibronectin, and α-SMA. We found that human, but not mouse, cells express the signature and Slug is the only upregulated EMT-inducing transcription factor. The signature is also present in samples from many publicly available cancer gene expression datasets, suggesting that it is produced by the cancer cells themselves in multiple cancer types, including nonepithelial cancers such as neuroblastoma. Furthermore, we found that the presence of the signature in human xenografted cells was associated with a downregulation of adipocyte markers in the mouse tissue adjacent to the invasive tumor, suggesting that the signature is triggered by contextual microenvironmental interactions when the cancer cells encounter adipocytes, as previously reported. The known, precise and consistent gene composition of this cancer mesenchymal transition signature, particularly when combined with simultaneous analysis of the adjacent microenvironment, provides unique opportunities for shedding light on the underlying mechanisms of cancer invasiveness as well as identifying potential diagnostic markers and targets for metastasis-inhibiting therapeutics
Full Text Available For the purpose of improving the prediction of cancer prognosis in the clinical researches, various algorithms have been developed to construct the predictive models with the gene signatures detected by DNA microarrays. Due to the heterogeneity of the clinical samples, the list of differentially expressed genes (DEGs generated by the statistical methods or the machine learning algorithms often involves a number of false positive genes, which are not associated with the phenotypic differences between the compared clinical conditions, and subsequently impacts the reliability of the predictive models. In this study, we proposed a strategy, which combined the statistical algorithm with the gene-pathway bipartite networks, to generate the reliable lists of cancer-related DEGs and constructed the models by using support vector machine for predicting the prognosis of three types of cancers, namely, breast cancer, acute myeloma leukemia, and glioblastoma. Our results demonstrated that, combined with the gene-pathway bipartite networks, our proposed strategy can efficiently generate the reliable cancer-related DEG lists for constructing the predictive models. In addition, the model performance in the swap analysis was similar to that in the original analysis, indicating the robustness of the models in predicting the cancer outcomes.
Moon, Jiyun M; Aronoff, David M; Capra, John A; Abbot, Patrick; Rokas, Antonis
significantly deviated from neutrality either experienced soft sweeps or population-specific hard sweeps. Interestingly, while most hard sweeps occurred on genes involved in sialic acid recognition, most soft sweeps involved genes associated with recycling, degradation and activation, transport, and transfer functions. We propose that the lack of signatures of recent positive selection for the majority of the sialic acid biology genes is consistent with the view that these genes regulate immune responses against ancient rather than contemporary cosmopolitan or geographically restricted pathogens. Copyright © 2018 Moon et al.
Shou, Yaping; Robinson, Douglas M; Amakye, Dereck D; Rose, Kristine L; Cho, Yoon-Jae; Ligon, Keith L; Sharp, Thad; Haider, Asifa S; Bandaru, Raj; Ando, Yuichi; Geoerger, Birgit; Doz, François; Ashley, David M; Hargrave, Darren R; Casanova, Michela; Tawbi, Hussein A; Rodon, Jordi; Thomas, Anne L; Mita, Alain C; MacDonald, Tobey J; Kieran, Mark W
Distinct molecular subgroups of medulloblastoma, including hedgehog (Hh) pathway-activated disease, have been reported. We identified and clinically validated a five-gene Hh signature assay that can be used to preselect patients with Hh pathway-activated medulloblastoma. Gene characteristics of the Hh medulloblastoma subgroup were identified through published bioinformatic analyses. Thirty-two genes shown to be differentially expressed in fresh-frozen and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor samples and reproducibly analyzed by RT-PCR were measured in matched samples. These data formed the basis for building a multi-gene logistic regression model derived through elastic net methods from which the five-gene Hh signature emerged after multiple iterations. On the basis of signature gene expression levels, the model computed a propensity score to determine Hh activation using a threshold set a priori. The association between Hh activation status and tumor response to the Hh pathway inhibitor sonidegib (LDE225) was analyzed. Five differentially expressed genes in medulloblastoma (GLI1, SPHK1, SHROOM2, PDLIM3, and OTX2) were found to associate with Hh pathway activation status. In an independent validation study, Hh activation status of 25 medulloblastoma samples showed 100% concordance between the five-gene signature and Affymetrix profiling. Further, in medulloblastoma samples from 50 patients treated with sonidegib, all 6 patients who responded were found to have Hh-activated tumors. Three patients with Hh-activated tumors had stable or progressive disease. No patients with Hh-nonactivated tumors responded. This five-gene Hh signature can robustly identify Hh-activated medulloblastoma and may be used to preselect patients who might benefit from sonidegib treatment. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.
Kania, Per Walther; Larsen, Thomas Bjerre; Ingerslev, Hans C.
A series of immune relevant genes are expressed when the Baltic salmon responds on infections with the ectoparasite Gyrodactylus salaris which leads to a decrease of the parasite infection......A series of immune relevant genes are expressed when the Baltic salmon responds on infections with the ectoparasite Gyrodactylus salaris which leads to a decrease of the parasite infection...
Zwiener, Isabella; Frisch, Barbara; Binder, Harald
Gene expression measurements have successfully been used for building prognostic signatures, i.e for identifying a short list of important genes that can predict patient outcome. Mostly microarray measurements have been considered, and there is little advice available for building multivariable risk prediction models from RNA-Seq data. We specifically consider penalized regression techniques, such as the lasso and componentwise boosting, which can simultaneously consider all measurements and provide both, multivariable regression models for prediction and automated variable selection. However, they might be affected by the typical skewness, mean-variance-dependency or extreme values of RNA-Seq covariates and therefore could benefit from transformations of the latter. In an analytical part, we highlight preferential selection of covariates with large variances, which is problematic due to the mean-variance dependency of RNA-Seq data. In a simulation study, we compare different transformations of RNA-Seq data for potentially improving detection of important genes. Specifically, we consider standardization, the log transformation, a variance-stabilizing transformation, the Box-Cox transformation, and rank-based transformations. In addition, the prediction performance for real data from patients with kidney cancer and acute myeloid leukemia is considered. We show that signature size, identification performance, and prediction performance critically depend on the choice of a suitable transformation. Rank-based transformations perform well in all scenarios and can even outperform complex variance-stabilizing approaches. Generally, the results illustrate that the distribution and potential transformations of RNA-Seq data need to be considered as a critical step when building risk prediction models by penalized regression techniques.
Full Text Available Gene expression measurements have successfully been used for building prognostic signatures, i.e for identifying a short list of important genes that can predict patient outcome. Mostly microarray measurements have been considered, and there is little advice available for building multivariable risk prediction models from RNA-Seq data. We specifically consider penalized regression techniques, such as the lasso and componentwise boosting, which can simultaneously consider all measurements and provide both, multivariable regression models for prediction and automated variable selection. However, they might be affected by the typical skewness, mean-variance-dependency or extreme values of RNA-Seq covariates and therefore could benefit from transformations of the latter. In an analytical part, we highlight preferential selection of covariates with large variances, which is problematic due to the mean-variance dependency of RNA-Seq data. In a simulation study, we compare different transformations of RNA-Seq data for potentially improving detection of important genes. Specifically, we consider standardization, the log transformation, a variance-stabilizing transformation, the Box-Cox transformation, and rank-based transformations. In addition, the prediction performance for real data from patients with kidney cancer and acute myeloid leukemia is considered. We show that signature size, identification performance, and prediction performance critically depend on the choice of a suitable transformation. Rank-based transformations perform well in all scenarios and can even outperform complex variance-stabilizing approaches. Generally, the results illustrate that the distribution and potential transformations of RNA-Seq data need to be considered as a critical step when building risk prediction models by penalized regression techniques.
Viollet, Coralie; Davis, David A.; Tekeste, Shewit S.; Reczko, Martin; Pezzella, Francesco; Ragoussis, Jiannis
Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) causes several tumors and hyperproliferative disorders. Hypoxia and hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) activate latent and lytic KSHV genes, and several KSHV proteins increase the cellular levels of HIF. Here, we used RNA sequencing, qRT-PCR, Taqman assays, and pathway analysis to explore the miRNA and mRNA response of uninfected and KSHV-infected cells to hypoxia, to compare this with the genetic changes seen in chronic latent KSHV infection, and to explore the degree to which hypoxia and KSHV infection interact in modulating mRNA and miRNA expression. We found that the gene expression signatures for KSHV infection and hypoxia have a 34% overlap. Moreover, there were considerable similarities between the genes up-regulated by hypoxia in uninfected (SLK) and in KSHV-infected (SLKK) cells. hsa-miR-210, a HIF-target known to have pro-angiogenic and anti-apoptotic properties, was significantly up-regulated by both KSHV infection and hypoxia using Taqman assays. Interestingly, expression of KSHV-encoded miRNAs was not affected by hypoxia. These results demonstrate that KSHV harnesses a part of the hypoxic cellular response and that a substantial portion of hypoxia-induced changes in cellular gene expression are induced by KSHV infection. Therefore, targeting hypoxic pathways may be a useful way to develop therapeutic strategies for KSHV-related diseases. PMID:28046107
Martin Sebastian Staege
Full Text Available Gene Expression Music Algorithm (GEMusicA is a method for the transformation of DNA microarray data into melodies that can be used for the characterization of differentially expressed genes. Using this method we compared gene expression profiles from endothelial cells (EC, hematopoietic stem cells, neuronal stem cells, embryonic stem cells (ESC, and mesenchymal stem cells (MSC and defined a set of genes that can discriminate between the different stem cell types. We analyzed the behavior of public microarray data sets from Ewing sarcoma (“Ewing family tumors,” EFT cell lines and biopsies in GEMusicA after prefiltering DNA microarray data for the probe sets from the stem cell signature. Our results demonstrate that individual Ewing sarcoma cell lines have a high similarity to ESC or EC. Ewing sarcoma cell lines with inhibited Ewing sarcoma breakpoint region 1-Friend leukemia virus integration 1 (EWSR1-FLI1 oncogene retained the similarity to ESC and EC. However, correlation coefficients between GEMusicA-processed expression data between EFT and ESC decreased whereas correlation coefficients between EFT and EC as well as between EFT and MSC increased after knockdown of EWSR1-FLI1. Our data support the concept of EFT being derived from cells with features of embryonic and endothelial cells.
Full Text Available The different environments that humans experience are likely to impact physiology and disease susceptibility. In order to estimate the magnitude of the impact of environment on transcript abundance, we examined gene expression in peripheral blood leukocyte samples from 46 desert nomadic, mountain agrarian and coastal urban Moroccan Amazigh individuals. Despite great expression heterogeneity in humans, as much as one third of the leukocyte transcriptome was found to be associated with differences among regions. Genome-wide polymorphism analysis indicates that genetic differentiation in the total sample is limited and is unlikely to explain the expression divergence. Methylation profiling of 1,505 CpG sites suggests limited contribution of methylation to the observed differences in gene expression. Genetic network analysis further implies that specific aspects of immune function are strongly affected by regional factors and may influence susceptibility to respiratory and inflammatory disease. Our results show a strong genome-wide gene expression signature of regional population differences that presumably include lifestyle, geography, and biotic factors, implying that these can play at least as great a role as genetic divergence in modulating gene expression variation in humans.
Carpenter, Richard L.; Lo, Hui-Wen
Since its discovery, the STAT3 transcription factor has been extensively studied for its function as a transcriptional regulator and its role as a mediator of development, normal physiology, and pathology of many diseases, including cancers. These efforts have uncovered an array of genes that can be positively and negatively regulated by STAT3, alone and in cooperation with other transcription factors. Through regulating gene expression, STAT3 has been demonstrated to play a pivotal role in many cellular processes including oncogenesis, tumor growth and progression, and stemness. Interestingly, recent studies suggest that STAT3 may behave as a tumor suppressor by activating expression of genes known to inhibit tumorigenesis. Additional evidence suggested that STAT3 may elicit opposing effects depending on cellular context and tumor types. These mixed results signify the need for a deeper understanding of STAT3, including its upstream regulators, parallel transcription co-regulators, and downstream target genes. To help facilitate fulfilling this unmet need, this review will be primarily focused on STAT3 downstream target genes that have been validated to associate with tumorigenesis and/or malignant biology of human cancers
Full Text Available Gastric cancer continues to be one of the deadliest cancers in the world and therefore identification of new drugs targeting this type of cancer is thus of significant importance. The purpose of this study was to identify and validate a therapeutic agent which might improve the outcomes for gastric cancer patients in the future.Using microarray technology, we generated a gene expression profile of human gastric cancer-specific genes from human gastric cancer tissue samples. We used this profile in the Broad Institute's Connectivity Map analysis to identify candidate therapeutic compounds for gastric cancer. We found the histone deacetylase inhibitor vorinostat as the lead compound and thus a potential therapeutic drug for gastric cancer. Vorinostat induced both apoptosis and autophagy in gastric cancer cell lines. Pharmacological and genetic inhibition of autophagy however, increased the therapeutic efficacy of vorinostat, indicating that a combination of vorinostat with autophagy inhibitors may therapeutically be more beneficial. Moreover, gene expression analysis of gastric cancer identified a collection of genes (ITGB5, TYMS, MYB, APOC1, CBX5, PLA2G2A, and KIF20A whose expression was elevated in gastric tumor tissue and downregulated more than 2-fold by vorinostat treatment in gastric cancer cell lines. In contrast, SCGB2A1, TCN1, CFD, APLP1, and NQO1 manifested a reversed pattern.We showed that analysis of gene expression signature may represent an emerging approach to discover therapeutic agents for gastric cancer, such as vorinostat. The observation of altered gene expression after vorinostat treatment may provide the clue to identify the molecular mechanism of vorinostat and those patients likely to benefit from vorinostat treatment.
Choi, Woonyoung; Park, Yun-Yong; Kim, KyoungHyun; Kim, Sang-Bae; Lee, Ju-Seog; Mills, Gordon B.; Cho, Jae Yong
Background Gastric cancer continues to be one of the deadliest cancers in the world and therefore identification of new drugs targeting this type of cancer is thus of significant importance. The purpose of this study was to identify and validate a therapeutic agent which might improve the outcomes for gastric cancer patients in the future. Methodology/Principal Findings Using microarray technology, we generated a gene expression profile of human gastric cancer–specific genes from human gastric cancer tissue samples. We used this profile in the Broad Institute's Connectivity Map analysis to identify candidate therapeutic compounds for gastric cancer. We found the histone deacetylase inhibitor vorinostat as the lead compound and thus a potential therapeutic drug for gastric cancer. Vorinostat induced both apoptosis and autophagy in gastric cancer cell lines. Pharmacological and genetic inhibition of autophagy however, increased the therapeutic efficacy of vorinostat, indicating that a combination of vorinostat with autophagy inhibitors may therapeutically be more beneficial. Moreover, gene expression analysis of gastric cancer identified a collection of genes (ITGB5, TYMS, MYB, APOC1, CBX5, PLA2G2A, and KIF20A) whose expression was elevated in gastric tumor tissue and downregulated more than 2-fold by vorinostat treatment in gastric cancer cell lines. In contrast, SCGB2A1, TCN1, CFD, APLP1, and NQO1 manifested a reversed pattern. Conclusions/Significance We showed that analysis of gene expression signature may represent an emerging approach to discover therapeutic agents for gastric cancer, such as vorinostat. The observation of altered gene expression after vorinostat treatment may provide the clue to identify the molecular mechanism of vorinostat and those patients likely to benefit from vorinostat treatment. PMID:21931799
Marcell, S.A.; Balazs, A.; Emese, A.
Prediction of the prognosis of breast cancer in routine histologic specimens using a simplified, low-cost gene expression signature Background: Grade 2 breast carcinomas do not form a uniform prognostic group. Aim: To extend the number of patients and the investigated genes of a previously...... grade 2 breast carcinomas into prognostic groups. Gene expression was investigated by polymerase chain reaction in 249 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded breast tumors. The results were correlated with relapse-free survival. Results: Histologically grade 2 carcinomas were split into good and a poor...... identified prognostic signature described by the authors that reflect chromosomal instability in order to refine characterization of grade 2 breast cancers and identify driver genes. Methods: Using publicly available databases, the authors selected 9 target and 3 housekeeping genes that are capable to divide...
Full Text Available Systemic sclerosis (SSc is a rare connective tissue disease characterized by three pathogenetic hallmarks: vasculopathy, dysregulation of the immune system, and fibrosis. A particular feature of SSc is the increased frequency of some types of malignancies, namely breast, lung, and hematological malignancies. Moreover, SSc may also be a paraneoplastic disease, again indicating a strong link between cancer and scleroderma. The reason of this association is still unknown; therefore, we aimed at investigating whether particular genetic or epigenetic factors may play a role in promoting cancer development in patients with SSc and whether some features are shared by the two conditions. We therefore performed a gene expression profiling of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs derived from patients with limited and diffuse SSc, showing that the various classes of genes potentially linked to the pathogenesis of SSc (such as apoptosis, endothelial cell activation, extracellular matrix remodeling, immune response, and inflammation include genes that directly participate in the development of malignancies or that are involved in pathways known to be associated with carcinogenesis. The transcriptional analysis was then complemented by a complex network analysis of modulated genes which further confirmed the presence of signaling pathways associated with carcinogenesis. Since epigenetic mechanisms, such as microRNAs (miRNAs, are believed to play a central role in the pathogenesis of SSc, we also evaluated whether specific cancer-related miRNAs could be deregulated in the serum of SSc patients. We focused our attention on miRNAs already found upregulated in SSc such as miR-21-5p, miR-92a-3p, and on miR-155-5p, miR 126-3p and miR-16-5p known to be deregulated in malignancies associated to SSc, i.e., breast, lung, and hematological malignancies. miR-21-5p, miR-92a-3p, miR-155-5p, and miR-16-5p expression was significantly higher in SSc sera compared to
Drukker, C.A.; Nijenhuis, M.V.; Bueno de Mesquita, J.M.; Retel, V.P.; Retel, Valesca; van Harten, Willem H.; van Tinteren, H.; Wesseling, J.; Schmidt, M.K.; van 't Veer, L.J.; Sonke, G.S.; Rutgers, E.J.T.; van de Vijver, M.J.; Linn, S.C.
Clinical guidelines for breast cancer treatment differ in their selection of patients at a high risk of recurrence who are eligible to receive adjuvant systemic treatment (AST). The 70-gene signature is a molecular tool to better guide AST decisions. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether
Irizar, Haritz; Goñi, Joaquín; Alzualde, Ainhoa; Castillo-Triviño, Tamara; Olascoaga, Javier; Lopez de Munain, Adolfo; Otaegui, David
Both cellular senescence and organismic aging are known to be dynamic processes that start early in life and progress constantly during the whole life of the individual. In this work, with the objective of identifying signatures of age-related progressive change at the transcriptomic level, we have performed a whole-genome gene expression analysis of peripheral blood leukocytes in a group of healthy individuals with ages ranging from 14 to 93 years. A set of genes with progressively changing gene expression (either increase or decrease with age) has been identified and contextualized in a coexpression network. A modularity analysis has been performed on this network and biological-term and pathway enrichment analyses have been used for biological interpretation of each module. In summary, the results of the present work reveal the existence of a transcriptomic component that shows progressive expression changes associated to age in peripheral blood leukocytes, highlighting both the dynamic nature of the process and the need to complement young vs. elder studies with longitudinal studies that include middle aged individuals. From the transcriptional point of view, immunosenescence seems to be occurring from a relatively early age, at least from the late 20s/early 30s, and the 49-56 year old age-range appears to be critical. In general, the genes that, according to our results, show progressive expression changes with aging are involved in pathogenic/cellular processes that have classically been linked to aging in humans: cancer, immune processes and cellular growth vs. maintenance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Williams, Christopher C.; Singleton, Brittany A.; Llopis, Shawn D.; Skripnikova, Elena V.
Diabetic patients taking metformin have lower incidence of breast cancer than those taking other anti-diabetic medications. Additionally, triple negative breast cancer (TNBC), a form of breast cancer disproportionately afflicting premenopausal African American women, shows atypical susceptibility to metformin’s antiproliferative effect. The mechanisms involved in metformin’s function in TNBC has not yet been fully elucidated. Therefore, we sought to identify pathways regulated by metformin in using the MDA-MB-468 TNBC cell model. Metformin dose-dependently caused apoptosis, decreased cell viability, and induced cell morphology/chromatin condensation consistent with the permanent proliferative arrest. Furthermore, gene expression arrays revealed that metformin caused expression of stress markers DDIT3, CYP1A1, and GDF-15 and a concomitant reduction in PTGS1 expression. Our findings show that metformin may affect the viability and proliferative capacity of TNBC by inducing an antiproliferative gene signature, and that metformin may be effective in the treatment/prevention of TNBC. PMID:23395946
Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is a heterogeneous disease with a high mortality rate and is still lacking an effective treatment. Our goal is to develop a robust prognosis model for predicting the prognosis in CRC patients. In this study, 871 stage II and III CRC samples were collected from six gene expression profilings. ColoFinder was developed using a 9-gene signature based Random Survival Forest (RSF prognosis model. The 9-gene signature recurrence score was derived with a 5-fold cross validation to test the association with relapse-free survival, and the value of AUC was gained with 0.87 in GSE39582(95% CI [0.83–0.91]. The low-risk group had a significantly better relapse-free survival (HR, 14.8; 95% CI [8.17–26.8]; P < 0.001 than the high-risk group. We also found that the 9-gene signature recurrence score contributed more information about recurrence than standard clinical and pathological variables in univariate and multivariate Cox analyses when applied to GSE17536(p = 0.03 and p = 0.01 respectively. Furthermore, ColoFinder improved the predictive ability and better stratified the risk subgroups when applied to CRC gene expression datasets GSE14333, GSE17537, GSE12945and GSE24551. In summary, ColoFinder significantly improves the risk assessment in stage II and III CRC patients. The 9-gene prognostic classifier informs patient prognosis and treatment response.
Herrera, Mercedes; Islam, Abul B M M K; Herrera, Alberto; Martín, Paloma; García, Vanesa; Silva, Javier; Garcia, Jose M; Salas, Clara; Casal, Ignacio; de Herreros, Antonio García; Bonilla, Félix; Peña, Cristina
Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF) actively participate in reciprocal communication with tumor cells and with other cell types in the microenvironment, contributing to a tumor-permissive neighborhood and promoting tumor progression. The aim of this study is the characterization of how CAFs from primary human colon tumors promote migration of colon cancer cells. Primary CAF cultures from 15 primary human colon tumors were established. Their enrichment in CAFs was evaluated by the expression of various epithelial and myofibroblast specific markers. Coculture assays of primary CAFs with different colon tumor cells were performed to evaluate promigratory CAF-derived effects on cancer cells. Gene expression profiles were developed to further investigate CAF characteristics. Coculture assays showed significant differences in fibroblast-derived paracrine promigratory effects on cancer cells. Moreover, the association between CAFs' promigratory effects on cancer cells and classic fibroblast activation or stemness markers was observed. CAF gene expression profiles were analyzed by microarray to identify deregulated genes in different promigratory CAFs. The gene expression signature, derived from the most protumorogenic CAFs, was identified. Interestingly, this "CAF signature" showed a remarkable prognostic value for the clinical outcome of patients with colon cancer. Moreover, this prognostic value was validated in an independent series of 142 patients with colon cancer, by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), with a set of four genes included in the "CAF signature." In summary, these studies show for the first time the heterogeneity of primary CAFs' effect on colon cancer cell migration. A CAF gene expression signature able to classify patients with colon cancer into high- and low-risk groups was identified.
Full Text Available We have previously identified genome-wide DNA methylation changes in a cell line model of breast cancer metastasis. These complex epigenetic changes that we observed, along with concurrent karyotype analyses, have led us to hypothesize that complex genomic alterations in cancer cells (deletions, translocations and ploidy are superimposed over promoter-specific methylation events that are responsible for gene-specific expression changes observed in breast cancer metastasis.We undertook simultaneous high-resolution, whole-genome analyses of MDA-MB-468GFP and MDA-MB-468GFP-LN human breast cancer cell lines (an isogenic, paired lymphatic metastasis cell line model using Affymetrix gene expression (U133, promoter (1.0R, and SNP/CNV (SNP 6.0 microarray platforms to correlate data from gene expression, epigenetic (DNA methylation, and combination copy number variant/single nucleotide polymorphism microarrays. Using Partek Software and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis we integrated datasets from these three platforms and detected multiple hypomethylation and hypermethylation events. Many of these epigenetic alterations correlated with gene expression changes. In addition, gene dosage events correlated with the karyotypic differences observed between the cell lines and were reflected in specific promoter methylation patterns. Gene subsets were identified that correlated hyper (and hypo methylation with the loss (or gain of gene expression and in parallel, with gene dosage losses and gains, respectively. Individual gene targets from these subsets were also validated for their methylation, expression and copy number status, and susceptible gene pathways were identified that may indicate how selective advantage drives the processes of tumourigenesis and metastasis.Our approach allows more precisely profiling of functionally relevant epigenetic signatures that are associated with cancer progression and metastasis.
Kennerly, Erin; Ballmann, Anne; Martin, Stanton; Wolfinger, Russ; Gregory, Simon; Stoskopf, Michael; Gibson, Greg
The stresses that animals experience as a result of modification of their ecological circumstances induce physiological changes that leave a signature in profiles of gene expression. We illustrate this concept in a comparison of free range and confined North American red wolves (Canis rufus). Transcription profiling of peripheral blood samples from 13 red wolf individuals in the Alligator River region of North Carolina revealed a strong signal of differentiation. Four hundred eighty-two out of 2980 transcripts detected on Illumina HumanRef8 oligonucleotide bead arrays were found to differentiate free range and confined wolves at a false discovery rate of 12.8% and P stress responses in confined animals. Consequently, characterization of differential transcript abundance in an accessible tissue such as peripheral blood identifies biomarkers that could be useful in animal management practices and for evaluating the impact of habitat changes on population health, particularly as attention turns to the impact of climate change on physiology and in turn species distributions.
Holly K Dressman
Full Text Available The capacity to assess environmental inputs to biological phenotypes is limited by methods that can accurately and quantitatively measure these contributions. One such example can be seen in the context of exposure to ionizing radiation.We have made use of gene expression analysis of peripheral blood (PB mononuclear cells to develop expression profiles that accurately reflect prior radiation exposure. We demonstrate that expression profiles can be developed that not only predict radiation exposure in mice but also distinguish the level of radiation exposure, ranging from 50 cGy to 1,000 cGy. Likewise, a molecular signature of radiation response developed solely from irradiated human patient samples can predict and distinguish irradiated human PB samples from nonirradiated samples with an accuracy of 90%, sensitivity of 85%, and specificity of 94%. We further demonstrate that a radiation profile developed in the mouse can correctly distinguish PB samples from irradiated and nonirradiated human patients with an accuracy of 77%, sensitivity of 82%, and specificity of 75%. Taken together, these data demonstrate that molecular profiles can be generated that are highly predictive of different levels of radiation exposure in mice and humans.We suggest that this approach, with additional refinement, could provide a method to assess the effects of various environmental inputs into biological phenotypes as well as providing a more practical application of a rapid molecular screening test for the diagnosis of radiation exposure.
Muff, Roman; Rath, Prisni; Ram Kumar, Ram Mohan; Husmann, Knut; Born, Walter; Baudis, Michael; Fuchs, Bruno
Osteosarcoma is a rare but highly malignant cancer of the bone. As a consequence, the number of established cell lines used for experimental in vitro and in vivo osteosarcoma research is limited and the value of these cell lines relies on their stability during culture. Here we investigated the stability in gene expression by microarray analysis and array genomic hybridization of three low metastatic cell lines and derivatives thereof with increased metastatic potential using cells of different passages. The osteosarcoma cell lines showed altered gene expression during in vitro culture, and it was more pronounced in two metastatic cell lines compared to the respective parental cells. Chromosomal instability contributed in part to the altered gene expression in SAOS and LM5 cells with low and high metastatic potential. To identify metastasis-relevant genes in a background of passage-dependent altered gene expression, genes involved in "Pathways in cancer" that were consistently regulated under all passage comparisons were evaluated. Genes belonging to "Hedgehog signaling pathway" and "Wnt signaling pathway" were significantly up-regulated, and IHH, WNT10B and TCF7 were found up-regulated in all three metastatic compared to the parental cell lines. Considerable instability during culture in terms of gene expression and chromosomal aberrations was observed in osteosarcoma cell lines. The use of cells from different passages and a search for genes consistently regulated in early and late passages allows the analysis of metastasis-relevant genes despite the observed instability in gene expression in osteosarcoma cell lines during culture.
Garcia, Idoia; Mayol, Gemma; Ríos, José; Domenech, Gema; Cheung, Nai-Kong V; Oberthuer, André; Fischer, Matthias; Maris, John M; Brodeur, Garrett M; Hero, Barbara; Rodríguez, Eva; Suñol, Mariona; Galvan, Patricia; de Torres, Carmen; Mora, Jaume; Lavarino, Cinzia
Neuroblastoma is an embryonal tumor with contrasting clinical courses. Despite elaborate stratification strategies, precise clinical risk assessment still remains a challenge. The purpose of this study was to develop a PCR-based predictor model to improve clinical risk assessment of patients with neuroblastoma. The model was developed using real-time PCR gene expression data from 96 samples and tested on separate expression data sets obtained from real-time PCR and microarray studies comprising 362 patients. On the basis of our prior study of differentially expressed genes in favorable and unfavorable neuroblastoma subgroups, we identified three genes, CHD5, PAFAH1B1, and NME1, strongly associated with patient outcome. The expression pattern of these genes was used to develop a PCR-based single-score predictor model. The model discriminated patients into two groups with significantly different clinical outcome [set 1: 5-year overall survival (OS): 0.93 ± 0.03 vs. 0.53 ± 0.06, 5-year event-free survival (EFS): 0.85 ± 0.04 vs. 0.042 ± 0.06, both P model was an independent marker for survival (P model robustly classified patients in the total cohort and in different clinically relevant risk subgroups. We propose for the first time in neuroblastoma, a technically simple PCR-based predictor model that could help refine current risk stratification systems. ©2012 AACR.
Vargas, Teodoro; Moreno-Rubio, Juan; Herranz, Jesús; Cejas, Paloma; Molina, Susana; González-Vallinas, Margarita; Mendiola, Marta; Burgos, Emilio; Aguayo, Cristina; Custodio, Ana B.; Machado, Isidro; Ramos, David; Gironella, Meritxell; Espinosa-Salinas, Isabel; Ramos, Ricardo; Martín-Hernández, Roberto; Risueño, Alberto; De Las Rivas, Javier; Reglero, Guillermo; Yaya, Ricardo; Fernández-Martos, Carlos; Aparicio, Jorge; Maurel, Joan; Feliu, Jaime; de Molina, Ana Ramírez
Lipid metabolism plays an essential role in carcinogenesis due to the requirements of tumoral cells to sustain increased structural, energetic and biosynthetic precursor demands for cell proliferation. We investigated the association between expression of lipid metabolism-related genes and clinical outcome in intermediate-stage colon cancer patients with the aim of identifying a metabolic profile associated with greater malignancy and increased risk of relapse. Expression profile of 70 lipid metabolism-related genes was determined in 77 patients with stage II colon cancer. Cox regression analyses using c-index methodology was applied to identify a metabolic-related signature associated to prognosis. The metabolic signature was further confirmed in two independent validation sets of 120 patients and additionally, in a group of 264 patients from a public database. The combined analysis of these 4 genes, ABCA1, ACSL1, AGPAT1 and SCD, constitutes a metabolic-signature (ColoLipidGene) able to accurately stratify stage II colon cancer patients with 5-fold higher risk of relapse with strong statistical power in the four independent groups of patients. The identification of a group of 4 genes that predict survival in intermediate-stage colon cancer patients allows delineation of a high-risk group that may benefit from adjuvant therapy, and avoids the toxic and unnecessary chemotherapy in patients classified as low-risk group. PMID:25749516
Amanda M. Ackermann
Conclusions: We have determined the genetic landscape of human α- and β-cells based on chromatin accessibility and transcript levels, which allowed for detection of novel α- and β-cell signature genes not previously known to be expressed in islets. Using fine-mapping of open chromatin, we have identified thousands of potential cis-regulatory elements that operate in an endocrine cell type-specific fashion.
Full Text Available Data for genes relevant to glomerular filtration barrier function or proteinuria is continually increasing in an era of microarrays, genome-wide association studies, and quantitative trait locus analysis. Researchers are limited by published literature searches to select the most relevant genes to investigate. High-throughput cell cultures and other in vitro systems ultimately need to demonstrate proof in an in vivo model. Generating mammalian models for the genes of interest is costly and time intensive, and yields only a small number of test subjects. These models also have many pitfalls such as possible embryonic mortality and failure to generate phenotypes or generate nonkidney specific phenotypes. Here we describe an in vivo zebrafish model as a simple vertebrate screening system to identify genes relevant to glomerular filtration barrier function. Using our technology, we are able to screen entirely novel genes in 4–6 weeks in hundreds of live test subjects at a fraction of the cost of a mammalian model. Our system produces consistent and reliable evidence for gene relevance in glomerular kidney disease; the results then provide merit for further analysis in mammalian models.
Tanja Burnik Papler
Full Text Available In human IVF procedures objective and reliable biomarkers of oocyte and embryo quality are needed in order to increase the use of single embryo transfer (SET and thus prevent multiple pregnancies. During folliculogenesis there is an intense bi-directional communication between oocyte and follicular cells. For this reason gene expression profile of follicular cells could be an important indicator and biomarker of oocyte and embryo quality. The objective of this study was to identify gene expression signature(s in human granulosa (GC and cumulus (CC cells predictive of successful embryo implantation and oocyte fertilization. Forty-one patients were included in the study and individual GC and CC samples were collected; oocytes were cultivated separately, allowing a correlation with IVF outcome and elective SET was performed. Gene expression analysis was performed using microarrays, followed by a quantitative real-time PCR validation. After statistical analysis of microarray data, there were no significantly differentially expressed genes (FDR<0,05 between non-fertilized and fertilized oocytes and non-implanted and implanted embryos in either of the cell type. Furthermore, the results of quantitative real-time PCR were in consent with microarray data as there were no significant differences in gene expression of genes selected for validation. In conclusion, we did not find biomarkers for prediction of oocyte fertilization and embryo implantation in IVF procedures in the present study.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Molecular signatures are sets of genes, proteins, genetic variants or other variables that can be used as markers for a particular phenotype. Reliable signature discovery methods could yield valuable insight into cell biology and mechanisms of human disease. However, it is currently not clear how to control error rates such as the false discovery rate (FDR in signature discovery. Moreover, signatures for cancer gene expression have been shown to be unstable, that is, difficult to replicate in independent studies, casting doubts on their reliability. Results We demonstrate that with modern prediction methods, signatures that yield accurate predictions may still have a high FDR. Further, we show that even signatures with low FDR may fail to replicate in independent studies due to limited statistical power. Thus, neither stability nor predictive accuracy are relevant when FDR control is the primary goal. We therefore develop a general statistical hypothesis testing framework that for the first time provides FDR control for signature discovery. Our method is demonstrated to be correct in simulation studies. When applied to five cancer data sets, the method was able to discover molecular signatures with 5% FDR in three cases, while two data sets yielded no significant findings. Conclusion Our approach enables reliable discovery of molecular signatures from genome-wide data with current sample sizes. The statistical framework developed herein is potentially applicable to a wide range of prediction problems in bioinformatics.
Cao, Bangrong; Luo, Liping; Feng, Lin; Ma, Shiqi; Chen, Tingqing; Ren, Yuan; Zha, Xiao; Cheng, Shujun; Zhang, Kaitai; Chen, Changmin
The clinical benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy for stage II colorectal cancer (CRC) is controversial. This study aimed to explore novel gene signature to predict outcome benefit of postoperative 5-Fu-based therapy in stage II CRC. Gene-expression profiles of stage II CRCs from two datasets with 5-Fu-based adjuvant chemotherapy (training dataset, n = 212; validation dataset, n = 85) were analyzed to identify the indicator. A systemic approach by integrating gene-expression and protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was implemented to develop the predictive signature. Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox proportional hazards model were used to determine the survival benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy. Experiments with shRNA knock-down were carried out to confirm the signature identified in this study. In the training dataset, we identified 44 PPI sub-modules, by which we separate patients into two clusters (1 and 2) having different chemotherapeutic benefit. A predictor of 11 PPI sub-modules (11-PPI-Mod) was established to discriminate the two sub-groups, with an overall accuracy of 90.1%. This signature was independently validated in an external validation dataset. Kaplan-Meier curves showed an improved outcome for patients who received adjuvant chemotherapy in Cluster 1 sub-group, but even worse survival for those in Cluster 2 sub-group. Similar results were found in both the training and the validation dataset. Multivariate Cox regression revealed an interaction effect between 11-PPI-Mod signature and adjuvant therapy treatment in the training dataset (RFS, p = 0.007; OS, p = 0.006) and the validation dataset (RFS, p = 0.002). From the signature, we found that PTGES gene was up-regulated in CRC cells which were more resistant to 5-Fu. Knock-down of PTGES indicated a growth inhibition and up-regulation of apoptotic markers induced by 5-Fu in CRC cells. Only a small proportion of stage II CRC patients could benefit from adjuvant therapy. The 11-PPI-Mod as
Full Text Available We report three signatures produced from SHARPIN gene copy number increase (GCN-Increase and their effects on patients with breast cancer (BC. In the Metabric dataset (n = 2059, cBioPortal, SHARPIN GCN-Increase occurs preferentially or mutual exclusively with mutations in TP53, PIK3CA, and CDH1. These genomic alterations constitute a signature (SigMut that significantly correlates with reductions in overall survival (OS in BC patients (n = 1980; p = 1.081e−6. Additionally, SHARPIN GCN-Increase is associated with 4220 differentially expressed genes (DEGs. These DEGs are enriched in activation of the pathways regulating cell cycle progression, RNA transport, ribosome biosynthesis, DNA replication, and in downregulation of the pathways related to extracellular matrix. These DEGs are thus likely to facilitate the proliferation and metastasis of BC cells. Additionally, through forward (FWD and backward (BWD stepwise variate selections among the top 160 downregulated and top 200 upregulated DEGs using the Cox regression model, a 6-gene (SigFWD and a 50-gene (SigBWD signature were derived. Both signatures robustly associate with decreases in OS in BC patients within the Curtis (n = 1980; p = 6.16e−11 for SigFWD; p = 1.06e−10, for SigBWD and TCGA cohort (n = 817; p = 4.53e−4 for SigFWD and p = 0.00525 for SigBWD. After adjusting for known clinical factors, SigMut (HR 1.21, p = 0.0297, SigBWD (HR 1.25, p = 0.0263, and likely SigFWD (HR 1.17, p = 0.062 remain independent risk factors of BC deaths. Furthermore, the proportion of patients positive for these signatures is significantly increased in ER−, Her2-enriched, basal-like, and claudin-low BCs compared to ER+ and luminal BCs. Collectively, these SHARPIN GCN-Increase-derived signatures may have clinical applications in management of patients with BC.
Bonneterre, Jacques; Prat, Aleix; Galván, Patricia; Morel, Pascale; Giard, Sylvia
Purpose In daily clinical practice, the indication for adjuvant chemotherapy (CT) is relatively easy to make in patients with early hormone-receptor-positive (HR+) breast cancer with either very poor or very good clinicopathological prognostic variables. However, this decision is much more difficult in patients with intermediate clinicopathological prognostic variables. Here, we evaluate the value of a gene-expression profile identified by the Prosigna gene signature assay in guiding treatment decision-making in patients with these intermediate features. Methods A consecutive cohort of 577 HR + breast cancer patients surgically treated in a single institution between January 2012 and December 2012 was evaluated. From this population, pre- and post-menopausal patients with intermediate prognosis clinicopathological variables were identified and indication of adjuvant CT in these patients was recorded. The gene signature assay was performed retrospectively in this intermediate risk group. Descriptive statistics are presented. Results Among 96 intermediate-risk patients, 64 postmenopausal patients underwent gene signature testing. Subtype distribution was as follows: Luminal A (N = 33; 51.6%), Luminal B (N = 31; 48.4%). Risk of recurrence (ROR) distribution was as follows: ROR-low (n = 16; 25%); ROR-intermediate (N = 26; 40.6%); and ROR-high (N = 22; 34.4%). CT was subsequently administered in 18.7%, 53.8% and 59.0% of the ROR-low, ROR-intermediate and ROR-high groups, respectively. With the use of the gene signature assay, 59.4% of the intermediate cases were re-classified to either ROR-low or ROR-high risk categories. In the ROR-intermediate group, 11/26 patients (42.3%) had Luminal A and 15/26 (57.7%) had Luminal B. Due to follow-up time constraints, no patient outcome results were evaluated. Conclusion The gene signature assay provides clinically useful information and improved treatment decision-making in patients with intermediate risk based on
Chen, Yan; Zhang, Haibo; Xiao, Xue; Jia, Yixin; Wu, Weili; Liu, Licheng; Jiang, Jun; Zhu, Baoli; Meng, Xu; Chen, Weijun
Peripheral blood-based gene expression patterns have been investigated as biomarkers to monitor the immune system and rule out rejection after heart transplantation. Recent advances in the high-throughput deep sequencing (HTS) technologies provide new leads in transcriptome analysis. By performing Solexa/Illumina's digital gene expression (DGE) profiling, we analyzed gene expression profiles of PBMCs from 6 quiescent (grade 0) and 6 rejection (grade 2R&3R) heart transplant recipients at more than 6 months after transplantation. Subsequently, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was carried out in an independent validation cohort of 47 individuals from three rejection groups (ISHLT, grade 0,1R, 2R&3R). Through DGE sequencing and qPCR validation, 10 genes were identified as informative genes for detection of cardiac transplant rejection. A further clustering analysis showed that the 10 genes were not only effective for distinguishing patients with acute cardiac allograft rejection, but also informative for discriminating patients with renal allograft rejection based on both blood and biopsy samples. Moreover, PPI network analysis revealed that the 10 genes were connected to each other within a short interaction distance. We proposed a 10-gene signature for heart transplant patients at high-risk of developing severe rejection, which was found to be effective as well in other organ transplant. Moreover, we supposed that these genes function systematically as biomarkers in long-time allograft rejection. Further validation in broad transplant population would be required before the non-invasive biomarkers can be generally utilized to predict the risk of transplant rejection. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Toll-like receptors (TLRs are a major class of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs expressed in the cell surface or membrane compartments of immune and non-immune cells. TLRs are encoded by a multigene family and represent the first line of defense against pathogens by detecting foreigner microbial molecular motifs, the pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs. TLRs are also important by triggering the adaptive immunity in vertebrates. They are characterized by the presence of leucine-rich repeats (LRRs in the ectodomain, which are associated with the PAMPs recognition. The direct recognition of different pathogens by TLRs might result in different evolutionary adaptations important to understand the dynamics of the host-pathogen interplay. Ten mammal TLR genes, viral (TLR3, 7, 8, 9 and non-viral (TLR1-6, 10, were selected to identify signatures of positive selection that might have been imposed by interacting pathogens and to clarify if viral and non-viral TLRs might display different patterns of molecular evolution. Results By using Maximum Likelihood approaches, evidence of positive selection was found in all the TLRs studied. The number of positively selected codons (PSC ranged between 2-26 codons (0.25%-2.65% with the non-viral TLR4 as the receptor with higher percentage of positively selected codons (2.65%, followed by the viral TLR8 (2.50%. The results indicated that viral and non-viral TLRs are similarly under positive selection. Almost all TLRs have at least one PSC located in the LRR ectodomain which underlies the importance of the pathogen recognition by this region. Conclusions Our results are not in line with previous studies on primates and birds that identified more codons under positive selection in non-viral TLRs. This might be explained by the fact that both primates and birds are homogeneous groups probably being affected by only a restricted number of related viruses with equivalent motifs to be
Wu, Jing-Shan; Lo, Hsin-Yi; Li, Chia-Cheng; Chen, Feng-Yuan; Hsiang, Chien-Yun; Ho, Tin-Yun
Electroacupuncture (EA) has been applied to treat and prevent diseases for years. However, molecular events happened in both the acupunctured site and the internal organs after EA stimulation have not been clarified. Here we applied transcriptomic analysis to explore the gene expression signatures after EA stimulation. Mice were applied EA stimulation at ST36 for 15 min and nine tissues were collected three hours later for microarray analysis. We found that EA affected the expression of genes not only in the acupunctured site but also in the internal organs. EA commonly affected biological networks involved in cytoskeleton and cell adhesion, and also regulated unique process networks in specific organs, such as γ-aminobutyric acid-ergic neurotransmission in brain and inflammation process in lung. In addition, EA affected the expression of genes related to various diseases, such as neurodegenerative diseases in brain and obstructive pulmonary diseases in lung. This report applied, for the first time, a global comprehensive genome-wide approach to analyze the gene expression profiling of acupunctured site and internal organs after EA stimulation. The connection between gene expression signatures, biological processes, and diseases might provide a basis for prediction and explanation on the therapeutic potentials of acupuncture in organs.
Ghosh, Soma; Sur, Surojit; Yerram, Sashidhar R.; Rago, Carlo; Bhunia, Anil K.; Hossain, M. Zulfiquer; Paun, Bogdan C.; Ren, Yunzhao R.; Iacobuzio-Donahue, Christine A.; Azad, Nilofer A.; Kern, Scott E.
Large-magnitude numerical distinctions (>10-fold) among drug responses of genetically contrasting cancers were crucial for guiding the development of some targeted therapies. Similar strategies brought epidemiological clues and prevention goals for genetic diseases. Such numerical guides, however, were incomplete or low magnitude for Fanconi anemia pathway (FANC) gene mutations relevant to cancer in FANC-mutation carriers (heterozygotes). We generated a four-gene FANC-null cancer panel, inclu...
Bouquet, Jerome; Soloski, Mark J; Swei, Andrea; Cheadle, Chris; Federman, Scot; Billaud, Jean-Noel; Rebman, Alison W; Kabre, Beniwende; Halpert, Richard; Boorgula, Meher; Aucott, John N; Chiu, Charles Y
Lyme disease is a tick-borne illness caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi, and approximately 10 to 20% of patients report persistent symptoms lasting months to years despite appropriate treatment with antibiotics. To gain insights into the molecular basis of acute Lyme disease and the ensuing development of post-treatment symptoms, we conducted a longitudinal transcriptome study of 29 Lyme disease patients (and 13 matched controls) enrolled at the time of diagnosis and followed for up to 6 months. The differential gene expression signature of Lyme disease following the acute phase of infection persisted for at least 3 weeks and had fewer than 44% differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in common with other infectious or noninfectious syndromes. Early Lyme disease prior to antibiotic therapy was characterized by marked upregulation of Toll-like receptor signaling but lack of activation of the inflammatory T-cell apoptotic and B-cell developmental pathways seen in other acute infectious syndromes. Six months after completion of therapy, Lyme disease patients were found to have 31 to 60% of their pathways in common with three different immune-mediated chronic diseases. No differential gene expression signature was observed between Lyme disease patients with resolved illness to those with persistent symptoms at 6 months post-treatment. The identification of a sustained differential gene expression signature in Lyme disease suggests that a panel of selected human host-based biomarkers may address the need for sensitive clinical diagnostics during the "window period" of infection prior to the appearance of a detectable antibody response and may also inform the development of new therapeutic targets. Lyme disease is the most common tick-borne infection in the United States, and some patients report lingering symptoms lasting months to years despite antibiotic treatment. To better understand the role of the human host response in acute Lyme disease and the
Oudes, Asa J; Roach, Jared C; Walashek, Laura S; Eichner, Lillian J; True, Lawrence D; Vessella, Robert L; Liu, Alvin Y
Affymetrix GeneChip Array and Massively Parallel Signature Sequencing (MPSS) are two high throughput methodologies used to profile transcriptomes. Each method has certain strengths and weaknesses; however, no comparison has been made between the data derived from Affymetrix arrays and MPSS. In this study, two lineage-related prostate cancer cell lines, LNCaP and C4-2, were used for transcriptome analysis with the aim of identifying genes associated with prostate cancer progression. Affymetrix GeneChip array and MPSS analyses were performed. Data was analyzed with GeneSpring 6.2 and in-house perl scripts. Expression array results were verified with RT-PCR. Comparison of the data revealed that both technologies detected genes the other did not. In LNCaP, 3,180 genes were only detected by Affymetrix and 1,169 genes were only detected by MPSS. Similarly, in C4-2, 4,121 genes were only detected by Affymetrix and 1,014 genes were only detected by MPSS. Analysis of the combined transcriptomes identified 66 genes unique to LNCaP cells and 33 genes unique to C4-2 cells. Expression analysis of these genes in prostate cancer specimens showed CA1 to be highly expressed in bone metastasis but not expressed in primary tumor and EPHA7 to be expressed in normal prostate and primary tumor but not bone metastasis. Our data indicates that transcriptome profiling with a single methodology will not fully assess the expression of all genes in a cell line. A combination of transcription profiling technologies such as DNA array and MPSS provides a more robust means to assess the expression profile of an RNA sample. Finally, genes that were differentially expressed in cell lines were also differentially expressed in primary prostate cancer and its metastases
Full Text Available Osteosarcoma is a rare but highly malignant cancer of the bone. As a consequence, the number of established cell lines used for experimental in vitro and in vivo osteosarcoma research is limited and the value of these cell lines relies on their stability during culture. Here we investigated the stability in gene expression by microarray analysis and array genomic hybridization of three low metastatic cell lines and derivatives thereof with increased metastatic potential using cells of different passages.The osteosarcoma cell lines showed altered gene expression during in vitro culture, and it was more pronounced in two metastatic cell lines compared to the respective parental cells. Chromosomal instability contributed in part to the altered gene expression in SAOS and LM5 cells with low and high metastatic potential. To identify metastasis-relevant genes in a background of passage-dependent altered gene expression, genes involved in "Pathways in cancer" that were consistently regulated under all passage comparisons were evaluated. Genes belonging to "Hedgehog signaling pathway" and "Wnt signaling pathway" were significantly up-regulated, and IHH, WNT10B and TCF7 were found up-regulated in all three metastatic compared to the parental cell lines.Considerable instability during culture in terms of gene expression and chromosomal aberrations was observed in osteosarcoma cell lines. The use of cells from different passages and a search for genes consistently regulated in early and late passages allows the analysis of metastasis-relevant genes despite the observed instability in gene expression in osteosarcoma cell lines during culture.
Full Text Available The impact of gene silencing on cellular phenotypes is difficult to establish due to the complexity of interactions in the associated biological processes and pathways. A recent genome-wide RNA knock-down study both identified and phenotypically characterized a set of important genes for the cell cycle in HeLa cells. Here, we combine a molecular interaction network analysis, based on physical and functional protein interactions, in conjunction with evolutionary information, to elucidate the common biological and topological properties of these key genes. Our results show that these genes tend to be conserved with their corresponding protein interactions across several species and are key constituents of the evolutionary conserved molecular interaction network. Moreover, a group of bistable network motifs is found to be conserved within this network, which are likely to influence the network stability and therefore the robustness of cellular functioning. They form a cluster, which displays functional homogeneity and is significantly enriched in genes phenotypically relevant for mitosis. Additional results reveal a relationship between specific cellular processes and the phenotypic outcomes induced by gene silencing. This study introduces new ideas regarding the relationship between genotype and phenotype in the context of the cell cycle. We show that the analysis of molecular interaction networks can result in the identification of genes relevant to cellular processes, which is a promising avenue for future research.
Full Text Available The spread of antibiotic resistance genes in river systems is an emerging environmental issue due to their potential threat to aquatic ecosystems and public health. In this study, we used droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR to evaluate pollution with clinically relevant antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs at 13 monitoring sites along the main stream of the Weihe River in China. Six clinically relevant ARGs and a class I integron-integrase (intI1 gene were analyzed using ddPCR, and the bacterial community was evaluated based on the bacterial 16S rRNA V3–V4 regions using MiSeq sequencing. The results indicated Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Cyanobacteria, and Bacteroidetes as the dominant phyla in the water samples from the Weihe River. Higher abundances of blaTEM, strB, aadA, and intI1 genes (103 to 105 copies/mL were detected in the surface water samples compared with the relatively low abundances of strA, mecA, and vanA genes (0–1.94 copies/mL. Eight bacterial genera were identified as possible hosts of the intI1 gene and three ARGs (strA, strB, and aadA based on network analysis. The results suggested that the bacterial community structure and horizontal gene transfer were associated with the variations in ARGs.
Bouquet, Jerome; Soloski, Mark J.; Swei, Andrea; Cheadle, Chris; Federman, Scot; Billaud, Jean-Noel; Rebman, Alison W.; Kabre, Beniwende; Halpert, Richard; Boorgula, Meher
ABSTRACT Lyme disease is a tick-borne illness caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi, and approximately 10 to 20% of patients report persistent symptoms lasting months to years despite appropriate treatment with antibiotics. To gain insights into the molecular basis of acute Lyme disease and the ensuing development of post-treatment symptoms, we conducted a longitudinal transcriptome study of 29 Lyme disease patients (and 13 matched controls) enrolled at the time of diagnosis and followed for up to 6 months. The differential gene expression signature of Lyme disease following the acute phase of infection persisted for at least 3 weeks and had fewer than 44% differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in common with other infectious or noninfectious syndromes. Early Lyme disease prior to antibiotic therapy was characterized by marked upregulation of Toll-like receptor signaling but lack of activation of the inflammatory T-cell apoptotic and B-cell developmental pathways seen in other acute infectious syndromes. Six months after completion of therapy, Lyme disease patients were found to have 31 to 60% of their pathways in common with three different immune-mediated chronic diseases. No differential gene expression signature was observed between Lyme disease patients with resolved illness to those with persistent symptoms at 6 months post-treatment. The identification of a sustained differential gene expression signature in Lyme disease suggests that a panel of selected human host-based biomarkers may address the need for sensitive clinical diagnostics during the “window period” of infection prior to the appearance of a detectable antibody response and may also inform the development of new therapeutic targets. PMID:26873097
Identification of a developmental gene expression signature, including HOX genes, for the normal human colonic crypt stem cell niche: overexpression of the signature parallels stem cell overpopulation during colon tumorigenesis.
Bhatlekar, Seema; Addya, Sankar; Salunek, Moreh; Orr, Christopher R; Surrey, Saul; McKenzie, Steven; Fields, Jeremy Z; Boman, Bruce M
Our goal was to identify a unique gene expression signature for human colonic stem cells (SCs). Accordingly, we determined the gene expression pattern for a known SC-enriched region--the crypt bottom. Colonic crypts and isolated crypt subsections (top, middle, and bottom) were purified from fresh, normal, human, surgical specimens. We then used an innovative strategy that used two-color microarrays (∼18,500 genes) to compare gene expression in the crypt bottom with expression in the other crypt subsections (middle or top). Array results were validated by PCR and immunostaining. About 25% of genes analyzed were expressed in crypts: 88 preferentially in the bottom, 68 in the middle, and 131 in the top. Among genes upregulated in the bottom, ∼30% were classified as growth and/or developmental genes including several in the PI3 kinase pathway, a six-transmembrane protein STAMP1, and two homeobox (HOXA4, HOXD10) genes. qPCR and immunostaining validated that HOXA4 and HOXD10 are selectively expressed in the normal crypt bottom and are overexpressed in colon carcinomas (CRCs). Immunostaining showed that HOXA4 and HOXD10 are co-expressed with the SC markers CD166 and ALDH1 in cells at the normal crypt bottom, and the number of these co-expressing cells is increased in CRCs. Thus, our findings show that these two HOX genes are selectively expressed in colonic SCs and that HOX overexpression in CRCs parallels the SC overpopulation that occurs during CRC development. Our study suggests that developmental genes play key roles in the maintenance of normal SCs and crypt renewal, and contribute to the SC overpopulation that drives colon tumorigenesis.
Lequerré, Thierry; Bansard, Carine; Vittecoq, Olivier; Derambure, Céline; Hiron, Martine; Daveau, Maryvonne; Tron, François; Ayral, Xavier; Biga, Norman; Auquit-Auckbur, Isabelle; Chiocchia, Gilles; Le Loët, Xavier; Salier, Jean-Philippe
Introduction Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a heterogeneous disease and its underlying molecular mechanisms are still poorly understood. Because previous microarray studies have only focused on long-standing (LS) RA compared to osteoarthritis, we aimed to compare the molecular profiles of early and LS RA versus control synovia. Methods Synovial biopsies were obtained by arthroscopy from 15 patients (4 early untreated RA, 4 treated LS RA and 7 controls, who had traumatic or mechanical lesions). Extracted mRNAs were used for large-scale gene-expression profiling. The different gene-expression combinations identified by comparison of profiles of early, LS RA and healthy synovia were linked to the biological processes involved in each situation. Results Three combinations of 719, 116 and 52 transcripts discriminated, respectively, early from LS RA, and early or LS RA from healthy synovia. We identified several gene clusters and distinct molecular signatures specifically expressed during early or LS RA, thereby suggesting the involvement of different pathophysiological mechanisms during the course of RA. Conclusions Early and LS RA have distinct molecular signatures with different biological processes participating at different times during the course of the disease. These results suggest that better knowledge of the main biological processes involved at a given RA stage might help to choose the most appropriate treatment. PMID:19563633
Kurscheid, Sebastian; Bady, Pierre; Sciuscio, Davide; Samarzija, Ivana; Shay, Tal; Vassallo, Irene; Van Criekinge, Wim; Domany, Eytan; Stupp, Roger; Delorenzi, Mauro; Hegi, Monika
We previously reported a stem cell related HOX gene signature associated with resistance to chemo-radiotherapy (TMZ/RT- > TMZ) in glioblastoma. However, underlying mechanisms triggering overexpression remain mostly elusive. Interestingly, HOX genes are neither involved in the developing brain, nor expressed in normal brain, suggestive of an acquired gene expression signature during gliomagenesis. HOXA genes are located on CHR 7 that displays trisomy in most glioblastoma which strongly impacts gene expression on this chromosome, modulated by local regulatory elements. Furthermore we observed more pronounced DNA methylation across the HOXA locus as compared to non-tumoral brain (Human methylation 450K BeadChip Illumina; 59 glioblastoma, 5 non-tumoral brain sampes). CpG probes annotated for HOX-signature genes, contributing most to the variability, served as input into the analysis of DNA methylation and expression to identify key regulatory regions. The structural similarity of the observed correlation matrices between DNA methylation and gene expression in our cohort and an independent data-set from TCGA (106 glioblastoma) was remarkable (RV-coefficient, 0.84; p-value < 0.0001). We identified a CpG located in the promoter region of the HOXA10 locus exerting the strongest mean negative correlation between methylation and expression of the whole HOX-signature. Applying this analysis the same CpG emerged in the external set. We then determined the contribution of both, gene copy aberration (CNA) and methylation at the selected probe to explain expression of the HOX-signature using a linear model. Statistically significant results suggested an additive effect between gene dosage and methylation at the key CpG identified. Similarly, such an additive effect was also observed in the external data-set. Taken together, we hypothesize that overexpression of the stem-cell related HOX signature is triggered by gain of trisomy 7 and escape from compensatory DNA methylation at
Andersen, Lars Dyrskjøt; Kruhøffer, Mogens; Andersen, Thomas Thykjær
not only in CIS biopsies but also in sTCC, mTCC, and, remarkably, in histologically normal urothelium from bladders with CIS. Identification of this expression signature could provide guidance for the selection of therapy and follow-up regimen in patients with early stage bladder cancer....
Huang, Bei; Belharazem, Djeda; Li, Li; Kneitz, Susanne; Schnabel, Philipp A; Rieker, Ralf J; Körner, Daniel; Nix, Wilfred; Schalke, Berthold; Müller-Hermelink, Hans Konrad; Ott, German; Rosenwald, Andreas; Ströbel, Philipp; Marx, Alexander
The molecular pathogenesis of thymomas and thymic carcinomas (TCs) is poorly understood and results of adjuvant therapy are unsatisfactory in case of metastatic disease and tumor recurrence. For these clinical settings, novel therapeutic strategies are urgently needed. Recently, limited sequencing efforts revealed that a broad spectrum of genes that play key roles in various common cancers are rarely affected in thymomas and TCs, suggesting that other oncogenic principles might be important. This made us re-analyze historic expression data obtained in a spectrum of thymomas and thymic squamous cell carcinomas (TSCCs) with a custom-made cDNA microarray. By cluster analysis, different anti-apoptotic signatures were detected in type B3 thymoma and TSCC, including overexpression of BIRC3 in TSCCs. This was confirmed by qRT-PCR in the original and an independent validation set of tumors. In contrast to several other cancer cell lines, the BIRC3-positive TSCC cell line, 1889c showed spontaneous apoptosis after BIRC3 knock-down. Targeting apoptosis genes is worth testing as therapeutic principle in TSCC.
Huang, Bei; Belharazem, Djeda; Li, Li; Kneitz, Susanne; Schnabel, Philipp A.; Rieker, Ralf J.; Körner, Daniel; Nix, Wilfred; Schalke, Berthold; Müller-Hermelink, Hans Konrad; Ott, German; Rosenwald, Andreas; Ströbel, Philipp; Marx, Alexander
The molecular pathogenesis of thymomas and thymic carcinomas (TCs) is poorly understood and results of adjuvant therapy are unsatisfactory in case of metastatic disease and tumor recurrence. For these clinical settings, novel therapeutic strategies are urgently needed. Recently, limited sequencing efforts revealed that a broad spectrum of genes that play key roles in various common cancers are rarely affected in thymomas and TCs, suggesting that other oncogenic principles might be important. This made us re-analyze historic expression data obtained in a spectrum of thymomas and thymic squamous cell carcinomas (TSCCs) with a custom-made cDNA microarray. By cluster analysis, different anti-apoptotic signatures were detected in type B3 thymoma and TSCC, including overexpression of BIRC3 in TSCCs. This was confirmed by qRT-PCR in the original and an independent validation set of tumors. In contrast to several other cancer cell lines, the BIRC3-positive TSCC cell line, 1889c showed spontaneous apoptosis after BIRC3 knock-down. Targeting apoptosis genes is worth testing as therapeutic principle in TSCC. PMID:24427739
Full Text Available The molecular pathogenesis of thymomas and thymic carcinomas (TCs is poorly understood and results of adjuvant therapy are unsatisfactory in case of metastatic disease and tumor recurrence. For these clinical settings, novel therapeutic strategies are urgently needed. Recently, limited sequencing efforts revealed that a broad spectrum of genes that play key roles in various common cancers are rarely affected in thymomas and thymic carcinomas, suggesting that other oncogenic principles might be important. This made us re-analyze historic expression data obtained in a spectrum of thymomas and thymic squamous cell carcinomas (TSCC with a custom made cDNA microarray. By cluster analysis, different anti-apoptotic signatures were detected in type B3 thymoma and TSCC, including overexpression of BIRC3 in TSCCs. This was confirmed by qRT-PCR in the original and an independent validation set of tumors. In contrast to several other cancer cell lines, the BIRC3-positive TSCC cell line, 1889c showed spontaneous apoptosis after BIRC3 knock-down. Targeting apoptosis genes is worth testing as therapeutic principle in TSCC.
Namani, Akhileshwar; Matiur Rahaman, Md; Chen, Ming; Tang, Xiuwen
NRF2 is the key regulator of oxidative stress in normal cells and aberrant expression of the NRF2 pathway due to genetic alterations in the KEAP1 (Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1)-NRF2 (nuclear factor erythroid 2 like 2)-CUL3 (cullin 3) axis leads to tumorigenesis and drug resistance in many cancers including head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC). The main goal of this study was to identify specific genes regulated by the KEAP1-NRF2-CUL3 axis in HNSCC patients, to assess the prognostic value of this gene signature in different cohorts, and to reveal potential biomarkers. RNA-Seq V2 level 3 data from 279 tumor samples along with 37 adjacent normal samples from patients enrolled in the The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA)-HNSCC study were used to identify upregulated genes using two methods (altered KEAP1-NRF2-CUL3 versus normal, and altered KEAP1-NRF2-CUL3 versus wild-type). We then used a new approach to identify the combined gene signature by integrating both datasets and subsequently tested this signature in 4 independent HNSCC datasets to assess its prognostic value. In addition, functional annotation using the DAVID v6.8 database and protein-protein interaction (PPI) analysis using the STRING v10 database were performed on the signature. A signature composed of a subset of 17 genes regulated by the KEAP1-NRF2-CUL3 axis was identified by overlapping both the upregulated genes of altered versus normal (251 genes) and altered versus wild-type (25 genes) datasets. We showed that increased expression was significantly associated with poor survival in 4 independent HNSCC datasets, including the TCGA-HNSCC dataset. Furthermore, Gene Ontology, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes, and PPI analysis revealed that most of the genes in this signature are associated with drug metabolism and glutathione metabolic pathways. Altogether, our study emphasizes the discovery of a gene signature regulated by the KEAP1-NRF2-CUL3 axis which is strongly associated with
Butler, Merlin G; McGuire, Austen; Manzardo, Ann M
Obesity is a growing public health concern now reaching epidemic status worldwide for children and adults due to multiple problems impacting on energy intake and expenditure with influences on human reproduction and infertility. A positive family history and genetic factors are known to play a role in obesity by influencing eating behavior, weight and level of physical activity and also contributing to human reproduction and infertility. Recent advances in genetic technology have led to discoveries of new susceptibility genes for obesity and causation of infertility. The goal of our study was to provide an update of clinically relevant candidate and known genes for obesity and infertility using high resolution chromosome ideograms with gene symbols and tabular form. We used computer-based internet websites including PubMed to search for combinations of key words such as obesity, body mass index, infertility, reproduction, azoospermia, endometriosis, diminished ovarian reserve, estrogen along with genetics, gene mutations or variants to identify evidence for development of a master list of recognized obesity genes in humans and those involved with infertility and reproduction. Gene symbols for known and candidate genes for obesity were plotted on high resolution chromosome ideograms at the 850 band level. Both infertility and obesity genes were listed separately in alphabetical order in tabular form and those highlighted when involved with both conditions. By searching the medical literature and computer generated websites for key words, we found documented evidence for 370 genes playing a role in obesity and 153 genes for human reproduction or infertility. The obesity genes primarily affected common pathways in lipid metabolism, deposition or transport, eating behavior and food selection, physical activity or energy expenditure. Twenty-one of the obesity genes were also associated with human infertility and reproduction. Gene symbols were plotted on high resolution
Bozzato, Andrea; Barlati, Sergio; Borsani, Giuseppe
Mucolipidosis type IV (MLIV, MIM 252650) is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder that causes mental and motor retardation as well as visual impairment. The lysosomal storage defect in MLIV is consistent with abnormalities of membrane traffic and organelle dynamics in the late endocytic pathway. MLIV is caused by mutations in the MCOLN1 gene, which codes for mucolipin-1 (MLN1), a member of the large family of transient receptor potential (TRP) cation channels. Although a number of studies have been performed on mucolipin-1, the pathological mechanisms underlying MLIV are not fully understood. To identify genes that characterize pathogenic changes in mucolipidosis type IV, we compared the expression profiles of three MLIV and three normal skin fibroblasts cell lines using oligonucleotide microarrays. Genes that were differentially expressed in patients' cells were identified. 231 genes were up-regulated, and 116 down-regulated. Real-Time RT-PCR performed on selected genes in six independent MLIV fibroblasts cell lines was generally consistent with the microarray findings. This study allowed to evidence the modulation at the transcriptional level of a discrete number of genes relevant in biological processes which are altered in the disease such as endosome/lysosome trafficking, lysosome biogenesis, organelle acidification and lipid metabolism.
Loboda, Andrey; Nebozhyn, Michael; Klinghoffer, Rich; Frazier, Jason; Chastain, Michael; Arthur, William; Roberts, Brian; Zhang, Theresa; Chenard, Melissa; Haines, Brian; Andersen, Jannik; Nagashima, Kumiko; Paweletz, Cloud; Lynch, Bethany; Feldman, Igor; Dai, Hongyue; Huang, Pearl; Watters, James
Hyperactivation of the Ras signaling pathway is a driver of many cancers, and RAS pathway activation can predict response to targeted therapies. Therefore, optimal methods for measuring Ras pathway activation are critical. The main focus of our work was to develop a gene expression signature that is predictive of RAS pathway dependence. We used the coherent expression of RAS pathway-related genes across multiple datasets to derive a RAS pathway gene expression signature and generate RAS pathway activation scores in pre-clinical cancer models and human tumors. We then related this signature to KRAS mutation status and drug response data in pre-clinical and clinical datasets. The RAS signature score is predictive of KRAS mutation status in lung tumors and cell lines with high (> 90%) sensitivity but relatively low (50%) specificity due to samples that have apparent RAS pathway activation in the absence of a KRAS mutation. In lung and breast cancer cell line panels, the RAS pathway signature score correlates with pMEK and pERK expression, and predicts resistance to AKT inhibition and sensitivity to MEK inhibition within both KRAS mutant and KRAS wild-type groups. The RAS pathway signature is upregulated in breast cancer cell lines that have acquired resistance to AKT inhibition, and is downregulated by inhibition of MEK. In lung cancer cell lines knockdown of KRAS using siRNA demonstrates that the RAS pathway signature is a better measure of dependence on RAS compared to KRAS mutation status. In human tumors, the RAS pathway signature is elevated in ER negative breast tumors and lung adenocarcinomas, and predicts resistance to cetuximab in metastatic colorectal cancer. These data demonstrate that the RAS pathway signature is superior to KRAS mutation status for the prediction of dependence on RAS signaling, can predict response to PI3K and RAS pathway inhibitors, and is likely to have the most clinical utility in lung and breast tumors.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Hyperactivation of the Ras signaling pathway is a driver of many cancers, and RAS pathway activation can predict response to targeted therapies. Therefore, optimal methods for measuring Ras pathway activation are critical. The main focus of our work was to develop a gene expression signature that is predictive of RAS pathway dependence. Methods We used the coherent expression of RAS pathway-related genes across multiple datasets to derive a RAS pathway gene expression signature and generate RAS pathway activation scores in pre-clinical cancer models and human tumors. We then related this signature to KRAS mutation status and drug response data in pre-clinical and clinical datasets. Results The RAS signature score is predictive of KRAS mutation status in lung tumors and cell lines with high (> 90% sensitivity but relatively low (50% specificity due to samples that have apparent RAS pathway activation in the absence of a KRAS mutation. In lung and breast cancer cell line panels, the RAS pathway signature score correlates with pMEK and pERK expression, and predicts resistance to AKT inhibition and sensitivity to MEK inhibition within both KRAS mutant and KRAS wild-type groups. The RAS pathway signature is upregulated in breast cancer cell lines that have acquired resistance to AKT inhibition, and is downregulated by inhibition of MEK. In lung cancer cell lines knockdown of KRAS using siRNA demonstrates that the RAS pathway signature is a better measure of dependence on RAS compared to KRAS mutation status. In human tumors, the RAS pathway signature is elevated in ER negative breast tumors and lung adenocarcinomas, and predicts resistance to cetuximab in metastatic colorectal cancer. Conclusions These data demonstrate that the RAS pathway signature is superior to KRAS mutation status for the prediction of dependence on RAS signaling, can predict response to PI3K and RAS pathway inhibitors, and is likely to have the most clinical
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Co-infection with tuberculosis (TB is the leading cause of death in HIV-infected individuals. However, diagnosis of TB, especially in the presence of an HIV co-infection, can be limiting due to the high inaccuracy associated with the use of conventional diagnostic methods. Here we report a gene signature that can identify a tuberculosis infection in patients co-infected with HIV as well as in the absence of HIV. METHODS: We analyzed global gene expression data from peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC samples of patients that were either mono-infected with HIV or co-infected with HIV/TB and used support vector machines to identify a gene signature that can distinguish between the two classes. We then validated our results using publically available gene expression data from patients mono-infected with TB. RESULTS: Our analysis successfully identified a 251-gene signature that accurately distinguishes patients co-infected with HIV/TB from those infected with HIV only, with an overall accuracy of 81.4% (sensitivity = 76.2%, specificity = 86.4%. Furthermore, we show that our 251-gene signature can also accurately distinguish patients with active TB in the absence of an HIV infection from both patients with a latent TB infection and healthy controls (88.9-94.7% accuracy; 69.2-90% sensitivity and 90.3-100% specificity. We also demonstrate that the expression levels of the 251-gene signature diminish as a correlate of the length of TB treatment. CONCLUSIONS: A 251-gene signature is described to (a detect TB in the presence or absence of an HIV co-infection, and (b assess response to treatment following anti-TB therapy.
Wang, Weining; Lim, Weng Khong; Leong, Hui Sun; Chong, Fui Teen; Lim, Tony K H; Tan, Daniel S W; Teh, Bin Tean; Iyer, N Gopalakrishna
Extracapsular spread (ECS) is an important prognostic factor for oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and is used to guide management. In this study, we aimed to identify an expression profile signature for ECS in node-positive OSCC using data derived from two different sources: a cohort of OSCC patients from our institution (National Cancer Centre Singapore) and The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cohort. We also sought to determine if this signature could serve as a prognostic factor in node negative cancers. Patients with a histological diagnosis of OSCC were identified from an institutional database and fresh tumor samples were retrieved. RNA was extracted and gene expression profiling was performed using the Affymetrix GeneChip Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0 microarray platform. RNA sequence data and corresponding clinical data for the TCGA HNSCC cohort were downloaded from the TCGA Data Portal. All data analyses were conducted using R package and SPSS. We identified an 11 gene signature (GGH, MTFR1, CDKN3, PSRC1, SMIM3, CA9, IRX4, CPA3, ZSCAN16, CBX7 and ZFP3) which was robust in segregating tumors by ECS status. In node negative patients, patients harboring this ECS signature had a significantly worse overall survival (p=0.04). An eleven gene signature for ECS was derived. Our results also suggest that this signature is prognostic in a separate subset of patients with no nodal metastasis Further validation of this signature on other datasets and immunohistochemical studies are required to establish utility of this signature in stratifying early stage OSCC patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypoxia is a condition of low oxygen tension occurring in the tumor microenvironment and it is related to poor prognosis in human cancer. To examine the relationship between hypoxia and neuroblastoma, we generated and tested an in vitro derived hypoxia gene signature for its ability to predict patients' outcome. Results We obtained the gene expression profile of 11 hypoxic neuroblastoma cell lines and we derived a robust 62 probesets signature (NB-hypo taking advantage of the strong discriminating power of the l1-l2 feature selection technique combined with the analysis of differential gene expression. We profiled gene expression of the tumors of 88 neuroblastoma patients and divided them according to the NB-hypo expression values by K-means clustering. The NB-hypo successfully stratifies the neuroblastoma patients into good and poor prognosis groups. Multivariate Cox analysis revealed that the NB-hypo is a significant independent predictor after controlling for commonly used risk factors including the amplification of MYCN oncogene. NB-hypo increases the resolution of the MYCN stratification by dividing patients with MYCN not amplified tumors in good and poor outcome suggesting that hypoxia is associated with the aggressiveness of neuroblastoma tumor independently from MYCN amplification. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that the NB-hypo is a novel and independent prognostic factor for neuroblastoma and support the view that hypoxia is negatively correlated with tumors' outcome. We show the power of the biology-driven approach in defining hypoxia as a critical molecular program in neuroblastoma and the potential for improvement in the current criteria for risk stratification.
Hassan, Saima; Esch, Amanda; Liby, Tiera; Gray, Joe W; Heiser, Laura M
Effective treatment of patients with triple-negative (ER-negative, PR-negative, HER2-negative) breast cancer remains a challenge. Although PARP inhibitors are being evaluated in clinical trials, biomarkers are needed to identify patients who will most benefit from anti-PARP therapy. We determined the responses of three PARP inhibitors (veliparib, olaparib, and talazoparib) in a panel of eight triple-negative breast cancer cell lines. Therapeutic responses and cellular phenotypes were elucidated using high-content imaging and quantitative immunofluorescence to assess markers of DNA damage (53BP1) and apoptosis (cleaved PARP). We determined the pharmacodynamic changes as percentage of cells positive for 53BP1, mean number of 53BP1 foci per cell, and percentage of cells positive for cleaved PARP. Inspired by traditional dose-response measures of cell viability, an EC 50 value was calculated for each cellular phenotype and each PARP inhibitor. The EC 50 values for both 53BP1 metrics strongly correlated with IC 50 values for each PARP inhibitor. Pathway enrichment analysis identified a set of DNA repair and cell cycle-associated genes that were associated with 53BP1 response following PARP inhibition. The overall accuracy of our 63 gene set in predicting response to olaparib in seven breast cancer patient-derived xenograft tumors was 86%. In triple-negative breast cancer patients who had not received anti-PARP therapy, the predicted response rate of our gene signature was 45%. These results indicate that 53BP1 is a biomarker of response to anti-PARP therapy in the laboratory, and our DNA damage response gene signature may be used to identify patients who are most likely to respond to PARP inhibition. Mol Cancer Ther; 16(12); 2892-901. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.
Gao, Long; Uzun, Yasin; Gao, Peng; He, Bing; Ma, Xiaoke; Wang, Jiahui; Han, Shizhong; Tan, Kai
Identifying noncoding risk variants remains a challenging task. Because noncoding variants exert their effects in the context of a gene regulatory network (GRN), we hypothesize that explicit use of disease-relevant GRNs can significantly improve the inference accuracy of noncoding risk variants. We describe Annotation of Regulatory Variants using Integrated Networks (ARVIN), a general computational framework for predicting causal noncoding variants. It employs a set of novel regulatory network-based features, combined with sequence-based features to infer noncoding risk variants. Using known causal variants in gene promoters and enhancers in a number of diseases, we show ARVIN outperforms state-of-the-art methods that use sequence-based features alone. Additional experimental validation using reporter assay further demonstrates the accuracy of ARVIN. Application of ARVIN to seven autoimmune diseases provides a holistic view of the gene subnetwork perturbed by the combinatorial action of the entire set of risk noncoding mutations.
Korkola, James E; Waldman, Frederic M; Blaveri, Ekaterina; DeVries, Sandy; Moore, Dan H II; Hwang, E Shelley; Chen, Yunn-Yi; Estep, Anne LH; Chew, Karen L; Jensen, Ronald H
Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease, presenting with a wide range of histologic, clinical, and genetic features. Microarray technology has shown promise in predicting outcome in these patients. We profiled 162 breast tumors using expression microarrays to stratify tumors based on gene expression. A subset of 55 tumors with extensive follow-up was used to identify gene sets that predicted outcome. The predictive gene set was further tested in previously published data sets. We used different statistical methods to identify three gene sets associated with disease free survival. A fourth gene set, consisting of 21 genes in common to all three sets, also had the ability to predict patient outcome. To validate the predictive utility of this derived gene set, it was tested in two published data sets from other groups. This gene set resulted in significant separation of patients on the basis of survival in these data sets, correctly predicting outcome in 62–65% of patients. By comparing outcome prediction within subgroups based on ER status, grade, and nodal status, we found that our gene set was most effective in predicting outcome in ER positive and node negative tumors. This robust gene selection with extensive validation has identified a predictive gene set that may have clinical utility for outcome prediction in breast cancer patients
Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene expression technologies have opened up new ways to diagnose and treat cancer and other diseases. Clustering algorithms are a useful approach with which to analyze genome expression data. They attempt to partition the genes into groups exhibiting similar patterns of variation in expression level. An important problem associated with gene classification is to discern whether the clustering process can find a relevant partition as well as the identification of new genes classes. There are two key aspects to classification: the estimation of the number of clusters, and the decision as to whether a new unit (gene, tumor sample... belongs to one of these previously identified clusters or to a new group. Results ICGE is a user-friendly R package which provides many functions related to this problem: identify the number of clusters using mixed variables, usually found by applied biomedical researchers; detect whether the data have a cluster structure; identify whether a new unit belongs to one of the pre-identified clusters or to a novel group, and classify new units into the corresponding cluster. The functions in the ICGE package are accompanied by help files and easy examples to facilitate its use. Conclusions We demonstrate the utility of ICGE by analyzing simulated and real data sets. The results show that ICGE could be very useful to a broad research community.
HASSAN, Sonia S.; ROMERO, Roberto; TARCA, Adi L.; DRAGHICI, Sorin; PINELES, Beth; BUGRIM, Andrej; KHALEK, Nahla; CAMACHO, Natalia; MITTAL, Pooja; YOON, Bo Hyun; ESPINOZA, Jimmy; KIM, Chong Jai; SOROKIN, Yoram; MALONE, John
Objective This study aimed to discover ‘signature pathways’ characterizing biological processes based on genes differentially expressed in the uterine cervix before and after spontaneous labor. Study Design The cervical transcriptome was previously characterized from biopsies taken before and after term labor. Pathway analysis was used to study the differentially expressed genes based on two gene-to-pathway annotation databases (KEGG and Metacore™). Over-represented and highly impacted pathways and connectivity nodes were identified. Results Fifty-two pathways in the Metacore™ database were significantly enriched in differentially expressed genes. Three of the top 5 pathways were known to be involved in cervical remodeling.Two novel pathways were: plasmin signaling and plasminogen activator urokinase (PLAU) signaling. The same analysis in the KEGG database identified 4 significant pathways, of which impact analysis confirmed. Multiple nodes providing connectivity within the plasmin and PLAU signaling pathways were identified.. Conclusions Three strategies for pathway analysis were consistent in their identification of novel, unexpected as well as expected networks, suggesting that this approach is both valid and effective for the elucidation of biological mechanisms involved in cervical dilation and remodeling. PMID:17826407
Nouhaud, François-Xavier; Blanchard, France; Sesboue, Richard; Flaman, Jean-Michel; Sabourin, Jean-Christophe; Pfister, Christian; Di Fiore, Frédéric
Gene copy number variations (CNVs) have been reported to be frequent in renal cell carcinoma (RCC), with potential prognostic value for some. However, their clinical utility, especially to guide treatment of metastatic disease remains to be established. Our objectives were to assess CNVs on a panel of selected genes and determine their clinical relevance in patients who underwent treatment of metastatic RCC. The genetic assessment was performed on frozen tissue samples of clear cell metastatic RCC using quantitative multiplex polymerase chain reaction of short fluorescent fragment method to detect CNVs on a panel of 14 genes of interest. The comparison of the electropherogram obtained from both tumor and normal renal adjacent tissue allowed for CNV identification. The clinical, biologic, and survival characteristics were assessed for their associations with the most frequent CNVs. Fifty patients with clear cell metastatic RCC were included. The CNV rate was 21.4%. The loss of CDKN2A and PLG was associated with a higher tumor stage (P relevance, especially those located on CDKN2A, PLG, and ALDOB, in a homogeneous cohort of patients with clear cell metastatic RCC. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Szasz, A.; Li, Qiyuan; Sztupinszki, Z.
Purpose: To assess the ability of genes selected from those reflecting chromosomal instability to identify good and poor prognostic subsets of Grade 2 breast carcinomas. Methods: We selected genes for splitting grade 2 tumours into low and high grade type groups by using public databases. Patient...
Full Text Available Abstract Background African animal trypanosomiasis (AAT caused by tsetse fly-transmitted protozoa of the genus Trypanosoma is a major constraint on livestock and agricultural production in Africa and is among the top ten global cattle diseases impacting on the poor. Here we show that a functional genomics approach can be used to identify temporal changes in host peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC gene expression due to disease progression. We also show that major gene expression differences exist between cattle from trypanotolerant and trypanosusceptible breeds. Using bovine long oligonucleotide microarrays and real time quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR validation we analysed PBMC gene expression in naïve trypanotolerant and trypanosusceptible cattle experimentally challenged with Trypanosoma congolense across a 34-day infection time course. Results Trypanotolerant N'Dama cattle displayed a rapid and distinct transcriptional response to infection, with a ten-fold higher number of genes differentially expressed at day 14 post-infection compared to trypanosusceptible Boran cattle. These analyses identified coordinated temporal gene expression changes for both breeds in response to trypanosome infection. In addition, a panel of genes were identified that showed pronounced differences in gene expression between the two breeds, which may underlie the phenomena of trypanotolerance and trypanosusceptibility. Gene ontology (GO analysis demonstrate that the products of these genes may contribute to increased mitochondrial mRNA translational efficiency, a more pronounced B cell response, an elevated activation status and a heightened response to stress in trypanotolerant cattle. Conclusion This study has revealed an extensive and diverse range of cellular processes that are altered temporally in response to trypanosome infection in African cattle. Results indicate that the trypanotolerant N'Dama cattle respond more rapidly and with a
Nakaoka, Hirofumi; Tajima, Atsushi; Yoneyama, Taku; Hosomichi, Kazuyoshi; Kasuya, Hidetoshi; Mizutani, Tohru; Inoue, Ituro
The rupture of intracranial aneurysm (IA) causes subarachnoid hemorrhage associated with high morbidity and mortality. We compared gene expression profiles in aneurysmal domes between unruptured IAs and ruptured IAs (RIAs) to elucidate biological mechanisms predisposing to the rupture of IA. We determined gene expression levels of 8 RIAs, 5 unruptured IAs, and 10 superficial temporal arteries with the Agilent microarrays. To explore biological heterogeneity of IAs, we classified the samples into subgroups showing similar gene expression patterns, using clustering methods. The clustering analysis identified 4 groups: superficial temporal arteries and unruptured IAs were aggregated into their own clusters, whereas RIAs segregated into 2 distinct subgroups (early and late RIAs). Comparing gene expression levels between early RIAs and unruptured IAs, we identified 430 upregulated and 617 downregulated genes in early RIAs. The upregulated genes were associated with inflammatory and immune responses and phagocytosis including S100/calgranulin genes (S100A8, S100A9, and S100A12). The downregulated genes suggest mechanical weakness of aneurysm walls. The expressions of Krüppel-like family of transcription factors (KLF2, KLF12, and KLF15), which were anti-inflammatory regulators, and CDKN2A, which was located on chromosome 9p21 that was the most consistently replicated locus in genome-wide association studies of IA, were also downregulated. We demonstrate that gene expression patterns of RIAs were different according to the age of patients. The results suggest that macrophage-mediated inflammation is a key biological pathway for IA rupture. The identified genes can be good candidates for molecular markers of rupture-prone IAs and therapeutic targets. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.
Dakeshita, Satoru; Kawai, Tomoko; Uemura, Hirokazu; Hiyoshi, Mineyoshi; Oguma, Etsuko; Horiguchi, Hyogo; Kayama, Fujio; Aoshima, Keiko; Shirahama, Satoshi; Rokutan, Kazuhito; Arisawa, Kokichi
The objective of this study was to examine the effects of environmental cadmium (Cd) exposure on the gene expression profile of peripheral blood cells, using an original oligoDNA microarray. The study population consisted of 20 female residents in a Cd-polluted area (Cd-exposed group) and 20 female residents in a non-Cd-polluted area individually matched for age (control group). The mRNA levels in Cd-exposed subjects were compared with those in respective controls, using a microarray containing oligoDNA probes for 1867 genes. Median Cd concentrations in blood (3.55 μg/l) and urine (8.25 μg/g creatinine) from the Cd-exposed group were 2.4- and 1.9-times higher than those of the control group, respectively. Microarray analysis revealed that the Cd-exposed group significantly up-regulated 137 genes and down-regulated 80 genes, compared with the control group. The Ingenuity Pathway Analysis Application (IPA) revealed that differentially expressed genes were likely to modify oxidative stress and mitochondria-dependent apoptosis pathways. Among differentially expressed genes, the expression of five genes was positively correlated with Cd concentrations in blood or urine. Quantitative real-time PCR (RT-PCR) analysis validated the significant up-regulation of CASP9, TNFRSF1B, GPX3, HYOU1, SLC3A2, SLC19A1, SLC35A4 and ITGAL, and down-regulation of BCL2A1 and COX7B. After adjustment for differences in the background characteristics of the two groups, we finally identified seven Cd-responsive genes (CASP9, TNFRSF1B, GPX3, SLC3A2, ITGAL, BCL2A1, and COX7B), all of which constituted a network that controls oxidative stress response by IPA. These seven genes may be marker genes useful for the health risk assessment of chronic low level exposure to Cd
Ball, Madeleine Price; Li, Jin Billy; Gao, Yuan; Lee, Je-Hyuk; LeProust, Emily; Park, In-Hyun; Xie, Bin; Daley, George Q.; Church, George M.
Cytosine methylation, an epigenetic modification of DNA, is a target of growing interest for developing high throughput profiling technologies. Here we introduce two new, complementary techniques for cytosine methylation profiling utilizing next generation sequencing technology: bisulfite padlock probes (BSPPs) and methyl sensitive cut counting (MSCC). In the first method, we designed a set of ~10,000 BSPPs distributed over the ENCODE pilot project regions to take advantage of existing expression and chromatin immunoprecipitation data. We observed a pattern of low promoter methylation coupled with high gene body methylation in highly expressed genes. Using the second method, MSCC, we gathered genome-scale data for 1.4 million HpaII sites and confirmed that gene body methylation in highly expressed genes is a consistent phenomenon over the entire genome. Our observations highlight the usefulness of techniques which are not inherently or intentionally biased in favor of only profiling particular subsets like CpG islands or promoter regions. PMID:19329998
Valentin, Mev; Therkildsen, Christina; Veerla, Srinivas
Heredity is estimated to cause at least 20% of colorectal cancer. The hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer subset is divided into Lynch syndrome and familial colorectal cancer type X (FCCTX) based on presence of mismatch repair (MMR) gene defects.......Heredity is estimated to cause at least 20% of colorectal cancer. The hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer subset is divided into Lynch syndrome and familial colorectal cancer type X (FCCTX) based on presence of mismatch repair (MMR) gene defects....
Lee, Yun-Shien; Chen, Chun-Houh; Tsai, Chi-Neu; Tsai, Chia-Lung; Chao, Angel; Wang, Tzu-Hao
Interlaboratory comparison of microarray data, even when using the same platform, imposes several challenges to scientists. RNA quality, RNA labeling efficiency, hybridization procedures and data-mining tools can all contribute variations in each laboratory. In Affymetrix GeneChips, about 11–20 different 25-mer oligonucleotides are used to measure the level of each transcript. Here, we report that ‘labeling extension values (LEVs)’, which are correlation coefficients between probe intensities and probe positions, are highly correlated with the gene expression levels (GEVs) on eukayotic Affymetrix microarray data. By analyzing LEVs and GEVs in the publicly available 2414 cel files of 20 Affymetrix microarray types covering 13 species, we found that correlations between LEVs and GEVs only exist in eukaryotic RNAs, but not in prokaryotic ones. Surprisingly, Affymetrix results of the same specimens that were analyzed in different laboratories could be clearly differentiated only by LEVs, leading to the identification of ‘laboratory signatures’. In the examined dataset, GSE10797, filtering out high-LEV genes did not compromise the discovery of biological processes that are constructed by differentially expressed genes. In conclusion, LEVs provide a new filtering parameter for microarray analysis of gene expression and it may improve the inter- and intralaboratory comparability of Affymetrix GeneChips data. PMID:19295132
Full Text Available The stemness hypothesis states that all stem cells use common mechanisms to regulate self-renewal and multi-lineage potential. However, gene expression meta-analyses at the single gene level have failed to identify a significant number of genes selectively expressed by a broad range of stem cell types. We hypothesized that stemness may be regulated by modules of homologs. While the expression of any single gene within a module may vary from one stem cell type to the next, it is possible that the expression of the module as a whole is required so that the expression of different, yet functionally-synonymous, homologs is needed in different stem cells. Thus, we developed a computational method to test for stem cell-specific gene expression patterns from a comprehensive collection of 49 murine datasets covering 12 different stem cell types. We identified 40 individual genes and 224 stemness modules with reproducible and specific up-regulation across multiple stem cell types. The stemness modules included families regulating chromatin remodeling, DNA repair, and Wnt signaling. Strikingly, the majority of modules represent evolutionarily related homologs. Moreover, a score based on the discovered modules could accurately distinguish stem cell-like populations from other cell types in both normal and cancer tissues. This scoring system revealed that both mouse and human metastatic populations exhibit higher stemness indices than non-metastatic populations, providing further evidence for a stem cell-driven component underlying the transformation to metastatic disease.
Full Text Available The molecular mechanisms underlying the development of ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM remain poorly understood. Gene expression profiling is helpful to discover the molecular changes taking place in ICM. The aim of this study was to identify the genes that are significantly changed during the development of heart failure caused by ICM. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs were identified from 162 control samples and 227 ICM patients. PANTHER was used to perform gene ontology (GO, and Reactome for pathway enrichment analysis. A protein–protein interaction network was established using STRING and Cytoscape. A further validation was performed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. A total of 255 common DEGs was found. Gene ontology, pathway enrichment, and protein–protein interaction analysis showed that nucleic acid-binding proteins, enzymes, and transcription factors accounted for a great part of the DEGs, while immune system signaling and cytokine signaling displayed the most significant changes. Furthermore, seven hub genes and nine transcription factors were identified. Interestingly, the top five upregulated DEGs were located on chromosome Y, and four of the top five downregulated DEGs were involved in immune and inflammation signaling. Further, the top DEGs were validated by RT-PCR in human samples. Our study explored the possible molecular mechanisms of heart failure caused by ischemic heart disease.
M.C. Barros Filho
Full Text Available In breast cancer patients submitted to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (4 cycles of doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide, AC, expression of groups of three genes (gene trio signatures could distinguish responsive from non-responsive tumors, as demonstrated by cDNA microarray profiling in a previous study by our group. In the current study, we determined if the expression of the same genes would retain the predictive strength, when analyzed by a more accessible technique (real-time RT-PCR. We evaluated 28 samples already analyzed by cDNA microarray, as a technical validation procedure, and 14 tumors, as an independent biological validation set. All patients received neoadjuvant chemotherapy (4 AC. Among five trio combinations previously identified, defined by nine genes individually investigated (BZRP, CLPTM1,MTSS1, NOTCH1, NUP210, PRSS11, RPL37A, SMYD2, and XLHSRF-1, the most accurate were established by RPL37A, XLHSRF-1based trios, with NOTCH1 or NUP210. Both trios correctly separated 86% of tumors (87% sensitivity and 80% specificity for predicting response, according to their response to chemotherapy (82% in a leave-one-out cross-validation method. Using the pre-established features obtained by linear discriminant analysis, 71% samples from the biological validation set were also correctly classified by both trios (72% sensitivity; 66% specificity. Furthermore, we explored other gene combinations to achieve a higher accuracy in the technical validation group (as a training set. A new trio, MTSS1, RPL37 and SMYD2, correctly classified 93% of samples from the technical validation group (95% sensitivity and 80% specificity; 86% accuracy by the cross-validation method and 79% from the biological validation group (72% sensitivity and 100% specificity. Therefore, the combined expression of MTSS1, RPL37 and SMYD2, as evaluated by real-time RT-PCR, is a potential candidate to predict response to neoadjuvant doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide in breast cancer
Wang, Lishi; Huang, Yue; Jiao, Yan; Chen, Hong; Cao, Yanhong; Bennett, Beth; Wang, Yongjun; Gu, Weikuan
The purpose of this study is to investigate whether expression profiles of alcoholism-relevant genes in different parts of the brain are correlated differently with those in the liver. Four experiments were conducted. First, we used gene expression profiles from five parts of the brain (striatum, prefrontal cortex, nucleus accumbens, hippocampus, and cerebellum) and from liver in a population of recombinant inbred mouse strains to examine the expression association of 10 alcoholism-relevant genes. Second, we conducted the same association analysis between brain structures and the lung. Third, using five randomly selected, nonalcoholism-relevant genes, we conducted the association analysis between brain and liver. Finally, we compared the expression of 10 alcoholism-relevant genes in hippocampus and cerebellum between an alcohol preference strain and a wild-type control. We observed a difference in correlation patterns in expression levels of 10 alcoholism-relevant genes between different parts of the brain with those of liver. We then examined the association of gene expression between alcohol dehydrogenases (Adh1, Adh2, Adh5, and Adh7) and different parts of the brain. The results were similar to those of the 10 genes. Then, we found that the association of those genes between brain structures and lung was different from that of liver. Next, we found that the association patterns of five alcoholism-nonrelevant genes were different from those of 10 alcoholism-relevant genes. Finally, we found that the expression level of 10 alcohol-relevant genes is influenced more in hippocampus than in cerebellum in the alcohol preference strain. Our results show that the expression of alcoholism-relevant genes in liver is differently associated with the expression of genes in different parts of the brain. Because different structural changes in different parts of the brain in alcoholism have been reported, it is important to investigate whether those structural differences in
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a recessive X-linked form of muscular dystrophy and one of the most prevalent genetic disorders of childhood. DMD is characterized by rapid progression of muscle degeneration, and ultimately death. Currently, glucocorticoids are the only available treatment for DMD, but they have been shown to result in serious side effects. The purpose of this research was to define a core signature of gene expression related to DMD via integrative analysis of mouse and human datasets. This core signature was subsequently used to screen for novel potential compounds that antagonistically affect the expression of signature genes. With this approach we were able to identify compounds that are 1) already used to treat DMD, 2) currently under investigation for treatment, and 3) so far unknown but promising candidates. Our study highlights the potential of meta-analyses through the combination of datasets to unravel previously unrecognized associations and reveal new relationships. © IEEE.
Yu, De-li; Bao, Lang
To find the change of virulent gene expression and to analyze the relevance between the virulent change and the gene expression. Grouped guinea pigs were inoculated with 1 mL Leptospira cultured in vivo, Leptospira cultured in vitro and the Leptospira culture medium through abdominal subcutaneous respectively. The survival rate, body mass and temperature change of guinea pigs in different groups were measured within 15 d after the inoculation, then the survived guinea pigs were scarified, and the organ coefficient was also measured to know the virulence of Leptospira cultured in different environment. The amplified gene segments from Leptospira were used as probes and wrote the microarray. The total RNA was extracted from Leptospira standard strain cultured in culture medium and guinea pigs. After reverse transcription to cDNA, they were labeled with Cy3 and Cy5 respectively. Labeled cDNA was mixed and hybridized with the microarray. The hybridized mircroarray was scanned and analysed. The survival rate of inoculated guinea pig was different from group to group (in vivo group: 0%; in vitro group: 88.9%; culture medium group: 100%). The guinea pigs in vivo group had a higher temperature (PLeptospira: LA1027, LA1029, LA4004, LA3050, LA3540, LA0327, LA0378, LA1650, LA3937, LA2089, LA2144, LA3576, LA0011 and gene of Loa22 were up regulation after continuously cultured in guinea pigs. The pathogenic ability of Leptospira cultured in different environment is different and the gene expression of Leptospira is different between in vivo and in vitro as well. The understanding of the meaning of this change might help to know the pathogenecity of Leptospira.
Cockburn, Jessica G.; Hallett, Robin M.; Gillgrass, Amy E.; Dias, Kay N.; Whelan, T.; Levine, M. N.; Hassell, John A.; Bane, Anita
Lymph node (LN) status is the most important prognostic variable used to guide ER positive (+) breast cancer treatment. While a positive nodal status is traditionally associated with a poor prognosis, a subset of these patients respond well to treatment and achieve long-term survival. Several gene signatures have been established as a means of predicting outcome of breast cancer patients, but the development and indication for use of these assays varies. Here we compare the capacity of two approved gene signatures and a third novel signature to predict outcome in distinct LN negative (-) and LN+ populations. We also examine biological differences between tumours associated with LN- and LN+ disease. Gene expression data from publically available data sets was used to compare the ability of Oncotype DX and Prosigna to predict Distant Metastasis Free Survival (DMFS) using an in silico platform. A novel gene signature (Ellen) was developed by including patients with both LN- and LN+ disease and using Prediction Analysis of Microarrays (PAM) software. Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) was used to determine biological pathways associated with patient outcome in both LN- and LN+ tumors. The Oncotype DX gene signature, which only used LN- patients during development, significantly predicted outcome in LN- patients, but not LN+ patients. The Prosigna gene signature, which included both LN- and LN+ patients during development, predicted outcome in both LN- and LN+ patient groups. Ellen was also able to predict outcome in both LN- and LN+ patient groups. GSEA suggested that epigenetic modification may be related to poor outcome in LN- disease, whereas immune response may be related to good outcome in LN+ disease. We demonstrate the importance of incorporating lymph node status during the development of prognostic gene signatures. Ellen may be a useful tool to predict outcome of patients regardless of lymph node status, or for those with unknown lymph node status. Finally we
Full Text Available The neurological complications of AIDS (neuroAIDS during the infection of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV are symptomized by non-specific, multifaceted neurological conditions and therefore, defining a specific diagnosis/treatment mechanism(s for this neuro-complexity at the molecular level remains elusive. Using an in silico based integrated gene network analysis we discovered that HIV infection shares convergent gene networks with each of twelve neurological disorders selected in this study. Importantly, a common gene network was identified among HIV infection, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, and age macular degeneration. An mRNA microarray analysis in HIV-infected monocytes showed significant changes in the expression of several genes of this in silico derived common pathway which suggests the possible physiological relevance of this gene-circuit in driving neuroAIDS condition. Further, this unique gene network was compared with another in silico derived novel, convergent gene network which is shared by seven major neurological disorders (Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Multiple Sclerosis, Age Macular Degeneration, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, Vascular Dementia, and Restless Leg Syndrome. These networks differed in their gene circuits; however, in large, they involved innate immunity signaling pathways, which suggests commonalities in the immunological basis of different neuropathogenesis. The common gene circuits reported here can provide a prospective platform to understand how gene-circuits belonging to other neuro-disorders may be convoluted during real-time neuroAIDS condition and it may elucidate the underlying-and so far unknown-genetic overlap between HIV infection and neuroAIDS risk. Also, it may lead to a new paradigm in understanding disease progression, identifying biomarkers, and developing therapies.
Fournier, Marcia V.; Martin, Katherine J.; Kenny, Paraic A.; Xhaja, Kris; Bosch, Irene; Yaswen, Paul; Bissell, Mina J.
To understand how non-malignant human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) transit from a disorganized proliferating to an organized growth arrested state, and to relate this process to the changes that occur in breast cancer, we studied gene expression changes in non-malignant HMEC grown in three-dimensional cultures, and in a previously published panel of microarray data for 295 breast cancer samples. We hypothesized that the gene expression pattern of organized and growth arrested mammary acini would share similarities with breast tumors with good prognoses. Using Affymetrix HG-U133A microarrays, we analyzed the expression of 22,283 gene transcripts in two HMEC cell lines, 184 (finite life span) and HMT3522 S1 (immortal non-malignant), on successive days post-seeding in a laminin-rich extracellular matrix assay. Both HMECs underwent growth arrest in G0/G1 and differentiated into polarized acini between days 5 and 7. We identified gene expression changes with the same temporal pattern in both lines. We show that genes that are significantly lower in the organized, growth arrested HMEC than in their proliferating counterparts can be used to classify breast cancer patients into poor and good prognosis groups with high accuracy. This study represents a novel unsupervised approach to identifying breast cancer markers that may be of use clinically.
Akhtar Rasool Asif
Full Text Available Objective Identification of the candidate genes that play key roles in phenotypic variations can provide new information about evolution and positive selection. Interleukin (IL-32 is involved in many biological processes, however, its role for the immune response against various diseases in mammals is poorly understood. Therefore, the current investigation was performed for the better understanding of the molecular evolution and the positive selection of single nucleotide polymorphisms in IL-32 gene. Methods By using fixation index (FST based method, IL-32 (9375 gene was found to be outlier and under significant positive selection with the provisional combined allocation of mean heterozygosity and FST. Using nucleotide sequences of 11 mammalian species from National Center for Biotechnology Information database, the evolutionary selection of IL-32 gene was determined using Maximum likelihood model method, through four models (M1a, M2a, M7, and M8 in Codeml program of phylogenetic analysis by maximum liklihood. Results IL-32 is detected under positive selection using the FST simulations method. The phylogenetic tree revealed that goat IL-32 was in close resemblance with sheep IL-32. The coding nucleotide sequences were compared among 11 species and it was found that the goat IL-32 gene shared identity with sheep (96.54%, bison (91.97%, camel (58.39%, cat (56.59%, buffalo (56.50%, human (56.13%, dog (50.97%, horse (54.04%, and rabbit (53.41% respectively. Conclusion This study provides evidence for IL-32 gene as under significant positive selection in goat.
Bautista, Ma Anita M; Bhandary, Binny; Wijeratne, Asela J; Michel, Andrew P; Hoy, Casey W; Mittapalli, Omprakash
Detoxification genes have been associated with insecticide adaptation in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella. The link between chemosensation genes and adaptation, however, remains unexplored. To gain a better understanding of the involvement of these genes in insecticide adaptation, the authors exposed lines of P. xylostella to either high uniform (HU) or low heterogeneous (LH) concentrations of permethrin, expecting primarily physiological or behavioral selection respectively. Initially, 454 pyrosequencing was applied, followed by an examination of expression profiles of candidate genes that responded to selection [cytochrome P450 (CYP), glutathione S-transferase (GST), carboxylesterase (CarE), chemosensory protein (CSP) and odorant-binding protein (OBP)] by quantitative PCR in the larvae. Toxicity and behavioral assays were also conducted to document the effects of the two forms of exposure. Pyrosequencing of the P. xylostella transcriptome from adult heads and third instars produced 198,753 reads with 52,752,486 bases. Quantitative PCR revealed overexpression of CYP4M14, CYP305B1 and CSP8 in HU larvae. OBP13, however, was highest in LH. Larvae from LH and HU lines had up to five- and 752-fold resistance levels respectively, which could be due to overexpression of P450s. However, the behavioral responses of all lines to a series of permethrin concentrations did not vary significantly in any of the generations examined, in spite of the observed upregulation of CSP8 and OBP13. Expression patterns from the target genes provide insights into behavioral and physiological responses to permethrin and suggest a new avenue of research on the role of chemosensation genes in insect adaptation to toxins. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.
Blakely, Collin M; Stoddard, Alexander J; Belka, George K; Dugan, Katherine D; Notarfrancesco, Kathleen L; Moody, Susan E; D'Cruz, Celina M; Chodosh, Lewis A
Women who have their first child early in life have a substantially lower lifetime risk of breast cancer. The mechanism for this is unknown. Similar to humans, rats exhibit parity-induced protection against mammary tumorigenesis. To explore the basis for this phenomenon, we identified persistent pregnancy-induced changes in mammary gene expression that are tightly associated with protection against tumorigenesis in multiple inbred rat strains. Four inbred rat strains that exhibit marked differences in their intrinsic susceptibilities to carcinogen-induced mammary tumorigenesis were each shown to display significant protection against methylnitrosourea-induced mammary tumorigenesis following treatment with pregnancy levels of estradiol and progesterone. Microarray expression profiling of parous and nulliparous mammary tissue from these four strains yielded a common 70-gene signature. Examination of the genes constituting this signature implicated alterations in transforming growth factor-beta signaling, the extracellular matrix, amphiregulin expression, and the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor I axis in pregnancy-induced alterations in breast cancer risk. Notably, related molecular changes have been associated with decreased mammographic density, which itself is strongly associated with decreased breast cancer risk. Our findings show that hormone-induced protection against mammary tumorigenesis is widely conserved among divergent rat strains and define a gene expression signature that is tightly correlated with reduced mammary tumor susceptibility as a consequence of a normal developmental event. Given the conservation of this signature, these pathways may contribute to pregnancy-induced protection against breast cancer.
Andersen, Lars Dyrskjøt; Reinert, Thomas; Novoradovsky, A
. Methods: We measured the intra-patient variation of an 88-gene progression signature using 39 metachronous tumours from 17 patients. For delineation of the optimal quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR panel of markers, we used 115 tumour samples from patients in Denmark, Sweden, UK and Spain. Results...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Marine fishes have been shown to display low levels of genetic structuring and associated high levels of gene flow, suggesting shallow evolutionary trajectories and, possibly, limited or lacking adaptive divergence among local populations. We investigated variation in 98 gene-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs for evidence of selection in local populations of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L. across the species distribution. Results Our global genome scan analysis identified eight outlier gene loci with very high statistical support, likely to be subject to directional selection in local demes, or closely linked to loci under selection. Likewise, on a regional south/north transect of central and eastern Atlantic populations, seven loci displayed strongly elevated levels of genetic differentiation. Selection patterns among populations appeared to be relatively widespread and complex, i.e. outlier loci were generally not only associated with one of a few divergent local populations. Even on a limited geographical scale between the proximate North Sea and Baltic Sea populations four loci displayed evidence of adaptive evolution. Temporal genome scan analysis applied to DNA from archived otoliths from a Faeroese population demonstrated stability of the intra-population variation over 24 years. An exploratory landscape genetic analysis was used to elucidate potential effects of the most likely environmental factors responsible for the signatures of local adaptation. We found that genetic variation at several of the outlier loci was better correlated with temperature and/or salinity conditions at spawning grounds at spawning time than with geographic distance per se. Conclusion These findings illustrate that adaptive population divergence may indeed be prevalent despite seemingly high levels of gene flow, as found in most marine fishes. Thus, results have important implications for our understanding of the interplay of
Zang, Hongyan; Li, Ning; Pan, Yuling; Hao, Jingguang
Breast cancer is a common malignancy among women with a rising incidence. Our intention was to detect transcription factors (TFs) for deeper understanding of the underlying mechanisms of breast cancer. Integrated analysis of gene expression datasets of breast cancer was performed. Then, functional annotation of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) was conducted, including Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment. Furthermore, TFs were identified and a global transcriptional regulatory network was constructed. Seven publically available GEO datasets were obtained, and a set of 1196 DEGs were identified (460 up-regulated and 736 down-regulated). Functional annotation results showed that cell cycle was the most significantly enriched pathway, which was consistent with the fact that cell cycle is closely related to various tumors. Fifty-three differentially expressed TFs were identified, and the regulatory networks consisted of 817 TF-target interactions between 46 TFs and 602 DEGs in the context of breast cancer. Top 10 TFs covering the most downstream DEGs were SOX10, NFATC2, ZNF354C, ARID3A, BRCA1, FOXO3, GATA3, ZEB1, HOXA5 and EGR1. The transcriptional regulatory networks could enable a better understanding of regulatory mechanisms of breast cancer pathology and provide an opportunity for the development of potential therapy.
Li, Qiyuan; Eklund, Aron Charles; Birkbak, Nicolai Juul
with clinical outcome. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Firstly, ER status was discriminated by fitting the bimodal expression of ESR1 to a mixed Gaussian model. The discriminative power of ESR1 suggested bimodal expression as an efficient way to stratify breast cancer; therefore we identified a set of genes...
Huan, T. (Tianxiao); R. Joehanes (Roby); C. Schurmann (Claudia); K. Schramm (Katharina); L.C. Pilling (Luke); M.J. Peters (Marjolein); R. Mägi (Reedik); D.L. Demeo (Dawn L.); G.T. O'Connor (George); L. Ferrucci (Luigi); A. Teumer (Alexander); G. Homuth (Georg); R. Biffar (Reiner); U. Völker (Uwe); C. Herder (Christian); M. Waldenberger (Melanie); A. Peters (Annette); S. Zeilinger (Sonja); A. Metspalu (Andres); A. Hofman (Albert); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); D.G. Hernandez (Dena); A. Singleton (Andrew); S. Bandinelli (Stefania); P.J. Munson (Peter); H. Lin (Honghuang); E.J. Benjamin (Emelia); T. Esko (Tõnu); H.J. Grabe (Hans Jörgen); H. Prokisch (Holger); J.B.J. van Meurs (Joyce); D. Melzer (David); D. Levy (Daniel)
textabstractCigarette smoking is a leading modifiable cause of death worldwide. We hypothesized that cigarette smoking induces extensive transcriptomic changes that lead to target-organ damage and smoking-related diseases. We performed a metaanalysis of transcriptome-wide gene expression using whole
Full Text Available Neurodevelopmental disruptions caused by obstetric complications play a role in the etiology of several phenotypes associated with neuropsychiatric diseases and cognitive dysfunctions. Importantly, it has been noticed that epigenetic processes occurring early in life may mediate these associations. Here, DNA methylation signatures at IGF2 (insulin-like growth factor 2 and IGF2BP1-3 (IGF2-binding proteins 1-3 were examined in a sample consisting of 34 adult monozygotic (MZ twins informative for obstetric complications and cognitive performance. Multivariate linear regression analysis of twin data was implemented to test for associations between methylation levels and both birth weight (BW and adult working memory (WM performance. Familial and unique environmental factors underlying these potential relationships were evaluated. A link was detected between DNA methylation levels of two CpG sites in the IGF2BP1 gene and both BW and adult WM performance. The BW-IGF2BP1 methylation association seemed due to non-shared environmental factors influencing BW, whereas the WM-IGF2BP1 methylation relationship seemed mediated by both genes and environment. Our data is in agreement with previous evidence indicating that DNA methylation status may be related to prenatal stress and later neurocognitive phenotypes. While former reports independently detected associations between DNA methylation and either BW or WM, current results suggest that these relationships are not confounded by each other.
Johnsen, Hans Erik; Bergkvist, Kim Steve; Schmitz, Alexander; Kjeldsen, Malene Krag; Hansen, Steen Møller; Gaihede, Michael; Nørgaard, Martin Agge; Bæch, John; Grønholdt, Marie-Louise; Jensen, Frank Svendsen; Johansen, Preben; Bødker, Julie Støve; Bøgsted, Martin; Dybkær, Karen
Recent findings have suggested biological classification of B-cell malignancies as exemplified by the "activated B-cell-like" (ABC), the "germinal-center B-cell-like" (GCB) and primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma (PMBL) subtypes of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and "recurrent translocation and cyclin D" (TC) classification of multiple myeloma. Biological classification of B-cell derived cancers may be refined by a direct and systematic strategy where identification and characterization of normal B-cell differentiation subsets are used to define the cancer cell of origin phenotype. Here we propose a strategy combining multiparametric flow cytometry, global gene expression profiling and biostatistical modeling to generate B-cell subset specific gene signatures from sorted normal human immature, naive, germinal centrocytes and centroblasts, post-germinal memory B-cells, plasmablasts and plasma cells from available lymphoid tissues including lymph nodes, tonsils, thymus, peripheral blood and bone marrow. This strategy will provide an accurate image of the stage of differentiation, which prospectively can be used to classify any B-cell malignancy and eventually purify tumor cells. This report briefly describes the current models of the normal B-cell subset differentiation in multiple tissues and the pathogenesis of malignancies originating from the normal germinal B-cell hierarchy.
Thomas, Asha; Mahantshetty, Umesh; Kannan, Sadhana; Deodhar, Kedar; Shrivastava, Shyam K; Kumar-Sinha, Chandan; Mulherkar, Rita
Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer among women worldwide, with developing countries accounting for >80% of the disease burden. Although in the West, active screening has been instrumental in reducing the incidence of cervical cancer, disease management is hampered due to lack of biomarkers for disease progression and defined therapeutic targets. Here we carried out gene expression profiling of 29 cervical cancer tissues from Indian women, spanning International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stages of the disease from early lesion (IA and IIA) to progressive stages (IIB and IIIA–B), and identified distinct gene expression signatures. Overall, metabolic pathways, pathways in cancer and signaling pathways were found to be significantly upregulated, while focal adhesion, cytokine–cytokine receptor interaction and WNT signaling were downregulated. Additionally, we identified candidate biomarkers of disease progression such as SPP1, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), STK17A, and DUSP1 among others that were validated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) in the samples used for microarray studies as well in an independent set of 34 additional samples. Integrative analysis of our results with other cervical cancer profiling studies could facilitate the development of multiplex diagnostic markers of cervical cancer progression
Zahoor, Muhammad Atif; Woods, Matthew William; Dizzell, Sara; Nazli, Aisha; Mueller, Kristen M; Nguyen, Philip V; Verschoor, Chris P; Kaushic, Charu
Genital epithelial cells (GECs) line the mucosal surface of the female genital tract (FGT) and are the first cells that interface with both commensal microbiota and sexually transmitted pathogens. Despite the protective barrier formed by GECs, the FGT is a major site of HIV-1 infection. This highlights the importance of studying the interaction of HIV-1 and GECs. Using microarray analysis, we characterized the transcriptional profile of primary endometrial GECs grown in the presence or absence of physiological levels of E2 (10 -9 mol/L) or P4 (10 -7 mol/L) following acute exposure to HIV-1 for 6 hours. Acute exposure of primary endometrial GECs to HIV-1 resulted in the expression of genes related to inflammation, plasminogen activation, adhesion and diapedesis and interferon response. Interestingly, exposure to HIV-1 in the presence of E2 and P4 resulted in differential transcriptional profiles, suggesting that the response of primary endometrial GECs to HIV-1 exposure is modulated by female sex hormones. The gene expression signature of endometrial GECs indicates that the response of these cells may be key to determining host susceptibility to HIV-1 and that sex hormones modulate these interactions. This study allows us to explore possible mechanisms that explain the hormone-mediated fluctuation of HIV-1 susceptibility in women. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Martin, David A; Marona-Lewicka, Danuta; Nichols, David E; Nichols, Charles D
Chronic administration of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) every other day to rats results in a variety of abnormal behaviors. These build over the 90 day course of treatment and can persist at full strength for at least several months after cessation of treatment. The behaviors are consistent with those observed in animal models of schizophrenia and include hyperactivity, reduced sucrose-preference, and decreased social interaction. In order to elucidate molecular changes that underlie these aberrant behaviors, we chronically treated rats with LSD and performed RNA-sequencing on the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), an area highly associated with both the actions of LSD and the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and other psychiatric illnesses. We observed widespread changes in the neurogenetic state of treated animals four weeks after cessation of LSD treatment. QPCR was used to validate a subset of gene expression changes observed with RNA-Seq, and confirmed a significant correlation between the two methods. Functional clustering analysis indicates differentially expressed genes are enriched in pathways involving neurotransmission (Drd2, Gabrb1), synaptic plasticity (Nr2a, Krox20), energy metabolism (Atp5d, Ndufa1) and neuropeptide signaling (Npy, Bdnf), among others. Many processes identified as altered by chronic LSD are also implicated in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia, and genes affected by LSD are enriched with putative schizophrenia genes. Our results provide a relatively comprehensive analysis of mPFC transcriptional regulation in response to chronic LSD, and indicate that the long-term effects of LSD may bear relevance to psychiatric illnesses, including schizophrenia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dr. Tamaro Hudson is currently an Assistant Professor at Howard University in the Department of Pharmacology and holds an appointment as a Health Research Specialist at the Washington VA Medical Center. Dr. Hudson received his Bachelor of Science from Iowa State University in Biology in 1994 and went on to receive a Master of Science in Preventive Medicine from Ohio State University in 2007. Afterwards, he received a Ph.D. from Ohio State University in 2002 where he focused on evaluating the functional differences among isothiocyanates in the rat esophageal tumor model. Following his Ph.D., Dr. Hudson was selected to complete a prestigious Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program at the National Institute of Health, National Cancer Institute, where he focused on utilizing in vitro and in vivo cancer models to assess the biological activity of bioactive compounds on prostate cancer molecular pathways. Concurrently, he completed a Master of Public Health degree from George Washington University in 2003 where he focused on assessing the degree of agreement between a food frequency questionnaire and a 4-day food record as it related to dietary fiber intake. Upon completion of his MPH and Fellowship, he was recruited by Howard University Cancer Center in 2007 as an Assistant Professor. Since joining the Howard faculty, Dr. Hudson has integrated his research focus by identifying novel signature biomarkers – that could have a significant impact on both the diagnosis and targeted treatment of prostate cancer – with the evaluation of new chemopreventive strategies, which have been evaluated in Phase I and Phase II clinical trials. Dr. Hudson received the first five-year VA-HBCU Research, Scientist, and Training grant that focuses on developing a biomarker-based risk prediction model for prostate cancer. Dr. Hudson serves on several Howard University committees and has many peer-reviewed publications. Dr. Hudson's research interests continue to expand as he tries to build
Full Text Available Abstract Background The vasopressin receptor type 1b (AVPR1B is mainly expressed by pituitary corticotropes and it mediates the stimulatory effects of AVP on ACTH release; common AVPR1B haplotypes have been involved in mood and anxiety disorders in humans, while rodents lacking a functional receptor gene display behavioral defects and altered stress responses. Results Here we have analyzed the two exons of the gene and the data we present suggest that AVPR1B has been subjected to natural selection in humans. In particular, analysis of exon 2 strongly suggests the action of balancing selection in African populations and Europeans: the region displays high nucleotide diversity, an excess of intermediate-frequency alleles, a higher level of within-species diversity compared to interspecific divergence and a genealogy with common haplotypes separated by deep branches. This relatively unambiguous situation coexists with unusual features across exon 1, raising the possibility that a nonsynonymous variant (Gly191Arg in this region has been subjected to directional selection. Conclusion Although the underlying selective pressure(s remains to be identified, we consider this to be among the first documented examples of a gene involved in mood disorders and subjected to natural selection in humans; this observation might add support to the long-debated idea that depression/low mood might have played an adaptive role during human evolution.
Full Text Available Coat color in dog breeds is an excellent character for revealing the power of artificial selection, as it is extremely diverse and likely the result of recent domestication. Coat color is generated by melanocytes, which synthesize pheomelanin (a red or yellow pigment or eumelanin (a black or brown pigment through the pigment type-switching pathway, and is regulated by three genes in dogs: MC1R (melanocortin receptor 1, CBD103 (β-defensin 103, and ASIP (agouti-signaling protein precursor. The genotypes of these three gene loci in dog breeds are associated with coat color pattern. Here, we resequenced these three gene loci in two Kunming dog populations and analyzed these sequences using population genetic approaches to identify evolutionary patterns that have occurred at these loci during the recent domestication and breeding of the Kunming dog. The analysis showed that MC1R undergoes balancing selection in both Kunming dog populations, and that the Fst value for MC1R indicates significant genetic differentiation across the two populations. In contrast, similar results were not observed for CBD103 or ASIP. These results suggest that high heterozygosity and allelic differences at the MC1R locus may explain both the mixed color coat, of yellow and black, and the difference in coat colors in both Kunming dog populations.
Cagliani, Rachele; Fumagalli, Matteo; Pozzoli, Uberto; Riva, Stefania; Cereda, Matteo; Comi, Giacomo P; Pattini, Linda; Bresolin, Nereo; Sironi, Manuela
The vasopressin receptor type 1b (AVPR1B) is mainly expressed by pituitary corticotropes and it mediates the stimulatory effects of AVP on ACTH release; common AVPR1B haplotypes have been involved in mood and anxiety disorders in humans, while rodents lacking a functional receptor gene display behavioral defects and altered stress responses. Here we have analyzed the two exons of the gene and the data we present suggest that AVPR1B has been subjected to natural selection in humans. In particular, analysis of exon 2 strongly suggests the action of balancing selection in African populations and Europeans: the region displays high nucleotide diversity, an excess of intermediate-frequency alleles, a higher level of within-species diversity compared to interspecific divergence and a genealogy with common haplotypes separated by deep branches. This relatively unambiguous situation coexists with unusual features across exon 1, raising the possibility that a nonsynonymous variant (Gly191Arg) in this region has been subjected to directional selection. Although the underlying selective pressure(s) remains to be identified, we consider this to be among the first documented examples of a gene involved in mood disorders and subjected to natural selection in humans; this observation might add support to the long-debated idea that depression/low mood might have played an adaptive role during human evolution.
Ghosh, Soma; Sur, Surojit; Yerram, Sashidhar R; Rago, Carlo; Bhunia, Anil K; Hossain, M Zulfiquer; Paun, Bogdan C; Ren, Yunzhao R; Iacobuzio-Donahue, Christine A; Azad, Nilofer A; Kern, Scott E
Large-magnitude numerical distinctions (>10-fold) among drug responses of genetically contrasting cancers were crucial for guiding the development of some targeted therapies. Similar strategies brought epidemiological clues and prevention goals for genetic diseases. Such numerical guides, however, were incomplete or low magnitude for Fanconi anemia pathway (FANC) gene mutations relevant to cancer in FANC-mutation carriers (heterozygotes). We generated a four-gene FANC-null cancer panel, including the engineering of new PALB2/FANCN-null cancer cells by homologous recombination. A characteristic matching of FANCC-null, FANCG-null, BRCA2/FANCD1-null, and PALB2/FANCN-null phenotypes was confirmed by uniform tumor regression on single-dose cross-linker therapy in mice and by shared chemical hypersensitivities to various inter-strand cross-linking agents and γ-radiation in vitro. Some compounds, however, had contrasting magnitudes of sensitivity; a strikingly high (19- to 22-fold) hypersensitivity was seen among PALB2-null and BRCA2-null cells for the ethanol metabolite, acetaldehyde, associated with widespread chromosomal breakage at a concentration not producing breaks in parental cells. Because FANC-defective cancer cells can share or differ in their chemical sensitivities, patterns of selective hypersensitivity hold implications for the evolutionary understanding of this pathway. Clinical decisions for cancer-relevant prevention and management of FANC-mutation carriers could be modified by expanded studies of high-magnitude sensitivities. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ikeda, Keigo; Hayakawa, Kunihiro; Fujishiro, Maki; Kawasaki, Mikiko; Hirai, Takuya; Tsushima, Hiroshi; Miyashita, Tomoko; Suzuki, Satoshi; Morimoto, Shinji; Tamura, Naoto; Takamori, Kenji; Ogawa, Hideoki; Sekigawa, Iwao
We previously reported that JAK-STAT-pathway mediated regulation of IFN-regulatory factor genes could play an important role in SLE pathogenesis. Here, we evaluated the efficacy of the JAK inhibitor tofacitinib (TOFA) for controlling IFN signalling via the JAK-STAT pathway and as a therapeutic for SLE. We treated NZB/NZW F1 mice with TOFA and assessed alterations in their disease, pathological, and immunological conditions. Gene-expression results obtained from CD4 + T cells (SLE mice) and CD3 + T cells (human SLE patients) were measured by DNA microarray and qRT-PCR. TOFA treatment resulted in reduced levels of anti-dsDNA antibodies, decreased proteinuria, and amelioration of nephritis as compared with those observed in control animals. Moreover, we observed the rebalance in the populations of naïve CD4 + T cells and effector/memory cells in TOFA-treated mice; however, treatment with a combination of TOFA and dexamethasone (DEXA) elicited a stronger inhibitory effect toward the effector/memory cells than did TOFA or DEXA monotherapy. We also detected decreased expression of several IFN-signature genes Ifit3 and Isg15 in CD4 + from SLE-prone mice following TOFA and DEXA treatment, and IFIT3 in CD3 + T cells from human patients following immunosuppressant therapy including steroid, respectively. Modulation of type I IFN signalling via JAK-STAT inhibition may exert a beneficial effect in SLE patients, and our results suggest that TOFA could be utilised for the development of new SLE-specific therapeutic strategies.
Full Text Available Background The decidua has been implicated in the “terminal pathway” of human term parturition, which is characterized by the activation of pro-inflammatory pathways in gestational tissues. However, the transcriptomic changes in the decidua leading to terminal pathway activation have not been systematically explored. This study aimed to compare the decidual expression of developmental signaling and inflammation-related genes before and after spontaneous term labor in order to reveal their involvement in this process. Methods Chorioamniotic membranes were obtained from normal pregnant women who delivered at term with spontaneous labor (TIL, n = 14 or without labor (TNL, n = 15. Decidual cells were isolated from snap-frozen chorioamniotic membranes with laser microdissection. The expression of 46 genes involved in decidual development, sex steroid and prostaglandin signaling, as well as pro- and anti-inflammatory pathways, was analyzed using high-throughput quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR. Chorioamniotic membrane sections were immunostained and then semi-quantified for five proteins, and immunoassays for three chemokines were performed on maternal plasma samples. Results The genes with the highest expression in the decidua at term gestation included insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 1 (IGFBP1, galectin-1 (LGALS1, and progestogen-associated endometrial protein (PAEP; the expression of estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1, homeobox A11 (HOXA11, interleukin 1β (IL1B, IL8, progesterone receptor membrane component 2 (PGRMC2, and prostaglandin E synthase (PTGES was higher in TIL than in TNL cases; the expression of chemokine C-C motif ligand 2 (CCL2, CCL5, LGALS1, LGALS3, and PAEP was lower in TIL than in TNL cases; immunostaining confirmed qRT-PCR data for IL-8, CCL2, galectin-1, galectin-3, and PAEP; and no correlations between the decidual gene expression and the maternal plasma protein concentrations of CCL2, CCL5, and
Hurtado, A M; Chen-Liang, T-H; Przychodzen, B; Hamedi, C; Muñoz-Ballester, J; Dienes, B; García-Malo, M D; Antón, A I; Arriba, F de; Teruel-Montoya, R; Ortuño, F J; Vicente, V; Maciejewski, J P; Jerez, A
An increasing numbers of patients are being diagnosed with asymptomatic early-stage chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), with no treatment indication at baseline. We applied a high-throughput deep-targeted analysis, especially designed for covering widely TP53 and ATM genes, in 180 patients with inactive disease at diagnosis, to test the independent prognostic value of CLL somatic recurrent mutations. We found that 40/180 patients harbored at least one acquired variant with ATM (n=17, 9.4%), NOTCH1 (n=14, 7.7%), TP53 (n=14, 7.7%) and SF3B1 (n=10, 5.5%) as most prevalent mutated genes. Harboring one ‘sub-Sanger' TP53 mutation granted an independent 3.5-fold increase of probability of needing treatment. Those patients with a double-hit ATM lesion (mutation+11q deletion) had the shorter median time to first treatment (17 months). We found that a genomic variable: TP53 mutations, most of them under the sensitivity of conventional techniques; a cell phenotypic factor: CD38-positive expression; and a classical marker as β2-microglobulin, remained as the unique independent predictors of outcome. The high-throughput determination of TP53 status, particularly in this set of patients frequently lacking high-risk chromosomal aberrations, emerges as a key step, not only for prediction modeling, but also for exploring mutation-specific therapeutic approaches and minimal residual disease monitoring
Fekete, Erzsébet; Orosz, Anita; Kulcsár, László; Kavalecz, Napsugár; Flipphi, Michel; Karaffa, Levente
In Aspergillus nidulans, uptake rather than hydrolysis is the rate-limiting step of lactose catabolism. Deletion of the lactose permease A-encoding gene (lacpA) reduces the growth rate on lactose, while its overexpression enables faster growth than wild-type strains are capable of. We have identified a second physiologically relevant lactose transporter, LacpB. Glycerol-grown mycelia from mutants deleted for lacpB appear to take up only minute amounts of lactose during the first 60 h after a medium transfer, while mycelia of double lacpA/lacpB-deletant strains are unable to produce new biomass from lactose. Although transcription of both lacp genes was strongly induced by lactose, their inducer profiles differ markedly. lacpA but not lacpB expression was high in d-galactose cultures. However, lacpB responded strongly also to β-linked glucopyranose dimers cellobiose and sophorose, while these inducers of the cellulolytic system did not provoke any lacpA response. Nevertheless, lacpB transcript was induced to higher levels on cellobiose in strains that lack the lacpA gene than in a wild-type background. Indeed, cellobiose uptake was faster and biomass formation accelerated in lacpA deletants. In contrast, in lacpB knockout strains, growth rate and cellobiose uptake were considerably reduced relative to wild-type, indicating that the cellulose and lactose catabolic systems employ common elements. Nevertheless, our permease mutants still grew on cellobiose, which suggests that its uptake in A. nidulans prominently involves hitherto unknown transport systems.
Retèl, Valesca P; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Jolien M; Hummel, Marjan J M; van de Vijver, Marc J; Douma, Kirsten F L; Karsenberg, Kim; van Dam, Frits S A M; van Krimpen, Cees; Bellot, Frank E; Roumen, Rudi M H; Linn, Sabine C; van Harten, Wim H
Constructive Technology Assessment (CTA) is a means to guide early implementation of new developments in society, and can be used as an evaluation tool for Coverage with Evidence Development (CED). We used CTA for the introduction of a new diagnostic test in the Netherlands, the 70-gene prognosis signature (MammaPrint) for node-negative breast cancer patients. Studied aspects were (organizational) efficiency, patient-centeredness and diffusion scenarios. Pre-post structured surveys were conducted in fifteen community hospitals concerning changes in logistics and teamwork as a consequence of the introduction of the 70-gene signature. Patient-centeredness was measured by questionnaires and interviews regarding knowledge and psychological impact of the test. Diffusion scenarios, which are commonly applied in industry to anticipate on future development and diffusion of their products, have been applied in this study. Median implementation-time of the 70-gene signature was 1.2 months. Most changes were seen in pathology processes and adjuvant treatment decisions. Physicians valued the addition of the 70-gene signature information as beneficial for patient management. Patient-centeredness (n = 77, response 78 percent): patients receiving a concordant high-risk and discordant clinical low/high risk-signature showed significantly more negative emotions with respect to receiving both test-results compared with concordant low-risk and discordant clinical high/low risk-signature patients. The first scenario was written in 2004 before the introduction of the 70-gene signature and identified hypothetical developments that could influence diffusion; especially the "what-if" deviation describing a discussion on validity among physicians proved to be realistic. Differences in speed of implementation and influenced treatment decisions were seen. Impact on patients seems especially related to discordance and its successive communication. In the future, scenario drafting will lead
Full Text Available Yifeng Sun,1,* Likun Hou,2,* Yu Yang,1 Huikang Xie,2 Yang Yang,1 Zhigang Li,1 Heng Zhao,1 Wen Gao,3 Bo Su4 1Department of Thoracic Surgery, Shanghai Chest Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University, 2Department of Pathology, Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, 3Department of Thoracic Surgery, Shanghai Huadong Hospital, Fudan University School of Medicine, Shanghai, 4Central Lab, Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: In this study, we investigated the contribution of a gene expression–based signature (composed of BAG1, BRCA1, CDC6, CDK2AP1, ERBB3, FUT3, IL11, LCK, RND3, SH3BGR to survival prediction for early-stage lung adenocarcinoma categorized by the new International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC/the American Thoracic Society (ATS/the European Respiratory Society (ERS classification. We also aimed to verify whether gene signature improves the risk discrimination of IASLC/ATS/ERS classification in early-stage lung adenocarcinoma. Patients and methods: Total RNA was extracted from 93 patients with pathologically confirmed TNM stage Ia and Ib lung adenocarcinoma. The mRNA expression levels of ten genes in the signature (BAG1, BRCA1, CDC6, CDK2AP1, ERBB3, FUT3, IL11, LCK, RND3, and SH3BGR were detected using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Each patient was categorized according to the new IASLC/ATS/ERS classification by accessing hematoxylin–eosin-stained slides. The corresponding Kaplan–Meier survival analysis by the log-rank statistic, multivariate Cox proportional hazards modeling, and c-index calculation were conducted using the programming language R (Version 2.15.1 with the “risksetROC” package. Results: The multivariate analysis demonstrated that the risk factor of the ten-gene expression signature can significantly improve the discriminatory
Moon Young Lee
Full Text Available Transcriptome-scale data can reveal essential clues into understanding the underlying molecular mechanisms behind specific cellular functions and biological processes. Transcriptomics is a continually growing field of research utilized in biomarker discovery. The transcriptomic profile of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC, which serve as slow-wave electrical pacemakers for gastrointestinal (GI smooth muscle, has yet to be uncovered. Using copGFP-labeled ICC mice and flow cytometry, we isolated ICC populations from the murine small intestine and colon and obtained their transcriptomes. In analyzing the transcriptome, we identified a unique set of ICC-restricted markers including transcription factors, epigenetic enzymes/regulators, growth factors, receptors, protein kinases/phosphatases, and ion channels/transporters. This analysis provides new and unique insights into the cellular and biological functions of ICC in GI physiology. Additionally, we constructed an interactive ICC genome browser (http://med.unr.edu/physio/transcriptome based on the UCSC genome database. To our knowledge, this is the first online resource that provides a comprehensive library of all known genetic transcripts expressed in primary ICC. Our genome browser offers a new perspective into the alternative expression of genes in ICC and provides a valuable reference for future functional studies.
Ackermann, Amanda M; Wang, Zhiping; Schug, Jonathan; Naji, Ali; Kaestner, Klaus H
human α- and β-cells based on chromatin accessibility and transcript levels, which allowed for detection of novel α- and β-cell signature genes not previously known to be expressed in islets. Using fine-mapping of open chromatin, we have identified thousands of potential cis-regulatory elements that operate in an endocrine cell type-specific fashion.
Dutta, Rajib; Saha-Mandal, Arnab; Cheng, Xi; Qiu, Shuhao; Serpen, Jasmine; Fedorova, Larisa; Fedorov, Alexei
GC-Biased Gene Conversion (gBGC) is one of the important theories put forward to explain profound long-range non-randomness in nucleotide compositions along mammalian chromosomes. Nucleotide changes due to gBGC are hard to distinguish from regular mutations. Here, we present an algorithm for analysis of millions of known SNPs that detects a subset of so-called "SNP flip-over" events representing recent gBGC nucleotide changes, which occurred in previous generations via non-crossover meiotic recombination. This algorithm has been applied in a large-scale analysis of 1092 sequenced human genomes. Altogether, 56,328 regions on all autosomes have been examined, which revealed 223,955 putative gBGC cases leading to SNP flip-overs. We detected a strong bias (11.7% ± 0.2% excess) in AT- > GC over GC- > AT base pair changes within the entire set of putative gBGC cases. On average, a human gamete acquires 7 SNP flip-over events, in which one allele is replaced by its complementary allele during the process of meiotic non-crossover recombination. In each meiosis event, on average, gBGC results in replacement of 7 AT base pairs by GC base pairs, while only 6 GC pairs are replaced by AT pairs. Therefore, every human gamete is enriched by one GC pair. Happening over millions of years of evolution, this bias may be a noticeable force in changing the nucleotide composition landscape along chromosomes.
Full Text Available Seven wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs with different population equivalents and catchment areas were screened for the prevalence of the colistin resistance gene mcr-1 mediating resistance against last resort antibiotic polymyxin E. The abundance of the plasmid-associated mcr-1 gene in total microbial populations during water treatment processes was quantitatively analyzed by qPCR analyses. The presence of the colistin resistance gene was documented for all of the influent wastewater samples of the seven WWTPs. In some cases the mcr-1 resistance gene was also detected in effluent samples of the WWTPs after conventional treatment reaching the aquatic environment. In addition to the occurrence of mcr-1 gene, CTX-M-32, blaTEM, CTX-M, tetM, CMY-2, and ermB genes coding for clinically relevant antibiotic resistances were quantified in higher abundances in all WWTPs effluents. In parallel, the abundances of Acinetobacter baumannii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Escherichia coli were quantified via qPCR using specific taxonomic gene markers which were detected in all influent and effluent wastewaters in significant densities. Hence, opportunistic pathogens and clinically relevant antibiotic resistance genes in wastewaters of the analyzed WWTPs bear a risk of dissemination to the aquatic environment. Since many of the antibiotic resistance gene are associated with mobile genetic elements horizontal gene transfer during wastewater treatment can't be excluded.
Cooper David N
Full Text Available Abstract Although human disease genes generally tend to be evolutionarily more ancient than non-disease genes, complex disease genes appear to be represented more frequently than Mendelian disease genes among genes of more recent evolutionary origin. It is therefore proposed that the analysis of human-specific genes might provide new insights into the genetics of complex disease. Cross-comparison with the Human Gene Mutation Database (http://www.hgmd.org revealed a number of examples of disease-causing and disease-associated mutations in putatively human-specific genes. A sizeable proportion of these were missense polymorphisms associated with complex disease. Since both human-specific genes and genes associated with complex disease have often experienced particularly rapid rates of evolutionary change, either due to weaker purifying selection or positive selection, it is proposed that a significant number of human-specific genes may play a role in complex disease.
, SLPI, TGFβ, GRO-α, MIP-3α and RANTES. Bacterial colonization and direct toxicity assays revealed that rhSP-D did not adversely affect growth of vaginal commensals. Blockade of viral movement within the vaginal epithelium, inhibition of detrimental early gene signature and safety profile of rhSP-D suggests that topical formulation comprising rhSP-D may significantly curb the sexual transmission of HIV-1.
University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center (UTSW): Functional Signature Ontology Tool: Triplicate Measurements of Reporter Gene Expression in Response to Individual Genetic and Chemical Perturbations in HCT116 Cells | Office of Cancer Genomics
The goal of this project is to use an eight-gene expression profile to define functional signatures for small molecules and natural products with heretofore undefined mechanism of action. Two genes in the eight gene set are used as internal controls and do not vary across gene expression array data collected from the public domain. The remaining six genes are found to vary independently across a large collection of publically available gene expression array datasets. Read the abstract
University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center: Functional Signature Ontology Tool: Triplicate Measurements of Reporter Gene Expression in Response to Individual Genetic and Chemical Perturbations in HCT116 Cells | Office of Cancer Genomics
The goal of this project is to use an eight-gene expression profile to define functional signatures for small molecules and natural products with heretofore undefined mechanism of action. Two genes in the eight gene set are used as internal controls and do not vary across gene expression array data collected from the public domain. The remaining six genes are found to vary independently across a large collection of publically available gene expression array datasets. Read the abstract
Nsengimana, Jérémie; Laye, Jon; Filia, Anastasia; Walker, Christy; Jewell, Rosalyn; Van den Oord, Joost J; Wolter, Pascal; Patel, Poulam; Sucker, Antje; Schadendorf, Dirk; Jönsson, Göran B; Bishop, D Timothy; Newton-Bishop, Julia
Development and validation of robust molecular biomarkers has so far been limited in melanoma research. In this paper we used a large population-based cohort to replicate two published gene signatures for melanoma classification. We assessed the signatures prognostic value and explored their biological significance by correlating them with factors known to be associated with survival (vitamin D) or etiological routes (nevi, sun sensitivity and telomere length). Genomewide microarray gene expressions were profiled in 300 archived tumors (224 primaries, 76 secondaries). The two gene signatures classified up to 96% of our samples and showed strong correlation with melanoma specific survival (P=3 x 10(-4)), Breslow thickness (P=5 x 10(-10)), ulceration (P=9.x10-8) and mitotic rate (P=3 x 10(-7)), adding prognostic value over AJCC stage (adjusted hazard ratio 1.79, 95%CI 1.13-2.83), as previously reported. Furthermore, molecular subtypes were associated with season-adjusted serum vitamin D at diagnosis (P=0.04) and genetically predicted telomere length (P=0.03). Specifically, molecular high-grade tumors were more frequent in patients with lower vitamin D levels whereas high immune tumors came from patients with predicted shorter telomeres. Our data confirm the utility of molecular biomarkers in melanoma prognostic estimation using tiny archived specimens and shed light on biological mechanisms likely to impact on cancer initiation and progression.
Noordkamp, H.W.; Brink, M. van den
Signatures are an important part of the design of a ship. In an ideal situation, signatures must be as low as possible. However, due to budget constraints it is most unlikely to reach this ideal situation. The arising question is which levels of signatures are optimal given the different scenarios
Paquette, Stéphane G. [Division of Experimental Therapeutics, Toronto General Hospital Research Institute, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Institute of Medical Science, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Banner, David [Division of Experimental Therapeutics, Toronto General Hospital Research Institute, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Chi, Le Thi Bao [Department of Microbiology, Hue University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Thua Thien Hue (Viet Nam); Carlo Urbani Centre, Hue University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Thua Thien Hue (Viet Nam); Leon, Alberto J. [Division of Experimental Therapeutics, Toronto General Hospital Research Institute, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); International Institute of Infection and Immunity, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, Guangdong (China); Xu, Luoling; Ran, Longsi [Division of Experimental Therapeutics, Toronto General Hospital Research Institute, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Huang, Stephen S.H. [Division of Experimental Therapeutics, Toronto General Hospital Research Institute, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Farooqui, Amber [Division of Experimental Therapeutics, Toronto General Hospital Research Institute, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); International Institute of Infection and Immunity, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, Guangdong (China); and others
Pandemic H1N1 influenza A (H1N1pdm) elicits stronger pulmonary inflammation than previously circulating seasonal H1N1 influenza A (sH1N1), yet mechanisms of inflammatory activation in respiratory epithelial cells during H1N1pdm infection are unclear. We investigated host responses to H1N1pdm/sH1N1 infection and virus entry mechanisms in primary human bronchial epithelial cells in vitro. H1N1pdm infection rapidly initiated a robust inflammatory gene signature (3 h post-infection) not elicited by sH1N1 infection. Protein secretion inhibition had no effect on gene induction. Infection with membrane fusion deficient H1N1pdm failed to induce robust inflammatory gene expression which was rescued with restoration of fusion ability, suggesting H1N1pdm directly triggered the inflammatory signature downstream of membrane fusion. Investigation of intra-virion components revealed H1N1pdm viral RNA (vRNA) triggered a stronger inflammatory phenotype than sH1N1 vRNA. Thus, our study is first to report H1N1pdm induces greater inflammatory gene expression than sH1N1 in vitro due to direct virus–epithelial cell interaction. - Highlights: • We investigated H1N1pdm/sH1N1 infection in primary epithelial cells. • H1N1pdm directly initiated a robust inflammatory gene signature, sH1N1 did not. • H1N1pdm viral RNA triggered a stronger response than sH1N1. • H1N1pdm induces greater response due to direct virus–cell interaction. • These results have potential to impact vaccine and therapeutic development.
Paquette, Stéphane G.; Banner, David; Chi, Le Thi Bao; Leon, Alberto J.; Xu, Luoling; Ran, Longsi; Huang, Stephen S.H.; Farooqui, Amber
Pandemic H1N1 influenza A (H1N1pdm) elicits stronger pulmonary inflammation than previously circulating seasonal H1N1 influenza A (sH1N1), yet mechanisms of inflammatory activation in respiratory epithelial cells during H1N1pdm infection are unclear. We investigated host responses to H1N1pdm/sH1N1 infection and virus entry mechanisms in primary human bronchial epithelial cells in vitro. H1N1pdm infection rapidly initiated a robust inflammatory gene signature (3 h post-infection) not elicited by sH1N1 infection. Protein secretion inhibition had no effect on gene induction. Infection with membrane fusion deficient H1N1pdm failed to induce robust inflammatory gene expression which was rescued with restoration of fusion ability, suggesting H1N1pdm directly triggered the inflammatory signature downstream of membrane fusion. Investigation of intra-virion components revealed H1N1pdm viral RNA (vRNA) triggered a stronger inflammatory phenotype than sH1N1 vRNA. Thus, our study is first to report H1N1pdm induces greater inflammatory gene expression than sH1N1 in vitro due to direct virus–epithelial cell interaction. - Highlights: • We investigated H1N1pdm/sH1N1 infection in primary epithelial cells. • H1N1pdm directly initiated a robust inflammatory gene signature, sH1N1 did not. • H1N1pdm viral RNA triggered a stronger response than sH1N1. • H1N1pdm induces greater response due to direct virus–cell interaction. • These results have potential to impact vaccine and therapeutic development
Anton S. Sulima
Full Text Available During the initial step of the symbiosis between legumes (Fabaceae and nitrogen-fixing bacteria (rhizobia, the bacterial signal molecule known as the Nod factor (nodulation factor is recognized by plant LysM motif-containing receptor-like kinases (LysM-RLKs. The fifth chromosome of barrel medic (Medicago truncatula Gaertn. contains a cluster of paralogous LysM-RLK genes, one of which is known to participate in symbiosis. In the syntenic region of the pea (Pisum sativum L. genome, three genes have been identified: PsK1 and PsSym37, two symbiosis-related LysM-RLK genes with known sequences, and the unsequenced PsSym2 gene which presumably encodes a LysM-RLK and is associated with increased selectivity to certain Nod factors. In this work, we identified a new gene encoding a LysM-RLK, designated as PsLykX, within the Sym2 genomic region. We sequenced the first exons (corresponding to the protein receptor domain of PsSym37, PsK1, and PsLykX from a large set of pea genotypes of diverse origin. The nucleotide diversity of these fragments was estimated and groups of haplotypes for each gene were revealed. Footprints of selection pressure were detected via comparative analyses of SNP distribution across the first exons of these genes and their homologs MtLYK2, MtLYK3, and MtLYK4 from M. truncatula retrieved from the Medicago Hapmap project. Despite the remarkable similarity among all the studied genes, they exhibited contrasting selection signatures, possibly pointing to diversification of their functions. Signatures of balancing selection were found in LysM1-encoding parts of PsSym37 and PsK1, suggesting that the diversity of these parts may be important for pea LysM-RLKs. The first exons of PsSym37 and PsK1 displayed signatures of purifying selection, as well as MtLYK2 of M. truncatula. Evidence of positive selection affecting primarily LysM domains was found in all three investigated M. truncatula genes, as well as in the pea gene PsLykX. The data
Singh, Ripudaman; Kølvrå, Steen; Rattan, Suresh I S
Human longevity is determined to a certain extent by genetic factors. Several candidate genes have been studied for their association with human longevity, but the data collected so far are inconclusive. One of the reasons is the choice of the candidate genes in addition to the choice...... of an appropriate study design and methodology. Since aging is characterized by a progressive accumulation of molecular damage and an attenuation of the cellular defense mechanisms, the focus of studies on human longevity association with genes has now shifted to the pathways of cellular maintenance and repair...... mechanisms. One such pathway includes the battery of stress response genes, especially the heat shock protein HSP70 genes. Three such genes, HSPA1A, HSPA1B and HSPA1L, are present within the MHC-III region on the short arm of chromosome 6. We and others have found alleles, genotypes and haplotypes which have...
Wu, Mengmeng; Lin, Zhixiang; Ma, Shining; Chen, Ting; Jiang, Rui; Wong, Wing Hung
Although genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have successfully identified thousands of genomic loci associated with hundreds of complex traits in the past decade, the debate about such problems as missing heritability and weak interpretability has been appealing for effective computational methods to facilitate the advanced analysis of the vast volume of existing and anticipated genetic data. Towards this goal, gene-level integrative GWAS analysis with the assumption that genes associated with a phenotype tend to be enriched in biological gene sets or gene networks has recently attracted much attention, due to such advantages as straightforward interpretation, less multiple testing burdens, and robustness across studies. However, existing methods in this category usually exploit non-tissue-specific gene networks and thus lack the ability to utilize informative tissue-specific characteristics. To overcome this limitation, we proposed a Bayesian approach called SIGNET (Simultaneously Inference of GeNEs and Tissues) to integrate GWAS data and multiple tissue-specific gene networks for the simultaneous inference of phenotype-associated genes and relevant tissues. Through extensive simulation studies, we showed the effectiveness of our method in finding both associated genes and relevant tissues for a phenotype. In applications to real GWAS data of 14 complex phenotypes, we demonstrated the power of our method in both deciphering genetic basis and discovering biological insights of a phenotype. With this understanding, we expect to see SIGNET as a valuable tool for integrative GWAS analysis, thereby boosting the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of human inherited diseases and eventually facilitating precision medicine.
Bach, Lars Arve; Bentzen, Søren; Alsner, Jan
interpretations of gene therapy. Two prototypical strategies for gene therapy are suggested, both of them leading to extinction of the malignant phenotype: one approach would be to reduce the relative proportion of the cooperating malignant cell type below a certain critical value. Another approach would...
Full Text Available Tea (Camellia sinensis is a popular beverage all over the world and a number of studies have focused on the genetic uniqueness of tea and its cultivars. However, molecular mechanisms underlying these phenomena are largely undefined. In this report, based on expression data available from public databases, we performed a series of analyses to identify genes probably relevant to the uniqueness of C. sinensis and two of its cultivars (LJ43 and ZH2. Evolutionary analyses showed that the evolutionary rates of genes involved in the pathways were not significantly different among C. sinensis, C. oleifera, and C. azalea. Interestingly, a number of gene families, including genes involved in the pathways synthesizing iconic secondary metabolites of tea plant, were significantly upregulated, expressed in C. sinensis (LJ43 when compared to C. azalea, and this may partially explain its higher content of flavonoid, theanine, and caffeine. Further investigation showed that nonsynonymous mutations may partially contribute to the differences between the two cultivars of C. sinensis, such as the chlorina and higher contents of amino acids in ZH2. Genes identified as candidates are probably relevant to the uniqueness of C. sinensis and its cultivars should be good candidates for subsequent functional analyses and marker-assisted breeding.
Chang, Howard Y.; Nuyten, Dimitry S. A.; Sneddon, Julie B.; Hastie, Trevor; Tibshirani, Robert; Sørlie, Therese; Dai, Hongyue; He, Yudong D.; van't Veer, Laura J.; Bartelink, Harry; van de Rijn, Matt; Brown, Patrick O.; van de Vijver, Marc J.
Based on the hypothesis that features of the molecular program of normal wound healing might play an important role in cancer metastasis, we previously identified consistent features in the transcriptional response of normal fibroblasts to serum, and used this "wound-response signature" to reveal
Gingras, Isabelle; Desmedt, Christine; Ignatiadis, Michail; Sotiriou, Christos
Desmedt and colleagues published two articles, one in the June 1, 2007 issue, and the other in the August 15, 2008, issue of Clinical Cancer Research, that showed gene-expression signatures to be proliferation driven and time dependent, with their prognostic power decreasing with increasing follow-up years. Moreover, the articles showed that immune response is a crucial determinant of prognosis in the HER2-positive and estrogen receptor-negative/HER2-negative subtypes, providing a rationale to further explore the role of the antitumor immune response in these breast cancer subtypes. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.
Chen, Chengyu; Wang, Cuicui; Liu, Ying; Shi, Xueyan; Gao, Xiwu
Pesticide tolerance poses many challenges for pest control, particularly for destructive pests such as Bradysia odoriphaga. Imidacloprid has been used to control B. odoriphaga since 2013, however, imidacloprid resistance in B. odoriphaga has developed in recent years. Identifying actual and potential genes involved in detoxification metabolism of imidacloprid could offer solutions for controlling this insect. In this study, RNA-seq was used to explore differentially expressed genes in B. odor...
Li, Kui; Sun, Xiaohui; Chen, Meixiu; Sun, Yingying; Tian, Ran; Wang, Zhengfei; Xu, Shixia; Yang, Guang
The diversity of body plans of mammals accelerates the innovation of lifestyles and the extensive adaptation to different habitats, including terrestrial, aerial and aquatic habitats. However, the genetic basis of those phenotypic modifications, which have occurred during mammalian evolution, remains poorly explored. In the present study, we synthetically surveyed the evolutionary pattern of Hox clusters that played a powerful role in the morphogenesis along the head-tail axis of animal embryos and the main regulatory factors (Mll, Bmi1 and E2f6) that control the expression of Hox genes. A deflected density of repetitive elements and lineage-specific radical mutations of Mll have been determined in marine mammals with morphological changes, suggesting that evolutionary changes may alter Hox gene expression in these lineages, leading to the morphological modification of these lineages. Although no positive selection was detected at certain ancestor nodes of lineages, the increased ω values of Hox genes implied the relaxation of functional constraints of these genes during the mammalian evolutionary process. More importantly, 49 positively-selected sites were identified in mammalian lineages with phenotypic modifications, indicating adaptive evolution acting on Hox genes and regulatory factors. In addition, 3 parallel amino acid substitutions in some Hox genes were examined in marine mammals, which might be responsible for their streamlined body. © 2017 The Authors. Integrative Zoology published by International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
Full Text Available Immune response-related genes play a major role in colorectal carcinogenesis by mediating inflammation or immune-surveillance evasion. Although remarkable progress has been made to investigate the underlying mechanism, the understanding of the complicated carcinogenesis process was enormously hindered by large-scale tumor heterogeneity. Development and carcinogenesis share striking similarities in their cellular behavior and underlying molecular mechanisms. The association between embryonic development and carcinogenesis makes embryonic development a viable reference model for studying cancer thereby circumventing the potentially misleading complexity of tumor heterogeneity. Here we proposed that the immune genes, responsible for intra-immune cooperativity disorientation (defined in this study as disruption of developmental expression correlation patterns during carcinogenesis, probably contain untapped prognostic resource of colorectal cancer. In this study, we determined the mRNA expression profile of 137 human biopsy samples, including samples from different stages of human colonic development, colorectal precancerous progression and colorectal cancer samples, among which 60 were also used to generate miRNA expression profile. We originally established Spearman correlation transition model to quantify the cooperativity disorientation associated with the transition from normal to precancerous to cancer tissue, in conjunction with miRNA-mRNA regulatory network and machine learning algorithm to identify genes with prognostic value. Finally, a 12-gene signature was extracted, whose prognostic value was evaluated using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis in five independent datasets. Using the log-rank test, the 12-gene signature was closely related to overall survival in four datasets (GSE17536, n = 177, p = 0.0054; GSE17537, n = 55, p = 0.0039; GSE39582, n = 562, p = 0.13; GSE39084, n = 70, p = 0.11, and significantly associated with disease
Michael E Johnson
Full Text Available Genome-wide expression profiling in systemic sclerosis (SSc has identified four 'intrinsic' subsets of disease (fibroproliferative, inflammatory, limited, and normal-like, each of which shows deregulation of distinct signaling pathways; however, the full set of pathways contributing to this differential gene expression has not been fully elucidated. Here we examine experimentally derived gene expression signatures in dermal fibroblasts for thirteen different signaling pathways implicated in SSc pathogenesis. These data show distinct and overlapping sets of genes induced by each pathway, allowing for a better understanding of the molecular relationship between profibrotic and immune signaling networks. Pathway-specific gene signatures were analyzed across a compendium of microarray datasets consisting of skin biopsies from three independent cohorts representing 80 SSc patients, 4 morphea, and 26 controls. IFNα signaling showed a strong association with early disease, while TGFβ signaling spanned the fibroproliferative and inflammatory subsets, was associated with worse MRSS, and was higher in lesional than non-lesional skin. The fibroproliferative subset was most strongly associated with PDGF signaling, while the inflammatory subset demonstrated strong activation of innate immune pathways including TLR signaling upstream of NF-κB. The limited and normal-like subsets did not show associations with fibrotic and inflammatory mediators such as TGFβ and TNFα. The normal-like subset showed high expression of genes associated with lipid signaling, which was absent in the inflammatory and limited subsets. Together, these data suggest a model by which IFNα is involved in early disease pathology, and disease severity is associated with active TGFβ signaling.
Huang, Bei; Belharazem, Djeda; Li, Li; Kneitz, Susanne; Schnabel, Philipp A.; Rieker, Ralf J.; Körner, Daniel; Nix, Wilfried; Schalke, Berthold; Müller-Hermelink, Hans Konrad; Ott, German; Rosenwald, Andreas; Ströbel, Philipp; Marx, Alexander
The molecular pathogenesis of thymomas and thymic carcinomas (TCs) is poorly understood and results of adjuvant therapy are unsatisfactory in case of metastatic disease and tumor recurrence. For these clinical settings, novel therapeutic strategies are urgently needed. Recently, limited sequencing efforts revealed that a broad spectrum of genes that play key roles in various common cancers are rarely affected in thymomas and thymic carcinomas, suggesting that other oncogenic principles might ...
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Predicting the prognosis of prostate cancer disease through gene expression analysis is receiving increasing interest. In many cases, such analyses are based on formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded (FFPE core needle biopsy material on which Gleason grading for diagnosis has been conducted. Since each patient typically has multiple biopsy samples, and since Gleason grading is an operator dependent procedure known to be difficult, the impact of the operator's choice of biopsy was evaluated. METHODS: Multiple biopsy samples from 43 patients were evaluated using a previously reported gene signature of IGFBP3, F3 and VGLL3 with potential prognostic value in estimating overall survival at diagnosis of prostate cancer. A four multiplex one-step qRT-PCR test kit, designed and optimized for measuring the signature in FFPE core needle biopsy samples was used. Concordance of gene expression levels between primary and secondary Gleason tumor patterns, as well as benign tissue specimens, was analyzed. RESULTS: The gene expression levels of IGFBP3 and F3 in prostate cancer epithelial cell-containing tissue representing the primary and secondary Gleason patterns were high and consistent, while the low expressed VGLL3 showed more variation in its expression levels. CONCLUSION: The assessment of IGFBP3 and F3 gene expression levels in prostate cancer tissue is independent of Gleason patterns, meaning that the impact of operator's choice of biopsy is low.
Taube, Joseph H; Herschkowitz, Jason I; Komurov, Kakajan; Zhou, Alicia Y; Gupta, Supriya; Yang, Jing; Hartwell, Kimberly; Onder, Tamer T; Gupta, Piyush B; Evans, Kurt W; Hollier, Brett G; Ram, Prahlad T; Lander, Eric S; Rosen, Jeffrey M; Weinberg, Robert A; Mani, Sendurai A
The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) produces cancer cells that are invasive, migratory, and exhibit stem cell characteristics, hallmarks of cells that have the potential to generate metastases. Inducers of the EMT include several transcription factors (TFs), such as Goosecoid, Snail, and Twist, as well as the secreted TGF-beta1. Each of these factors is capable, on its own, of inducing an EMT in the human mammary epithelial (HMLE) cell line. However, the interactions between these regulators are poorly understood. Overexpression of each of the above EMT inducers up-regulates a subset of other EMT-inducing TFs, with Twist, Zeb1, Zeb2, TGF-beta1, and FOXC2 being commonly induced. Up-regulation of Slug and FOXC2 by either Snail or Twist does not depend on TGF-beta1 signaling. Gene expression signatures (GESs) derived by overexpressing EMT-inducing TFs reveal that the Twist GES and Snail GES are the most similar, although the Goosecoid GES is the least similar to the others. An EMT core signature was derived from the changes in gene expression shared by up-regulation of Gsc, Snail, Twist, and TGF-beta1 and by down-regulation of E-cadherin, loss of which can also trigger an EMT in certain cell types. The EMT core signature associates closely with the claudin-low and metaplastic breast cancer subtypes and correlates negatively with pathological complete response. Additionally, the expression level of FOXC1, another EMT inducer, correlates strongly with poor survival of breast cancer patients.
Nørgaard, Caroline Holm; Jakobsen, Lasse Hjort; Gentles, Andrew J.
. Our hypothesis is that by segregating CLL according to BAGS, we can identify subtypes with prognostic implications in support of pathogenetic value of BAGS. Microarray-based gene-expression samples from eight independent CLL cohorts (1,024 untreated patients) were BAGS-stratified into pre-BI, pre...... subtype resistance towards rituximab and cyclophosphamide varied for rituximab, whereas all subtypes were sensitive to cyclophosphamide. This study supports our hypothesis that BAGS-subtyping may be of tangible prognostic and pathogenetic value for CLL patients.......Diagnostic and prognostic evaluation of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) involves blood cell counts, immunophenotyping, IgVH mutation status, and cytogenetic analyses. We generated B-cell associated gene-signatures (BAGS) based on six naturally occurring B-cell subsets within normal bone marrow...
Maekawa, Motoko; Fujisawa, Hironori; Iwayama, Yoshimi; Tamase, Akira; Toyota, Tomoko; Osumi, Noriko; Yoshikawa, Takeo
We observed an unusually large subependymoma in a female patient with congenital aniridia. To analyze the genetic mechanisms of tumorigenesis, we first examined the paired box 6 (PAX6) gene using both tumor tissue and peripheral lymphocytes. Tumor suppressor activity has been proposed for PAX6 in gliomas, in addition to its well-known role in the eye development. Using genomic quantitative PCR and loss of heterozygosity analysis, we identified hemizygous deletions in the 5′-region of PAX6. In lymphocytes, the deletion within PAX6 spanned from between exons 6 and 7 to the 5′-upstream region of the gene, but did not reach the upstream gene, RNC1, which is reported to be associated with tumors. The subependymoma had an additional de novo deletion spanning from the intron 4 to intron 6 of PAX6, although we could not completely determine whether these two deletions are on the same chromosome or not. We also examined other potentially relevant tumor suppressor genes: PTEN, TP53 and SOX2. However, we detected no exonic mutations or deletions in these genes. Collectively, we speculate that the defect in PAX6 may have contributed to the extremely large size of the subependymoma, due to a loss of tumor suppressor activity in glial cell lineage. PMID:20500513
A distinguishing gene signature shared by tumor-infiltrating Tie2-expressing monocytes, blood "resident" monocytes, and embryonic macrophages suggests common functions and developmental relationships.
Pucci, Ferdinando; Venneri, Mary Anna; Biziato, Daniela; Nonis, Alessandro; Moi, Davide; Sica, Antonio; Di Serio, Clelia; Naldini, Luigi; De Palma, Michele
We previously showed that Tie2-expressing monocytes (TEMs) have nonredundant proangiogenic activity in tumors. Here, we compared the gene expression profile of tumor-infiltrating TEMs with that of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), spleen-derived Gr1(+)Cd11b(+) neutrophils/myeloid-derived suppressor cells, circulating "inflammatory" and "resident" monocytes, and tumor-derived endothelial cells (ECs) by quantitative polymerase chain reaction-based gene arrays. TEMs sharply differed from ECs and Gr1(+)Cd11b(+) cells but were highly related to TAMs. Nevertheless, several genes were differentially expressed between TEMs and TAMs, highlighting a TEM signature consistent with enhanced proangiogenic/tissue-remodeling activity and lower proinflammatory activity. We validated these findings in models of oncogenesis and transgenic mice expressing a microRNA-regulated Tie2-GFP reporter. Remarkably, resident monocytes and TEMs on one hand, and inflammatory monocytes and TAMs on the other hand, expressed coordinated gene expression profiles, suggesting that the 2 blood monocyte subsets are committed to distinct extravascular fates in the tumor microenvironment. We further showed that a prominent proportion of embryonic/fetal macrophages, which participate in tissue morphogenesis, expressed distinguishing TEM genes. It is tempting to speculate that Tie2(+) embryonic/fetal macrophages, resident blood monocytes, and tumor-infiltrating TEMs represent distinct developmental stages of a TEM lineage committed to execute physiologic proangiogenic and tissue-remodeling programs, which can be co-opted by tumors.
Mentzel, Caroline M Junker; Cardoso, Tainã Figueiredo; Pipper, Christian Bressen; Jacobsen, Mette Juul; Jørgensen, Claus Bøttcher; Cirera, Susanna; Fredholm, Merete
The aim of this study was to elucidate the relative impact of three phenotypes often used to characterize obesity on perturbation of molecular pathways involved in obesity. The three obesity-related phenotypes are (1) body mass index (BMI), (2) amount of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SATa), and (3) amount of retroperitoneal adipose tissue (RPATa). Although it is generally accepted that increasing amount of RPATa is 'unhealthy', a direct comparison of the relative impact of the three obesity-related phenotypes on gene expression has, to our knowledge, not been performed previously. We have used multiple linear models to analyze altered gene expression of selected obesity-related genes in tissues collected from 19 female pigs phenotypically characterized with respect to the obesity-related phenotypes. Gene expression was assessed by high-throughput qPCR in RNA from liver, skeletal muscle and abdominal adipose tissue. The stringent statistical approach used in the study has increased the power of the analysis compared to the classical approach of analysis in divergent groups of individuals. Our approach led to the identification of key components of cellular pathways that are modulated in the three tissues in association with changes in the three obesity-relevant phenotypes (BMI, SATa and RPATa). The deregulated pathways are involved in biosynthesis and transcript regulation in adipocytes, in lipid transport, lipolysis and metabolism, and in inflammatory responses. Deregulation seemed more comprehensive in liver (23 genes) compared to abdominal adipose tissue (10 genes) and muscle (3 genes). Notably, the study supports the notion that excess amount of intra-abdominal adipose tissue is associated with a greater metabolic disease risk. Our results provide molecular support for this notion by demonstrating that increasing amount of RPATa has a higher impact on perturbation of cellular pathways influencing obesity and obesity-related metabolic traits compared to increase
Full Text Available Herbaceous peony (Paeonia lactiflora Pall. is a well-known traditional flower in China and is widely used for landscaping and garden greening due to its high ornamental value. However, disease spots usually appear after the flowering of the plant and may result in the withering of the plant in severe cases. This study examined the disease incidence in an herbaceous peony field in the Yangzhou region, Jiangsu Province. Based on morphological characteristics and molecular data, the disease in this area was identified as a gray mold caused by Botrytis cinerea. Based on previously obtained transcriptome data, eight libraries generated from two herbaceous peony cultivars 'Zifengyu' and 'Dafugui' with different susceptibilities to the disease were then analyzed using digital gene expression profiling (DGE. Thousands of differentially expressed genes (DEGs were screened by comparing the eight samples, and these genes were annotated using the Gene ontology (GO and Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG database. The pathways related to plant-pathogen interaction, secondary metabolism synthesis and antioxidant system were concentrated, and 51, 76, and 13 disease resistance-relevant candidate genes were identified, respectively. The expression patterns of these candidate genes differed between the two cultivars: their expression of the disease-resistant cultivar 'Zifengyu' sharply increased during the early stages of infection, while it was relatively subdued in the disease-sensitive cultivar 'Dafugui'. A selection of ten candidate genes was evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR to validate the DGE data. These results revealed the transcriptional changes that took place during the interaction of herbaceous peony with B. cinerea, providing insight into the molecular mechanisms of host resistance to gray mold.
Chen, Chengyu; Wang, Cuicui; Liu, Ying; Shi, Xueyan; Gao, Xiwu
Pesticide tolerance poses many challenges for pest control, particularly for destructive pests such as Bradysia odoriphaga. Imidacloprid has been used to control B. odoriphaga since 2013, however, imidacloprid resistance in B. odoriphaga has developed in recent years. Identifying actual and potential genes involved in detoxification metabolism of imidacloprid could offer solutions for controlling this insect. In this study, RNA-seq was used to explore differentially expressed genes in B. odoriphaga that respond to imidacloprid treatment. Differential expression data between imidacloprid treatment and the control revealed 281 transcripts (176 with annotations) showing upregulation and 394 transcripts (235 with annotations) showing downregulation. Among them, differential expression levels of seven P450 unigenes were associated with imidacloprid detoxification mechanism, with 4 unigenes that were upregulated and 3 unigenes that were downregulated. The qRT-PCR results of the seven differential expression P450 unigenes after imidacloprid treatment were consistent with RNA-Seq data. Furthermore, oral delivery mediated RNA interference of these four upregulated P450 unigenes followed by an insecticide bioassay significantly increased the mortality of imidacloprid-treated B. odoriphaga. This result indicated that the four upregulated P450s are involved in detoxification of imidacloprid. This study provides a genetic basis for further exploring P450 genes for imidacloprid detoxification in B. odoriphaga.
Brian L Zielinski
Full Text Available The Amazon River has the largest discharge of all rivers on Earth, and its complex plume system fuels a wide array of biogeochemical processes, across a large area of the western tropical North Atlantic. The plume thus stimulates microbial processes affecting carbon sequestration and nutrient cycles at a global scale. Chromosomal gene expression patterns of the 2.0 to 156 μm size-fraction eukaryotic microbial community were investigated in the Amazon River Plume, generating a robust dataset (more than 100 million mRNA sequences that depicts the metabolic capabilities and interactions among the eukaryotic microbes. Combining classical oceanographic field measurements with metatranscriptomics yielded characterization of the hydrographic conditions simultaneous with a quantification of transcriptional activity and identity of the community. We highlight the patterns of eukaryotic gene expression for 31 biogeochemically significant gene targets hypothesized to be valuable within forecasting models. An advantage to this targeted approach is that the database of reference sequences used to identify the target genes was selectively constructed and highly curated optimizing taxonomic coverage, throughput, and the accuracy of annotations. A coastal diatom bloom highly expressed nitrate transporters and carbonic anhydrase presumably to support high growth rates and enhance uptake of low levels of dissolved nitrate and CO2. Diatom-diazotroph association (DDA: diatoms with nitrogen fixing symbionts blooms were common when surface salinity was mesohaline and dissolved nitrate concentrations were below detection, and hence did not show evidence of nitrate utilization, suggesting they relied on ammonium transporters to aquire recently fixed nitrogen. These DDA blooms in the outer plume had rapid turnover of the photosystem D1 protein presumably caused by photodegradation under increased light penetration in clearer waters, and increased expression of silicon
Bourdon, Julie A; Williams, Andrew; Kuo, Byron; Moffat, Ivy; White, Paul A; Halappanavar, Sabina; Vogel, Ulla; Wallin, Håkan; Yauk, Carole L
New approaches are urgently needed to evaluate potential hazards posed by exposure to nanomaterials. Gene expression profiling provides information on potential modes of action and human relevance, and tools have recently become available for pathway-based quantitative risk assessment. The objective of this study was to use toxicogenomics in the context of human health risk assessment. We explore the utility of toxicogenomics in risk assessment, using published gene expression data from C57BL/6 mice exposed to 18, 54 and 162 μg Printex 90 carbon black nanoparticles (CBNP). Analysis of CBNP-perturbed pathways, networks and transcription factors revealed concomitant changes in predicted phenotypes (e.g., pulmonary inflammation and genotoxicity), that correlated with dose and time. Benchmark doses (BMDs) for apical endpoints were comparable to minimum BMDs for relevant pathway-specific expression changes. Comparison to inflammatory lung disease models (i.e., allergic airway inflammation, bacterial infection and tissue injury and fibrosis) and human disease profiles revealed that induced gene expression changes in Printex 90 exposed mice were similar to those typical for pulmonary injury and fibrosis. Very similar fibrotic pathways were perturbed in CBNP-exposed mice and human fibrosis disease models. Our synthesis demonstrates how toxicogenomic profiles may be used in human health risk assessment of nanoparticles and constitutes an important step forward in the ultimate recognition of toxicogenomic endpoints in human health risk. As our knowledge of molecular pathways, dose-response characteristics and relevance to human disease continues to grow, we anticipate that toxicogenomics will become increasingly useful in assessing chemical toxicities and in human health risk assessment. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Fan, Yan; He, Hong; Dong, Yan; Pan, Hengbiao
Fungal virulence mechanisms include adhesion to epithelia, morphogenesis, production of secretory hydrolytic enzymes, and phenotype switching, all of which contribute to the process of pathogenesis. A striking feature of the biology of Candida albicans is its ability to grow in yeast, pseudohyphal, and hyphal forms. The hyphal form plays an important role in causing disease, by invading epithelial cells and causing tissue damage. In this review, we illustrate some of the main hyphae-specific genes, namely HGC1, UME6, ALS3, HWP1, and ECE1, and their relevant and reversed signal transduction pathways in reactions stimulated by environmental factors, including pH, CO2, and serum.
Honda, Masao; Yamashita, Taro; Yamashita, Tatsuya; Arai, Kuniaki; Sakai, Yoshio; Sakai, Akito; Nakamura, Mikiko; Mizukoshi, Eishiro; Kaneko, Shuichi
The acyclic retinoid, peretinoin, has been shown to be effective for suppressing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) recurrence after definitive treatment in a small-scale randomized clinical trial. However, little has been documented about the mechanism by which peretinoin exerts its inhibitory effects against recurrent HCC in humans in vivo. Twelve hepatitis C virus-positive patients whose HCC had been eradicated through curative resection or ablation underwent liver biopsy at baseline and week 8 of treatment with either a daily dose of 300 or 600 mg peretinoin. RNA isolated from biopsy samples was subjected to gene expression profile analysis. Peretinoin treatment elevated the expression levels of IGFBP6, RBP1, PRB4, CEBPA, G0S2, TGM2, GPRC5A, CYP26B1, and many other retinoid target genes. Elevated expression was also observed for interferon-, Wnt-, and tumor suppressor-related genes. By contrast, decreased expression levels were found for mTOR- and tumor progression-related genes. Interestingly, gene expression profiles for week 8 of peretinoin treatment could be classified into two groups of recurrence and non-recurrence with a prediction accuracy rate of 79.6% (P<0.05). In the liver of patients with non-recurrence, expression of PDGFC and other angiogenesis genes, cancer stem cell marker genes, and genes related to tumor progression was down-regulated, while expression of genes related to hepatocyte differentiation, tumor suppression genes, and other genes related to apoptosis induction was up-regulated. Gene expression profiling at week 8 of peretinoin treatment could successfully predict HCC recurrence within 2 years. This study is the first to show the effect of peretinoin in suppressing HCC recurrence in vivo based on gene expression profiles and provides a molecular basis for understanding the efficacy of peretinoin
Gao, Shanwu; Tibiche, Chabane; Zou, Jinfeng; Zaman, Naif; Trifiro, Mark; O'Connor-McCourt, Maureen; Wang, Edwin
Decisions regarding adjuvant therapy in patients with stage II colorectal cancer (CRC) have been among the most challenging and controversial in oncology over the past 20 years. To develop robust combinatory cancer hallmark-based gene signature sets (CSS sets) that more accurately predict prognosis and identify a subset of patients with stage II CRC who could gain survival benefits from adjuvant chemotherapy. Thirteen retrospective studies of patients with stage II CRC who had clinical follow-up and adjuvant chemotherapy were analyzed. Respective totals of 162 and 843 patients from 2 and 11 independent cohorts were used as the discovery and validation cohorts, respectively. A total of 1005 patients with stage II CRC were included in the 13 cohorts. Among them, 84 of 416 patients in 3 independent cohorts received fluorouracil-based adjuvant chemotherapy. Identification of CSS sets to predict relapse-free survival and identify a subset of patients with stage II CRC who could gain substantial survival benefits from fluorouracil-based adjuvant chemotherapy. Eight cancer hallmark-based gene signatures (30 genes each) were identified and used to construct CSS sets for determining prognosis. The CSS sets were validated in 11 independent cohorts of 767 patients with stage II CRC who did not receive adjuvant chemotherapy. The CSS sets accurately stratified patients into low-, intermediate-, and high-risk groups. Five-year relapse-free survival rates were 94%, 78%, and 45%, respectively, representing 60%, 28%, and 12% of patients with stage II disease. The 416 patients with CSS set-defined high-risk stage II CRC who received fluorouracil-based adjuvant chemotherapy showed a substantial gain in survival benefits from the treatment (ie, recurrence reduced by 30%-40% in 5 years). The CSS sets substantially outperformed other prognostic predictors of stage 2 CRC. They are more accurate and robust for prognostic predictions and facilitate the identification of patients with stage
Full Text Available Neurodegeneration, the progressive death of neurons, loss of brain function, and cognitive decline is an increasing problem for senior populations. Its causes are poorly understood and therapies are largely ineffective. Neurons, with high energy and oxygen requirements, are especially vulnerable to detrimental factors, including age-related dysregulation of biochemical pathways caused by altered expression of multiple genes. GHK (glycyl-l-histidyl-l-lysine is a human copper-binding peptide with biological actions that appear to counter aging-associated diseases and conditions. GHK, which declines with age, has health promoting effects on many tissues such as chondrocytes, liver cells and human fibroblasts, improves wound healing and tissue regeneration (skin, hair follicles, stomach and intestinal linings, boney tissue, increases collagen, decorin, angiogenesis, and nerve outgrowth, possesses anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-pain and anti-anxiety effects, increases cellular stemness and the secretion of trophic factors by mesenchymal stem cells. Studies using the Broad Institute Connectivity Map show that GHK peptide modulates expression of multiple genes, resetting pathological gene expression patterns back to health. GHK has been recommended as a treatment for metastatic cancer, Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease, inflammation, acute lung injury, activating stem cells, pain, and anxiety. Here, we present GHK’s effects on gene expression relevant to the nervous system health and function.
Zhang, Jing; Guo, Lei; Liu, Xiuyun; Li, Wenbin; Ying, Jianming
This study was conducted to investigate the expression of MET in Chinese gastric adenocarcinoma cohort, the correlation between MET overexpression and clinical pathological features, HER2 expression and MET gene amplification. A total of 816 gastric adenocarcinoma patients were included and MET and HER2 immunohistochemical (IHC) staining were performed. IHC and dual-color silver in situ hybridization analysis were performed in the tissue microarrays, constructed from the 240 patients who were randomly selected. MET overexpression (IHC 3+) was observed in 6.0% (49/816) of the cohort. MET overexpression rate was higher in patients with poor prognostic factors, such as clinical stages III/IV (p =0.012) and pathologic stages T3/T4 (p =0.027). The HER2 overexpression (IHC 3+) rate was 8.8% (72/816) and MET overexpression rate was higher in HER2 positive patients (9.7%, 7/72). A high concordance rate (94.6%) between MET overexpression and gene amplification was demonstrated. Therefore, MET overexpression could serve as a prognostic biomarker and a potential therapeutic target for gastric cancer.
Davids, Keith; Baker, Joseph
The historical debate on the relative influences of genes (i.e. nature) and environment (i.e. nurture) on human behaviour has been characterised by extreme positions leading to reductionist and polemic conclusions. Our analysis of research on sport and exercise behaviours shows that currently there is little support for either biologically or environmentally deterministic perspectives on elite athletic performance. In sports medicine, recent molecular biological advances in genomic studies have been over-interpreted, leading to a questionable 'single-gene-as-magic-bullet' philosophy adopted by some practitioners. Similarly, although extensive involvement in training and practice is needed at elite levels, it has become apparent that the acquisition of expertise is not merely about amassing a requisite number of practice hours. Although an interactionist perspective has been mooted over the years, a powerful explanatory framework has been lacking. In this article, we propose how the complementary nature of degenerate neurobiological systems might provide the theoretical basis for explaining the interactive influence of genetic and environmental constraints on elite athletic performance. We argue that, due to inherent human degeneracy, there are many different trajectories to achieving elite athletic performance. While the greatest training responses may be theoretically associated with the most favourable genotypes being exposed to highly specialised training environments, this is a rare and complex outcome. The concept of degeneracy provides us with a basis for understanding why each of the major interacting constraints might act in a compensatory manner on the acquisition of elite athletic performance.
Full Text Available The dissemination of antimicrobial resistance (AMR is an escalating problem and a threat to public health. Comparative metagenomics was used to investigate the occurrence of antibiotic resistant genes (ARGs in wastewater and urban surface water environments in Singapore. Hospital and municipal wastewater (n = 6 were found to have higher diversity and average abundance of ARGs (303 ARG subtypes, 197,816 x/Gb compared to treated wastewater effluent (n = 2, 58 ARG subtypes, 2,692 x/Gb and surface water (n = 5, 35 subtypes, 7,985 x/Gb. A cluster analysis showed that the taxonomic composition of wastewaters was highly similar and had a bacterial community composition enriched in gut bacteria (Bacteroides, Faecalibacterium, Bifidobacterium, Blautia, Roseburia, Ruminococcus, the Enterobacteriaceae group (Klebsiella, Aeromonas, Enterobacter and opportunistic pathogens (Prevotella, Comamonas, Neisseria. Wastewater, treated effluents and surface waters had a shared resistome of 21 ARGs encoding multidrug resistant efflux pumps or resistance to aminoglycoside, macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramins (MLS, quinolones, sulfonamide, and tetracycline resistance which suggests that these genes are wide spread across different environments. Wastewater had a distinctively higher average abundance of clinically relevant, class A beta-lactamase resistant genes (i.e., blaKPC, blaCTX-M, blaSHV, blaTEM. The wastewaters from clinical isolation wards, in particular, had a exceedingly high levels of blaKPC-2 genes (142,200 x/Gb, encoding for carbapenem resistance. Assembled scaffolds (16 and 30 kbp from isolation ward wastewater samples indicated this gene was located on a Tn3-based transposon (Tn4401, a mobilization element found in Klebsiella pneumonia plasmids. In the longer scaffold, transposable elements were flanked by a toxin–antitoxin (TA system and other metal resistant genes that likely increase the persistence, fitness and propagation of the plasmid in the
Kernohan, Kristin D; Hartley, Taila; Alirezaie, Najmeh; Robinson, Peter N; Dyment, David A; Boycott, Kym M
A significant challenge facing clinical translation of exome sequencing is meaningful and efficient variant interpretation. Each exome contains ∼500 rare coding variants; laboratories must systematically and efficiently identify which variant(s) contribute to the patient's phenotype. In silico filtering is an approach that reduces analysis time while decreasing the chances of incidental findings. We retrospectively assessed 55 solved exomes using available datasets as in silico filters: Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM), Orphanet, Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO), and Radboudumc University Medical Center curated panels. We found that personalized panels produced using HPO terms for each patient had the highest success rate (100%), while producing considerably less variants to assess. HPO panels also captured multiple diagnoses in the same individual. We conclude that custom HPO-derived panels are an efficient and effective way to identify clinically relevant exome variants. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available This manuscript describes the 6-year evolution of our center’s research into ovarian functions of the FMR1 gene, which led to the identification of a new normal CGGn range of 26-34. This new normal range, in turn, led to definitions of different alleles (haplotypes based on whether no, one or both alleles are within range. Specific alleles then were demonstrated to represent distinct ovarian aging patterns, suggesting an important FMR1 function in follicle recruitment and ovarian depletion of follicles. So called low alleles, characterized by CGGn34 alleles. Because low FMR1 alleles present in approximately 25% of all females, FMR1 testing at young ages may offer an opportunity for earlier diagnosis of OPOI than current practice allows. Earlier diagnosis of OPOI, in turn, would give young women the options of reassessing their reproductive schedules and/or pursue fertility preservation via oocyte cryopreservation when most effective.
Perry, George H; Martin, Robert D; Verrelli, Brian C
While color vision perception is thought to be adaptively correlated with foraging efficiency for diurnal mammals, those that forage exclusively at night may not need color vision nor have the capacity for it. Indeed, although the basic condition for mammals is dichromacy, diverse nocturnal mammals have only monochromatic vision, resulting from functional loss of the short-wavelength sensitive opsin gene. However, many nocturnal primates maintain intact two opsin genes and thus have dichromatic capacity. The evolutionary significance of this surprising observation has not yet been elucidated. We used a molecular population genetics approach to test evolutionary hypotheses for the two intact opsin genes of the fully nocturnal aye-aye (Daubentonia madagascariensis), a highly unusual and endangered Madagascar primate. No evidence of gene degradation in either opsin gene was observed for any of 8 aye-aye individuals examined. Furthermore, levels of nucleotide diversity for opsin gene functional sites were lower than those for 15 neutrally evolving intergenic regions (>25 kb in total), which is consistent with a history of purifying selection on aye-aye opsin genes. The most likely explanation for these findings is that dichromacy is advantageous for aye-ayes despite their nocturnal activity pattern. We speculate that dichromatic nocturnal primates may be able to perceive color while foraging under moonlight conditions, and suggest that behavioral and ecological comparisons among dichromatic and monochromatic nocturnal primates will help to elucidate the specific activities for which color vision perception is advantageous.
Graham, Linda E; Knack, Jennifer J; Graham, Melissa E; Graham, James M; Zulkifly, Shahrizim
Periphyton dominated by the cellulose-rich filamentous green alga Cladophora forms conspicuous growths along rocky marine and freshwater shorelines worldwide, providing habitat for diverse epibionts. Bacterial epibionts have been inferred to display diverse functions of biogeochemical significance: N-fixation and other redox reactions, phosphorus accumulation, and organic degradation. Here, we report taxonomic diversity of eukaryotic and prokaryotic epibionts and diversity of genes associated with materials cycling in a Cladophora metagenome sampled from Lake Mendota, Dane Co., WI, USA, during the growing season of 2012. A total of 1,060 distinct 16S, 173 18S, and 351 28S rRNA operational taxonomic units, from which >220 genera or species of bacteria (~60), protists (~80), fungi (6), and microscopic metazoa (~80), were distinguished with the use of reference databases. We inferred the presence of several algal taxa generally associated with marine systems and detected Jaoa, a freshwater periphytic ulvophyte previously thought endemic to China. We identified six distinct nifH gene sequences marking nitrogen fixation, >25 bacterial and eukaryotic cellulases relevant to sedimentary C-cycling and technological applications, and genes encoding enzymes in aerobic and anaerobic pathways for vitamin B12 biosynthesis. These results emphasize the importance of Cladophora in providing habitat for microscopic metazoa, fungi, protists, and bacteria that are often inconspicuous, yet play important roles in ecosystem biogeochemistry. © 2015 Phycological Society of America.
Rue-Albrecht, Kévin; McGettigan, Paul A; Hernández, Belinda; Nalpas, Nicolas C; Magee, David A; Parnell, Andrew C; Gordon, Stephen V; MacHugh, David E
Identification of gene expression profiles that differentiate experimental groups is critical for discovery and analysis of key molecular pathways and also for selection of robust diagnostic or prognostic biomarkers. While integration of differential expression statistics has been used to refine gene set enrichment analyses, such approaches are typically limited to single gene lists resulting from simple two-group comparisons or time-series analyses. In contrast, functional class scoring and machine learning approaches provide powerful alternative methods to leverage molecular measurements for pathway analyses, and to compare continuous and multi-level categorical factors. We introduce GOexpress, a software package for scoring and summarising the capacity of gene ontology features to simultaneously classify samples from multiple experimental groups. GOexpress integrates normalised gene expression data (e.g., from microarray and RNA-seq experiments) and phenotypic information of individual samples with gene ontology annotations to derive a ranking of genes and gene ontology terms using a supervised learning approach. The default random forest algorithm allows interactions between all experimental factors, and competitive scoring of expressed genes to evaluate their relative importance in classifying predefined groups of samples. GOexpress enables rapid identification and visualisation of ontology-related gene panels that robustly classify groups of samples and supports both categorical (e.g., infection status, treatment) and continuous (e.g., time-series, drug concentrations) experimental factors. The use of standard Bioconductor extension packages and publicly available gene ontology annotations facilitates straightforward integration of GOexpress within existing computational biology pipelines.
Norrman, Karin; Strömbeck, Anna; Semb, Henrik
for the three activin A based protocols applied. Our data provide novel insights in DE gene expression at the cellular level of in vitro differentiated human embryonic stem cells, and illustrate the power of using single-cell gene expression profiling to study differentiation heterogeneity and to characterize...... of anterior definitive endoderm (DE). Here, we differentiated human embryonic stem cells towards DE using three different activin A based treatments. Differentiation efficiencies were evaluated by gene expression profiling over time at cell population level. A panel of key markers was used to study DE...... formation. Final DE differentiation was also analyzed with immunocytochemistry and single-cell gene expression profiling. We found that cells treated with activin A in combination with sodium butyrate and B27 serum-free supplement medium generated the most mature DE cells. Cell population studies were...
Tang, Xin-Ran; Li, Ying-Qin; Liang, Shao-Bo; Jiang, Wei; Liu, Fang; Ge, Wen-Xiu; Tang, Ling-Long; Mao, Yan-Ping; He, Qing-Mei; Yang, Xiao-Jing; Zhang, Yuan; Wen, Xin; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Ya-Qin; Zhang, Pan-Pan; Sun, Ying; Yun, Jing-Ping; Zeng, Jing; Li, Li; Liu, Li-Zhi; Liu, Na; Ma, Jun
Gene expression patterns can be used as prognostic biomarkers in various types of cancers. We aimed to identify a gene expression pattern for individual distant metastatic risk assessment in patients with locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma. In this multicentre, retrospective, cohort analysis, we included 937 patients with locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma from three Chinese hospitals: the Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center (Guangzhou, China), the Affiliated Hospital of Guilin Medical University (Guilin, China), and the First People's Hospital of Foshan (Foshan, China). Using microarray analysis, we profiled mRNA gene expression between 24 paired locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma tumours from patients at Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center with or without distant metastasis after radical treatment. Differentially expressed genes were examined using digital expression profiling in a training cohort (Guangzhou training cohort; n=410) to build a gene classifier using a penalised regression model. We validated the prognostic accuracy of this gene classifier in an internal validation cohort (Guangzhou internal validation cohort, n=204) and two external independent cohorts (Guilin cohort, n=165; Foshan cohort, n=158). The primary endpoint was distant metastasis-free survival. Secondary endpoints were disease-free survival and overall survival. We identified 137 differentially expressed genes between metastatic and non-metastatic locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma tissues. A distant metastasis gene signature for locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (DMGN) that consisted of 13 genes was generated to classify patients into high-risk and low-risk groups in the training cohort. Patients with high-risk scores in the training cohort had shorter distant metastasis-free survival (hazard ratio [HR] 4·93, 95% CI 2·99-8·16; padvanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma and might be able to predict which patients benefit
Li, Bing; Shi, Xiao-Yu; Liao, Dai-Xiang; Cao, Bang-Rong; Luo, Cheng-Hua; Cheng, Shu-Jun
There are still no absolute parameters predicting progression of adenoma into cancer. The present study aimed to characterize functional differences on the multistep carcinogenetic process from the adenoma-carcinoma sequence. All samples were collected and mRNA expression profiling was performed by using Agilent Microarray high-throughput gene-chip technology. Then, the characteristics of mRNA expression profiles of adenoma-carcinoma sequence were described with bioinformatics software, and we analyzed the relationship between gene expression profiles of adenoma-adenocarcinoma sequence and clinical prognosis of colorectal cancer. The mRNA expressions of adenoma-carcinoma sequence were significantly different between high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia group and adenocarcinoma group. The biological process of gene ontology function enrichment analysis on differentially expressed genes between high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia group and adenocarcinoma group showed that genes enriched in the extracellular structure organization, skeletal system development, biological adhesion and itself regulated growth regulation, with the P value after FDR correction of less than 0.05. In addition, IPR-related protein mainly focused on the insulin-like growth factor binding proteins. The variable trends of gene expression profiles for adenoma-carcinoma sequence were mainly concentrated in high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia and adenocarcinoma. The differentially expressed genes are significantly correlated between high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia group and adenocarcinoma group. Bioinformatics analysis is an effective way to study the gene expression profiles in the adenoma-carcinoma sequence, and may provide an effective tool to involve colorectal cancer research strategy into colorectal adenoma or advanced adenoma.
Horesh, Y; Katsel, P; Haroutunian, V; Domany, E
Alzheimer's disease and Schizophrenia are two common diseases of the brain with significant differences in neuropathology, etiology and symptoms. This dissimilarity in the two diseases makes a comparison of the two ideal for detecting molecular substrates that are common to brain disorders in general. In this study, we compared gene expression profiles across multiple brain areas, taken postmortem from patients with well-characterized Alzheimer's disease and Schizophrenia, and from cognitively normal control group with no neuro- or psychopathology. Although the totality of gene expression changes in the two diseases is dissimilar, a subset of genes appears to play a role in both diseases in specific brain regions. We find at Brodmann area 22, the superior temporal gyrus, a statistically significant number of genes with apparently disregulated expression in both diseases. Furthermore, we found genes that differentiate the two diseases from the control across multiple brain regions, and note that these genes were usually down-regulated. Brodmann area 8, part of the superior frontal cortex, is relatively abundant with them. We show overwhelming statistical evidence for Alzheimer's and Schizophrenia sharing a specific molecular background at the superior temporal gyrus. We suggest that impairment of the regulation of autophagy pathway is shared, in BA 22, by the two diseases. © 2010 The Author(s). European Journal of Neurology © 2010 EFNS.
Chong, Allen; Teo, Jing Xian; Ban, Kenneth H K
Epigenetic changes, like DNA methylation, affect gene expression and in colorectal cancer (CRC), a distinct phenotype called the CpG island methylator phenotype ("CIMP") has significantly higher levels of DNA methylation at so-called "Type C loci" within the genome. We postulate that enhancer-gene pairs are coordinately controlled through DNA methylation in order to regulate the expression of key genes/biomarkers for a particular phenotype.Firstly, we found 24 experimentally-validated enhancers (VISTA enhancer browser) that contained statistically significant (FDR-adjusted q-value of CIMP versus non-CIMP CRCs. Of these, the methylation of 2 enhancers, 1702 and 1944, were found to be very well correlated with the methylation of the genes Wnt3A and IGDCC3, respectively, in two separate and independent datasets.We show for the first time that there are indeed distinct and dynamic changes in the methylation pattern of specific enhancer-gene pairs in CRCs. Such a coordinated epigenetic event could be indicative of an interaction between (1) enhancer 1702 and Wnt3A and (2) enhancer 1944 and IGDCC3. Moreover, our study shows that the methylation patterns of these 2 enhancer-gene pairs can potentially be used as biomarkers to delineate CIMP from non-CIMP CRCs.
M J Pont
Full Text Available Cellular immunotherapy has proven to be effective in the treatment of hematological cancers by donor lymphocyte infusion after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and more recently by targeted therapy with chimeric antigen or T-cell receptor-engineered T cells. However, dependent on the tissue distribution of the antigens that are targeted, anti-tumor responses can be accompanied by undesired side effects. Therefore, detailed tissue distribution analysis is essential to estimate potential efficacy and toxicity of candidate targets for immunotherapy of hematological malignancies. We performed microarray gene expression analysis of hematological malignancies of different origins, healthy hematopoietic cells and various non-hematopoietic cell types from organs that are often targeted in detrimental immune responses after allogeneic stem cell transplantation leading to graft-versus-host disease. Non-hematopoietic cells were also cultured in the presence of IFN-γ to analyze gene expression under inflammatory circumstances. Gene expression was investigated by Illumina HT12.0 microarrays and quality control analysis was performed to confirm the cell-type origin and exclude contamination of non-hematopoietic cell samples with peripheral blood cells. Microarray data were validated by quantitative RT-PCR showing strong correlations between both platforms. Detailed gene expression profiles were generated for various minor histocompatibility antigens and B-cell surface antigens to illustrate the value of the microarray dataset to estimate efficacy and toxicity of candidate targets for immunotherapy. In conclusion, our microarray database provides a relevant platform to analyze and select candidate antigens with hematopoietic (lineage-restricted expression as potential targets for immunotherapy of hematological cancers.
McGlynn, S.P.; Varma, M.N.
A new concept for modelling radiation risk is proposed. This concept is based on the proposal that the spectrum of molecular lesions, which we dub ''the radiation signature'', can be used to identify the quality of the causal radiation. If the proposal concerning radiation signatures can be established then, in principle, both prospective and retrospective risk determination can be assessed on an individual basis. A major goal of biophysical modelling is to relate physical events such as ionization, excitation, etc. to the production of radiation carcinogenesis. A description of the physical events is provided by track structure. The track structure is determined by radiation quality, and it can be considered to be the ''physical signature'' of the radiation. Unfortunately, the uniqueness characteristics of this signature are dissipated in biological systems in ∼10 -9 s. Nonetheless, it is our contention that this physical disturbance of the biological system eventuates later, at ∼10 0 s, in molecular lesion spectra which also characterize the causal radiation. (author)
DePianto, Daryle J; Chandriani, Sanjay; Abbas, Alexander R; Jia, Guiquan; N'Diaye, Elsa N; Caplazi, Patrick; Kauder, Steven E; Biswas, Sabyasachi; Karnik, Satyajit K; Ha, Connie; Modrusan, Zora; Matthay, Michael A; Kukreja, Jasleen; Collard, Harold R; Egen, Jackson G; Wolters, Paul J; Arron, Joseph R
There is microscopic spatial and temporal heterogeneity of pathological changes in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) lung tissue, which may relate to heterogeneity in pathophysiological mediators of disease and clinical progression. We assessed relationships between gene expression patterns, pathological features, and systemic biomarkers to identify biomarkers that reflect the aggregate disease burden in patients with IPF. Gene expression microarrays (N=40 IPF; 8 controls) and immunohistochemical analyses (N=22 IPF; 8 controls) of lung biopsies. Clinical characterisation and blood biomarker levels of MMP3 and CXCL13 in a separate cohort of patients with IPF (N=80). 2940 genes were significantly differentially expressed between IPF and control samples (|fold change| >1.5, p<0.05). Two clusters of co-regulated genes related to bronchiolar epithelium or lymphoid aggregates exhibited substantial heterogeneity within the IPF population. Gene expression in bronchiolar and lymphoid clusters corresponded to the extent of bronchiolisation and lymphoid aggregates determined by immunohistochemistry in adjacent tissue sections. Elevated serum levels of MMP3, encoded in the bronchiolar cluster, and CXCL13, encoded in the lymphoid cluster, corresponded to disease severity and shortened survival time (p<10(-7) for MMP3 and p<10(-5) for CXCL13; Cox proportional hazards model). Microscopic pathological heterogeneity in IPF lung tissue corresponds to specific gene expression patterns related to bronchiolisation and lymphoid aggregates. MMP3 and CXCL13 are systemic biomarkers that reflect the aggregate burden of these pathological features across total lung tissue. These biomarkers may have clinical utility as prognostic and/or surrogate biomarkers of disease activity in interventional studies in IPF. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Reyes-Gibby, Cielito C; Melkonian, Stephanie C; Wang, Jian; Yu, Robert K; Shelburne, Samuel A; Lu, Charles; Gunn, Gary Brandon; Chambers, Mark S; Hanna, Ehab Y; Yeung, Sai-Ching J; Shete, Sanjay
Mucositis is a complex, dose-limiting toxicity of chemotherapy or radiotherapy that leads to painful mouth ulcers, difficulty eating or swallowing, gastrointestinal distress, and reduced quality of life for patients with cancer. Mucositis is most common for those undergoing high-dose chemotherapy and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and for those being treated for malignancies of the head and neck. Treatment and management of mucositis remain challenging. It is expected that multiple genes are involved in the formation, severity, and persistence of mucositis. We used Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA), a novel network-based approach that integrates complex intracellular and intercellular interactions involved in diseases, to systematically explore the molecular complexity of mucositis. As a first step, we searched the literature to identify genes that harbor or are close to the genetic variants significantly associated with mucositis. Our literature review identified 27 candidate genes, of which ERCC1, XRCC1, and MTHFR were the most frequently studied for mucositis. On the basis of this 27-gene list, we used IPA to generate gene networks for mucositis. The most biologically significant novel molecules identified through IPA analyses included TP53, CTNNB1, MYC, RB1, P38 MAPK, and EP300. Additionally, uracil degradation II (reductive) and thymine degradation pathways (p = 1.06-08) were most significant. Finally, utilizing 66 SNPs within the 8 most connected IPA-derived candidate molecules, we conducted a genetic association study for oral mucositis in the head and neck cancer patients who were treated using chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy (186 head and neck cancer patients with oral mucositis vs. 699 head and neck cancer patients without oral mucositis). The top ranked gene identified through this association analysis was RB1 (rs2227311, p-value = 0.034, odds ratio = 0.67). In conclusion, gene network analysis identified novel molecules and biological
Cielito C Reyes-Gibby
Full Text Available Mucositis is a complex, dose-limiting toxicity of chemotherapy or radiotherapy that leads to painful mouth ulcers, difficulty eating or swallowing, gastrointestinal distress, and reduced quality of life for patients with cancer. Mucositis is most common for those undergoing high-dose chemotherapy and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and for those being treated for malignancies of the head and neck. Treatment and management of mucositis remain challenging. It is expected that multiple genes are involved in the formation, severity, and persistence of mucositis. We used Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA, a novel network-based approach that integrates complex intracellular and intercellular interactions involved in diseases, to systematically explore the molecular complexity of mucositis. As a first step, we searched the literature to identify genes that harbor or are close to the genetic variants significantly associated with mucositis. Our literature review identified 27 candidate genes, of which ERCC1, XRCC1, and MTHFR were the most frequently studied for mucositis. On the basis of this 27-gene list, we used IPA to generate gene networks for mucositis. The most biologically significant novel molecules identified through IPA analyses included TP53, CTNNB1, MYC, RB1, P38 MAPK, and EP300. Additionally, uracil degradation II (reductive and thymine degradation pathways (p = 1.06-08 were most significant. Finally, utilizing 66 SNPs within the 8 most connected IPA-derived candidate molecules, we conducted a genetic association study for oral mucositis in the head and neck cancer patients who were treated using chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy (186 head and neck cancer patients with oral mucositis vs. 699 head and neck cancer patients without oral mucositis. The top ranked gene identified through this association analysis was RB1 (rs2227311, p-value = 0.034, odds ratio = 0.67. In conclusion, gene network analysis identified novel molecules and
HPV status, cancer stem cell marker expression, hypoxia gene signatures and tumour volume identify good prognosis subgroups in patients with HNSCC after primary radiochemotherapy: A multicentre retrospective study of the German Cancer Consortium Radiation Oncology Group (DKTK-ROG)
Linge, Annett; Lohaus, Fabian; Löck, Steffen
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of the tumour volume, HPV status, cancer stem cell (CSC) marker expression and hypoxia gene signatures, as potential markers of radiobiological mechanisms of radioresistance, in a contemporary cohort of patients with locally advanced head and neck squamous cell...
Hu, Shimin; Xu-Monette, Zijun Y; Tzankov, Alexander
Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is stratified into prognostically favorable germinal center B-cell (GCB)-like and unfavorable activated B-cell (ABC)-like subtypes based on gene expression signatures. In this study, we analyzed 893 de novo DLBCL patients treated with R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclo...
Objective: To explore and analyze expression and relevant research of MGMT and XRCC1 gene in different grades of brain glioma and normal brain tissues. Methods: 52 cases of patients with brain glioma treated in our hospital from December 2013 to December 2014, and 50 cases of normal brain-tissue patients with intracranial hypertension were selected, and proceeding test to the surgical resection of brain tissue of the above patients to determine its MGMT and XRCC1 protein content, sequentially to record the expression of MGMT and XRCC1 of both groups. Grading of tumors to brain glioma after operation was carried out, and the expression of MGMT and XRCC1 gene in brain tissues of different patients was analyzed and compared;finally the contingency tables of X2 test was used to analyze the correlation of XRCC1and MGMT. Results:Positive rate of MGMT expression in normal brain tissue was 2%,while positive rate of MGMT expression in brain glioma was 46.2%,which was obviously higher than that in normal brain tissues (χ2=26.85, P0.05), which had no statistical significance. There were 12 cases of patients whose MGMT protein expression was positive and XRCC1 protein expression was positive; there were 18 cases of patients whose MGMT protein expression was negative and XRCC1 protein expression was negative. Contingency tables of X2 test was used to analyze the correlation of XRCC1 and MGMT, which indicated that the expression of XRCCI and MGMT in brain glioma had no correlation (r=0.9%, P=0.353), relevancy of both was r=0.9%. Conclusions: Positive rate of the expression of MGMT and XRCC1 in brain glioma was obviously higher than that in normal brain tissues, but the distribution of different grades of brain glioma had no obvious difference, and MGMT and XRCC1 expression had no obvious correlation, which needed further research.
Chaves-Pozo, E; Liarte, S; Fernández-Alacid, L; Abellán, E; Meseguer, J; Mulero, V; García-Ayala, A
Immune responses in the testis are regulated in a way that provides protection for the developing male germ cells, while permitting qualitatively normal inflammatory responses and protection against infection. In addition, germ cells are potent targets for the growth factors and cytokines which regulate the reproductive process. Our study analyzes for the first time the pattern of expression of several immune-relevant genes in the gonad of a seasonal breeding teleost fish. The immune molecules analyzed include (i) inflammatory molecules, such as interleukin-1b (il1b), il6, tumor necrosis factor-a (tnfa), cyclooxygenase-2 (cox2) and the NADPH oxidase subunit p40(phox) (ncf4 gene); (ii) the anti-inflammatory cytokine transforming growth factor-b1 (tgfb1) and its type 2 receptor tgfbr2; (iii) innate immune receptors, including toll-like receptor 9 (tlr9), tlr5, tlr22 and macrophage-colony stimulating factor receptor (mcsfr); (iv) lymphocyte receptors, such as the beta subunit of T-cell receptor (Tcrb) and the heavy chain of immunoglobulin M (ighm); (v) the anti-bacterial molecules lysozyme (lyz), hepcidin (hamp) and complement component 3 (c3); (vi) the anti-viral molecule myxovirus (influenza) resistance protein (mx); and (vii) molecules related to leukocyte infiltration, including the CC chemokine ccl4, the CXC chemokine il8 and the leukocyte adhesion molecule E-selectin (Sele). Notably, all of them show a pattern of expression that depends on the reproductive stage of the first two reproductive cycles when the fish develop and function as males. Furthermore, we demonstrate that some of these immune-relevant molecules, such as Il1b and Mcsfr, are produced by germ cells (Il1b) and ovarian and testicular somatic cells (Mcsfr). These data suggest that, as occurs in mammals, there is a critical balance between immune molecules and that these may play an essential role in the orchestration of gametogenesis and the maintenance of gonad tissue homeostasis in fish.
Barington, Kristiane; Jensen, Henrik Elvang; Skovgaard, Kerstin
Determining the age of bruises and the force used to inflict the trauma is of crucial importance in both human and veterinary forensic pathology. In the present study, the expression of more than 50 different genes in subcutaneous fat and muscle tissue from experimental bruises in pigs...... provide valuable information in human forensic science....
Vignali, Marissa; Armour, Christopher D.; Chen, Jingyang; Morrison, Robert; Castle, John C.; Biery, Matthew C.; Bouzek, Heather; Moon, Wonjong; Babak, Tomas; Fried, Michal; Raymond, Christopher K.; Duffy, Patrick E.
Malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum results in approximately 1 million annual deaths worldwide, with young children and pregnant mothers at highest risk. Disease severity might be related to parasite virulence factors, but expression profiling studies of parasites to test this hypothesis have been hindered by extensive sequence variation in putative virulence genes and a prep...
Full Text Available The successful achievement of early ovarian folliculogenesis is important for fertility and reproductive life span. This complex biological process requires the appropriate expression of numerous genes at each developmental stage, in each follicular compartment. Relatively little is known at present about the molecular mechanisms that drive this process, and most gene expression studies have been performed in rodents and without considering the different follicular compartments.We used RNA-seq technology to explore the sheep transcriptome during early ovarian follicular development in the two main compartments: oocytes and granulosa cells. We documented the differential expression of 3,015 genes during this phase and described the gene expression dynamic specific to these compartments. We showed that important steps occurred during primary/secondary transition in sheep. We also described the in vivo molecular course of a number of pathways. In oocytes, these pathways documented the chronology of the acquisition of meiotic competence, migration and cellular organization, while in granulosa cells they concerned adhesion, the formation of cytoplasmic projections and steroid synthesis. This study proposes the involvement in this process of several members of the integrin and BMP families. The expression of genes such as Kruppel-like factor 9 (KLF9 and BMP binding endothelial regulator (BMPER was highlighted for the first time during early follicular development, and their proteins were also predicted to be involved in gene regulation. Finally, we selected a data set of 24 biomarkers that enabled the discrimination of early follicular stages and thus offer a molecular signature of early follicular growth. This set of biomarkers includes known genes such as SPO11 meiotic protein covalently bound to DSB (SPO11, bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15 and WEE1 homolog 2 (S. pombe(WEE2 which play critical roles in follicular development but other biomarkers
Pavlatou, Maria G; Vickers, Kasey C; Varma, Sudhir; Malek, Rana; Sampson, Maureen; Remaley, Alan T; Gold, Philip W; Skarulis, Monica C; Kino, Tomoshige
Serum cortisol concentrations fluctuate in a circadian fashion, and glucocorticoids exert strong effects on adipose tissue and induce obesity through the glucocorticoid receptor. To examine the impact of physiologic levels of circulating cortisol on subcutaneous adipose tissue, 25 overweight and obese subjects were employed, and their serum levels of morning (AM) and evening (PM) cortisol, AM/PM cortisol ratios, and 24-h urinary-free cortisol (UFC) were compared with their clinical parameters, serum cytokine levels, and mRNA expression of 93 receptor action-regulating and 93 glucocorticoid-responsive genes in abdominal subcutaneous fat. AM cortisol levels did not correlate with mRNA expression of the all genes examined, whereas PM cortisol levels, AM/PM cortisol ratios, and 24-h UFC were associated with distinct sets of these genes. Body mass index did not significantly correlate with the four cortisol parameters employed. These results suggest that physiologic levels of AM serum cortisol do not solely represent biological effects of circulating cortisol on the expression of glucocorticoid-related genes in subcutaneous adipose tissue, whereas PM levels, amplitude, and net amounts of the diurnally fluctuating serum cortisol have distinct effects. Through the genes identified in this study, glucocorticoids appear to influence intermediary metabolism, energy balance, inflammation, and local circadian rythmicity in subcutaneous fat. Our results may also explain in part the development of metabolic abnormality and obesity in subjects under stress or patients with melancholic/atypical depression who demonstrate elevated levels of PM serum cortisol. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.
Full Text Available Proteinases play a pivotal role in wound healing by regulating cell-matrix interactions and availability of bioactive molecules. The role of matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13 in granulation tissue growth was studied in subcutaneously implanted viscose cellulose sponge in MMP-13 knockout (Mmp13(-/- and wild type (WT mice. The tissue samples were harvested at time points day 7, 14 and 21 and subjected to histological analysis and gene expression profiling. Granulation tissue growth was significantly reduced (42% at day 21 in Mmp13(-/- mice. Granulation tissue in Mmp13(-/- mice showed delayed organization of myofibroblasts, increased microvascular density at day 14, and virtual absence of large vessels at day 21. Gene expression profiling identified differentially expressed genes in Mmp13(-/- mouse granulation tissue involved in biological functions including inflammatory response, angiogenesis, cellular movement, cellular growth and proliferation and proteolysis. Among genes linked to angiogenesis, Adamts4 and Npy were significantly upregulated in early granulation tissue in Mmp13(-/- mice, and a set of genes involved in leukocyte motility including Il6 were systematically downregulated at day 14. The expression of Pdgfd was downregulated in Mmp13(-/- granulation tissue in all time points. The expression of matrix metalloproteinases Mmp2, Mmp3, Mmp9 was also significantly downregulated in granulation tissue of Mmp13(-/- mice compared to WT mice. Mmp13(-/- mouse skin fibroblasts displayed altered cell morphology and impaired ability to contract collagen gel and decreased production of MMP-2. These results provide evidence for an important role for MMP-13 in wound healing by coordinating cellular activities important in the growth and maturation of granulation tissue, including myofibroblast function, inflammation, angiogenesis, and proteolysis.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The molecular etiology of hearing impairment in Chinese has not been thoroughly investigated. Study of GJB2 gene revealed that 30.4% of the patients with hearing loss in Inner Mongolia carried GJB2 mutations. The SLC26A4 gene mutations and relevant phenotype are analyzed in this study. Methods One hundred and thirty-five deaf patients were included. The coding exons of SLC26A4 gene were sequence analyzed in 111 patients, not including 22 patients carrying bi-allelic GJB2 mutations or one patient carrying a known GJB2 dominant mutation as well as one patient with mtDNA 1555A>G mutation. All patients with SLC26A4 mutations or variants were subjected to high resolution temporal bone CT scan and those with confirmed enlarged vestibular aqueduct and/or other inner ear malformation were then given further ultrasound scan of thyroid and thyroid hormone assays. Results Twenty-six patients (19.26%, 26/135 were found carrying SLC26A4 mutation. Among them, 17 patients with bi-allelic SLC26A4 mutations were all confirmed to have EVA or other inner ear malformation by CT scan. Nine patients were heterozygous for one SLC26A4 mutation, including 3 confirmed to be EVA or EVA and Mondini dysplasia by CT scan. The most common mutation, IVS7-2A>G, accounted for 58.14% (25/43 of all SLC26A4 mutant alleles. The shape and function of thyroid were confirmed to be normal by thyroid ultrasound scan and thyroid hormone assays in 19 of the 20 patients with EVA or other inner ear malformation except one who had cystoid change in the right side of thyroid. No Pendred syndrome was diagnosed. Conclusion In Inner Mongolia, China, mutations in SLC26A4 gene account for about 12.6% (17/135 of the patients with hearing loss. Together with GJB2 (23/135, SLC26A4 are the two most commonly mutated genes causing deafness in this region. Pendred syndrome is not detected in this deaf population. We established a new strategy that detects SLC26A4 mutations prior to the
Dai, Pu; Yuan, Yongyi; Huang, Deliang; Zhu, Xiuhui; Yu, Fei; Kang, Dongyang; Yuan, Huijun; Wu, Bailin; Han, Dongyi; Wong, Lee-Jun C
Background The molecular etiology of hearing impairment in Chinese has not been thoroughly investigated. Study of GJB2 gene revealed that 30.4% of the patients with hearing loss in Inner Mongolia carried GJB2 mutations. The SLC26A4 gene mutations and relevant phenotype are analyzed in this study. Methods One hundred and thirty-five deaf patients were included. The coding exons of SLC26A4 gene were sequence analyzed in 111 patients, not including 22 patients carrying bi-allelic GJB2 mutations or one patient carrying a known GJB2 dominant mutation as well as one patient with mtDNA 1555A>G mutation. All patients with SLC26A4 mutations or variants were subjected to high resolution temporal bone CT scan and those with confirmed enlarged vestibular aqueduct and/or other inner ear malformation were then given further ultrasound scan of thyroid and thyroid hormone assays. Results Twenty-six patients (19.26%, 26/135) were found carrying SLC26A4 mutation. Among them, 17 patients with bi-allelic SLC26A4 mutations were all confirmed to have EVA or other inner ear malformation by CT scan. Nine patients were heterozygous for one SLC26A4 mutation, including 3 confirmed to be EVA or EVA and Mondini dysplasia by CT scan. The most common mutation, IVS7-2A>G, accounted for 58.14% (25/43) of all SLC26A4 mutant alleles. The shape and function of thyroid were confirmed to be normal by thyroid ultrasound scan and thyroid hormone assays in 19 of the 20 patients with EVA or other inner ear malformation except one who had cystoid change in the right side of thyroid. No Pendred syndrome was diagnosed. Conclusion In Inner Mongolia, China, mutations in SLC26A4 gene account for about 12.6% (17/135) of the patients with hearing loss. Together with GJB2 (23/135), SLC26A4 are the two most commonly mutated genes causing deafness in this region. Pendred syndrome is not detected in this deaf population. We established a new strategy that detects SLC26A4 mutations prior to the temporal bone CT scan to
McMillan, H. K.; Westerberg, I.; Branger, F.
Hydrological signatures are index values derived from observed or modeled series of hydrological data such as rainfall, flow or soil moisture. They are designed to extract relevant information about hydrological behavior, such as to identify dominant processes, and to determine the strength, speed and spatiotemporal variability of the rainfall-runoff response. Hydrological signatures play an important role in model evaluation. They allow us to test whether particular model structures or parameter sets accurately reproduce the runoff generation processes within the watershed of interest. Most modeling studies use a selection of different signatures to capture different aspects of the catchment response, for example evaluating overall flow distribution as well as high and low flow extremes and flow timing. Such studies often choose their own set of signatures, or may borrow subsets of signatures used in multiple other works. The link between signature values and hydrological processes is not always straightforward, leading to uncertainty and variability in hydrologists' signature choices. In this presentation, we aim to encourage a more rigorous approach to hydrological signature selection, which considers the ability of signatures to represent hydrological behavior and underlying processes for the catchment and application in question. To this end, we propose a set of guidelines for selecting hydrological signatures. We describe five criteria that any hydrological signature should conform to: Identifiability, Robustness, Consistency, Representativeness, and Discriminatory Power. We describe an example of the design process for a signature, assessing possible signature designs against the guidelines above. Due to their ubiquity, we chose a signature related to the Flow Duration Curve, selecting the FDC mid-section slope as a proposed signature to quantify catchment overall behavior and flashiness. We demonstrate how assessment against each guideline could be used to
Kertai, Miklos D; Qi, Wenjing; Li, Yi-Ju; Lombard, Frederick W; Liu, Yutao; Smith, Michael P; Stafford-Smith, Mark; Newman, Mark F; Milano, Carmelo A; Mathew, Joseph P; Podgoreanu, Mihai V
postoperative AF. GSEA highlighted the role of VOPP1 in pathways with biologic relevance to myocardial homeostasis, and oxidative stress and redox modulation. Candidate gene eQTL showed a trans-acting association between variants of G protein-coupled receptor kinase 5 gene, previously linked to altered BB response, and high expression of VOPP1. In patients undergoing CABG surgery, RAA gene expression profiling, and pathway and eQTL analysis suggested that VOPP1 plays a novel etiological role in postoperative AF despite perioperative BB therapy. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Árnason, Úlfur; Kumar, Vikas
Reconstructing the evolution of baleen whales (Mysticeti) has been problematic because morphological and genetic analyses have produced different scenarios. This might be caused by genomic admixture that may have taken place among some rorquals. We present the genomes of six whales, including the blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus), to reconstruct a species tree of baleen whales and to identify phylogenetic conflicts. Evolutionary multilocus analyses of 34,192 genome fragments reveal a fast radiation of rorquals at 10.5 to 7.5 million years ago coinciding with oceanic circulation shifts. The evolutionarily enigmatic gray whale (Eschrichtius robustus) is placed among rorquals, and the blue whale genome shows a high degree of heterozygosity. The nearly equal frequency of conflicting gene trees suggests that speciation of rorqual evolution occurred under gene flow, which is best depicted by evolutionary networks. Especially in marine environments, sympatric speciation might be common; our results raise questions about how genetic divergence can be established. PMID:29632892
Désert, Romain; Mebarki, Sihem; Desille, Mireille; Sicard, Marie; Lavergne, Elise; Renaud, Stéphanie; Bergeat, Damien; Sulpice, Laurent; Perret, Christine; Turlin, Bruno; Clément, Bruno; Musso, Orlando
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the 3rd cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Most cases arise in a background of chronic inflammation, extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling, severe fibrosis and stem/progenitor cell amplification. Although HCCs are soft cellular tumors, they may contain fibrous nests within the tumor mass. Thus, the aim of this study was to explore cancer cell phenotypes in fibrous nests. Combined anatomic pathology, tissue microarray and real-time PCR analyses revealed that HCCs (n=82) containing fibrous nests were poorly differentiated, expressed Wnt pathway components and target genes, as well as markers of stem/progenitor cells, such as CD44, LGR5 and SOX9. Consistently, in severe liver fibroses (n=66) and in HCCs containing fibrous nests, weighted correlation analysis revealed a gene network including the myofibroblast marker ACTA2, the basement membrane components COL4A1 and LAMC1, the Wnt pathway members FZD1; FZD7; WNT2; LEF1; DKK1 and the Secreted Frizzled Related Proteins (SFRPs) 1; 2 and 5. Moreover, unbiased random survival forest analysis of a transcriptomic dataset of 247 HCC patients revealed high DKK1, COL4A1, SFRP1 and LAMC1 to be associated with advanced tumor staging as well as with bad overall and disease-free survival. In vitro, these genes were upregulated in liver cancer stem/progenitor cells upon Wnt-induced mesenchymal commitment and myofibroblast differentiation. In conclusion, fibrous nests express Wnt target genes, as well as markers of cancer stem cells and mesenchymal commitment. Fibrous nests embody the specific microenvironment of the cancer stem cell niche and can be detected by routine anatomic pathology analyses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Li, Bing; Shi, Xiao-Yu; Liao, Dai-Xiang; Cao, Bang-Rong; Luo, Cheng-Hua; Cheng, Shu-Jun
Background: There are still no absolute parameters predicting progression of adenoma into cancer. The present study aimed to characterize functional differences on the multistep carcinogenetic process from the adenoma-carcinoma sequence. Methods: All samples were collected and mRNA expression profiling was performed by using Agilent Microarray high-throughput gene-chip technology. Then, the characteristics of mRNA expression profiles of adenoma-carcinoma sequence were described with bioinform...
Franziska S Brunner
Full Text Available Ecological immunology relies on variation in resistance to parasites. Colonies of the bumblebee Bombus terrestris vary in their susceptibility to the trypanosome gut parasite Crithidia bombi, which reduces colony fitness. To understand the possible origin of this variation in resistance we assayed the expression of 28 immunologically important genes in foraging workers. We deliberately included natural variation of the host "environment" by using bees from colonies collected in two locations and sampling active foraging workers that were not age controlled. Immune gene expression patterns in response to C. bombi showed remarkable variability even among genetically similar sisters. Nevertheless, expression varied with parasite exposure, among colonies and, perhaps surprisingly, strongly among populations (collection sites. While only the antimicrobial peptide abaecin is universally up regulated upon exposure, linear discriminant analysis suggests that the overall exposure effect is driven by a combination of several immune pathways and further immune functions such as ROS regulation. Also, the differences among colonies in their immune gene expression profiles provide clues to the mechanistic basis of well-known inter-colony variation in susceptibility to this parasite. Our results show that transcriptional responses to parasite exposure can be detected in ecologically heterogeneous groups despite strong background noise.
Risi, Emanuela; Grilli, Andrea; Migliaccio, Ilenia; Biagioni, Chiara; McCartney, Amelia; Guarducci, Cristina; Bonechi, Martina; Benelli, Matteo; Vitale, Stefania; Biganzoli, Laura; Bicciato, Silvio; Di Leo, Angelo; Malorni, Luca
HER2-positive (HER2+) breast cancers show heterogeneous response to chemotherapy, with the ER-positive (ER+) subgroup deriving less benefit. Loss of retinoblastoma tumor suppressor gene (RB1) function has been suggested as a cardinal feature of breast cancers that are more sensitive to chemotherapy and conversely resistant to CDK4/6 inhibitors. We performed a retrospective analysis exploring RBsig, a gene signature of RB loss, as a potential predictive marker of response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in ER+/HER2+ breast cancer patients. We selected clinical trials of neoadjuvant chemotherapy ± anti-HER2 therapy in HER2+ breast cancer patients with available information on gene expression data, hormone receptor status, and pathological complete response (pCR) rates. RBsig expression was computed in silico and correlated with pCR. Ten studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were included in the analysis (514 patients). Overall, of 211 ER+/HER2+ breast cancer patients, 49 achieved pCR (23%). The pCR rate following chemotherapy ± anti-HER2 drugs in patients with RBsig low expression was significantly lower compared to patients with RBsig high expression (16% vs. 30%, respectively; Fisher's exact test p = 0.015). The area under the ROC curve (AUC) was 0.62 (p = 0.005). In the 303 ER-negative (ER-)/HER2+ patients treated with chemotherapy ± anti-HER2 drugs, the pCR rate was 43%. No correlation was found between RBsig expression and pCR rate in this group. Low expression of RBsig identifies a subset of ER+/HER2+ patients with low pCR rates following neoadjuvant chemotherapy ± anti-HER2 therapy. These patients may potentially be spared chemotherapy in favor of anti-HER2, endocrine therapy, and CDK 4/6 inhibitor combinations.
Gillet, Jean-Pierre; Andersen, Jesper B; Madigan, James P
Despite improvements in the management of liver cancer, the survival rate for individuals with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains dismal. The survival benefit of systemic chemotherapy for the treatment of liver cancer is only marginal. Although the reasons for treatment failure...... are multifactorial, intrinsic resistance to chemotherapy plays a primary role. Here, we analyzed the expression of 377 multidrug resistance-associated genes in two independent cohorts of patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma, with the aim of finding ways to improve survival in this poor-prognosis cancer...
Eg Nielsen, Einar; Hansen, Jakob Hemmer; Poulsen, Nina Aagaard
-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for evidence of selection in local populations of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.) across the species distribution. Results: Our global genome scan analysis identified eight outlier gene loci with very high statistical support, likely to be subject to directional...... selection in local demes, or closely linked to loci under selection. Likewise, on a regional south/north transect of central and eastern Atlantic populations, seven loci displayed strongly elevated levels of genetic differentiation. Selection patterns among populations appeared to be relatively widespread...
Vignali, Marissa; Armour, Christopher D.; Chen, Jingyang; Morrison, Robert; Castle, John C.; Biery, Matthew C.; Bouzek, Heather; Moon, Wonjong; Babak, Tomas; Fried, Michal; Raymond, Christopher K.; Duffy, Patrick E.
Malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum results in approximately 1 million annual deaths worldwide, with young children and pregnant mothers at highest risk. Disease severity might be related to parasite virulence factors, but expression profiling studies of parasites to test this hypothesis have been hindered by extensive sequence variation in putative virulence genes and a preponderance of host RNA in clinical samples. We report here the application of RNA sequencing to clinical isolates of P. falciparum, using not-so-random (NSR) primers to successfully exclude human ribosomal RNA and globin transcripts and enrich for parasite transcripts. Using NSR-seq, we confirmed earlier microarray studies showing upregulation of a distinct subset of genes in parasites infecting pregnant women, including that encoding the well-established pregnancy malaria vaccine candidate var2csa. We also describe a subset of parasite transcripts that distinguished parasites infecting children from those infecting pregnant women and confirmed this observation using quantitative real-time PCR and mass spectrometry proteomic analyses. Based on their putative functional properties, we propose that these proteins could have a role in childhood malaria pathogenesis. Our study provides proof of principle that NSR-seq represents an approach that can be used to study clinical isolates of parasites causing severe malaria syndromes as well other blood-borne pathogens and blood-related diseases. PMID:21317536
Vignali, Marissa; Armour, Christopher D; Chen, Jingyang; Morrison, Robert; Castle, John C; Biery, Matthew C; Bouzek, Heather; Moon, Wonjong; Babak, Tomas; Fried, Michal; Raymond, Christopher K; Duffy, Patrick E
Malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum results in approximately 1 million annual deaths worldwide, with young children and pregnant mothers at highest risk. Disease severity might be related to parasite virulence factors, but expression profiling studies of parasites to test this hypothesis have been hindered by extensive sequence variation in putative virulence genes and a preponderance of host RNA in clinical samples. We report here the application of RNA sequencing to clinical isolates of P. falciparum, using not-so-random (NSR) primers to successfully exclude human ribosomal RNA and globin transcripts and enrich for parasite transcripts. Using NSR-seq, we confirmed earlier microarray studies showing upregulation of a distinct subset of genes in parasites infecting pregnant women, including that encoding the well-established pregnancy malaria vaccine candidate var2csa. We also describe a subset of parasite transcripts that distinguished parasites infecting children from those infecting pregnant women and confirmed this observation using quantitative real-time PCR and mass spectrometry proteomic analyses. Based on their putative functional properties, we propose that these proteins could have a role in childhood malaria pathogenesis. Our study provides proof of principle that NSR-seq represents an approach that can be used to study clinical isolates of parasites causing severe malaria syndromes as well other blood-borne pathogens and blood-related diseases.
Stankevicius, Vaidotas; Vasauskas, Gintautas; Bulotiene, Danute; Butkyte, Stase; Jarmalaite, Sonata; Rotomskis, Ricardas; Suziedelis, Kestutis
The extracellular matrix (ECM), one of the key components of tumor microenvironment, has a tremendous impact on cancer development and highly influences tumor cell features. ECM affects vital cellular functions such as cell differentiation, migration, survival and proliferation. Gene and protein expression levels are regulated in cell-ECM interaction dependent manner as well. The rate of unsuccessful clinical trials, based on cell culture research models lacking the ECM microenvironment, indicates the need for alternative models and determines the shift to three-dimensional (3D) laminin rich ECM models, better simulating tissue organization. Recognized advantages of 3D models suggest the development of new anticancer treatment strategies. This is among the most promising directions of 3D cell cultures application. However, detailed analysis at the molecular level of 2D/3D cell cultures and tumors in vivo is still needed to elucidate cellular pathways most promising for the development of targeted therapies. In order to elucidate which biological pathways are altered during microenvironmental shift we have analyzed whole genome mRNA and miRNA expression differences in LLC1 cells cultured in 2D or 3D culture conditions. In our study we used DNA microarrays for whole genome analysis of mRNA and miRNA expression differences in LLC1 cells cultivated in 2D or 3D culture conditions. Next, we indicated the most common enriched functional categories using KEGG pathway enrichment analysis. Finally, we validated the microarray data by quantitative PCR in LLC1 cells cultured under 2D or 3D conditions or LLC1 tumors implanted in experimental animals. Microarray gene expression analysis revealed that 1884 genes and 77 miRNAs were significantly altered in LLC1 cells after 48 h cell growth under 2D and ECM based 3D cell growth conditions. Pathway enrichment results indicated metabolic pathway, MAP kinase, cell adhesion and immune response as the most significantly altered
Jeffrey J. Kim
Full Text Available It has been reported that nicotine/alcohol alters epigenetic control and leads to abrogated DNA methylation and histone modifications, which could subsequently perturb transcriptional regulation critically important in cellular transformation. The aim of this study is to determine the molecular mechanisms of nicotine/alcohol-induced epigenetic alterations and their mechanistic roles in transcriptional regulation in human adult stem cells. We hypothesized that nicotine/alcohol induces deregulation of epigenetic machinery and leads to epigenetic alterations, which subsequently affect transcriptional regulation in oral epithelial stem cells. As an initiating step we have profiled transcriptomic alterations induced by the combinatory administration of EtOH and nicotine in primary normal human oral keratinocytes. Here we provide detailed experimental methods, analysis and information associated with our data deposited into Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO under GSE57634. Our data provide comprehensive transcriptomic map describing molecular changes induced by EtOH and nicotine on normal human oral keratinocytes.
Walter, Vincent P; Taran, Florin-Andrei; Wallwiener, Markus; Walter, Christina; Grischke, Eva-Maria; Wallwiener, Diethelm; Brucker, Sara Y; Hartkopf, Andreas D
The 70-gene signature (70-GS) is a prognostic tool, grouping patients in risk groups to assess their need for adjuvant chemotherapy. Tumor cell dissemination to the bone marrow is a marker of minimal residual disease and associated with impaired survival. In this study, we aimed to evaluate whether 70-GS is associated with the presence of disseminated tumor cells (DTCs) in the bone marrow of patients with early breast cancer. In patients with hormone receptor-positive HER2-negative early breast cancer, the 70-GS was obtained and the presence of DTCs was immunohistochemically evaluated using cytokeratin staining with the A45-B/B3 antibody. 149 patients were included into the analysis. 40 (27%) had a high-risk 70-GS and 35 (23%) had detectable DTCs in their bone marrow. 9 (22%) of the 40 patients with high-risk 70-GS and 26 (24%) of the 109 patients with a low-risk 70-GS were positive for DTCs (p = 0.863). As both 70-GS and DTC detection are known prognostic factors but do not seem to correlate, a follow-up on a larger cohort is warranted to evaluate if a combination of the two is able to better stratify the relapse risk in early breast cancer patients.
Full Text Available There is considerable evidence for the effectiveness of mind–body interventions (MBIs in improving mental and physical health, but the molecular mechanisms of these benefits remain poorly understood. One hypothesis is that MBIs reverse expression of genes involved in inflammatory reactions that are induced by stress. This systematic review was conducted to examine changes in gene expression that occur after MBIs and to explore how these molecular changes are related to health. We searched PubMed throughout September 2016 to look for studies that have used gene expression analysis in MBIs (i.e., mindfulness, yoga, Tai Chi, Qigong, relaxation response, and breath regulation. Due to the limited quantity of studies, we included both clinical and non-clinical samples with any type of research design. Eighteen relevant studies were retrieved and analyzed. Overall, the studies indicate that these practices are associated with a downregulation of nuclear factor kappa B pathway; this is the opposite of the effects of chronic stress on gene expression and suggests that MBI practices may lead to a reduced risk of inflammation-related diseases. However, it is unclear how the effects of MBIs compare to other healthy interventions such as exercise or nutrition due to the small number of available studies. More research is required to be able to understand the effects of MBIs at the molecular level.
Buric, Ivana; Farias, Miguel; Jong, Jonathan; Mee, Christopher; Brazil, Inti A
There is considerable evidence for the effectiveness of mind-body interventions (MBIs) in improving mental and physical health, but the molecular mechanisms of these benefits remain poorly understood. One hypothesis is that MBIs reverse expression of genes involved in inflammatory reactions that are induced by stress. This systematic review was conducted to examine changes in gene expression that occur after MBIs and to explore how these molecular changes are related to health. We searched PubMed throughout September 2016 to look for studies that have used gene expression analysis in MBIs (i.e., mindfulness, yoga, Tai Chi, Qigong, relaxation response, and breath regulation). Due to the limited quantity of studies, we included both clinical and non-clinical samples with any type of research design. Eighteen relevant studies were retrieved and analyzed. Overall, the studies indicate that these practices are associated with a downregulation of nuclear factor kappa B pathway; this is the opposite of the effects of chronic stress on gene expression and suggests that MBI practices may lead to a reduced risk of inflammation-related diseases. However, it is unclear how the effects of MBIs compare to other healthy interventions such as exercise or nutrition due to the small number of available studies. More research is required to be able to understand the effects of MBIs at the molecular level.
Full Text Available Voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs are well documented to play roles in cell proliferation, migration, and apoptosis; however, whether VGCCs regulate the onset and progression of cancer is still under investigation. The VGCC family consists of five members, which are L-type, N-type, T-type, R-type and P/Q type. To date, no holistic approach has been used to screen VGCC family genes in different types of cancer. We analyzed the transcript expression of VGCCs in clinical cancer tissue samples by accessing ONCOMINE (www.oncomine.org, a web-based microarray database, to perform a systematic analysis. Every member of the VGCCs was examined across 21 different types of cancer by comparing mRNA expression in cancer to that in normal tissue. A previous study showed that altered expression of mRNA in cancer tissue may play an oncogenic role and promote tumor development; therefore, in the present findings, we focus only on the overexpression of VGCCs in different types of cancer. This bioinformatics analysis revealed that different subtypes of VGCCs (CACNA1C, CACNA1D, CACNA1B, CACNA1G, and CACNA1I are implicated in the development and progression of diverse types of cancer and show dramatic up-regulation in breast cancer. CACNA1F only showed high expression in testis cancer, whereas CACNA1A, CACNA1C, and CACNA1D were highly expressed in most types of cancer. The current analysis revealed that specific VGCCs likely play essential roles in specific types of cancer. Collectively, we identified several VGCC targets and classified them according to different cancer subtypes for prospective studies on the underlying carcinogenic mechanisms. The present findings suggest that VGCCs are possible targets for prospective investigation in cancer treatment.
The large yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea) is an economically important marine fish in China. To understand the molecular basis for antiviral defense in this species, we used Illumia paired-end sequencing to characterize the spleen transcriptome of polyriboinosinic:polyribocytidylic acid [poly(I:C)]-induced large yellow croakers. The library produced 56,355,728 reads and assembled into 108,237 contigs. As a result, 15,192 unigenes were found from this transcriptome. Gene ontology analysis showed that 4,759 genes were involved in three major functional categories: biological process, cellular component, and molecular function. We further ascertained that numerous consensus sequences were homologous to known immune-relevant genes. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes orthology mapping annotated 5,389 unigenes and identified numerous immune-relevant pathways. These immune-relevant genes and pathways revealed major antiviral immunity effectors, including but not limited to: pattern recognition receptors, adaptors and signal transducers, the interferons and interferon-stimulated genes, inflammatory cytokines and receptors, complement components, and B-cell and T-cell antigen activation molecules. Moreover, the partial genes of Toll-like receptor signaling pathway, RIG-I-like receptors signaling pathway, Janus kinase-Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription (JAK-STAT) signaling pathway, and T-cell receptor (TCR) signaling pathway were found to be changed after poly(I:C) induction by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis, suggesting that these signaling pathways may be regulated by poly(I:C), a viral mimic. Overall, the antivirus-related genes and signaling pathways that were identified in response to poly(I:C) challenge provide valuable leads for further investigation of the antiviral defense mechanism in the large yellow croaker. © 2014 Mu et al.
Full Text Available The large yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea is an economically important marine fish in China. To understand the molecular basis for antiviral defense in this species, we used Illumia paired-end sequencing to characterize the spleen transcriptome of polyriboinosinic:polyribocytidylic acid [poly(I:C]-induced large yellow croakers. The library produced 56,355,728 reads and assembled into 108,237 contigs. As a result, 15,192 unigenes were found from this transcriptome. Gene ontology analysis showed that 4,759 genes were involved in three major functional categories: biological process, cellular component, and molecular function. We further ascertained that numerous consensus sequences were homologous to known immune-relevant genes. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes orthology mapping annotated 5,389 unigenes and identified numerous immune-relevant pathways. These immune-relevant genes and pathways revealed major antiviral immunity effectors, including but not limited to: pattern recognition receptors, adaptors and signal transducers, the interferons and interferon-stimulated genes, inflammatory cytokines and receptors, complement components, and B-cell and T-cell antigen activation molecules. Moreover, the partial genes of Toll-like receptor signaling pathway, RIG-I-like receptors signaling pathway, Janus kinase-Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription (JAK-STAT signaling pathway, and T-cell receptor (TCR signaling pathway were found to be changed after poly(I:C induction by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR analysis, suggesting that these signaling pathways may be regulated by poly(I:C, a viral mimic. Overall, the antivirus-related genes and signaling pathways that were identified in response to poly(I:C challenge provide valuable leads for further investigation of the antiviral defense mechanism in the large yellow croaker.
Mu, Yinnan; Li, Mingyu; Ding, Feng; Ding, Yang; Ao, Jingqun; Hu, Songnian; Chen, Xinhua
The large yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea) is an economically important marine fish in China. To understand the molecular basis for antiviral defense in this species, we used Illumia paired-end sequencing to characterize the spleen transcriptome of polyriboinosinic:polyribocytidylic acid [poly(I:C)]-induced large yellow croakers. The library produced 56,355,728 reads and assembled into 108,237 contigs. As a result, 15,192 unigenes were found from this transcriptome. Gene ontology analysis showed that 4,759 genes were involved in three major functional categories: biological process, cellular component, and molecular function. We further ascertained that numerous consensus sequences were homologous to known immune-relevant genes. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes orthology mapping annotated 5,389 unigenes and identified numerous immune-relevant pathways. These immune-relevant genes and pathways revealed major antiviral immunity effectors, including but not limited to: pattern recognition receptors, adaptors and signal transducers, the interferons and interferon-stimulated genes, inflammatory cytokines and receptors, complement components, and B-cell and T-cell antigen activation molecules. Moreover, the partial genes of Toll-like receptor signaling pathway, RIG-I-like receptors signaling pathway, Janus kinase-Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription (JAK-STAT) signaling pathway, and T-cell receptor (TCR) signaling pathway were found to be changed after poly(I:C) induction by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis, suggesting that these signaling pathways may be regulated by poly(I:C), a viral mimic. Overall, the antivirus-related genes and signaling pathways that were identified in response to poly(I:C) challenge provide valuable leads for further investigation of the antiviral defense mechanism in the large yellow croaker. © 2014 Mu et al.
Full Text Available Abstract Background With the advance of large-scale omics technologies, it is now feasible to reversely engineer the underlying genetic networks that describe the complex interplays of molecular elements that lead to complex diseases. Current networking approaches are mainly focusing on building genetic networks at large without probing the interaction mechanisms specific to a physiological or disease condition. The aim of this study was thus to develop such a novel networking approach based on the relevance concept, which is ideal to reveal integrative effects of multiple genes in the underlying genetic circuit for complex diseases. Results The approach started with identification of multiple disease pathways, called a gene forest, in which the genes extracted from the decision forest constructed by supervised learning of the genome-wide transcriptional profiles for patients and normal samples. Based on the newly identified disease mechanisms, a novel pair-wise relevance metric, adjusted frequency value, was used to define the degree of genetic relationship between two molecular determinants. We applied the proposed method to analyze a publicly available microarray dataset for colon cancer. The results demonstrated that the colon cancer-specific gene network captured the most important genetic interactions in several cellular processes, such as proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation, mitogenesis and immunity, which are known to be pivotal for tumourigenesis. Further analysis of the topological architecture of the network identified three known hub cancer genes [interleukin 8 (IL8 (p ≈ 0, desmin (DES (p = 2.71 × 10-6 and enolase 1 (ENO1 (p = 4.19 × 10-5], while two novel hub genes [RNA binding motif protein 9 (RBM9 (p = 1.50 × 10-4 and ribosomal protein L30 (RPL30 (p = 1.50 × 10-4] may define new central elements in the gene network specific to colon cancer. Gene Ontology (GO based analysis of the colon cancer-specific gene network and
Jiang, Wei; Li, Xia; Rao, Shaoqi; Wang, Lihong; Du, Lei; Li, Chuanxing; Wu, Chao; Wang, Hongzhi; Wang, Yadong; Yang, Baofeng
With the advance of large-scale omics technologies, it is now feasible to reversely engineer the underlying genetic networks that describe the complex interplays of molecular elements that lead to complex diseases. Current networking approaches are mainly focusing on building genetic networks at large without probing the interaction mechanisms specific to a physiological or disease condition. The aim of this study was thus to develop such a novel networking approach based on the relevance concept, which is ideal to reveal integrative effects of multiple genes in the underlying genetic circuit for complex diseases. The approach started with identification of multiple disease pathways, called a gene forest, in which the genes extracted from the decision forest constructed by supervised learning of the genome-wide transcriptional profiles for patients and normal samples. Based on the newly identified disease mechanisms, a novel pair-wise relevance metric, adjusted frequency value, was used to define the degree of genetic relationship between two molecular determinants. We applied the proposed method to analyze a publicly available microarray dataset for colon cancer. The results demonstrated that the colon cancer-specific gene network captured the most important genetic interactions in several cellular processes, such as proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation, mitogenesis and immunity, which are known to be pivotal for tumourigenesis. Further analysis of the topological architecture of the network identified three known hub cancer genes [interleukin 8 (IL8) (p approximately 0), desmin (DES) (p = 2.71 x 10(-6)) and enolase 1 (ENO1) (p = 4.19 x 10(-5))], while two novel hub genes [RNA binding motif protein 9 (RBM9) (p = 1.50 x 10(-4)) and ribosomal protein L30 (RPL30) (p = 1.50 x 10(-4))] may define new central elements in the gene network specific to colon cancer. Gene Ontology (GO) based analysis of the colon cancer-specific gene network and the sub-network that
Vuylsteke, M.; Eeuwijk, van F.A.
Many common traits are believed to be a composite reflection of multiple genetic and environmental factors. Recent advances suggest that subtle variations in the regulation of gene expression may contribute to quantitative traits. The nature of sequence variation affecting the regulation of gene
Nandoe Tewarie, R.D.S.; Bossers, K.; Ritfeld, G.J.; Blits, B.; Grotenhuis, J.A.; Verhaagen, J.; Oudega, M.
PURPOSE: The assessment of the capacity of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) to repair the nervous system using gene expression profiling. The evaluation of effects of long-term culturing on the gene expression profile of BMSC. METHODS: Fourty four k whole genome rat microarrays were used to study
Trauer-Kizilelma, Ute; Hilker, Monika
Insect parents that experienced an immune challenge are known to prepare (prime) the immune activity of their offspring for improved defence. This phenomenon has intensively been studied by analysing especially immunity-related proteins. However, it is unknown how transgenerational immune priming affects transcript levels of immune-relevant genes of the offspring upon an actual threat. Here, we investigated how an immune challenge of Manduca sexta parents affects the expression of immune-related genes in their eggs that are attacked by parasitoids. Furthermore, we addressed the question whether the transgenerational immune priming of expression of genes in the eggs is still traceable in adult offspring. Our study revealed that a parental immune challenge did not affect the expression of immune-related genes in unparasitised eggs. However, immune-related genes in parasitised eggs of immune-challenged parents were upregulated to a higher level than those in parasitised eggs of unchallenged parents. Hence, this transgenerational immune priming of the eggs was detected only "on demand", i.e. upon parasitoid attack. The priming effects were also traceable in adult female progeny of immune-challenged parents which showed higher transcript levels of several immune-related genes in their ovaries than non-primed progeny. Some of the primed genes showed enhanced expression even when the progeny was left unchallenged, whereas other genes were upregulated to a greater extent in primed female progeny than non-primed ones only when the progeny itself was immune-challenged. Thus, the detection of transgenerational immune priming strongly depends on the analysed genes and the presence or absence of an actual threat for the offspring. We suggest that M. sexta eggs laid by immune-challenged parents "afford" to upregulate the transcription of immunity-related genes only upon attack, because they have the chance to be endowed by parentally directly transferred protective proteins
Sawada, Akihisa; Croom-Carter, Deborah; Kondo, Osamu; Yasui, Masahiro; Koyama-Sato, Maho; Inoue, Masami; Kawa, Keisei; Rickinson, Alan B; Tierney, Rosemary J
Polymorphisms in Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) latent genes can identify virus strains from different human populations and individual strains within a population. An Asian EBV signature has been defined almost exclusively from Chinese viruses, with little information from other Asian countries. Here we sequenced polymorphic regions of the EBNA1, 2, 3A, 3B, 3C and LMP1 genes of 31 Japanese strains from control donors and EBV-associated T/NK-cell lymphoproliferative disease (T/NK-LPD) patients. Though identical to Chinese strains in their dominant EBNA1 and LMP1 alleles, Japanese viruses were subtly different at other loci. Thus, while Chinese viruses mainly fall into two families with strongly linked 'Wu' or 'Li' alleles at EBNA2 and EBNA3A/B/C, Japanese viruses all have the consensus Wu EBNA2 allele but fall into two families at EBNA3A/B/C. One family has variant Li-like sequences at EBNA3A and 3B and the consensus Li sequence at EBNA3C; the other family has variant Wu-like sequences at EBNA3A, variants of a low frequency Chinese allele 'Sp' at EBNA3B and a consensus Sp sequence at EBNA3C. Thus, EBNA3A/B/C allelotypes clearly distinguish Japanese from Chinese strains. Interestingly, most Japanese viruses also lack those immune-escape mutations in the HLA-A11 epitope-encoding region of EBNA3B that are so characteristic of viruses from the highly A11-positive Chinese population. Control donor-derived and T/NK-LPD-derived strains were similarly distributed across allelotypes and, by using allelic polymorphisms to track virus strains in patients pre- and post-haematopoietic stem-cell transplant, we show that a single strain can induce both T/NK-LPD and B-cell-lymphoproliferative disease in the same patient.
Mentzel, Caroline M. Junker; Cardoso, Tainã Figueiredo; Pipper, Christian Bressen
The aim of this study was to elucidate the relative impact of three phenotypes often used to characterize obesity on perturbation of molecular pathways involved in obesity. The three obesity-related phenotypes are (1) body mass index (BMI), (2) amount of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SATa), and (3......) amount of retroperitoneal adipose tissue (RPATa). Although it is generally accepted that increasing amount of RPATa is ‘unhealthy’, a direct comparison of the relative impact of the three obesity-related phenotypes on gene expression has, to our knowledge, not been performed previously. We have used...... multiple linear models to analyze altered gene expression of selected obesity-related genes in tissues collected from 19 female pigs phenotypically characterized with respect to the obesity-related phenotypes. Gene expression was assessed by high-throughput qPCR in RNA from liver, skeletal muscle...
Full Text Available Monochamus alternatus Hope is the main vector in China of the Pine Wilt Disease caused by the pine wood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. Although chemical control is traditionally used to prevent pine wilt disease, new strategies based in biological control are promising ways for the management of the disease. However, there is no deep sequence analysis of Monochamus alternatus Hope that describes the transcriptome and no information is available about gene function of this insect vector. We used next generation sequencing technology to sequence the whole fourth instar larva transcriptome of Monochamus alternatus Hope and successfully built a Monochamus alternatus Hope transcriptome database. In total, 105,612 unigenes were assigned for Gene Ontology (GO terms, information for 16,730 classified unigenes was obtained in the Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COGs database, and 13,024 unigenes matched with 224 predicted pathways in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genome (KEGG. In addition, genes related to putative insecticide resistance-related genes, RNAi, the Bt receptor, intestinal digestive enzymes, possible future insect control targets and immune-related molecules are described. This study provides valuable basic information that can be used as a gateway to develop new molecular tools for Monochamus alternatus Hope control strategies.
Morris, Richard G
The question of how mechanically gated membrane channels open and close is notoriously difficult to address, especially if the protein structure is not available. This perspective highlights the relevance of micropipette-aspirated single-particle tracking-used to obtain a channel's diffusion coefficient, D, as a function of applied membrane tension, σ-as an indirect assay for determining functional behavior in mechanosensitive channels. While ensuring that the protein remains integral to the membrane, such methods can be used to identify not only the gating mechanism of a protein, but also associated physical moduli, such as torsional and dilational rigidity, which correspond to the protein's effective shape change. As an example, three distinct D-versus-σ "signatures" are calculated, corresponding to gating by dilation, gating by tilt, and gating by a combination of both dilation and tilt. Both advantages and disadvantages of the approach are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Valeria De Giorgi
Full Text Available Hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs are a heterogeneous group of tumors that differ in risk factors and genetic alterations. In Italy, particularly Southern Italy, chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV infection represents the main cause of HCC. Using high-density oligoarrays, we identified consistent differences in gene-expression between HCC and normal liver tissue. Expression patterns in HCC were also readily distinguishable from those associated with liver metastases. To characterize molecular events relevant to hepatocarcinogenesis and identify biomarkers for early HCC detection, gene expression profiling of 71 liver biopsies from HCV-related primary HCC and corresponding HCV-positive non-HCC hepatic tissue, as well as gastrointestinal liver metastases paired with the apparently normal peri-tumoral liver tissue, were compared to 6 liver biopsies from healthy individuals. Characteristic gene signatures were identified when normal tissue was compared with HCV-related primary HCC, corresponding HCV-positive non-HCC as well as gastrointestinal liver metastases. Pathway analysis classified the cellular and biological functions of the genes differentially expressed as related to regulation of gene expression and post-translational modification in HCV-related primary HCC; cellular Growth and Proliferation, and Cell-To-Cell Signaling and Interaction in HCV-related non HCC samples; Cellular Growth and Proliferation and Cell Cycle in metastasis. Also characteristic gene signatures were identified of HCV-HCC progression for early HCC diagnosis.A diagnostic molecular signature complementing conventional pathologic assessment was identified.
In mammalian cells, transcribed enhancers (TrEn) play important roles in the initiation of gene expression and maintenance of gene expression levels in spatiotemporal manner. One of the most challenging questions in biology today is how the genomic characteristics of enhancers relate to enhancer activities. This is particularly critical, as several recent studies have linked enhancer sequence motifs to specific functional roles. To date, only a limited number of enhancer sequence characteristics have been investigated, leaving space for exploring the enhancers genomic code in a more systematic way. To address this problem, we developed a novel computational method, TELS, aimed at identifying predictive cell type/tissue specific motif signatures. We used TELS to compile a comprehensive catalog of motif signatures for all known TrEn identified by the FANTOM5 consortium across 112 human primary cells and tissues. Our results confirm that distinct cell type/tissue specific motif signatures characterize TrEn. These signatures allow discriminating successfully a) TrEn from random controls, proxy of non-enhancer activity, and b) cell type/tissue specific TrEn from enhancers expressed and transcribed in different cell types/tissues. TELS codes and datasets are publicly available at http://www.cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/TELS.
Roy, Janine; Isik, Zerrin; Pilarsky, Christian; Schroeder, Michael
Recently, there is a lot of interest in using biomarker signatures derived from gene expression data to predict cancer progression. We assembled signatures of 25 published datasets covering 13 types of cancers. How do these signatures compare with each other? On one hand signatures answering the same biological question should overlap, whereas signatures predicting different cancer types should differ. On the other hand, there could also be a Universal Cancer Signature that is predictive independently of the cancer type. Initially, we generate signatures for all datasets using classical approaches such as t-test and fold change and then, we explore signatures resulting from a network-based method, that applies the random surfer model of Google's PageRank algorithm. We show that the signatures as published by the authors and the signatures generated with classical methods do not overlap - not even for the same cancer type - whereas the network-based signatures strongly overlap. Selecting 10 out of 37 universal cancer genes gives the optimal prediction for all cancers thus taking a first step towards a Universal Cancer Signature. We furthermore analyze and discuss the involved genes in terms of the Hallmarks of cancer and in particular single out SP1, JUN/FOS and NFKB1 and examine their specific role in cancer progression.
Wang, Feng; Liang, Yuting; Jiang, Yuji; Yang, Yunfeng; Xue, Kai; Xiong, Jinbo; Zhou, Jizhong; Sun, Bo
Plants have an important impact on soil microbial communities and their functions. However, how plants determine the microbial composition and network interactions is still poorly understood. During a four-year field experiment, we investigated the functional gene composition of three types of soils (Phaeozem, Cambisols and Acrisol) under maize planting and bare fallow regimes located in cold temperate, warm temperate and subtropical regions, respectively. The core genes were identified using high-throughput functional gene microarray (GeoChip 3.0), and functional molecular ecological networks (fMENs) were subsequently developed with the random matrix theory (RMT)-based conceptual framework. Our results demonstrated that planting significantly (P soils and 83.5% of microbial alpha-diversity can be explained by the plant factor. Moreover, planting had significant impacts on the microbial community structure and the network interactions of the microbial communities. The calculated network complexity was higher under maize planting than under bare fallow regimes. The increase of the functional genes led to an increase in both soil respiration and nitrification potential with maize planting, indicating that changes in the soil microbial communities and network interactions influenced ecological functioning.
Kang, Duk-Young; Kim, Hyo-Chan
To determine whether proopiomelanocortin (POMC) genes are involved in darkening color camouflage, blind-side hypermelanosis, and appetite in flatfish, we isolated and cloned three POMC genes from the pituitary of the olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) and compared their amino acid (aa) structures to those of POMC genes from other animals. Next, we examined the relationship of these pituitary POMC genes to camouflage color change, blind-side hypermelanosis, and appetite by quantifying mRNA expression. Olive flounder (of)-POMC1, 2, and 3 cDNAs consisted of 648-bp, 582-bp, and 693-bp open reading frames (ORF) encoding 216 aa, 194 aa, and 231 aa residues, respectively. Structurally, the three of-POMC cDNAs consisted of seven peptides (signal peptide, N-POMC, α-MSH, CLIP, N-β-LPH, β-MSH and β-END [or END-like peptide]) that are similar to those of other fish POMC cDNAs. α-MSH encoded a protein composed of 13 aa and β-MSH encoded a protein composed of 17 aa. The three POMC genes were predominantly expressed in the pituitary gland, but they were also expressed in a variety of tissues, including brain, eye, kidney, heart, testis, and skin. of-POMC2 exhibited the highest expression, while of-POMC3 displayed the lowest expression. The relative levels of of-POMC1 and 3 mRNAs were not influenced by background color and feeding (or fasting), but the relative level of of-POMC2 mRNA significantly increased in response to a dark background and fasting. The relative levels of of-POMC1 and 2 mRNAs were significantly higher in hypermelanic fish; however, we did not determine a direct anorexigenic or orexigenic relationship for the three POMC genes. These results indicate that pituitary POMC genes are related to darkening color change and the differentiation of pigment cells, but they are not directly related to appetite. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Patel, Sejal; Roncaglia, Paola; Lovering, Ruth C
People with an autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) display a variety of characteristic behavioral traits, including impaired social interaction, communication difficulties and repetitive behavior. This complex neurodevelopment disorder is known to be associated with a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Neurexins and neuroligins play a key role in synaptogenesis and neurexin-neuroligin adhesion is one of several processes that have been implicated in autism spectrum disorders. In this report we describe the manual annotation of a selection of gene products known to be associated with autism and/or the neurexin-neuroligin-SHANK complex and demonstrate how a focused annotation approach leads to the creation of more descriptive Gene Ontology (GO) terms, as well as an increase in both the number of gene product annotations and their granularity, thus improving the data available in the GO database. The manual annotations we describe will impact on the functional analysis of a variety of future autism-relevant datasets. Comprehensive gene annotation is an essential aspect of genomic and proteomic studies, as the quality of gene annotations incorporated into statistical analysis tools affects the effective interpretation of data obtained through genome wide association studies, next generation sequencing, proteomic and transcriptomic datasets.
This work aims on missing handwritten signature authentication in Windows. Result of this work is standalone software that allow users to log into Windows by writing signature. We focus on security of signature authentification and best overall user experience. We implemented signature authentification service that accept signature and return user access token if signature is genuine. Signature authentification is done by comparing given signature to signature patterns by their similarity. Si...
Zuurbier, Linda; Gutierrez, Alejandro; Mullighan, Charles G.; Canté-Barrett, Kirsten; Gevaert, A. Olivier; de Rooi, Johan; Li, Yunlei; Smits, Willem K.; Buijs-Gladdines, Jessica G.C.A.M.; Sonneveld, Edwin; Look, A. Thomas; Horstmann, Martin; Pieters, Rob; Meijerink, Jules P.P.
Three distinct immature T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia entities have been described including cases that express an early T-cell precursor immunophenotype or expression profile, immature MEF2C-dysregulated T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia cluster cases based on gene expression analysis (immature cluster) and cases that retain non-rearranged TRG@ loci. Early T-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia cases exclusively overlap with immature cluster samples based on the expression of early T-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia signature genes, indicating that both are featuring a single disease entity. Patients lacking TRG@ rearrangements represent only 40% of immature cluster cases, but no further evidence was found to suggest that cases with absence of bi-allelic TRG@ deletions reflect a distinct and even more immature disease entity. Immature cluster/early T-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia cases are strongly enriched for genes expressed in hematopoietic stem cells as well as genes expressed in normal early thymocyte progenitor or double negative-2A T-cell subsets. Identification of early T-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia cases solely by defined immunophenotypic criteria strongly underestimates the number of cases that have a corresponding gene signature. However, early T-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia samples correlate best with a CD1 negative, CD4 and CD8 double negative immunophenotype with expression of CD34 and/or myeloid markers CD13 or CD33. Unlike various other studies, immature cluster/early T-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients treated on the COALL-97 protocol did not have an overall inferior outcome, and demonstrated equal sensitivity levels to most conventional therapeutic drugs compared to other pediatric T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients. PMID:23975177
Serrot, Patricia H; Sabater, Bartolomé; Martín, Mercedes
Three evergreen (Laurus nobilis, Viburnum tinus and Thuja plicata) and two autumnal abscission deciduous trees (Cydonia oblonga and Prunus domestica) have been investigated for the presence (zymogram and immunodetection) and functionality (post-illumination chlorophyll fluorescence) of the thylakoid Ndh complex. The presence of encoding ndh genes has also been investigated in T. plicata. Western assays allowed tentative identification of zymogram NADH dehydrogenase bands corresponding to the Ndh complex after native electrophoresis of solubilized fractions from L. nobilis, V. tinus, C. oblonga and P. domestica leaves, but not in those of T. plicata. However, Ndh subunits were detected after SDS-PAGE of thylakoid solubilized proteins of T. plicata. The leaves of the five plants showed the post-illumination chlorophyll fluorescence increase dependent on the presence of active Ndh complex. The fluorescence increase was higher in autumn in deciduous, but not in evergreen trees, which suggests that the thylakoid Ndh complex could be involved in autumnal leaf senescence. Two ndhB genes were sequenced from T. plicata that differ at the 350 bp 3' end sequence. Comparison with the mRNA revealed that ndhB genes have a 707-bp type II intron between exons 1 (723 bp) and 2 (729 bp) and that the UCA 259th codon is edited to UUA in mRNA. Phylogenetically, the ndhB genes of T. plicata group close to those of Metasequoia, Cryptomeria, Taxodium, Juniperus and Widdringtonia in the cupresaceae branch and are 5' end shortened by 18 codons with respect to that of angiosperms. Copyright © Physiologia Plantarum 2012.
Establishes the United States Environmental Protection Agency's approach to adopting electronic signature technology and best practices to ensure electronic signatures applied to official Agency documents are legally valid and enforceable
Checklist items 13 through 17 are grouped under the Signature Validation Process, and represent CROMERR requirements that the system must satisfy as part of ensuring that electronic signatures it receives are valid.
Minor changes to the standard supersymmetric model, such as soft flavor violation and R parity violation, cause large changes in the signatures. The origin of these changes and the resulting signatures are discussed. 15 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs
Nielsen, Torsten; Storhoff, James; Wallden, Brett; Schaper, Carl; Ferree, Sean; Liu, Shuzhen; Gao, Dongxia; Barry, Garrett; Dowidar, Naeem; Maysuria, Malini
NanoString’s Prosigna™ Breast Cancer Prognostic Gene Signature Assay is based on the PAM50 gene expression signature. The test outputs a risk of recurrence (ROR) score, risk category, and intrinsic subtype (Luminal A/B, HER2-enriched, Basal-like). The studies described here were designed to validate the analytical performance of the test on the nCounter Analysis System across multiple laboratories. Analytical precision was measured by testing five breast tumor RNA samples across 3 sites. Reproducibility was measured by testing replicate tissue sections from 43 FFPE breast tumor blocks across 3 sites following independent pathology review at each site. The RNA input range was validated by comparing assay results at the extremes of the specified range to the nominal RNA input level. Interference was evaluated by including non-tumor tissue into the test. The measured standard deviation (SD) was less than 1 ROR unit within the analytical precision study and the measured total SD was 2.9 ROR units within the reproducibility study. The ROR scores for RNA inputs at the extremes of the range were the same as those at the nominal input level. Assay results were stable in the presence of moderate amounts of surrounding non-tumor tissue (<70% by area). The analytical performance of NanoString’s Prosigna assay has been validated using FFPE breast tumor specimens across multiple clinical testing laboratories
D. Chaum (David)
textabstractPreviously known blind signature systems require an amount of computation at least proportional to the number of signature types, and also that the number of such types be fixed in advance. These requirements are not practical in some applications. Here, a new blind signature technique
Tian-Yin, Wang; Qiao-Yan, Wen
We present a new fair blind signature scheme based on the fundamental properties of quantum mechanics. In addition, we analyse the security of this scheme, and show that it is not possible to forge valid blind signatures. Moreover, comparisons between this scheme and public key blind signature schemes are also discussed. (general)
Full Text Available The recent identification of genes implicated in hereditary recurrent fevers has allowed their specific diagnosis. So far however, only punctual mutations have been identified and a significant number of patients remain with no genetic confirmation of their disease after routine molecular approaches such as sequencing. The possible involvement of sequence rearrangements in these patients has only been examined in familial Mediterranean fever and was found to be unlikely. To assess the existence of larger genetic alterations in 3 other concerned genes, MVK (Mevalonate kinase, NLRP3 (Nod like receptor family, pyrin domain containing 3 and TNFRSF1A (TNF receptor superfamily 1A, we adapted the qPCR-HRM method to study possible intragenic deletions and duplications. This single-tube approach, combining both qualitative (mutations and quantitative (rearrangement screening, has proven effective in Lynch syndrome diagnosis. Using this approach, we studied 113 unselected (prospective group and 88 selected (retrospective group patients and identified no intragenic rearrangements in the 3 genes. Only qualitative alterations were found with a sensitivity similar to that obtained using classical molecular techniques for screening punctual mutations. Our results support that deleterious copy number alterations in MVK, NLRP3 and TNFRSF1A are rare or absent from the mutational spectrum of hereditary recurrent fevers, and demonstrate that a routine combined method such as qPCR-HRM provides no further help in genetic diagnosis. However, quantitative approaches such as qPCR or SQF-PCR did prove to be quick and effective and could still be useful after non contributory punctual mutation screening in the presence of clinically evocative signs.
Drier, Yotam; Domany, Eytan
The fact that there is very little if any overlap between the genes of different prognostic signatures for early-discovery breast cancer is well documented. The reasons for this apparent discrepancy have been explained by the limits of simple machine-learning identification and ranking techniques, and the biological relevance and meaning of the prognostic gene lists was questioned. Subsequently, proponents of the prognostic gene lists claimed that different lists do capture similar underlying biological processes and pathways. The present study places under scrutiny the validity of this claim, for two important gene lists that are at the focus of current large-scale validation efforts. We performed careful enrichment analysis, controlling the effects of multiple testing in a manner which takes into account the nested dependent structure of gene ontologies. In contradiction to several previous publications, we find that the only biological process or pathway for which statistically significant concordance can be claimed is cell proliferation, a process whose relevance and prognostic value was well known long before gene expression profiling. We found that the claims reported by others, of wider concordance between the biological processes captured by the two prognostic signatures studied, were found either to be lacking statistical rigor or were in fact based on addressing some other question.
Full Text Available The fact that there is very little if any overlap between the genes of different prognostic signatures for early-discovery breast cancer is well documented. The reasons for this apparent discrepancy have been explained by the limits of simple machine-learning identification and ranking techniques, and the biological relevance and meaning of the prognostic gene lists was questioned. Subsequently, proponents of the prognostic gene lists claimed that different lists do capture similar underlying biological processes and pathways. The present study places under scrutiny the validity of this claim, for two important gene lists that are at the focus of current large-scale validation efforts. We performed careful enrichment analysis, controlling the effects of multiple testing in a manner which takes into account the nested dependent structure of gene ontologies. In contradiction to several previous publications, we find that the only biological process or pathway for which statistically significant concordance can be claimed is cell proliferation, a process whose relevance and prognostic value was well known long before gene expression profiling. We found that the claims reported by others, of wider concordance between the biological processes captured by the two prognostic signatures studied, were found either to be lacking statistical rigor or were in fact based on addressing some other question.
Full Text Available Abstract Background In the postgenome era, a prediction of response to treatment could lead to better dose selection for patients in radiotherapy. To identify a radiosensitive gene signature and elucidate related signaling pathways, four different microarray experiments were reanalyzed before radiotherapy. Results Radiosensitivity profiling data using clonogenic assay and gene expression profiling data from four published microarray platforms applied to NCI-60 cancer cell panel were used. The survival fraction at 2 Gy (SF2, range from 0 to 1 was calculated as a measure of radiosensitivity and a linear regression model was applied to identify genes or a gene set with a correlation between expression and radiosensitivity (SF2. Radiosensitivity signature genes were identified using significant analysis of microarrays (SAM and gene set analysis was performed using a global test using linear regression model. Using the radiation-related signaling pathway and identified genes, a genetic network was generated. According to SAM, 31 genes were identified as common to all the microarray platforms and therefore a common radiosensitivity signature. In gene set analysis, functions in the cell cycle, DNA replication, and cell junction, including adherence and gap junctions were related to radiosensitivity. The integrin, VEGF, MAPK, p53, JAK-STAT and Wnt signaling pathways were overrepresented in radiosensitivity. Significant genes including ACTN1, CCND1, HCLS1, ITGB5, PFN2, PTPRC, RAB13, and WAS, which are adhesion-related molecules that were identified by both SAM and gene set analysis, and showed interaction in the genetic network with the integrin signaling pathway. Conclusions Integration of four different microarray experiments and gene selection using gene set analysis discovered possible target genes and pathways relevant to radiosensitivity. Our results suggested that the identified genes are candidates for radiosensitivity biomarkers and that
Anca Dana Dobrian
Full Text Available The Twist proteins (Twist-1 and -2 are highly conserved developmental proteins with key roles for the transcriptional regulation in mesenchymal cell lineages. They belong to the super-family of bHLH proteins and exhibit bi-functional roles as both activators and repressors of gene transcription. The Twist proteins are expressed at low levels in adult tissues but may become abundantly re-expressed in cells undergoing malignant transformation. This observation prompted extensive research on the roles of Twist proteins in cancer progression and metastasis. Very recent studies indicate a novel role for Twist-1 as a potential regulator of adipose tissue remodeling and inflammation. Several studies suggested that developmental genes are important determinants of obesity, fat distribution and remodeling capacity of different adipose depots. Twist-1 is abundantly and selectively expressed in the adult adipose tissue and its constitutive expression is significantly higher in subcutaneous vs. visceral fat in both mice and humans. Moreover, Twist1 expression is strongly correlated with BMI and insulin resistance in humans. However, the functional roles and transcriptional downstream targets of Twist1 in adipose tissue are largely unexplored. The purpose of this review is to highlight the major findings related to Twist1 expression in different fat depots and cellular components of adipose tissue and to discuss the potential mechanisms suggesting a role for Twist1 in adipose tissue metabolism, inflammation and remodeling.
van den Eede, G.; Aarts, H. J.; Buhk, H. J.
In 2000, the thematic network ENTRANSFOOD was launched to assess four different topics that are all related to the testing or assessment of food containing or produced from genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Each of the topics was linked to a European Commission (EC)-funded large shared cost...... action (see http://www.entransfood.com). Since the exchange of genetic information through horizontal (lateral) gene transfer (HGT) might play a more important role, in quantity and quality, than hitherto imagined, a working group dealing with HGT in the context of food and feed safety was established....... This working group was linked to the GMOBILITY project (GMOBILITY, 2003) and the results of the deliberations are laid down in this review paper. HGT is reviewed in relation to the potential risks of consuming food or feed derived from transgenic crops. First, the mechanisms for obtaining transgenic crops...
Chettri, Jiwan Kumar; Raida, Martin Kristian; Holten-Andersen, Lars
) on the surface of the invader. Phagocytic cells are known to initiate a respiratory burst following an exposure to the pathogen, but the underlying and associated specific elements are poorly elucidated in fish. The present study describes the differential response of head kidney leukocytes from rainbow trout...... (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to different PAMPs mimicking viral (poly I:C), bacterial (flagellin and LPS) and fungal infections (zymosan and ß-glucan). Transcript of cytokines related to inflammation (IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-a) was highly up-regulated following LPS exposure whereas flagellin or poly I:C induced...... merely moderate reactions. In contrast, IFN-¿ expression was significantly higher in the poly I:C stimulated group compared to the LPS group. When head kidney cells were exposed to zymosan or ß-glucan, genes encoding IL-1ß, TNF-a, IL-6 and IL-10 became up-regulated. Their level of up...
Matthew A. Timberlake
Full Text Available The unfolded protein response (UPR is an evolutionarily conserved defensive mechanism that is used by cells to correct misfolded proteins that accumulate in the endoplasmic reticulum. These proteins are misfolded as a result of physical stress on a cell and initiate a host of downstream effects that govern processes ranging from inflammation to apoptosis. To examine whether UPR system plays a role in depression, we examined the expression of genes that are part of the three different pathways for UPR activation, namely GRP78, GRP94, ATF6, XBP-1, ATF4 and CHOP using an animal model system that distinguishes vulnerability (learned helpless, LH from resistance (non-learned helpless, NLH to develop depression. Rats were exposed to inescapable shock on day 1 and day 7 and were tested for escape latency on day 14. Rats not given shock but tested for escape latency were used as tested control (TC. Plasma corticosterone levels were measured. Expression levels of various UPR associated genes were determined in hippocampus using qPCR. We found that the corticosterone level was higher in LH rats compared with TC and NLH rats. Expression of GRP78, GRP94, ATF6 and XBP-1 were significantly upregulated in LH rats compared with TC or NLH rats, whereas NLH rats did not show such changes. Expression levels of ATF4 and CHOP showed trends towards upregulation but were not significantly altered in LH or NLH group. Our data show strong evidence of altered UPR system in depressed rats, which could be associated with development of depressive behavior.
Chow, Sherman S. M.
Traceable signature scheme extends a group signature scheme with an enhanced anonymity management mechanism. The group manager can compute a tracing trapdoor which enables anyone to test if a signature is signed by a given misbehaving user, while the only way to do so for group signatures requires revealing the signer of all signatures. Nevertheless, it is not tracing in a strict sense. For all existing schemes, T tracing agents need to recollect all N' signatures ever produced and perform RN' “checks” for R revoked users. This involves a high volume of transfer and computations. Increasing T increases the degree of parallelism for tracing but also the probability of “missing” some signatures in case some of the agents are dishonest.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Systematic research on fish immunogenetics is indispensable in understanding the origin and evolution of immune systems. This has long been a challenging task because of the limited number of deep sequencing technologies and genome backgrounds of non-model fish available. The newly developed Solexa/Illumina RNA-seq and Digital gene expression (DGE are high-throughput sequencing approaches and are powerful tools for genomic studies at the transcriptome level. This study reports the transcriptome profiling analysis of bacteria-challenged Lateolabrax japonicus using RNA-seq and DGE in an attempt to gain insights into the immunogenetics of marine fish. Results RNA-seq analysis generated 169,950 non-redundant consensus sequences, among which 48,987 functional transcripts with complete or various length encoding regions were identified. More than 52% of these transcripts are possibly involved in approximately 219 known metabolic or signalling pathways, while 2,673 transcripts were associated with immune-relevant genes. In addition, approximately 8% of the transcripts appeared to be fish-specific genes that have never been described before. DGE analysis revealed that the host transcriptome profile of Vibrio harveyi-challenged L. japonicus is considerably altered, as indicated by the significant up- or down-regulation of 1,224 strong infection-responsive transcripts. Results indicated an overall conservation of the components and transcriptome alterations underlying innate and adaptive immunity in fish and other vertebrate models. Analysis suggested the acquisition of numerous fish-specific immune system components during early vertebrate evolution. Conclusion This study provided a global survey of host defence gene activities against bacterial challenge in a non-model marine fish. Results can contribute to the in-depth study of candidate genes in marine fish immunity, and help improve current understanding of host
Schroeder, Kari Britt; Asherson, Philip; Blake, Peter R; Fenstermacher, Susan K; Saudino, Kimberly J
Cumulative culture ostensibly arises from a set of sociocognitive processes which includes high-fidelity production imitation, prosociality and group identification. The latter processes are facilitated by unconscious imitation or social mimicry. The proximate mechanisms of individual variation in imitation may thus shed light on the evolutionary history of the human capacity for cumulative culture. In humans, a genetic component to variation in the propensity for imitation is likely. A functional length polymorphism in the serotonin transporter gene, the short allele at 5HTTLPR, is associated with heightened responsiveness to the social environment as well as anatomical and activational differences in the brain's imitation circuity. Here, we evaluate whether this polymorphism contributes to variation in production imitation and social mimicry. Toddlers with the short allele at 5HTTLPR exhibit increased social mimicry and increased fidelity of demonstrated novel object manipulations. Thus, the short allele is associated with two forms of imitation that may underlie the human capacity for cumulative culture. The short allele spread relatively recently, possibly due to selection, and its frequency varies dramatically on a global scale. Diverse observations can be unified via conceptualization of 5HTTLPR as influencing the propensity to experience others' emotions, actions and sensations, potentially through the mirror mechanism. © 2016 The Author(s).
Morimoto, Kinuyo; Satake, Honoo
Lignans of Forsythia spp. are essential components of various Chinese medicines and health diets. However, the seasonal alteration in lignan amounts and the gene expression profile of lignan-biosynthetic enzymes has yet to be investigated. In this study, we have assessed seasonal alteration in amounts of major lignans, such as pinoresinol, matairesinol, and arctigenin, and examined the gene expression profile of pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductase (PLR), pinoresinol-glucosylating enzyme (UGT71A18), and secoisolariciresinol dehydrogenase (SIRD) in the leaf of Forsythia suspense from April to November. All of the lignans in the leaf continuously increased from April to June, reached the maximal level in June, and then decreased. Ninety percent of pinoresinol and matairesinol was converted into glucosides, while approximately 50% of arctigenin was aglycone. PLR was stably expressed from April to August, whereas the PLR expression was not detected from September to November. In contrast, the UGT71A18 expression was found from August to November, but not from April to July. The SIRD expression was prominent from April to May, not detected in June to July, and then increased again from September to November. These expression profiles of the lignan-synthetic enzymes are largely compatible with the alteration in lignan contents. Furthermore, such seasonal lignan profiles are in good agreement with the fact that the Forsythia leaves for Chinese medicinal tea are harvested in June. This is the first report on seasonal alteration in lignans and the relevant biosynthetic enzyme genes in the leaf of Forsythia species.
Bladder cancer is the second most common malignancy affecting the urinary system. Currently, histology is the only tool that determines therapy and patients' prognosis. As the treatment of non-invasive (Ta/T1) and muscle invasive (T2-T4) bladder tumors are completely different, correct staging is important, although it is often hampered by disturbing factors. Molecular methods offer new prospects for early disease detection, confirmation of unclear histological findings and prognostication. Applying molecular biological methods, the present study is searching for answers to current diagnostic and prognostic problems in bladder carcinoma. We analyzed tumor, blood and/or urine samples of 334 bladder cancer patients and 117 control individuals. Genetic alterations were analyzed in urine samples of patients and controls, both by PCR-based microsatellite loss of heterozigosity (LOH) analysis using 12 fluorescently labeled primers and by DNA hybridization based UroVysion FISH technique using 4 probes, to assess the diagnostic values of these methods. Whole genome microsatellite analysis (with 400 markers) was performed in tumor and blood specimens of bladder cancer patients to find chromosomal regions, the loss of which may be associated with tumor stage. Furthermore, we assessed the prognostic value of Tie2, VEGF, Angiopoietin-1 and -2. We concluded that DNA analysis of voided urine samples by microsatellite analysis and FISH are sensitive and non-invasive methods to detect bladder cancer. Furthermore, we established a panel of microsatellite markers that could differentiate between non-invasive and invasive bladder cancer. However, further analyses in a larger cohort of patients are needed to assess their specificity and sensitivity. Finally, we identified high Ang-2 and low Tie2 gene expression as significant and independent risk factors of tumor recurrence and cancer related survival.
Miczek, Klaus A; Nikulina, Ella M; Takahashi, Aki; Covington, Herbert E; Yap, Jasmine J; Boyson, Christopher O; Shimamoto, Akiko; de Almeida, Rosa M M
In this review, we examine how experiences in social confrontations alter gene expression in mesocorticolimbic cells. The focus is on the target of attack and threat due to the prominent role of social defeat stress in the study of coping mechanisms and victimization. The initial operational definition of the socially defeated mouse by Ginsburg and Allee (1942) enabled the characterization of key endocrine, cardiovascular, and metabolic events during the initial response to an aggressive opponent and during the ensuing adaptations. Brief episodes of social defeat stress induce an augmented response to stimulant challenge as reflected by increased locomotion and increased extracellular dopamine (DA) in the nucleus accumbens (NAC). Cells in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) that project to the NAC were more active as indicated by increased expression of c-fos and Fos-immunoreactivity and BDNF. Intermittent episodes of social defeat stress result in increased mRNA for MOR in brainstem and limbic structures. These behavioral and neurobiological indices of sensitization persist for several months after the stress experience. The episodically defeated rats also self-administered intravenous cocaine during continuous access for 24 h ("binge"). By contrast, continuous social stress, particularly in the form of social subordination stress, leads to reduced appetite, compromised endocrine activities, and cardiovascular and metabolic abnormalities, and prefer sweets less as index of anhedonia. Cocaine challenges in subordinate rats result in a blunted psychomotor stimulant response and a reduced DA release in NAC. Subordinate rats self-administer cocaine less during continuous access conditions. These contrasting patterns of social stress result from continuous vs. intermittent exposure to social stress, suggesting divergent neuroadaptations for increased vulnerability to cocaine self-administration vs. deteriorated reward mechanisms characteristic of depressive-like profiles.
Lavu, Vamsi; Venkatesan, Vettriselvi; Venugopal, Priyanka; Lakkakula, Bhaskar Venkata Kameswara Subrahmanya; Paul, Solomon Franklin Durairaj; Peria, Kumarasamy; Rao, Suresh Ranga
Cytokines are suggested to play a role in periodontitis. To determine and compare the levels of Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) samples amongst healthy individuals and those with chronic periodontitis. Further to compare the GCF cytokine levels in three genotype classes defined by the respective gene polymorphisms. The study was conducted on 41 chronic periodontitis patients and 40 healthy volunteers. IL-1β and TNF-α were quantified in GCF by cytometric bead array. DNA was extracted from peripheral blood samples and genotyping of IL1B +3954C/T (rs1143634) IL1B -511G/A (rs16944), TNFA -1031T/C (rs1799964) and TNFA -863C/A (rs1800630) polymorphisms were performed using Sanger sequencing and Taqman SNP genotyping assays methods. Both IL-1β and TNF-α levels were significantly higher in chronic periodontitis group compared to the controls. IL-1β and TNF-α levels did not significantly differ in genotype classes of the respective polymorphism (IL1B -511G/A, TNFA -1031T/C and TNFA -863C/A). However, individuals with CT genotype of IL1B +3954C/T showed higher levels of IL-1β in the gingival crevicular fluid (ANOVA p<0.05). The results of this study revealed the presence of higher levels of IL-1β and TNF-α in subjects with periodontitis and genetic control of IL-1β levels in our samples of Indians.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Infant birth weight is a complex quantitative trait associated with both neonatal and long-term health outcomes. Numerous studies have been published in which candidate genes (IGF1, IGF2, IGF2R, IGF binding proteins, PHLDA2 and PLAGL1 have been associated with birth weight, but these studies are difficult to reproduce in man and large cohort studies are needed due to the large inter individual variance in transcription levels. Also, very little of the trait variance is explained. We decided to identify additional candidates without regard for what is known about the genes. We hypothesize that DNA methylation differences between individuals can serve as markers of gene "expression potential" at growth related genes throughout development and that these differences may correlate with birth weight better than single time point measures of gene expression. Methods We performed DNA methylation and transcript profiling on cord blood and placenta from newborns. We then used novel computational approaches to identify genes correlated with birth weight. Results We identified 23 genes whose methylation levels explain 70-87% of the variance in birth weight. Six of these (ANGPT4, APOE, CDK2, GRB10, OSBPL5 and REG1B are associated with growth phenotypes in human or mouse models. Gene expression profiling explained a much smaller fraction of variance in birth weight than did DNA methylation. We further show that two genes, the transcriptional repressor MSX1 and the growth factor receptor adaptor protein GRB10, are correlated with transcriptional control of at least seven genes reported to be involved in fetal or placental growth, suggesting that we have identified important networks in growth control. GRB10 methylation is also correlated with genes involved in reactive oxygen species signaling, stress signaling and oxygen sensing and more recent data implicate GRB10 in insulin signaling. Conclusions Single time point measurements of gene
Pan, Wei; Zhang, An Qiang; Gu, Wei; Gao, Jun Wei; Du, Ding Yuan; Zhang, Lian Yang; Zeng, Ling; Du, Juan; Wang, Hai Yan; Jiang, Jian Xin
Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) family plays an important role in the development of sepsis in critically ill patients. Although several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been identified in the NF-κB family genes, only a few SNPs have been studied. A total of 753 patients with major blunt trauma were included in this study. Tag SNPs (tSNPs) were selected from the NF-κB family genes (NFKB1, NFKB2, RELA, RELB and REL) through construction of haplotype blocks. The SNPs selected from genes within the canonical NF-κB pathway (including NFKB1, RELA and REL), which played a critical role in innate immune responses were genotyped using pyrosequencing method and analyzed in relation to the risk of development of sepsis and multiple organ dysfunction (MOD) syndrome. Moreover, the rs842647 polymorphism was analyzed in relation to tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) production by peripheral blood leukocytes in response to bacterial lipoprotein stimulation. Eight SNPs (rs28362491, rs3774932, rs4648068, rs7119750, rs4803789, rs12609547, rs1560725 and rs842647) were selected from the NF-κB family genes. All of them were shown to be high-frequency SNPs in this study cohort. Four SNPs (rs28362491, rs4648068, rs7119750 and rs842647) within the canonical NF-κB pathway were genotyped, and rs842647 was associated with sepsis morbidity rate and MOD scores. An association was also observed between the rs842647 A allele and lower TNF-α production. rs842647 polymorphism might be used as relevant risk estimate for the development of sepsis and MOD syndrome in patients with major trauma.
Full Text Available The paper presented one of the application that can be done using smartphones camera. Nowadays forgery is one of the most undetected crimes. With the forensic technology used today it is still difficult for authorities to compare and define what a real signature is and what a forged signature is. A signature is a legal representation of a person. All transactions are based on a signature. Forgers may use a signature to sign illegal contracts and withdraw from bank accounts undetected. A signature can also be forged during election periods for repeated voting. Addressing the issues a signature should always be secure. Signature verification is a reduced problem that still poses a real challenge for researchers. The literature on signature verification is quite extensive and shows two main areas of research off-line and on-line systems. Off-line systems deal with a static image of the signature i.e. the result of the action of signing while on-line systems work on the dynamic process of generating the signature i.e. the action of signing itself. The researchers have found a way to resolve the concerns. A mobile application that integrates the camera to take a picture of a signature analyzes it and compares it to other signatures for verification. It will exist to help citizens to be more cautious and aware with issues regarding the signatures. This might also be relevant to help organizations and institutions such as banks and insurance companies in verifying signatures that may avoid unwanted transactions and identity theft. Furthermore this might help the authorities in the never ending battle against crime especially against forgers and thieves. The project aimed to design and develop a mobile application that integrates the smartphone camera for verifying and comparing signatures for security using the best algorithm possible. As the result of the development the said smartphone camera application is functional and reliable.
Full Text Available Signature schemes, proposed in 1976 by Diffie and Hellman, have become ubiquitous across modern communications. They allow for the exchange of messages from one sender to multiple recipients, with the guarantees that messages cannot be forged or tampered with and that messages also can be forwarded from one recipient to another without compromising their validity. Signatures are different from, but no less important than encryption, which ensures the privacy of a message. Commonly used signature protocols—signatures based on the Rivest–Adleman–Shamir (RSA algorithm, the digital signature algorithm (DSA, and the elliptic curve digital signature algorithm (ECDSA—are only computationally secure, similar to public key encryption methods. In fact, since these rely on the difficulty of finding discrete logarithms or factoring large primes, it is known that they will become completely insecure with the emergence of quantum computers. We may therefore see a shift towards signature protocols that will remain secure even in a post-quantum world. Ideally, such schemes would provide unconditional or information-theoretic security. In this paper, we aim to provide an accessible and comprehensive review of existing unconditionally securesecure signature schemes for signing classical messages, with a focus on unconditionally secure quantum signature schemes.
Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: The calculation, analysis, and visualization of the spatially extended radar signatures of complex objects such as ships in a sea multipath environment and...
Full Text Available Aflatoxins are toxic and potent carcinogenic metabolites produced from the fungi Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus. Aflatoxins can contaminate cottonseed under conducive preharvest and postharvest conditions. United States federal regulations restrict the use of aflatoxin contaminated cottonseed at >20 ppb for animal feed. Several strategies have been proposed for controlling aflatoxin contamination, and much success has been achieved by the application of an atoxigenic strain of A. flavus in cotton, peanut and maize fields. Development of cultivars resistant to aflatoxin through overexpression of resistance associated genes and/or knocking down aflatoxin biosynthesis of A. flavus will be an effective strategy for controlling aflatoxin contamination in cotton. In this study, genome-wide transcriptome profiling was performed to identify differentially expressed genes in response to infection with both toxigenic and atoxigenic strains of A. flavus on cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. pericarp and seed. The genes involved in antifungal response, oxidative burst, transcription factors, defense signaling pathways and stress response were highly differentially expressed in pericarp and seed tissues in response to A. flavus infection. The cell-wall modifying genes and genes involved in the production of antimicrobial substances were more active in pericarp as compared to seed. The genes involved in auxin and cytokinin signaling were also induced. Most of the genes involved in defense response in cotton were highly induced in pericarp than in seed. The global gene expression analysis in response to fungal invasion in cotton will serve as a source for identifying biomarkers for breeding, potential candidate genes for transgenic manipulation, and will help in understanding complex plant-fungal interaction for future downstream research.
Full Text Available Genetic and genomic studies highlight the substantial complexity and heterogeneity of human cancers and emphasize the general lack of therapeutics that can match this complexity. With the goal of expanding opportunities for drug discovery, we describe an approach that makes use of a phenotype-based screen combined with the use of multiple cancer cell lines. In particular, we have used the NCI-60 cancer cell line panel that includes drug sensitivity measures for over 40,000 compounds assayed on 59 independent cells lines. Targets are cancer-relevant phenotypes represented as gene expression signatures that are used to identify cells within the NCI-60 panel reflecting the signature phenotype and then connect to compounds that are selectively active against those cells. As a proof-of-concept, we show that this strategy effectively identifies compounds with selectivity to the RAS or PI3K pathways. We have then extended this strategy to identify compounds that have activity towards cells exhibiting the basal phenotype of breast cancer, a clinically-important breast cancer characterized as ER-, PR-, and Her2- that lacks viable therapeutic options. One of these compounds, Simvastatin, has previously been shown to inhibit breast cancer cell growth in vitro and importantly, has been associated with a reduction in ER-, PR- breast cancer in a clinical study. We suggest that this approach provides a novel strategy towards identification of therapeutic agents based on clinically relevant phenotypes that can augment the conventional strategies of target-based screens.
Background Ginger (Zingiber officinale) and turmeric (Curcuma longa) accumulate important pharmacologically active metabolites at high levels in their rhizomes. Despite their importance, relatively little is known regarding gene expression in the rhizomes of ginger and turmeric. Results In order to identify rhizome-enriched genes and genes encoding specialized metabolism enzymes and pathway regulators, we evaluated an assembled collection of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from eight different ginger and turmeric tissues. Comparisons to publicly available sorghum rhizome ESTs revealed a total of 777 gene transcripts expressed in ginger/turmeric and sorghum rhizomes but apparently absent from other tissues. The list of rhizome-specific transcripts was enriched for genes associated with regulation of tissue growth, development, and transcription. In particular, transcripts for ethylene response factors and AUX/IAA proteins appeared to accumulate in patterns mirroring results from previous studies regarding rhizome growth responses to exogenous applications of auxin and ethylene. Thus, these genes may play important roles in defining rhizome growth and development. Additional associations were made for ginger and turmeric rhizome-enriched MADS box transcription factors, their putative rhizome-enriched homologs in sorghum, and rhizomatous QTLs in rice. Additionally, analysis of both primary and specialized metabolism genes indicates that ginger and turmeric rhizomes are primarily devoted to the utilization of leaf supplied sucrose for the production and/or storage of specialized metabolites associated with the phenylpropanoid pathway and putative type III polyketide synthase gene products. This finding reinforces earlier hypotheses predicting roles of this enzyme class in the production of curcuminoids and gingerols. Conclusion A significant set of genes were found to be exclusively or preferentially expressed in the rhizome of ginger and turmeric. Specific
Woods, Matthew W; Zahoor, Muhammad Atif; Dizzell, Sara; Verschoor, Chris P; Kaushic, Charu
Medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA), a progestin-based hormonal contraceptive designed to mimic progesterone, has been linked to increased human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) susceptibility. Genital epithelial cells (GECs) form the mucosal lining of the female genital tract (FGT) and provide the first line of protection against HIV-1. The impact of endogenous sex hormones or MPA on the gene expression profile of GECs has not been comprehensively documented. Using microarray analysis, we characterized the transcriptional profile of primary endometrial epithelial cells grown in physiological levels of E2, P4, and MPA. Each hormone treatment altered the gene expression profile of GECs in a unique manner. Interestingly, although MPA is a progestogen, the gene expression profile induced by it was distinct from P4. MPA increased gene expression of genes related to inflammation and cholesterol synthesis linked to innate immunity and HIV-1 susceptibility. The analysis of gene expression profiles provides insights into the effects of sex hormones and MPA on GECs and allows us to posit possible mechanisms of the MPA-mediated increase in HIV-1 acquisition. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
A gene expression signature of retinoblastoma loss-of-function is a predictive biomarker of resistance to palbociclib in breast cancer cell lines and is prognostic in patients with ER positive early breast cancer.
Malorni, Luca; Piazza, Silvano; Ciani, Yari; Guarducci, Cristina; Bonechi, Martina; Biagioni, Chiara; Hart, Christopher D; Verardo, Roberto; Di Leo, Angelo; Migliaccio, Ilenia
Palbociclib is a CDK4/6 inhibitor that received FDA approval for treatment of hormone receptor positive (HR+) HER2 negative (HER2neg) advanced breast cancer. To better personalize patients treatment it is critical to identify subgroups that would mostly benefit from it. We hypothesize that complex alterations of the Retinoblastoma (Rb) pathway might be implicated in resistance to CDK4/6 inhibitors and aim to investigate whether signatures of Rb loss-of-function would identify breast cancer cell lines resistant to palbociclib. We established a gene expression signature of Rb loss-of-function (RBsig) by identifying genes correlated with E2F1 and E2F2 expression in breast cancers within The Cancer Genome Atlas. We assessed the RBsig prognostic role in the METABRIC and in a comprehensive breast cancer meta-dataset. Finally, we analyzed whether RBsig would discriminate palbociclib-sensitive and -resistant breast cancer cells in a large RNA sequencing-based dataset. The RBsig was associated with RB1 genetic status in all tumors (p <7e-32) and in luminal or basal subtypes (p < 7e-11 and p < 0.002, respectively). The RBsig was prognostic in the METABRIC dataset (discovery: HR = 1.93 [1.5-2.4] p = 1.4e-08; validation: HR = 2.01 [1.6-2.5] p = 1.3e-09). Untreated and endocrine treated patients with estrogen receptor positive breast cancer expressing high RBsig had significantly worse recurrence free survival compared to those with low RBsig (HR = 2.37 [1.8 - 3.2] p = 1.87e-08 and HR = 2.62 [1.9- 3.5] p = 8.6e-11, respectively). The RBsig was able to identify palbociclib resistant and sensitive breast cancer cells (ROC AUC = 0,7778). Signatures of RB loss might be helpful in personalizing treatment of patients with HR+/HER2neg breast cancer. Further validation in patients receiving palbociclib is warranted.
Le Morvan, Marine; Zinovyev, Andrei; Vert, Jean-Philippe
Genome-wide somatic mutation profiles of tumours can now be assessed efficiently and promise to move precision medicine forward. Statistical analysis of mutation profiles is however challenging due to the low frequency of most mutations, the varying mutation rates across tumours, and the presence of a majority of passenger events that hide the contribution of driver events. Here we propose a method, NetNorM, to represent whole-exome somatic mutation data in a form that enhances cancer-relevant information using a gene network as background knowledge. We evaluate its relevance for two tasks: survival prediction and unsupervised patient stratification. Using data from 8 cancer types from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), we show that it improves over the raw binary mutation data and network diffusion for these two tasks. In doing so, we also provide a thorough assessment of somatic mutations prognostic power which has been overlooked by previous studies because of the sparse and binary nature of mutations.
Hou, Li-Ping; Yang, Yang; Shu, Hu; Ying, Guang-Guo; Zhao, Jian-Liang; Chen, Yi-Bing; Chen, Yong-Heng; Fang, Gui-Zhen; Li, Xin; Liu, Ji-Sheng
Thallium is a rare-earth element, but widely distributed in water environments, posing a potential risk to our health. This study was designed to investigate the chronic effects of thallium based on physiological responses, gene expression, and changes in the activity of relevant enzymes in adult zebra fish exposed to thallium at low doses. The endpoints assessed include mRNA expression of metallothionein (MT)2 and heat shock protein HSP70; enzymatic activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Na + /K + -ATPase; and the histopathology of gill, gonad, and liver tissues. The results showed significant increases in HSP70 mRNA expression following exposure to 100 ng/L thallium and in MT2 expression following exposure to 500 ng/L thallium. Significantly higher activities were observed for SOD in liver and Na + /K + -ATPase activity in gill in zebra fish exposed to thallium (20 and 100 ng/L, respectively) in comparison to control fish. Gill, liver, and gonad tissues displayed different degrees of damage. The overall results imply that thallium may cause toxicity to zebra fish at environmentally relevant aqueous concentrations.
Pils, Dietmar; Sehouli, Jalid; Braicu, Ioana; Vergote, Ignace; Van Gorp, Toon; Mahner, Sven; Concin, Nicole; Speiser, Paul; Zeillinger, Robert; Tong, Dan; Hager, Gudrun; Obermayr, Eva; Aust, Stefanie; Heinze, Georg; Kohl, Maria; Schuster, Eva; Wolf, Andrea
The immune system is a key player in fighting cancer. Thus, we sought to identify a molecular ‘immune response signature’ indicating the presence of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) and to combine this with a serum protein biomarker panel to increase the specificity and sensitivity for earlier detection of EOC. Comparing the expression of 32,000 genes in a leukocytes fraction from 44 EOC patients and 19 controls, three uncorrelated shrunken centroid models were selected, comprised of 7, 14, and 6 genes. A second selection step using RT-qPCR data and significance analysis of microarrays yielded 13 genes (AP2A1, B4GALT1, C1orf63, CCR2, CFP, DIS3, NEAT1, NOXA1, OSM, PAPOLG, PRIC285, ZNF419, and BC037918) which were finally used in 343 samples (90 healthy, six cystadenoma, eight low malignant potential tumor, 19 FIGO I/II, and 220 FIGO III/IV EOC patients). Using new 65 controls and 224 EOC patients (thereof 14 FIGO I/II) the abundances of six plasma proteins (MIF, prolactin, CA125, leptin, osteopondin, and IGF2) was determined and used in combination with the expression values from the 13 genes for diagnosis of EOC. Combined diagnostic models using either each five gene expression and plasma protein abundance values or 13 gene expression and six plasma protein abundance values can discriminate controls from patients with EOC with Receiver Operator Characteristics Area Under the Curve values of 0.998 and bootstrap .632+ validated classification errors of 3.1% and 2.8%, respectively. The sensitivities were 97.8% and 95.6%, respectively, at a set specificity of 99.6%. The combination of gene expression and plasma protein based blood derived biomarkers in one diagnostic model increases the sensitivity and the specificity significantly. Such a diagnostic test may allow earlier diagnosis of epithelial ovarian cancer
Elijah M Songok
Full Text Available To identify novel biomarkers for HIV-1 resistance, including pathways that may be critical in anti-HIV-1 vaccine design, we carried out a gene expression analysis on blood samples obtained from HIV-1 highly exposed seronegatives (HESN from a commercial sex worker cohort in Nairobi and compared their profiles to HIV-1 negative controls. Whole blood samples were collected from 43 HIV-1 resistant sex workers and a similar number of controls. Total RNA was extracted and hybridized to the Affymetrix HUG 133 Plus 2.0 micro arrays (Affymetrix, Santa Clara CA. Output data was analysed through ArrayAssist software (Agilent, San Jose CA. More than 2,274 probe sets were differentially expressed in the HESN as compared to the control group (fold change ≥1.3; p value ≤0.0001, FDR <0.05. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering of the differentially expressed genes readily distinguished HESNs from controls. Pathway analysis through the KEGG signaling database revealed a majority of the impacted pathways (13 of 15, 87% had genes that were significantly down regulated. The most down expressed pathways were glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, pentose phosphate, phosphatidyl inositol, natural killer cell cytotoxicity and T-cell receptor signaling. Ribosomal protein synthesis and tight junction genes were up regulated. We infer that the hallmark of HIV-1 resistance is down regulation of genes in key signaling pathways that HIV-1 depends on for infection.
Pócsi, István; Miskei, Márton; Karányi, Zsolt; Emri, Tamás; Ayoubi, Patricia; Pusztahelyi, Tünde; Balla, György; Prade, Rolf A
Background In addition to their cytotoxic nature, reactive oxygen species (ROS) are also signal molecules in diverse cellular processes in eukaryotic organisms. Linking genome-wide transcriptional changes to cellular physiology in oxidative stress-exposed Aspergillus nidulans cultures provides the opportunity to estimate the sizes of peroxide (O22-), superoxide (O2•-) and glutathione/glutathione disulphide (GSH/GSSG) redox imbalance responses. Results Genome-wide transcriptional changes triggered by diamide, H2O2 and menadione in A. nidulans vegetative tissues were recorded using DNA microarrays containing 3533 unique PCR-amplified probes. Evaluation of LOESS-normalized data indicated that 2499 gene probes were affected by at least one stress-inducing agent. The stress induced by diamide and H2O2 were pulse-like, with recovery after 1 h exposure time while no recovery was observed with menadione. The distribution of stress-responsive gene probes among major physiological functional categories was approximately the same for each agent. The gene group sizes solely responsive to changes in intracellular O22-, O2•- concentrations or to GSH/GSSG redox imbalance were estimated at 7.7, 32.6 and 13.0 %, respectively. Gene groups responsive to diamide, H2O2 and menadione treatments and gene groups influenced by GSH/GSSG, O22- and O2•- were only partly overlapping with distinct enrichment profiles within functional categories. Changes in the GSH/GSSG redox state influenced expression of genes coding for PBS2 like MAPK kinase homologue, PSK2 kinase homologue, AtfA transcription factor, and many elements of ubiquitin tagging, cell division cycle regulators, translation machinery proteins, defense and stress proteins, transport proteins as well as many enzymes of the primary and secondary metabolisms. Meanwhile, a separate set of genes encoding transport proteins, CpcA and JlbA amino acid starvation-responsive transcription factors, and some elements of sexual development
Heather G LaBreche
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Current evidence indicates that even low-level lead (Pb exposure can have detrimental effects, especially in children. We tested the hypothesis that Pb exposure alters gene expression patterns in peripheral blood cells and that these changes reflect dose-specific alterations in the activity of particular pathways. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: Using Affymetrix Mouse Genome 430 2.0 arrays, we examined gene expression changes in the peripheral blood of female Balb/c mice following exposure to per os lead acetate trihydrate or plain drinking water for two weeks and after a two-week recovery period. Data sets were RMA-normalized and dose-specific signatures were generated using established methods of supervised classification and binary regression. Pathway activity was analyzed using the ScoreSignatures module from GenePattern. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The low-level Pb signature was 93% sensitive and 100% specific in classifying samples a leave-one-out crossvalidation. The high-level Pb signature demonstrated 100% sensitivity and specificity in the leave-one-out crossvalidation. These two signatures exhibited dose-specificity in their ability to predict Pb exposure and had little overlap in terms of constituent genes. The signatures also seemed to reflect current levels of Pb exposure rather than past exposure. Finally, the two doses showed differential activation of cellular pathways. Low-level Pb exposure increased activity of the interferon-gamma pathway, whereas high-level Pb exposure increased activity of the E2F1 pathway.
Tschirren, B; Råberg, L; Westerdahl, H
Patterns of selection acting on immune defence genes have recently been the focus of considerable interest. Yet, when it comes to vertebrates, studies have mainly focused on the acquired branch of the immune system. Consequently, the direction and strength of selection acting on genes of the vertebrate innate immune defence remain poorly understood. Here, we present a molecular analysis of selection on an important receptor of the innate immune system of vertebrates, the Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), across 17 rodent species. Although purifying selection was the prevalent evolutionary force acting on most parts of the rodent TLR2, we found that codons in close proximity to pathogen-binding and TLR2-TLR1 heterodimerization sites have been subject to positive selection. This indicates that parasite-mediated selection is not restricted to acquired immune system genes like the major histocompatibility complex, but also affects innate defence genes. To obtain a comprehensive understanding of evolutionary processes in host-parasite systems, both innate and acquired immunity thus need to be considered. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2011 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.
Buric, I.; Farias, M.; Mee, C.J.; Jong, J.; Brazil, I.A.
There is considerable evidence for the effectiveness of mind-body interventions (MBIs) in improving mental and physical health, but the molecular mechanisms of these benefits remain poorly understood. One hypothesis is that MBIs reverse expression of genes involved in inflammatory reactions that are
Full Text Available In prokaryotes, horizontal gene transfer (HGT has been regarded as an important evolutionary drive to acquire and retain beneficial genes for their survival in diverse ecologies. However, in eukaryotes, the functional role of HGTs remains questionable, although current genomic tools are providing increased evidence of acquisition of novel traits within non-mating metazoan species. Here, we provide another transcriptomic evidence for the acquisition of massive plant genes in the mosquito, Anopheles culicifacies. Our multiple experimental validations including genomic PCR, RT-PCR, real-time PCR, immuno-blotting and immuno-florescence microscopy, confirmed that plant like transcripts (PLTs are of mosquito origin and may encode functional proteins. A comprehensive molecular analysis of the PLTs and ongoing metagenomic analysis of salivary microbiome provide initial clues that mosquitoes may have survival benefits through the acquisition of nuclear as well as chloroplast encoded plant genes. Our findings of PLTs further support the similar questionable observation of HGTs in other higher organisms, which is still a controversial and debatable issue in the community of evolutionists. We believe future understanding of the underlying mechanism of the feeding associated molecular responses may shed new insights in the functional role of PLTs in the mosquito.
Shak S, Tang G, et al. A multigene assay to predict recurrence of tamoxifen-treated, node-negative breast cancer. N Engl J Med 2004; 351: 2817–26. 7...Barlow WE, Shak S, et al, for The Breast Cancer Intergroup of North America. Prognostic and predictive value of the 21-gene recurrence score assay in
Retel, Valesca; Retèl, Valesca P.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Jolien M.; Hummel, J. Marjan; van de Vijver, Marc J.; Douma, Kirsten F.L.; Karsenberg, Kim; van Dam, Frits S.A.M.; van Krimpen, Cees; Bellot, Frank E.; Roumen, Rudi M.H.; Linn, Sabine C.; van Harten, Willem H.
Objectives: Constructive Technology Assessment (CTA) is a means to guide early implementation of new developments in society, and can be used as an evaluation tool for Coverage with Evidence Development (CED). We used CTA for the introduction of a new diagnostic test in the Netherlands, the 70-gene
Retèl, Valesca P.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Jolien M.; Hummel, Marjan J. M.; van de Vijver, Marc J.; Douma, Kirsten F. L.; Karsenberg, Kim; van Dam, Frits S. A. M.; van Krimpen, Cees; Bellot, Frank E.; Roumen, Rudi M. H.; Linn, Sabine C.; van Harten, Wim H.
Objectives: Constructive Technology Assessment (CTA) is a means to guide early implementation of new developments in society, and can be used as an evaluation tool for Coverage with Evidence Development (CED). We used CTA for the introduction of a new diagnostic test in the Netherlands, the 70-gene
Diaz de Cerio, O.; Hands, E.; Humble, J.; Cajaraville, M.P.; Craft, J.A.; Cancio, I.
Highlights: ► Transcription responses in blue mussels exposed to styrene have been studied by SSH. ► 1440 Clones were obtained from which 287 were sequenced. ► Immune system, cancer-related and ribosomal genes identified as upregulated genes. ► Chitin and β-1-3-glucan metabolism genes highly represented in subtracted library. -- Abstract: Transcriptional profiling can elucidate adaptive/toxicity pathways participating in achieving homeostasis or leading to pathogenesis in marine biota exposed to chemical substances. With the aim of analyzing transcriptional responses in the mussel Mytilus edulis exposed to the corrosive and putatively carcinogenic hydrocarbon styrene (3–5 ppm, 3 days), a forward subtracted (SSH) cDNA library was produced. Female mussels were selected and digestive gland mRNA was isolated. A library with 1440 clones was produced and a total of 287 clones were sequenced, 53% being identified through BlastN analysis against Mytibase and DeepSeaVent databases. Those genes included GO terms such as ‘response to drugs’, ‘immune defense’ and ‘cell proliferation’. Furthermore, sequences related to chitin and beta-1-3-glucan metabolism were also up-regulated by styrene. Many of the obtained sequences could not be annotated constituting new mussel sequences. In conclusion, this SSH study reveals novel sequences useful to generate molecular biomarkers of styrene exposure in mussels
Bouma, G; Baggen, J M; van Bodegraven, A A; Mulder, C J J; Kraal, G; Zwiers, A; Horrevoets, A J; van der Pouw Kraan, C T M
Crohn's disease (CD) is characterized by chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract, as a result of aberrant activation of the innate immune system through TLR stimulation by bacterial products. The conventional immunosuppressive thiopurine derivatives (azathioprine and mercaptopurine) are used to treat CD. The effects of thiopurines on circulating immune cells and TLR responsiveness are unknown. To obtain a global view of affected gene expression of the immune system in CD patients and the treatment effect of thiopurine derivatives, we performed genome-wide transcriptome analysis on whole blood samples from 20 CD patients in remission, of which 10 patients received thiopurine treatment, compared to 16 healthy controls, before and after TLR4 stimulation with LPS. Several immune abnormalities were observed, including increased baseline interferon activity, while baseline expression of ribosomal genes was reduced. After LPS stimulation, CD patients showed reduced cytokine and chemokine expression. None of these effects were related to treatment. Strikingly, only one highly correlated set of 69 genes was affected by treatment, not influenced by LPS stimulation and consisted of genes reminiscent of effector cytotoxic NK cells. The most reduced cytotoxicity-related gene in CD was the cell surface marker CD160. Concordantly, we could demonstrate an in vivo reduction of circulating CD160(+)CD3(-)CD8(-) cells in CD patients after treatment with thiopurine derivatives in an independent cohort. In conclusion, using genome-wide profiling, we identified a disturbed immune activation status in peripheral blood cells from CD patients and a clear treatment effect of thiopurine derivatives selectively affecting effector cytotoxic CD160-positive cells. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Mutations in the MCPH1 (microcephalin 1 gene, located at chromosome 8p23.1, result in two autosomal recessive disorders: primary microcephaly and premature chromosome condensation syndrome. MCPH1 has also been shown to be downregulated in breast, prostate and ovarian cancers, and mutated in 1/10 breast and 5/41 endometrial tumors, suggesting that it could also function as a tumor suppressor (TS gene. To test the possibility of MCPH1 as a TS gene, we first performed LOH study in a panel of 81 matched normal oral tissues and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC samples, and observed that 14/71 (19.72% informative samples showed LOH, a hallmark of TS genes. Three protein truncating mutations were identified in 1/15 OSCC samples and 2/5 cancer cell lines. MCPH1 was downregulated at both the transcript and protein levels in 21/41 (51.22% and 19/25 (76% OSCC samples respectively. A low level of MCPH1 promoter methylation was also observed in 4/40 (10% tumor samples. We further observed that overexpression of MCPH1 decreased cellular proliferation, anchorage-independent growth in soft agar, cell invasion and tumor size in nude mice, indicating its tumor suppressive function. Using bioinformatic approaches and luciferase assay, we showed that the 3'-UTR of MCPH1 harbors two non-overlapping functional seed regions for miR-27a which negatively regulated its level. The expression level of miR-27a negatively correlated with the MCPH1 protein level in OSCC. Our study indicates for the first time that, in addition to its role in brain development, MCPH1 also functions as a tumor suppressor gene and is regulated by miR-27a.
Grinchuk, Oleg V; Yenamandra, Surya P; Iyer, Ramakrishnan; Singh, Malay; Lee, Hwee Kuan; Lim, Kiat Hon; Chow, Pierce Kah-Hoe; Kuznetsov, Vladamir A
Currently, molecular markers are not used when determining the prognosis and treatment strategy for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In the present study, we proposed that the identification of common pro-oncogenic pathways in primary tumors (PT) and adjacent non-malignant tissues (AT) typically used to predict HCC patient risks may result in HCC biomarker discovery. We examined the genome-wide mRNA expression profiles of paired PT and AT samples from 321 HCC patients. The workflow integrated differentially expressed gene selection, gene ontology enrichment, computational classification, survival predictions, image analysis and experimental validation methods. We developed a 24-ribosomal gene-based HCC classifier (RGC), which is prognostically significant in both PT and AT. The RGC gene overexpression in PT was associated with a poor prognosis in the training (hazard ratio = 8.2, P = 9.4 × 10 -6 ) and cross-cohort validation (hazard ratio = 2.63, P = 0.004) datasets. The multivariate survival analysis demonstrated the significant and independent prognostic value of the RGC. The RGC displayed a significant prognostic value in AT of the training (hazard ratio = 5.0, P = 0.03) and cross-validation (hazard ratio = 1.9, P = 0.03) HCC groups, confirming the accuracy and robustness of the RGC. Our experimental and bioinformatics analyses suggested a key role for c-MYC in the pro-oncogenic pattern of ribosomal biogenesis co-regulation in PT and AT. Microarray, quantitative RT-PCR and quantitative immunohistochemical studies of the PT showed that DKK1 in PT is the perspective biomarker for poor HCC outcomes. The common co-transcriptional pattern of ribosome biogenesis genes in PT and AT from HCC patients suggests a new scalable prognostic system, as supported by the model of tumor-like metabolic redirection/assimilation in non-malignant AT. The RGC, comprising 24 ribosomal genes, is introduced as a robust and reproducible prognostic model for
Anastasiya Victorovna Beresneva
Full Text Available This work is devoted to an investigation of threshold signature schemes. The systematization of the threshold signature schemes was done, cryptographic constructions based on interpolation Lagrange polynomial, elliptic curves and bilinear pairings were examined. Different methods of generation and verification of threshold signatures were explored, the availability of practical usage of threshold schemes in mobile agents, Internet banking and e-currency was shown. The topics of further investigation were given and it could reduce a level of counterfeit electronic documents signed by a group of users.
Kao, Yu-Chien; Sung, Yun-Shao; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Chun-Liang; Huang, Shih-Chiang; Antonescu, Cristina R.
Ossifying fibromyxoid tumor (OFMT) is an uncommon mesenchymal neoplasm of uncertain differentiation and intermediate malignant potential. Recurrent gene fusions involving either PHF1 or BCOR have been found in 85% of OFMT, including typical and malignant examples. As a subset of OFMT still lack known genetic abnormalities, we identified two OFMTs negative for PHF1 and BCOR rearrangements, which were subjected to transcriptome analysis for fusion discovery. The RNA sequencing found a novel CRE...
Swindell, William R; Beamer, Maria A; Sarkar, Mrinal K; Loftus, Shannon; Fullmer, Joseph; Xing, Xianying; Ward, Nicole L; Tsoi, Lam C; Kahlenberg, Michelle J; Liang, Yun; Gudjonsson, Johann E
IL-36 cytokines have recently emerged as mediators of inflammation in autoimmune conditions including psoriasis vulgaris (PsV) and generalized pustular psoriasis (GPP). This study used RNA-seq to profile the transcriptome of primary epidermal keratinocytes (KCs) treated with IL-1B, IL-36A, IL-36B, or IL-36G. We identified some early IL-1B-specific responses (8 h posttreatment), but nearly all late IL-1B responses were replicated by IL-36 cytokines (24 h posttreatment). Type I and II interferon genes exhibited time-dependent response patterns, with early induction (8 h) followed by no response or repression (24 h). Altogether, we identified 225 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) with shared responses to all 4 cytokines at both time points (8 and 24 h). These involved upregulation of ligands ( IL1A, IL1B , and IL36G ) and activating proteases ( CTSS ) but also upregulation of inhibitors such as IL1RN and IL36RN . Shared IL-1B/IL-36 DEGs overlapped significantly with genes altered in PsV and GPP skin lesions, as well as genes near GWAS loci linked to autoimmune and autoinflammatory diseases (e.g., PsV, psoriatic arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and primary biliary cholangitis). Inactivation of MyD88 adapter protein using CRISPR/Cas9 completely abolished expression responses of such DEGs to IL-1B and IL-36G stimulation. These results provide a global view of IL-1B and IL-36 expression responses in epidermal KCs with fine-scale characterization of time-dependent and cytokine-specific response patterns. Our findings support an important role for IL-1B and IL-36 in autoimmune or autoinflammatory conditions and show that MyD88 adaptor protein mediates shared IL-1B/IL-36 responses.
Jardin, Fabrice; Picquenot, Jean-Michel; Parmentier, Françoise; Ruminy, Philippe; Cornic, Marie; Penther, Dominique; Bertrand, Philippe; Lanic, Hélène; Cassuto, Ophélie; Humbrecht, Catherine; Lemasle, Emilie; Wautier, Agathe; Bastard, Christian; Tilly, Hervé
The t(11;14)(q13;q32) is the hallmark of mantle cell lymphoma (MCL). Additional genetic alterations occur in the majority of cases. This study aimed to design a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay to determine the incidence and relevance of recurrent gene copy number aberrations in this disease. Forty-two MCL cases with frozen- or paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues were selected. Three different quantitative Multiplex PCR of Short Fluorescent Fragments (QMPSF) assays were designed to simultaneously analyse eight genes (CDKN2A, RB1, ATM, CDK2, TP53, MYC, CDKN1B, MDM2), to analyse the 9p21 locus (CDKN2A/CDKN2B) and FFPE tissues. Gains of MYC, CDK2, CDKN1B, and MDM2 were observed in 10% of cases. Losses of RB1, CDKN2A, ATM or TP53 were observed in 38%, 31%, 24% and 10% of cases, respectively. Analysis of the 9p21 locus indicated that, in most cases, tumours displayed a complete inactivation of p14(ARF)/p15I(NK4B)/p16I(NK4A). CDKN2A and MYC aberrations were associated with a high MCL international prognostic index (MIPI). CDK2/MDM2 gains and CDKN2A/TP53 losses correlated with an unfavourable outcome. PCR experiments with frozen and FFPE-tissues indicated that our approach is valid in a routine diagnostic setting, providing a powerful tool that could be used for patient stratification in combination with MIPI in future clinical trials.
Full Text Available To evaluate the potential effects of melatonin on the kinetics of embryo development and quality of blastocyst during the process of in vitro bovine embryo culture. Bovine cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs were fertilized after in vitro maturation. The presumed zygotes were cultured in in vitro culture medium supplemented with or without 10(-7 M melatonin. The cleavage rate, 8-cell rate and blastocyst rate were examined to identify the kinetics of embryo development. The hatched blastocyst rate, mortality rate after thawing and the relevant transcript abundance were measured to evaluate the quality of blastocyst. The results showed that melatonin significantly promoted the cleavage rate and 8-cell embryo yield of in vitro produced bovine embryo. In addition, significantly more blastocysts were observed by Day 7 of embryo culture at the presence of melatonin. These results indicated that melatonin accelerated the development of in vitro produced bovine embryos. Following vitrification at Day 7 of embryo culture, melatonin (10(-7 M significantly increased the hatched blastocyst rate from 24 h to 72 h and decreased the mortality rate from 48 h to 72 h after thawing. The presence of melatonin during the embryo culture resulted in a significant increase in the gene expressions of DNMT3A, OCC, CDH1 and decrease in that of AQP3 after thawing. In conclusion, melatonin not only promoted blastocyst yield and accelerated in vitro bovine embryo development, but also improved the quality of blastocysts which was indexed by an elevated cryotolerance and the up-regulated expressions of developmentally important genes.
Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Advanced Missile Signature Center (AMSC) is a national facility supporting the Missile Defense Agency (MDA) and other DoD programs and customers with analysis,...
Voiculescu Madalina Irena
Full Text Available Article refers to significance and the digital signature in electronic commerce. Internet and electronic commerce open up many new opportunities for the consumer, yet, the security (or perceived lack of security of exchanging personal and financial data
The purpose of this study was to assess the advantages and disadvantages of using digital signatures to assist the Arizona Department of Transportation in conducting business. The Department is evaluating the potential of performing more electronic t...
A set of signatures for physics processes of potential interests for the CLIC programme at = 1 - 5 TeV are discussed. These signatures, that may correspond to the manifestation of different scenarios of new physics as well as to Standard Model precision tests, are proposed as benchmarks for the optimisation of the CLIC accelerator parameters and for a first definition of the required detector response.
Silvia Y Bando
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prolonged febrile seizures constitute an initial precipitating injury (IPI commonly associated with refractory mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (RMTLE. In order to investigate IPI influence on the transcriptional phenotype underlying RMTLE we comparatively analyzed the transcriptomic signatures of CA3 explants surgically obtained from RMTLE patients with (FS or without (NFS febrile seizure history. Texture analyses on MRI images of dentate gyrus were conducted in a subset of surgically removed sclerotic hippocampi for identifying IPI-associated histo-radiological alterations. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: DNA microarray analysis revealed that CA3 global gene expression differed significantly between FS and NFS subgroups. An integrative functional genomics methodology was used for characterizing the relations between GO biological processes themes and constructing transcriptional interaction networks defining the FS and NFS transcriptomic signatures and its major gene-gene links (hubs. Co-expression network analysis showed that: i CA3 transcriptomic profiles differ according to the IPI; ii FS distinctive hubs are mostly linked to glutamatergic signalization while NFS hubs predominantly involve GABAergic pathways and neurotransmission modulation. Both networks have relevant hubs related to nervous system development, what is consistent with cell genesis activity in the hippocampus of RMTLE patients. Moreover, two candidate genes for therapeutic targeting came out from this analysis: SSTR1, a relevant common hub in febrile and afebrile transcriptomes, and CHRM3, due to its putative role in epilepsy susceptibility development. MRI texture analysis allowed an overall accuracy of 90% for pixels correctly classified as belonging to FS or NFS groups. Histological examination revealed that granule cell loss was significantly higher in FS hippocampi. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: CA3 transcriptional signatures and dentate gyrus morphology fairly
Kao, Yu-Chien; Sung, Yun-Shao; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Chun-Liang; Huang, Shih-Chiang; Antonescu, Cristina R
Ossifying fibromyxoid tumor (OFMT) is an uncommon mesenchymal neoplasm of uncertain differentiation and intermediate malignant potential. Recurrent gene fusions involving either PHF1 or BCOR have been found in 85% of OFMT, including typical and malignant examples. As a subset of OFMT still lack known genetic abnormalities, we identified two OFMTs negative for PHF1 and BCOR rearrangements, which were subjected to transcriptome analysis for fusion discovery. The RNA sequencing found a novel CREBBP-BCORL1 fusion candidate in an axillary mass of a 51 year-old male and a KDM2A-WWTR1 in a thigh mass of a 36 year-old male. The gene fusions were validated by RT-PCR and FISH in the index cases and then screened by FISH on 4 additional OFMTs lacking known fusions. An identical CREBBP-BCORL1 fusion was found in an elbow tumor from a 30 year-old male. Both OFMTs with CREBBP-BCORL1 fusions had areas of typical OFMT morphology, exhibiting uniform round to epithelioid cells arranged in cords or nesting pattern in a fibromyxoid stroma. The OFMT with KDM2A-WWTR1 fusion involved dermis and superficial subcutis, being composed of ovoid cells in a fibromyxoid background with hyalinized giant rosettes. The S100 immunoreactivity ranged from very focal to absent. Similar to other known fusion genes in OFMT, BCORL1, CREBBP and KDM2A are also involved in histone modification. In summary, we expand the spectrum of molecular abnormalities in OFMT with 2 novel fusions, CREBBP-BCORL1 and KDM2A-WWTR1, further implicating the epigenetic deregulation as the leading pathogenetic mechanism in OFMT. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Kao, Yu-Chien; Sung, Yun-Shao; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Chun-Liang; Huang, Shih-Chiang; Antonescu, Cristina R.
Ossifying fibromyxoid tumor (OFMT) is an uncommon mesenchymal neoplasm of uncertain differentiation and intermediate malignant potential. Recurrent gene fusions involving either PHF1 or BCOR have been found in 85% of OFMT, including typical and malignant examples. As a subset of OFMT still lack known genetic abnormalities, we identified two OFMTs negative for PHF1 and BCOR rearrangements, which were subjected to transcriptome analysis for fusion discovery. The RNA sequencing found a novel CREBBP-BCORL1 fusion candidate in an axillary mass of a 51 year-old male and a KDM2A-WWTR1 in a thigh mass of a 36 year-old male. The gene fusions were validated by RT-PCR and FISH in the index cases and then screened by FISH on 4 additional OFMTs lacking known fusions. An identical CREBBP-BCORL1 fusion was found in an elbow tumor from a 30 year-old male. Both OFMTs with CREBBP-BCORL1 fusions had areas of typical OFMT morphology, exhibiting uniform round to epithelioid cells arranged in cords or nesting pattern in a fibromyxoid stroma. The OFMT with KDM2A-WWTR1 fusion involved dermis and superficial subcutis, being composed of ovoid cells in a fibromyxoid background with hyalinized giant rosettes. The S100 immunoreactivity ranged from very focal to absent. Similar to other known fusion genes in OFMT, BCORL1, CREBBP and KDM2A are also involved in histone modification. In summary, we expand the spectrum of molecular abnormalities in OFMT with 2 novel fusions, CREBBP-BCORL1 and KDM2A-WWTR1, further implicating the epigenetic deregulation as the leading pathogenetic mechanism in OFMT. PMID:27537276
Klasky, Marc Louis [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wilcox, Trevor [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bathke, Charles G. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); James, Michael R. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
A rigorous formalism is presented for calculating radiation signatures from both Special Nuclear Material (SNM) as well as radiological sources. The use of MCNP6 in conjunction with CINDER/ORIGEN is described to allow for the determination of both neutron and photon leakages from objects of interest. In addition, a description of the use of MCNP6 to properly model the background neutron and photon sources is also presented. Examinations of the physics issues encountered in the modeling are investigated so as to allow for guidance in the user discerning the relevant physics to incorporate into general radiation signature calculations. Furthermore, examples are provided to assist in delineating the pertinent physics that must be accounted for. Finally, examples of detector modeling utilizing MCNP are provided along with a discussion on the generation of Receiver Operating Curves, which are the suggested means by which to determine detectability radiation signatures emanating from objects.
Full Text Available Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS is a genetic disorder displaying features reminiscent of premature senescence caused by germline mutations in the LMNA gene encoding lamin A and C, essential components of the nuclear lamina. By studying a family with homozygous LMNA mutation (K542N, we showed that HGPS can also be caused by mutations affecting both isoforms, lamin A and C. Here, we aimed to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis in both, lamin A- (sporadic and lamin A and C-related (hereditary HGPS. For this, we performed detailed molecular studies on primary fibroblasts of hetero- and homozygous LMNA K542N mutation carriers, accompanied with clinical examinations related to the molecular findings. By assessing global gene expression we found substantial overlap in altered transcription profiles (13.7%; 90/657 in sporadic and hereditary HGPS, with 83.3% (75/90 concordant and 16.7% (15/90 discordant transcriptional changes. Among the concordant ones we observed down-regulation of TWIST2, whose inactivation in mice and humans leads to loss of subcutaneous fat and dermal appendages, and loss of expression in dermal fibroblasts and periadnexial cells from a LMNA(K542N/K542N patient further confirming its pivotal role in skin development. Among the discordant transcriptional profiles we identified two key mediators of vascular calcification and bone metabolism, ENPP1 and OPG, which offer a molecular explanation for the major phenotypic differences in vascular and bone disease in sporadic and hereditary HGPS. Finally, this study correlates reduced TWIST2 and OPG expression with increased osteocalcin levels, thereby linking altered bone remodeling to energy homeostasis in hereditary HGPS.
Valli De Re
Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV is a positive, single-stranded RNA virus, which has been associated to different subtypes of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (B-NHL. Cumulative evidence suggests an HCV-related antigen driven process in the B-NHL development. The underlying molecular signature associated to HCV-related B-NHL has to date remained obscure. In this review, we discuss the recent developments in this field with a special mention to different sets of genes whose expression is associated with BCR coupled to Blys signaling which in turn was found to be linked to B-cell maturation stages and NF-κb transcription factor. Even if recent progress on HCV-B-NHL signature has been made, the precise relationship between HCV and lymphoma development and phenotype signature remain to be clarified.
Bruschi, Maurizio; Santucci, Laura; Ravera, Silvia; Bartolucci, Martina; Petretto, Andrea; Calzia, Daniela; Ghiggeri, Gian Marco; Ramenghi, Luca A; Candiano, Giovanni; Panfoli, Isabella
Microvesicles (MVs), 200-1000 nm bodies budding from the cell plasma membrane, are a promising source of biomarkers. This study aimed at comparing the proteome of MVs collected by ultracentrifugation from cultured Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) from Human Umbilical Cord of Preterm newborns (Term (≥37 weeks). This discovery study was designed to establish the signature of prematurity. Orbitrap MS, statistical, bioinformatics and biochemical analyses were employed. A total of 3253 proteins were identified, 78.3% matching among Preterm and Term. Principal component dimensional analyses showed that the two proteomes cluster separately. Cytoscape analysis showed that the top gene signatures cluster around inflammation and oxidative metabolism. Both Preterm and Term MVs consumed oxygen, and express ATP synthase and cytochrome oxidase, but only Preterm MVs synthesized ATP. The gene signature of Preterm condition mainly clusters around inflammation and metabolism. MVs from MSCs conduct aerobic metabolism similarly to exosomes from the same cells, with interesting differences related to their biogenesis and function. The clinical relevance of the study lays in the perspective to utilize MVs as promising sensor of the inflammatory and metabolic state of the preterm newborn, to help in preventing the complications of prematurity. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Lewin Harris A
Full Text Available Abstract Background The neonatal bovine mammary fat pad (MFP surrounding the mammary parenchyma (PAR is thought to exert proliferative effects on the PAR through secretion of local modulators of growth induced by systemic hormones. We used bioinformatics to characterize transcriptomics differences between PAR and MFP from ~65 d old Holstein heifers. Data were mined to uncover potential crosstalk through the analyses of signaling molecules preferentially expressed in one tissue relative to the other. Results Over 9,000 differentially expressed genes (DEG; False discovery rate ≤ 0.05 were found of which 1,478 had a ≥1.5-fold difference between PAR and MFP. Within the DEG highly-expressed in PAR vs. MFP (n = 736 we noted significant enrichment of functions related to cell cycle, structural organization, signaling, and DNA/RNA metabolism. Only actin cytoskeletal signaling was significant among canonical pathways. DEG more highly-expressed in MFP vs. PAR (n = 742 belong to lipid metabolism, signaling, cell movement, and immune-related functions. Canonical pathways associated with metabolism and signaling, particularly immune- and metabolism-related were significantly-enriched. Network analysis uncovered a central role of MYC, TP53, and CTNNB1 in controlling expression of DEG highly-expressed in PAR vs. MFP. Similar analysis suggested a central role for PPARG, KLF2, EGR2, and EPAS1 in regulating expression of more highly-expressed DEG in MFP vs. PAR. Gene network analyses revealed putative inter-tissue crosstalk between cytokines and growth factors preferentially expressed in one tissue (e.g., ANGPTL1, SPP1, IL1B in PAR vs. MFP; ADIPOQ, IL13, FGF2, LEP in MFP vs. PAR with DEG preferentially expressed in the other tissue, particularly transcription factors or pathways (e.g., MYC, TP53, and actin cytoskeletal signaling in PAR vs. MFP; PPARG and LXR/RXR Signaling in MFP vs. PAR. Conclusions Functional analyses underscored a reciprocal influence in
Full Text Available The majority of ovarian tumors eventually recur in a drug resistant form. Using cisplatin sensitive and resistant cell lines assembled into 3D spheroids we profiled gene expression and identified candidate mechanisms and biological pathways associated with cisplatin resistance. OVCAR-8 human ovarian carcinoma cells were exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of cisplatin to create a matched cisplatin-resistant cell line, OVCAR-8R. Genome-wide gene expression profiling of sensitive and resistant ovarian cancer spheroids identified 3,331 significantly differentially expressed probesets coding for 3,139 distinct protein-coding genes (Fc >2, FDR < 0.05 (S2 Table. Despite significant expression changes in some transporters including MDR1, cisplatin resistance was not associated with differences in intracellular cisplatin concentration. Cisplatin resistant cells were significantly enriched for a mesenchymal gene expression signature. OVCAR-8R resistance derived gene sets were significantly more biased to patients with shorter survival. From the most differentially expressed genes, we derived a 17-gene expression signature that identifies ovarian cancer patients with shorter overall survival in three independent datasets. We propose that the use of cisplatin resistant cell lines in 3D spheroid models is a viable approach to gain insight into resistance mechanisms relevant to ovarian tumors in patients. Our data support the emerging concept that ovarian cancers can acquire drug resistance through an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition.
Full Text Available Among non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC, adenocarcinoma (AC, and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC are two major histology subtypes, accounting for roughly 40% and 30% of all lung cancer cases, respectively. Since AC and SCC differ in their cell of origin, location within the lung, and growth pattern, they are considered as distinct diseases. Gene expression signatures have been demonstrated to be an effective tool for distinguishing AC and SCC. Gene set analysis is regarded as irrelevant to the identification of gene expression signatures. Nevertheless, we found that one specific gene set analysis method, significance analysis of microarray-gene set reduction (SAMGSR, can be adopted directly to select relevant features and to construct gene expression signatures. In this study, we applied SAMGSR to a NSCLC gene expression dataset. When compared with several novel feature selection algorithms, for example, LASSO, SAMGSR has equivalent or better performance in terms of predictive ability and model parsimony. Therefore, SAMGSR is a feature selection algorithm, indeed. Additionally, we applied SAMGSR to AC and SCC subtypes separately to discriminate their respective stages, that is, stage II versus stage I. Few overlaps between these two resulting gene signatures illustrate that AC and SCC are technically distinct diseases. Therefore, stratified analyses on subtypes are recommended when diagnostic or prognostic signatures of these two NSCLC subtypes are constructed.
Fernanda Regina Godoy Rocha
Full Text Available Abstract Periodontal regeneration is still a challenge in terms of predictability and magnitude of effect. In this study we assess the biological effects of combining chemical root conditioning and biological mediators on three relevant cell types for periodontal regeneration. Material and Methods: Bovine dentin slices were conditioned with 25% citric acid followed by topical application of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF, 10 and 50 ng. We used ELISA to assess the dynamics of bFGF release from the dentin surface and RT-qPCR to study the expression of Runx2, Col1a1, Bglap and fibronectin by periodontal ligament (PDL fibroblasts, cementoblasts and bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC grown onto these dentin slices. We also assessed the effects of topical application of bFGF on cell proliferation by quantification of genomic DNA. Results: Acid conditioning significantly increased the release of bFGF from dentin slices. Overall, bFGF application significantly (p<0.05 increased cell proliferation, except for BMSC grown on non-conditioned dentin slices. Dentin substrate discretely increased expression of Col1a1 in all cell types. Expression of Runx2, Col1a1 and Fn was either unaffected or inhibited by bFGF application in all cell types. We could not detect expression of the target genes on BMSC grown onto conditioned dentin. Conclusion: Acid conditioning of dentin improves the release of topically-applied bFGF. Topical application of bFGF had a stimulatory effect on proliferation of PDL fibroblasts, cementoblasts and BMSC, but did not affect expression of Runx2, Col1a1, Bglap and fibronectin by these cells.
McMillan, Hilary; Westerberg, Ida
Information that summarises the hydrological behaviour or flow regime of a catchment is essential for comparing responses of different catchments to understand catchment organisation and similarity, and for many other modelling and water-management applications. Such information types derived as an index value from observed data are known as hydrological signatures, and can include descriptors of high flows (e.g. mean annual flood), low flows (e.g. mean annual low flow, recession shape), the flow variability, flow duration curve, and runoff ratio. Because the hydrological signatures are calculated from observed data such as rainfall and flow records, they are affected by uncertainty in those data. Subjective choices in the method used to calculate the signatures create a further source of uncertainty. Uncertainties in the signatures may affect our ability to compare different locations, to detect changes, or to compare future water resource management scenarios. The aim of this study was to contribute to the hydrological community's awareness and knowledge of data uncertainty in hydrological signatures, including typical sources, magnitude and methods for its assessment. We proposed a generally applicable method to calculate these uncertainties based on Monte Carlo sampling and demonstrated it for a variety of commonly used signatures. The study was made for two data rich catchments, the 50 km2 Mahurangi catchment in New Zealand and the 135 km2 Brue catchment in the UK. For rainfall data the uncertainty sources included point measurement uncertainty, the number of gauges used in calculation of the catchment spatial average, and uncertainties relating to lack of quality control. For flow data the uncertainty sources included uncertainties in stage/discharge measurement and in the approximation of the true stage-discharge relation by a rating curve. The resulting uncertainties were compared across the different signatures and catchments, to quantify uncertainty
Yin, Hua-Lei; Fu, Yao; Chen, Zeng-Bing
Guaranteeing nonrepudiation, unforgeability as well as transferability of a signature is one of the most vital safeguards in today's e-commerce era. Based on fundamental laws of quantum physics, quantum digital signature (QDS) aims to provide information-theoretic security for this cryptographic task. However, up to date, the previously proposed QDS protocols are impractical due to various challenging problems and most importantly, the requirement of authenticated (secure) quantum channels between participants. Here, we present the first quantum digital signature protocol that removes the assumption of authenticated quantum channels while remaining secure against the collective attacks. Besides, our QDS protocol can be practically implemented over more than 100 km under current mature technology as used in quantum key distribution.
Wang, Pengfei; Su, Ling; Gao, Huanhuan; Jiang, Xilong; Wu, Xinying; Li, Yi; Zhang, Qianqian; Wang, Yongmei; Ren, Fengshan
Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors are involved in many abiotic stress responses as well as flavonol and anthocyanin biosynthesis. In grapes (Vitis vinifera L.), flavonols including anthocyanins and condensed tannins are most abundant in the skins of the berries. Flavonols are important phytochemicals for viticulture and enology, but grape bHLH genes have rarely been examined. We identified 94 grape bHLH genes in a genome-wide analysis and performed Nr and GO function analyses for these genes. Phylogenetic analyses placed the genes into 15 clades, with some remaining orphans. 41 duplicate gene pairs were found in the grape bHLH gene family, and all of these duplicate gene pairs underwent purifying selection. Nine triplicate gene groups were found in the grape bHLH gene family and all of these triplicate gene groups underwent purifying selection. Twenty-two grape bHLH genes could be induced by PEG treatment and 17 grape bHLH genes could be induced by cold stress treatment including a homologous form of MYC2, VvbHLH007. Based on the GO or Nr function annotations, we found three other genes that are potentially related to anthocyanin or flavonol biosynthesis: VvbHLH003, VvbHLH007, and VvbHLH010. We also performed a cis-acting regulatory element analysis on some genes involved in flavonoid or anthocyanin biosynthesis and our results showed that most of these gene promoters contained G-box or E-box elements that could be recognized by bHLH family members. PMID:29449854
Background Leukocyte infiltration plays an important role in the pathogenesis and progression of myositis, and is highly associated with disease severity. Currently, there is a lack of: efficacious therapies for myositis; understanding of the molecular features important for disease pathogenesis; and potential molecular biomarkers for characterizing inflammatory myopathies to aid in clinical development. Methods In this study, we developed a simple model and predicted that 1) leukocyte-specific transcripts (including both protein-coding transcripts and microRNAs) should be coherently overexpressed in myositis muscle and 2) the level of over-expression of these transcripts should be correlated with leukocyte infiltration. We applied this model to assess immune cell infiltration in myositis by examining mRNA and microRNA (miRNA) expression profiles in muscle biopsies from 31 myositis patients and 5 normal controls. Results Several gene signatures, including a leukocyte index, type 1 interferon (IFN), MHC class I, and immunoglobulin signature, were developed to characterize myositis patients at the molecular level. The leukocyte index, consisting of genes predominantly associated with immune function, displayed strong concordance with pathological assessment of immune cell infiltration. This leukocyte index was subsequently utilized to differentiate transcriptional changes due to leukocyte infiltration from other alterations in myositis muscle. Results from this differentiation revealed biologically relevant differences in the relationship between the type 1 IFN pathway, miR-146a, and leukocyte infiltration within various myositis subtypes. Conclusions Results indicate that a likely interaction between miR-146a expression and the type 1 IFN pathway is confounded by the level of leukocyte infiltration into muscle tissue. Although the role of miR-146a in myositis remains uncertain, our results highlight the potential benefit of deconvoluting the source of
Introduction Age is an important factor in the development of osteoarthritis. Microarray studies provide insight into cartilage aging but do not reveal the full transcriptomic phenotype of chondrocytes such as small noncoding RNAs, pseudogenes, and microRNAs. RNA-Seq is a powerful technique for the interrogation of large numbers of transcripts including nonprotein coding RNAs. The aim of the study was to characterise molecular mechanisms associated with age-related changes in gene signatures. Methods RNA for gene expression analysis using RNA-Seq and real-time PCR analysis was isolated from macroscopically normal cartilage of the metacarpophalangeal joints of eight horses; four young donors (4 years old) and four old donors (>15 years old). RNA sequence libraries were prepared following ribosomal RNA depletion and sequencing was undertaken using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. Differentially expressed genes were defined using Benjamini-Hochberg false discovery rate correction with a generalised linear model likelihood ratio test (P ageing cartilage. Conclusion There was an age-related dysregulation of matrix, anabolic and catabolic cartilage factors. This study has increased our knowledge of transcriptional networks in cartilage ageing by providing a global view of the transcriptome. PMID:23971731
On the Net it is possible to take a look at art from afar via Virtual Museums. One such exhibition was recently in the New York Museum of Modern Art's branch, PS1. Entitled 'Signatures of the Invisible' it was a collaborative effort between artists and physicists (1/2 page).
Oji, Satoru; Nicolussi, Eva-Maria; Kaufmann, Nathalie
-IFN signature genes in EAE spinal cords, and a further upregulation of these genes in ENMO. To learn whether the local I-IFN signature is harmful or beneficial, we induced ENMO by transfer of CNS antigen-specific T cells and NMO-IgG, and treated the animals with I-IFN at the very onset of clinical symptoms...
Koneva, Lada A; Zhang, Yanxiao; Virani, Shama; Hall, Pelle B; McHugh, Jonathan B; Chepeha, Douglas B; Wolf, Gregory T; Carey, Thomas E; Rozek, Laura S; Sartor, Maureen A
The incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV)-related oropharynx cancer has steadily increased over the past two decades and now represents a majority of oropharyngeal cancer cases. Integration of the HPV genome into the host genome is a common event during carcinogenesis that has clinically relevant effects if the viral early genes are transcribed. Understanding the impact of HPV integration on clinical outcomes of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is critical for implementing deescalated treatment approaches for HPV + HNSCC patients. RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) data from HNSCC tumors ( n = 84) were used to identify and characterize expressed integration events, which were overrepresented near known head and neck, lung, and urogenital cancer genes. Five genes were recurrent, including CD274 (PD-L1) A significant number of genes detected to have integration events were found to interact with Tp63, ETS, and/or FOX1A. Patients with no detected integration had better survival than integration-positive and HPV - patients. Furthermore, integration-negative tumors were characterized by strongly heightened signatures for immune cells, including CD4 + , CD3 + , regulatory, CD8 + T cells, NK cells, and B cells, compared with integration-positive tumors. Finally, genes with elevated expression in integration-negative specimens were strongly enriched with immune-related gene ontology terms, while upregulated genes in integration-positive tumors were enriched for keratinization, RNA metabolism, and translation. Implications: These findings demonstrate the clinical relevancy of expressed HPV integration, which is characterized by a change in immune response and/or aberrant expression of the integration-harboring cancer-related genes, and suggest strong natural selection for tumor cells with expressed integration events in key carcinogenic genes. Mol Cancer Res; 16(1); 90-102. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.
Lal, Sunder; Kumar, Manoj
This paper presents a directed signature scheme with the property that the signature can be verified only with the help of signer or signature receiver. We also propose its applications to share verification of signatures and to threshold cryptosystems.
Chen, X; Su, Y Q; Wang, J; Liu, M; Niu, S F; Zhong, S P; Qiu, F
In order to investigate the immune role of ribosomal protein L10 (RPL10/QM-like gene) in marine fish, we challenged the large yellow croaker Pseudosciaena (= Larimichthys) crocea, the most important marine fish culture species in China, by injection with a mixture of the bacteria Vibrio harveyi and V. parahaemolyticus (3:1 in volume). Microarray analysis and real-time PCR were performed 24 and 48 h post-challenge to isolate and identify the QM-like gene from the gill P. crocea (designated PcQM). The expression level of the PcQM gene did not changed significantly at 24 h post-challenge, but was significantly downregulated at 48 h post-challenge, suggesting that the gene had an immune-modulatory effect in P. crocea. Full-length PcQM cDNA and genomic sequences were obtained by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE)-PCR. The sequence of the PcQM gene clustered together with those of other QM-like genes from other aquatic organisms, indicating that the QM-like gene is highly conserved in teleosts.
Nectoux, J; Fichou, Y; Rosas-Vargas, H; Cagnard, N; Bahi-Buisson, N; Nusbaum, P; Letourneur, F; Chelly, J; Bienvenu, T
More than 90% of Rett syndrome (RTT) patients have heterozygous mutations in the X-linked methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MECP2) gene that encodes the methyl-CpG-binding protein 2, a transcriptional modulator. Because MECP2 is subjected to X chromosome inactivation (XCI), girls with RTT either express the wild-type or mutant allele in each individual cell. To test the consequences of MECP2 mutations resulting from a genome-wide transcriptional dysregulation and to identify its target genes in a system that circumvents the functional mosaicism resulting from XCI, we carried out gene expression profiling of clonal populations derived from fibroblast primary cultures expressing exclusively either the wild-type or the mutant MECP2 allele. Clonal cultures were obtained from skin biopsy of three RTT patients carrying either a non-sense or a frameshift MECP2 mutation. For each patient, gene expression profiles of wild-type and mutant clones were compared by oligonucleotide expression microarray analysis. Firstly, clustering analysis classified the RTT patients according to their genetic background and MECP2 mutation. Secondly, expression profiling by microarray analysis and quantitative RT-PCR indicated four up-regulated genes and five down-regulated genes significantly dysregulated in all our statistical analysis, including excellent potential candidate genes for the understanding of the pathophysiology of this neurodevelopmental disease. Thirdly, chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis confirmed MeCP2 binding to respective CpG islands in three out of four up-regulated candidate genes and sequencing of bisulphite-converted DNA indicated that MeCP2 preferentially binds to methylated-DNA sequences. Most importantly, the finding that at least two of these genes (BMCC1 and RNF182) were shown to be involved in cell survival and/or apoptosis may suggest that impaired MeCP2 function could alter the survival of neurons thus compromising brain function without inducing cell death.
Nielsen, Xiaohui Chen; Justesen, Ulrik Stenz; Dargis, Rimtas
Nonhemolytic streptococci (NHS) cause serious infections, such as endocarditis and septicemia. Many conventional phenotypic methods are insufficient for the identification of bacteria in this group to the species level. Genetic analysis has revealed that single-gene analysis is insufficient...
Wieczorek, Aneta; Fornalewicz, Karolina; Mocarski, Łukasz; Łyżeń, Robert; Węgrzyn, Grzegorz
Genetic evidence for a link between DNA replication and glycolysis has been demonstrated a decade ago in Bacillus subtilis, where temperature-sensitive mutations in genes coding for replication proteins could be suppressed by mutations in genes of glycolytic enzymes. Then, a strong influence of dysfunctions of particular enzymes from the central carbon metabolism (CCM) on DNA replication and repair in Escherichia coli was reported. Therefore, we asked if such a link occurs only in bacteria or it is a more general phenomenon. Here, we demonstrate that effects of silencing (provoked by siRNA) of expression of genes coding for proteins involved in DNA replication and repair (primase, DNA polymerase ι, ligase IV, and topoisomerase IIIβ) on these processes (less efficient entry into the S phase of the cell cycle and decreased level of DNA synthesis) could be suppressed by silencing of specific genes of enzymes from CMM. Silencing of other pairs of replication/repair and CMM genes resulted in enhancement of the negative effects of lower expression levels of replication/repair genes. We suggest that these results may be proposed as a genetic evidence for the link between DNA replication/repair and CMM in human cells, indicating that it is a common biological phenomenon, occurring from bacteria to humans. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Gannouji, Radouane; Moraes, Bruno; Polarski, David; Mota, David F.; Winther, Hans A.; Tsujikawa, Shinji
In chameleon dark energy models, local gravity constraints tend to rule out parameters in which observable cosmological signatures can be found. We study viable chameleon potentials consistent with a number of recent observational and experimental bounds. A novel chameleon field potential, motivated by f(R) gravity, is constructed where observable cosmological signatures are present both at the background evolution and in the growth rate of the perturbations. We study the evolution of matter density perturbations on low redshifts for this potential and show that the growth index today γ 0 can have significant dispersion on scales relevant for large scale structures. The values of γ 0 can be even smaller than 0.2 with large variations of γ on very low redshifts for the model parameters constrained by local gravity tests. This gives a possibility to clearly distinguish these chameleon models from the Λ-cold-dark-matter (ΛCDM) model in future high-precision observations.
Troester, Melissa A; Herschkowitz, Jason I; Oh, Daniel S; He, Xiaping; Hoadley, Katherine A; Barbier, Claire S; Perou, Charles M
Breast cancer subtypes identified in genomic studies have different underlying genetic defects. Mutations in the tumor suppressor p53 occur more frequently in estrogen receptor (ER) negative, basal-like and HER2-amplified tumors than in luminal, ER positive tumors. Thus, because p53 mutation status is tightly linked to other characteristics of prognostic importance, it is difficult to identify p53's independent prognostic effects. The relation between p53 status and subtype can be better studied by combining data from primary tumors with data from isogenic cell line pairs (with and without p53 function). The p53-dependent gene expression signatures of four cell lines (MCF-7, ZR-75-1, and two immortalized human mammary epithelial cell lines) were identified by comparing p53-RNAi transduced cell lines to their parent cell lines. Cell lines were treated with vehicle only or doxorubicin to identify p53 responses in both non-induced and induced states. The cell line signatures were compared with p53-mutation associated genes in breast tumors. Each cell line displayed distinct patterns of p53-dependent gene expression, but cell type specific (basal vs. luminal) commonalities were evident. Further, a common gene expression signature associated with p53 loss across all four cell lines was identified. This signature showed overlap with the signature of p53 loss/mutation status in primary breast tumors. Moreover, the common cell-line tumor signature excluded genes that were breast cancer subtype-associated, but not downstream of p53. To validate the biological relevance of the common signature, we demonstrated that this gene set predicted relapse-free, disease-specific, and overall survival in independent test data. In the presence of breast cancer heterogeneity, experimental and biologically-based methods for assessing gene expression in relation to p53 status provide prognostic and biologically-relevant gene lists. Our biologically-based refinements excluded genes
Full Text Available The strong male predominance in oesophageal adenocarcinoma (OAC and Barrett's oesophagus (BO continues to puzzle. Hormonal influence, e.g. oestrogen or oxytocin, might contribute.This genetic-epidemiological study pooled 14 studies from three continents, Australia, Europe, and North America. Polymorphisms in 3 key genes coding for the oestrogen pathway (receptor alpha (ESR1, receptor beta (ESR2, and aromatase (CYP19A1, and 3 key genes of the oxytocin pathway (the oxytocin receptor (OXTR, oxytocin protein (OXT, and cyclic ADP ribose hydrolase glycoprotein (CD38, were analysed using a gene-based approach, versatile gene-based test association study (VEGAS.Among 1508 OAC patients, 2383 BO patients, and 2170 controls, genetic variants within ESR1 were associated with BO in males (p = 0.0058 and an increased risk of OAC and BO combined in males (p = 0.0023. Genetic variants within OXTR were associated with an increased risk of BO in both sexes combined (p = 0.0035 and in males (p = 0.0012. We followed up these suggestive findings in a further smaller data set, but found no replication. There were no significant associations between the other 4 genes studied and risk of OAC, BO, separately on in combination, in males and females combined or in males only.Genetic variants in the oestrogen receptor alpha and the oxytocin receptor may be associated with an increased risk of BO or OAC, but replication in other large samples are needed.
Lagergren, Katarina; Ek, Weronica E; Levine, David; Chow, Wong-Ho; Bernstein, Leslie; Casson, Alan G; Risch, Harvey A; Shaheen, Nicholas J; Bird, Nigel C; Reid, Brian J; Corley, Douglas A; Hardie, Laura J; Wu, Anna H; Fitzgerald, Rebecca C; Pharoah, Paul; Caldas, Carlos; Romero, Yvonne; Vaughan, Thomas L; MacGregor, Stuart; Whiteman, David; Westberg, Lars; Nyren, Olof; Lagergren, Jesper
The strong male predominance in oesophageal adenocarcinoma (OAC) and Barrett's oesophagus (BO) continues to puzzle. Hormonal influence, e.g. oestrogen or oxytocin, might contribute. This genetic-epidemiological study pooled 14 studies from three continents, Australia, Europe, and North America. Polymorphisms in 3 key genes coding for the oestrogen pathway (receptor alpha (ESR1), receptor beta (ESR2), and aromatase (CYP19A1)), and 3 key genes of the oxytocin pathway (the oxytocin receptor (OXTR), oxytocin protein (OXT), and cyclic ADP ribose hydrolase glycoprotein (CD38)), were analysed using a gene-based approach, versatile gene-based test association study (VEGAS). Among 1508 OAC patients, 2383 BO patients, and 2170 controls, genetic variants within ESR1 were associated with BO in males (p = 0.0058) and an increased risk of OAC and BO combined in males (p = 0.0023). Genetic variants within OXTR were associated with an increased risk of BO in both sexes combined (p = 0.0035) and in males (p = 0.0012). We followed up these suggestive findings in a further smaller data set, but found no replication. There were no significant associations between the other 4 genes studied and risk of OAC, BO, separately on in combination, in males and females combined or in males only. Genetic variants in the oestrogen receptor alpha and the oxytocin receptor may be associated with an increased risk of BO or OAC, but replication in other large samples are needed.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes,...
The prediction and experimental discovery of topological insulators brought the importance of topology in condensed matter physics into the limelight. Topology hence acts as a new dimension along which more and more new states of matter start to emerge. One of these topological states of matter, namely topological superconductors, comes into the focus because of their gapless excitations. These gapless excitations, especially in one dimensional topological superconductors, are Majorana zero modes localized at the ends of the superconductor and exhibit exotic nonabelian statistics, which can be potentially applied to fault-tolerant quantum computation. Given their highly interesting physical properties and potential applications to quantum computation, both theorists and experimentalists spend great efforts to realize topological supercondoctors and to detect Majoranas. In two projects within this thesis, we investigate the properties of Majorana zero modes in realistic materials which are absent in simple theoretical models. We find that the superconducting proximity effect, an essential ingredient in all existing platforms for topological superconductors, plays a significant role in determining the localization property of the Majoranas. Strong proximity coupling between the normal system and the superconducting substrate can lead to strongly localized Majoranas, which can explain the observation in a recent experiment. Motivated by experiments in Molenkamp's group, we also look at realistic quantum spin Hall Josephson junctions, in which charge puddles acting as magnetic impurities are coupled to the helical edge states. We find that with this setup, the junction generically realizes an exotic 8π periodic Josephson effect, which is absent in a pristine Josephson junction. In another two projects, we propose more pronounced signatures of Majoranas that are accessible with current experimental techniques. The first one is a transport measurement, which uses
AD-A127 993 MODEM SIGNATURE ANALISIS (U) PAR TECHNOLOGY CORP NEW / HARTFORD NY V EDWARDS ET AL. OCT 82 RADC-TR-82-269 F30602-80-C-0264 NCLASSIFIED F/G...as an indication of the class clustering and separation between different classes in the modem data base. It is apparent from the projection that the...that as the clusters disperse, the likelihood of a sample crossing the boundary into an adjacent region and causing a symbol decision error increases. As
Full Text Available A handwritten signature is the final response to a complex cognitive and neuromuscular process which is the result of the learning process. Because of the many factors involved in signing, it is possible to study the signature from many points of view: graphologists, forensic experts, neurologists and computer vision experts have all examined them. Researchers study written signatures for psychiatric, penal, health and automatic verification purposes. As a potentially useful, multi-purpose study, this paper is focused on the lexical morphology of handwritten signatures. This we understand to mean the identification, analysis, and description of the signature structures of a given signer. In this work we analyze different public datasets involving 1533 signers from different Western geographical areas. Some relevant characteristics of signature lexical morphology have been selected, examined in terms of their probability distribution functions and modeled through a General Extreme Value distribution. This study suggests some useful models for multi-disciplinary sciences which depend on handwriting signatures.
Alm, Eric J.; Shapiro, B. Jesse; Alm, Eric J.
Comparing gene expression profiles over many different conditions has led to insights that were not obvious from single experiments. In the same way, comparing patterns of natural selection across a set of ecologically distinct species may extend what can be learned from individual genome-wide surveys. Toward this end, we show how variation in protein evolutionary rates, after correcting for genome-wide effects such as mutation rate and demographic factors, can be used to estimate the level and types of natural selection acting on genes across different species. We identify unusually rapidly and slowly evolving genes, relative to empirically derived genome-wide and gene family-specific background rates for 744 core protein families in 30 gamma-proteobacterial species. We describe the pattern of fast or slow evolution across species as the 'selective signature' of a gene. Selective signatures represent a profile of selection across species that is predictive of gene function: pairs of genes with correlated selective signatures are more likely to share the same cellular function, and genes in the same pathway can evolve in concert. For example, glycolysis and phenylalanine metabolism genes evolve rapidly in Idiomarina loihiensis, mirroring an ecological shift in carbon source from sugars to amino acids. In a broader context, our results suggest that the genomic landscape is organized into functional modules even at the level of natural selection, and thus it may be easier than expected to understand the complex evolutionary pressures on a cell.
Shapiro, Jesse; Alm, Eric J.
Comparing gene expression profiles over many different conditions has led to insights that were not obvious from single experiments. In the same way, comparing patterns of natural selection across a set of ecologically distinct species may extend what can be learned from individual genome-wide surveys. Toward this end, we show how variation in protein evolutionary rates, after correcting for genome-wide effects such as mutation rate and demographic factors, can be used to estimate the level and types of natural selection acting on genes across different species. We identify unusually rapidly and slowly evolving genes, relative to empirically derived genome-wide and gene family-specific background rates for 744 core protein families in 30 c-proteobacterial species. We describe the pattern of fast or slow evolution across species as the"selective signature" of a gene. Selective signatures represent aprofile of selection across species that is predictive of gene function: pairs of genes with correlated selective signatures are more likely to share the same cellular function, and genes in the same pathway can evolve in concert. For example,glycolysis and phenylalanine metabolism genes evolve rapidly in Idiomarina loihiensis, mirroring an ecological shift in carbon source from sugars to amino acids. In a broader context, our results suggest that the genomic landscape is organized into functional modules even at the level of natural selection, and thus it may be easier than expected to understand the complex evolutionary pressures on a cell.
Kumar, Vikas; Kutschera, Verena E; Nilsson, Maria A; Janke, Axel
The genus Vulpes (true foxes) comprises numerous species that inhabit a wide range of habitats and climatic conditions, including one species, the Arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus) which is adapted to the arctic region. A close relative to the Arctic fox, the red fox (Vulpes vulpes), occurs in subarctic to subtropical habitats. To study the genetic basis of their adaptations to different environments, transcriptome sequences from two Arctic foxes and one red fox individual were generated and analyzed for signatures of positive selection. In addition, the data allowed for a phylogenetic analysis and divergence time estimate between the two fox species. The de novo assembly of reads resulted in more than 160,000 contigs/transcripts per individual. Approximately 17,000 homologous genes were identified using human and the non-redundant databases. Positive selection analyses revealed several genes involved in various metabolic and molecular processes such as energy metabolism, cardiac gene regulation, apoptosis and blood coagulation to be under positive selection in foxes. Branch site tests identified four genes to be under positive selection in the Arctic fox transcriptome, two of which are fat metabolism genes. In the red fox transcriptome eight genes are under positive selection, including molecular process genes, notably genes involved in ATP metabolism. Analysis of the three transcriptomes and five Sanger re-sequenced genes in additional individuals identified a lower genetic variability within Arctic foxes compared to red foxes, which is consistent with distribution range differences and demographic responses to past climatic fluctuations. A phylogenomic analysis estimated that the Arctic and red fox lineages diverged about three million years ago. Transcriptome data are an economic way to generate genomic resources for evolutionary studies. Despite not representing an entire genome, this transcriptome analysis identified numerous genes that are relevant to arctic
Enteric bacterial metabolites propionic and butyric acid modulate gene expression, including CREB-dependent catecholaminergic neurotransmission, in PC12 cells--possible relevance to autism spectrum disorders.
Bistra B Nankova
Full Text Available Alterations in gut microbiome composition have an emerging role in health and disease including brain function and behavior. Short chain fatty acids (SCFA like propionic (PPA, and butyric acid (BA, which are present in diet and are fermentation products of many gastrointestinal bacteria, are showing increasing importance in host health, but also may be environmental contributors in neurodevelopmental disorders including autism spectrum disorders (ASD. Further to this we have shown SCFA administration to rodents over a variety of routes (intracerebroventricular, subcutaneous, intraperitoneal or developmental time periods can elicit behavioral, electrophysiological, neuropathological and biochemical effects consistent with findings in ASD patients. SCFA are capable of altering host gene expression, partly due to their histone deacetylase inhibitor activity. We have previously shown BA can regulate tyrosine hydroxylase (TH mRNA levels in a PC12 cell model. Since monoamine concentration is known to be elevated in the brain and blood of ASD patients and in many ASD animal models, we hypothesized that SCFA may directly influence brain monoaminergic pathways. When PC12 cells were transiently transfected with plasmids having a luciferase reporter gene under the control of the TH promoter, PPA was found to induce reporter gene activity over a wide concentration range. CREB transcription factor(s was necessary for the transcriptional activation of TH gene by PPA. At lower concentrations PPA also caused accumulation of TH mRNA and protein, indicative of increased cell capacity to produce catecholamines. PPA and BA induced broad alterations in gene expression including neurotransmitter systems, neuronal cell adhesion molecules, inflammation, oxidative stress, lipid metabolism and mitochondrial function, all of which have been implicated in ASD. In conclusion, our data are consistent with a molecular mechanism through which gut related environmental signals
Full Text Available Wilms tumors (WT have provided broad insights into the interface between development and tumorigenesis. Further understanding is confounded by their genetic, histologic, and clinical heterogeneity, the basis of which remains largely unknown. We evaluated 224 WT for global gene expression patterns; WT1, CTNNB1, and WTX mutation; and 11p15 copy number and methylation patterns. Five subsets were identified showing distinct differences in their pathologic and clinical features: these findings were validated in 100 additional WT. The gene expression pattern of each subset was compared with published gene expression profiles during normal renal development. A novel subset of epithelial WT in infants lacked WT1, CTNNB1, and WTX mutations and nephrogenic rests and displayed a gene expression pattern of the postinduction nephron, and none recurred. Three subsets were characterized by a low expression of WT1 and intralobar nephrogenic rests. These differed in their frequency of WT1 and CTNNB1 mutations, in their age, in their relapse rate, and in their expression similarities with the intermediate mesoderm versus the metanephric mesenchyme. The largest subset was characterized by biallelic methylation of the imprint control region 1, a gene expression profile of the metanephric mesenchyme, and both interlunar and perilobar nephrogenic rests. These data provide a biologic explanation for the clinical and pathologic heterogeneity seen within WT and enable the future development of subset-specific therapeutic strategies. Further, these data support a revision of the current model of WT ontogeny, which allows for an interplay between the type of initiating event and the developmental stage in which it occurs.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Poor reproductive maturation in captive male broodstock of the black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon is one of the serious problems to the farming industries. Without genome sequence, EST libraries of P. monodon were previously constructed to identify transcripts with important biological functions. In this study, a new version of cDNA microarray, UniShrimpChip, was constructed from the Peneaus monodon EST libraries of 12 tissues, containing 5,568 non-redundant cDNA clones from 10,536 unique cDNA in the P. monodon EST database. UniShrimpChip was used to study testicular development by comparing gene expression levels of wild brooders from the West and East coasts of Thailand and domesticated brooders with different ages (10-, 14-, 18-month-old. Results The overall gene expression patterns from the microarray experiments revealed distinct transcriptomic patterns between the wild and domesticated groups. Moreover, differentially expressed genes from the microarray comparisons were identified, and the expression patterns of eight selected transcripts were subsequently confirmed by reverse-transcriptase quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR. Among these, expression levels of six subunits (CSN2, 4, 5, 6, 7a, and 8 of the COP9 signalosome (CSN gene family in wild and different ages of domesticated brooders were examined by RT-qPCR. Among the six subunits, CSN5 and CSN6 were most highly expressed in wild brooders and least expressed in the 18-month-old domesticated group; therefore, their full-length cDNA sequences were characterized. Conclusions This study is the first report to employ cDNA microarray to study testicular development in the black tiger shrimp. We show that there are obvious differences between the wild and domesticated shrimp at the transcriptomic level. Furthermore, our study is the first to investigate the feasibility that the CSN gene family might have involved in reproduction and development of this economically important
Liberzon, Arthur; Subramanian, Aravind; Pinchback, Reid; Thorvaldsdóttir, Helga; Tamayo, Pablo; Mesirov, Jill P
Well-annotated gene sets representing the universe of the biological processes are critical for meaningful and insightful interpretation of large-scale genomic data. The Molecular Signatures Database (MSigDB) is one of the most widely used repositories of such sets. We report the availability of a new version of the database, MSigDB 3.0, with over 6700 gene sets, a complete revision of the collection of canonical pathways and experimental signatures from publications, enhanced annotations and upgrades to the web site. MSigDB is freely available for non-commercial use at http://www.broadinstitute.org/msigdb.
Department of Veterans Affairs — Beginning with the Government Paperwork Elimination Act of 1998 (GPEA), the Federal government has encouraged the use of electronic / digital signatures to enable...
Jensen, Meiko; Meyer, Christopher
XML Signatures are used to protect XML-based Web Service communication against a broad range of attacks related to man-in-the-middle scenarios. However, due to the complexity of the Web Services specification landscape, the task of applying XML Signatures in a robust and reliable manner becomes...... more and more challenging. In this paper, we investigate this issue, describing how an attacker can still interfere with Web Services communication even in the presence of XML Signatures. Additionally, we discuss the interrelation of XML Signatures and XML Encryption, focussing on their security...
Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Electronic Warfare Signature Measurement Facility contains specialized mobile spectral, radiometric, and imaging measurement systems to characterize ultraviolet,...
de Cillis, Emanuela; Leonardini, Anna; Laviola, Luigi; Giorgino, Francesco; Tupputi Schinosa, Luigi de Luca; Bortone, Alessandro Santo
The The aim of our study is to investigate the molecular mechanisms of diabetic cardiomyopathy through the identification of remarkable genes for the myocardial function that are expressed differently between diabetic and normal subjects. Moreover, we intend to characterize both in human myocardial tissue and in the related cardiac progenitor cells the pattern of gene expression and the levels of expression and protein activation of molecular effectors involved in the regulation of the myocardial function and differentiation to clarify whether in specific human pathological conditions (type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiac failure, coronary artery disease) specific alterations of the aforementioned factors could take place. Thirty-five patients scheduled for coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) or for aortic or mitral valve replacement were recruited into the study. There were 13 men and 22 women with a mean age of 64.8 +/- 13.4 years. A list of anamnestic, anthropometric, clinical, and instrumental data required for an optimal phenotypical characterization of the patients is reported. The small cardiac biopsy specimens were placed in the nourishing buffer, in a sterile tube provided the day of the procedure, to maintain the stability of the sample for several hours at room temperature. The cells were isolated by a dedicated protocol and then cultured in vitro. The sample was processed for total RNA extraction and levels of gene expression and protein activation of molecular effectors involved in the regulation of function and differentiation of human myocardium was analyzed. In particular, cardiac genes that modulate the oxidative stress response or the stress induced by pro-inflammatory cytokines (p66Shc, SOCS-1, SOCS-3) were analyzed. From a small sample of myocardium cardiac stem cells and cardiomyoblasts were also isolated and characterized. These cells showed a considerable proliferative capacity due to the fact that they demonstrate stability up to the
Maguy Del Rio
Full Text Available To identify genes implicated in metastatic colonization of the liver in colorectal cancer, we collected pairs of primary tumors and hepatic metastases before chemotherapy in 13 patients. We compared mRNA expression in the pairs of patients to identify genes deregulated during metastatic evolution. We then validated the identified genes using data obtained by different groups. The 33-gene signature was able to classify 87% of hepatic metastases, 98% of primary tumors, 97% of normal colon mucosa, and 95% of normal liver tissues in six datasets obtained using five different microarray platforms. The identified genes are specific to colon cancer and hepatic metastases since other metastatic locations and hepatic metastases originating from breast cancer were not classified by the signature. Gene Ontology term analysis showed that 50% of the genes are implicated in extracellular matrix remodeling, and more precisely in cell adhesion, extracellular matrix organization and angiogenesis. Because of the high efficiency of the signature to classify colon hepatic metastases, the identified genes represent promising targets to develop new therapies that will specifically affect hepatic metastasis microenvironment.
Le Billan, Florian; Amazit, Larbi; Bleakley, Kevin; Xue, Qiong-Yao; Pussard, Eric; Lhadj, Christophe; Kolkhof, Peter; Viengchareun, Say; Fagart, Jérôme; Lombès, Marc
Mineralocorticoid receptors (MRs) and glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) are two closely related hormone-activated transcription factors that regulate major pathophysiologic functions. High homology between these receptors accounts for the crossbinding of their corresponding ligands, MR being activated by both aldosterone and cortisol and GR essentially activated by cortisol. Their coexpression and ability to bind similar DNA motifs highlight the need to investigate their respective contributions to overall corticosteroid signaling. Here, we decipher the transcriptional regulatory mechanisms that underlie selective effects of MRs and GRs on shared genomic targets in a human renal cellular model. Kinetic, serial, and sequential chromatin immunoprecipitation approaches were performed on the period circadian protein 1 ( PER1) target gene, providing evidence that both receptors dynamically and cyclically interact at the same target promoter in a specific and distinct transcriptional signature. During this process, both receptors regulate PER1 gene by binding as homo- or heterodimers to the same promoter region. Our results suggest a novel level of MR-GR target gene regulation, which should be considered for a better and integrated understanding of corticosteroid-related pathophysiology.-Le Billan, F., Amazit, L., Bleakley, K., Xue, Q.-Y., Pussard, E., Lhadj, C., Kolkhof, P., Viengchareun, S., Fagart, J., Lombès, M. Corticosteroid receptors adopt distinct cyclical transcriptional signatures.
Song, Alin; Li, Ping; Fan, Fenliang; Li, Zhaojun; Liang, Yongchao
The main objectives of this study were to elucidate the roles of silicon (Si) in alleviating the effects of 2 mM zinc (high Zn) stress on photosynthesis and its related gene expression levels in leaves of rice (Oryza sativa L.) grown hydroponically with high-Zn stress. The results showed that photosynthetic parameters, including net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, intercellular CO2 concentration, chlorophyll concentration and the chlorophyll fluorescence, were decreased in rice exposed to high-Zn treatment. The leaf chloroplast structure was disordered under high-Zn stress, including uneven swelling, disintegrated and missing thylakoid membranes, and decreased starch granule size and number, which, however, were all counteracted by the addition of 1.5 mM Si. Furthermore, the expression levels of Os08g02630 (PsbY), Os05g48630 (PsaH), Os07g37030 (PetC), Os03g57120 (PetH), Os09g26810 and Os04g38410 decreased in Si-deprived plants under high-Zn stress. Nevertheless, the addition of 1.5 mM Si increased the expression levels of these genes in plants under high-Zn stress at 72 h, and the expression levels were higher in Si-treated plants than in Si-deprived plants. Therefore, we conclude that Si alleviates the Zn-induced damage to photosynthesis in rice. The decline of photosynthesis in Zn-stressed rice was attributed to stomatal limitation, and Si activated and regulated some photosynthesis-related genes in response to high-Zn stress, consequently increasing photosynthesis. PMID:25426937
CERN Press Office. Geneva
"Signatures of the Invisible" is an unique collaboration between contemporary artists and contemporary physicists which has the potential to help redefine the relationship between science and art. "Signatures of the Invisible" is jointly organised by the London Institute - the world's largest college of art and design and CERN*, the world's leading particle physics laboratory. 12 leading visual artists:
Onishi, Naoki; Tajima, Naoki
An interpretation in terms of the cranking model is presented to explain why signature inversion occurs for positive γ of the axially asymmetric deformation parameter and emerges into specific orbitals. By introducing a continuous variable, the eigenvalue equation can be reduced to a one dimensional Schroedinger equation by means of which one can easily understand the cause of signature inversion. (author)
Short-circuit events observed in ground test simulations of DSCS-3 battery in-orbit operations are analyzed. Voltage signatures appearing in the data preceding the short-circuit event are evaluated. The ground test simulation is briefly described along with performance during reconditioning discharges. Results suggest that a characteristic signature develops prior to a shorting event.
Arciszewski, H.F.R.; Lier, L. van; Meijer, Y.G.S.; Noordkamp, H.W.; Wassenaar, A.S.
A signature of a platform is the manner in which the platform manifests itself to a certain type of sensor and how observable it is when such a sensor is used to detect the platform. Because many military platforms use sensors in different media, it is the total of its different signatures that
Like many disciplines in design and the visual fine arts, critique is a signature pedagogy in the graphic design classroom. It serves as both a formative and summative assessment while also giving students the opportunity to practice the habits of graphic design. Critiques help students become keen observers of relevant disciplinary criteria;…
Guidarelli Jack W
Full Text Available Abstract Background: The highly dimensional data produced by functional genomic (FG studies makes it difficult to visualize relationships between gene products and experimental conditions (i.e., assays. Although dimensionality reduction methods such as principal component analysis (PCA have been very useful, their application to identify assay-specific signatures has been limited by the lack of appropriate methodologies. This article proposes a new and powerful PCA-based method for the identification of assay-specific gene signatures in FG studies. Results: The proposed method (PM is unique for several reasons. First, it is the only one, to our knowledge, that uses gene contribution, a product of the loading and expression level, to obtain assay signatures. The PM develops and exploits two types of assay-specific contribution plots, which are new to the application of PCA in the FG area. The first type plots the assay-specific gene contribution against the given order of the genes and reveals variations in distribution between assay-specific gene signatures as well as outliers within assay groups indicating the degree of importance of the most dominant genes. The second type plots the contribution of each gene in ascending or descending order against a constantly increasing index. This type of plots reveals assay-specific gene signatures defined by the inflection points in the curve. In addition, sharp regions within the signature define the genes that contribute the most to the signature. We proposed and used the curvature as an appropriate metric to characterize these sharp regions, thus identifying the subset of genes contributing the most to the signature. Finally, the PM uses the full dataset to determine the final gene signature, thus eliminating the chance of gene exclusion by poor screening in earlier steps. The strengths of the PM are demonstrated using a simulation study, and two studies of real DNA microarray data – a study of
Knight, Jason S.; Meng, He; Coit, Patrick; Yalavarthi, Srilakshmi; Sule, Gautam; Gandhi, Alex A.; Grenn, Robert C.; Mazza, Levi F.; Ali, Ramadan A.; Renauer, Paul; Wren, Jonathan D.; Bockenstedt, Paula L.; Wang, Hui; Eitzman, Daniel T.; Sawalha, Amr H.
Antiphospholipid antibodies, present in one-third of lupus patients, increase the risk of thrombosis. We recently reported a key role for neutrophils — neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), in particular — in the thrombotic events that define antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). To further elucidate the role of neutrophils in APS, we performed a comprehensive transcriptome analysis of neutrophils isolated from patients with primary APS. Moreover, APS-associated venous thrombosis was modeled by treating mice with IgG prepared from APS patients, followed by partial restriction of blood flow through the inferior vena cava. In patients, APS neutrophils demonstrated a proinflammatory signature with overexpression of genes relevant to IFN signaling, cellular defense, and intercellular adhesion. For in vivo studies, we focused on P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1), a key adhesion molecule overexpressed in APS neutrophils. The introduction of APS IgG (as compared with control IgG) markedly potentiated thrombosis in WT mice, but not PSGL-1–KOs. PSGL-1 deficiency was also associated with reduced leukocyte vessel wall adhesion and NET formation. The thrombosis phenotype was restored in PSGL-1–deficient mice by infusion of WT neutrophils, while an anti–PSGL-1 monoclonal antibody inhibited APS IgG–mediated thrombosis in WT mice. PSGL-1 represents a potential therapeutic target in APS. PMID:28931754
Christopher W Woods
Full Text Available There is great potential for host-based gene expression analysis to impact the early diagnosis of infectious diseases. In particular, the influenza pandemic of 2009 highlighted the challenges and limitations of traditional pathogen-based testing for suspected upper respiratory viral infection. We inoculated human volunteers with either influenza A (A/Brisbane/59/2007 (H1N1 or A/Wisconsin/67/2005 (H3N2, and assayed the peripheral blood transcriptome every 8 hours for 7 days. Of 41 inoculated volunteers, 18 (44% developed symptomatic infection. Using unbiased sparse latent factor regression analysis, we generated a gene signature (or factor for symptomatic influenza capable of detecting 94% of infected cases. This gene signature is detectable as early as 29 hours post-exposure and achieves maximal accuracy on average 43 hours (p = 0.003, H1N1 and 38 hours (p-value = 0.005, H3N2 before peak clinical symptoms. In order to test the relevance of these findings in naturally acquired disease, a composite influenza A signature built from these challenge studies was applied to Emergency Department patients where it discriminates between swine-origin influenza A/H1N1 (2009 infected and non-infected individuals with 92% accuracy. The host genomic response to Influenza infection is robust and may provide the means for detection before typical clinical symptoms are apparent.