Sample records for gene product localized

  1. Expression and Localization of TRK-Fused Gene Products in the Rat Brain and Retina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maebayashi, Hisae; Takeuchi, Shigako; Masuda, Chiaki; Makino, Satoshi; Fukui, Kenji; Kimura, Hiroshi; Tooyama, Ikuo


    The TRK-fused gene (TFG in human, Tfg in rat) was originally identified in human papillary thyroid cancer as a chimeric form of the NTRK1 gene. It has been reported that the gene product (TFG) plays a role in regulating phosphotyrosine-specific phosphatase-1 activity. However, no information regarding the localization of Tfg in rat tissues is available. In this study, we investigated the expression of Tfg mRNA in normal rat tissues using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). We also produced an antibody against Tfg gene products and examined the localization of TFG in the rat brain and retina. The RT-PCR experiments demonstrated that two types of Tfg mRNA were expressed in rat tissues: the conventional form of Tfg (cTfg) and a novel variant form, retinal Tfg (rTfg). RT-PCR analyses demonstrated that cTfg was ubiquitously expressed in rat tissues, while rTfg was predominantly expressed in the brain and retina. Western blot analysis demonstrated two bands with molecular weights of about 30 kDa and 50 kDa in the rat brain. Immunohistochemistry indicated that TFG proteins were predominantly expressed by neurons in the brain. In the rat retina, intense TFG-immunoreactivity was detected in the layer of rods and cones and the outer plexiform layer

  2. Identification and localization of a gene that specifies production of Escherichia coli DNA topoisomerase I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trucksis, M.; Depew, R.E.


    A gene that specifies production of Escherichia coli DNA topoisomerase I (ω protein) was identified with the aid of a radioimmunoassay for this protein. E. coli DNA topoisomerase I was produced by Salmonella typhimurium merodiploids that harbored E. coli plasmid F' 123, but not by strains that lost this plasmid. Analysis of strains with spontaneous deletions of F' 123 showed that the gene, topA, required for production of the E. coli ω protein was between the trp operon and the cysB gene. Deletions that eliminated topA also eliminated the supX gene. We suggest that topA is the structural gene of E. coli DNA topoisomerase I and that topA is identical to supX

  3. Control of cell division and the spatial localization of assembled gene products in Caulobacter crescentus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nathan, P.D.


    Experiments are described that examine the role of penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) in the regulation of cell division in Caulobacter crescentus; and the spatial localization of methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins (MCPs) in C. crescentus swarmer and predivisional cells. In the analysis of PBP function, in vivo and in vitro assays are used to directly label C. crescentus PBPs with [ 3 H] penicillin G in wild type strain CB15, in a series of conditional cell division mutants and in new temperature sensitive cephalosporin C resistant mutants PC8002 and PC8003. 14 PBPs are characterized and a high molecular weight PBP (PBP 1B) that is required for cell division is identified. PBP 1B competes for β-lactams that induce filament formation and may be a high affinity binding protein. A second high molecular weight PBP (PBP 1C) is also associated with defective cell division. The examination of PBP patterns in synchronous swarmer cells reveals that the in vivo activity of PBP 1B and PBP 1C increases at the time that the cell division pathway is initiated. None of the PBPs, however, appear to be differentially localized in the C. crescentus cell. In the analysis of MCP localization, in vivo and in vitro assays are used to directly label C. crescentus MCPs with methyl- 3 H. MCPs are examined in flagellated and non-flagellated vesicles prepared from cells by immunoaffinity chromatography

  4. Posttranslational modifications, localization, and protein interactions of optineurin, the product of a glaucoma gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyu Ying

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Glaucoma is a major blinding disease. The most common form of this disease, primary open angle glaucoma (POAG, is genetically heterogeneous. One of the candidate genes, optineurin, is linked principally to normal tension glaucoma, a subtype of POAG. The present study was undertaken to illustrate the basic characteristics of optineurin. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Lysates from rat retinal ganglion RGC5 cells were subjected to N- or O-deglycosylation or membrane protein extraction. The phosphorylation status was evaluated after immunoprecipitation. It was found that while phosphorylated, optineurin was neither N- nor O-glycosylated, and was by itself not a membrane protein. RGC5 and human retinal pigment epithelial cells were double stained with anti-optineurin and anti-GM130. The endogenous optineurin exhibited a diffuse, cytoplasmic distribution, but a population of the protein was associated with the Golgi apparatus. Turnover experiments showed that the endogenous optineurin was relatively short-lived, with a half-life of approximately 8 hours. Native blue gel electrophoresis revealed that the endogenous optineurin formed homohexamers. Optineurin also interacted with molecules including Rab8, myosin VI, and transferrin receptor to assemble into supermolecular complexes. When overexpressed, optineurin-green fluorescence protein (GFP fusion protein formed punctate structures termed "foci" in the perinuclear region. Treatment of nocadazole resulted in dispersion of the optineurin foci. In addition, tetracycline-regulated optineurin-GFPs expressing RGC5 stable cell lines were established for the first time. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The present study provides new information regarding basic characteristics of optineurin that are important for future efforts in defining precisely how optineurin functions normally and how mutations may result in pathology. The inducible optineurin-GFP-expressing cell lines are also anticipated to

  5. The Rothmund-Thomson gene product RECQL4 localizes to the nucleolus in response to oxidative stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, Leslie L.; Futami, Kazunobu; Shimamoto, Akira; Furuichi, Yasuhiro; Frank, Karen M.


    Mutations in the RECQL4 helicase gene have been linked to Rothmund-Thomson syndrome (RTS), which is characterized by poikiloderma, growth deficiency, and a predisposition to cancer. Examination of RECQL4 subcellular localization in live cells demonstrated a nucleoplasmic pattern and, to a lesser degree, staining in nucleoli. Analysis of RECQL4-GFP deletion mutants revealed two nuclear localization regions in the N-terminal region of RECQL4 and a nucleolar localization signal at amino acids 376-386. RECQL4 localization did not change after treatment with the DNA-damaging agents bleomycin, etoposide, UV irradiation and γ irradiation, in contrast to the Bloom and Werner syndrome helicases that relocate to distinct nuclear foci after damage. However, in a significant number of cells exposed to hydrogen peroxide or streptonigrin, RECQL4 accumulated in nucleoli. Using a T7 phage display screen, we determined that RECQL4 interacts with poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), a nuclear enzyme that promotes genomic integrity through its involvement in DNA repair and signaling pathways. The RECQL4 nucleolar localization was inhibited by pretreatment with a PARP-1 inhibitor. The C-terminal portion of RECQL4 was found to be an in vitro substrate for PARP-1. These results demonstrate changes in the intracellular localization of RECQL4 in response to oxidative stress and identify an interaction between RECQL4 and PARP-1

  6. Localization and expression of clarin-1, the Clrn1 gene product, in auditory hair cells and photoreceptors (United States)

    Zallocchi, Marisa; Meehan, Daniel T.; Delimont, Duane; Askew, Charles; Garrige, Suneetha; Gratton, Michael Anne; Rothermund-Franklin, Christie A.; Cosgrove, Dominic


    The Usher syndrome 3A (CLRN1) gene encodes clarin-1, which is a member of the tetraspanin family of transmembrane proteins. Although identified more than 6 years ago, little is known about its localization or function in the eye and ear. We developed a polyclonal antibody that react with all clarin-1 isoforms and used it to characterize protein expression in cochlea and retina. In the cochlea, we observe clarin-1expression in the stereocilia of P0 mice, and in synaptic terminals present at the base of the auditory hair cells from E18 to P6. In the retina, clarin-1 localizes to the connecting cilia, inner segment of photoreceptors and to the ribbon synapses. RT-PCR from P0 cochlea and P28 retina show mRNAs encoding only isoforms 2 and 3. Western-blots show that only isoform 2 is present in protein extracts from these same tissues. We examined clarin-1 expression in the immortomouse-derived hair cell line UB/OC-1. Only isoform 2 is expressed in UB/OC-1 at both mRNA and protein levels, suggesting this isoform is biologically relevant to hair cell function. The protein co-localizes with microtubules and post-transgolgi vesicles. The sub-cellular localization of clarin-1 in hair cells and photoreceptors suggests it functions at both the basal and apical poles of neurosensoriepithelia. PMID:19539019

  7. Wolfram syndrome 1 gene (WFS1) product localizes to secretory granules and determines granule acidification in pancreatic beta-cells. (United States)

    Hatanaka, Masayuki; Tanabe, Katsuya; Yanai, Akie; Ohta, Yasuharu; Kondo, Manabu; Akiyama, Masaru; Shinoda, Koh; Oka, Yoshitomo; Tanizawa, Yukio


    Wolfram syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by juvenile-onset insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and optic atrophy. The gene responsible for the syndrome (WFS1) encodes an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) resident transmembrane protein. The Wfs1-null mouse exhibits progressive insulin deficiency causing diabetes. Previous work suggested that the function of the WFS1 protein is connected to unfolded protein response and to intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis. However, its precise molecular function in pancreatic β-cells remains elusive. In our present study, immunofluorescent and electron-microscopic analyses revealed that WFS1 localizes not only to ER but also to secretory granules in pancreatic β-cells. Intragranular acidification was assessed by measuring intracellular fluorescence intensity raised by the acidotrophic agent, 3-[2,4-dinitroanilino]-3'-amino-N-methyldipropyramine. Compared with wild-type β-cells, there was a 32% reduction in the intensity in WFS1-deficient β-cells, indicating the impairment of granular acidification. This phenotype may, at least partly, account for the evidence that Wfs1-null islets have impaired proinsulin processing, resulting in an increased circulating proinsulin level. Morphometric analysis using electron microscopy evidenced that the density of secretory granules attached to the plasma membrane was significantly reduced in Wfs1-null β-cells relative to that in wild-type β-cells. This may be relevant to the recent finding that granular acidification is required for the priming of secretory granules preceding exocytosis and may partly explain the fact that glucose-induced insulin secretion is profoundly impaired in young prediabetic Wfs1-null mice. These results thus provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms of β-cell dysfunction in patients with Wolfram syndrome.

  8. Protein-protein association and cellular localization of four essential gene products encoded by tellurite resistance-conferring cluster "ter" from pathogenic Escherichia coli. (United States)

    Valkovicova, Lenka; Vavrova, Silvia Minarikova; Mravec, Jozef; Grones, Jozef; Turna, Jan


    Gene cluster "ter" conferring high tellurite resistance has been identified in various pathogenic bacteria including Escherichia coli O157:H7. However, the precise mechanism as well as the molecular function of the respective gene products is unclear. Here we describe protein-protein association and localization analyses of four essential Ter proteins encoded by minimal resistance-conferring fragment (terBCDE) by means of recombinant expression. By using a two-plasmid complementation system we show that the overproduced single Ter proteins are not able to mediate tellurite resistance, but all Ter members play an irreplaceable role within the cluster. We identified several types of homotypic and heterotypic protein-protein associations among the Ter proteins by in vitro and in vivo pull-down assays and determined their cellular localization by cytosol/membrane fractionation. Our results strongly suggest that Ter proteins function involves their mutual association, which probably happens at the interface of the inner plasma membrane and the cytosol.

  9. p300-mediated acetylation of the Rothmund-Thomson-syndrome gene product RECQL4 regulates its subcellular localization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietschy, Tobias; Shevelev, Igor; Pena Diaz, Javier


    RECQL4 belongs to the conserved RecQ family of DNA helicases, members of which play important roles in the maintenance of genome stability in all organisms that have been examined. Although genetic alterations in the RECQL4 gene are reported to be associated with three autosomal recessive disorde...... by p300 regulates the trafficking of RECQL4 between the nucleus and the cytoplasm....

  10. Aneuploids of wheat and chromosomal localization of genes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aneuploids of wheat and chromosomal localization of genes. ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... cytogenetic methods for the chromosomal localization of major genes in wheat including Chinese spring (CS) monosomics (Triticum aestivum, ...

  11. Local cloning of two product states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Zhengfeng; Feng Yuan; Ying Mingsheng


    Local quantum operations and classical communication (LOCC) put considerable constraints on many quantum information processing tasks such as cloning and discrimination. Surprisingly, however, discrimination of any two pure states survives such constraints in some sense. We show that cloning is not that lucky; namely, probabilistic LOCC cloning of two product states is strictly less efficient than global cloning. We prove our result by giving explicitly the efficiency formula of local cloning of any two product states

  12. Local product structure for expansive homeomorphisms


    Artigue, Alfonso; Brum, Joaquin; Potrie, Rafael


    Let $f\\colon M\\to M$ be an expansive homeomorphism with dense topologically hyperbolic periodic points, $M$ a compact manifold. Then there is a local product structure in an open and dense subset of $M$. Moreover, if some topologically hyperbolic periodic point has codimension one, then this local product structure is uniform. In particular, we conclude that the homeomorphism is conjugated to a linear Anosov diffeomorphism of a torus.

  13. Aneuploids of wheat and chromosomal localization of genes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jun 22, 2011 ... chromosome location of such genes is critical for effective utilization and subsequent manipulation. Further, chromosomal localization will lead to the identification of ... Various cytogenetic stocks and techniques have been previously reported useful in localizing genes on wheat chromosomes. The objective ...

  14. Loci controlling lymphocyte production of interferon gamma after alloantigen stimulation in vitro and their co-localization with genes controlling lymphocyte infiltration of tumors and tumor susceptibility

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lipoldová, Marie; Havelková, Helena; Badalová, Jana; Vojtíšková, Jarmila; Quan, L.; Krulová, Magdalena; Sohrabi, Yahya; Stassen, A. P. M.; Demant, P.


    Roč. 59, č. 2 (2010), s. 203-213 ISSN 0340-7004 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009; GA AV ČR IAA500520606; GA ČR GD310/08/H077 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : Tumor susceptibility * Genetic control of interferon gamma production * Lymphocyte infiltration of tumors Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.293, year: 2010

  15. Localizing genes to cerebellar layers by classifying ISH images.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lior Kirsch

    Full Text Available Gene expression controls how the brain develops and functions. Understanding control processes in the brain is particularly hard since they involve numerous types of neurons and glia, and very little is known about which genes are expressed in which cells and brain layers. Here we describe an approach to detect genes whose expression is primarily localized to a specific brain layer and apply it to the mouse cerebellum. We learn typical spatial patterns of expression from a few markers that are known to be localized to specific layers, and use these patterns to predict localization for new genes. We analyze images of in-situ hybridization (ISH experiments, which we represent using histograms of local binary patterns (LBP and train image classifiers and gene classifiers for four layers of the cerebellum: the Purkinje, granular, molecular and white matter layer. On held-out data, the layer classifiers achieve accuracy above 94% (AUC by representing each image at multiple scales and by combining multiple image scores into a single gene-level decision. When applied to the full mouse genome, the classifiers predict specific layer localization for hundreds of new genes in the Purkinje and granular layers. Many genes localized to the Purkinje layer are likely to be expressed in astrocytes, and many others are involved in lipid metabolism, possibly due to the unusual size of Purkinje cells.

  16. Gene ontology based transfer learning for protein subcellular localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Shuigeng


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prediction of protein subcellular localization generally involves many complex factors, and using only one or two aspects of data information may not tell the true story. For this reason, some recent predictive models are deliberately designed to integrate multiple heterogeneous data sources for exploiting multi-aspect protein feature information. Gene ontology, hereinafter referred to as GO, uses a controlled vocabulary to depict biological molecules or gene products in terms of biological process, molecular function and cellular component. With the rapid expansion of annotated protein sequences, gene ontology has become a general protein feature that can be used to construct predictive models in computational biology. Existing models generally either concatenated the GO terms into a flat binary vector or applied majority-vote based ensemble learning for protein subcellular localization, both of which can not estimate the individual discriminative abilities of the three aspects of gene ontology. Results In this paper, we propose a Gene Ontology Based Transfer Learning Model (GO-TLM for large-scale protein subcellular localization. The model transfers the signature-based homologous GO terms to the target proteins, and further constructs a reliable learning system to reduce the adverse affect of the potential false GO terms that are resulted from evolutionary divergence. We derive three GO kernels from the three aspects of gene ontology to measure the GO similarity of two proteins, and derive two other spectrum kernels to measure the similarity of two protein sequences. We use simple non-parametric cross validation to explicitly weigh the discriminative abilities of the five kernels, such that the time & space computational complexities are greatly reduced when compared to the complicated semi-definite programming and semi-indefinite linear programming. The five kernels are then linearly merged into one single kernel for

  17. New design competences for localized production systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Kaare Riise; Morelli, Nicola


    This paper discusses the current development in production culture, based on local production networks. The role of the designer is put in perspective and outlined through a research project, Den Grønne Møbel (DGM), where different design areas were coordinated in a business concept...... in fully industrialized countries such as Denmark and represents an interesting alternative to globalized industrial production. Furthermore this case is an interesting opportunity to re-discuss the role and competences of designers in such new models. Tools and methods of the design profession...... and an organization involving different stakeholders. For several years now, DGM has been producing furniture from local materials, hereby aiming to create a new culture for well designed and environmentally sound furniture with a ‘story’. Although not totally new, this organizational model is particularly innovative...

  18. Structure and chromosomal localization of the human lymphotoxin gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nedwin, G.E.; Jarrett-Nedwin, J.; Smith, D.H.; Naylor, S.L.; Sakaguchi, A.Y.; Goeddel, D.V.; Gray, P.W.


    The authors have isolated, sequenced, and determined the chromosomal localization of the gene encoding human lymphotoxin (LT). The single copy gene was isolated from a human genomic library using a /sup 32/P-labeled 116 bp synthetic DNA fragment whose sequence was based on the NH/sub 2/-terminal amino acid sequence of LT. The gene spans 3 kb of DNA and is interrupted by three intervening sequences. The LT gene is located on human chromosome 6, as determined by Southern blot analysis of human-murine hybrid DNA. Putative transcriptional control regions and areas of homology with the promoters of interferon and other genes are identified

  19. Chromosomal localization of the human and mouse hyaluronan synthase genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spicer, A.P.; McDonald, J.A. [Mayo Clinic Scottsdale, AZ (United States); Seldin, M.F. [Univ. of California Davis, CA (United States)] [and others


    We have recently identified a new vertebrate gene family encoding putative hyaluronan (HA) synthases. Three highly conserved related genes have been identified, designated HAS1, HAS2, and HAS3 in humans and Has1, Has2, and Has3 in the mouse. All three genes encode predicted plasma membrane proteins with multiple transmembrane domains and approximately 25% amino acid sequence identity to the Streptococcus pyogenes HA synthase, HasA. Furthermore, expression of any one HAS gene in transfected mammalian cells leads to high levels of HA biosynthesis. We now report the chromosomal localization of the three HAS genes in human and in mouse. The genes localized to three different positions within both the human and the mouse genomes. HAS1 was localized to the human chromosome 19q13.3-q13.4 boundary and Has1 to mouse Chr 17. HAS2 was localized to human chromosome 8q24.12 and Has2 to mouse Chr 15. HAS3 was localized to human chromosome 16q22.1 and Has3 to mouse Chr 8. The map position for HAS1 reinforces the recently reported relationship between a small region of human chromosome 19q and proximal mouse chromosome 17. HAS2 mapped outside the predicted critical region delineated for the Langer-Giedion syndrome and can thus be excluded as a candidate gene for this genetic syndrome. 33 refs., 2 figs.

  20. Characterizing locally distinguishable orthogonal product states


    Feng, Yuan; Shi, Yaoyun


    Bennett et al. \\cite{BDF+99} identified a set of orthogonal {\\em product} states in the $3\\otimes 3$ Hilbert space such that reliably distinguishing those states requires non-local quantum operations. While more examples have been found for this counter-intuitive ``nonlocality without entanglement'' phenomenon, a complete and computationally verifiable characterization for all such sets of states remains unknown. In this Letter, we give such a characterization for the $3\\otimes 3$ space.

  1. Territory, competitive advantages and local productive systems


    Monarca U.


    This work aims at analyzing if, as often indicated by theoretical and empirical literature, the "territory" variable shows local development dynamics. A review of the districts phenomenon has favoured the attempt to integrate modern economical trends in this consolidated productive model, with particular emphasis on firm internationalization, market globalisation and the IT developments, including business services as well. The work underlines two implication of this innovative approach: the ...

  2. Localizing genes using linkage disequilibrium in plants: integrating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Mar 19, 2007 ... Localizing genes using linkage disequilibrium in plants: integrating lessons ... reduce that association as a function of the marker distance from the QTL. ..... the gene locus enhanced the resolution power of asso- ciation tests .... agents, such as insects, birds, water and wind, so mating is determined by a ...

  3. Structure and chromosomal localization of the human renal kallikrein gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, B.A.; Yun, Z.X.; Close, J.A.


    Glandular kallikreins are a family of proteases encoded by a variable number of genes in different mammalian species. In all species examined, however, one particular kallikrein is functionally conserved in its capacity to release the vasoactive peptide, Lys-bradykinin, from low molecular weight kininogen. This kallikrein is found in the kidney, pancreas, and salivary gland, showing a unique pattern of tissue-specific expression relative to other members of the family. The authors have isolated a genomic clone carrying the human renal kallikrein gene and compared the nucleotide sequence of its promoter region with those of the mouse renal kallikrein gene and another mouse kallikrein gene expressed in a distinct cell type. They find four sequence elements conserved between renal kallikrein genes from the two species. They have also shown that the human gene is localized to 19q13, a position analogous to that of the kallikrein gene family on mouse chromosome 7

  4. The immunomodulatory gene products of myxoma virus

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    273. Keywords. Gene products; myxoma virus; Oryctolagus cuniculus; poxvirus; skin lesions ...... these data is that these viral proteins do not promote class .... Cudmore S, Reckmann I and Way M 1997 Viral manipulations of the actin ...

  5. Comparison of methods for genomic localization of gene trap sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferrin Thomas E


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene knockouts in a model organism such as mouse provide a valuable resource for the study of basic biology and human disease. Determining which gene has been inactivated by an untargeted gene trapping event poses a challenging annotation problem because gene trap sequence tags, which represent sequence near the vector insertion site of a trapped gene, are typically short and often contain unresolved residues. To understand better the localization of these sequences on the mouse genome, we compared stand-alone versions of the alignment programs BLAT, SSAHA, and MegaBLAST. A set of 3,369 sequence tags was aligned to build 34 of the mouse genome using default parameters for each algorithm. Known genome coordinates for the cognate set of full-length genes (1,659 sequences were used to evaluate localization results. Results In general, all three programs performed well in terms of localizing sequences to a general region of the genome, with only relatively subtle errors identified for a small proportion of the sequence tags. However, large differences in performance were noted with regard to correctly identifying exon boundaries. BLAT correctly identified the vast majority of exon boundaries, while SSAHA and MegaBLAST missed the majority of exon boundaries. SSAHA consistently reported the fewest false positives and is the fastest algorithm. MegaBLAST was comparable to BLAT in speed, but was the most susceptible to localizing sequence tags incorrectly to pseudogenes. Conclusion The differences in performance for sequence tags and full-length reference sequences were surprisingly small. Characteristic variations in localization results for each program were noted that affect the localization of sequence at exon boundaries, in particular.

  6. Gene analogue finder: a GRID solution for finding functionally analogous gene products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Licciulli Flavio


    Full Text Available Abstract Background To date more than 2,1 million gene products from more than 100000 different species have been described specifying their function, the processes they are involved in and their cellular localization using a very well defined and structured vocabulary, the gene ontology (GO. Such vast, well defined knowledge opens the possibility of compare gene products at the level of functionality, finding gene products which have a similar function or are involved in similar biological processes without relying on the conventional sequence similarity approach. Comparisons within such a large space of knowledge are highly data and computing intensive. For this reason this project was based upon the use of the computational GRID, a technology offering large computing and storage resources. Results We have developed a tool, GENe AnaloGue FINdEr (ENGINE that parallelizes the search process and distributes the calculation and data over the computational GRID, splitting the process into many sub-processes and joining the calculation and the data on the same machine and therefore completing the whole search in about 3 days instead of occupying one single machine for more than 5 CPU years. The results of the functional comparison contain potential functional analogues for more than 79000 gene products from the most important species. 46% of the analyzed gene products are well enough described for such an analysis to individuate functional analogues, such as well-known members of the same gene family, or gene products with similar functions which would never have been associated by standard methods. Conclusion ENGINE has produced a list of potential functionally analogous relations between gene products within and between species using, in place of the sequence, the gene description of the GO, thus demonstrating the potential of the GO. However, the current limiting factor is the quality of the associations of many gene products from non

  7. Nuclear localization of SNARK; its impact on gene expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuga, Wataru; Tsuchihara, Katsuya; Ogura, Tsutomu; Kanehara, Sakyo; Saito, Marie; Suzuki, Atsushi; Esumi, Hiroyasu


    SNARK, a member of the AMPK-related kinases, has been involved in the cellular stress responses but its precise mechanisms remain unclear. Subcellular localization of SNARK protein was identified. Unlike cytoplasmic localizing AMPKα, SNARK was predominantly localized in the nucleus. SNARK was constitutively distributed in the nucleus even when SNARK was activated by metabolic stimuli such as AICAR and glucose-deprivation. Conserved nuclear localization signal (NLS) was identified at the N-terminal portion ( 68 KKAR 71 ). Deletion and point mutation of this part resulted in the cytoplasmic translocation of mutant proteins. Furthermore, GFP fused with the SNARK fragment containing 68 KKAR 71 translocated to the nucleus. A microarray analysis revealed that the nuclear localizing SNARK altered transcriptome profiles and a considerable part of these alterations were canceled by the mutation of NLS, suggesting the ability of SNARK to modulate gene expression dependent on its nuclear localization.

  8. Localization and cloning of the gene(s) of bacteriophage PM2 responsible for membrane morphogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armour, G.A.


    Proteins implicated in membrane morphogenesis (sp6.6 and sp13) have been previously identified by analysis of membrane proteins in the membrane of the purified phage. Analysis of a ts viral mutant that produces empty membrane vesicles also indicated the unique presence of viral structural protein sp6.6. In this work the gene for sp6.6 was localized on the PM2 genome by in vitro coupled transcription-translation directed by restriction endonuclease fragments of PM2 DNA. A Hind III fragment containing the sp6.6 gene among others was cloned into pBR322 in E. coli. Examination with the electron microscope revealed the production of new membrane vesicles whose size were similar to that of the natural membrane of PM2. Clones were then constructed in the pUC family of plasmids which uses the Lac promoter and pPL-lambda which uses the promoter left of lambda. pUC clones were unable to produce vesicles or detectable sp6.6. A pPL-lambda clone was produced 3.5 Kbp in size, that produced p6.6 as detected by SDS-PAGE of radiolabeled protein and immunoblotting

  9. Local and global responses in complex gene regulation networks (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Masa; Selvarajoo, Kumar; Piras, Vincent; Tomita, Masaru; Giuliani, Alessandro


    An exacerbated sensitivity to apparently minor stimuli and a general resilience of the entire system stay together side-by-side in biological systems. This apparent paradox can be explained by the consideration of biological systems as very strongly interconnected network systems. Some nodes of these networks, thanks to their peculiar location in the network architecture, are responsible for the sensitivity aspects, while the large degree of interconnection is at the basis of the resilience properties of the system. One relevant feature of the high degree of connectivity of gene regulation networks is the emergence of collective ordered phenomena influencing the entire genome and not only a specific portion of transcripts. The great majority of existing gene regulation models give the impression of purely local ‘hard-wired’ mechanisms disregarding the emergence of global ordered behavior encompassing thousands of genes while the general, genome wide, aspects are less known. Here we address, on a data analysis perspective, the discrimination between local and global scale regulations, this goal was achieved by means of the examination of two biological systems: innate immune response in macrophages and oscillating growth dynamics in yeast. Our aim was to reconcile the ‘hard-wired’ local view of gene regulation with a global continuous and scalable one borrowed from statistical physics. This reconciliation is based on the network paradigm in which the local ‘hard-wired’ activities correspond to the activation of specific crucial nodes in the regulation network, while the scalable continuous responses can be equated to the collective oscillations of the network after a perturbation.

  10. Chromosomal localization of the human vesicular amine transporter genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter, D.; Finn, P.; Liu, Y.; Roghani, A.; Edwards, R.H.; Klisak, I.; Kojis, T.; Heinzmann, C.; Sparkes, R.S. (UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA (United States))


    The physiologic and behavioral effects of pharmacologic agents that interfere with the transport of monoamine neurotransmitters into vesicles suggest that vesicular amine transport may contribute to human neuropsychiatric disease. To determine whether an alteration in the genes that encode vesicular amine transport contributes to the inherited component of these disorders, the authors have isolated a human cDNA for the brain transporter and localized the human vesciular amine transporter genes. The human brain synaptic vesicle amine transporter (SVAT) shows unexpected conservation with rat SVAT in the regions that diverge extensively between rat SVAT and the rat adrenal chromaffin granule amine transporter (CGAT). Using the cloned sequences with a panel of mouse-human hybrids and in situ hybridization for regional localization, the adrenal CGAT gene (or VAT1) maps to human chromosome 8p21.3 and the brain SVAT gene (or VAT2) maps to chromosome 10q25. Both of these sites occur very close to if not within previously described deletions that produce severe but viable phenotypes. 26 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Novel Polymorphisms of Adrenergic, Alpha-1B-, Receptor and Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor Gamma, Coactivator 1 Beta Genes and Their Association with Egg Production Traits in Local Chinese Dagu Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Mu


    Full Text Available Adrenergic, alpha-1B-, receptor (ADRA1B and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, coactivator 1 beta (PPARGC1B genes are involved in regulation of hen ovarian development. In this study, these two genes were investigated as possible molecular markers associated with hen-housed egg production, egg weight (EW and body weight in Chinese Dagu hens. Samples were analyzed using the polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP technique, followed by sequencing analysis. Two novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were identified within the candidate genes. Among them, an A/G transition at base position 1915 in exon 2 of ADRA1B gene and a T/C mutation at base position 6146 in the 3′-untranslated region (UTR of PPARGC1B gene were found to be polymorphic and named SNP A1915G and T6146C, respectively. The SNP A1915G (ADRA1B leads to a non-synonymous substitution (aspartic acid 489-to-glycine. The 360 birds from the Dagu population were divided into genotypes AA and AG, allele A was found to be present at a higher frequency. Furthermore, the AG genotype correlated with significantly higher hen-housed egg production (HHEP at 30, 43, 57, and 66 wks of age and with a higher EW at 30 and 43 wks (p<0.05. For the SNP T6146C (PPARGC1B, the hens were typed into TT and TC genotypes, with the T allele shown to be dominant. The TC genotype was also markedly correlated with higher HHEP at 57 and 66 wks of age and EW at 30 and 43 wks (p<0.05. Moreover, four haplotypes were reconstructed based on these two SNPs, with the AGTC haplotype found to be associated with the highest HHEP at 30 to 66 wks of age and with higher EW at 30 and 43 wks (p<0.05. Collectively, the two SNPs identified in this study might be used as potential genetic molecular markers favorable in the improvement of egg productivity in chicken breeding.

  12. Product Differentiation in Local Television News. (United States)

    Atwater, Tony

    A study was conducted to investigate the extent to which local television stations exhibited diversity in newscast content within three midwest broadcast markets. A second objective was to describe the nature of the news content characteristic of local news stories that were broadcast by only one station within a market (or unique news stories). A…

  13. Ultrasound-Mediated Local Drug and Gene Delivery Using Nanocarriers (United States)

    Zhou, Qiu-Lan; Chen, Zhi-Yi; Yang, Feng


    With the development of nanotechnology, nanocarriers have been increasingly used for curative drug/gene delivery. Various nanocarriers are being introduced and assessed, such as polymer nanoparticles, liposomes, and micelles. As a novel theranostic system, nanocarriers hold great promise for ultrasound molecular imaging, targeted drug/gene delivery, and therapy. Nanocarriers, with the properties of smaller particle size, and long circulation time, would be advantageous in diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Nanocarriers can pass through blood capillary walls and cell membrane walls to deliver drugs. The mechanisms of interaction between ultrasound and nanocarriers are not clearly understood, which may be related to cavitation, mechanical effects, thermal effects, and so forth. These effects may induce transient membrane permeabilization (sonoporation) on a single cell level, cell death, and disruption of tissue structure, ensuring noninvasive, targeted, and efficient drug/gene delivery and therapy. The system has been used in various tissues and organs (in vitro or in vivo), including tumor tissues, kidney, cardiac, skeletal muscle, and vascular smooth muscle. In this review, we explore the research progress and application of ultrasound-mediated local drug/gene delivery with nanocarriers. PMID:25202710

  14. Ultrasound-Mediated Local Drug and Gene Delivery Using Nanocarriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiu-Lan Zhou


    Full Text Available With the development of nanotechnology, nanocarriers have been increasingly used for curative drug/gene delivery. Various nanocarriers are being introduced and assessed, such as polymer nanoparticles, liposomes, and micelles. As a novel theranostic system, nanocarriers hold great promise for ultrasound molecular imaging, targeted drug/gene delivery, and therapy. Nanocarriers, with the properties of smaller particle size, and long circulation time, would be advantageous in diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Nanocarriers can pass through blood capillary walls and cell membrane walls to deliver drugs. The mechanisms of interaction between ultrasound and nanocarriers are not clearly understood, which may be related to cavitation, mechanical effects, thermal effects, and so forth. These effects may induce transient membrane permeabilization (sonoporation on a single cell level, cell death, and disruption of tissue structure, ensuring noninvasive, targeted, and efficient drug/gene delivery and therapy. The system has been used in various tissues and organs (in vitro or in vivo, including tumor tissues, kidney, cardiac, skeletal muscle, and vascular smooth muscle. In this review, we explore the research progress and application of ultrasound-mediated local drug/gene delivery with nanocarriers.

  15. Capitalization of Local Products through Agro- Household

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Ciolac


    Full Text Available In every household there are many family activities that provide the necessary income or living foods. Some activities are related to cultivation of land, others for breeding other means services provided by the vilagers. The products of the own household must cover 40% of meals offered to tourists. These products are produced by the householder work in their household, the tourist having the opportunity to observe how the products are produced and participate effectively in this production. Specific rural household products can be recovered through tourism by both indirect and direct ways. Both variants can generate increased profitability and interest of the tourist business activity and impose a sense of satisfaction for quality benefit, issues that may be, in turn, assumptions favorable to the extension of this work.

  16. AtTZF gene family localizes to cytoplasmic foci


    Pomeranz, Marcelo; Lin, Pei-Chi; Finer, John; Jang, Jyan-Chyun


    In eukaryotes, mRNA turnover and translational repression represent important regulatory steps in gene expression. Curiously, when under cellular stresses, factors involved in these processes aggregate into cytoplasmic foci known as Processing bodies (P-bodies) and Stress Granules (SGs). In animals, CCCH Tandem Zinc Finger (TZF) proteins play important roles in mRNA decay within P-bodies. TTP, a P-body localized mammalian TZF, can bind to the 3'UTRs of mRNAs containing AU-rich elements (AREs)...

  17. Analysis of DNA polymorphism of CAST gene in Local Karnobat and Stara Zagora sheep breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Hristova


    Full Text Available Abstract. Considered calpastatin as a candidate gene for meat and growth traits in sheep production it is important to understand the genetic variability in this locus. The present work was oriented to identification of calpastatin gene polymorphism and analysis of genetic structure of the populations representing two bulgarian sheep breeds – Local Karnobat and Stara Zagora.The material involved 96 sheep of breeds and genomic DNA was isolated by commersial purified kit and used in order to estimate calpastatin genotypes by PCR-RFLP method. The PCR products were digested with MspI restriction enzyme as a result were detected two different genotypes in the observed locus – homozygous MM and heterozygous MN in Stara Zagora sheep population with frequencies 0.937 and 0.063, respectively. M and N allele frequencies were identified with 0.968 and 0.032. The observed heterozygosity in Stara Zagora sheep population was 0.063 and the chi-square test confirmed the existence of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in this population (P>0.05. In the total population of Local Karnobat sheep was detected homozygous MM only. The results presented in this study show polymorphism of the calpastatin gene in the population of Stara Zagora sheep. Therefore,we could be confirm the importance of this gene as a potential DNA marker in marker-assisted selection with respect to meat production.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    data employed in the analysis of input –output relationship in plantain production. The value of ... Plantain is one of the most important staple food crops grown in the ... the financial feasibility of expansion, or indeed starting up of an enterprise and contains ... any enterprise is measured in relation to the size of the business.

  19. Cloning and chromosomal localization of the three human syntrophin genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feener, C.A.; Anderson, M.D.S.; Selig, S. [Children`s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)] [and others


    Dystrophin, the protein product the Duchenne muscular dystrophy locus, is normally found to be associated with a complex of proteins. Among these dystrophin-associated proteins are the syntrophins, a group of 59 kDa membrane-associated proteins. When the syntrophins are purified based upon their association with dystrophin, they have been shown previously to form two distinct groups, the acidic ({alpha}) and basic ({beta}) forms. Based on peptide and rodent cDNA sequences, three separate syntrophin genes have been cloned and characterized from human tissues. The predicted amino acid sequences from these cDNA reveal that these proteins are related but are distinct with respect to charge, as predicted from their biochemistry. The family consists of one acidic ({alpha}-syntrophin, analogous to mouse syntrophin-1) and two basic ({beta}{sub 1}-syntrophin; and {beta}{sub 2}-syntrophin, analogous to mouse syntrophin-2) genes. Each of the three genes are widely expressed in a variety of human tissues, but the relative abundance of the three are unique with respect to each other. {alpha}-syntrophin is expressed primarily in skeletal muscle and heart as a single transcript. {beta}{sub 1}-syntrophin is expressed widely in up to five distinct transcript sizes, and is most abundant in brain. The human chromosomal locations of the three syntrophins are currently being mapped. {beta}{sub 1}-syntrophin maps to chromosome 8q23-24 and {beta}{sub 2}-syntrophin to chromosome 16. The {alpha}-syntrophin gene will be mapped accordingly. Although all three genes are candidates for neuromuscular diseases, the predominant expression of {alpha}-syntrophin in skeletal muscle and heart makes it a strong candidate to be involved in a neuromuscular disease.

  20. Localization to the production of radiographic image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Tae Won


    The diagnostic value of a intra oral film is related to projecting technic and interpretation. The intra-oral film is a single plane representation of a three dimensional object, therefore superimposition is inevitably present. The purpose of this article is to show how foreign objects in the jaw may be localized. The author used double exposure technic, that are changed angulation of vertical or horizontal to one film. The obtained results are as follow: 1. In the upper anterior region, the moving distance of the labially impacted reference object was greater than that of the palatally impacted one. 2. In the upper molar region, the moving distance of the mesiobuccal root apex was the greatest and that of palatal root apex was the shortest. 3. In the lower molar region, the change of the alveolar bone level in the buccal side was greater than that of lingual side.

  1. Consumer Protection Towards Local Food Production In Southeast Sulawesi Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suriani BT. Tolo


    Full Text Available Abstract Consumers have rights which should not just be ignored by businesses such as the right to be a safety the right be informed the right to be heard as well as the right to a good environment and healthy. Kendari Regency as a local government has been manifested by issuing regulations and policies that support the development of local food production such as the Mayor of Kendari regulation No. 15 of 2010 and Mayor Kendari Decree No. 427 of 2012 regarding the Establishment of Community Care Local Food. It appears that the local government is trying to make this local food as an alternative food. The type of research used in this paper is a socio-legal research reviewing the local food production from the perspective of consumer protection. The outcomes of the research indicate that responsibility of food business operators in the implementation of local production is essentially an effort to assist the government in ensuring the realization of food safety system. Therefore there is a need for awareness of the laws and regulations for all parties involved towards local food production especially in Kendari Regency Southeast Sulawesi on the food production process.

  2. ATM localization and gene expression in the adult mouse eye. (United States)

    Leemput, Julia; Masson, Christel; Bigot, Karine; Errachid, Abdelmounaim; Dansault, Anouk; Provost, Alexandra; Gadin, Stéphanie; Aoufouchi, Said; Menasche, Maurice; Abitbol, Marc


    High levels of metabolism and oxygen consumption in most adult murine ocular compartments, combined with exposure to light and ultraviolet (UV) radiation, are major sources of oxidative stress, causing DNA damage in ocular cells. Of all mammalian body cells, photoreceptor cells consume the largest amount of oxygen and generate the highest levels of oxidative damage. The accumulation of such damage throughout life is a major factor of aging tissues. Several multiprotein complexes have recently been identified as the major sensors and mediators involved in the maintenance of DNA integrity. The activity of these complexes initially seemed to be restricted to dividing cells, given their ultimate role in major cell cycle checkpoints. However, it was later established that they are also active in post-mitotic cells. Recent findings demonstrate that the DNA damage response (DDR) is essential for the development, maintenance, and normal functioning of the adult central nervous system. One major molecular factor in the DDR is the protein, ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM). It is required for the rapid induction of cellular responses to DNA double-strand breaks. These cytotoxic DNA lesions may be caused by oxidative damage. To understand how ATM prevents oxidative stress and participates in the maintenance of genomic integrity and cell viability of the adult retina, we determined the ATM expression patterns and studied its localization in the adult mouse eye. Atm gene expression was analyzed by RT-PCR experiments and its localization by in situ hybridization on adult mouse ocular and cerebellar tissue sections. ATM protein expression was determined by western blot analysis of proteins homogenates extracted from several mouse tissues and its localization by immunohistochemistry experiments performed on adult mouse ocular and cerebellar tissue sections. In addition, subcellular localization was realized by confocal microscopy imaging of ocular tissue sections, with a special

  3. Opportunities for Local for Local Food Production: A Case in the Dutch Fruit and Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurriaan Visser


    Full Text Available This paper investigates the opportunities for farmers to produce for local consumers, based on a case study in the Dutch horticulture sector. Main requirements for the set-up of a local chain of supply chain actors are investigated. Producer requirements are added value, availability of time, infrastructure and training. Retailer requirements are quality of food, purchasing volumes, food safety, communication to consumers and traceability of products. For consumers taste/freshness, sustainability, health benefits and authenticity are important attributes of local foods. Based on literature review and interviews with stakeholders four possible strategies for local food chains are defined. The ‘keep it local’ strategy means that the local food supply chains will not make use of the current infrastructure of the marketing coop that acts as chain coordinator. Deliveries are directly between farmer and retail outlet. The local products - conventional supply chain strategy implies that current (non-local supply chains are used to distribute local products. The supply chain planning will be more complex since products need to be separated per grower and distributed to several local supermarkets. In the ‘enabling producers’ strategy the marketing coop/chain coordinator is going to enable its member producers to sell their products locally. The marketing coop can support producers in for instance, billing and payments, marketing, logistics. The fourth strategy aims at strengthening current consumer communication strategies. It is argued that connecting producers and consumers, regardless of where they live is advantageous.Conclusion is that strategy 3; ‘Enabling producers’, in combination with strategy 4; ‘Strengthening current consumer communication strategies’ are the most promising options in setting up local food supply chains. Strategies 1 and 2, where the marketing coop/chain coordinator itself takes on the challenge of setting up

  4. Production of tomato puree: an alternative to conservation of locally ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    suggest a mean of conservation of the surplus of production by processing tomato into puree. The most produced local ... processing into puree on industrial scale. The main .... functions contributing to the reaction of non-enzymatic browning ...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    iya beji

    ... PRODUCTS IN. OWERRI NORTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF IMO STATE, NIGERIA. EDNA C. ... Federal University of Technology, PMB 1526, Owerri, Imo State ... leguminous crops of the world both in its content and nutritional value.

  6. Economics of Local Cow Milk Products Marketing in Kwara State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Economics of Local Cow Milk Products Marketing in Kwara State, Nigeria. ... The marketing chain for the commodity is simple and crude. It starts from the raw cow milk processors ... EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL ...

  7. Economics of Plantain Production in Yenagoa Local Government ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examines the economics of plantain production in Yenagoa Local Government Area of Bayelsa State. To do this, 63 structured questionnaire were administered among randomly selected plantain farmers in Yenagoa Local Government Area of the State. Results show that greater number of the plantain producers ...

  8. Local Development of a Production Process for Replacement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Several constraints exist in the local market as regards the purchase and after - sales services of small stationary diesel engines used for flour milling, water pumping and generation of electricity. These constraints could be substantially addressed through local production of frequently used spares. This paper describes the ...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    that local anesthetics measure only basic secretion thus reducing normal tear production/secretion, which is both reflex and basic. This could be attributed to the fact that local anesthetics have an adrenergic potentiating effects and because lacrimal fluid receive a preganglionic parasympathetic supply from lacrimal muscles ...

  10. Rural Tourism and Local Development: Typical Productions of Lazio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Maria Olivieri


    Full Text Available The local development is based on the integration of the tourism sector with the whole economy. The rural tourism seems to be a good occasion to analyse the local development: consumption of "tourist products" located in specific local contexts. Starting from the food and wine supply chain and the localization of typical productions, the aim of the present work will be analyse the relationship with local development, rural tourism sustainability and accommodation system, referring to Lazio. Which are the findings to create tourism local system based on the relationship with touristic and food and wine supply chain? Italian tourism is based on accommodation system, so the whole consideration of the Italian cultural tourism: tourism made in Italy. The touristic added value to specific local context takes advantage from the synergy with food and wine supply chain: made in Italy of typical productions. Agritourism could be better accommodation typology to rural tourism and to exclusivity of consumption typical productions. The reciprocity among food and wine supply chain and tourism provides new insights on the key topics related to tourism development and to the organization of geographical space as well and considering its important contribution nowadays to the economic competitiveness.

  11. Economics Of Rabbit Production In Abeokuta South Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was aimed at examining the economic profitability of rabbit production based on the hypothesis that the low level of production may likely be a consequence of low profitability of the enterprise. Abeokuta South Local Government area was used as a case study. It involved the collection of primary data from a ...

  12. After all, What variables Characterize the Existence of Local Productive Arrangements and Local Roduction Systems?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Mendes Lübeck


    Full Text Available In this paper we established a distinction between the various terms used to characterize clusters of firms. Once in the literature, we identified that the terms, Local Productive Arrangements (LPA and Local Production Systems (LPS are used interchangeably. However, these terminologies refer to different stages of development of territorial agglomerations of firms. In the same way, the agglomeration of businesses belonging to a same production chain in a particular region would not necessarily characterize an LPA or LPS. The aim of this paper was to demonstrate the need to combine methods and variables to draw a more accurate and comprehensive territorial productive situation allowing the classification of clusters according to their stage of development and institutional structure. For that purpose, the strength of cooperation between local professionals was considered as a major factor, which creates a competitive advantage that requires exogenous interests to make use of the endogenous capabilities strategically developed and cultivated.

  13. Id-1 and Id-2 genes and products as markers of epithelial cancer (United States)

    Desprez, Pierre-Yves [El Cerrito, CA; Campisi, Judith [Berkeley, CA


    A method for detection and prognosis of breast cancer and other types of cancer. The method comprises detecting expression, if any, for both an Id-1 and an Id-2 genes, or the ratio thereof, of gene products in samples of breast tissue obtained from a patient. When expressed, Id-1 gene is a prognostic indicator that breast cancer cells are invasive and metastatic, whereas Id-2 gene is a prognostic indicator that breast cancer cells are localized and noninvasive in the breast tissue.

  14. Revealing gene action for production characteristics by inbreeding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Revealing gene action for production characteristics by inbreeding, based on a long-term selection ... The gene action involved in the expression of production characters was investigated, using the effect of the theoretical inbreeding ..... and predicted selection responses for growth, fat and lean traits in mice. J. Anim. Sci.

  15. Integrating Ontological Knowledge and Textual Evidence in Estimating Gene and Gene Product Similarity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Posse, Christian; Gopalan, Banu; Tratz, Stephen C.; Gregory, Michelle L.


    With the rising influence of the Gene On-tology, new approaches have emerged where the similarity between genes or gene products is obtained by comparing Gene Ontology code annotations associ-ated with them. So far, these approaches have solely relied on the knowledge en-coded in the Gene Ontology and the gene annotations associated with the Gene On-tology database. The goal of this paper is to demonstrate that improvements to these approaches can be obtained by integrating textual evidence extracted from relevant biomedical literature.

  16. Correlating Information Contents of Gene Ontology Terms to Infer Semantic Similarity of Gene Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingxin Gan


    Full Text Available Successful applications of the gene ontology to the inference of functional relationships between gene products in recent years have raised the need for computational methods to automatically calculate semantic similarity between gene products based on semantic similarity of gene ontology terms. Nevertheless, existing methods, though having been widely used in a variety of applications, may significantly overestimate semantic similarity between genes that are actually not functionally related, thereby yielding misleading results in applications. To overcome this limitation, we propose to represent a gene product as a vector that is composed of information contents of gene ontology terms annotated for the gene product, and we suggest calculating similarity between two gene products as the relatedness of their corresponding vectors using three measures: Pearson’s correlation coefficient, cosine similarity, and the Jaccard index. We focus on the biological process domain of the gene ontology and annotations of yeast proteins to study the effectiveness of the proposed measures. Results show that semantic similarity scores calculated using the proposed measures are more consistent with known biological knowledge than those derived using a list of existing methods, suggesting the effectiveness of our method in characterizing functional relationships between gene products.

  17. Local business models for district heat production; Kaukolaemmoen paikalliset liiketoimintamallit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakala, L.; Pesola, A.; Vanhanen, J.


    Local district heating business, outside large urban centers, is a profitable business in Finland, which can be practiced with several different business models. In addition to the traditional, local district heating business, local district heat production can be also based on franchising business model, on integrated service model or on different types of cooperation models, either between a local district heat producer and industrial site providing surplus heat or between a local district heat producer and a larger district heating company. Locally available wood energy is currently utilized effectively in the traditional district heating business model, in which a local entrepreneur produces heat to consumers in the local area. The franchising model is a more advanced version of the traditional district heating entrepreneurship. In this model, franchisor funds part of the investments, as well as offers centralized maintenance and fuel supply, for example. In the integrated service model, the local district heat producer offers also energy efficiency services and other value-added services, which are based on either the local district heat suppliers or his partner's expertise. In the cooperation model with industrial site, the local district heating business is based on the utilization of the surplus heat from the industrial site. In some cases, profitable operating model approach may be a district heating company outsourcing operations of one or more heating plants to a local entrepreneur. It can be concluded that all business models for district heat production (traditional district heat business model, franchising, integrated service model, cooperative model) discussed in this report can be profitable in Finnish conditions, as well for the local heat producer as for the municipality - and, above all, they produce cost-competitive heat for the end-user. All the models were seen as viable and interesting and having possibilities for expansion Finland

  18. Structure, tissue distribution, and chromosomal localization of the prepronociceptin gene. (United States)

    Mollereau, C; Simons, M J; Soularue, P; Liners, F; Vassart, G; Meunier, J C; Parmentier, M


    Nociceptin (orphanin FQ), the newly discovered natural agonist of opioid receptor-like (ORL1) receptor, is a neuropeptide that is endowed with pronociceptive activity in vivo. Nociceptin is derived from a larger precursor, prepronociceptin (PPNOC), whose human, mouse, and rat genes we have now isolated. The PPNOC gene is highly conserved in the three species and displays organizational features that are strikingly similar to those of the genes of preproenkephalin, preprodynorphin, and preproopiomelanocortin, the precursors to endogenous opioid peptides, suggesting the four genes belong to the same family-i.e., have a common evolutionary origin. The PPNOC gene encodes a single copy of nociceptin as well as of other peptides whose sequence is strictly conserved across murine and human species; hence it is likely to be neurophysiologically significant. Northern blot analysis shows that the PPNOC gene is predominantly transcribed in the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) and, albeit weakly, in the ovary, the sole peripheral organ expressing the gene. By using a radiation hybrid cell line panel, the PPNOC gene was mapped to the short arm of human chromosome 8 (8p21), between sequence-tagged site markers WI-5833 and WI-1172, in close proximity of the locus encoding the neurofilament light chain NEFL. Analysis of yeast artificial chromosome clones belonging to the WC8.4 contig covering the 8p21 region did not allow to detect the presence of the gene on these yeast artificial chromosomes, suggesting a gap in the coverage within this contig.

  19. Swamp Rice Production in Ogun Waterside Local Government Area ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the economics of swamp rice production among peasant farmers in the Waterside Local Government Area of Ogun State for 2001 cropping year. A total of 50 swamp rice farmers were randomly selected from 5 villages using multistage sampling technique. The data collected, with the aid of ...

  20. Resource Use Efficiency in Rice Production in Jere Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was carried-out on resource use efficiency in rice production in Jere Local Government Area of Borno State, Nigeria. Data were obtained using structured questionnaire. Five (5) wards were purposely selected out of the twelve (12) wards to reflect areas where rice is mainly grown. A total of 100 respondents were ...

  1. Diversity in local food production to combat obesity

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    requirements for vegetable crops using 40-50% less water. ... for greater productivity, encourage procurement and consumption of local produce by public institutions and the population, and enhance .... Foreign Affairs, Trade and Development Canada (DFATD). ... Government of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago.

  2. Marketing of Non-Timber Forest Products in Kajola Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Marketing of Non-Timber Forest Products in Kajola Local Government Area of Oyo State, Nigeria. ... International Journal of Tropical Agriculture and Food Systems ... The results of the marketing margin reveal that charcoal commanded the highest margin of ₦2500, followed by bush meat (₦300), while wrapping had the ...

  3. Genetic Localization of Foraging (For): A Major Gene for Larval Behavior in Drosophila Melanogaster


    de-Belle, J. S.; Hilliker, A. J.; Sokolowski, M. B.


    Localizing genes for quantitative traits by conventional recombination mapping is a formidable challenge because environmental variation, minor genes, and genetic markers have modifying effects on continuously varying phenotypes. We describe ``lethal tagging,'' a method used in conjunction with deficiency mapping for localizing major genes associated with quantitative traits. Rover/sitter is a naturally occurring larval foraging polymorphism in Drosophila melanogaster which has a polygenic pa...

  4. Seasonal organic pig production with a local breed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsted, Anne Grete; Claudi-Magnussen, C.; Horsted, Klaus


    It is important that organic pork differs markedly from conventional pork regarding taste, appearance and production methods in order to overcome the heavy price competition. That is the hypothesis behind thecurrent project. A seasonal outdoor rearing system based on a traditional and local breed...... to the modern genotype and thefat of the Black-Spotted pig was characterised as having a special nutty taste. In conclusion, preliminaryresults indicate that the local breed differs markedly with respect to several meat quality aspects comparedto the modern breed but also shows clear disadvantages regarding...

  5. Consumer Protection Towards Local Food Production In Southeast Sulawesi Indonesia


    Suriani BT. Tolo; Ahsan Yunus; Ahmadi Miru; Irwansyah


    Abstract Consumers have rights which should not just be ignored by businesses such as the right to be a safety the right be informed the right to be heard as well as the right to a good environment and healthy. Kendari Regency as a local government has been manifested by issuing regulations and policies that support the development of local food production such as the Mayor of Kendari regulation No. 15 of 2010 and Mayor Kendari Decree No. 427 of 2012 regarding the Establishment of Community C...

  6. Chromosomal localization of the human diazepam binding inhibitor gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeBernardi, M.A.; Crowe, R.R.; Mocchetti, I.; Shows, T.B.; Eddy, R.L.; Costa, E.


    The authors have used in situ chromosome hybridization and human-mouse somatic cell hybrids to map the gene(s) for human diazepam binding inhibitor (DBI), an endogenous putative modulator of the γ-aminobutyric acid receptor acting at the allosteric regulatory center of this receptor that includes the benzodiazepine recognition site. In 784 chromosome spreads hybridized with human DBI cDNA, the distribution of 1,476 labeled sites revealed a significant clustering of autoradiographic grains (11.3% of total label) on the long arm of chromosome 2 (2q). Furthermore, 63.5% of the grains found on 2q were located on 2q12-21, suggesting regional mapping of DBI gene(s) to this segment. Secondary hybridization signals were frequently observed on other chromosomes and they were statistically significant mainly for chromosomes 5, 6, 11, and 14. In addition, DNA from 32 human-mouse cell hybrids was digested with BamHI and probed with human DBI cDNA. A 3.5-kilobase band, which probably represents the human DBI gene, was assigned to chromosome 2. Four higher molecular weight bands, also detected in BamHI digests, could not be unequivocally assigned. A chromosome 2 location was excluded for the 27-, 13-, and 10-kilobase bands. These results assign a human DBI gene to chromosome 2 (2q12-21) and indicate that three of the four homologous sequences detected by the human DBI probe are located on three other chromosomes

  7. Enhanced citrate production through gene insertion in Aspergillus niger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jongh, Wian de; Nielsen, Jens


    The effect of inserting genes involved in the reductive branch of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle on citrate production by Aspergillus niger was evaluated. Several different genes were inserted individually and in combination, i.e. malate dehydrogenase (mdh2) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, two...

  8. Radiochemical identification of the kil gene product of bacteriophage lambda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greer, H.; Ausubel, F.M.


    The coliphage lambda kil gene product has been identified using a differential labeling technique . The kil gene polypeptide has a molecular weight of about 16,000, as determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Gel filtration of the kil protein indicates that it may exist as a tetramer in native form

  9. Candidate genes for drought tolerance and improved productivity in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Improving drought tolerance and productivity is one of the most difficult tasks for ... Keywords. Candidate gene; mapping population; polymerase chain reaction; single marker analysis. .... ple and the mean value computed. 2.4 Isolation of DNA.

  10. Knowledge Production, Urban Locations and the Importance of Local Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytt-Larsen, Christine Benna; Winther, Lars


    This paper analyses the relationship between knowledge production and urban locations in industrial design, a knowledge-intensive business service (KIBS). KIBS concentrate in urban locations. This is often explained by the co-location of client firms and market access in large cities. Recent...... research on knowledge production, however, reveals that knowledge productive networks are significant for both the competitiveness and location of KIBS. Thus, to understand the urban location of industrial design, it is important to analyse how knowledge production is organized within the industry....... Industrial design is concentrated in urban locations, but most of its clients are located elsewhere. Hence, it seems that industrial design firms concentrate in urban locations mainly because their knowledge networks include specific types of formal and informal local social networks....

  11. [Prokaryotic expression and histological localization of the Taenia solium CDC37 gene]. (United States)

    Huang, Jiang; Li, Bo; Dai, Jia-Lin; Zhang, Ai-Hua


    To express Taenia solium gene encoding cell division cycle 37 protein (TsCDC37) and investigate its antigenicity and localization in adults of Taenia solium. The complete coding sequence of TsCDC37 was amplified by PCR based on the recombinant plasmid clone from the cDNA library of adult Taenia solium. The PCR product was cloned into a prokaryotic expression vector pET-28a (+). The recombinant expression plasmid was identified by PCR, double endonuclease digestion and sequencing. The recombinant plasmid was transformed into E. coli BL21/DE3 and followed by expression of the protein induced by IPTG. The mice were immunized subcutaneously with purified recombinant TsCDC37 formulated in Freund's adjuvant. The antigenicity of the recombinant protein was examined by Western blotting. The localization of TsCDC37 in adult worms was demonstrated by immunofluorescent technique. The recombinant expression vector was constructed successfully. The recombinant protein was about M(r) 52 000, it was then purified and specifically recognized by immuno sera of SD rats and sera from patients infected with Taenia solium, Taenia saginata or Taenia asiatica. The immunofluorescence assay revealed that TsCDC37 located at the tegument of T. solium adult and the eggs. TsCDC37 gene has been expressed with immunoreactivity. The recombinant protein is mainly expressed in tegument and egg, and is a common antigen of the three human taenia cestodes.

  12. Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus BM5 protein regulates progeny virus production and viral gene expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kokusho, Ryuhei; Koh, Yoshikazu; Fujimoto, Masaru; Shimada, Toru; Katsuma, Susumu


    Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) orf5 (Bm5) is a core gene of lepidopteran baculoviruses and encodes the protein with the conserved amino acid residues (DUF3627) in its C-terminus. Here, we found that Bm5 disruption resulted in lower titers of budded viruses and fewer numbers of occlusion bodies (OBs) in B. mori cultured cells and larvae, although viral genome replication was not affected. Bm5 disruption also caused aberrant expression of various viral genes at the very late stage of infection. Immunocytochemical analysis revealed that BM5 localized to the nuclear membrane. We also found that DUF3627 is important for OB production, transcriptional regulation of viral genes, and subcellular localization of BM5. Compared with wild-type BmNPV infection, larval death was delayed when B. mori larvae were infected with Bm5 mutants. These results suggest that BM5 is involved in progeny virus production and regulation of viral gene expression at the very late stage of infection. -- Highlights: •The role of BmNPV BM5 protein was examined in B. mori cultured cells and larvae. •BM5 contributes to efficient production of budded viruses and occlusion bodies. •BM5 regulates viral gene expression at the very late stage of infection. •BM5 dominantly localizes to the nuclear membrane. •Bm5 mutant showed v-cath down-regulation and resulting delay of larval death.

  13. Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus BM5 protein regulates progeny virus production and viral gene expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kokusho, Ryuhei, E-mail:; Koh, Yoshikazu; Fujimoto, Masaru; Shimada, Toru; Katsuma, Susumu, E-mail:


    Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) orf5 (Bm5) is a core gene of lepidopteran baculoviruses and encodes the protein with the conserved amino acid residues (DUF3627) in its C-terminus. Here, we found that Bm5 disruption resulted in lower titers of budded viruses and fewer numbers of occlusion bodies (OBs) in B. mori cultured cells and larvae, although viral genome replication was not affected. Bm5 disruption also caused aberrant expression of various viral genes at the very late stage of infection. Immunocytochemical analysis revealed that BM5 localized to the nuclear membrane. We also found that DUF3627 is important for OB production, transcriptional regulation of viral genes, and subcellular localization of BM5. Compared with wild-type BmNPV infection, larval death was delayed when B. mori larvae were infected with Bm5 mutants. These results suggest that BM5 is involved in progeny virus production and regulation of viral gene expression at the very late stage of infection. -- Highlights: •The role of BmNPV BM5 protein was examined in B. mori cultured cells and larvae. •BM5 contributes to efficient production of budded viruses and occlusion bodies. •BM5 regulates viral gene expression at the very late stage of infection. •BM5 dominantly localizes to the nuclear membrane. •Bm5 mutant showed v-cath down-regulation and resulting delay of larval death.

  14. Production of Biodiesel from Locally Available Spent Vegetable Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Mostafa Al Naggar


    Full Text Available The depletion of fossil fuels prompted considerable research to find alternative fuels. Due its environmental benefits and renewable nature the production of biodiesel has acquired increasing importance with a view to optimizing the production procedure and the sources of feedstock. Millions of liters of waste frying oil are produced from local restaurants and houses every year, most are discarded into sewage systems causing damage to the networks.  This study is intended to consider aspects related to the feasibility of the production of biodiesel from waste frying oils which will solve the problem of waste frying oil pollution and reduce the cost of biodiesel production.This research studies the conversion of locally available spent vegetable oils of different origins and with different chemical compositions into an environmentally friendly fuel. The biodiesel production requirements by base catalyzed trans-esterification process for the different feed stocks are determined according to the measured physical properties. The quality of the produced biodiesel is compared to petro diesel in terms of established standard specifications.

  15. Aid conditionalities, international Good Manufacturing Practice standards and local production rights: a case study of local production in Nepal. (United States)

    Brhlikova, Petra; Harper, Ian; Subedi, Madhusudan; Bhattarai, Samita; Rawal, Nabin; Pollock, Allyson M


    Local pharmaceutical production has been endorsed by the WHO as a means of addressing health priorities of developing countries. However, local producers of essential medicines must comply with international pharmaceutical standards in order to be eligible to compete in donor tenders. These standards determine production rights for on-patent and off-patent medicines, and guide international procurement of medicines. We reviewed the literature on the impact of Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) on local production; a gap analysis from the literature review indicated a need for further research. Over sixty interviews were conducted with people involved in the Nepali pharmaceutical production and distribution chain from 2006 to 2009 on the GMP areas of relevance: regulatory capacity, staffing, funding and training, resourcing of GMP, inspectors' interpretation of the rules and compliance. Although Nepal producers have increased their overall share of the domestic market, only the public manufacturer, Royal Drugs, focuses on medicines for public health programmes; private producers engage mainly in brand competition for private markets, not essential medicines. Nepali regulators and producers state that implementation of GMP standards is hindered by low regulatory capacity, insufficient training of staff in the industry, financial constraints and lack of investment for upgrading capital. The transition period to mandatory compliance with WHO GMP rules is lengthy. Less than half of private producers had WHO GMP in 2013. Producers are not directly affected by international harmonisation of standards as they do not export medicines and the Nepali regulator does not enforce the WHO standards strictly. Without an international GMP certificate they cannot tender for donor dependent health programmes. In Nepal, local private manufacturers focus mainly on brand competition for private consumption not essential medicines, the government preferentially procures essential

  16. Localized products in France: definition, protection and value-adding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Bérard


    Full Text Available La notion de production localisée recouvre une réalité particulièrement importante en France, à la fois sur le terrain, à travers la grande diversité des produits, et dans l’imaginaire des Français. Les dispositifs de valorisation dont ces produits peuvent bénéficier renforcent l’intérêt porté à certains d’entre eux. Dans un tel contexte, il importe de mieux comprendre ce qui fait leur spécificité, d’approfondir certaines notions, de mettre l’accent sur ce qui les différencie réellement. Ce sont les critères d’ordre culturel associant un lieu à une histoire et à un groupe social qui permettent d’organiser et de penser cette famille foisonnante et polymorphe.En marge des demandes formelles de protection de l’indication géographique, de nombreuses initiatives contribuent à valoriser les productions locales. Elles sont le fait d'acteurs issus d'horizon divers, dans le cadre d'actions coordonnées, sans être réellement formalisées.Tous les pays n’ont pas le même rapport au lieu. L’inscription d’un produit dans un territoire est le fruit d’un ensemble de critères au poids plus ou moins important selon l’histoire économique et sociale du pays, sa culture, les rapports de force locaux, le milieu naturel.The concept of local production is a particular reality in France, both in the field itself, home to a huge variety of such products, and in the imagination of the French people. Regional products, terroir products, local, traditional and free-range products... There are countless terms to define this uniquely varied family that is thought to add meaning and promote attachment and as such, much coveted. The protection measures now in place make some of these products seem particularly interesting. Within such a context, what matters is to understand what makes local products special, exploring certain concepts, emphasizing what really makes them different and trying to make sense of their profusion

  17. A new measure for functional similarity of gene products based on Gene Ontology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lengauer Thomas


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene Ontology (GO is a standard vocabulary of functional terms and allows for coherent annotation of gene products. These annotations provide a basis for new methods that compare gene products regarding their molecular function and biological role. Results We present a new method for comparing sets of GO terms and for assessing the functional similarity of gene products. The method relies on two semantic similarity measures; simRel and funSim. One measure (simRel is applied in the comparison of the biological processes found in different groups of organisms. The other measure (funSim is used to find functionally related gene products within the same or between different genomes. Results indicate that the method, in addition to being in good agreement with established sequence similarity approaches, also provides a means for the identification of functionally related proteins independent of evolutionary relationships. The method is also applied to estimating functional similarity between all proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and to visualizing the molecular function space of yeast in a map of the functional space. A similar approach is used to visualize the functional relationships between protein families. Conclusion The approach enables the comparison of the underlying molecular biology of different taxonomic groups and provides a new comparative genomics tool identifying functionally related gene products independent of homology. The proposed map of the functional space provides a new global view on the functional relationships between gene products or protein families.

  18. Prokaryotic community profiling of local algae wastewaters using advanced 16S rRNA gene sequencing. (United States)

    Limayem, Alya; Micciche, Andrew; Nayak, Bina; Mohapatra, Shyam


    Algae biomass-fed wastewaters are a promising source of lipid and bioenergy manufacture, revealing substantial end-product investment returns. However, wastewaters would contain lytic pathogens carrying drug resistance detrimental to algae yield and environmental safety. This study was conducted to simultaneously decipher through high-throughput advanced Illumina 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequencing, the cultivable and uncultivable bacterial community profile found in a single sample that was directly recovered from the local wastewater systems. Samples were collected from two previously documented sources including anaerobically digested (AD) municipal wastewater and swine wastewater with algae namely Chlorella spp. in addition to control samples, swine wastewater, and municipal wastewater without algae. Results indicated the presence of a significant level of Bacteria in all samples with an average of approximately 95.49% followed by Archaea 2.34%, in local wastewaters designed for algae cultivation. Taxonomic genus identification indicated the presence of Calothrix, Pseudomonas, and Clostridium as the most prevalent strains in both local municipal and swine wastewater samples containing algae with an average of 17.37, 12.19, and 7.84%, respectively. Interestingly, swine wastewater without algae displayed the lowest level of Pseudomonas strains algae indicates potential coexistence between these strains and algae microenvironment, suggesting further investigations. This finding was particularly relevant for the earlier documented adverse effects of some nosocomial Pseudomonas strains on algae growth and their multidrug resistance potential, requiring the development of targeted bioremediation with regard to the beneficial flora.

  19. Candidate genes for drought tolerance and improved productivity in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    tropics. Improving drought tolerance and productivity is one of the most difficult tasks for cereal breeders. The diffi- culty arises from the diverse strategies adopted by plants themselves to combat drought stress depending on the timing,. Candidate genes for drought tolerance and improved productivity in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

  20. Regulation of Cell and Gene Therapy Medicinal Products in Taiwan. (United States)

    Lin, Yi-Chu; Wang, Po-Yu; Tsai, Shih-Chih; Lin, Chien-Liang; Tai, Hsuen-Yung; Lo, Chi-Fang; Wu, Shiow-Ing; Chiang, Yu-Mei; Liu, Li-Ling


    Owing to the rapid and mature development of emerging biotechnology in the fields of cell culture, cell preservation, and recombinant DNA technology, more and more cell or gene medicinal therapy products have been approved for marketing, to treat serious diseases which have been challenging to treat with current medical practice or medicine. This chapter will briefly introduce the Taiwan Food and Drug Administration (TFDA) and elaborate regulation of cell and gene therapy medicinal products in Taiwan, including regulatory history evolution, current regulatory framework, application and review procedures, and relevant jurisdictional issues. Under the promise of quality, safety, and efficacy of medicinal products, it is expected the regulation and environment will be more flexible, streamlining the process of the marketing approval of new emerging cell or gene therapy medicinal products and providing diverse treatment options for physicians and patients.

  1. Localization of the human fibromodulin gene (FMOD) to chromosome 1q32 and completion of the cDNA sequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sztrolovics, R.; Grover, J.; Roughley, P.J. [McGill Univ., Montreal (Canada)] [and others


    This report describes the cloning of the 3{prime}-untranslated region of the human fibromodulin cDNA and its use to map the gene. For somatic cell hybrids, the generation of the PCR product was concordant with the presence of chromosome 1 and discordant with the presence of all other chromosomes, confirming that the fibromodulin gene is located within region q32 of chromosome 1. The physical mapping of genes is a critical step in the process of identifying which genes may be responsible for various inherited disorders. Specifically, the mapping of the fibromodulin gene now provides the information necessary to evaluate its potential role in genetic disorders of connective tissues. The analysis of previously reported diseases mapped to chromosome 1 reveals two genes located in the proximity of the fibromodulin locus. These are Usher syndrome type II, a recessive disorder characterized by hearing loss and retinitis pigmentosa, and Van der Woude syndrome, a dominant condition associated with abnormalities such as cleft lip and palate and hyperdontia. The genes for both of these disorders have been projected to be localized to 1q32 of a physical map that integrates available genetic linkage and physical data. However, it seems improbable that either of these disorders, exhibiting restricted tissue involvement, could be linked to the fibromodulin gene, given the wide tissue distribution of the encoded proteoglycan, although it remains possible that the relative importance of the quantity and function of the proteoglycan may avry between tissues. 11 refs., 1 fig.

  2. Potential local productive districts in Bogotá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Amézquita


    Full Text Available This research examines the siting of industry in Bogotá (Colombia. It describes the state of the debate on industrial districts, their potential, and the status of the issue in the city. It applies the methodology proposed by Crocco et al. (2003 to identify Potential Local Productive Districts (LPDs through a Normalized Concentration Index, using data from the Bogota Chamber of Commerce for 2012, and it performs an exercise in specialization, showing siting at the level of the Zonal Planning Unit (UPZ and the locality. As a result, 11 sectors are established as potential LPDs, eight of which are illustrated in maps showing the potential LPDs. Some areas have several potential LPDs.

  3. Global Product and Local Consequences. Case of Barbie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Pilch


    Full Text Available Globalisation has turned various producers, such as international concerns, into leading actors on the global market. Their brands are recognised all around the world and their products are present in a significant number of households. An example of this can be the Barbie doll, created by Mattel, which is sold in 150 different countries. The concerns operate on a global scale but they have a local impact, which can be analysed in terms of individuals, groups or local communities. This applies to the Barbie doll as it affects its users, their environment, people related to the concern and its stakeholders. The aim of the article is to present these influences and assess their meaning.

  4. Local coexpression domains of two to four genes in the genome of Arabidopsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ren, X.Y.; Fiers, M.W.E.J.; Stiekema, W.J.; Nap, J.P.H.


    Expression of genes in eukaryotic genomes is known to cluster, but cluster size is generally loosely defined and highly variable. We have here taken a very strict definition of cluster as sets of physically adjacent genes that are highly coexpressed and form so-called local coexpression domains. The

  5. Genome-wide SNP association-based localization of a dwarfism gene in Friesian dwarf horses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orr, J.L.; Back, W.; Gu, J.; Leegwater, P.H.; Govindarajan, P.; Conroy, J.; Ducro, B.J.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.


    The recent completion of the horse genome and commercial availability of an equine SNP genotyping array has facilitated the mapping of disease genes. We report putative localization of the gene responsible for dwarfism, a trait in Friesian horses that is thought to have a recessive mode of

  6. USP2 Regulates the Intracellular Localization of PER1 and Circadian Gene Expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yaoming; Duguay, David; Fahrenkrug, Jan


    . Although Per1 mRNA expression rhythm remained intact in the Usp2 KO MEFs, the expression profiles of other core clock genes were altered. This was also true for the expression of clock-controlled genes (e.g., Dbp, Tef, Hlf, E4bp4). A similar phase advance of PER1 nuclear localization rhythm and alteration...

  7. An Intelligent Method of Product Scheme Design Based on Product Gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Song Ai


    Full Text Available Nowadays, in order to have some featured products, many customers tend to buy customized products instead of buying common ones in supermarket. The manufacturing enterprises, with the purpose of improving their competitiveness, are focusing on providing customized products with high quality and low cost as well. At present, how to produce customized products rapidly and cheaply has been the key challenge to manufacturing enterprises. In this paper, an intelligent modeling approach applied to supporting the modeling of customized products is proposed, which may improve the efficiency during the product design process. Specifically, the product gene (PG method, which is an analogy of biological evolution in engineering area, is employed to model products in a new way. Based on product gene, we focus on the intelligent modeling method to generate product schemes rapidly and automatically. The process of our research includes three steps: (1 develop a product gene model for customized products; (2 find the obtainment and storage method for product gene; and (3 propose a specific genetic algorithm used for calculating the solution of customized product and generating new product schemes. Finally, a case study is applied to test the usefulness of our study.

  8. Association of IL-1beta gene polymorphism with cachexia from locally advanced gastric cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Dianliang; Zheng, Hongmei; Zhou, Yanbing [Department of General Surgery, Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University Medical College, Qingdao 266003 (China); Tang, Xingming; Yu, Baojun; Li, Jieshou [Research Institute of General Surgery, Jinlin Hospital, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)


    IL-1beta has been implicated in inflammatory episode. In view of the inflammatory nature of cancer cachexia, we determined the predictive value of IL-1B-31 T/C, -511 C/T, +3954 C/T and IL-1RN VNTR gene polymorphisms on the occurrence of cachexia associated with locally advanced gastric cancer. The study included 214 patients and 230 healthy volunteers. Genomic DNA was prepared from peripheral blood leukocytes. Genotypes and allele frequencies were determined in patients and healthy controls using restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of polymerase chain reaction products. The overall frequencies of IL-1B-31 T, -511 T, +3954 T and IL-1RN VNTR alleles in patients with locally advanced gastric cancer were all comparable with those in controls. No significant differences were found in the distribution of IL-1B-31 T, -511 T and IL-1RN VNTR between patients with cachexia and without. Patients with cachexia showed a significantly higher prevalence of IL-1B+3954 T allele than those without (P = 0.018). In a logistic regression analysis adjusted for actual weight, carcinoma location and stage, the IL-1B+3954 CT genotype was associated with an odds ratio of 2.512 (95% CI, 1.180 – 5.347) for cachexia. The IL-1B+3954 T allele is a major risk for cachexia from locally gastric cancer. Genetic factors studied are not likely to play an important role in the determination of susceptibility to locally advanced gastric cancer.

  9. Association of IL-1beta gene polymorphism with cachexia from locally advanced gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Dianliang; Zheng, Hongmei; Zhou, Yanbing; Tang, Xingming; Yu, Baojun; Li, Jieshou


    IL-1beta has been implicated in inflammatory episode. In view of the inflammatory nature of cancer cachexia, we determined the predictive value of IL-1B-31 T/C, -511 C/T, +3954 C/T and IL-1RN VNTR gene polymorphisms on the occurrence of cachexia associated with locally advanced gastric cancer. The study included 214 patients and 230 healthy volunteers. Genomic DNA was prepared from peripheral blood leukocytes. Genotypes and allele frequencies were determined in patients and healthy controls using restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of polymerase chain reaction products. The overall frequencies of IL-1B-31 T, -511 T, +3954 T and IL-1RN VNTR alleles in patients with locally advanced gastric cancer were all comparable with those in controls. No significant differences were found in the distribution of IL-1B-31 T, -511 T and IL-1RN VNTR between patients with cachexia and without. Patients with cachexia showed a significantly higher prevalence of IL-1B+3954 T allele than those without (P = 0.018). In a logistic regression analysis adjusted for actual weight, carcinoma location and stage, the IL-1B+3954 CT genotype was associated with an odds ratio of 2.512 (95% CI, 1.180 – 5.347) for cachexia. The IL-1B+3954 T allele is a major risk for cachexia from locally gastric cancer. Genetic factors studied are not likely to play an important role in the determination of susceptibility to locally advanced gastric cancer

  10. Characterization, expression profiles, intracellular distribution and association analysis of porcine PNAS-4 gene with production traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Heng


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In a previous screen to identify differentially expressed genes associated with embryonic development, the porcine PNAS-4 gene had been found. Considering differentially expressed genes in early stages of muscle development are potential candidate genes to improve meat quality and production efficiency, we determined how porcine PNAS-4 gene regulates meat production. Therefore, this gene has been sequenced, expression analyzed and associated with meat production traits. Results We cloned the full-length cDNA of porcine PNAS-4 gene encoding a protein of 194 amino acids which was expressed in the Golgi complex. This gene was mapped to chromosome 10, q11–16, in a region of conserved synteny with human chromosome 1 where the human homologous gene was localized. Real-time PCR revealed that PNAS-4 mRNA was widely expressed with highest expression levels in skeletal muscle followed by lymph, liver and other tissues, and showed a down-regulated expression pattern during prenatal development while a up-regulated expression pattern after weaning. Association analysis revealed that allele C of SNP A1813C was prevalent in Chinese indigenous breeds whereas A was dominant allele in Landrace and Large White, and the pigs with homozygous CC had a higher fat content than those of the pigs with other genotypes (P Conclusion Porcine PNAS-4 protein tagged with green fluorescent protein accumulated in the Golgi complex, and its mRNA showed a widespread expression across many tissues and organs in pigs. It may be an important factor affecting the meat production efficiency, because its down-regulated expression pattern during early embryogenesis suggests involvement in increase of muscle fiber number. In addition, the SNP A1813C associated with fat traits might be a genetic marker for molecular-assisted selection in animal breeding.

  11. A two-cassette reporter system for assessing target gene translation and target gene product inclusion body formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The present invention relates to a dual cassette reporter system capable of assessing target gene translation and target gene product folding. The present invention further relates to vectors and host cells comprising the dual cassette reporter system. In addition the invention relates to the use...... of the dual cassette reporter system for assessing target gene translation and target gene product folding....

  12. Toxicological evaluation of some Malaysian locally processed raw food products. (United States)

    Sharif, R; Ghazali, A R; Rajab, N F; Haron, H; Osman, F


    Malaysian locally processed raw food products are widely used as main ingredients in local cooking. Previous studies showed that these food products have a positive correlation with the incidence of cancer. The cytotoxicity effect was evaluated using MTT assay (3-(4,5-dimetil-2-thiazolil)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide) against Chang liver cells at 2000 microg/ml following 72 h incubation. Findings showed all methanol extracts caused a tremendous drop in the percentage of cell viability at 2000 microg/ml (shrimp paste - 41.69+/-3.36%, salted fish - 37.2+/-1.06%, dried shrimp - 40.32+/-1.8%, pfood showed that shrimp paste did not comply with the protein requirement (Food Act 1983. Salt was found in every sample with the highest percentage being detected in shrimp paste which exceeded 20%. Following heavy metal analysis (arsenic, cadmium, lead and mercury), arsenic was found in every sample with dried shrimps showing the highest value as compared to the other samples (6.16 mg/kg). In conclusion, several food extracts showed cytotoxic effect but did not cause DNA damage against Chang liver cells. Salt was found as the main additive and arsenic was present in every sample, which could be the probable cause of the toxicity effects observed.

  13. The global potential of local peri-urban food production (United States)

    Kriewald, Steffen; Garcia Cantu Ros, Anselmo; Sterzel, Till; Kropp, Jürgen P.


    One big challenge for the rest of the 21st century will be the massive urbanisation. It is expected that more than 7 out of 10 persons will live in a city by the year 2050. Crucial developments towards a sustainable future will therefore take place in cities. One important approach for a sustainable city development is to re-localize food production and to close urban nutrient cycles through better waste management. The re-location of food production avoids CO2 emissions from transportation of food to cities and can also generate income for inhabitants. Cities are by definition locations where fertility accumulates. As cities are often built along rivers, their soils are often fertile. Furthermore, labour force and the possibility of producing fertilizer from human fecal matter within the city promises sustainable nutrients cycles. Although urban and peri-urban agriculture can be found in many cities worldwide and already have a substantial contribution to food supply, it has not jet been comprehensibly structured by research. We combine several worldwide data sets to determine the supply of cities with regional food production, where regional is defined as a production that occurs very close to the consumption within the peri-urban area. Therefore, urban areas are not defined by administrative boundaries but by connected built-up urban areas, and peri-urban area by the surrounding area with the same size multiplied with a scaling parameter. Both together accumulate to an urban-bio-region (UBR). With regard to national food consumption, a linear program achieves the best possible yield on agricultural areas and allows the computation of the fraction of population, which can be nourished. Additionally, several climate scenarios and different dietary patterns were considered. To close the gap between single case studies and to provide a quantitative overview of the global potential of peri-urban food production we used high resolution land-use data Global Land Cover

  14. Local IgE production in nonatopic nasal polyposis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sheahan, Patrick


    INTRODUCTION: Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis (CRSwNP) represents an eosinophilic T-helper 2 inflammatory response. Local production of IgE within nasal polyps (NPs) has been demonstrated, suggesting a role for local IgE in the pathogenesis of NP in atopic CRS patients. We hypothesized that local IgE specific to inhalant allergens may also play a role in the genesis of NP in nonatopic CRS patients. METHODS: Sinus and inferior turbinate tissue was obtained from nonatopic CRSwNP patients (n = 7), chronic rhinosinusitis without nasal polyps (CRSsNP) patients (n = 15), and healthy controls (n = 9) at the time of surgery. ImmunoCAP analysis (Phadia AB, Portage, MI) for 14 common inhalant antigens was performed on tissue homogenates to determine the antigen-specific response. RESULTS: Total IgE levels did not differ in sinus or turbinate tissue between CRSwNP, CRSsNP, or control patients. CRSwNP sinus tissue had higher levels of specific IgE for cockroach and plantain (p = .03) than other groups and elevated Alternaria IgE levels when compared with CRSsNP sinus tissue (p < .05). No significant differences were found for any of the other antigen-specific IgE levels. Fifty-seven percent of CRSwNP polyps demonstrated a polyclonal IgE response, whereas the other 43% had no demonstrable antigen-specific IgE. In contrast, only 17% of CRSsNP patients demonstrated a polyclonal response within sinus tissue, whereas 67% had no detectable antigen-specific IgE. There was no significant difference in levels of IgE in inferior turbinate tissue between the groups (p > .05). CONCLUSIONS: Localized mucosal IgE specific to common inhalant allergens appears to play a role in a subset of CRSwNP patients without evidence of systemic atopy.

  15. Genes and gene expression: Localization, damage and control -- A multilevel and inter-disciplinary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ts'o, P.O.P.


    All projects are working toward a goal for describing the three dimensional nuclear topography in terms of relative spatial relationships among genes (specific DNA sequence). Methods are now being perfected to detect these genes, quantitatively and spatially, to perturb these genes specifically, and to measure the perturbation in order to assure specificity. We are developing methods to assay, after perturbation of the target DNA within living cells, whether or not only the target sequence are attacked while other sequences remain unharmed. We are now at the stage to do chemical gene modification or masking within living cells in a strictly sequence-specific manner. Soon, we will be able to study the function and the physical location of each gene in living cells with exquisite specificity. 25 refs., 15 figs

  16. On local field products in special Wightman theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumann, K.


    We shall try to define local field products under assumptions imposed only on the four-point-function. This idea is based on the work of Schlieder and Seiler. In our framework we shall prove that the two-point-function carries the strongest singularity whenever two arguments in a Wightman function coincide. This will be generalized to the case when more arguments coincide. We shall define 'regulated' n-point-functions and study their properties in detail. This will lead us to the definition of arbitrarily high powers of the field-operators as operator-valued distributions over D(R 4 ) in the center coordinate with a dense domain of definition. (orig.) [de

  17. Local power production at the end consumer - appropriate technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grinden, Bjoern; Morch, Andrei Z.; Braanaas, Marit; Stang, Jacob; Berner, Monica


    The report describes and evaluates a selection of technologies which may be adequate for a local power production at the end consumer. Contrary to may other technology surveys it is focused on small-scale production units that also may be of interest to small consumers. For the various technologies the particular technology is described and an evaluation of the suitability to Norwegian conditions is carried out. For each technology the following is described: 1) The technology in general. 2) Construction and technology trends. 3) Environmental conditions, operation and maintenance. 4) Experiences. 5) Key facts/data. It has to be emphasised that all the technologies are in development and this report describes them as they are in 2002 except for general conditions which always will exist. It has not been possible to obtain exact facts regarding the investment costs and the costs for each produced kWh e lectricity or kWh h eat for many of the technologies because they are new and mass production has not yet started. In an appendix a form is presented for use in obtaining information from equipment suppliers. Later in the project there will be developed a model for calculating the profitability of such investments as well. Technologies such as small-scale wind and hydropower units are the technologies most suited for Norway in a short perspective. In the years to come it is probable that technologies which use biologic fuel/waste of some kind would be used to some extent. In a longer perspective technologies as the Stirling engine and fuel cells may be of interest. The micro gas turbines and combustion engines may be current technologies if the distribution network for natural gas is developed. For these technologies the utilisation of waste heat would approximately double the efficiency and halve the operation costs. Various external conditions will play a major part in the spreading of the local power production. The political, legal and economical external

  18. Id-1 gene and gene products as therapeutic targets for treatment of breast cancer and other types of carcinoma (United States)

    Desprez, Pierre-Yves; Campisi, Judith


    A method for treatment of breast cancer and other types of cancer. The method comprises targeting and modulating Id-1 gene expression, if any, for the Id-1 gene, or gene products in breast or other epithelial cancers in a patient by delivering products that modulate Id-1 gene expression. When expressed, Id-1 gene is a prognostic indicator that cancer cells are invasive and metastatic.

  19. Regulatory Oversight of Cell and Gene Therapy Products in Canada. (United States)

    Ridgway, Anthony; Agbanyo, Francisca; Wang, Jian; Rosu-Myles, Michael


    Health Canada regulates gene therapy products and many cell therapy products as biological drugs under the Canadian Food and Drugs Act and its attendant regulations. Cellular products that meet certain criteria, including minimal manipulation and homologous use, may be subjected to a standards-based approach under the Safety of Human Cells, Tissues and Organs for Transplantation Regulations. The manufacture and clinical testing of cell and gene therapy products (CGTPs) presents many challenges beyond those for protein biologics. Cells cannot be subjected to pathogen removal or inactivation procedures and must frequently be administered shortly after final formulation. Viral vector design and manufacturing control are critically important to overall product quality and linked to safety and efficacy in patients through concerns such as replication competence, vector integration, and vector shedding. In addition, for many CGTPs, the value of nonclinical studies is largely limited to providing proof of concept, and the first meaningful data relating to appropriate dosing, safety parameters, and validity of surrogate or true determinants of efficacy must come from carefully designed clinical trials in patients. Addressing these numerous challenges requires application of various risk mitigation strategies and meeting regulatory expectations specifically adapted to the product types. Regulatory cooperation and harmonisation at an international level are essential for progress in the development and commercialisation of these products. However, particularly in the area of cell therapy, new regulatory paradigms may be needed to harness the benefits of clinical progress in situations where the resources and motivation to pursue a typical drug product approval pathway may be lacking.

  20. Feature Genes Selection Using Supervised Locally Linear Embedding and Correlation Coefficient for Microarray Classification. (United States)

    Xu, Jiucheng; Mu, Huiyu; Wang, Yun; Huang, Fangzhou


    The selection of feature genes with high recognition ability from the gene expression profiles has gained great significance in biology. However, most of the existing methods have a high time complexity and poor classification performance. Motivated by this, an effective feature selection method, called supervised locally linear embedding and Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (SLLE-SC 2 ), is proposed which is based on the concept of locally linear embedding and correlation coefficient algorithms. Supervised locally linear embedding takes into account class label information and improves the classification performance. Furthermore, Spearman's rank correlation coefficient is used to remove the coexpression genes. The experiment results obtained on four public tumor microarray datasets illustrate that our method is valid and feasible.

  1. Local evolution of pyrethroid resistance offsets gene flow among Aedes aegypti collections in Yucatan State, Mexico. (United States)

    Saavedra-Rodriguez, Karla; Beaty, Meaghan; Lozano-Fuentes, Saul; Denham, Steven; Garcia-Rejon, Julian; Reyes-Solis, Guadalupe; Machain-Williams, Carlos; Loroño-Pino, Maria Alba; Flores-Suarez, Adriana; Ponce-Garcia, Gustavo; Beaty, Barry; Eisen, Lars; Black, William C


    The mosquito Aedes aegypti is the major vector of the four serotypes of dengue virus (DENV1-4). Previous studies have shown that Ae. aegypti in Mexico have a high effective migration rate and that gene flow occurs among populations that are up to 150 km apart. Since 2000, pyrethroids have been widely used for suppression of Ae. aegypti in cities in Mexico. In Yucatan State in particular, pyrethroids have been applied in and around dengue case households creating an opportunity for local selection and evolution of resistance. Herein, we test for evidence of local adaptation by comparing patterns of variation among 27 Ae. aegypti collections at 13 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs): two in the voltage-gated sodium channel gene para known to confer knockdown resistance, three in detoxification genes previously associated with pyrethroid resistance, and eight in putatively neutral loci. The SNPs in para varied greatly in frequency among collections, whereas SNPs at the remaining 11 loci showed little variation supporting previous evidence for extensive local gene flow. Among Ae. aegypti in Yucatan State, Mexico, local adaptation to pyrethroids appears to offset the homogenizing effects of gene flow. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  2. Methods for simultaneously identifying coherent local clusters with smooth global patterns in gene expression profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Yun-Shien


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The hierarchical clustering tree (HCT with a dendrogram 1 and the singular value decomposition (SVD with a dimension-reduced representative map 2 are popular methods for two-way sorting the gene-by-array matrix map employed in gene expression profiling. While HCT dendrograms tend to optimize local coherent clustering patterns, SVD leading eigenvectors usually identify better global grouping and transitional structures. Results This study proposes a flipping mechanism for a conventional agglomerative HCT using a rank-two ellipse (R2E, an improved SVD algorithm for sorting purpose seriation by Chen 3 as an external reference. While HCTs always produce permutations with good local behaviour, the rank-two ellipse seriation gives the best global grouping patterns and smooth transitional trends. The resulting algorithm automatically integrates the desirable properties of each method so that users have access to a clustering and visualization environment for gene expression profiles that preserves coherent local clusters and identifies global grouping trends. Conclusion We demonstrate, through four examples, that the proposed method not only possesses better numerical and statistical properties, it also provides more meaningful biomedical insights than other sorting algorithms. We suggest that sorted proximity matrices for genes and arrays, in addition to the gene-by-array expression matrix, can greatly aid in the search for comprehensive understanding of gene expression structures. Software for the proposed methods can be obtained at

  3. Global similarity and local divergence in human and mouse gene co-expression networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koonin Eugene V


    Full Text Available Abstract Background A genome-wide comparative analysis of human and mouse gene expression patterns was performed in order to evaluate the evolutionary divergence of mammalian gene expression. Tissue-specific expression profiles were analyzed for 9,105 human-mouse orthologous gene pairs across 28 tissues. Expression profiles were resolved into species-specific coexpression networks, and the topological properties of the networks were compared between species. Results At the global level, the topological properties of the human and mouse gene coexpression networks are, essentially, identical. For instance, both networks have topologies with small-world and scale-free properties as well as closely similar average node degrees, clustering coefficients, and path lengths. However, the human and mouse coexpression networks are highly divergent at the local level: only a small fraction ( Conclusion The dissonance between global versus local network divergence suggests that the interspecies similarity of the global network properties is of limited biological significance, at best, and that the biologically relevant aspects of the architectures of gene coexpression are specific and particular, rather than universal. Nevertheless, there is substantial evolutionary conservation of the local network structure which is compatible with the notion that gene coexpression networks are subject to purifying selection.

  4. Use of galerina marginata genes and proteins for peptide production (United States)

    Hallen-Adams, Heather E.; Scott-Craig, John S.; Walton, Jonathan D.; Luo, Hong


    The present invention relates to compositions and methods comprising genes and peptides associated with cyclic peptides and cyclic peptide production in mushrooms. In particular, the present invention relates to using genes and proteins from Galerina species encoding peptides specifically relating to amatoxins in addition to proteins involved with processing cyclic peptide toxins. In a preferred embodiment, the present invention also relates to methods for making small peptides and small cyclic peptides including peptides similar to amanitin. Further, the present inventions relate to providing kits for making small peptides.

  5. Use of Galerina marginata genes and proteins for peptide production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallen-Adams, Heather E.; Scott-Craig, John S.; Walton, Jonathan D.; Luo, Hong


    The present invention relates to compositions and methods comprising genes and peptides associated with cyclic peptides and cyclic peptide production in mushrooms. In particular, the present invention relates to using genes and proteins from Galerina species encoding peptides specifically relating to amatoxins in addition to proteins involved with processing cyclic peptide toxins. In a preferred embodiment, the present invention also relates to methods for making small peptides and small cyclic peptides including peptides similar to amanitin. Further, the present inventions relate to providing kits for making small peptides.

  6. NFIA co-localizes with PPARγ and transcriptionally controls the brown fat gene program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hiraike, Yuta; Waki, Hironori; Yu, Jing


    . NFIA and the master transcriptional regulator of adipogenesis, PPARγ, co-localize at the brown-fat-specific enhancers. Moreover, the binding of NFIA precedes and facilitates the binding of PPARγ, leading to increased chromatin accessibility and active transcription. Introduction of NFIA into myoblasts...... results in brown adipocyte differentiation. Conversely, the brown fat of NFIA-knockout mice displays impaired expression of the brown-fat-specific genes and reciprocal elevation of muscle genes. Finally, expression of NFIA and the brown-fat-specific genes is positively correlated in human brown fat...

  7. Identification of potential local isolated for biosurfactant production (United States)

    Shafiei, Zahra; Yusoff, Wan Mohtar Wan; Hamid, Aidil Abdul; Moazami, Nasrin; Hamzah, Ainon; Fooladi, Taybeh


    Biosurfactant are amphiphilic molecule that have received increasing attention in recent years because of their role in the growth of microorganisms on water-insoluble hydrophobic materials such as hydrocarbons as well as their commercial potential in the cosmetics, food, oil recovery and agricultural industries. In this study a potential biosurfactant producing strain was isolated from several soil samples of Terengganu oil refinery, Malaysia and selected during preliminary screening using hemolytic activity, oil spreading and drop collapsed technique. Isolates with at least more than one positive response to these three methods were subjected to complementary screening by measuring surface tension reduction as well as emulsification capacity. The biosurfactant produced by isolated 5M was able to reduced surface tension of culture medium from 60 mN/m to30mN/m. The biochemical and morphological characterization, 16SrRNA gene sequencing showed that the isolated 5M belongs to bacillus groups. The maximum production of biosurfactant by Bacillus 5M was observed after 48 h of incubation.

  8. Local Gene Delivery System by Bubble Liposomes and Ultrasound Exposure into Joint Synovium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoichi Negishi


    Full Text Available Recently, we have developed novel polyethylene glycol modified liposomes (bubble liposomes; BL entrapping an ultrasound (US imaging gas, which can work as a gene delivery tool with US exposure. In this study, we investigated the usefulness of US-mediated gene transfer systems with BL into synoviocytes in vitro and joint synovium in vivo. Highly efficient gene transfer could be achieved in the cultured primary synoviocytes transfected with the combination of BL and US exposure, compared to treatment with plasmid DNA (pDNA alone, pDNA plus BL, or pDNA plus US. When BL was injected into the knee joints of mice, and US exposure was applied transcutaneously to the injection site, highly efficient gene expression could be observed in the knee joint transfected with the combination of BL and US exposure, compared to treatment with pDNA alone, pDNA plus BL, or pDNA plus US. The localized and prolonged gene expression was also shown by an in vivo luciferase imaging system. Thus, this local gene delivery system into joint synovium using the combination of BL and US exposure may be an effective means for gene therapy in joint disorders.

  9. Detection of biosurfactants in Bacillus species: genes and products identification. (United States)

    Płaza, G; Chojniak, J; Rudnicka, K; Paraszkiewicz, K; Bernat, P


    To screen environmental Bacillus strains for detection of genes encoding the enzymes involved in biosurfactant synthesis and to evaluate their products e.g. surfactin, iturin and fengycin. The taxonomic identification of isolated from the environment Bacillus strains was performed by Microgene ID Bacillus panel and GEN III Biolog system. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) strategy for screening of genes in Bacillus strains was set up. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was used for the identification of lipopeptides (LPs). All studied strains exhibited the presence of srfAA gene and produced surfactin mostly as four homologues (C13 to C16). Moreover, in 2 strains (KP7, T'-1) simultaneous co-production of 3 biosurfactants: surfactin, iturin and fengycin was observed. Additionally, it was found out that isolate identified as Bacillus subtilis ssp. subtilis (KP7), beside LPs co-production, synthesizes surfactin with the efficiency much higher than other studied strains (40·2 mg l(-1) ) and with the yield ranging from 0·8 to 8·3 mg l(-1) . We showed that the combined methodology based on PCR and LC-MS/MS technique is an optimal tool for the detection of genes encoding enzymes involved in biosurfactant synthesis as well as their products, e.g. surfactin, iturin and fengycin. This approach improves the screening and the identification of environmental Bacillus co-producing biosurfactants-stimulating and facilitating the development of this area of science. The findings of this work will help to improve screening of biosurfactant producers. Discovery of novel biosurfactants and biosurfactants co-production ability has shed light on their new application fields and for the understanding of their interactions and properties. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  10. Transcriptional regulation of genes related to progesterone production. (United States)

    Mizutani, Tetsuya; Ishikane, Shin; Kawabe, Shinya; Umezawa, Akihiro; Miyamoto, Kaoru


    Steroid hormones are synthesized from cholesterol in various tissues, mainly in the adrenal glands and gonads. Because these lipid-soluble steroid hormones immediately diffuse through the cells in which they are produced, their secretion directly reflects the activity of the genes related to their production. Progesterone is important not only for luteinization and maintenance of pregnancy, but also as a substrate for most other steroids. Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (STAR), cytochrome P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc), and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/Δ(5)-Δ(4) isomerase (3β-HSD) are well-known proteins essential for progesterone production. In addition to them, glutathione S-transferase A1-1 and A3-3 are shown to exert Δ(5)-Δ(4) isomerization activity to produce progesterone in a cooperative fashion with 3β-HSD. 5-Aminolevulinic acid synthase 1, ferredoxin 1, and ferredoxin reductase also play a role in steroidogenesis as accessory factors. Members of the nuclear receptor 5A (NR5A) family (steroidogenic factor 1 and liver receptor homolog 1) play a crucial role in the transcriptional regulation of these genes. The NR5A family activates these genes by binding to NR5A responsive elements present within their promoter regions, as well as to the elements far from their promoters. In addition, various NR5A-interacting proteins including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), nuclear receptor subfamily 0, group B, member 1 (DAX-1), and CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins (C/EBP) are involved in the transcription of NR5A target genes and regulate the transcription either positively or negatively under both basal and tropic hormone-stimulated conditions. In this review, we describe the transcriptional regulation of genes related to progesterone production.

  11. Production of lightweight Geopolymer concrete using artificial local lightweight aggregate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Waleed


    Full Text Available Due to the rapid depletion of natural resources, the use of waste materials and by-products from different industries of building construction has been gaining increased attention. Geopolymer concrete based on Pozzolana is a new material that does not need the presence of Portland cement as a binder. The main focus of this research is to produce lightweight geopolymer concrete (LWGPC using artificial coarse lightweight aggregate which produced from locally available bentonite clays. In this investigation, the binder is low calcium fly ash (FA and the alkali activator is sodium hydroxide and sodium silicate in different molarities. The experimental tests including workability, fresh density, also, the compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, flexural strength, water absorption and ultrasonic pulse velocity at the age of 7, 28 and 56 days were studied. The oven dry density and thermal conductivity at 28 days age are investigated. The results show that it is possible to produce high strength lightweight geopolymer concrete successfully used as insulated structural lightweight concrete. The 28-day compressive strength, tensile strength, flexural strength, dry density, and thermal conductivity of the produced LWGPC are 35.8 MPa, 2.6MPa, 5.5 MPa, 1835kg/m3, and 0.9567 W/ (m. K, respectively.

  12. Consuming nostalgia? The appreciation of authenticity in local food production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Autio, M.; Collins, R.; Wahlen, S.; Anttila, M.


    Many consumers consider local food a more sustainable choice than conventional food because of the shorter transport distances involved as well as the support provided to local economies. In addition, consumers value the perceived safety benefits, ethical associations and improved taste of local

  13. A Genome-Wide Screen for Dendritically Localized RNAs Identifies Genes Required for Dendrite Morphogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mala Misra


    Full Text Available Localizing messenger RNAs at specific subcellular sites is a conserved mechanism for targeting the synthesis of cytoplasmic proteins to distinct subcellular domains, thereby generating the asymmetric protein distributions necessary for cellular and developmental polarity. However, the full range of transcripts that are asymmetrically distributed in specialized cell types, and the significance of their localization, especially in the nervous system, are not known. We used the EP-MS2 method, which combines EP transposon insertion with the MS2/MCP in vivo fluorescent labeling system, to screen for novel localized transcripts in polarized cells, focusing on the highly branched Drosophila class IV dendritic arborization neurons. Of a total of 541 lines screened, we identified 55 EP-MS2 insertions producing transcripts that were enriched in neuronal processes, particularly in dendrites. The 47 genes identified by these insertions encode molecularly diverse proteins, and are enriched for genes that function in neuronal development and physiology. RNAi-mediated knockdown confirmed roles for many of the candidate genes in dendrite morphogenesis. We propose that the transport of mRNAs encoded by these genes into the dendrites allows their expression to be regulated on a local scale during the dynamic developmental processes of dendrite outgrowth, branching, and/or remodeling.

  14. MultiLoc2: integrating phylogeny and Gene Ontology terms improves subcellular protein localization prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohlbacher Oliver


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge of subcellular localization of proteins is crucial to proteomics, drug target discovery and systems biology since localization and biological function are highly correlated. In recent years, numerous computational prediction methods have been developed. Nevertheless, there is still a need for prediction methods that show more robustness and higher accuracy. Results We extended our previous MultiLoc predictor by incorporating phylogenetic profiles and Gene Ontology terms. Two different datasets were used for training the system, resulting in two versions of this high-accuracy prediction method. One version is specialized for globular proteins and predicts up to five localizations, whereas a second version covers all eleven main eukaryotic subcellular localizations. In a benchmark study with five localizations, MultiLoc2 performs considerably better than other methods for animal and plant proteins and comparably for fungal proteins. Furthermore, MultiLoc2 performs clearly better when using a second dataset that extends the benchmark study to all eleven main eukaryotic subcellular localizations. Conclusion MultiLoc2 is an extensive high-performance subcellular protein localization prediction system. By incorporating phylogenetic profiles and Gene Ontology terms MultiLoc2 yields higher accuracies compared to its previous version. Moreover, it outperforms other prediction systems in two benchmarks studies. MultiLoc2 is available as user-friendly and free web-service, available at:

  15. local

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abílio Amiguinho


    Full Text Available The process of socio-educational territorialisation in rural contexts is the topic of this text. The theme corresponds to a challenge to address it having as main axis of discussion either the problem of social exclusion or that of local development. The reasons to locate the discussion in this last field of analysis are discussed in the first part of the text. Theoretical and political reasons are there articulated because the question is about projects whose intentions and practices call for the political both in the theoretical debate and in the choices that anticipate intervention. From research conducted for several years, I use contributions that aim at discuss and enlighten how school can be a potential locus of local development. Its identification and recognition as local institution (either because of those that work and live in it or because of those that act in the surrounding context are crucial steps to progressively constitute school as a partner for development. The promotion of the local values and roots, the reconstruction of socio-personal and local identities, the production of sociabilities and the equation and solution of shared problems were the dimensions of a socio-educative intervention, markedly globalising. This scenario, as it is argued, was also, intentionally, one of transformation and of deliberate change of school and of the administration of the educative territoires.

  16. The SKP1-like gene family of Arabidopsis exhibits a high degree of differential gene expression and gene product interaction during development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad H Dezfulian

    Full Text Available The Arabidopsis thaliana genome encodes several families of polypeptides that are known or predicted to participate in the formation of the SCF-class of E3-ubiquitin ligase complexes. One such gene family encodes the Skp1-like class of polypeptide subunits, where 21 genes have been identified and are known to be expressed in Arabidopsis. Phylogenetic analysis based on deduced polypeptide sequence organizes the family of ASK proteins into 7 clades. The complexity of the ASK gene family, together with the close structural similarity among its members raises the prospect of significant functional redundancy among select paralogs. We have assessed the potential for functional redundancy within the ASK gene family by analyzing an expanded set of criteria that define redundancy with higher resolution. The criteria used include quantitative expression of locus-specific transcripts using qRT-PCR, assessment of the sub-cellular localization of individual ASK:YFP auto-fluorescent fusion proteins expressed in vivo as well as the in planta assessment of individual ASK-F-Box protein interactions using bimolecular fluorescent complementation techniques in combination with confocal imagery in live cells. The results indicate significant functional divergence of steady state transcript abundance and protein-protein interaction specificity involving ASK proteins in a pattern that is poorly predicted by sequence-based phylogeny. The information emerging from this and related studies will prove important for defining the functional intersection of expression, localization and gene product interaction that better predicts the formation of discrete SCF complexes, as a prelude to investigating their molecular mode of action.

  17. Dual localized mitochondrial and nuclear proteins as gene expression regulators in plants?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe eGiegé


    Full Text Available Mitochondria heavily depend on the coordinated expression of both mitochondrial and nuclear genomes because some of their most significant activities are held by multi-subunit complexes composed of both mitochondrial and nuclear encoded proteins. Thus, precise communication and signaling pathways are believed to exist between the two compartments. Proteins dual localized to both mitochondria and the nucleus make excellent candidates for a potential involvement in the envisaged communication. Here, we review the identified instances of dual localized nucleo-mitochondrial proteins with an emphasis on plant proteins and discuss their functions, which are seemingly mostly related to gene expression regulation. We discuss whether dual localization could be achieved by dual targeting and / or by re-localization and try to apprehend the signals required for the respective processes. Finally, we propose that in some instances, dual localized mitochondrial and nuclear proteins might act as retrograde signaling molecules for mitochondrial biogenesis.

  18. A six-gene signature predicts survival of patients with localized pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeran K Stratford


    Full Text Available Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC remains a lethal disease. For patients with localized PDAC, surgery is the best option, but with a median survival of less than 2 years and a difficult and prolonged postoperative course for most, there is an urgent need to better identify patients who have the most aggressive disease.We analyzed the gene expression profiles of primary tumors from patients with localized compared to metastatic disease and identified a six-gene signature associated with metastatic disease. We evaluated the prognostic potential of this signature in a training set of 34 patients with localized and resected PDAC and selected a cut-point associated with outcome using X-tile. We then applied this cut-point to an independent test set of 67 patients with localized and resected PDAC and found that our signature was independently predictive of survival and superior to established clinical prognostic factors such as grade, tumor size, and nodal status, with a hazard ratio of 4.1 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.7-10.0. Patients defined to be high-risk patients by the six-gene signature had a 1-year survival rate of 55% compared to 91% in the low-risk group.Our six-gene signature may be used to better stage PDAC patients and assist in the difficult treatment decisions of surgery and to select patients whose tumor biology may benefit most from neoadjuvant therapy. The use of this six-gene signature should be investigated in prospective patient cohorts, and if confirmed, in future PDAC clinical trials, its potential as a biomarker should be investigated. Genes in this signature, or the pathways that they fall into, may represent new therapeutic targets. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.

  19. Genes and gene expression: Localization, damage and control: A multilevel and inter-disciplinary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ts' o, P.O.P.


    The main objectives of this Program Project is to develop strategy and technology for the study of gene structure, organization and function in a multi-disciplinary, highly coordinated manner. In Project I, Molecular Cytology, the establishment of all instrumentation for the computerized microscopic imaging system (CMIS) has been completed with the software in place, including measurement of the third dimension (along the Z-axis). The technique is now at hand to measure single copy DNA in the nucleus, single copy mRNA in the cell, and finally, we are in the process of developing mathematical approaches for the analysis of the relative spatial 3-D relationship among the chromosomes and the individual genes in the interphasal nucleus. Also, we have a sensitive and reliable method for measuring single-stranded DNA breaks which will be useful for the determination of damage to DNA caused by ionizing radiation. In Project II, the mapping of restriction fragments by 2-D enzymatic and electrophoretic analysis has been perfected for application. In Project III, a major finding is that the binding constant and effectiveness of antisense oligonucleotide analogues, Matagen, can be significantly improved by substituting 2{prime}-O-methylribos methylphosphonate backbones for the current 2{prime}-deoxyribomethylphosphonate backbones. 15 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. 100% ♥ Indonesia: Role of Government Campaign to Promote Local Products in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Salehudin


    Full Text Available This research aims to investigate the role of government buy-local campaign to increase consumer willingness to purchase local products in Indonesia. This paper also aims to identify relevant mediating variables between exposure to “buy local” campaign and willingness to purchase local products. This research use questionnaire data from 394 respondents selected using purposive sampling method. Product specific constructs are asked and analyzed separately in four different product categories (e.g. Produce, Leather, Culinary and Creative products. Data was analyzed using Structural Equation Model and compared further between product categories. The study found that exposure to the buy local promotion campaign does increase consumer ethnocentrism, attitude toward the campaign and toward domestic products. Consumer ethnocentrism does increase attitude toward domestic product and willingness to purchase local products.

  1. The Territory, a Container of Local Specificities: Evidence by Analysis of the Local Productive System of Ksar-Hellal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This article aims to highlight the relevance of the territory in the experience of local development. Indeed, by an application on a Tunisian case, it was shown that the territory of Ksar-Hellal is implicated in the functioning of its local production system, specializing in textile and clothing. It turned out that the Hilalian territory is abundant in specific economic resources such as competition, complementarity, and non-economic such as cooperation, technological externalities and social values. Those resources that are specific to the Hilalian territory are essential to stimulate the local dynamics of the productive system in question.

  2. Local Production of Chemokines during Experimental Vaginal Candidiasis (United States)

    Saavedra, Michael; Taylor, Brad; Lukacs, Nicholas; Fidel, Paul L.


    Recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis, caused by Candida albicans, is a significant problem in women of childbearing age. Although cell-mediated immunity (CMI) due to T cells and cytokines is the predominant host defense mechanism against C. albicans at mucosal tissue sites, host defense mechanisms against C. albicans at the vaginal mucosa are poorly understood. Based on an estrogen-dependent murine model of vaginal candidiasis, our data suggest that systemic CMI is ineffective against C. albicans vaginal infections. Thus, we have postulated that local immune mechanisms are critical for protection against infection. In the present study, the kinetic production of chemokines normally associated with the chemotaxis of T cells, macrophages (RANTES, MIP-1α, MCP-1), and polymorphonuclear neutrophils (MIP-2) was examined following intravaginal inoculation of C. albicans in estrogen-treated or untreated mice. Results showed significant increases in MCP-1 protein and mRNA in vaginal tissue of infected mice as early as 2 and 4 days postinoculation, respectively, that continued through a 21-day observation period, irrespective of estrogen status. No significant changes were observed with RANTES, MIP-1α, or MIP-2, although relatively high constitutive levels of RANTES mRNA and MIP-2 protein were observed. Furthermore, intravaginal immunoneutralization of MCP-1 with anti-MCP-1 antibodies resulted in a significant increase in vaginal fungal burden early during infection, suggesting that MCP-1 plays some role in reducing the fungal burden during vaginal infection. However, the lack of changes in leukocyte profiles in vaginal lavage fluids collected from infected versus uninfected mice suggests that MCP-1 functions to control vaginal C. albicans titers in a manner independent of cellular chemotactic activity. PMID:10531235

  3. The Ghrelin Receptor (Ghsr) Gene Polymorphism in Indonesian Local Chicken and Crossbreed is Associated with Carcass Traits


    Khaerunnisa, Isyana; Jakaria, Jakaria; Arief, Irma Isnafia; Budiman, Cahyo; Sumantri, Cece


    Ghrelin receptor (GHSR) gene is candidate gene for growth performance in chicken by modulating growth hormone release from the pituitary by binding to its ligand of ghrelin. Ghrelin gene, or growth hormone secretagogue (GHS) gene, is well known as feed intake and energy homeostasis regulator in mammals and birds. The objectives of this study were to identify the polymorphism of the T1857C GHSR locus in Indonesian local chicken and to evaluate its effects on carcass traits. The gene polymorphi...

  4. Guidelines for the naming of genes, gene products, and mutants in the opportunistic protists. (United States)

    Limper, Andrew H; Weiss, Louis M


    The opportunistic protists encompass a wide diversity of organisms including Pneumocystis, Toxoplasma, cryptosporidia, microsporidia, and related genera. Recent advances in the molecular biology and cellular biochemistry of these organisms have led to the identification of an ever growing numbers of key genes and their cognate proteins. Until now, these molecules have not been designated using any consistent nomenclature system, leading to considerable confusion. The participants of the 11th International Workshop on Opportunistic Protists met on August 3, 2010 to reach consensus of a nomenclature system for genes, gene products, and mutants in the opportunistic protists. The following summary reports the consensus agreement to move toward a unified nomenclature system for these organisms. The system is adapted from that used for Saccharomyces cerevisiae. © 2011 The Author(s). Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology © 2011 International Society of Protistologists.

  5. Work Ethics and Productivity in Local Government System in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main thrust of this paper is motivated by the desire to examine the implications of the negative work attitudes that is prevalent among the employees of the local government system in Nigeria. The paper argued that the Nigeria local government system is engulfed in Negative work tendencies characterized by such ...

  6. Contributing to the Food Sovereignty Debate: Re-Linking Local Production and Consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quaye, W.; Ruivenkamp, G.T.P.; Frempong, G.; Jongerden, J.P.


    Agri-based economies especially those in developing countries are becoming increasingly dependent on foreign markets and losing their autonomy in food production and distribution. However, there are possibilities to re-link local production and consumption. That is reconnecting local productive

  7. Economic Efficiency of Maize Production in Yola North Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    should include the basic nutrients necessary to meet the needs of the ... economic production and home production, often have damaging ..... economic citizens in Nigeria (Ankroyd and. Doughty, 1984). ... Nutritional Guide. University of.

  8. Perceived factors limiting rice production in Pategi Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    perceived limiting factors in rice production include lack of rice processing ... This production increase has not been enough to meet the consumption demand of ... of Kwara State, Nigeria seeks to determine some of the factors limiting rice ...

  9. Single gene insertion drives bioalcohol production by a thermophilic archaeon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basen, M; Schut, GJ; Nguyen, DM; Lipscomb, GL; Benn, RA; Prybol, CJ; Vaccaro, BJ; Poole, FL; Kelly, RM; Adams, MWW


    Bioethanol production is achieved by only two metabolic pathways and only at moderate temperatures. Herein a fundamentally different synthetic pathway for bioalcohol production at 70 degrees C was constructed by insertion of the gene for bacterial alcohol dehydrogenase (AdhA) into the archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus. The engineered strain converted glucose to ethanol via acetate and acetaldehyde, catalyzed by the host-encoded aldehyde ferredoxin oxidoreductase (AOR) and heterologously expressed AdhA, in an energy-conserving, redox-balanced pathway. Furthermore, the AOR/AdhA pathway also converted exogenously added aliphatic and aromatic carboxylic acids to the corresponding alcohol using glucose, pyruvate, and/or hydrogen as the source of reductant. By heterologous coexpression of a membrane-bound carbon monoxide dehydrogenase, CO was used as a reductant for converting carboxylic acids to alcohols. Redirecting the fermentative metabolism of P. furiosus through strategic insertion of foreign genes creates unprecedented opportunities for thermophilic bioalcohol production. Moreover, the AOR/AdhA pathway is a potentially game-changing strategy for syngas fermentation, especially in combination with carbon chain elongation pathways.

  10. Opportunities for Local for Local Food Production. A Case in the Dutch Fruit and Vegetables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, J.; Trienekens, J.H.; Beek, van P.


    This paper investigates the opportunities for farmers to produce for local consumers, based on a case study in the Dutch horticulture sector. Main requirements for the set-up of a local chain of supply chain actors are investigated. Producer requirements are added value, availability of time,

  11. Economics Of Tomato Production In Yewa North Local Government ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Questions relating to the socio-economic characteristics of the tomato farmers, tomato outputs, output prices and cost of resources viz. labour, seed, fertilizer and land used in production, as well as constraints to tomato production were asked in the questionnaire. Production function analysis was used to show the ...

  12. Epstein-Barr Virus BKRF4 Gene Product Is Required for Efficient Progeny Production. (United States)

    Masud, H M Abdullah Al; Watanabe, Takahiro; Yoshida, Masahiro; Sato, Yoshitaka; Goshima, Fumi; Kimura, Hiroshi; Murata, Takayuki


    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), a member of human gammaherpesvirus, infects mainly B cells. EBV has two alternative life cycles, latent and lytic, and is reactivated occasionally from the latent stage to the lytic cycle. To combat EBV-associated disorders, understanding the molecular mechanisms of the EBV lytic replication cycle is also important. Here, we focused on an EBV lytic gene, BKRF4. Using our anti-BKRF4 antibody, we revealed that the BKRF4 gene product is expressed during the lytic cycle with late kinetics. To characterize the role of BKRF4, we constructed BKRF4-knockout mutants using the bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) and CRISPR/Cas9 systems. Although disruption of the BKRF4 gene had almost no effect on viral protein expression and DNA synthesis, it significantly decreased progeny virion levels in HEK293 and Akata cells. Furthermore, we show that BKRF4 is involved not only in production of progeny virions but also in increasing the infectivity of the virus particles. Immunoprecipitation assays revealed that BKRF4 interacted with a virion protein, BGLF2. We showed that the C-terminal region of BKRF4 was critical for this interaction and for efficient progeny production. Immunofluorescence analysis revealed that BKRF4 partially colocalized with BGLF2 in the nucleus and perinuclear region. Finally, we showed that BKRF4 is a phosphorylated, possible tegument protein and that the EBV protein kinase BGLF4 may be important for this phosphorylation. Taken together, our data suggest that BKRF4 is involved in the production of infectious virions. IMPORTANCE Although the latent genes of EBV have been studied extensively, the lytic genes are less well characterized. This study focused on one such lytic gene, BKRF4, which is conserved only among gammaherpesviruses (ORF45 of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus or murine herpesvirus 68). After preparing the BKRF4 knockout virus using B95-8 EBV-BAC, we demonstrated that the BKRF4 gene was involved in infectious

  13. 76 FR 9028 - Guidance for Industry: Potency Tests for Cellular and Gene Therapy Products; Availability (United States)


    ...] Guidance for Industry: Potency Tests for Cellular and Gene Therapy Products; Availability AGENCY: Food and... Therapy Products'' dated January 2011. The guidance document provides manufacturers of cellular and gene... for Industry: Potency Tests for Cellular and Gene Therapy Products'' dated January 2011. The guidance...

  14. Local Community's Knowledge on Onion Production, Pests and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    vegetables listed by FAO shows that onion ranks second after ... who sell their produce in local, regional and international markets. ..... Tanzania Official Seed Certification Institute. (TOSCI), a seed .... through integrated and organic horticulture.

  15. Localization to Chromosomes of Structural Genes for the Major Protease Inhibitors of Barley Grains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hejgaard, Jørn; Bjørn, S.E.; Nielsen, Gunnar Gissel


    Wheat-barley chromosome addition lines were compared by isoelectric focusing of protein extracts to identify chromosomes carrying loci for the major immunochemically distinct protease inhibitors of barley grains. Structural genes for the following inhibitors were localized: an inhibitor of both...... endogenous α-amylase 2 and subtilisin (ASI) on chromosome 2, two chymotrypsin/subtilisin inhibitors (CI-1 and CI-2) on chromosome 5 (long arm) and the major trypsin inhibitor (TI-1) on chromosome 3....

  16. Localization of tRNAsup(asp)2 genes from Drosophila melanogaster by 'in situ' hybridization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, T.; Egg, A.H.; Kubli, E.


    Transfer RNAsup(asp) 2 delta was isolated from Drosophila melanogaster by affinity chromatography on concanavalin A-Sepharose. The tRNA was iodinated 'in vitro' with Na[ 125 I] and hybridized 'in situ' to salivary gland chromosomes from Drosophila. Subsequent autoradiography allowed the localization of the genes for tRNAsup(asp) 2 delta to the left arm of the second chromosome in the regions 29 D and E. (orig.) [de

  17. Description and physical localization of the bovine survival of motor neuron gene (SMN). (United States)

    Pietrowski, D; Goldammer, T; Meinert, S; Schwerin, M; Förster, M


    Proximal spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an autosomal recessive disease in humans and other mammals, characterized by degeneration of anterior horn cells of the spinal cord. In humans, the survival of motor neuron gene (SMN) has been recognized as the SMA-determining gene and has been mapped to 5q13. In cattle, SMA is a recurrent, inherited disease that plays an important economic role in breeding programs of Brown Swiss stock. Now we have identified the full- length cDNA sequence of the bovine SMN gene. Molecular analysis and characterization of the sequence documents 85% identity to its human counterpart and three evolutionarily conserved domains in different species. Physical mapping data reveals that bovine SMN is localized to chromosome region 20q12-->q13, supporting the conserved synteny of this chromosomal region between humans and cattle.

  18. LPS challenge regulates gene expression and tissue localization of a Ciona intestinalis gene through an alternative polyadenylation mechanism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiti Vizzini

    Full Text Available A subtractive hybridization strategy for the identification of differentially expressed genes was performed between LPS-challenged and naive Ciona intestinalis. This strategy allowed the characterization of two transcripts (Ci8short and Ci8long generated by the use of two Alternative Polyadenylation sites. The Ci8long transcript contains a protein domain with relevant homology to several components of the Receptor Transporting Protein (RTP family not present in the Ci8short mRNA. By means of Real Time PCR and Northern Blot, the Ci8short and Ci8long transcripts showed a different pattern of gene expression with the Ci8short mRNA being strongly activated after LPS injection in the pharynx. In situ hybridization analysis demonstrated that the activation of the APA site also influenced the tissue localization of the Ci8short transcript. This analysis showed that the Ci8long mRNA was expressed in hemocytes meanwhile the Ci8short mRNA was highly transcribed also in vessel endothelial cells and in the epithelium of pharynx. These findings demonstrated that regulation of gene expression based on different polyadenylation sites is an ancestral powerful strategy influencing both the level of expression and tissue distribution of alternative transcripts.

  19. Local synteny and codon usage contribute to asymmetric sequence divergence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene duplicates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergthorsson Ulfar


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Duplicated genes frequently experience asymmetric rates of sequence evolution. Relaxed selective constraints and positive selection have both been invoked to explain the observation that one paralog within a gene-duplicate pair exhibits an accelerated rate of sequence evolution. In the majority of studies where asymmetric divergence has been established, there is no indication as to which gene copy, ancestral or derived, is evolving more rapidly. In this study we investigated the effect of local synteny (gene-neighborhood conservation and codon usage on the sequence evolution of gene duplicates in the S. cerevisiae genome. We further distinguish the gene duplicates into those that originated from a whole-genome duplication (WGD event (ohnologs versus small-scale duplications (SSD to determine if there exist any differences in their patterns of sequence evolution. Results For SSD pairs, the derived copy evolves faster than the ancestral copy. However, there is no relationship between rate asymmetry and synteny conservation (ancestral-like versus derived-like in ohnologs. mRNA abundance and optimal codon usage as measured by the CAI is lower in the derived SSD copies relative to ancestral paralogs. Moreover, in the case of ohnologs, the faster-evolving copy has lower CAI and lowered expression. Conclusions Together, these results suggest that relaxation of selection for codon usage and gene expression contribute to rate asymmetry in the evolution of duplicated genes and that in SSD pairs, the relaxation of selection stems from the loss of ancestral regulatory information in the derived copy.

  20. In Vivo Imaging of Local Gene Expression Induced by Magnetic Hyperthermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Sandre


    Full Text Available The present work aims to demonstrate that colloidal dispersions of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles stabilized with dextran macromolecules placed in an alternating magnetic field can not only produce heat, but also that these particles could be used in vivo for local and noninvasive deposition of a thermal dose sufficient to trigger thermo-induced gene expression. Iron oxide nanoparticles were first characterized in vitro on a bio-inspired setup, and then they were assayed in vivo using a transgenic mouse strain expressing the luciferase reporter gene under transcriptional control of a thermosensitive promoter. Iron oxide nanoparticles dispersions were applied topically on the mouse skin or injected subcutaneously with Matrigel™ to generate so-called pseudotumors. Temperature was monitored continuously with a feedback loop to control the power of the magnetic field generator and to avoid overheating. Thermo-induced luciferase expression was followed by bioluminescence imaging 6 h after heating. We showed that dextran-coated magnetic iron oxide nanoparticle dispersions were able to induce in vivo mild hyperthermia compatible with thermo-induced gene expression in surrounding tissues and without impairing cell viability. These data open new therapeutic perspectives for using mild magnetic hyperthermia as noninvasive modulation of tumor microenvironment by local thermo-induced gene expression or drug release.

  1. Surface association and the MreB cytoskeleton regulate pilus production, localization and function in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. (United States)

    Cowles, Kimberly N; Gitai, Zemer


    Spatial organization of bacterial proteins influences many cellular processes, including division, chromosome segregation and motility. Virulence-associated proteins also localize to specific destinations within bacterial cells. However, the functions and mechanisms of virulence factor localization remain largely unknown. In this work, we demonstrate that polar assembly of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 type IV pilus is regulated by surface association in a manner that affects gene transcription, protein levels and protein localization. We also uncover one mechanism for this regulation that acts through the actin homologue MreB. Inactivation of MreB leads to mislocalization of the pilus retraction ATPase PilT, mislocalization of the pili themselves and a reduction in motility. Furthermore, the role of MreB in polar localization of PilT is modulated by surface association, corroborating our results that environmental factors influence the regulation of pilus production. Specifically, MreB mediates both the initiation and maintenance of PilT localization when cells are grown in suspension but only affects the initiation of localization when cells are grown on a surface. Together, these results suggest that the bacterial cytoskeleton provides a mechanism for the polar localization of P. aeruginosa pili and demonstrate that protein localization may represent an important aspect of virulence factor regulation in bacterial pathogens.

  2. Value addition to locally produced soybean in Ghana: production of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ghana produces about 50,000 metric tons of soy beans per annum, of which only about 15 metric tons are utilized. One aspect of utilizing the beans is in the production of soy sauce, a product whose demand is on the increase due to changing food habits of the Ghanaian society. A preliminary attempt to produce soy sauce ...

  3. Some problems of local production of acetone and butanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, C; Chang, Y P


    Conditions of laboratory and plant cultivation of acetone-butanol fermentation bacteria are considered (effects of pH of the medium, temperature, and starch content in raw material on yield of fermentation products) and also the conditions of isolation of the final products produced.

  4. Local Knowledge, Academic Skills, and Individual Productivity: An Alternative View. (United States)

    Balfanz, Robert


    Henry M. Levin finds Balfanz's article a dispassionate attempt to explore the connections between workplace performance and curriculum reform. Educational reform efforts often misinterpret and simplify the relationship between informal knowledge, academic skills, and individual productivity. Consequently, the U.S. public's productive capacity is…

  5. Economic Efficiency of Maize Production in Yola North Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    comprised of five improved genotypes of short- and medium-duration types obtained from the. International Crops Research Institute for the. Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) Kano station,. Nigeria and a local Nsukka pigeonpea genotype of long-duration type obtained from Nsukka market. The ICRISAT genotypes were ICPL 87.

  6. Local food in Iceland: identifying behavioral barriers to increased production and consumption (United States)

    Ósk Halldórsdóttir, Þórhildur; Nicholas, Kimberly A.


    Increased production and consumption of local food may reduce the negative environmental, social, and economic impacts of industrialized and globalized food production. Here we examined potential barriers to increasing production and consumption of food produced in Iceland. First, we developed a new framework to address the behaviors of production and consumption simultaneously, to comprehensively analyze their potential barriers. We examined structural barriers by estimating the food production capacity of Iceland, and cultural and personal barriers through survey data on cultural norms and purchasing behavior from Matís, a research and development company. We found no structural barriers preventing Iceland from increasing production of local cereals, which would compliment current local production of meat and dairy and reduce reliance on imports, currently at 50% of the daily caloric intake. However, if food production became entirely local without changing the current mix of crops grown, there would be a 50% reduction in diversity (from 50 to 25 items in eight out of ten food categories). We did not identify any cultural barriers, as survey results demonstrated that consumers hold generally positive worldviews towards local food, with 88% satisfied with local food they had purchased. More than two-thirds of consumers regarded supporting the local farmer and considerations such as environmentally friendly production, fewer food miles, lower carbon footprint as important. However, they rated the local food they have access to as lower in meeting sustainability criteria, showing that they make justifications for not choosing local food in practice. This is a personal barrier to increased consumption of local food, and implies that marketing strategies and general knowledge connected to local food in Iceland might be improved. Although the results apply to the case of Iceland, the method of identifying behavioral barriers to change is applicable to other countries

  7. Ethanol production potential of local yeast strains isolated from ripe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    May 16, 2008 ... ... of these studies, the preferred candidate for industrial production of ethanol ... The yeast strains were isolated using the method of Ameh et al. (1989), on ... gas in the Durham tube during the incubation period. Fermentation ...

  8. Resource Use Efficiency in Rice Production in Jere Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Descriptive statistics and production function were used as analytical tools. The result ..... women's active participation in agriculture. The result also .... Poverty Reduction. Through the ... and the Efficiencies of India Farm Using. Panel Data ...

  9. Local anisotropy effects in the hydrodynamical theory of multiparticle production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorenstein, M.I.; Sinyukov, Yu.M.


    The stage of secondary particle formation in the hydrodynamic theory of multiparticle production is analysed. We find out that the secondary particle spectrum of the fluid element decay is anisotropic in the rest frame system of this element. (orig.)

  10. Local anisotropy effects in the hydrodynamical theory of multiparticle production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorenshtejn, M.I.; Sinyukov, Yu.M.


    The stage of final particle formation in the hydrodynamic theory of multiparticle production is analysed. It is shown, that secondary particle spectrum of the fluid element decay to be anisotropic in the rest frame system of this element

  11. Enabling local production of biopharmaceuticals in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tsekoa, Tsepo L


    Full Text Available - based pharmaceuticals. 9 Case study 1: Rabivir, new-generation rabies post-exposure prophylaxis 10 Case study 2: Microbial production of biosimilar CRM197 carrier protein • Problem/Need: Accessible and cost-competitive paediatric vaccines... • Prohibitively expensive pricing of protein reagent (CRM197) used in manufacture of conjugate vaccines for children (e.g. multivalent pneumococcal vaccine) • Solution: Fermentation-based production in recombinant E. coli • Stage: Proof of concept complete...

  12. Determination of Six Transmembrane Protein of Prostate 2 Gene Expression and Intracellular Localization in Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bora İrer


    Full Text Available Objective: In this study, we aimed to determine the relationship between the RNA and protein expression profile of six transmembrane protein of prostate 2 (STAMP2 gene and androgen and the intracellular localization of STAMP2. Materials and Methods: RNA and protein were obtained from androgen treated lymph node carcinoma of the prostate (LNCaP cells, untreated LNCaP cells, DU145 cells with no androgen receptor, and STAMP2 transfected COS-7 cells. The expression profile of STAMP2 gene and the effect of androgenes on the expression was shown in RNA and protein levels by using Northern and Western blotting methods. In addition, intracellular localization of the naturally synthesized STAMP2 protein and the transfected STAMP2 protein in COS-7 cells after androgen administration in both LNCaP cells was determined by immunofluorescence microscopy. Results: We found that the RNA and protein expression of STAMP2 gene in LNCaP cells are regulated by androgenes, the power of expression is increased with the duration of androgen treatment and there is no STAMP2 expression in DU145 cells which has no androgen receptor. As a result of the immunofluorescence microscopy study we observed that STAMP2 protein was localized at golgi complex and cell membrane. Conclusion: In conclusion, we have demonstrated that STAMP2 may play an important role in the pathogenesis of the prostate cancer and in the androgen-dependent androgen-independent staging of prostate cancer. In addition, STAMP2 protein, which is localized in the intracellular golgi complex and cell membrane, may be a new target molecule for prostate cancer diagnosis and treatment.

  13. Prequels to Synthetic Biology: From Candidate Gene Identification and Validation to Enzyme Subcellular Localization in Plant and Yeast Cells. (United States)

    Foureau, E; Carqueijeiro, I; Dugé de Bernonville, T; Melin, C; Lafontaine, F; Besseau, S; Lanoue, A; Papon, N; Oudin, A; Glévarec, G; Clastre, M; St-Pierre, B; Giglioli-Guivarc'h, N; Courdavault, V


    Natural compounds extracted from microorganisms or plants constitute an inexhaustible source of valuable molecules whose supply can be potentially challenged by limitations in biological sourcing. The recent progress in synthetic biology combined to the increasing access to extensive transcriptomics and genomics data now provide new alternatives to produce these molecules by transferring their whole biosynthetic pathway in heterologous production platforms such as yeasts or bacteria. While the generation of high titer producing strains remains per se an arduous field of investigation, elucidation of the biosynthetic pathways as well as characterization of their complex subcellular organization are essential prequels to the efficient development of such bioengineering approaches. Using examples from plants and yeasts as a framework, we describe potent methods to rationalize the study of partially characterized pathways, including the basics of computational applications to identify candidate genes in transcriptomics data and the validation of their function by an improved procedure of virus-induced gene silencing mediated by direct DNA transfer to get around possible resistance to Agrobacterium-delivery of viral vectors. To identify potential alterations of biosynthetic fluxes resulting from enzyme mislocalizations in reconstituted pathways, we also detail protocols aiming at characterizing subcellular localizations of protein in plant cells by expression of fluorescent protein fusions through biolistic-mediated transient transformation, and localization of transferred enzymes in yeast using similar fluorescence procedures. Albeit initially developed for the Madagascar periwinkle, these methods may be applied to other plant species or organisms in order to establish synthetic biology platform. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Expression regulation of design process gene in product design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Bo; Fang, Lusheng; Li, Bo


    To improve the design process efficiency, this paper proposes the principle and methodology that design process gene controls the characteristics of design process under the framework of design process reuse and optimization based on design process gene. First, the concept of design process gene...... is proposed and analyzed, as well as its three categories i.e., the operator gene, the structural gene and the regulator gene. Second, the trigger mechanism that design objectives and constraints trigger the operator gene is constructed. Third, the expression principle of structural gene is analyzed...... with the example of design management gene. Last, the regulation mode that the regulator gene regulates the expression of the structural gene is established and it is illustrated by taking the design process management gene as an example. © (2011) Trans Tech Publications....

  15. Insights into the evolution and diversification of the AT-hook Motif Nuclear Localized gene family in land plants. (United States)

    Zhao, Jianfei; Favero, David S; Qiu, Jiwen; Roalson, Eric H; Neff, Michael M


    Members of the ancient land-plant-specific transcription factor AT-Hook Motif Nuclear Localized (AHL) gene family regulate various biological processes. However, the relationships among the AHL genes, as well as their evolutionary history, still remain unexplored. We analyzed over 500 AHL genes from 19 land plant species, ranging from the early diverging Physcomitrella patens and Selaginella to a variety of monocot and dicot flowering plants. We classified the AHL proteins into three types (Type-I/-II/-III) based on the number and composition of their functional domains, the AT-hook motif(s) and PPC domain. We further inferred their phylogenies via Bayesian inference analysis and predicted gene gain/loss events throughout their diversification. Our analyses suggested that the AHL gene family emerged in embryophytes and further evolved into two distinct clades, with Type-I AHLs forming one clade (Clade-A), and the other two types together diversifying in another (Clade-B). The two AHL clades likely diverged before the separation of Physcomitrella patens from the vascular plant lineage. In angiosperms, Clade-A AHLs expanded into 5 subfamilies; while, the ones in Clade-B expanded into 4 subfamilies. Examination of their expression patterns suggests that the AHLs within each clade share similar expression patterns with each other; however, AHLs in one monophyletic clade exhibit distinct expression patterns from the ones in the other clade. Over-expression of a Glycine max AHL PPC domain in Arabidopsis thaliana recapitulates the phenotype observed when over-expressing its Arabidopsis thaliana counterpart. This result suggests that the AHL genes from different land plant species may share conserved functions in regulating plant growth and development. Our study further suggests that such functional conservation may be due to conserved physical interactions among the PPC domains of AHL proteins. Our analyses reveal a possible evolutionary scenario for the AHL gene family

  16. [Cloning, subcellular localization, and heterologous expression of ApNAC1 gene from Andrographis paniculata]. (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Qi, Meng-Die; Guo, Juan; Shen, Ye; Lin, Hui-Xin; Huang, Lu-Qi


    Andrographis paniculata is widely used as medicinal herb in China for a long time and andrographolide is its main medicinal constituent. To investigate the underlying andrographolide biosynthesis mechanisms, RNA-seq for A. paniculata leaves with MeJA treatment was performed. In A. paniculata transcriptomic data, the expression pattern of one member of NAC transcription factor family (ApNAC1) matched with andrographolide accumulation. The coding sequence of ApNAC1 was cloned by RT-PCR, and GenBank accession number was KY196416. The analysis of bioinformatics showed that the gene encodes a peptide of 323 amino acids, with a predicted relative molecular weight of 35.9 kDa and isoelectric point of 6.14. To confirm the subcellular localization, ApNAC1-GFP was transiently expressed in A. paniculata protoplast. The results indicated that ApNAC1 is a nucleus-localized protein. The analysis of real-time quantitative PCR revealed that ApNAC1 gene predominantly expresses in leaves. Compared with control sample, its expression abundance sharply increased with methyl jasmonate treatment. Based on its expression pattern, ApNAC1 gene might involve in andrographolide biosynthesis. ApNAC1 was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli and recombinant protein was purified by Ni-NTA agarose. Further study will help us to understand the function of ApNAC1 in andrographolide biosynthesis. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  17. Genome-wide SNP association-based localization of a dwarfism gene in Friesian dwarf horses. (United States)

    Orr, N; Back, W; Gu, J; Leegwater, P; Govindarajan, P; Conroy, J; Ducro, B; Van Arendonk, J A M; MacHugh, D E; Ennis, S; Hill, E W; Brama, P A J


    The recent completion of the horse genome and commercial availability of an equine SNP genotyping array has facilitated the mapping of disease genes. We report putative localization of the gene responsible for dwarfism, a trait in Friesian horses that is thought to have a recessive mode of inheritance, to a 2-MB region of chromosome 14 using just 10 affected animals and 10 controls. We successfully genotyped 34,429 SNPs that were tested for association with dwarfism using chi-square tests. The most significant SNP in our study, BIEC2-239376 (P(2df)=4.54 × 10(-5), P(rec)=7.74 × 10(-6)), is located close to a gene implicated in human dwarfism. Fine-mapping and resequencing analyses did not aid in further localization of the causative variant, and replication of our findings in independent sample sets will be necessary to confirm these results. © 2010 The Authors, Journal compilation © 2010 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  18. Genes related to xylose fermentation and methods of using same for enhanced biofuel production (United States)

    Wohlbach, Dana J.; Gasch, Audrey P.


    The present invention provides isolated gene sequences involved in xylose fermentation and related recombinant yeast which are useful in methods of enhanced biofuel production, particularly ethanol production. Methods of bioengineering recombinant yeast useful for biofuel production are also provided.

  19. Economic Analysis of Small Scale Egg Production in Gombe Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to determine the economic profitability of small-scale egg production in Gombe L.G.A. Gombe State. Data were collected from 36 famers using simple random sampling technique. The data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics, gross margin and farm financial ratio analysis. The study ...

  20. Women Farmers' Contributions to Maize Production in Afijio Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    counts, percentages and mean while Pearson Product Moment Correlation and ... showed that age (r = 0.950, P<0.05), farm size (r = 0.174, P<0.05), ... literacy) be intensified, young women be encouraged to be more involved in maize ... farmers, only few of the studies actually ... socio-economic characteristics of women.

  1. Improvement of halophilic cellulase production from locally isolated fungal strain. (United States)

    Gunny, Ahmad Anas Nagoor; Arbain, Dachyar; Jamal, Parveen; Gumba, Rizo Edwin


    Halophilic cellulases from the newly isolated fungus, Aspergillus terreus UniMAP AA-6 were found to be useful for in situ saccharification of ionic liquids treated lignocelluloses. Efforts have been taken to improve the enzyme production through statistical optimization approach namely Plackett-Burman design and the Face Centered Central Composite Design (FCCCD). Plackett-Burman experimental design was used to screen the medium components and process conditions. It was found that carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), FeSO4·7H2O, NaCl, MgSO4·7H2O, peptone, agitation speed and inoculum size significantly influence the production of halophilic cellulase. On the other hand, KH2PO4, KOH, yeast extract and temperature had a negative effect on enzyme production. Further optimization through FCCCD revealed that the optimization approach improved halophilic cellulase production from 0.029 U/ml to 0.0625 U/ml, which was approximately 2.2-times greater than before optimization.

  2. Economic efficiency of maize production in Yola North Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Similarly, the efficiency ratio computed showed that land, seed and fertilizer had MVP/MFC ratio greater than unity implying that the inputs were underutilized and output could be increased by increasing the levels of their utilization. The elasticity of production was greater than 1.00 which implied increasing return to scale.

  3. Economic Efficiency of Maize Production in Yola North Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    ABSTRACT. The ability of herbaceous legumes to supply nitrogen to subsequent cereal crops could be harnessed to alleviate the difficulties in cereal production due to poor soil fertility and expensive inorganic fertilizers. Field experiments were carried out in Zaria, Nigeria to determine the soil improvement potential of ...

  4. Production Relationships among Cassava Farmers in Etche Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined production relationships among cassava farmers in Etche L.G.A. of Rivers State, Nigeria. Multistage random sampling technique was used in the data generation exercise. A total of 96 cassava farmers were randomly selected from three out of the five clans for interview using structured questionnaire.

  5. Diversity in local food production combats obesity in the Caribbean ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    26 avr. 2016 ... In response, the Farm to Fork project—a multisector, integrated approach to food and nutrition security in the Caribbean—worked with smallholder farmers in St Kitts-Nevis and Trinidad and Tobago, and in Guyana and St Lucia to develop year-round production of fruit and vegetables to supply the national ...

  6. Localization of the Norrie disease gene mRNA by in situ hybridization. (United States)

    Hartzer, M K; Cheng, M; Liu, X; Shastry, B S


    Norrie disease is a rare X-linked recessive neurodevelopmental disorder. The affected males manifest congenital blindness, which is often associated with hearing loss, mental retardation and psychiatric problems. Genetic linkage studies have localized the gene to the short arm of the X-chromosome and the gene has been isolated recently. The encoded protein is a member of the superfamily of growth factors containing a cystine knot motif and may be involved in cell adhesion and neurodevelopment. Molecular genetic analysis revealed a large number of missense, nonsense, deletion, and splice-site mutations among Norrie patients. In order to further determine the role of the Norrie disease gene, we studied the distribution pattern of its mRNA in the retina and in brain by in situ hybridization. The results show abundant hybridization signals in outer nuclear, inner nuclear, and ganglion cell layers of the retina in all three species (mice, rabbit, and human) examined. There was no significant expression in the vitreous body, lens, and rod outer segment. High expression levels were also observed in the cerebellar granular layer, hippocampus, olfactory bulb, cortex, and epithelium of the rabbit brain. These data suggest that the Norrie disease gene could play a critical role in the differentiation or maintenance of the differentiated state of the retina.

  7. Cytological localization of adenosine kinase, nucleoside phosphorylase-1, and esterase-10 genes on mouse chromosome 14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuelson, L.C.; Farber, R.A.


    The authors have determined the regional locations on mouse chromosome 14 of the genes for mouse adenosine kinase (ADK), nucleoside phosphorylase- 1 (NP-1), and esterase-10 (ES-10) by analysis of rearranged mouse chromosomes in gamma-irradiated Chinese hamster X mouse hybrid cell lines. Irradiated clones were screened for expression of the murine forms of these enzymes; segregant clones that expressed only one or two of the three markers were karyotyped. The patterns of enzyme expression in these segregants were correlated with the presence of rearranged chromosomes. The Adk gene was localized to bands A2 to B, Np-1 to bands B to C1, and Es-10 to bands D2 to E2

  8. [Chromosomal localization of foreign genes in transgenic mice using dual-color fluorescence in situ hybridization]. (United States)

    Lin, Dan; Gong, Xiu-li; Li, Wei; Guo, Xin-bing; Zhu, Yi-wen; Huang, Ying


    To establish a highly sensitive and specific dual-color fluorescence in situ hybridization (D-FISH) method used for chromosomal localization of foreign genes in double transgenic mice. Two strains of double transgenic mice were used in this experiment, one was integrated with the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV-tk) and the enhanced green fluorescence protein (eGFP), the other was with the short hairpin RNA interference(RNAi) and beta(654). Splenic cells cultured in vitro were arrested in metaphase by colchicine and hybridized with digoxigenin-labeled and biotinylated DNA probes, then detected by rhodamine-conjugated avidin and FITC-conjugated anti-digoxigenin. Dual-color fluorescence signals were detected on the same metaphase in both transgenic mice strains. In HSV-tk/eGFP double transgenic mice, strong green fluorescence for HSV-tk and red for eGFP were observed and localized at 2E5-G3 and 8A2-A4 respectively. In beta(654)/RNAi mice, beta(654) was detected as red fluorescence on chromosome 7D3-E2, and RNAi showed random integration on chromosomes. It was detected as green fluorescence on chromosome 12B1 in one mouse, while on 1E2.3-1F and 3A3 in the other. Highly sensitive and specific D-FISH method was established using the self-prepared DNA probes, and chromosomal localization of the foreign genes was also performed in combination with G-banding in double transgenic mice. This technology will facilitate the researches in transgenic animals and gene therapy models.

  9. Development of parmesan cheese production from local cow milk (United States)

    Aliwarga, Lienda; Christianti, Elisabeth Novi; Lazarus, Chrisella


    Parmesan cheese is one of the dairy products which is used in various foods, such as pasta, bakery product, and pizza. It has a hard texture due to aging process for at least two years. Long aging period inhibited the production of parmesan cheese while consumer demands were increasing gradually. This research was conducted to figure out the effect of starter culture and rennet dose to the production of parmesan cheese. This research consists of (1) pasteurization of 1,500 ml milk at 73°C; and (2) main cheese making process that comprised of fermentation process and the addition of rennet. In latter stage, milk was converted into curd. Variations were made for the dose of bacteria culture and rennet. Both variables correlated to the fermentation time and characteristics of the produced cheese. The analysis of the produced cheese during testing stage included measured protein and cheese yield, whey pH, water activity, and moisture content. Moreover, an organoleptic test was done in a qualitative manner. The results showed that the dose of bacteria culture has a significant effect to the fermentation time, protein yield, and cheese yield. Meanwhile, rennet dose significantly affected cheese yield, pH of whey, and water activity. The highest protein yield (93.1%) was obtained at 0.6 ml of culture and 0.5 ml of rennet while the maximum cheese yield (6.81%) was achieved at 0.4 ml of culture and 0.1 ml of rennet. The water activity of produced cheeses was lower compared to the water activity of common parmesan cheese (ca. 0.6). For the organoleptic test, 0.4 ml of bacterial culture and 0.5 ml of rennet produced the most preferred cheese flavor compared to other variations.

  10. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the HIF-1α gene and chemoradiotherapy of locally advanced rectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havelund, Birgitte Mayland; Spindler, Karen-Lise Garm; Ploen, John


    The aim of this study was to investigate the predictive impact of polymorphisms in the HIF-1α gene on the response to chemoradiotherapy (CRT) in rectal cancer. This study included two cohorts of patients with locally advanced rectal cancer receiving long-course CRT. The HIF-1α C1772T (rs11549465...... tumour response (P=0.03) in the validation cohort. In conclusion, these results suggest that HIF-1α polymorphisms have no value as predictors of response to neoadjuvant CRT in rectal cancer. The results of the HIF-1α c(*)191T>C in two cohorts differ and emphasise the importance of biomarker validation....

  11. Tissue specific promoters improve the localization of radiation-inducible gene expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallahan, Dennis; Kataoka, Yasushi; Kuchibhotla, Jaya; Virudachalam, Subbu; Weichselbaum, Ralph


    expression was quantified in vascular endothelial cells from large vessel (HUVEC) and small vessels (HMEC). We found cell-type specificity of radiation-induction. The promoter region from the ELAM gene gave no expression in cells that were not of endothelial cell origin and x-ray-induction of ELAM in the endothelium required the NFkB binding cis-acting element. ELAM induction was achieved at doses as low as 1 Gy, whereas induction of other radiation inducible genes required 5 to 10 Gy. Cells transfected with the minimal promoter (plasmid pTK-CAT) demonstrated no radiation induction. Expression of the CMV-LacZ genetic construct that was used as a negative control in each transfection was not altered by x-irradiation. Moreover, intravenous administration of liposomes containing a reporter gene linked to the ELAM promoter and a transcriptional amplification system were induced specifically at sites of x-irradiation in an animal model. Conclusions: Activation of transcription of the ELAM-1 promoter by ionizing radiation is a means of activating gene therapy within the vascular endothelium and demonstrates the feasibility of treating vascular lesions with noninvasive procedures. Tissue specific promoters (e. g., ELAM-1) combined with radiation inducible gene therapy improves the localization of gene therapy expression. These results have applications in intravascular brachytherapy for the prevention of blood vessel restenosis

  12. The "local economy" effect of social transfers : an empirical assessment of the impactof th Bolsa Familia program on local productive structure and economic growth


    Rougier, E.; Combarnous, F.; Fauré, Yves-André


    Social transfers impact local economic growth through local demand multiplier and local productive structures. Using original data on productive structures, growth determinants and Bolsa Familia conditional transfers (BFP) for the 184 municipalities of the Brazilian state of Ceará during 2003–10, we show that the positive impact of the transfers on local growth is in fact conditional on the direction of local economic structure transformation. Indeed, transfers did spur light manufactur...

  13. Vasopressin Gene-Related Products in the Management of Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    North, William


    .... The VP gene is expressed by seemingly all breast cancers and by all DCIS, and this information coupled with an absence of VP gene-related products from fibrocystic disease potentially provides us...

  14. [Local food production for school feeding programmes in Spain]. (United States)

    Soares, Panmela; Martínez-Mián, Maria Asunción; Caballero, Pablo; Vives-Cases, Carmen; Davó-Blanes, Mari Carmen

    To identify and characterize initiatives that promote the purchase of locally-sourced foods to supply schools and the school centres carrying out the initiatives. Exploratory, descriptive study based on secondary data and key informant reports. A search of governmental and non-governmental initiatives was carried out at the autonomous community level. Government initiatives were located through school feeding programmes in the different autonomous communities, their nutritional guides and representatives of the councils for education and agriculture. Non-governmental initiatives were found through their own websites and the snowball technique. Initiatives were analysed by their geographic distribution, organizational area (government vs. non-government), number of school centres carrying out the initiatives, management style and organic food purchase. A descriptive analysis of the data was carried out. 12 initiatives carried out by 318 schools (2.16% of all the schools with food service in Spain) were identified. Among these, 6 are governmental initiatives with a scope of 274 schools (1.86%), and 6 are non-governmental initiatives with a scope of 44 schools (0.30%). Most of these schools have a public management system in place (n=284). All the initiatives provide for the purchase of organic food. Local food purchase initiatives in Spain have a limited reach. However, the existence of a state directive could support and strengthen the development of such initiatives, given that school commitment is greater when initiatives are driven by the public sector. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gusti Ayu Oka Suryawardani


    Full Text Available This study was designed to study destination marketing strategy in Bali through optimizing the potential of local products. Seventy nine of hotel managers were interviewed based on cluster sampling method to gain their point of view. The results show that destination must build their images around unique attributes that provide them sustainable competitive advantage including its attraction which should be designed to meet the needs of the target market and should be served by local products. The results also show that hotel managers thought that foreign tourists always preferred imported products, meanwhile previous statistical results indicate that foreign tourists significantly look for local products. There is a need to encourage hotel managers to change their perception and attitude about local and imported products. In fact, hoteliers expressed willingness to use local products as long as these meet the quality standard. As tourism involves four types of activities, namely something to see, something to do, something to buy, something to learn, destination product development could be focused in the above activities through offering foreign tourist, such as to stay in hotels, homestays or villas owned by Balinese; to eat in restaurants owned by Balinese by choosing the authentic local foods that are using local meat, seafood and vegetables, exotic local fruits and beverages; and to buy products that are produced by the Balinese. By promoting vacation on the real Balinese atmosphere such as stay in accommodations owned by the Balinese supported by the authenticity of local Balinese foods, fruits and beverages, these will strengthen the local economy, so the benefit of tourism development can be more beneficial to the local Balinese. The results suggests that destination management related to improvement of service and hospitality are really important through improvement of human resource by giving training to their employees, educate

  16. Local adaptation despite high gene flow in the waterfall-climbing Hawaiian goby, Sicyopterus stimpsoni. (United States)

    Moody, K N; Hunter, S N; Childress, M J; Blob, R W; Schoenfuss, H L; Blum, M J; Ptacek, M B


    Environmental heterogeneity can promote the emergence of locally adapted phenotypes among subpopulations of a species, whereas gene flow can result in phenotypic and genotypic homogenization. For organisms like amphidromous fishes that change habitats during their life history, the balance between selection and migration can shift through ontogeny, making the likelihood of local adaptation difficult to predict. In Hawaiian waterfall-climbing gobies, it has been hypothesized that larval mixing during oceanic dispersal counters local adaptation to contrasting topographic features of streams, like slope gradient, that can select for predator avoidance or climbing ability in juvenile recruits. To test this hypothesis, we used morphological traits and neutral genetic markers to compare phenotypic and genotypic distributions in recruiting juveniles and adult subpopulations of the waterfall-climbing amphidromous goby, Sicyopterus stimpsoni, from the islands of Hawai'i and Kaua'i. We found that body shape is significantly different between adult subpopulations from streams with contrasting slopes and that trait divergence in recruiting juveniles tracked stream topography more so than morphological measures of adult subpopulation differentiation. Although no evidence of population genetic differentiation was observed among adult subpopulations, we observed low but significant levels of spatially and temporally variable genetic differentiation among juvenile cohorts, which correlated with morphological divergence. Such a pattern of genetic differentiation is consistent with chaotic genetic patchiness arising from variable sources of recruits to different streams. Thus, at least in S. stimpsoni, the combination of variation in settlement cohorts in space and time coupled with strong postsettlement selection on juveniles as they migrate upstream to adult habitats provides the opportunity for morphological adaptation to local stream environments despite high gene flow. © 2014

  17. Gene Delivery into Plant Cells for Recombinant Protein Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Chen


    Full Text Available Recombinant proteins are primarily produced from cultures of mammalian, insect, and bacteria cells. In recent years, the development of deconstructed virus-based vectors has allowed plants to become a viable platform for recombinant protein production, with advantages in versatility, speed, cost, scalability, and safety over the current production paradigms. In this paper, we review the recent progress in the methodology of agroinfiltration, a solution to overcome the challenge of transgene delivery into plant cells for large-scale manufacturing of recombinant proteins. General gene delivery methodologies in plants are first summarized, followed by extensive discussion on the application and scalability of each agroinfiltration method. New development of a spray-based agroinfiltration and its application on field-grown plants is highlighted. The discussion of agroinfiltration vectors focuses on their applications for producing complex and heteromultimeric proteins and is updated with the development of bridge vectors. Progress on agroinfiltration in Nicotiana and non-Nicotiana plant hosts is subsequently showcased in context of their applications for producing high-value human biologics and low-cost and high-volume industrial enzymes. These new advancements in agroinfiltration greatly enhance the robustness and scalability of transgene delivery in plants, facilitating the adoption of plant transient expression systems for manufacturing recombinant proteins with a broad range of applications.

  18. Advanced Glycation End-Products affect transcription factors regulating insulin gene expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puddu, A.; Storace, D.; Odetti, P.; Viviani, G.L.


    Advanced Glycation End-Products (AGEs) are generated by the covalent interaction of reducing sugars with proteins, lipids or nucleic acids. AGEs are implicated in diabetic complications and pancreatic β-cell dysfunction. We previously demonstrated that exposure of the pancreatic islet cell line HIT-T15 to high concentrations of AGEs leads to a significant decrease of insulin secretion and content. Insulin gene transcription is positively regulated by the beta cell specific transcription factor PDX-1 (Pancreatic and Duodenal Homeobox-1). On the contrary, the forkhead transcription factor FoxO1 inhibits PDX-1 gene transcription. Activity of FoxO1 is regulated by post-translational modifications: phosphorylation deactivates FoxO1, and acetylation prevents FoxO1 ubiquitination. In this work we investigated whether AGEs affect expression and subcellular localization of PDX-1 and FoxO1. HIT-T15 cells were cultured for 5 days in presence of AGEs. Cells were then lysed and processed for subcellular fractionation. We determined intracellular insulin content, then we assessed the expression and subcellular localization of PDX-1, FoxO1, phosphoFoxO1 and acetylFoxO1. As expected intracellular insulin content was lower in HIT-T15 cells cultured with AGEs. The results showed that AGEs decreased expression and nuclear localization of PDX-1, reduced phosphorylation of FoxO1, and increased expression and acetylation of FoxO1. These results suggest that AGEs decrease insulin content unbalancing transcription factors regulating insulin gene expression.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Kušec


    Full Text Available The rationale, the concept and key challenges of the H2020 project TREASURE dealing with local pig breeds is presented and discussed. The action addresses the phenotypic and genetic characterization, performance of local pig breeds in diverse production systems and their environmental impact, specific quality of their products and market potential. The goal is to build up the capacities to develop sustainable pork chains based on local pig breeds. A special emphasis is given to describe the workplan for Black Slavonian and Turopolje local pig breeds from Croatia and Slovenian Krškopolje pig.

  20. Local Rural Product as a "Relic" Spatial Strategy in Globalised Rural Spaces: Evidence from County Clare (Ireland) (United States)

    Wilson, Geoff A.; Whitehead, Ian


    Using a case study from County Clare (Ireland), this study critically analyses notions of "local" rural production. It investigates where rural businesses source the different components of their products and how these interrelate with the locality, how local businesses use the notion of "local" in their product branding, and…

  1. Intravascular local gene transfer mediated by protein-coated metallic stent. (United States)

    Yuan, J; Gao, R; Shi, R; Song, L; Tang, J; Li, Y; Tang, C; Meng, L; Yuan, W; Chen, Z


    To assess the feasibility, efficiency and selectivity of adenovirus-mediated gene transfer to local arterial wall by protein-coated metallic stent. A replication-defective recombinant adenovirus carrying the Lac Z reporter gene for nuclear-specific beta-galactosidase (Ad-beta gal) was used in this study. The coating for metallic stent was made by immersing it in a gelatin solution containing crosslinker. The coated stents were mounted on a 4.0 or 3.0 mm percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) balloon and submersed into a high-titer Ad-beta gal viral stock (2 x 10(10) pfu/ml) for 3 min, and then implanted into the carotid arteries in 4 mini-swines and into the left anterior descending branch of the coronary artery in 2 mini-swines via 8F large lumen guiding catheters. The animals were sacrificed 7 (n = 4), 14 (n = 1) and 21 (n = 1) days after implantation, respectively. The beta-galactosidase expression was assessed by X-gal staining. The results showed that the expression of transgene was detected in all animal. In 1 of carotid artery with an intact intima, the beta-gal expression was limited to endothelial cells. In vessels with denuded endothelium, gene expression was found in the sub-intima, media and adventitia. The transfection efficiency of medial smooth muscle cells was 38.6%. In 2 animals sacrificed 7 days after transfection, a microscopic examination of X-gal-stained samples did not show evidence of transfection in remote organs and arterial segments adjacent to the treated arterial site. Adenovirus-mediated arterial gene transfer to endothelial, smooth muscle cells and adventitia by protein-coated metallic stent is feasible. The transfection efficiency is higher. The coated stent may act as a good carrier of adenovirus-mediated gene transfer and have a potential to prevent restenosis following PTCA.

  2. The FRIABLE1 gene product affects cell adhesion in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutz Neumetzler

    Full Text Available Cell adhesion in plants is mediated predominantly by pectins, a group of complex cell wall associated polysaccharides. An Arabidopsis mutant, friable1 (frb1, was identified through a screen of T-DNA insertion lines that exhibited defective cell adhesion. Interestingly, the frb1 plants displayed both cell and organ dissociations and also ectopic defects in organ separation. The FRB1 gene encodes a Golgi-localized, plant specific protein with only weak sequence similarities to known proteins (DUF246. Unlike other cell adhesion deficient mutants, frb1 mutants do not have reduced levels of adhesion related cell wall polymers, such as pectins. Instead, FRB1 affects the abundance of galactose- and arabinose-containing oligosaccharides in the Golgi. Furthermore, frb1 mutants displayed alteration in pectin methylesterification, cell wall associated extensins and xyloglucan microstructure. We propose that abnormal FRB1 action has pleiotropic consequences on wall architecture, affecting both the extensin and pectin matrices, with consequent changes to the biomechanical properties of the wall and middle lamella, thereby influencing cell-cell adhesion.

  3. Factors Constraining Local Food Crop Production in Indonesia: Experiences from Kulon Progo Regency, Yogyakarta Special Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Local food crops are believed to be important alternatives in facing the problems of continuously growing price of food stuff worldwide. There has been a strong bias in national agricultural development policy towards the production of rice as staple food in Indonesia. Local food crops have been neglected in the agricultural development policy in the last 50 years, leading to the dependency on imported commodities and creating a vulnerability in the national food security. This paper aims at assessing the factors constraining local food production in Indonesia based on empirical experiences drawn from a research in Kulon Progo Regency, Yogyakarta Province. The government of Kulon Progo Regency has declared its commitment in the development of local food commodities as a part of its agricultural development policy, as it is mentioned in the long-term and medium-term development planning documents. There is also a head regency decree mandating the use of local food commodities in any official events organized by the government organisations. The research shows that there are at least six policy-related problems and nine technical factors constraining local food crops production in the regency. Some of the policy-related and structural factors hampering the production of local food crops consist of (1 long-term policy biases towards rice, (2 strong biases on rice diet in the community, (3 difficulties in linking policy to practices, (4 lack of information on availability of local food crops across the regency and (5 external threat from the readily available instant food on local market and (6 past contra-productive policy to the production of local food crops. The technical factors constraining local food production comprises (1 inferiority of the food stuff versus the instantly prepared food, (2 difficulty in preparation and risk of contagion of some crops, lack of technology for processing, (3 continuity of supply (some crops are seasonally

  4. Expression of cocoa genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae improves cocoa butter production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, Yongjun; Bergenholm, David; Gossing, Michael


    Background: Cocoa butter (CB) extracted from cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao) is the main raw material for chocolate production, but CB supply is insufficient due to the increased chocolate demand and limited CB production. CB is mainly composed of three different kinds of triacylglycerols (TAGs), 1......), and it is essential to modulate the yeast TAG biosynthetic pathway for higher CBL production.Results: We cloned seven GPAT genes and three LPAT genes from cocoa cDNA, in order to screen for CBL biosynthetic gene candidates. By expressing these cloned cocoa genes and two synthesized cocoa DGAT genes in S. cerevisiae......, we successfully increased total fatty acid production, TAG production and CBL production in some of the strains. In the best producer, the potential CBL content was eightfold higher than the control strain, suggesting the cocoa genes expressed in this strain were functional and might be responsible...

  5. PVD and gas production: consider local resource access requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delafosse, E.


    The history of the natural gas industry worldwide teaches us that its development has sprung mainly from two sources: favorable contingent conditions, such as in the United States, where the discovery of large gas fields coincided favorably with technological progress and the already existing city gas distribution networks, as also happened in Italy and France; and political prodding, as in the Eastern European countries, in Japan, and certain countries of Western Europe too. Today, while natural gas is winning over more and more consumers and the infrastructures now exist, the rise in consumption is being held back by supply-related constraints, and namely the problem of adjusting to the rise in gas prices in the United States, and the distancing of the resources from Europe. In this context, the development of new gas markets in the developing countries could contribute to the continuous growth of the world natural gas industry. The resources do exist, and the possibility of generating electricity with them opens the way to creating or developing this industry in some twenty developing countries, to begin with, and a greater number later. For these countries, this perspective is highly enticing, economically; but development is slow, partly due to the fact that the specific requirements of gas production projects are not satisfied. The contractual and tax structure governing their implementation does not reflect the fact that, in contrast to the petroleum industry, the producer does not have access to a true market, and he is in fact only one of the wheels in an integrated production mechanism bent specifically on putting electrical power on the market. It is easy to see the difficulties that arise from such a situation, since the indispensable steps in the process, performed successively by producer, transporter, and electric company, use two interfaces with fields of business that are in close bilateral dependency. This leads to upstream inefficiency in

  6. O-linked glycosylation of retroviral envelope gene products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinter, A.; Honnen, W.J. (Public Health Research Institute of the City of New York Inc., NY (USA))


    Treatment of ({sup 3}H)glucosamine-labeled Friend mink cell focus-forming virus (FrMCF) gp70 with excess peptide:N-glycanase F (PNGase F) resulted in removal of the expected seven N-linked oligosaccharide chains; however, approximately 10% of the glucosamine label was retained in the resulting 49,000-M{sub r} (49K) product. For ({sup 3}H)mannose-labeled gp70, similar treatment led to removal of all the carbohydrate label from the protein. Prior digestion of the PNGase F-treated gp70 with neuraminidase resulted in an addition size shift, and treatment with O-glycanase led to the removal of almost all of the PNGase F-resistant sugars. These results indicate that gp70 possesses sialic acid-containing O-linked oligosaccharides. Analysis of intracellular env precursors demonstrated that O-linked sugars were present in gPr90{sup env}, the polyprotein intermediate which contains complex sugars, but not in the primary translation product, gPr80{sup env}, and proteolytic digestion studies allowed localization of the O-linked carbohydrates to a 10K region near the center of the gp70 molecule. similar substituents were detected on the gp70s of ecotropic and xenotropic murine leukemia viruses and two subgroups of feline leukemia virus, indicting that O-linked glycosylation is a conserved feature of retroviral env proteins.

  7. O-linked glycosylation of retroviral envelope gene products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinter, A.; Honnen, W.J.


    Treatment of [ 3 H]glucosamine-labeled Friend mink cell focus-forming virus (FrMCF) gp70 with excess peptide:N-glycanase F (PNGase F) resulted in removal of the expected seven N-linked oligosaccharide chains; however, approximately 10% of the glucosamine label was retained in the resulting 49,000-M r (49K) product. For [ 3 H]mannose-labeled gp70, similar treatment led to removal of all the carbohydrate label from the protein. Prior digestion of the PNGase F-treated gp70 with neuraminidase resulted in an addition size shift, and treatment with O-glycanase led to the removal of almost all of the PNGase F-resistant sugars. These results indicate that gp70 possesses sialic acid-containing O-linked oligosaccharides. Analysis of intracellular env precursors demonstrated that O-linked sugars were present in gPr90 env , the polyprotein intermediate which contains complex sugars, but not in the primary translation product, gPr80 env , and proteolytic digestion studies allowed localization of the O-linked carbohydrates to a 10K region near the center of the gp70 molecule. similar substituents were detected on the gp70s of ecotropic and xenotropic murine leukemia viruses and two subgroups of feline leukemia virus, indicting that O-linked glycosylation is a conserved feature of retroviral env proteins

  8. The use of local substrates in the production of legume nodulating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Mar 31, 2014 ... The production of LNB inoculants is easy, using organic local matter as carriers of inoculants. ... involving microbial fertilizers are recommended for sub-Saharan ... market. Fish meal is localy use for the nutrition of animals.

  9. Immunohistochemical Mapping of TRK-Fused Gene Products in the Rat Brainstem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Shigeko; Masuda, Chiaki; Maebayashi, Hisae; Tooyama, Ikuo


    The TRK-fused gene (TFG in human, Tfg in rat) was originally identified in human papillary thyroid cancer as a chimeric form of the NTRK1 gene. It was since reported that the gene product (TFG) plays a role in regulating phosphotyrosine-specific phosphatase-1 activity. As shown in the accompanying paper, we produced an antibody to rat TFG and used it to localize TFG to selected neurons in specific regions. In the present study, we mapped the TFG-positive neurons in the brainstem, cerebellum, and spinal cord of rats. In the brainstem, neurons intensely positive for TFG were distributed in the raphe nuclei, the gigantocellular reticular nucleus, the reticulotegmental nucleus of the pons, and some cranial nerve nuclei such as the trigeminal nuclei, the vestibulocochlear nuclei, and the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus. Purkinje cells in the cerebellum and motor neurons in the spinal anterior horn were also positive for TFG. These results provide fundamental data for studying the functions of TFG in the brain

  10. Dopamine in the Auditory Brainstem and Midbrain: Co-localization with Amino Acid Neurotransmitters and Gene Expression following Cochlear Trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avril Genene eHolt


    Full Text Available Dopamine (DA modulates the effects of amino acid neurotransmitters, including GABA and glutamate, in motor, visual, olfactory and reward systems (Hnasko et al., 2010; Stuber et al., 2010; Hnasko and Edwards, 2012. The results suggest that DA may play a similar modulatory role in the auditory pathways. Previous studies have shown that deafness results in decreased GABA release, changes in excitatory neurotransmitter levels, and increased spontaneous neuronal activity within brainstem regions related to auditory function. Modulation of the expression and localization of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH; the rate limiting enzyme in the production of DA in the IC following cochlear trauma has been previously reported (Tong et al., 2005. In the current study the possibility of co-localization of TH with amino acid neurotransmitters (AANs was examined. Changes in the gene expression of TH were compared with changes in the gene expression of markers for AANs in the cochlear nucleus (CN and IC to determine whether those deafness related changes occur concurrently. The results indicate that bilateral cochlear ablation significantly reduced TH gene expression in the CN after two months while in the IC the reduction in TH was observed at both three days and two months following ablation. Furthermore, in the CN, glycine transporter 2 (GlyT2 and the GABA transporter (GABAtp were also significantly reduced only after two months. However, in the IC, DA receptor 1 (DRDA1, vesicular glutamate transporters 2 and 3 (vGluT2, vGluT3, GABAtp and GAD67 were reduced in expression both at the three day and two month time points. A close relationship between the distribution of TH and several of the AANs was determined in both the CN and the IC. In addition, GlyT2 and vGluT3 each co-localized with TH within IC somata and dendrites. Therefore, the results of the current study suggest that DA is spatially well positioned to influence the effects of AANs on auditory neurons.

  11. Characterization of cDNA for PMT: a Partial Nicotine Biosynthesis-Related Gene Isolated from Indonesian Local Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv. Sindoro1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Nicotine is the major alkaloid compound in cultivated tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum that could potentially be converted into carcinogenic compound (nor-nicotine. The PMT gene encoding putrescine N-methyltransferase (PMT is one of the two key genes that play a prominent role in nicotine biosynthesis. The aimed of this study was to isolate and characterize the cDNA sequence originated from Indonesian local tobacco cv. Sindoro1 (Ntpmt_Sindoro1. The results showed that the Ntpmt_Sindoro1 was 1124 bp in length. This cDNA fragment encodes for 374 amino acid residues. The predicted polypeptide from the cDNA is a hidrophilic protein, and has a predicted molecular weight of 40.95 kDa. The predicted amino acids sequence also showed high similarity to the PMT gene product Nicotiana sp. available in the GenBank data base. The amino acid sequences also exert conserved residues specifically exhibited only by PMT gene originated from N. tabacum. Clustering analysis revealed that Ntpmt_Sindoro1 belongs to the same clade as the PMT3 gene, a member of the N. tabacum PMT gene family. The Ntpmt_Sindoro1 cDNA sequence covering exon1-exon8 of the PMT gene fragment has been registered in the GenBank data base, under the accession number JX978277.

  12. The product of the ABC half-transporter gene ABCG2 (BCRP/MXR/ABCP) is expressed in the plasma membrane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rocchi, E; Khodjakov, A; Volk, E L


    by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. This protein is highly overexpressed in several drug-resistant cell lines and localizes predominantly to the plasma membrane, instead of to intracellular membranes as seen with all other known half-transporters. Therefore, BCRP/MXR is unique among the ABC half......The products of the ABC gene family can be generally classified as either full-transporters of half-transporters. Full-transporters are expressed in the plasma membrane, whereas half-transporters are usually found in intracellular membranes. Recently, an ABC half-transporter, the ABCG2 gene product......-transporters by being localized to the plasma membrane....

  13. Tissue specific haemoglobin gene expression suggests adaptation to local marine conditions in North Sea flounder (Platichthys flesus L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, P.F.; Eg Nielsen, Einar; Hansen, M.M.


    Recent genetic analyses of candidate genes and gene expression in marine fishes have provided evidence of local adaptation in response to environmental differences, despite the lack of strong signals of population structure from conventional neutral genetic markers. In this study expression...... in flounder. In gill tissue a plastic response to salinity treatments was observed with general up-regulation of these genes concomitant with higher salinity. For liver tissue a population specific expression differences was observed with lower expression at simulated non-native compared to native salinities...... in high gene flow marine fishes. © 2013 The Genetics Society of Korea...

  14. Production of Recombinant Adenovirus Containing Human Interlukin-4 Gene


    Mojarrad, Majid; Abdolazimi, Yassan; Hajati, Jamshid; Modarressi, Mohammad Hossein


    Objective(s) Recombinant adenoviruses are currently used for a variety of purposes, including in vitro gene transfer, in vivo vaccination, and gene therapy. Ability to infect many cell types, high efficiency in gene transfer, entering both dividing and non dividing cells, and growing to high titers make this virus a good choice for using in various experiments. In the present experiment, a recombinant adenovirus containing human IL-4 coding sequence was made. IL-4 has several characteristics ...

  15. Detection of giardine gene in local isolates of Giardia duodenalis by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). (United States)

    Latifah, I; Teoh, K Y; Wan, K L; Rahmah, M; Normaznah, Y; Rohani, A


    Giardia duodenalis is an intestinal parasite that causes diarrhoea and malabsorption in children. The parasite also infects AIDS patients with a weak immune system. A study was carried out on six local isolates of Giardia duodenalis (110, 7304, 6304, M007, 2002 and 6307) from faeces of Orang Asli patients admitted to the Gombak Hospital. WB, a reference pathogenic strain from human and G. muris from a wild mouse, were commercially obtained from the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC). All the isolates were cultured axenically in TYI-S-33 medium. Two sets of primers were used for the techniques: primers LP1 and RP1 and primers LP2 and RP2. The sets of primers amplified giardine gene of 171 bp and 218 bp in sizes respectively. The study showed that the two sets of primers could detect G. duodenalis to the genus and species level specifically.

  16. Energy productivity and Chinese local officials’ promotions: Evidence from provincial governors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Xiude; Qin, Quande; Wei, Y.-M.


    Improving energy productivity is one of the most cost-effective ways to achieve a sustainable development target. The existing literature has shown some factors that have driven the improvement in China’s energy productivity. However, these studies do little to tackle the role of Chinese local officials. Political promotions can be seen as the most important career incentive for Chinese local officials. Hence, we intend to study whether energy productivity affects Chinese local officials’ promotions in this paper. The data of position changes for the 31 provincial governors during 1978‐2012 are utilized. We adopted probit models to empirically examine the correlation between provincial governors’ political promotions and energy productivity. The empirical results demonstrate that (1) energy productivity has a significantly positive impact on provincial governors’ political promotions in China, meaning that the provincial governors have the momentum to improve energy productivity; and (2) the effect of energy productivity on provincial governors’ political promotions has evolved, dynamically changing along with the transformation of the economic growth mode and the adjustment of the local officials’ promotion mechanism. The results are helpful in understanding the drivers of the improvement in China’s energy productivity and provide insightful implications for conducting energy policy in China. - Highlights: •The data of position changes for China’s provincial governors during 1978–2012 are utilized. •Energy productivity has a positive impact on provincial governors’ promotion in China. •Political incentive is an important driver of the improvement in China’s energy productivity. •The correlation between energy productivity and local officials’ promotions was evolved.

  17. Expression of human poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Effect on survival, homologous recombination and identification of genes involved in intracellular localization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    La Ferla, Marco; Mercatanti, Alberto; Rocchi, Giulia; Lodovichi, Samuele; Cervelli, Tiziana; Pignata, Luca [Yeast Genetics and Genomics, Institute of Clinical Physiology, National Council of Research (CNR), via Moruzzi 1, 56122 Pisa (Italy); Caligo, Maria Adelaide [Section of Genetic Oncology, University Hospital and University of Pisa, via Roma 57, 56125 Pisa (Italy); Galli, Alvaro, E-mail: [Yeast Genetics and Genomics, Institute of Clinical Physiology, National Council of Research (CNR), via Moruzzi 1, 56122 Pisa (Italy)


    Highlights: • The human poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP-1) gene affects growth and UV-induced homologous recombination in yeast. • PARP-1 chemical inhibition impacts yeast growth and UV-induced recombination. • A genome-wide screen identifies 99 yeast genes that suppress the growth defect inferred by PARP-1. • Bioinformatics analysis identifies 41 human orthologues that may have a role in PARP-1 intracellular localization. • The findings suggest that PARP-1 nuclear localization may affect the response to PARP inhibitors in cancer therapy. - Abstract: The poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP-1) actively participates in a series of functions within the cell that include: mitosis, intracellular signaling, cell cycle regulation, transcription and DNA damage repair. Therefore, inhibition of PARP1 has a great potential for use in cancer therapy. As resistance to PARP inhibitors is starting to be observed in patients, thus the function of PARP-1 needs to be studied in depth in order to find new therapeutic targets. To gain more information on the PARP-1 activity, we expressed PARP-1 in yeast and investigated its effect on cell growth and UV induced homologous recombination. To identify candidate genes affecting PARP-1 activity and cellular localization, we also developed a yeast genome wide genetic screen. We found that PARP-1 strongly inhibited yeast growth, but when yeast was exposed to the PARP-1 inhibitor 6(5-H) phenantridinone (PHE), it recovered from the growth suppression. Moreover, we showed that PARP-1 produced PAR products in yeast and we demonstrated that PARP-1 reduced UV-induced homologous recombination. By genome wide screening, we identified 99 mutants that suppressed PARP-1 growth inhibition. Orthologues of human genes were found for 41 of these yeast genes. We determined whether the PARP-1 protein level was altered in strains which are deleted for the transcription regulator GAL3, the histone H1 gene HHO1, the HUL4 gene, the

  18. Action of multiple intra-QTL genes concerted around a co-localized transcription factor underpins a large effect QTL (United States)

    Dixit, Shalabh; Kumar Biswal, Akshaya; Min, Aye; Henry, Amelia; Oane, Rowena H.; Raorane, Manish L.; Longkumer, Toshisangba; Pabuayon, Isaiah M.; Mutte, Sumanth K.; Vardarajan, Adithi R.; Miro, Berta; Govindan, Ganesan; Albano-Enriquez, Blesilda; Pueffeld, Mandy; Sreenivasulu, Nese; Slamet-Loedin, Inez; Sundarvelpandian, Kalaipandian; Tsai, Yuan-Ching; Raghuvanshi, Saurabh; Hsing, Yue-Ie C.; Kumar, Arvind; Kohli, Ajay


    Sub-QTLs and multiple intra-QTL genes are hypothesized to underpin large-effect QTLs. Known QTLs over gene families, biosynthetic pathways or certain traits represent functional gene-clusters of genes of the same gene ontology (GO). Gene-clusters containing genes of different GO have not been elaborated, except in silico as coexpressed genes within QTLs. Here we demonstrate the requirement of multiple intra-QTL genes for the full impact of QTL qDTY12.1 on rice yield under drought. Multiple evidences are presented for the need of the transcription factor ‘no apical meristem’ (OsNAM12.1) and its co-localized target genes of separate GO categories for qDTY12.1 function, raising a regulon-like model of genetic architecture. The molecular underpinnings of qDTY12.1 support its effectiveness in further improving a drought tolerant genotype and for its validity in multiple genotypes/ecosystems/environments. Resolving the combinatorial value of OsNAM12.1 with individual intra-QTL genes notwithstanding, identification and analyses of qDTY12.1has fast-tracked rice improvement towards food security. PMID:26507552

  19. Towards the prediction of essential genes by integration of network topology, cellular localization and biological process information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemke Ney


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The identification of essential genes is important for the understanding of the minimal requirements for cellular life and for practical purposes, such as drug design. However, the experimental techniques for essential genes discovery are labor-intensive and time-consuming. Considering these experimental constraints, a computational approach capable of accurately predicting essential genes would be of great value. We therefore present here a machine learning-based computational approach relying on network topological features, cellular localization and biological process information for prediction of essential genes. Results We constructed a decision tree-based meta-classifier and trained it on datasets with individual and grouped attributes-network topological features, cellular compartments and biological processes-to generate various predictors of essential genes. We showed that the predictors with better performances are those generated by datasets with integrated attributes. Using the predictor with all attributes, i.e., network topological features, cellular compartments and biological processes, we obtained the best predictor of essential genes that was then used to classify yeast genes with unknown essentiality status. Finally, we generated decision trees by training the J48 algorithm on datasets with all network topological features, cellular localization and biological process information to discover cellular rules for essentiality. We found that the number of protein physical interactions, the nuclear localization of proteins and the number of regulating transcription factors are the most important factors determining gene essentiality. Conclusion We were able to demonstrate that network topological features, cellular localization and biological process information are reliable predictors of essential genes. Moreover, by constructing decision trees based on these data, we could discover cellular rules governing

  20. Identifying genes involved in the interaction of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans with Maillard reaction products (MRP) (United States)

    Jaha, Raniah Abdulmohsen

    Aggregatibacter (Actinobacillus) actinomycelemcomitcrns is a gram-negative bacterium that is a facultative anaerobe which can grow in either aerobic or anaerobic conditions. The bacteria cause localized aggressive periodontitis that can result in the loss of teeth and endocarditis, which is an infection of the heart valves. A rich medium is an essential requirement for its growth. There arc some difficulties associated with growing the bacteria as they easily switch from the rough to smooth phenotype under no specific conditions. The bacteria start to lose viability after about 19 hours of growth in broth or about three days on plates. Colonies in the dense part of the streak on plates die earlier. It was shown that acid secreted by the colonies is responsible for the loss of viability as the bacteria are extremely sensitive to low pH. Autoclaving the growth medium for A. actinomycetemcomitans causes the bacteria to grow slowly because of the formation of Maillard reaction products (MRPs). A method has been developed to make the A. actinomycetemcomitans growth medium using the microwave instead of the autoclave. This method produces much less of the inhibitory product since the heating time is only six minutes, compared to more than an hour when using the autoclave. Two approaches were sought in this research. The first approach was the identification of genes responsible for the interaction between the MRP and A. actinomycetemcomitans. The gene responsible for this interaction was found to be a Lys M protein which is found in many genes responsible for the cell wall integrity. The second approach was to develop a new drug made of glucose and lysine with a minimum inhibitory concentration as 75mM.

  1. Cloning and Expression of the PHA Synthase Gene From a Locally Isolated Chromobacterium sp. USM2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhubalan, K.


    Full Text Available Chromobacterium sp. USM2, a locally isolated bacterium was found to synthesize poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate, P(3HB-co-3HV copolymer with high 3HV monomer composition. The PHA synthase gene was cloned and expressed in Cupriavidus necator PHB¯4 to investigate the possibilities of incorporating other monomer. The recombinant successfully incorporated 3-hydroxyhexanoate (3HHx monomer when fed with crude palm kernel oil (CPKO as the sole carbon source. Approximately 63 ± 2 wt% of P(3HB-co-3HHx copolymer with 4 mol% of 3HHx was synthesized from 5 g/L of oil after 48 h of cultivation. In addition, P(3HB-co-3HV-co-3HHx terpolymer with 9 mol% 3HV and 4 mol% 3HHx could be synthesized with a mixture of CPKO and sodium valerate. The presence of 3HV and 3HHx monomers in the copolymer and terpolymer was further confirmed with +H-NMR analysis. This locally isolated PHA synthase has demonstrated its ability to synthesize P(3HB-co-3HHx copolymer from a readily available and renewable carbon source; CPKO, without the addition of 3HHx precursors.

  2. The Local Maximum Clustering Method and Its Application in Microarray Gene Expression Data Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Yidong


    Full Text Available An unsupervised data clustering method, called the local maximum clustering (LMC method, is proposed for identifying clusters in experiment data sets based on research interest. A magnitude property is defined according to research purposes, and data sets are clustered around each local maximum of the magnitude property. By properly defining a magnitude property, this method can overcome many difficulties in microarray data clustering such as reduced projection in similarities, noises, and arbitrary gene distribution. To critically evaluate the performance of this clustering method in comparison with other methods, we designed three model data sets with known cluster distributions and applied the LMC method as well as the hierarchic clustering method, the -mean clustering method, and the self-organized map method to these model data sets. The results show that the LMC method produces the most accurate clustering results. As an example of application, we applied the method to cluster the leukemia samples reported in the microarray study of Golub et al. (1999.

  3. Local gene expression changes after UV-irradiation of human skin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Weinkauf

    Full Text Available UV-irradiation is a well-known translational pain model inducing local inflammation and primary hyperalgesia. The mediators and receptor proteins specifically contributing to mechanical or heat hyperalgesia are still unclear. Therefore, we irradiated buttock skin of humans (n = 16 with 5-fold MED of UV-C and assessed the time course of hyperalgesia and axon reflex erythema. In parallel, we took skin biopsies at 3, 6 and 24 h after UVC irradiation and assessed gene expression levels (RT-PCR of neurotrophins (e.g. NGF, BDNF, GDNF, ion channels (e.g. NaV1.7, TRPV1, inflammatory mediators (e.g. CCL-2, CCL-3 and enzymes (e.g. PGES, COX2. Hyperalgesia to mechanical impact (12 m/s and heat (48 °C stimuli was significant at 6 h (p<0.05 and p<0.01 and 24 h (p<0.005 and p<0.01 after irradiation. Axon reflex erythema upon mechanical and thermal stimuli was significantly increased 3 h after irradiation and particularly strong at 6 h. A significant modulation of 9 genes was found post UV-C irradiation, including NGF (3, 6, 24 h, TrkA (6, 24 h, artemin, bradykinin-1 receptor, COX-2, CCL-2 and CCL-3 (3 and 6 h each. A significant down-regulation was observed for TRPV1 and iNOS (6, 24 h. Individual one-to-one correlation analysis of hyperalgesia and gene expression revealed that changes of Nav1.7 (SCN9A mRNA levels at 6 and 24 h correlated to the intensity of mechanical hyperalgesia recorded at 24 h post UV-irradiation (Pearson r: 0.57, p<0.04 and r: 0.82, p<0.001. Expression of COX-2 and mPGES at 6 h correlated to the intensity of heat-induced erythema 24 h post UV (r: 0.57, p<0.05 for COX-2 and r: 0.83, p<0.001 for PGES. The individual correlation analyses of functional readouts (erythema and pain response with local expression changes provided evidence for a potential role of Nav1.7 in mechanical hyperalgesia.

  4. Form gene clustering method about pan-ethnic-group products based on emotional semantic (United States)

    Chen, Dengkai; Ding, Jingjing; Gao, Minzhuo; Ma, Danping; Liu, Donghui


    The use of pan-ethnic-group products form knowledge primarily depends on a designer's subjective experience without user participation. The majority of studies primarily focus on the detection of the perceptual demands of consumers from the target product category. A pan-ethnic-group products form gene clustering method based on emotional semantic is constructed. Consumers' perceptual images of the pan-ethnic-group products are obtained by means of product form gene extraction and coding and computer aided product form clustering technology. A case of form gene clustering about the typical pan-ethnic-group products is investigated which indicates that the method is feasible. This paper opens up a new direction for the future development of product form design which improves the agility of product design process in the era of Industry 4.0.

  5. A laser pointer driven microheater for precise local heating and conditional gene regulation in vivo. Microheater driven gene regulation in zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achermann Marc


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tissue heating has been employed to study a variety of biological processes, including the study of genes that control embryonic development. Conditional regulation of gene expression is a particularly powerful approach for understanding gene function. One popular method for mis-expressing a gene of interest employs heat-inducible heat shock protein (hsp promoters. Global heat shock of hsp-promoter-containing transgenic animals induces gene expression throughout all tissues, but does not allow for spatial control. Local heating allows for spatial control of hsp-promoter-driven transgenes, but methods for local heating are cumbersome and variably effective. Results We describe a simple, highly controllable, and versatile apparatus for heating biological tissue and other materials on the micron-scale. This microheater employs micron-scale fiber optics and uses an inexpensive laser-pointer as a power source. Optical fibers can be pulled on a standard electrode puller to produce tips of varying sizes that can then be used to reliably heat 20-100 μm targets. We demonstrate precise spatiotemporal control of hsp70l:GFP transgene expression in a variety of tissue types in zebrafish embryos and larvae. We also show how this system can be employed as part of a new method for lineage tracing that would greatly facilitate the study of organogenesis and tissue regulation at any time in the life cycle. Conclusion This versatile and simple local heater has broad utility for the study of gene function and for lineage tracing. This system could be used to control hsp-driven gene expression in any organism simply by bringing the fiber optic tip in contact with the tissue of interest. Beyond these uses for the study of gene function, this device has wide-ranging utility in materials science and could easily be adapted for therapeutic purposes in humans.

  6. Identification of potentially hazardous human gene products in GMO risk assessment. (United States)

    Bergmans, Hans; Logie, Colin; Van Maanen, Kees; Hermsen, Harm; Meredyth, Michelle; Van Der Vlugt, Cécile


    Genetically modified organisms (GMOs), e.g. viral vectors, could threaten the environment if by their release they spread hazardous gene products. Even in contained use, to prevent adverse consequences, viral vectors carrying genes from mammals or humans should be especially scrutinized as to whether gene products that they synthesize could be hazardous in their new context. Examples of such potentially hazardous gene products (PHGPs) are: protein toxins, products of dominant alleles that have a role in hereditary diseases, gene products and sequences involved in genome rearrangements, gene products involved in immunomodulation or with an endocrine function, gene products involved in apoptosis, activated proto-oncogenes. For contained use of a GMO that carries a construct encoding a PHGP, the precautionary principle dictates that safety measures should be applied on a "worst case" basis, until the risks of the specific case have been assessed. The potential hazard of cloned genes can be estimated before empirical data on the actual GMO become available. Preliminary data may be used to focus hazard identification and risk assessment. Both predictive and empirical data may also help to identify what further information is needed to assess the risk of the GMO. A two-step approach, whereby a PHGP is evaluated for its conceptual dangers, then checked by data bank searches, is delineated here.

  7. The Value of Native Plants and Local Production in an Era of Global Agriculture. (United States)

    Shelef, Oren; Weisberg, Peter J; Provenza, Frederick D


    For addressing potential food shortages, a fundamental tradeoff exists between investing more resources to increasing productivity of existing crops, as opposed to increasing crop diversity by incorporating more species. We explore ways to use local plants as food resources and the potential to promote food diversity and agricultural resilience. We discuss how use of local plants and the practice of local agriculture can contribute to ongoing adaptability in times of global change. Most food crops are now produced, transported, and consumed long distances from their homelands of origin. At the same time, research and practices are directed primarily at improving the productivity of a small number of existing crops that form the cornerstone of a global food economy, rather than to increasing crop diversity. The result is a loss of agro-biodiversity, leading to a food industry that is more susceptible to abiotic and biotic stressors, and more at risk of catastrophic losses. Humans cultivate only about 150 of an estimated 30,000 edible plant species worldwide, with only 30 plant species comprising the vast majority of our diets. To some extent, these practices explain the food disparity among human populations, where nearly 1 billion people suffer insufficient nutrition and 2 billion people are obese or overweight. Commercial uses of new crops and wild plants of local origin have the potential to diversify global food production and better enable local adaptation to the diverse environments humans inhabit. We discuss the advantages, obstacles, and risks of using local plants. We also describe a case study-the missed opportunity to produce pine nuts commercially in the Western United States. We discuss the potential consequences of using local pine nuts rather than importing them overseas. Finally, we provide a list of edible native plants, and synthesize the state of research concerning the potential and challenges in using them for food production. The goal of our

  8. Localization of introduced genes on the chromosomes of transgenic barley, wheat and triticale by fluorescence in situ hybridization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, C.; Zimny, J.; Becker, D.


    Using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) we localized introduced genes on metaphase chromosomes of barley, wheat, and triticale transformed by microprojectile bombardment of microspores and scutellar tissue with the pDB1 plasmid containing the uidA and bar genes. Thirteen integration sites...... of single-copy integrations. There was a slight tendency towards the localization of transgenes in distal chromosome regions. Using the GAA-satellite sequence for chromosome banding, the chromosomes containing the inserted genes were identified in most cases. Two barley lines derived from the same...... transformant showed a totally different integration pattern. Southern analysis confirmed that the inserted genes were segregating independently, resulting in different integration patterns among the progeny lines. The application of the FISH technique for the analysis of transgenic plants is discussed....

  9. Local agro-industrial by-products with potential use in Ghanaian aquaculture: a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obirikorang, Kwasi Adu; Amisah, Stephen; Fialor, Simon Cudjoe


    plant by-products for use in fish grow-out facilities, particularly in tilapia production, which accounts for over 80 % of aquaculture production. This review thus identifies local agro-industrial byproducts with potential use in fish feeds based on their nutritional composition, total annual production......, competition for and seasonal availability and dynamics of these products as well as prices. The effects of dietary inclusions of these by-products on fish growth and feed utilisation are also reviewed. Based on the published works and other practical information reviewed, these by-products represent huge...... regions of the world where these crops and their resulting by-products are produced in commercial quantities...

  10. Weaver gene 3'UTR novel mutations: Associations with production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Nov 21, 2011 ... College of Animal Science and Technology, Northwest A&F University, Shaanxi ... To further understand the effects of weaver gene variant on fat, protein, .... one kid, but does that lambed twins were also part of the dataset.

  11. Genome-wide identification, subcellular localization and gene expression analysis of the members of CESA gene family in common tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.). (United States)

    Xu, Zong-Chang; Kong, Yingzhen


    Cellulose-synthase proteins (CESAs) are membrane localized proteins and they form protein complexes to produce cellulose in the plasma membrane. CESA proteins play very important roles in cell wall construction during plant growth and development. In this study, a total of 21 NtCESA gene sequences were identified by using PF03552 conserved protein sequence and 10 AtCESA protein sequences of Arabidopsis thaliana to blast against the common tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) genome database with TBLASTN protocol. We analyzed the physical and chemical properties of protein sequences based on some software or on-line analysis tools. The results showed that there were no significant variances in terms of the physical and chemical properties of the 21 NtCESA proteins. First, phylogenetic tree analysis showed that 21 NtCESA genes and 10 AtCESA genes were clustered into five groups, and the gene structures were similar among the genes that are clustered into the same group. Second, in all of the 21 NtCESA proteins the conserved zinc finger domain was identified in the N-terminus, transmembrane domains were identified in the C-terminus and the DDD-QXXRW conserved domains were also identified. Third, gene expression analysis results indicated that most NtCESA genes were expressed in roots and leaves of seedling or mature tissues of tobacco, seeds and callus tissues. The genes that clustered into the same group share similar expression patterns. Importantly, NtCESA proteins that are involved in secondary cell wall cellulose synthesis have two extra transmembrane domains compared with that involved in primary cell wall cellulose biosynthesis. In addition, subcellular localization results showed that NtCESA9 and NtCESA14 were two plasma membrane anchored proteins. This study will lay a foundation for further functional characterization of these NtCESA genes.

  12. Molecular characterization of tocopherol biosynthetic genes in sweetpotato that respond to stress and activate the tocopherol production in tobacco. (United States)

    Ji, Chang Yoon; Kim, Yun-Hee; Kim, Ho Soo; Ke, Qingbo; Kim, Gun-Woo; Park, Sung-Chul; Lee, Haeng-Soon; Jeong, Jae Cheol; Kwak, Sang-Soo


    Tocopherol (vitamin E) is a chloroplast lipid that is presumed to be involved in the plant response to oxidative stress. In this study, we isolated and characterized five tocopherol biosynthetic genes from sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas [L.] Lam) plants, including genes encoding 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (IbHPPD), homogentisate phytyltransferase (IbHPT), 2-methyl-6-phytylbenzoquinol methyltransferase (IbMPBQ MT), tocopherol cyclase (IbTC) and γ-tocopherol methyltransferase (IbTMT). Fluorescence microscope analysis indicated that four proteins localized into the chloroplast, whereas IbHPPD observed in the nuclear. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed that the expression patterns of the five tocopherol biosynthetic genes varied in different plant tissues and under different stress conditions. All five genes were highly expressed in leaf tissues, whereas IbHPPD and IbHPT were highly expressed in the thick roots. The expression patterns of these five genes significantly differed in response to PEG, NaCl and H2O2-mediated oxidative stress. IbHPPD was strongly induced following PEG and H2O2 treatment and IbHPT was strongly induced following PEG treatment, whereas IbMPBQ MT and IbTC were highly expressed following NaCl treatment. Upon infection of the bacterial pathogen Pectobacterium chrysanthemi, the expression of IbHPPD increased sharply in sweetpotato leaves, whereas the expression of the other genes was reduced or unchanged. Additionally, transient expression of the five tocopherol biosynthetic genes in tobacco (Nicotiana bentamiana) leaves resulted in increased transcript levels of the transgenes expressions and tocopherol production. Therefore, our results suggested that the five tocopherol biosynthetic genes of sweetpotato play roles in the stress defense response as transcriptional regulators of the tocopherol production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Norskov and the Logic of Place: The Soft Effect of Local Danish TV Drama Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Toft Hansen


    Full Text Available In this article, we analyse locality and locations in recent Danish TV crime drama with the series Norskov as a representative case. The series’ mode of production is rooted in the Danish broadcaster TV 2’s regional obligations and it illustrates a broader tendency in local TV drama production. The article introduces the concepts intertextual consciousness, stories from below and cartographic branding, and refers to the notion of re-imagined communities as a local administrative result of drama production and broadcast. The findings of the article are based on production and location analyses with primary focus on the series’ preproduction stage as well as empirical data material such as interviews, documents from the production process and material from the municipality of Frederikshavn (the location of Norskov, manuscript versions, and textual and visual material from the cinematographer and the location manager. Finally, the article combines provinciality and the notion of re-imagined communities in order to evaluate the effect of local drama production.

  14. Role of aldo-keto reductases and other doxorubicin pharmacokinetic genes in doxorubicin resistance, DNA binding, and subcellular localization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heibein, Allan D; Guo, Baoqing; Sprowl, Jason A; MacLean, David A; Parissenti, Amadeo M


    Since proteins involved in chemotherapy drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics have a strong impact on the uptake, metabolism, and efflux of such drugs, they likely play critical roles in resistance to chemotherapy drugs in cancer patients. To investigate this hypothesis, we conducted a whole genome microarray study to identify difference in the expression of genes between isogenic doxorubicin-sensitive and doxorubicin-resistant MCF-7 breast tumour cells. We then assessed the degree of over-representation of doxorubicin pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic genes in the dataset of doxorubicin resistance genes. Of 27,958 Entrez genes on the array, 7.4 per cent or 2,063 genes were differentially expressed by ≥ 2-fold between wildtype and doxorubicin-resistant cells. The false discovery rate was set at 0.01 and the minimum p value for significance for any gene within the “hit list” was 0.01. Seventeen and 43 per cent of doxorubicin pharmacokinetic genes were over-represented in the hit list, depending upon whether the gene name was identical or within the same gene family, respectively. The most over-represented genes were within the 1C and 1B families of aldo-keto reductases (AKRs), which convert doxorubicin to doxorubicinol. Other genes convert doxorubicin to other metabolites or affect the influx, efflux, or cytotoxicity of the drug. In further support of the role of AKRs in doxorubicin resistance, we observed that, in comparison to doxorubicin, doxorubincol exhibited dramatically reduced cytotoxicity, reduced DNA-binding activity, and strong localization to extra nuclear lysosomes. Pharmacologic inhibition of the above AKRs in doxorubicin-resistant cells increased cellular doxorubicin levels, restored doxorubicin cytotoxicity and re-established doxorubicin localization to the nucleus. The properties of doxorubicinol were unaffected. These findings demonstrate the utility of using curated pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic knowledge bases to identify

  15. Accessibility of Local Food Production to Regional Markets – Case of Berry Production in Northern Ostrobothnia, Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korhonen Kirsi


    Full Text Available Consumers and institutional kitchens, as well as traders, have shown increasing interest towards local food. This is particularly due to the transparency and traceability characteristic of a short supply chain and social aspects related to food origins. The trend has been increasingly common during the past decade in Europe and North America, and it is strongly evident in the case area of this study in Northern Ostrobothnia, Finland. In general, ease of access to food is highly important for consumers and crucial for institutional kitchens, in addition to quality aspects and price. However, regardless of proximity, poor accessibility is one of the key issues preventing the further growth of local food markets. Due to scale economics in food value chain, food transport is presently organised mainly by centralised, large-scale logistics companies directed via hubs serving millions of consumers. Accordingly, production volumes required to enter large-scale markets are often unattainable for disjointed small-scale local food producers. In this study, geographic information system (GIS-based accessibility analyses are applied for analysing potential for integral networking of local food production and transport companies. Berry production was selected as a case study because it has a relatively strong role in Northern Ostrobothnia, while its logistics are notably underdeveloped. Spatial data of primary production volumes consists of register records of farm-specific cultivation areas and average yields in Northern Ostrobothnia and Finland. Accessibility computations are based on the digital model of the Finnish road network, Digiroad. Two surveys were also implemented to farmers and food processing companies to seek views on food processing, sales, logistics and procurements regarding local food. Data from the surveys was used in accessibility analysis, which enables exploration of opportunities for establishing ‘local food’ clusters integrating

  16. Sequential Uniformly Reweighted Sum-Product Algorithm for Cooperative Localization in Wireless Networks


    Li, Wei; Yang, Zhen; Hu, Haifeng


    Graphical models have been widely applied in solving distributed inference problems in wireless networks. In this paper, we formulate the cooperative localization problem in a mobile network as an inference problem on a factor graph. Using a sequential schedule of message updates, a sequential uniformly reweighted sum-product algorithm (SURW-SPA) is developed for mobile localization problems. The proposed algorithm combines the distributed nature of belief propagation (BP) with the improved p...

  17. Molecular analysis of human complement component C5: localization of the structural gene to chromosome 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetsel, R.A.; Lemons, R.S.; Le Beau, M.M.; Barnum, S.R.; Noack, D.; Tack, B.F.


    A human C5 clone (pC5HG2) was isolated from a cDNA library constructed from Hep G2 mRNA. he DNA sequence showed that the pC5HG2 insert was comprised of 3309 base pairs of pro-C5 coding sequence and 404 base pairs of 3'-untranslated sequence. The derived amino acid sequence contained the entire coding sequence of the C5 α-chain, the β-α-chain junction region, and 100 amino acids (approximately 50%) of the β-chain. Protein sequences of four C5 tryptic peptides were aligned exactly to this sequence and demonstrated that C5 synthesized and secreted by Hep G2 cells is probably identical with plasma-derived C5. Coding sequence alignment of the human C5 sequences with those of murine C5 indicated that 80% of the nucleotides and 79% of the amino acids were placed identically in the two species. Amino acid sequence alignment of the homologous family members C3, C4, and α 2 -macroglobulin with that of C5 demonstrated 27%, 25%, and 19% identity, respectively. As was found in murine C5, the corresponding thiol ester region of human C5 contained several conserved amino acids, but the critical cysteine and glutamine residues which give rise to the intramolecular thiol ester bond in C3, C4, and α 2 -macroglobulin were absent in C5, having been replaced by serine and alanine, respectively. With the use of a panel of hamster-human somatic cell hybrids, the C5 gene was mapped to human chromosome 9. In situ chromosomal hybridization studies employing metaphase cells further localized the gene to bands 9q32-34, with the largest cluster of grains at 9q34.1

  18. Role of cultural tourism in the marketing of local products and their reputation: the case of southern Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanane ABICHOU


    Full Text Available This paper proposes a contribution to the reflection on the local marketing of local products and their reputation front of phenomenon of globalization of agro-industrial products. It mobilizes the concept of territorial amenity as a source of licensing of a terroir and examines its potential role in consumer behavior, taking into account the individual psychological differences. Perceptions of local products by the consumer and the reasons related to the purchase of these products are analyzed. From a qualitative study we define the contours of the local product of a consumer point of view while highlighting the different motivations behind the consumption of these products.

  19. Local field theory on κ-Minkowski space, star products and noncommutative translations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosinski, P.; Maslanka, P.; Lukierski, J.


    We consider local field theory on κ-deformed Minkowski space which is an example of solvable Lie-algebraic noncommutative structure. Using integration formula over κ-Minkowski space and κ-deformed Fourier transform, we consider for deformed local fields the reality conditions as well as deformation of action functionals in standard Minkowski space. We present explicit formulas for two equivalent star products describing CBH quantization of field theory on κ-Minkowski space. We express also via star product technique the noncommutative translations in κ-Minkowski space by commutative translations in standard Minkowski space. (author)

  20. Farmers Market Brings Fresh Produce and Products from Local Vendors | Poster (United States)

    By Carolynne Keenan, Guest Writer Every summer, you can shop for fresh fruits, veggies, flowers, honey, and plenty of other homemade goodies at the NCI at Frederick Farmers’ Market. Buying at the Farmers’ Market means you’re supporting a local farmer, crafter, or other type of vendor. The products are brought to you, so you don’t have to drive to get freshly picked produce and handmade products.

  1. Production and Potency of Local Rambutan at East Java as a Candidate Phytopharmaca


    Lestari, Sri Rahayu; Djati, Muhammad Sasmito; Rudijanto, Ahmad; Fatchiyah, Fatchiyah


    Rambutan is a tropical fruit that grow well in Indonesia and the peel is considered as waste. Many researchers' showed that rambutan peel contains polyphenol that could be expected to avoid obesity. The objective of this study was to explore the increasing production of local rambutan and to identify the promising phytochemical compounds on its peel as phytopharmaca candidate against obesity. Survey was conducted on the production of rambutan, potential plantation area, and marketing. Sample...



    Sri Rahayu Lestari; Muhammad Sasmito Djati; Ahmad Rudijanto; Fatchiyah


    Rambutan is a tropical fruit that grow well in Indonesia and the peel is considered as waste. Many researchers’ showed that rambutan peel contains polyphenol that could be expected to avoid obesity. The objective of this study was to explore the increasing production of local rambutan and to identify the promising phytochemical compounds on its peel as phytopharmaca candidate against obesity. Survey was conducted on the production of rambutan, potential plantation area, and marketing. Sample...

  3. Star-product functions in higher-spin theory and locality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasiliev, M.A. [I.E. Tamm Department of Theoretical Physics, Lebedev Physical Institute,Leninsky prospect 53, 119991, Moscow (Russian Federation)


    Properties of the functional classes of star-product elements associated with higher-spin gauge fields and gauge parameters are elaborated. Cohomological interpretation of the nonlinear higher-spin equations is given. An algebra ℋ, where solutions of the nonlinear higher-spin equations are valued, is found. A conjecture on the classes of star-product functions underlying (non)local maps and gauge transformations in the nonlinear higher-spin theory is proposed.

  4. Prediction of essential proteins based on subcellular localization and gene expression correlation. (United States)

    Fan, Yetian; Tang, Xiwei; Hu, Xiaohua; Wu, Wei; Ping, Qing


    Essential proteins are indispensable to the survival and development process of living organisms. To understand the functional mechanisms of essential proteins, which can be applied to the analysis of disease and design of drugs, it is important to identify essential proteins from a set of proteins first. As traditional experimental methods designed to test out essential proteins are usually expensive and laborious, computational methods, which utilize biological and topological features of proteins, have attracted more attention in recent years. Protein-protein interaction networks, together with other biological data, have been explored to improve the performance of essential protein prediction. The proposed method SCP is evaluated on Saccharomyces cerevisiae datasets and compared with five other methods. The results show that our method SCP outperforms the other five methods in terms of accuracy of essential protein prediction. In this paper, we propose a novel algorithm named SCP, which combines the ranking by a modified PageRank algorithm based on subcellular compartments information, with the ranking by Pearson correlation coefficient (PCC) calculated from gene expression data. Experiments show that subcellular localization information is promising in boosting essential protein prediction.

  5. A Network of Local and Redundant Gene Regulation Governs Arabidopsis Seed Maturation (United States)

    To, Alexandra; Valon, Christiane; Savino, Gil; Guilleminot, Jocelyne; Devic, Martine; Giraudat, Jérôme; Parcy, François


    In Arabidopsis thaliana, four major regulators (ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE3 [ABI3], FUSCA3 [FUS3], LEAFY COTYLEDON1 [LEC1], and LEC2) control most aspects of seed maturation, such as accumulation of storage compounds, cotyledon identity, acquisition of desiccation tolerance, and dormancy. The molecular basis for complex genetic interactions among these regulators is poorly understood. By analyzing ABI3 and FUS3 expression in various single, double, and triple maturation mutants, we have identified multiple regulatory links among all four genes. We found that one of the major roles of LEC2 was to upregulate FUS3 and ABI3. The lec2 mutation is responsible for a dramatic decrease in ABI3 and FUS3 expression, and most lec2 phenotypes can be rescued by ABI3 or FUS3 constitutive expression. In addition, ABI3 and FUS3 positively regulate themselves and each other, thereby forming feedback loops essential for their sustained and uniform expression in the embryo. Finally, LEC1 also positively regulates ABI3 and FUS3 in the cotyledons. Most of the genetic controls discovered were found to be local and redundant, explaining why they had previously been overlooked. This works establishes a genetic framework for seed maturation, organizing the key regulators of this process into a hierarchical network. In addition, it offers a molecular explanation for the puzzling variable features of lec2 mutant embryos. PMID:16731585

  6. Localizing potentially active post-transcriptional regulations in the Ewing's sarcoma gene regulatory network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delyon Bernard


    Full Text Available Abstract Background A wide range of techniques is now available for analyzing regulatory networks. Nonetheless, most of these techniques fail to interpret large-scale transcriptional data at the post-translational level. Results We address the question of using large-scale transcriptomic observation of a system perturbation to analyze a regulatory network which contained several types of interactions - transcriptional and post-translational. Our method consisted of post-processing the outputs of an open-source tool named BioQuali - an automatic constraint-based analysis mimicking biologist's local reasoning on a large scale. The post-processing relied on differences in the behavior of the transcriptional and post-translational levels in the network. As a case study, we analyzed a network representation of the genes and proteins controlled by an oncogene in the context of Ewing's sarcoma. The analysis allowed us to pinpoint active interactions specific to this cancer. We also identified the parts of the network which were incomplete and should be submitted for further investigation. Conclusions The proposed approach is effective for the qualitative analysis of cancer networks. It allows the integrative use of experimental data of various types in order to identify the specific information that should be considered a priority in the initial - and possibly very large - experimental dataset. Iteratively, new dataset can be introduced into the analysis to improve the network representation and make it more specific.

  7. The human thyroglobulin gene: a polymorphic marker localized distal to C-MYC on chromosome 8 band q24

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baas, F.; Bikker, H.; Geurts van Kessel, A.; Melsert, R.; Pearson, P. L.; de Vijlder, J. J.; van Ommen, G. J.


    The human thyroglobulin (Tg) gene is localized to chromosome 8 and regionally to band q24 as shown independently by both in situ hybridization techniques and Southern blot analysis of human-rodent somatic cell hybrids. Analysis of hybrids derived from a Burkitt lymphoma, with a translocation

  8. Does FDI promote regional development? Evidence from local and regional productivity spillovers in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Studies on the productivity spillovers of FDI have concentrated on the nationalsectoral level. As a result, little is known about the impact of FDI on absolute and relative regional economic performance. In this paper we examine this issue by relying on a unique dataset of over 20,000 Greek firms for the period 2002-2006 covering all sectors of economic activity. We examine the spatial distribution of foreign-owned firms in the country and analyse the effect that their presence – at the local, regional and national levels – has on the productivity of domestic firms. We find strong evidence suggesting that foreignowned firms self-select into regions and sectors of high productivity. Net of this selection effect, the impact of foreign presence on domestic productivity is negative – although at the very local level some positive spillover effects are identifiable. The bulk of the effects concentrate in non-manufacturing activities, high-tech sectors, and medium-sized high-productivity firms. Importantly, this effect is not constant across space however. Productivity spillovers tend to be negative in the regions hosting the main urban areas in the country but positive in smaller and more peripheral regions. In this way, despite the tendency of FDI to concentrate in a limited number of areas within the country – those of the highest level of development – the externalities that FDI activity generates to the local economies appear to be of a rather equilibrating character.

  9. Identification of adaptive mutations in the influenza A virus non-structural 1 gene that increase cytoplasmic localization and differentially regulate host gene expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Forbes

    Full Text Available The NS1 protein of influenza A virus (IAV is a multifunctional virulence factor. We have previously characterized gain-of-function mutations in the NS1 protein arising from the experimental adaptation of the human isolate A/Hong Kong/1/1968(H3N2 (HK to the mouse. The majority of these mouse adapted NS1 mutations were demonstrated to increase virulence, viral fitness, and interferon antagonism, but differ in binding to the post-transcriptional processing factor cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor 30 (CPSF30. Because nuclear trafficking is a major genetic determinant of influenza virus host adaptation, we assessed subcellular localization and host gene expression of NS1 adaptive mutations. Recombinant HK viruses with adaptive mutations in the NS1 gene were assessed for NS1 protein subcellular localization in mouse and human cells using confocal microscopy and cellular fractionation. In human cells the HK wild-type (HK-wt virus NS1 protein partitioned equivalently between the cytoplasm and nucleus but was defective in cytoplasmic localization in mouse cells. Several adaptive mutations increased the proportion of NS1 in the cytoplasm of mouse cells with the greatest effects for mutations M106I and D125G. The host gene expression profile of the adaptive mutants was determined by microarray analysis of infected mouse cells to show either high or low extents of host-gene regulation (HGR or LGR phenotypes. While host genes were predominantly down regulated for the HGR group of mutants (D2N, V23A, F103L, M106I+L98S, L98S, M106V, and M106V+M124I, the LGR phenotype mutants (D125G, M106I, V180A, V226I, and R227K were characterized by a predominant up regulation of host genes. CPSF30 binding affinity of NS1 mutants did not predict effects on host gene expression. To our knowledge this is the first report of roles of adaptive NS1 mutations that impact intracellular localization and regulation of host gene expression.

  10. Enhancing economic competiveness of dish Stirling technology through production volume and localization: Case study for Morocco (United States)

    Larchet, Kevin; Guédez, Rafael; Topel, Monika; Gustavsson, Lars; Machirant, Andrew; Hedlund, Maria-Lina; Laumert, Björn


    The present study quantifies the reduction in the levelized cost of electricity (LCoE) and capital expenditure (CAPEX) of a dish Stirling power plant (DSPP) through an increase in localization and unit production volume. Furthermore, the localization value of the plant is examined to determine how much investment is brought into the local economy. Ouarzazate, Morocco, was chosen as the location of the study due to the country's favorable regulatory framework with regards to solar power technologies and its established industry in the concentrating solar power (CSP) field. A detailed techno-economic model of a DSPP was developed using KTH's in-house modelling tool DYESOPT, which allows power plant evaluation by means of technical and economic performance indicators. Results on the basis of LCoE and CAPEX were compared between two different cases of production volume, examining both a minimum and maximum level of localization. Thereafter, the DSPP LCoE and localization value were compared against competing solar technologies to evaluate its competitiveness. In addition, a sensitivity analysis was conducted around key design parameters. The study confirms that the LCoE of a DSPP can be reduced to values similar to solar photovoltaic (PV) and lower than other CSP technologies. Furthermore, the investment in the local economy is far greater when compared to PV and of the same magnitude to other CSP technologies. The competiveness of a DSPP has the potential to increase further when coupled with thermal energy storage (TES), which is currently under development.

  11. An Analysis of Benefit and Cost of Local Chicken Production By the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Newcastle disease (ND) has high seroprevalence rate and inflicts heavy economic losses on poultry as often the case in rural poultry production. This study examined the socialeconomic characteristics of the respondents and the benefit/ cost analysis of rural chicken farmers in two local council areas of Kogi State of igeria ...

  12. Quasi-elastic neutrino production of charmed baryons from the point of view of local duality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovalenko, S.G.


    The cross sections of quasi-elastic neutrino production of Λ c + , Σ c + , Σ c ++ - charmed baryons have been obtained on the basis of Bloom-Gilman local duality and approximate SU 4 -symmetry of strong interactions. 17 refs.; 3 figs

  13. Covariance of time-ordered products implies local commutativity of fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenberg, O.W.


    We formulate Lorentz covariance of a quantum field theory in terms of covariance of time-ordered products (or other Green's functions). This formulation of Lorentz covariance implies spacelike local commutativity or anticommutativity of fields, sometimes called microscopic causality or microcausality. With this formulation microcausality does not have to be taken as a separate assumption

  14. Knowledge Production beyond Local and National Blindspots: Remedying Professional Ocularcentrism of Diversity in Music Teacher Education (United States)

    Westerlund, Heidi; Karlsen, Sidsel


    In this article, we argue that mainstream discourses of diversity in music education are ocularcentric; that is, they provide a one-sided way of understanding diversity that has prevented music educators from seeing our biases. In remedying these local and national professional blindspots, we propose transnational knowledge production, which we…

  15. Doing Cultural Work: Local Postcard Production and Place Identity in a Rural Shire (United States)

    Mayes, Robyn


    Studies of place construction in the rural studies literature have largely privileged the role of professionals over that of local lay actors. This paper contributes to redressing this imbalance through a critical case-study of lay postcard production in a rural shire. Drawing on original, qualitative research conducted in the Shire of…

  16. Tunnel Vision: Local Behavioral Influences on Consumer Decisions in Product Search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Häubl (Gerald); B.G.C. Dellaert (Benedict); A.C.D. Donkers (Bas)


    textabstractWe introduce and test a behavioral model of consumer product search that extends a baseline normative model of sequential search by incorporating nonnormative influences that are local in the sense that they reflect consumers' undue sensitivity to recently encountered alternatives. We

  17. Booster la production locale du riz pour le renforcement de la ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    31 oct. 2014 ... Improving local rice production to improve food security in northern Cameroon. ABSTRACT. Context ... habits and easy access to the markets. However ..... Évolution en tonnes des importations de riz au Cameroun (2004-2011). Le volume .... leurs technologies, telle que l'importation en franchise de droit ...

  18. Vasopressin Gene-Related Products in the Management of Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    North, William


    ...), and this information coupled with an absence of vasopressin gene-related products from fibrocystic disease potentially provides us with a new screening test for distinguishing both breast cancer...

  19. Escherichia coli yjjPB genes encode a succinate transporter important for succinate production. (United States)

    Fukui, Keita; Nanatani, Kei; Hara, Yoshihiko; Yamakami, Suguru; Yahagi, Daiki; Chinen, Akito; Tokura, Mitsunori; Abe, Keietsu


    Under anaerobic conditions, Escherichia coli produces succinate from glucose via the reductive tricarboxylic acid cycle. To date, however, no genes encoding succinate exporters have been established in E. coli. Therefore, we attempted to identify genes encoding succinate exporters by screening an E. coli MG1655 genome library. We identified the yjjPB genes as candidates encoding a succinate transporter, which enhanced succinate production in Pantoea ananatis under aerobic conditions. A complementation assay conducted in Corynebacterium glutamicum strain AJ110655ΔsucE1 demonstrated that both YjjP and YjjB are required for the restoration of succinate production. Furthermore, deletion of yjjPB decreased succinate production in E. coli by 70% under anaerobic conditions. Taken together, these results suggest that YjjPB constitutes a succinate transporter in E. coli and that the products of both genes are required for succinate export.

  20. Local power production at the end consumer - legal, political and economical external conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grinden, Bjoern; Hunnes, Arngrim; Naesje, Paal; Wangensteen, Ivar; Morch, Andrei Z.


    The report deals with the external conditions for local power production, suggested as a production close to or at the end consumer. The political, legal and economical frame conditions for such production including rating are discussed. The report shall together with a technical report regarding appropriate technologies for such production (A5712), serve as a basis for case studies and monitors later in the project. Through the case studies it will be uncovered how the external conditions are functioning which will make foundations for recommendations concerning possible alterations in the conditions in order to make the local power production more profitable. In the discussion on the political and legal external conditions the system of today is studied. From the political area the general development is described and a short analysis is made of what to expect from case handling procedures, and some challenges are pointed out At present there is a simplified handling of cases of minor and smaller power plants. In order to obtain a more realistic construction of such plants the requirements of license handling may need sharpening. The tariffing of energy deliverance is studied. The regulations for tariffing and income regulation in the distribution network is mainly designed with the consumer and the central power production in mind. A study is made of how the regulations work, to what extent precessions and additional rules are needed and to what extent alterations in the regulations are needed in order to incorporate the local power production in a rational way. While a local power producer at best, will want a price for power which is sold at the power market of the size of 20 oere/kWh, the power will increase in value further down in the voltage level. At the 230 V level the power price will be of the size of 60 oere/kWh all expenses included and the network rent (during normal precipitation conditions). Therefore the production for own consumption will be met

  1. Vermont Biofuels Initiative: Local Production for Local Use to Supply a Portion of Vermont's Energy Needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawyer, Scott; Kahler, Ellen


    biodiesel producer; 5) technical assistance in the form of feasibility studies for AgNorth Biopower LLC's proposed multi-feedstock biodigester; 6) technology and infrastructure purchases for the construction of a "Cow Power" biodigester at Gervais Family Farm; and 7) the education and outreach activities of the Vermont Biofuels Association. DOE FY05 funded research, technical assistance, and education and outreach activities have helped to provide Vermont farmers and entrepreneurs with important feedstock production, feedstock logistics, and biomass conversion information that did not exist prior as we work to develop an instate biodiesel sector. The efficacy of producing oilseed crops in New England is now established: Oilseed crops can grow well in Vermont, and good yields are achievable given improved harvesting equipment and techniques. DOE FY05 funds used for technology and infrastructure development have expanded Vermont's pool of renewable electricity and liquid fuel generation. It is now clear that on-farm energy production provides an opportunity for Vermont farmers and entrepreneurs to reduce on-farm expenditures of feed and fuel while providing for their energy security. Meanwhile they are developing new value-added revenue sources (e.g., locally produced livestock meal), retaining more dollars in the local economy, and reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

  2. Genomic signatures of local directional selection in a high gene flow marine organism; the Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mittelholzer Christian


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Marine fishes have been shown to display low levels of genetic structuring and associated high levels of gene flow, suggesting shallow evolutionary trajectories and, possibly, limited or lacking adaptive divergence among local populations. We investigated variation in 98 gene-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs for evidence of selection in local populations of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L. across the species distribution. Results Our global genome scan analysis identified eight outlier gene loci with very high statistical support, likely to be subject to directional selection in local demes, or closely linked to loci under selection. Likewise, on a regional south/north transect of central and eastern Atlantic populations, seven loci displayed strongly elevated levels of genetic differentiation. Selection patterns among populations appeared to be relatively widespread and complex, i.e. outlier loci were generally not only associated with one of a few divergent local populations. Even on a limited geographical scale between the proximate North Sea and Baltic Sea populations four loci displayed evidence of adaptive evolution. Temporal genome scan analysis applied to DNA from archived otoliths from a Faeroese population demonstrated stability of the intra-population variation over 24 years. An exploratory landscape genetic analysis was used to elucidate potential effects of the most likely environmental factors responsible for the signatures of local adaptation. We found that genetic variation at several of the outlier loci was better correlated with temperature and/or salinity conditions at spawning grounds at spawning time than with geographic distance per se. Conclusion These findings illustrate that adaptive population divergence may indeed be prevalent despite seemingly high levels of gene flow, as found in most marine fishes. Thus, results have important implications for our understanding of the interplay of

  3. Coregulation of terpenoid pathway genes and prediction of isoprene production in Bacillus subtilis using transcriptomics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hess, Becky M.; Xue, Junfeng; Markillie, Lye Meng; Taylor, Ronald C.; Wiley, H. S.; Ahring, Birgitte K.; Linggi, Bryan E.


    The isoprenoid pathway converts pyruvate to isoprene and related isoprenoid compounds in plants and some bacteria. Currently, this pathway is of great interest because of the critical role that isoprenoids play in basic cellular processes as well as the industrial value of metabolites such as isoprene. Although the regulation of several pathway genes has been described, there is a paucity of information regarding the system level regulation and control of the pathway. To address this limitation, we examined Bacillus subtilis grown under multiple conditions and then determined the relationship between altered isoprene production and the pattern of gene expression. We found that terpenoid genes appeared to fall into two distinct subsets with opposing correlations with respect to the amount of isoprene produced. The group whose expression levels positively correlated with isoprene production included dxs, the gene responsible for the commitment step in the pathway, as well as ispD, and two genes that participate in the mevalonate pathway, yhfS and pksG. The subset of terpenoid genes that inversely correlated with isoprene production included ispH, ispF, hepS, uppS, ispE, and dxr. A genome wide partial least squares regression model was created to identify other genes or pathways that contribute to isoprene production. This analysis showed that a subset of 213 regulated genes was sufficient to create a predictive model of isoprene production under different conditions and showed correlations at the transcriptional level. We conclude that gene expression levels alone are sufficiently informative about the metabolic state of a cell that produces increased isoprene and can be used to build a model which accurately predicts production of this secondary metabolite across many simulated environmental conditions.

  4. PRIMAL: Page Rank-Based Indoor Mapping and Localization Using Gene-Sequenced Unlabeled WLAN Received Signal Strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mu Zhou


    Full Text Available Due to the wide deployment of wireless local area networks (WLAN, received signal strength (RSS-based indoor WLAN localization has attracted considerable attention in both academia and industry. In this paper, we propose a novel page rank-based indoor mapping and localization (PRIMAL by using the gene-sequenced unlabeled WLAN RSS for simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM. Specifically, first of all, based on the observation of the motion patterns of the people in the target environment, we use the Allen logic to construct the mobility graph to characterize the connectivity among different areas of interest. Second, the concept of gene sequencing is utilized to assemble the sporadically-collected RSS sequences into a signal graph based on the transition relations among different RSS sequences. Third, we apply the graph drawing approach to exhibit both the mobility graph and signal graph in a more readable manner. Finally, the page rank (PR algorithm is proposed to construct the mapping from the signal graph into the mobility graph. The experimental results show that the proposed approach achieves satisfactory localization accuracy and meanwhile avoids the intensive time and labor cost involved in the conventional location fingerprinting-based indoor WLAN localization.

  5. PRIMAL: Page Rank-Based Indoor Mapping and Localization Using Gene-Sequenced Unlabeled WLAN Received Signal Strength. (United States)

    Zhou, Mu; Zhang, Qiao; Xu, Kunjie; Tian, Zengshan; Wang, Yanmeng; He, Wei


    Due to the wide deployment of wireless local area networks (WLAN), received signal strength (RSS)-based indoor WLAN localization has attracted considerable attention in both academia and industry. In this paper, we propose a novel page rank-based indoor mapping and localization (PRIMAL) by using the gene-sequenced unlabeled WLAN RSS for simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM). Specifically, first of all, based on the observation of the motion patterns of the people in the target environment, we use the Allen logic to construct the mobility graph to characterize the connectivity among different areas of interest. Second, the concept of gene sequencing is utilized to assemble the sporadically-collected RSS sequences into a signal graph based on the transition relations among different RSS sequences. Third, we apply the graph drawing approach to exhibit both the mobility graph and signal graph in a more readable manner. Finally, the page rank (PR) algorithm is proposed to construct the mapping from the signal graph into the mobility graph. The experimental results show that the proposed approach achieves satisfactory localization accuracy and meanwhile avoids the intensive time and labor cost involved in the conventional location fingerprinting-based indoor WLAN localization.

  6. Intrinsic incompatibilities evolving as a by-product of divergent ecological selection: Considering them in empirical studies on divergence with gene flow. (United States)

    Kulmuni, J; Westram, A M


    The possibility of intrinsic barriers to gene flow is often neglected in empirical research on local adaptation and speciation with gene flow, for example when interpreting patterns observed in genome scans. However, we draw attention to the fact that, even with gene flow, divergent ecological selection may generate intrinsic barriers involving both ecologically selected and other interacting loci. Mechanistically, the link between the two types of barriers may be generated by genes that have multiple functions (i.e., pleiotropy), and/or by gene interaction networks. Because most genes function in complex networks, and their evolution is not independent of other genes, changes evolving in response to ecological selection can generate intrinsic barriers as a by-product. A crucial question is to what extent such by-product barriers contribute to divergence and speciation-that is whether they stably reduce gene flow. We discuss under which conditions by-product barriers may increase isolation. However, we also highlight that, depending on the conditions (e.g., the amount of gene flow and the strength of selection acting on the intrinsic vs. the ecological barrier component), the intrinsic incompatibility may actually destabilize barriers to gene flow. In practice, intrinsic barriers generated as a by-product of divergent ecological selection may generate peaks in genome scans that cannot easily be interpreted. We argue that empirical studies on divergence with gene flow should consider the possibility of both ecological and intrinsic barriers. Future progress will likely come from work combining population genomic studies, experiments quantifying fitness and molecular studies on protein function and interactions. © 2017 The Authors. Molecular Ecology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Authenticity of Ficus Hispida as a Local Traditional Product in the Lembah Lenggong World Heritage Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd Aziz Siti Hajar


    Full Text Available Lembah Lenggong is a place well known amongst locals as an archaeological site; the valley has been attested as a World Heritage Site. There is an overwhelming variety of plant species that are uniquely used in their cultural and traditional cuisines including Ficus hispida (Senia. Ficus hispida is a well-known species restricted to the native people in Lembah Lenggong. It is recognized as one of the plants used specifically in the traditional cuisine of the locals, especially amongst the old folks. The plant leaves are a major part of a local traditional dish called ‘Masak Pindang’. The fruit of Ficus hispida is also edible, and consumed locally in candied form (halwa. In their traditional herbal remedies, Ficus hispida is used in treating wounds and as a medicine in post and pre natal care (maternal remedies. The desired outcome of this study is to emphasize and promote this specific species as one of the more unique products of Lembah Lenggong in a tourism aspect. The traditional knowledge and practices involving the use of Ficus hispida should be cherished and treasured by future generations to retain the authenticity of their local traditional and cultural products in the light of the awakening tourism industry.

  8. Characterization of smallholder pig production system: productive and reproductive performances of local and crossbred pigs in Sikkim Himalayan region. (United States)

    Nath, B G; Pathak, P K; Ngachan, S V; Tripathi, A K; Mohanty, A K


    The present study was conducted to know the smallholder pig production system in tribal areas of Sikkim State, India. Two hundred tribal farmers were selected randomly from the North and East District of the state. Information on socio-economic characteristics of farmers (gender, occupation, educational status, and farming experience), management practices, disease prevalence, and economics in pig production was collected. The study recorded the mean land holding as 1.2 ± 0.8 ha, and the number of pigs per farm was 5.0 ± 0.28. Pigs were mainly kept as a source of income, and 70 % of farmers reared crossbreed pigs. Ninety percent (90 %) of respondents practiced the intensive system of management whereby kitchen wastes along with cooked mixture comprising maize bhusa, mustard oil cake, pseudostem of banana, tuber, stem, and plant leaves were used to feed their animals. About 40.5 % of farmers procured their breeding stock from government farms that had good records and utilized veterinary services like timely vaccination and deworming. The diseases prevalent in the study area were swine fever, diarrhea, helminthoses, sarcoptic mange, pneumonia, etc. The litter sizes at birth (local, 4.3 ± 0.45; crossbreed, 7.2 ± 0.33), at weaning (local, 2.79 ± 0.24; crossbreed, 6.1 ± 0.21), and age at first farrowing (local, 365.39 ± 7.96 days; crossbreed, 337.24 ± 8.79 days) were recorded. Production costs of meat extracted from local and crossbred pigs were 1.08 $/kg and 0.86 $/kg, respectively.

  9. Major genes and QTL influencing wool production and quality: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purvis Ian


    Full Text Available Abstract The opportunity exists to utilise our knowledge of major genes that influence the economically important traits in wool sheep. Genes with Mendelian inheritance have been identified for many important traits in wool sheep. Of particular importance are genes influencing pigmentation, wool quality and the keratin proteins, the latter of which are important for the morphology of the wool fibre. Gene mapping studies have identified some chromosomal regions associated with variation in wool quality and production traits. The challenge now is to build on this knowledge base in a cost-effective way to deliver molecular tools that facilitate enhanced genetic improvement programs for wool sheep.

  10. Production of cloned pigs with targeted attenuation of gene expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilceu Bordignon

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to demonstrate that RNA interference (RNAi and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT technologies can be used to attenuate the expression of specific genes in tissues of swine, a large animal species. Apolipoprotein E (apoE, a secreted glycoprotein known for its major role in lipid and lipoprotein metabolism and transport, was selected as the target gene for this study. Three synthetic small interfering RNAs (siRNA targeting the porcine apoE mRNA were tested in porcine granulosa cells in primary culture and reduced apoE mRNA abundance ranging from 45-82% compared to control cells. The most effective sequence was selected for cloning into a short hairpin RNA (shRNA expression vector under the control of RNA polymerase III (U6 promoter. Stably transfected fetal porcine fibroblast cells were generated and used to produce embryos with in vitro matured porcine oocytes, which were then transferred into the uterus of surrogate gilts. Seven live and one stillborn piglet were born from three gilts that became pregnant. Integration of the shRNA expression vector into the genome of clone piglets was confirmed by PCR and expression of the GFP transgene linked to the expression vector. Analysis showed that apoE protein levels in the liver and plasma of the clone pigs bearing the shRNA expression vector targeting the apoE mRNA was significantly reduced compared to control pigs cloned from non-transfected fibroblasts of the same cell line. These results demonstrate the feasibility of applying RNAi and SCNT technologies for introducing stable genetic modifications in somatic cells for eventual attenuation of gene expression in vivo in large animal species.

  11. The Aspergillus flavus Homeobox Gene, hbx1, Is Required for Development and Aflatoxin Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey W. Cary


    Full Text Available Homeobox proteins, a class of well conserved transcription factors, regulate the expression of targeted genes, especially those involved in development. In filamentous fungi, homeobox genes are required for normal conidiogenesis and fruiting body formation. In the present study, we identified eight homeobox (hbx genes in the aflatoxin-producing ascomycete, Aspergillus flavus, and determined their respective role in growth, conidiation and sclerotial production. Disruption of seven of the eight genes had little to no effect on fungal growth and development. However, disruption of the homeobox gene AFLA_069100, designated as hbx1, in two morphologically different A. flavus strains, CA14 and AF70, resulted in complete loss of production of conidia and sclerotia as well as aflatoxins B1 and B2, cyclopiazonic acid and aflatrem. Microscopic examination showed that the Δhbx1 mutants did not produce conidiophores. The inability of Δhbx1 mutants to produce conidia was related to downregulation of brlA (bristle and abaA (abacus, regulatory genes for conidiophore development. These mutants also had significant downregulation of the aflatoxin pathway biosynthetic genes aflC, aflD, aflM and the cluster-specific regulatory gene, aflR. Our results demonstrate that hbx1 not only plays a significant role in controlling A. flavus development but is also critical for the production of secondary metabolites, such as aflatoxins.

  12. Short-range order and local conservation of quantum numbers in multiparticle production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Bellac, M.


    These lectures discuss the implications of the hypotheses of short-range order (SRO) and local conservation of quantum numbers (LCQN) for multiple production of elementary particles at high energies. The consequences of SRO for semi-inclusive correlations and the distribution of rapidity gaps are derived, essentially in the framework of the cluster model. Then the experimental status of local conservation of charge and transverse momentum is reviewed. Finally, by making use of the unitarity relation, it is shown that LCQN has important consequences for the elastic amplitude. The derivation is given both in a model-independent way, and in specific multiperiheral models. (Author)

  13. Early stages of functional diversification in the Rab GTPase gene family revealed by genomic and localization studies in Paramecium species. (United States)

    Bright, Lydia J; Gout, Jean-Francois; Lynch, Michael


    New gene functions arise within existing gene families as a result of gene duplication and subsequent diversification. To gain insight into the steps that led to the functional diversification of paralogues, we tracked duplicate retention patterns, expression-level divergence, and subcellular markers of functional diversification in the Rab GTPase gene family in three Paramecium aurelia species. After whole-genome duplication, Rab GTPase duplicates are more highly retained than other genes in the genome but appear to be diverging more rapidly in expression levels, consistent with early steps in functional diversification. However, by localizing specific Rab proteins in Paramecium cells, we found that paralogues from the two most recent whole-genome duplications had virtually identical localization patterns, and that less closely related paralogues showed evidence of both conservation and diversification. The functionally conserved paralogues appear to target to compartments associated with both endocytic and phagocytic recycling functions, confirming evolutionary and functional links between the two pathways in a divergent eukaryotic lineage. Because the functionally diversifying paralogues are still closely related to and derived from a clade of functionally conserved Rab11 genes, we were able to pinpoint three specific amino acid residues that may be driving the change in the localization and thus the function in these proteins. © 2017 Bright et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (

  14. Differences and implications in biogeochemistry from maximizing entropy production locally versus globally

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Vallino


    Full Text Available In this manuscript we investigate the use of the maximum entropy production (MEP principle for modeling biogeochemical processes that are catalyzed by living systems. Because of novelties introduced by the MEP approach, many questions need to be answered and techniques developed in the application of MEP to describe biological systems that are responsible for energy and mass transformations on a planetary scale. In previous work we introduce the importance of integrating entropy production over time to distinguish abiotic from biotic processes under transient conditions. Here we investigate the ramifications of modeling biological systems involving one or more spatial dimensions. When modeling systems over space, entropy production can be maximized either locally at each point in space asynchronously or globally over the system domain synchronously. We use a simple two-box model inspired by two-layer ocean models to illustrate the differences in local versus global entropy maximization. Synthesis and oxidation of biological structure is modeled using two autocatalytic reactions that account for changes in community kinetics using a single parameter each. Our results show that entropy production can be increased if maximized over the system domain rather than locally, which has important implications regarding how biological systems organize and supports the hypothesis for multiple levels of selection and cooperation in biology for the dissipation of free energy.

  15. Assessment of the results of the strategic orientation on regional and local products in food retail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Pícha


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to assess if there is a difference in food choice behaviour between regular customers of stores of the retail chain Terno and other consumers. Consequently, the paper aims to discover, if the strategy formulated by the consumer co-operative Jednota České Budějovice was a good strategy. The core of this strategy is the orientation on the region, local and regional food and food products and the co-operation with local small and medium suppliers. Another part of this strategy is also the permanent control of quality of these products and creation of the special private label – Quality food from our region. The consumer co-operative co-operates also with the regional grouping under another label – Tastes great. Southbohemian. The assessment is done by means of the analysis of a questionnaire survey that was done among consumers in the South Bohemia in 2011. The strongest factor differentiating customers of the retail chain TERNO from other consumer is the orientation on regional or local products, which explains about 41% of variability. Other differentiating factors are environment-friendly production and selling and quality of food. All these three factors explain in total 66.5% of variability of the data set.

  16. Gene deletion of cytosolic ATP: citrate lyase leads to altered organic acid production in Aspergillus niger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meijer, Susan Lisette; Nielsen, Michael Lynge; Olsson, Lisbeth


    With the availability of the genome sequence of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger, the use of targeted genetic modifications has become feasible. This, together with the fact that A. niger is well established industrially, makes this fungus an attractive micro-organism for creating a cell...... factory platform for production of chemicals. Using molecular biology techniques, this study focused on metabolic engineering of A. niger to manipulate its organic acid production in the direction of succinic acid. The gene target for complete gene deletion was cytosolic ATP: citrate lyase (acl), which...... the acl gene. Additionally, the total amount of organic acids produced in the deletion strain was significantly increased. Genome-scale stoichiometric metabolic model predictions can be used for identifying gene targets. Deletion of the acl led to increased succinic acid production by A. niger....

  17. Identification and manipulation of the pleuromutilin gene cluster from Clitopilus passeckerianus for increased rapid antibiotic production (United States)

    Bailey, Andy M.; Alberti, Fabrizio; Kilaru, Sreedhar; Collins, Catherine M.; de Mattos-Shipley, Kate; Hartley, Amanda J.; Hayes, Patrick; Griffin, Alison; Lazarus, Colin M.; Cox, Russell J.; Willis, Christine L.; O'Dwyer, Karen; Spence, David W.; Foster, Gary D.


    Semi-synthetic derivatives of the tricyclic diterpene antibiotic pleuromutilin from the basidiomycete Clitopilus passeckerianus are important in combatting bacterial infections in human and veterinary medicine. These compounds belong to the only new class of antibiotics for human applications, with novel mode of action and lack of cross-resistance, representing a class with great potential. Basidiomycete fungi, being dikaryotic, are not generally amenable to strain improvement. We report identification of the seven-gene pleuromutilin gene cluster and verify that using various targeted approaches aimed at increasing antibiotic production in C. passeckerianus, no improvement in yield was achieved. The seven-gene pleuromutilin cluster was reconstructed within Aspergillus oryzae giving production of pleuromutilin in an ascomycete, with a significant increase (2106%) in production. This is the first gene cluster from a basidiomycete to be successfully expressed in an ascomycete, and paves the way for the exploitation of a metabolically rich but traditionally overlooked group of fungi.

  18. Regulation of gene expression by tobacco product preparations in cultured human dermal fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malpass, Gloria E.; Arimilli, Subhashini; Prasad, G.L.; Howlett, Allyn C.


    Skin fibroblasts comprise the first barrier of defense against wounds, and tobacco products directly contact the oral cavity. Cultured human dermal fibroblasts were exposed to smokeless tobacco extract (STE), total particulate matter (TPM) from tobacco smoke, or nicotine at concentrations comparable to those found in these extracts for 1 h or 5 h. Differences were identified in pathway-specific genes between treatments and vehicle using qRT-PCR. At 1 h, IL1α was suppressed significantly by TPM and less significantly by STE. Neither FOS nor JUN was suppressed at 1 h by tobacco products. IL8, TNFα, VCAM1, and NFκB1 were suppressed after 5 h with STE, whereas only TNFα and NFκB1 were suppressed by TPM. At 1 h with TPM, secreted levels of IL10 and TNFα were increased. Potentially confounding effects of nicotine were exemplified by genes such as ATF3 (5 h), which was increased by nicotine but suppressed by other components of STE. Within 2 h, TPM stimulated nitric oxide production, and both STE and TPM increased reactive oxygen species. The biological significance of these findings and utilization of the gene expression changes reported herein regarding effects of the tobacco product preparations on dermal fibroblasts will require additional research. - Highlights: • Tobacco product preparations (TPPs) alter gene expression in dermal fibroblasts. • Some immediate early genes critical to the inflammatory process are affected. • Different TPPs produce differential responses in certain pro-inflammatory genes

  19. Regulation of gene expression by tobacco product preparations in cultured human dermal fibroblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malpass, Gloria E., E-mail: [Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Wake Forest University Health Sciences, Winston-Salem, NC 27157 (United States); Arimilli, Subhashini, E-mail: [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Wake Forest University Health Sciences, Winston-Salem, NC 27157 (United States); Prasad, G.L., E-mail: [R and D Department, R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company, Winston-Salem, NC 27102 (United States); Howlett, Allyn C., E-mail: [Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Wake Forest University Health Sciences, Winston-Salem, NC 27157 (United States)


    Skin fibroblasts comprise the first barrier of defense against wounds, and tobacco products directly contact the oral cavity. Cultured human dermal fibroblasts were exposed to smokeless tobacco extract (STE), total particulate matter (TPM) from tobacco smoke, or nicotine at concentrations comparable to those found in these extracts for 1 h or 5 h. Differences were identified in pathway-specific genes between treatments and vehicle using qRT-PCR. At 1 h, IL1α was suppressed significantly by TPM and less significantly by STE. Neither FOS nor JUN was suppressed at 1 h by tobacco products. IL8, TNFα, VCAM1, and NFκB1 were suppressed after 5 h with STE, whereas only TNFα and NFκB1 were suppressed by TPM. At 1 h with TPM, secreted levels of IL10 and TNFα were increased. Potentially confounding effects of nicotine were exemplified by genes such as ATF3 (5 h), which was increased by nicotine but suppressed by other components of STE. Within 2 h, TPM stimulated nitric oxide production, and both STE and TPM increased reactive oxygen species. The biological significance of these findings and utilization of the gene expression changes reported herein regarding effects of the tobacco product preparations on dermal fibroblasts will require additional research. - Highlights: • Tobacco product preparations (TPPs) alter gene expression in dermal fibroblasts. • Some immediate early genes critical to the inflammatory process are affected. • Different TPPs produce differential responses in certain pro-inflammatory genes.

  20. Simulation of milk production by dairy cows fed sugarcane top-based diets with locally available supplements under Indian condition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Behera, U.K.; Kebreab, E.; Dijkstra, J.; Assis, A.G.; France, J.


    A model of sugarcane digestion was applied to indicate the suitability of various locally available supplements for enhancing milk production of Indian crossbred dairy cattle. Milk production was calculated according to simulated energy, lipogenic, glucogenic and aminogenic substrate availability.

  1. Consumers' Preferences for a Local Food Product: The Case of a New Carnaroli Rice Product in Lombardy. (United States)

    Ferrazzi, Giovanni; Ventura, Vera; Ratti, Sabrina; Balzaretti, Claudia


    Italy, with a cultivated area of 218,000 ha, is a European leader of rice production. In particular Lombardy region accounts for 40% of total rice cultivation and the case study in object accounts for 3.2% of Lombardy total rice area (2773 ha). Starting from 2012, through a regional project titled Buono, Sano e Vicino (good, healthy and close), Riso e Rane rural district supported local rice farmers in developing innovation in rice production and promoting an alternative supply chain to increase farmers bargaining power and promote new market strategies. More specifically, the innovation introduced is a new biotech method for variety certification, named DNA controllato (DNA tested). In the first step of the project, the attention was focused on an Italian traditional variety of rice: Carnaroli rice. Thanks to a commercial agreement with one of the most important large retailers in Lombardy, the Riso e Rane rice is offered for sale both in the traditional and wholegrain version. In this context, this work aims to evaluate the determinants of consumer's quality perception of this product, through a preference study of the commercial rice package. Preliminary results reveal that consumers perceive information about origin, local food-system and tradition more easily than DNA tested certification. In conclusion, this work contributes to evaluate the role of bio economy applications to the food sector and offers new insights for the debate about the relationships between tradition and innovation.

  2. Consumers’ preferences for a local food product: the case of a new Carnaroli rice product in Lombardy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Ferrazzi


    Full Text Available Italy, with a cultivated area of 218,000 ha, is a European leader of rice production. In particular Lombardy region accounts for 40% of total rice cultivation and the case study in object accounts for 3.2% of Lombardy total rice area (2773 ha. Starting from 2012, through a regional project titled Buono, Sano e Vicino (good, healthy and close, Riso e Rane rural district supported local rice farmers in developing innovation in rice production and promoting an alternative supply chain to increase farmers bargaining power and promote new market strategies. More specifically, the innovation introduced is a new biotech method for variety certification, named DNA controllato (DNA tested. In the first step of the project, the attention was focused on an Italian traditional variety of rice: Carnaroli rice. Thanks to a commercial agreement with one of the most important large retailers in Lombardy, the Riso e Rane rice is offered for sale both in the traditional and wholegrain version. In this context, this work aims to evaluate the determinants of consumer’s quality perception of this product, through a preference study of the commercial rice package. Preliminary results reveal that consumers perceive information about origin, local food-system and tradition more easily than DNA tested certification. In conclusion, this work contributes to evaluate the role of bio economy applications to the food sector and offers new insights for the debate about the relationships between tradition and innovation.

  3. Evaluation on biosafety in long-term administration, teratogenicity and local toxicity of developed product

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung-Ho; Kim, Jong-Chun; Kim, Se-Ra; Lee, Hae-Jun; Lee, Jin-Hee [Chonnam Nat. Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)


    We performed this study to determine biosafety of developed product in long-term administration and teratogenicity and local toxicity (skin and eye) of developed product (HemoHIM and HemoTonic). It is suggested that long-term administration with the developed products may not exert considerable side effects. It is concluded that the administration of HemoHIM or HemoTonic does not inflict any adverse effect on fetuses of pregnant mice. HemoHIM and HemoTonic could be considered as a no irritating materials to the skin and eye of the test animals. These results indicated that HemoHIM and HemoTonic might be a useful functional food, especially since it is a relatively nontoxic natural product.

  4. Evaluation on biosafety in long-term administration, teratogenicity and local toxicity of developed product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sung-Ho; Kim, Jong-Chun; Kim, Se-Ra; Lee, Hae-Jun; Lee, Jin-Hee


    We performed this study to determine biosafety of developed product in long-term administration and teratogenicity and local toxicity (skin and eye) of developed product (HemoHIM and HemoTonic). It is suggested that long-term administration with the developed products may not exert considerable side effects. It is concluded that the administration of HemoHIM or HemoTonic does not inflict any adverse effect on fetuses of pregnant mice. HemoHIM and HemoTonic could be considered as a no irritating materials to the skin and eye of the test animals. These results indicated that HemoHIM and HemoTonic might be a useful functional food, especially since it is a relatively nontoxic natural product

  5. Identification of Enzyme Genes Using Chemical Structure Alignments of Substrate-Product Pairs. (United States)

    Moriya, Yuki; Yamada, Takuji; Okuda, Shujiro; Nakagawa, Zenichi; Kotera, Masaaki; Tokimatsu, Toshiaki; Kanehisa, Minoru; Goto, Susumu


    Although there are several databases that contain data on many metabolites and reactions in biochemical pathways, there is still a big gap in the numbers between experimentally identified enzymes and metabolites. It is supposed that many catalytic enzyme genes are still unknown. Although there are previous studies that estimate the number of candidate enzyme genes, these studies required some additional information aside from the structures of metabolites such as gene expression and order in the genome. In this study, we developed a novel method to identify a candidate enzyme gene of a reaction using the chemical structures of the substrate-product pair (reactant pair). The proposed method is based on a search for similar reactant pairs in a reference database and offers ortholog groups that possibly mediate the given reaction. We applied the proposed method to two experimentally validated reactions. As a result, we confirmed that the histidine transaminase was correctly identified. Although our method could not directly identify the asparagine oxo-acid transaminase, we successfully found the paralog gene most similar to the correct enzyme gene. We also applied our method to infer candidate enzyme genes in the mesaconate pathway. The advantage of our method lies in the prediction of possible genes for orphan enzyme reactions where any associated gene sequences are not determined yet. We believe that this approach will facilitate experimental identification of genes for orphan enzymes.

  6. The Suitability Of Local Quartz Sand In The Production Of Bath Crucibles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. O. Okpanachi


    Full Text Available The suitability of local quartz sand in the production of bath crucibles is a study that was carried out in order to impart overall strength on bath crucibles hence reduce breakages during fettling. Therefore this research constitutes a study to enhance the efficiency of production of bath crucibles by addition of quartz sand in slip preparation. The steps taken in the beneficiation of quartz sand for the production of bath crucibles are comminution which entails crushing and milling classification washing liquid dispersion sizing and reduction of iron content by magnetic separation. The slip contains materials like plastic clay feldspar kaolin talc sodium silicate water quartz sand etc. These were all milled in the ball mill for slip production casting and fettling glazing and sintering to get final bath crucibles as the end products. Quartz sand is used in a variety of products essentially as raw material for the foundry casting and glass industries and also in chemicals water filtration and ceramics the heat resistance nature of quartz sand makes it an excellent refractory substance for these industrial processes. Slip can be prepared for production of bath crucibles without the inclusion of quartz sand however the addition of quartz sand is needed to improve the mechanical performance of the slip in the production of bath crucibles.

  7. Genomic signatures of local directional selection in a high gene flow marine organism, the Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eg Nielsen, Einar; Hansen, Jakob Hemmer; Poulsen, Nina Aagaard


    -associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for evidence of selection in local populations of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.) across the species distribution. Results: Our global genome scan analysis identified eight outlier gene loci with very high statistical support, likely to be subject to directional...... selection in local demes, or closely linked to loci under selection. Likewise, on a regional south/north transect of central and eastern Atlantic populations, seven loci displayed strongly elevated levels of genetic differentiation. Selection patterns among populations appeared to be relatively widespread...

  8. In Situ Measurement of Local Hydrogen Production Rate by Bubble-Evolved Recording

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaowei Hu


    Full Text Available Hydrogen visibly bubbles during photocatalytic water splitting under illumination with above-bandgap radiation, which provides a direct measurement of local gas-evolving reaction rate. In this paper, optical microscopy of superfield depth was used for recording the hydrogen bubble growth on Cd0.5Zn0.5S photocatalyst in reaction liquid and illuminated with purple light. By analyzing change of hydrogen bubble size as a function of time, we understood that hydrogen bubble growth experienced two periods, which were inertia effect dominated period and diffusion effect dominated period, respectively. The tendency of hydrogen bubble growth was similar to that of the gas bubble in boiling, while the difference in bubble diameter and growth time magnitude was great. Meanwhile, we obtained the local hydrogen production rate on photocatalyst active site by measuring hydrogen bubble growth variation characteristics. This method makes it possible to confirm local actual hydrogen evolution rate quantitatively during photocatalytic water splitting.

  9. ‘Initiative-Decision’ Typology of New Product Launching (NPL into Local Market: Toward Interaction Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available New product launching (NPL process in subsidiaries is very complex, expensive and risky. This process is marked by the problem of role partition between headquarter and subsidiaries. This research emphasizes the quality of relation between subsidiaries and headquarter which determines the qualities of NPL process into local market. Typology of initiative-decision during NPL process has been documented. Using cluster analysis, three clusters of ‘initiative-decision’ during NPL are found in this research: ‘headquarters domination’, ‘mix-initiative’ and ‘interaction’. Using ANOVA analysis, this research found that interaction between subsidiary and headquarter managers positively increases the effectiveness of marketing-strategy during NPL process. This finding suggests that interaction mechanism between subsidiary and headquarter is the best solution to launch a new product to the local market.

  10. Organising for Co-Production: Local Interaction Platforms for Urban Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth Perry


    Full Text Available Urban sustainability is a wicked issue unsuited to management through traditional decision-making structures. Co-productive arrangements, spaces and processes are inscribed in new organisational forms to bridge between diverse forms of knowledge and expertise. This article suggests that local interaction platforms (LIPs are innovative responses to these challenges, developed in two African and two European cities between 2010 and 2014. Through elaborating the design and practice of the LIPs, the article concludes that the value of this approach lies in its context-sensitivity and iterative flexibility to articulate between internationally shared challenges and distinctive local practices. Six necessary conditions for the evolution of LIPs are presented: anchorage, co-constitution, context-sensitivity, alignment, connection and shared functions. In the context of increased uncertainty, complexity and the demand for transdisciplinary knowledge production, the platform concept has wider relevance in surfacing the challenges and possibilities for more adaptive urban governance.

  11. Simulating local measurements on a quantum many-body system with stochastic matrix product states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelmark, Søren; Mølmer, Klaus


    We demonstrate how to simulate both discrete and continuous stochastic evolutions of a quantum many-body system subject to measurements using matrix product states. A particular, but generally applicable, measurement model is analyzed and a simple representation in terms of matrix product operators...... is found. The technique is exemplified by numerical simulations of the antiferromagnetic Heisenberg spin-chain model subject to various instances of the measurement model. In particular, we focus on local measurements with small support and nonlocal measurements, which induce long-range correlations....


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. U. Matsapulin


    Full Text Available The article analyzes the resource base, reserves and the use of siliceous rocks, their economic feasibility of the use for production of building materials of new generation with low-energy and other costs. Presented are the results of laboratory research and testing technology of production of insulating foam from a composition based on an aqueous solution of sodium silicate obtained from the local siliceous rocks (diatomite and the liquid alkali component - soapstock, hardener from ferrochrome slag and waste carbonate rock able to harden at a low temperature processing ( 100-110 ° C.

  13. Local Productive Arrangements for Biodiesel Production in Brazil – Environmental Assessment of Small-holder’s Integrated Oleaginous Crops Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Stachetti Rodrigues


    Full Text Available Sustainability assessments were carried out in small-holders’ farms in four territories where productive arrangements have been organized for production of minor oleaginous crops under the Brazilian biodiesel program. The study aimed at checking local impacts of the biodiesel productive chains at the rural establishment scale, and promoting the environmental performance of the selected farms, henceforth proposed as sustainable management demonstration units. Assessments were carried out with the APOIA-NovoRural system, which integrates 62 objective and quantitative indicators related to five sustainability dimensions: i Landscape Ecology, ii Environmental Quality (Atmosphere, Water and Soil, iii Socio-cultural Values, iv Economic Values and v Management and Administration. The main results point out that, in general, the ecological dimensions of sustainability, that is, the Landscape Ecology and Atmosphere, Water, and Soil quality indicators, show adequate field conditions, seemingly not yet negatively affected by increases in chemical inputs and natural resources use predicted as important potential impacts of the agro-energy sector. The Economic Values indicators have been favorably influenced in the studied farms, due to a steadier demand and improved prices for the oleaginous crops. On the other hand, valuable positive consequences expected for favoring farmers’ market insertion, such as improved Socio-cultural Values and Management & Administration indicators, are still opportunities to be materialized. The Environmental Management Reports issued to the farmers, based on the presented sustainability assessment procedures, offer valuable documentation and communication means for consolidating the organizational influence of the local productive arrangements studied. These productive arrangements were shown to be determinant for the selection of crop associations and diversification, as well as for the provision of technical assistance

  14. Refinement of the localization of the X-linked ocular albinism gene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergen, A. A.; Zijp, P.; Schuurman, E. J.; Bleeker-Wagemakers, E. M.; Apkarian, P.; van Ommen, G. J.


    Although physical and genetic mapping studies assigned the X-linked ocular albinism gene to Xp22.3, the exact gene order in this region is still unclear. We present additional genetic mapping data concerning X-linked ocular albinism that suggests the consensus order Xpter-STS-DXS237-KAL-(OA1,

  15. Combining genetical genomics and bulked segregant analysis differential expression: an approach to gene localization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Xinwei; Hedley, P.E.; Morris, J.; Liu, Hui; Niks, R.E.; Waugh, R.


    Positional gene isolation in unsequenced species generally requires either a reference genome sequence or an inference of gene content based on conservation of synteny with a genomic model. In the large unsequenced genomes of the Triticeae cereals the latter, i.e. conservation of synteny with the

  16. Improvement of heterologous protein production in Aspergillus oryzae by RNA interference with alpha-amylase genes. (United States)

    Nemoto, Takashi; Maruyama, Jun-ichi; Kitamoto, Katsuhiko


    Aspergillus oryzae RIB40 has three alpha-amylase genes (amyA, amyB, and amyC), and secretes alpha-amylase abundantly. However, large amounts of endogenous secretory proteins such as alpha-amylase can compete with heterologous protein in the secretory pathway and decrease its production yields. In this study, we examined the effects of suppression of alpha-amylase on heterologous protein production in A. oryzae, using the bovine chymosin (CHY) as a reporter heterologous protein. The three alpha-amylase genes in A. oryzae have nearly identical DNA sequences from those promoters to the coding regions. Hence we performed silencing of alpha-amylase genes by RNA interference (RNAi) in the A. oryzae CHY producing strain. The silenced strains exhibited a reduction in alpha-amylase activity and an increase in CHY production in the culture medium. This result suggests that suppression of alpha-amylase is effective in heterologous protein production in A. oryzae.

  17. The specific localization of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) in rat pancreatic islets. (United States)

    Morioka, Yuta; Teshigawara, Kiyoshi; Tomono, Yasuko; Wang, Dengli; Izushi, Yasuhisa; Wake, Hidenori; Liu, Keyue; Takahashi, Hideo Kohka; Mori, Shuji; Nishibori, Masahiro


    Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) are produced by non-enzymatic glycation between protein and reducing sugar such as glucose. Although glyceraldehyde-derived AGEs (Glycer-AGEs), one of the AGEs subspecies, have been reported to be involved in the pathogenesis of various age-relating diseases such as diabetes mellitus or arteriosclerosis, little is known about the pathological and physiological mechanism of AGEs in vivo. In present study, we produced 4 kinds of polyclonal antibodies against AGEs subspecies and investigated the localization of AGEs-modified proteins in rat peripheral tissues, making use of these antibodies. We found that Glycer-AGEs and methylglyoxal-derived AGEs (MGO-AGEs) were present in pancreatic islets of healthy rats, distinguished clearly into the pancreatic α and β cells, respectively. Although streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats suffered from remarkable impairment of pancreatic islets, the localization and deposit levels of the Glycer- and MGO-AGEs were not altered in the remaining α and β cells. Remarkably, the MGO-AGEs in pancreatic β cells were localized into the insulin-secretory granules. These results suggest that the cell-specific localization of AGEs-modified proteins are presence generally in healthy peripheral tissues, involved in physiological intracellular roles, such as a post-translational modulator contributing to the secretory and/or maturational functions of insulin. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Farmers Market Brings Fresh Produce and Products from Local Vendors | Poster (United States)

    By Carolynne Keenan, Guest Writer Every summer, you can shop for fresh fruits, veggies, flowers, honey, and plenty of other homemade goodies at the NCI at Frederick Farmers’ Market. Buying at the Farmers’ Market means you’re supporting a local farmer, crafter, or other type of vendor. The products are brought to you, so you don’t have to drive to get freshly picked produce and

  19. Production and localization of cellulases and. beta. -glucosidase from the thermophilic fungus Thielavia terrestris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breuil, C; Wojtczak, G; Saddler, J N


    The enzyme production and localization of Thielavia terrestris strains C464 and NRRL 8126 were compared to determine their optimum temperature and pH for cellulase activity. High levels of intracellular ..beta..-glucosidase activity were detected in the former strain. The intracellular ..beta..-glucosidase of both strains were more thermostable than the extra-cellular enzyme; the half life of T. terrestris (C464) endoglucanase activity at 60 degrees C was greater than 96 hours. 12 references.

  20. Human tissue factor: cDNA sequence and chromosome localization of the gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarpati, E.M.; Wen, D.; Broze, G.J. Jr.; Miletich, J.P.; Flandermeyer, R.R.; Siegel, N.R.; Sadler, J.E.


    A human placenta cDNA library in λgt11 was screened for the expression of tissue factor antigens with rabbit polyclonal anti-human tissue factor immunoglobulin G. Among 4 million recombinant clones screened, one positive, λHTF8, expressed a protein that shared epitopes with authentic human brain tissue factor. The 1.1-kilobase cDNA insert of λHTF8 encoded a peptide that contained the amino-terminal protein sequence of human brain tissue factor. Northern blotting identified a major mRNA species of 2.2 kilobases and a minor species of ∼ 3.2 kilobases in poly(A) + RNA of placenta. Only 2.2-kilobase mRNA was detected in human brain and in the human monocytic U937 cell line. In U937 cells, the quantity of tissue factor mRNA was increased several fold by exposure of the cells to phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate. Additional cDNA clones were selected by hybridization with the cDNA insert of λHTF8. These overlapping isolates span 2177 base pairs of the tissue factor cDNA sequence that includes a 5'-noncoding region of 75 base pairs, an open reading frame of 885 base pairs, a stop codon, a 3'-noncoding region of 1141 base pairs, and a poly(a) tail. The open reading frame encodes a 33-kilodalton protein of 295 amino acids. The predicted sequence includes a signal peptide of 32 or 34 amino acids, a probable extracellular factor VII binding domain of 217 or 219 amino acids, a transmembrane segment of 23 acids, and a cytoplasmic tail of 21 amino acids. There are three potential glycosylation sites with the sequence Asn-X-Thr/Ser. The 3'-noncoding region contains an inverted Alu family repetitive sequence. The tissue factor gene was localized to chromosome 1 by hybridization of the cDNA insert of λHTF8 to flow-sorted human chromosomes

  1. Expression of human poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Effect on survival, homologous recombination and identification of genes involved in intracellular localization. (United States)

    La Ferla, Marco; Mercatanti, Alberto; Rocchi, Giulia; Lodovichi, Samuele; Cervelli, Tiziana; Pignata, Luca; Caligo, Maria Adelaide; Galli, Alvaro


    The poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP-1) actively participates in a series of functions within the cell that include: mitosis, intracellular signaling, cell cycle regulation, transcription and DNA damage repair. Therefore, inhibition of PARP1 has a great potential for use in cancer therapy. As resistance to PARP inhibitors is starting to be observed in patients, thus the function of PARP-1 needs to be studied in depth in order to find new therapeutic targets. To gain more information on the PARP-1 activity, we expressed PARP-1 in yeast and investigated its effect on cell growth and UV induced homologous recombination. To identify candidate genes affecting PARP-1 activity and cellular localization, we also developed a yeast genome wide genetic screen. We found that PARP-1 strongly inhibited yeast growth, but when yeast was exposed to the PARP-1 inhibitor 6(5-H) phenantridinone (PHE), it recovered from the growth suppression. Moreover, we showed that PARP-1 produced PAR products in yeast and we demonstrated that PARP-1 reduced UV-induced homologous recombination. By genome wide screening, we identified 99 mutants that suppressed PARP-1 growth inhibition. Orthologues of human genes were found for 41 of these yeast genes. We determined whether the PARP-1 protein level was altered in strains which are deleted for the transcription regulator GAL3, the histone H1 gene HHO1, the HUL4 gene, the deubiquitination enzyme gene OTU1, the nuclear pore protein POM152 and the SNT1 that encodes for the Set3C subunit of the histone deacetylase complex. In these strains the PARP-1 level was roughly the same as in the wild type. PARP-1 localized in the nucleus more in the snt1Δ than in the wild type strain; after UV radiation, PARP-1 localized in the nucleus more in hho1 and pom152 deletion strains than in the wild type indicating that these functions may have a role on regulating PARP-1 level and activity in the nucleus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Sustainable Tourism and Use of Local Resources As Touristic Products: The Case Of Beysehir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erkan Akgoz


    Full Text Available Tourism is developing using its all resources particularly local touristic resources efficiently. However, as tourism sector could contribute the maintenance of the resources which it uses as touristic product, it also could cause their getting harm or destroyed as well. Tourism is developing using its all sources particularly local touristic sources efficiently. But, tourism sector would cause source’s getting harm or disappearing which it has used as touristic product as well as its contribution to maintenance of them.  Thus the most recently stated concept regarding tourism is the sustainable tourism concept.               In this study, which is conducted for this purpose, sustainable tourism in Beysehir, which has important specifications with its unique natural beauties, rich history and cultural assets, is researched. For this reason, important tourism assets of the region is determined at the beginning and general information related to these is given. Survey questions regarding the topic is prepared after this information. Datum which is obtained from the prepared survey questions are saved in the electronic media and evaluated by the proper software. According to these results, usage of local resources as touristic product and its relation to sustainable tourism is discussed.

  3. Local Production of Luteinizing Hormone Antisera to Be Used In Radioimmunoassay Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoud, S. M.; Ali, N. I.; Abdullah, O. M.; Albaqi, W. A. A.


    Luteinizing hormone (LH) is a glycoprotein hormone. It is one of the coordinate pituitary regulators of gonadal function (2). Serum LH concentration increase in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) which is the most common cause of infertility among infertile women. (3). The expensive imported LH kits lead us to think seriously to develop our local reagents. The antibody is a backbone of RIA reagents and this study is describing how to raise LH antibody and how to use it for a local LH kit production. Human LH was emulsified to Freunds adjuvant and acted as an immunogen Local Sudanese sheep was used to raise anti-LH antisera. The obtained antisera were adsorbed physically onto polystyrene beads with a dilution of 1/100.000 in order to develop an RIA kit. Optimization of LH assay conditions including incubation temperature and reaction time were performed. Assay validation tests including specificity, sensitivity, linearity, recovery, reproducibility and comparability for the local kit were performed. The polystyrene beads RIA LH system showed a minimum detectable dose of 0.04 m U/L. For the linearity and recovery tests, the regression coefficients were found to be 0.99, 0.997 respectively. The assay was found to be reproducible where the coefficients of variation within and between assays were less than 10%. Comparison between local and Chinese reagents for Luteinizing hormone determination in serum showed high correlation where r=0.96. (Authors)

  4. Local production of luteinizing hormone antisera to be used in radioimmunoassay technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoud, S. M.; Ali, N. I.; Abdullah, O. M.; Almahi, W. A. A.


    Luteinizing hormone (LH) is a glycoprotein hormone. It is one of the coordinate pituitary regulators of gonadal function (2). Serum LH concentration increase in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) which is the most common cause of infertility among infertile women (3). The expensive imported LH kits lead us to think seriously to develop our local reagents. The antibody is a backbone of RIA reagents and this study is describing how to raise LH antibody and how to use it for a local LH kit production. Human LH was emulsified to Freunds adjuvant and acted as an immunogen local Sudanese sheep was used to raise anti-LH antisera. The obtained antisera were adsorbed physically onto polystyrene beads with a dilution of 1/100.000 in order to develop an RIA kit. Optimization of LH assay conditions including incubation temperature and reaction time were performed. Assay validation tests including specificity, sensitivity, linearity, recovery, reproducibility and comparability for the local kit were performed. The polystyrene beads RIA LH system showed a minimum detectable dose of 0.04 m U/L. For the linearity and recovery tests, the regression coefficients were found to be 0.99, 0.997 respectively. The assay was found to be reproducible where the coefficients of variation within and between assays were less than 10%. Comparison between local and Chinese reagents for luteinizing hormone determination in serum showed high correlation where r=0.96. (Author)

  5. Genes, language, cognition, and culture: towards productive inquiry. (United States)

    Fitch, W Tecumseh


    The Queen Mary conference on “Integrating Genetic and Cultural Evolutionary Approaches to Language,” and the papers in this special issue, clearly illustrate the excitement and potential of trans-disciplinary approaches to language as an evolved biological capacity (phylogeny) and an evolving cultural entity (glossogeny). Excepting the present author, the presenters/authors are mostly young rising stars in their respective fields, and include scientists with backgrounds in linguistics, animal communication, neuroscience, evolutionary biology, anthropology, and computer science. On display was a clear willingness to engage with different approaches and terminology and a commitment to shared standards of scientific rigor, empirically driven theory, and logical argument. Because the papers assembled here, together with the introduction, speak for themselves, I will focus in this “extro-duction” on some of the terminological and conceptual difficulties which threaten to block this exciting wave of scientific progress in understanding language evolution, in both senses of that term. In particular I will first argue against the regrettably widespread practice of opposing cultural and genetic explanations of human cognition as if they were dichotomous. Second, I will unpack the debate concerning “general-purpose” and “domain-specific” mechanisms, which masquerades as a debate about nativism but is nothing of the sort. I believe that framing discussions of language in these terms has generated more heat than light, and that a modern molecular understanding of genes, development, behavior, and evolution renders many of the assumptions underlying this debate invalid.

  6. Associations between variants of the HAL gene and milk production traits in Chinese Holstein cows. (United States)

    Wang, Haifei; Jiang, Li; Wang, Wenwen; Zhang, Shengli; Yin, Zongjun; Zhang, Qin; Liu, Jian-Feng


    The histidine ammonia-lyse gene (HAL) encodes the histidine ammonia-lyase, which catalyzes the first reaction of histidine catabolism. In our previous genome-wide association study in Chinese Holstein cows to identify genetic variants affecting milk production traits, a SNP (rs41647754) located 357 bp upstream of HAL, was found to be significantly associated with milk yield and milk protein yield. In addition, the HAL gene resides within the reported QTLs for milk production traits. The aims of this study were to identify genetic variants in HAL and to test the association between these variants and milk production traits. Fifteen SNPs were identified within the regions under study of the HAL gene, including three coding mutations, seven intronic mutations, one promoter region mutation, and four 3'UTR mutations. Nine of these identified SNPs were chosen for subsequent genotyping and association analyses. Our results showed that five SNP markers (ss974768522, ss974768525, ss974768531, ss974768533 and ss974768534) were significantly associated with one or more milk production traits. Haplotype analysis showed that two haplotype blocks were significantly associated with milk yield and milk protein yield, providing additional support for the association between HAL variants and milk production traits in dairy cows (P HAL gene and milk production traits in Chinese Holstein cows, indicating the potential role of HAL variants in these traits. These identified SNPs may serve as genetic markers used in genomic selection schemes to accelerate the genetic gains of milk production traits in dairy cattle.

  7. Constitutive gene expression profile segregates toxicity in locally advanced breast cancer patients treated with high-dose hyperfractionated radical radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henríquez Hernández, Luis Alberto; Lara, Pedro Carlos; Pinar, Beatriz; Bordón, Elisa; Gallego, Carlos Rodríguez; Bilbao, Cristina; Pérez, Leandro Fernández; Morales, Amílcar Flores


    Breast cancer patients show a wide variation in normal tissue reactions after radiotherapy. The individual sensitivity to x-rays limits the efficiency of the therapy. Prediction of individual sensitivity to radiotherapy could help to select the radiation protocol and to improve treatment results. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between gene expression profiles of ex vivo un-irradiated and irradiated lymphocytes and the development of toxicity due to high-dose hyperfractionated radiotherapy in patients with locally advanced breast cancer. Raw data from microarray experiments were uploaded to the Gene Expression Omnibus Database (GEO accession GSE15341). We obtained a small group of 81 genes significantly regulated by radiotherapy, lumped in 50 relevant pathways. Using ANOVA and t-test statistical tools we found 20 and 26 constitutive genes (0 Gy) that segregate patients with and without acute and late toxicity, respectively. Non-supervised hierarchical clustering was used for the visualization of results. Six and 9 pathways were significantly regulated respectively. Concerning to irradiated lymphocytes (2 Gy), we founded 29 genes that separate patients with acute toxicity and without it. Those genes were gathered in 4 significant pathways. We could not identify a set of genes that segregates patients with and without late toxicity. In conclusion, we have found an association between the constitutive gene expression profile of peripheral blood lymphocytes and the development of acute and late toxicity in consecutive, unselected patients. These observations suggest the possibility of predicting normal tissue response to irradiation in high-dose non-conventional radiation therapy regimens. Prospective studies with higher number of patients are needed to validate these preliminary results

  8. Molecular karyotype and chromosomal localization of genes encoding ß-tubulin, cysteine proteinase, hsp 70 and actin in Trypanosoma rangeli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CB Toaldo


    Full Text Available The molecular karyotype of nine Trypanosoma rangeli strains was analyzed by contour-clamped homogeneous electric field electrophoresis, followed by the chromosomal localization of ß-tubulin, cysteine proteinase, 70 kDa heat shock protein (hsp 70 and actin genes. The T. rangeli strains were isolated from either insects or mammals from El Salvador, Honduras, Venezuela, Colombia, Panama and southern Brazil. Also, T. cruzi CL-Brener clone was included for comparison. Despite the great similarity observed among strains from Brazil, the molecular karyotype of all T. rangeli strains analyzed revealed extensive chromosome polymorphism. In addition, it was possible to distinguish T. rangeli from T. cruzi by the chromosomal DNA electrophoresis pattern. The localization of ß-tubulin genes revealed differences among T. rangeli strains and confirmed the similarity between the isolates from Brazil. Hybridization assays using probes directed to the cysteine proteinase, hsp 70 and actin genes discriminated T. rangeli from T. cruzi, proving that these genes are useful molecular markers for the differential diagnosis between these two species. Numerical analysis based on the molecular karyotype data revealed a high degree of polymorphism among T. rangeli strains isolated from southern Brazil and strains isolated from Central and the northern South America. The T. cruzi reference strain was not clustered with any T. rangeli strain.

  9. Local Entropy Production in Turbulent Shear Flows: A Tool for Evaluating Heat Transfer Performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Performance evaluation of heat transfer devices can be based on the overall entropy production in these devices.In our study we therefore provide equations for the systematic and detailed determination of local entropy production due to dissipation of mechanical energy and due to heat conduction, both in turbulent flows. After turbulence modeling has been incorporated for the fluctuating parts the overall entropy production can be determined by integration with respect to the whole flow domain. Since, however, entropy production rates show very steep gradients close to the wall, numerical solutions are far more effective with wall functions for the entropy production terms. These wall functions are mandatory when high Reynolds number turbulence models are used. For turbulent flow in a pipe with an inserted twisted tape as heat transfer promoter it is shown that based on the overall entropy production rate a clear statement from a thermodynamic point of view is possible. For a certain range of twist strength there is a decrease in overall entropy production compared to the case without insert. Also, the optimum twist strength can be determined. This information is unavailable when only pressure drop and heat transfer data are given.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Usman


    Full Text Available Groundnut an important oil seed crop provides significant sources of cash through the sales of seed, cakes, oil and haulms. Groundnut plays an important role in the diets of rural populations. Groundnut pod yields from farmer’s field are low, averaging about 800 kg per ha, less than one-third the potential yield of 3000 kg per ha. This large gap is of concern and in view of this, the study was carried out to assess the socio economic characteristics of groundnut farmers, determine the level of profitability of groundnut production, the resource use efficiency as well as to find out problems encountered in groundnut production in Sabon-gari local government area. Seventy-nine farmers involved in groundnut production were randomly selected from the various farms located within the local government area. Data were collected using primary and secondary sources. To examine the profitability of groundnut production, the gross margin and cost benefit analysis were carried out. The result of the study shows that experienced farmers are less involved in groundnut production and most groundnut farmers are engaged in other form of businesses. The cost, availability, and lack of technical knowledge of inputs requirements are responsible for poor use of the inputs. Labour, fertilizer, seed and herbicides are all over utilized except insecticide which is underutilized. Among the problems encountered in groundnut production in the study are lacks of capital and extension services. These two problems accounted for over 78% of the problem of groundnut in the study area. It is therefore recommended that government and research institutes should strengthen extension services to deliver improved technologies to the farmers. Farmers are also advised to source for loans through cooperatives, banks and other available sources at low charges and the procedure for loan should be made simple to enable farmers’ access loans so that groundnut production can be improved.

  11. GeneViTo: Visualizing gene-product functional and structural features in genomic datasets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Promponas Vasilis J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The availability of increasing amounts of sequence data from completely sequenced genomes boosts the development of new computational methods for automated genome annotation and comparative genomics. Therefore, there is a need for tools that facilitate the visualization of raw data and results produced by bioinformatics analysis, providing new means for interactive genome exploration. Visual inspection can be used as a basis to assess the quality of various analysis algorithms and to aid in-depth genomic studies. Results GeneViTo is a JAVA-based computer application that serves as a workbench for genome-wide analysis through visual interaction. The application deals with various experimental information concerning both DNA and protein sequences (derived from public sequence databases or proprietary data sources and meta-data obtained by various prediction algorithms, classification schemes or user-defined features. Interaction with a Graphical User Interface (GUI allows easy extraction of genomic and proteomic data referring to the sequence itself, sequence features, or general structural and functional features. Emphasis is laid on the potential comparison between annotation and prediction data in order to offer a supplement to the provided information, especially in cases of "poor" annotation, or an evaluation of available predictions. Moreover, desired information can be output in high quality JPEG image files for further elaboration and scientific use. A compilation of properly formatted GeneViTo input data for demonstration is available to interested readers for two completely sequenced prokaryotes, Chlamydia trachomatis and Methanococcus jannaschii. Conclusions GeneViTo offers an inspectional view of genomic functional elements, concerning data stemming both from database annotation and analysis tools for an overall analysis of existing genomes. The application is compatible with Linux or Windows ME-2000-XP operating

  12. Production of the 2400 kb Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) gene transcript; transcription time and cotranscriptional splicing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tennyson, C.N.; Worton, R.G. [Univ. of Toronto and the Hospital for Sick Children, Ontario (Canada)


    The largest known gene in any organism is the human DMD gene which has 79 exons that span 2400 kb. The extreme nature of the DMD gene raises questions concerning the time required for transcription and whether splicing begins before transcription is complete. DMD gene transcription is induced as cultured human myoblasts differentiate to form multinucleated myotubes, providing a system for studying the kinetics of transcription and splicing. Using quantitative RT-PCR, transcript accumulation was monitored from four different regions within the gene following induction of expression. By comparing the accumulation of transcripts from the 5{prime} and 3{prime} ends of the gene we have shown that approximately 12 hours are required to transcribe 1770 kb of the gene, extrapolating to a time of 16 hours for the transcription unit expressed in muscle. Comparison of accumulation profiles for spliced and total transcript demonstrated that transcripts are spliced at the 5{prime} end before transcription is complete, providing strong evidence for cotranscriptional splicing of DMD gene transcripts. Finally, the rate of transcript accumulation was reduced at the 3{prime} end of the gene relative to the 5{prime} end, perhaps due to premature termination of transcription complexes as they traverse this enormous transcription unit. The lag between transcription initiation and the appearance of complete transcripts could be important in limiting transcript production in dividing cells and to the timing of mRNA appearance in differentiating muscle.

  13. Experience of BESIII data production with local cluster and distributed computing model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, Z Y; Li, W D; Liu, H M; Sun, Y Z; Zhang, X M; Lin, L; Nicholson, C; Zhemchugov, A


    The BES III detector is a new spectrometer which works on the upgraded high-luminosity collider, BEPCII. The BES III experiment studies physics in the tau-charm energy region from 2 GeV to 4.6 GeV . From 2009 to 2011, BEPCII has produced 106M ψ(2S) events, 225M J/ψ events, 2.8 fb −1 ψ(3770) data, and 500 pb −1 data at 4.01 GeV. All the data samples were processed successfully and many important physics results have been achieved based on these samples. Doing data production correctly and efficiently with limited CPU and storage resources is a big challenge. This paper will describe the implementation of the experiment-specific data production for BESIII in detail, including data calibration with event-level parallel computing model, data reconstruction, inclusive Monte Carlo generation, random trigger background mixing and multi-stream data skimming. Now, with the data sample increasing rapidly, there is a growing demand to move from solely using a local cluster to a more distributed computing model. A distributed computing environment is being set up and expected to go into production use in 2012. The experience of BESIII data production, both with a local cluster and with a distributed computing model, is presented here.

  14. Subtle variation within conserved effector operon gene products contributes to T6SS-mediated killing and immunity. (United States)

    Alteri, Christopher J; Himpsl, Stephanie D; Zhu, Kevin; Hershey, Haley L; Musili, Ninette; Miller, Jessa E; Mobley, Harry L T


    Type VI secretion systems (T6SS) function to deliver lethal payloads into target cells. Many studies have shown that protection against a single, lethal T6SS effector protein requires a cognate antidote immunity protein, both of which are often encoded together in a two-gene operon. The T6SS and an effector-immunity pair is sufficient for both killing and immunity. HereIn this paper we describe a T6SS effector operon that differs from conventional effector-immunity pairs in that eight genes are necessary for lethal effector function, yet can be countered by a single immunity protein. In this study, we investigated the role that the PefE T6SS immunity protein plays in recognition between two strains harboring nearly identical effector operons. Interestingly, despite containing seven of eight identical effector proteins, the less conserved immunity proteins only provided protection against their native effectors, suggesting that specificity and recognition could be dependent on variation within an immunity protein and one effector gene product. The variable effector gene product, PefD, is encoded upstream from pefE, and displays toxic activity that can be countered by PefE independent of T6SS-activity. Interestingly, while the entire pef operon was necessary to exert toxic activity via the T6SS in P. mirabilis, production of PefD and PefE alone was unable to exert this effector activity. Chimeric PefE proteins constructed from two P. mirabilis strains were used to localize immunity function to three amino acids. A promiscuous immunity protein was created using site-directed mutagenesis to change these residues from one variant to another. These findings support the notion that subtle differences between conserved effectors are sufficient for T6SS-mediated kin discrimination and that PefD requires additional factors to function as a T6SS-dependent effector.

  15. Split-gene system for hybrid wheat seed production. (United States)

    Kempe, Katja; Rubtsova, Myroslava; Gils, Mario


    Hybrid wheat plants are superior in yield and growth characteristics compared with their homozygous parents. The commercial production of wheat hybrids is difficult because of the inbreeding nature of wheat and the lack of a practical fertility control that enforces outcrossing. We describe a hybrid wheat system that relies on the expression of a phytotoxic barnase and provides for male sterility. The barnase coding information is divided and distributed at two loci that are located on allelic positions of the host chromosome and are therefore "linked in repulsion." Functional complementation of the loci is achieved through coexpression of the barnase fragments and intein-mediated ligation of the barnase protein fragments. This system allows for growth and maintenance of male-sterile female crossing partners, whereas the hybrids are fertile. The technology does not require fertility restorers and is based solely on the genetic modification of the female crossing partner.

  16. Simulating fission product transients via the history-based local-parameter methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, D.A.; Rouben, B.; Salvatore, M.


    This paper describes the fission-product-calculation capacity of the history-based local-parameter methodology for evaluating lattice properties for use in core-tracking calculations in CANDU reactors. In addition to taking into account the individual past history of each bundles flux/power level, fuel temperature, and coolant density and temperature that the bundle has seen during its stay in the core, the latest refinement of the history-based method provides the capability of fission-product-drivers. It allows the bundle-specific concentrations of the three basic groups of saturating fission products to be calculated in steady state or following a power transient, including long shutdowns. The new capability is illustrated by simulating the startup period following a typical long-shutdown, starting from a snapshot in the Point Lepreau operating history. 9 refs., 7 tabs

  17. Energy momentum tensor and operator product expansion in local causal perturbation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prange, D.


    We derive new examples for algebraic relations of interacting fields in local perturbative quantum field theory. The fundamental building blocks in this approach are time ordered products of free (composed) fields. We give explicit formulas for the construction of Poincare covariant ones, which were already known to exist through cohomological arguments. For a large class of theories the canonical energy momentum tensor is shown to be conserved. Classical theories without dimensionful couplings admit an improved tensor that is additionally traceless. On the example of φ 4 -theory we discuss the improved tensor in the quantum theory. Its trace receives an anomalous contribution due to its conservation. Moreover, we define an interacting bilocal normal product for scalar theories. This leads to an operator product expansion of two time ordered fields. (orig.) [de

  18. Trust and local knowledge production: Interorganisational collaborations in the Sønderborg region, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytt, Christine Benna; Winther, Lars


    In the knowledge based economy, knowledge production has become increasingly important for the competitiveness of firms, cities and regions and as an explanatory factor of spatial economic dynamics. In an immense amount of literature in economic geography, sociology and economics it has been argued...... or an input in economic relations. The paper broaden the understanding of trust in local knowledge production by suggesting an approach to trust as an inter-personal feeling to be analysed on three different but interrelated scales depending on the socio-spatial contexts of the actors. The approach avoids...... a reification of interorganisational relations as the place for knowledge production but allows an analysis of trust to move between micro-, meso- and macro scales seeing trust as an inter-personal feeling. The conclusion is that trust in diverse socio-spatial contexts takes on different forms at different...

  19. String Chopping and Time-ordered Products of Linear String-localized Quantum Fields (United States)

    Cardoso, Lucas T.; Mund, Jens; Várilly, Joseph C.


    For a renormalizability proof of perturbative models in the Epstein-Glaser scheme with string-localized quantum fields, one needs to know what freedom one has in the definition of time-ordered products of the interaction Lagrangian. This paper provides a first step in that direction. The basic issue is the presence of an open set of n-tuples of strings which cannot be chronologically ordered. We resolve it by showing that almost all such string configurations can be dissected into finitely many pieces which can indeed be chronologically ordered. This fixes the time-ordered products of linear field factors outside a nullset of string configurations. (The extension across the nullset, as well as the definition of time-ordered products of Wick monomials, will be discussed elsewhere).

  20. Global product development interaction between local networks: A study of the Danish food industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Preben Sander

    A study of the Danish foods industry shows that producers of food products largely ignore home marekt demand in their product development activities. They have built up and maintain development of end-user products in interaction with customers in distant sophisticated markets. Concurrently...... view of actors in the global end-user customer market and companies' euclidean view of actors in thelocal business-to-business market. In pr companies combine these two market views by interacting in networks: The global industrial network links various functions which again are each part of a local...... their development of end-user pr through global interaction. It is precisely by not interacting with home market end-user demand, but rather by deriving an industrial home market demand from changing end-user markets that the complex has avoided being insulated....

  1. Genetic Resources for Advanced Biofuel Production Described with the Gene Ontology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trudy eTorto-Alalibo


    Full Text Available Dramatic increases in research in the area of microbial biofuel production coupled with high-throughput data generation on bioenergy-related microbes has led to a deluge of information in the scientific literature and in databases. Consolidating this information and making it easily accessible requires a unified vocabulary. The Gene Ontology (GO fulfills that requirement, as it is a well-developed structured vocabulary that describes the activities and locations of gene products in a consistent manner across all kingdoms of life. The Microbial Energy Gene Ontology (MENGO: project is extending the GO to include new terms to describe microbial processes of interest to bioenergy production. Our effort has added over 600 bioenergy related terms to the Gene Ontology. These terms will aid in the comprehensive annotation of gene products from diverse energy-related microbial genomes. An area of microbial energy research that has received a lot of attention is microbial production of advanced biofuels. These include alcohols such as butanol, isopropanol, isobutanol, and fuels derived from fatty acids, isoprenoids, and polyhydroxyalkanoates. These fuels are superior to first generation biofuels (ethanol and biodiesel esterified from vegetable oil or animal fat, can be generated from non-food feedstock sources, can be used as supplements or substitutes for gasoline, diesel and jet fuels, and can be stored and distributed using existing infrastructure. Here we review the roles of genes associated with synthesis of advanced biofuels, and at the same time introduce the use of the GO to describe the functions of these genes in a standardized way.

  2. Thermal Heat and Power Production with Models for Local and Regional Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saether, Sturla


    The primary goal of this thesis is the description and modelling of combined heat and power systems as well as analyses of thermal dominated systems related to benefits of power exchange. Large power plants with high power efficiency (natural gas systems) and heat production in local heat pumps can be favourable in areas with low infrastructure of district heating systems. This system is comparable with typical combined heat and power (CHP) systems based on natural gas with respect to efficient use of fuel energy. The power efficiency obtainable from biomass and municipal waste is relatively low and the advantage of CHP for this system is high compared to pure power production with local heat pumps for heat generation. The advantage of converting pure power systems into CHP systems is best for power systems with low power efficiency and heat production at low temperature. CHP systems are divided into two main groups according to the coupling of heat and power production. Some CHP systems, especially those with strong coupling between heat and power production, may profit from having a thermal heat storage subsystem. District heating temperatures direct the heat to power ratio of the CHP units. The use of absorption chillers driven by district heating systems are also evaluated with respect to enhancing the utilisation of district heating in periods of low heat demand. Power exchange between a thermal dominated and hydropower system is found beneficial. Use of hydropower as a substitute for peak power production in thermal dominated systems is advantageous. Return of base load from the thermal dominated system to the hydropower system can balance in the net power exchange.

  3. Liver upregulation of genes involved in cortisol production and action is associated with metabolic syndrome in morbidly obese patients. (United States)

    Torrecilla, Esther; Fernández-Vázquez, Gumersindo; Vicent, David; Sánchez-Franco, Franco; Barabash, Ana; Cabrerizo, Lucio; Sánchez-Pernaute, Andrés; Torres, Antonio J; Rubio, Miguel Angel


    Hepatic 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) activity, which converts cortisone (inactive) to cortisol, is downregulated in obesity. However, this compensation fails in obese with metabolic abnormalities, such as diabetes. To further characterize the tissue-specific cortisol regeneration in obesity, we have investigated the mRNA expression of genes related to local cortisol production, i.e., 11β-HSD1, hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (H6PDH) and cortisol action, glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and a cortisol target gene, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) in the liver, and visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous (SAT) adipose tissues from morbidly obese patients with and without metabolic syndrome (MS). Fifty morbidly obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery, 14 men (mean age, 41.3 ± 3.5 years; BMI, 48.0 ± 3.6 kg/m(2)) and 36 women (mean age, 44.6 ± 1.9 years; BMI, 44.9 ± 1.2 kg/m(2)), were classified as having MS (MS+, n = 20) or not (MS-, n = 30). Tissue mRNA levels were measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Hepatic mRNA levels of these genes were higher in obese patients with MS (11β-HSD1, P = 0.002; H6PDH, P = 0.043; GR, P = 0.033; PEPCK, P = 0.032) and positively correlated with the number of clinical characteristics that define the MS. The expression of the four genes positively correlated among them. In contrast to the liver, these genes were not differently expressed in VAT or SAT, when MS+ and MS- obese patients were compared. Coordinated liver-specific upregulation of genes involved in local cortisol regeneration and action support the concept that local hepatic hypercortisolism contributes to development of MS in morbidly obese patients.

  4. Allelic frequencies and association with carcass traits of six genes in local subpopulations of Japanese Black cattle. (United States)

    Nishimaki, Takahiro; Ibi, Takayuki; Siqintuya; Kobayashi, Naohiko; Matsuhashi, Tamako; Akiyama, Takayuki; Yoshida, Emi; Imai, Kazumi; Matsui, Mayu; Uemura, Keiichi; Eto, Hisayoshi; Watanabe, Naoto; Fujita, Tatsuo; Saito, Yosuke; Komatsu, Tomohiko; Hoshiba, Hiroshi; Mannen, Hideyuki; Sasazaki, Shinji; Kunieda, Tetsuo


    Marker-assisted selection (MAS) is expected to accelerate the genetic improvement of Japanese Black cattle. However, verification of the effects of the genes for MAS in different subpopulations is required prior to the application of MAS. In this study, we investigated the allelic frequencies and genotypic effects for carcass traits of six genes, which can be used in MAS, in eight local subpopulations. These genes are SCD, FASN and SREBP1, which are associated with the fatty acid composition of meat, and NCAPG, MC1R and F11, which are associated with carcass weight, coat color and blood coagulation abnormality, respectively. The frequencies of desirable alleles of SCD and FASN were relatively high and that of NCAPG was relatively low, and NCAPG was significantly associated with several carcass traits, including carcass weight. The proportions of genotypic variance explained by NCAPG to phenotypic variance were 4.83 for carcass weight. We thus confirmed that NCAPG is a useful marker for selection of carcass traits in these subpopulations. In addition, we found that the desirable alleles of six genes showed no negative effects on carcass traits. Therefore, selection using these genes to improve target traits should not have negative impacts on carcass traits. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Widiyaningrum


    Full Text Available The study aimed to compare the egg production and hatchability of local ducks under different management systems, namely semi-intensive and extensive. The research conducted was an experimental one-way classification with two treatments. Each treatment used 15 male and 120 females (mating ratio 1:8, and ducks aged 13-14 months. Eggs production was recorded during three weeks period. About 300 eggs were selected from each treatment to be hatched. Fertility was observed at 4th days of hatching process using egg candler. Data of eggs production, eggs weight, fertility, and hatchability were analyzed using unpaired two sample Student’s t-test. The results showed that average of egg weight, fertility and hatchability were not different under two management system, but egg production in the semi-intensive maintenance was significantly higher (P<0.05 than those in the extensive system. Egg production in the semi-intensive was 12.3% higher than those in the extensive. In conclusion, the semi-intensive system that is applied in this study the number of eggs production but did not affect the average of egg weight, fertility and hatchability.

  6. Bio production of red pigment by local isolate of Monascus purpureus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youssef, B.M.; Khalaf, M.A.; Emam, D.A.; Hazaa, M.M.; Shash, S.M.


    There is an increased interest on natural pigments to replace some currently used synthetic dyes, since the latter have been associated with toxic effects in foods. The red pigment of the fungus Monascus is widely used in all the world as food additives or pharmaceuticals. The Monascus purpureus local strain, which was isolated from dried silage sample was employed for red pigment production in submerged fermentation (Sm F) conditions. Different fermentation parameters including: incubation period, temperature, initial ph of the medium, agitation, different carbon and nitrogen sources, bio elements and type of inoculum and its age; were carried out under Sm F conditions to enhance the red pigment production. The maximum red pigment production (1.27 gI -1 ) was achieved at incubation temperature 30 C, initial ph 5.5, agitation rate 150 rpm, 2% starch and 0.4% ammonium sulphate as carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively, after 4 days when the production medium inoculated with 12 h age from seed culture inoculum. An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of gamma irradiation on the activity of Monascus purpureus towards red pigment production. The maximum red pigment production (I.9 gI -1 ) was obtained at 0.5 kGy dose level

  7. Local Adaptive Calibration of the GLASS Surface Incident Shortwave Radiation Product Using Smoothing Spline (United States)

    Zhang, X.; Liang, S.; Wang, G.


    Incident solar radiation (ISR) over the Earth's surface plays an important role in determining the Earth's climate and environment. Generally, can be obtained from direct measurements, remotely sensed data, or reanalysis and general circulation models (GCMs) data. Each type of product has advantages and limitations: the surface direct measurements provide accurate but sparse spatial coverage, whereas other global products may have large uncertainties. Ground measurements have been normally used for validation and occasionally calibration, but transforming their "true values" spatially to improve the satellite products is still a new and challenging topic. In this study, an improved thin-plate smoothing spline approach is presented to locally "calibrate" the Global LAnd Surface Satellite (GLASS) ISR product using the reconstructed ISR data from surface meteorological measurements. The influences of surface elevation on ISR estimation was also considered in the proposed method. The point-based surface reconstructed ISR was used as the response variable, and the GLASS ISR product and the surface elevation data at the corresponding locations as explanatory variables to train the thin plate spline model. We evaluated the performance of the approach using the cross-validation method at both daily and monthly time scales over China. We also evaluated estimated ISR based on the thin-plate spline method using independent ground measurements at 10 sites from the Coordinated Enhanced Observation Network (CEON). These validation results indicated that the thin plate smoothing spline method can be effectively used for calibrating satellite derived ISR products using ground measurements to achieve better accuracy.

  8. Regulation of metabolic products and gene expression in Fusarium asiaticum by agmatine addition. (United States)

    Suzuki, Tadahiro; Kim, Young-Kyung; Yoshioka, Hifumi; Iwahashi, Yumiko


    The metabolic products resulting from the cultivation of F. asiaticum in agmatine were identified using capillary electrophoresis-time of flight mass spectrometry. Glyoxylic acid was detected from fungal cultures grown in agmatine, while it was absent in control cells. The abundance of other metabolic products of the glycolytic pathway also increased because of agmatine; however, there was no increase in the amounts of pyruvic acid or metabolites from the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Moreover, gene expression levels within Fusarium asiaticum exposed to agmatine were analyzed by DNA microarray. Changes in gene expression levels directed the changes in metabolic products. Our results suggest that acetyl coenzyme A, which is a starting substrate for the biosynthesis of deoxynivalenol (DON), was simultaneously produced by activated β-oxidation. Furthermore, the content of 4-aminobutyrate (GABA) was increased in the agmatine addition culture medium. GABA can be synthesized from agmatine through putrescine and might influence the regulation of DON-related genes.

  9. Qualitative and quantitative evaluation of a local lymph node assay based on ex vivo interleukin-2 production. (United States)

    Azam, Philippe; Peiffer, Jean-Luc; Ourlin, Jean-Claude; Bonnet, Pierre-Antoine; Tissier, Marie-Hélène; Vian, Laurence; Fabre, Isabelle


    The local lymph node assay (LLNA) is a regular method for the detection of sensitizing chemicals in mice which measures the incorporation of tritiated thymidine in lymph node cells. We have evaluated an alternative to this method based on the interleukin-2 (IL-2) production of lymph node cells. At the mRNA level, no change in the IL-2 gene expression level was detected by real-time PCR analysis. At the protein level, various experimental conditions were checked in order to improve the irritant versus sensitizer discrimination with a restricted set of prototypic compounds. In particular, the use of phytohemagglutinin A (PHA) in an ex vivo cell culture step showed an improvement of both signal and discrimination. In these optimised conditions, a panel of irritants and potency-graded sensitizers was used to assess the performance of the modified method. IFN-gamma production was used as a positive control. For each compound, a dose-response was performed and stimulation indexes (SI) were determined. Effective concentrations (EC) for each sensitizers were then extracted and compared to the literature data of the regular LLNA. The IL-2-based LLNA showed similar performances at both qualitative and quantitative levels compared to regular LLNA.

  10. Evolution Analysis of the Aux/IAA Gene Family in Plants Shows Dual Origins and Variable Nuclear Localization Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wentao Wu


    Full Text Available The plant hormone auxin plays pivotal roles in many aspects of plant growth and development. The auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (Aux/IAA gene family encodes short-lived nuclear proteins acting on auxin perception and signaling, but the evolutionary history of this gene family remains to be elucidated. In this study, the Aux/IAA gene family in 17 plant species covering all major lineages of plants is identified and analyzed by using multiple bioinformatics methods. A total of 434 Aux/IAA genes was found among these plant species, and the gene copy number ranges from three (Physcomitrella patens to 63 (Glycine max. The phylogenetic analysis shows that the canonical Aux/IAA proteins can be generally divided into five major clades, and the origin of Aux/IAA proteins could be traced back to the common ancestor of land plants and green algae. Many truncated Aux/IAA proteins were found, and some of these truncated Aux/IAA proteins may be generated from the C-terminal truncation of auxin response factor (ARF proteins. Our results indicate that tandem and segmental duplications play dominant roles for the expansion of the Aux/IAA gene family mainly under purifying selection. The putative nuclear localization signals (NLSs in Aux/IAA proteins are conservative, and two kinds of new primordial bipartite NLSs in P. patens and Selaginella moellendorffii were discovered. Our findings not only give insights into the origin and expansion of the Aux/IAA gene family, but also provide a basis for understanding their functions during the course of evolution.

  11. Evolution Analysis of the Aux/IAA Gene Family in Plants Shows Dual Origins and Variable Nuclear Localization Signals. (United States)

    Wu, Wentao; Liu, Yaxue; Wang, Yuqian; Li, Huimin; Liu, Jiaxi; Tan, Jiaxin; He, Jiadai; Bai, Jingwen; Ma, Haoli


    The plant hormone auxin plays pivotal roles in many aspects of plant growth and development. The auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (Aux/IAA) gene family encodes short-lived nuclear proteins acting on auxin perception and signaling, but the evolutionary history of this gene family remains to be elucidated. In this study, the Aux/IAA gene family in 17 plant species covering all major lineages of plants is identified and analyzed by using multiple bioinformatics methods. A total of 434 Aux/IAA genes was found among these plant species, and the gene copy number ranges from three ( Physcomitrella patens ) to 63 ( Glycine max ). The phylogenetic analysis shows that the canonical Aux/IAA proteins can be generally divided into five major clades, and the origin of Aux/IAA proteins could be traced back to the common ancestor of land plants and green algae. Many truncated Aux/IAA proteins were found, and some of these truncated Aux/IAA proteins may be generated from the C-terminal truncation of auxin response factor (ARF) proteins. Our results indicate that tandem and segmental duplications play dominant roles for the expansion of the Aux/IAA gene family mainly under purifying selection. The putative nuclear localization signals (NLSs) in Aux/IAA proteins are conservative, and two kinds of new primordial bipartite NLSs in P. patens and Selaginella moellendorffii were discovered. Our findings not only give insights into the origin and expansion of the Aux/IAA gene family, but also provide a basis for understanding their functions during the course of evolution.

  12. Global effects of local food-production crises: a virtual water perspective. (United States)

    Tamea, Stefania; Laio, Francesco; Ridolfi, Luca


    By importing food and agricultural goods, countries cope with the heterogeneous global water distribution and often rely on water resources available abroad. The virtual displacement of the water used to produce such goods (known as virtual water) connects together, in a global water system, all countries participating to the international trade network. Local food-production crises, having social, economic or environmental origin, propagate in this network, modifying the virtual water trade and perturbing local and global food availability, quantified in terms of virtual water. We analyze here the possible effects of local crises by developing a new propagation model, parsimonious but grounded on data-based and statistically-verified assumptions, whose effectiveness is proved on the Argentinean crisis in 2008-09. The model serves as the basis to propose indicators of crisis impact and country vulnerability to external food-production crises, which highlight that countries with largest water resources have the highest impact on the international trade, and that not only water-scarce but also wealthy and globalized countries are among the most vulnerable to external crises. The temporal analysis reveals that global average vulnerability has increased over time and that stronger effects of crises are now found in countries with low food (and water) availability.

  13. Development of Ecogenomic Sensors for Remote Detection of Marine Microbes, Their Genes and Gene Products (United States)

    Scholin, C.; Preston, C.; Harris, A.; Birch, J.; Marin, R.; Jensen, S.; Roman, B.; Everlove, C.; Makarewicz, A.; Riot, V.; Hadley, D.; Benett, W.; Dzenitis, J.


    An internet search using the phrase "ecogenomic sensor" will return numerous references that speak broadly to the idea of detecting molecular markers indicative of specific organisms, genes or other biomarkers within an environmental context. However, a strict and unified definition of "ecogenomic sensor" is lacking and the phrase may be used for laboratory-based tools and techniques as well as semi or fully autonomous systems that can be deployed outside of laboratory. We are exploring development of an ecogenomic sensor from the perspective of a field-portable device applied towards oceanographic research and water quality monitoring. The device is known as the Environmental Sample Processor, or ESP. The ESP employs wet chemistry molecular analytical techniques to autonomously assess the presence and abundance of specific organisms, their genes and/or metabolites in near real-time. Current detection chemistries rely on low- density DNA probe and protein arrays. This presentation will emphasize results from 2007-8 field trials when the ESP was moored in Monterey Bay, CA, as well as current engineering activities for improving analytical capacity of the instrument. Changes in microbial community structure at the rRNA level were observed remotely in accordance with changing chemical and physical oceanographic conditions. Current developments include incorporation of a reusable solid phase extraction column for purifying nucleic acids and a 4-channel real-time PCR module. Users can configure this system to support a variety of PCR master mixes, primer/probe combinations and control templates. An update on progress towards fielding a PCR- enabled ESP will be given along with an outline of plans for its use in coastal and oligotrophic oceanic regimes.

  14. Local Geomorphology as a Determinant of Macrofaunal Production in a Mountain Stream. (United States)

    Huryn, Alexander D; Wallace, J Bruce


    ), followed by bedrock-outcrop (517-mg/m 2 ) and pool (238 mg/m 2 ). Riffles constituted 58% of total stream area and were the source of 77% of the habitat-weighted scraper production. Annual production of engulfing predators was greatest in the pool habitat (2313 mg/m 2 ), followed by riffles (1765 mg/m 2 ) and bedrock-outcrop (687 mg/m 2 ). The relatively lower production of engulfing predators in the bedrock-outcrop habitat reflects a functional shift in mode of resource acquisition by predators, with predaceous collector-filterers (Arcto-psychinae: Trichoptera) predominating in the bedrock-outcrop. Collector-gatherer production was more evenly distributed, with the bedrock-outcrop, riffle, and pool habitats each contributing 14, 54, and 33% to the habitat-weighted production, respectively. Unlike all other functional groups, this distribution was not significantly different from the distribution of stream area among habitats and reflected lack of dependence on specific physical attributes of the local environment for access to food by members of this functional group. Local geomorphology determined the diversity and spatial distribution of bedrock-outcrops, riffles, and pools in the study stream. In turn, the functional structure of the macrofauna, when viewed holistically, was the result of the integration of the relative contributions of each habitat type of total stream area. Total habitat-weighted annual production in the study stream was estimated at 5093 and 1921 mg/m 2 for primary and secondary consumers, respectively. The distribution of habitat-weighted production among functional groups was: collector-gatherers (39%), followed by shredders (225), engulfing predators (22%), scrapers (13%), and collector-filterers (8%). This functional structure agrees favorably with current conceptual models of head water streams draining forested catchments. © 1987 by the Ecological Society of America.

  15. Genome-wide local ancestry approach identifies genes and variants associated with chemotherapeutic susceptibility in African Americans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather E Wheeler

    Full Text Available Chemotherapeutic agents are used in the treatment of many cancers, yet variable resistance and toxicities among individuals limit successful outcomes. Several studies have indicated outcome differences associated with ancestry among patients with various cancer types. Using both traditional SNP-based and newly developed gene-based genome-wide approaches, we investigated the genetics of chemotherapeutic susceptibility in lymphoblastoid cell lines derived from 83 African Americans, a population for which there is a disparity in the number of genome-wide studies performed. To account for population structure in this admixed population, we incorporated local ancestry information into our association model. We tested over 2 million SNPs and identified 325, 176, 240, and 190 SNPs that were suggestively associated with cytarabine-, 5'-deoxyfluorouridine (5'-DFUR-, carboplatin-, and cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity, respectively (p≤10(-4. Importantly, some of these variants are found only in populations of African descent. We also show that cisplatin-susceptibility SNPs are enriched for carboplatin-susceptibility SNPs. Using a gene-based genome-wide association approach, we identified 26, 11, 20, and 41 suggestive candidate genes for association with cytarabine-, 5'-DFUR-, carboplatin-, and cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity, respectively (p≤10(-3. Fourteen of these genes showed evidence of association with their respective chemotherapeutic phenotypes in the Yoruba from Ibadan, Nigeria (p<0.05, including TP53I11, COPS5 and GAS8, which are known to be involved in tumorigenesis. Although our results require further study, we have identified variants and genes associated with chemotherapeutic susceptibility in African Americans by using an approach that incorporates local ancestry information.

  16. DNA repair synthesis dependent on the uvrA,B gene products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moses, R.E.; Moody, E.E.M.


    Ultraviolet irradiation of toluene-treated Escherichia coli causes an inhibition of replicative DNA synthesis. This is followed by the appearance of nonconservative DNA repair synthesis which does not require either the polymerase or 5' → 3' exonucleolytic activities of DNA polymerase I. The repair synthesis may be catalyzed by DNA polymerase III activity but does not require a functional DNA polymerase II. The ultraviolet-induced synthesis requires ATP and is dependent on a functional uvrA and uvrB gene product. However, other uvr gene products are not required for the synthesis. The recB function is also not required

  17. Genomic organization, expression, and chromosome localization of a third aurora-related kinase gene, Aie1. (United States)

    Hu, H M; Chuang, C K; Lee, M J; Tseng, T C; Tang, T K


    We previously reported two novel testis-specific serine/threonine kinases, Aie1 (mouse) and AIE2 (human), that share high amino acid identities with the kinase domains of fly aurora and yeast Ipl1. Here, we report the entire intron-exon organization of the Aie1 gene and analyze the expression patterns of Aie1 mRNA during testis development. The mouse Aie1 gene spans approximately 14 kb and contains seven exons. The sequences of the exon-intron boundaries of the Aie1 gene conform to the consensus sequences (GT/AG) of the splicing donor and acceptor sites of most eukaryotic genes. Comparative genomic sequencing revealed that the gene structure is highly conserved between mouse Aie1 and human AIE2. However, much less homology was found in the sequence outside the kinase-coding domains. The Aie1 locus was mapped to mouse chromosome 7A2-A3 by fluorescent in situ hybridization. Northern blot analysis indicates that Aie1 mRNA likely is expressed at a low level on day 14 and reaches its plateau on day 21 in the developing postnatal testis. RNA in situ hybridization indicated that the expression of the Aie1 transcript was restricted to meiotically active germ cells, with the highest levels detected in spermatocytes at the late pachytene stage. These findings suggest that Aie1 plays a role in spermatogenesis.

  18. The Birth of a Black Rice Gene and Its Local Spread by Introgression. (United States)

    Oikawa, Tetsuo; Maeda, Hiroaki; Oguchi, Taichi; Yamaguchi, Takuya; Tanabe, Noriko; Ebana, Kaworu; Yano, Masahiro; Ebitani, Takeshi; Izawa, Takeshi


    The origin and spread of novel agronomic traits during crop domestication are complex events in plant evolution. Wild rice (Oryza rufipogon) has red grains due to the accumulation of proanthocyanidins, whereas most cultivated rice (Oryza sativa) varieties have white grains induced by a defective allele in the Rc basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) gene. Although the events surrounding the origin and spread of black rice traits remain unknown, varieties with black grains due to anthocyanin accumulation are distributed in various locations throughout Asia. Here, we show that the black grain trait originated from ectopic expression of the Kala4 bHLH gene due to rearrangement in the promoter region. Both the Rc and Kala4 genes activate upstream flavonol biosynthesis genes, such as chalcone synthase and dihydroflavonol-4-reductase, and downstream genes, such as leucoanthocyanidin reductase and leucoanthocyanidin dioxygenase, to produce the respective specific pigments. Genome analysis of 21 black rice varieties as well as red- and white-grained landraces demonstrated that black rice arose in tropical japonica and its subsequent spread to the indica subspecies can be attributed to the causal alleles of Kala4. The relatively small size of genomic fragments of tropical japonica origin in some indica varieties indicates that refined introgression must have occurred by natural crossbreeding in the course of evolution of the black trait in rice. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  19. Improvement of oxytetracycline production mediated via cooperation of resistance genes in Streptomyces rimosus. (United States)

    Yin, Shouliang; Wang, Xuefeng; Shi, Mingxin; Yuan, Fang; Wang, Huizhuan; Jia, Xiaole; Yuan, Fang; Sun, Jinliang; Liu, Tiejun; Yang, Keqian; Zhang, Yuxiu; Fan, Keqiang; Li, Zilong


    Increasing the self-resistance levels of Streptomyces is an effective strategy to improve the production of antibiotics. To increase the oxytetracycline (OTC) production in Streptomyces rimosus, we investigated the cooperative effect of three co-overexpressing OTC resistance genes: one gene encodes a ribosomal protection protein (otrA) and the other two express efflux proteins (otrB and otrC). Results indicated that combinational overexpression of otrA, otrB, and otrC (MKABC) exerted a synergetic effect. OTC production increased by 179% in the recombinant strain compared with that of the wild-type strain M4018. The resistance level to OTC was increased by approximately two-fold relative to the parental strain, thereby indicating that applying the cooperative effect of self-resistance genes is useful to improve OTC production. Furthermore, the previously identified cluster-situated activator OtcR was overexpressed in MKABC in constructing the recombinant strain MKRABC; such strain can produce OTC of approximately 7.49 g L -1 , which represents an increase of 19% in comparison with that of the OtcR-overexpressing strain alone. Our work showed that the cooperative overexpression of self-resistance genes is a promising strategy to enhance the antibiotics production in Streptomyces.

  20. Applications of gene-based technologies for improving animal production and health in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makkar, H.P.S.; Viljoen, G.J.


    This book provides a compilation of peer-reviewed scientific contributions from authoritative researchers attending an international symposium convened by the Animal Production and Health Sub-programme of the Animal Production and Health (APH), Joint FAO/IAEA Programme in cooperation with the Animal Production and Health Division of the FAO. These Proceedings contain invaluable information on the role and future potential of gene-based technologies for improving animal production and health, possible applications and constraints in the use of this technology in developing countries and their specific research needs

  1. Saccharification of rice straw by cellulase from a local Trichoderma harzianum SNRS3 for biobutanol production. (United States)

    Rahnama, Nooshin; Foo, Hooi Ling; Abdul Rahman, Nor Aini; Ariff, Arbakariya; Md Shah, Umi Kalsom


    Rice straw has shown to be a promising agricultural by-product in the bioconversion of biomass to value-added products. Hydrolysis of cellulose, a main constituent of lignocellulosic biomass, is a requirement for fermentable sugar production and its subsequent bioconversion to biofuels such as biobutanol. The high cost of commercial enzymes is a major impediment to the industrial application of cellulases. Therefore, the use of local microbial enzymes has been suggested. Trichoderma harzianum strains are potential CMCase and β-glucosidase producers. However, few researches have been reported on cellulase production by T. harzianum and the subsequent use of the crude cellulase for cellulose enzymatic hydrolysis. For cellulose hydrolysis to be efficiently performed, the presence of the whole set of cellulase components including exoglucanase, endoglucanase, and β-glucosidase at a considerable concentration is required. Biomass recalcitrance is also a bottleneck in the bioconversion of agricultural residues to value-added products. An effective pretreatment could be of central significance in the bioconversion of biomass to biofuels. Rice straw pretreated using various concentrations of NaOH was subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis. The saccharification of rice straw pretreated with 2% (w/v) NaOH using crude cellulase from local T. harzianum SNRS3 resulted in the production of 29.87 g/L reducing sugar and a yield of 0.6 g/g substrate. The use of rice straw hydrolysate as carbon source for biobutanol fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 resulted in an ABE yield, ABE productivity, and biobutanol yield of 0.27 g/g glucose, 0.04 g/L/h and 0.16 g/g glucose, respectively. As a potential β-glucosidase producer, T. harzianum SNRS3 used in this study was able to produce β-glucosidase at the activity of 173.71 U/g substrate. However, for cellulose hydrolysis to be efficient, Filter Paper Activity at a considerable concentration is also required to initiate the

  2. An Evaluation of Active Learning Causal Discovery Methods for Reverse-Engineering Local Causal Pathways of Gene Regulation (United States)

    Ma, Sisi; Kemmeren, Patrick; Aliferis, Constantin F.; Statnikov, Alexander


    Reverse-engineering of causal pathways that implicate diseases and vital cellular functions is a fundamental problem in biomedicine. Discovery of the local causal pathway of a target variable (that consists of its direct causes and direct effects) is essential for effective intervention and can facilitate accurate diagnosis and prognosis. Recent research has provided several active learning methods that can leverage passively observed high-throughput data to draft causal pathways and then refine the inferred relations with a limited number of experiments. The current study provides a comprehensive evaluation of the performance of active learning methods for local causal pathway discovery in real biological data. Specifically, 54 active learning methods/variants from 3 families of algorithms were applied for local causal pathways reconstruction of gene regulation for 5 transcription factors in S. cerevisiae. Four aspects of the methods’ performance were assessed, including adjacency discovery quality, edge orientation accuracy, complete pathway discovery quality, and experimental cost. The results of this study show that some methods provide significant performance benefits over others and therefore should be routinely used for local causal pathway discovery tasks. This study also demonstrates the feasibility of local causal pathway reconstruction in real biological systems with significant quality and low experimental cost. PMID:26939894


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Arsovski


    Full Text Available Appearance of large number of management systems, with different and sometimes divergent demands, needs reconsideration of their implementation strategies and their integration in one integrated management system (IMS. So defined IMS would be designed and implemented in different areas. In this paper is presented basic concept of integration of partical management systems in areas of quality (ISO 9001, environmental protection (ISO 14001, occupational health (ISO 18001, food safety (ISO 22000 and accreditation of laboratories (ISO17025/ISO17020. As a pilot organization is choosed local public enterprise for production, supply and drain of water.

  4. Conformal Haag-Kastler nets, pointlike localized fields and the existence of operator product expansions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fredenhagen, K.; Joerss, M.


    Starting from a chiral conformal Haag-Kastler net on 2 dimensional Minkowski space we construct associated pointlike localized fields. This amounts to a proof of the existence of operator product expansions. We derive the result in two ways. One is based on the geometrical identification of the modular structure, the other depends on a ''conformal cluster theorem'' of the conformal two-point-functions in algebraic quantum field theory. The existence of the fields then implies important structural properties of the theory, as PCT-invariance, the Bisognano-Wichmann identification of modular operators, Haag duality and additivity. (orig.)

  5. The potato-specific apyrase is apoplastically localized and has influence on gene expression, growth, and development. (United States)

    Riewe, David; Grosman, Lukasz; Fernie, Alisdair R; Wucke, Cornelia; Geigenberger, Peter


    Apyrases hydrolyze nucleoside triphosphates and diphosphates and are found in all eukaryotes and a few prokaryotes. Although their enzymatic properties have been well characterized, relatively little is known regarding their subcellular localization and physiological function in plants. In this study, we used reverse genetic and biochemical approaches to investigate the role of potato (Solanum tuberosum)-specific apyrase. Silencing of the apyrase gene family with RNA interference constructs under the control of the constitutive 35S promoter led to a strong decrease in apyrase activity to below 10% of the wild-type level. This decreased activity led to phenotypic changes in the transgenic lines, including a general retardation in growth, an increase in tuber number per plant, and differences in tuber morphology. Silencing of apyrase under the control of a tuber-specific promoter led to similar changes in tuber morphology; however, there were no direct effects of apyrase inhibition on tuber metabolism. DNA microarrays revealed that decreased expression of apyrase leads to increased levels of transcripts coding for cell wall proteins involved in growth and genes involved in energy transfer and starch synthesis. To place these results in context, we determined the subcellular localization of the potato-specific apyrase. Using a combination of approaches, we were able to demonstrate that this enzyme is localized to the apoplast. We describe the evidence that underlies both this fact and that potato-specific apyrase has a crucial role in regulating growth and development.

  6. Increasing cocoa butter-like lipid production of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by expression of selected cocoa genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, Yongjun; Gossing, Michael; Bergenholm, David


    for CB biosynthesis from the cocoa genome using a phylogenetic analysis approach. By expressing the selected cocoa genes in S. cerevisiae, we successfully increased total fatty acid production, TAG production and CBL production in some S. cerevisiae strains. The relative CBL content in three yeast...... higher level of CBL compared with the control strain. In summary, CBL production by S. cerevisiae were increased through expressing selected cocoa genes potentially involved in CB biosynthesis.......Cocoa butter (CB) extracted from cocoa beans mainly consists of three different kinds of triacylglycerols (TAGs), 1,3-dipalmitoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol (POP, C16:0-C18:1-C16:0), 1-palmitoyl-3-stearoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol(POS,C16:0C18:1-C18:0) and 1,3-distearoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol (SOS, C18:0-C18:1-C18...

  7. Differential gene expression responses distinguish contact and respiratory sensitizers and nonsensitizing irritants in the local lymph node assay. (United States)

    Adenuga, David; Woolhiser, Michael R; Gollapudi, B Bhaskar; Boverhof, Darrell R


    Genomic approaches have the potential to enhance the specificity and predictive accuracy of existing toxicology endpoints, including those for chemical sensitization. The present study was conducted to determine whether gene expression responses can distinguish contact sensitizers (1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene [DNCB] and hexyl cinnamic aldehyde [HCA]), respiratory sensitizers (ortho-phthalaldehyde and trimellitic anhydride [TMA]), and nonsensitizing irritants (methyl salicylate [MS] and nonanoic acid [NA]) in the local lymph node assay (LLNA). Female Balb/c mice received doses of each chemical as per the standard LLNA dosing regimen on days 1, 2, and 3. Auricular lymph nodes were analyzed for tritiated thymidine ((3)HTdR) incorporation on day 6 and for gene expression responses on days 6 and 10. All chemicals induced dose-dependent increases in stimulation index, which correlated strongly with the number of differentially expressed genes. A majority of genes modulated by the irritants were similarly altered by the sensitizers, consistent with the irritating effects of the sensitizers. However, a select number of responses involved with immune-specific functions, such as dendritic cell activation, were unique to the sensitizers and may offer the ability to distinguish sensitizers from irritants. Genes for the mast cell proteases 1 and 8, Lgals7, Tim2, Aicda, Il4, and Akr1c18 were more strongly regulated by respiratory sensitizers compared with contact sensitizers and may represent potential biomarkers for discriminating between contact and respiratory sensitizers. Collectively, these data suggest that gene expression responses may serve as useful biomarkers to distinguish between respiratory and contact sensitizers and nonsensitizing irritants in the LLNA.

  8. Localization of candidate allergen genes on the apple (Malus domestica) genome and their putative allergenicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao Zhongshan,


    Apple is generally considered as a healthy food, but 2-3% European people can not eat this fruit because it provokes allergy reaction. Four classes of apple allergen genes have been identified, they are Mal d 1, Mal d 2, Mal d 3 and Mal d 4 . This thesis focuses on the genomic characterization of

  9. Regulatory structures for gene therapy medicinal products in the European Union. (United States)

    Klug, Bettina; Celis, Patrick; Carr, Melanie; Reinhardt, Jens


    Taking into account the complexity and technical specificity of advanced therapy medicinal products: (gene and cell therapy medicinal products and tissue engineered products), a dedicated European regulatory framework was needed. Regulation (EC) No. 1394/2007, the "ATMP Regulation" provides tailored regulatory principles for the evaluation and authorization of these innovative medicines. The majority of gene or cell therapy product development is carried out by academia, hospitals, and small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Thus, acknowledging the particular needs of these types of sponsors, the legislation also provides incentives for product development tailored to them. The European Medicines Agency (EMA) and, in particular, its Committee for Advanced Therapies (CAT) provide a variety of opportunities for early interaction with developers of ATMPs to enable them to have early regulatory and scientific input. An important tool to promote innovation and the development of new medicinal products by micro-, small-, and medium-sized enterprises is the EMA's SME initiative launched in December 2005 to offer financial and administrative assistance to smaller companies. The European legislation also foresees the involvement of stakeholders, such as patient organizations, in the development of new medicines. Considering that gene therapy medicinal products are developed in many cases for treatment of rare diseases often of monogenic origin, the involvement of patient organizations, which focus on rare diseases and genetic and congenital disorders, is fruitful. Two such organizations are represented in the CAT. Research networks play another important role in the development of gene therapy medicinal products. The European Commission is funding such networks through the EU Sixth Framework Program. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Systemic and local regulation of phosphate and nitrogen transporter genes by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in roots of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). (United States)

    Duan, Jianfeng; Tian, Hui; Drijber, Rhae A; Gao, Yajun


    Previous studies have reported that the expression of phosphate (Pi) or nitrogen (N) transporter genes in roots of plants could be regulated by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, but little is known whether the regulation is systemic or not. The present study investigated the systemic and local regulation of multiple phosphate and nitrogen transporter genes by four AM fungal species belonging to four genera in the roots of winter wheat. A split-root culture system with AM inoculated (MR) and non-inoculated root compartments (NR) was used to investigate the systemic or local responses of phosphate and nitrogen transporter genes to colonization by four AM fungi in the roots of wheat. The expression of four Pi transporter, five nitrate transporter, and three ammonium transporter genes was quantified using real-time PCR. Of the four AM fungi tested, all locally increased expression of the AM-inducible Pi transporter genes, and most locally decreased expression of a Pi-starvation inducible Pi transporter gene. The addition of N in soil increased the expression of either Pi starvation inducible Pi transporters or AM inducible Pi transporters. Inoculation with AM fungi either had no effect, or could locally or systemically down-regulate expression of nitrogen transporter genes depending on gene type and AM fungal species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Sub-cellular mRNA localization modulates the regulation of gene expression by small RNAs in bacteria (United States)

    Teimouri, Hamid; Korkmazhan, Elgin; Stavans, Joel; Levine, Erel


    Small non-coding RNAs can exert significant regulatory activity on gene expression in bacteria. In recent years, substantial progress has been made in understanding bacterial gene expression by sRNAs. However, recent findings that demonstrate that families of mRNAs show non-trivial sub-cellular distributions raise the question of how localization may affect the regulatory activity of sRNAs. Here we address this question within a simple mathematical model. We show that the non-uniform spatial distributions of mRNA can alter the threshold-linear response that characterizes sRNAs that act stoichiometrically, and modulate the hierarchy among targets co-regulated by the same sRNA. We also identify conditions where the sub-cellular organization of cofactors in the sRNA pathway can induce spatial heterogeneity on sRNA targets. Our results suggest that under certain conditions, interpretation and modeling of natural and synthetic gene regulatory circuits need to take into account the spatial organization of the transcripts of participating genes.

  12. Regulation of the E. coli SOS response by the lexA gene product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brent, R.


    In an Escherichia coli that is growing normally, transcription of many genes is repressed by the product of the lexA gene. If cellular DNA is damaged, proteolytically competent recA protein (recA protease) inactivates lexA protein and these genes are induced. Many of the cellular phenomena observed during the cellular response to DNA damage (the SOS response) are the consequence of the expression of these lexA-prepressed genes. Since the SOS response of E. coli has recently been the subject of a comprehensive review, in this paper I would like to concentrate on some modifications to the picture based on new data. 12 references, 2 figures

  13. A positive feedback-based gene circuit to increase the production of a membrane protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennis Robert B


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Membrane proteins are an important class of proteins, playing a key role in many biological processes, and are a promising target in pharmaceutical development. However, membrane proteins are often difficult to produce in large quantities for the purpose of crystallographic or biochemical analyses. Results In this paper, we demonstrate that synthetic gene circuits designed specifically to overexpress certain genes can be applied to manipulate the expression kinetics of a model membrane protein, cytochrome bd quinol oxidase in E. coli, resulting in increased expression rates. The synthetic circuit involved is an engineered, autoinducer-independent variant of the lux operon activator LuxR from V. fischeri in an autoregulatory, positive feedback configuration. Conclusions Our proof-of-concept experiments indicate a statistically significant increase in the rate of production of the bd oxidase membrane protein. Synthetic gene networks provide a feasible solution for the problem of membrane protein production.

  14. Improving the Safety of Cell Therapy Products by Suicide Gene Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio eDi Stasi


    Full Text Available Adoptive T-cell therapy can involve donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, the administration of tumor infiltrating lymphocyte (TILs expanded ex-vivo, or more recently the use of T cell receptor (TCR or chimeric antigen receptor (CAR redirected T cells. However cellular therapies can pose significant risks, including graft-versus-host-disease and other on and off-target effects, and therefore strategies need to be implemented to permanently reverse any sign of toxicity. A suicide gene is a genetically encoded molecule that allows selective destruction of adoptively transferred cells. Suicide gene addition to cellular therapeutic products can lead to selective ablation of gene-modified cells, preventing collateral damage to contiguous cells and/or tissues. The ‘ideal’ suicide gene would ensure the safety of gene modified cellular applications by granting irreversible elimination of ‘all’ and ‘only’ the cells responsible for the unwanted toxicity. This review presents the suicide gene safety systems reported to date, with a focus on the state-of-the-art and potential applications regarding two of the most extensively validated suicide genes, including the clinical setting: herpes-simplex-thymidine-kinase (HSV-TK and inducible-caspase-9 (iCasp9.

  15. An allele of an ancestral transcription factor dependent on a horizontally acquired gene product. (United States)

    Chen, H Deborah; Jewett, Mollie W; Groisman, Eduardo A


    Changes in gene regulatory circuits often give rise to phenotypic differences among closely related organisms. In bacteria, these changes can result from alterations in the ancestral genome and/or be brought about by genes acquired by horizontal transfer. Here, we identify an allele of the ancestral transcription factor PmrA that requires the horizontally acquired pmrD gene product to promote gene expression. We determined that a single amino acid difference between the PmrA proteins from the human adapted Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi B and the broad host range S. enterica serovar Typhimurium rendered transcription of PmrA-activated genes dependent on the PmrD protein in the former but not the latter serovar. Bacteria harboring the serovar Typhimurium allele exhibited polymyxin B resistance under PmrA- or under PmrA- and PmrD-inducing conditions. By contrast, isogenic strains with the serovar Paratyphi B allele displayed PmrA-regulated polymyxin B resistance only when experiencing activating conditions for both PmrA and PmrD. We establish that the two PmrA orthologs display quantitative differences in several biochemical properties. Strains harboring the serovar Paratyphi B allele showed enhanced biofilm formation, a property that might promote serovar Paratyphi B's chronic infection of the gallbladder. Our findings illustrate how subtle differences in ancestral genes can impact the ability of horizontally acquired genes to confer new properties.

  16. Assembly of Highly Standardized Gene Fragments for High-Level Production of Porphyrins in E. coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Thrane; Madsen, Karina Marie; Seppala, Susanna


    to formulate a molecular cloning pipeline and iteratively assemble and optimize a six-gene pathway for protoporphyrin IX synthesis in Escherichia coli. State of the art production levels were achieved through two simple cycles of engineering and screening. The principles defined here are generally applicable...

  17. EpsA is an essential gene in exopolysaccharide production in Lactobacillus johnsonii FI9785. (United States)

    Dertli, Enes; Mayer, Melinda J; Colquhoun, Ian J; Narbad, Arjan


    Lactobacillus johnsonii FI9785 has an eps gene cluster which is required for the biosynthesis of homopolymeric exopolysaccharides (EPS)-1 and heteropolymeric EPS-2 as a capsular layer. The first gene of the cluster, epsA, is the putative transcriptional regulator. In this study we showed the crucial role of epsA in EPS biosynthesis by demonstrating that deletion of epsA resulted in complete loss of both EPS-1 and EPS-2 on the cell surface. Plasmid complementation of the epsA gene fully restored EPS production, as confirmed by transmission electron microscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis. Furthermore, this complementation resulted in a twofold increase in the expression levels of this gene, which almost doubled amounts of EPS production in comparison with the wild-type strain. Analysis of EPS by NMR showed an increased ratio of the heteropolysaccharide to homopolysaccharide in the complemented strain and allowed identification of the acetylated residue in EPS-2 as the (1,4)-linked βGlcp unit, with the acetyl group located at O-6. These findings indicate that epsA is a positive regulator of EPS production and that EPS production can be manipulated by altering its expression. © 2015 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  18. Role of nitric oxide and flavohemoglobin homolog genes in Aspergillus nidulans sexual development and mycotoxin production (United States)

    Flavohemoglobins are widely distributed proteins in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms, conferring resistance against nitrosative stress. In the present study we investigated the role of two flavohemoglobin homologous genes, fhbA and fhbB, in morphogenesis and in the production of the mycotox...

  19. Functional Reconstitution of a Fungal Natural Product Gene Cluster by Advanced Genome Editing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, Jakob; Valiante, Vito; Nødvig, Christina Spuur


    is not produced among different isolates. Combining computational analysis with targeted gene editing, we could link a single nucleotide insertion in the polyketide synthase of the trypacidin biosynthetic pathway and reconstitute its production in a nonproducing strain. Thus, we present a CRISPR/Cas9-based tool...... for advanced molecular genetic studies in filamentous fungi, exploiting selectable markers separated from the edited locus....

  20. Capability of microalgae for local saline sewage treatment towards biodiesel production (United States)

    Wu, K.-C.; Yau, Y.-H.; Ho, K.-C.


    Seawater flushing was introduced in Hong Kong since 1950’s. High salinity has an inhibitory effect on nitrification and biological phosphorus uptake of microorganisms. Therefore, saline sewage has impact on traditional biological wastewater treatment. Saline conditions of domestic wastewater then pose opportunity to use algal technology in wastewater treatment. During the treatment (phycoremediation), biodiesel can be produced. This study aims to give an in-depth investigation and development on application of local microalgal strains on biodiesel production. Dunaliella tertiolecta was selected the appropriate algal species with high potential for phycoremediation then biodiesel production. D.tertiolecta was further investigated by optimizing its growth in different process condition in preliminary effluent as based medium. The optimized process condition were acclimated culture with medium initial cell number (5.0 ×105 cells mL-1), under 5% CO2 aerations in preliminary effluent adjust to 15 psu (denoting practical salinity unit). Results showed that lipid content increased from 30.2% to 42%, and biomass productivity reached 463.3 mg L-1day-1 by Fatty acid Methyl Ester (FAME) profile was found for biodiesel production in optimized stage. The treatment period of preliminary effluent was shortened from 15d in original design (unacclimated culture, low initial cell number (5.0 ×105 cells mL-1), without CO2 aeration) to 4d.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Rahayu Lestari


    Full Text Available Rambutan is a tropical fruit that grow well in Indonesia and the peel is considered as waste. Many researchers’ showed that rambutan peel contains polyphenol that could be expected to avoid obesity. The objective of this study was to explore the increasing production of local rambutan and to identify the promising phytochemical compounds on its peel as phytopharmaca candidate against obesity. Survey was conducted on the production of rambutan, potential plantation area, and marketing. Sample of rambutan peel collected from the sub-district Kanigoro, Blitar. Phytochemical compounds were analyzed using TLC, HPLC and FT-IR. Bioassay analysis used obesity rat models. The survey result showed a mean of rambutan production increased 2,6% in 2007-2012. Average production of rambutan 70-120 kg/tree. Vegetative multiplication usually done to maintenance of rambutan quality. The main compound of Rambutan peel extract (RPE is flavonoids, tannins, ellagic acid and the major functional group of CH3, aliphatic CH3, and C=O. These compounds have a potential activity against obesity. RPE 30 mg/kgBW dose was significantly inhibit the weight gain of obese rats and reducing the adipocyte size (p<0.05.

  2. The evolution of local participation and the mode of knowledge production in Arctic research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas D. Brunet


    Full Text Available Arctic science is often claimed to have been transformed by the increased involvement of local people, but these claims of a new research paradigm have not been empirically evaluated. We argue that the "new" participatory research paradigm emerging in Arctic science embodies many of the principles of the Mode 2 knowledge production framework. Using the Mode 2 thesis as an assessment framework, we examined research articles appearing between 1965 and 2010 in the journal Arctic to assess the extent to which there has been a paradigm shift toward more participatory approaches. Results suggest that the involvement of local people has increased only slightly over the last half century and continues to vary systematically among disciplines, organizations, and regions. Analysis of three additional journals focused on Arctic and circumpolar science establishes the generality of these slight increases in local involvement. There is clearly room for more community involvement in Arctic science, but achieving this will require either increasing the proportional representation of the organizations, disciplines, and regions with a track record of successful Mode 2 research, or encouraging Mode 2 research innovation within the organizations, disciplines, and regions currently predominated by Mode 1 approaches.

  3. Protected meat products in Hungary – local foods and hungaricums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ágnes Kovács


    Full Text Available Les auteurs de cette étude présentent une vue d'ensemble sur la production locale des produits carnés en Hongrie, en tenant compte de la législation de l'UE, les indications géographiques protégées (IGP et la désignation de l'origine. La collection des produits carnés Régionaux Hongrois conforme avec le programme national « Traditions – Goûts – Régions » (TGR, en abréviation hongroise: HÍR, est listée. Ce programme fut entamé en 1998, sous l'égide du Ministère de l'Agriculture et du Développement Rural. L’inventaire réalisé comprend 300 produits agricoles, provenant de 9 régions différentes de la Hongrie. Après l'accession de la Hongrie à L'UE, 11 produits ont été soumis à la Commission de la Protection de l'Origine. Actuellement, ces produits se trouvent provisoirement sous une protection nationale.The authors present an overview of the development of Hungarian high quality regional meat products under EU legislation for protection of geographical indications and designation of origin, and conforming to Hungary’s national program – Traditions, Tastes, Regions (TTR, Hungarian abbreviation: HÍR, launched in 1998 by the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development and covering 300 agricultural products from nine regions. After Accession, 11 products were submitted for Protected Designation of Origin (PDO, four of which are meat products. A categorization of Hungarian consumers shows that there is a remarkable heritage of agricultural products and traditional manufacturing methods that offers considerable potential for producers within an increasingly diverse and quality-oriented EU food market.

  4. Use of forest products by the local people of the Salonga National Park in the Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Mbenga Ibesoa


    Full Text Available This article attempted to define a compromise making it possible the satisfaction of the material needs of the populations living within the National park of Salonga while ensuring the conservation of long-term forest resources. The management of the forests requires deepened knowledge of the resources and the participation of the local communities, which are the better, informed on of the forest resources. The implementing of a policy on sustainable forest management would be possible by a better integration and participation of the local populations. A survey was carried out in four villages of the National park of Salonga. The results of the investigation show clearly a positive attitude of the rural populations with regard to the forest resources. The diversity of the needs for the population corresponds to the choice of the products and services of the forest. Overall, the potential of the park’s forests is superior in comparison with the needs of the population. The exploitation of the forest products is vast and is included in the category of a system of an economy of collection.

  5. Crossbreeding locally adapted hair sheep to improve productivity and meat quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Issakowicz

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The use of lambs from crossing of local with specialized sheep breeds for meat production may lead to higher meat deposition and a smaller fat amount in the carcass, with a more adequate nutritional profile for human consumption. This study investigated the performance, carcass and meat characteristics of lambs from the Morada Nova and Santa Inês locally adapted hair breeds and crosses between Dorper × Morada Nova and Dorper × Santa Inês slaughtered at approximately 35 kg. Morada Nova lambs showed lower (p < 0.05 performance compared to the other genetic groups resulting in a higher age at slaughter (p < 0.05. Crossbred Dorper × Santa Inês and Dorper × Morada Nova lambs showed better characteristics for meat production with better (p < 0.05 conformation as well as leg and carcass compacteness index. Dorper × Santa Inês have a fatty acid profile that is more suitable for human consumption than Dorper × Morada Nova lambs do (p < 0.05; however, both had lower (p < 0.05 intramuscular lipid content (as measured by ether extract levels from Longíssimus lumborum compared with purebred lambs. Therefore, when the objective is to obtain lean meat, with improved nutritional profile to reduce risks of cardiovascular disease, the use of breeds and crosses that reduce animal slaughter age, such as the ½ Dorper × ½ Santa Inês crossbred, is an interesting alternative.

  6. Abstract structure of partial function $*$-algebras over semi-direct product of locally compact groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Ghaani Farashahi


    Full Text Available This article presents a unified approach to the abstract notions of partial convolution and involution in $L^p$-function spaces over semi-direct product of locally compact groups. Let $H$ and $K$ be locally compact groups and $tau:Hto Aut(K$ be a continuous homomorphism.  Let $G_tau=Hltimes_tau K$ be the semi-direct product of $H$ and $K$ with respect to $tau$. We define left and right $tau$-convolution on $L^1(G_tau$ and we show that, with respect to each of them, the function space $L^1(G_tau$ is a Banach algebra. We define $tau$-convolution as a linear combination of the left and right $tau$-convolution and we show that the $tau$-convolution is commutative if and only if $K$ is abelian. We prove that there is a $tau$-involution on $L^1(G_tau$ such that with respect to the $tau$-involution and $tau$-convolution, $L^1(G_tau$ is a non-associative Banach $*$-algebra. It is also shown that when $K$ is abelian, the $tau$-involution and $tau$-convolution make $L^1(G_tau$ into a Jordan Banach $*$-algebra. Finally, we also present the generalized notation of $tau$-convolution for other $L^p$-spaces with $p>1$.

  7. Gene expression profiles in paraffin-embedded core biopsy tissue predict response to chemotherapy in women with locally advanced breast cancer. (United States)

    Gianni, Luca; Zambetti, Milvia; Clark, Kim; Baker, Joffre; Cronin, Maureen; Wu, Jenny; Mariani, Gabriella; Rodriguez, Jaime; Carcangiu, Marialuisa; Watson, Drew; Valagussa, Pinuccia; Rouzier, Roman; Symmans, W Fraser; Ross, Jeffrey S; Hortobagyi, Gabriel N; Pusztai, Lajos; Shak, Steven


    We sought to identify gene expression markers that predict the likelihood of chemotherapy response. We also tested whether chemotherapy response is correlated with the 21-gene Recurrence Score assay that quantifies recurrence risk. Patients with locally advanced breast cancer received neoadjuvant paclitaxel and doxorubicin. RNA was extracted from the pretreatment formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded core biopsies. The expression of 384 genes was quantified using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and correlated with pathologic complete response (pCR). The performance of genes predicting for pCR was tested in patients from an independent neoadjuvant study where gene expression was obtained using DNA microarrays. Of 89 assessable patients (mean age, 49.9 years; mean tumor size, 6.4 cm), 11 (12%) had a pCR. Eighty-six genes correlated with pCR (unadjusted P < .05); pCR was more likely with higher expression of proliferation-related genes and immune-related genes, and with lower expression of estrogen receptor (ER) -related genes. In 82 independent patients treated with neoadjuvant paclitaxel and doxorubicin, DNA microarray data were available for 79 of the 86 genes. In univariate analysis, 24 genes correlated with pCR with P < .05 (false discovery, four genes) and 32 genes showed correlation with P < .1 (false discovery, eight genes). The Recurrence Score was positively associated with the likelihood of pCR (P = .005), suggesting that the patients who are at greatest recurrence risk are more likely to have chemotherapy benefit. Quantitative expression of ER-related genes, proliferation genes, and immune-related genes are strong predictors of pCR in women with locally advanced breast cancer receiving neoadjuvant anthracyclines and paclitaxel.

  8. Local NSAID infusion does not affect protein synthesis and gene expression in human muscle after eccentric exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, U R; Schjerling, P; Helmark, Ida Carøe


    models, and inhibit the exercise-induced satellite cell proliferation and protein synthesis in humans. However, the cellular mechanisms eliciting these responses remain unknown. Eight healthy male volunteers performed 200 maximal eccentric contractions with each leg. To block prostaglandin synthesis...... locally in the skeletal muscle, indomethacin (NSAID) was infused for 7.5 h via microdialysis catheters into m. vastus lateralis of one leg. Protein synthesis was determined by the incorporation of 1,2-(13)C(2) leucine into muscle protein from 24 to 28 h post-exercise. Furthermore, mRNA expression...... of selected genes was measured in muscle biopsies (5 h and 8 days post-exercise) by real-time reverse transcriptase PCR. Myofibrillar and collagen protein synthesis were unaffected by the local NSAID infusion. Five hours post-exercise, the mRNA expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2) was sixfold higher...

  9. Molecular cloning, identification, and chromosomal localization of two MADS box genes in peach (Prunus persica). (United States)

    Zhang, Lin; Xu, Yong; Ma, Rongcai


    MADS box proteins play an important role in floral development. To find genes involved in the floral transition of Prunus species, cDNAs for two MADS box genes, PpMADS1 and PpMADS10, were cloned using degenerate primers and 5'- and 3'-RACE based on the sequence database of P. persica and P. dulcis. The full length of PpMADS1 cDNA is 1,071 bp containing an open reading frame (ORF) of 717 bp and coding for a polypeptide of 238 amino acid residues. The full length of PpMADS10 cDNA is 937 bp containing an ORF of 633 bp and coding for a polypeptide of 210 amino acid residues. Sequence comparison revealed that PpMADS1 and PpMADS10 were highly homologous to genes AP1 and PI in Arabidopsis, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that PpMADS1 belongs to the euAP1 clade of class A, and PpMADS10 is a member of GLO/PI clade of class B. RT-PCR analysis showed that PpMADS1 was expressed in sepal, petal, carpel, and fruit, which was slightly different from the expression pattern of AP1; PpMADS10 was expressed in petal and stamen, which shared the same expression pattern as PI. Using selective mapping strategy, PpMADS1 was assigned onto the Bin1:50 on the G1 linkage group between the markers MCO44 and TSA2, and PpMADS10 onto the Bin1:73 on the same linkage group between the markers Lap-1 and FGA8. Our results provided the basis for further dissection of the two MADS box gene function.

  10. Local trauma in human patellar tendon leads to widespread changes in the tendon gene expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinemeier, Katja Maria; Lorentzen, Marc P; Kildevang Jensen, Jacob


    Low cellular activity and slow tissue turnover in human tendon may prolong resolution of tendinopathy. This may be stimulated by moderate localized traumas such as needle penetrations, but whether this results in a widespread cellular response in tendons is unknown. In an initial hypothesis-gener...

  11. Ectopic lymphoid tissues support local immunoglobulin production in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps. (United States)

    Song, Jia; Wang, Hai; Zhang, Ya-Na; Cao, Ping-Ping; Liao, Bo; Wang, Zhe-Zheng; Shi, Li-Li; Yao, Yin; Zhai, Guan-Ting; Wang, Zhi-Chao; Liu, Li-Meng; Zeng, Ming; Lu, Xiang; Wang, Heng; Yang, Xiang-Ping; Yu, Di; Bachert, Claus; Liu, Zheng


    The contribution of ectopic lymphoid tissues (eLTs) to local immunoglobulin hyperproduction in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) is unclear. We sought to explore the cellular basis, formation mechanisms, and function of eLTs in patients with CRSwNP. We graded lymphoid aggregations in sinonasal mucosa and histologically studied their structures. The expression of lymphorganogenic factors and molecules required for immunoglobulin production was measured by using real-time PCR, and their localization was analyzed by means of immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence. The phenotype of follicular helper T cells was analyzed by performing flow cytometry. Immunoglobulin levels were quantified by using the Bio-Plex assay or ImmunoCAP system. Nasal tissue explants were challenged ex vivo with Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus group 1 (Der p 1), and the expression of Iε-Cμ and Iε-Cγ circle transcripts was detected by using seminested PCR. Increased formation of eLTs with germinal center-like structures was discovered in patients with eosinophilic (20.69%) and noneosinophilic (17.31%) CRSwNP compared with that in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis without nasal polyps (5.66%) and control subjects (3.70%). The presence of eLTs was associated with increased expression of lymphorganogenic and inflammatory chemokines and cytokines, as well as their receptors. The expression of molecules required for immunoglobulin production, generation of follicular helper T cells, and production of IgE in eosinophilic polyps and IgG and IgA in both eosinophilic and noneosinophilic polyps were predominantly upregulated in patients with eLTs. After Der p 1 challenge ex vivo, Iε-Cμ transcript was detected only in eosinophilic polyps with eLTs but not in polyps without eLTs and noneosinophilic polyps. eLTs might support local immunoglobulin production and therefore significantly contribute to the development of CRSwNP. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of

  12. Growth performance of FH male calves fed milk replacer made of local ingredients for veal production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Wina


    Full Text Available The research was designed to evaluate the local feedstuff to be used in milk replacer (MP and its utilization for veal production . Fifteen male calves of the Friesian Holstein breed, 5-6 weeks old were used in the experiment lasting for 8 weeks. The treatments were (i commercial milk replacer (SPK, (ii local (SPL-1 and (iii mixture ofSPK and SPL-1 (SPKL. The amount of dry matter offerred is 3 % of live weight each and was given twice daily (in the morning and late afternoon . Elephant grass (0 .5 kg was offerred at noon . The observed parameters were average daily gain (ADG, dry matter (DM and crude protein (CP intake, carcass percentage, weight of carcass components, physical and chemical characteristics of meat. The results show that feed consumptions were 1,981, 1,613 and 1,050 g1day and ADGs were 897,496 and 73 g for treatments SPK, SPKL and SPL, respectively . Carcass percentage was 56.84 and 58 .76% with protein content was 87 .47 and 84 .78% for treatments SPK and SPKL, respectively . The benefit per head of calf was higher when fed mixture of local and commercial MP than fed only commercial MP but the benefit per day was higher when fed commercial MP than mixture of local and commercial. In conclusion, a cheaper milk replacer with less milk protein content resulting in a lower gain but higher benefit per head of calf than a commercial milk replacer containing high milk protein content

  13. Scarless and sequential gene modification in Pseudomonas using PCR product flanked by short homology regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Rubing


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The lambda Red recombination system has been used to inactivate chromosomal genes in various bacteria and fungi. The procedure consists of electroporating a polymerase chain reaction (PCR fragment containing antibiotic cassette flanked by homology regions to the target locus into a strain that can express the lambda Red proteins (Gam, Bet, Exo. Results Here a scarless gene modification strategy based on the Red recombination system has been developed to modify Pseudomonas genome DNA via sequential deletion of multiple targets. This process was mediated by plasmid pRKaraRed encoding the Red proteins regulated by PBAD promoter, which was functional in P. aeruginosa as well as in other bacteria. First the target gene was substituted for the sacB-bla cassette flanked by short homology regions (50 bp, and then this marker gene cassette could be replaced by the PCR fragment flanking itself, generating target-deleted genome without any remnants and no change happened to the surrounding region. Twenty genes involved in the synthesis and regulation pathways of the phenazine derivate, pyocyanin, were modified, including one single-point mutation and deletion of two large operons. The recombination efficiencies ranged from 88% to 98%. Multiple-gene modification was also achieved, generating a triple-gene deletion strain PCA (PAO1, ΔphzHΔphzMΔphzS, which could produce another phenazine derivate, phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA, efficiently and exclusively. Conclusions This lambda Red-based technique can be used to generate scarless and sequential gene modification mutants of P. aeruginosa efficiently, using one-step PCR product flanked by short homology regions. Single-point mutation, scarless deletion of genes can be achieved easily in less than three days. This method may give a new way to construct genetically modified P. aeruginosa strains more efficiently and advance the regulatory network study of this organism.

  14. A second pectin lyase gene (pel2) from Aspergillus oryzae KBN616: its sequence analysis and overexpression, and characterization of the gene products. (United States)

    Kitamoto, N; Yoshino-Yasuda, S; Ohmiya, K; Tsukagoshi, N


    A second pectin lyase gene, designated pel2, was isolated from a shoyu koji mold Aspergillus oryzae KBN616 and characterized. The structural gene comprised 1306 bp with three introns. The ORF encoded 375 amino acids with a signal peptide of 19 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence showed high similarity to those of A. oryzae Pel1, Aspergillus niger pectin lyases and Glomerella cingulata Pn1A. The pel2 gene was overexpressed under the control of the promoter of the A. oryzae TEF1 gene for purification and enzymatic characterization of its gene product. The gene product exhibited two molecular masses of 48 and 44 kDa due to different degrees of glycosylation. Both proteins had the same pH optimum of 6.0 and temperature optimum of 50 degrees C.

  15. Impact of product information and repeated exposure on consumer liking, sensory perception and concept associations of local apple juice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolzenbach, Sandra; Bredie, Wender Laurentius Petrus; Christensen, Rune Haubo Bojesen


    The impact of product information and repeated exposure of local apple juice on consumer liking, sensory perception and concept associations was studied. Findings showed that consumers had high expectations towards the studied local apples juices. Consequently, the liking for the local apple juices...... did not fully determine consumer liking. Thus the sensory characteristics were also found to be of importance. Besides liking, the concept associations were also affected by product information. All local apple juices were associated as being more exclusive under informed tasting conditions....... No effects were found for liking of the apple juices over repeated exposure. Also, the consumers did not change their sensory perception over repeated consumption. However, the local apple juices were conceptualised as more familiar but remained exclusive after repeated consumption. When local producers have...

  16. Global versus local environmental impacts of grazing and confined beef production systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modernel, P; Astigarraga, L; Picasso, V


    Carbon footprint is a key indicator of the contribution of food production to climate change and its importance is increasing worldwide. Although it has been used as a sustainability index for assessing production systems, it does not take into account many other biophysical environmental dimensions more relevant at the local scale, such as soil erosion, nutrient imbalance, and pesticide contamination. We estimated carbon footprint, fossil fuel energy use, soil erosion, nutrient imbalance, and risk of pesticide contamination for five real beef background-finishing systems with increasing levels of intensification in Uruguay, which were combinations of grazing rangelands (RL), seeded pastures (SP), and confined in feedlot (FL). Carbon footprint decreased from 16.7 (RL–RL) to 6.9 kg (SP–FL) CO 2 eq kg body weight −1 (BW; ‘eq’: equivalent). Energy use was zero for RL–RL and increased up to 17.3 MJ kg BW −1 for SP–FL. Soil erosion values varied from 7.7 (RL–RL) to 14.8 kg of soil kg BW −1 (SP–FL). Nitrogen and phosphorus nutrient balances showed surpluses for systems with seeded pastures and feedlots while RL–RL was deficient. Pesticide contamination risk was zero for RL–RL, and increased up to 21.2 for SP–FL. For the range of systems studied with increasing use of inputs, trade-offs were observed between global and local environmental problems. These results demonstrate that several indicators are needed to evaluate the sustainability of livestock production systems. (letter)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. P. Voronova


    Full Text Available The article presents a comprehensive low-waste technology is the use of local fuels, which can be used in the technology of some porous building materials. Also provides new methods of preparation of porous building materials based on aggloporite using local fuels and waste energy on the basis of milled peat, fuel briquettes and wood chips allow to replace expensive imported components that comprise the raw mixtures (coal, anthracite.On the basis of mathematical modeling of cooling in reheat furnaces pusher drive developed a method of engineering calculation mode batch hardening in agglomeration. Submitted constructive solution for the development of the cooling charge with thermophysical rational justification cooling modes. A study of the temperature distribution within the charge depending on the different speeds of the belt sintering machine, and hence on the cooling time.The characteristics of the raw material deposits "Fanipol" and the optimal composition of the charge which includes loam, coal, milled peat. In industrial research obtained aggloporite this formulation has shown positive results in strength and density. Established that by decreasing the particle size of the fuel increases the redox potential of the combustion products, which reduces the height of the oxidizing zone and the speed of the sintering raw mix. These processes increase the productivity of sinter machine.Technology is implemented on the "Minsk factory of building materials". The tests analyzed production technology porous construction materials using milled peat with the addition of sawdust. The study results recommend further use of sapropel, which cost significantly lower raw material mixture of submissions and in their physical and mechanical properties much closer to the properties of milled peat.

  18. Contamination with heavy metals and bacteria in some local and imported fish and fish products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salem, S.B.; El-Dashlout, A.A.; El-Schiwee, M.A.; EL-Shourbagy, G.A.; Ibrahim, R.E.


    Some local and imported fish and fish products sold in retail markets of three cities at Sharkia Governorate, Egypt, were examined against heavy metals contamination (i.e. Pb, Cd and Hg) and the presence of some specific groups of bacteria. The results showed that concentrations of Pb in fresh and frozen fish, salted and smoked fish and canned fish samples were lower than the permissible limits recommended by the Egyptian Organization 1993 (1.0 mg/kg). On the other hand, all the tested fish and fish products of collected samples showed levels of Cd (0.29-0.41 mg/kg) higher than the permissible limit (0.10 mg/kg) recommended by the Egyptian Organization. Such limits should be re-considered because the limit determined by WHO (1992) was 0.5 mg/kg. Mercury level in fresh mullet was equal or lower (0.46-0.50 mg/kg) than the limit of Egyptian Organization (0.50 mg/kg) while other fresh and frozen fish, salted and smoked fish samples had higher Hg than the allowance. In most cases, imported canned products of sardine, mackerel and tuna had higher Pb, Cd and Hg concentrations than that found in the local ones. Among fresh fish samples, such as mackarona, contained the highest total bacterial count, while mullet was the lowest. Considering salted and smoked fish, heavy salted mullet had the highest total bacterial count, while the lowest number was recorded in salted sardine. Smoked herring showed lowest total bacterial count than salted samples. Generally, no correlation was observed between fish species or consumption place and the contamination with heavy metals and bacteria

  19. Functional Reconstitution of a Fungal Natural Product Gene Cluster by Advanced Genome Editing. (United States)

    Weber, Jakob; Valiante, Vito; Nødvig, Christina S; Mattern, Derek J; Slotkowski, Rebecca A; Mortensen, Uffe H; Brakhage, Axel A


    Filamentous fungi produce varieties of natural products even in a strain dependent manner. However, the genetic basis of chemical speciation between strains is still widely unknown. One example is trypacidin, a natural product of the opportunistic human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus, which is not produced among different isolates. Combining computational analysis with targeted gene editing, we could link a single nucleotide insertion in the polyketide synthase of the trypacidin biosynthetic pathway and reconstitute its production in a nonproducing strain. Thus, we present a CRISPR/Cas9-based tool for advanced molecular genetic studies in filamentous fungi, exploiting selectable markers separated from the edited locus.

  20. Direct capture and heterologous expression of Salinispora natural product genes for the biosynthesis of enterocin. (United States)

    Bonet, Bailey; Teufel, Robin; Crüsemann, Max; Ziemert, Nadine; Moore, Bradley S


    Heterologous expression of secondary metabolic pathways is a promising approach for the discovery and characterization of bioactive natural products. Herein we report the first heterologous expression of a natural product from the model marine actinomycete genus Salinispora. Using the recently developed method of yeast-mediated transformation-associated recombination for natural product gene clusters, we captured a type II polyketide synthase pathway from Salinispora pacifica with high homology to the enterocin pathway from Streptomyces maritimus and successfully produced enterocin in two different Streptomyces host strains. This result paves the way for the systematic interrogation of Salinispora's promising secondary metabolome.

  1. Epstein-Barr virus immediate-early gene product trans-activates gene expression from the human immunodeficiency virus long terminal repeat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenney, S.; Kamine, J.; Markovitz, D.; Fenrick, R.; Pagano, J.


    Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients are frequently coinfected with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). In this report, the authors demonstrate that an EBV immediate-early gene product, BamHI MLF1, stimulates expression of the bacterial chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) gene linked to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) promoter. The HIV promoter sequences necessary for trans-activation by EBV do not include the tat-responsive sequences. In addition, in contrast to the other herpesvirus trans-activators previously studied, the EBV BamHI MLF1 gene product appears to function in part by a posttranscriptional mechanism, since it increases pHIV-CAT protein activity more than it increases HIV-CAT mRNA. This ability of an EBV gene product to activate HIV gene expression may have biologic consequences in persons coinfected with both viruses

  2. New insights about antibiotic production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa: a gene expression analysis (United States)

    Gionco, Bárbara; Tavares, Eliandro R.; de Oliveira, Admilton G.; Yamada-Ogatta, Sueli F.; do Carmo, Anderson O.; Pereira, Ulisses de Pádua; Chideroli, Roberta T.; Simionato, Ane S.; Navarro, Miguel O. P.; Chryssafidis, Andreas L.; Andrade, Galdino


    The bacterial resistance for antibiotics is one of the most important problems in public health and only a small number of new products are in development. Antagonistic microorganisms from soil are a promising source of new candidate molecules. Products of secondary metabolism confer adaptive advantages for their producer, in the competition for nutrients in the microbial community. The biosynthesis process of compounds with antibiotic activity is the key to optimize their production and the transcriptomic study of microorganisms is of great benefit for the discovery of these metabolic pathways. Pseudomonas aeruginosa LV strain growing in the presence of copper chloride produces a bioactive organometallic compound, which has a potent antimicrobial activity against various microorganisms. The objective of this study was to verify overexpressed genes and evaluate their relation to the organometallic biosynthesis in this microorganism. P. aeruginosa LV strain was cultured in presence and absence of copper chloride. Two methods were used for transcriptomic analysis, genome reference-guided assembly and de novo assembly. The genome referenced analysis identified nine upregulated genes when bacteria were exposed to copper chloride, while the De Novo Assembly identified twelve upregulated genes. Nineteen genes can be related to an increased microbial metabolism for the extrusion process of exceeding intracellular copper. Two important genes are related to the biosynthesis of phenazine and tetrapyrroles compounds, which can be involved in the bioremediation of intracellular copper and biosynthesis of the organometallic compound. Additional studies are being carried out to further prove the function of the described genes and relate them to the biosynthetic pathway of the organometallic compound.

  3. New Insights about Antibiotic Production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa: A Gene Expression Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Gionco


    Full Text Available The bacterial resistance for antibiotics is one of the most important problems in public health and only a small number of new products are in development. Antagonistic microorganisms from soil are a promising source of new candidate molecules. Products of secondary metabolism confer adaptive advantages for their producer, in the competition for nutrients in the microbial community. The biosynthesis process of compounds with antibiotic activity is the key to optimize their production and the transcriptomic study of microorganisms is of great benefit for the discovery of these metabolic pathways. Pseudomonas aeruginosa LV strain growing in the presence of copper chloride produces a bioactive organometallic compound, which has a potent antimicrobial activity against various microorganisms. The objective of this study was to verify overexpressed genes and evaluate their relation to the organometallic biosynthesis in this microorganism. P. aeruginosa LV strain was cultured in presence and absence of copper chloride. Two methods were used for transcriptomic analysis, genome reference-guided assembly and de novo assembly. The genome referenced analysis identified nine upregulated genes when bacteria were exposed to copper chloride, while the De Novo Assembly identified 12 upregulated genes. Nineteen genes can be related to an increased microbial metabolism for the extrusion process of exceeding intracellular copper. Two important genes are related to the biosynthesis of phenazine and tetrapyrroles compounds, which can be involved in the bioremediation of intracellular copper and we suggesting that may involve in the biosynthesis of the organometallic compound. Additional studies are being carried out to further prove the function of the described genes and relate them to the biosynthetic pathway of the organometallic compound.

  4. Temporal patterns of inflammatory gene expression in local tissues after banding or burdizzo castration in cattle. (United States)

    Pang, Wanyong; Earley, Bernadette; Sweeney, Torres; Gath, Vivian; Crowe, Mark A


    Castration of male cattle has been shown to elicit inflammatory reactions and acute inflammation is initiated and sustained by the participation of cytokines. Sixty continental x beef bulls (Mean age 12 +/- (s.e.) 0.2 months; Mean weight 341 +/- (s.e.) 3.0 kg) were blocked by weight and randomly assigned to one of three treatments (n = 20 animals per treatment): 1) untreated control (Con); 2) banding castration at 0 min (Band); 3) Burdizzo castration at 0 min (Burd). Samples of the testis, epididymis and scrotal skin were collected surgically from 5 animals from each group at 12 h, 24 h, 7 d, and 14 d post-treatment, and analysed using real-time PCR. A repeated measurement analysis (Proc GLM) was performed using SAS. If there was no treatment and time interaction, main effects of treatment by time were tested by ANOVA. Electrophoresis data showed that by 7 d post-castration RNA isolated from all the testicle samples of the Burd castrated animals, the epididymis and middle scrotum samples from Band castrates were degraded. Transitory effects were observed in the gene expression of IFN-gamma, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-alpha at 12 h and 24 h post treatment. Burd castrates had greater (P castrates had greater (P castrates at 12 h post-castration. Burd castrates had greater (P castration. In the epididymis, Burd castrates had greater (P castrates had greater (P = 0.049) IL-10 mRNA levels than Band castrates at 12 h post-castration. Banding castration caused more inflammatory associated gene expression changes to the epididymis and scrotum than burdizzo. Burdizzo caused more severe acute inflammatory responses, in terms of pro-inflammatory cytokine gene expression, in the testis and epididymis than banding.

  5. Temporal patterns of inflammatory gene expression in local tissues after banding or burdizzo castration in cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sweeney Torres


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Castration of male cattle has been shown to elicit inflammatory reactions and acute inflammation is initiated and sustained by the participation of cytokines. Methods Sixty continental × beef bulls (Mean age 12 ± (s.e. 0.2 months; Mean weight 341 ± (s.e. 3.0 kg were blocked by weight and randomly assigned to one of three treatments (n = 20 animals per treatment: 1 untreated control (Con; 2 banding castration at 0 min (Band; 3 Burdizzo castration at 0 min (Burd. Samples of the testis, epididymis and scrotal skin were collected surgically from 5 animals from each group at 12 h, 24 h, 7 d, and 14 d post-treatment, and analysed using real-time PCR. A repeated measurement analysis (Proc GLM was performed using SAS. If there was no treatment and time interaction, main effects of treatment by time were tested by ANOVA. Results Electrophoresis data showed that by 7 d post-castration RNA isolated from all the testicle samples of the Burd castrated animals, the epididymis and middle scrotum samples from Band castrates were degraded. Transitory effects were observed in the gene expression of IFN-γ, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α at 12 h and 24 h post treatment. Burd castrates had greater (P Conclusion Banding castration caused more inflammatory associated gene expression changes to the epididymis and scrotum than burdizzo. Burdizzo caused more severe acute inflammatory responses, in terms of pro-inflammatory cytokine gene expression, in the testis and epididymis than banding.

  6. Correlation of gene expression and protein production rate - a system wide study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvas Mikko


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Growth rate is a major determinant of intracellular function. However its effects can only be properly dissected with technically demanding chemostat cultivations in which it can be controlled. Recent work on Saccharomyces cerevisiae chemostat cultivations provided the first analysis on genome wide effects of growth rate. In this work we study the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei (Hypocrea jecorina that is an industrial protein production host known for its exceptional protein secretion capability. Interestingly, it exhibits a low growth rate protein production phenotype. Results We have used transcriptomics and proteomics to study the effect of growth rate and cell density on protein production in chemostat cultivations of T. reesei. Use of chemostat allowed control of growth rate and exact estimation of the extracellular specific protein production rate (SPPR. We find that major biosynthetic activities are all negatively correlated with SPPR. We also find that expression of many genes of secreted proteins and secondary metabolism, as well as various lineage specific, mostly unknown genes are positively correlated with SPPR. Finally, we enumerate possible regulators and regulatory mechanisms, arising from the data, for this response. Conclusions Based on these results it appears that in low growth rate protein production energy is very efficiently used primarly for protein production. Also, we propose that flux through early glycolysis or the TCA cycle is a more fundamental determining factor than growth rate for low growth rate protein production and we propose a novel eukaryotic response to this i.e. the lineage specific response (LSR.

  7. Dairy Product Consumption Interacts with Glucokinase (GCK Gene Polymorphisms Associated with Insulin Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marine S. Da Silva


    Full Text Available Dairy product intake and a person’s genetic background have been reported to be associated with the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D. The objective of this study was to examine the interaction between dairy products and genes related to T2D on glucose-insulin homeostasis parameters. A validated food frequency questionnaire, fasting blood samples, and glucokinase (GCK genotypes were analyzed in 210 healthy participants. An interaction between rs1799884 in GCK and dairy intake on the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance was identified. Secondly, human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2 were grown in a high-glucose medium and incubated with either 1-dairy proteins: whey, caseins, and a mixture of whey and casein; and 2-four amino acids (AA or mixtures of AA. The expression of GCK-related genes insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1 and fatty acid synthase (FASN was increased with whey protein isolate or hydrolysate. Individually, leucine increased IRS-1 expression, whereas isoleucine and valine decreased FASN expression. A branched-chain AA mixture decreased IRS-1 and FASN expression. In conclusion, carriers of the A allele for rs1799884 in the GCK gene may benefit from a higher intake of dairy products to maintain optimal insulin sensitivity. Moreover, the results show that whey proteins affect the expression of genes related to glucose metabolism.

  8. A shortest-path graph kernel for estimating gene product semantic similarity

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    Alvarez Marco A


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Existing methods for calculating semantic similarity between gene products using the Gene Ontology (GO often rely on external resources, which are not part of the ontology. Consequently, changes in these external resources like biased term distribution caused by shifting of hot research topics, will affect the calculation of semantic similarity. One way to avoid this problem is to use semantic methods that are "intrinsic" to the ontology, i.e. independent of external knowledge. Results We present a shortest-path graph kernel (spgk method that relies exclusively on the GO and its structure. In spgk, a gene product is represented by an induced subgraph of the GO, which consists of all the GO terms annotating it. Then a shortest-path graph kernel is used to compute the similarity between two graphs. In a comprehensive evaluation using a benchmark dataset, spgk compares favorably with other methods that depend on external resources. Compared with simUI, a method that is also intrinsic to GO, spgk achieves slightly better results on the benchmark dataset. Statistical tests show that the improvement is significant when the resolution and EC similarity correlation coefficient are used to measure the performance, but is insignificant when the Pfam similarity correlation coefficient is used. Conclusions Spgk uses a graph kernel method in polynomial time to exploit the structure of the GO to calculate semantic similarity between gene products. It provides an alternative to both methods that use external resources and "intrinsic" methods with comparable performance.

  9. A numerically research on energy loss evaluation in a centrifugal pump system based on local entropy production method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hou Hucan


    Full Text Available Inspired by wide application of the second law of thermodynamics to flow and heat transfer devices, local entropy production analysis method was creatively introduced into energy assessment system of centrifugal water pump. Based on Reynolds stress turbulent model and energy equation model, the steady numerical simulation of the whole flow passage of one IS centrifugal pump was carried out. The local entropy production terms were calculated by user defined functions, mainly including wall entropy production, turbulent entropy production, and viscous entropy production. The numerical results indicated that the irreversible energy loss calculated by the local entropy production method agreed well with that calculated by the traditional method but with some deviations which were probably caused by high rotatability and high curvature of impeller and volute. The wall entropy production and turbulent entropy production took up large part of the whole entropy production about 48.61% and 47.91%, respectively, which indicated that wall friction and turbulent fluctuation were the major factors in affecting irreversible energy loss. Meanwhile, the entropy production rate distribution was discussed and compared with turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate distribution, it showed that turbulent entropy production rate increased sharply at the near wall regions and both distributed more uniformly. The blade region in leading edge near suction side, trailing edge and volute tongue were the main regions to generate irreversible exergy loss. This research broadens a completely new view in evaluating energy loss and further optimizes pump using entropy production minimization.

  10. Autonomous Bacterial Localization and Gene Expression Based on Nearby Cell Receptor Density (United States)


    signal-peptide (lpp-ompA) sequences from the template vector, pTX101 (provided by Dr George Georgiou, University of Texas, Austin) (Francisco et al...generously providing the PCI-15B cell line, Dr George Georgiou for kindly providing the ompA surface display vector, and Dr Eiry Kobatake for providing...E, Wong WW, Suen JK, Bulter T, Lee SG, Liao JC (2005) A synthetic gene-metabolic oscillator. Nature 435: 118–122 Gardner TS, Cantor CR, Collins JJ

  11. Geothermal modelling and geoneutrino flux prediction at JUNO with local heat production data (United States)

    Xi, Y.; Wipperfurth, S. A.; McDonough, W. F.; Sramek, O.; Roskovec, B.; He, J.


    Geoneutrinos are mostly electron antineutrinos created from natural radioactive decays in the Earth's interior. Measurement of a geoneutrino flux at near surface detector can lead to a better understanding of the composition of the Earth, inform about chemical layering in the mantle, define the power driving mantle convection and plate tectonics, and reveal the energy supplying the geodynamo. JUNO (Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory) is a 20 kton liquid scintillator detector currently under construction with an expected start date in 2020. Due to its enormous mass, JUNO will detect about 400 geoneutrinos per year, making it an ideal tool to study the Earth. JUNO is located on the passive continental margin of South China, where there is an extensive continental shelf. The continental crust surrounding the JUNO detector is between 26 and 32 km thick and represents the transition between the southern Eurasian continental plate and oceanic plate of the South China Sea.We seek to predict the geoneutrino flux at JUNO prior to data taking and announcement of the particle physics measurement. To do so requires a detail survey of the local lithosphere, as it contributes about 50% of the signal. Previous estimates of the geoneutrino signal at JUNO utilized global crustal models, with no local constraints. Regionally, the area is characterized by extensive lateral and vertical variations in lithology and dominated by Mesozoic granite intrusions, with an average heat production of 6.29 μW/m3. Consequently, at 3 times greater heat production than the globally average upper crust, these granites will generate a higher than average geoneutrino flux at JUNO. To better define the U and Th concentrations in the upper crust, we collected some 300 samples within 50 km of JUNO. By combining chemical data obtained from these samples with data for crustal structures defined by local geophysical studies, we will construct a detailed 3D geothermal model of the region. Our

  12. Synthesis of bacteriophage-coded gene products during infection of Escherichia coli with amber mutants of T3 and T7 defective in gene 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Issinger, O G; Hausmann, R


    During nonpermissive infection by a T7 amber mutant in gene 1 (phage RNA polymerase-deficient), synthesis of the products of the phage genes 3 (endonuclease), 3, 5 (lysozyme), 5 (DNA polymerase), and 17 (serum blocking power) was shown to occur at about half the rate as during wild-type infection...

  13. Production of transgenic brassica juncea with the synthetic chitinase gene (nic) conferring resistance to alternaria brassicicola

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munir, I.; Hussan, W.; Kazi, M.; Mian, A.


    Brassica juncea is an important oil seed crop throughout the world. The demand and cultivation of oil seed crops has gained importance due to rapid increase in world population and industrialization. Fungal diseases pose a great threat to Brassica productivity worldwide. Absence of resistance genes against fungal infection within crossable germplasms of this crop necessitates deployment of genetic engineering approaches to produce transgenic plants with resistance against fungal infections. In the current study, hypocotyls and cotyledons of Brassica juncea, used as explants, were transformed with Agrobacterium tumefacien strain EHA101 harboring binary vector pEKB/NIC containing synthetic chitinase gene (NIC), an antifungal gene under the control of cauliflower mosaic virus promoter (CaMV35S). Bar genes and nptII gene were used as selectable markers. Presence of chitinase gene in trangenic lines was confirmed by PCR and southern blotting analysis. Effect of the extracted proteins from non-transgenic and transgenic lines was observed on the growth of Alternaria brassicicola, a common disease causing pathogen in brassica crop. In comparison to non-transgenic control lines, the leaf tissue extracts of the transgenic lines showed considerable resistance and antifungal activity against A. brassicicola. The antifungal activity in transgenic lines was observed as corresponding to the transgene copy number. (author)

  14. Impacts of Macronutrients on Gene Expression: Recent Evidence to Understand Productive and Reproductive Performance of Livestock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Mahmodul Hasan Sohel


    Full Text Available In order to identify the effects of nutrients on gene expression and to assess the interactions between genes and nutrition by means of various cutting-edge technologies, the interdisciplinary branch ‘Nutrigenomics’ was created. Therefore, nutrigenomics corresponds to the use of knowledge and techniques of nutrition, genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, epigenomics, and metabolomics to seek and explain the cross-talk between nutrition and genes in molecular level. Macronutrients are important dietary signals that control metabolic programming of cells and have important roles in maintaining cellular homeostasis by influencing specific gene expression. Recent advancements in molecular genetics studies, for instance, use of next-generation sequencing, microarray and qPCR array to investigate the expression of transcripts, genes, and miRNAs, has a crucial impact on understanding and quantitative measurement of the impact of dietary macronutrients on gene function. This review will shade a light on the interactions and mechanisms how the dietary source of macronutrients changes the expression of specific mRNA and miRNA. Furthermore, it will highlight the exciting recent findings in relation to animal performance characteristics which eventually help us to identify a dietary target to improve animal production.

  15. Efficient production of antibody Fab fragment by transient gene expression in insect cells. (United States)

    Mori, Keita; Hamada, Hirotsugu; Ogawa, Takafumi; Ohmuro-Matsuyama, Yuki; Katsuda, Tomohisa; Yamaji, Hideki


    Transient gene expression allows a rapid production of diverse recombinant proteins in early-stage preclinical and clinical developments of biologics. Insect cells have proven to be an excellent platform for the production of functional recombinant proteins. In the present study, the production of an antibody Fab fragment by transient gene expression in lepidopteran insect cells was investigated. The DNA fragments encoding heavy-chain (Hc; Fd fragment) and light-chain (Lc) genes of an Fab fragment were individually cloned into the plasmid vector pIHAneo, which contained the Bombyx mori actin promoter downstream of the B. mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) IE-1 transactivator and the BmNPV HR3 enhancer for high-level expression. Trichoplusia ni BTI-TN-5B1-4 (High Five) cells were co-transfected with the resultant plasmid vectors using linear polyethyleneimine. When the transfection efficiency was evaluated, a plasmid vector encoding an enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene was also co-transfected. Transfection and culture conditions were optimized based on both the flow cytometry of the EGFP expression in transfected cells and the yield of the secreted Fab fragments determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Under optimal conditions, a yield of approximately 120 mg/L of Fab fragments was achieved in 5 days in a shake-flask culture. Transient gene expression in insect cells may offer a promising approach to the high-throughput production of recombinant proteins. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Germline disruption of Pten localization causes enhanced sex-dependent social motivation and increased glial production. (United States)

    Tilot, Amanda K; Gaugler, Mary K; Yu, Qi; Romigh, Todd; Yu, Wanfeng; Miller, Robert H; Frazier, Thomas W; Eng, Charis


    PTEN Hamartoma Tumor Syndrome (PHTS) is an autosomal-dominant genetic condition underlying a subset of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) with macrocephaly. Caused by germline mutations in PTEN, PHTS also causes increased risks of multiple cancers via dysregulation of the PI3K and MAPK signaling pathways. Conditional knockout models have shown that neural Pten regulates social behavior, proliferation and cell size. Although much is known about how the intracellular localization of PTEN regulates signaling in cancer cell lines, we know little of how PTEN localization influences normal brain physiology and behavior. To address this, we generated a germline knock-in mouse model of cytoplasm-predominant Pten and characterized its behavioral and cellular phenotypes. The homozygous Pten(m3m4) mice have decreased total Pten levels including a specific drop in nuclear Pten and exhibit region-specific increases in brain weight. The Pten(m3m4) model displays sex-specific increases in social motivation, poor balance and normal recognition memory-a profile reminiscent of some individuals with high functioning ASD. The cytoplasm-predominant protein caused cellular hypertrophy limited to the soma and led to increased NG2 cell proliferation and accumulation of glia. The animals also exhibit significant astrogliosis and microglial activation, indicating a neuroinflammatory phenotype. At the signaling level, Pten(m3m4) mice show brain region-specific differences in Akt activation. These results demonstrate that differing alterations to the same autism-linked gene can cause distinct behavioral profiles. The Pten(m3m4) model is the first murine model of inappropriately elevated social motivation in the context of normal cognition and may expand the range of autism-related behaviors replicated in animal models. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  17. Cloning and Genomic Organization of a Rhamnogalacturonase Gene from Locally Isolated Strain of Aspergillus niger. (United States)

    Damak, Naourez; Abdeljalil, Salma; Taeib, Noomen Hadj; Gargouri, Ali


    The rhg gene encoding a rhamnogalacturonase was isolated from the novel strain A1 of Aspergillus niger. It consists of an ORF of 1.505 kb encoding a putative protein of 446 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 47 kDa, belonging to the family 28 of glycosyl hydrolases. The nature and position of amino acids comprising the active site as well as the three-dimensional structure were well conserved between the A. niger CTM10548 and fungal rhamnogalacturonases. The coding region of the rhg gene is interrupted by three short introns of 56 (introns 1 and 3) and 52 (intron 2) bp in length. The comparison of the peptide sequence with A. niger rhg sequences revealed that the A1 rhg should be an endo-rhamnogalacturonases, more homologous to rhg A than rhg B A. niger known enzymes. The comparison of rhg nucleotide sequence from A. niger A1 with rhg A from A. niger shows several base changes. Most of these changes (59 %) are located at the third base of codons suggesting maintaining the same enzyme function. We used the rhamnogalacturonase A from Aspergillus aculeatus as a template to build a structural model of rhg A1 that adopted a right-handed parallel β-helix.

  18. The joint effects of background selection and genetic recombination on local gene genealogies. (United States)

    Zeng, Kai; Charlesworth, Brian


    Background selection, the effects of the continual removal of deleterious mutations by natural selection on variability at linked sites, is potentially a major determinant of DNA sequence variability. However, the joint effects of background selection and genetic recombination on the shape of the neutral gene genealogy have proved hard to study analytically. The only existing formula concerns the mean coalescent time for a pair of alleles, making it difficult to assess the importance of background selection from genome-wide data on sequence polymorphism. Here we develop a structured coalescent model of background selection with recombination and implement it in a computer program that efficiently generates neutral gene genealogies for an arbitrary sample size. We check the validity of the structured coalescent model against forward-in-time simulations and show that it accurately captures the effects of background selection. The model produces more accurate predictions of the mean coalescent time than the existing formula and supports the conclusion that the effect of background selection is greater in the interior of a deleterious region than at its boundaries. The level of linkage disequilibrium between sites is elevated by background selection, to an extent that is well summarized by a change in effective population size. The structured coalescent model is readily extendable to more realistic situations and should prove useful for analyzing genome-wide polymorphism data.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hidayati


    Full Text Available Lipoprotein lipase (LPL is a key enzyme that plays in metabolism and transport lipoprotein andtherefore has an influence on blood triglyceride levels. LPL controls triacylglycerol partitioning betweenadipose tissue and muscle that increases fat storage or provides energy in the form of fatty acids formuscle growth. The research was aimed to explore Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms of LPL gene andto associate SNP with marbling quality. A total of 66 genomic DNAs consisted of sumatera thin-tail edsheep (50 heads and garut sheep (16 heads were used in this study. Polymerase Chain Reaction wasused to amplify genomic DNA and direct sequencing method was to identify polymorphism sequences.The sequences were analyzed with Bio Edit and MEGA 5.2. The BLAST sequence was obtained fromgene bank X.68308.1. The association between the genotype and marbling quality was analyze by oneway ANOVA and further between mean differences were tested using least sgnificant difference. Theresults showed that 3 novel SNPs i.e. insertion g.26>C; insertion g.27> G and c.192T>C on garut sheepand a SNP insertion g.26>C/G on sumatera thin-tail ed sheep. The diversity of LPL gene at c.192T>Cwas associated with heneicosanoic acid, whereas TT genotype (0.04% was higher than CC (0.03% andCT (0.02%.

  20. Genomic localization, sequence analysis, and transcription of the putative human cytomegalovirus DNA polymerase gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heilbronn, T.; Jahn, G.; Buerkle, A.; Freese, U.K.; Fleckenstein, B.; Zur Hausen, H.


    The human cytomegalovirus (HCMV)-induced DNA polymerase has been well characterized biochemically and functionally, but its genomic location has not yet been assigned. To identify the coding sequence, cross-hybridization with the herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) polymerase gene was used, as suggested by the close similarity of the herpes group virus-induced DNA polymerases to the HCMV DNA polymerase. A cosmid and plasmid library of the entire HCMV genome was screened with the BamHI Q fragment of HSF-1 at different stringency conditions. One PstI-HincII restriction fragment of 850 base pairs mapping within the EcoRI M fragment of HCMV cross-hybridized at T/sub m/ - 25/degrees/C. Sequence analysis revealed one open reading frame spanning the entire sequence. The amino acid sequence showed a highly conserved domain of 133 amino acids shared with the HSV and putative Esptein-Barr virus polymerase sequences. This domain maps within the C-terminal part of the HSV polymerase gene, which has been suggested to contain part of the catalytic center of the enzyme. Transcription analysis revealed one 5.4-kilobase early transcript in the sense orientation with respect to the open reading frame identified. This transcript appears to code for the 140-kilodalton HCMV polymerase protein

  1. HybridGO-Loc: mining hybrid features on gene ontology for predicting subcellular localization of multi-location proteins. (United States)

    Wan, Shibiao; Mak, Man-Wai; Kung, Sun-Yuan


    Protein subcellular localization prediction, as an essential step to elucidate the functions in vivo of proteins and identify drugs targets, has been extensively studied in previous decades. Instead of only determining subcellular localization of single-label proteins, recent studies have focused on predicting both single- and multi-location proteins. Computational methods based on Gene Ontology (GO) have been demonstrated to be superior to methods based on other features. However, existing GO-based methods focus on the occurrences of GO terms and disregard their relationships. This paper proposes a multi-label subcellular-localization predictor, namely HybridGO-Loc, that leverages not only the GO term occurrences but also the inter-term relationships. This is achieved by hybridizing the GO frequencies of occurrences and the semantic similarity between GO terms. Given a protein, a set of GO terms are retrieved by searching against the gene ontology database, using the accession numbers of homologous proteins obtained via BLAST search as the keys. The frequency of GO occurrences and semantic similarity (SS) between GO terms are used to formulate frequency vectors and semantic similarity vectors, respectively, which are subsequently hybridized to construct fusion vectors. An adaptive-decision based multi-label support vector machine (SVM) classifier is proposed to classify the fusion vectors. Experimental results based on recent benchmark datasets and a new dataset containing novel proteins show that the proposed hybrid-feature predictor significantly outperforms predictors based on individual GO features as well as other state-of-the-art predictors. For readers' convenience, the HybridGO-Loc server, which is for predicting virus or plant proteins, is available online at

  2. Variation in soil aluminium tolerance genes is associated with local adaptation to soils at the Park Grass Experiment. (United States)

    Gould, Billie; McCouch, Susan; Geber, Monica


    Studies of the wild grass Anthoxanthum odoratum at the long-term Park Grass Experiment (PGE, Harpenden, UK) document a well-known example of rapid plant evolution in response to environmental change. Repeated fertilizer applications have acidified the soil in some experimental plots over the past 150+ years, and Anthoxanthum subpopulations have quickly become locally adapted. Early reciprocal transplants showed subpopulation differentiation specifically in response to soil aluminium (Al) toxicity across the experiment, even at small (30 m) spatial scales. Almost 40 years after its original measurement, we reassessed the degree of local adaptation to soil Al at the PGE using updated phenotyping methods and identified genes with variation linked to the tolerance trait. Root growth assays show that plants are locally adapted to soil Al at both the seedling and adult growth stages, but to a smaller extent than previously inferred. Among a large suite of candidate loci that were previously shown to have Al-sensitive expression differences between sensitive and tolerant plants, three loci contained SNPs that are associated with both Al tolerance and soil acidity: an Al-sensitive malate transporter (ALMT), a tonoplast intrinsic protein (TIP) and the putative homolog of the rice cell-wall modification gene STAR1. Natural genetic variation at these loci is likely to have contributed to the recent rapid evolution at PGE. Continued study of Al tolerance variants in Anthoxanthum will allow us to test hypotheses about the nature and source of genetic variation that enables some species to adapt to soil acidification and other types of rapid environmental change. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Baseline vegetation inventory and productivity assessment for the Syncrude Aurora Mine EIA local study area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This report presented an inventory and assessment of vegetation communities and forest covers within the proposed Aurora Mine local study area. A field inventory was conducted in the summer of 1995 to ground-truth air photo interpretations and to collect data. The inventory includes a classification of vegetation, forest covers and wetlands. It also includes the documentation of uncommon plants and the vegetation productivity estimates of tree, shrub and herbaceous plants. The study area is located east of the Athabasca River about 35 km northeast of Mildred Lake Oil Sands Plant. The area includes portions of Oil Sands Leases 10, 12, 13, 31, and 34 which includes much of the Muskeg River drainage and all of Kearl Lake. 24 refs., 7 tabs., 3 figs.

  4. Overexpression of the Wheat Expansin Gene TaEXPA2 Improved Seed Production and Drought Tolerance in Transgenic Tobacco Plants. (United States)

    Chen, Yanhui; Han, Yangyang; Zhang, Meng; Zhou, Shan; Kong, Xiangzhu; Wang, Wei


    Expansins are cell wall proteins that are grouped into two main families, α-expansins and β-expansins, and they are implicated in the control of cell extension via the disruption of hydrogen bonds between cellulose and matrix glucans. TaEXPA2 is an α-expansin gene identified in wheat. Based on putative cis-regulatory elements in the TaEXPA2 promoter sequence and the expression pattern induced when polyethylene glycol (PEG) is used to mimic water stress, we hypothesized that TaEXPA2 is involved in plant drought tolerance and plant development. Through transient expression of 35S::TaEXPA2-GFP in onion epidermal cells, TaEXPA2 was localized to the cell wall. Constitutive expression of TaEXPA2 in tobacco improved seed production by increasing capsule number, not seed size, without having any effect on plant growth patterns. The transgenic tobacco exhibited a significantly greater tolerance to water-deficiency stress than did wild-type (WT) plants. We found that under drought stress, the transgenic plants maintained a better water status. The accumulated content of osmotic adjustment substances, such as proline, in TaEXPA2 transgenic plants was greater than that in WT plants. Transgenic plants also displayed greater antioxidative competence as indicated by their lower malondialdehyde (MDA) content, relative electrical conductivity, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation than did WT plants. This result suggests that the transgenic plants suffer less damage from ROS under drought conditions. The activities of some antioxidant enzymes as well as expression levels of several genes encoding key antioxidant enzymes were higher in the transgenic plants than in the WT plants under drought stress. Collectively, our results suggest that ectopic expression of the wheat expansin gene TaEXPA2 improves seed production and drought tolerance in transgenic tobacco plants.

  5. Construction of a male sterility system for hybrid rice breeding and seed production using a nuclear male sterility gene. (United States)

    Chang, Zhenyi; Chen, Zhufeng; Wang, Na; Xie, Gang; Lu, Jiawei; Yan, Wei; Zhou, Junli; Tang, Xiaoyan; Deng, Xing Wang


    The breeding and large-scale adoption of hybrid seeds is an important achievement in agriculture. Rice hybrid seed production uses cytoplasmic male sterile lines or photoperiod/thermo-sensitive genic male sterile lines (PTGMS) as female parent. Cytoplasmic male sterile lines are propagated via cross-pollination by corresponding maintainer lines, whereas PTGMS lines are propagated via self-pollination under environmental conditions restoring male fertility. Despite huge successes, both systems have their intrinsic drawbacks. Here, we constructed a rice male sterility system using a nuclear gene named Oryza sativa No Pollen 1 (OsNP1). OsNP1 encodes a putative glucose-methanol-choline oxidoreductase regulating tapetum degeneration and pollen exine formation; it is specifically expressed in the tapetum and miscrospores. The osnp1 mutant plant displays normal vegetative growth but complete male sterility insensitive to environmental conditions. OsNP1 was coupled with an α-amylase gene to devitalize transgenic pollen and the red fluorescence protein (DsRed) gene to mark transgenic seed and transformed into the osnp1 mutant. Self-pollination of the transgenic plant carrying a single hemizygous transgene produced nontransgenic male sterile and transgenic fertile seeds in 1:1 ratio that can be sorted out based on the red fluorescence coded by DsRed Cross-pollination of the fertile transgenic plants to the nontransgenic male sterile plants propagated the male sterile seeds of high purity. The male sterile line was crossed with ∼1,200 individual rice germplasms available. Approximately 85% of the F1s outperformed their parents in per plant yield, and 10% out-yielded the best local cultivars, indicating that the technology is promising in hybrid rice breeding and production.

  6. Local interleukin-10 production during respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis is associated with post-bronchiolitis wheeze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hodemaekers Hennie M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV is the most common cause of bronchiolitis in infants. Following RSV bronchiolitis, 50% of children develop post-bronchiolitis wheeze (PBW. Animal studies have suggested that interleukin (IL-10 plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of RSV bronchiolitis and subsequent airway hyperresponsiveness. Previously, we showed that ex vivo monocyte IL-10 production is a predictor of PBW. Additionally, heterozygosity of the single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP rs1800872 in the IL10 promoter region was associated with protection against RSV bronchiolitis. Methods This study aimed to determine the in vivo role of IL-10 in RSV pathogenesis and recurrent wheeze in a new cohort of 235 infants hospitalized for RSV bronchiolitis. IL-10 levels in nasopharyngeal aspirates (NPAs were measured at the time of hospitalization and the IL10 SNP rs1800872 genotype was determined. Follow-up data were available for 185 children (79%. Results Local IL-10 levels during RSV infection turned out to be higher in infants that later developed physician diagnosed PBW as compared to infants without PBW in the first year after RSV infection (958 vs 692 pg/ml, p = 0.02. The IL10 promoter SNP rs1800872 was not associated with IL-10 concentration in NPAs. Conclusion The relationship between high local IL-10 levels during the initial RSV infection and physician diagnosed PBW provides further evidence of the importance of the IL-10 response during RSV bronchiolitis.

  7. Direct Injection of Blood Products Versus Gelatin Sponge as a Technique for Local Hemostasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haaga, John [University Hospitals Case Medical Center, Department of Radiology (United States); Rahim, Shiraz, E-mail:


    PurposeTo provide a method of reducing risk of minimally invasive procedures on patients with abnormal hemostasis and evaluate efficacy of direct fresh frozen plasma injection through a procedure needle tract compared to Gelfoam (gelatin sponge) administration.Materials and MethodsEighty patients with elevated international standardized ratio (INR) undergoing minimally invasive procedures using imaging guidance were selected retrospectively. Forty patients had received Gelfoam as a means of tract embolization during the procedure. The other 40 received local fresh frozen plasma (FFP) through the needle tract. The number of complications and clinically significant bleeding events were recorded. A threshold of 30 cc of blood loss after a procedure was used to identify excess bleeding.ResultsNo patients experienced clinically significant bleeding after administration of FFP. Five patients experienced postoperative drops in hemoglobin or hematomas after administration of Gelfoam.ConclusionLocal injection of blood products can reduce postprocedure bleeding in patients undergoing minimally invasive procedures and provides a safe alternative to the use of synthetic fibrin plugs.

  8. Continuing Discontinuities: Local and State Perspectives on Cattle Production and Water Management in Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Manzungu


    Full Text Available From 1885 when the modern state of Botswana was founded until the discovery of significant mineral deposits in 1967, one year after independence, the livestock industry, particularly cattle production, played a significant role in the country’s economy. Today there are concerns about how the livestock industry, because of its importance to many rural households, and its potential to diversify the mineral-dominated economy, can be revived. In recognition of the country’s semi-arid climate, the government has promoted a policy of developing water sources for livestock watering. The state has acknowledged the policy has largely been ineffective, but continues to implement it. This paper attempts to explain this paradox by examining state and local perspectives in the management of water and related resources in the Botswana part of the Limpopo river basin. The discontinuities between the local inhabitants and state practitioners are analyzed within the wider physical social, political, and economic landscape. We ascribe the continued implementation of an ineffective policy to modernisation claims.

  9. Quantum computation via local control theory: Direct sum vs. direct product Hilbert spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sklarz, Shlomo E.; Tannor, David J.


    The central objective in any quantum computation is the creation of a desired unitary transformation; the mapping that this unitary transformation produces between the input and output states is identified with the computation. In [S.E. Sklarz, D.J. Tannor, arXiv:quant-ph/0404081 (submitted to PRA) (2004)] it was shown that local control theory can be used to calculate fields that will produce such a desired unitary transformation. In contrast with previous strategies for quantum computing based on optimal control theory, the local control scheme maintains the system within the computational subspace at intermediate times, thereby avoiding unwanted decay processes. In [S.E. Sklarz et al.], the structure of the Hilbert space had a direct sum structure with respect to the computational register and the mediating states. In this paper, we extend the formalism to the important case of a direct product Hilbert space. The final equations for the control algorithm for the two cases are remarkably similar in structure, despite the fact that the derivations are completely different and that in one case the dynamics is in a Hilbert space and in the other case the dynamics is in a Liouville space. As shown in [S.E. Sklarz et al.], the direct sum implementation leads to a computational mechanism based on virtual transitions, and can be viewed as an extension of the principles of Stimulated Raman Adiabatic Passage from state manipulation to evolution operator manipulation. The direct product implementation developed here leads to the intriguing concept of virtual entanglement - computation that exploits second-order transitions that pass through entangled states but that leaves the subsystems nearly separable at all intermediate times. Finally, we speculate on a connection between the algorithm developed here and the concept of decoherence free subspaces

  10. Localizing drought monitoring products to support agricultural climate service advisories in South Asia (United States)

    Qamer, F. M.; Matin, M. A.; Yadav, N. K.; Bajracharya, B.; Zaitchik, B. F.; Ellenburg, W. L.; Krupnik, T. J.; Hussain, G.


    The Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change identifies drought as one of the major climate risks in South Asia. During past two decades, a large amount of climate data have been made available by the scientific community, but the deployment of climate information for local level and agricultural decision making remains less than optimal. The provisioning of locally calibrated, easily accessible, decision-relevant and user-oriented information, in the form of drought advisory service could help to prepare communities to reduce climate vulnerability and increase resilience. A collaborative effort is now underway to strengthen existing and/or establish new drought monitoring and early warning systems in Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Nepal and Pakistan by incorporating standard ground-based observations, earth observation datasets, and numerical forecast models. ICT-based agriculture drought monitoring platforms, hosted at national agricultural and meteorological institutions, are being developed and coupled with communications and information deployment strategies to enable the rapid and efficient deployment of information that farmers can understand, interpret, and act on to adapt to anticipated droughts. Particular emphasis is being placed on the calibration and validation of data products through retrospective analysis of time series data, in addition to the installation of automatic weather station networks. In order to contextualize monitoring products to that they may be relevant for farmers' primary cropping systems, district level farming practices calendars are being compiled and validated through focus groups and surveys to identify the most important times and situations during which farmers can adapt to drought. High-resolution satellite crop distribution maps are under development and validation to add value to these efforts. This programme also aims to enhance capacity of agricultural extension staff to better understand

  11. Glutamic acid promotes monacolin K production and monacolin K biosynthetic gene cluster expression in Monascus. (United States)

    Zhang, Chan; Liang, Jian; Yang, Le; Chai, Shiyuan; Zhang, Chenxi; Sun, Baoguo; Wang, Chengtao


    This study investigated the effects of glutamic acid on production of monacolin K and expression of the monacolin K biosynthetic gene cluster. When Monascus M1 was grown in glutamic medium instead of in the original medium, monacolin K production increased from 48.4 to 215.4 mg l -1 , monacolin K production increased by 3.5 times. Glutamic acid enhanced monacolin K production by upregulating the expression of mokB-mokI; on day 8, the expression level of mokA tended to decrease by Reverse Transcription-polymerase Chain Reaction. Our findings demonstrated that mokA was not a key gene responsible for the quantity of monacolin K production in the presence of glutamic acid. Observation of Monascus mycelium morphology using Scanning Electron Microscope showed glutamic acid significantly increased the content of Monascus mycelium, altered the permeability of Monascus mycelium, enhanced secretion of monacolin K from the cell, and reduced the monacolin K content in Monascus mycelium, thereby enhancing monacolin K production.

  12. Expression and localization of regenerating gene I in a rat liver regeneration model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jingshu; Koyota, Souichi; Zhou, Xiaoping; Ueno, Yasuharu; Ma Li; Kawagoe, Masami; Koizumi, Yukio; Okamoto, Hiroshi; Sugiyama, Toshihiro


    Regenerating gene (Reg) I has been identified as a regenerative/proliferative factor for pancreatic islet cells. We examined Reg I expression in the regenerating liver of a rat model that had been administered 2-acetylaminofluorene and treated with 70% partial hepatectomy (2-AAF/PH model), where hepatocyte and cholangiocyte proliferation was suppressed and the hepatic stem cells and/or hepatic progenitor cells were activated. In a detailed time course study of activation of hepatic stem cells in the 2-AAF/PH model, utilizing immunofluorescence staining with antibodies of Reg I and other cell-type-specific markers, we found that Reg I-expressing cells are present in the bile ductules and increased during regeneration. Reg I-expressing cells were colocalized with CK19, OV6, and AFP. These results demonstrate that Reg I is significantly upregulated in the liver of the 2-AAF/PH rat model, accompanied by the formation of bile ductules during liver regeneration.

  13. Active and Inactive Enhancers Cooperate to Exert Localized and Long-Range Control of Gene Regulation. (United States)

    Proudhon, Charlotte; Snetkova, Valentina; Raviram, Ramya; Lobry, Camille; Badri, Sana; Jiang, Tingting; Hao, Bingtao; Trimarchi, Thomas; Kluger, Yuval; Aifantis, Iannis; Bonneau, Richard; Skok, Jane A


    V(D)J recombination relies on the presence of proximal enhancers that activate the antigen receptor (AgR) loci in a lineage- and stage-specific manner. Unexpectedly, we find that both active and inactive AgR enhancers cooperate to disseminate their effects in a localized and long-range manner. Here, we demonstrate the importance of short-range contacts between active enhancers that constitute an Igk super-enhancer in B cells. Deletion of one element reduces the interaction frequency between other enhancers in the hub, which compromises the transcriptional output of each component. Furthermore, we establish that, in T cells, long-range contact and cooperation between the inactive Igk enhancer MiEκ and the active Tcrb enhancer Eβ alters enrichment of CBFβ binding in a manner that impacts Tcrb recombination. These findings underline the complexities of enhancer regulation and point to a role for localized and long-range enhancer-sharing between active and inactive elements in lineage- and stage-specific control. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Active and Inactive Enhancers Cooperate to Exert Localized and Long-Range Control of Gene Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Proudhon


    Full Text Available V(DJ recombination relies on the presence of proximal enhancers that activate the antigen receptor (AgR loci in a lineage- and stage-specific manner. Unexpectedly, we find that both active and inactive AgR enhancers cooperate to disseminate their effects in a localized and long-range manner. Here, we demonstrate the importance of short-range contacts between active enhancers that constitute an Igk super-enhancer in B cells. Deletion of one element reduces the interaction frequency between other enhancers in the hub, which compromises the transcriptional output of each component. Furthermore, we establish that, in T cells, long-range contact and cooperation between the inactive Igk enhancer MiEκ and the active Tcrb enhancer Eβ alters enrichment of CBFβ binding in a manner that impacts Tcrb recombination. These findings underline the complexities of enhancer regulation and point to a role for localized and long-range enhancer-sharing between active and inactive elements in lineage- and stage-specific control.

  15. Imported anthropogenic bacteria may survive the Antarctic winter and introduce new genes into local bacterial communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brat Kristian


    Full Text Available We studied dynamic changes in anthropogenic bacterial communities at a summer-operated Czech research base (the Mendel Research Station in the Antarctic during 2012 and 2013. We observed an increase in total numbers of detected bacteria between the beginning and the end of each stay in the Antarctic. In the first series of samples, bacteria of Bacillus sp. predominated. Surprisingly, high numbers of Gram-positive cocci and coliforms were found (including opportunistic human pathogens, although the conditions for bacterial life were unfavourable (Antarctic winter. In the second series of samples, coliforms and Gram-positive cocci predominated. Dangerous human pathogens were also detected. Yersinia enterocolitica was identified as serotype O:9. Antibiotic susceptibility testing showed medium-to-high resistance rates to ampicillin, cefalotin, cefuroxime, amoxicillin-clavulanate and gentamicin in Enterobacteriaceae. 16S rRNA sequencing showed high rates of accordance between nucleotide sequences among the tested strains. Three conclusions were drawn: (1 Number of anthropogenic bacteria were able to survive the harsh conditions of the Antarctic winter (inside and outside the polar station. Under certain circumstances (e.g. impaired immunity, the surviving bacteria might pose a health risk to the participants of future expeditions or to other visitors to the base. (2 The bacteria released into the outer environment might have impacts on local ecosystems. (3 New characteristics (e.g. resistance to antibiotics may be introduced into local bacterial communities.

  16. Autoradiographic localization of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) binding sites in human and guinea pig lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mak, J.C.; Barnes, P.J.


    125 I-Human calcitonin gene-related peptide (hCGRP) binding sites were localized in human and guinea pig lungs by an autoradiographic method. Scatchard analysis of saturation experiments from slide-mounted sections of guinea pig lung displayed specific 125 I-hCGRP binding sites with a dissociation constant (Kd) of 0.72 +/- 0.05 nM (mean +/- S.E.M., n = 3) and a maximal number of binding sites (Bmax) of 133.4 +/- 5.6 fmol/mg protein. In both human and guinea pig lung, autoradiography revealed that CGRP binding sites were widely distributed, with particularly dense labeling over bronchial and pulmonary blood vessels of all sizes and alveolar walls. Airway smooth muscle and epithelium of large airways was sparsely labeled but no labeling was found over submucosal glands. This localization corresponds well to the reported pattern of CGRP-like immunoreactive innervation. The findings of localization of CGRP binding sites on bronchial and pulmonary blood vessels indicate that CGRP may be important in the regulation of airway and pulmonary blood flow

  17. Rural Women in Local Agrofood Production: Between Entrepreneurial Initiatives and Family Strategies. A Case Study in Greece (United States)

    Anthopoulou, Theodosia


    Recent years have seen a relative flourishing in the Greek countryside of small women's businesses engaged in the production of local traditional agrofood products for an emerging consumer demand for foods of specific quality. In the present article the central research question may be summarized as: "to what extent do these women perceive…

  18. Effects of Copper on Hemocyte Apoptosis, ROS Production, and Gene Expression in White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. (United States)

    Guo, Hui; Li, Kexu; Wang, Wei; Wang, Chenggui; Shen, Yuchun


    Copper, a common chemical contaminant in aquatic environment, is known to be toxic to aquatic life at high concentrations. In the present study, we evaluated the apoptotic cell ratio and ROS production in hemocytes of the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei exposed to 1 or 5 mg L -1 Cu for 0, 3, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h. The expression changes of antioxidant biomarker genes, i.e., copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu-Zn SOD) and catalase (CAT), apoptosis-related genes, i.e., caspase-3 and inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP), and a specific biomarker gene of heavy metal pollution, i.e., metallothionein (MT), were also determined in hemocytes. Significant increases in ROS production were observed in both treatment groups at each time points. The apoptotic cell ratios were significantly increased at 6-48 h among shrimp exposed to 1 mg L -1 Cu and at each time points in 5 mg L -1 Cu group. These results indicated that Cu would induce oxidative stress and apoptosis in the hemocyte of L. vannamei. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that the relative expression levels of Cu-Zn SOD, CAT, caspase-3, IAP, and MT were upregulated in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner, suggesting the involvement of these genes in stress response against Cu exposure.

  19. Genome Wide Association Analysis Reveals New Production Trait Genes in a Male Duroc Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kejun Wang

    Full Text Available In this study, 796 male Duroc pigs were used to identify genomic regions controlling growth traits. Three production traits were studied: food conversion ratio, days to 100 KG, and average daily gain, using a panel of 39,436 single nucleotide polymorphisms. In total, we detected 11 genome-wide and 162 chromosome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism trait associations. The Gene ontology analysis identified 14 candidate genes close to significant single nucleotide polymorphisms, with growth-related functions: six for days to 100 KG (WT1, FBXO3, DOCK7, PPP3CA, AGPAT9, and NKX6-1, seven for food conversion ratio (MAP2, TBX15, IVL, ARL15, CPS1, VWC2L, and VAV3, and one for average daily gain (COL27A1. Gene ontology analysis indicated that most of the candidate genes are involved in muscle, fat, bone or nervous system development, nutrient absorption, and metabolism, which are all either directly or indirectly related to growth traits in pigs. Additionally, we found four haplotype blocks composed of suggestive single nucleotide polymorphisms located in the growth trait-related quantitative trait loci and further narrowed down the ranges, the largest of which decreased by ~60 Mb. Hence, our results could be used to improve pig production traits by increasing the frequency of favorable alleles via artificial selection.

  20. Effects of thiamine on growth, aflatoxin production, and aflr gene expression in A. parasiticus

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    Ladan Nazemi


    Results: The minimum inhibitory concentration was yielded as > 500 mg/ml. However, HPLC analysis results showed that aflatoxin production reduced in samples treated with 500 mg/ml of thiamine. In addition, the level of afIR gene expression was significantly reduced after treating with 500 and 250 mg/ml of vitamin B1. Conclusion: Based on the obtained results, thiamine could not inhibit the fungal growth completely. However, the rate of afIR gene expression and aflatoxin production was significantly reduced after fungal treating with thiamine. Consequently, using natural compounds such as vitamins may be regarded as potential antitoxic agent in food industry and the industries related to agriculture.

  1. Microbial Protein Production and Nitrogen Balance of Local Steer Fed Ammoniated Rice Straws Added

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Hindratiningrum


    Full Text Available The objective of the experiment was to investigate the kind of energy source feedstuffs on nutrient balance and microbial protein synthesis in local male beef cattle fed with ammoniated rice straws Twenty steers Peranakan Ongole (PO with average age 1-2 years old were used. They were divided 5 groups based on initial body weight as block. Therefore, Completely Randomised Block Design (CBRD was used for this experiment. Data were analysed by analysis variance and continued honestly significant different (HSD to test the differences between means. The result showed that the range MCP and eficiency MCP were 154,61 g/d until 226,54 g/d and 54,08 gMCP/kg DOMR until 62,64 gMCP/kg DOMR. The range of nitrogen balance were 72,28 gram until 111,67 gram. MCP and efficiency MCP were not affected (P>0,05 by the treatments but balance of nitrogen was affected (P<0,05. Diet containing fresh cassava waste as energy source (R2 was lower (P<0,05 than R1 and R4 while between R1,R3 and R4 was similar. This results indicate that feed source of energy (rice brand, wet cassava waste, dry cassava waste and corn can be used in steers with rice straw ensilage as forage. (Animal Production 11(2: 116-121 (2009 Key Words : Microbial protein production, nitrogen balance, rice straw, ensilage

  2. Evaluation of local energy sources in milk production in a tropical silvopastoral system with Erythrina poeppigiana. (United States)

    Jiménez-Ferrer, Guillermo; Mendoza-Martínez, Germán; Soto-Pinto, Lorena; Alayón-Gamboa, Armando


    An experiment was carried out to determine the effect of four local energy sources (sorghum grain, green banana, polished rice, and sugarcane molasses) fed to dairy cows on intake, milk production and composition, and economic viability in a silvopastoral system in Costa Rica (Turrialba). Twelve grazing cows (Jersey × Central American Milking Creole), with a mean live weight of 332 kg (SD 34), were supplemented with 0.5 kg of dry matter (DM)/100 kg/LW of Erythrina porppigiana fresh foliage daily. Experimental design was a replicated change-over 4 × 4 Latin Square. The pasture composition was 11 and 17 % of star grass (Cynodon niemfuensis), 32 and 28 % of ruzzi grass (Brachiaria rusisiensis), and 45 and 42 % of natural grasses (Axonopus compresus and Paspalum conjugatum) at initial and final times of the essay, respectively. The grass allowance was 30.14 DM/cow/day. Significant differences were found among treatments for variable milk fat content (P  0.05) resulted for total milk production (sorghum 9.0 kg/cow/day; green banana 8.9 kg/cow/day; polished rice 8.8 kg/cow/day; molasses 8.6 kg/cow/day) and fat-corrected milk (FCM). The financial analysis showed that all treatments were economically viable; however, supplementation with green bananas and molasses were the most favorable due to the low costs incurred.

  3. Homology blocks of Plasmodium falciparum var genes and clinically distinct forms of severe malaria in a local population. (United States)

    Rorick, Mary M; Rask, Thomas S; Baskerville, Edward B; Day, Karen P; Pascual, Mercedes


    The primary target of the human immune response to the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1), is encoded by the members of the hyper-diverse var gene family. The parasite exhibits antigenic variation via mutually exclusive expression (switching) of the ~60 var genes within its genome. It is thought that different variants exhibit different host endothelial binding preferences that in turn result in different manifestations of disease. Var sequences comprise ancient sequence fragments, termed homology blocks (HBs), that recombine at exceedingly high rates. We use HBs to define distinct var types within a local population. We then reanalyze a dataset that contains clinical and var expression data to investigate whether the HBs allow for a description of sequence diversity corresponding to biological function, such that it improves our ability to predict disease phenotype from parasite genetics. We find that even a generic set of HBs, which are defined for a small number of non-local parasites: capture the majority of local sequence diversity; improve our ability to predict disease severity from parasite genetics; and reveal a previously hypothesized yet previously unobserved parasite genetic basis for two forms of severe disease. We find that the expression rates of some HBs correlate more strongly with severe disease phenotypes than the expression rates of classic var DBLα tag types, and principal components of HB expression rate profiles further improve genotype-phenotype models. More specifically, within the large Kenyan dataset that is the focus of this study, we observe that HB expression differs significantly for severe versus mild disease, and for rosetting versus impaired consciousness associated severe disease. The analysis of a second much smaller dataset from Mali suggests that these HB-phenotype associations are consistent across geographically distant populations, since we find evidence suggesting

  4. Determination of transcriptional units and gene products from the ftsA region of Escherichia coli. (United States)

    Lutkenhaus, J F; Wu, H C


    Lambda transducing phage gamma 16-2 carries the genes envA, ftsZ, ftsA, ddl, and murC and directs the synthesis of six unique proteins in ultraviolet-irradiated cells. Various derivatives of gamma 16-2 carrying smaller segments of the bacterial deoxyribonucleic acid have also been analyzed for their capacity to direct protein synthesis in ultraviolet-irradiated cells. These results, in combination with genetic results, have allowed the gene product of each of these genes to be assigned. In addition, an unidentified gene was located counterclockwise to murC between murC and murF. Analysis of the direction of transcription indicates that murC, ddl, ftsA, and ftsZ are transcribed clockwise on the Escherichia coli genetic map, and envA is transcribed counterclockwise. In addition, it is shown that each of the genes envA, ftsZ, and ftsA can be expressed independently. Images PMID:6447690

  5. The transport of antibiotic resistance genes and residues in groundwater near swine production facilities (United States)

    Lin, Y. F.; Yannarell, A. C.; Mackie, R. I.; Krapac, I. G.; Chee-Sanford, J. S.; Koike, S.


    The use of antibiotics at concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) for disease prevention, disease treatment, and growth promotion can contribute to the spread of antibiotic compounds, their breakdown products, and antibiotic resistant bacteria and/or the genes that confer resistance. In addition, constitutive use of antibiotics at sub-therapeutic levels can select for antibiotic resistance among the bacteria that inhabit animal intestinal tracts, onsite manure treatment facilities, and any environments receiving significant inputs of manure (e.g. through waste lagoon leakage or fertilizer amendments to farm soils). If the antibiotic resistant organisms persist in these new environments, or if they participate in genetic exchanges with the native microflora, then CAFOs may constitute a significant reservoir for the spread of antibiotic resistance to the environment at large. Our results have demonstrated that leakage from waste treatment lagoons can influence the presence and persistence of tetracycline resistance genes in the shallow aquifer adjacent to swine CAFOs, and molecular phylogeny allowed us to distinguish "native" tetracycline resistance genes in control groundwater wells from manure-associated genes introduced from the lagoon. We have also been able to detect the presence of erythromycin resistance genes in CAFO surface and groundwater even though erythromycin is strictly reserved for use in humans and thus is not utilized at any of these sites. Ongoing research, including modeling of particle transport in groundwater, will help to determine the potential spatial and temporal extent of CAFO-derived antibiotic resistance.

  6. cDNA cloning, sequence analysis, and chromosomal localization of the gene for human carnitine palmitoyltransferase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finocchiaro, G.; Taroni, F.; Martin, A.L.; Colombo, I.; Tarelli, G.T.; DiDonato, S.; Rocchi, M.


    The authors have cloned and sequenced a cDNA encoding human liver carnitine palmitoyltransferase an inner mitochondrial membrane enzyme that plays a major role in the fatty acid oxidation pathway. Mixed oligonucleotide primers whose sequences were deduced from one tryptic peptide obtained from purified CPTase were used in a polymerase chain reaction, allowing the amplification of a 0.12-kilobase fragment of human genomic DNA encoding such a peptide. A 60-base-pair (bp) oligonucleotide synthesized on the basis of the sequence from this fragment was used for the screening of a cDNA library from human liver and hybridized to a cDNA insert of 2255 bp. This cDNA contains an open reading frame of 1974 bp that encodes a protein of 658 amino acid residues including 25 residues of an NH 2 -terminal leader peptide. The assignment of this open reading frame to human liver CPTase is confirmed by matches to seven different amino acid sequences of tryptic peptides derived from pure human CPTase and by the 82.2% homology with the amino acid sequence of rat CPTase. The NH 2 -terminal region of CPTase contains a leucine-proline motif that is shared by carnitine acetyl- and octanoyltransferases and by choline acetyltransferase. The gene encoding CPTase was assigned to human chromosome 1, region 1q12-1pter, by hybridization of CPTase cDNA with a DNA panel of 19 human-hanster somatic cell hybrids

  7. Localized hydroxylamine mutagenesis, and cotransduction of threonine and lysine genes, in Streptomyces venezuelae. (United States)

    Stuttard, C


    A lysate of the generalized transducing phage SV1, grown on the prototrophic type strain 10712 of Streptomyces venezuelae, was mutagenized with hydroxylamine and used to transduce a lysineless auxotroph to lysine independence on supplemented minimal agar. A complex threonine mutant, strain VS95, was isolated from among the transductants and was shown to be carrying at least two different thr mutations. These were about 50% cotransducible with alleles of four independently isolated lysA mutations, as were two other independently isolated threonine mutations, thr-1 and hom-5. The location of thr genes close to lysA occurs in at least three other streptomycetes, but apparently not in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2), in which the lysA and thr loci are at diametrically opposite locations on the linkage map. This first observation of cotransduction between loci governing the biosynthesis of different amino acids in the genus Streptomyces demonstrates the feasibility of fine-structure genetic analysis by transduction in these antibiotic-producing bacteria. PMID:6411685

  8. Gene Disruption Technologies Have the Potential to Transform Stored Product Insect Pest Control. (United States)

    Perkin, Lindsey C; Adrianos, Sherry L; Oppert, Brenda


    Stored product insects feed on grains and processed commodities manufactured from grain post-harvest, reducing the nutritional value and contaminating food. Currently, the main defense against stored product insect pests is the pesticide fumigant phosphine. Phosphine is highly toxic to all animals, but is the most effective and economical control method, and thus is used extensively worldwide. However, many insect populations have become resistant to phosphine, in some cases to very high levels. New, environmentally benign and more effective control strategies are needed for stored product pests. RNA interference (RNAi) may overcome pesticide resistance by targeting the expression of genes that contribute to resistance in insects. Most data on RNAi in stored product insects is from the coleopteran genetic model, Tribolium castaneum, since it has a strong RNAi response via injection of double stranded RNA (dsRNA) in any life stage. Additionally, Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR) technology has been suggested as a potential resource for new pest control strategies. In this review we discuss background information on both gene disruption technologies and summarize the advances made in terms of molecular pest management in stored product insects, mainly T. castaneum, as well as complications and future needs.

  9. Gene Disruption Technologies Have the Potential to Transform Stored Product Insect Pest Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsey C. Perkin


    Full Text Available Stored product insects feed on grains and processed commodities manufactured from grain post-harvest, reducing the nutritional value and contaminating food. Currently, the main defense against stored product insect pests is the pesticide fumigant phosphine. Phosphine is highly toxic to all animals, but is the most effective and economical control method, and thus is used extensively worldwide. However, many insect populations have become resistant to phosphine, in some cases to very high levels. New, environmentally benign and more effective control strategies are needed for stored product pests. RNA interference (RNAi may overcome pesticide resistance by targeting the expression of genes that contribute to resistance in insects. Most data on RNAi in stored product insects is from the coleopteran genetic model, Tribolium castaneum, since it has a strong RNAi response via injection of double stranded RNA (dsRNA in any life stage. Additionally, Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR technology has been suggested as a potential resource for new pest control strategies. In this review we discuss background information on both gene disruption technologies and summarize the advances made in terms of molecular pest management in stored product insects, mainly T. castaneum, as well as complications and future needs.

  10. Excision of foreign gene product with cathepsin D in chicken hepatoma cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Masaharu; Kawashima, Tsuyoshi; Aosasa, Masayoshi; Horiuchi, Hiroyuki; Furusawa, Shuichi; Matsuda, Haruo


    To easily and rapidly recover exogenous gene products from chicken egg yolk, we constructed pVTG-catD (VTG, vitellogenin; catD, cathepsin D), a vector cassette carrying two catD-recognition signal peptides (catD-RSPs) in addition to the cloning site. An enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP)-encoding DNA fragment was ligated into the pVTG-catD. When the resultant construct pVTG-EGFP-catD containing histidine- and myc-tags was transfected into the chicken hepatoma cell line LMH, EGFP-expression at 24 h post-cultivation was confirmed by fluorescence microscopy. Because a signal peptide (NTVLAEF) encoded in pVTG-EGFP-catD is recognized by catD, the VTG-EGFP fusion protein digested with catD was detectable by Western blotting. Digested exogenous gene product was recovered with nickel resin. These results indicate that catD-recognition sites bearing pVTG-catD and His-tags are functional in chicken LMH cells. Therefore, the system described here may be of use in making excision exogenous gene products in the chicken and in creating homozygous knock-in chickens

  11. Recombinant hepatitis B surface antigen production in Aspergillus niger: evaluating the strategy of gene fusion to native glucoamylase

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    James, ER


    Full Text Available Microbiology and Biotechnology October 2012/ Vol. 96, No.2 Recombinant hepatitis B surface antigen production in Aspergillus niger: evaluating the strategy of gene fusion to native glucoamylase ER James a,c & WH van Zyl b & PJ van Zyl c & JF Görgens..., Pretoria 0001, South Africa Abstract This study demonstrates the potential of Aspergillus niger as a candidate expression system for virus- like particle production using gene fusion. Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) production, targeted...

  12. Tetracycline residues and tetracycline resistance genes in groundwater impacted by swine production facilities (United States)

    Mackie, R.I.; Koike, S.; Krapac, I.; Chee-Sanford, J.; Maxwell, Susan; Aminov, R.I.


    Antibiotics are used at therapeutic levels to treat disease; at slightly lower levels as prophylactics; and at low, subtherapeutic levels for growth promotion and improvement of feed efficiency. Over 88% of swine producers in the United States gave antimicrobials to grower/finisher pigs in feed as a growth promoter in 2000. It is estimated that ca. 75% of antibiotics are not absorbed by animals and are excreted in urine and feces. The extensive use of antibiotics in swine production has resulted in antibiotic resistance in many intestinal bacteria, which are also excreted in swine feces, resulting in dissemination of resistance genes into the environment.To assess the impact of manure management on groundwater quality, groundwater samples have been collected near two swine confinement facilities that use lagoons for manure storage and treatment. Several key contaminant indicators-including inorganic ions, antibiotics, and antibiotic resistance genes-were analyzed in groundwater collected from the monitoring wells. Chloride, ammonium, potassium, and sodium were predominant inorganic constituents in the manure samples and served as indicators of groundwater contamination. Based on these analyses, shallow groundwater has been impacted by lagoon seepage at both sites. Liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy (LC-MS) was used to measure the dissolved concentrations of tetracycline, chlortetracycline, and oxytetracycline in groundwater and manure. Although tetracyclines were regularly used at both facilities, they were infrequently detected in manure samples and then at relatively trace concentrations. Concentrations of all tetracyclines and their breakdown products in the groundwater sampled were generally less than 0.5 ??g/L.Bacterial tetracycline resistance genes served as distinct genotypic markers to indicate the dissemination and mobility of antibiotic resistance genes that originated from the lagoons. Applying PCR to genomic DNA extracted from the lagoon and

  13. Molecular cloning, characterization and localization of chicken type II procollagen gene. (United States)

    Xi, Caixia; Liu, Nan; Liang, Fei; Guo, Siqi; Sun, Yuying; Yang, Fengtang; Xi, Yongzhi


    Chicken type II procollagen (ccol2a1) has become as an important oral tolerance protein for effective treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. However, its molecular identity remains unclear. Here, we reported the full-length cDNA and nearly complete genomic DNA encoding ccol2a1. We have determined the structural organization, evolutional characters, developmental expression and chromosomal mapping of the gene. The full-length cDNA sequence spans 4837 bp containing all the coding region of the ccol2a1 including 3' and 5' untranslation region. The deduced peptide of ccol2a1, composed of 1420 amino acids, can be divided into signal peptide, N-propeptide, N-telopeptide, triple helix, C-telopeptide and C-propeptide. The ccol2a1 genomic DNA sequence was determined to be 12,523 bp long containing 54 exons interrupted by 53 introns. Comparison of the ccol2a1 with its counterparts in human, mouse, canine, horse, rat, frog and newt revealed highly conserved sequence in the triple helix domain. Chromosomal mapping of ccol2a1 locates it on 4P2. While the ccol2a1 mRNA was expressed in multiple tissues, the protein was only detected in chondrogenic cartilage, vitreous body and cornea. The ccol2a1 was found to contain two isoforms detected by RT-PCR. The distribution of the ccol2a1 lacking exon 2wasfrequently detected in chondrogenic tissues, whereas the exon 2-containing isoform was more abundant in non-chondrogenic tissues. These results provide useful information for preparing recombinant chicken type II collagen and for a better understanding of normal cartilage development.

  14. Local gene regulation details a recognition code within the LacI transcriptional factor family.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco M Camas


    Full Text Available The specific binding of regulatory proteins to DNA sequences exhibits no clear patterns of association between amino acids (AAs and nucleotides (NTs. This complexity of protein-DNA interactions raises the question of whether a simple set of wide-coverage recognition rules can ever be identified. Here, we analyzed this issue using the extensive LacI family of transcriptional factors (TFs. We searched for recognition patterns by introducing a new approach to phylogenetic footprinting, based on the pervasive presence of local regulation in prokaryotic transcriptional networks. We identified a set of specificity correlations--determined by two AAs of the TFs and two NTs in the binding sites--that is conserved throughout a dominant subgroup within the family regardless of the evolutionary distance, and that act as a relatively consistent recognition code. The proposed rules are confirmed with data of previous experimental studies and by events of convergent evolution in the phylogenetic tree. The presence of a code emphasizes the stable structural context of the LacI family, while defining a precise blueprint to reprogram TF specificity with many practical applications.

  15. Mesoscale and Local Scale Evaluations of Quantitative Precipitation Estimates by Weather Radar Products during a Heavy Rainfall Event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basile Pauthier


    Full Text Available A 24-hour heavy rainfall event occurred in northeastern France from November 3 to 4, 2014. The accuracy of the quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE by PANTHERE and ANTILOPE radar-based gridded products during this particular event, is examined at both mesoscale and local scale, in comparison with two reference rain-gauge networks. Mesoscale accuracy was assessed for the total rainfall accumulated during the 24-hour event, using the Météo France operational rain-gauge network. Local scale accuracy was assessed for both total event rainfall and hourly rainfall accumulations, using the recently developed HydraVitis high-resolution rain gauge network Evaluation shows that (1 PANTHERE radar-based QPE underestimates rainfall fields at mesoscale and local scale; (2 both PANTHERE and ANTILOPE successfully reproduced the spatial variability of rainfall at local scale; (3 PANTHERE underestimates can be significantly improved at local scale by merging these data with rain gauge data interpolation (i.e., ANTILOPE. This study provides a preliminary evaluation of radar-based QPE at local scale, suggesting that merged products are invaluable for applications at very high resolution. The results obtained underline the importance of using high-density rain-gauge networks to obtain information at high spatial and temporal resolution, for better understanding of local rainfall variation, to calibrate remotely sensed rainfall products.

  16. Identification, Characterization and Down-Regulation of Cysteine Protease Genes in Tobacco for Use in Recombinant Protein Production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kishor Duwadi

    Full Text Available Plants are an attractive host system for pharmaceutical protein production. Many therapeutic proteins have been produced and scaled up in plants at a low cost compared to the conventional microbial and animal-based systems. The main technical challenge during this process is to produce sufficient levels of recombinant proteins in plants. Low yield is generally caused by proteolytic degradation during expression and downstream processing of recombinant proteins. The yield of human therapeutic interleukin (IL-10 produced in transgenic tobacco leaves was found to be below the critical level, and may be due to degradation by tobacco proteases. Here, we identified a total of 60 putative cysteine protease genes (CysP in tobacco. Based on their predicted expression in leaf tissue, 10 candidate CysPs (CysP1-CysP10 were selected for further characterization. The effect of CysP gene silencing on IL-10 accumulation was examined in tobacco. It was found that the recombinant protein yield in tobacco could be increased by silencing CysP6. Transient expression of CysP6 silencing construct also showed an increase in IL-10 accumulation in comparison to the control. Moreover, CysP6 localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER, suggesting that ER may be the site of IL-10 degradation. Overall results suggest that CysP6 is important in determining the yield of recombinant IL-10 in tobacco leaves.

  17. The local content approach in activities of exploration and production of oil and gas; Conteudo local nas atividades de exploracao e producao de petroleo e gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frederice, Jose Carlos [Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenadoria de Conteudo Local; Macedo, Marcelo Mafra Borges de [Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Regulacao de Petroleo e Derivados


    Breaking the monopoly of PETROBRAS for the activities of exploration and production of oil and natural gas has occurred in Brazil in 1995 by the Constitutional Amendment No 9 followed by the promulgation of the Law 9.478 of 1997, the 'Law of Oil' and the creation of the Agencia Nacional do Petroleo - ANP, with powers to regulate, recruit and monitor the oil and natural gas industry. The new regulatory framework has established the award granted by the State, through bids organized by the ANP, of the oil and gas exploration and production activities. This new model has established that the offers to purchase blocks must be composed by the Signature Bonus, Minimum Exploration Program and percentages of Local Content for the stages of exploration and development of production. As a result of market opening and the completion of bids over these 10 years, there has been a significant expansion of investment in the industry, revealing that the demands of Local Content rightly acted as a strong mechanism inducing the participation of local industry supplier of goods and services. In practical terms, in 1997 the participation of the sector of oil and gas in the Brazilian GDP was approximately 2.5% and now comes to 10.5%, or each R$ 100.00 generated in the country, R$ 10.50 come from the sector of oil and gas. (author)

  18. Immunohistochemical Localization of an Isoform of TRK-Fused Gene-Like Protein in the Rat Retina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuda, Chiaki; Takeuchi, Shigeko; Bisem, Naomi J.; Vincent, Steven R.; Tooyama, Ikuo


    The TRK-fused gene (TFG) was originally identified in chromosome translocation events, creating a pair of oncogenes in some cancers, and was recently demonstrated as the causal gene of hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy with proximal dominant involvement. Recently, we cloned an alternative splicing variant of Tfg from a cDNA library of the rat retina, tentatively naming it retinal Tfg (rTfg). Although the common form of Tfg is ubiquitously expressed in most rat tissues, rTfg expression is localized to the central nervous system. In this study, we produced an antibody against an rTFG-specific amino acid sequence and used it to examine the localization of rTFG-like protein in the rat retina by immunohistochemistry and Western blots. Western blot analysis showed that the antibody detected a single band of 24 kDa in the rat retina. When we examined rTFG recombinant protein, the antibody detected two bands of about 42 kDa and 24 kDa. The results suggest that the 24 kDa rTFG-like protein is a fragment of rTFG. In our immunohistochemical studies of the rat retina, rTFG-like immunoreactivity was observed in all calbindin D-28K-positive horizontal cells and in some syntaxin 1-positive amacrine cells (ACs). In addition, the rTFG-like immunopositive ACs were actually glycine transporter 1-positive glycinergic or glutamate decarboxylase-positive GABAergic ACs. Our findings indicate that this novel 24 kDa rTFG-like protein may play a specific role in retinal inhibitory interneurons

  19. Local arginase inhibition during early reperfusion mediates cardioprotection via increased nitric oxide production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian T Gonon

    Full Text Available Consumption of L-arginine contributes to reduced bioavailability of nitric oxide (NO that is critical for the development of ischemia-reperfusion injury. The aim of the study was to determine myocardial arginase expression and activity in ischemic-reperfusion myocardium and whether local inhibition of arginase within the ischemic myocardium results in increased NO production and protection against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion. Anesthetized pigs were subjected to coronary artery occlusion for 40 min followed by 4 h reperfusion. The pigs were randomized to intracoronary infusion of vehicle (n = 7, the arginase inhibitor N-hydroxy-nor-L-arginine (nor-NOHA, 2 mg/min, n = 7, the combination of nor-NOHA and the NO synthase inhibitor N(G-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA, 0.35 mg/min, n = 6 into the jeopardized myocardial area or systemic intravenous infusion of nor-NOHA (2 mg/min, n = 5 at the end of ischemia and start of reperfusion. The infarct size of the vehicle group was 80 ± 4% of the area at risk. Intracoronary nor-NOHA reduced infarct size to 46 ± 5% (P<0.01. Co-administration of L-NMMA abrogated the cardioprotective effect mediated by nor-NOHA (infarct size 72 ± 6%. Intravenous nor-NOHA did not reduce infarct size. Arginase I and II were expressed in cardiomyocytes, endothelial, smooth muscle and poylmorphonuclear cells. There was no difference in cytosolic arginase I or mitochondrial arginase II expression between ischemic-reperfused and non-ischemic myocardium. Arginase activity increased 2-fold in the ischemic-reperfused myocardium in comparison with non-ischemic myocardium. In conclusion, ischemia-reperfusion increases arginase activity without affecting cytosolic arginase I or mitochondrial arginase II expression. Local arginase inhibition during early reperfusion reduces infarct size via a mechanism that is dependent on increased bioavailability of NO.

  20. Analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms in major and candidate genes for production traits in Nero Siciliano pig breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Zumbo


    Full Text Available Nero Siciliano (NS; Sicilian Black is a local pig breed reared on the island of Sicily mainly under extensive management.The breed is well adapted to marginal conditions and is appreciated for its reproductive performance, disease resistanceand production of tasty meat. For a genetic characterization of this breed we analyzed the allele frequencies of singlenucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in eight major or candidate genes (ryanodine receptor 1, RYR1; Na+, K+ ATPase subunitα 2, ATP1A2; myosin heavy chain 2B, MYH4; sarcolipin, SLN; cathepsin B, CTSB; cystatin B, CSTB; estrogen receptor,ESR; melanocortin receptor 1, MC1R for performance and phenotypic traits. The animals that were sampled andanalyzed represent about 6-8% of the total NS pig population. PCR-RFLP or PCR-SSCP techniques were used to type theDNA markers in the selected loci. Exact test of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was computed for each locus, Fis statisticsand heterozygosity were calculated for each locus and over all loci. Allele frequencies obtained in NS breed were comparedto the frequencies already available in literature for the Large White, Landrace, Duroc, Belgian Landrace, Piétrain,Hampshire and Meishan breeds. For the ESR locus, as no information on the distribution of the two alleles were available,we typed a sample of unrelated pigs from the considered breeds.Even if only eight loci were studied in NS breed, important elements were obtained from the data. The 1843T (n alleleat the RYR1 locus is present in NS breed, thus the molecular test to identify the carriers of this allele should be adoptedto avoid its spreading in the population. Moreover, other studies are needed to clarify the allelic structure of the MC1Rgene, which affects coat color, in order to evaluate if this gene could be used in genetic tests for the traceability of themeat products of this breed. Finally, the present work represents an attempt to evaluate data on mutations within majorand candidate genes

  1. Transcriptome and Gene Ontology (GO) Enrichment Analysis Reveals Genes Involved in Biotin Metabolism That Affect L-Lysine Production in Corynebacterium glutamicum. (United States)

    Kim, Hong-Il; Kim, Jong-Hyeon; Park, Young-Jin


    Corynebacterium glutamicum is widely used for amino acid production. In the present study, 543 genes showed a significant change in their mRNA expression levels in L-lysine-producing C. glutamicum ATCC21300 than that in the wild-type C. glutamicum ATCC13032. Among these 543 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), 28 genes were up- or downregulated. In addition, 454 DEGs were functionally enriched and categorized based on BLAST sequence homologies and gene ontology (GO) annotations using the Blast2GO software. Interestingly, NCgl0071 (bioB, encoding biotin synthase) was expressed at levels ~20-fold higher in the L-lysine-producing ATCC21300 strain than that in the wild-type ATCC13032 strain. Five other genes involved in biotin metabolism or transport--NCgl2515 (bioA, encoding adenosylmethionine-8-amino-7-oxononanoate aminotransferase), NCgl2516 (bioD, encoding dithiobiotin synthetase), NCgl1883, NCgl1884, and NCgl1885--were also expressed at significantly higher levels in the L-lysine-producing ATCC21300 strain than that in the wild-type ATCC13032 strain, which we determined using both next-generation RNA sequencing and quantitative real-time PCR analysis. When we disrupted the bioB gene in C. glutamicum ATCC21300, L-lysine production decreased by approximately 76%, and the three genes involved in biotin transport (NCgl1883, NCgl1884, and NCgl1885) were significantly downregulated. These results will be helpful to improve our understanding of C. glutamicum for industrial amino acid production.

  2. Identification and Expression Analysis of Medicago truncatula Isopentenyl Transferase Genes (IPTs Involved in Local and Systemic Control of Nodulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahboobeh Azarakhsh


    Full Text Available Cytokinins are essential for legume plants to establish a nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with rhizobia. Recently, the expression level of cytokinin biosynthesis IPTs (ISOPENTENYLTRANSFERASES genes was shown to be increased in response to rhizobial inoculation in Lotus japonicus, Medicago truncatula and Pisum sativum. In addition to its well-established positive role in nodule primordium initiation in root cortex, cytokinin negatively regulates infection processes in the epidermis. Moreover, it was reported that shoot-derived cytokinin inhibits the subsequent nodule formation through AON (autoregulation of nodulation pathway. In L. japonicus, LjIPT3 gene was shown to be activated in the shoot phloem via the components of AON system, negatively affecting nodulation. However, in M. truncatula, the detailed analysis of MtIPTs expression, both in roots and shoots, in response to nodulation has not been performed yet, and the link between IPTs and AON has not been studied so far. In this study, we performed an extensive analysis of MtIPTs expression levels in different organs, focusing on the possible role of MtIPTs in nodule development. MtIPTs expression dynamics in inoculated roots suggest that besides its early established role in the nodule primordia development, cytokinin may be also important for later stages of nodulation. According to expression analysis, MtIPT3, MtIPT4, and MtIPT5 are activated in the shoots in response to inoculation. Among these genes, MtIPT3 is the only one the induction of which was not observed in leaves of the sunn-3 mutant defective in CLV1-like kinase, the key component of AON, suggesting that MtIPT3 is activated in the shoots in an AON-dependent manner. Taken together, our findings suggest that MtIPTs are involved in the nodule development at different stages, both locally in inoculated roots and systemically in shoots, where their expression can be activated in an AON-dependent manner.

  3. Subcellular Localization of Large Yellow Croaker ( Larimichthys crocea) TLR21 and Expression Profiling of Its Gene in Immune Response (United States)

    Sun, Qingxue; Fan, Zejun; Yao, Cuiluan


    Toll-like receptor 21 (TLR21) is a non-mammalian type TLR, and plays an important role in innate immune response in fish. In this paper, the full-length cDNA sequence of TLR21 gene was identified and characterized from large yellow croaker, Larimichthys crocea and was termed as LcTLR21. It consists of 3365 bp, including a 5'-terminal untranslated region (UTR) of 97 bp, a 3'-terminal UTR of 331 bp, and an open reading frame (ORF) of 2937 bp encoding a polypeptide of 978 amino acid residues. The deduced LcTLR21 contains a signal peptide domain at N-terminal, 12 leucine-rich repeats (LRRs) at the extracellular region, a transmembrane domain and a cytoplasmic toll-interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domain at the C-terminal. Subcellular localization analysis revealed that the LcTLR21-GFP was constitutively expressed in cytoplasm. Tissue expression analysis indicated that LcTLR21 gene broadly expressed in most of the examined tissues, with the most predominant abundance in spleen, followed by head-kidney and liver, while the weakest expression was detected in brain. The expression level of LcTLR21 after LPS, poly I:C and Vibrio parahaemolyticus challenges was investigated in spleen, head-kidney and liver. LcTLR21 gene transcripts increased significantly in all examined tissues after the challenges, and the highest expression level was detected in liver at 24 h after poly I:C stimulation ( P < 0.05), suggesting that LcTLR21 might play a crucial role in fish resistance to viral and bacterial infections.

  4. Localization of neuropeptide gene expression in larvae of an echinoderm, the starfish Asterias rubens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana D Mayorova


    Full Text Available Neuropeptides are an ancient class of neuronal signaling molecules that regulate a variety of physiological and behavioral processes in animals. The life cycle of many animals includes a larval stage(s that precedes metamorphic transition to a reproductively active adult stage but, with the exception of Drosophila melanogaster and other insects, research on neuropeptide signaling has hitherto largely focused on adult animals. However, recent advances in genome/transcriptome sequencing have facilitated investigation of neuropeptide expression/function in the larvae of protostomian (e.g. the annelid Platynereis dumerilii and deuterostomian (e.g. the urochordate Ciona intestinalis invertebrates. Accordingly, here we report the first multi-gene investigation of larval neuropeptide precursor expression in a species belonging to the phylum Echinodermata - the starfish Asterias rubens. Whole-mount mRNA in situ hybridization was used to visualize in bipinnaria and brachiolaria stage larvae the expression of eight neuropeptide precursors: L-type SALMFamide (S1, F-type SALMFamide (S2, vasopressin/oxytocin-type, NGFFYamide, thyrotropin-releasing hormone-type, gonadotropin-releasing hormone-type, calcitonin-type and corticotropin-releasing hormone-type. Expression of only three of the precursors (S1, S2, NGFFYamide was observed in bipinnaria larvae but by the brachiolaria stage expression of all eight precursors was detected. An evolutionarily conserved feature of larval nervous systems is the apical organ and in starfish larvae this comprises the bilaterally symmetrical lateral ganglia, but only the S1 and S2 precursors were found to be expressed in these ganglia. A prominent feature of brachiolaria larvae is the attachment complex, comprising the brachia and adhesive disk, which mediates larval attachment to a substratum prior to metamorphosis. Interestingly, all of the neuropeptide precursors examined here are expressed in the attachment complex, with

  5. Local Wisdom of Smoked Fish Processing as Tourism Product in Situbondo Regency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ika Junianingsih


    Full Text Available Marine and fisheries resources in Situbondo Regency were potential to supports seafood processing, e.g. traditional smoked processing of mackerel tuna (Euthynnus affinis Cantor based on local wisdom. This research was aimed to assess and analyzes: the processing of smoked mackerel tuna based on local wisdom, public perception towards the processing of smoked mackerel tuna, and the quality of smoked mackerel tuna. The research carried out on January to April 2014, in Jangkar Village, Situbondo regency. The study included depth interview from key persons with questionnaire and organoleptic test. The public perception on smoked mackerel tuna was taken by questionnaire from 85 respondents, whereas the quality of smoked mackerel tuna was analyzed with laboratory proximate test. Result of this research showed that smoked mackerel tuna processing used traditional smoking instrument and fuel material. The smoking stall used several banana midrib stem above the furnace that made of cement and bricks, while the fuel use coconut coir which created the typical flavors of the smoked mackerel tuna. The average organoleptic value of the smoked mackerel tuna appearance is 7.89 (intact, clean, brown, very shiny specific type, flavors of 8.24 (less fragrant, smoked enough, without additional disturbing odor, taste of 8.41 (delicious, savory, texture of 7.40 (solid, compact, fairly dry, tight inter-flesh tissue, and colour of 7.20 (attractive, specific, shiny brown colour type. Public perception showed that the community knowledge on smoked mackerel tuna processing is good, creates good flavors of smoked mackerel tuna and favored by the community, thus also encourage the community to support the conservation of this traditional smoked processing. Lab analysis showed that the proximate value of 0.99% carbohydrates, 29.59% protein, 1.14% fat, 2.89% mineral, 1.88% ash, and 63.4% water. Processing of smoked mackerel tuna as tourism product of Situbondo Regency is

  6. Investigating the radial structure of axisymmetric fluctuations in the TCV tokamak with local and global gyrokinetic GENE simulations (United States)

    Merlo, G.; Brunner, S.; Huang, Z.; Coda, S.; Görler, T.; Villard, L.; Bañón Navarro, A.; Dominski, J.; Fontana, M.; Jenko, F.; Porte, L.; Told, D.


    Axisymmetric (n = 0) density fluctuations measured in the TCV tokamak are observed to possess a frequency f 0 which is either varying (radially dispersive oscillations) or a constant over a large fraction of the plasma minor radius (radially global oscillations) as reported in a companion paper (Z Huang et al, this issue). Given that f 0 scales with the sound speed and given the poloidal structure of density fluctuations, these oscillations were interpreted as Geodesic Acoustic Modes, even though f 0 is in fact smaller than the local linear GAM frequency {f}{GAM}. In this work we employ the Eulerian gyrokinetic code GENE to simulate TCV relevant conditions and investigate the nature and properties of these oscillations, in particular their relation to the safety factor profile. Local and global simulations are carried out and a good qualitative agreement is observed between experiments and simulations. By varying also the plasma temperature and density profiles, we conclude that a variation of the edge safety factor alone is not sufficient to induce a transition from global to radially inhomogeneous oscillations, as was initially suggested by experimental results. This transition appears instead to be the combined result of variations in the different plasma profiles, collisionality and finite machine size effects. Simulations also show that radially global GAM-like oscillations can be observed in all fluxes and fluctuation fields, suggesting that they are the result of a complex nonlinear process involving also finite toroidal mode numbers and not just linear global GAM eigenmodes.

  7. Disruption of ten protease genes in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus oryzae highly improves production of heterologous proteins. (United States)

    Yoon, Jaewoo; Maruyama, Jun-ichi; Kitamoto, Katsuhiko


    Proteolytic degradation by secreted proteases into the culture medium is one of the significant problems to be solved in heterologous protein production by filamentous fungi including Aspergillus oryzae. Double (tppA, and pepE) and quintuple (tppA, pepE, nptB, dppIV, and dppV) disruption of protease genes enhanced human lysozyme (HLY) and bovine chymosin (CHY) production by A. oryzae. In this study, we used a quintuple protease gene disruptant and performed successive rounds of disruption for five additional protease genes (alpA, pepA, AopepAa, AopepAd, and cpI), which were previously investigated by DNA microarray analyses for their expression. Gene disruption was performed by pyrG marker recycling with a highly efficient gene-targeting background (∆ligD) as previously reported. As a result, the maximum yields of recombinant CHY and HLY produced by a decuple protease gene disruptant were approximately 30% and 35%, respectively, higher than those produced by a quintuple protease gene disruptant. Thus, we successfully constructed a decuple protease gene disruptant possessing highly improved capability of heterologous protein production. This is the first report on decuple protease gene disruption that improved the levels of heterologous protein production by the filamentous fungus A. oryzae.

  8. Phytoalexin detoxification genes and gene products: Implication for the evolution of host specific traits for pathogenicity. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VanEtten, H.


    The overall objectives of this research were to determine which differences among PDA genes were associated with different levels of virulence on pea and to clone and characterize a MAK gene. The authors also proposed to characterize the pisatin detoxifying system in pea pathogens in addition to N. haematococca to assess whether pathogens of a common host had evolved similar pathogenicity genes

  9. Phytoalexin detoxification genes and gene products: Implication for the evolution of host specific traits for pathogenicity. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VanEtten, H.


    The overall objectives of this research were to determine which differences among PDA genes were associated with different levels of virulence on pea and to clone and characterize a MAK gene. The authors also proposed to characterize the pisatin detoxifying system in pea pathogens in addition to N. haematococca to assess whether pathogens of a common host had evolved similar pathogenicity genes.

  10. Experiences with local power production at the end-user (case studies)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morch, Andrei Z.; Grinden, Bjoern; Fleten, Stein-Erik; Maribu, Karl Magnus; Johansen, Boerre; Vanebo, Torstein; Berner, Monica; Stang, Jacob; Naesje, Paal


    This report describes the results of case studies performed as part of the project 'Local power production at the end-user'. It was found that the construction of a power plant, even a small one, is not an easy task. It is important to exploit the resources optimally and to allow for many income and cost elements in calculating the profitability. It may therefore be worth while to consult qualified assistance at an early stage during the planning of such construction projects. It is also found that there are clear scale effects in the development of small power plants, that is, the relative costs (NOK/kWh) are larger for small plants than for bigger ones. This is true of both investment costs and operation costs. This will affect the profitability. Of 16 plants, there is enough data for analysing 15, although estimates must be used instead of real data where the latter is missing. For eight of the 15, the net present value is positive at a power price of 25 oere/kWh, 6% discount rate and 15-20 years lifetime. For the other plants it will be more economical to wait until the market price of power rises. The price that is necessary to make these plants profitable varies from 32 to 45 oere/kWh. Basically it is assumed that the developer of small power plants (up to 10 MW) wants to produce as much energy (kWh) as possible from the plant, both to cover his own consumption and to sell surplus energy to the power market. However, there is an economically interesting market for power (kW), in which the producer (over 25 MW) is paid for being ready to start production on short notice

  11. Correlation of N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 subcellular localization and lymph node metastases of colorectal neoplasms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Yan [Medical Research Center, Shandong Provincial Qianfoshan Hospital, Shandong University, Jinan 250014 (China); Lv, Liyang [Department of Health, Jinan Military Area Command, Jinan 250022 (China); Du, Juan; Yue, Longtao [Medical Research Center, Shandong Provincial Qianfoshan Hospital, Shandong University, Jinan 250014 (China); Cao, Lili, E-mail: [Medical Research Center, Shandong Provincial Qianfoshan Hospital, Shandong University, Jinan 250014 (China)


    Highlights: •We clarified NDRG1 subcellular location in colorectal cancer. •We found the changes of NDRG1 distribution during colorectal cancer progression. •We clarified the correlation between NDRG1 distribution and lymph node metastasis. •It is possible that NDRG1 subcellular localization may determine its function. •Maybe NDRG1 is valuable early diagnostic markers for metastasis. -- Abstract: In colorectal neoplasms, N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 (NDRG1) is a primarily cytoplasmic protein, but it is also expressed on the cell membrane and in the nucleus. NDRG1 is involved in various stages of tumor development in colorectal cancer, and it is possible that the different subcellular localizations may determine the function of NDRG1 protein. Here, we attempt to clarify the characteristics of NDRG1 protein subcellular localization during the progression of colorectal cancer. We examined NDRG1 expression in 49 colorectal cancer patients in cancerous, non-cancerous, and corresponding lymph node tissues. Cytoplasmic and membrane NDRG1 expression was higher in the lymph nodes with metastases than in those without metastases (P < 0.01). Nuclear NDRG1 expression in colorectal neoplasms was significantly higher than in the normal colorectal mucosa, and yet the normal colorectal mucosa showed no nuclear expression. Furthermore, our results showed higher cytoplasmic NDRG1 expression was better for differentiation, and higher membrane NDRG1 expression resulted in a greater possibility of lymph node metastasis. These data indicate that a certain relationship between the cytoplasmic and membrane expression of NDRG1 in lymph nodes exists with lymph node metastasis. NDRG1 expression may translocate from the membrane of the colorectal cancer cells to the nucleus, where it is involved in lymph node metastasis. Combination analysis of NDRG1 subcellular expression and clinical variables will help predict the incidence of lymph node metastasis.

  12. Correlation of N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 subcellular localization and lymph node metastases of colorectal neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Yan; Lv, Liyang; Du, Juan; Yue, Longtao; Cao, Lili


    Highlights: •We clarified NDRG1 subcellular location in colorectal cancer. •We found the changes of NDRG1 distribution during colorectal cancer progression. •We clarified the correlation between NDRG1 distribution and lymph node metastasis. •It is possible that NDRG1 subcellular localization may determine its function. •Maybe NDRG1 is valuable early diagnostic markers for metastasis. -- Abstract: In colorectal neoplasms, N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 (NDRG1) is a primarily cytoplasmic protein, but it is also expressed on the cell membrane and in the nucleus. NDRG1 is involved in various stages of tumor development in colorectal cancer, and it is possible that the different subcellular localizations may determine the function of NDRG1 protein. Here, we attempt to clarify the characteristics of NDRG1 protein subcellular localization during the progression of colorectal cancer. We examined NDRG1 expression in 49 colorectal cancer patients in cancerous, non-cancerous, and corresponding lymph node tissues. Cytoplasmic and membrane NDRG1 expression was higher in the lymph nodes with metastases than in those without metastases (P < 0.01). Nuclear NDRG1 expression in colorectal neoplasms was significantly higher than in the normal colorectal mucosa, and yet the normal colorectal mucosa showed no nuclear expression. Furthermore, our results showed higher cytoplasmic NDRG1 expression was better for differentiation, and higher membrane NDRG1 expression resulted in a greater possibility of lymph node metastasis. These data indicate that a certain relationship between the cytoplasmic and membrane expression of NDRG1 in lymph nodes exists with lymph node metastasis. NDRG1 expression may translocate from the membrane of the colorectal cancer cells to the nucleus, where it is involved in lymph node metastasis. Combination analysis of NDRG1 subcellular expression and clinical variables will help predict the incidence of lymph node metastasis

  13. Effect on milk production of F1 crossbreds resulted from Alpine breed (♂ x Albanian local goat breed (♀

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristaq Kume


    Full Text Available About 950,000 goats, farmed mostly in hilly and mountainous areas of Albania, contribute about 8% of the country’s total milk production. In order to increase milk production, farmers are currently using crosses of the local goat breed with exotic breeds, mainly the Alpine breed from France. This study examines milk production data of first lactation from 45 goats of the local breed, 82 goats of the Alpine breed and 58 F1 crosses (♂Alpine breed x ♀local breed. The goats were kept on small-scale farms according to the traditional Albanian system. Milking was carried out in the morning and evening. Kids were weaned at 65 days of age after which milking started. Milk yield was recorded twice with a 15-day interval between the two readings. Total milk yield was calculated using the Fleischmann method. The F1 goats produced 37.8 kg more milk than local breed goats although the lactation length (P<0.05 of F1 goats was six days shorter compared to that of local breed goats (P<0.05. Analysis of variance showed a highly significant effect (P<0.01 of the genotype factor on milk production. The average Cappio-Borlino curves of three genotypes indicated that the lactation curves of local breed and F1 crosses were similar. Although the F1 cross goats had 50% of their genomes from a genetically improved breed they were still able to deal with the difficult conditions that characterize the traditional extensive farming systems in Albania. Breeding pure Alpine breed or its crosses with the local goat breed improved milk production in an extensive traditional system.

  14. Characterization of CG6178 gene product with high sequence similarity to firefly luciferase in Drosophila melanogaster. (United States)

    Oba, Yuichi; Ojika, Makoto; Inouye, Satoshi


    This is the first identification of a long-chain fatty acyl-CoA synthetase in Drosophila by enzymatic characterization. The gene product of CG6178 (CG6178) in Drosophila melanogaster genome, which has a high sequence similarity to firefly luciferase, has been expressed and characterized. CG6178 showed long-chain fatty acyl-CoA synthetic activity in the presence of ATP, CoA and Mg(2+), suggesting a fatty acyl adenylate is an intermediate. Recently, it was revealed that firefly luciferase has two catalytic functions, monooxygenase (luciferase) and AMP-mediated CoA ligase (fatty acyl-CoA synthetase). However, unlike firefly luciferase, CG6178 did not show luminescence activity in the presence of firefly luciferin, ATP, CoA and Mg(2+). The enzymatic properties of CG6178 including substrate specificity, pH dependency and optimal temperature were close to those of firefly luciferase and rat fatty acyl-CoA synthetase. Further, phylogenic analyses strongly suggest that the firefly luciferase gene may have evolved from a fatty acyl-CoA synthetase gene as a common ancestral gene.

  15. Transcriptional regulation of genes involved in terpenoid índole alkaloid production in Catharanthus roseus seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro J. Rocha


    Full Text Available Catharanthus roseus (L. G Don is a medicinal plant that produces a variety of terpenoid indole alkaloids (TIAs, some of which display pharmacological activity. C. roseus plants and cell cultures have been used to elucidate the TIAs biosynthetic pathway. A considerable number or enzymes have also been characterised, and their respective genes cloned. TIAs production in C. roseus plant and cell cultures is highly regulated at transcriptional-, develop-mental-, and environmental-level. Studies into TIAs biosynthetic gene regulation have been carried out using cell cultures. However, regulation in plants is almost unknown. Here, biosynthetic genes idc, strl, d4h and dat expres-sion levels are qualitatively examined in a developmental series of C. roseus seedlings. The effect of water- and light-stress and methyl jasmonate (MeJa and acetyl salicylic acid (ASA elicitation is also examined. Comparison between seedlings and cell cultures strongly suggests that TIAs biosynthetic gene transcriptional regulation is different in C.roseus plants and cell cultures.

  16. Improvements in algal lipid production: a systems biology and gene editing approach. (United States)

    Banerjee, Avik; Banerjee, Chiranjib; Negi, Sangeeta; Chang, Jo-Shu; Shukla, Pratyoosh


    In the wake of rising energy demands, microalgae have emerged as potential sources of sustainable and renewable carbon-neutral fuels, such as bio-hydrogen and bio-oil. For rational metabolic engineering, the elucidation of metabolic pathways in fine detail and their manipulation according to requirements is the key to exploiting the use of microalgae. Emergence of site-specific nucleases have revolutionized applied research leading to biotechnological gains. Genome engineering as well as modulation of the endogenous genome with high precision using CRISPR systems is being gradually employed in microalgal research. Further, to optimize and produce better algal platforms, use of systems biology network analysis and integration of omics data is required. This review discusses two important approaches: systems biology and gene editing strategies used on microalgal systems with a focus on biofuel production and sustainable solutions. It also emphasizes that the integration of such systems would contribute and compliment applied research on microalgae. Recent advances in microalgae are discussed, including systems biology, gene editing approaches in lipid bio-synthesis, and antenna engineering. Lastly, it has been attempted here to showcase how CRISPR/Cas systems are a better editing tool than existing techniques that can be utilized for gene modulation and engineering during biofuel production.

  17. Supply Chain Control Principles in Local Food Production: A Norwegian Case Study


    Heidi C. Dreyer; Jan O. Strandhagen; Maria K. Thomassen; Anita Romsdal; Erik Gran


    Based on an analysis of the supply chain of four producers of local specialty foods, we explore how planning and control principles can be applied to align supply chain capabilities and market requirements. It has been shown that local food struggles with market access, and that the supply chain is one of the obstacles preventing local food producers from gaining a solid market position. We identify a number of features of the local food chain, analyse the obstacles and develop generic design...

  18. An Overview: Distribution, Production, and Diversity of Local Landraces of Buckwheat in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dol Raj Luitel


    Full Text Available Buckwheat is a sixth staple food crop after rice, wheat, maize, finger millet, and barley in Nepal. It is considered as an alternate cereal and poor man’s crop, representing an important food supply in remote places of Himalayas. It is the best crop in higher altitude in terms of adaptation to different climatic variables and easily fitted to different cropping patterns due to short duration. It is cultivated on marginal land in 61 out of 75 districts of Nepal from some 60 m to 4500 m asl, especially hilly and mountain districts like Rukum, Rolpa, Jajarkot, Dolpa, Humla, Jumla, Kalikot, Kavre, Dolakha, and Okhaldhunga. Sweet buckwheat varieties are generally grown in midhill and Terai but Tartary buckwheat varieties are grown in higher altitude. There are altogether 19 local landraces of sweat buckwheat and 37 for Tartary buckwheat listed from Nepal. The largest producers are China, USA, and Russia and Japan is principal user of global buckwheat grown in the world. In Nepal, it is cultivated in 10510 ha area with production of 10355 t/yr and yield of 0.983 t/ha. It has also medicinal value used in different forms including all its parts so the demand of buckwheat is increasing.

  19. Production of Bio polymer (PHB) from Whey by Local Strain of Bacillus cereus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel Kareem, H.; Hamed, D.; Omar, S.; Gebreel, H.; Khalaf, M.; El-M-Mahalawy, A.


    The local strain Bacillus cereus S 3 , which isolated from the soil attached to the rice root, was employed for PHB production from whey and soya extract as the main carbon and nitrogen sources. Some supplements such as (0.5 g) tryptone and (0.5 g) NaCl were added to 75 ml whey and 25 ml soya extract to optimize the PHB accumulation medium. Different parameters including; initial ph of the medium, working volume, NaCl concentration and inoculum age and size; were carried out under shaking flask conditions (150 rpm) at 30 degree C for 48 h of incubation to enhance the PHB accumulation. The maximum PHB accumulation (2.42 gl -1 ) was achieved at ph 6, 100 ml working volume, (0.5-2%) NaCl, at 60 h and 4 ml inoculum age and size, respectively. An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of gamma irradiation on the activity of B. cereus S 3 towards PHB accumulation. At dose level 1.5 kGy the maximum PHB accumulation obtained was 3.2 gl -1

  20. Matrix-product-state method with local basis optimization for nonequilibrium electron-phonon systems (United States)

    Heidrich-Meisner, Fabian; Brockt, Christoph; Dorfner, Florian; Vidmar, Lev; Jeckelmann, Eric

    We present a method for simulating the time evolution of quasi-one-dimensional correlated systems with strongly fluctuating bosonic degrees of freedom (e.g., phonons) using matrix product states. For this purpose we combine the time-evolving block decimation (TEBD) algorithm with a local basis optimization (LBO) approach. We discuss the performance of our approach in comparison to TEBD with a bare boson basis, exact diagonalization, and diagonalization in a limited functional space. TEBD with LBO can reduce the computational cost by orders of magnitude when boson fluctuations are large and thus it allows one to investigate problems that are out of reach of other approaches. First, we test our method on the non-equilibrium dynamics of a Holstein polaron and show that it allows us to study the regime of strong electron-phonon coupling. Second, the method is applied to the scattering of an electronic wave packet off a region with electron-phonon coupling. Our study reveals a rich physics including transient self-trapping and dissipation. Supported by Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) via FOR 1807.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K.M. Aminul Islam


    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted aiming to find out the seed production potentiality of 19 local and exotic onion cultivars. The analysis of variance showed significant differences among the genotypes for all characters except sprouting percentage, number of flowers per umbel and number of umbel per bulb. Maximum number of days to 50% bolting (52.67 was exhibited by the genotype G2 and minimum by G6 (27.00 days. The larger bulb size after harvest was obtained from G14 and G19 (18.11 g. Genotypes G4 and G11 required the maximum (16.66 and the minimum (9.00 days for 100% sprouting, respectively. The highest stalk length was found in the genotype G1 (67.23 cm and the lowest in G8 (38.47 cm. Maximum number (5.75 of stalk was produced by the genotype G7 and minimum number (2.09 of stalk by the genotype G11. The genotype G1 produced the highest number of seeds per umbel (1395.92 and seed yield per plant (4.29 g. The lowest (0.45 g seed yield per plant and maximum bulb weight was obtained by the genotype G8.

  2. Neutron activation analysis of Lerna ceramics (Greece) at Early Bronze Age: local production and trade exchanges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attas, M.


    Neutron activation analysis is a powerful tool for determining the provenance of ancient ceramics. A sophisticated analytical system for gamma-ray spectrometry, designed specifically for the chemical analysis of ceramics by thermal neutron activation, was used to determine the concentrations of twenty elements in samples of ancient pottery. The measurements were made relative to the standard pottery of Perlman and Asaro. The purpose of the work was to study the production of fine pottery at the settlement of Lerna, in the Argolid of Greece, during the Early Bronze Age (third millennium BC). About half of the 50 samples analysed formed the major compositional group, which was attributed to Lerna. It included, besides the majority of the samples from the second phase of the Early Bronze Age (Lerna III), several samples from the third phase (Lerna IV); that is, from levels immediately succeeding the great destruction which marks the end of the Lerna III settlement. A small number of objects forms a second group of local origin and includes 4 of the 5 clay sealings sampled. Among the archaeologically unusual objects, several could be attributed to Lerna, while others were characterized as imports [fr

  3. Relationship between fumonisin production and FUM gene expression in Fusarium verticillioides under different environmental conditions. (United States)

    Fanelli, Francesca; Iversen, Anita; Logrieco, Antonio F; Mulè, Giuseppina


    Fusarium verticillioides is the main source of fumonisins, a group of mycotoxins that can contaminate maize-based food and feed and cause diseases in humans and animals. The study of the effect of different environmental conditions on toxin production should provide information that can be used to develop strategies to minimize the risk. This study analysed the effect of temperature (15°C-35°C), water activity (a(w): 0.999-0.93), salinity (0-125 g l(-1) NaCl) and pH (5-8) on the growth and production of fumonisins B(1) (FB1), B(2) (FB2) and B(3) (FB3) and the expression of FUM1 and FUM21 in F. verticillioides. The highest growth rate was measured at 25°C, a(w) of 0.998-0.99 and 0-25 g l(-1) of NaCl. Optimal conditions for fumonisin production were 30°C, a(w) of 0.99, 25 g l(-1) of NaCl and pH 5; nevertheless, the strain showed a good adaptability and was able to produce moderate levels of fumonisins under a wide range of conditions. Gene expression mirrored fumonisin production profile under all conditions with the exception of temperature: FUM1 and FUM21 expression was highest at 15°C, while maximum fumonisin production was at 30°C. These data indicate that a post-transcriptional regulation mechanism could account for the different optimal temperatures for FUM gene expression and fumonisin production.

  4. Validation of Satellite Precipitation Products Using Local Rain Gauges to Support Water Assessment in Cochabamba, Bolivia (United States)

    Saavedra, O.


    The metropolitan region of Cochabamba has been struggling for a consistent water supply master plan for years. The limited precipitation intensities and growing water demand have led to severe water conflicts since 2000 when the fight for water had international visibility. A new dam has just placed into operation, located at the mountain range north of the city, which is the hope to fulfill partially water demand in the region. Looking for feasible water sources and projects are essential to fulfill demand. However, the limited monitoring network composed by conventional rain gauges are not enough to come up with the proper aerial precipitation patterns. This study explores the capabilities of GSMaP-GPM satellite products combined with local rain gauge network to obtain an enhanced product with spatial and temporal resolution. A simple methodology based on penalty factors is proposed to adjust GSMaP-GPM intensities on grid-by-grid basis. The distance of an evaluated grid to the surrounding rain gauges was taken into account. The final correcting factors were obtained by iteration, at this particular case of study four iterations were enough to reduce the relative error. A distributed hydrological model was forced with the enhanced precipitation product to simulate the inflow to the new operating dam. Once the model parameters were calibrated and validated, forecast simulations were run. For the short term, the precipitation trend was projected using exponential equation. As for the long term projection, precipitation and temperature from the hadGEM2 and MIROC global circulation model outputs were used where the last one was found in closer agreement of predictions in the past. Overall, we found out that the amount of 1000 l/s for water supply to the region should be possible to fulfill till 2030. Beyond this year, the intake of two neighboring basins should be constructed to increase the stored volume. This is study was found particularly useful to forecast river

  5. Supply Chain Control Principles in Local Food Production: A Norwegian Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi C. Dreyer


    Full Text Available Based on an analysis of the supply chain of four producers of local specialty foods, we explore how planning and control principles can be applied to align supply chain capabilities and market requirements. It has been shown that local food struggles with market access, and that the supply chain is one of the obstacles preventing local food producers from gaining a solid market position. We identify a number of features of the local food chain, analyse the obstacles and develop generic designs and control principles for local food producers.

  6. Metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli for ethanol production without foreign genes (United States)

    Kim, Youngnyun

    Worldwide dependence on finite petroleum-based energy necessitates alternative energy sources that can be produced from renewable resources. A successful example of an alternative transportation fuel is bioethanol, produced by microorganisms, from corn starch that is blended with gasoline. However, corn, currently the main feedstock for bioethanol production, also occupies a significant role in human food and animal feed chains. As more corn is diverted to bioethanol, the cost of corn is expected to increase with an increase in the price of food, feed and ethanol. Using lignocellulosic biomass for ethanol production is considered to resolve this problem. However, this requires a microbial biocatalyst that can ferment hexoses and pentoses to ethanol. Escherichia coli is an efficient biocatalyst that can use all the monomeric sugars in lignocellulose, and recombinant derivatives of E. coli have been engineered to produce ethanol as the major fermentation product. In my study, ethanologenic E. coli strains were isolated from a ldhA-, pflB- derivative without introduction of foreign genes. These isolates grew anaerobically and produced ethanol as the main fermentation product. The mutation responsible for anaerobic growth and ethanol production was mapped in the lpdA gene and the mutation was identified as E354K in three of the isolates tested. Another three isolates carried an lpdA mutation, H352Y. Enzyme kinetic studies revealed that the mutated form of the dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (LPD) encoded by the lpdA was significantly less sensitive to NADH inhibition than the native LPD. This reduced NADH sensitivity of the mutated LPD was translated into lower sensitivity to NADH of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex in strain SE2378. The net yield of 4 moles of NADH and 2 moles of acetyl-CoA per mole of glucose produced by a combination of glycolysis and PDH provided a logical basis to explain the production of 2 moles of ethanol per glucose. The development of E

  7. Improved heterologous protein production by a tripeptidyl peptidase gene (AosedD) disruptant of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus oryzae. (United States)

    Zhu, Lin; Nemoto, Takeshi; Yoon, Jaewoo; Maruyama, Jun-ichi; Kitamoto, Katsuhiko


    Proteolytic degradation is one of the serious bottlenecks limiting the yields of heterologous protein production by Aspergillus oryzae. In this study, we selected a tripeptidyl peptidase gene AosedD (AO090166000084) as a candidate potentially degrading the heterologous protein, and performed localization analysis of the fusion protein AoSedD-EGFP in A. oryzae. As a result, the AoSedD-EGFP was observed in the septa and cell walls as well as in the culture medium, suggesting that AoSedD is a secretory enzyme. An AosedD disruptant was constructed to investigate an effect of AoSedD on the production level of heterologous proteins and protease activity. Both of the total protease and tripeptidyl peptidase activities in the culture medium of the AosedD disruptant were decreased as compared to those of the control strain. The maximum yields of recombinant bovine chymosin (CHY) and human lysozyme (HLY) produced by the AosedD disruptants showed approximately 2.9- and 1.7-fold increases, respectively, as compared to their control strains. These results suggest that AoSedD is one of the major proteases involved in the proteolytic degradation of recombinant proteins in A. oryzae.

  8. Study on predictive role of AR and EGFR family genes with response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in locally advanced breast cancer in Indian women. (United States)

    Singh, L C; Chakraborty, Anurupa; Mishra, Ashwani K; Devi, Thoudam Regina; Sugandhi, Nidhi; Chintamani, Chintamani; Bhatnagar, Dinesh; Kapur, Sujala; Saxena, Sunita


    Locally advanced breast cancer (LABC) remains a clinical challenge as the majority of patients with this diagnosis develop distant metastases despite appropriate therapy. We analyzed expression of steroid and growth hormone receptor genes as well as gene associated with metabolism of chemotherapeutic drugs in locally advanced breast cancer before and after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) to study whether there is a change in gene expression induced by chemotherapy and whether such changes are associated with tumor response or non-response. Fifty patients were included with locally advanced breast cancer treated with cyclophosphamide, adriamycin, 5-fluorouracil (CAF)-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy before surgery. Total RNA was extracted from 50 match samples of pre- and post-NACT tumor tissues. RNA expression levels of epidermal growth factor receptor family genes including EGFR, ERBB2, ERBB3, androgen receptor (AR), and multidrug-resistance gene 1 (MDR1) were determined by quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Responders show significantly high levels of pre-NACT AR gene expression (P = 0.016), which reduces following NACT (P = 0.008), and hence can serve as a useful tool for the prediction of the success of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in individual cancer patients with locally advanced breast carcinoma. Moreover, a significant post-therapeutic increase in the expression levels of EGFR and MDR1 gene in responders (P = 0.026 and P < 0.001) as well as in non-responders (P = 0.055, P = 0.001) suggests that expression of these genes changes during therapy but they do not have any impact on tumor response, whereas a post-therapeutic reduction was observed in AR in responders. This indicates an independent predictive role of AR with response to NACT.

  9. Productivity analysis of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) production under organic and inorganic fertilizers applications in Doma Local Government Area, Nasarawa State, Nigeria


    Umar, H. S.; Okoye, C. U.; Agwale, A. O


    The study assessed productivity levels of sesame farms under organic and inorganic fertilizers applications in Doma Local Government Area of Nasarawa State. Multi-stage random sampling was used in selecting 96 sesame farmers; made up of 48 organic and 48 inorganic fertilizers users. Data were collected through structured questionnaire and analyzed using Total Factor Productivity Analysis, OLS Regression Analysis and Gross Margin Analysis. Results show that sesame farmers who applied inorganic...

  10. Directed natural product biosynthesis gene cluster capture and expression in the model bacterium Bacillus subtilis (United States)

    Li, Yongxin; Li, Zhongrui; Yamanaka, Kazuya; Xu, Ying; Zhang, Weipeng; Vlamakis, Hera; Kolter, Roberto; Moore, Bradley S.; Qian, Pei-Yuan


    Bacilli are ubiquitous low G+C environmental Gram-positive bacteria that produce a wide assortment of specialized small molecules. Although their natural product biosynthetic potential is high, robust molecular tools to support the heterologous expression of large biosynthetic gene clusters in Bacillus hosts are rare. Herein we adapt transformation-associated recombination (TAR) in yeast to design a single genomic capture and expression vector for antibiotic production in Bacillus subtilis. After validating this direct cloning ``plug-and-play'' approach with surfactin, we genetically interrogated amicoumacin biosynthetic gene cluster from the marine isolate Bacillus subtilis 1779. Its heterologous expression allowed us to explore an unusual maturation process involving the N-acyl-asparagine pro-drug intermediates preamicoumacins, which are hydrolyzed by the asparagine-specific peptidase into the active component amicoumacin A. This work represents the first direct cloning based heterologous expression of natural products in the model organism B. subtilis and paves the way to the development of future genome mining efforts in this genus.

  11. Directed natural product biosynthesis gene cluster capture and expression in the model bacterium Bacillus subtilis

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yongxin


    Bacilli are ubiquitous low G+C environmental Gram-positive bacteria that produce a wide assortment of specialized small molecules. Although their natural product biosynthetic potential is high, robust molecular tools to support the heterologous expression of large biosynthetic gene clusters in Bacillus hosts are rare. Herein we adapt transformation-associated recombination (TAR) in yeast to design a single genomic capture and expression vector for antibiotic production in Bacillus subtilis. After validating this direct cloning plug-and-playa approach with surfactin, we genetically interrogated amicoumacin biosynthetic gene cluster from the marine isolate Bacillus subtilis 1779. Its heterologous expression allowed us to explore an unusual maturation process involving the N-acyl-asparagine pro-drug intermediates preamicoumacins, which are hydrolyzed by the asparagine-specific peptidase into the active component amicoumacin A. This work represents the first direct cloning based heterologous expression of natural products in the model organism B. subtilis and paves the way to the development of future genome mining efforts in this genus.

  12. [Prokaryotic expression of Leptospira interrogans groEL gene and immunoprotection of its products in hamsters]. (United States)

    Li, Xiaoyu; Wang, Yinhuan; Yan, Jie; Cheng, Dongqing


    To construct a prokaryotic expression system of groEL gene of Leptospira interrogans serogroup Icterohaemorrhagia serovar Lai strain Lai, and to determine the immunoprotective effect of recombinant GroEL protein (rGroEL) in LVG hamsters. The groEL gene was amplified by high fidelity PCR and the amplification products were then sequenced. A prokaryotic expression system of groEL gene was constructed using routine genetic engineering technique. SDS-PAGE plus Bio-Rad Gel Image Analyzer was applied to examine the expression and dissolubility of rGroEL protein while Ni-NTA affinity chromatography was used to extract the expressed rGroEL. The immunoprotective rate in rGroEL-immunized LVG hamsters was determined after challenge with L.interrogans strain Lai. The cross agglutination titers of sera from immunized hamsters with different L.interrogans serogroups were detected using MAT. The nucleotide and amino acid sequences of the cloned groEL gene were the same as those reported in GenBank. The constructed prokaryotic expression system of groEL gene expressed soluble rGroEL. The immunoprotective rates of 100 and 200 μg rGroEL in LVG hamsters were 50.0 % and 75.0%, respectively. The sera from the rGroEL-immunized LVG hamsters agglutinated all the L.interrogans serogroups tested with different levels. The GroEL protein is a genus-specific immunoprotective antigen of L.interrogans and can be used to develop an universal genetically engineering vaccine of Leptospira.

  13. The identification of aluminium-resistance genes provides opportunities for enhancing crop production on acid soils. (United States)

    Ryan, P R; Tyerman, S D; Sasaki, T; Furuichi, T; Yamamoto, Y; Zhang, W H; Delhaize, E


    Acid soils restrict plant production around the world. One of the major limitations to plant growth on acid soils is the prevalence of soluble aluminium (Al(3+)) ions which can inhibit root growth at micromolar concentrations. Species that show a natural resistance to Al(3+) toxicity perform better on acid soils. Our understanding of the physiology of Al(3+) resistance in important crop plants has increased greatly over the past 20 years, largely due to the application of genetics and molecular biology. Fourteen genes from seven different species are known to contribute to Al(3+) tolerance and resistance and several additional candidates have been identified. Some of these genes account for genotypic variation within species and others do not. One mechanism of resistance which has now been identified in a range of species relies on the efflux of organic anions such as malate and citrate from roots. The genes controlling this trait are members of the ALMT and MATE families which encode membrane proteins that facilitate organic anion efflux across the plasma membrane. Identification of these and other resistance genes provides opportunities for enhancing the Al(3+) resistance of plants by marker-assisted breeding and through biotechnology. Most attempts to enhance Al(3+) resistance in plants with genetic engineering have targeted genes that are induced by Al(3+) stress or that are likely to increase organic anion efflux. In the latter case, studies have either enhanced organic anion synthesis or increased organic anion transport across the plasma membrane. Recent developments in this area are summarized and the structure-function of the TaALMT1 protein from wheat is discussed.

  14. [Reconstruction of Leptospira interrogans lipL21 gene and characteristics of its expression product]. (United States)

    Luo, Dong-jiao; Hu, Ye; Dennin, R H; Yan, Jie


    To reconstruct the nucleotide sequence of Leptospira interrogans lipL21 gene for increasing the output of prokaryotic expression and to understand the changes on immunogenicity of the expression products before and after reconstruction, and to determine the position of envelope lipoprotein LipL21 on the surface of leptospiral body. According to the preferred codons of E.coli, the nucleotide sequence of lipL21 gene was designed and synthesized, and then its prokaryotic expression system was constructed. By using SDS-PAGE plus BioRad agarose image analysor, the expression level changes of lipL21 genes before and after reconstruction were measured. A Western blot assay using rabbit anti-TR/Patoc I serum as the first antibody was performed to identify the immunoreactivity of the two target recombinant proteins rLipL21s before and after reconstruction. The changes of cross agglutination titers of antisera against two rLipL21s before and after reconstruction to the different leptospiral serogroups were demonstrated using microscope agglutination test (MAT). Immuno-electronmicroscopy was applied to confirm the location of LipL21s. The expression outputs of original and reconstructed lipL21 genes were 8.5 % and 46.5 % of the total bacterial proteins, respectively. Both the two rLipL21s could take place immune conjugation reaction with TR/Patoc I antiserum. After immunization with each of the two rLipL21s in rabbits, the animals could produce specific antibody. Similar MAT titers with 1:80 - 1:320 of the two antisera against rLipL21s were present. LipL21 was confirmed to locate on the surface of leptospiral envelope. LipL21 is a superficial antigen of Leptospira interrogans. The expression output of the reconstructed lipL21 gene is remarkably increased. The expression rLipL21 maintains fine antigenicity and immunoreactivity and its antibody still shows an extensive cross immunoagglutination activity. The high expression of the reconstructed lipL21 gene will offer a

  15. Overexpression of the p53 tumor suppressor gene product in primary lung adenocarcinomas is associated with cigarette smoking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westra, W. H.; Offerhaus, G. J.; Goodman, S. N.; Slebos, R. J.; Polak, M.; Baas, I. O.; Rodenhuis, S.; Hruban, R. H.


    Mutations in the p53 tumor suppressor gene are frequently observed in primary lung adenocarcinomas, suggesting that these mutations are critical events in the malignant transformation of airway cells. These mutations are often associated with stabilization of the p53 gene product, resulting in the

  16. Genes encoding novel lipid transporters and their use to increase oil production in vegetative tissues of plants (United States)

    Xu, Changcheng; Fan, Jilian; Yan, Chengshi; Shanklin, John


    The present invention discloses a novel gene encoding a transporter protein trigalactosyldiacylglycerol-5 (TGD5), mutations thereof and their use to enhance TAG production and retention in plant vegetative tissue.

  17. Suppression of Tla1 gene expression for improved solar conversion efficiency and photosynthetic productivity in plants and algae (United States)

    Melis, Anastasios; Mitra, Mautusi


    The invention provides method and compositions to minimize the chlorophyll antenna size of photosynthesis by decreasing TLA1 gene expression, thereby improving solar conversion efficiencies and photosynthetic productivity in plants, e.g., green microalgae, under bright sunlight conditions.

  18. Characterization of foot-and-mouth disease virus gene products with antisera against bacterially synthesized fusion proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strebel, K.; Beck, E.; Strohmaier, K.; Schaller, H.


    Defined segments of the cloned foot-and-mouth disease virus genome corresponding to all parts of the coding region were expressed in Escherichia coli as fusions to the N-terminal part of the MS2-polymerase gene under the control of the inducible λPL promoter. All constructs yielded large amounts of proteins, which were purified and used to raise sequence-specific antisera in rabbits. These antisera were used to identify the corresponding viral gene products in 35 S-labeled extracts from foot-and-mouth disease virus-infected BHK cells. This allowed us to locate unequivocally all mature foot-and-mouth disease virus gene products in the nucleotide sequence, to identify precursor-product relationships, and to detect several foot-and mouth disease virus gene products not previously identified in vivo or in vitro

  19. Does eating local food reduce the environmental impact of food production and enhance consumer health? (United States)

    Edwards-Jones, Gareth


    The concept of local food has gained traction in the media, engaged consumers and offered farmers a new marketing tool. Positive claims about the benefits of local food are probably not harmful when made by small-scale producers at the local level; however, greater concern would arise should such claims be echoed in policy circles. This review examines the evidence base supporting claims about the environmental and health benefits of local food. The results do not offer any support for claims that local food is universally superior to non-local food in terms of its impact on the climate or the health of consumers. Indeed several examples are presented that demonstrate that local food can on occasions be inferior to non-local food. The analysis also considers the impact on greenhouse gas emissions of moving the UK towards self-sufficiency. Quantitative evidence is absent on the changes in overall emissions that would occur if the UK switched to self-sufficiency. A qualitative assessment suggests the emissions per item of food would probably be greater under a scenario of self-sufficiency than under the current food system. The review does not identify any generalisable or systematic benefits to the environment or human health that arise from the consumption of local food in preference to non-local food.

  20. Gene (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes,...

  1. Investigating the molecular basis of local adaptation to thermal stress: population differences in gene expression across the transcriptome of the copepod Tigriopus californicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schoville Sean D


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Geographic variation in the thermal environment impacts a broad range of biochemical and physiological processes and can be a major selective force leading to local population adaptation. In the intertidal copepod Tigriopus californicus, populations along the coast of California show differences in thermal tolerance that are consistent with adaptation, i.e., southern populations withstand thermal stresses that are lethal to northern populations. To understand the genetic basis of these physiological differences, we use an RNA-seq approach to compare genome-wide patterns of gene expression in two populations known to differ in thermal tolerance. Results Observed differences in gene expression between the southern (San Diego and the northern (Santa Cruz populations included both the number of affected loci as well as the identity of these loci. However, the most pronounced differences concerned the amplitude of up-regulation of genes producing heat shock proteins (Hsps and genes involved in ubiquitination and proteolysis. Among the hsp genes, orthologous pairs show markedly different thermal responses as the amplitude of hsp response was greatly elevated in the San Diego population, most notably in members of the hsp70 gene family. There was no evidence of accelerated evolution at the sequence level for hsp genes. Among other sets of genes, cuticle genes were up-regulated in SD but down-regulated in SC, and mitochondrial genes were down-regulated in both populations. Conclusions Marked changes in gene expression were observed in response to acute sub-lethal thermal stress in the copepod T. californicus. Although some qualitative differences were observed between populations, the most pronounced differences involved the magnitude of induction of numerous hsp and ubiquitin genes. These differences in gene expression suggest that evolutionary divergence in the regulatory pathway(s involved in acute temperature stress may offer at


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Labigalini Fuini


    Full Text Available This article seeks to develop an analysis of the territorial evidences of discussion on local productive arrangements, those clusters, using as spatial scale of the regional analysis, more precisely the Ourinhos Government Region. Form of industrial organization emerging in the 1990s, the APLs express localized concentrations of specialized companies in the same industry and establishing partnerships among themselves and with other institutions, with varying impacts on the development and governance of cities. Far from exhausting this debate, we consider the model of APL as an alternative strategy for the development of territories and their small businesses, despite their financial and institutional weaknesses. Also, put hypothesized that there are potential clusters and agglomerations in the Ourinhos region that are still unknown and did not receive institutional and financial contribution of the state, staying on the sidelines of the economic benefits of local development, for which they are poorly organized or disorganized. Tracing the framework of national and local policies to arrangements and productive agglomerations, accentuates the way of development in clusters like that guided resources, institutions and local networks, dependent, however, the larger scales of government action. That said, we propose a methodology of analysis grounded in documentary and statistical data research (IBGE and RAIS seeking to achieve the objectives of identifying the major industrial clusters in the region studied, recognizing its dynamism to local economies and relevance or not to consider some regional industrial agglomerations as APLs.

  3. Development of a unique product: Perception of guests in Tourism in vineyard cottages on the local environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le- Marija Colarič-Jakše


    Full Text Available Purpose and Originality: Tourism in vineyard cottages is new, authentic, unique tourism product, which involves the area of wine-growing land Posavje, with districts of Dolenjska (Lower Carniola Region, Bela Krajina and Obsotelje-Kozjansko, where are the wine-growing areas with vineyards and vineyard cottages. Tourists in vineyard cottages bring economic benefits to the local community. Method: With the research we gained the information, where local residents can see positive and where negative impacts of guests who come to the vineyard cottages. As the part of descriptive approach in our research we used a method of a description about the opinion of local residents on impact of arriving tourists in tourist vineyard cottages on the local environment and the method of a compilation discoveries, observations and results. In the activities of analytical approach we are going on the base about the results of questioning individual cases and conclusion about opinion of local inhabitants in the area of marketing the tourism product Tourism in vineyard cottages. Results: Considering the results of the research, individual interviews with guests in the area of product Tourism in vineyard cottages and responses in the local environment, we evaluate, that the product has unique, authentic, original and attractive approach with all the possibilities, that it becomes one of the most recognizable, wanted and paraded integral product of Slovenian tourism. Society: New, innovative, attractive, unique and authentic product Tourism in vineyard cottages, which is developed in the wine-growing region Posavje, it has an extremely great potential, because it is one of the most recognizable forms of tourism in the countryside areas, and it has extra perspective with the creating local stories and connecting into the integral tourism products. Limitations / further research: It is necessary, that also other owners of the vineyard cottages, who are not included into

  4. Bayesian Computational Approaches for Gene Regulation Studies of Bioethanol and Biohydrogen Production. Final Scientific/Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newberg, Lee; McCue, Lee Anne; Van Roey, Patrick


    The project developed mathematical models and first-version software tools for the understanding of gene regulation across multiple related species. The project lays the foundation for understanding how certain alpha-proteobacterial species control their own genes for bioethanol and biohydrogen production, and sets the stage for exploiting bacteria for the production of fuels. Enabling such alternative sources of fuel is a high priority for the Department of Energy and the public.

  5. Postreplication repair gap filling in an Escherichia coli strain deficient in dnaB gene product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.C.


    Gaps in daughter-strand DNA synthesized after exposure of Escherichia coli E279 to ultraviolet light are filled during reincubation at 30 0 C for 20 min. Escherichia coli E279 is phenotypically DnaB - when incubated at 43 0 C. Cells incubated at 43 0 C were tested for their ability to complete postreplication repair gap filling. It is concluded that the dnaB gene product is essential for postreplication repair gap filling and that the inhibition seen is not initially the result of degradation

  6. Regulatory Considerations for Gene Therapy Products in the US, EU, and Japan. (United States)

    Halioua-Haubold, Celine-Lea; Peyer, James G; Smith, James A; Arshad, Zeeshaan; Scholz, Matthew; Brindley, David A; MacLaren, Robert E


    Developers of gene therapy products (GTPs) must adhere to additional regulation beyond that of traditional small-molecule therapeutics, due to the unique mechanism-of-action of GTPs and the subsequent novel risks arisen. We have provided herein a summary of the regulatory structure under which GTPs fall in the United States, the European Union, and Japan, and a comprehensive overview of the regulatory guidance applicable to the developer of GTP. Understanding the regulatory requirements for seeking GTP market approval in these major jurisdictions is crucial for an effective and expedient path to market. The novel challenges facing GTP developers is highlighted by a case study of alipogene tiparvovec (Glybera).

  7. The contribution of competitive intelligence to the development of local productive settlements: case Jaú-SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanda A. M. Hoffmann


    Full Text Available The current economical context has been provoking the largest exhibition of the Brazilian companies to the international competition, imposing challenges and opportunities. The Brazilian small and medium enterprises, SME’s, they are the most vulnerable given the shortage of resources and production costs, among other aspects. The local productive settlements or clusters are important manners of organization of the production of SMEs. Those production manners are considered vital in the employment generation and income to the country. The characteristics of those settlements that measure your dynamics and growth are important themes of research in several areas and countries, for the economical and social importance, thoroughly spread the last years for researchers and entities. The present study approaches the contribution of the competitive intelligence for the clusters improvements. In that context the dynamics of local productive settlements and your technological difficulties and of administration they are identified focalizing the segment of foot-wears and leathers of Jaú in the State of São Paulo. Several aspects are approached in relation to dynamics of that local productive settlement, through your comparative analysis with international settlements, especially Italian. Indicating signs of a typical strategy of industrial clusters, shown by the synergy obtained by the interactivity of change of information intra-cluster and the effort in increasing your competitive capacity.

  8. Localization of pig Na[sup +], K[sup +]-ATPase [alpha] and [beta] subunit genes to chromosome 4 by radioactive in situ hybridization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahbib-Mansais, Y.; Yerle, M.; Dalens, M.; Chevalet, C.; Gellin, J. (Centre de Recherches de Toulouse (France))


    Two genes coding for Na[sup +],K[sup +] -ATPase [alpha] and [beta] subunits are localized on pig chromosome 4, to the q1.6[yields]q2.3 and 1.3[yields]q2.1 regions, respectively, by radioactive in situ hybridization. According to nucleotide and amino acid sequence comparisons with different human isoforms of Na[sup +] ,K[sup +]-ATPase, these pig [alpha] and [beta] ATPase genes show strong homologies with human [alpha]1 and [beta] subunit ATPase genes, respectively. These results are discussed with respect to comparative mapping data of conserved genes in mammalian species. We showed that the pig cDNA probes encoding ATPase [alpha] and, [beta] genes reveal DNA polymorphism in Meishan an Large White pigs. 35 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Gene doping: gene delivery for olympic victory. (United States)

    Gould, David


    With one recently recommended gene therapy in Europe and a number of other gene therapy treatments now proving effective in clinical trials it is feasible that the same technologies will soon be adopted in the world of sport by unscrupulous athletes and their trainers in so called 'gene doping'. In this article an overview of the successful gene therapy clinical trials is provided and the potential targets for gene doping are highlighted. Depending on whether a doping gene product is secreted from the engineered cells or is retained locally to, or inside engineered cells will, to some extent, determine the likelihood of detection. It is clear that effective gene delivery technologies now exist and it is important that detection and prevention plans are in place. © 2012 The Author. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology © 2012 The British Pharmacological Society.

  10. Morphological regulation of Aspergillus niger to improve citric acid production by chsC gene silencing. (United States)

    Sun, Xiaowen; Wu, Hefang; Zhao, Genhai; Li, Zhemin; Wu, Xihua; Liu, Hui; Zheng, Zhiming


    The mycelial morphology of Aspergillus niger, a major filamentous fungus used for citric acid production, is important for citric acid synthesis during submerged fermentation. To investigate the involvement of the chitin synthase gene, chsC, in morphogenesis and citric acid production in A. niger, an RNAi system was constructed to silence chsC and the morphological mutants were screened after transformation. The compactness of the mycelial pellets was obviously reduced in the morphological mutants, with lower proportion of dispersed mycelia. These morphological changes have caused a decrease in viscosity and subsequent improvement in oxygen and mass transfer efficiency, which may be conducive for citric acid accumulation. All the transformants exhibited improvements in citric acid production; in particular, chsC-3 showed 42.6% higher production than the original strain in the shake flask. Moreover, the high-yield strain chsC-3 exhibited excellent citric acid production potential in the scale-up process.The citric acid yield and the conversion rate of glucose of chsC-3 were both improved by 3.6%, when compared with that of the original strain in the stirred tank bioreactor.

  11. Improvement of exopolysaccharide production in Lactobacillus casei LC2W by overexpression of NADH oxidase gene. (United States)

    Li, Nan; Wang, Yuanlong; Zhu, Ping; Liu, Zhenmin; Guo, Benheng; Ren, Jing


    Lactobacillus casei LC2W is an exopolysaccharide (EPS)-producing strain with probiotic effects. To investigate the regulation mechanism of EPS biosynthesis and to improve EPS production through cofactor engineering, a H₂O-forming NADH oxidase gene was cloned from Streptococcus mutans and overexpressed in L. casei LC2W under the control of constitutive promoter P₂₃. The recombinant strain LC-nox exhibited 0.854 U/mL of NADH oxidase activity, which was elevated by almost 20-fold in comparison with that of wild-type strain. As a result, overexpression of NADH oxidase resulted in a reduction in growth rate. In addition, lactate production was decreased by 22% in recombinant strain. It was proposed that more carbon source was saved and used for the biosynthesis of EPS, the production of which was reached at 219.4 mg/L, increased by 46% compared to that of wild-type strain. This work provided a novel and convenient genetic approach to manipulate metabolic flux and to increase EPS production. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report which correlates cofactor engineering with EPS production. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. A Two-Layer Gene Circuit for Decoupling Cell Growth from Metabolite Production. (United States)

    Lo, Tat-Ming; Chng, Si Hui; Teo, Wei Suong; Cho, Han-Saem; Chang, Matthew Wook


    We present a synthetic gene circuit for decoupling cell growth from metabolite production through autonomous regulation of enzymatic pathways by integrated modules that sense nutrient and substrate. The two-layer circuit allows Escherichia coli to selectively utilize target substrates in a mixed pool; channel metabolic resources to growth by delaying enzymatic conversion until nutrient depletion; and activate, terminate, and re-activate conversion upon substrate availability. We developed two versions of controller, both of which have glucose nutrient sensors but differ in their substrate-sensing modules. One controller is specific for hydroxycinnamic acid and the other for oleic acid. Our hydroxycinnamic acid controller lowered metabolic stress 2-fold and increased the growth rate 2-fold and productivity 5-fold, whereas our oleic acid controller lowered metabolic stress 2-fold and increased the growth rate 1.3-fold and productivity 2.4-fold. These results demonstrate the potential for engineering strategies that decouple growth and production to make bio-based production more economical and sustainable. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Gene expression and localization of two types of AQP5 in Xenopus tropicalis under hydration and dehydration. (United States)

    Shibata, Yuki; Sano, Takahiro; Tsuchiya, Nobuhito; Okada, Reiko; Mochida, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Shigeyasu; Suzuki, Masakazu


    Two types of aquaporin 5 (AQP5) genes (aqp-xt5a and aqp-xt5b) were identified in the genome of Xenopus tropicalis by synteny comparison and molecular phylogenetic analysis. When the frogs were in water, AQP-xt5a mRNA was expressed in the skin and urinary bladder. The expression of AQP-xt5a mRNA was significantly increased in dehydrated frogs. AQP-xt5b mRNA was also detected in the skin and increased in response to dehydration. Additionally, AQP-xt5b mRNA began to be slightly expressed in the lung and stomach after dehydration. For the pelvic skin of hydrated frogs, immunofluorescence staining localized AQP-xt5a and AQP-xt5b to the cytoplasm of secretory cells of the granular glands and the apical plasma membrane of secretory cells of the small granular glands, respectively. After dehydration, the locations of both AQPs in their respective glands did not change, but AQP-xt5a was visualized in the cytoplasm of secretory cells of the small granular glands. For the urinary bladder, AQP-xt5a was observed in the apical plasma membrane and cytoplasm of a number of granular cells under normal hydration. After dehydration, AQP-xt5a was found in the apical membrane and cytoplasm of most granular cells. Injection of vasotocin into hydrated frogs did not induce these changes in the localization of AQP-xt5a in the small granular glands and urinary bladder, however. The results suggest that AQP-xt5a might be involved in water reabsorption from the urinary bladder during dehydration, whereas AQP-xt5b might play a role in water secretion from the small granular gland. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  14. Screening local Lactobacilli from Iran in terms of production of lactic acid and identification of superior strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Soleimanifard


    Full Text Available Introduction: Lactobacilli are a group of lactic acid bacteria that their final product of fermentation is lactic acid. The objective of this research is selection of local Lactobacilli producing L (+ lactic acid. Materials and methods: In this research the local strains were screened based on the ability to produce lactic acid. The screening was performed in two stages. The first stage was the titration method and the second stage was the enzymatic method. The superior strains obtained from titration method were selected to do enzymatic test. Finally, the superior strains in the second stage (enzymatic which had the ability to produce L(+ lactic acid were identified by biochemical tests. Then, molecular identification of strains was performed by using 16S rRNA sequencing. Results: In this study, the ability of 79 strains of local Lactobacilli in terms of production of lactic acid was studied. The highest and lowest rates of lactic acid production was 34.8 and 12.4 mg/g. Superior Lactobacilli in terms of production of lactic acid ability of producing had an optical isomer L(+, the highest levels of L(+ lactic acid were with 3.99 and the lowest amount equal to 1.03 mg/g. The biochemical and molecular identification of superior strains showed that strains are Lactobacillus paracasei. Then the sequences of 16S rRNA of superior strains were reported in NCBI with accession numbers KF735654، KF735655، KJ508201and KJ508202. Discussion and conclusion: The amounts of lactic acid production by local Lactobacilli were very different and producing some of these strains on available reports showed more products. The results of this research suggest the use of superior strains of Lactobacilli for production of pure L(+ lactic acid.

  15. Global analysis of biosynthetic gene clusters reveals vast potential of secondary metabolite production in Penicillium species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Christian; Grijseels, Sietske; Prigent, Sylvain


    Filamentous fungi produce a wide range of bioactive compounds with important pharmaceutical applications, such as antibiotic penicillins and cholesterol-lowering statins. However, less attention has been paid to fungal secondary metabolites compared to those from bacteria. In this study, we...... sequenced the genomes of 9 Penicillium species and, together with 15 published genomes, we investigated the secondary metabolism of Penicillium and identified an immense, unexploited potential for producing secondary metabolites by this genus. A total of 1,317 putative biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) were......-referenced the predicted pathways with published data on the production of secondary metabolites and experimentally validated the production of antibiotic yanuthones in Penicillia and identified a previously undescribed compound from the yanuthone pathway. This study is the first genus-wide analysis of the genomic...

  16. From Family Based to Industrial Based Production: Local Economic Development Initiatives and the HELIX Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartjan W Pennink


    Full Text Available To build a strong local economy, good practice tells us that each community should undertake a collaborative, strategically planned process to understand and then act upon its own strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. From this perspective we start with the local communities but how is this related to the perspective from the Helix model in which three actors are explicitly introduced: the Government, the Industry and the Universities? The purpose of local economic development (LED is to build up the economic capacity of a local area to improve its economic future and the quality of life for all. To support  the Local Economic Development in remote areas,   a program  has been developed based on the LED frame work of the world bank. This approach and  the experiences over  the past years with this program are  described in the first part.  In the second part of the paper, We analyse work done with that program with the help of the social capital concept and the triple helix model.  In all cases it is important to pay attention to who is taken the initiative after the first move (and it is not always the governance as actor and for the triple helix we suggest  that the concepts of (national Government, Industry and University need a translation to Local Governance Agency, Cooperation or other ways of cooperation of local communities and Local Universities. Although a push from outside might help  a local region in development the endogenous factors are  also needed. Keywords: Triple Helix model, Local Economic Development, Local Actors, Double Triangle within the Helix Model

  17. Virulence genes in a probiotic E. coli product with a recorded long history of safe use (United States)

    Zschüttig, Anke; Beimfohr, Claudia; Geske, Thomas; Auerbach, Christian; Cook, Helen; Zimmermann, Kurt; Gunzer, Florian


    The probiotic product Symbioflor2 (DSM 17252) is a bacterial concentrate of six different Escherichia coli genotypes, whose complete genome sequences are compared here, between each other as well as to other E. coli genomes. The genome sequences of Symbioflor2 E. coli components contained a number of virulence-associated genes. Their presence seems to be in conflict with a recorded history of safe use, and with the observed low frequency of adverse effects over a period of more than 6 years. The genome sequences were used to identify unique sequences for each component, for which strain-specific hybridization probes were designed. A colonization study was conducted whereby five volunteers were exposed to an exceptionally high single dose. The results showed that the probiotic E. coli could be detected for 3 months or longer in their stools, and this was in particular the case for those components containing higher numbers of virulence-associated genes. Adverse effects from this long-term colonization were absent. Thus, the presence of the identified virulence genes does not result in a pathogenic phenotype in the genetic background of these probiotic E. coli. PMID:25883796

  18. Characterization, expression and complex formation of the murine Fanconi anaemia gene product Fancg. (United States)

    van de Vrugt, Henri J; Koomen, Mireille; Berns, Mariska A D; de Vries, Yne; Rooimans, Martin A; van der Weel, Laura; Blom, Eric; de Groot, Jan; Schepers, Rik J; Stone, Stacie; Hoatlin, Maureen E; Cheng, Ngan Ching; Joenje, Hans; Arwert, Fré


    Fanconi anaemia (FA) is an autosomal recessive chromosomal instability disorder. Six distinct FA disease genes have been identified, the products of which function in an integrated pathway that is thought to support a nuclear caretaker function. Comparison of FA gene characteristics in different species may help to unravel the molecular function of the FA pathway. We have cloned the murine homologue of the Fanconi anaemia complementation group G gene, FANCG/XRCC9. The murine Fancg protein shows an 83% similarity to the human protein sequence, and has a predicted molecular weight of 68.5 kDa. Expression of mouse Fancg in human FA-G lymphoblasts fully corrects their cross-linker hypersensitivity. At mRNA and protein levels we detected the co-expression of Fancg and Fanca in murine tissues. In addition, mouse Fancg and Fanca proteins co-purify by immunoprecipitation. Upon transfection into Fanca-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts EGFP-Fancg chimeric protein was detectable in the nucleus. We identified a murine cDNA, Fancg, which cross-complements the cellular defect of human FA-G cells and thus represents a true homologue of human FANCG. Spleen, thymus and testis showed the highest Fancg expression levels. Although Fancg and Fanca are able to form a complex, this interaction is not required for Fancg to accumulate in the nuclear compartment.

  19. Structure models of G72, the product of a susceptibility gene to schizophrenia. (United States)

    Kato, Yusuke; Fukui, Kiyoshi


    The G72 gene is one of the most susceptible genes to schizophrenia and is contained exclusively in the genomes of primates. The product of the G72 gene modulates the activity of D-amino acid oxidase (DAO) and is a small protein prone to aggregate, which hampers its structural studies. In addition, lack of a known structure of a homologue makes it difficult to use the homology modelling method for the prediction of the structure. Thus, we first developed a hybrid ab initio approach for small proteins prior to the prediction of the structure of G72. The approach uses three known ab initio algorithms. To evaluate the hybrid approach, we tested our prediction of the structure of the amino acid sequences whose structures were already solved and compared the predicted structures with the experimentally solved structures. Based on these comparisons, the average accuracy of our approach was calculated to be ∼5 Å. We then applied the approach to the sequence of G72 and successfully predicted the structures of the N- and C-terminal domains (ND and CD, respectively) of G72. The predicted structures of ND and CD were similar to membrane-bound proteins and adaptor proteins, respectively. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Japanese Biochemical Society. All rights reserved.

  20. Production Practices and Statistics of the Pig Industry in Zuru Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pig is one of the earliest domesticated animals and plays an integral part in a number of peasant economies in the tropics. The people of Zuru Local Government Area of Kebbi State, Nigeria keep Pig as a source of animal protein and also to generate income. Seven communities of Zuru Local Government rear pig.

  1. Local modification and laser-welding production of functionalized microfluidic chips

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijo Carvalho, Rui


    The ability to locally functionalize the surface of glass and polymers allows for myriad biomedical and chemical applications. When we started this research enclosed surfaces such as microfluidic channels were not easily amenable to localized functionalization. Furthermore, pre-functionalization

  2. Local Government and Traditional Authorities in Concert: Towards a More Productive Relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Callistus Mahama


    Full Text Available Ghana embarked on decentralisation in 1988 as a way of bringing decision making closer to the people. Since then, there have several reforms with a view to strengthening local governance. This article identifies a major challenge still facing Ghana’s decentralisation: Partnership between local government and traditional authorities. The paper discusses the fuzzy relationship between local governments and traditional authorities as a result of constitutional and legislative ambiguity on their relationship. Traditional Authorities perform important functions in the country, albeit their roles have waned since independence. Yet current legal provisions on local government have not sufficiently clarified their role in local administration. This has led to a murky and competing relationship between traditional authorities and local governments. In localities where mutual relationship exists, it is mainly as a result of the personalities involved and this has had a positive effect on the development of the area. The paper concludes by advocating for measures which among others include a re-enactment of legislation which will define the working relationship between traditional authorities and local government.

  3. Increased isobutanol production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by overexpression of genes in valine metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karhumaa Kaisa


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Isobutanol can be a better biofuel than ethanol due to its higher energy density and lower hygroscopicity. Furthermore, the branched-chain structure of isobutanol gives a higher octane number than the isomeric n-butanol. Saccharomyces cerevisiae was chosen as the production host because of its relative tolerance to alcohols, robustness in industrial fermentations, and the possibility for future combination of isobutanol production with fermentation of lignocellulosic materials. Results The yield of isobutanol was improved from 0.16 to 0.97 mg per g glucose by simultaneous overexpression of biosynthetic genes ILV2, ILV3, and ILV5 in valine metabolism in anaerobic fermentation of glucose in mineral medium in S. cerevisiae. Isobutanol yield was further improved by twofold by the additional overexpression of BAT2, encoding the cytoplasmic branched-chain amino-acid aminotransferase. Overexpression of ILV6, encoding the regulatory subunit of Ilv2, in the ILV2 ILV3 ILV5 overexpression strain decreased isobutanol production yield by threefold. In aerobic cultivations in shake flasks in mineral medium, the isobutanol yield of the ILV2 ILV3 ILV5 overexpression strain and the reference strain were 3.86 and 0.28 mg per g glucose, respectively. They increased to 4.12 and 2.4 mg per g glucose in yeast extract/peptone/dextrose (YPD complex medium under aerobic conditions, respectively. Conclusions Overexpression of genes ILV2, ILV3, ILV5, and BAT2 in valine metabolism led to an increase in isobutanol production in S. cerevisiae. Additional overexpression of ILV6 in the ILV2 ILV3 ILV5 overexpression strain had a negative effect, presumably by increasing the sensitivity of Ilv2 to valine inhibition, thus weakening the positive impact of overexpression of ILV2, ILV3, and ILV5 on isobutanol production. Aerobic cultivations of the ILV2 ILV3 ILV5 overexpression strain and the reference strain showed that supplying amino acids in cultivation media

  4. L-lactic acid production by Aspergillus brasiliensis overexpressing the heterologous ldha gene from Rhizopus oryzae. (United States)

    Liaud, Nadège; Rosso, Marie-Noëlle; Fabre, Nicolas; Crapart, Sylvaine; Herpoël-Gimbert, Isabelle; Sigoillot, Jean-Claude; Raouche, Sana; Levasseur, Anthony


    Lactic acid is the building block of poly-lactic acid (PLA), a biopolymer that could be set to replace petroleum-based plastics. To make lactic acid production cost-effective, the production process should be carried out at low pH, in low-nutrient media, and with a low-cost carbon source. Yeasts have been engineered to produce high levels of lactic acid at low pH from glucose but not from carbohydrate polymers (e.g. cellulose, hemicellulose, starch). Aspergilli are versatile microbial cell factories able to naturally produce large amounts of organic acids at low pH and to metabolize cheap abundant carbon sources such as plant biomass. However, they have never been used for lactic acid production. To investigate the feasibility of lactic acid production with Aspergillus, the NAD-dependent lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) responsible for lactic acid production by Rhizopus oryzae was produced in Aspergillus brasiliensis BRFM103. Among transformants, the best lactic acid producer, A. brasiliensis BRFM1877, integrated 6 ldhA gene copies, and intracellular LDH activity was 9.2 × 10(-2) U/mg. At a final pH of 1.6, lactic acid titer reached 13.1 g/L (conversion yield: 26%, w/w) at 138 h in glucose-ammonium medium. This extreme pH drop was subsequently prevented by switching nitrogen source from ammonium sulfate to Na-nitrate, leading to a final pH of 3 and a lactic acid titer of 17.7 g/L (conversion yield: 47%, w/w) at 90 h of culture. Final titer was further improved to 32.2 g/L of lactic acid (conversion yield: 44%, w/w) by adding 20 g/L glucose to the culture medium at 96 h. This strain was ultimately able to produce lactic acid from xylose, arabinose, starch and xylan. We obtained the first Aspergillus strains able to produce large amounts of lactic acid by inserting recombinant ldhA genes from R. oryzae into a wild-type A. brasiliensis strain. pH regulation failed to significantly increase lactic acid production, but switching nitrogen source and changing culture feed

  5. Essential Oils Modulate Gene Expression and Ochratoxin A Production in Aspergillus carbonarius

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atoui, A.; El Khoury, R.; Verheecke, C; Mathieu, F.; Maroun, R.; El Khoury, A.


    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin, mainly produced on grapes by Aspergillus carbonarius, that causes massive health problems for humans. This study aims to reduce the occurrence of OTA by using the ten following essential oils (E.Os): fennel, cardamom, anise, chamomile, celery, cinnamon, thyme, taramira, oregano and rosemary at μL/mL and 5 μL/mL for each E.O. As a matter of fact, their effects on the OTA production and the growth of A. carbonarius S402 cultures were evaluated, after four days at 28 °C on a Synthetic Grape Medium (SGM). Results showed that A. carbonarius growth was reduced up to 100%, when cultured with the E.Os of cinnamon, taramira, and oregano at both concentrations and the thyme at 5 μL/mL. As for the other six E.Os, their effect on A. carbonarius growth was insignificant, but highly important on the OTA production. Interestingly, the fennel E.O at 5 _L/mL reduced the OTA production up to 88.9% compared to the control, with only 13.8% of fungal growth reduction. We further investigated the effect of these E.Os on the expression levels of the genes responsible for the OTA biosynthesis (acOTApks and acOTAnrps along with the acpks gene) as well as the two regulatory genes laeA and vea, using the quantitative Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction (qRT-PCR) method. The results revealed that these six E.Os reduced the expression of the five studied genes, where the ackps was downregulated by 99.2% (the highest downregulation in this study) with 5 μL/mL of fennel E.O. As for the acOTApks, acOTAnrps, veA and laeA, their reduction levels ranged between 10% and 96% depending on the nature of the E.O and its concentration in the medium. (author)

  6. A mutation in the aroE gene affects pigment production, virulence, and chemotaxis in Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae. (United States)

    Kim, Hong-Il; Noh, Tae-Hwan; Lee, Chang-Soo; Park, Young-Jin


    Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) causes bacterial blight (BB) in rice. To study its function, a random insertion mutation library of Xoo was constructed using the Tn5 transposon. A mutant strain with decreased virulence against the susceptible rice cultivar IR24 was isolated from the library (aroE mutant), which also had extremely low pigment production. Thermal asymmetric interlaced-polymerase chain reaction (TAIL-PCR) and sequence analysis of the mutant revealed that the transposon was inserted into the aroE gene (encoding shikimate dehydrogenase). To investigate gene expression changes in the pigment- and virulence-deficient mutant, DNA microarray analysis was performed, which showed downregulation of 20 genes involved in the chemotaxis of Xoo. Our findings reveal that mutation of the aroE gene affects virulence and pigment production, as well as expression of genes involved in Xoo chemotaxis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Impact of nitrogen concentration on validamycin A production and related gene transcription in fermentation of Streptomyces hygroscopicus 5008. (United States)

    Wei, Zhen-Hua; Bai, Linquan; Deng, Zixin; Zhong, Jian-Jiang


    Validamycin A (VAL-A) is an important and widely used agricultural antibiotic. In this study, statistical screening designs were applied to identify significant medium variables for VAL-A production and to find their optimal levels. The optimized medium caused 70% enhancement of VAL-A production. The difference between optimized medium and original medium suggested that low nitrogen source level might attribute to the enhancement of VAL-A production. The addition of different nitrogen sources to the optimized medium inhibited VAL-A production, which confirmed the importance of nitrogen concentration for VAL-A production. Furthermore, differences in structural gene transcription and enzyme activity between the two media were assayed. The results showed that lower nitrogen level in the optimized medium could regulate VAL-A production in gene transcriptional level. Our previous study indicated that the transcription of VAL-A structural genes could be enhanced at elevated temperature. In this work, the increased fermentation temperature from 37 to 42 °C with the optimized medium enhanced VAL-A production by 39%, which testified to the importance of structural gene transcription in VAL-A production. The information is useful for further VAL-A production enhancement.

  8. Quantitative trait loci linked to PRNP gene controlling health and production traits in INRA 401 sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brunel Jean-Claude


    Full Text Available Abstract In this study, the potential association of PrP genotypes with health and productive traits was investigated. Data were recorded on animals of the INRA 401 breed from the Bourges-La Sapinière INRA experimental farm. The population consisted of 30 rams and 852 ewes, which produced 1310 lambs. The animals were categorized into three PrP genotype classes: ARR homozygous, ARR heterozygous, and animals without any ARR allele. Two analyses differing in the approach considered were carried out. Firstly, the potential association of the PrP genotype with disease (Salmonella resistance and production (wool and carcass traits was studied. The data used included 1042, 1043 and 1013 genotyped animals for the Salmonella resistance, wool and carcass traits, respectively. The different traits were analyzed using an animal model, where the PrP genotype effect was included as a fixed effect. Association analyses do not indicate any evidence of an effect of PrP genotypes on traits studied in this breed. Secondly, a quantitative trait loci (QTL detection approach using the PRNP gene as a marker was applied on ovine chromosome 13. Interval mapping was used. Evidence for one QTL affecting mean fiber diameter was found at 25 cM from the PRNP gene. However, a linkage between PRNP and this QTL does not imply unfavorable linkage disequilibrium for PRNP selection purposes.

  9. Identification of the glutaminase genes of Aspergillus sojae involved in glutamate production during soy sauce fermentation. (United States)

    Ito, Kotaro; Koyama, Yasuji; Hanya, Yoshiki


    Glutaminase, an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-glutamine to L-glutamate, enhances the umami taste in soy sauce. The Aspergillus sojae genome contains 10 glutaminase genes. In this study, we estimated that approximately 60% of the glutamate in soy sauce is produced through the glutaminase reaction. To determine which glutaminase is involved in soy sauce glutamate production, we prepared soy sauces using single and multiple glutaminase gene disruptants of A. sojae. The glutamate concentration in soy sauce prepared using the ΔgahA-ΔgahB-ΔggtA-Δgls disruptant was approximately 60% lower than that in the control strain, whereas it was decreased by approximately 20-30% in the ΔgahA-ΔgahB disruptant. However, the glutamate concentration was unchanged in the soy sauces prepared using the ΔgahA-ΔggtA-Δgls and ΔgahB-ΔggtA-Δgls disruptants. These results indicate that four glutaminases are involved in glutamate production in soy sauce, and that the peptidoglutaminase activities of GahA and GahB increase the glutamate concentration in soy sauce.

  10. Yeast genes involved in regulating cysteine uptake affect production of hydrogen sulfide from cysteine during fermentation. (United States)

    Huang, Chien-Wei; Walker, Michelle E; Fedrizzi, Bruno; Gardner, Richard C; Jiranek, Vladimir


    An early burst of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) produced by Saccharomyces cerevisiae during fermentation could increase varietal thiols and therefore enhance desirable tropical aromas in varieties such as Sauvignon Blanc. Here we attempted to identify genes affecting H2S formation from cysteine by screening yeast deletion libraries via a colony colour assay on media resembling grape juice. Both Δlst4 and Δlst7 formed lighter coloured colonies and produced significantly less H2S than the wild type on high concentrations of cysteine, likely because they are unable to take up cysteine efficiently. We then examined the nine known cysteine permeases and found that deletion of AGP1, GNP1 and MUP1 led to reduced production of H2S from cysteine. We further showed that deleting genes involved in the SPS-sensing pathway such as STP1 and DAL81 also reduced H2S from cysteine. Together, this study indirectly confirms that Agp1p, Gnp1p and Mup1p are the major cysteine permeases and that they are regulated by the SPS-sensing and target of rapamycin pathways under the grape juice-like, cysteine-supplemented, fermentation conditions. The findings highlight that cysteine transportation could be a limiting factor for yeast to generate H2S from cysteine, and therefore selecting wine yeasts without defects in cysteine uptake could maximise thiol production potential. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  11. Morpho-Productive and Chemical Composition of Local and Foreign Sweet Corn Hybrids Grown in the Conditions of Transylvania Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana PĂCURAR


    Full Text Available Sweet corn (Zea mays L. belongs to the Gramineae family, var. rugosa (Bonof convar. Saccharate (Sturt. and can be distinguished from normal corn by presence of one or more mutant genes that affect carbohydrate metabolism in endosperm. Purpose of this research is to compare behavior of sweet corn hybrids created at SCDA Turda, but also foreign hybrids, in terms of quality elements and chemical composition, in conditions of Transylvania plateau, in two localities: Turda and Viişoara. As biological material following domestic sweet corn hybrids were chosen: ‘Prima’, ‘Estival’, ‘Deliciul verii’, ‘Dulcin’, ‘Delicios’, ‘Estival M’ and foreign hybrid ‘Jubilee’. These hybrids were also analyzed in terms of chemical composition. Weight of ‘Estival’ hybrid has the best behavior in both localities; as regards to cobs length, ‘Delicios’ hybrid has registered increases very significant positive, differences between plant height in the two localities confirm significant influence of environment on formation of this important typical qualitative characteristics, highest performances in terms of β-cryptoxanthin and zeaxanthin content, are recorded by ‘Jubilee’ in both localities, ‘Deliciul Verii’ hybrid records significant value for lutein content, also recording an important addition of carbohydrates in Turda, ‘Prima’ and ‘Estival’ hybrids recorded highest values of sucrose in both localities.

  12. Vertical integration of local fuel producers into rural district heating systems – Climate impact and production costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimming, M.; Sundberg, C.; Nordberg, Å.; Hansson, P.-A.


    Farmers can use their own agricultural biomass residues for heat production in small-scale systems, enabling synergies between the district heating (DH) sector and agriculture. The barriers to entry into the Swedish heat market were extremely high as long as heat distribution were considered natural monopoly, but were recently lowered due to the introduction of a regulated third party access (TPA) system in the DH sector. This study assesses the potential impact on greenhouse gas emissions and cost-based heat price in the DH sector when farmers vertically integrate into the heat supply chain and introduce more local and agricultural crops and residues into the fuel mix. Four scenarios with various degree of farmer integration, were assessed using life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology, and by analysis of the heat production costs. The results show that full integration of local farm and forest owners in the value chain can reduce greenhouse gas emissions and lower production costs/heat price, if there is an incentive to utilise local and agricultural fuels. The results imply that farmer participation in the DH sector should be encouraged by e.g. EU rural development programmes. - Highlights: • Five DH production systems based on different fuels and ownership were analysed. • Lower GHG emissions were obtained when farmers integrate fully into the DH chain. • Lower heat price was obtained by full vertical integration of farmers. • Salix and straw-based production resulted in the lowest GHG and heat price

  13. Effect Of Dried Olive Oil By-Product Supplementation To Ration On The Performance Of Local Ewes And Their Lambs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustafa, M.M.M.


    The effects of dried olive oil by-products (0, 15 and 30% replacement) on the performance of lactating local ewes and their lambs are the main object of this study. Biochemical, physiological and toxicological aspects, and the safety environmental clearance and fed supplementation of olive oil by-products in ewes feeding are also studied. Moreover, the economic value of olive oil by-products replacement in addition may participate partially in ruminant feeding in Egypt. In the present study, twenty four local dairy ewes at the end of pregnancy (1 weeks before parturition) were used in the 3 experimental diets with 0, 15 and 30% olive oil by-products supplementation and prolonged after weaning and during suckling period (8 weeks after lambing). The 1st lactating lambs of ewes was supplemented with 15% olive oil by-products, the 2nd lactating lambs of ewes supplemented with 30% olive oil by-products and the 3rd lactating lambs of ewes served as control. The results showed that the performance of both ewes and their lambs during the experimental period was improved. It can be concluded that olive oil by-products can partially replace sugar beet pulp in diets of growing and lactating ruminants

  14. Water and Land Footprints and Economic Productivity as Factors in Local Crop Choice: The Case of Silk in Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rick J. Hogeboom


    Full Text Available In deciding what crops to grow, farmers will look at, among other things, the economically most productive use of the water and land resources that they have access to. However, optimizing water and land use at the farm level may result in total water and land footprints at the catchment level that are in conflict with sustainable resource use. This study explores how data on water and land footprints, and on economic water and land productivity can inform micro-level decision making of crop choice, in the macro-level context of sustainable resource use. For a proposed sericulture project in Malawi, we calculated water and land footprints of silk along its production chain, and economic water and land productivities. We compared these to current cropping practices, and addressed the implications of water consumption at the catchment scale. We found that farmers may prefer irrigated silk production over currently grown rain-fed staple crops, because its economic water and land productivity is higher than that for currently grown crops. However, because the water footprint of irrigated silk is higher, sericulture will increase the pressure on local water resources. Since water consumption in the catchment generally does not exceed the maximum sustainable footprint, sericulture is a viable alternative crop for farmers in the case study area, as long as silk production remains small-scale (~3% of the area at most and does not depress local food markets.

  15. Fermentative hydrogen production from Jerusalem artichoke by Clostridium tyrobutyricum expressing exo-inulinase gene. (United States)

    Jiang, Ling; Wu, Qian; Xu, Qing; Zhu, Liying; Huang, He


    Clostridium tyrobutyricum ATCC25755 has been reported as being able to produce significant quantities of hydrogen. In this study, the exo-inulinase encoding gene cloned from Paenibacillus polymyxa SC-2 was into the expression plasmid pSY6 and expressed in the cells of C. tyrobutyricum. The engineered C. tyrobutyricum strain efficiently fermented the inulin-type carbohydrates from Jerusalem artichoke, without any pretreatment being necessary for the production of hydrogen. A comparatively high hydrogen yield (3.7 mol/mol inulin-type sugar) was achieved after 96 h in a batch process with simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF), with an overall volumetric productivity rate of 620 ± 60 mL/h/L when the initial total sugar concentration of the inulin extract was increased to 100 g/L. Synthesis of inulinase in the batch SSF culture was closely associated with strain growth until the end of the exponential phase, reaching a maximum activity of 28.4 ± 0.26 U/mL. The overall results show that the highly productive and abundant biomass crop Jerusalem artichoke can be a good substrate for hydrogen production, and that the application of batch SSF for its conversion has the potential to become a cost-effective process in the near future.

  16. Analysis of the influence of subcellular localization of the HIV Rev protein on Rev-dependent gene expression by multi-fluorescence live-cell imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolff, Horst; Hadian, Kamyar; Ziegler, Manja; Weierich, Claudia; Kramer-Hammerle, Susanne; Kleinschmidt, Andrea; Erfle, Volker; Brack-Werner, Ruth


    The human immunodeficiency virus Rev protein is a post-transcriptional activator of HIV gene expression. Rev is a nucleocytoplasmic shuttle protein that displays characteristic nuclear/nucleolar subcellular localization in various cell lines. Cytoplasmic localization of Rev occurs under various conditions disrupting Rev function. The goal of this study was to investigate the relationship between localization of Rev and its functional activity in living cells. A triple-fluorescent imaging assay, called AQ-FIND, was established for automatic quantitative evaluation of nucleocytoplasmic distribution of fluorescently tagged proteins. This assay was used to screen 500 rev genes generated by error-prone PCR for Rev mutants with different localization phenotypes. Activities of the Rev mutants were determined with a second quantitative, dual-fluorescent reporter assay. In HeLa cells, the majority of nuclear Rev mutants had activities similar to wild-type Rev. The activities of Rev mutants with abnormal cytoplasmic localization ranged from moderately impaired to nonfunctional. There was no linear correlation between subcellular distribution and levels of Rev activity. In astrocytes, nuclear Rev mutants showed similar impaired activities as the cytoplasmic wild-type Rev. Our data suggest that steady-state subcellular localization is not a primary regulator of Rev activity but may change as a secondary consequence of altered Rev function. The methodologies described here have potential for studying the significance of subcellular localization for functions of other regulatory factors

  17. Diversity, distribution and quantification of antibiotic resistance genes in goat and lamb slaughterhouse surfaces and meat products.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)