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Sample records for gene gmubc2 confers

  1. Overexpression of soybean ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme gene GmUBC2 confers enhanced drought and salt tolerance through modulating abiotic stress-responsive gene expression in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Guo-An; Chang, Ru-Zhen; Qiu, Li-Juan

    2010-03-01

    Previous studies have shown that ubiquitination plays important roles in plant abiotic stress responses. In the present study, the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme gene GmUBC2, a homologue of yeast RAD6, was cloned from soybean and functionally characterized. GmUBC2 was expressed in all tissues in soybean and was up-regulated by drought and salt stress. Arabidopsis plants overexpressing GmUBC2 were more tolerant to salinity and drought stresses compared with the control plants. Through expression analyses of putative downstream genes in the transgenic plants, we found that the expression levels of two ion antiporter genes AtNHX1 and AtCLCa, a key gene involved in the biosynthesis of proline, AtP5CS, and the copper chaperone for superoxide dismutase gene AtCCS, were all increased significantly in the transgenic plants. These results suggest that GmUBC2 is involved in the regulation of ion homeostasis, osmolyte synthesis, and oxidative stress responses. Our results also suggest that modulation of the ubiquitination pathway could be an effective means of improving salt and drought tolerance in plants through genetic engineering.

  2. Ancestral genes can control the ability of horizontally acquired loci to confer new traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Deborah Chen

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Horizontally acquired genes typically function as autonomous units conferring new abilities when introduced into different species. However, we reasoned that proteins preexisting in an organism might constrain the functionality of a horizontally acquired gene product if it operates on an ancestral pathway. Here, we determine how the horizontally acquired pmrD gene product activates the ancestral PmrA/PmrB two-component system in Salmonella enterica but not in the closely related bacterium Escherichia coli. The Salmonella PmrD protein binds to the phosphorylated PmrA protein (PmrA-P, protecting it from dephosphorylation by the PmrB protein. This results in transcription of PmrA-dependent genes, including those conferring polymyxin B resistance. We now report that the E. coli PmrD protein can activate the PmrA/PmrB system in Salmonella even though it cannot do it in E. coli, suggesting that these two species differ in an additional component controlling PmrA-P levels. We establish that the E. coli PmrB displays higher phosphatase activity towards PmrA-P than the Salmonella PmrB, and we identified a PmrB subdomain responsible for this property. Replacement of the E. coli pmrB gene with the Salmonella homolog was sufficient to render E. coli resistant to polymyxin B under PmrD-inducing conditions. Our findings provide a singular example whereby quantitative differences in the biochemical activities of orthologous ancestral proteins dictate the ability of a horizontally acquired gene product to confer species-specific traits. And they suggest that horizontally acquired genes can potentiate selection at ancestral loci.

  3. Genes confer similar robustness to environmental, stochastic, and genetic perturbations in yeast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Lehner

    Full Text Available Gene inactivation often has little or no apparent consequence for the phenotype of an organism. This property-enetic (or mutational robustness-is pervasive, and has important implications for disease and evolution, but is not well understood. Dating back to at least Waddington, it has been suggested that mutational robustness may be related to the requirement to withstand environmental or stochastic perturbations. Here I show that global quantitative data from yeast are largely consistent with this idea. Considering the effects of mutations in all nonessential genes shows that genes that confer robustness to environmental or stochastic change also buffer the effects of genetic change, and with similar efficacy. This means that selection during evolution for environmental or stochastic robustness (also referred to as canalization may frequently have the side effect of increasing genetic robustness. A dynamic environment may therefore promote the evolution of phenotypic complexity. It also means that "hub" genes in genetic interaction (synthetic lethal networks are generally genes that confer environmental resilience and phenotypic stability.

  4. Yeast functional screen to identify genes conferring salt stress tolerance in Salicornia europaea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiki eNakahara

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Salinity is a critical environmental factor that adversely affects crop productivity. Halophytes have evolved various mechanisms to adapt to saline environments. Salicornia europaea L. is one of the most salt-tolerant plant species. It does not have special salt-secreting structures like a salt gland or salt bladder, and is therefore a good model for studying the common mechanisms underlying plant salt tolerance. To identify candidate genes encoding key proteins in the mediation of salt tolerance in S. europaea, we performed a functional screen of a cDNA library in yeast. The library was screened for genes that allowed the yeast to grow in the presence of 1.3 M NaCl. We obtained three full-length S. europaea genes that confer salt tolerance. The genes are predicted to encode (1 a novel protein highly homologous to thaumatin-like proteins, (2 a novel coiled-coil protein of unknown function, and (3 a novel short peptide of 32 residues. Exogenous application of a synthetic peptide corresponding to the 32 residues improved salt tolerance of Arabidopsis. The approach described in this report provides a rapid assay system for large-scale screening of S. europaea genes involved in salt stress tolerance and supports the identification of genes responsible for such mechanisms. These genes may be useful candidates for improving crop salt tolerance by genetic transformation.

  5. Toll-like receptors gene polymorphisms may confer increased susceptibility to breast cancer development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodoropoulos, George E; Saridakis, Vasilios; Karantanos, Theodoros; Michalopoulos, Nikolaos V; Zagouri, Flora; Kontogianni, Panagiota; Lymperi, Maria; Gazouli, Maria; Zografos, George C

    2012-08-01

    Toll-like receptor (TLR) activation may be an important event in tumor cell immune evasion. TLR2 and TLR4 gene polymorphisms have been related to increased susceptibility to cancer development in various organs. 261 patients and 480 health individuals were investigated for genotype and allelic frequencies of a 22-bp nucleotide deletion (-196 to -174del) in the promoter of TLR2 gene as well as two polymorphisms causing amino acid substitutions (Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile) in TLR4 gene. As far as (-196 to -174del) in TLR2 gene is concerned ins/del and del/del genotypes and del allele were significantly more frequent in breast cancer patients compared to healthy controls. Considering Asp299Gly replacement of TLR4 gene, Gly carriers (Asp/Gly & Gly/Gly genotype) and Gly allele were overrepresented among the breast cancer cases. The -174 to -196del of TLR2 gene and Asp299Gly of TLR4 gene polymorphisms may confer an increased susceptibility to breast cancer development.

  6. Two genes conferring resistance to Pythium stalk rot in maize inbred line Qi319.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Feng-Jing; Xiao, Ming-Gang; Duan, Can-Xing; Li, Hong-Jie; Zhu, Zhen-Dong; Liu, Bao-Tao; Sun, Su-Li; Wu, Xiao-Fei; Wang, Xiao-Ming

    2015-08-01

    Stalk rots are destructive diseases in maize around the world, and are most often caused by the pathogen Pythium, Fusarium and other fungi. The most efficient management for controlling stalk rots is to breed resistant cultivars. Pythium stalk rot can cause serious yield loss on maize, and to find the resistance genes from the existing germplasm is the basis to develop Pythium-resistance hybrid lines. In this study, we investigated the genetic resistance to Pythium stalk rot in inbred line Qi319 using F2 and F2:3 population, and found that the resistance to Pythium inflatum in Qi319 was conferred by two independently inherited dominant genes, RpiQI319-1 and RpiQI319-2. Linkage analysis uncovered that the RpiQI319-1 co-segregated with markers bnlg1203, and bnlg2057 on chromosome 1, and that the RpiQI319-2 locus co-segregated with markers umc2069 and bnlg1716 on chromosome 10. The RpiQI319-1 locus was further mapped into a ~500-kb interval flanked by markers SSRZ33 and SSRZ47. These results will facilitate marker-assisted selection of Pythium stalk rot-resistant cultivars in maize breeding. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the resistance to P. inflatum in the inbred line Qi319, and is also the first description of two independently inherited dominant genes conferring the resistance of Pythium stalk rot in maize.

  7. Additive susceptibility to insulin-dependent diabetes conferred by HLA-DQB1 and insulin genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, J X; Bui, M M; Tian, X H; Muir, A; Wakeland, E K; Zorovich, B; Zhang, L P; Liu, M C; Thomson, G; Maclaren, N K

    1994-01-01

    Several genomic polymorphisms at the insulin (INS) gene and its flanking regions were analyzed in 197 unrelated Caucasian patients affected by insulin-dependent diabetes (IDDM) and 159 ethnically matched, normal controls ascertained from the South-Eastern United States. We found that the frequency of homozygotes for the common variant at the insulin gene was significantly increased in the diabetic population (RR = 2.0, p INS gene. We determined the HLA-DQB1 genotypes by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and/or sequence-specific primers (SSP) techniques to assess the possible interactions between INS and HLA. DQB1*0302 had the strongest predisposing effect on IDDM susceptibility (RR = 9.3) and DQB1*0602 the strongest protective effect (RR = 0.02). However, a significant predisposing effect of DQB1*0201 could be demonstrated only after removal of the effects of DQB1*0302 and DQB1*0602. Analyses of the genotypes revealed that all genotypes containing 0602 were protective and that the heterozygous genotype 0201/0302 and homozygous genotype 0302/0302 confer the highest risk (RR = 20.9 and 12.9 respectively). However, heterozygous genotypes 0302/X (X excludes 0201, 0302 and 0602) have a significantly lower predisposing risk. Similarly, there is heterogeneity in risk between predisposing 0201/0201 homozygous individuals and protective 0201/X individuals. When subjects were stratified by HLA genotypes, the relative risks conferred by INS did not vary, thus suggesting that the susceptibility effects conferred by HLA and INS are additive rather than interactive.

  8. Molecular mapping and characterization of two genes conferring resistance to Phytophthora sojae in a soybean landrace PI 567139B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytophthora root and stem rot (PRR), caused by the soil-borne oomycete pathogen Phytophthora sojae, is one of the most destructive diseases of soybean. PRR can be effectively controlled by race-specific genes conferring resistance to P. sojae (Rps). However, the Rps genes are usually non-durable, a...

  9. PL1 fusion gene: a novel visual selectable marker gene that confers tolerance to multiple abiotic stresses in transgenic tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Feng; Li, Shu; Dang, Lijie; Chai, Wenting; Li, Pengli; Wang, Ning Ning

    2012-10-01

    Visual selectable markers, including the purple color caused by the accumulation of anthocyanins, have been proposed for use as antibiotic-free alternatives. However, the excessive accumulation of anthocyanins seriously inhibits the growth and development of transgenic plants. In our study, the AtDWF4 promoter from Arabidopsis and the tomato LeANT1 gene, encoding a MYB transcription factor, were used to construct the PL1 fusion gene to test whether it could be used as a visual selectable marker gene for tomato transformation. All the PL1 transgenic shoots exhibited intense purple color on shoot induction medium. In the transgenic tomato plants, PL1 was highly expressed in the cotyledons, but expressed only slightly in the true leaves and other organs. The expression of PL1 had no significantly adverse effects on the growth or development of the transgenic tomato plants, and conferred tolerance to multiple abiotic stresses in them. With the “cut off green shoots” method, multiple independent 35S::GFP transgenic tomato lines were successfully obtained using PL1 as the selectable marker gene. These results suggest that PL1 has potential application of visual selectable marker gene for tomato transformation.

  10. A novel resistance gene, lnu(H), confers resistance to lincosamides inriemerella anatipestiferCH-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Hong-Yan; Liu, Ma-Feng; Wang, Ming-Shu; Zhao, Xin-Xin; Jia, Ren-Yong; Chen, Shun; Sun, Kun-Feng; Yang, Qiao; Wu, Ying; Chen, Xiao-Yue; Biville, Francis; Zou, Yuan-Feng; Jing, Bo; Cheng, An-Chun; Zhu, De-Kang

    2017-08-23

    The Gram-negative bacteria Riemerella anatipestifer CH-2 is resistant to lincosamide (the MIC value of lincomycin is 128 µg/ml). The G148_1775 gene of R. anatipestifer CH-2, designated lnu(H), encodes a 260-amino-acid protein with ≤ 41% identity to other reported lincosamide nucleotidyltransferases. The E. coli Rosetta (DE3) containing pBAD24-lnu(H) plasmid showed 4- and 2-fold increases in lincomycin and clindamycin MICs, respectively. A kinetic assay of the purified Lnu(H) enzyme for lincomycin and clindamycin showed that the protein could inactive lincosamides. Mass spectrometry analysis results demonstrated that the Lnu(H) enzyme catalyzed adenylation of lincosamides. In addition, the lnu(H) gene deletion strain exhibited 512- and 32-fold decreases in lincomycin and clindamycin MICs, respectively. Wild-type level of lincosamide resistance could be restored by complementation with a shuttle plasmid carrying the lnu(H) gene. The transformant ATCC 11845 (lnu(H)) acquired by natural transformation also exhibited high-level lincosamide resistance. Moreover, of the R. anatipestifer field isolates, 32% (56/175) were positive for the lnu(H) gene by PCR. In conclusion, Lnu(H) is a novel lincosamide nucleotidyltransferase, which inactivates lincomycin and clindamycin by nucleotidylation, thus conferring high-level of lincosamide resistance to R. anatipestifer CH-2. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. The wheat Lr34 multipathogen resistance gene confers resistance to anthracnose and rust in sorghum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnippenkoetter, Wendelin; Lo, Clive; Liu, Guoquan; Dibley, Katherine; Chan, Wai Lung; White, Jodie; Milne, Ricky; Zwart, Alexander; Kwong, Eunjung; Keller, Beat; Godwin, Ian; Krattinger, Simon G; Lagudah, Evans

    2017-11-01

    The ability of the wheat Lr34 multipathogen resistance gene (Lr34res) to function across a wide taxonomic boundary was investigated in transgenic Sorghum bicolor. Increased resistance to sorghum rust and anthracnose disease symptoms following infection with the biotrophic pathogen Puccinia purpurea and the hemibiotroph Colletotrichum sublineolum, respectively, occurred in transgenic plants expressing the Lr34res ABC transporter. Transgenic sorghum lines that highly expressed the wheat Lr34res gene exhibited immunity to sorghum rust compared to the low-expressing single copy Lr34res genotype that conferred partial resistance. Pathogen-induced pigmentation mediated by flavonoid phytoalexins was evident on transgenic sorghum leaves following P. purpurea infection within 24-72 h, which paralleled Lr34res gene expression. Elevated expression of flavone synthase II, flavanone 4-reductase and dihydroflavonol reductase genes which control the biosynthesis of flavonoid phytoalexins characterized the highly expressing Lr34res transgenic lines 24-h post-inoculation with P. purpurea. Metabolite analysis of mesocotyls infected with C. sublineolum showed increased levels of 3-deoxyanthocyanidin metabolites were associated with Lr34res expression, concomitant with reduced symptoms of anthracnose. © 2017 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Chromosomal locations of the maize (Zea mays L.) HtP and rt genes that confer resistance to Exserohilum turcicum

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ogliari, Juliana Bernardi; Guimarães, Marco Antônio; Camargo, Luis Eduardo Aranha

    2007-01-01

    ...) L30HtPHtPRtRt and L30htphtpRtRt and the L40htphtprtrt line which contrast regarding the presence of the recently described dominant HtP and the recessive rt genes that confer resistance to Exserohilum turcicum...

  13. Map - vs. homology - based cloning for the recessive gene ol-2 conferring resistance to tomato powdery mildew

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pavan, S.N.C.; Zheng, Z.; Borisova, M.; Berg, van den P.M.M.M.; Lotti, C.; Giovanni, de C.; Lindhout, P.; Jong, de J.H.; Ricciardi, L.; Visser, R.G.F.; Bai, Y.

    2008-01-01

    The recessive gene ol-2 confers papilla-associated and race-non-specific resistance to tomato powdery mildew caused by Oidium neolycopersici. In order to facilitate marker assisted selection (MAS) in practical breeding programmes, we identified two simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers and one

  14. Overexpression of a soybean salicylic acid methyltransferase gene confers resistance to soybean cyst nematode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jingyu; Mazarei, Mitra; Zhao, Nan; Zhu, Junwei J; Zhuang, Xiaofeng; Liu, Wusheng; Pantalone, Vincent R; Arelli, Prakash R; Stewart, Charles N; Chen, Feng

    2013-12-01

    Salicylic acid plays a critical role in activating plant defence responses after pathogen attack. Salicylic acid methyltransferase (SAMT) modulates the level of salicylic acid by converting salicylic acid to methyl salicylate. Here, we report that a SAMT gene from soybean (GmSAMT1) plays a role in soybean defence against soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines Ichinohe, SCN). GmSAMT1 was identified as a candidate SCN defence-related gene in our previous analysis of soybean defence against SCN using GeneChip microarray experiments. The current study started with the isolation of the full-length cDNAs of GmSAMT1 from a SCN-resistant soybean line and from a SCN-susceptible soybean line. The two cDNAs encode proteins of identical sequences. The GmSAMT1 cDNA was expressed in Escherichia coli. Using in vitro enzyme assays, E. coli-expressed GmSAMT1 was confirmed to function as salicylic acid methyltransferase. The apparent Km value of GmSAMT1 for salicylic acid was approximately 46 μM. To determine the role of GmSAMT1 in soybean defence against SCN, transgenic hairy roots overexpressing GmSAMT1 were produced and tested for SCN resistance. Overexpression of GmSAMT1 in SCN-susceptible backgrounds significantly reduced the development of SCN, indicating that overexpression of GmSAMT1 in the transgenic hairy root system could confer resistance to SCN. Overexpression of GmSAMT1 in transgenic hairy roots was also found to affect the expression of selected genes involved in salicylic acid biosynthesis and salicylic acid signal transduction.

  15. A cfr-like gene cfr(C) conferring linezolid resistance is common in Clostridium difficile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candela, Thomas; Marvaud, Jean-Christophe; Nguyen, Tiep Khac; Lambert, Thierry

    2017-09-01

    Clostridium difficile T10 and Clostridium bolteae 90B3 were co-resistant to phenicols, lincosamides, oxazolidinones, pleuromutilins and streptogramin A (PhLOPSA) and harbored an unreported cfr-like determinant that may alter the 23S rRNA by m(8)A2503 methylation. The cfr-like cfr(C) gene was cloned in C. difficile 630Δerm in which it conferred PhLOPSA resistance. In C. bolteae 90B3: (i) qRT-PCR analysis indicated that cfr(C) was similarly expressed in the absence or presence of either chloramphenicol or clindamycin or linezolid; and (ii) cfr(C) was part of a putative 24 kb-transposon, which generated a detectable circular intermediate. An element differing by a single nucleotide was found in C. difficile DA00203 from GenBank data, consistent with a recent horizontal transfer. In silico analysis showed cfr(C) in 19 out of 274 C. difficile genomes. This gene was also detected by PCR analysis in 9 out of 80 C. difficile from our laboratory strain collection according to resistance to linezolid and florfenicol. The fact that cfr(C) was mainly confined in C. difficile within polymorphic environments indicates this microorganism is a reservoir for PhLOPSA resistance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  16. Duplications of the neuropeptide receptor gene VIPR2 confer significant risk for schizophrenia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Vacic, Vladimir

    2011-03-24

    Rare copy number variants (CNVs) have a prominent role in the aetiology of schizophrenia and other neuropsychiatric disorders. Substantial risk for schizophrenia is conferred by large (>500-kilobase) CNVs at several loci, including microdeletions at 1q21.1 (ref. 2), 3q29 (ref. 3), 15q13.3 (ref. 2) and 22q11.2 (ref. 4) and microduplication at 16p11.2 (ref. 5). However, these CNVs collectively account for a small fraction (2-4%) of cases, and the relevant genes and neurobiological mechanisms are not well understood. Here we performed a large two-stage genome-wide scan of rare CNVs and report the significant association of copy number gains at chromosome 7q36.3 with schizophrenia. Microduplications with variable breakpoints occurred within a 362-kilobase region and were detected in 29 of 8,290 (0.35%) patients versus 2 of 7,431 (0.03%) controls in the combined sample. All duplications overlapped or were located within 89 kilobases upstream of the vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor gene VIPR2. VIPR2 transcription and cyclic-AMP signalling were significantly increased in cultured lymphocytes from patients with microduplications of 7q36.3. These findings implicate altered vasoactive intestinal peptide signalling in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia and indicate the VPAC2 receptor as a potential target for the development of new antipsychotic drugs.

  17. The Arabidopsis NPR1 gene confers broad-spectrum disease resistance in strawberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Katchen Julliany P; Brunings, Asha; Peres, Natalia A; Mou, Zhonglin; Folta, Kevin M

    2015-08-01

    Although strawberry is an economically important fruit crop worldwide, production of strawberry is limited by its susceptibility to a wide range of pathogens and the lack of major commercial cultivars with high levels of resistance to multiple pathogens. The objective of this study is to ectopically express the Arabidopsis thaliana NPR1 gene (AtNPR1) in the diploid strawberry Fragaria vesca L. and to test transgenic plants for disease resistance. AtNPR1 is a key positive regulator of the long-lasting broad-spectrum resistance known as systemic acquired resistance (SAR) and has been shown to confer resistance to a number of pathogens when overexpressed in Arabidopsis or ectopically expressed in several crop species. We show that ectopic expression of AtNPR1 in strawberry increases resistance to anthracnose, powdery mildew, and angular leaf spot, which are caused by different fungal or bacterial pathogens. The increased resistance is related to the relative expression levels of AtNPR1 in the transgenic plants. In contrast to Arabidopsis plants overexpressing AtNPR1, which grow normally and do not constitutively express defense genes, the strawberry transgenic plants are shorter than non-transformed controls, and most of them fail to produce runners and fruits. Consistently, most of the transgenic lines constitutively express the defense gene FvPR5, suggesting that the SAR activation mechanisms in strawberry and Arabidopsis are different. Nevertheless, our results indicate that overexpression of AtNPR1 holds the potential for generation of broad-spectrum disease resistance in strawberry.

  18. Deletion of gene encoding methyltransferase (gidB) confers high-level antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikheil, Dareen M; Shippy, Daniel C; Eakley, Nicholas M; Okwumabua, Ogi E; Fadl, Amin A

    2012-04-01

    The glucose-inhibited division gene (gid)B, which resides in the gid operon, was thought to have a role in the modulation of genes similar to that of gidA. Recent studies have indicated that GidB is a methyltransferase enzyme that is involved in the methylation of the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) in Escherichia coli. In this study, we investigated the role of GidB in susceptibility to antibiotics and the overall biology of Salmonella. A gidB isogenic mutant of Salmonella was constructed and subsequently characterized under different conditions. Our data indicated that growth and invasion characteristics of the gidB mutant were similar to those of the wild type (WT). The gidB mutant was outgrown by the WT in a competitive growth assay, indicating a compromised overall bacterial fitness. Under the stress of nalidixic acid, the gidB mutant's motility was significantly reduced. Similarly, the mutant showed a filamentous morphology and smaller colony size compared with the rod-shaped and large colonies of the WT in the presence of nalidixic acid. Most importantly, deletion of gidB conferred high-level resistance to the aminoglycoside antibiotics streptomycin and neomycin. A primer extension assay determined the methylation site for the WT to be at G527 of the 16S rRNA. A lack of methylation in the mutant indicated that GidB is required for this methylation. Taken together, these data indicate that the GidB enzyme has a significant role in the alteration of antibiotic susceptibility and the modulation of growth and morphology under stress conditions in Salmonella.

  19. The wheat durable, multipathogen resistance gene Lr34 confers partial blast resistance in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krattinger, Simon G; Sucher, Justine; Selter, Liselotte L; Chauhan, Harsh; Zhou, Bo; Tang, Mingzhi; Upadhyaya, Narayana M; Mieulet, Delphine; Guiderdoni, Emmanuel; Weidenbach, Denise; Schaffrath, Ulrich; Lagudah, Evans S; Keller, Beat

    2016-05-01

    The wheat gene Lr34 confers durable and partial field resistance against the obligate biotrophic, pathogenic rust fungi and powdery mildew in adult wheat plants. The resistant Lr34 allele evolved after wheat domestication through two gain-of-function mutations in an ATP-binding cassette transporter gene. An Lr34-like fungal disease resistance with a similar broad-spectrum specificity and durability has not been described in other cereals. Here, we transformed the resistant Lr34 allele into the japonica rice cultivar Nipponbare. Transgenic rice plants expressing Lr34 showed increased resistance against multiple isolates of the hemibiotrophic pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae, the causal agent of rice blast disease. Host cell invasion during the biotrophic growth phase of rice blast was delayed in Lr34-expressing rice plants, resulting in smaller necrotic lesions on leaves. Lines with Lr34 also developed a typical, senescence-based leaf tip necrosis (LTN) phenotype. Development of LTN during early seedling growth had a negative impact on formation of axillary shoots and spikelets in some transgenic lines. One transgenic line developed LTN only at adult plant stage which was correlated with lower Lr34 expression levels at seedling stage. This line showed normal tiller formation and more importantly, disease resistance in this particular line was not compromised. Interestingly, Lr34 in rice is effective against a hemibiotrophic pathogen with a lifestyle and infection strategy that is different from obligate biotrophic rusts and mildew fungi. Lr34 might therefore be used as a source in rice breeding to improve broad-spectrum disease resistance against the most devastating fungal disease of rice.

  20. Identification of target genes conferring ethanol stress tolerance to Saccharomyces cerevisiae based on DNA microarray data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirasawa, Takashi; Yoshikawa, Katsunori; Nakakura, Yuki; Nagahisa, Keisuke; Furusawa, Chikara; Katakura, Yoshio; Shimizu, Hiroshi; Shioya, Suteaki

    2007-08-01

    During industrial production process using yeast, cells are exposed to the stress due to the accumulation of ethanol, which affects the cell growth activity and productivity of target products, thus, the ethanol stress-tolerant yeast strains are highly desired. To identify the target gene(s) for constructing ethanol stress tolerant yeast strains, we obtained the gene expression profiles of two strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, namely, a laboratory strain and a strain used for brewing Japanese rice wine (sake), in the presence of 5% (v/v) ethanol, using DNA microarray. For the selection of target genes for breeding ethanol stress tolerant strains, clustering of DNA microarray data was performed. For further selection, the ethanol sensitivity of the knockout mutants in each of which the gene selected by DNA microarray analysis is deleted, was also investigated. The integration of the DNA microarray data and the ethanol sensitivity data of knockout strains suggests that the enhancement of expression of genes related to tryptophan biosynthesis might confer the ethanol stress tolerance to yeast cells. Indeed, the strains overexpressing tryptophan biosynthesis genes showed a stress tolerance to 5% ethanol. Moreover, the addition of tryptophan to the culture medium and overexpression of tryptophan permease gene conferred ethanol stress tolerance to yeast cells. These results indicate that overexpression of the genes for trypophan biosynthesis increases the ethanol stress tolerance. Tryptophan supplementation to culture and overexpression of the tryptophan permease gene are also effective for the increase in ethanol stress tolerance. Our methodology for the selection of target genes for constructing ethanol stress tolerant strains, based on the data of DNA microarray analysis and phenotypes of knockout mutants, was validated.

  1. Map - vs. homology - based cloning for the recessive gene ol-2 conferring resistance to tomato powdery mildew

    OpenAIRE

    Pavan, S.N.C.; Zheng, Z.; Borisova, M.; Berg, van den, G.J.; Lotti, C.; Giovanni, , da Bergamo; Lindhout, P.; de Jong; Ricciardi, L.; Visser, R.G.F.; Bai, Y.

    2008-01-01

    The recessive gene ol-2 confers papilla-associated and race-non-specific resistance to tomato powdery mildew caused by Oidium neolycopersici. In order to facilitate marker assisted selection (MAS) in practical breeding programmes, we identified two simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers and one cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) marker which are linked to the resistance locus and co-dominantly inherited. Aiming to provide a base for ol-2 positional cloning, we used a large segregatin...

  2. Resistance to powdery mildew in the pea cultivar Xucai 1 is conferred by the gene er1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suli Sun; Zhongyi Wang; Haining Fu; Canxing Duan; Xiaoming Wang; Zhendong Zhu

    2015-01-01

    Powdery mildew, caused by Erysiphe pisi D.C., is a major constraint to pea production worldwide. The pea cultivar Xucai 1 has shown high resistance to E. pisi under greenhouse and field conditions. The objectives of this study were to identify and characterize genes conferring resistance to powdery mildew in Xucai 1. Three crosses, Qizhen 76 × Xucai 1,Bawan 6 × Xucai 1, and Xucai 1 × Bawan 6, were made to generate populations for genetic analysis. The resistance to E. pisi and segregation ratios in the F1, F2, and F2:3populations suggested a single recessive gene conferring the resistance of Xucai 1. Bulked segregant analysis was used to map the resistance gene using two F2 populations. The resistance gene was close to markers AD60 and c5 DNAmet on linkage group VI with genetic distances of9.9 c M and 15.4 c M in the Xucai 1 × Bawan 6 F2 population and 8.7 c M and 8.1 c M in the Qizhen 76 × Xucai 1 F2 population, respectively, suggesting that the resistance gene was an er1 allele. This hypothesis was confirmed by comparison of the c DNA sequences of the Ps MLO1 gene between the parents and the Ps MLO1 wild type. Three distinct types of transcripts in Xucai 1, characterized by a 129-bp deletion and 155- and 220-bp insertions,were detected, consistent with the structure of the er1-2 allele. We concluded that resistance in Xucai 1 was conferred by er1-2 and that its linked markers will be useful in pea breeding programs.

  3. The Batten disease gene CLN3 confers resistance to endoplasmic reticulum stress induced by tunicamycin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Dan, E-mail: danw@bjmu.edu.cn [Department of Medical Genetics, Peking University Health Science Center, No 38 Xueyuan Road, Haidian district, Beijing 100191 (China); Liu, Jing; Wu, Baiyan [Department of Medical Genetics, Peking University Health Science Center, No 38 Xueyuan Road, Haidian district, Beijing 100191 (China); Tu, Bo; Zhu, Weiguo [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Peking University Health Science Center, No 38 Xueyuan Road, Haidian district, Beijing 100191 (China); Luo, Jianyuan, E-mail: jluo@som.umaryland.edu [Department of Medical Genetics, Peking University Health Science Center, No 38 Xueyuan Road, Haidian district, Beijing 100191 (China); Department of Medical and Research Technology, School of Medicine, University of Maryland, Baltimore 21201 (United States)

    2014-04-25

    Highlights: • The work reveals a protective properties of CLN3 towards TM-induced apoptosis. • CLN3 regulates expression of the GRP78 and the CHOP in response to the ER stress. • CLN3 plays a specific role in the ERS response. - Abstract: Mutations in CLN3 gene cause juvenile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (JNCL or Batten disease), an early-onset neurodegenerative disorder that is characterized by the accumulation of ceroid lipofuscin within lysosomes. The function of the CLN3 protein remains unclear and is presumed to be related to Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. To investigate the function of CLN3 in the ER stress signaling pathway, we measured proliferation and apoptosis in cells transfected with normal and mutant CLN3 after treatment with the ER stress inducer tunicamycin (TM). We found that overexpression of CLN3 was sufficient in conferring increased resistance to ER stress. Wild-type CLN3 protected cells from TM-induced apoptosis and increased cell proliferation. Overexpression of wild-type CLN3 enhanced expression of the ER chaperone protein, glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), and reduced expression of the proapoptotic protein CCAAT/-enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP). In contrast, overexpression of mutant CLN3 or siRNA knockdown of CLN3 produced the opposite effect. Together, our data suggest that the lack of CLN3 function in cells leads to a failure of management in the response to ER stress and this may be the key deficit in JNCL that causes neuronal degeneration.

  4. Risk-Conferring Glutamatergic Genes and Brain Glutamate Plus Glutamine in Schizophrenia

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    Juan R. Bustillo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS signals from glutamate (or the combined glutamate and glutamine signal—Glx have been found to be greater in various brain regions in people with schizophrenia. Recently, the Psychiatric Genetics Consortium reported that several common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in glutamate-related genes confer increased risk of schizophrenia. Here, we examined the relationship between presence of these risk polymorphisms and brain Glx levels in schizophrenia.Methods1H-MRS imaging data from an axial, supraventricular tissue slab were acquired in 56 schizophrenia patients and 67 healthy subjects. Glx was measured in gray matter (GM and white matter (WM regions. The genetic data included six polymorphisms genotyped across an Illumina 5M SNP array. Only three of six glutamate as well as calcium-related SNPs were available for examination. These included three glutamate-related polymorphisms (rs10520163 in CLCN3, rs12704290 in GRM3, and rs12325245 in SLC38A7, and three calcium signaling polymorphisms (rs1339227 in RIMS1, rs7893279 in CACNB2, and rs2007044 in CACNA1C. Summary risk scores for the three glutamate and the three calcium polymorphisms were calculated.ResultsGlx levels in GM positively correlated with glutamate-related genetic risk score but only in younger (≤36 years schizophrenia patients (p = 0.01. Glx levels did not correlate with calcium risk scores. Glx was higher in the schizophrenia group compared to levels in controls in GM and WM regardless of age (p < 0.001.ConclusionElevations in brain Glx are in part, related to common allelic variants of glutamate-related genes known to increase the risk for schizophrenia. Since the glutamate risk scores did not differ between groups, some other genetic or environmental factors likely interact with the variability in glutamate-related risk SNPs to contribute to an increase in brain Glx early in the illness.

  5. Dissection of two soybean QTL conferring partial resistance to Phytophthora sojae through sequence and gene expression analysis

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    Wang Hehe

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phytophthora sojae is the primary pathogen of soybeans that are grown on poorly drained soils. Race-specific resistance to P. sojae in soybean is gene-for-gene, although in many areas of the US and worldwide there are populations that have adapted to the most commonly deployed resistance to P. sojae ( Rps genes. Hence, this system has received increased attention towards identifying mechanisms and molecular markers associated with partial resistance to this pathogen. Several quantitative trait loci (QTL have been identified in the soybean cultivar ‘Conrad’ that contributes to the expression of partial resistance to multiple P. sojae isolates. Results In this study, two of the Conrad QTL on chromosome 19 were dissected through sequence and expression analysis of genes in both resistant (Conrad and susceptible (‘Sloan’ genotypes. There were 1025 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in 87 of 153 genes sequenced from Conrad and Sloan. There were 304 SNPs in 54 genes sequenced from Conrad compared to those from both Sloan and Williams 82, of which 11 genes had SNPs unique to Conrad. Eleven of 19 genes in these regions analyzed with qRT-PCR had significant differences in fold change of transcript abundance in response to infection with P. sojae in lines with QTL haplotype from the resistant parent compared to those with the susceptible parent haplotype. From these, 8 of the 11 genes had SNPs in the upstream, untranslated region, exon, intron, and/or downstream region. These 11 candidate genes encode proteins potentially involved in signal transduction, hormone-mediated pathways, plant cell structural modification, ubiquitination, and basal resistance. Conclusions These findings may indicate a complex defense network with multiple mechanisms underlying these two soybean QTL conferring resistance to P. sojae. SNP markers derived from these candidate genes can contribute to fine mapping of QTL and marker assisted breeding for

  6. Resistance to Downy Mildew in Lettuce 'La Brillante' is Conferred by Dm50 Gene and Multiple QTL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simko, Ivan; Ochoa, Oswaldo E; Pel, Mathieu A; Tsuchida, Cayla; Font I Forcada, Carolina; Hayes, Ryan J; Truco, Maria-Jose; Antonise, Rudie; Galeano, Carlos H; Michelmore, Richard W

    2015-09-01

    Many cultivars of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) are susceptible to downy mildew, a nearly globally ubiquitous disease caused by Bremia lactucae. We previously determined that Batavia type cultivar 'La Brillante' has a high level of field resistance to the disease in California. Testing of a mapping population developed from a cross between 'Salinas 88' and La Brillante in multiple field and laboratory experiments revealed that at least five loci conferred resistance in La Brillante. The presence of a new dominant resistance gene (designated Dm50) that confers complete resistance to specific isolates was detected in laboratory tests of seedlings inoculated with multiple diverse isolates. Dm50 is located in the major resistance cluster on linkage group 2 that contains at least eight major, dominant Dm genes conferring resistance to downy mildew. However, this Dm gene is ineffective against the isolates of B. lactucae prevalent in the field in California and the Netherlands. A quantitative trait locus (QTL) located at the Dm50 chromosomal region (qDM2.2) was detected, though, when the amount of disease was evaluated a month before plants reached harvest maturity. Four additional QTL for resistance to B. lactucae were identified on linkage groups 4 (qDM4.1 and qDM4.2), 7 (qDM7.1), and 9 (qDM9.2). The largest effect was associated with qDM7.1 (up to 32.9% of the total phenotypic variance) that determined resistance in multiple field experiments. Markers identified in the present study will facilitate introduction of these resistance loci into commercial cultivars of lettuce.

  7. Site-directed mutagenesis of an acetylcholinesterase gene from the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti confers insecticide insensitivity.

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    Vaughan, A; Rocheleau, T; ffrench-Constant, R

    1997-11-01

    Insecticide resistance is a serious problem facing the effective control of insect vectors of disease. Insensitive acetylcholinesterase (AChE) confers resistance to organophosphorus (OP) and carbamate insecticides and is a widespread resistance mechanism in vector mosquitoes. Although the point mutations that underlie AChE insensitivity have been described from Drosophila, the Colorado potato beetle, and house flies, no resistance associated mutations have been documented from mosquitoes to date. We are therefore using a cloned acetylcholinesterase gene from the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti as a model in which to perform site directed mutagenesis in order to understand the effects of potential resistance associated mutations. The same resistance associated amino-acid replacements as found in other insects also confer OP and carbamate resistance to the mosquito enzyme. Here we describe the levels of resistance conferred by different combinations of these mutations and the effects of these mutations on the kinetics of the AChE enzyme. Over-expression of these constructs in baculovirus will facilitate purification of each of the mutant enzymes and a more detailed analysis of their associated inhibition kinetics.

  8. High-resolution fine mapping of ps-2, a mutated gene conferring functional male sterility in tomato due to non-dehiscent anthers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorguet, B.J.M.; Schipper, E.H.; Heusden, van A.W.; Lindhout, P.

    2006-01-01

    Functional male sterility is an important trait for the production of hybrid seeds. Among the genes coding for functional male sterility in tomato is the positional sterility gene ps-2. ps-2 is monogenic recessive, confers non-dehiscent anthers and is the most suitable for practical uses. In order

  9. A second gene at the tomato Cf-4 locus confers resistance to Cladosporium fulvum through recognition of a novel avirulence determinant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijkamp, HJJ; Takken, Frank L.W.; Thomas, Colwyn M.; Joosten, Matthieu H.A.J.; Golstein, Catherine; Westerink, Nienke; Hille, Jacques; Nijkamp, H. John J.; Wit, Pierre J.G.M. de; Jones, Jonathan D.G.

    1999-01-01

    The tomato Cf-4 and Cf-9 genes confer resistance to the leaf mould pathogen Cladosporium fulvum and map at a complex locus on the short arm of chromosome 1. It was previously shown that the gene encoding Cf-4, which recognizes the Avr4 avirulence determinant, is one of five tandemly duplicated homol

  10. High-resolution fine mapping of ps-2, a mutated gene conferring functional male sterility in tomato due to non-dehiscent anthers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorguet, B.J.M.; Schipper, E.H.; Heusden, van A.W.; Lindhout, P.

    2006-01-01

    Functional male sterility is an important trait for the production of hybrid seeds. Among the genes coding for functional male sterility in tomato is the positional sterility gene ps-2. ps-2 is monogenic recessive, confers non-dehiscent anthers and is the most suitable for practical uses. In order t

  11. Distribution of genes conferring combined resistance to tetracycline and minocycline among group B streptococcal isolates from humans and various animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, S; Wibawan, I W; Lämmler, C

    1994-11-01

    Forty-nine tetracycline and minocycline resistant streptococci of serological group B isolated from humans, cattle, pigs and nutrias were investigated for the presence of genes conferring this combined resistance. Southern blot hybridization of EcoRI-digested chromosomal DNA of the bacteria revealed for 39 of the cultures a hybridization signal with tet(M), for four of the cultures a hybridization signal with tet(O) and for none of the cultures a hybridization signal with the tet(Q) gene probe. The restriction endonuclease digested and blotted DNA of six tetracycline and minocycline resistant group B streptococci did not hybridize with any of the available gene probes. The tet(M) gene probes recognized complementary sequences of EcoRI fragments of approximately 10.5 kb and 21.5 kb, the tet(O) gene probe hybridized with fragments of approximately 19 kb. The hybridization of the tet(M) gene probe in two different patterns appeared to be related to the origin of the cultures.

  12. Co-expression of G2-EPSPS and glyphosate acetyltransferase GAT genes conferring high tolerance to glyphosate in soybean

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    Bingfu eGuo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Glyphosate is a widely used non-selective herbicide with broad spectrum of weed control around the world. At present, most of the commercial glyphosate tolerant soybeans utilize glyphosate tolerant gene CP4-EPSPS or glyphosate acetyltransferase gene GAT separately. In this study, both glyphosate tolerant gene G2-EPSPS and glyphosate degraded gene GAT were co-transferred into soybean and transgenic plants showed high tolerance to glyphosate. Molecular analysis including PCR, Sothern blot, qRT-PCR and Western blot revealed that target genes have been integrated into genome and expressed effectively at both mRNA and protein levels. Furthermore, the glyphosate tolerance analysis showed that no typical symptom was observed when compared with a glyphosate tolerant line HJ06-698 derived from GR1 transgenic soybean even at four-fold labeled rate of Roundup. Chlorophyll and shikimic acid content analysis of transgenic plant also revealed that these two indexes were not significantly altered after glyphosate application. These results indicated that co-expression of G2-EPSPS and GAT conferred high tolerance to the herbicide glyphosate in soybean. Therefore, combination of tolerant and degraded genes provides a new strategy for developing glyphosate tolerant transgenic crops.

  13. Mismatch repair genes of Streptococcus pneumoniae: HexA confers a mutator phenotype in Escherichia coli by negative complementation.

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    Prudhomme, M; Méjean, V; Martin, B; Claverys, J P

    1991-11-01

    DNA repair systems able to correct base pair mismatches within newly replicated DNA or within heteroduplex molecules produced during recombination are widespread among living organisms. Evidence that such generalized mismatch repair systems evolved from a common ancestor is particularly strong for two of them, the Hex system of the gram-positive Streptococcus pneumoniae and the Mut system of the gram-negative Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium. The homology existing between HexA and MutS and between HexB and MutL prompted us to investigate the effect of expressing hex genes in E. coli. Complementation of mutS or mutL mutations, which confer a mutator phenotype, was assayed by introducing on a multicopy plasmid the hexA and hexB genes, under the control of an inducible promoter, either individually or together in E. coli strains. No decrease in mutation rate was conferred by either hexA or hexB gene expression. However, a negative complementation effect was observed in wild-type E. coli cells: expression of hexA resulted in a typical Mut- mutator phenotype. hexB gene expression did not increase the mutation rate either individually or in conjunction with hexA. Since expression of hexA did not affect the mutation rate in mutS mutant cells and the hexA-induced mutator effect was recA independent, it is concluded that this effect results from inhibition of the Mut system. We suggest that HexA, like its homolog MutS, binds to mismatches resulting from replication errors, but in doing so it protects them from repair by the Mut system. In agreement with this hypothesis, an increase in mutS gene copy number abolished the hexA-induced mutator phenotype. HexA protein could prevent repair either by being unable to interact with Mut proteins or by producing nonfunctional repair complexes.

  14. Construction and screening of metagenomic libraries derived from enrichment cultures: generation of a gene bank for genes conferring alcohol oxidoreductase activity on Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knietsch, Anja; Waschkowitz, Tanja; Bowien, Susanne; Henne, Anke; Daniel, Rolf

    2003-03-01

    Enrichment of microorganisms with special traits and the construction of metagenomic libraries by direct cloning of environmental DNA have great potential for identifying genes and gene products for biotechnological purposes. We have combined these techniques to isolate novel genes conferring oxidation of short-chain (C(2) to C(4)) polyols or reduction of the corresponding carbonyls. In order to favor the growth of microorganisms containing the targeted genes, samples collected from four different environments were incubated in the presence of glycerol and 1,2-propanediol. Subsequently, the DNA was extracted from the four samples and used to construct complex plasmid libraries. Approximately 100,000 Escherichia coli strains of each library per test substrate were screened for the production of carbonyls from polyols on indicator agar. Twenty-four positive E. coli clones were obtained during the initial screen. Sixteen of them contained a plasmid (pAK101 to pAK116) which conferred a stable carbonyl-forming phenotype. Eight of the positive clones exhibited NAD(H)-dependent alcohol oxidoreductase activity with polyols or carbonyls as the substrates in crude extracts. Sequencing revealed that the inserts of pAK101 to pAK116 encoded 36 complete and 17 incomplete presumptive protein-encoding genes. Fifty of these genes showed similarity to sequenced genes from a broad collection of different microorganisms. The genes responsible for the carbonyl formation of E. coli were identified for nine of the plasmids (pAK101, pAK102, pAK105, pAK107 to pAK110, pAK115, and pAK116). Analyses of the amino acid sequences deduced from these genes revealed that three (orf12, orf14, and orf22) encoded novel alcohol dehydrogenases of different types, four (orf5, sucB, fdhD, and yabF) encoded novel putative oxidoreductases belonging to groups distinct from alcohol dehydrogenases, one (glpK) encoded a putative glycerol kinase, and one (orf1) encoded a protein which showed no similarity to any

  15. Common variants of the PINK1 and PARL genes do not confer genetic susceptibility to schizophrenia in Han Chinese.

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    Li, Xiao; Zhang, Wen; Zhang, Chen; Yi, Zhenghui; Zhang, Deng-Feng; Gong, Wei; Tang, Jinsong; Wang, Dong; Lu, Weihong; Chen, Xiaogang; Fang, Yiru; Yao, Yong-Gang

    2015-04-01

    Schizophrenia is a prevalent psychiatric disorder with a complex etiology. Mitochondrial dysfunction has been frequently reported in schizophrenia. Phosphatase and tension homologue-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) and presenilin-associated rhomboid-like protease (PARL) are mitochondrial proteins, and genetic variants of these two genes may confer genetic susceptibility to schizophrenia by influencing mitochondrial function. In this study, we conducted a two-stage genetic association study to test this hypothesis. We genotyped 4 PINK1 and 5 PARL genetic variants and evaluated the potential association of the 9 SNPs with schizophrenia in two independent case-control cohorts of 2510 Han Chinese individuals. No positive association of common genetic variants of the PINK1 and PARL genes with schizophrenia was identified in our samples after Bonferroni correction. Re-analysis of the newly updated Psychiatric Genetics Consortium (PGC) data sets confirmed our negative result. Intriguingly, one PINK1 SNP (rs10916832), which showed a marginally significant association in only Hunan samples (P = 0.032), is associated with the expression of a schizophrenia susceptible gene KIF17 according to the expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) analysis. Our study indicated that common genetic variants of the PINK1 and PARL genes are unlikely to be involved in schizophrenia. Further studies are essential to characterize the role of the PINK1 and PARL genes in schizophrenia.

  16. Identification of regulated genes conferring resistance to high concentrations of glyphosate in a new strain of Enterobacter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Yun-Yan; Gai, Jun-Yi; Zhao, Tuan-Jie

    2013-12-01

    Glyphosate is a widely used herbicide that inhibits 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) activity. Most plants and microbes are sensitive to glyphosate. However, transgenic-resistant crops that contain a modified epsps obtained from the resistant microbes have been commercially successful and therefore, new resistance genes and their adaptive regulatory mechanisms are of great interest. In this study, a soil-borne, glyphosate-resistant bacterium was selected and identified as Enterobacter. The EPSPS in this strain was found to have been altered to a resistant one. A total of 42 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the glyphosate were screened using microarray techniques. Under treatment, argF, sdhA, ivbL, rrfA-H were downregulated, whereas the transcripts of speA, osmY, pflB, ahpC, fusA, deoA, uxaC, rpoD and a few ribosomal protein genes were upregulated. Data were verified by quantitative real-time PCR on selected genes. All transcriptional changes appeared to protect the bacteria from glyphosate and associated osmotic, acidic and oxidative stresses. Many DEGs may have the potential to confer resistance to glyphosate alone, and some may be closely related to the shikimate pathway, reflecting the complex gene interaction network for glyphosate resistance.

  17. bHLH106 Integrates Functions of Multiple Genes through Their G-Box to Confer Salt Tolerance on Arabidopsis.

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    Aftab Ahmad

    Full Text Available An activation-tagging methodology was applied to dedifferentiated calli of Arabidopsis to identify new genes involved in salt tolerance. This identified salt tolerant callus 8 (stc8 as a gene encoding the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor bHLH106. bHLH106-knockout (KO lines were more sensitive to NaCl, KCl, LiCl, ABA, and low temperatures than the wild-type. Back-transformation of the KO line rescued its phenotype, and over-expression (OX of bHLH106 in differentiated plants exhibited tolerance to NaCl. Green fluorescent protein (GFP fused with bHLH106 revealed that it was localized to the nucleus. Prepared bHLH106 protein was subjected to electrophoresis mobility shift assays against E-box sequences (5'-CANNTG-3'. The G-box sequence 5'-CACGTG-3' had the strongest interaction with bHLH106. bHLH106-OX lines were transcriptomically analyzed, and resultant up- and down-regulated genes selected on the criterion of presence of a G-box sequence. There were 198 genes positively regulated by bHLH106 and 36 genes negatively regulated; these genes possessed one or more G-box sequences in their promoter regions. Many of these genes are known to be involved in abiotic stress response. It is concluded that bHLH106 locates at a branching point in the abiotic stress response network by interacting directly to the G-box in genes conferring salt tolerance on plants.

  18. The A395T mutation in ERG11 gene confers fluconazole resistance in Candida tropicalis causing candidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jingwen; Zhang, Jinqing; Chen, Wei; Sun, Yi; Wan, Zhe; Li, Ruoyu; Liu, Wei

    2015-04-01

    The mechanism of fluconazole resistance in Candida tropicalis is still unclear. Recently, we isolated a fluconazole-resistant strain of C. tropicalis from the blood specimen of a patient with candidemia in China. In vitro antifungal susceptibility of the isolate was determined by using CLSI M27-A3 and E-test methods. The sequence of ERG11 gene was then analyzed, and the three-dimensional model of Erg11p encoded by ERG11 gene was also investigated. The sequencing of ERG11 gene revealed the mutation of A395T in this fluconazole-resistant isolate of C. tropicalis, resulting in the Y132F substitution in Erg11p. Sequence alignment and three-dimensional model comparison of Erg11ps showed high similarity between fluconazole-susceptible isolates of C. tropicalis and Candida albicans. The comparison of the three-dimensional models of Erg11ps demonstrated that the position of the Y132F substitution in this isolate of C. tropicalis is identical to the isolate of C. albicans with fluconazole resistance resulting from Y132F substitution in Erg11p. Hence, we ascertain that the Y132F substitution of Erg11p caused by A395T mutation in ERG11 gene confers the fluconazole resistance in C. tropicalis.

  19. H2A.Z-mediated localization of genes at the nuclear periphery confers epigenetic memory of previous transcriptional state.

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    Donna Garvey Brickner

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Many genes are recruited to the nuclear periphery upon transcriptional activation. The mechanism and functional significance of this recruitment is unclear. We find that recruitment of the yeast INO1 and GAL1 genes to the nuclear periphery is rapid and independent of transcription. Surprisingly, these genes remain at the periphery for generations after they are repressed. Localization at the nuclear periphery serves as a form of memory of recent transcriptional activation, promoting reactivation. Previously expressed GAL1 at the nuclear periphery is activated much more rapidly than long-term repressed GAL1 in the nucleoplasm, even after six generations of repression. Localization of INO1 at the nuclear periphery is necessary and sufficient to promote more rapid activation. This form of transcriptional memory is chromatin based; the histone variant H2A.Z is incorporated into nucleosomes within the recently repressed INO1 promoter and is specifically required for rapid reactivation of both INO1 and GAL1. Furthermore, H2A.Z is required to retain INO1 at the nuclear periphery after repression. Therefore, H2A.Z-mediated localization of recently repressed genes at the nuclear periphery represents an epigenetic state that confers memory of transcriptional activation and promotes reactivation.

  20. An improved method for transformation of lettuce by Agrobacterium tumefaciens with a gene that confers freezing resistance

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    Pileggi Marcos

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available An efficient method for constructing transgenic lettuce cultivars by Agrobacterium tumefaciens was described by Torres et al., 1993. In the present work, an improvement of the above procedure is described and applied to transform the cultivar Grand Rapids with a mutated P5CS gene. The major modifications were concerned with turning more practical the transformation and regeneration protocols. Also we tried to improve transformation steps by increasing injured area in explants and prolonging co-cultivation with Agrobacteria (in larger concentration. A more significant selective pressure was used against non-transformed plants and bacteria. In these work we were concerned to obtain T1 and T2 seeds. The P5CS gene codes for a delta¹-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase, a bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes two steps of proline biosynthesis in plants (Zhang et al., 1995; Peng et al., 1996, while the mutated gene is insensitive to feedback inhibition by proline. The potential benefit of this gene is to confer water stress resistance (drought, salt, cold due to increased intracellular levels of proline that works like an osmoprotectant. In this work could obtain and characterize transgenic lettuce lineages which are resistant to freezing temperature.

  1. Genome-wide screening for genes whose deletions confer sensitivity to mutagenic purine base analogs in yeast

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    Kozmin Stanislav G

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background N-hydroxylated base analogs, such as 6-hydroxylaminopurine (HAP and 2-amino-6-hydroxylaminopurine (AHA, are strong mutagens in various organisms due to their ambiguous base-pairing properties. The systems protecting cells from HAP and related noncanonical purines in Escherichia coli include specialized deoxyribonucleoside triphosphatase RdgB, DNA repair endonuclease V, and a molybdenum cofactor-dependent system. Fewer HAP-detoxification systems have been identified in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and other eukaryotes. Cellular systems protecting from AHA are unknown. In the present study, we performed a genome-wide search for genes whose deletions confer sensitivity to HAP and AHA in yeast. Results We screened the library of yeast deletion mutants for sensitivity to the toxic and mutagenic action of HAP and AHA. We identified novel genes involved in the genetic control of base analogs sensitivity, including genes controlling purine metabolism, cytoskeleton organization, and amino acid metabolism. Conclusion We developed a method for screening the yeast deletion library for sensitivity to the mutagenic and toxic action of base analogs and identified 16 novel genes controlling pathways of protection from HAP. Three of them also protect from AHA.

  2. Host-induced gene silencing of an essential chitin synthase gene confers durable resistance to Fusarium head blight and seedling blight in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Wei; Song, Xiu-Shi; Li, He-Ping; Cao, Le-Hui; Sun, Ke; Qiu, Xiao-Li; Xu, Yu-Bin; Yang, Peng; Huang, Tao; Zhang, Jing-Bo; Qu, Bo; Liao, Yu-Cai

    2015-12-01

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) and Fusarium seedling blight (FSB) of wheat, caused by Fusarium pathogens, are devastating diseases worldwide. We report the expression of RNA interference (RNAi) sequences derived from an essential Fusarium graminearum (Fg) virulence gene, chitin synthase (Chs) 3b, as a method to enhance resistance of wheat plants to fungal pathogens. Deletion of Chs3b was lethal to Fg; disruption of the other Chs gene family members generated knockout mutants with diverse impacts on Fg. Comparative expression analyses revealed that among the Chs gene family members, Chs3b had the highest expression levels during Fg colonization of wheat. Three hairpin RNAi constructs corresponding to the different regions of Chs3b were found to silence Chs3b in transgenic Fg strains. Co-expression of these three RNAi constructs in two independent elite wheat cultivar transgenic lines conferred high levels of stable, consistent resistance (combined type I and II resistance) to both FHB and FSB throughout the T3 to T5 generations. Confocal microscopy revealed profoundly restricted mycelia in Fg-infected transgenic wheat plants. Presence of the three specific short interfering RNAs in transgenic wheat plants was confirmed by Northern blotting, and these RNAs efficiently down-regulated Chs3b in the colonizing Fusarium pathogens on wheat seedlings and spikes. Our results demonstrate that host-induced gene silencing of an essential fungal chitin synthase gene is an effective strategy for enhancing resistance in crop plants under field test conditions.

  3. Novel Cytomegalovirus UL54 DNA Polymerase Gene Mutations Selected In Vitro That Confer Brincidofovir Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercolani, Ronald J.; Lanier, E. Randall

    2016-01-01

    Eight in vitro selection experiments under brincidofovir pressure elicited the known cytomegalovirus DNA polymerase amino acid substitutions N408K and V812L and the novel exonuclease domain substitutions D413Y, E303D, and E303G, which conferred ganciclovir and cidofovir resistance with 6- to 11-fold resistance to brincidofovir or 17-fold when E303G was combined with V812L. The new exonuclease domain I resistance mutations selected under brincidofovir pressure add to the single instance previously reported and show the expected patterns of cross-resistance. PMID:27044553

  4. MsZEP, a novel zeaxanthin epoxidase gene from alfalfa (Medicago sativa), confers drought and salt tolerance in transgenic tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiqiang; Wang, Yafang; Chang, Leqin; Zhang, Tong; An, Jie; Liu, Yushi; Cao, Yuman; Zhao, Xia; Sha, Xuyang; Hu, Tianming; Yang, Peizhi

    2016-02-01

    The zeaxanthin epoxidase gene ( MsZEP ) was cloned and characterized from alfalfa and validated for its function of tolerance toward drought and salt stresses by heterologous expression in Nicotiana tabacum. Zeaxanthin epoxidase (ZEP) plays important roles in plant response to various environment stresses due to its functions in ABA biosynthetic and the xanthophyll cycle. To understand the expression characteristics and the biological functions of ZEP in alfalfa (Medicago sativa), a novel gene, designated as MsZEP (KM044311), was cloned, characterized and overexpressed in Nicotiana tabacum. The open reading frame of MsZEP contains 1992 bp nucleotides and encodes a 663-amino acid polypeptide. Amino acid sequence alignment indicated that deduced MsZEP protein was highly homologous to other plant ZEP sequences. Phylogenetic analysis showed that MsZEP was grouped into a branch with other legume plants. Real-time quantitative PCR revealed that MsZEP gene expression was clearly tissue-specific, and the expression levels were higher in green tissues (leaves and stems) than in roots. MsZEP expression decreased in shoots under drought, cold, heat and ABA treatment, while the expression levels in roots showed different trends. Besides, the results showed that nodules could up-regulate the MsZEP expression under non-stressful conditions and in the earlier stage of different abiotic stress. Heterologous expression of the MsZEP gene in N. tabacum could confer tolerance to drought and salt stress by affecting various physiological pathways, ABA levels and stress-responsive genes expression. Taken together, these results suggested that the MsZEP gene may be involved in alfalfa responses to different abiotic stresses and nodules, and could enhance drought and salt tolerance of transgenic tobacco by heterologous expression.

  5. Host-induced post-transcriptional hairpin RNA-mediated gene silencing of vital fungal genes confers efficient resistance against Fusarium wilt in banana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghag, Siddhesh B; Shekhawat, Upendra K S; Ganapathi, Thumballi R

    2014-06-01

    Fusarium wilt, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc), is among the most destructive diseases of banana (Musa spp.). Because no credible control measures are available, development of resistant cultivars through genetic engineering is the only option. We investigated whether intron hairpin RNA (ihpRNA)-mediated expression of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) targeted against vital fungal genes (velvet and Fusarium transcription factor 1) in transgenic banana could achieve effective resistance against Foc. Partial sequences of these two genes were assembled as ihpRNAs in suitable binary vectors (ihpRNA-VEL and ihpRNA-FTF1) and transformed into embryogenic cell suspensions of banana cv. Rasthali by Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation. Eleven transformed lines derived from ihpRNA-VEL and twelve lines derived from ihpRNA-FTF1 were found to be free of external and internal symptoms of Foc after 6-week-long greenhouse bioassays. The five selected transgenic lines for each construct continued to resist Foc at 8 months postinoculation. Presence of specific siRNAs derived from the two ihpRNAs in transgenic banana plants was confirmed by Northern blotting and Illumina sequencing of small RNAs derived from the transgenic banana plants. The present study represents an important effort in proving that host-induced post-transcriptional ihpRNA-mediated gene silencing of vital fungal genes can confer efficient resistance against debilitating pathogens in crop plants.

  6. Functional Identification and Characterization of Genes Cloned from Halophyte Seashore Paspalum Conferring Salinity and Cadmium Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu eChen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Salinity-affected and heavy metal-contaminated soils limit the growth of glycophytic plants. Identifying genes responsible for superior tolerance to salinity and heavy metals in halophytes has great potential for use in developing salinity- and Cd-tolerant glycophytes. The objective of this study was to identify salinity- and Cd-tolerance related genes in seashore paspalum (Paspalum vaginatum, a halophytic perennial grass species, using the yeast cDNA expression library screening method. Based on the Gateway-compatible vector system, a high quality entry library was constructed, which contained 9.9×106 clones with an average inserted fragments length of 1.48 kb representing a 100% full-length rate. The yeast expression libraries were screened in a salinity-sensitive and a Cd-sensitive yeast mutant. The screening yielded 32 salinity-tolerant clones harboring 18 salinity-tolerance genes and 20 Cd-tolerant clones, including 5 Cd-tolerance genes. qPCR analysis confirmed that most of the 18 salinity-tolerance and 5 Cd-tolerance genes were up-regulated at the transcript level in response to salinity or Cd stress in seashore paspalum. Functional analysis indicated that salinity-tolerance genes from seashore paspalum could be mainly involved in photosynthetic metabolism, antioxidant systems, protein modification, iron transport, vesicle traffic, and phospholipid biosynthesis. Cd-tolerance genes from seashore paspalum could be associated with regulating pathways involved in phytochelatin synthesis, HSFA4-relsted stress protection, CYP450 complex and sugar metabolism. The 18 salinity-tolerance genes and 5 Cd-tolerance genes could be potentially used as candidate genes for genetic modification of glycophytic grass species to improve salinity and Cd tolerance and for further analysis of molecular mechanisms regulating salinity and Cd tolerance.

  7. Functional Identification and Characterization of Genes Cloned from Halophyte Seashore Paspalum Conferring Salinity and Cadmium Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Chen, Chuanming; Tan, Zhiqun; Liu, Jun; Zhuang, Lili; Yang, Zhimin; Huang, Bingru

    2016-01-01

    Salinity-affected and heavy metal-contaminated soils limit the growth of glycophytic plants. Identifying genes responsible for superior tolerance to salinity and heavy metals in halophytes has great potential for use in developing salinity- and Cd-tolerant glycophytes. The objective of this study was to identify salinity- and Cd-tolerance related genes in seashore paspalum (Paspalum vaginatum), a halophytic perennial grass species, using yeast cDNA expression library screening method. Based on the Gateway-compatible vector system, a high-quality entry library was constructed, which contained 9.9 × 106 clones with an average inserted fragment length of 1.48 kb representing a 100% full-length rate. The yeast expression libraries were screened in a salinity-sensitive and a Cd-sensitive yeast mutant. The screening yielded 32 salinity-tolerant clones harboring 18 salinity-tolerance genes and 20 Cd-tolerant clones, including five Cd-tolerance genes. qPCR analysis confirmed that most of the 18 salinity-tolerance and five Cd-tolerance genes were up-regulated at the transcript level in response to salinity or Cd stress in seashore paspalum. Functional analysis indicated that salinity-tolerance genes from seashore paspalum could be involved mainly in photosynthetic metabolism, antioxidant systems, protein modification, iron transport, vesicle traffic, and phospholipid biosynthesis. Cd-tolerance genes could be associated with regulating pathways that are involved in phytochelatin synthesis, HSFA4-related stress protection, CYP450 complex, and sugar metabolism. The 18 salinity-tolerance genes and five Cd-tolerance genes could be potentially used as candidate genes for genetic modification of glycophytic grass species to improve salinity and Cd tolerance and for further analysis of molecular mechanisms regulating salinity and Cd tolerance. PMID:26904068

  8. A novel stress-induced sugarcane gene confers tolerance to drought, salt and oxidative stress in transgenic tobacco plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Begcy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Drought is a major abiotic stress that affects crop productivity worldwide. Sugarcane can withstand periods of water scarcity during the final stage of culm maturation, during which sucrose accumulation occurs. Meanwhile, prolonged periods of drought can cause severe plant losses. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a previous study, we evaluated the transcriptome of drought-stressed plants to better understand sugarcane responses to drought. Among the up-regulated genes was Scdr1 (sugarcane drought-responsive 1. The aim of the research reported here was to characterize this gene. Scdr1 encodes a putative protein containing 248 amino acids with a large number of proline (19% and cysteine (13% residues. Phylogenetic analysis showed that ScDR1is in a clade with homologs from other monocotyledonous plants, separate from those of dicotyledonous plants. The expression of Scdr1 in different varieties of sugarcane plants has not shown a clear association with drought tolerance. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The overexpression of Scdr1 in transgenic tobacco plants increased their tolerance to drought, salinity and oxidative stress, as demonstrated by increased photosynthesis, water content, biomass, germination rate, chlorophyll content and reduced accumulation of ROS. Physiological parameters, such as transpiration rate (E, net photosynthesis (A, stomatal conductance (gs and internal leaf CO(2 concentration, were less affected by abiotic stresses in transgenic Scdr1 plants compared with wild-type plants. Overall, our results indicated that Scdr1 conferred tolerance to multiple abiotic stresses, highlighting the potential of this gene for biotechnological applications.

  9. A novel stress-induced sugarcane gene confers tolerance to drought, salt and oxidative stress in transgenic tobacco plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begcy, Kevin; Mariano, Eduardo D; Gentile, Agustina; Lembke, Carolina G; Zingaretti, Sonia Marli; Souza, Glaucia M; Menossi, Marcelo

    2012-01-01

    Drought is a major abiotic stress that affects crop productivity worldwide. Sugarcane can withstand periods of water scarcity during the final stage of culm maturation, during which sucrose accumulation occurs. Meanwhile, prolonged periods of drought can cause severe plant losses. In a previous study, we evaluated the transcriptome of drought-stressed plants to better understand sugarcane responses to drought. Among the up-regulated genes was Scdr1 (sugarcane drought-responsive 1). The aim of the research reported here was to characterize this gene. Scdr1 encodes a putative protein containing 248 amino acids with a large number of proline (19%) and cysteine (13%) residues. Phylogenetic analysis showed that ScDR1is in a clade with homologs from other monocotyledonous plants, separate from those of dicotyledonous plants. The expression of Scdr1 in different varieties of sugarcane plants has not shown a clear association with drought tolerance. The overexpression of Scdr1 in transgenic tobacco plants increased their tolerance to drought, salinity and oxidative stress, as demonstrated by increased photosynthesis, water content, biomass, germination rate, chlorophyll content and reduced accumulation of ROS. Physiological parameters, such as transpiration rate (E), net photosynthesis (A), stomatal conductance (gs) and internal leaf CO(2) concentration, were less affected by abiotic stresses in transgenic Scdr1 plants compared with wild-type plants. Overall, our results indicated that Scdr1 conferred tolerance to multiple abiotic stresses, highlighting the potential of this gene for biotechnological applications.

  10. Cloning of the Lycopene β-cyclase Gene in Nicotiana tabacum and Its Overexpression Confers Salt and Drought Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanmei Shi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Carotenoids are important pigments in plants that play crucial roles in plant growth and in plant responses to environmental stress. Lycopene β cyclase (β-LCY functions at the branch point of the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway, catalyzing the cyclization of lycopene. Here, a β-LCY gene from Nicotiana tabacum, designated as Ntβ-LCY1, was cloned and functionally characterized. Robust expression of Ntβ-LCY1 was found in leaves, and Ntβ-LCY1 expression was obviously induced by salt, drought, and exogenous abscisic acid treatments. Strong accumulation of carotenoids and expression of carotenoid biosynthesis genes resulted from Ntβ-LCY1 overexpression. Additionally, compared to wild-type plants, transgenic plants with overexpression showed enhanced tolerance to salt and drought stress with higher abscisic acid levels and lower levels of malondialdehyde and reactive oxygen species. Conversely, transgenic RNA interference plants had a clear albino phenotype in leaves, and some plants did not survive beyond the early developmental stages. The suppression of Ntβ-LCY1 expression led to lower expression levels of genes in the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway and to reduced accumulation of carotenoids, chlorophyll, and abscisic acid. These results indicate that Ntβ-LCY1 is not only a likely cyclization enzyme involved in carotenoid accumulation but also confers salt and drought stress tolerance in Nicotiana tabacum.

  11. An AFLP marker linked to the Pm-1 gene that confers resistance to Podosphaera xanthii race 1 in Cucumis melo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Matoso Teixeira

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Brazil produced 330,000 metric tons of melons in 2005, principally in the Northeast region where one of the most important melon pathogens is the powdery mildew fungus Podosphaera xanthii. The disease is controlled mainly by incorporating single dominant resistance genes into commercial hybrids. We report on linkage analysis of the Pm-1 resistance gene, introgressed from the AF125Pm-1 Cantalupensis Charentais-type breeding line into the yellow-fleshed melon (Group Inodorus breeding line AF426-S by backcrossing to produce the resistant line AF426-R, and the amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP marker M75/H35_155 reported to be polymorphic between AF426-S and AF426-R. Segregation analysis of M75/H35_155 using a backcross population of 143 plants derived from [AF426-R x AF426-S] x AF426-S and screened for resistance to P. xanthii race 1 produced a recombination frequency of 4.9%, indicating close linkage between M75/H35_155 and Pm-1. Using the same segregating population, the M75/H35_155 marker had previously been reported to be distantly linked to Prv¹, a gene conferring resistance to papaya ringspot virus-type W. Since M75/H35_155 is linked to Prv¹ at a distance of 40.9 cM it is possible that Pm-1 and Prv¹ are also linked.

  12. A simple method for screening of plant NBS-LRR genes that confer a hypersensitive response to plant viruses and its application for screening candidate pepper genes against Pepper mottle virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Phu-Tri; Choi, Hoseong; Kim, Saet-Byul; Lee, Hyun-Ah; Choi, Doil; Kim, Kook-Hyung

    2014-06-01

    Plant NBS-LRR genes are abundant and have been increasingly cloned from plant genomes. In this study, a method based on agroinfiltration and virus inoculation was developed for the simple and inexpensive screening of candidate R genes that confer a hypersensitive response to plant viruses. The well-characterized resistance genes Rx and N, which confer resistance to Potato virus X (PVX) and tobamovirus, respectively, were used to optimize a transient expression assay for detection of hypersensitive response in Nicotiana benthamiana. Infectious sap of PVX and Tobacco mosaic virus were used to induce hypersensitive response in Rx- and N-infiltrated leaves, respectively. The transient expression of the N gene induced local hypersensitive response upon infection of another tobamovirus, Pepper mild mottle virus, through both sap and transcript inoculation. When this method was used to screen 99 candidate R genes from pepper, an R gene that confers hypersensitive response to the potyvirus Pepper mottle virus was identified. The method will be useful for the identification of plant R genes that confer resistance to viruses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Introgression and pyramiding into common bean market class fabada of genes conferring resistance to anthracnose and potyvirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Juan José; Campa, Ana; Pérez-Vega, Elena; Rodríguez-Suárez, Cristina; Giraldez, Ramón

    2012-03-01

    Anthracnose and bean common mosaic (BCM) are considered major diseases in common bean crop causing severe yield losses worldwide. This work describes the introgression and pyramiding of genes conferring genetic resistance to BCM and anthracnose local races into line A25, a bean genotype classified as market class fabada. Resistant plants were selected using resistance tests or combining resistance tests and marker-assisted selection. Lines A252, A321, A493, Sanilac BC6-Are, and BRB130 were used as resistance sources. Resistance genes to anthracnose (Co-2 ( C ), Co-2 ( A252 ) and Co-3/9) and/or BCM (I and bc-3) were introgressed in line A25 through six parallel backcrossing programs, and six breeding lines showing a fabada seed phenotype were obtained after six backcross generations: line A1258 from A252; A1231 from A321; A1220 from A493; A1183 and A1878 from Sanilac BC6-Are; and line A2418 from BRB130. Pyramiding of different genes were developed using the pedigree method from a single cross between lines obtained in the introgression step: line A1699 (derived from cross A1258 × A1220), A2438 (A1220 × A1183), A2806 (A1878 × A2418), and A3308 (A1699 × A2806). A characterization based on eight morpho-agronomic traits revealed a limited differentiation among the obtained breeding lines and the recurrent line A25. However, using a set of seven molecular markers linked to the loci used in the breeding programs it was possible to differentiate the 11 fabada lines. Considering the genetic control of the resistance in resistant donor lines, the observed segregations in the last backcrossing generation, the reaction against the pathogens, and the expression of the molecular markers it was also possible to infer the genotype conferring resistance in the ten fabada breeding lines obtained. As a result of these breeding programs, genetic resistance to three anthracnose races controlled by genes included in clusters Co-2 and Co-3/9, and genetic resistance to BCM controlled

  14. DNA microarray revealed and RNAi plants confirmed key genes conferring low Cd accumulation in barley grains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Hongyan; Chen, Zhong-Hua; Chen, Fei

    2015-01-01

    accumulation and tolerance between the two contrasting barley genotypes: W6nk2 (a low-grain-Cd-accumulating and Cd-sensitive genotype) and Zhenong8 (a high-grain-Cd-accumulating and tolerant genotype). A DNA microarray analysis detected large-scale changes of gene expression in response to Cd stress...... with a substantial difference between the two genotypes. Cd stress led to higher expression of genes involved in transport, carbohydrate metabolism and signal transduction in the low-grain-Cd-accumulating genotype. Novel transporter genes such as zinc transporter genes were identified as being associated with low Cd......Background Understanding the mechanism of low Cd accumulation in crops is crucial for sustainable safe food production in Cd-contaminated soils. Results Confocal microscopy, atomic absorption spectrometry, gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence analyses revealed a distinct difference in Cd...

  15. Modified cellulose synthase gene from Arabidopsis thaliana confers herbicide resistance to plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somerville, Chris R.; Scheible, Wolf

    2007-07-10

    Cellulose synthase ("CS"), a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of cellulose in plants is inhibited by herbicides comprising thiazolidinones such as 5-tert-butyl-carbamoyloxy-3-(3-trifluromethyl)phenyl-4-thiazolidinone (TZ), isoxaben and 2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile (DCB). Two mutant genes encoding isoxaben and TZ-resistant cellulose synthase have been isolated from isoxaben and TZ-resistant Arabidopsis thaliana mutants. When compared with the gene coding for isoxaben or TZ-sensitive cellulose synthase, one of the resistant CS genes contains a point mutation, wherein glycine residue 998 is replaced by an aspartic acid. The other resistant mutation is due to a threonine to isoleucine change at amino acid residue 942. The mutant CS gene can be used to impart herbicide resistance to a plant; thereby permitting the utilization of the herbicide as a single application at a concentration which ensures the complete or substantially complete killing of weeds, while leaving the transgenic crop plant essentially undamaged.

  16. A Novel erm(44) Gene Variant from a Human Staphylococcus saprophyticus Isolate Confers Resistance to Macrolides and Lincosamides but Not Streptogramins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Christian; Hu, Yanmin; Coates, Anthony; Perreten, Vincent

    2017-01-01

    A novel erm(44) gene variant, erm(44)v, has been identified by whole-genome sequencing in a Staphylococcus saprophyticus isolate from the skin of a healthy person. It has the particularity to confer resistance to macrolides and lincosamides but not to streptogramin B when expressed in S. aureus The erm(44)v gene resides on a 19,400-bp genomic island which contains phage-associated proteins and is integrated into the chromosome of S. saprophyticus.

  17. Different Mechanisms Confer Gradual Control and Memory at Nutrient- and Stress-Regulated Genes in Yeast

    OpenAIRE

    Rienzo, Alessandro; Poveda-Huertes, Daniel; Aydin, Selcan; Buchler, Nicolas E.; Pascual-Ahuir, Amparo; Proft, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Cells respond to environmental stimuli by fine-tuned regulation of gene expression. Here we investigated the dose-dependent modulation of gene expression at high temporal resolution in response to nutrient and stress signals in yeast. The GAL1 activity in cell populations is modulated in a well-defined range of galactose concentrations, correlating with a dynamic change of histone remodeling and RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) association. This behavior is the result of a heterogeneous induction d...

  18. Chromosomal locations of the maize (Zea mays L. HtP and rt genes that confer resistance to Exserohilum turcicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Bernardi Ogliari

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We used 125 microsatellite markers to genotype the maize (Zea mays L. near isogenic lines (NIL L30HtPHtPRtRt and L30htphtpRtRt and the L40htphtprtrt line which contrast regarding the presence of the recently described dominant HtP and the recessive rt genes that confer resistance to Exserohilum turcicum. Five microsatellite markers revealed polymorphisms between the NIL and were considered candidate linked markers for the HtP resistance gene. Linkage was confirmed by bulked segregant sample (BSS analysis of 32 susceptible and 34 resistant plants from a BC1F1 population derived from the cross (L30HtPHtPRtRt x L40htphtprtrt x L40htphtprtrt. The bnlg198 and dupssr25 markers, both located on maize chromosome 2L (bin 2.08, were polymorphic between bulks. Linkage distances were estimated based on co-segregation data of the 32 susceptible plants and indicated distances of 28.7 centimorgans (cM between HtP and bnlg198 and 23.5 cM between HtP and dupssr25. The same set of susceptible plants was also genotyped with markers polymorphic between L30HtPHtPRtRt and L40htphtprtrt in order to find markers linked to the rt gene. Marker bnlg197, from chromosome 3L (bin 3.06, was found linked to rt at a distance of 9.7 cM. This is the first report on the chromosomal locations of these newly described genes.

  19. Screening for Escherichia coli K-12 genes conferring glyoxal resistance or sensitivity by transposon insertions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Changhan; Kim, Jihong; Kwon, Minsuk; Lee, Kihyun; Min, Haeyoung; Kim, Seong Hun; Kim, Dongkyu; Lee, Nayoung; Kim, Jiyeun; Kim, Doyun; Ko, Changmin; Park, Chankyu

    2016-09-01

    Glyoxal (GO) belongs to the reactive electrophilic species generated in vivo in all organisms. In order to identify targets of GO and their response mechanisms, we attempted to screen for GO-sensitive mutants by random insertions of TnphoA-132. The genes responsible for GO susceptibility were functionally classified as the following: (i) tRNA modification; trmE, gidA and truA, (ii) DNA repair; recA and recC, (iii) toxin-antitoxin; mqsA and (iv) redox metabolism; yqhD and caiC In addition, an insertion in the crp gene, encoding the cAMP responsive transcription factor, exhibits a GO-resistant phenotype, which is consistent with the phenotype of adenylate cyclase (cya) mutant showing GO resistance. This suggests that global regulation involving cAMP is operated in a stress response to GO. To further characterize the CRP-regulated genes directly associated with GO resistance, we created double mutants deficient in both crp and one of the candidate genes including yqhD, gloA and sodB The results indicate that these genes are negatively regulated by CRP as confirmed by real-time RT-PCR. We propose that tRNA as well as DNA are the targets of GO and that toxin/antitoxin, antioxidant and cAMP are involved in cellular response to GO.

  20. Coordinated Regulation of Anthocyanin Biosynthesis Genes Confers Varied Phenotypic and Spatial-Temporal Anthocyanin Accumulation in Radish (Raphanus sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everlyne M'mbone Muleke

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Anthocyanins are natural pigments that have important functions in plant growth and development. Radish taproots are rich in anthocyanins which confer different taproot colors and are potentially beneficial to human health. The crop differentially accumulates anthocyanin during various stages of growth, yet molecular mechanisms underlying this differential anthocyanin accumulation remains unknown. In the present study, transcriptome analysis was used to concisely identify putative genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis in radish. Spatial-temporal transcript expressions were then profiled in four color variant radish cultivars. From the total transcript sequences obtained through illumina sequencing, 102 assembled unigenes, and 20 candidate genes were identified to be involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis. Fifteen genomic sequences were isolated and sequenced from radish taproot. The length of these sequences was between 900 and 1,579 bp, and the unigene coverage to all of the corresponding cloned sequences was more than 93%. Gene structure analysis revealed that RsF3′H is intronless and anthocyanin biosynthesis genes (ABGs bear asymmetrical exons, except RsSAM. Anthocyanin accumulation showed a gradual increase in the leaf of the red radish and the taproot of colored cultivars during development, with a rapid increase at 30 days after sowing (DAS, and the highest content at maturity. Spatial-temporal transcriptional analysis of 14 genes revealed detectable expressions of 12 ABGs in various tissues at different growth levels. The investigation of anthocyanin accumulation and gene expression in four color variant radish cultivars, at different stages of development, indicated that total anthocyanin correlated with transcript levels of ABGs, particularly RsUFGT, RsF3H, RsANS, RsCHS3 and RsF3′H1. Our results suggest that these candidate genes play key roles in phenotypic and spatial-temporal anthocyanin accumulation in radish through

  1. Overexpression of AmRosea1 Gene Confers Drought and Salt Tolerance in Rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Mingzhu; Fan, Sanhong; Yang, Suxin; Huang, Rongfeng; Yu, Huiyun; Feng, Xianzhong

    2016-01-01

    Ectopic expression of the MYB transcription factor of AmROSEA1 from Antirrhinum majus has been reported to change anthocyanin and other metabolites in several species. In this study, we found that overexpression of AmRosea1 significantly improved the tolerance of transgenic rice to drought and salinity stresses. Transcriptome analysis revealed that a considerable number of stress-related genes were affected by exogenous AmRosea1 during both drought and salinity stress treatments. These affected genes are involved in stress signal transduction, the hormone signal pathway, ion homeostasis and the enzymes that remove peroxides. This work suggests that the AmRosea1 gene is a potential candidate for genetic engineering of crops. PMID:28025485

  2. Overexpression of AmRosea1 Gene Confers Drought and Salt Tolerance in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingzhu Dou

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic expression of the MYB transcription factor of AmROSEA1 from Antirrhinum majus has been reported to change anthocyanin and other metabolites in several species. In this study, we found that overexpression of AmRosea1 significantly improved the tolerance of transgenic rice to drought and salinity stresses. Transcriptome analysis revealed that a considerable number of stress-related genes were affected by exogenous AmRosea1 during both drought and salinity stress treatments. These affected genes are involved in stress signal transduction, the hormone signal pathway, ion homeostasis and the enzymes that remove peroxides. This work suggests that the AmRosea1 gene is a potential candidate for genetic engineering of crops.

  3. Upregulated, 7q21-22 amplicon candidate gene SHFM1 confers oncogenic advantage by suppressing p53 function in gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamilzhalagan, Sembulingam; Muthuswami, Muthulakshmi; Periasamy, Jayaprakash; Lee, Ming Hui; Rha, Sun Young; Tan, Patrick; Ganesan, Kumaresan

    2015-06-01

    Chromosomal aberrations are hallmarks of cancers and the locus of frequent genomic amplifications often harbors key cancer driver genes. Many genomic amplicons remain larger with hundreds of genes and the key drivers remain to be identified by an amplification-wide systematic analysis. The 7q21.12-q22.3 genomic amplification is frequent in gastric cancers which occur in ~10% of the patients and multiple cell lines. This 7q21.12-q22.3 amplicon has not yet been completely analyzed towards identifying the driver genes and their functional contribution in oncogenesis. The amplitude and prevalence indicate the important role conferred by this amplicon in gastric cancers. Among the 159 genes of this amplicon, 12 genes are found over-expressed in primary gastric tumors and cell lines. Many of the over-expressed genes show negative association with p53 transcriptional activity. RNAi based functional screening of the genes reveal, SHFM1 as key gastric cancer driver gene. SHFM1 confers cell cycle progression and resistance to p53 stabilizing drugs in gastric cancer cells. SHFM1 also activates Src, MAPK/ERK and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways. This is the first integrative genomic investigation of 7q21.12-q22.3 amplicon revealing the potential oncogenic candidacy of 12 genes. The oncogenic contribution of SHFM1, mediated by the p53 suppressive feature has been demonstrated in gastric cancer cells.

  4. MicroRNAs Suppress NB Domain Genes in Tomato That Confer Resistance to Fusarium oxysporum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Shouqiang; Park, Gyungsoon; Atamian, Hagop S.; Han, Cliff S.; Stajich, Jason E.; Kaloshian, Isgouhi; Borkovich, Katherine A.

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) suppress the transcriptional and post-transcriptional expression of genes in plants. Several miRNA families target genes encoding nucleotide-binding site–leucine-rich repeat (NB-LRR) plant innate immune receptors. The fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici causes vascular wilt disease in tomato. We explored a role for miRNAs in tomato defense against F. oxysporum using comparative miRNA profiling of susceptible (Moneymaker) and resistant (Motelle) tomato cultivars. slmiR482f and slmiR5300 were repressed during infection of Motelle with F. oxysporum. Two predicted mRNA targets each of slmiR482f and slmiR5300 exhibited increased expression in Motelle and the ability of these four targets to be regulated by the miRNAs was confirmed by co-expression in Nicotiana benthamiana. Silencing of the targets in the resistant Motelle cultivar revealed a role in fungal resistance for all four genes. All four targets encode proteins with full or partial nucleotide-binding (NB) domains. One slmiR5300 target corresponds to tm-2, a susceptible allele of the Tomato Mosaic Virus resistance gene, supporting functions in immunity to a fungal pathogen. The observation that none of the targets correspond to I-2, the only known resistance (R) gene for F. oxysporum in tomato, supports roles for additional R genes in the immune response. Taken together, our findings suggest that Moneymaker is highly susceptible because its potential resistance is insufficiently expressed due to the action of miRNAs. PMID:25330340

  5. Cooperative interactions between CBP and TORC2 confer selectivity to CREB target gene expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravnskjær, Kim; Kester, Henri; Liu, Yi;

    2007-01-01

    , but have minimal effects on CRE-dependent transcription. Here, we show that the latent cytoplasmic coactivator TORC2 mediates target gene activation in response to cAMP signaling by associating with CBP/p300 and increasing its recruitment to a subset of CREB target genes. TORC2 is not activated in response...... to stress signals, however; and in its absence, P-CREB is unable to stimulate CRE-dependent transcription, due to a block in CBP recruitment. The effect of TORC2 on CBP/p300 promoter occupancy appears pivotal because a gain of function mutant CREB polypeptide with increased affinity for CBP restored CRE...

  6. Modified cellulose synthase gene from 'Arabidopsis thaliana' confers herbicide resistance to plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somerville, Chris R.; Scieble, Wolf

    2000-10-11

    Cellulose synthase ('CS'), a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of cellulose in plants is inhibited by herbicides comprising thiazolidinones such as 5-tert-butyl-carbamoyloxy-3-(3-trifluromethyl) phenyl-4-thiazolidinone (TZ), isoxaben and 2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile (DCB). Two mutant genes encoding isoxaben and TZ-resistant cellulose synthase have been isolated from isoxaben and TZ-resistant Arabidopsis thaliana mutants. When compared with the gene coding for isoxaben or TZ-sensitive cellulose synthase, one of the resistant CS genes contains a point mutation, wherein glycine residue 998 is replaced by an aspartic acid. The other resistant mutation is due to a threonine to isoleucine change at amino acid residue 942. The mutant CS gene can be used to impart herbicide resistance to a plant; thereby permitting the utilization of the herbicide as a single application at a concentration which ensures the complete or substantially complete killing of weeds, while leaving the transgenic crop plant essentially undamaged.

  7. Barley Genes as Tools to Confer Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürel, Filiz; Öztürk, Zahide N; Uçarlı, Cüneyt; Rosellini, Daniele

    2016-01-01

    Barley is one of the oldest cultivated crops in the world with a high adaptive capacity. The natural tolerance of barley to stress has led to increasing interest in identification of stress responsive genes through small/large-scale omics studies, comparative genomics, and overexpression of some of these genes by genetic transformation. Two major categories of proteins involved in stress tolerance are transcription factors (TFs) responsible from the re-programming of the metabolism in stress environment, and genes encoding Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA) proteins, antioxidant enzymes, osmolytes, and transporters. Constitutive overexpression of several barley TFs, such as C-repeat binding factors (HvCBF4), dehydration-responsive element-binding factors (HvDREB1), and WRKYs (HvWRKY38), in transgenic plants resulted in higher tolerance to drought and salinity, possibly by effectively altering the expression levels of stress tolerance genes due to their higher DNA binding affinity. Na(+)/H(+) antiporters, channel proteins, and lipid transporters can also be the strong candidates for engineering plants for tolerance to salinity and low temperatures.

  8. Barley genes as a tool to confer abiotic stress tolerance in crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filiz Gürel

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Barley is one of the oldest cultivated crops in the world with a high adaptive capacity. The natural tolerance of barley to stress has led to increasing interest in identification of stress responsive genes through small/large-scale omics studies, comparative genomics, and overexpression of some of these genes by genetic transformation. Two major categories of proteins involved in stress tolerance are transcription factors (TFs responsible from the re-programming of the metabolism in stress environment, and genes encoding Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA proteins, antioxidant enzymes, osmolytes and transporters. Constitutive overexpression of several barley TFs, such as C-repeat binding factors (HvCBF4, dehydration-responsive element-binding factors (HvDREB1 and WRKYs (HvWRKY38, in transgenic plants resulted in higher tolerance to drought and salinity, possibly by effectively altering the expression levels of stress tolerance genes due to their higher DNA binding affinity. Na+/H+ antiporters, channel proteins, and lipid transporters can also be the strong candidates for engineering plants for tolerance to salinity and low temperatures.

  9. Risk conferred by FokI polymorphism of vitamin D receptor (VDR gene for essential hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Swapna

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : The vitamin D receptor (VDR gene serves as a good candidate gene for susceptibility to several diseases. The gene has a critical role in regulating the renin-angiotensin system (RAS influencing the regulation of blood pressure. Hence determining the association of VDR polymorphisms with essential hypertension is expected to help in the evaluation of risk for the condition. Aim : The aim of this study was to evaluate association between VDR Fok I polymorphism and genetic susceptibility to essential hypertension. Materials and Methods : Two hundred and eighty clinically diagnosed hypertensive patients and 200 normotensive healthy controls were analyzed for Fok I (T/C [rs2228570] polymorphism by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP analysis. Genotype distribution and allele frequencies in patients and controls, and odds ratios (ORs were calculated to predict the risk for developing hypertension by the individuals of different genotypes. Results : The genotype distribution and allele frequencies of Fok I (T/C [rs2228570] VDR polymorphism differed significantly between patients and controls (χ2 of 18.0; 2 degrees of freedom; P = 0.000. FF genotype and allele F were at significantly greater risk for developing hypertension and the risk was elevated for both the sexes, cases with positive family history and habit of smoking. Conclusions : Our data suggest that VDR gene Fok I polymorphism is associated with the risk of developing essential hypertension

  10. Plant-Agrobacterium interaction mediated by ethylene and super-Agrobacterium conferring efficient gene transfer ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoko eNonaka

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Agrobacterium tumefaciens has a unique ability to transfer genes into plant genomes. This ability has been utilized for plant genetic engineering. However, the efficiency is not sufficient for all plant species. Several studies have shown that ethylene decreased the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation frequency. Thus, A. tumefaciens with an ability to suppress ethylene evolution would increase the efficiency of Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Some studies showed that plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR can reduce ethylene levels in plants through 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC deaminase, which cleaves the ethylene precursor ACC into α-ketobutyrate and ammonia, resulting in reduced ethylene production. The whole genome sequence data showed that A. tumefaciens does not possess an ACC deaminase gene in its genome. Therefore, providing ACC deaminase activity to the bacteria would improve gene transfer. As expected, A. tumefaciens with ACC deaminase activity, designated as super-Agrobacterium, could suppress ethylene evolution and increase the gene transfer efficiency in several plant species. In this review, we summarize plant–Agrobacterium interactions and their applications for improving Agrobacterium-mediated genetic engineering techniques via super-Agrobacterium.

  11. Genetic mapping of two genes conferring resistance to powdery mildew in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Vega, Elena; Trabanco, Noemí; Campa, Ana; Ferreira, Juan José

    2013-06-01

    Powdery mildew (PM) is a serious disease in many legume species, including the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). This study investigated the genetic control behind resistance reaction to PM in the bean genotype, Cornell 49242. The results revealed evidence supporting a qualitative mode of inheritance for resistance and the involvement of two independent genes in the resistance reaction. The location of these resistance genes was investigated in a linkage genetic map developed for the XC RIL population. Contingency tests revealed significant associations for 28 loci out of a total of 329 mapped loci. Fifteen were isolated or formed groups with less than two loci. The thirteen remaining loci were located at three regions in linkage groups Pv04, Pv09, and Pv11. The involvement of Pv09 was discarded due to the observed segregation in the subpopulation obtained from the Xana genotype for the loci located in this region. In contrast, the two subpopulations obtained from the Xana genotype for the BM161 locus, linked to the Co-3/9 anthracnose resistance gene (Pv04), and from the Xana genotype for the SCAReoli locus, linked to the Co-2 anthracnose resistance gene (Pv11), exhibited monogenic segregations, suggesting that both regions were involved in the genetic control of resistance. A genetic dissection was carried out to verify the involvement of both regions in the reaction to PM. Two resistant recombinant lines were selected, according to their genotypes, for the block of loci included in the Co-2 and Co-3/9 regions, and they were crossed with the susceptible parent, Xana. Linkage analysis in the respective F2 populations supported the hypothesis that a dominant gene (Pm1) was located in the linkage group Pv11 and another gene (Pm2) was located in the linkage group Pv04. This is the first report showing the localization of resistance genes against powdery mildew in Phaseolus vulgaris and the results offer the opportunity to increase the efficiency of breeding

  12. A cfr-Like Gene from Clostridium difficile Confers Multiple Antibiotic Resistance by the Same Mechanism as the cfr Gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lykke H; Vester, Birte

    2015-01-01

    The Cfr RNA methyltransferase causes multiple resistances to peptidyl transferase inhibitors by methylation of A2503 23S rRNA. Many cfr-like gene sequences in the databases code for unknown functions. This study confirms that a Cfr-like protein from a Peptoclostridium difficile (formerly Clostrid......The Cfr RNA methyltransferase causes multiple resistances to peptidyl transferase inhibitors by methylation of A2503 23S rRNA. Many cfr-like gene sequences in the databases code for unknown functions. This study confirms that a Cfr-like protein from a Peptoclostridium difficile (formerly...... Clostridium difficile) strain does function as a Cfr protein. The enzyme is expressed in Escherichia coli and shows elevated MICs for five classes of antibiotics. A primer extension stop indicates a modification at A2503 in 23S rRNA....

  13. Cis-acting sequences from a human surfactant protein gene confer pulmonary-specific gene expression in transgenic mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korfhagen, T.R.; Glasser, S.W.; Wert, S.E.; Bruno, M.D.; Daugherty, C.C.; McNeish, J.D.; Stock, J.L.; Potter, S.S.; Whitsett, J.A. (Cincinnati College of Medicine, OH (USA))

    1990-08-01

    Pulmonary surfactant is produced in late gestation by developing type II epithelial cells lining the alveolar epithelium of the lung. Lack of surfactant at birth is associated with respiratory distress syndrome in premature infants. Surfactant protein C (SP-C) is a highly hydrophobic peptide isolated from pulmonary tissue that enhances the biophysical activity of surfactant phospholipids. Like surfactant phospholipid, SP-C is produced by epithelial cells in the distal respiratory epithelium, and its expression increases during the latter part of gestation. A chimeric gene containing 3.6 kilobases of the promoter and 5{prime}-flanking sequences of the human SP-C gene was used to express diphtheria toxin A. The SP-C-diphtheria toxin A fusion gene was injected into fertilized mouse eggs to produce transgenic mice. Affected mice developed respiratory failure in the immediate postnatal period. Morphologic analysis of lungs from affected pups showed variable but severe cellular injury confined to pulmonary tissues. Ultrastructural changes consistent with cell death and injury were prominent in the distal respiratory epithelium. Proximal components of the tracheobronchial tree were not severely affected. Transgenic animals were of normal size at birth, and structural abnormalities were not detected in nonpulmonary tissues. Lung-specific diphtheria toxin A expression controlled by the human SP-C gene injured type II epithelial cells and caused extensive necrosis of the distal respiratory epithelium. The absence of type I epithelial cells in the most severely affected transgenic animals supports the concept that developing type II cells serve as precursors to type I epithelial cells.

  14. Gene deficiency and pharmacological inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase confers resilience to repeated social defeat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Qian; Ma, Min; Ishima, Tamaki; Morisseau, Christophe; Yang, Jun; Wagner, Karen M; Zhang, Ji-Chun; Yang, Chun; Yao, Wei; Dong, Chao; Han, Mei; Hammock, Bruce D; Hashimoto, Kenji

    2016-03-29

    Depression is a severe and chronic psychiatric disease, affecting 350 million subjects worldwide. Although multiple antidepressants have been used in the treatment of depressive symptoms, their beneficial effects are limited. The soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) plays a key role in the inflammation that is involved in depression. Thus, we examined here the role of sEH in depression. In both inflammation and social defeat stress models of depression, a potent sEH inhibitor, TPPU, displayed rapid antidepressant effects. Expression of sEH protein in the brain from chronically stressed (susceptible) mice was higher than of control mice. Furthermore, expression of sEH protein in postmortem brain samples of patients with psychiatric diseases, including depression, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia, was higher than controls. This finding suggests that increased sEH levels might be involved in the pathogenesis of certain psychiatric diseases. In support of this hypothesis, pretreatment with TPPU prevented the onset of depression-like behaviors after inflammation or repeated social defeat stress. Moreover, sEH KO mice did not show depression-like behavior after repeated social defeat stress, suggesting stress resilience. The sEH KO mice showed increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and phosphorylation of its receptor TrkB in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, but not nucleus accumbens, suggesting that increased BDNF-TrkB signaling in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus confer stress resilience. All of these findings suggest that sEH plays a key role in the pathophysiology of depression, and that epoxy fatty acids, their mimics, as well as sEH inhibitors could be potential therapeutic or prophylactic drugs for depression.

  15. Polymorphisms of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 gene confer a risk to lone atrial fibrillation in Chinese male patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Shu-xia; TAO Tao; FU Zhi-qing; XIE Xiang-zhu; WANG Hao; WANG Yu-tang

    2013-01-01

    Background Growing epidemiologic evidence has indicated that genetics can predispose individuals to the occurrence of lone atrial fibrillation (AF).The angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) gene has been established to be associated with hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy.The objective of our study was to investigate the association of ACE2 gene polymorphisms with lone AF.Methods A total of 265 consecutive lone AF patients and 289 healthy controls were successfully investigated.The polymorphisms rs2106809 and rs2285666 were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and direct sequencing.A Logistic regression model was used to determine the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of variations of ACE2 for lone AF.Results The T allele of rs2106809 conferred an increased risk for lone AF (OR 1.24,95% CI 1.01-1.52,P=0.03) in males after adjustment for conventional risk factors.SNP at rs2285666 in males was not significantly different between AF patients and controls.No association was found between the two polymorphisms in the female population with lone AF.After (36.3±4.5) months of follow-up,the end point data were obtained:death (cardiac and noncardiac),ischemic stroke,and heart failure.In the male subgroup,the associations between rs2106809 T male carriers and combined end points including ischemic stroke,heart failure,and death in our study were of significance (OR 3.6,95% CI 1.0-13.1,P=0.04).Conclusions The results indicate that polymorphism at ACE2 gene is associated with male lone AF in a Chinese Han population.Lone AF males who carry the rs2106809 T allele are associated with adverse cardiac events.

  16. Extended life-span conferred by cotransporter gene mutations in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogina, B; Reenan, R A; Nilsen, S P; Helfand, S L

    2000-12-15

    Aging is genetically determined and environmentally modulated. In a study of longevity in the adult fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, we found that five independent P-element insertional mutations in a single gene resulted in a near doubling of the average adult life-span without a decline in fertility or physical activity. Sequence analysis revealed that the product of this gene, named Indy (for I'm not dead yet), is most closely related to a mammalian sodium dicarboxylate cotransporter-a membrane protein that transports Krebs cycle intermediates. Indy was most abundantly expressed in the fat body, midgut, and oenocytes: the principal sites of intermediary metabolism in the fly. Excision of the P element resulted in a reversion to normal life-span. These mutations may create a metabolic state that mimics caloric restriction, which has been shown to extend life-span.

  17. Serine/threonine kinase gene Stpk-V, a key member of powdery mildew resistance gene Pm21, confers powdery mildew resistance in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Aizhong; Xing, Liping; Wang, Xiaoyun; Yang, Xueming; Wang, Wei; Sun, Yulei; Qian, Chen; Ni, Jinlong; Chen, Yaping; Liu, Dajun; Wang, Xiue; Chen, Peidu

    2011-05-10

    Powdery mildew resistance gene Pm21, located on the chromosome 6V short arm of Haynaldia villosa and transferred to wheat as a 6VS·6AL translocation (T6VS·6AL), confers durable and broad-spectrum resistance to wheat powdery mildew. Pm21 has become a key gene resource for powdery mildew resistance breeding all over the world. In China, 12 wheat varieties containing Pm21 have been planted on more than 3.4 million hectares since 2002. Pm21 has been intractable to molecular genetic mapping because the 6VS does not pair and recombine with the 6AS. Moreover, all known accessions of H. villosa are immune to powdery mildew fungus. Pm21 is still defined by cytogenetics as a locus. In the present study, a putative serine and threonine protein kinase gene Stpk-V was cloned and characterized with an integrative strategy of molecular and cytogenetic techniques. Stpk-V is located on the Pm21 locus. The results of a single cell transient expression assay showed that Stpk-V could decrease the haustorium index dramatically. After the Stpk-V was transformed into a susceptible wheat variety Yangmai158, the characterized transgenic plants showed high and broad-spectrum powdery mildew resistance similar to T6VS·6AL. Silencing of the Stpk-V by virus-induced gene silencing in both T6VS·6AL and H. villosa resulted in their increased susceptibility. Stpk-V could be induced by Bgt and exogenous H(2)O(2), but it also mediated the increase of endogenous H(2)O(2), leading to cell death and plant resistance when the plant was attacked by Bgt.

  18. Accessory Genes Confer a High Replication Rate to Virulent Feline Immunodeficiency Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Troyer, Ryan M.; Thompson, Jesse; Elder, John H.; VandeWoude, Sue

    2013-01-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a lentivirus that causes AIDS in domestic cats, similar to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS in humans. The FIV accessory protein Vif abrogates the inhibition of infection by cat APOBEC3 restriction factors. FIV also encodes a multifunctional OrfA accessory protein that has characteristics similar to HIV Tat, Vpu, Vpr, and Nef. To examine the role of vif and orfA accessory genes in FIV replication and pathogenicity, we generated chimeras between tw...

  19. Distress of ostracism: oxytocin receptor gene polymorphism confers sensitivity to social exclusion

    OpenAIRE

    McQuaid, Robyn J.; McInnis, Opal A.; Matheson, Kimberly; Anisman, Hymie

    2015-01-01

    A single-nucleotide polymorphism on the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR), rs53576, involving a guanine (G) to adenine (A) substitution has been associated with altered prosocial features. Specifically, individuals with the GG genotype (i.e. the absence of the polymorphism) display beneficial traits including enhanced trust, empathy and self-esteem. However, because G carriers might also be more socially sensitive, this may render them more vulnerable to the adverse effects of a negative social s...

  20. Ghd2, a CONSTANS-like gene, confers drought sensitivity through regulation of senescence in rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Juhong; Shen, Jianqiang; Xu, Yan; Li, Xianghua; Xiao, Jinghua; Xiong, Lizhong

    2016-01-01

    CONSTANS (CO)-like genes have been intensively investigated for their roles in the regulation of photoperiodic flowering, but very limited information has been reported on their functions in other biological processes. Here, we found that a CO-like gene, Ghd2 (Grain number, plant height, and heading date2), which can increase the yield potential under normal growth condition just like its homologue Ghd7, is involved in the regulation of leaf senescence and drought resistance. Ghd2 is expressed mainly in the rice (Oryza sativa) leaf with the highest level detected at the grain-filling stage, and it is down-regulated by drought stress conditions. Overexpression of Ghd2 resulted in significantly reduced drought resistance, while its knockout mutant showed the opposite phenotype. The earlier senescence symptoms and the transcript up-regulation of many senescence-associated genes (SAGs) in Ghd2-overexpressing transgenic rice plants under drought stress conditions indicate that Ghd2 plays essential roles in accelerating drought-induced leaf senescence in rice. Moreover, developmental and dark-induced leaf senescence was accelerated in the Ghd2-overexpressing rice and delayed in the ghd2 mutant. Several SAGs were confirmed to be regulated by Ghd2 using a transient expression system in rice protoplasts. Ghd2 interacted with several regulatory proteins, including OsARID3, OsPURα, and three 14-3-3 proteins. OsARID3 and OsPURα showed expression patterns similar to Ghd2 in rice leaves, with the highest levels at the grain-filling stage, whereas OsARID3 and the 14-3-3 genes responded differently to drought stress conditions. These results indicate that Ghd2 functions as a regulator by integrating environmental signals with the senescence process into a developmental programme through interaction with different proteins. PMID:27638689

  1. EPSPS gene amplification conferring resistance to glyphosate in windmill grass (Chloris truncata) in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, The D; Malone, Jenna M; Boutsalis, Peter; Gill, Gurjeet; Preston, Christopher

    2017-03-20

    Five glyphosate-resistant populations of Chloris truncata originally collected from New South Wales were compared with one susceptible (S) population from South Australia to confirm glyphosate resistance and elucidate possible mechanisms of resistance. Based on the amounts of glyphosate required to kill 50% of treated plants (LD50 ), glyphosate resistance (GR) was confirmed in five populations of C. truncata (A536, A528, T27, A534 and A535.1). GR plants were 2.4-8.7-fold more resistant and accumulated less shikimate after glyphosate treatment than S plants. There was no difference in glyphosate absorption and translocation between GR and S plants. The EPSPS gene did not contain any point mutation that had previously been associated with resistance to glyphosate. The resistant plants (A528 and A536) contained up to 32-48 more copies of the EPSPS gene than the susceptible plants. This study has identified EPSPS gene amplification contributing to glyphosate resistance in C. truncata. In addition, a Glu-91-Ala mutation within EPSPS was identified that may contribute to glyphosate resistance in this species. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Cymbidium mosaic virus coat protein gene in antisense confers resistance to transgenic Nicotiana occidentalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, S H; Ko, M K; Lee, S J; La, Y J; Kim, B D

    1999-12-31

    The nucleotide sequence of the 3'-terminal region of the Korean isolate of cymbidium mosaic virus (CyMV-Ca) from a naturally infected cattleya was determined. The sequence contains an open reading frame (ORF) coding for the viral coat protein (CP) at the 3'-end and three other ORFs (triple gene block or movement protein) of CyMV. The CP gene encodes a polypeptide chain of 220 amino acids with a molecular mass of 23,760 Da. The deduced CP sequence showed a strong homology with those of two CyMVs reported. A construct of the CyMV-Ca CP gene in the antisense orientation in the plant expression vector pMBP1 was transferred via Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation into Nicotiana occidentalis which is a propagation host of CyMV. The T1 progeny of the transgenic plants were inoculated with CyMV and found to be highly resistant to CyMV infection.

  3. Hairpin RNA Targeting Multiple Viral Genes Confers Strong Resistance to Rice Black-Streaked Dwarf Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangquan Wang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV belongs to the genus Fijivirus in the family of Reoviridae and causes severe yield loss in rice-producing areas in Asia. RNA silencing, as a natural defence mechanism against plant viruses, has been successfully exploited for engineering virus resistance in plants, including rice. In this study, we generated transgenic rice lines harbouring a hairpin RNA (hpRNA construct targeting four RBSDV genes, S1, S2, S6 and S10, encoding the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, the putative core protein, the RNA silencing suppressor and the outer capsid protein, respectively. Both field nursery and artificial inoculation assays of three generations of the transgenic lines showed that they had strong resistance to RBSDV infection. The RBSDV resistance in the segregating transgenic populations correlated perfectly with the presence of the hpRNA transgene. Furthermore, the hpRNA transgene was expressed in the highly resistant transgenic lines, giving rise to abundant levels of 21–24 nt small interfering RNA (siRNA. By small RNA deep sequencing, the RBSDV-resistant transgenic lines detected siRNAs from all four viral gene sequences in the hpRNA transgene, indicating that the whole chimeric fusion sequence can be efficiently processed by Dicer into siRNAs. Taken together, our results suggest that long hpRNA targeting multiple viral genes can be used to generate stable and durable virus resistance in rice, as well as other plant species.

  4. Overexpression of Arabidopsis molybdenum cofactor sulfurase gene confers drought tolerance in maize (Zea mays L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yao; Li, Yajun; Zhang, Jiachang; Xiao, Yitao; Yue, Yuesen; Duan, Liusheng; Zhang, Mingcai; Li, Zhaohu

    2013-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is a key component of the signaling system that integrates plant adaptive responses to abiotic stress. Overexpression of Arabidopsis molybdenum cofactor sulfurase gene (LOS5) in maize markedly enhanced the expression of ZmAO and aldehyde oxidase (AO) activity, leading to ABA accumulation and increased drought tolerance. Transgenic maize (Zea mays L.) exhibited the expected reductions in stomatal aperture, which led to decreased water loss and maintenance of higher relative water content (RWC) and leaf water potential. Also, transgenic maize subjected to drought treatment exhibited lower leaf wilting, electrolyte leakage, malondialdehyde (MDA) and H(2)O(2) content, and higher activities of antioxidative enzymes and proline content compared to wild-type (WT) maize. Moreover, overexpression of LOS5 enhanced the expression of stress-regulated genes such as Rad 17, NCED1, CAT1, and ZmP5CS1 under drought stress conditions, and increased root system development and biomass yield after re-watering. The increased drought tolerance in transgenic plants was associated with ABA accumulation via activated AO and expression of stress-related gene via ABA induction, which sequentially induced a set of favorable stress-related physiological and biochemical responses.

  5. KIT mutations confer a distinct gene expression signature in core binding factor leukaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lück, Sonja C; Russ, Annika C; Du, Juan; Gaidzik, Verena; Schlenk, Richard F; Pollack, Jonathan R; Döhner, Konstanze; Döhner, Hartmut; Bullinger, Lars

    2010-03-01

    Core binding factor (CBF) leukaemias, characterized by either inv(16)(p13.1q22) or t(8;21)(q22;q22), constitute acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) subgroups with favourable prognosis. However, 40-50% of patients relapse, emphasizing the need for risk-adapted treatment approaches. In this regard, studying secondary genetic aberrations, such as mutations of the KIT gene, is of great interest, particularly as they can be targeted by receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI). However, so far little is known about the biology underlying KIT-mutated CBF leukaemias. We analysed gene expression profiles of 83 CBF AML cases with known KIT mutation status in order to gain novel insights in KIT-mutated CBF pathogenesis. KIT-mutated cases were characterized by deregulation of genes belonging to the NFkB signalling complex suggesting impaired control of apoptosis. Notably, a subgroup of KIT wildtype cases was also characterized by the KIT mutation signature due to yet unknown aberrations. Our data suggest that this CBF leukaemia subgroup might profit from TKI therapy, however, the relevance of the KIT mutation-associated signature remains to be validated prior to clinical implementation. Nevertheless, the existence of such a signature supports the notion of relevant biological differences in CBF leukaemia and might serve as diagnostic tool in the future.

  6. MicroRNA-155 confers encephalogenic potential to Th17 cells by promoting effector gene expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ruozhen; Huffaker, Thomas B.; Kagele, Dominique A.; Runtsch, Marah C.; Bake, Erin; Chaudhuri, Aadel A.; Round, June L.; O’Connell, Ryan M.

    2013-01-01

    Th17 cells are central to the pathogenesis of autoimmune disease, and recently specific noncoding microRNAs (miRNAs) have been shown to regulate their development. However, it remains unclear if miRNAs are also involved in modulating Th17 cell effector functions. Consequently, we examined the role of miR-155 in differentiated Th17 cells during their induction of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis (EAE). Using adoptive transfer experiments, we found that highly purified, MOG antigen-specific Th17 cells lacking miR-155 were defective in their capacity to cause EAE. Gene expression profiling of purified miR-155−/− IL-17F+ Th17 cells identified a subset of effector genes that are dependent upon miR-155 for their proper expression through a mechanism involving repression of the transcription factor Ets1. Among the genes reduced in the absence of miR-155 was IL-23R, resulting in miR-155−/− Th17 cells being hypo-responsive to IL-23. Taken together, our study demonstrates a critical role for miR-155 in Th17 cells as they unleash autoimmune inflammation, and finds that this occurs through a signaling network involving miR-155, Ets1 and the clinically relevant IL-23-IL-23R pathway. PMID:23686497

  7. Overexpression of Citrus junos mitochondrial citrate synthase gene in Nicotiana benthamiana confers aluminum tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Wei; Luo, Keming; Li, Zhengguo; Yang, Yingwu; Hu, Nan; Wu, Yu

    2009-07-01

    Aluminum (Al) toxicity is one of the major factors that limit plant growth in acid soils. Al-induced release of organic acids into rhizosphere from the root apex has been identified as a major Al-tolerance mechanism in many plant species. In this study, Al tolerance of Yuzu (Citrus Junos Sieb. ex Tanaka) was tested on the basis of root elongation and the results demonstrated that Yuzu was Al tolerant compared with other plant species. Exposure to Al triggered the exudation of citrate from the Yuzu root. Thus, the mechanism of Al tolerance in Yuzu involved an Al-inducible increase in citrate release. Aluminum also elicited an increase of citrate content and increased the expression level of mitochondrial citrate synthase (CjCS) gene and enzyme activity in Yuzu. The CjCS gene was cloned from Yuzu and overexpressed in Nicotiana benthamiana using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated methods. Increased expression level of the CjCS gene and enhanced enzyme activity were observed in transgenic plants compared with the wild-type plants. Root growth experiments showed that transgenic plants have enhanced levels of Al tolerance. The transgenic Nicotiana plants showed increased levels of citrate in roots compared to wild-type plants. The exudation of citrate from roots of the transgenic plants significantly increased when exposed to Al. The results with transgenic plants suggest that overexpression of mitochondrial CS can be a useful tool to achieve Al tolerance.

  8. Expressing yeast SAMdc gene confers broad changes in gene expression and alters fatty acid composition in tomato fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolotilin, Igor; Koltai, Hinanit; Bar-Or, Carmiya; Chen, Lea; Nahon, Sahadia; Shlomo, Haviva; Levin, Ilan; Reuveni, Moshe

    2011-07-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruits expressing a yeast S-adenosyl methionine decarboxylase (ySAMdc) gene under control of a ripening-induced promoter show altered phytonutrient content and broad changes in gene expression. Genome-wide transcriptional alterations in pericarp tissues of the ySAMdc-expressing fruits are shown. Consistent with the ySAMdc expression pattern from the ripening-induced promoter, very minor transcriptional alterations were detected at the mature green developmental stage. At the breaker and red stages, altered levels of numerous transcripts were observed with a general tendency toward upregulation in the transgenic fruits. Ontological analysis of up- and downregulated transcript groups revealed various affected metabolic processes, mainly carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism, and protein synthesis, which appeared to be intensified in the ripening transgenic fruits. Other functional ontological categories of altered transcripts represented signal transduction, transcription regulation, RNA processing, molecular transport and stress response, as well as metabolism of lipids, glycans, xenobiotics, energy, cofactors and vitamins. In addition, transcript levels of genes encoding structural enzymes for several biosynthetic pathways showed strong correlations to levels of specific metabolites that displayed altered levels in transgenic fruits. Increased transcript levels of fatty acid biosynthesis enzymes were accompanied by a change in the fatty acid profile of transgenic fruits, most notably increasing ω-3 fatty acids at the expense of other lipids. Thus, SAMdc is a prime target in manipulating the nutritional value of tomato fruits. Combined with analyses of selected metabolites in the overripe fruits, a model of enhanced homeostasis of the pericarp tissue in the polyamine-accumulating tomatoes is proposed.

  9. Isolation and characterization of a gene, pmrD, from Salmonella typhimurium that confers resistance to polymyxin when expressed in multiple copies.

    OpenAIRE

    Roland, K L; Esther, C R; Spitznagel, J K

    1994-01-01

    We have isolated from Salmonella typhimurium a gene, designated pmrD, that confers resistance to the membrane-damaging drug, polymyxin B when expressed from the medium-copy-number plasmid pHSG576. The gene maps to 46 min on the standard genetic map, near the menB gene, and is therefore distinct from the previously described pmrA locus. We have mapped the polymyxin resistance activity to a 1.3-kb ClaI-PvuII fragment which contains a small open reading frame that could encode an 85-amino-acid p...

  10. Vat, an Amazing Gene Conferring Resistance to Aphids and Viruses They Carry: From Molecular Structure to Field Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boissot, Nathalie; Schoeny, Alexandra; Vanlerberghe-Masutti, Flavie

    2016-01-01

    We review half a century of research on Cucumis melo resistance to Aphis gossypii from molecular to field levels. The Vat gene is unique in conferring resistance to both A. gossypii and the viruses it transmits. This double phenotype is aphid clone-dependent and has been observed in 25 melon accessions, mostly from Asia. It is controlled by a cluster of genes including CC-NLR, which has been characterized in detail. Copy-number polymorphisms (for the whole gene and for a domain that stands out in the LLR region) and single-nucleotide polymorphisms have been identified in the Vat cluster. The role of these polymorphisms in plant/aphid interactions remains unclear. The Vat gene structure suggests a functioning with separate recognition and response phases. During the recognition phase, the VAT protein is thought to interact (likely indirectly) with an aphid effector introduced during cell puncture by the aphid. A few hours later, several miRNAs are upregulated in Vat plants. Peroxidase activity increases, and callose and lignin are deposited in the walls of the cells adjacent to the stylet path, disturbing aphid behavior. In aphids feeding on Vat plants, Piwi-interacting RNA-like sequences are abundant and the levels of other miRNAs are modified. At the plant level, resistance to aphids is quantitative (aphids escape the plant and display low rates of reproduction). Resistance to viruses is qualitative and local. Durability of NLR genes is highly variable. A. gossypii clones are adapted to Vat resistance, either by introducing a new effector that interferes with the deployment of plant defenses, or by adapting to the defenses it triggered. Viruses transmitted in a non-persistent manner cannot adapt to Vat resistance. At population level, Vat reduces aphid density and genetic diversity. The durability of Vat resistance to A. gossypii populations depends strongly on the agro-ecosystem, including, in particular, the presence of other cucurbit crops serving as

  11. Vat, an amazing gene conferring resistance to aphids and viruses they carry: from molecular structure to field effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Boissot

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We review half a century of research on Cucumis melo resistance to Aphis gossypii from molecular to field levels. The Vat gene is unique in conferring resistance to both A. gossypii and the viruses it transmits. This double phenotype is aphid clone-dependent and has been observed in 25 melon accessions, mostly from Asia. It is controlled by a cluster of genes including CC-NLR, which has been characterized in detail. Copy-number polymorphisms (for the whole gene and for a domain that stands out in the LLR region and single-nucleotide polymorphisms have been identified in the Vat cluster. The role of these polymorphisms in plant aphid/interactions remains unclear. The Vat gene structure suggests a functioning with separate recognition and response phases. During the recognition phase, the VAT protein is thought to interact (likely indirectly with an aphid effector introduced during cell puncture by the aphid. A few hours later, several miRNAs are upregulated in Vat plants. Peroxidase activity increases, and callose and lignin are deposited in the walls of the cells adjacent to the stylet path, disturbing aphid behavior. In aphids feeding on Vat plants, Piwi-interacting RNA-like sequences are abundant and the levels of other miRNAs are modified. At the plant level, resistance to aphids is quantitative (aphids escape the plant and display low rates of reproduction. Resistance to viruses is qualitative and local.Durability of NLR genes is highly variable. A. gossypii clones are adapted to Vat resistance, either by introducing a new effector that interferes with the deployment of plant defenses, or by adapting to the defenses it triggered. Viruses transmitted in a non-persistent manner cannot adapt to Vat resistance. At population level, Vat reduces aphid density and genetic diversity. The durability of Vat resistance to A. gossypii populations depends strongly on the agro-ecosystem, including, in particular, the presence of other cucurbit crops

  12. Polymorphisms of the ITGAM gene confer higher risk of discoid cutaneous than of systemic lupus erythematosus.

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    Tiina M Järvinen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lupus erythematosus (LE is a heterogeneous disease ranging from mainly skin-restricted manifestations (discoid LE [DLE] and subacute cutaneous LE to a progressive multisystem disease (systemic LE [SLE]. Genetic association studies have recently identified several strong susceptibility genes for SLE, including integrin alpha M (ITGAM, also known as CD11b, whereas the genetic background of DLE is less clear. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To specifically investigate whether ITGAM is a susceptibility gene not only for SLE, but also for cutaneous DLE, we genotyped 177 patients with DLE, 85 patients with sporadic SLE, 190 index cases from SLE families and 395 population control individuals from Finland for nine genetic markers at the ITGAM locus. SLE patients were further subdivided by the presence or absence of discoid rash and renal involvement. In addition, 235 Finnish and Swedish patients positive for Ro/SSA-autoantibodies were included in a subphenotype analysis. Analysis of the ITGAM coding variant rs1143679 showed highly significant association to DLE in patients without signs of systemic disease (P-value  = 4.73×10(-11, OR  = 3.20, 95% CI  = 2.23-4.57. Significant association was also detected to SLE patients (P-value  = 8.29×10(-6, OR  = 2.14, 95% CI  = 1.52-3.00, and even stronger association was found when stratifying SLE patients by presence of discoid rash (P-value  = 3.59×10(-8, OR  = 3.76, 95% CI  = 2.29-6.18. SIGNIFICANCE: We propose ITGAM as a novel susceptibility gene for cutaneous DLE. The risk effect is independent of systemic involvement and has an even stronger genetic influence on the risk of DLE than of SLE.

  13. Pest protection conferred by a Beta vulgaris serine proteinase inhibitor gene.

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    Ann C Smigocki

    Full Text Available Proteinase inhibitors provide a means of engineering plant resistance to insect pests. A Beta vulgaris serine proteinase inhibitor gene (BvSTI was fused to the constitutive CaMV35S promoter for over-expression in Nicotiana benthamiana plants to study its effect on lepidopteran insect pests. Independently derived BvSTI transgenic tobacco T2 homozygous progeny were shown to have relatively high BvSTI gene transcript levels. BvSTI-specific polyclonal antibodies cross-reacted with the expected 30 kDA recombinant BvSTI protein on Western blots. In gel trypsin inhibitor activity assays revealed a major clear zone that corresponded to the BvSTI proteinase inhibitor that was not detected in the untransformed control plants. BvSTI-transgenic plants were bioassayed for resistance to five lepidopteran insect pests. Spodoptera frugiperda, S. exigua and Manduca sexta larvae fed BvSTI leaves had significant reductions in larval weights as compared to larvae fed on untransformed leaves. In contrast, larval weights increased relative to the controls when Heliothis virescens and Agrotis ipsilon larvae were fed on BvSTI leaves. As the larvae entered the pupal stage, pupal sizes reflected the overall larval weights. Some developmental abnormalities of the pupae and emerging moths were noted. These findings suggest that the sugar beet BvSTI gene may prove useful for effective control of several different lepidopteran insect pests in genetically modified tobacco and other plants. The sugar beet serine proteinase inhibitor may be more effective for insect control because sugar beet is cropped in restricted geographical areas thus limiting the exposure of the insects to sugar beet proteinase inhibitors and build up of non-sensitive midgut proteases.

  14. Pest protection conferred by a Beta vulgaris serine proteinase inhibitor gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smigocki, Ann C; Ivic-Haymes, Snezana; Li, Haiyan; Savić, Jelena

    2013-01-01

    Proteinase inhibitors provide a means of engineering plant resistance to insect pests. A Beta vulgaris serine proteinase inhibitor gene (BvSTI) was fused to the constitutive CaMV35S promoter for over-expression in Nicotiana benthamiana plants to study its effect on lepidopteran insect pests. Independently derived BvSTI transgenic tobacco T2 homozygous progeny were shown to have relatively high BvSTI gene transcript levels. BvSTI-specific polyclonal antibodies cross-reacted with the expected 30 kDA recombinant BvSTI protein on Western blots. In gel trypsin inhibitor activity assays revealed a major clear zone that corresponded to the BvSTI proteinase inhibitor that was not detected in the untransformed control plants. BvSTI-transgenic plants were bioassayed for resistance to five lepidopteran insect pests. Spodoptera frugiperda, S. exigua and Manduca sexta larvae fed BvSTI leaves had significant reductions in larval weights as compared to larvae fed on untransformed leaves. In contrast, larval weights increased relative to the controls when Heliothis virescens and Agrotis ipsilon larvae were fed on BvSTI leaves. As the larvae entered the pupal stage, pupal sizes reflected the overall larval weights. Some developmental abnormalities of the pupae and emerging moths were noted. These findings suggest that the sugar beet BvSTI gene may prove useful for effective control of several different lepidopteran insect pests in genetically modified tobacco and other plants. The sugar beet serine proteinase inhibitor may be more effective for insect control because sugar beet is cropped in restricted geographical areas thus limiting the exposure of the insects to sugar beet proteinase inhibitors and build up of non-sensitive midgut proteases.

  15. Identification of yeast genes that confer resistance to chitosan oligosaccharide (COS using chemogenomics

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    Jaime Maria DLA

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chitosan oligosaccharide (COS, a deacetylated derivative of chitin, is an abundant, and renewable natural polymer. COS has higher antimicrobial properties than chitosan and is presumed to act by disrupting/permeabilizing the cell membranes of bacteria, yeast and fungi. COS is relatively non-toxic to mammals. By identifying the molecular and genetic targets of COS, we hope to gain a better understanding of the antifungal mode of action of COS. Results Three different chemogenomic fitness assays, haploinsufficiency (HIP, homozygous deletion (HOP, and multicopy suppression (MSP profiling were combined with a transcriptomic analysis to gain insight in to the mode of action and mechanisms of resistance to chitosan oligosaccharides. The fitness assays identified 39 yeast deletion strains sensitive to COS and 21 suppressors of COS sensitivity. The genes identified are involved in processes such as RNA biology (transcription, translation and regulatory mechanisms, membrane functions (e.g. signalling, transport and targeting, membrane structural components, cell division, and proteasome processes. The transcriptomes of control wild type and 5 suppressor strains overexpressing ARL1, BCK2, ERG24, MSG5, or RBA50, were analyzed in the presence and absence of COS. Some of the up-regulated transcripts in the suppressor overexpressing strains exposed to COS included genes involved in transcription, cell cycle, stress response and the Ras signal transduction pathway. Down-regulated transcripts included those encoding protein folding components and respiratory chain proteins. The COS-induced transcriptional response is distinct from previously described environmental stress responses (i.e. thermal, salt, osmotic and oxidative stress and pre-treatment with these well characterized environmental stressors provided little or any resistance to COS. Conclusions Overexpression of the ARL1 gene, a member of the Ras superfamily that regulates membrane

  16. The Metallothionein Gene, TaMT3, from Tamarix androssowii Confers Cd2+ Tolerance in Tobacco

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    Boru Zhou

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium (Cd is a nonessential microelement and low concentration Cd2+ has strong toxicity to plant growth. Plant metallothioneins, a class of low molecular, cystein(Cys-rich and heavy-metal binding proteins, play an important role in both metal chaperoning and scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS with their large number of cysteine residues and therefore, protect plants from oxidative damage. In this study, a metallothionein gene, TaMT3, isolated from Tamarix androssowii was transformed into tobacco (Nicotiana tobacum through Agrobacterium-mediated leaf disc method, and correctly expressed under the control of 35S promoter. Under Cd2+ stress, the transgenic tobacco showed significant increases of superoxide dismutase (SOD activity and chlorophyll concentration, but decreases of peroxidase (POD activity and malondialdehyde (MDA accumulation when compared to the non-transgenic tobacco. Vigorous growth of transgenic tobacco was observed at the early development stages, resulting in plant height and fresh weight were significantly larger than those of the non-transgenic tobacco under Cd2+ stress. These results demonstrated that the expression of the exogenous TaMT3 gene increased the ability of ROS cleaning-up, indicating a stronger tolerance to Cd2+ stress.

  17. Mutations in the Drosophila pushover gene confer increased neuronal excitability and spontaneous synaptic vesicle fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richards, S.; Hillman, T.; Stern, M. [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States)

    1996-04-01

    We describe the identification of a gene called pushover (push), which affects both behavior and synaptic transmission at the neuromuscular junction. Adults carrying either of two mutations in push exhibit sluggishness, uncoordination, a defective escape response, and male sterility. Larvae defective in push exhibit increased release of transmitter at the neuromuscular junction. In particular, the frequency of spontaneous transmitter release and the amount of transmitter release evoked by nerve stimulation are each increased two- to threefold in push mutants at the lowest external [(Ca{sup 2+})] tested (0.15 mM). Furthermore, these mutants are more sensitive than wild type to application of the potassium channel-blocking drug quinidine: following quinidine application, push mutants, but not wild-type, display repetitive firing of the motor axon, leading to repetitive muscle postsynaptic potentials. The push gene thus might affect both neuronal excitability and the transmitter release process. Complementation tests and recombinational mapping suggest that the push mutations are allelic to a previously identified P-element-induced mutation, which also causes behavorial abnormalities and male sterility. 43 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Transgenic banana expressing Pflp gene confers enhanced resistance to Xanthomonas wilt disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namukwaya, B; Tripathi, L; Tripathi, J N; Arinaitwe, G; Mukasa, S B; Tushemereirwe, W K

    2012-08-01

    Banana Xanthomonas wilt (BXW), caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum, is one of the most important diseases of banana (Musa sp.) and currently considered as the biggest threat to banana production in Great Lakes region of East and Central Africa. The pathogen is highly contagious and its spread has endangered the livelihood of millions of farmers who rely on banana for food and income. The development of disease resistant banana cultivars remains a high priority since farmers are reluctant to employ labor-intensive disease control measures and there is no host plant resistance among banana cultivars. In this study, we demonstrate that BXW can be efficiently controlled using transgenic technology. Transgenic bananas expressing the plant ferredoxin-like protein (Pflp) gene under the regulation of the constitutive CaMV35S promoter were generated using embryogenic cell suspensions of banana. These transgenic lines were characterized by molecular analysis. After challenge with X. campestris pv. musacearum transgenic lines showed high resistance. About 67% of transgenic lines evaluated were completely resistant to BXW. These transgenic lines did not show any disease symptoms after artificial inoculation of in vitro plants under laboratory conditions as well as potted plants in the screen-house, whereas non-transgenic control plants showed severe symptoms resulting in complete wilting. This study confirms that expression of the Pflp gene in banana results in enhanced resistance to BXW. This transgenic technology can provide a timely solution to the BXW pandemic.

  19. DNA sequencing conference, 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook-Deegan, R.M. [Georgetown Univ., Kennedy Inst. of Ethics, Washington, DC (United States); Venter, J.C. [National Inst. of Neurological Disorders and Strokes, Bethesda, MD (United States); Gilbert, W. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States); Mulligan, J. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Mansfield, B.K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1991-06-19

    This conference focused on DNA sequencing, genetic linkage mapping, physical mapping, informatics and bioethics. Several were used to study this sequencing and mapping. This article also discusses computer hardware and software aiding in the mapping of genes.

  20. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of rice with the spider insecticidal gene conferring resistance to leaffolder and striped stem borer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Immature embryos of rice varieties “Xiushui11” and “Chunjiang 11” precultured for 4d were infected and transformed by Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA101/pExT7(containing the spider insecticidal gene).The resistant calli were transferred onto the differentiation medium and plants were regenerated.The transformation frequency reached 56%~72% measured as numbers of Geneticin(G418)-resistant calli produced and 36%~60% measured as numbers of transgenic plants regenerated,respectively.PCR and Southern blot analysis of transgenic plants confirmed that the T-DNA had been integrated into the rice genome.Insect bioassays using T1 transgenic plants indicated that the mortality of the leaffolder(Cnaphalocrasis medinalis)after 7d of leaf feeding reached 38%~61% and the corrected mortality of the striped stem borer(Chilo suppressalis)after 7d of leaf feeding reached 16%~75%.The insect bioassay results demonstrated that the transgenic plants expressing the spider insecticidal protein conferred enhanced resistance to these pests.

  1. Pathogen-induced expression of a cecropin A-melittin antimicrobial peptide gene confers antifungal resistance in transgenic tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yevtushenko, Dmytro P; Romero, Rafael; Forward, Benjamin S; Hancock, Robert E; Kay, William W; Misra, Santosh

    2005-06-01

    Expression of defensive genes from a promoter that is specifically activated in response to pathogen invasion is highly desirable for engineering disease-resistant plants. A plant transformation vector was constructed with transcriptional fusion between the pathogen-responsive win3.12T promoter from poplar and the gene encoding the novel cecropin A-melittin hybrid peptide (CEMA) with strong antimicrobial activity. This promoter-transgene combination was evaluated in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. Xanthi) for enhanced plant resistance against a highly virulent pathogenic fungus Fusarium solani. Transgene expression in leaves was strongly increased after fungal infection or mechanical wounding, and the accumulation of CEMA transcripts was found to be systemic and positively correlated with the number of transgene insertions. A simple and efficient in vitro regeneration bioassay for preliminary screening of transgenic lines against pathogenic fungi was developed. CEMA had strong antifungal activity in vitro, inhibiting conidia germination at concentrations that were non-toxic to tobacco protoplasts. Most importantly, the expression level of the CEMA peptide in vivo, regulated by the win3.12T promoter, was sufficient to confer resistance against F. solani in transgenic tobacco. The antifungal resistance of plants with high CEMA expression was strong and reproducible. In addition, leaf tissue extracts from transgenic plants significantly reduced the number of fungal colonies arising from germinated conidia. Accumulation of CEMA peptide in transgenic tobacco had no deleterious effect on plant growth and development. This is the first report showing the application of a heterologous pathogen-inducible promoter to direct the expression of an antimicrobial peptide in plants, and the feasibility of this approach to provide disease resistance in tobacco and, possibly, other crops.

  2. Characterization of pbt genes conferring increased Pb2+ and Cd2+ tolerance upon Achromobacter xylosoxidans A8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hložková, Kateřina; Suman, Jáchym; Strnad, Hynek; Ruml, Tomas; Paces, Vaclav; Kotrba, Pavel

    2013-12-01

    The cluster of pbtTFYRABC genes is carried by plasmid pA81. Its elimination from Achromobacter xylosoxidans A8 resulted in increased sensitivity towards Pb(2+) and Cd(2+). Predicted pbtTRABC products share strong similarities with Pb(2+) uptake transporter PbrT, transcriptional regulator PbrR, metal efflux P1-ATPases PbrA and CadA, undecaprenyl pyrophosphatase PbrB and its signal peptidase PbrC from Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34. Expression of pbtABC or pbtA in a metal-sensitive Escherichia coli GG48 rendered the strain Pb(2+)-, Cd(2+)- and Zn(2+)-tolerant and caused decreased accumulation of the metal ions. Accumulation of Pb(2+), but not of Cd(2+) or Zn(2+), was promoted in E. coli expressing pbtT. Additional genes of the pbt cluster are pbtF and pbtY, which encode the cation diffusion facilitator (CDF)-like transporter and a putative fatty acid hydroxylase of unknown function, respectively. Expression of pbtF did not confer increased metal tolerance upon E. coli GG48, although the protein showed measurable Pb(2+)-efflux activity. Unlike the pbtT promoter, promoters of pbtABC, pbtF and pbtY contain features characteristic of promoters controlled by metal-responsive transcriptional regulators of the MerR family. Upregulation of pbtABC, pbtF and pbtY upon Pb(2+), Cd(2+) and Zn(2+) exposure was confirmed in wild-type Achromobacter xylosoxidans A8. Gel shift assays proved binding of purified PbtR to the respective promoters.

  3. A TagSNP in SIRT1 gene confers susceptibility to myocardial infarction in a Chinese Han population.

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    Jie Cheng

    Full Text Available SIRT1 exerts protective effects against endothelial cells dysfunction, inflammation and atherosclerosis, indicating an important role on myocardial infarction (MI pathogenesis. Nonetheless, the effects of SIRT1 variants on MI risk remain poorly understood. Here we aimed to investigate the influence of SIRT1 polymorphisms on individual susceptibility to MI. Genotyping of three tagSNPs (rs7069102, rs3818292 and rs4746720 in SIRT1 gene was performed in a Chinese Han population, consisting of 287 MI cases and 654 control subjects. In a logistic regression analysis, we found that G allele of rs7069102 had increased MI risk with odds ratio (OR of 1.57 [95% confidence interval (CI = 1.15-2.16, Bonferroni corrected P (Pc = 0.015] after adjustment for conventional risk factors compared to C allele. Similarly, the combined CG/GG genotypes was associated with the increased MI risk (OR = 1.64, 95% CI = 1.14-2.35, Pc = 0.021 compared to the CC genotype. Further stratified analysis revealed a more significant association with MI risk among younger subjects (≤ 55 years old. Consistent with these results, the haplotype rs7069102G-rs3818292A-rs4746720T containing the rs7069102 G allele was also associated with the increased MI risk (OR = 1.41, 95% CI = 1.09-1.84, Pc = 0.040. However, we did not detect any association of rs3818292 and rs4746720 with MI risk. Our study provides the first evidence that the tagSNP rs7069102 and haplotype rs7069102G-rs3818292A-rs4746720T in SIRT1 gene confer susceptibility to MI in the Chinese Han population.

  4. Genetic ablation of the fpr1 gene confers protection from smoking-induced lung emphysema in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardini, Silvia; Dalli, Jesmond; Fineschi, Silvia; Perretti, Mauro; Lungarella, Giuseppe; Lucattelli, Monica

    2012-09-01

    Cigarette smoke (CS) is the main causative factor of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Current research supports the concept that airway inflammation is central to the development and progression of the disease. Studies have demonstrated that neutrophils are increased in COPD lungs and that neutrophil-associated products correlate with the development and severity of COPD. The peptide FMLP is an active component of CS. FMLP interacts on the neutrophil and macrophage membranes with a high-affinity receptor subtype (FPR1) and with a low-affinity subtype FPRL1, promoting a chemotactic response, superoxide anion production, and degranulation. Bacterial colonization of the lower respiratory tract and lung cell damage may represent further sources of formyl peptides in patients with COPD. We investigated the role of FPR in a mouse model on lung inflammation and emphysema induced by CS. Here, we report the novel observation that genetic ablation of the FPR1 gene (Fpr1) confers protection from smoking-induced lung emphysema in mice. Compared with wild-type mice, Fpr1 knockout mice displayed marked decreases in the lung migration of neutrophils and macrophages after CS exposure. Upon transgenic approach, the changes in cell numbers were accompanied by marked modulation of the expression of genes implicated in the inflammatory response. Administration of the FPR1 antagonist cyclosporine H to wild-type mice attenuated the acute inflammatory response evoked by CS. These findings may have clinical significance because current smokers and subjects with emphysema showed increased FPR expression in bronchoalveolar fluids and on peripheral neutrophils. Modulating the FPR1 signal should be explored as a potential new therapy.

  5. Overexpression of a tea flavanone 3-hydroxylase gene confers tolerance to salt stress and Alternaria solani in transgenic tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Monika; Yadav, Sudesh Kumar

    2014-08-01

    Flavan-3-ols are the major flavonoids present in tea (Camellia sinensis) leaves. These are known to have antioxidant and free radical scavenging properties in vitro. Flavanone 3-hydroxylase is considered to be an important enzyme of flavonoid pathway leading to accumulation of flavan-3-ols in tea. Expression analysis revealed the upregulation in transcript levels of C. sinensis flavanone 3-hydroxylase (CsF3H) encoding gene under salt stress. In this study, the biotechnological potential of CsF3H was evaluated by gene overexpression in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv. Xanthi). Overexpression of CsF3H cDNA increased the content of flavan-3-ols in tobacco and conferred tolerance to salt stress and fungus Alternaria solani infection. Transgenic tobaccos were observed for increase in primary root length, number of lateral roots, chlorophyll content, antioxidant enzyme expression and their activities. Also, they showed lesser malondialdehyde content and electrolyte leakage compared to control tobacco plants. Further, transgenic plants produced higher degree of pectin methyl esterification via decreasing pectin methyl esterase (PME) activity in roots and leaves under unstressed and salt stressed conditions. The effect of flavan-3-ols on pectin methyl esterification under salt stressed conditions was further validated through in vitro experiments in which non-transgenic (wild) tobacco seedlings were exposed to salt stress in presence of flavan-3-ols, epicatechin and epigallocatechin. The in vitro exposed seedlings showed similar trend of increase in pectin methyl esterification through decreasing PME activity as observed in CsF3H transgenic lines. Taken together, overexpression of CsF3H provided tolerance to salt stress and fungus A. solani infection to transgenic tobacco through improved antioxidant system and enhanced pectin methyl esterification.

  6. Common variant rs9939609 in gene FTO confers risk to polycystic ovary syndrome.

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    Tao Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fat mass and obesity-associated gene (FTO has been associated with obesity, especially the common variant rs9939609. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is a complex endocrine-metabolic disorder and over 50% of patients are overweight/obese. Thus FTO is a potential candidate gene for PCOS but their relationship is confusing and remains to be clarified in different population with a large sample size. METHOD: This study was performed adopting a two-stage design by genotyping SNP rs9939609. The first set comprise of 741 PCOS and 704 control subjects, with data from our previous GWAS. The second phase of replication study was performed among another independent group of 2858 PCOS and 2358 control subjects using TaqMan-MGB probe assay. All subjects are from Han Chinese. RESULTS: The less meaningful association of FTO rs9939609 and PCOS discovered in GWAS (P = 2.47E-03, was further confirmed in the replication study (P = 1.86E-09. Using meta-analysis, the P-meta value has reached 6.89E-12, over-exceeding the genome-wide association level of 5.00E-8. By combination, the P value was 1.26E-11 and after BMI adjustment it remained significant(P = 1.82E-06. To further elucidate whether this association is resulted from obesity or PCOS per se, the samples were divided into two groups-obese and non-obese PCOS, and the results were still positive in obese group (P obese = 5.81E-05, OR = 1.55, as well as in non-obese PCOS group (P non-obese = 7.06E-04, OR = 1.28. CONCLUSION: Variant rs9939609 in FTO is associated with PCOS in Chinese women, not only in obese PCOS subjects, but also in non-obese cases.

  7. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium lacking hfq gene confers protective immunity against murine typhoid.

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    Uday Shankar Allam

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica is an important enteric pathogen and its various serovars are involved in causing both systemic and intestinal diseases in humans and domestic animals. The emergence of multidrug-resistant strains of Salmonella leading to increased morbidity and mortality has further complicated its management. Live attenuated vaccines have been proven superior over killed or subunit vaccines due to their ability to induce protective immunity. Of the various strategies used for the generation of live attenuated vaccine strains, focus has gradually shifted towards manipulation of virulence regulator genes. Hfq is a RNA chaperon which mediates the binding of small RNAs to the mRNA and assists in post-transcriptional gene regulation in bacteria. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of the Salmonella Typhimurium Δhfq strain as a candidate for live oral vaccine in murine model of typhoid fever. Salmonella hfq deletion mutant is highly attenuated in cell culture and animal model implying a significant role of Hfq in bacterial virulence. Oral immunization with the Salmonella hfq deletion mutant efficiently protects mice against subsequent oral challenge with virulent strain of Salmonella Typhimurium. Moreover, protection was induced upon both multiple as well as single dose of immunizations. The vaccine strain appears to be safe for use in pregnant mice and the protection is mediated by the increase in the number of CD4(+ T lymphocytes upon vaccination. The levels of serum IgG and secretory-IgA in intestinal washes specific to lipopolysaccharide and outer membrane protein were significantly increased upon vaccination. Furthermore, hfq deletion mutant showed enhanced antigen presentation by dendritic cells compared to the wild type strain. Taken together, the studies in murine immunization model suggest that the Salmonella hfq deletion mutant can be a novel live oral vaccine candidate.

  8. Stable gene transfer of CCR5 and CXCR4 siRNAs by sleeping beauty transposon system to confer HIV-1 resistance

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    Akkina Ramesh

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thus far gene therapy strategies for HIV/AIDS have used either conventional retroviral vectors or lentiviral vectors for gene transfer. Although highly efficient, their use poses a certain degree of risk in terms of viral mediated oncogenesis. Sleeping Beauty (SB transposon system offers a non-viral method of gene transfer to avoid this possible risk. With respect to conferring HIV resistance, stable knock down of HIV-1 coreceptors CCR5 and CXCR4 by the use of lentiviral vector delivered siRNAs has proved to be a promising strategy to protect cells from HIV-1 infection. In the current studies our aim is to evaluate the utility of SB system for stable gene transfer of CCR5 and CXCR4 siRNA genes to derive HIV resistant cells as a first step towards using this system for gene therapy. Results Two well characterized siRNAs against the HIV-1 coreceptors CCR5 and CXCR4 were chosen based on their previous efficacy for the SB transposon gene delivery. The siRNA transgenes were incorporated individually into a modified SB transfer plasmid containing a FACS sortable red fluorescence protein (RFP reporter and a drug selectable neomycin resistance gene. Gene transfer was achieved by co-delivery with a construct expressing a hyperactive transposase (HSB5 into the GHOST-R3/X4/R5 cell line, which expresses the major HIV receptor CD4 and and the co-receptors CCR5 and CXCR4. SB constructs expressing CCR5 or CXCR4 siRNAs were also transfected into MAGI-CCR5 or MAGI-CXCR4 cell lines, respectively. Near complete downregulation of CCR5 and CXCR4 surface expression was observed in transfected cells. During viral challenge with X4-tropic (NL4.3 or R5-tropic (BaL HIV-1 strains, the respective transposed cells showed marked viral resistance. Conclusion SB transposon system can be used to deliver siRNA genes for stable gene transfer. The siRNA genes against HIV-1 coreceptors CCR5 and CXCR4 are able to downregulate the respective cell surface proteins

  9. Hemizygosity of transsulfuration genes confers increased vulnerability against acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagiya, Yoshifumi; Kamata, Shotaro; Mitsuoka, Saya; Okada, Norihiko; Yoshida, Saori; Yamamoto, Junya; Ohkubo, Rika [Department of Biochemistry, Keio University School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tokyo 105-8512 (Japan); Abiko, Yumi [Environmental Biology Laboratory, School of Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8575 (Japan); Yamada, Hidenori [Jobu Hospital for Respiratory Diseases, Maebashi 371-0048 (Japan); Akahoshi, Noriyuki [Department of Immunology, Akita University Graduate School of Medicine, Akita 010-8543 (Japan); Kasahara, Tadashi [Department of Biochemistry, Keio University School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tokyo 105-8512 (Japan); Kumagai, Yoshito [Environmental Biology Laboratory, School of Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8575 (Japan); Ishii, Isao, E-mail: isao-ishii@umin.ac.jp [Department of Biochemistry, Keio University School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tokyo 105-8512 (Japan)

    2015-01-15

    The key mechanism for acetaminophen hepatotoxicity is cytochrome P450 (CYP)-dependent formation of N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine, a potent electrophile that forms protein adducts. Previous studies revealed the fundamental role of glutathione, which binds to and detoxifies N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine. Glutathione is synthesized from cysteine in the liver, and N-acetylcysteine is used as a sole antidote for acetaminophen poisoning. Here, we evaluated the potential roles of transsulfuration enzymes essential for cysteine biosynthesis, cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) and cystathionine γ-lyase (CTH), in acetaminophen hepatotoxicity using hemizygous (Cbs{sup +/−} or Cth{sup +/−}) and homozygous (Cth{sup −/−}) knockout mice. At 4 h after intraperitoneal acetaminophen injection, serum alanine aminotransferase levels were highly elevated in Cth{sup −/−} mice at 150 mg/kg dose, and also in Cbs{sup +/−} or Cth{sup +/−} mice at 250 mg/kg dose, which was associated with characteristic centrilobular hepatocyte oncosis. Hepatic glutathione was depleted while serum malondialdehyde accumulated in acetaminophen-injected Cth{sup −/−} mice but not wild-type mice, although glutamate–cysteine ligase (composed of catalytic [GCLC] and modifier [GCLM] subunits) became more activated in the livers of Cth{sup −/−} mice with lower K{sub m} values for Cys and Glu. Proteome analysis using fluorescent two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis revealed 47 differentially expressed proteins after injection of 150 mg acetaminophen/kg into Cth{sup −/−} mice; the profiles were similar to 1000 mg acetaminophen/kg-treated wild-type mice. The prevalence of Cbs or Cth hemizygosity is estimated to be 1:200–300 population; therefore, the deletion or polymorphism of either transsulfuration gene may underlie idiosyncratic acetaminophen vulnerability along with the differences in Cyp, Gclc, and Gclm gene activities. - Highlights: • Cbs{sup +/−}, Cth{sup +/−}, and

  10. Rare coding variants in the phospholipase D3 gene confer risk for Alzheimer's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified several risk variants for late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD). These common variants have replicable but small effects on LOAD risk and generally do not have obvious functional effects. Low-frequency coding variants, not detected by GWAS, are predicted to include functional variants with larger effects on risk. To identify low-frequency coding variants with large effects on LOAD risk, we carried out whole-exome sequencing (WES) in 14 large LOAD families and follow-up analyses of the candidate variants in several large LOAD case-control data sets. A rare variant in PLD3 (phospholipase D3; Val232Met) segregated with disease status in two independent families and doubled risk for Alzheimer's disease in seven independent case-control series with a total of more than 11,000 cases and controls of European descent. Gene-based burden analyses in 4,387 cases and controls of European descent and 302 African American cases and controls, with complete sequence data for PLD3, reveal that several variants in this gene increase risk for Alzheimer's disease in both populations. PLD3 is highly expressed in brain regions that are vulnerable to Alzheimer's disease pathology, including hippocampus and cortex, and is expressed at significantly lower levels in neurons from Alzheimer's disease brains compared to control brains. Overexpression of PLD3 leads to a significant decrease in intracellular amyloid-β precursor protein (APP) and extracellular Aβ42 and Aβ40 (the 42- and 40-residue isoforms of the amyloid-β peptide), and knockdown of PLD3 leads to a significant increase in extracellular Aβ42 and Aβ40. Together, our genetic and functional data indicate that carriers of PLD3 coding variants have a twofold increased risk for LOAD and that PLD3 influences APP processing. This study provides an example of how densely affected families may help to identify rare variants with large effects on risk for disease or other complex

  11. Distress of ostracism: oxytocin receptor gene polymorphism confers sensitivity to social exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuaid, Robyn J; McInnis, Opal A; Matheson, Kimberly; Anisman, Hymie

    2015-08-01

    A single-nucleotide polymorphism on the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR), rs53576, involving a guanine (G) to adenine (A) substitution has been associated with altered prosocial features. Specifically, individuals with the GG genotype (i.e. the absence of the polymorphism) display beneficial traits including enhanced trust, empathy and self-esteem. However, because G carriers might also be more socially sensitive, this may render them more vulnerable to the adverse effects of a negative social stressor. The current investigation, conducted among 128 white female undergraduate students, demonstrated that relative to individuals with AA genotype, G carriers were more emotionally sensitive (lower self-esteem) in response to social ostracism promoted through an on-line ball tossing game (Cyberball). Furthermore, GG individuals also exhibited altered blood pressure and cortisol levels following rejection, effects not apparent among A carriers. The data support the view that the presence of the G allele not only promotes prosocial behaviors but also favors sensitivity to a negative social stressor.

  12. A gene in the multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) family confers aluminum tolerance in sorghum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhaes, Jurandir V; Liu, Jiping; Guimarães, Claudia T; Lana, Ubiraci G P; Alves, Vera M C; Wang, Yi-Hong; Schaffert, Robert E; Hoekenga, Owen A; Piñeros, Miguel A; Shaff, Jon E; Klein, Patricia E; Carneiro, Newton P; Coelho, Cintia M; Trick, Harold N; Kochian, Leon V

    2007-09-01

    Crop yields are significantly reduced by aluminum toxicity on highly acidic soils, which comprise up to 50% of the world's arable land. Candidate aluminum tolerance proteins include organic acid efflux transporters, with the organic acids forming non-toxic complexes with rhizosphere aluminum. In this study, we used positional cloning to identify the gene encoding a member of the multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) family, an aluminum-activated citrate transporter, as responsible for the major sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) aluminum tolerance locus, Alt(SB). Polymorphisms in regulatory regions of Alt(SB) are likely to contribute to large allelic effects, acting to increase Alt(SB) expression in the root apex of tolerant genotypes. Furthermore, aluminum-inducible Alt(SB) expression is associated with induction of aluminum tolerance via enhanced root citrate exudation. These findings will allow us to identify superior Alt(SB) haplotypes that can be incorporated via molecular breeding and biotechnology into acid soil breeding programs, thus helping to increase crop yields in developing countries where acidic soils predominate.

  13. Genetic analysis of dilated cardiomyopathy--HLA and immunoglobulin genes may confer susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishi, H; Kimura, A; Fukuta, S; Kusukawa, R; Kawamura, K; Nimura, Y; Nagano, M; Yasuda, H; Kawai, C; Sugimoto, T

    1992-10-01

    To identify genetic factors in the immune system which control the susceptibility to dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), HLA class II DNA typing was performed in 61 Japanese patients, using PCR/SSO probe analyses. The frequencies of HLA-DQB1*0503 (15% vs 5%; RR = 3.06, chi 2 = 7.19) and DQB1*0604 (21% vs 10%; RR = 2.41, chi 2 = 6.20) were significantly increased and that of HLA-DQB1*0502 (RR = 1.74) was slightly increased in the DCM patients. The frequency of DQB1*0303 (16% vs 31%; RR = 0.44, chi 2 = 5.16) was significantly decreased in the patients. The increased HLA-DQB1 alleles have a histidine residue in common at the 30th codon for the HLA-DQ beta chain. Among the genetic markers studied by Southern blot analyses, IGLV (immunoglobulin lambda light chain, pV3.3) showed a strong association with DCM, i.e. A2/A2 genotype was found in 37.7% of patients whereas it was observed in only 18.9% of the control subjects (RR = 2.6, chi 2 = 7.77). The frequency of this genotype was higher in patients under age 45 years at the time of diagnosis (45.5%, RR = 3.6, chi 2 = 10.02). These results suggest that HLA and immunoglobulin genes are closely linked to susceptibility to DCM.

  14. Expression of a chitinase gene from Metarhizium anisopliae in tobacco plants confers resistance against Rhizoctonia solani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Marcelo Fernando; Maraschin, Simone de Faria; Vom Endt, Débora; Schrank, Augusto; Vainstein, Marilene Henning; Pasquali, Giancarlo

    2010-04-01

    The chit1 gene from the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae, encoding the endochitinase CHIT42, was placed under the control of the CaMV 35S promoter, and the resulting construct was transferred to tobacco. Seventeen kanamycin-resistant transgenic lines were recovered, and the presence of the transgene was confirmed by polymerase chain reactions and Southern blot hybridization. The number of chit1 copies was determined to be varying from one to four. Copy number had observable effects neither on plant growth nor development. Substantial heterogeneity concerning production of the recombinant chitinase, and both general and specific chitinolytic activities were detected in leaf extracts from primary transformants. The highest chitinase activities were found in plants harboring two copies of chit1 inserts at different loci. Progeny derived from self-pollination of the primary transgenics revealed a stable inheritance pattern, with transgene segregation following a mendelian dihybrid ratio. Two selected plants expressing high levels of CHIT42 were consistently resistant to the soilborne pathogen Rhizoctonia solani, suggesting a direct relationship between enzyme activity and reduction of foliar area affected by fungal lesions. To date, this is the first report of resistance to fungal attack in plants mediated by a recombinant chitinase from an entomopathogenic and acaricide fungus.

  15. Neuropeptide Y gene polymorphisms confer risk of early-onset atherosclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svati H Shah

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuropeptide Y (NPY is a strong candidate gene for coronary artery disease (CAD. We have previously identified genetic linkage to familial CAD in the genomic region of NPY. We performed follow-up genetic, biostatistical, and functional analysis of NPY in early-onset CAD. In familial CAD (GENECARD, N = 420 families, we found increased microsatellite linkage to chromosome 7p14 (OSA LOD = 4.2, p = 0.004 in 97 earliest age-of-onset families. Tagged NPY SNPs demonstrated linkage to CAD of a 6-SNP block (LOD = 1.58-2.72, family-based association of this block with CAD (p = 0.02, and stronger linkage to CAD in the earliest age-of-onset families. Association of this 6-SNP block with CAD was validated in: (a 556 non-familial early-onset CAD cases and 256 controls (OR 1.46-1.65, p = 0.01-0.05, showing stronger association in youngest cases (OR 1.84-2.20, p = 0.0004-0.09; and (b GENECARD probands versus non-familial controls (OR 1.79-2.06, p = 0.003-0.02. A promoter SNP (rs16147 within this 6-SNP block was associated with higher plasma NPY levels (p = 0.04. To assess a causal role of NPY in atherosclerosis, we applied the NPY1-receptor-antagonist BIBP-3226 adventitially to endothelium-denuded carotid arteries of apolipoprotein E-deficient mice; treatment reduced atherosclerotic neointimal area by 50% (p = 0.03. Thus, NPY variants associate with atherosclerosis in two independent datasets (with strong age-of-onset effects and show allele-specific expression with NPY levels, while NPY receptor antagonism reduces atherosclerosis in mice. We conclude that NPY contributes to atherosclerosis pathogenesis.

  16. Increased radiosensitivity as an indicator of genes conferring breast cancer susceptibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varga, D.; Kreienberg, R.; Deissler, H.; Sauer, G. [Dept. of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Univ. of Ulm Medical School (Germany); Vogel, W.; Bender, A.; Surowy, H.; Maier, C. [Dept. of Genetics, Univ. of Ulm Medical School (Germany)

    2007-12-15

    Purpose: This paper briefly summarizes the research on increased radiosensitivity in breast cancer patients measured by the micronucleus test (MNT) and its association to genetic variants in DNA repair genes. More preliminary data are presented on the distribution of chromosomes and chromosome fragments in micronuclei (MN) in order to gain more information on clastogenic and aneugenic effects and better understand the phenotype of increased radiosensitivity. Material and Methods: Reports of relevant studies obtained from a search of PubMed and studies referenced in those reports were reviewed. In four patients with high MN frequency (three cancer patients, one control) and four probands with low MN frequency, the presence of chromosome fragments or whole chromosomes in MN was determined by fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis for chromosomes 1, 7, and 17. Results: An increased MN frequency in breast cancer patients compared to controls has consistently been reported with high significance. Higher MN frequencies were observed in 20-50% of breast cancer patients. Chromosomal fragments of chromosome 17, but not of chromosomes 1 and 7 were more frequent in the probands with high MN frequency than in those with low frequency (p = 0.045). Conclusion: The MNT detects a cellular phenotype common to a portion of sporadic breast cancer patients. This phenotype is very likely to be genetically determined. For the genetic dissection of breast cancer susceptibility this phenotype may turn out to be more efficient than breast cancer itself. Additional parameters which can be measured simultaneously with the MN frequency may be able to further enhance its usefulness. (orig.)

  17. Inheritance and Linkage Map Positions of Genes Conferring Agromorphological Traits in Lens culinaris Medik.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopesh C. Saha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Agromorphological traits have immense importance in breeding lentils for higher yield and stability. We studied the genetics and identified map positions of some important agro-morphological traits including days to 50% flowering, plant height, seed diameter, 100 seed weight, cotyledon color, and growth habit in Lens culinaris. Earlier developed RILs for stemphylium blight resistance (ILL-5888 × ILL-6002, contrasted for those agro-morphological traits, were used in our study. Three QTLs for days to 50% flowering were detected with additive and epistatic effects. One QTL for days to 50% flowering, QLG483 (QTL at linkage group 4 at 83 cM position, accounted for an estimated 20.2% of the variation, while QLG124 × QLG1352 and QLG484 × QLG138 accounted for 15.6% and 24.2% of the variation, respectively. Epistatic effects accounted for most of the variation in plant height, but the main effect of one QTL, QLG84, accounted for 15.3%. For seed diameter, three QTLs were detected, and one QTL, QLG482, accounted for 32.6% of the variation. For 100 seed weight, five QTLs were identified with significant additive effects and four with significant interaction effects. The main effect of one QTL, QLG482, also accounted for 17.5% of the variation in seed diameter. QLG482-83 which appears to affect days to 50% flowering, seed diameter, and 100 seed weight is flanked by RAPD markers, UBC 34 and UBC1. Growth habit and cotyledon color are controlled by single genes with prostrate dominant to erect and red cotyledon dominant to yellow. The QTL information presented here will assist in the selection of breeding lines for early maturity, upright growth habit, and improved seed quality.

  18. ITIH family genes confer risk to schizophrenia and major depressive disorder in the Han Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Kuanjun; Wang, Qingzhong; Chen, Jianhua; Li, Tao; Li, Zhiqiang; Li, Wenjin; Wen, Zujia; Qiang, Yu; Wang, Meng; Shen, Jiawei; Song, Zhijian; Ji, Jue; Feng, Guoyin; Qi, Shuguang; Lin, He; Shi, Yongyong; Cheng, Zaohuo

    2014-06-03

    As a major extracellular matrix component, ITIHs played an important role in inflammation and carcinogenesis. Several genome-wide association studies have reported that some positive signals which were derived from the tight linkage disequilibrium region on chromosome 3p21 were associated with both schizophrenia and bipolar disorders in the Caucasian population. To further investigate whether this genomic region is also a susceptibility locus of schizophrenia and major depressive disorder in the Han Chinese population, we conducted this study by recruiting 1235 schizophrenia patients, 1045 major depressive disorder patients and 1235 healthy control subjects in the Han Chinese samples for a case-control study. We genotyped seven SNPs within this region using TaqMan® technology. We found that rs2710322 was significantly associated with schizophrenia (adjusted P(allele) = 0.0018, adjusted P(genotype) = 0.006, OR [95% CI] = 1.278 [1.117-1.462]) while rs1042779 was weakly associated with schizophrenia (adjusted P(allele) = 0.048, OR [95% CI] = 1.164 [1.040-1.303]) and major depressive disorder (adjusted P(allele) = 0.042, OR [95% CI] = 1.178 [1.047-1.326]); it was also our finding that rs3821831 was positively associated with major depressive disorder (adjusted P(allele) = 0.003, adjusted P(genotype) = 0.006, OR [95% CI] = 1.426 [1.156-1.760]). Furthermore, no haplotype was found to be associated with schizophrenia and major depressive disorder. Via the association analysis which combines the schizophrenia and major depressive disorder cases, we also notice that rs1042779 and rs3821831 were significantly associated with combined cases (rs1042779: adjusted P(allele) = 0.012, adjusted P(genotype) = 0.018, OR [95% CI] = 1.171 [1.060-1.292]; rs3821831:adjusted P(genotype) = 0.012, OR [95% CI] = 1.193 [1.010-1.410]). Our results revealed that the shared genetic risk factors of both schizophrenia and major depressive disorder exist in ITIH family genes in the Han Chinese

  19. Alfalfa benefits from Medicago truncatula: the RCT1 gene from M. truncatula confers broad-spectrum resistance to anthracnose in alfalfa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shengming; Gao, Muqiang; Xu, Chenwu; Gao, Jianchang; Deshpande, Shweta; Lin, Shaoping; Roe, Bruce A; Zhu, Hongyan

    2008-08-26

    Alfalfa is economically the most important forage legume worldwide. A recurrent challenge to alfalfa production is the significant yield loss caused by disease. Although knowledge of molecular mechanisms underlying host resistance should facilitate the genetic improvement of alfalfa, the acquisition of such knowledge is hampered by alfalfa's tetrasomic inheritance and outcrossing nature. However, alfalfa is congeneric with the reference legume Medicago truncatula, providing an opportunity to use M. truncatula as a surrogate to clone the counterparts of many agronomically important genes in alfalfa. In particular, the high degree of sequence identity and remarkably conserved genome structure and function between the two species enables M. truncatula genes to be used directly in alfalfa improvement. Here we report the map-based cloning of RCT1, a host resistance (R) gene in M. truncatula that confers resistance to multiple races of Colletotrichum trifolii, a hemibiotrophic fungal pathogen that causes anthracnose disease of alfalfa. RCT1 is a member of the Toll-interleukin-1 receptor/nucleotide-binding site/leucine-rich repeat (TIR-NBS-LRR) class of plant R genes and confers broad-spectrum anthracnose resistance when transferred into susceptible alfalfa plants. Thus, RCT1 provides a novel resource to develop anthracnose-resistant alfalfa cultivars and contributes to our understanding of host resistance against the fungal genus Colletotrichum. This work demonstrates the potential of using M. truncatula genes for genetic improvement of alfalfa.

  20. High-resolution mapping reveals linkage between genes in common bean cultivar Ouro Negro conferring resistance to the rust, anthracnose, and angular leaf spot diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentini, Giseli; Gonçalves-Vidigal, Maria Celeste; Hurtado-Gonzales, Oscar P; de Lima Castro, Sandra Aparecida; Cregan, Perry B; Song, Qijian; Pastor-Corrales, Marcial A

    2017-08-01

    Co-segregation analysis and high-throughput genotyping using SNP, SSR, and KASP markers demonstrated genetic linkage between Ur-14 and Co-3 (4) /Phg-3 loci conferring resistance to the rust, anthracnose and angular leaf spot diseases of common bean. Rust, anthracnose, and angular leaf spot are major diseases of common bean in the Americas and Africa. The cultivar Ouro Negro has the Ur-14 gene that confers broad spectrum resistance to rust and the gene cluster Co-3 (4) /Phg-3 containing two tightly linked genes conferring resistance to anthracnose and angular leaf spot, respectively. We used co-segregation analysis and high-throughput genotyping of 179 F2:3 families from the Rudá (susceptible) × Ouro Negro (resistant) cross-phenotyped separately with races of the rust and anthracnose pathogens. The results confirmed that Ur-14 and Co-3 (4) /Phg-3 cluster in Ouro Negro conferred resistance to rust and anthracnose, respectively, and that Ur-14 and the Co-3 (4) /Phg-3 cluster were closely linked. Genotyping the F2:3 families, first with 5398 SNPs on the Illumina BeadChip BARCBEAN6K_3 and with 15 SSR, and eight KASP markers, specifically designed for the candidate region containing Ur-14 and Co-3 (4) /Phg-3, permitted the creation of a high-resolution genetic linkage map which revealed that Ur-14 was positioned at 2.2 cM from Co-3 (4) /Phg-3 on the short arm of chromosome Pv04 of the common bean genome. Five flanking SSR markers were tightly linked at 0.1 and 0.2 cM from Ur-14, and two flanking KASP markers were tightly linked at 0.1 and 0.3 cM from Co-3 (4) /Phg-3. Many other SSR, SNP, and KASP markers were also linked to these genes. These markers will be useful for the development of common bean cultivars combining the important Ur-14 and Co-3 (4) /Phg-3 genes conferring resistance to three of the most destructive diseases of common bean.

  1. Virulence Associated Genes-Deleted Salmonella Montevideo Is Attenuated, Highly Immunogenic and Confers Protection against Virulent Challenge in Chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalsiamthara, Jonathan; Lee, John H.

    2016-01-01

    To construct a novel live vaccine against Salmonella enterica serovar Montevideo (SM) infection in chickens, two important bacterial regulatory genes, lon and cpxR, which are associated with invasion and virulence, were deleted from the wild type SM genome. Attenuated strains, JOL1625 (Δlon), JOL1597 (ΔcpxR), and JOL1599 (ΔlonΔcpxR) were thereby generated. Observations with scanning electron microscopy suggested that JOL1625 and JOL1599 cells showed increased ruffled surface which may be related to abundant extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) production. JOL1597 depicted milder ruffled surface but showed increased surface corrugation. ConA affinity-based fluorometric quantification and fluorescence microscopy revealed significant increases in EPS production in JOL1625 and JOL1599. Four weeks old chickens were used for safety and immunological studies. The mutants were not observed in feces beyond day 3 nor in spleen and cecum beyond day 7, whereas wild type SM was detected for at least 2 weeks in spleen and cecum. JOL1599 was further evaluated as a vaccine candidate. Chickens immunized with JOL1599 showed strong humoral responses, as indicated by systemic IgG and secretory IgA levels, as well as strong cell-mediated immune response, as indicated by increased lymphocyte proliferation. JOL1599-immunized groups also showed significant degree of protection against wild type challenge. Our results indicate that Δlon- and/or ΔcpxR-deleted SM exhibited EPS-enhanced immunogenicity and attenuation via reduced bacterial cell intracellular replication, conferred increased protection, and possess safety qualities favorable for effective vaccine development against virulent SM infections. PMID:27785128

  2. Fine mapping and analysis of a candidate gene in tomato accession PI128216 conferring hypersensitive resistance to bacterial spot race T3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Chengcheng; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Jieyun; Wang, Yuanyuan; Francis, David M; Yang, Wencai

    2012-02-01

    Bacterial spot caused by Xanthomonas euvesicatoria, X. vesicatoria, X. perforans and X. gardneri is one of the most destructive diseases in tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum L.) growing in tropical and subtropical regions. Exploring resistance genes from diverse germplasm and incorporating them into cultivated varieties are critical for controlling this disease. The S. pimpinellifolium accession PI128216 was reported to carry the Rx4 gene on chromosome 11 conferring hypersensitivity and field resistance to race T3. To facilitate the use of marker-assisted selection in breeding and map-based cloning of the gene, an F(2) population derived from a cross between the susceptible variety OH88119 and the resistant accession PI128216 was created for fine mapping of the Rx4 gene. Using 18 markers developed through various approaches, we mapped the gene to a 45.1-kb region between two markers pcc17 and pcc14 on chromosome 11. A NBS-LRR class of resistance gene was identified as the candidate for the Rx4 gene based on annotation results from the International Tomato Annotation Group. Comparison of the genomic DNA sequences of the Rx4 alleles in PI128216 and OH88119 revealed a 6-bp insertion/deletion (InDel) and eight SNPs. The InDel marker was successfully used to distinguish resistance and susceptibility in 12 tomato lines. These results will facilitate cloning the Rx4 gene and provide a useful tool for marker-assisted selection of this gene in tomato breeding programs.

  3. 1(st) EMBL/DFG Women in Science Network Conference Heidelberg 2016: From Genes, Cells and the Immune System towards Therapies - Meeting Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stripecke, Renata; Gouttefangeas, Cécile; Förster, Irmgard

    2016-11-01

    The 1(st) EMBL/DFG Women in Science (WiS) Conference "From Genes, Cells and the Immune System towards Therapies" was held on 19(th) - 20(th) September 2016 in Heidelberg, Germany. The WiS conference was funded by nine Collaborative Research Centers (CRCs) of the German Research Council (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, DFG; Table 1) and benefited from an outstanding hosting environment at the Advanced Training Center of the European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL). Scientific talks focused at genetic, cellular and immunologic mechanisms, and immune therapy, and progress from all stages of development covering basic research to clinical developments was described. The presentations were embedded between structured networking sessions and a round table discussion with representatives of the DFG, EMBL, European Molecular Biology Organisation (EMBO), and the German Society of Immunology (DGfI). © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Identification of amino acids conferring high-level resistance to expanded-spectrum cephalosporins in the penA gene from Neisseria gonorrhoeae strain H041.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomberg, Joshua; Unemo, Magnus; Ohnishi, Makoto; Davies, Christopher; Nicholas, Robert A

    2013-07-01

    The recent identification of a high-level-ceftriaxone-resistant (MIC = 2 to 4 μg/ml) isolate of Neisseria gonorrhoeae from Japan (H041) portends the loss of ceftriaxone as an effective treatment for gonococcal infections. This is of grave concern because ceftriaxone is the last remaining option for first-line empirical antimicrobial monotherapy. The penA gene from H041 (penA41) is a mosaic penA allele similar to mosaic alleles conferring intermediate-level cephalosporin resistance (Ceph(i)) worldwide but has 13 additional mutations compared to the mosaic penA gene from the previously studied Ceph(i) strain 35/02 (penA35). When transformed into the wild-type strain FA19, the penA41 allele confers 300- and 570-fold increases in the MICs for ceftriaxone and cefixime, respectively. In order to understand the mechanisms involved in high-level ceftriaxone resistance and to improve surveillance and epidemiology during the potential emergence of ceftriaxone resistance, we sought to identify the minimum number of amino acid alterations above those in penA35 that confer high-level resistance to ceftriaxone. Using restriction fragment exchange and site-directed mutagenesis, we identified three mutations, A311V, T316P, and T483S, that, when incorporated into the mosaic penA35 allele, confer essentially all of the increased resistance of penA41. A311V and T316P are close to the active-site nucleophile Ser310 that forms the acyl-enzyme complex, while Thr483 is predicted to interact with the carboxylate of the β-lactam antibiotic. These three mutations have thus far been described only for penA41, but dissemination of these mutations in other mosaic alleles would spell the end of ceftriaxone as an effective treatment for gonococcal infections.

  5. SpxB is a suicide gene of Streptococcus pneumoniae and confers a selective advantage in an in vivo competitive colonization model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regev-Yochay, Gili; Trzcinski, Krzysztof; Thompson, Claudette M; Lipsitch, Marc; Malley, Richard

    2007-09-01

    The human bacterial pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae dies spontaneously upon reaching stationary phase. The extent of S. pneumoniae death at stationary phase is unusual in bacteria and has been conventionally attributed to autolysis by the LytA amidase. In this study, we show that spontaneous pneumococcal death is due to hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), not LytA, and that the gene responsible for H(2)O(2) production (spxB) also confers a survival advantage in colonization. Survival of S. pneumoniae in stationary phase was significantly prolonged by eliminating H(2)O(2) in any of three ways: chemically by supplementing the media with catalase, metabolically by growing the bacteria under anaerobic conditions, or genetically by constructing DeltaspxB mutants that do not produce H(2)O(2). Likewise, addition of H(2)O(2) to exponentially growing S. pneumoniae resulted in a death rate similar to that of cells in stationary phase. While DeltalytA mutants did not lyse at stationary phase, they died at a rate similar to that of the wild-type strain. Furthermore, we show that the death process induced by H(2)O(2) has features of apoptosis, as evidenced by increased annexin V staining, decreased DNA content, and appearance as assessed by transmission electron microscopy. Finally, in an in vivo rat model of competitive colonization, the presence of spxB conferred a selective advantage over the DeltaspxB mutant, suggesting an explanation for the persistence of this gene. We conclude that a suicide gene of pneumococcus is spxB, which induces an apoptosis-like death in pneumococci and confers a selective advantage in nasopharyngeal cocolonization.

  6. Ectopic expression of Arabidopsis glutaredoxin gene AtGRXS17 in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) confers tolerance to chilling stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    The monothiol glutaredoxin AtGRXS17 from "Arabidopsis" confers thermotolerance in yeast, "Arabidopsis", and tomato plants. Here, we report that AtGRXS17 also enhances tolerance to chilling stress in tomato and is associated with elevation of antioxidant enzyme activities, which are known to be invol...

  7. Overexpression of pigeonpea stress-induced cold and drought regulatory gene (CcCDR) confers drought, salt, and cold tolerance in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamirisa, Srinath; Vudem, Dashavantha Reddy; Khareedu, Venkateswara Rao

    2014-09-01

    A potent cold and drought regulatory protein-encoding gene (CcCDR) was isolated from the subtractive cDNA library of pigeonpea plants subjected to drought stress. CcCDR was induced by different abiotic stress conditions in pigeonpea. Overexpression of CcCDR in Arabidopsis thaliana imparted enhanced tolerance against major abiotic stresses, namely drought, salinity, and low temperature, as evidenced by increased biomass, root length, and chlorophyll content. Transgenic plants also showed increased levels of antioxidant enzymes, proline, and reducing sugars under stress conditions. Furthermore, CcCDR-transgenic plants showed enhanced relative water content, osmotic potential, and cell membrane stability, as well as hypersensitivity to abscisic acid (ABA) as compared with control plants. Localization studies confirmed that CcCDR could enter the nucleus, as revealed by intense fluorescence, indicating its possible interaction with various nuclear proteins. Microarray analysis revealed that 1780 genes were up-regulated in CcCDR-transgenics compared with wild-type plants. Real-time PCR analysis on selected stress-responsive genes, involved in ABA-dependent and -independent signalling networks, revealed higher expression levels in transgenic plants, suggesting that CcCDR acts upstream of these genes. The overall results demonstrate the explicit role of CcCDR in conferring multiple abiotic stress tolerance at the whole-plant level. The multifunctional CcCDR seems promising as a prime candidate gene for enhancing abiotic stress tolerance in diverse plants.

  8. Zinc finger protein genes from Cucurbita pepo are promising tools for conferring non-Cucurbitaceae plants with ability to accumulate persistent organic pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inui, Hideyuki; Hirota, Matashi; Goto, Junya; Yoshihara, Ryouhei; Kodama, Noriko; Matsui, Tomomi; Yamazaki, Kiyoshi; Eun, Heesoo

    2015-03-01

    Some cultivars of cucumbers, melons, pumpkins, and zucchini, which are members of the Cucurbitaceae family, are uniquely subject to contamination by hydrophobic pollutants such as the organohalogen insecticides DDT. However, the molecular mechanisms for the accumulation of these pollutants in cucurbits have not been determined. Here, cDNA subtraction analysis of Cucurbita pepo cultivars that are low and high accumulators of hydrophobic contaminants revealed that a gene for zinc finger proteins (ZFPs) are preferentially expressed in high accumulators. The cloned CpZFP genes were classified into 2 types: (1) the PBG type, which were expressed in C. pepo cultivars Patty Green, Black Beauty, and Gold Rush, and (2) the BG type, which were expressed in Black Beauty and Gold Rush. Expression of these CpZFP genes in transgenic tobacco plants carrying an aryl hydrocarbon receptor-based inducible gene expression system significantly induced β-glucuronidase activity when the plants were treated with a polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) compound, indicating that highly hydrophobic PCBs accumulated in the plants. In transgenic tobacco plants carrying CpZFPs, accumulation of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds increased in their aerial parts when they were cultivated in the dioxin-contaminated soil. In summary, we propose that addition of CpZFP genes is a promising tool for conferring noncucurbits with the ability to accumulate hydrophobic contaminants.

  9. A wheat homologue of PHYTOCLOCK 1 is a candidate gene conferring the early heading phenotype to einkorn wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Nobuyuki; Nitta, Miyuki; Sato, Kazuhiro; Nasuda, Shuhei

    2012-01-01

    An X-ray mutant showing an early flowering phenotype has been identified in einkorn wheat (Triticum monococcum L.), for which a major QTL for heading time was previously mapped in the telomeric region on the long arm of chromosome 3A. Recent advances in Triticeae genomics revealed that the gene order in this region is highly conserved between wheat and barley. Thus, we adopted a hypothetical gene order in barley, the so-called GenomeZipper, to develop DNA markers for fine mapping the target gene in wheat. We identified three genes tightly linked to the early heading phenotype. PCR analysis revealed that early-flowering is associated with the deletion of two genes in the mutant. Of the two deleted genes, one is an ortholog of the LUX ARRHYTHMO (LUX)/PHYTOCLOCK 1 (PCL1) gene found in Arabidopsis, which regulates the circadian clock and flowering time. We found distorted expression patterns of two clock genes (TOC1 and LHY) in the einkorn pcl1 deletion mutant as was reported for the Arabidopsis lux mutant. Transcript accumulation levels of photoperiod-response related genes, a photoperiod sensitivity gene (Ppd-1) and two wheat CONSTANS-like genes (WCO1 and TaHd1), were significantly higher in the einkorn wheat mutant. In addition, transcripts of the wheat florigen gene (WFT) accumulated temporally under short-day conditions in the einkorn wheat mutant. These results suggest that deletion of WPCL1 leads to abnormally higher expression of Ppd-1, resulting in the accumulation of WFT transcripts that triggers flowering even under short-day conditions. Our observations from gene mapping, gene deletions, and expression levels of flowering related genes strongly suggest that WPCL1 is the most likely candidate gene for controlling the early flowering phenotype in the einkorn wheat mutant.

  10. Co-expression of G2-EPSPS and glyphosate acetyltransferase GAT genes conferring high tolerance to glyphosate in soybean

    OpenAIRE

    Bingfu eGuo; Yong eGuo; Huilong eHong; Longguo eJin; Lijuan eZhang; Ru-Zhen eChang; Wei eLu; Min eLin; Li-Juan eQiu

    2015-01-01

    Glyphosate is a widely used non-selective herbicide with broad spectrum of weed control around the world. At present, most of the commercial glyphosate tolerant soybeans utilize glyphosate tolerant gene CP4-EPSPS or glyphosate acetyltransferase gene GAT separately. In this study, both glyphosate tolerant gene G2-EPSPS and glyphosate degraded gene GAT were co-transferred into soybean and transgenic plants showed high tolerance to glyphosate. Molecular analysis including PCR, Sothern blot, qRT-...

  11. Technical note: Occurrence in fecal microbiota of genes conferring resistance to both macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B and tetracyclines concomitant with feeding of beef cattle with tylosin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J; Fluharty, F L; St-Pierre, N; Morrison, M; Yu, Z

    2008-09-01

    Development of antimicrobial resistance in food animals receiving antimicrobials has been well documented among bacterial isolates, especially pathogens, but information on development of antimicrobial resistance at the microbial community level during long-term feeding of antimicrobials is lacking. The objective of this study was to examine the association between inclusion of tylosin in feed and occurrence of resistance to macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B (MLS(B)) in the entire fecal microbial communities of beef cattle over a feeding study of 168 d. A completely randomized design included 6 pens housed together in 1 barn, with each pen housing 10 to 11 steers. The control and tylosin groups each had 3 pens, with the former receiving no antimicrobial whereas the latter received both tylosin and monensin (11 and 29.9 mg/ kg of feed, respectively, DM) in feed. The abundance of genes conferring resistance to MLS(B) (erm genes) and tetracyclines (tet genes) were quantified using class-specific, real-time PCR assays. The abundances of erm and tet genes were analyzed with pens as experimental units using the MIXED procedure of SAS. Correlations between abundance of different resistance genes were calculated using the CORR procedure of SAS. We identified 4 classes (B, F, T, and X) of erm genes in fresh fecal samples collected at wk 2, 17, and 21 of feeding. From wk 2 to 17, the abundance of erm(T) and erm(X) increased (P tylosin feeding. Such co-selection of multiresistance at community level by one antimicrobial drug used in animals has the important implication that future studies should examine resistance to not only the antimicrobials used in animals, but also other antimicrobials, especially those used in human medicine, to fully assess the potential risk associated with antimicrobial use in animals. Both the erm and tet genes appeared to be disseminated among the microbial populations in all steers housed together.

  12. Nostradamus conference

    CERN Document Server

    Rössler, Otto; Snášel, Václav; Abraham, Ajith; Corchado, Emilio; Nostradamus: Modern Methods of Prediction, Modeling and Analysis of Nonlinear Systems

    2013-01-01

    This proceeding book of Nostradamus conference (http://nostradamus-conference.org) contains accepted papers presented at this event in 2012. Nostradamus conference was held in the one of the biggest and historic city of Ostrava (the Czech Republic, http://www.ostrava.cz/en), in September 2012. Conference topics are focused on classical as well as modern methods for prediction of dynamical systems with applications in science, engineering and economy. Topics are (but not limited to): prediction by classical and novel methods, predictive control, deterministic chaos and its control, complex systems, modelling and prediction of its dynamics and much more.

  13. Overexpression of MpCYS4, A Phytocystatin Gene from Malus prunifolia (Willd.) Borkh., Enhances Stomatal Closure to Confer Drought Tolerance in Transgenic Arabidopsis and Apple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yanxiao; Li, Mingjun; Yang, Yingli; Sun, Xun; Wang, Na; Liang, Bowen; Ma, Fengwang

    2017-01-01

    Phytocystatins (PhyCys) comprise a group of inhibitors for cysteine proteinases in plants. They play a wide range of important roles in regulating endogenous processes and protecting plants against various environmental stresses, but the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Here, we detailed the biological functions of MpCYS4, a member of cystatin genes isolated from Malus prunifolia. This gene was activated under water deficit, heat (40°C), exogenous abscisic acid (ABA), or methyl viologen (MV) (Tan et al., 2014a). At cellular level, MpCYS4 protein was found to be localized in the nucleus, cytoplasm, and plasma membrane of onion epidermal cells. Recombinant MpCYS4 cystatin expressed in Escherichia coli was purified and it exhibited cysteine protease inhibitor activity. Transgenic overexpression of MpCYS4 in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and apple (Malus domestica) led to ABA hypersensitivity and series of ABA-associated phenotypes, such as enhanced ABA-induced stomatal closing, altered expression of many ABA/stress-responsive genes, and enhanced drought tolerance. Taken together, our results demonstrate that MpCYS4 is involved in ABA-mediated stress signal transduction and confers drought tolerance at least in part by enhancing stomatal closure and up-regulating the transcriptional levels of ABA- and drought-related genes. These findings provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms by which phytocystatins influence plant growth, development, and tolerance to stress.

  14. Expression of a codon-optimized dsdA gene in tobacco plastids and rice nuclear confers D-serine tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanmei eLi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available D-serine is toxic to plants. D-serine ammonia lyase, which is encoded by the dsdA gene, can attenuate this toxicity with high specificity. In the present study, we explored the function of codon-optimized dsdA with tobacco plastids and rice nuclear transformation system. It was shown that the dsdA gene was site-specifically integrated into the tobacco chloroplast genome and displayed a high level of expression. Genetic analysis of the progenies showed that the dsdA gene is maternally inherited and confers sufficient D-serine resistance in tobacco. The effective screening concentrations of D-serine for seed germination, callus regeneration and foliar spray were 10 mM, 30 mM and 75 mM, respectively. In addition, calluses from homozygous transgenic rice lines also showed significant tolerance to D-serine (up to 75 mM. Our study proves the feasibility of using dsdA gene as a selectable marker in both chloroplast and nuclear transformation systems.

  15. Expression of a Codon-Optimized dsdA Gene in Tobacco Plastids and Rice Nucleus Confers D-Serine Tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanmei; Wang, Rui; Hu, Zongliang; Li, Hongcai; Lu, Shizhan; Zhang, Juanjuan; Lin, Yongjun; Zhou, Fei

    2016-01-01

    D-serine is toxic to plants. D-serine ammonia lyase, which is encoded by the dsdA gene, can attenuate this toxicity with high specificity. In the present study, we explored the function of codon-optimized dsdA with tobacco plastids and rice nuclear transformation system. It was shown that dsdA gene was site-specifically integrated into the tobacco plastid genome and displayed a high level of expression. Genetic analysis of the progenies showed that dsdA gene is maternally inherited and confers sufficient D-serine resistance in tobacco. The effective screening concentrations of D-serine for seed germination, callus regeneration and foliar spray were 10, 30, and 75 mM, respectively. In addition, calluses from homozygous transgenic rice lines also showed significant tolerance to D-serine (up to 75 mM). Our study proves the feasibility of using dsdA gene as a selectable marker in both plastid and nuclear transformation systems.

  16. Identification of ABC transporter genes conferring combined pleuromutilin-lincosamide-streptogramin A resistance in bovine methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendlandt, Sarah; Kadlec, Kristina; Feßler, Andrea T; Schwarz, Stefan

    2015-06-12

    The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic basis of combined pleuromutilin-lincosamide-streptogramin A resistance in 26 unrelated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) from dairy cows suffering from mastitis. The 26 pleuromutilin-resistant staphylococcal isolates were screened for the presence of the genes vga(A), vga(B), vga(C), vga(E), vga(E) variant, sal(A), vmlR, cfr, lsa(A), lsa(B), lsa(C), and lsa(E) by PCR. None of the 26 isolates carried the genes vga(B), vga(C), vga(E), vga(E) variant, vmlR, cfr, lsa(A), lsa(B), or lsa(C). Two Staphylococcus haemolyticus and single Staphylococcus xylosus, Staphylococcus lentus, and Staphylococcus hominis were vga(A)-positive. Twelve S. aureus, two Staphylococcus warneri, as well as single S. lentus and S. xylosus carried the lsa(E) gene. Moreover, single S. aureus, S. haemolyticus, S. xylosus, and Staphylococcus epidermidis were positive for both genes, vga(A) and lsa(E). The sal(A) gene was found in a single Staphylococcus sciuri. All ABC transporter genes were located in the chromosomal DNA, except for a plasmid-borne vga(A) gene in the S. epidermidis isolate. The genetic environment of the lsa(E)-positive isolates was analyzed using previously described PCR assays. Except for the S. warneri and S. xylosus, all lsa(E)-positive isolates harbored a part of the previously described enterococcal multiresistance gene cluster. This is the first report of the novel lsa(E) gene in the aforementioned bovine CoNS species. This is also the first identification of the sal(A) gene in a S. sciuri from a case of bovine mastitis. Moreover, the sal(A) gene was shown to also confer pleuromutilin resistance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Expression of the grape VqSTS21 gene in Arabidopsis confers resistance to osmotic stress and biotrophic pathogens but not Botrytis cinerea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Huang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Stilbene synthase (STS is a key gene in the biosynthesis of various stilbenoids, including resveratrol and its derivative glucosides (such as piceid, that has been shown to contribute to disease resistance in plants. However, the mechanism behind such a role has yet to be elucidated. Furthermore, the function of STS genes in osmotic stress tolerance remains unclear. As such, we sought to elucidate the role of STS genes in the defense against biotic and abiotic stress in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Expression profiling of 31 VqSTS genes from Vitis quinquangularis revealed that VqSTS21 was up-regulated in response to powdery mildew (PM infection. To provide a deeper understanding of the function of this gene, we cloned the full-length coding sequence of VqSTS21 and overexpressed it in Arabidopsis thaliana via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The resulting VqSTS21 Arabidopsis lines produced trans-piceid rather than resveratrol as their main stilbenoid product and exhibited improved disease resistance to PM and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000, but displayed increased susceptibility to Botrytis cinerea. In addition, transgenic Arabidopsis lines were found to confer tolerance to salt and drought stress from seed germination through plant maturity. Intriguingly, qPCR assays of defense-related genes involved in salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, and abscisic acid-induced signaling pathways in these transgenic lines suggested that VqSTS21 plays a role in various phytohormone-related pathways, providing insight into the mechanism behind VqSTS21-mediated resistance to biotic and abiotic stress.

  18. Expression of the Grape VqSTS21 Gene in Arabidopsis Confers Resistance to Osmotic Stress and Biotrophic Pathogens but Not Botrytis cinerea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Li; Zhang, Songlin; Singer, Stacy D.; Yin, Xiangjing; Yang, Jinhua; Wang, Yuejin; Wang, Xiping

    2016-01-01

    Stilbene synthase (STS) is a key gene in the biosynthesis of various stilbenoids, including resveratrol and its derivative glucosides (such as piceid), that has been shown to contribute to disease resistance in plants. However, the mechanism behind such a role has yet to be elucidated. Furthermore, the function of STS genes in osmotic stress tolerance remains unclear. As such, we sought to elucidate the role of STS genes in the defense against biotic and abiotic stress in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Expression profiling of 31 VqSTS genes from Vitis quinquangularis revealed that VqSTS21 was up-regulated in response to powdery mildew (PM) infection. To provide a deeper understanding of the function of this gene, we cloned the full-length coding sequence of VqSTS21 and overexpressed it in Arabidopsis thaliana via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The resulting VqSTS21 Arabidopsis lines produced trans-piceid rather than resveratrol as their main stilbenoid product and exhibited improved disease resistance to PM and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000, but displayed increased susceptibility to Botrytis cinerea. In addition, transgenic Arabidopsis lines were found to confer tolerance to salt and drought stress from seed germination through plant maturity. Intriguingly, qPCR assays of defense-related genes involved in salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, and abscisic acid-induced signaling pathways in these transgenic lines suggested that VqSTS21 plays a role in various phytohormone-related pathways, providing insight into the mechanism behind VqSTS21-mediated resistance to biotic and abiotic stress. PMID:27695466

  19. Accurately assessing the risk of schizophrenia conferred by rare copy-number variation affecting genes with brain function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raychaudhuri, Soumya; Korn, Joshua M; McCarroll, Steven A; Altshuler, David; Sklar, Pamela; Purcell, Shaun; Daly, Mark J

    2010-09-09

    Investigators have linked rare copy number variation (CNVs) to neuropsychiatric diseases, such as schizophrenia. One hypothesis is that CNV events cause disease by affecting genes with specific brain functions. Under these circumstances, we expect that CNV events in cases should impact brain-function genes more frequently than those events in controls. Previous publications have applied "pathway" analyses to genes within neuropsychiatric case CNVs to show enrichment for brain-functions. While such analyses have been suggestive, they often have not rigorously compared the rates of CNVs impacting genes with brain function in cases to controls, and therefore do not address important confounders such as the large size of brain genes and overall differences in rates and sizes of CNVs. To demonstrate the potential impact of confounders, we genotyped rare CNV events in 2,415 unaffected controls with Affymetrix 6.0; we then applied standard pathway analyses using four sets of brain-function genes and observed an apparently highly significant enrichment for each set. The enrichment is simply driven by the large size of brain-function genes. Instead, we propose a case-control statistical test, cnv-enrichment-test, to compare the rate of CNVs impacting specific gene sets in cases versus controls. With simulations, we demonstrate that cnv-enrichment-test is robust to case-control differences in CNV size, CNV rate, and systematic differences in gene size. Finally, we apply cnv-enrichment-test to rare CNV events published by the International Schizophrenia Consortium (ISC). This approach reveals nominal evidence of case-association in neuronal-activity and the learning gene sets, but not the other two examined gene sets. The neuronal-activity genes have been associated in a separate set of schizophrenia cases and controls; however, testing in independent samples is necessary to definitively confirm this association. Our method is implemented in the PLINK software package.

  20. Accurately Assessing the Risk of Schizophrenia Conferred by Rare Copy-Number Variation Affecting Genes with Brain Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raychaudhuri, Soumya; Korn, Joshua M.; McCarroll, Steven A.; Altshuler, David; Sklar, Pamela; Purcell, Shaun; Daly, Mark J.

    2010-01-01

    Investigators have linked rare copy number variation (CNVs) to neuropsychiatric diseases, such as schizophrenia. One hypothesis is that CNV events cause disease by affecting genes with specific brain functions. Under these circumstances, we expect that CNV events in cases should impact brain-function genes more frequently than those events in controls. Previous publications have applied “pathway” analyses to genes within neuropsychiatric case CNVs to show enrichment for brain-functions. While such analyses have been suggestive, they often have not rigorously compared the rates of CNVs impacting genes with brain function in cases to controls, and therefore do not address important confounders such as the large size of brain genes and overall differences in rates and sizes of CNVs. To demonstrate the potential impact of confounders, we genotyped rare CNV events in 2,415 unaffected controls with Affymetrix 6.0; we then applied standard pathway analyses using four sets of brain-function genes and observed an apparently highly significant enrichment for each set. The enrichment is simply driven by the large size of brain-function genes. Instead, we propose a case-control statistical test, cnv-enrichment-test, to compare the rate of CNVs impacting specific gene sets in cases versus controls. With simulations, we demonstrate that cnv-enrichment-test is robust to case-control differences in CNV size, CNV rate, and systematic differences in gene size. Finally, we apply cnv-enrichment-test to rare CNV events published by the International Schizophrenia Consortium (ISC). This approach reveals nominal evidence of case-association in neuronal-activity and the learning gene sets, but not the other two examined gene sets. The neuronal-activity genes have been associated in a separate set of schizophrenia cases and controls; however, testing in independent samples is necessary to definitively confirm this association. Our method is implemented in the PLINK software package

  1. Consensus conferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Annika Porsborg; Lassen, Jesper

    Our results point to significant national variation both in terms of the perceived aim of consensus conferences, expectations to conference outcomes, conceptions of the roles of lay people and experts, and in terms of the way in which the role of public deliberation is interpreted. Interestingly...

  2. The SbSOS1 gene from the extreme halophyte Salicornia brachiata enhances Na+ loading in xylem and confers salt tolerance in transgenic tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadav Narendra

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Soil salinity adversely affects plant growth and development and disturbs intracellular ion homeostasis resulting cellular toxicity. The Salt Overly Sensitive 1 (SOS1 gene encodes a plasma membrane Na+/H+ antiporter that plays an important role in imparting salt stress tolerance to plants. Here, we report the cloning and characterisation of the SbSOS1 gene from Salicornia brachiata, an extreme halophyte. Results The SbSOS1 gene is 3774 bp long and encodes a protein of 1159 amino acids. SbSOS1 exhibited a greater level of constitutive expression in roots than in shoots and was further increased by salt stress. Overexpressing the S. brachiata SbSOS1 gene in tobacco conferred high salt tolerance, promoted seed germination and increased root length, shoot length, leaf area, fresh weight, dry weight, relative water content (RWC, chlorophyll, K+/Na+ ratio, membrane stability index, soluble sugar, proline and amino acid content relative to wild type (WT plants. Transgenic plants exhibited reductions in electrolyte leakage, reactive oxygen species (ROS and MDA content in response to salt stress, which probably occurred because of reduced cytosolic Na+ content and oxidative damage. At higher salt stress, transgenic tobacco plants exhibited reduced Na+ content in root and leaf and higher concentrations in stem and xylem sap relative to WT, which suggests a role of SbSOS1 in Na+ loading to xylem from root and leaf tissues. Transgenic lines also showed increased K+ and Ca2+ content in root tissue compared to WT, which reflect that SbSOS1 indirectly affects the other transporters activity. Conclusions Overexpression of SbSOS1 in tobacco conferred a high degree of salt tolerance, enhanced plant growth and altered physiological and biochemical parameters in response to salt stress. In addition to Na+ efflux outside the plasma membrane, SbSOS1 also helps to maintain variable Na+ content in different organs and also affect the other

  3. The untranslated leader sequence of the barley lipoxygenase 1 (Lox1) gene confers embryo-specific expression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rouster, J.; Mechelen J. van; Cameron-Mills, V.

    1998-01-01

    The barley lipoxygenase 1 (Lox1) gene encodes a protein expressed in embryos during grain development and germination and in leaves after methyl-jasmonate (MeJA) treatment. Transient gene expression assays in germinating barley embryos were used to identify cis-regulatory elements involved in the em

  4. The untranslated leader sequence of the barley lipoxygenase 1 (Lox1) gene confers embryo-specific expression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rouster, J.; Mechelen J. van; Cameron-Mills, V.

    1998-01-01

    The barley lipoxygenase 1 (Lox1) gene encodes a protein expressed in embryos during grain development and germination and in leaves after methyl-jasmonate (MeJA) treatment. Transient gene expression assays in germinating barley embryos were used to identify cis-regulatory elements involved in the em

  5. Silencing of potato virus X coat protein gene in transgenic tobaccos by codon replacement that confers resistance to PVX infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Dejiang; LIU Xiang; MENG Kun; LIAO Lili; WEI Xiaoli; XU Honglin; ZHU Zhen

    2003-01-01

    To understand the effect of rare codon on the silencing ratio of foreign gene, some preferred codon in potato virus X (PVX) coat protein gene (cp) were substituted with synonymous rare codons. The modified PVX coat protein gene (cpm) and wild-type cp gene (cpw) were inserted into binary vector under the control of CaMV35S promoter, and these two plant expression constructs were transferred into tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv. Xanthi) genomes via Agrobacterium mediated method and transgenic plants were generated. Northern blot analysis of RNA isolated from these plants showed that the silencing ratio of cpm gene in transgenic tobaccos was higher than that of cpw (35% and 6.25% respectively). Run on results indicate that the silencing of cp gene happened at post-transcriptional level. The resistance of transgenic tobaccos carrying cpm genes to PVX is increased compared with that of transformants carrying cpw genes. These results suggest that the resistance of transgenic tobacco to PVX can be enhanced by codon replacement.

  6. qnrD, a Novel Gene Conferring Transferable Quinolone Resistance in Salmonella enterica Serovar Kentucky and Bovismorbificans Strains of Human Origin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavaco, Lina; Hasman, Henrik; Xia, S.

    2009-01-01

    In a previous study, four Salmonella isolates from humans in the Henan province of China showed reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin (MIC, 0.125 to 0.25 mu g/ml) but were susceptible to nalidixic acid ( MIC, 4 to 8 mu g/ml). All isolates were negative for known qnr genes ( A, B, and S), aac(6......')Ib-cr, and mutations in gyrA and parC. Plasmid DNA was extracted from all four isolates and transformed into Escherichia coli TG1 and DH10B cells by electroporation, and transformants were selected on 0.06 mu g/ml ciprofloxacin containing brain heart infusion agar plates. Resistance to ciprofloxacin...... qnrD, showed 48% similarity to qnrA1, 61% similarity to qnrB1, and 41% similarity to qnrS1. Further subcloning of the qnrD coding region into the constitutively expressed tetA gene of vector pBR322 showed that the gene conferred an increase in the MIC of ciprofloxacin by a factor of 32 ( from an MIC...

  7. The arabidopsis TIR-NB-LRR gene RAC1 confers resistance to Albugo candida (white rust) and is dependent on EDS1 but not PAD4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borhan, Mohammad H; Holub, Eric B; Beynon, Jim L; Rozwadowski, Kevin; Rimmer, S Roger

    2004-07-01

    Resistance to Albugo candida isolate Acem1 is conferred by a dominant gene, RAC1, in accession Ksk-1 of Arabidopsis thaliana. This gene was isolated by positional cloning and is a member of the Drosophila toll and mammalian interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) nucleotide-binding site leucine-rich repeat (NB-LRR) class of plant resistance genes. Strong identity of the TIR and NB domains was observed between the predicted proteins encoded by the Ksk-1 allele and the allele from an Acem1-susceptible accession Columbia (Col) (99 and 98%, respectively). However, major differences between the two predicted proteins occur within the LRR domain and mainly are confined to the beta-strand/beta-turn structure of the LRR. Both proteins contain 14 imperfect repeats. RAC1-mediated resistance was analyzed further using mutations in defense regulation, including: pad4-1, eds1-1, and NahG, in the presence of the RAC1 allele from Ksk-1. White rust resistance was completely abolished by eds1-1 but was not affected by either pad4-1 or NahG.

  8. Expression pattern conferred by a glutamic acid-rich protein gene promoter in field-grown transgenic cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán, J; Prías, M; Al-Babili, S; Ladino, Y; López, D; Beyer, P; Chavarriaga, P; Tohme, J

    2010-05-01

    A major constraint for incorporating new traits into cassava using biotechnology is the limited list of known/tested promoters that encourage the expression of transgenes in the cassava's starchy roots. Based on a previous report on the glutamic-acid-rich protein Pt2L4, indicating a preferential expression in roots, we cloned the corresponding gene including promoter sequence. A promoter fragment (CP2; 731 bp) was evaluated for its potential to regulate the expression of the reporter gene GUSPlus in transgenic cassava plants grown in the field. Intense GUS staining was observed in storage roots and vascular stem tissues; less intense staining in leaves; and none in the pith. Consistent with determined mRNA levels of the GUSPlus gene, fluorometric analyses revealed equal activities in root pulp and stems, but 3.5 times less in leaves. In a second approach, the activity of a longer promoter fragment (CP1) including an intrinsic intron was evaluated in carrot plants. CP1 exhibited a pronounced tissue preference, conferring high expression in the secondary phloem and vascular cambium of roots, but six times lower expression levels in leaf vascular tissues. Thus, CP1 and CP2 may be useful tools to improve nutritional and agronomical traits of cassava by genetic engineering. To date, this is the first study presenting field data on the specificity and potential of promoters for transgenic cassava.

  9. Regeneration of multiple shoots from transgenic potato events facilitates the recovery of phenotypically normal lines: assessing a cry9Aa2 gene conferring insect resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobs Jeanne ME

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The recovery of high performing transgenic lines in clonal crops is limited by the occurrence of somaclonal variation during the tissue culture phase of transformation. This is usually circumvented by developing large populations of transgenic lines, each derived from the first shoot to regenerate from each transformation event. This study investigates a new strategy of assessing multiple shoots independently regenerated from different transformed cell colonies of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.. Results A modified cry9Aa2 gene, under the transcriptional control of the CaMV 35S promoter, was transformed into four potato cultivars using Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer using a nptII gene conferring kanamycin resistance as a selectable marker gene. Following gene transfer, 291 transgenic lines were grown in greenhouse experiments to assess somaclonal variation and resistance to potato tuber moth (PTM, Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller. Independently regenerated lines were recovered from many transformed cell colonies and Southern analysis confirmed whether they were derived from the same transformed cell. Multiple lines regenerated from the same transformed cell exhibited a similar response to PTM, but frequently exhibited a markedly different spectrum of somaclonal variation. Conclusions A new strategy for the genetic improvement of clonal crops involves the regeneration and evaluation of multiple shoots from each transformation event to facilitate the recovery of phenotypically normal transgenic lines. Most importantly, regenerated lines exhibiting the phenotypic appearance most similar to the parental cultivar are not necessarily derived from the first shoot regenerated from a transformed cell colony, but can frequently be a later regeneration event.

  10. Antisense expression of peach mildew resistance locus O (PpMlo1) gene confers cross-species resistance to powdery mildew in Fragaria x ananassa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiwan, Derick; Roalson, Eric H; Main, Dorrie; Dhingra, Amit

    2013-12-01

    Powdery mildew (PM) is one of the major plant pathogens. The conventional method of PM control includes frequent use of sulfur-based fungicides adding to production costs and potential harm to the environment. PM remains a major scourge for Rosaceae crops where breeding approaches mainly resort to gene-for-gene resistance. We have tested an alternate source of PM resistance in Rosaceae. Mildew resistance locus O (MLO) has been well studied in barley due to its role in imparting broad spectrum resistance to PM. We identified PpMlo1 (Prunus persica Mlo) in peach and characterized it further to test if a similar mechanism of resistance is conserved in Rosaceae. Due to its recalcitrance in tissue culture, reverse genetic studies involving PpMloI were not feasible in peach. Therefore, Fragaria x ananassa LF9 line, a taxonomic surrogate, was used for functional analysis of PpMlo1. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation yielded transgenic strawberry plants expressing PpMlo1 in sense and antisense orientation. Antisense expression of PpMlo1 in transgenic strawberry plants conferred resistance to Fragaria-specific powdery mildew, Podosphaera macularis. Phylogenetic analysis of 208 putative Mlo gene copies from 35 plant species suggests a large number of duplications of this gene family prior to the divergence of monocots and eudicots, early in eudicot diversification. Our results indicate that the Mlo-based resistance mechanism is functional in Rosaceae, and that Fragaria can be used as a host to test mechanistic function of genes derived from related tree species. To the best of our knowledge, this work is one of the first attempts at testing the potential of using a Mlo-based resistance strategy to combat powdery mildew in Rosaceae.

  11. Expression of a Modified Crylle Gene in E.Coli and in Transgenic Tobacco Confers Resistance to Corn Borer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun-Jun LIU; Fu-Ping SONG; Kang-Lai HE; Yuan YUAN; Xiao-Xia ZHANG; Peng GAO; Jian-Hua WANG; Guo-Ying WANG

    2004-01-01

    The wild-type Crylle gene from Bacillus thuringiensis was modified for its efficient expression in transgenic plants. Modified Cry1 Ie gene (designated as Cry1 Iem) was cloned into prokaryotic expression vector pET28b and its expression in E. coli was confirmed by SDS-PAGE analysis. Bioassays using crude expression products in E. coli revealed that Cry1 Iem protein had a similar toxicity to corn borer as wild-type Cry1 Ie. Cry1 Iem gene was then inserted downstream of the maize ubiquitin-1 promoter in plant expression vector p3301. Transgenic tobacco plants carrying Cry1 Iem showed insecticidal activity against com borer.

  12. Overexpression of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi recA gene confers fluoroquinolone resistance in Escherichia coli DH5α.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassien, M A M; Elfaky, M A

    2015-11-01

    A spontaneous fluoroquinolone-resistant mutant (STM1) was isolated from its parent Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) clinical isolate. Unlike its parent isolate, this mutant has selective resistance to fluoroquinolones without any change in its sensitivity to various other antibiotics. DNA gyrase assays revealed that the fluoroquinolone resistance phenotype of the STM1 mutant did not result from alteration of the fluoroquinolone sensitivity of the DNA gyrase isolated from it. To study the mechanism of fluoroquinolone resistance, a genomic library from the STM1 mutant was constructed in Escherichia coli DH5α and two recombinant plasmids were obtained. Only one of these plasmids (STM1-A) conferred the selective fluoroquinolone resistance phenotype to E. coli DH5α. The chromosomal insert from STM1-A, digested with EcoRI and HindIII restriction endonucleases, produced two DNA fragments and these were cloned separately into pUC19 thereby generating two new plasmids, STM1-A1 and STM1-A2. Only STM1-A1 conferred the selective fluoroquinolone resistance phenotype to E. coli DH5α. Sequence and subcloning analyses of STM1-A1 showed the presence of an intact RecA open reading frame. Unlike that of the wild-type E. coli DH5α, protein analysis of a crude STM1-A1 extract showed overexpression of a 40 kDa protein. Western blotting confirmed the 40 kDa protein band to be RecA. When a RecA PCR product was cloned into pGEM-T and introduced into E. coli DH5α, the STM1-A11 subclone retained fluoroquinolone resistance. These results suggest that overexpression of RecA causes selective fluoroquinolone resistance in E. coli DH5α.

  13. Overexpression of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi recA gene confers fluoroquinolone resistance in Escherichia coli DH5α

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A.M. Yassien

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A spontaneous fluoroquinolone-resistant mutant (STM1 was isolated from its parent Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi clinical isolate. Unlike its parent isolate, this mutant has selective resistance to fluoroquinolones without any change in its sensitivity to various other antibiotics. DNA gyrase assays revealed that the fluoroquinolone resistance phenotype of the STM1 mutant did not result from alteration of the fluoroquinolone sensitivity of the DNA gyrase isolated from it. To study the mechanism of fluoroquinolone resistance, a genomic library from the STM1 mutant was constructed in Escherichia coli DH5α and two recombinant plasmids were obtained. Only one of these plasmids (STM1-A conferred the selective fluoroquinolone resistance phenotype to E. coli DH5α. The chromosomal insert from STM1-A, digested with EcoRI and HindIII restriction endonucleases, produced two DNA fragments and these were cloned separately into pUC19 thereby generating two new plasmids, STM1-A1 and STM1-A2. Only STM1-A1 conferred the selective fluoroquinolone resistance phenotype to E. coli DH5α. Sequence and subcloning analyses of STM1-A1 showed the presence of an intact RecA open reading frame. Unlike that of the wild-type E. coli DH5α, protein analysis of a crude STM1-A1 extract showed overexpression of a 40 kDa protein. Western blotting confirmed the 40 kDa protein band to be RecA. When a RecA PCR product was cloned into pGEM-T and introduced into E. coli DH5α, the STM1-A11 subclone retained fluoroquinolone resistance. These results suggest that overexpression of RecA causes selective fluoroquinolone resistance in E. coli DH5α.

  14. Sequence elements in the human osteocalcin gene confer basal activation and inducible response to hormonal vitamin D sub 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerner, S.A.; Scott, R.A.; Pike, J.W. (Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (USA))

    1989-06-01

    Osteoblast-specific expression of the bone protein osteocalcin is controlled at the transcriptional level by the steroid hormone 1{alpha},25-dihydroxyvitamin D{sub 3}. As this protein may represent a marker for bone activity in human disease, the authors examined the regulation of its expression at the molecular level by evaluating human osteocalcin gene promoter function. They describe regions within the promoter that contribute to basal expression of the gene in osteoblast-like cells in culture. Further, they define a 21-base-pair DNA element with the sequence 5{prime}-GTGACTCACCGGGTGAACGGG-3{prime}, which acts in cis to mediate 1{alpha},25-dihydroxyvitamin D{sub 3} inducibility of the osteocalcin gene. This response element bears sequence similarity with other short DNA segments, particularly those for estrogen and thyroid hormone, which act together with their respective trans-acting receptors to modulate gene transcription.

  15. SCAR, RAPD and RFLP markers linked to a dominant gene (Are) conferring resistance to anthracnose in common bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam-Blondon, A F; Sévignac, M; Bannerot, H; Dron, M

    1994-08-01

    Anthracnose, caused by the fungusColletotrichum lindemuthianum, is a severe disease of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) controlled, in Europe, by a single dominant gene,Are. Four pairs of near-isogenic lines (NILs) were constructed, in which theAre gene was introgressed into different genetic backgrounds. These pairs of NILs were used to search for DNA markers linked to the resistance gene. Nine molecular markers, five RAPDs and four RFLPs, were found to discriminate between the resistant and the susceptible members of these NILs. A backcross progeny of 120 individuals was analysed to map these markers in relation to theAre locus. Five out of the nine markers were shown to be linked to theAre gene within a distance of 12.0 cM. The most tightly linked, a RAPD marker, was used to generate a pair of primers that specifically amplify this RAPD (sequence characterized amplified region, SCAR).

  16. The Ph-3 gene from Solanum pimpinellifolium encodes CC-NBS-LRR protein conferring resistance to Phytophthora infestans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunzhi; Liu, Lei; Wang, Xiaoxuan; Vossen, Jack; Li, Guangcun; Li, Tao; Zheng, Zheng; Gao, Jianchang; Guo, Yanmei; Visser, Richard G F; Li, Junming; Bai, Yuling; Du, Yongchen

    2014-06-01

    Ph-3 is the first cloned tomato gene for resistance to late blight and encodes a CC-NBS-LRR protein. Late blight, caused by Phytophthora infestans, is one of the most destructive diseases in tomato. The resistance (R) gene Ph-3, derived from Solanum pimpinellifolium L3708, provides resistance to multiple P. infestans isolates and has been widely used in tomato breeding programmes. In our previous study, Ph-3 was mapped into a region harbouring R gene analogues (RGA) at the distal part of long arm of chromosome 9. To further narrow down the Ph-3 interval, more recombinants were identified using the flanking markers G2-4 and M8-2, which defined the Ph-3 gene to a 26 kb region according to the Heinz1706 reference genome. To clone the Ph-3 gene, a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library was constructed using L3708 and one BAC clone B25E21 containing the Ph-3 region was identified. The sequence of the BAC clone B25E21 showed that only one RGA was present in the target region. A subsequent complementation analysis demonstrated that this RGA, encoding a CC-NBS-LRR protein, was able to complement the susceptible phenotype in cultivar Moneymaker. Thus this RGA was considered the Ph-3 gene. The predicted Ph-3 protein shares high amino acid identity with the chromosome-9-derived potato resistance proteins against P. infestans (Rpi proteins).

  17. Genetic mapping, marker assisted selection and allelic relationships for the Pu 6 gene conferring rust resistance in sunflower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulos, Mariano; Vergani, Pablo Nicolas; Altieri, Emiliano

    2014-09-01

    Rust resistance in the sunflower line P386 is controlled by Pu 6 , a gene which was reported to segregate independently from other rust resistant genes, such as R 4 . The objectives of this work were to map Pu 6 , to provide and validate molecular tools for its identification, and to determine the linkage relationship of Pu 6 and R 4 . Genetic mapping of Pu 6 with six markers covered 24.8 cM of genetic distance on the lower end of linkage Group 13 of the sunflower consensus map. The marker most closely linked to Pu 6 was ORS316 at 2.5 cM in the distal position. ORS316 presented five alleles when was assayed with a representative set of resistant and susceptible lines. Allelism test between Pu 6 and R 4 indicated that both genes are linked at a genetic distance of 6.25 cM. This is the first confirmation based on an allelism test that at least two members of the R adv /R 4 /R 11 / R 13a /R 13b /Pu 6 cluster of genes are at different loci. A fine elucidation of the architecture of this complex locus will allow designing and constructing completely new genomic regions combining genes from different resistant sources and the elimination of the linkage drag around each resistant gene.

  18. Fine-Mapping and Analysis of Cgl1, a Gene Conferring Glossy Trait in Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zezhou; Fang, Zhiyuan; Zhuang, Mu; Zhang, Yangyong; Lv, Honghao; Liu, Yumei; Li, Zhansheng; Sun, Peitian; Tang, Jun; Liu, Dongming; Zhang, Zhenxian; Yang, Limei

    2017-01-01

    Cuticular waxes covering the outer plant surface impart a whitish appearance. Wax-less cabbage mutant shows glossy in leaf surface and plays important roles in riching cabbage germplasm resources and breeding brilliant green cabbage. This is the first report describing the characterization and fine-mapping of a wax biosynthesis gene using a novel glossy Brassica oleracea mutant. In the present paper, we identified a glossy cabbage mutant (line10Q-961) with a brilliant green phenotype. Genetic analyses indicated that the glossy trait was controlled by a single recessive gene. Preliminary mapping results using an F2 population containing 189 recessive individuals revealed that the Cgl1 gene was located at the end of chromosome C08. Several new markers closely linked to the target gene were designed according to the cabbage reference genome sequence. Another population of 1,172 recessive F2 individuals was used to fine-map the Cgl1 gene to a 188.7-kb interval between the C08SSR61 simple sequence repeat marker and the end of chromosome C08. There were 33 genes located in this region. According to gene annotation and homology analyses, the Bol018504 gene, which is a homolog of CER1 in Arabidopsis thaliana, was the most likely candidate for the Cgl1 gene. Its coding and promoter regions were sequenced, which indicated that the RNA splice site was altered because of a 2,722-bp insertion in the first intron of Bol018504 in the glossy mutant. Based on the FGENESH 2.6 prediction and sequence alignments, the PLN02869 domain, which controls fatty aldehyde decarbonylase activity, was absent from the Bol018504 gene of the 10Q-961 glossy mutant. We inferred that the inserted sequence in Bol018504 may result in the glossy cabbage mutant. This study represents the first step toward the characterization of cuticular wax biosynthesis in B. oleracea, and may contribute to the breeding of new cabbage varieties exhibiting a brilliant green phenotype.

  19. Identification and Mapping of Two New Genes Conferring Resistance to Powdery Mildew from Aegilops tauschii (Coss.) Schmal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Li Sun; Di Liu; Hai-Quan Zhang; Na-Xin Huo; Rong-Hua Zhou; Ji-Zeng Jia

    2006-01-01

    Two powdery mildew resistance genes were Identified from Aegilops tauschii accessions Y201 and Y212and mapped using two different F2 populations derived from the crosses between susceptible accession Y2272 and Y201, and susceptible accession Y2263 and Y212. Genetic analysis of resistance to powdery mildew indicated that the resistance of Y201 was controlled by a single dominant gene, whereas the resistance of Y212 was controlled by a single recessive gene. We have temporarily designated these genes as PmY201 and PmY212, respectively. By bulk segregation analysis, six microsatellite markers including Xgwm174, cfd26, cfd57, cfd102, Xgwm583 and Xgwm639 were found to be linked to PmY201 with genetic distances of 5.2, 7.7, 9.6, 12.5, 20.2 and 22.1 cM, respectively. Five SSR markers, including cfd57, Xgwm182,cfd7, cfd102, and cfd12, were found to be linked to PmY212 with distances of 5.6, 7.2, 11.5, 14.7, and 18.5 cM,respectively. According to the locations of the linked markers, the two resistance genes were located in the 5DL region. Based on the chromosomal locations and the resistance patterns of the two genes, we propose that PmY201 and PmY212 are two novel powdery mildew resistance genes, and are suitable for marker-assisted selection.

  20. Ectopic expression of ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme gene from wild rice, OgUBC1, confers resistance against UV-B radiation and Botrytis infection in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, En Hee; Pak, Jung Hun; Kim, Mi Jin; Kim, Hye Jeong [Department of Genetic Engineering, Dong-A University, Busan 604-714 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Sang Hyun [National Crop Experiment Station, Rural Development Administration, Suwon 441-100 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jai Heon; Kim, Doh Hoon; Oh, Ju Sung [Department of Genetic Engineering, Dong-A University, Busan 604-714 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Boung-Jun [BioControl Center, Jeonnam 516-942 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Ho Won, E-mail: hwjung@dau.ac.kr [Department of Genetic Engineering, Dong-A University, Busan 604-714 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Young Soo, E-mail: chungys@dau.ac.kr [Department of Genetic Engineering, Dong-A University, Busan 604-714 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-19

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We isolated a novel E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme from leaves of wild rice plants. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The OgUBC1 was highly expressed in leaves treated with SA and UV-B radiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The recombinant OgUBC1 has an enzymatic activity of E2 in vitro. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The OgUBC1 could protect disruption of plant cells by UV-B radiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer OgUBC1 confers disease resistance and UV-B tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. -- Abstract: A previously unidentified gene encoding ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme was isolated from leaves of wild rice plant treated with wounding and microbe-associated molecular patterns. The OgUBC1 gene was composed of 148 amino acids and contained a typical active site and 21 ubiquitin thioester intermediate interaction residues and 4 E3 interaction residues. Both exogenous application of salicylic acid and UV-B irradiation triggered expression of OgUBC1 in leaves of wild rice. Recombinant OgUBC1 proteins bound to ubiquitins in vitro, proposing that the protein might act as E2 enzyme in planta. Heterologous expression of the OgUBC1 in Arabidopsis thaliana protected plants from cellular damage caused by an excess of UV-B radiation. A stable expression of chalcone synthase gene was detected in leaves of OgUBC1-expressing Arabidopsis, resulting in producing higher amounts of anthocyanin than those in wild-type Col-0 plants. Additionally, both pathogenesis-related gene1 and 5 were transcribed in the transgenic Arabidopsis in the absence of pathogen infection. The OgUBC1-expressing plants were resistant to the infection of Botrytis cinerea. Taken together, we suggested that the OgUBC1 is involved in ubiquitination process important for cellular response against biotic and abiotic stresses in plants.

  1. Knockout of the dhfr-ts gene in Trypanosoma cruzi generates attenuated parasites able to confer protection against a virulent challenge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Perez Brandan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Trypanosoma cruzi is a protozoan parasite that causes severe disease in millions of habitants of developing countries. Currently there is no vaccine to prevent this disease and the available drugs have the consequences of side effects. Live vaccines are likely to be more effective in inducing protection than recombinant proteins or DNA vaccines; however, safety problems associated to their use have been pointed out. In recent years, increasing knowledge on the molecular genetics of Trypanosomes has allowed the identification and elimination of genes that may be necessary for parasite infectivity and survival. In this sense, targeted deletion or disruption of specific genes in the parasite genome may protect against such reversion to virulent genotypes. METHODS AND FINDINGS: By targeted gene disruption we generated monoallelic mutant parasites for the dhfr-ts gene in a T. cruzi strain that has been shown to be naturally attenuated. In comparison to T. cruzi wild type epimastigotes, impairment in growth of dhfr-ts(+/- mutant parasites was observed and mutant clones displayed decreased virulence in mice. Also, a lower number of T. cruzi-specific CD8(+ T cells, in comparison to those induced by wild type parasites, was detected in mice infected with mutant parasites. However, no remarkable differences in the protective effect of TCC wild type versus TCC mutant parasites were observed. Mice challenged with virulent parasites a year after the original infection with the mutant parasites still displayed a significant control over the secondary infection. CONCLUSION: This study indicates that it is possible to generate genetically attenuated T. cruzi parasites able to confer protection against further T. cruzi infections.

  2. WRR4, a broad-spectrum TIR-NB-LRR gene from Arabidopsis thaliana that confers white rust resistance in transgenic oilseed Brassica crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borhan, Mohammad Hossein; Holub, Eric B; Kindrachuk, Colin; Omidi, Mansour; Bozorgmanesh-Frad, Ghazaleh; Rimmer, S Roger

    2010-03-01

    White blister rust caused by Albugo candida (Pers.) Kuntze is a common and often devastating disease of oilseed and vegetable brassica crops worldwide. Physiological races of the parasite have been described, including races 2, 7 and 9 from Brassica juncea, B. rapa and B. oleracea, respectively, and race 4 from Capsella bursa-pastoris (the type host). A gene named WRR4 has been characterized recently from polygenic resistance in the wild brassica relative Arabidopsis thaliana (accession Columbia) that confers broad-spectrum white rust resistance (WRR) to all four of the above Al. candida races. This gene encodes a TIR-NB-LRR (Toll-like/interleukin-1 receptor-nucleotide binding-leucine-rich repeat) protein which, as with other known functional members in this subclass of intracellular receptor-like proteins, requires the expression of the lipase-like defence regulator, enhanced disease susceptibility 1 (EDS1). Thus, we used RNA interference-mediated suppression of EDS1 in a white rust-resistant breeding line of B. napus (transformed with a construct designed from the A. thaliana EDS1 gene) to determine whether defence signalling via EDS1 is functionally intact in this oilseed brassica. The eds1-suppressed lines were fully susceptible following inoculation with either race 2 or 7 isolates of Al. candida. We then transformed white rust-susceptible cultivars of B. juncea (susceptible to race 2) and B. napus (susceptible to race 7) with the WRR4 gene from A. thaliana. The WRR4-transformed lines were resistant to the corresponding Al. candida race for each host species. The combined data indicate that WRR4 could potentially provide a novel source of white rust resistance in oilseed and vegetable brassica crops.

  3. Genome-wide identification of genes conferring energy related resistance to a synthetic antimicrobial peptide (Bac8c.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eileen C Spindler

    Full Text Available A fundamental issue in the design and development of antimicrobials is the lack of understanding of complex modes of action and how this complexity affects potential pathways for resistance evolution. Bac8c (RIWVIWRR-NH(2 is an 8 amino acid antimicrobial peptide (AMP that has been shown to have enhanced activity against a range of pathogenic Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, as well as yeast. We have previously demonstrated that Bac8c appears to interfere with multiple targets, at least in part through the disruption of cytoplasmic membrane related functions, and that resistance to this peptide does not easily develop using standard laboratory methods. Here, we applied a genomics approach, SCalar Analysis of Library Enrichement (SCALEs, to map the effect of gene overexpression onto Bac8c resistance in parallel for all genes and gene combinations (up to ∼ 10 adjacent genes in the E. coli genome (a total of ∼ 500,000 individual clones were mapped. Our efforts identified an elaborate network of genes for which overexpression leads to low-level resistance to Bac8c (including biofilm formation, multi-drug transporters, etc. This data was analyzed to provide insights into the complex relationships between mechanisms of action and potential routes by which resistance to this synthetic AMP can develop.

  4. A single gene all3940 (Dps) overexpression in Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 confers multiple abiotic stress tolerance via proteomic alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Om Prakash; Kumari, Nidhi; Bhargava, Poonam; Rajaram, Hema; Rai, Lal Chand

    2016-01-01

    DNA-binding proteins (Dps) induced during starvation play an important role in gene regulation and maintaining homeostasis in bacteria. The nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium, Anabaena PCC7120, has four genes annotated as coding for Dps; however, the information on their physiological roles is limiting. One of the genes coding for Dps, 'all3940' was found to be induced under different abiotic stresses in Anabaena and upon overexpression enhanced the tolerance of Anabaena to a multitude of stresses, which included salinity, heat, heavy metals, pesticide, and nutrient starvation. On the other hand, mutation in the gene resulted in decreased growth of Anabaena. The modulation in the levels of All3940 in Anabaena, achieved either by overexpression of the protein or mutation of the gene, resulted in changes in the proteome, which correlated well with the physiological changes observed. Proteins required for varied physiological activities, such as photosynthesis, carbon-metabolism, oxidative stress alleviation, exhibited change in protein profile upon modulation of All3940 levels in Anabaena. This suggested a direct or an indirect effect of All3940 on the expression of the above stress-responsive proteins, thereby enhancing tolerance in Anabaena PCC7120. Thus, All3940, though categorized as a Dps, is possibly a general stress protein having a global role in regulating tolerance to multitude of stresses in Anabaena.

  5. Overexpression of osmotin gene confers tolerance to salt and drought stresses in transgenic tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, D; Singh, A K; Yadav, V; Babbar, S B; Bansal, K C

    2010-09-01

    Abiotic stresses, especially salinity and drought, are major limiting factors for plant growth and crop productivity. In an attempt to develop salt and drought tolerant tomato, a DNA cassette containing tobacco osmotin gene driven by a cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter was transferred to tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Putative T0 transgenic plants were screened by PCR analysis. The selected transformants were evaluated for salt and drought stress tolerance by physiological analysis at T1 and T2 generations. Integration of the osmotin gene in transgenic T1 plants was verified by Southern blot hybridization. Transgenic expression of the osmotin gene was verified by RT-PCR and northern blotting in T1 plants. T1 progenies from both transformed and untransformed plants were tested for salt and drought tolerance by subjecting them to different levels of NaCl stress and by withholding water supply, respectively. Results from different physiological tests demonstrated enhanced tolerance to salt and drought stresses in transgenic plants harboring the osmotin gene as compared to the wild-type plants. The transgenic lines showed significantly higher relative water content, chlorophyll content, proline content, and leaf expansion than the wild-type plants under stress conditions. The present investigation clearly shows that overexpression of osmotin gene enhances salt and drought stress tolerance in transgenic tomato plants.

  6. A Member of the 14-3-3 Gene Family in Brachypodium distachyon, BdGF14d, Confers Salt Tolerance in Transgenic Tobacco Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yuan; Zhang, Yang; Chen, Lihong; Wu, Chunlai; Luo, Qingchen; Zhang, Fan; Wei, Qiuhui; Li, Kexiu; Chang, Junli; Yang, Guangxiao; He, Guangyuan

    2017-01-01

    Plant 14-3-3 proteins are involved in diverse biological processes, but for the model monocotyledonous species, Brachypodium distachyon, their roles in abiotic stress tolerance are not well understood. In this study, a total of eight Bd14-3-3 genes were identified from B. distachyon and these were designated respectively as BdGF14a–BdGF14g. The qRT-PCR analyses of 3-month-old plants of B. distachyon showed that these genes were all expressed in the stems, leaves, and spikelets. By contrast, most of the plants had relatively lower transcriptional levels in their roots, except for the BdGF14g gene. The different expression profiles of the Bd14-3-3s under various stress treatments, and the diverse interaction patterns between Bd14-3-3s and BdAREB/ABFs, suggested that these gene products probably had a range of functions in the stress responses. The NaCl-induced Bd14-3-3 gene, BdGF14d, was selected for overexpression in tobacco. BdGF14d was found to be localized throughout the cell and it conferred enhanced tolerance to salt in the transgenic plants. Lowered contents of malondialdehyde, H2O2, and Na+, and lower relative electronic conductance (Rec%), yet greater activities of catalase and peroxidase, were observed in the overexpressing plants. Higher photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, and water use efficiency were measured in the transgenic lines. Following abscisic acid (ABA) or NaCl treatment, stomatal aperture in leaves of the BdGF14d-overexpression plants was significantly lower than in leaves of the wild type (WT) controls. The stress-related marker genes involved in the ABA signaling pathway, the reactive oxygen species (ROS)-scavenging system, and the ion transporters were all up-regulated in the BdGF14d-overexpressing plants as compared with WT. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the Bd14-3-3 genes play important roles in abiotic stress tolerance. The ABA signaling pathway, the ROS-scavenging system, and ion

  7. Salt tolerance conferred by over-expression of OsNHX1 gene in Poplar 84K

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Shuyao; CHEN Qijun; WANG Wenlong; WANG Xuechen; LU Mengzhu

    2005-01-01

    OsNHX1 gene (Na+/H+ antiporter gene of Oryza sativa L.) was introduced into Poplar 84K with Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. PCR, Southern and Northern blot analysis showed that OsNHX1 gene was incorporated successfully into the genome of Poplar 84K and expressed in these transgenic plants. Salt tolerance test showed that three lines of transgenic plants grew normally in the presence of 200 mmol/L NaCl, while the Na+ content in the leaves of the transgenic plants grown at 200 mmol/L NaCl was significantly higher than that in plants grown at 0 mmol/L NaCl. The osmotic potential in the transgenic plants with high salinity treatment was lower than that of control plants. Our results demonstrate the potential use of these transgenic plants for agricultural use in saline soils.

  8. HLA non-class II genes may confer type I diabetes susceptibility in a Mapuche (Amerindian) affected family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Bravo, Francisco; Martinez-Laso, Jorge; Martin-Villa, Jose M; Moscoso, Juan; Moreno, Almudena; Serrano-Vela, Juan I; Zamora, Jorge; Asenjo, Silvia; Gleisner, Andrea; Arnaiz-Villena, Antonio

    2006-01-01

    A rare case of type I diabetes is studied in an Amerindian (Mapuche) family from Chile, analyzing glutamic acid decarboxylase, islet-cell autoantibodies and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes. The affected sib is the only one that has one specific HLA haplotype combination that differs from the other sibs only in the HLA class I genes. It is concluded that HLA diabetes susceptibility factors may be placed outside the class II region or even that susceptibility factors do not exist in the HLA region in this Amerindian family.

  9. The Arabidopsis thaliana rlp mutations revert the ectopic leaf blade formation conferred by activation tagging of the LEP gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Graaff, Eric; Nussbaumer, C; Keller, Bente

    2003-01-01

    Activation tagging of the gene LEAFY PETIOLE (LEP) with a T-DNA construct induces ectopic leaf blade formation in Arabidopsis, which results in a leafy petiole phenotype. In addition, the number of rosette leaves produced prior to the onset of bolting is reduced, and the rate of leaf initiation...... is retarded by the activation tagged LEP gene. The ectopic leaf blade results from an invasion of the petiole region by the wild-type leaf blade. In order to isolate mutants that are specifically disturbed in the outgrowth of the leaf blade, second site mutagenesis was performed using ethane methanesulphonate...

  10. Characterization of a mutation in the parE gene that confers fluoroquinolone resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    OpenAIRE

    Perichon, B; Tankovic, J; Courvalin, P

    1997-01-01

    We report a mutation in the parE genes of two in vitro mutants of Streptococcus pneumoniae responsible for low-level resistance to fluoroquinolones. Sequential acquisition of mutations in parE and gyrA leads to higher levels of resistance. This confirms that topoisomerase IV is the primary target of fluoroquinolones in S. pneumoniae.

  11. De novo transcriptome assembly and identification of the gene conferring a "pandan-like" aroma in coconut (Cocos nucifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saensuk, Chatree; Wanchana, Samart; Choowongkomon, Kiattawee; Wongpornchai, Sugunya; Kraithong, Tippaya; Imsabai, Wachiraya; Chaichoompu, Ekawat; Ruanjaichon, Vinitchan; Toojinda, Theerayut; Vanavichit, Apichart; Arikit, Siwaret

    2016-11-01

    Thailand's aromatic coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) is a special type of green dwarf coconut, the liquid endosperm of which is characterized by a pleasant "pandan-like" aroma due to the presence of 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2AP). The aim of this study was to perform a de novo assembly of transriptome from C. nucifera endosperm and to identify the gene responsible for 2AP biosynthesis. CnAMADH2 was identified as an ortholog of the rice aromatic gene and a G-to-C substitution found in exon 14 was associated with 2AP content in the aromatic green dwarf coconut accessions. The base substitution caused an amino-acid change, alanine-to-proline, at position 442 (P442A). The presence of P at this position might alter the steric conformation at the loop region and subsequently result in an unstabilized dimer conformation that could lower AMADH enzyme activity. Among AMADH/BADH protein sequences in different plant species, the P442A mutation was found exclusively in aromatic coconut. The PCR marker developed based on this sequence variation can perfectly detect the aromatic and non-aromatic alleles of the gene. This study confirms the hypothesis that plants may share a mechanism of 2AP biosynthesis. This is the first identification of the gene associated with 2AP biosynthesis in a tree plant.

  12. AFLP markers for the R-gene in the flea beetle, Phyllotreta nemorum, conferring resistance to defenses in Barbarea vulgaris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breuker, C.J.; Victoir, K.; Jong, de P.W.; Meijden, van der E.; Brakefield, P.M.; Vrieling, K.

    2005-01-01

    A so-called R-gene renders the yellow-striped flea beetle Phyllotreta nemorum L. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Alticinae) resistant to the defenses of the yellow rocket Barbarea vulgaris R.Br. (Brassicacea) and enables it to use it as a host plant in Denmark. In this study, genetic markers for an auto

  13. Identification of nine pathotype-specific genes conferring resistance to fusiform rust in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry Amerson; C. Dana Nelson; Thomas L. Kubisiak; E.George Kuhlman; Saul Garcia

    2015-01-01

    Nearly two decades of research on the host-pathogen interaction in fusiform rust of loblolly pine is detailed. Results clearly indicate that pathotype-specific genes in the host interacting with pathogen avirulence cause resistance as defined by the non-gall phenotype under favorable environmental conditions for disease development. In particular, nine fusiform rust...

  14. Targeting chitinase gene of Helicoverpa armigera by host-induced RNA interference confers insect resistance in tobacco and tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamta; Reddy, K R K; Rajam, M V

    2016-02-01

    Helicoverpa armigera Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a devastating agricultural insect pest with broad spectrum of host range, causing million dollars crop loss annually. Limitations in the present conventional and transgenic approaches have made it crucial to develop sustainable and environmental friendly methods for crop improvement. In the present study, host-induced RNA interference (HI-RNAi) approach was used to develop H. armigera resistant tobacco and tomato plants. Chitinase (HaCHI) gene, critically required for insect molting and metamorphosis was selected as a potential target. Hair-pin RNAi construct was prepared from the conserved off-target free partial HaCHI gene sequence and was used to generate several HaCHI-RNAi tobacco and tomato plants. Northern hybridization confirmed the production of HaCHI gene-specific siRNAs in HaCHI-RNAi tobacco and tomato lines. Continuous feeding on leaves of RNAi lines drastically reduced the target gene transcripts and consequently, affected the overall growth and survival of H. armigera. Various developmental deformities were also manifested in H. armigera larvae after feeding on the leaves of RNAi lines. These results demonstrated the role of chitinase in insect development and potential of HI-RNAi for effective management of H. armigera.

  15. Horizontal gene transfer confers adaptive advantages to phytopathogenic fungi: a case study of catalase-peroxidase in Fusarium verticillioides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horizontal gene transfer (HGT), the exchange and stable integration of genetic material between different evolutionary lineages, is widely observed in fungi. We hypothesize that successful stabilization of HGT elements provides adaptive advantages (e.g., virulence). Catalase/peroxidases (KatGs) are ...

  16. Mapping of a Leishmania major gene/locus that confers pentamidine resistance by deletion and insertion of transposable element

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coelho Adriano C.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Pentamidine (PEN is an alternative compound to treat antimony-resistant leishmaniasis patients, which cellular target remains unclear. One approach to the identification of prospective targets is to identify genes able to mediate PEN resistance following overexpression. Starting from a genomic library of transfected parasites bearing a multicopy episomal cosmid vector containing wild-type Leishmania major DNA, we isolated one locus capable to render PEN resistance to wild type cells after DNA transfection. In order to map this Leishmania locus, cosmid insert was deleted by two successive sets of partial digestion with restriction enzymes, followed by transfection into wild type cells, overexpression, induction and functional tests in the presence of PEN. To determine the Leishmania gene related to PEN resistance, nucleotide sequencing experiments were done through insertion of the transposon Mariner element of Drosophila melanogaster (mosK into the deleted insert to work as primer island. Using general molecular techniques, we described here this method that permits a quickly identification of a functional gene facilitating nucleotide sequence experiments from large DNA fragments. Followed experiments revealed the presence of a P-Glycoprotein gene in this locus which role in Leishmania metabolism has now been analyzed.

  17. Tomato transgenic plants expressing hairpin construct of a nematode protease gene conferred enhanced resistance to root-knot nematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Tushar K.; Papolu, Pradeep K.; Banakar, Prakash; Choudhary, Divya; Sirohi, Anil; Rao, Uma

    2015-01-01

    Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne incognita) cause substantial yield losses in vegetables worldwide, and are difficult to manage. Continuous withdrawal of environmentally-harmful nematicides from the global market warrants the need for novel nematode management strategies. Utility of host-delivered RNAi has been demonstrated in several plants (Arabidopsis, tobacco, and soybean) that exhibited resistance against root-knot and cyst nematodes. Herein, a M. incognita-specific protease gene, cathepsin L cysteine proteinase (Mi-cpl-1), was targeted to generate tomato transgenic lines to evaluate the genetically modified nematode resistance. In vitro knockdown of Mi-cpl-1 gene led to the reduced attraction and penetration of M. incognita in tomato, suggesting the involvement of Mi-cpl-1 in nematode parasitism. Transgenic expression of the RNAi construct of Mi-cpl-1 gene resulted in 60–80% reduction in infection and multiplication of M. incognita in tomato. Evidence for in vitro and in vivo silencing of Mi-cpl-1 was confirmed by expression analysis using quantitative PCR. Our study demonstrates that Mi-cpl-1 plays crucial role during plant-nematode interaction and plant-mediated downregulation of this gene elicits detrimental effect on M. incognita development, reinforcing the potential of RNAi technology for management of phytonematodes in crop plants. PMID:25883594

  18. Tomato transgenic plants expressing hairpin construct of a nematode protease gene conferred enhanced resistance to root-knot nematodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tushar Kanti Dutta

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne incognita cause substantial yield losses in vegetables worldwide, and are difficult to manage. Continuous withdrawal of environmentally-harmful nematicides from the global market warrants the need for novel nematode management strategies. Utility of host-delivered RNAi has been demonstrated in several plants (Arabidopsis, tobacco and soybean that exhibited resistance against root-knot and cyst nematodes. Herein, a M. incognita-specific protease gene, cathepsin L cysteine proteinase (Mi-cpl-1, was targeted to generate tomato transgenic lines to evaluate the genetically modified nematode resistance. In vitro knockdown of Mi-cpl-1 gene led to the reduced attraction and penetration of M. incognita in tomato, suggesting the involvement of Mi-cpl-1 in nematode parasitism. Transgenic expression of the RNAi construct of Mi-cpl-1 gene resulted in 60-80% reduction in infection and multiplication of M. incognita in tomato. Evidence for in vitro and in vivo silencing of Mi-cpl-1 was confirmed by expression analysis using quantitative PCR. Our study demonstrates that Mi-cpl-1 plays crucial role during plant-nematode interaction and plant-mediated downregulation of this gene elicits detrimental effect on M. incognita development, reinforcing the potential of RNAi technology for management of phytonematodes in crop plants.

  19. Vaccination with lentiviral vector expressing the nfa1 gene confers a protective immune response to mice infected with Naegleria fowleri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong-Hyun; Sohn, Hae-Jin; Lee, Jinyoung; Yang, Hee-Jong; Chwae, Yong-Joon; Kim, Kyongmin; Park, Sun; Shin, Ho-Joon

    2013-07-01

    Naegleria fowleri, a pathogenic free-living amoeba, causes fatal primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) in humans and animals. The nfa1 gene (360 bp), cloned from a cDNA library of N. fowleri, produces a 13.1-kDa recombinant protein which is located on pseudopodia, particularly the food cup structure. The nfa1 gene plays an important role in the pathogenesis of N. fowleri infection. To examine the effect of nfa1 DNA vaccination against N. fowleri infection, we constructed a lentiviral vector (pCDH) expressing the nfa1 gene. For the in vivo mouse study, BALB/c mice were intranasally vaccinated with viral particles of a viral vector expressing the nfa1 gene. To evaluate the effect of vaccination and immune responses of mice, we analyzed the IgG levels (IgG, IgG1, and IgG2a), cytokine induction (interleukin-4 [IL-4] and gamma interferon [IFN-γ]), and survival rates of mice that developed PAM. The levels of both IgG and IgG subclasses (IgG1 and IgG2a) in vaccinated mice were significantly increased. The cytokine analysis showed that vaccinated mice exhibited greater IL-4 and IFN-γ production than the other control groups, suggesting a Th1/Th2 mixed-type immune response. In vaccinated mice, high levels of Nfa1-specific IgG antibodies continued until 12 weeks postvaccination. The mice vaccinated with viral vector expressing the nfa1 gene also exhibited significantly higher survival rates (90%) after challenge with N. fowleri trophozoites. Finally, the nfa1 vaccination effectively induced protective immunity by humoral and cellular immune responses in N. fowleri-infected mice. These results suggest that DNA vaccination using a viral vector may be a potential tool against N. fowleri infection.

  20. Shotgun label-free proteomic analysis of clubroot (Plasmodiophora brassicae resistance conferred by the gene Rcr1 in Brassica rapa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Song

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Clubroot, caused by the plasmodiophorid pathogen Plasmodiophora brassicae, is one of the most serious diseases on Brassica crops worldwide and a major threat to canola production in western Canada. Host resistance is the key strategy for clubroot management on canola. Several clubroot resistance (CR genes have been identified, but the mechanisms associated with these CR genes are poorly understood. In the current study, a label-free shotgun proteomic approach was used to profile and compare the proteomes of B. rapa carrying and not carrying the CR gene Rcr1 upon P. brassicae infection. A total of 527 differentially accumulated proteins (DAPs were identified between the resistant and susceptible samples, and functional annotation of these DAPs indicates that the perception of P. brassicae and activation of defense responses is triggered via an unique signaling pathway distinct from common modes of recognition receptors reported with many other plant-pathogen interactions; this pathway appears to act in a calcium-independent manner through a not-well defined cascade of mitogen-activated protein kinases and may require the ubiquitin-26S proteasome related to abiotic stresses, especially the cold-stress tolerance. Both up-regulation of defense-related and down-regulation of pathogenicity-related metabolism were observed in plants carrying Rcr1, and these functions may all contribute to the clubroot resistance mediated by this CR gene. These results, combined with those of transcriptomic analysis reported earlier, improved our understanding of molecular mechanisms associated with Rcr1 and clubroot resistance at large, and identified candidate metabolites or pathways for further confirmation of specific resistance mechanisms. Deploying CR genes with different modes of action may help improve the durability of clubroot resistance.

  1. Upland cotton gene GhFPF1 confers promotion of flowering time and shade-avoidance responses in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyan Wang

    Full Text Available Extensive studies on floral transition in model species have revealed a network of regulatory interactions between proteins that transduce and integrate developmental and environmental signals to promote or inhibit the transition to flowering. Previous studies indicated FLOWERING PROMOTING FACTOR 1 (FPF1 gene was involved in the promotion of flowering, but the molecular mechanism was still unclear. Here, FPF1 homologous sequences were screened from diploid Gossypium raimondii L. (D-genome, n = 13 and Gossypium arboreum L. genome (A-genome, n = 13 databases. Orthologous genes from the two species were compared, suggesting that distinctions at nucleic acid and amino acid levels were not equivalent because of codon degeneracy. Six FPF1 homologous genes were identified from the cultivated allotetraploid Gossypium hirsutum L. (AD-genome, n = 26. Analysis of relative transcripts of the six genes in different tissues revealed that this gene family displayed strong tissue-specific expression. GhFPF1, encoding a 12.0-kDa protein (Accession No: KC832319 exerted more transcripts in floral apices of short-season cotton, hinting that it could be involved in floral regulation. Significantly activated APETALA 1 and suppressed FLOWERING LOCUS C expression were induced by over-expression of GhFPF1 in the Arabidopsis Columbia-0 ecotype. In addition, transgenic Arabidopsis displayed a constitutive shade-avoiding phenotype that is characterized by long hypocotyls and petioles, reduced chlorophyll content, and early flowering. We propose that GhFPF1 may be involved in flowering time control and shade-avoidance responses.

  2. mtDNA depletion confers specific gene expression profiles in human cells grown in culture and in xenograft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramaswamy Krishna

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interactions between the gene products encoded by the mitochondrial and nuclear genomes play critical roles in eukaryotic cellular function. However, the effects mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA levels have on the nuclear transcriptome have not been defined under physiological conditions. In order to address this issue, we characterized the gene expression profiles of A549 lung cancer cells and their mtDNA-depleted ρ0 counterparts grown in culture and as tumor xenografts in immune-deficient mice. Results Cultured A549 ρ0 cells were respiration-deficient and showed enhanced levels of transcripts relevant to metal homeostasis, initiation of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and glucuronidation pathways. Several well-established HIF-regulated transcripts showed increased or decreased abundance relative to the parental cell line. Furthermore, growth in culture versus xenograft has a significantly greater influence on expression profiles, including transcripts involved in mitochondrial structure and both aerobic and anaerobic energy metabolism. However, both in vitro and in vivo, mtDNA levels explained the majority of the variance observed in the expression of transcripts in glucuronidation, tRNA synthetase, and immune surveillance related pathways. mtDNA levels in A549 xenografts also affected the expression of genes, such as AMACR and PHYH, involved in peroxisomal lipid metabolic pathways. Conclusion We have identified mtDNA-dependent gene expression profiles that are shared in cultured cells and in xenografts. These profiles indicate that mtDNA-depleted cells could provide informative model systems for the testing the efficacy of select classes of therapeutics, such as anti-angiogenesis agents. Furthermore, mtDNA-depleted cells grown culture and in xenografts provide a powerful means to investigate possible relationships between mitochondrial activity and gene expression profiles in normal and pathological cells.

  3. Arabidopsis nonhost resistance gene PSS1 confers immunity against an oomycete and a fungal pathogen but not a bacterial pathogen that cause diseases in soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Rishi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nonhost resistance (NHR provides immunity to all members of a plant species against all isolates of a microorganism that is pathogenic to other plant species. Three Arabidopsis thaliana PEN (penetration deficient genes, PEN1, 2 and 3 have been shown to provide NHR against the barley pathogen Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei at the prehaustorial level. Arabidopsis pen1-1 mutant lacking the PEN1 gene is penetrated by the hemibiotrophic oomycete pathogen Phytophthora sojae, the causal organism of the root and stem rot disease in soybean. We investigated if there is any novel nonhost resistance mechanism in Arabidopsis against the soybean pathogen, P. sojae. Results The P.sojaesusceptible (pss 1 mutant was identified by screening a mutant population created in the Arabidopsis pen1-1 mutant that lacks penetration resistance against the non adapted barley biotrophic fungal pathogen, Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei. Segregation data suggested that PEN1 is not epistatic to PSS1. Responses of pss1 and pen1-1 to P. sojae invasion were distinct and suggest that PSS1 may act at both pre- and post-haustorial levels, while PEN1 acts at the pre-haustorial level against this soybean pathogen. Therefore, PSS1 encodes a new form of nonhost resistance. The pss1 mutant is also infected by the necrotrophic fungal pathogen, Fusarium virguliforme, which causes sudden death syndrome in soybean. Thus, a common NHR mechanism is operative in Arabidopsis against both hemibiotrophic oomycetes and necrotrophic fungal pathogens that are pathogenic to soybean. However, PSS1 does not play any role in immunity against the bacterial pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae pv. glycinea, that causes bacterial blight in soybean. We mapped PSS1 to a region very close to the southern telomere of chromosome 3 that carries no known disease resistance genes. Conclusions The study revealed that Arabidopsis PSS1 is a novel nonhost resistance gene that confers a new form of

  4. Common Variants in CLDN2 and MORC4 Genes Confer Disease Susceptibility in Patients with Chronic Pancreatitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil K Giri

    Full Text Available A recent genome-wide association study (GWAS identified association with variants in X-linked CLDN2 and MORC4, and PRSS1-PRSS2 loci with chronic pancreatitis (CP in North American patients of European ancestry. We selected 9 variants from the reported GWAS and replicated the association with CP in Indian patients by genotyping 1807 unrelated Indians of Indo-European ethnicity, including 519 patients with CP and 1288 controls. The etiology of CP was idiopathic in 83.62% and alcoholic in 16.38% of 519 patients. Our study confirmed a significant association of 2 variants in CLDN2 gene (rs4409525-OR 1.71, P = 1.38 x 10-09; rs12008279-OR 1.56, P = 1.53 x 10-04 and 2 variants in MORC4 gene (rs12688220-OR 1.72, P = 9.20 x 10-09; rs6622126-OR 1.75, P = 4.04x10-05 in Indian patients with CP. We also found significant association at PRSS1-PRSS2 locus (OR 0.60; P = 9.92 x 10-06 and SAMD12-TNFRSF11B (OR 0.49, 95% CI [0.31-0.78], P = 0.0027. A variant in the gene MORC4 (rs12688220 showed significant interaction with alcohol (OR for homozygous and heterozygous risk allele -14.62 and 1.51 respectively, P = 0.0068 suggesting gene-environment interaction. A combined analysis of the genes CLDN2 and MORC4 based on an effective risk allele score revealed a higher percentage of individuals homozygous for the risk allele in CP cases with 5.09 fold enhanced risk in individuals with 7 or more effective risk alleles compared with individuals with 3 or less risk alleles (P = 1.88 x 10-14. Genetic variants in CLDN2 and MORC4 genes were associated with CP in Indian patients.

  5. Fine mapping and candidate gene analysis of an anthocyanin-rich gene, BnaA.PL1, conferring purple leaves in Brassica napus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haibo; Zhu, Lixia; Yuan, Gaigai; Heng, Shuangping; Yi, Bin; Ma, Chaozhi; Shen, Jinxiong; Tu, Jinxing; Fu, Tingdong; Wen, Jing

    2016-08-01

    Because of the advantages of anthocyanins, the genetics and breeding of crops rich in anthocyanins has become a hot research topic. However, due to the lack of anthocyanin-related mutants, no regulatory genes have been mapped in Brassica napus. In this study, we first report the characterization of a B. napus line with purple leaves and the fine mapping and candidate screening of the BnaA.PL1 gene. The amount of anthocyanins in the purple leaf line was six times higher than that in a green leaf line. A genetic analysis indicated that the purple character was controlled by an incomplete dominant gene. Through map-based cloning, we localized the BnaA.PL1 gene to a 99-kb region at the end of B. napus chromosome A03. Transcriptional analysis of 11 genes located in the target region revealed that the expression level of only the BnAPR2 gene in seedling leaves decreased from purple to reddish green to green individuals, a finding that was consistent with the measured anthocyanin accumulation levels. Molecular cloning and sequence analysis of BnAPR2 showed that the purple individual-derived allele contained 17 variants. Markers co-segregating with BnaA.PL1 were developed from the sequence of BnAPR2 and were validated in the BC4P2 population. These results suggested that BnAPR2, which encodes adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate reductase, is likely to be a valuable candidate gene. This work may lay the foundation for the marker-assisted selection of B. napus vegetables that are rich in anthocyanins and for an improved understanding of the molecular mechanisms controlling anthocyanin accumulation in Brassica.

  6. Exogenous application of double-stranded RNA molecules from TMV p126 and CP genes confers resistance against TMV in tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konakalla, Naga Charan; Kaldis, Athanasios; Berbati, Margarita; Masarapu, Hema; Voloudakis, Andreas E

    2016-10-01

    External application of dsRNA molecules from Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) p126 and CP genes confers significant resistance against TMV infection. Exogenously applied dsRNA exhibits a rapid systemic trafficking in planta , and it is processed successfully by DICER-like proteins producing small interfering RNAs. RNA interference (RNAi) is a sequence-specific, post-transcriptional gene silencing mechanism, induced by double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), which protects eukaryotic cells against invasive nucleic acids like viruses and transposons. In the present study, we used a non-transgenic strategy to induce RNAi in Nicotiana tabacum cv. Xanthi plants against TMV. DsRNA molecules for the p126 (TMV silencing suppressor) and coat protein (CP) genes were produced by a two-step PCR approach followed by in vitro transcription. The application of TMV p126 dsRNA onto tobacco plants induced greater resistance against TMV infection as compared to CP dsRNA (65 vs. 50 %). This study also reported the fast systemic spread of TMV p126 dsRNA from the treated (local) to non-treated (systemic) leaves beginning from 1 h post-application, confirmed by both conventional and real-time RT-PCR. Furthermore, we employed a stem-loop RT-PCR and confirmed the presence of a putative viral siRNA for up to 9 days in local leaves and up to 6 days in systemic leaves post-application. The approach employed could represent a simple and environmentally safe way for the control of plant viruses in future agriculture.

  7. Cloning and occurrence of czrC, a gene conferring cadmium and zinc resistance in MRSA CC398 Isolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavaco, Lina; Hasman, Henrik; Stegger, Marc

    2010-01-01

    the genetic determinant causing zinc resistance in CC398 and examine its prevalence in isolates of animal and human origin. Based on the sequence of the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) element from methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) CC398 strain SO385, a putative metal resistance gene...... was identified in strain 171 and cloned in S. aureus RN4220. Furthermore, 81 MRSA and 48 methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) strains, isolated from pigs (31 and 28) and from humans (50 and 20) in Denmark, were tested for susceptibility to zinc chloride and for the presence of a putative resistance...... determinant, czrC, by PCR. The cloning of czrC confirmed that the zinc chloride and cadmium acetate MICs for isogenic constructs carrying this gene were increased compared to those for S. aureus RN4220. No difference in susceptibility to sodium arsenate, copper sulfate, or silver nitrate was observed. Seventy...

  8. Overexpression of rice OsLOL2 gene confers disease resistance in tobacco to Pseudomonas syringae pv. Tabaci

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Khizar Hayat Bhatti; Chunxiao Xu; Jiahe Wu; Chaozu He

    2008-01-01

    LSD1-related proteins of Arabidopsis with LSD1-like zinc finger domains regulate disease resistance and programmed cell death(PCD). We cloned a rice OsLOL2 gene, orthologous to LSDI of Arabidopsis and expressed it in a tobacco plant. Transgenic tobacco lines displayed enhanced disease resistance to a virulent bacterium Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci (Pst). RT-PCR analysis showed that overexpression of OsLOL2 in transgenic tobacco lines resulted in upregulation of two pathogenesis-related (PR) protein genes, PR2 and PR5. Our results suggest that overexpression of OsLOL2 in transgenic tobacco enhances the resistance through the induction of PR pro-teins and hypersensitive response-like reaction.

  9. Cloning and occurrence of czrC, a gene conferring cadmium and zinc resistance in MRSA CC398 Isolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavaco, Lina; Hasman, Henrik; Stegger, Marc

    2010-01-01

    the genetic determinant causing zinc resistance in CC398 and examine its prevalence in isolates of animal and human origin. Based on the sequence of the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) element from methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) CC398 strain SO385, a putative metal resistance gene...... was identified in strain 171 and cloned in S. aureus RN4220. Furthermore, 81 MRSA and 48 methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) strains, isolated from pigs (31 and 28) and from humans (50 and 20) in Denmark, were tested for susceptibility to zinc chloride and for the presence of a putative resistance...... determinant, czrC, by PCR. The cloning of czrC confirmed that the zinc chloride and cadmium acetate MICs for isogenic constructs carrying this gene were increased compared to those for S. aureus RN4220. No difference in susceptibility to sodium arsenate, copper sulfate, or silver nitrate was observed. Seventy...

  10. Registration of Common Wheat Germplasm with Mutations in SBEII Genes Conferring Increased Grain Amylose and Resistant Starch Content

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Starch present in the endosperm of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grains is an important source of carbohydrates worldwide. Starches with a greater proportion of amylose have increased levels of resistant starch, a dietary fiber that can provide human health benefits. Induced mutations in STARCH BRANCHING ENZYME II (SBEII) genes in wheat are associated with increased amylose and resistant starch. Ethyl methane sulfonate mutations in SBEIIa and SBEIIb paralogs were combined in the hexaplo...

  11. The piggyBac-Based Gene Delivery System Can Confer Successful Production of Cloned Porcine Blastocysts with Multigene Constructs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Sato

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of multigene constructs into single cells is important for improving the performance of domestic animals, as well as understanding basic biological processes. In particular, multigene constructs allow the engineering and integration of multiple genes related to xenotransplantation into the porcine genome. The piggyBac (PB transposon system allows multiple genes to be stably integrated into target genomes through a single transfection event. However, to our knowledge, no attempt to introduce multiple genes into a porcine genome has been made using this system. In this study, we simultaneously introduced seven transposons into a single porcine embryonic fibroblast (PEF. PEFs were transfected with seven transposons containing genes for five drug resistance proteins and two (red and green fluorescent proteins, together with a PB transposase expression vector, pTrans (experimental group. The above seven transposons (without pTrans were transfected concomitantly (control group. Selection of these transfected cells in the presence of multiple selection drugs resulted in the survival of several clones derived from the experimental group, but not from the control. PCR analysis demonstrated that approximately 90% (12/13 tested of the surviving clones possessed all of the introduced transposons. Splinkerette PCR demonstrated that the transposons were inserted through the TTAA target sites of PB. Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT using a PEF clone with multigene constructs demonstrated successful production of cloned blastocysts expressing both red and green fluorescence. These results indicate the feasibility of this PB-mediated method for simultaneous transfer of multigene constructs into the porcine cell genome, which is useful for production of cloned transgenic pigs expressing multiple transgenes.

  12. The piggyBac-Based Gene Delivery System Can Confer Successful Production of Cloned Porcine Blastocysts with Multigene Constructs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Masahiro; Maeda, Kosuke; Koriyama, Miyu; Inada, Emi; Saitoh, Issei; Miura, Hiromi; Ohtsuka, Masato; Nakamura, Shingo; Sakurai, Takayuki; Watanabe, Satoshi; Miyoshi, Kazuchika

    2016-01-01

    The introduction of multigene constructs into single cells is important for improving the performance of domestic animals, as well as understanding basic biological processes. In particular, multigene constructs allow the engineering and integration of multiple genes related to xenotransplantation into the porcine genome. The piggyBac (PB) transposon system allows multiple genes to be stably integrated into target genomes through a single transfection event. However, to our knowledge, no attempt to introduce multiple genes into a porcine genome has been made using this system. In this study, we simultaneously introduced seven transposons into a single porcine embryonic fibroblast (PEF). PEFs were transfected with seven transposons containing genes for five drug resistance proteins and two (red and green) fluorescent proteins, together with a PB transposase expression vector, pTrans (experimental group). The above seven transposons (without pTrans) were transfected concomitantly (control group). Selection of these transfected cells in the presence of multiple selection drugs resulted in the survival of several clones derived from the experimental group, but not from the control. PCR analysis demonstrated that approximately 90% (12/13 tested) of the surviving clones possessed all of the introduced transposons. Splinkerette PCR demonstrated that the transposons were inserted through the TTAA target sites of PB. Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) using a PEF clone with multigene constructs demonstrated successful production of cloned blastocysts expressing both red and green fluorescence. These results indicate the feasibility of this PB-mediated method for simultaneous transfer of multigene constructs into the porcine cell genome, which is useful for production of cloned transgenic pigs expressing multiple transgenes. PMID:27589724

  13. Overexpression of a modiifed AM79 aroA gene in transgenic maize confers high tolerance to glyphosate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Zhen-jing; CAO Gao-yi; ZHANG Yu-wen; LIU Yan; LIU Yun-jun

    2015-01-01

    It has previously been shown that a bacterial 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) encoding gene AM79 aroA can be a candidate gene to develop glyphosate-tolerant transgenic crops (Cao et al. 2012). In this study, AM79 aroA was redesigned using the plant biased codons and eliminating the motifs which would lead to the instability of mRNA, to create a synthetic gene that would be expressed highly in plant cel s. The redesigned and artiifcial y synthesized gene, named as mAM79, was cloned into plant expression vector pM3301UbiSpAM79, where mAM79 is fused with signal peptide sequence of pea rib-1,5-bisphospate carboxylase (rbcS) smal subunit and control ed by ubiquitin promoter. The plasmid was transformed into maize (Zea mays) immature embryos using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method. Total 74 regenerated plants were obtained and PCR analysis showed that these transgenic plants had the integration of mAM79. Southern blot analysis was performed on the genomic DNA from four transgenic lines, and the result showed that one or two copies of mAM79 were integrated into maize genome. RT-PCR analysis result indicated that mAM79 was highly transcribed in transgenic maize plants. When sprayed with glyphosate, transgenic maize line AM85 and AM72 could tolerate 4-fold of commercial usage of glyphosate;however, al the non-transgenic maize plants were kil ed by glyphosate. The results in this study conifrmed that mAM79 could be used to develop glyphosate-tolerant maize, and the obtained transgenic maize lines could be used for the breeding of glyphosate-tolerant maize.

  14. Powdery Mildew Resistance in Wheat Cultivar Mv Hombár is Conferred by a New Gene, PmHo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komáromi, Judit; Jankovics, Tünde; Fábián, Attila; Puskás, Katalin; Zhang, Zengyan; Zhang, Miao; Li, Hongjie; Jäger, Katalin; Láng, László; Vida, Gyula

    2016-11-01

    A new powdery mildew resistance gene designated as PmHo was identified in 'Mv Hombár' winter wheat, bred in Martonvásár, Hungary. It has exhibited a high level of resistance over the last two decades. Genetic mapping of recombinant inbred lines derived from the cross 'Ukrainka'/Mv Hombár located this gene on chromosome 2AL. The segregation ratio and consistent effect in all environments indicated that PmHo is a major dominant powdery mildew resistance gene. The race-specific nature of resistance in Mv Hombár was shown by the emergence of a single virulent pathotype designated as 51-Ho. This pathotype was, to some extent, able to infect Mv Hombár, developing visible symptoms with sporulating colonies. Microscopic studies revealed that, in incompatible interactions, posthaustorial hypersensitivity reaction was the most prevalent but not exclusive plant defense response in Mv Hombár, and fungal growth was mostly arrested during haustorium formation or in the early stages of colony development. The delayed fungal development of the virulent pathotype 51-Ho may be explained by additional effects of other loci that were also involved in the powdery mildew resistance of Mv Hombár.

  15. Common variants in the COL4A4 gene confer susceptibility to lattice degeneration of the retina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Meguro

    Full Text Available Lattice degeneration of the retina is a vitreoretinal disorder characterized by a visible fundus lesion predisposing the patient to retinal tears and detachment. The etiology of this degeneration is still uncertain, but it is likely that both genetic and environmental factors play important roles in its development. To identify genetic susceptibility regions for lattice degeneration of the retina, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS using a dense panel of 23,465 microsatellite markers covering the entire human genome. This GWAS in a Japanese cohort (294 patients with lattice degeneration and 294 controls led to the identification of one microsatellite locus, D2S0276i, in the collagen type IV alpha 4 (COL4A4 gene on chromosome 2q36.3. To validate the significance of this observation, we evaluated the D2S0276i region in the GWAS cohort and in an independent Japanese cohort (280 patients and 314 controls using D2S0276i and 47 single nucleotide polymorphisms covering the region. The strong associations were observed in D2S0276i and rs7558081 in the COL4A4 gene (Pc = 5.8 × 10(-6, OR = 0.63 and Pc = 1.0 × 10(-5, OR = 0.69 in a total of 574 patients and 608 controls, respectively. Our findings suggest that variants in the COL4A4 gene may contribute to the development of lattice degeneration of the retina.

  16. Two non-target recessive genes confer resistance to the anti-oomycete microtubule inhibitor zoxamide in Phytophthora capsici.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Bi

    Full Text Available This study characterized isolates of P. capsici that had developed a novel mechanism of resistance to zoxamide, which altered the minimum inhibition concentration (MIC but not the EC50. Molecular analysis revealed that the β-tubulin gene of the resistant isolates contained no mutations and was expressed at the same level as in zoxamide-sensitive isolates. This suggested that P. capsici had developed a novel non-target-site-based resistance to zoxamide. Analysis of the segregation ratio of zoxamide-resistance in the sexual progeny of the sensitive isolates PCAS1 and PCAS2 indicated that the resistance to zoxamide was controlled by one or more recessive nuclear genes. Furthermore, the segregation of resistance in the F1, F2, and BC1 progeny was in accordance with the theoretical ratios of the χ(2 test (P>0.05, which suggested that the resistance to zoxamide was controlled by two recessive genes, and that resistance to zoxamide occurred when at least one pair of these alleles was homozygous. This implies that the risk of zoxamide-resistance in P. capsici is low to moderate. Nevertheless this potential for resistance should be monitored closely, especially if two compatible mating types co-exist in the same field.

  17. The Opuntia streptacantha OpsHSP18 Gene Confers Salt and Osmotic Stress Tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas-Muñoz, Silvia; Gómez-Anduro, Gracia; Delgado-Sánchez, Pablo; Rodríguez-Kessler, Margarita; Jiménez-Bremont, Juan Francisco

    2012-01-01

    Abiotic stress limits seed germination, plant growth, flowering and fruit quality, causing economic decrease. Small Heat Shock Proteins (sHSPs) are chaperons with roles in stress tolerance. Herein, we report the functional characterization of a cytosolic class CI sHSP (OpsHSP18) from Opuntia streptacantha during seed germination in Arabidopsis thaliana transgenic lines subjected to different stress and hormone treatments. The over-expression of the OpsHSP18 gene in A. thaliana increased the seed germination rate under salt (NaCl) and osmotic (glucose and mannitol) stress, and in ABA treatments, compared with WT. On the other hand, the over-expression of the OpsHSP18 gene enhanced tolerance to salt (150 mM NaCl) and osmotic (274 mM mannitol) stress in Arabidopsis seedlings treated during 14 and 21 days, respectively. These plants showed increased survival rates (52.00 and 73.33%, respectively) with respect to the WT (18.75 and 53.75%, respectively). Thus, our results show that OpsHSP18 gene might have an important role in abiotic stress tolerance, in particular in seed germination and survival rate of Arabidopsis plants under unfavorable conditions. PMID:22949853

  18. Expression of Rice Chitinase Gene in Genetically Engineered Tomato Confers Enhanced Resistance to Fusarium Wilt and Early Blight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyla Jabeen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This is the first study reporting the evaluation of transgenic lines of tomato harboring rice chitinase (RCG3 gene for resistance to two important fungal pathogens Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (Fol causing fusarium wilt and Alternaria solani causing early blight (EB. In this study, three transgenic lines TL1, TL2 and TL3 of tomato Solanum lycopersicum Mill. cv. Riogrande genetically engineered with rice chitinase (RCG 3 gene and their R1 progeny was tested for resistance to Fol by root dip method and A. solani by detached leaf assay. All the R0 transgenic lines were highly resistant to these fungal pathogens compared to non-transgenic control plants. The pattern of segregation of three independent transformant for Fol and A. solani was also studied. Mendelian segregation was observed in transgenic lines 2 and 3 while it was not observed in transgenic line 1. It was concluded that introduction of chitinase gene in susceptible cultivar of tomato not only enhanced the resistance but was stably inherited in transgenic lines 2 and 3.

  19. Expression of Rice Chitinase Gene in Genetically Engineered Tomato Confers Enhanced Resistance to Fusarium Wilt and Early Blight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabeen, Nyla; Chaudhary, Zubeda; Gulfraz, Muhammad; Rashid, Hamid; Mirza, Bushra

    2015-01-01

    This is the first study reporting the evaluation of transgenic lines of tomato harboring rice chitinase (RCG3) gene for resistance to two important fungal pathogens Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (Fol) causing fusarium wilt and Alternaria solani causing early blight (EB). In this study, three transgenic lines TL1, TL2 and TL3 of tomato Solanum lycopersicum Mill. cv. Riogrande genetically engineered with rice chitinase (RCG 3) gene and their R1 progeny was tested for resistance to Fol by root dip method and A. solani by detached leaf assay. All the R0 transgenic lines were highly resistant to these fungal pathogens compared to non-transgenic control plants. The pattern of segregation of three independent transformant for Fol and A. solani was also studied. Mendelian segregation was observed in transgenic lines 2 and 3 while it was not observed in transgenic line 1. It was concluded that introduction of chitinase gene in susceptible cultivar of tomato not only enhanced the resistance but was stably inherited in transgenic lines 2 and 3. PMID:26361473

  20. 10. international mouse genome conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meisler, M.H.

    1996-12-31

    Ten years after hosting the First International Mammalian Genome Conference in Paris in 1986, Dr. Jean-Louis Guenet presided over the Tenth Conference at the Pasteur Institute, October 7--10, 1996. The 1986 conference was a satellite to the Human Gene Mapping Workshop and had approximately 50 attendees. The 1996 meeting was attended by 300 scientists from around the world. In the interim, the number of mapped loci in the mouse increased from 1,000 to over 20,000. This report contains a listing of the program and its participants, and two articles that review the meeting and the role of the laboratory mouse in the Human Genome project. More than 200 papers were presented at the conference covering the following topics: International mouse chromosome committee meetings; Mutant generation and identification; Physical and genetic maps; New technology and resources; Chromatin structure and gene regulation; Rate and hamster genetic maps; Informatics and databases; and Quantitative trait analysis.

  1. Mendel conference

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book is a collection of selected accepted papers of Mendel conference that has been held in Brno, Czech Republic in June 2015. The book contents three chapters which represent recent advances in soft computing including intelligent image processing and bio-inspired robotics.: Chapter 1: Evolutionary Computing, and Swarm intelligence, Chapter 2: Neural Networks, Self-organization, and Machine Learning, and Chapter3: Intelligent Image Processing, and Bio-inspired Robotics. The Mendel conference was established in 1995, and it carries the name of the scientist and Augustinian priest Gregor J. Mendel who discovered the famous Laws of Heredity. In 2015 we are commemorating 150 years since Mendel's lectures, which he presented in Brno on February and March 1865. The main aim of the conference was to create a periodical possibility for students, academics and researchers to exchange their ideas and novel research methods.  .

  2. 9. international mouse genome conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    This conference was held November 12--16, 1995 in Ann Arbor, Michigan. The purpose of this conference was to provide a multidisciplinary forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on genetic mapping in mice. This report contains abstracts of presentations, focusing on the following areas: mutation identification; comparative mapping; informatics and complex traits; mutagenesis; gene identification and new technology; and genetic and physical mapping.

  3. Over-expression of the apple spermidine synthase gene in pear confers multiple abiotic stress tolerance by altering polyamine titers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Xiao-Peng; Pang, Xiao-Ming; Matsuda, Narumi; Kita, Masayuki; Inoue, Hiromichi; Hao, Yu-Jin; Honda, Chikako; Moriguchi, Takaya

    2008-04-01

    An apple spermidine synthase (SPDS) gene (MdSPDS1) was verified to encode a functional protein by the complementation of the spe3 yeast mutant, which lacks the SPDS gene. To justify our hypothesis that apple SPDS is involved in abiotic stress responses and to obtain transgenic fruit trees tolerant to abiotic stresses as well, MdSPDS1-over-expressing transgenic European pear (Pyrus communis L. 'Ballad') plants were created by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. A total of 21 transgenic lines showing various spermidine (Spd) titers and MdSPDS1 expression levels were obtained. Selected lines were exposed to salt (150 mM NaCl), osmosis (300 mM mannitol), and heavy metal (500 microM CuSO4) stresses for evaluating their stress tolerances. Transgenic line no. 32, which was revealed to have the highest Spd accumulation and expression level of MdSPDS1, showed the strongest tolerance to these stresses. When growth increments, electrolyte leakage (EL), and values of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were monitored, line no. 32 showed the lowest growth inhibition and the least increase in EL or TBARS under stress conditions. Spd titers in wild-type and transgenic lines showed diverse changes upon stresses, and these changes were not consistent with the changes in MdSPDS1 expressions. Moreover, there were no differences in the sodium concentration in the shoots between the wild type and line no. 32, whereas the copper concentration was higher in the wild type than in line no. 32. Although the mechanism(s) underlying the involvement of polyamines in stress responses is not known, these results suggest that the over-expression of the SPDS gene substantially increased the tolerance to multiple stresses by altering the polyamine titers in pear. Thus, MdSPDS1-over-expressing transgenic pear plants could be used to improve desert land and/or to repair polluted environments.

  4. Silencing of the host factor eIF(iso)4E gene confers plum pox virus resistance in plum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinhua; Kohalmi, Susanne E; Svircev, Antonet; Wang, Aiming; Sanfaçon, Hélène; Tian, Lining

    2013-01-01

    Plum pox virus (PPV) causes the most economically-devastating viral disease in Prunus species. Unfortunately, few natural resistance genes are available for the control of PPV. Recessive resistance to some potyviruses is associated with mutations of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) or its isoform eIF(iso)4E. In this study, we used an RNA silencing approach to manipulate the expression of eIF4E and eIF(iso)4E towards the development of PPV resistance in Prunus species. The eIF4E and eIF(iso)4E genes were cloned from plum (Prunus domestica L.). The sequence identity between plum eIF4E and eIF(iso)4E coding sequences is 60.4% at the nucleotide level and 52.1% at the amino acid level. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that these two genes have a similar expression pattern in different tissues. Transgenes allowing the production of hairpin RNAs of plum eIF4E or eIF(iso)4E were introduced into plum via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Gene expression analysis confirmed specific reduced expression of eIF4E or eIF(iso)4E in the transgenic lines and this was associated with the accumulation of siRNAs. Transgenic plants were challenged with PPV-D strain and resistance was evaluated by measuring the concentration of viral RNA. Eighty-two percent of the eIF(iso)4E silenced transgenic plants were resistant to PPV, while eIF4E silenced transgenic plants did not show PPV resistance. Physical interaction between PPV-VPg and plum eIF(iso)4E was confirmed. In contrast, no PPV-VPg/eIF4E interaction was observed. These results indicate that eIF(iso)4E is involved in PPV infection in plum, and that silencing of eIF(iso)4E expression can lead to PPV resistance in Prunus species.

  5. Silencing of the host factor eIF(iso4E gene confers plum pox virus resistance in plum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinhua Wang

    Full Text Available Plum pox virus (PPV causes the most economically-devastating viral disease in Prunus species. Unfortunately, few natural resistance genes are available for the control of PPV. Recessive resistance to some potyviruses is associated with mutations of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E or its isoform eIF(iso4E. In this study, we used an RNA silencing approach to manipulate the expression of eIF4E and eIF(iso4E towards the development of PPV resistance in Prunus species. The eIF4E and eIF(iso4E genes were cloned from plum (Prunus domestica L.. The sequence identity between plum eIF4E and eIF(iso4E coding sequences is 60.4% at the nucleotide level and 52.1% at the amino acid level. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that these two genes have a similar expression pattern in different tissues. Transgenes allowing the production of hairpin RNAs of plum eIF4E or eIF(iso4E were introduced into plum via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Gene expression analysis confirmed specific reduced expression of eIF4E or eIF(iso4E in the transgenic lines and this was associated with the accumulation of siRNAs. Transgenic plants were challenged with PPV-D strain and resistance was evaluated by measuring the concentration of viral RNA. Eighty-two percent of the eIF(iso4E silenced transgenic plants were resistant to PPV, while eIF4E silenced transgenic plants did not show PPV resistance. Physical interaction between PPV-VPg and plum eIF(iso4E was confirmed. In contrast, no PPV-VPg/eIF4E interaction was observed. These results indicate that eIF(iso4E is involved in PPV infection in plum, and that silencing of eIF(iso4E expression can lead to PPV resistance in Prunus species.

  6. Silencing of grapevine pectate lyase-like genes VvPLL2 and VvPLL3 confers resistance against Erysiphe necator and differentially modulates gene expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broad-spectrum resistance against powdery mildew (PM) has been reported by silencing susceptibility genes in the model plant Arabidopsis. Here we used artificial microRNA constructs in PM-susceptible Vitis vinifera cv. Chardonnay to stably silence two pectate lyase-like orthologs (VvPLL2 and VvPLL3)...

  7. Conference Notification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Roskill Information Services and Metal Events Ltd areorganizing the 2nd International Rare Earths Conference,which will be held at the Conrad Hotel in Hong Kong onFebruary 28 to March 2 2006.The program is structured tocover all the main aspects of the rare earths industry,including development of Chinese rare earth industry; trendsin rare earths demand; potential constraints on supply;research on potential capacity of rare earths supply chain.Global rare earths consumers will attend the conference.Registra...

  8. Transcriptome profiling of gene expression during immunisation trial against Fasciola hepatica: identification of genes and pathways involved in conferring immunoprotection in a murine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Caraballo, Jose; López-Abán, Julio; Moreno-Pérez, Darwin Andrés; Vicente, Belén; Fernández-Soto, Pedro; Del Olmo, Esther; Patarroyo, Manuel Alfonso; Muro, Antonio

    2017-01-23

    Fasciolosis remains a significant food-borne trematode disease causing high morbidity around the world and affecting grazing animals and humans. A deeper understanding concerning the molecular mechanisms by which Fasciola hepatica infection occurs, as well as the molecular basis involved in acquiring protection is extremely important when designing and selecting new vaccine candidates. The present study provides a first report of microarray-based technology for describing changes in the splenic gene expression profile for mice immunised with a highly effective, protection-inducing, multi-epitope, subunit-based, chemically-synthesised vaccine candidate against F. hepatica. The mice were immunised with synthetic peptides containing B- and T-cell epitopes, which are derived from F. hepatica cathepsin B and amoebapore proteins, as novel vaccine candidates against F. hepatica formulated in an adjuvant adaptation vaccination system; they were experimentally challenged with F. hepatica metacercariae. Spleen RNA from mice immunised with the highest protection-inducing synthetic peptides was isolated, amplified and labelled using Affymetrix standardised protocols. Data was then background corrected, normalised and the expression signal was calculated. The Ingenuity Pathway Analysis tool was then used for analysing differentially expressed gene identifiers for annotating bio-functions and constructing and visualising molecular interaction networks. Mice immunised with a combination of three peptides containing T-cell epitopes induced high protection against experimental challenge according to survival rates and hepatic damage scores. It also induced differential expression of 820 genes, 168 genes being up-regulated and 652 genes being down-regulated, p value hepatica in a murine model, which could be useful for evaluating future vaccine candidates.

  9. Characterization of a mitogen-activated protein kinase gene from cucumber required for trichoderma-conferred plant resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoresh, Michal; Gal-On, Amit; Leibman, Diana; Chet, Ilan

    2006-11-01

    The fungal biocontrol agent Trichoderma asperellum has been recently shown to induce systemic resistance in plants through a mechanism that employs jasmonic acid and ethylene signal transduction pathways. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) proteins have been implicated in the signal transduction of a wide variety of plant stress responses. Here we report the identification and characterization of a Trichoderma-induced MAPK (TIPK) gene function in cucumber (Cucumis sativus). Similar to its homologs, wound-induced protein kinase, MPK3, and MPK3a, TIPK is also induced by wounding. Normally, preinoculation of roots with Trichoderma activates plant defense mechanisms, which result in resistance to the leaf pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv lachrymans. We used a unique attenuated virus vector, Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV-AGII), to overexpress TIPK protein and antisense (AS) RNA. Plants overexpressing TIPK were more resistant to pathogenic bacterial attack than control plants, even in the absence of Trichoderma preinoculation. On the other hand, plants expressing TIPK-AS revealed increased sensitivity to pathogen attack. Moreover, Trichoderma preinoculation could not protect these AS plants against subsequent pathogen attack. We therefore demonstrate that Trichoderma exerts its protective effect on plants through activation of the TIPK gene, a MAPK that is involved in signal transduction pathways of defense responses.

  10. The gene cluster for fluorometabolite biosynthesis in Streptomyces cattleya: a thioesterase confers resistance to fluoroacetyl-coenzyme A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Fanglu; Haydock, Stephen F; Spiteller, Dieter; Mironenko, Tatiana; Li, Tsung-Lin; O'Hagan, David; Leadlay, Peter F; Spencer, Jonathan B

    2006-05-01

    A genomic library of Streptomyces cattleya was screened to isolate a gene cluster encoding enzymes responsible for the production of fluorine-containing metabolites. In addition to the previously described fluorinase FlA which catalyzes the formation of 5'-fluoro-5'-deoxyadenosine from S-adenosylmethionine and fluoride, 11 other putative open reading frames have been identified. Three of the proteins encoded by these genes have been characterized. FlB was determined to be the second enzyme in the pathway, catalyzing the phosphorolytic cleavage of 5'-fluoro-5'-deoxyadenosine to produce 5-fluoro-5-deoxy-D-ribose-1-phosphate. The enzyme FlI was found to be an S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase, which may act to relieve S-adenosylhomocysteine inhibition of the fluorinase. Finally, flK encodes a thioesterase which catalyzes the selective breakdown of fluoroacetyl-CoA but not acetyl-CoA, suggesting that it provides the producing strain with a mechanism for resistance to fluoroacetate.

  11. Neuronal connectivity as a convergent target of gene × environment interactions that confer risk for Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamou, Marianna; Streifel, Karin M; Goines, Paula E; Lein, Pamela J

    2013-01-01

    Evidence implicates environmental factors in the pathogenesis of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). However, the identity of specific environmental chemicals that influence ASD risk, severity or treatment outcome remains elusive. The impact of any given environmental exposure likely varies across a population according to individual genetic substrates, and this increases the difficulty of identifying clear associations between exposure and ASD diagnoses. Heritable genetic vulnerabilities may amplify adverse effects triggered by environmental exposures if genetic and environmental factors converge to dysregulate the same signaling systems at critical times of development. Thus, one strategy for identifying environmental risk factors for ASD is to screen for environmental factors that modulate the same signaling pathways as ASD susceptibility genes. Recent advances in defining the molecular and cellular pathology of ASD point to altered patterns of neuronal connectivity in the developing brain as the neurobiological basis of these disorders. Studies of syndromic ASD and rare highly penetrant mutations or CNVs in ASD suggest that ASD risk genes converge on several major signaling pathways linked to altered neuronal connectivity in the developing brain. This review briefly summarizes the evidence implicating dysfunctional signaling via Ca(2+)-dependent mechanisms, extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK)/phosphatidylinositol-3-kinases (PI3K) and neuroligin-neurexin-SHANK as convergent molecular mechanisms in ASD, and then discusses examples of environmental chemicals for which there is emerging evidence of their potential to interfere with normal neuronal connectivity via perturbation of these signaling pathways.

  12. OsPOP5, A Prolyl Oligopeptidase Family Gene from Rice Confers Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-Rong Wang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The prolyl oligopeptidase family, which is a group of serine peptidases, can hydrolyze peptides smaller than 30 residues. The prolyl oligopeptidase family in plants includes four members, which are prolyl oligopeptidase (POP, EC3.4.21.26, dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV, EC3.4.14.5, oligopeptidase B (OPB, EC3.4.21.83, and acylaminoacyl peptidase (ACPH, EC3.4.19.1. POP is found in human and rat, and plays important roles in multiple biological processes, such as protein secretion, maturation and degradation of peptide hormones, and neuropathies, signal transduction and memory and learning. However, the function of POP is unclear in plants. In order to study POP function in plants, we cloned the cDNA of the OsPOP5 gene from rice by nested-PCR. Sequence analysis showed that the cDNA encodes a protein of 596 amino acid residues with Mw ≈ 67.29 kD. In order to analyze the protein function under different abiotic stresses, OsPOP5 was expressed in Escherichia coli. OsPOP5 protein enhanced the tolerance of E. coli to high salinity, high temperature and simulated drought. The results indicate that OsPOP5 is a stress-related gene in rice and it may play an important role in plant tolerance to abiotic stress.

  13. Cloning and functional analysis of the rhesus macaque ABCG2 gene. Forced expression confers an SP phenotype among hematopoietic stem cell progeny in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Takahiro; Brenner, Sebastian; Malech, Harry L; Langemeijer, Saskia M; Perl, Shira; Kirby, Martha; Phang, Oswald A; Krouse, Allen E; Donahue, Robert E; Kang, Elizabeth M; Tisdale, John F

    2005-01-14

    Hematopoietic cells can be highly enriched for repopulating ability based upon the efflux of the fluorescent Hoechst 33342 dye by sorting for SP (side population) cells, a phenotype attributed to expression of ABCG2, a member of the ABC transporter superfamily. Intriguingly, murine studies suggest that forced ABCG2 expression prevents hematopoietic differentiation. We cloned the full-length rhesus ABCG2 and introduced it into a retroviral vector. ABCG2-transduced human peripheral blood progenitor cells (PBPCs) acquired the SP phenotype but showed significantly reduced growth compared with control. Two rhesus macaques received autologous PBPCs split for transduction with the ABCG2 or control vectors. Marking levels were similar between fractions with no discrepancy between bone marrow and peripheral blood marking. Analysis for the SP phenotype among bone marrow and mature blood populations confirmed ABCG2 expression at levels predicted by vector copy number long term, demonstrating no block to differentiation in the large animal. In vitro studies showed selective protection against mitoxantrone among ABCG2-transduced rhesus PBPCs. Our results confirm the existence of rhesus ABCG2, establish its importance in conferring the SP phenotype, suggest no detrimental effect of its overexpression upon differentiation in vivo, and imply a potential role for its overexpression as an in vivo selection strategy for gene therapy applications.

  14. Two different point mutations in ABL gene ATP-binding domain conferring Primary Imatinib resistance in a Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML patient: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iqbal Zafar

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Imatinib (Gleevec is the effective therapy for BCR-ABL positive CML patients. Point mutations have been detected in ATP-binding domain of ABL gene which disturbs the binding of Gleevec to this target leading to resistance. Detection of mutations is helpful in clinical management of imatinib resistance. We established a very sensitive (ASO PCR to detect mutations in an imatinib-resistant CML patient. Mutations C944T and T1052C were detected which cause complete partial imatinib resistance, respectively. This is the first report of multiple point mutations conferring primary imatinib resistance in same patient at the same time. Understanding the biological reasons of primary imatinib resistance is one of the emerging issues of pharmacogenomics and will be helpful in understanding primary resistance of molecularly-targeted cancer therapies. It will also be of great utilization in clinical management of imatinib resistance. Moreover, this ASO-PCR assay is very effective in detecting mutations related to imatinib resistance.

  15. Conference Report: CAQD Conference 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Silver

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Nestled on the banks of the river Lahn in central Germany, the 15th CAQD conference was held at Marburg. A beautiful provincial town, it is one of very few that was spared the bombings of WWII; now providing the perfect backdrop for meeting to discuss developments in qualitative technology. This was the second international conference in the series with more than 140 delegates from 14 countries, including: Canada, Brazil, Portugal, the UK, as well as Germany. Hosted by MAGMA, the Marburg Research Group for Methodology and Evaluation, in partnership with Philipps-University Marburg, CAQD prioritizes a user-focus which balances practical and methodological workshops with conference presentations. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1302249

  16. WsSGTL1 gene from Withania somnifera, modulates glycosylation profile, antioxidant system and confers biotic and salt stress tolerance in transgenic tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Vibha; Niranjan, Abhishek; Atri, Neelam; Chandrashekhar, K; Mishra, Manoj K; Trivedi, Prabodh K; Misra, Pratibha

    2014-06-01

    Glycosylation of sterols, catalysed by sterol glycosyltransferases (SGTs), improves the sterol solubility, chemical stability and compartmentalization, and helps plants to adapt to environmental changes. The SGTs in medicinal plants are of particular interest for their role in the biosynthesis of pharmacologically active substances. WsSGTL1, a SGT isolated from Withania somnifera, was expressed and functionally characterized in transgenic tobacco plants. Transgenic WsSGTL1-Nt lines showed an adaptive mechanism through demonstrating late germination, stunted growth, yellowish-green leaves and enhanced antioxidant system. The reduced chlorophyll content and chlorophyll fluorescence with decreased photosynthetic parameters were observed in WsSGTL1-Nt plants. These changes could be due to the enhanced glycosylation by WsSGTL1, as no modulation in chlorophyll biogenesis-related genes was observed in transgenic lines as compared to wildtype (WT) plants. Enhanced accumulation of main sterols like, campesterol, stigmasterol and sitosterol in glycosylated form was observed in WsSGTL1-Nt plants. Apart from these, other secondary metabolites related to plant's antioxidant system along with activities of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT; two to fourfold) were enhanced in WsSGTL1-Nt as compared to WT. WsSGTL1-Nt plants showed significant resistance towards Spodoptera litura (biotic stress) with up to 27 % reduced larval weight as well as salt stress (abiotic stress) with improved survival capacity of leaf discs. The present study demonstrates that higher glycosylation of sterols and enhanced antioxidant system caused by expression of WsSGTL1 gene confers specific functions in plants to adapt under different environmental challenges.

  17. Barium chloride induces redox status unbalance, upregulates cytokine genes expression and confers hepatotoxicity in rats-alleviation by pomegranate peel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwej, Awatef; Grojja, Yousri; Ghorbel, Imen; Boudawara, Ons; Jarraya, Raoudha; Boudawara, Tahia; Zeghal, Najiba

    2016-04-01

    The present study was performed to establish the therapeutic efficacy of pomegranate peel against barium chloride induced liver injury. Adult rats were divided into four groups of six animals each: group I, serving as controls, received distilled water; group II received by their drinking water 67 ppm of BaCl2; group III received both 67 ppm of BaCl2 by the same way than group II and 5 % of pomegranate peel (PP) via diet; group IV received 5 % of PP. Analysis by HPLC/MS of PP showed its rich composition in flavonoids such as gallic acid, castalin, hyperin, quercitrin, syringic acid, and quercetin. The protective effects of pomegranate peel against hepatotoxicity induced by barium chloride were assessed using biochemical parameters and histological studies. Exposure of rats to barium caused oxidative stress in the liver as evidenced by an increase in malondialdehyde (MDA), lipid hydroperoxides (LOOHs), H2O2 and advanced oxidation protein product (AOPP) levels, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), alanine aminotransferase (AST) and aspartate aminotransferase (ALT) activities, a decrease in catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities, glutathion (GSH), non-protein thiol (NPSH), vitamin C levels, and Mn-SOD gene expression. Liver total MT levels, MT-1, and MT-2 and pro-inflammatory cytokine genes expression like TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 were increased. Pomegranate peel, supplemented in the diet of barium-treated rats, showed an improvement of all the parameters indicated above.The present work provided ethnopharmacological relevance of pomegranate peel against the toxic effects of barium, suggesting its beneficial role as a potential antioxidant.

  18. Hairpin RNA derived from viral NIa gene confers immunity to wheat streak mosaic virus infection in transgenic wheat plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahim, Muhammad; Ayala-Navarrete, Ligia; Millar, Anthony A; Larkin, Philip J

    2010-09-01

    Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV), vectored by Wheat curl mite, has been of great economic importance in the Great Plains of the United States and Canada. Recently, the virus has been identified in Australia, where it has spread quickly to all major wheat growing areas. The difficulties in finding adequate natural resistance in wheat prompted us to develop transgenic resistance based on RNA interference (RNAi). An RNAi construct was designed to target the nuclear inclusion protein 'a' (NIa) gene of WSMV. Wheat was stably cotransformed with two plasmids: pStargate-NIa expressing hairpin RNA (hpRNA) including WSMV sequence and pCMneoSTLS2 with the nptII selectable marker. When T(1) progeny were assayed against WSMV, ten of sixteen families showed complete resistance in transgenic segregants. The resistance was classified as immunity by four criteria: no disease symptoms were produced; ELISA readings were as in uninoculated plants; viral sequences could not be detected by RT-PCR from leaf extracts; and leaf extracts failed to give infections in susceptible plants when used in test-inoculation experiments. Southern blot hybridization analysis indicated hpRNA transgene integrated into the wheat genome. Moreover, accumulation of small RNAs derived from the hpRNA transgene sequence positively correlated with immunity. We also showed that the selectable marker gene nptII segregated independently of the hpRNA transgene in some transgenics, and therefore demonstrated that it is possible using these techniques, to produce marker-free WSMV immune transgenic plants. This is the first report of immunity in wheat to WSMV using a spliceable intron hpRNA strategy.

  19. Conference Hopes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Annual conference outlines tasks for 2010 to solidify China’s economic recovery through rational investment and increasing consumptionc hina will adhere to a consistent and stable economic strategy, putting in place a proactive fiscal policy and an accommodative monetary policy for the 2010 fiscal year-the macro-economic course mapped out during China’s Central

  20. Conference proceedings

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2015-08-07

    Aug 7, 2015 ... African epidemiological association and 1st conference of the Cameroon society of ... International Reference Centre (CIRCB) for research on HIV/AIDS prevention and .... interests (third line regimens, clinical trials and HIV functional cure). ... sharing. Regarding Mycobacterium Tuberculosis, the efficacy of.

  1. Heterology expression of the sweet pepper CBF3 gene confers elevated tolerance to chilling stress in transgenic tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sha; Tang, Xian-Feng; Ma, Na-Na; Wang, Li-Yan; Meng, Qing-Wei

    2011-10-15

    Various studies have confirmed that the CBF (C-repeat binding factor) family of transcription factors has a key role in regulating many plants' responses to cold stress. Here we isolated CBF3 from sweet pepper (Capsicum frutescens). Green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion protein of CfCBF3 was targeted to the nucleus of the onion epidermis cell. RNA gel blot analysis indicated that CfCBF3 was expressed in leaves of sweet pepper and the expression was induced by low temperature, drought and salinity stresses but not by ABA. Overexpression of CfCBF3 under the control of the CaMV35S promoter in tobacco induced expression of orthologs of CBF3-targeted genes and increased chilling tolerance without a dwarf phenotype. Indeed it also led to multiple biochemical and physiological changes associated with chilling stress. Higher levels of proline (Pro) and soluble sugars and lower content of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were observed in transgenic plants. Our results demonstrated that the increase in total unsaturated fatty acids, especially in phosphatidylglycerol (PG) was detected by overexpression of CfCBF3. During exposure to chilling stress, the transgenic lines were less susceptible to chilling-induced photoinhibition than wild-type (WT) plants. These results suggest that overexpression of CfCBF3 led to modification of the fatty acid unsaturation and alleviated the injuries under chilling stress.

  2. Functional characterization of a gene locus from an uncultured gut Bacteroides conferring xylo-oligosaccharides utilization to Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauzin, Alexandra S; Laville, Elisabeth; Xiao, Yao; Nouaille, Sébastien; Le Bourgeois, Pascal; Heux, Stéphanie; Portais, Jean-Charles; Monsan, Pierre; Martens, Eric C; Potocki-Veronese, Gabrielle; Bordes, Florence

    2016-11-01

    In prominent gut Bacteroides strains, sophisticated strategies have been evolved to achieve the complete degradation of dietary polysaccharides such as xylan, which is one of the major components of the plant cell wall. Polysaccharide Utilization Loci (PULs) consist of gene clusters encoding different proteins with a vast arsenal of functions, including carbohydrate binding, transport and hydrolysis. Transport is often attributed to TonB-dependent transporters, although major facilitator superfamily (MFS) transporters have also been identified in some PULs. However, until now, few of these transporters have been biochemically characterized. Here, we targeted a PUL-like system from an uncultivated Bacteroides species that is highly prevalent in the human gut metagenome. It encodes three glycoside-hydrolases specific for xylo-oligosaccharides, a SusC/SusD tandem homolog and a MFS transporter. We combined PUL rational engineering, metabolic and transcriptional analysis in Escherichia coli to functionally characterize this genomic locus. We demonstrated that the SusC and the MFS transporters are specific for internalization of linear xylo-oligosaccharides of polymerization degree up to 3 and 4 respectively. These results were strengthened by the study of growth dynamics and transcriptional analyses in response to XOS induction of the PUL in the native strain, Bacteroides vulgatus. © 2016 The Authors. Molecular Microbiology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Long non-coding RNA-mediated transcriptional interference of a permease gene confers drug tolerance in fission yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ard, Ryan; Tong, Pin; Allshire, Robin C

    2014-11-27

    Most long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) encoded by eukaryotic genomes remain uncharacterized. Here we focus on a set of intergenic lncRNAs in fission yeast. Deleting one of these lncRNAs exhibited a clear phenotype: drug sensitivity. Detailed analyses of the affected locus revealed that transcription of the nc-tgp1 lncRNA regulates drug tolerance by repressing the adjacent phosphate-responsive permease gene transporter for glycerophosphodiester 1 (tgp1(+)). We demonstrate that the act of transcribing nc-tgp1 over the tgp1(+) promoter increases nucleosome density, prevents transcription factor access and thus represses tgp1(+) without the need for RNA interference or heterochromatin components. We therefore conclude that tgp1(+) is regulated by transcriptional interference. Accordingly, decreased nc-tgp1 transcription permits tgp1(+) expression upon phosphate starvation. Furthermore, nc-tgp1 loss induces tgp1(+) even in repressive conditions. Notably, drug sensitivity results directly from tgp1(+) expression in the absence of the nc-tgp1 RNA. Thus, transcription of an lncRNA governs drug tolerance in fission yeast.

  4. Genome editing of the disease susceptibility gene CsLOB1 in citrus confers resistance to citrus canker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Hongge; Zhang, Yunzeng; Orbović, Vladimir; Xu, Jin; White, Frank F; Jones, Jeffrey B; Wang, Nian

    2017-07-01

    Citrus is a highly valued tree crop worldwide, while, at the same time, citrus production faces many biotic challenges, including bacterial canker and Huanglongbing (HLB). Breeding for disease-resistant varieties is the most efficient and sustainable approach to control plant diseases. Traditional breeding of citrus varieties is challenging due to multiple limitations, including polyploidy, polyembryony, extended juvenility and long crossing cycles. Targeted genome editing technology has the potential to shorten varietal development for some traits, including disease resistance. Here, we used CRISPR/Cas9/sgRNA technology to modify the canker susceptibility gene CsLOB1 in Duncan grapefruit. Six independent lines, DLOB 2, DLOB 3, DLOB 9, DLOB 10, DLOB 11 and DLOB 12, were generated. Targeted next-generation sequencing of the six lines showed the mutation rate was 31.58%, 23.80%, 89.36%, 88.79%, 46.91% and 51.12% for DLOB 2, DLOB 3, DLOB 9, DLOB 10, DLOB 11 and DLOB 12, respectively, of the cells in each line. DLOB 2 and DLOB 3 showed canker symptoms similar to wild-type grapefruit, when inoculated with the pathogen Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc). No canker symptoms were observed on DLOB 9, DLOB 10, DLOB 11 and DLOB 12 at 4 days postinoculation (DPI) with Xcc. Pustules caused by Xcc were observed on DLOB 9, DLOB 10, DLOB 11 and DLOB 12 in later stages, which were much reduced compared to that on wild-type grapefruit. The pustules on DLOB 9 and DLOB 10 did not develop into typical canker symptoms. No side effects and off-target mutations were detected in the mutated plants. This study indicates that genome editing using CRISPR technology will provide a promising pathway to generate disease-resistant citrus varieties. © 2016 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Registration of Durum Wheat Germplasm Lines with Combined Mutations in SBEIIa and SBEIIb Genes Conferring Increased Amylose and Resistant Starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazard, Brittany; Zhang, Xiaoqin; Naemeh, Mahmoudreza; Dubcovsky, Jorge

    2014-08-25

    Durum wheat [Triticum turgidum L. subsp. durum (Desf.) Husn.], used in pasta, couscous, and flatbread production, is an important source of starch food products worldwide. The amylose portion of the starch forms resistant starch complexes that resist digestion and contribute to dietary fiber. Increasing the amount of amylose and resistant starch in wheat by mutating the STARCH BRANCHING ENZYME II (SBEII) genes has potential to provide human health benefits. Ethyl methane sulfonate mutations in the linked SBEIIa and SBEIIb paralogs were combined on chromosomes 2A (SBEIIa/b-A; Reg. No. GP-968, PI 670159), 2B (SBEIIa/b-B; Reg. No. GP-970, PI 670161), and on both chromosomes (SBEIIa/b-AB; Reg. No. GP-969, PI 670160) in the tetraploid wheat cultivar Kronos, a semidwarf durum wheat cultivar that has high yield potential and excellent pasta quality. These three double and quadruple SBEII-mutant lines were compared with a control sib line with no SBEII mutations in two field locations in California. The SBEIIa/b-AB line with four mutations showed dramatic increases in amylose (average 66%) and resistant starch (average 753%) relative to the control. However, the SBEIIa/b-AB line also showed an average 7% decrease in total starch and an 8% decrease in kernel weight. The release by the University of California-Davis of the durum wheat germplasm combining four SBEIIa and SBEIIb mutations will accelerate the deployment of these mutations in durum wheat breeding programs and the development of durum wheat varieties with increased resistant starch.

  6. Rhodococcus equi's extreme resistance to hydrogen peroxide is mainly conferred by one of its four catalase genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline Bidaud

    Full Text Available Rhodococcus equi is one of the most widespread causes of disease in foals aged from 1 to 6 months. R. equi possesses antioxidant defense mechanisms to protect it from reactive oxygen metabolites such as hydrogen peroxide (H(2O(2 generated during the respiratory burst of phagocytic cells. These defense mechanisms include enzymes such as catalase, which detoxify hydrogen peroxide. Recently, an analysis of the R. equi 103 genome sequence revealed the presence of four potential catalase genes. We first constructed ΔkatA-, ΔkatB-, ΔkatC-and ΔkatD-deficient mutants to study the ability of R. equi to survive exposure to H(2O(2in vitro and within mouse peritoneal macrophages. Results showed that ΔkatA and, to a lesser extent ΔkatC, were affected by 80 mM H(2O(2. Moreover, katA deletion seems to significantly affect the ability of R. equi to survive within murine macrophages. We finally investigated the expression of the four catalases in response to H(2O(2 assays with a real time PCR technique. Results showed that katA is overexpressed 367.9 times (± 122.6 in response to exposure to 50 mM of H(2O(2 added in the stationary phase, and 3.11 times (± 0.59 when treatment was administered in the exponential phase. In untreated bacteria, katB, katC and katD were overexpressed from 4.3 to 17.5 times in the stationary compared to the exponential phase. Taken together, our results show that KatA is the major catalase involved in the extreme H(2O(2 resistance capability of R. equi.

  7. GhCAX3 gene, a novel Ca(2+/H(+ exchanger from cotton, confers regulation of cold response and ABA induced signal transduction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lian Xu

    Full Text Available As a second messenger, Ca(2+ plays a major role in cold induced transduction via stimulus-specific increases in [Ca(2+]cyt, which is called calcium signature. During this process, CAXs (Ca(2+/H(+ exchangers play critical role. For the first time, a putative Ca(2+/H(+ exchanger GhCAX3 gene from upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum cv. 'YZ-1' was isolated and characterized. It was highly expressed in all tissues of cotton except roots and fibers. This gene may act as a regulator in cotton's response to abiotic stresses as it could be up-regulated by Ca(2+, NaCl, ABA and cold stress. Similar to other CAXs, it was proved that GhCAX3 also had Ca(2+ transport activity and the N-terminal regulatory region (NRR through yeast complementation assay. Over-expression of GhCAX3 in tobacco showed less sensitivity to ABA during seed germination and seedling stages, and the phenotypic difference between wild type (WT and transgenic plants was more significant when the NRR was truncated. Furthermore, GhCAX3 conferred cold tolerance in yeast as well as in tobacco seedlings based on physiological and molecular studies. However, transgenic plant seeds showed more sensitivity to cold stress compared to WT during seed germination, especially when expressed in N-terminal truncated version. Finally, the extent of sensitivity in transgenic lines was more severe than that in WT line under sodium tungstate treatment (an ABA repressor, indicating that ABA could alleviate cold sensitivity of GhCAX3 seeds, especially in short of its NRR. Meanwhile, we also found that overexpression of GhCAX3 could enhance some cold and ABA responsive marker genes. Taken together, these results suggested that GhCAX3 plays important roles in the cross-talk of ABA and cold signal transduction, and compared to full-length of GhCAX3, the absence of NRR could enhance the tolerance or sensitivity to cold stress, depending on seedling's developmental stages.

  8. SIGEF Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Terceño-Gómez, Antonio; Ferrer-Comalat, Joan; Merigó-Lindahl, José; Linares-Mustarós, Salvador

    2015-01-01

    This book is a collection of selected papers presented at the SIGEF conference, held at the Faculty of Economics and Business of the University of Girona (Spain), 06-08 July, 2015. This edition of the conference has been presented with the slogan “Scientific methods for the treatment of uncertainty in social sciences”. There are different ways for dealing with uncertainty in management. The book focuses on soft computing theories and their role in assessing uncertainty in a complex world. It gives a comprehensive overview of quantitative management topics and discusses some of the most recent developments in all the areas of business and management in soft computing including Decision Making, Expert Systems and Forgotten Effects Theory, Forecasting Models, Fuzzy Logic and Fuzzy Sets, Modelling and Simulation Techniques, Neural Networks and Genetic Algorithms and Optimization and Control. The book might be of great interest for anyone working in the area of management and business economics and might be es...

  9. Conference information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Thermag Ⅳ- The 4th International Conference on Magnetic Refrigeration at Room Temperature of IIR Refrigeration technology is widely used today. However, traditional vapor compression/expansion refrigeration technology has some disadvantages, such as low conversion efficiency of vapor compressor, and emission of the ozonosphere depletion gas and greenhouse effect gas, etc. Magnetic refrigeration is a new cooling technology with huge potential application prospect, characterized by high efficiency, energy saving and environmental friendly.

  10. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Confers Tolerance to Various Abiotic Stresses and Modulates Plant Response to Phytohormones through Osmoprotection and Gene Expression Regulation in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalini Tiwari

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Being sessile in nature, plants have to withstand various adverse environmental stress conditions including both biotic and abiotic stresses. Comparatively, abiotic stresses such as drought, salinity, high temperature, and cold pose major threat to agriculture by negatively impacting plant growth and yield worldwide. Rice is one of the most widely consumed staple cereals across the globe, the production and productivity of which is also severely affected by different abiotic stresses. Therefore, several crop improvement programs are directed toward developing stress tolerant rice cultivars either through marker assisted breeding or transgenic technology. Alternatively, some known rhizospheric competent bacteria are also known to improve plant growth during abiotic stresses. A plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens NBRI-SN13 (SN13 was previously reported by our lab to confer salt stress tolerance to rice seedlings. However, the present study investigates the role of SN13 in ameliorating various abiotic stresses such as salt, drought, desiccation, heat, cold, and freezing on a popular rice cv. Saryu-52 under hydroponic growth conditions. Apart from this, seedlings were also exogenously supplied with abscisic acid (ABA, salicylic acid (SA, jasmonic acid (JA and ethephon (ET to study the role of SN13 in phytohormone-induced stress tolerance as well as its role in abiotic and biotic stress cross-talk. All abiotic stresses and phytohormone treatments significantly affected various physiological and biochemical parameters like membrane integrity and osmolyte accumulation. SN13 also positively modulated stress-responsive gene expressions under various abiotic stresses and phytohormone treatments suggesting its multifaceted role in cross-talk among stresses and phytohormones in response to PGPR. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on detailed analysis of plant growth promotion and stress alleviation by a

  11. The root-colonizing endophyte Pirifomospora indica confers drought tolerance in Arabidopsis by stimulating the expression of drought stress-related genes in leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherameti, Irena; Tripathi, Swati; Varma, Ajit; Oelmüller, Ralf

    2008-06-01

    Piriformospora indica is an endophytic fungus that colonizes the roots of many plant species, including Arabidopsis. We exposed 18-day-old Arabidopsis seedlings, which were either cocultivated with the fungus or mock-treated for the last 9 days, to mild drought stress for 84 h. During the first 36 to 48 h, seedlings cocultivated with the fungus continued to grow, while the uncolonized controls did not. This results in a threefold difference in the fresh weight and a more than twofold difference in the chlorophyll content. The photosynthetic efficiency was only slightly reduced in the colonized (F variable/F maximum [Fv/Fm] at t(0 h) = 0.82 and t(36 h) = 0.79) and was severely impaired in the uncolonized (Fv/Fm at t(0 h) = 0.81 and (t)(36 h) = 0.49) seedlings, which also showed symptoms of withering. When seedlings exposed to drought stress for 72 or 84 h were transferred to soil, 10% (72 h) and none (84 h) of uncolonized seedlings reached the flowering stage and produced seeds, while 59% (72 h) and 47% (84 h) of the colonized seedlings flowered and produced seeds. After exposure to drought stress for 3 h, the message levels for RESPONSE TO DEHYDRATION 29A, EARLY RESPONSE TO DEHYDRATION1, ANAC072, DEHYDRATION-RESPONSE ELEMENT BINDING PROTEIN2A, SALT-, AND DROUGHT-INDUCED RING FINGER1, phospholipase Ddelta, CALCINEURIN B-LIKE PROTEIN (CBL)1, CBL-INTERACTING PROTEIN KINASE3, and the histone acetyltransferase (HAT) were upregulated in the leaves of P. indica-colonized seedlings. Uncolonized seedlings responded 3 to 6 h later, and the message levels increased much less. We identified an Arabidopsis ethylmethane-sulfonate mutant that is less resistant to drought stress and in which the stress-related genes were not upregulated in the presence of P. indica. Thus, P. indica confers drought-stress tolerance to Arabidopsis, and this is associated with the priming of the expression of a quite diverse set of stress-related genes in the leaves. Transfer to soil was again

  12. Conference Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riveros, P. A.; Dutrizac, J. E. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)] [eds.

    2001-07-01

    This workshop is part of a continuing series of joint workshops organized by CANMET of Natural Resources Canada and the Research Directorate-General of the European Commission in the areas of sustainable metallurgical processing, recycling and environmental protection. The program presented at this conference also benefited from the organizational support of the Canadian Association of Recycling Industries. Over the past twenty years these workshops served as a valuable forum for the discussion of the technological issues associated with metallurgical processing, recycling and compliance with environmental regulations within the framework of sustainable development. The program this year was organized in five sessions. A total of 32 papers were presented. Session One emphasized the international dimension of modern research as illustrated by the Intelligent Manufacturing System (MIS) program. Session Two dealt with recycling, with special attention to the recycling of plastics and construction materials. Session Three was devoted to highlighting European efforts to treat chromium-bearing solutions or to find alternatives to chromium salts in surface treatment operations. Session Four emphasized primary and secondary zinc processing and the importance of energy conservation. The final session reviewed waste management practices and the utilization of waste materials. Opening addresses by representatives of the sponsoring organizations and a list of conference attendees and their affiliations are also included.

  13. NATO Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Lynn, W

    1975-01-01

    The contents of this volume involve selection, emendation and up-dating of papers presented at the NATO Conference "Mathe­ matical Analysis of Decision problems in Ecology" in Istanbul, Turkey, July 9-13, 1973. It was sponsored by the System Sciences Division of NATO directed by Dr. B. Bayraktar with local arrange­ ments administered by Dr. Ilhami Karayalcin, professor of the Department of Industrial Engineering at the Technical University of Istanbul. It was organized by A. Charnes, University professor across the University of Texas System, and Walter R.Lynn, Di­ rector of the School of Civil and Environmental Engineering at Cornell Unjversity. The objective of the conference was to bring together a group of leading researchers from the major sciences involved in eco­ logical problems and to present the current state of progress in research of a mathematical nature which might assist in the solu­ tion of these problems. Although their presentations are not herein recorded, the key­ note address of Dr....

  14. EGC Conferences

    CERN Document Server

    Ritschard, Gilbert; Pinaud, Bruno; Venturini, Gilles; Zighed, Djamel; Advances in Knowledge Discovery and Management

    This book is a collection of representative and novel works done in Data Mining, Knowledge Discovery, Clustering and Classification that were originally presented in French at the EGC'2012 Conference held in Bordeaux, France, on January 2012. This conference was the 12th edition of this event, which takes place each year and which is now successful and well-known in the French-speaking community. This community was structured in 2003 by the foundation of the French-speaking EGC society (EGC in French stands for ``Extraction et Gestion des Connaissances'' and means ``Knowledge Discovery and Management'', or KDM). This book is intended to be read by all researchers interested in these fields, including PhD or MSc students, and researchers from public or private laboratories. It concerns both theoretical and practical aspects of KDM. The book is structured in two parts called ``Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining'' and ``Classification and Feature Extraction or Selection''. The first part (6 chapters) deals with...

  15. Systematic mutagenesis of genes encoding predicted autotransported proteins of Burkholderia pseudomallei identifies factors mediating virulence in mice, net intracellular replication and a novel protein conferring serum resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie R Lazar Adler

    Full Text Available Burkholderia pseudomallei is the causative agent of the severe tropical disease melioidosis, which commonly presents as sepsis. The B. pseudomallei K96243 genome encodes eleven predicted autotransporters, a diverse family of secreted and outer membrane proteins often associated with virulence. In a systematic study of these autotransporters, we constructed insertion mutants in each gene predicted to encode an autotransporter and assessed them for three pathogenesis-associated phenotypes: virulence in the BALB/c intra-peritoneal mouse melioidosis model, net intracellular replication in J774.2 murine macrophage-like cells and survival in 45% (v/v normal human serum. From the complete repertoire of eleven autotransporter mutants, we identified eight mutants which exhibited an increase in median lethal dose of 1 to 2-log10 compared to the isogenic parent strain (bcaA, boaA, boaB, bpaA, bpaC, bpaE, bpaF and bimA. Four mutants, all demonstrating attenuation for virulence, exhibited reduced net intracellular replication in J774.2 macrophage-like cells (bimA, boaB, bpaC and bpaE. A single mutant (bpaC was identified that exhibited significantly reduced serum survival compared to wild-type. The bpaC mutant, which demonstrated attenuation for virulence and net intracellular replication, was sensitive to complement-mediated killing via the classical and/or lectin pathway. Serum resistance was rescued by in trans complementation. Subsequently, we expressed recombinant proteins of the passenger domain of four predicted autotransporters representing each of the phenotypic groups identified: those attenuated for virulence (BcaA, those attenuated for virulence and net intracellular replication (BpaE, the BpaC mutant with defects in virulence, net intracellular replication and serum resistance and those displaying wild-type phenotypes (BatA. Only BcaA and BpaE elicited a strong IFN-γ response in a restimulation assay using whole blood from seropositive donors

  16. Systematic mutagenesis of genes encoding predicted autotransported proteins of Burkholderia pseudomallei identifies factors mediating virulence in mice, net intracellular replication and a novel protein conferring serum resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazar Adler, Natalie R; Stevens, Mark P; Dean, Rachel E; Saint, Richard J; Pankhania, Depesh; Prior, Joann L; Atkins, Timothy P; Kessler, Bianca; Nithichanon, Arnone; Lertmemongkolchai, Ganjana; Galyov, Edouard E

    2015-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei is the causative agent of the severe tropical disease melioidosis, which commonly presents as sepsis. The B. pseudomallei K96243 genome encodes eleven predicted autotransporters, a diverse family of secreted and outer membrane proteins often associated with virulence. In a systematic study of these autotransporters, we constructed insertion mutants in each gene predicted to encode an autotransporter and assessed them for three pathogenesis-associated phenotypes: virulence in the BALB/c intra-peritoneal mouse melioidosis model, net intracellular replication in J774.2 murine macrophage-like cells and survival in 45% (v/v) normal human serum. From the complete repertoire of eleven autotransporter mutants, we identified eight mutants which exhibited an increase in median lethal dose of 1 to 2-log10 compared to the isogenic parent strain (bcaA, boaA, boaB, bpaA, bpaC, bpaE, bpaF and bimA). Four mutants, all demonstrating attenuation for virulence, exhibited reduced net intracellular replication in J774.2 macrophage-like cells (bimA, boaB, bpaC and bpaE). A single mutant (bpaC) was identified that exhibited significantly reduced serum survival compared to wild-type. The bpaC mutant, which demonstrated attenuation for virulence and net intracellular replication, was sensitive to complement-mediated killing via the classical and/or lectin pathway. Serum resistance was rescued by in trans complementation. Subsequently, we expressed recombinant proteins of the passenger domain of four predicted autotransporters representing each of the phenotypic groups identified: those attenuated for virulence (BcaA), those attenuated for virulence and net intracellular replication (BpaE), the BpaC mutant with defects in virulence, net intracellular replication and serum resistance and those displaying wild-type phenotypes (BatA). Only BcaA and BpaE elicited a strong IFN-γ response in a restimulation assay using whole blood from seropositive donors and were

  17. Genetic dissection of a TIR-NB-LRR locus from the wild North American grapevine species Muscadinia rotundifolia identifies paralogous genes conferring resistance to major fungal and oomycete pathogens in cultivated grapevine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feechan, Angela; Anderson, Claire; Torregrosa, Laurent; Jermakow, Angelica; Mestre, Pere; Wiedemann-Merdinoglu, Sabine; Merdinoglu, Didier; Walker, Amanda R; Cadle-Davidson, Lance; Reisch, Bruce; Aubourg, Sebastien; Bentahar, Nadia; Shrestha, Bipna; Bouquet, Alain; Adam-Blondon, Anne-Françoise; Thomas, Mark R; Dry, Ian B

    2013-11-01

    The most economically important diseases of grapevine cultivation worldwide are caused by the fungal pathogen powdery mildew (Erysiphe necator syn. Uncinula necator) and the oomycete pathogen downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola). Currently, grapegrowers rely heavily on the use of agrochemicals to minimize the potentially devastating impact of these pathogens on grape yield and quality. The wild North American grapevine species Muscadinia rotundifolia was recognized as early as 1889 to be resistant to both powdery and downy mildew. We have now mapped resistance to these two mildew pathogens in M. rotundifolia to a single locus on chromosome 12 that contains a family of seven TIR-NB-LRR genes. We further demonstrate that two highly homologous (86% amino acid identity) members of this gene family confer strong resistance to these unrelated pathogens following genetic transformation into susceptible Vitis vinifera winegrape cultivars. These two genes, designated resistance to Uncinula necator (MrRUN1) and resistance to Plasmopara viticola (MrRPV1) are the first resistance genes to be cloned from a grapevine species. Both MrRUN1 and MrRPV1 were found to confer resistance to multiple powdery and downy mildew isolates from France, North America and Australia; however, a single powdery mildew isolate collected from the south-eastern region of North America, to which M. rotundifolia is native, was capable of breaking MrRUN1-mediated resistance. Comparisons of gene organization and coding sequences between M. rotundifolia and the cultivated grapevine V. vinifera at the MrRUN1/MrRPV1 locus revealed a high level of synteny, suggesting that the TIR-NB-LRR genes at this locus share a common ancestor. © 2013 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. MUSME Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Martinez, Eusebio

    2015-01-01

    This volume contains the Proceedings of MUSME 2014, held at Huatulco in Oaxaca, Mexico, October 2014. Topics include analysis and synthesis of mechanisms; dynamics of multibody systems; design algorithms for mechatronic systems; simulation procedures and results; prototypes and their performance; robots and micromachines; experimental validations; theory of mechatronic simulation; mechatronic systems; and control of mechatronic systems. The MUSME symposium on Multibody Systems and Mechatronics was held under the auspices of IFToMM, the International Federation for Promotion of Mechanism and Machine Science, and FeIbIM, the Iberoamerican Federation of Mechanical Engineering. Since the first symposium in 2002, MUSME events have been characterised by the way they stimulate the integration between the various mechatronics and multibody systems dynamics disciplines, present a forum for facilitating contacts among researchers and students mainly in South American countries, and serve as a joint conference for the ...

  19. EXPRESSION OF HUMAN α-GALACTOSIDASE AND α1,2-FUCOSYL-TRANSFERASE GENES MODIFIES THE CELL SURFACE GALα1,3GAL ANTIGEN AND CONFERS RESISTANCE TO HUMAN SERUM-MEDIATED CYTOLYSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾延军; 任会明; 高新; 季守平; 杨军; 刘泽鹏; 李素波; 章扬培

    2004-01-01

    Objective To explore the strategies which reduce the amount of xenoantigen Galα1, 3 Gal. Methods Human α-galactosidase gene and α 1,2-fucosyltransferase gene were transferred into cultured porcine vascular endothelial cells PEDSV.15 and human α-galactosidase transgenic mice were produced. The Galα 1,3Gal on the cell surface and susceptibility of cells to human antibody-mediated lysis were analyzed. Results Human α-galactosidase gene alone reduced 78% of Galα1,3Gal on PEDSV.15 cell surface while human α-galactosidase combined with α 1,2-fucosyltransferase genes removed Galα 1,3Gal completely. Decrease of Galα1,3Gal could reduce susceptibility of cells to human antibody-mediated lysis, especially during co-expression of α-galactosidase gene and α1,2-fucosyltransferase gene. RT-PCR indicated positive human α-galactosidase gene expression in all organs of positive human α-galactosidase transgenic F1 mice including heart, liver, kidney, lung, and spleen, the amount of Galα1,3Gal antigens on which was reduced largely. 58% of spleen cells from F1 mice were destroyed by complement-mediated lysis compared with 24% of those from normal mice. Conclusions Human α-galactosidase gene and α1,2-fucosyltransferase gene effectively reduce the expression of Galα1,3Gal antigens on endothelial cell surface and confers resistance to human serummediated cytolysis. The expression of human α-galactosidase in mice can also eliminate the Galα1,3Gal antigens in most tissues and decrease the susceptibility of spleen cells to human serum-mediated cytolysis.

  20. Conference this! Lead Pipers compare conference experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial Board

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available As library travel budgets are increasingly slashed around the country, it’s a tough time for conference-going. In this group post, we compare notes about the conferences we’ve attended, which have been our favorites, and why. We hope this will generate creative ideas on good conferences (online or in-person to look forward to, and maybe offer [...

  1. 76 FR 64083 - Reliability Technical Conference; Notice of Technical Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-17

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Reliability Technical Conference; Notice of Technical Conference Take notice that the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission will hold a Technical Conference on Tuesday, November 29... addressing risks to reliability that were identified in earlier Commission technical conferences....

  2. Fake/Bogus Conferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asadi, Amin; Rahbar, Nader; Rezvani, Mohammad Javad

    2017-01-01

    The main objective of the present paper is to introduce some features of fake/bogus conferences and some viable approaches to differentiate them from the real ones. These fake/bogus conferences introduce themselves as international conferences, which are multidisciplinary and indexed in major sci...... scientific digital libraries. Furthermore, most of the fake/bogus conference holders offer publishing the accepted papers in ISI journals and use other techniques in their advertisement e-mails....

  3. tcrB, a gene conferring transferable copper resistance in Enterococcus faecium: occurrence, transferability, and linkage to macrolide and glycopeptide resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasman, Henrik; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2002-01-01

    B protein from Enterococcus hirae. The tcrB gene was found in E. faecium isolated from pigs (75%), broilers (34%), calves (16%), and humans (10%) but not in isolates from sheep. Resistant isolates, containing the tcrB gene, grew on brain heart infusion agar plates containing up to 28 mM CuSO4 compared...

  4. Heterologous expression of Saccharomyces cerevisiae MPR1 gene confers tolerance to ethanol and L: -azetidine-2-carboxylic acid in Hansenula polymorpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishchuk, Olena P; Abbas, Charles A; Sibirny, Andriy A

    2010-02-01

    Hansenula polymorpha is a naturally xylose-fermenting yeast; however, both its ethanol yield from xylose and ethanol resistance have to be improved before this organism can be used for industrial high-temperature simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of lignocellulosic materials. In the current research, we checked if the expression of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae MPR1 gene encoding N-acetyltransferase can increase the ethanol tolerance of H. polymorpha. The S. cerevisiae MPR1 gene was cloned in the H. polymorpha expression vector under the control of the H. polymorpha strong constitutive promoter of the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene (GAPDH). H. polymorpha recombinant strains harboring 1-3 copies of the S. cerevisiae MPR1 gene showed enhanced tolerance to L: -azetidine-2-carboxylic acid and ethanol. The obtained results suggest that the expression of the S. cerevisiae MPR1 gene in H. polymorpha can be a useful approach in the construction of H. polymorpha strains with improved ethanol resistance.

  5. International Conference on Physics

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    OMICS International, (conference series) the World Class Open Access Publisher and Scientific Event Organizer is hosting “International Conference on physics” which is going to be the biggest conference dedicated to Physics. The theme “Highlighting innovations and challenges in the field of Physics” and it features a three day conference addressing the major breakthroughs, challenges and the solutions adopted. The conference will be held during June 27-29, 2016 at New Orleans, USA. Will be published in: http://physics.conferenceseries.com/

  6. The heterologous overexpression of hsp23, a small heat-shock protein gene from Trichoderma virens, confers thermotolerance to T. harzianum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero-Barrientos, Marta; Cardoza, Rosa E; Gutiérrez, Santiago; Monte, Enrique; Hermosa, Rosa

    2007-07-01

    An EST showing high values of identity with genes coding for small heat shock proteins (sHSPs) was selected from an EST library collection of Trichoderma virens T59. The cDNA gene (hsp23) with a sequence size of 645 bp long was amplified by PCR. The expression of this gene was evaluated in cultures grown at temperatures ranging from 4 to 41 degrees C. An increased level of expression was detected when the fungus was grown at extreme temperatures (4, 10 or 41 degrees C). A high-expression level was also observed when the fungus was grown in 10% ethanol for 4 h. The hsp23 gene was present as a unique copy in the T. virens genome, and a homologous gene was also present in other five investigated Trichoderma species. Strain T. harzianum T34 was transformed with the hsp23 gene from T. virens T59 under the control of the pki (pyruvate kinase) promoter from T. reesei and the ble (phleomycin resistance) gene as selection marker. Statistically significant differences were detected between the strains T34 and two selected transformants in the biomass quantities obtained after heat shock treatment and in the colony diameters after incubation at 4 degrees C for 2 months.

  7. Island cotton Gbve1 gene encoding a receptor-like protein confers resistance to both defoliating and non-defoliating isolates of Verticillium dahliae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baolong Zhang

    Full Text Available Verticillium wilt caused by soilborne fungus Verticillium dahliae could significantly reduce cotton yield. Here, we cloned a tomato Ve homologous gene, Gbve1, from an island cotton cultivar that is resistant to Verticillium wilt. We found that the Gbve1 gene was induced by V. dahliae and by phytohormones salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, and ethylene, but not by abscisic acid. The induction of Gbve1 in resistant cotton was quicker and stronger than in Verticillium-susceptible upland cotton following V. dahliae inoculation. Gbve1 promoter-driving GUS activity was found exclusively in the vascular bundles of roots and stems of transgenic Arabidopsis. Virus-induced silencing of endogenous genes in resistant cotton via targeting a fragment of the Gbve1 gene compromised cotton resistance to V. dahliae. Furthermore, we transformed the Gbve1 gene into Arabidopsis and upland cotton through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Overexpression of the Gbve1 gene endowed transgenic Arabidopsis and upland cotton with resistance to high aggressive defoliating and non-defoliating isolates of V. dahliae. And HR-mimic cell death was observed in the transgenic Arabidopsis. Our results demonstrate that the Gbve1 gene is responsible for resistance to V. dahliae in island cotton and can be used for breeding cotton varieties that are resistant to Verticillium wilt.

  8. Soybean GmMYB76,GmMYB92,and GmMYB177 genes confer stress tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong Liao; Hong-Feng Zou; Hui-Wen Wang; Wan-Ke Zhang; Biao Ma; Jin-Song Zhang; Shou-Yi Chen

    2008-01-01

    MYB-type transcription factors contain the conserved MYB DNA-binding domain of approximately 50 amino acids and are involved in the regulation of many aspects of plant growth,development,metabolism and stress responses.From soybean plants,we identified 156 GmMYB genes using our previously obtained 206 MYB unigenes,and 48 were found to have full-length open-reading frames.Expressions of all these identified genes were examined,and we found that expressions of 43 genes were changed upon treatment with ABA,salt,drought and/or cold stress.Three GmMYB genes,GmMYB76,GmMYB92 and GmMYB177,were chosen for further analysis.Using the yeast assay system,GmMYB76 and GmMYB92 were found to have transactivation activity and can form homodimers.GmMYBI77 did not appear to have transactivation activity but can form heterodimers with GmMYB76.Yeast onehybrid assay revealed that all the three GmMYBs could bind to cis-elements TAT AAC GGT TTT TT and CCG GAA AAAAGG AT,but with different affinity,and GmMYB92 could also bind to TCT CAC CTA CC.The transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing GmMYB76 or GmMYB177 showed better performance than the GmMYB92-transgenic plants in salt and freezing tolerance.However,these transgenic plants exhibited reduced sensitivity to ABA treatment at germination stage in comparison with the wild-type plants.The three GmMYB genes differentially affected a subset of stress-responsive genes in addition to their regulation of a common subset of stress-responsive genes.These results indicate that the three GmMYB genes may play differential roles in stress tolerance,possibly through regulation of stress-responsive genes.

  9. Expression of a Codon-Optimized dsdA Gene in Tobacco Plastids and Rice Nucleus Confers D-Serine Tolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Yanmei eLi; Rui eWang; Zongliang eHu; Hongcai eLi; Shizhan eLu; Juanjuan eZhang; Yongjun eLin; Fei eZhou

    2016-01-01

    D-serine is toxic to plants. D-serine ammonia lyase, which is encoded by the dsdA gene, can attenuate this toxicity with high specificity. In the present study, we explored the function of codon-optimized dsdA with tobacco plastids and rice nuclear transformation system. It was shown that the dsdA gene was site-specifically integrated into the tobacco chloroplast genome and displayed a high level of expression. Genetic analysis of the progenies showed that the dsdA gene is maternally inherite...

  10. Metabolo-transcriptome profiling of barley reveals induction of chitin elicitor receptor kinase gene (HvCERK1) conferring resistance against Fusarium graminearum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karre, Shailesh; Kumar, Arun; Dhokane, Dhananjay; Kushalappa, Ajjamada C

    2017-02-01

    We report plausible disease resistance mechanisms induced by barley resistant genotype CI89831 against Fusarium head blight (FHB) based on metabolo-transcriptomics approach. We identified HvCERK1 as a candidate gene for FHB resistance, which is functional in resistant genotype CI9831 but non-functional in susceptible cultivars H106-371 and Zhedar-2. For the first time, we were able to show a hierarchy of regulatory genes that regulated downstream biosynthetic genes that eventually produced resistance related metabolites that reinforce the cell walls to contain the pathogen progress in plant. The HvCERK1 can be used for replacing in susceptible commercial cultivars, if non-functional, based on genome editing. Fusarium head blight (FHB) management is a great challenge in barley and wheat production worldwide. Though barley genome sequence and advanced omics technologies are available, till date none of the resistance mechanisms has been clearly deciphered. Hence, this study was aimed at identifying candidate gene(s) and elucidating resistance mechanisms induced by barley resistant genotype CI9831 based on integrated metabolomics and transcriptomics approach. Following Fusarium graminearum infection, we identified accumulation of specific set of induced secondary metabolites, belonging to phenylpropanoid, hydroxycinnamic acid (HCAA) and jasmonic acid pathways, and their biosynthetic genes. In association with these, receptor kinases such as chitin elicitor receptor kinase (HvCERK1) and protein kinases such as MAP kinase 3 (HvMPK3) and MAPK substrate 1 (HvMKS1), and transcription factors such as HvERF1/5, HvNAC42, HvWRKY23 and HvWRKY70 were also found upregulated with high fold change. Polymorphism studies across three barley genotypes confirmed the presence of mutations in HvCERK1 gene in two susceptible genotypes, isolating this gene as a potential candidate for FHB resistance. Further, the silencing of functional HvCERK1 gene in the resistant genotype CI9831

  11. Facilitating Learning at Conferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ib; Elsborg, Steen

    2011-01-01

    and facilitate a variety of simple learning techniques at thirty one- and two-day conferences of up to 300 participants each. We present ten of these techniques and data evaluating them. We conclude that if conference organizers allocate a fraction of the total conference time to facilitated processes......The typical conference consists of a series of PowerPoint presentations that tend to render participants passive. Students of learning have long abandoned the transfer model that underlies such one-way communication. We propose an al-ternative theory of conferences that sees them as a forum...... for learning, mutual inspiration and human flourishing. We offer five design principles that specify how conferences may engage participants more and hence increase their learning. In the research-and-development effort reported here, our team collaborated with conference organizers in Denmark to introduce...

  12. The learning conference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ib

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To call attention to the fact that conferences for professionals rely on massive one-way communication and hence produce little learning for delegates. To introduce an alternative, the ?learning conference,? that involves delegates in fun and productive learning processes. Design....../methodology/approach: A typical full-day conference is analyzed. It has six hours of podium talk and twenty-five minutes for delegates to become involved. What model of learning can possibly lie behind this? The transfer model, which assumes learners to be empty vessels. An alternative view is that conference delegates...... are active professionals in search of inspiration, and they also want to share knowledge with their peers at the conference. A theory of the conference as a forum for mutual inspiration and human co-flourishing is proposed, as are four design principles for a learning conference: 1. Presentations must...

  13. Targeted disruption of a ring-infected erythrocyte surface antigen (RESA)-like export protein gene in Plasmodium falciparum confers stable chondroitin 4-sulfate cytoadherence capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goel, Suchi; Muthusamy, Arivalagan; Miao, Jun

    2014-01-01

    . In this study, microarray transcriptome analysis showed that the absence of a gene cluster, comprising kahrp, pfemp3, and four other genes, results in the loss of parasitized erythrocytes adhering to chondroitin 4-sulfate (C4S). The role of one of these genes, PF3D7_0201600/PFB0080c, which encodes PHISTb......The Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) family proteins mediate the adherence of infected erythrocytes to microvascular endothelia of various organs, including the placenta, thereby contributing to cerebral, placental, and other severe malaria pathogenesis. Several...... that the loss of PFB0080c markedly compromises the var gene switching process, leading to a marked reduction in the switching rate and additional PfEMP1 expression by a minor population of parasites. PFB0080c interacts with VAR2CSA and modulates knob-associated Hsp40 expression. Thus, PFB0080c may regulate VAR2...

  14. LcMKK, a MAPK kinase from Lycium chinense, confers cadmium tolerance in transgenic tobacco by transcriptional upregulation of ethylene responsive transcription factor gene

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    CHUNFENG GUAN; JING JI; XIAOZHOU LI; CHAO JIN; GANG WANG

    2016-12-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a highly toxic element to plants. Ethylene is an important phytohormone in the regulation of plant growth, development and stress response. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation has been observed in plants exposed to Cd stress and was suggested to be involved in ethylene biosynthesis. We hypothesized that there may be a link between MAPK cascades and ethylene signalling in Cd-stressed plants. To test this hypothesis, the expression of LcMKK, LchERF and LcGSH1 genes, endogenous ethylene accumulation, GSH content and Cd concentration in Lycium chinense with or without Cd stress treatment were studied. Our results showed that LcMKK gene expression can be induced by the treatment of Cd in L. chinense. The transgenic tobacco expressing 35S::LcMKK showed greater tolerance to Cd stress and enhanced expression of NtERF and NtGSH1 genes, indicating that LcMKK is associated with the enhanced expression level of ERF and GSH synthesis-related genes in tobacco. We also found that endogenous ethylene and GSH content can be induced by Cd stress inL. chinense, and inhibited by cotreatment with PD98059, an inhibitor of MAPK kinase. Evidences presented here suggest that under Cd stress, GSH accumulation occurred at least partially by enhanced LcMKK gene expression and the ethylene signal transduction pathways might be involved in this accumulation.

  15. Over-expression of VvWRKY1 in grapevines induces expression of jasmonic acid pathway-related genes and confers higher tolerance to the downy mildew.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chloé Marchive

    Full Text Available Most WRKY transcription factors activate expression of defence genes in a salicylic acid- and/or jasmonic acid-dependent signalling pathway. We previously identified a WRKY gene, VvWRKY1, which is able to enhance tolerance to fungal pathogens when it is overexpressed in tobacco. The present work analyzes the effects of VvWRKY1 overexpression in grapevine. Microarray analysis showed that genes encoding defence-related proteins were up-regulated in the leaves of transgenic 35S::VvWRKY1 grapevines. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis confirmed that three genes putatively involved in jasmonic acid signalling pathway were overexpressed in the transgenic grapes. The ability of VvWRKY1 to trans-activate the promoters of these genes was demonstrated by transient expression in grape protoplasts. The resistance to the causal agent of downy mildew, Plasmopara viticola, was enhanced in the transgenic plants. These results show that VvWRKY1 can increase resistance of grapevine against the downy mildew through transcriptional reprogramming leading to activation of the jasmonic acid signalling pathway.

  16. Overexpression of GbERF confers alteration of ethylene-responsive gene expression and enhanced resistance to Pseudomonas syringae in transgenic tobacco

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jie Qin; Kaijing Zuo; Jingya Zhao; Hua Ling; Youfang Cao; Chengxiang Qiu; Fupeng Li; Xiaofen Sun; Kexuan Tang

    2006-06-01

    GbERF belongs to the ERF (ethylene responsive factor) family of transcription factors and regulates the GCC-box containing pathogen-related (PR) genes in the ethylene signal transduction pathway. To study the function of GbERF in the process of biotic stress, transgenic tobacco plants expressing GbERF were generated. Overexpression of GbERF did not change transgenic plant’s phenotype and endogenous ethylene level. However, the expression profile of some ethylene-inducible GCC-box and non-GCC-box containing genes was altered, such as PR1b, PR2, PR3, PR4, Osmotin, CHN50, ACC oxidase and ACC synthase genes. These data indicate that the cotton GbERF could act as a transcriptional activator or repressor to regulate the differential expression of ethylene-inducible genes via GCC and non-GCC cis-elements. Moreover, the constitutive expression of GbERF in transgenic tobacco enhanced the plant’s resistance to Pseudomonas syringae pv tabaci infection. In conclusion, GbERF mediates the expression of a wide array of PR and ethylene-responsive genes and plays an important role in the plant’s response to biotic stress.

  17. pbp2229-mediated nisin resistance mechanism in Listeria monocytogenes confers cross-protection to class IIa bacteriocins and affects virulence gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravesen, Anne; Kallipolitis, Birgitte; Holmstrøm, Kim; Høiby, Poul Erik; Ramnath, Manilduth; Knøchel, Susanne

    2004-03-01

    It was previously shown that enhanced nisin resistance in some mutants was associated with increased expression of three genes, pbp2229, hpk1021, and lmo2487, encoding a penicillin-binding protein, a histidine kinase, and a protein of unknown function, respectively. In the present work, we determined the direct role of the three genes in nisin resistance. Interruption of pbp2229 and hpk1021 eliminated the nisin resistance phenotype. Interruption of hpk1021 additionally abolished the increase in pbp2229 expression. The results indicate that this nisin resistance mechanism is caused directly by the increase in pbp2229 expression, which in turn is brought about by the increase in hpk1021 expression. We also found a degree of cross-protection between nisin and class IIa bacteriocins and investigated possible mechanisms. The expression of virulence genes in one nisin-resistant mutant and two class IIa bacteriocin-resistant mutants of the same wild-type strain was analyzed, and each mutant consistently showed either an increase or a decrease in the expression of virulence genes (prfA-regulated as well as prfA-independent genes). Although the changes mostly were moderate, the consistency indicates that a mutant-specific change in virulence may occur concomitantly with bacteriocin resistance development.

  18. Polymorphisms in the 3' UTR in the neurocalcin delta gene affect mRNA stability, and confer susceptibility to diabetic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamiyama, Masumi; Kobayashi, Masaaki; Araki, Shin-ichi

    2007-01-01

    Using a large-scale genotyping analysis of gene-based single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in Japanese type 2 diabetic patients, we have identified a gene encoding neurocalcin delta (NCALD) as a candidate for a susceptibility gene to diabetic nephropathy; the landmark SNP was found in the 3' UTR...... of NCALD (rs1131863: exon 4 +1340 A vs. G, P = 0.00004, odds ratio = 1.59, 95% CI 1.27-1.98). We also discovered two other SNPs in exon 4 of this gene (+999 T/A, +1307 A/G) that showed absolute linkage disequilibrium to the landmark SNP. Subsequent in vitro functional analysis revealed that synthetic m...... in cultured renal proximal tubular epithelial cells. We also identified the association of the landmark SNP with the progression of diabetic nephropathy in a 8-year prospective study (A vs. G, P = 0.03, odds ratio = 1.91, 95% CI 1.07-3.42). These results suggest that the NCALD gene is a likely candidate...

  19. CTLA-4 gene polymorphism confers susceptibility to insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) independently from age and from other genetic or immune disease markers. The Belgian Diabetes Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Auwera, B J; Vandewalle, C L; Schuit, F C; Winnock, F; De Leeuw, I H; Van Imschoot, S; Lamberigts, G; Gorus, F K

    1997-10-01

    Apart from genes in the HLA complex (IDDM1) and the variable number of tandem repeats in the 5' region of the insulin gene (INS VNTR, IDDM2), several other loci have been proposed to contribute to IDDM susceptibility. Recently, linkage and association have been shown between the cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) gene on chromosome 2q and IDDM. In a registry-based group of 525 recent-onset IDDM patients immune disease markers (autoantibodies against islet cell cytoplasm (ICA); insulin (IAA); glutamate decarboxylase (GAD65-Ab); IA-2 protein tyrosine phosphatase (IA-2-Ab)) determined within the first week of insulin treatment. In new-onset IDDM patients. G-allele-containing CTLA-4 genotypes (relative risk (RR)= 1.5; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.2-2.0; P immune disease markers.

  20. Identification of Legionella pneumophila rcp, a pagP-like gene that confers resistance to cationic antimicrobial peptides and promotes intracellular infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robey, M; O'Connell, W; Cianciotto, N P

    2001-07-01

    In the course of characterizing a locus involved in heme utilization, we identified a Legionella pneumophila gene predicted to encode a protein with homology to the product of the Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium pagP gene. In Salmonella, pagP increases resistance to the bactericidal effects of cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAMPs). Mutants with insertions in the L. pneumophila pagP-like gene were generated and showed decreased resistance to different structural classes of CAMPs compared to the wild type; hence, this gene was designated rcp for resistance to cationic antimicrobial peptides. Furthermore, Legionella CAMP resistance was induced by growth in low-magnesium medium. To determine whether rcp had any role in intracellular survival, mutants were tested in the two most relevant host cells for Legionnaires' disease, i.e., amoebae and macrophages. These mutants exhibited a 1,000-fold-decreased recovery during a Hartmannella vermiformis coculture. Complementation of the infectivity defect could be achieved by introduction of a plasmid containing the intact rcp gene. Mutations in rcp consistently reduced both the numbers of bacteria recovered during intracellular infection and their cytopathic capacity for U937 macrophages. The rcp mutant was also more defective for lung colonization of A/J mice. Growth of rcp mutants in buffered yeast extract broth was identical to that of the wild type, indicating that the observed differences in numbers of bacteria recovered from host cells were not due to a generalized growth defect. However, in low-Mg(2+) medium, the rcp mutant was impaired in stationary-phase survival. This is the first demonstration of a pagP-like gene, involved in resistance to CAMPs, being required for intracellular infection and virulence.

  1. The variant rs1867277 in FOXE1 gene confers thyroid cancer susceptibility through the recruitment of USF1/USF2 transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landa, Iñigo; Ruiz-Llorente, Sergio; Montero-Conde, Cristina; Inglada-Pérez, Lucía; Schiavi, Francesca; Leskelä, Susanna; Pita, Guillermo; Milne, Roger; Maravall, Javier; Ramos, Ignacio; Andía, Víctor; Rodríguez-Poyo, Paloma; Jara-Albarrán, Antonino; Meoro, Amparo; del Peso, Cristina; Arribas, Luis; Iglesias, Pedro; Caballero, Javier; Serrano, Joaquín; Picó, Antonio; Pomares, Francisco; Giménez, Gabriel; López-Mondéjar, Pedro; Castello, Roberto; Merante-Boschin, Isabella; Pelizzo, Maria-Rosa; Mauricio, Didac; Opocher, Giuseppe; Rodríguez-Antona, Cristina; González-Neira, Anna; Matías-Guiu, Xavier; Santisteban, Pilar; Robledo, Mercedes

    2009-09-01

    In order to identify genetic factors related to thyroid cancer susceptibility, we adopted a candidate gene approach. We studied tag- and putative functional SNPs in genes involved in thyroid cell differentiation and proliferation, and in genes found to be differentially expressed in thyroid carcinoma. A total of 768 SNPs in 97 genes were genotyped in a Spanish series of 615 cases and 525 controls, the former comprising the largest collection of patients with this pathology from a single population studied to date. SNPs in an LD block spanning the entire FOXE1 gene showed the strongest evidence of association with papillary thyroid carcinoma susceptibility. This association was validated in a second stage of the study that included an independent Italian series of 482 patients and 532 controls. The strongest association results were observed for rs1867277 (OR[per-allele] = 1.49; 95%CI = 1.30-1.70; P = 5.9x10(-9)). Functional assays of rs1867277 (NM_004473.3:c.-283G>A) within the FOXE1 5' UTR suggested that this variant affects FOXE1 transcription. DNA-binding assays demonstrated that, exclusively, the sequence containing the A allele recruited the USF1/USF2 transcription factors, while both alleles formed a complex in which DREAM/CREB/alphaCREM participated. Transfection studies showed an allele-dependent transcriptional regulation of FOXE1. We propose a FOXE1 regulation model dependent on the rs1867277 genotype, indicating that this SNP is a causal variant in thyroid cancer susceptibility. Our results constitute the first functional explanation for an association identified by a GWAS and thereby elucidate a mechanism of thyroid cancer susceptibility. They also attest to the efficacy of candidate gene approaches in the GWAS era.

  2. Cloning of a Potato Proteinase Inhibitor Gene PINII-2x from Diploid Potato (Solanum phurejia L.) and Transgenic Investigation of Its Potential to Confer Insect Resistance in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-Yun Bu; Liang Wu; Shi-Hu Yang; Jian-Min Wan

    2006-01-01

    Both cDNA and a genomic DNA fragment encoding a new potato proteinase inhibitor Ⅱ were isolated from a diploid potato IVP101 (Solanum phurejia L.) and named PINⅡ-2x. Nucleotide sequencing confirmed that the DNA fragment of PINⅡ-2xwas 580 bp, including a 115-bp intron and two exons. The deduced PINⅡ-2x protein contained an intact signal peptide and two active sites. The PINⅡ-2x gene and its deduced PINⅡ-2x protein had 88% and 93% homology with another tetraploid potato proteinase inhibitor Ⅱ, respectively. Northern blotting analysis indicated that the mRNA of PINⅡ-2x gene was wound induced in potato leaves. Binary vector pNAR301 and pNAR302 were constructed for rice transformation, in which the PINⅡ-2x cDNA was driven,respectively, by rice actin I promoter (Actl) and maize ubiquitin promoter (Ubil). Via an Agrobacteriummediated method, these two constructs were transferred into japonica rice cv. Xiushui 63. PCR and Southern blotting analysis for transgenic rice revealed the integration of the PINⅡ-2x gene. Northern blotting analysis also confirmed transcripts of the PINⅡ-2x gene in transgenic rice plants. Insect bioassays using stripe stem borer (Chilo suppressalis Walker) demonstrated that the average weight and body length of larvae in transgenic plants were only nearly 50% and 61% of those of larvae in control plants, respectively.These results indicate that the PINⅡ-2x gene should be an effective insect-resistance gene and could be valuable for application in crop breeding for insect resistance.

  3. A rare functional haplotype of the P2RX4 and P2RX7 genes leads to loss of innate phagocytosis and confers increased risk of age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Ben J; Baird, Paul N; Vessey, Kirstan A; Skarratt, Kristen K; Fletcher, Erica L; Fuller, Stephen J; Richardson, Andrea J; Guymer, Robyn H; Wiley, James S

    2013-04-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of blindness in Western countries and is diagnosed by the clinical appearance of yellow subretinal deposits called drusen. Genetic changes in immune components are clearly implicated in the pathology of this disease. We have previously shown that the purinergic receptor P2X7 can act as a scavenger receptor, mediating phagocytosis of apoptotic cells and insoluble debris. We performed a genetic association study of functional polymorphisms in the P2RX7 and P2RX4 genes in a cohort of 744 patients with AMD and 557 age-matched Caucasian control subjects. The P2X4 Tyr315Cys variant was 2-fold more frequent in patients with AMD compared to control subjects, with the minor allele predicting susceptibility to disease. Pairwise linkage disequilibrium was observed between Tyr315Cys in the P2RX4 gene and Gly150Arg in the P2RX7 gene, and these two minor alleles formed a rare haplotype that was overrepresented in patients with AMD (n=17) compared with control subjects (n=3) (odds ratio 4.05, P=0.026). Expression of P2X7 (wild type or variant 150Arg) in HEK293 cells conferred robust phagocytosis toward latex beads, whereas coexpression of the P2X7 150Arg with P2X4 315Cys variants almost completely inhibited phagocytic capacity. Fresh human monocytes harboring this heterozygous 150Arg-315Cys haplotype showed 40% reduction in bead phagocytosis. In the primate eye, immunohistochemistry indicated that P2X7 and P2X4 receptors were coexpressed on microglia and macrophages, but neither receptor was seen on retinal pigment epithelial cells. These results demonstrate that a haplotype including two rare variants in P2RX7 and P2RX4 confers a functional interaction between these two variant receptors that impairs the normal scavenger function of macrophages and microglia. Failure of this P2X7-mediated phagocytic pathway may impair removal of subretinal deposits and predispose individuals toward AMD.

  4. The second international conference "genetics of aging and longevity".

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anisimov, V.N.; Bartke, A.; Barzilai, N.; Batin, M.A.; Blagosklonny, M.V.; Brown-Borg, H.; Budovskaya, Y.; Campisi, J.; Friguet, B.; Fraifeld, V.; Franceschi, C.; Gems, D.; Gladyshev, V.; Gorbunova, V.; Gudkov, A.V.; Kennedy, B.; Konovalenko, M.; Kraemer, B.; Moskalev, A.; Petropoulos, I.; Pasyukova, E.; Rattan, S.; Rogina, B.; Seluanov, A.; Shaposhnikov, M.; Shmookler Reis, R.; Tavernarakis, N.; Vijg, J.; Yashin, A.; Zimniak, P.

    2012-01-01

    The ongoing revolution in aging research was manifested by the Second International Conference "Genetics of Aging and Longevity" (Moscow, April 22-25, 2012). The Conference goal was to identify the most promising areas of genetics, life expectancy, and aging, including: the search for longevity gene

  5. International Cryocooler Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Cryocoolers 13

    2005-01-01

    This is the 13th volume in the conference series. Over the years the International Cryocoolers Conference has become the preeminent worldwide conference for the presentation of the latest developments and test experiences with cryocoolers. The typical applications of this technology include cooling space and terrestrial infrared focal plane arrays, space x-ray detectors, medical applications, and a growing number of high-temperature super-capacitor applications.

  6. Expectations for Cancun Conference

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING ZHITAO

    2010-01-01

    Compared with the great hopes raised by the Copenhagen Climate Conference in 2009, the 2010 UN Climate Change Conference in Cancun aroused fewer expectations. However, the international community is still waiting for a positive outcome that will benefit humankind as a whole. The Cancun conference is another important opportunity for all the participants to advance the Bali Road Map negotiations after last year's meeting in Copenhagen, which failed to reach a legally binding treaty for the years beyond 2012.

  7. A synthetic cryIC gene, encoding a Bacillus thuringiensis δ-endotoxin, confers Spodoptera resistance in alfalfa and tobacco

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strizhov, N.; Keller, M.; Mathur, J.; Koncz-Kaiman, Z.; Bosch, D.; Prudovksy, E.; Schell, J.; Sneh, B.; Koncz, C.; Zilberstein, A.

    1996-01-01

    Spodoptera species, representing widespread polyphagous insect pests, are resistant to Bacillus thuringiensis δ-endotoxins used thus far as insecticides in transgenic plants. Here we describe the chemical synthesis of a cryIC gene by a novel template directed ligation–PCR method. This simple and eco

  8. A synthetic cryIC gene, encoding a Bacillus thuringiensis δ-endotoxin, confers Spodoptera resistance in alfalfa and tobacco

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strizhov, N.; Keller, M.; Mathur, J.; Koncz-Kaiman, Z.; Bosch, D.; Prudovksy, E.; Schell, J.; Sneh, B.; Koncz, C.; Zilberstein, A.

    1996-01-01

    Spodoptera species, representing widespread polyphagous insect pests, are resistant to Bacillus thuringiensis δ-endotoxins used thus far as insecticides in transgenic plants. Here we describe the chemical synthesis of a cryIC gene by a novel template directed ligation–PCR method. This simple and eco

  9. The interleukin 23 receptor gene does not confer risk to systemic sclerosis and is not associated with systemic sclerosis disease phenotype.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rueda, B.; Broen, J.; Torres, O.; Simeon, C.; Ortego-Centeno, N.; Schrijvenaars, M.M.; Vonk, M.C.; Fonollosa, V.; Hoogen, F.H.J. van den; Coenen, M.J.H.; Sanchez-Roman, J.; Aguirre-Zamorano, M.A.; Garcia-Portales, R.; Pros, A.; Camps, M.T.; Gonzalez-Gay, M.A.; Martin, J.; Radstake, T.R.D.J.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Multiple studies indicate the role of the interleukin (IL)-17/IL-23 axis in autoimmune diseases, including systemic sclerosis (SSc). The aim of the current study was to investigate the possible implication of the IL23R gene in SSc susceptibility and/or clinical phenotype. METHODS: An ini

  10. Cloning and Occurrence of czrC, a Gene Conferring Cadmium and Zinc Resistance in Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus CC398 Isolates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cavaco, L. M.; Hasman, H.; Stegger, M.; Andersen, P. S.; Skov, R.; Fluit, A. C.; Ito, T.; Aarestrup, F. M.

    2010-01-01

    We recently reported a phenotypic association between reduced susceptibility to zinc and methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus CC398 isolates from Danish swine (F. M. Aarestrup, L. M. Cavaco, and H. Hasman, Vet. Microbiol. 142: 455-457, 2009). The aim of this study was to identify the gene

  11. The IRC7 gene encodes cysteine desulphydrase activity and confers on yeast the ability to grow on cysteine as a nitrogen source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Margarita; Gardner, Richard C

    2015-07-01

    Although cysteine desulphydrase activity has been purified and characterized from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the gene encoding this activity in vivo has never been defined. We show that the full-length IRC7 gene, encoded by the YFR055W open reading frame, encodes a protein with cysteine desulphydrase activity. Irc7p purified to homogeneity is able to utilize l-cysteine as a substrate, producing pyruvate and hydrogen sulphide as products of the reaction. Purified Irc7p also utilized l-cystine and some other cysteine conjugates, but not l-cystathionine or l-methionine, as substrates. We further show that, in vivo, the IRC7 gene is both necessary and sufficient for yeast to grow on l-cysteine as a nitrogen source, and that overexpression of the gene results in increased H2 S production. Strains overexpressing IRC7 are also hypersensitive to a toxic analogue, S-ethyl-l-cysteine. While IRC7 has been identified as playing a critical role in converting cysteine conjugates to volatile thiols that are important in wine aroma, its biological role in yeast cells is likely to involve regulation of cysteine and redox homeostasis.

  12. An ancient R gene from Solanum bulbocastanum confers broad-spectrum resistance to late Phytophthora infestans in cultivated potato and tomato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vossen, van der E.A.G.; Sikkema, A.; Lintel Hekkert, te B.; Gross, J.; Stevens, P.; Muskens, M.; Wouters, T.C.A.E.; Pereira, A.B.; Stiekema, W.J.; Allefs, S.

    2003-01-01

    Late blight, caused by the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora infestans, is the most devastating disease for potato cultivation. Here, we describe the positional cloning of the Rpi-blb1 gene from the wild potato species Solanum bulbocastanum known for its high levels of resistance to late blight. The Rp

  13. Overexpression of TaPIEP1, a pathogen-induced ERF gene of wheat, confers host-enhanced resistance to fungal pathogen Bipolaris sorokiniana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Na; Liu, Xin; Lu, Yan; Du, Lipu; Xu, Huijun; Liu, Hongxia; Xin, Zhiyong; Zhang, Zengyan

    2010-05-01

    Bipolaris sorokiniana is an economically important phytopathogen of wheat and other cereal species. In this paper, a novel pathogen-induced ethylene-responsive factor (ERF) gene of wheat, TaPIEP1, was isolated and characterized. The transcript of TaPIEP1 was significantly and rapidly induced by treatments with B. sorokiniana, and with ethylene (ET), jasmonate (JA), and abscisic acid. Molecular and biochemical assays demonstrated that TaPIEP1 is a new ERF transcription activator belonging to B-3c subgroup of the ERF family. Transgenic wheat lines overexpressing TaPIEP1 were generated by biolistic bombardment and molecular screening. Compared with the host wheat Yangmai12, six stable transgenic wheat lines overexpressing TaPIEP1 that exhibited significantly increased resistance to B. sorokiniana were identified by molecular detection in the T(0)-T(4) generations and by disease resistance tests. The degree of the enhanced resistance was correlated with an accumulation of the transcript level of TaPIEP1. Furthermore, the transcript levels of certain defense-related genes in the ET/JA pathways were markedly increased in the transgenic wheat plants with enhanced resistance. These results reveal that TaPIEP1 overexpression in wheat could obviously improve resistance to B. sorokiniana via activation of some defense genes, and TaPIEP1 gene may be useful in improving crop resistance to the pathogen.

  14. The interleukin 23 receptor gene does not confer risk to systemic sclerosis and is not associated with systemic sclerosis disease phenotype.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rueda, B.; Broen, J.; Torres, O.; Simeon, C.; Ortego-Centeno, N.; Schrijvenaars, M.M.; Vonk, M.C.; Fonollosa, V.; Hoogen, F.H.J. van den; Coenen, M.J.H.; Sanchez-Roman, J.; Aguirre-Zamorano, M.A.; Garcia-Portales, R.; Pros, A.; Camps, M.T.; Gonzalez-Gay, M.A.; Martin, J.; Radstake, T.R.D.J.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Multiple studies indicate the role of the interleukin (IL)-17/IL-23 axis in autoimmune diseases, including systemic sclerosis (SSc). The aim of the current study was to investigate the possible implication of the IL23R gene in SSc susceptibility and/or clinical phenotype. METHODS: An

  15. Mutations of the SLIT2–ROBO2 pathway genes SLIT2 and SRGAP1 confer risk for congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hwang, Daw Yang; Kohl, Stefan; Fan, Xueping; Vivante, Asaf; Chan, Stefanie; Dworschak, Gabriel C.; Schulz, Julian; van Eerde, Albertien M.; Hilger, Alina C.; Gee, Heon Yung; Pennimpede, Tracie; Herrmann, Bernhard G.; van de Hoek, Glenn; Renkema, Kirsten Y.; Schell, Christoph; Huber, Tobias B.; Reutter, Heiko M.; Soliman, Neveen A.; Stajic, Natasa; Bogdanovic, Radovan; Kehinde, Elijah O.; Lifton, Richard P.; Tasic, Velibor; Lu, Weining; Hildebrandt, Friedhelm

    2015-01-01

    Congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) account for 40–50 % of chronic kidney disease that manifests in the first two decades of life. Thus far, 31 monogenic causes of isolated CAKUT have been described, explaining ~12 % of cases. To identify additional CAKUT-causing genes, we p

  16. Broad spectrum late blight resistance in potato differential set plants MaR8 and MaR9 is conferred by multiple stacked R genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, H.I.; Lee, H.; Jo, K.R.; Mortazavian, S.M.M.; Huigen, D.J.; Evenhuis, A.; Kessel, G.J.T.; Visser, R.G.F.; Vossen, J.H.; Jacobsen, E.

    2012-01-01

    Phytophthora infestans is the causal agent of late blight in potato. The Mexican species Solanum demissum is well known as a good resistance source. Among the 11 R gene differentials, which were introgressed from S. demissum, especially R8 and R9 differentials showed broad spectrum resistance both u

  17. Co-silencing of tomato S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase genes confers increased immunity against Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 and enhanced tolerance to drought stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xiao Hui

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase (SAHH, catalyzing the reversible hydrolysis of S-adenosylhomocysteine to adenosine and homocysteine, is a key enzyme that maintain the cellular methylation potential in all organisms. We report here the biological functions of tomato SlSAHHs in stress response. The tomato genome contains three SlSAHH genes that encode SlSAHH proteins with high level of sequence identity. qRT-PCR analysis revealed that SlSAHHs responded with distinct expression induction patterns to Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst DC3000 and Botrytis cinerea as well as to defense signaling hormones such as salicylic acid, jasmonic acid and a precursor of ethylene. Virus-induced gene silencing-based knockdown of individual SlSAHH gene did not affect the growth performance and the response to Pst DC3000. However, co-silencing of three SlSAHH genes using a conserved sequence led to significant inhibition of vegetable growth. The SlSAHH-co-silenced plants displayed increased resistance to Pst DC3000 but did not alter the resistance to B. cinerea. Co-silencing of SlSAHHs resulted in constitutively activated defense responses including elevated SA level, upregulated expression of defense-related and PAMP-triggered immunity marker genes and increased callose deposition and H2O2 accumulation. Furthermore, the SlSAHH-co-silenced plants also exhibited enhanced drought stress tolerance although they had relatively small roots. These data demonstrate that, in addition to the functions in growth and development, SAHHs also play important roles in regulating biotic and abiotic stress responses in plants.

  18. Co-silencing of tomato S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase genes confers increased immunity against Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 and enhanced tolerance to drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaohui; Huang, Lei; Hong, Yongbo; Zhang, Yafen; Liu, Shixia; Li, Dayong; Zhang, Huijuan; Song, Fengming

    2015-01-01

    S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase (SAHH), catalyzing the reversible hydrolysis of S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) to adenosine and homocysteine, is a key enzyme that maintain the cellular methylation potential in all organisms. We report here the biological functions of tomato SlSAHHs in stress response. The tomato genome contains three SlSAHH genes that encode SlSAHH proteins with high level of sequence identity. qRT-PCR analysis revealed that SlSAHHs responded with distinct expression induction patterns to Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) DC3000 and Botrytis cinerea as well as to defense signaling hormones such as salicylic acid, jasmonic acid and a precursor of ethylene. Virus-induced gene silencing-based knockdown of individual SlSAHH gene did not affect the growth performance and the response to Pst DC3000. However, co-silencing of three SlSAHH genes using a conserved sequence led to significant inhibition of vegetable growth. The SlSAHH-co-silenced plants displayed increased resistance to Pst DC3000 but did not alter the resistance to B. cinerea. Co-silencing of SlSAHHs resulted in constitutively activated defense responses including elevated SA level, upregulated expression of defense-related and PAMP-triggered immunity marker genes and increased callose deposition and H2O2 accumulation. Furthermore, the SlSAHH-co-silenced plants also exhibited enhanced drought stress tolerance although they had relatively small roots. These data demonstrate that, in addition to the functions in growth and development, SAHHs also play important roles in regulating biotic and abiotic stress responses in plants.

  19. Conference proceedings ISES 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Janne Winther; Peerstrup Ahrendt, Line; Malmkvist, Jens

    The 10th Internatinal Equitation Science Conference is held i Denmark from August 6th - 9th 2014. This book of proceedings contaions abstracts of 35 oral and 57 poster presentations within the conference themes Equine Stress, Learning and Training as well as free papers.......The 10th Internatinal Equitation Science Conference is held i Denmark from August 6th - 9th 2014. This book of proceedings contaions abstracts of 35 oral and 57 poster presentations within the conference themes Equine Stress, Learning and Training as well as free papers....

  20. Genetics and mapping of the R₁₁ gene conferring resistance to recently emerged rust races, tightly linked to male fertility restoration, in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, L L; Seiler, G J; Vick, B A; Gulya, T J

    2012-09-01

    Sunflower oil is one of the major sources of edible oil. As the second largest hybrid crop in the world, hybrid sunflowers are developed by using the PET1 cytoplasmic male sterility system that contributes to a 20 % yield advantage over the open-pollinated varieties. However, sunflower production in North America has recently been threatened by the evolution of new virulent pathotypes of sunflower rust caused by the fungus Puccinia helianthi Schwein. Rf ANN-1742, an 'HA 89' backcross restorer line derived from wild annual sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), was identified as resistant to the newly emerged rust races. The aim of this study was to elucidate the inheritance of rust resistance and male fertility restoration and identify the chromosome location of the underlying genes in Rf ANN-1742. Chi-squared analysis of the segregation of rust response and male fertility in F(2) and F(3) populations revealed that both traits are controlled by single dominant genes, and that the rust resistance gene is closely linked to the restorer gene in the coupling phase. The two genes were designated as R ( 11 ) and Rf5, respectively. A set of 723 mapped SSR markers of sunflower was used to screen the polymorphism between HA 89 and the resistant plant. Bulked segregant analysis subsequently located R ( 11 ) on linkage group (LG) 13 of sunflower. Based on the SSR analyses of 192 F(2) individuals, R ( 11 ) and Rf5 both mapped to the lower end of LG13 at a genetic distance of 1.6 cM, and shared a common marker, ORS728, which was mapped 1.3 cM proximal to Rf5 and 0.3 cM distal to R ( 11 ) (Rf5/ORS728/R ( 11 )). Two additional SSRs were linked to Rf5 and R ( 11 ): ORS995 was 4.5 cM distal to Rf5 and ORS45 was 1.0 cM proximal to R ( 11 ). The advantage of such an introduced alien segment harboring two genes is its large phenotypic effect and simple inheritance, thereby facilitating their rapid deployment in sunflower breeding programs. Suppressed recombination was observed in LGs 2, 9

  1. Precise gene editing of chicken Na+/H+ exchange type 1 (chNHE1) confers resistance to avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hong Jo; Lee, Kyung Youn; Jung, Kyung Min; Park, Kyung Je; Lee, Ko On; Suh, Jeong-Yong; Yao, Yongxiu; Nair, Venugopal; Han, Jae Yong

    2017-09-09

    Avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J), first isolated in the late 1980s, has caused economic losses to the poultry industry in many countries. As all chicken lines studied to date are susceptible to ALV infection, there is enormous interest in developing resistant chicken lines. The ALV-J receptor, chicken Na(+)/H(+) exchange 1 (chNHE1) and the critical amino acid sequences involved in viral attachment and entry have already been characterized. However, there are no reported attempts to induce resistance to the virus by targeted genome modification of the receptor sequences. In an attempt to induce resistance to ALV-J infection, we used clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-associated (CRISPR/Cas9)-based genome editing approaches to modify critical residues of the chNHE1 receptor in chicken cells. The susceptibility of the modified cell lines to ALV-J infection was examined using enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-expressing marker viruses. We showed that modifying the chNHE1 receptor by artificially generating a premature stop codon induced absolute resistance to viral infection, with mutations of the tryptophan residue at position 38 (Trp38) being very critical. Single-stranded oligodeoxynucleotide (ssODN)-mediated targeted recombination of the Trp38 region revealed that deletions involving the Trp38 residue were most effective in conferring resistance to ALV-J. Moreover, protein structure analysis of the chNHE1 receptor sequence suggested that its intrinsically disordered region undergoes local conformational changes through genetic alteration. Collectively, these results demonstrate that targeted mutations on chNHE1 alter the susceptibility to ALV-J and the technique is expected to contribute to develop disease-resistant chicken lines. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Overexpression of the autophagy-related gene SiATG8a from foxtail millet (Setaria italica L.) confers tolerance to both nitrogen starvation and drought stress in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei-wei; Chen, Ming; Zhong, Li; Liu, Jia-ming; Xu, Zhao-shi; Li, Lian-cheng; Zhou, Yong-Bin; Guo, Chang-Hong; Ma, You-Zhi

    2015-12-25

    Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved biological process in all eukaryotes for the degradation of intracellular components for nutrient recycling. Autophagy is known to be involved in responses to low nitrogen stress in Arabidopsis. Foxtail millet has strong abiotic stress resistance to both low nutrient and drought stress. However, to date, there have only been a few genes reported to be related with abiotic stress resistance in foxtail millet. In this study, we identified an autophagy-related gene, SiATG8a, from foxtail millet. SiATG8a is mainly expressed in stems and its expression was dramatically induced by drought stress and nitrogen starvation treatments. SiATG8a was localized in the membrane and cytoplasm of foxtail millet. Overexpression of SiATG8a in Arabidopsis conferred tolerance to both nitrogen starvation and to drought stress. Under nitrogen starvation conditions, the SiATG8a transgenic plants had larger root and leaf areas and accumulated more total nitrogen than wild-type plants. The transgenic plants had lower total protein concentrations than did the WT plants. Under drought stress, the SiATG8a transgenic plants had higher survival rates, chlorophyll content, and proline content, but had lower MDA content than wild type plants. Taken together, our results represent the first identified case where overexpression of autophagy related gene can simultaneously improve plant resistance to low nitrogen and drought stresses. These findings implicate plant autophagy in plant stress responses to low nitrogen and drought and should be helpful in efforts to improve stresses resistance to nitrogen starvation and drought of crops by genetic transformation.

  3. Detection of the plasmid-mediated mcr-1 gene conferring colistin resistance in human and food isolates of Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli in England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doumith, Michel; Godbole, Gauri; Ashton, Philip; Larkin, Lesley; Dallman, Tim; Day, Martin; Day, Michaela; Muller-Pebody, Berit; Ellington, Matthew J; de Pinna, Elizabeth; Johnson, Alan P; Hopkins, Katie L; Woodford, Neil

    2016-08-01

    In response to the first report of transmissible colistin resistance mediated by the mcr-1 gene in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp. from animals and humans in China, we sought to determine its presence in Enterobacteriaceae isolated in the UK. The PHE archive of whole-genome sequences of isolates from surveillance collections, submissions to reference services and research projects was retrospectively analysed for the presence of mcr-1 using Genefinder. The genetic environment of the gene was also analysed. Rapid screening of the genomes of ∼24 000 Salmonella enterica, E. coli, Klebsiella spp., Enterobacter spp., Campylobacter spp. and Shigella spp. isolated from food or humans identified 15 mcr-1-positive isolates. These comprised: 10 human S. enterica isolates submitted between 2012 and 2015 (8 Salmonella Typhimurium, 1 Salmonella Paratyphi B var Java and 1 Salmonella Virchow) from 10 patients; 3 isolates of E. coli from 2 patients; and 2 isolates of Salmonella Paratyphi B var Java from poultry meat imported from the EU. The mcr-1 gene was located on diverse plasmids belonging to the IncHI2, IncI2 and IncX4 replicon types and its association with ISApl1 varied. Six mcr-1-positive S. enterica isolates were from patients who had recently travelled to Asia. Analysis of WGS data allowed rapid confirmation of the presence of the plasmid-mediated colistin resistance gene mcr-1 in diverse genetic environments and plasmids. It has been present in E. coli and Salmonella spp. harboured by humans in England and Wales since at least 2012. © Crown copyright 2016.

  4. The transcription factor SlAREB1 confers drought, salt stress tolerance and regulates biotic and abiotic stress-related genes in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orellana, Sandra; Yañez, Mónica; Espinoza, Analía; Verdugo, Isabel; González, Enrique; Ruiz-Lara, Simón; Casaretto, José A

    2010-12-01

    Members of the abscisic acid-responsive element binding protein (AREB)/abscisic acid-responsive element binding factor (ABF) subfamily of basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factors have been implicated in abscisic acid (ABA) and abiotic stress responses in plants. Here we describe two members identified in cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), named SlAREB1 and SlAREB2. Expression of SlAREB1 and SlAREB2 is induced by drought and salinity in both leaves and root tissues, although that of SlAREB1 was more affected. In stress assays, SlAREB1-overexpressing transgenic tomato plants showed increased tolerance to salt and water stress compared to wild-type and SlAREB1-down-regulating transgenic plants, as assessed by physiological parameters such as relative water content (RWC), chlorophyll fluorescence and damage by lipoperoxidation. In order to identify SlAREB1 target genes responsible for the enhanced tolerance, microarray and cDNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analyses were performed. Genes encoding oxidative stress-related proteins, lipid transfer proteins (LTPs), transcription regulators and late embryogenesis abundant proteins were found among the up-regulated genes in SlAREB1-overexpressing lines, especially in aerial tissue. Notably, several genes encoding defence proteins associated with responses to biotic stress (e.g. pathogenesis-related proteins, protease inhibitors, and catabolic enzymes) were also up-regulated by SlAREB1 overexpression, suggesting that this bZIP transcription factor is involved in ABA signals that participate in abiotic stress and possibly in response to pathogens.

  5. A gene for plant protection: expression of a bean polygalacturonase inhibitor in tobacco confers a strong resistance against Rhizoctonia solani and two oomycetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando eBorras-Hidalgo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We have tested whether a gene encoding a polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein (PGIP protects tobacco against a fungal pathogen (Rhizoctonia solani and two oomycetes (Phytophthora parasitica var. nicotianae and Peronospora hyoscyami f. sp. tabacina. The trials were performed in greenhouse conditions for R. solani and P. parasitica and in the field for P. hyoscyami. Our results show that expression of PGIP is a powerful way of engineering a broad-spectrum disease resistance.

  6. Map-based Cloning and Characterization of the BPH18 Gene from Wild Rice Conferring Resistance to Brown Planthopper (BPH) Insect Pest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Hyeonso; Kim, Sung-Ryul; Kim, Yul-Ho; Suh, Jung-Pil; Park, Hyang-Mi; Sreenivasulu, Nese; Misra, Gopal; Kim, Suk-Man; Hechanova, Sherry Lou; Kim, Hakbum; Lee, Gang-Seob; Yoon, Ung-Han; Kim, Tae-Ho; Lim, Hyemin; Suh, Suk-Chul; Yang, Jungil; An, Gynheung; Jena, Kshirod K.

    2016-01-01

    Brown planthopper (BPH) is a phloem sap-sucking insect pest of rice which causes severe yield loss. We cloned the BPH18 gene from the BPH-resistant introgression line derived from the wild rice species Oryza australiensis. Map-based cloning and complementation test revealed that the BPH18 encodes CC-NBS-NBS-LRR protein. BPH18 has two NBS domains, unlike the typical NBS-LRR proteins. The BPH18 promoter::GUS transgenic plants exhibited strong GUS expression in the vascular bundles of the leaf sheath, especially in phloem cells where the BPH attacks. The BPH18 proteins were widely localized to the endo-membranes in a cell, including the endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, trans-Golgi network, and prevacuolar compartments, suggesting that BPH18 may recognize the BPH invasion at endo-membranes in phloem cells. Whole genome sequencing of the near-isogenic lines (NILs), NIL-BPH18 and NIL-BPH26, revealed that BPH18 located at the same locus of BPH26. However, these two genes have remarkable sequence differences and the independent NILs showed differential BPH resistance with different expression patterns of plant defense-related genes, indicating that BPH18 and BPH26 are functionally different alleles. These findings would facilitate elucidation of the molecular mechanism of BPH resistance and the identified novel alleles to fast track breeding BPH resistant rice cultivars. PMID:27682162

  7. Mutations of the SLIT2-ROBO2 pathway genes SLIT2 and SRGAP1 confer risk for congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Daw-Yang; Kohl, Stefan; Fan, Xueping; Vivante, Asaf; Chan, Stefanie; Dworschak, Gabriel C; Schulz, Julian; van Eerde, Albertien M; Hilger, Alina C; Gee, Heon Yung; Pennimpede, Tracie; Herrmann, Bernhard G; van de Hoek, Glenn; Renkema, Kirsten Y; Schell, Christoph; Huber, Tobias B; Reutter, Heiko M; Soliman, Neveen A; Stajic, Natasa; Bogdanovic, Radovan; Kehinde, Elijah O; Lifton, Richard P; Tasic, Velibor; Lu, Weining; Hildebrandt, Friedhelm

    2015-08-01

    Congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) account for 40-50% of chronic kidney disease that manifests in the first two decades of life. Thus far, 31 monogenic causes of isolated CAKUT have been described, explaining ~12% of cases. To identify additional CAKUT-causing genes, we performed whole-exome sequencing followed by a genetic burden analysis in 26 genetically unsolved families with CAKUT. We identified two heterozygous mutations in SRGAP1 in 2 unrelated families. SRGAP1 is a small GTPase-activating protein in the SLIT2-ROBO2 signaling pathway, which is essential for development of the metanephric kidney. We then examined the pathway-derived candidate gene SLIT2 for mutations in cohort of 749 individuals with CAKUT and we identified 3 unrelated individuals with heterozygous mutations. The clinical phenotypes of individuals with mutations in SLIT2 or SRGAP1 were cystic dysplastic kidneys, unilateral renal agenesis, and duplicated collecting system. We show that SRGAP1 is expressed in early mouse nephrogenic mesenchyme and that it is coexpressed with ROBO2 in SIX2-positive nephron progenitor cells of the cap mesenchyme in developing rat kidney. We demonstrate that the newly identified mutations in SRGAP1 lead to an augmented inhibition of RAC1 in cultured human embryonic kidney cells and that the SLIT2 mutations compromise the ability of the SLIT2 ligand to inhibit cell migration. Thus, we report on two novel candidate genes for causing monogenic isolated CAKUT in humans.

  8. The promoter of the barley aleurone-specific gene encoding a putative 7 kDa lipid transfer protein confers aleurone cell-specific expression in transgenic rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalla, R; Shimamoto, K; Potter, R; Nielsen, P S; Linnestad, C; Olsen, O A

    1994-12-01

    This paper describes the aleurone-specific gene Ltp2 from barley, which encodes a putative 7 kDa non-specific lipid transfer protein. As shown by Northern and in situ hybridization analyses, the Ltp2 transcript is present in barley aleurone cells shortly after the initiation of aleurone cell differentiation. The expression of Ltp2 increases until grain mid-maturity, but the mRNA is absent from mature grains. The Ltp2 transcript is undetectable in the embryo and vegetative tissues, confirming the aleurone specificity of the Ltp2 gene. The ability of the isolated 801 bp Ltp2 promoter to direct aleurone-specific expression in immature barley grains is demonstrated by particle bombardment experiments. In these experiments, the activity of the Ltp2 promoter is 5% of the activity of the strong constitutive Actin1 promoter from rice, as quantified by GUS activity measurements. In stably transformed rice plants containing the Ltp2 promoter-Gus construct, the specificity of the Ltp2 promoter is confirmed in vivo by the presence of GUS activity exclusively in the aleurone layer. This study demonstrates the conserved nature of the regulatory signals involved in aleurone-specific gene transcription in cereal grains.

  9. Second international conference on isotopes. Conference proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, C.J. [ed.

    1997-10-01

    The Second International Conference on Isotopes (2ICI) was hosted by the Australian Nuclear Association in Sydney, NSW, Australia. The Theme of the Second Conference: Isotopes for Industry, Health and a Better Environment recognizes that isotopes have been used in these fields successfully for many years and offer prospects for increasing use in the future. The worldwide interest in the use of research reactors and accelerators and in applications of stable and radioactive isotopes, isotopic techniques and radiation in industry, agriculture, medicine, environmental studies and research in general, was considered. Other radiation issues including radiation protection and safety were also addressed. International and national overviews and subject reviews invited from leading experts were included to introduce the program of technical sessions. The invited papers were supported by contributions accepted from participants for oral and poster presentation. A Technical Exhibition was held in association with the Conference. This volume contains the full text or extended abstracts of papers number 61- to number 114

  10. Characterizing two inter-specific bin maps for the exploration of the QTLs/genes that confer three soybean evolutionary traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuanjie Zhao

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Annual wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. & Zucc., the wild progenitor of the cultivated soybean (G. max (L. Merr., is valuable for improving the later. The construction of a linkage map is crucial for studying the genetic differentiation between these species, but marker density is the main factor limiting the accuracy of such a map. Recent advances in next-generation sequencing technologies allow for the generation of high-density linkage maps. Here, two sets of inter-specific recombinant inbred line populations, named NJIRNP and NJIR4P, composed of 284 and 161 lines, respectively, were generated from the same wild male parent, PI 342618B, and genotyped by restriction-site-associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq. Two linkage maps containing 5,728 and 4,354 bins were constructed based on 89,680 and 80,995 SNPs, spanning a total genetic distance of 2204.6 and 2136.7 cM, with an average distance of 0.4 and 0.5 cM between neighboring bins in NJRINP and NJRI4P, respectively. With the two maps, seven well-studied loci, B1 for seed bloom (SB; G and I for seed coat color (SCC; E2, E3, qDTF16.1 and two linked FLOWERING LOCUS T for days to flowering (DTF, were detected. In addition, two SB and two DTF loci were newly identified in wild soybean. Using two high-density maps, the mapping resolution was enhanced, e.g., G was narrowed to a region of 0.4 Mb on chromosome 1, encompassing 54 gene models, among which only Glyma01g40590 was predicted to be involved in anthocyanin accumulation, and its interaction with I was verified in both populations. In addition, five genes, Glyma16g03030, orthologous to Arabidopsis Phytochrome A (PHYA; Glyma13g28810, Glyma13g29920 and Glyma13g30710 predicted to encode the APETALA 2 (AP2 domain; and Glyma02g00300, involved in response to red or far red light, might be candidate DTF genes. Our results demonstrate that RAD-seq is a cost-effective approach for constructing high-density and high-quality bin maps that can be used to map

  11. Radiation`96. Conference handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    The conference program includes eight invited lectures which cover a range of contemporary topics in radiation science and technology. In addition, thirty-two oral papers were presented, along with forty-five posters. The conference handbook contains one-page precis or extended abstracts of all presentations, and is a substantial compendium of current radiation research in Australia.

  12. Expectations for Cancun Conference

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Compared with the great hopes raised by the Copenhagen Climate Conference in 2009, the 2010 UN Climate Change Conference in Cancun aroused fewer expectations. However, the international community is still waiting for a positive outcome that will benefit humankind as a whole.

  13. Stable integration and expression of wasabi defensin gene in "Egusi" melon (Colocynthis citrullus L.) confers resistance to Fusarium wilt and Alternaria leaf spot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntui, Valentine Otang; Thirukkumaran, Gunaratnam; Azadi, Pejman; Khan, Raham Sher; Nakamura, Ikuo; Mii, Masahiro

    2010-09-01

    Production of "Egusi" melon (Colocynthis citrullus L.) in West Africa is limited by fungal diseases, such as Alternaria leaf spot and Fusarium wilt. In order to engineer "Egusi" resistant to these diseases, cotyledonary explants of two "Egusi" genotypes, 'Ejagham' and NHC1-130, were transformed with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA101 harbouring wasabi defensin gene (isolated from Wasabia japonica L.) in a binary vector pEKH1. After co-cultivation for 3 days, infected explants were transferred to MS medium containing 100 mg l(-l) kanamycin to select transformed tissues. After 3 weeks of culture, adventitious shoots appeared directly along the edges of the explants. As much as 19 out of 52 (36.5%) and 25 out of 71 (35.2%) of the explants in genotype NHC1-130 and 'Ejagham', respectively, formed shoots after 6 weeks of culture. As much as 74% (14 out of 19) of the shoots regenerated in genotype NHC1-130 and 72% (18 out of 25) of those produced in genotype 'Ejagham' were transgenic. A DNA fragment corresponding to the wasabi defensin gene or the selection marker nptII was amplified by PCR from the genomic DNA of all regenerated plant clones rooted on hormone-free MS medium under the same selection pressure, suggesting their transgenic nature. Southern blot analysis confirmed successful integration of 1-5 copies of the transgene. RT-PCR, northern and western blot analyses revealed that wasabi defensin gene was expressed in transgenic lines. Transgenic lines showed increased levels of resistance to Alternaria solani, which causes Alternaria leaf spot and Fusarium oxysporum, which causes Fusarium wilt, as compared to that of untransformed plants.

  14. Caveolin-1 (P132L), a common breast cancer mutation, confers mammary cell invasiveness and defines a novel stem cell/metastasis-associated gene signature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonuccelli, Gloria; Casimiro, Mathew C; Sotgia, Federica; Wang, Chenguang; Liu, Manran; Katiyar, Sanjay; Zhou, Jie; Dew, Elliott; Capozza, Franco; Daumer, Kristin M; Minetti, Carlo; Milliman, Janet N; Alpy, Fabien; Rio, Marie-Christine; Tomasetto, Catherine; Mercier, Isabelle; Flomenberg, Neal; Frank, Philippe G; Pestell, Richard G; Lisanti, Michael P

    2009-05-01

    Here we used the Met-1 cell line in an orthotopic transplantation model in FVB/N mice to dissect the role of the Cav-1(P132L) mutation in human breast cancer. Identical experiments were performed in parallel with wild-type Cav-1. Cav-1(P132L) up-regulated the expression of estrogen receptor-alpha as predicted, because only estrogen receptor-alpha-positive patients have been shown to harbor Cav-1(P132L) mutations. In the context of primary tumor formation, Cav-1(P132L) behaved as a loss-of-function mutation, lacking any tumor suppressor activity. In contrast, Cav-1(P132L) caused significant increases in cell migration, invasion, and experimental metastasis, consistent with a gain-of-function mutation. To identify possible molecular mechanism(s) underlying this invasive gain-of-function activity, we performed unbiased gene expression profiling. From this analysis, we show that the Cav-1(P132L) expression signature contains numerous genes that have been previously associated with cell migration, invasion, and metastasis. These include i) secreted growth factors and extracellular matrix proteins (Cyr61, Plf, Pthlh, Serpinb5, Tnc, and Wnt10a), ii) proteases that generate EGF and HGF (Adamts1 and St14), and iii) tyrosine kinase substrates and integrin signaling/adapter proteins (Akap13, Cdcp1, Ddef1, Eps15, Foxf1a, Gab2, Hs2st1, and Itgb4). Several of the P132L-specific genes are also highly expressed in stem/progenitor cells or are associated with myoepithelial cells, suggestive of an epithelial-mesenchymal transition. These results directly support clinical data showing that patients harboring Cav-1 mutations are more likely to undergo recurrence and metastasis.

  15. Gene Transfer of Tumor-Reactive TCR Confers Both High Avidity and Tumor Reactivity to Nonreactive Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells and Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Laura A.; Heemskerk, Bianca; Powell, Daniel J.; Cohen, Cyrille J.; Morgan, Richard A.; Dudley, Mark E.; Robbins, Paul F.; Rosenberg, Steven A.

    2007-01-01

    Cell-based antitumor immunity is driven by CD8+ cytotoxic T cells bearing TCR that recognize specific tumor-associated peptides bound to class I MHC molecules. Of several cellular proteins involved in T cell:target-cell interaction, the TCR determines specificity of binding; however, the relative amount of its contribution to cellular avidity remains unknown. To study the relationship between TCR affinity and cellular avidity, with the intent of identifying optimal TCR for gene therapy, we derived 24 MART-1:27–35 (MART-1) melanoma Ag-reactive tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL) clones from the tumors of five patients. These MART-1-reactive clones displayed a wide variety of cellular avidities. α and β TCR genes were isolated from these clones, and TCR RNA was electroporated into the same non-MART-1-reactive allogeneic donor PBMC and TIL. TCR recipient cells gained the ability to recognize both MART-1 peptide and MART-1-expressing tumors in vitro, with avidities that closely corresponded to the original TCR clones (p = 0.018–0.0003). Clone DMF5, from a TIL infusion that mediated tumor regression clinically, showed the highest avidity against MART-1 expressing tumors in vitro, both endogenously in the TIL clone, and after RNA electroporation into donor T cells. Thus, we demonstrated that the TCR appeared to be the core determinant of MART-1 Ag-specific cellular avidity in these activated T cells and that nonreactive PBMC or TIL could be made tumor-reactive with a specific and predetermined avidity. We propose that inducing expression of this highly avid TCR in patient PBMC has the potential to induce tumor regression, as an “off-the-shelf” reagent for allogeneic melanoma patient gene therapy. PMID:17056587

  16. A cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) DRE-binding transcription factor gene, GhDREB, confers enhanced tolerance to drought, high salt, and freezing stresses in transgenic wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shi-Qing; Chen, Ming; Xia, Lian-Qin; Xiu, Hui-Jun; Xu, Zhao-Shi; Li, Lian-Cheng; Zhao, Chang-Ping; Cheng, Xian-Guo; Ma, You-Zhi

    2009-02-01

    A cotton (G. hirsutum L.) dehydration responsive element binding protein gene, GhDREB, which encodes a 153 amino acid protein containing a conserved AP2/EREBP domain, was isolated from the cDNA library of cotton cv. Simian 3 by a yeast one-hybrid system. RNA blot analysis showed that the GhDREB gene was induced in cotton seedlings by drought, high salt and cold stresses. An electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) indicated that the GhDREB protein bound specifically to the DRE core element (A/GCCGAC) in vitro. Two expression vectors containing the GhDREB gene with either of the Ubiqutin or rd29A promoters were constructed and transferred into wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) by bombardment. Fifty-eight Ubi::GhDREB and 17 rd29A::GhDREB T(0) plants of Yangmai (36 plants) and Lumai (39 plants) were identified by PCR analysis, respectively. Southern blot and RT-PCR analyses showed that two or three copies of the GhDREB were integrated into the Yangmai 10 genome and were expressed at the transcriptional level, and three or four copies were integrated into the Lumai 23 genome. Functional analysis indicated that the transgenic plants had improved tolerance to drought, high salt, and freezing stresses through accumulating higher levels of soluble sugar and chlorophyll in leaves after stress treatments. No phenotype differences were observed between transgenic plants and their non-transgenic controls. These results indicated that GhDREB might be useful in improving wheat stress tolerance through genetic engineering.

  17. Variants of the mannose-binding lectin gene in the Benin population: heterozygosity for the p.G57E allele may confer a selective advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dossou-Yovo, Omer Placide; Lapoumeroulie, Claudine; Hauchecorne, Michelle; Zaccaria, Isabelle; Ducrocq, Rolande; Krishnamoorthy, Rajagopal; Rahimy, Mohamed Chérif; Elion, Jacques

    2007-12-01

    Human mannose-binding lectin (MBL) plays an important role in innate immunity. MBL deficiency is associated with mutations in the promoter region and in exon 1 of the MBL2 gene. Such deficiency has been correlated with elevated incidence of infections in infancy and in immunocompromised adults. We determined the distribution profile of the MBL2 gene variants in the general population of Benin (West Africa) and in a vulnerable subset of children with sickle cell disease (SCD) (SS homozygotes). Five hundred forty-two healthy individuals (274 newborns, 268 adults) and 128 patients with SCD (35 newborns, 93 children) were screened for the common variant alleles in the MBL2 secretor haplotype region (exon 1 and promoter). The p.G57E variant allele was the most frequent allele compared to p.G54D (27.5% vs. 1.6%, respectively). The p.R52C allele was not found in this population. There was no difference in allele or genotype frequencies between healthy newborns and newborns with SCD. Alleles associated with MBL deficiency were more frequent in adults than in newborns (69.8% vs. 57.3%, respectively; p = 0.002). This enrichment was exclusively due to an elevated proportion of heterozygotes for the p.G57E allele (47.0% vs. 35.3%, respectively; p = 0.004), supporting a potential selective advantage of this genotype. Our results, compared to those reported in other African countries, support the implication of the MBL2 gene in various major infections in Africa, such as meningitis and tuberculosis in HIV-positive patients.

  18. Variants of the mannose-binding lectin gene in the Benin population: heterozygosity for the p.G57E allele may confer a selective advantage. 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dossou-Yovo, Omer Placide; Lapoumeroulie, Claudine; Hauchecorne, Michelle; Zaccaria, Isabelle; Ducrocq, Rolande; Krishnamoorthy, Rajagopal; Rahimy, Mohamed Chérif; Elion, Jacques

    2009-12-01

    Human mannose- binding lectin (MBL) plays an important role in innate immunity. MBL deficiency is associated with mutations in the promoter region and in exon 1 of the MBL2 gene. Such deficiency has been correlated with elevated incidence of infections in infancy and in immunocompromised adults. We determined the distribution profile of the MBL2 gene variants in the general population of Benin (West Africa) and in a vulnerable subset of children with sickle cell disease (SCD) (SS homozygotes). Five hundred forty-two healthy individuals (274 newborns, 268 adults) and 128 patients with SCD (35 newborns, 93 children) were screened for the common variant alleles in the MBL2 secretor haplotype region (exon 1 and promoter). The p.G57E variant allele was the most frequent allele compared to p.G54D (27.5% vs. 1.6%, respectively). The p.R52C allele was not found in this population. There was no difference in allele or genotype frequencies between healthy newborns and newborns with SCD. Alleles associated with MBL deficiency were more frequent in adults than in newborns (69.8% vs. 57.3%, respectively; p=0.002). This enrichment was exclusively due to an elevated proportion of heterozygotes for the p.G57E allele (47.0% vs. 35.3%,respectively; p=0.004), supporting a potential selective advantage of this genotype. Our results, compared to those reported in other African countries, support the implication of the MBL2 gene in various major infections in Africa, such as meningitis and tuberculosis in HIV- positive patients.

  19. 3rd Cryocooler Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Louie, Berverly; McCarthy, Sandy

    1985-01-01

    Cryocoolers 3 documents the output of the Third Cryocooler Conference, held at the National Bureau of Standards, Boulder, Colorado, on September 17-18, 1984. About 140 people from 10 countries attended the conference representing industry, government, and academia. A total of 26 papers were presented orally at the conference and all appear in written form in the proceedings. The focus of this conference was on small cryocoolers in the temperature range of 4 - 80 K. Mechanical and nonmechanical types are discussed in the various papers. Applications of these small cryocoolers include the cooling of infrared detectors, cryopumps, small superconducting devices and magnets, and electronic devices. The conference proceedings reproduced here was published by the National Bureau of Standards in Boulder, Colorado as NBS Special Publication #698.

  20. More about the Viking hypothesis of origin of the delta32 mutation in the CCR5 gene conferring resistance to HIV-1 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucotte, Gérard; Dieterlen, Florent

    2003-11-01

    The chemokine receptor CCR5 constitutes the major coreceptor for the HIV-1, because a mutant allele of the CCR5 gene named delta32 was shown to provide to homozygotes a strong resistance against infection. In the present study the frequency of the delta32 allele was collected in 36 European populations and in Cyprus, and the highest allele frequencies were found in Nordic countries. We constructed an allele map of delta32 frequencies in Europe; the map is in accordance to the Vikings hypothesis of the origin of the mutation and his dissemination during the eighth to the tenth centuries.

  1. Salt tolerance conferred by overexpression of Arabidopsis vacuolar Na(+)/H (+) antiporter gene AtNHX1 in common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li-Hong; Zhang, Bo; Xu, Zi-Qin

    2008-02-01

    Agriculture productivity is severely affected by soil salinity. One possible mechanism by which plants could survive salt stress is to compartmentalize sodium ions away from the cytosol. In the present work, transgenic buckwheat plants overexpressing AtNHX1, a vacuolar Na(+)/H(+) antiporter gene from Arabidopsis thaliana, were regenerated after transformation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens. These plants were able to grow, flower and accumulate more rutin in the presence of 200 mmol/l sodium chloride. Moreover, the content of important nutrients in buckwheat was not affected by the high salinity of the soil. These results demonstrated the potential value of these transgenic plants for agriculture use in saline soil.

  2. Post-transcriptional gene silencing of the p23 silencing suppressor of Citrus tristeza virus confers resistance to the virus in transgenic Mexican lime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagoaga, Carmen; López, Carmelo; de Mendoza, Alfonso Hermoso; Moreno, Pedro; Navarro, Luis; Flores, Ricardo; Peña, Leandro

    2006-01-01

    Previously, we have shown that most Mexican limes (Citrus aurantifolia (Christ.) Swing.) expressing the p23 gene of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) exhibit aberrations resembling viral leaf symptoms. Here we report that five independent transgenic lines having normal phenotype displayed characteristics typical of post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS): multiple copies of the transgene, low levels of the corresponding mRNA, methylation of the silenced transgene, and accumulation of p23-specific small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). When graft- or aphid-inoculated with CTV, some propagations of these silenced lines were immune: they neither expressed symptoms nor accumulated virions and viral RNA as estimated by DAS-ELISA and Northern blot hybridization, respectively. Other propagations were moderately resistant because they became infected later and showed attenuated symptoms compared to controls. The susceptible propagations, in addition to symptom expression and elevated virus titer, accumulated p23-specific siRNAs at levels significantly higher than immune or non-inoculated propagations, and showed transgene demethylation. This variable response among clonal transformants indicates that factors other than the genetic background of the transgenic plants play a key role in PTGS-mediated resistance.

  3. Comprehensive SNP scan of DNA repair and DNA damage response genes reveal multiple susceptibility loci conferring risk to tobacco associated leukoplakia and oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Pinaki; Datta, Sayantan; Maiti, Guru Prasad; Baral, Aradhita; Jha, Ganga Nath; Panda, Chinmay Kumar; Chowdhury, Shantanu; Ghosh, Saurabh; Roy, Bidyut; Roychoudhury, Susanta

    2013-01-01

    Polymorphic variants of DNA repair and damage response genes play major role in carcinogenesis. These variants are suspected as predisposition factors to Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC). For identification of susceptible variants affecting OSCC development in Indian population, the "maximally informative" method of SNP selection from HapMap data to non-HapMap populations was applied. Three hundred twenty-five SNPs from 11 key genes involved in double strand break repair, mismatch repair and DNA damage response pathways were genotyped on a total of 373 OSCC, 253 leukoplakia and 535 unrelated control individuals. The significantly associated SNPs were validated in an additional cohort of 144 OSCC patients and 160 controls. The rs12515548 of MSH3 showed significant association with OSCC both in the discovery and validation phases (discovery P-value: 1.43E-05, replication P-value: 4.84E-03). Two SNPs (rs12360870 of MRE11A, P-value: 2.37E-07 and rs7003908 of PRKDC, P-value: 7.99E-05) were found to be significantly associated only with leukoplakia. Stratification of subjects based on amount of tobacco consumption identified SNPs that were associated with either high or low tobacco exposed group. The study reveals a synergism between associated SNPs and lifestyle factors in predisposition to OSCC and leukoplakia.

  4. Second international conference on isotopes. Conference proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, C.J. [ed.

    1997-10-01

    The Second International Conference on Isotopes (2ICI) was hosted by the Australian Nuclear Association in Sydney, NSW, Australia. The Theme of the Second Conference: Isotopes for Industry, Health and a Better Environment recognizes that isotopes have been used in these fields successfully for many years and offer prospects for increasing use in the future. The worldwide interest in the use of research reactors and accelerators and in applications of stable and radioactive isotopes, isotopic techniques and radiation in industry, agriculture, medicine, environmental studies and research in general, was considered. Other radiation issues including radiation protection and safety were also addressed. International and national overviews and subject reviews invited from leading experts were included to introduce the program of technical sessions. The invited papers were supported by contributions accepted from participants for oral and poster presentation. A Technical Exhibition was held in association with the Conference. This volume contains the foreword, technical program, the author index and of the papers (1-60) presented at the conference.

  5. Gene

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes,...

  6. Overexpression of Nictaba-Like Lectin Genes from Glycine max Confers Tolerance towards Pseudomonas syringae Infection, Aphid Infestation and Salt Stress in Transgenic Arabidopsis Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofie Van Holle

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Plants have evolved a sophisticated immune system that allows them to recognize invading pathogens by specialized receptors. Carbohydrate-binding proteins or lectins are part of this immune system and especially the lectins that reside in the nucleocytoplasmic compartment are known to be implicated in biotic and abiotic stress responses. The class of Nictaba-like lectins (NLL groups all proteins with homology to the tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum lectin, known as a stress-inducible lectin. Here we focus on two Nictaba homologs from soybean (Glycine max, referred to as GmNLL1 and GmNLL2. Confocal laser scanning microscopy of fusion constructs with the green fluorescent protein either transiently expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves or stably transformed in tobacco BY-2 suspension cells revealed a nucleocytoplasmic localization for the GmNLLs under study. RT-qPCR analysis of the transcript levels for the Nictaba-like lectins in soybean demonstrated that the genes are expressed in several tissues throughout the development of the plant. Furthermore, it was shown that salt treatment, Phytophthora sojae infection and Aphis glycines infestation trigger the expression of particular NLL genes. Stress experiments with Arabidopsis lines overexpressing the NLLs from soybean yielded an enhanced tolerance of the plant towards bacterial infection (Pseudomonas syringae, insect infestation (Myzus persicae and salinity. Our data showed a better performance of the transgenic lines compared to wild type plants, indicating that the NLLs from soybean are implicated in the stress response. These data can help to further elucidate the physiological importance of the Nictaba-like lectins from soybean, which can ultimately lead to the design of crop plants with a better tolerance to changing environmental conditions.

  7. CaLecRK-S.5, a pepper L-type lectin receptor kinase gene, confers broad-spectrum resistance by activating priming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Joo Yong; Jeong, Kwang Ju; Kim, Young Jin; Paek, Kyung-Hee

    2016-01-01

    In Arabidopsis, several L-type lectin receptor kinases (LecRKs) have been identified as putative immune receptors. However, to date, there have been few analyses of LecRKs in crop plants. Virus-induced gene silencing of CaLecRK-S.5 verified the role of CaLecRK-S.5 in broad-spectrum resistance. Compared with control plants, CaLecRK-S.5-silenced plants showed reduced hypersensitive response, reactive oxygen species burst, secondary metabolite production, mitogen-activated protein kinase activation, and defense-related gene expression in response to Tobacco mosaic virus pathotype P0 (TMV-P0) infection. Suppression of CaLecRK-S.5 expression significantly enhanced the susceptibility to Pepper mild mottle virus pathotype P1,2,3, Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria, Phytophthora capsici, as well as TMV-P0. Additionally, β-aminobutyric acid treatment and a systemic acquired resistance assay revealed that CaLecRK-S.5 is involved in priming of plant immunity. Pre-treatment with β-aminobutyric acid before viral infection restored the reduced disease resistance phenotypes shown in CaLecRK-S.5-silenced plants. Systemic acquired resistance was also abolished in CaLecRK-S.5-silenced plants. Finally, RNA sequencing analysis indicated that CaLecRK-S.5 positively regulates plant immunity at the transcriptional level. Altogether, these results suggest that CaLecRK-S.5-mediated broad-spectrum resistance is associated with the regulation of priming. PMID:27647723

  8. CaLecRK-S.5, a pepper L-type lectin receptor kinase gene, confers broad-spectrum resistance by activating priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Joo Yong; Jeong, Kwang Ju; Kim, Young Jin; Paek, Kyung-Hee

    2016-10-01

    In Arabidopsis, several L-type lectin receptor kinases (LecRKs) have been identified as putative immune receptors. However, to date, there have been few analyses of LecRKs in crop plants. Virus-induced gene silencing of CaLecRK-S.5 verified the role of CaLecRK-S.5 in broad-spectrum resistance. Compared with control plants, CaLecRK-S.5-silenced plants showed reduced hypersensitive response, reactive oxygen species burst, secondary metabolite production, mitogen-activated protein kinase activation, and defense-related gene expression in response to Tobacco mosaic virus pathotype P0 (TMV-P0) infection. Suppression of CaLecRK-S.5 expression significantly enhanced the susceptibility to Pepper mild mottle virus pathotype P1,2,3, Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria, Phytophthora capsici, as well as TMV-P0 Additionally, β-aminobutyric acid treatment and a systemic acquired resistance assay revealed that CaLecRK-S.5 is involved in priming of plant immunity. Pre-treatment with β-aminobutyric acid before viral infection restored the reduced disease resistance phenotypes shown in CaLecRK-S.5-silenced plants. Systemic acquired resistance was also abolished in CaLecRK-S.5-silenced plants. Finally, RNA sequencing analysis indicated that CaLecRK-S.5 positively regulates plant immunity at the transcriptional level. Altogether, these results suggest that CaLecRK-S.5-mediated broad-spectrum resistance is associated with the regulation of priming.

  9. RAPD-based SCAR marker SCA 12 linked to recessive gene conferring resistance to anthracnose in sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Monika; Chaudhary, K; Boora, K S

    2006-12-01

    Anthracnose, caused by Colletotrichum graminicola, infects all aerial parts of sorghum, Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench, plants and causes loss of as much as 70%. F(1) and F(2) plants inoculated with local isolates of C. graminicola indicated that resistance to anthracnose in sorghum accession G 73 segregated as a recessive trait in a cross with susceptible cultivar HC 136. To facilitate the use of marker-assisted selection in sorghum breeding programs, a PCR-based specific sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) marker was developed. A total of 29 resistant and 20 susceptible recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from a HC 136 x G 73 cross was used for bulked segregant analysis to identify a RAPD marker closely linked to a gene for resistance to anthracnose. The polymorphism between the parents HC 136 and G 73 was evaluated using 84 random sequence decamer primers. Among these, only 24 primers generated polymorphism. On bulked segregant analysis, primer OPA 12 amplified a unique band of 383 bp only in the resistant parent G 73 and resistant bulk. Segregation analysis of individual RILs showed the marker OPA 12(383) was 6.03 cM from the locus governing resistance to anthracnose. The marker OPA 12(383) was cloned and sequenced. Based on the sequence of cloned RAPD product, a pair of SCAR markers SCA 12-1 and SCA 12-2 was designed using the MacVector program, which specifically amplified this RAPD fragment in resistant parent G 73, resistant bulk and respective RILs. Therefore, it was confirmed that SCAR marker SCA 12 is at the same locus as RAPD marker OPA 12(383) and hence, is linked to the gene for resistance to anthracnose.

  10. Overexpression of Nictaba-Like Lectin Genes from Glycine max Confers Tolerance toward Pseudomonas syringae Infection, Aphid Infestation and Salt Stress in Transgenic Arabidopsis Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Holle, Sofie; Smagghe, Guy; Van Damme, Els J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Plants have evolved a sophisticated immune system that allows them to recognize invading pathogens by specialized receptors. Carbohydrate-binding proteins or lectins are part of this immune system and especially the lectins that reside in the nucleocytoplasmic compartment are known to be implicated in biotic and abiotic stress responses. The class of Nictaba-like lectins (NLL) groups all proteins with homology to the tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) lectin, known as a stress-inducible lectin. Here we focus on two Nictaba homologs from soybean (Glycine max), referred to as GmNLL1 and GmNLL2. Confocal laser scanning microscopy of fusion constructs with the green fluorescent protein either transiently expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves or stably transformed in tobacco BY-2 suspension cells revealed a nucleocytoplasmic localization for the GmNLLs under study. RT-qPCR analysis of the transcript levels for the Nictaba-like lectins in soybean demonstrated that the genes are expressed in several tissues throughout the development of the plant. Furthermore, it was shown that salt treatment, Phytophthora sojae infection and Aphis glycines infestation trigger the expression of particular NLL genes. Stress experiments with Arabidopsis lines overexpressing the NLLs from soybean yielded an enhanced tolerance of the plant toward bacterial infection (Pseudomonas syringae), insect infestation (Myzus persicae) and salinity. Our data showed a better performance of the transgenic lines compared to wild type plants, indicating that the NLLs from soybean are implicated in the stress response. These data can help to further elucidate the physiological importance of the Nictaba-like lectins from soybean, which can ultimately lead to the design of crop plants with a better tolerance to changing environmental conditions. PMID:27826309

  11. Conference Report: Wyoming Invitational Conference on Instructional Applications of Computers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansky, Bob

    This report: (1) describes the organization of an invitational conference aimed at gathering direction from classroom teachers regarding instructional applications of computers; (2) provides copies of all materials used in organizing such a conference; and (3) reports the results of the conference in terms of conference products (resolutions,…

  12. Genes conferring copper resistance in Sinorhizobium meliloti CCNWSX0020 also promote the growth of Medicago lupulina in copper-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhefei; Ma, Zhanqiang; Hao, Xiuli; Rensing, Christopher; Wei, Gehong

    2014-03-01

    Sinorhizobium meliloti CCNWSX0020, isolated from root nodules of Medicago lupulina growing in gold mine tailings in the northwest of China, displayed both copper resistance and growth promotion of leguminous plants in copper-contaminated soil. Nevertheless, the genetic and biochemical mechanisms responsible for copper resistance in S. meliloti CCNWSX0020 remained uncharacterized. To investigate genes involved in copper resistance, an S. meliloti CCNWSX0020 Tn5 insertion library of 14,000 mutants was created. Five copper-sensitive mutants, named SXa-1, SXa-2, SXc-1, SXc-2, and SXn, were isolated, and the disrupted regions involved were identified by inverse PCR and subsequent sequencing. Both SXa-1 and SXa-2 carried a transposon insertion in lpxXL (SM0020_18047), encoding the LpxXL C-28 acyltransferase; SXc-1 and SXc-2 carried a transposon insertion in merR (SM0020_29390), encoding the regulatory activator; SXn contained a transposon insertion in omp (SM0020_18792), encoding a hypothetical outer membrane protein. The results of reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) combined with transposon gene disruptions revealed that SM0020_05862, encoding an unusual P-type ATPase, was regulated by the MerR protein. Analysis of the genome sequence showed that this P-type ATPase did not contain an N-terminal metal-binding domain or a CPC motif but rather TPCP compared with CopA from Escherichia coli. Pot experiments were carried out to determine whether growth and copper accumulation of the host plant M. lupulina were affected in the presence of the wild type or the different mutants. Soil samples were subjected to three levels of copper contamination, namely, the uncontaminated control and 47.36 and 142.08 mg/kg, and three replicates were conducted for each treatment. The results showed that the wild-type S. meliloti CCNWSX0020 enabled the host plant to grow better and accumulate copper ions. The plant dry weight and copper content of M. lupulina inoculated with the 5 copper

  13. SSR Marker of the Gene Conferring Sethoxydim Resistance in Setaria italica (L .)Beauv%谷子抗“拿捕净”基因的SSR标记

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

      为探究谷子抗病育种的理论基础,采用Blast比对的方法,利用已知的谷子抗“拿捕净”除草剂的基因组序列,对谷子抗“拿捕净”基因进行SSR分子连锁标记筛选研究。利用抗“拿捕净”基因的已知序列找到了在谷子基因组中第7和第9条染色体上均存在同源序列,分别在这些同源序列上下游寻找SSR引物,在谷子F2群体中进行SSR标记的筛选,进行共分离分析。结果表明:位于第7染色体上的2个SSR标记SIMS13569和SIMS13512与谷子抗“拿捕净”基因性状共分离,即表现为连锁遗传,该标记可用于分子标记辅助选择,对谷子抗“拿捕净”基因育种具有重要的现实意义;而第9染色体上的序列不具有抗“拿捕净”的作用。%Utilizing the known genome sequence of herbicide-resistant to Sethoxydim in foxtail millet ,selection SSR markers which was linkage of herbicide-resistant to Sethoxydim was studied .Using Blast alignment meth-od ,the homologous sequences of herbicide-resistant to Sethoxydim gene was found in the seventh and the ninth chromosomes in foxtail millet .In the upstream and downstream of homologous sequences ,primers were de-signed to select SSR molecular markers .In the F2 population of foxtail millet ,the herbicide-resistant to Se-thoxydim gene was linkage of two SSR markers ,SIMS13569 and SIMS13512 which were in the seventh chro-mosome ,and could be used for molecular marker assisted selection .It is important to the genetic breeding of herbicide-resistant to Sethoxydim in foxtail millet .However ,the homologous sequence in the ninth chromosome was not own the effect of herbicide-resistant to Sethoxydim .

  14. Genetic transformation of cotton with a harpin-encoding gene hpaXoo confers an enhanced defense response against different pathogens through a priming mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Congfeng

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The soil-borne fungal pathogen Verticillium dahliae Kleb causes Verticillium wilt in a wide range of crops including cotton (Gossypium hirsutum. To date, most upland cotton varieties are susceptible to V. dahliae and the breeding for cotton varieties with the resistance to Verticillium wilt has not been successful. Results Hpa1Xoo is a harpin protein from Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae which induces the hypersensitive cell death in plants. When hpa1Xoo was transformed into the susceptible cotton line Z35 through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, the transgenic cotton line (T-34 with an improved resistance to Verticillium dahliae was obtained. Cells of the transgenic T-34, when mixed with the conidia suspension of V. dahliae, had a higher tolerance to V. dahliae compared to cells of untransformed Z35. Cells of T-34 were more viable 12 h after mixing with V. dahliae conidia suspension. Immunocytological analysis showed that Hpa1Xoo, expressed in T-34, accumulated as clustered particles along the cell walls of T-34. In response to the infection caused by V. dahliae, the microscopic cell death and the generation of reactive oxygen intermediates were observed in leaves of T-34 and these responses were absent in leaves of Z35 inoculated with V. dahliae. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis indicated that five defense-related genes, ghAOX1, hin1, npr1, ghdhg-OMT, and hsr203J, were up-regulated in T-34 inoculated with V. dahliae. The up-regulations of these defense-relate genes were not observed or in a less extent in leaves of Z-35 after the inoculation. Conclusions Hpa1Xoo accumulates along the cell walls of the transgenic T-34, where it triggers the generation of H2O2 as an endogenous elicitor. T-34 is thus in a primed state, ready to protect the host from the pathogen. The results of this study suggest that the transformation of cotton with hpa1Xoo could be an effective approach for the development of cotton varieties with the

  15. A single mutation in the 15S rRNA gene confers nonsense suppressor activity and interacts with mRF1 the release factor in yeast mitochondria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Gargouri

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We have determined the nucleotide sequence of the mim3-1 mitochondrial ribosomal suppressor, acting on ochre mitochondrial mutations and one frameshift mutation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The 15s rRNA suppressor gene contains a G633 to C transversion. Yeast mitochondrial G633 corresponds to G517 of the E.coli 15S rRNA, which is occupied by an invariant G in all known small rRNA sequences. Interestingly, this mutation has occurred at the same position as the known MSU1 mitochondrial suppressor which changes G633 to A. The suppressor mutation lies in a highly conserved region of the rRNA, known in E.coli as the 530-loop, interacting with the S4, S5 and S12 ribosomal proteins. We also show an interesting interaction between the mitochondrial mim3-1 and the nuclear nam3-1 suppressors, both of which have the same action spectrum on mitochondrial mutations: nam3-1 abolishes the suppressor effect when present with mim3-1 in the same haploid cell. We discuss these results in the light of the nature of Nam3, identified by [1] as the yeast mitochondrial translation release factor. A hypothetical mechanism of suppression by "ribosome shifting" is also discussed in view of the nature of mutations suppressed and not suppressed.

  16. Development and validation of DNA markers linked to Sdvy-1, a common bean gene conferring resistance to the yellowing strain of Soybean dwarf virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Yoko; Takeuchi, Toru; Okuyama, Masataka; Sasaki, Jun; Onodera, Kakumasa; Sato, Mikako; Souma, Chihiro; Ebe, Shigehiko

    2014-12-01

    The yellowing strain of Soybean dwarf virus (SbDV-YS) causes yellowing and yield loss in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). The most effective control is achieved through breeding for resistance. An indeterminate climbing cultivar with a white seed coat, 'Oofuku', is resistant to SbDV-YS in inoculation tests. We crossed 'Oofuku' with an elite cultivar, 'Taisho-Kintoki', which is SbDV-YS-susceptible, determinate dwarf with a red-purple seed coat, and performed amplified-fragment-length polymorphism analysis of F3 lines. From nucleotide sequences of the resistant-specific fragments and their flanking regions, we developed five DNA markers, of which DV86, DV386, and DV398 were closely linked to Sdvy-1, a resistance gene. Using the markers, we developed 'Toiku-B79' and 'Toiku-B80', the near-isogenic lines (NILs) incorporating Sdvy-1 in the background of 'Taisho-Kintoki'. The NILs had similar growth habit, maturity date and seed shape to those of 'Taisho-Kintoki'. The quality of boiled beans was also similar, except that the NILs had more seed coat cracking than 'Taisho-Kintoki'. The NILs showed no SbDV-YS infection in inoculation tests. We suggest that Sdvy-1 is a useful source of SbDV-YS resistance in common bean.

  17. Genetic variation in a microRNA-502 minding site in SET8 gene confers clinical outcome of non-small cell lung cancer in a Chinese population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiali Xu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Genetic variants may influence microRNA-target interaction through modulate their binding affinity, creating or destroying miRNA-binding sites. SET8, a member of the SET domain-containing methyltransferase, has been implicated in a variety array of biological processes. METHODS: Using Taqman assay, we genotyped a polymorphism rs16917496 T>C within the miR-502 binding site in the 3'-untranslated region of the SET8 gene in 576 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC patients. Functions of rs16917496 were investigated using luciferase activity assay and validated by immunostaining. RESULTS: Log-rank test and cox regression indicated that the CC genotype was associated with a longer survival and a reduced risk of death for NSCLC [58.0 vs. 41.0 months, P = 0.031; hazard ratio = 0.44, 95% confidential interval: 0.26-0.74]. Further stepwise regression analysis suggested rs16917496 was an independently favorable factor for prognosis and the protective effect more prominent in never smokers, patients without diabetes and patients who received chemotherapy. A significant interaction was observed between rs16917496 and smoking status in relation to NSCLC survival (PC located at miR-502 binding site contributes to NSCLC survival by altering SET8 expression through modulating miRNA-target interaction.

  18. Identification of gene variants in NOS3, ET-1 and RAS that confer risk and protection against microangiopathy in type 2 diabetic obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manea, Simona-Adriana; Robciuc, Alexandra; Guja, Cristian; Heltianu, Constantina

    2011-04-15

    The study aim was to investigate NOS3 VNTR, NOS3 G894T, EDN1 C8002T, ACE I/D, AGT M235T and AGTR1 A1166C in nonobese and obese T2DM patients, and their interaction with the incidence of microangiopathy. T2DM subjects (n=250; 166 nonobese, and 84 obese) were genotyped for the gene variants by PCR/RFLP. The interaction of these polymorphisms with obesity and their contribution to microangiopathy were analyzed by multivariate regression analysis. A higher frequency of NOS3 4a allele was found in obese (P=0.027) vs. nonobese subjects. ACE D (P=0.009) and AGT 235T (P=0.026) alleles were associated with the reduced risk of diabetic nephropathy in nonobese and obese patients, respectively. In obese subjects, NOS3 4a (P=0.011) had a converse effect to NOS3 894T (P=0.043), and EDN1 8002T (P=0.035) on the prevalence of combined microangiopathy (neuropathy/retinopathy/nephropathy) vs. microangiopathy-negative subjects. The study indicates association of RAS variants with obesity and nephropathy, and an opposite effect of NOS3 VNTR and NOS3 G894T on the occurrence of combined microangiopathy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Interfacing microbiology and biotechnology. Conference abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maupin, Julia A.

    2001-05-19

    The Interfacing Microbiology and Biotechnology Conference was attended by over 100 faculty, post-docs, students, and research scientists from the US, Europe, and Latin America. The conference successfully stimulated communication and the dissemination of knowledge among scientists involved in basic and applied research. The focus of the conference was on microbial physiology and genetics and included sessions on C1 metabolism, archaeal metabolism, proteases and chaperones, gene arrays, and metabolic engineering. The meeting provided the setting for in-depth discussions between scientists who are internationally recognized for their research in these fields. The following objectives were met: (1) The promotion of interaction and future collaborative projects among scientists involved in basic and applied research which incorporates microbial physiology, genetics, and biochemistry; (2) the facilitation of communication of new research findings through seminars, posters, and abstracts; (3 ) the stimulation of enthusiasm and education among participants including graduate and undergraduate students.

  20. The learning conference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ib

    The typical one-day conference attended by managers or professionals in search of inspiration is packed with PowerPoint presentations and offers little opportunity for involvement or knowledge sharing. Behind the conventional conference format lurks the transfer model of learning, which finds...... little support amongst serious students of learning. The professional conference as a forum for knowledge sharing is in dire need of a new learning theory and a more enlightened practice. The notion of human flourishing is offered as basis for theory, and four simple design principles for the so......-called “learning conference” are proposed: People go to conferences to 1. get concise input, 2. interpret it in the light of their ongoing concerns, 3. talk about their current projects and 4. meet the other attendees and be inspired by them. Six practical techniques that induce attendees to do these things...

  1. Statewide Professional Development Conference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul V. Bredeson

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available In an environment increasingly skeptical of the effectiveness of large-scale professional development activities, this study examines K-12 educators' reasons for participating and beliefs in the utility in a large-scale professional development conference. Pre- and post-conference surveys revealed that while financial support played a significant role in educators' ability to participate, they were drawn to the conference by the promise to learn substantive issues related to, in this case, performance assessment—what it means, how to implement it, and how to address community concerns. In spite of the conference's utility as a means to increase awareness of critical issues and to facilitate formal and informal learning, well conceived linkages to transfer new knowledge to the school and classroom were lacking.

  2. Tackling conference carbon footprints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grozier, Jim

    2016-12-01

    In reply to Margaret Harris's Lateral Thoughts article "Putting my foot down", which discussed the challenges of attending a conference with a physical disability (October p76) and a subsequent letter by Anna Wood (November p18).

  3. The learning conference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ib

    2007-01-01

    are described: Individual reflection, the buzz dyad, ?You have won two consultants, free of charge?, facilitated group work, the knowledge exchange, and lunch with gaffer tape. Originality/value: This paper introduces modern learning theory and techniques into an educational context which has resisted......Purpose: To call attention to the fact that conferences for professionals rely on massive one-way communication and hence produce little learning for delegates. To introduce an alternative, the ?learning conference,? that involves delegates in fun and productive learning processes. Design....../methodology/approach: A typical full-day conference is analyzed. It has six hours of podium talk and twenty-five minutes for delegates to become involved. What model of learning can possibly lie behind this? The transfer model, which assumes learners to be empty vessels. An alternative view is that conference delegates...

  4. The learning conference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ib

    2007-01-01

    are described: Individual reflection, the buzz dyad, ?You have won two consultants, free of charge?, facilitated group work, the knowledge exchange, and lunch with gaffer tape. Originality/value: This paper introduces modern learning theory and techniques into an educational context which has resisted......Purpose: To call attention to the fact that conferences for professionals rely on massive one-way communication and hence produce little learning for delegates. To introduce an alternative, the ?learning conference,? that involves delegates in fun and productive learning processes. Design....../methodology/approach: A typical full-day conference is analyzed. It has six hours of podium talk and twenty-five minutes for delegates to become involved. What model of learning can possibly lie behind this? The transfer model, which assumes learners to be empty vessels. An alternative view is that conference delegates...

  5. Ranking Operations Management Conferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhuis, Harm-Jan; Bruijn, de Erik Joost; Gupta, Sushil; Laptaned, U.

    2007-01-01

    Several publications have appeared in the field of Operations Management which rank Operations Management related journals. Several ranking systems exist for journals based on , for example, perceived relevance and quality, citation, and author affiliation. Many academics also publish at conferences

  6. EVOLVE 2014 International Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Tantar, Emilia; Sun, Jian-Qiao; Zhang, Wei; Ding, Qian; Schütze, Oliver; Emmerich, Michael; Legrand, Pierrick; Moral, Pierre; Coello, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    This volume encloses research articles that were presented at the EVOLVE 2014 International Conference in Beijing, China, July 1–4, 2014.The book gathers contributions that emerged from the conference tracks, ranging from probability to set oriented numerics and evolutionary computation; all complemented by the bridging purpose of the conference, e.g. Complex Networks and Landscape Analysis, or by the more application oriented perspective. The novelty of the volume, when considering the EVOLVE series, comes from targeting also the practitioner’s view. This is supported by the Machine Learning Applied to Networks and Practical Aspects of Evolutionary Algorithms tracks, providing surveys on new application areas, as in the networking area and useful insights in the development of evolutionary techniques, from a practitioner’s perspective. Complementary to these directions, the conference tracks supporting the volume, follow on the individual advancements of the subareas constituting the scope of the confe...

  7. A missense mutation of the gene encoding synaptic vesicle glycoprotein 2A (SV2A confers seizure susceptibility by disrupting amygdalar synaptic GABA release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kentaro Tokudome

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Synaptic vesicle glycoprotein 2A (SV2A is specifically expressed in the membranes of synaptic vesicles and modulates action potential-dependent neurotransmitter release. To explore the role of SV2A in the pathogenesis of epileptic disorders, we recently generated a novel rat model (Sv2aL174Q rat carrying a missense mutation of the Sv2a gene and showed that the Sv2aL174Q rats were hypersensitive to kindling development (Tokudome et al., 2016. Here, we further conducted behavioral and neurochemical studies to clarify the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the seizure vulnerability in Sv2aL174Q rats. Sv2aL174Q rats were highly susceptible to pentylenetetrazole (PTZ-induced seizures, yielding a significantly higher seizure scores and seizure incidence than the control animals. Brain mapping analysis of Fos expression, a biological marker of neural excitation, revealed that the seizure threshold level of PTZ region-specifically elevated Fos expression in the amygdala in Sv2aL174Q rats. In vivo microdialysis study showed that the Sv2aL174Q mutation preferentially reduced high K+ (depolarization-evoked GABA release, but not glutamate release, in the amygdala. In addition, specific control of GABA release by SV2A was supported by its predominant expression in GABAergic neurons, which were co-stained with antibodies against SV2A and glutamate decarboxylase 1. The present results suggest that dysfunction of SV2A by the missense mutation elevates seizure susceptibility in rats by preferentially disrupting synaptic GABA release in the amygdala, illustrating the crucial role of amygdalar SV2A-GABAergic system in epileptogenesis.

  8. A Missense Mutation of the Gene Encoding Synaptic Vesicle Glycoprotein 2A (SV2A) Confers Seizure Susceptibility by Disrupting Amygdalar Synaptic GABA Release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokudome, Kentaro; Okumura, Takahiro; Terada, Ryo; Shimizu, Saki; Kunisawa, Naofumi; Mashimo, Tomoji; Serikawa, Tadao; Sasa, Masashi; Ohno, Yukihiro

    2016-01-01

    Synaptic vesicle glycoprotein 2A (SV2A) is specifically expressed in the membranes of synaptic vesicles and modulates action potential-dependent neurotransmitter release. To explore the role of SV2A in the pathogenesis of epileptic disorders, we recently generated a novel rat model (Sv2aL174Q rat) carrying a missense mutation of the Sv2a gene and showed that the Sv2aL174Q rats were hypersensitive to kindling development (Tokudome et al., 2016). Here, we further conducted behavioral and neurochemical studies to clarify the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the seizure vulnerability in Sv2aL174Q rats. Sv2aL174Q rats were highly susceptible to pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures, yielding a significantly higher seizure scores and seizure incidence than the control animals. Brain mapping analysis of Fos expression, a biological marker of neural excitation, revealed that the seizure threshold level of PTZ region-specifically elevated Fos expression in the amygdala in Sv2aL174Q rats. In vivo microdialysis study showed that the Sv2aL174Q mutation preferentially reduced high K+ (depolarization)-evoked GABA release, but not glutamate release, in the amygdala. In addition, specific control of GABA release by SV2A was supported by its predominant expression in GABAergic neurons, which were co-stained with antibodies against SV2A and glutamate decarboxylase 1. The present results suggest that dysfunction of SV2A by the missense mutation elevates seizure susceptibility in rats by preferentially disrupting synaptic GABA release in the amygdala, illustrating the crucial role of amygdalar SV2A-GABAergic system in epileptogenesis. PMID:27471467

  9. The -141C Ins/Del and Taq1A polymorphism in the dopamine D2 receptor gene may confer susceptibility to schizophrenia in Asian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yurong; Liu, Li; Xin, Lihong; Fan, Dazhi; Ding, Ning; Hu, Yanting; Cai, Guoqi; Wang, Li; Xia, Qing; Li, Xiaona; Yang, Xiao; Zou, Yanfeng; Pan, Faming

    2016-08-01

    It has been reported that two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) Taq1A and -141C Ins/Del in the DRD2 gene may be associated with susceptibility to schizophrenia. Due to inconclusive and mixed results, a meta-analysis was conducted to further clarify the relationship between the two SNP and schizophrenia susceptibility. A systematic literature search for the association of these two SNP with schizophrenia susceptibility was conducted using PubMed, ScienceDirect, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure. Odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were used to assess the strength of the associations reported. A total of 5558 schizophrenic patients and 6792 healthy controls from 31 articles were included in this study. Evidence regarding the association between -141C Ins/Del polymorphism and schizophrenia was found in the allele frequency comparison (Ins versus Del: OR 1.29, 95% CI 1.06-1.57; p=0.01, Praw=0.1, PFalse Discovery Rate=0.023). In ethnic subgroup analysis, the result revealed that the 141C Ins/Del polymorphism was associated with schizophrenia in all genetic models in Asians, but not in Caucasians. For Taq1A polymorphism, a significant association was found in the allele frequency (A1 versus A2: OR 0.71, 95% CI 0.52-0.98, p=0.03). Stratification by ethnicity indicated an association between the Taq1A polymorphism and schizophrenia in Asians, but not Caucasians. The present study suggests that the -141C Ins/Del polymorphism carries a significantly increased risk of schizophrenia, while the Taq1A polymorphism carries a significantly decreased risk of schizophrenia susceptibility in Asians.

  10. Replacing the Promoter of the Murine Gene Encoding P-selectin with the Human Promoter Confers Human-like Basal and Inducible Expression in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhenghui; Zhang, Nan; Shao, Bojing; Panicker, Sumith R; Fu, Jianxin; McEver, Rodger P

    2016-01-15

    In humans and mice, megakaryocytes/platelets and endothelial cells constitutively synthesize P-selectin and mobilize it to the plasma membrane to mediate leukocyte rolling during inflammation. TNF-α, interleukin 1β, and LPS markedly increase P-selectin mRNA in mice but decrease P-selectin mRNA in humans. Transgenic mice bearing the entire human SELP gene recapitulate basal and inducible expression of human P-selectin and reveal human-specific differences in P-selectin function. Differences in the human SELP and murine Selp promoters account for divergent expression in vitro, but their significance in vivo is not known. Here we generated knockin mice that replace the 1.4-kb proximal Selp promoter with the corresponding SELP sequence (Selp(KI)). Selp(KI) (/) (KI) mice constitutively expressed more P-selectin on platelets and more P-selectin mRNA in tissues but only slightly increased P-selectin mRNA after injection of TNF-α or LPS. Consistent with higher basal expression, leukocytes rolled more slowly on P-selectin in trauma-stimulated venules of Selp(KI) (/) (KI) mice. However, TNF-α did not further reduce P-selectin-dependent rolling velocities. Blunted up-regulation of P-selectin mRNA during contact hypersensitivity reduced P-selectin-dependent inflammation in Selp(KI) (/-) mice. Higher basal P-selectin in Selp(KI) (/) (KI) mice compensated for this defect. Therefore, divergent sequences in a short promoter mediate most of the functionally significant differences in expression of human and murine P-selectin in vivo.

  11. Molecular mapping of a novel gene, Grh5, conferring resistance to green rice leafhopper (Nephotettix cincticeps Uhler) in rice, Oryza sativa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Daisuke; Doi, Kazuyuki; Yoshimura, Atsushi; Yasui, Hideshi

    2006-08-01

    The green rice leafhopper (GRH), Nephotettix cincticeps Uhler, is one of the most serious insect pests affecting cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.) in temperate regions of East Asia. An accession of the wild rice species, Oryza rufipogon Griff. (W1962), was found to be highly resistant to GRH by an antibiosis test. To understand the genetic basis of the GRH resistance, a BC1F1 population derived from a cross between a susceptible Japonica variety, Taichung 65 (T65), and a highly resistant accession W1962 was analyzed by quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping. A single major QTL for GRH resistance was detected on rice chromosome 8. A nearly isogenic population containing segments of the targeted QTL region derived from W1962 was then developed through advanced backcrossing with marker-assisted selection. Further molecular mapping using a BC4F2 population revealed that a new resistance gene, designated as Green rice leafhopper resistance 5 (Grh5), was located on the distal region of the long arm of chromosome 8 and tightly linked to the simple sequence repeat markers RM3754 and RM3761. A nearly isogenic line (NIL) carrying Grh5 was subsequently developed in the progeny of the mapping population. The resistance level of Grh5-NIL was compared with those of developed NILs for GRH resistance and was found to have the highest resistance. The DNA markers found to be closely linked to Grh5 would be useful for marker-assisted selection for the improvement of resistance to GRH in rice.

  12. Multiphoton processes: conference proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambropoulos, P.; Smith, S.J. (eds.)

    1984-01-01

    The chapters of this volume represent the invited papers delivered at the conference. They are arranged according to thermatic proximity beginning with atoms and continuing with molecules and surfaces. Section headings include multiphoton processes in atoms, field fluctuations and collisions in multiphoton process, and multiphoton processes in molecules and surfaces. Abstracts of individual items from the conference were prepared separately for the data base. (GHT)

  13. 2nd SUMO Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Weber, Melanie

    2015-01-01

    This contributed volume contains the conference proceedings of the Simulation of Urban Mobility (SUMO) conference 2014, Berlin. The included research papers cover a wide range of topics in traffic planning and simulation, including open data, vehicular communication, e-mobility, urban mobility, multimodal traffic as well as usage approaches. The target audience primarily comprises researchers and experts in the field, but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.  

  14. Conference scene: DGVS spring conference 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolligs, Frank Thomas

    2009-10-01

    The 3rd annual DGVS Spring Conference of the German Society for Gastroenterology (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Verdauungs- und Stoffwechselkrankheiten) was held at the Seminaris Campus Hotel in Berlin, Germany, on 8-9 May, 2009. The conference was organized by Roland Schmid and Matthias Ebert from the Technical University of Munich, Germany. The central theme of the meeting was 'translational gastrointestinal oncology: towards personalized medicine and individualized therapy'. The conference covered talks on markers for diagnosis, screening and surveillance of colorectal cancer, targets for molecular therapy, response prediction in clinical oncology, development and integration of molecular imaging in gastrointestinal oncology and translational research in clinical trial design. Owing to the broad array of topics and limitations of space, this article will focus on biomarkers, response prediction and the integration of biomarkers into clinical trials. Presentations mentioned in this summary were given by Matthias Ebert (Technical University of Munich, Germany), Esmeralda Heiden (Epigenomics, Berlin, Germany), Frank Kolligs (University of Munich, Germany), Florian Lordick (University of Heidelberg, Germany), Hans Jorgen Nielsen (University of Copenhagen, Denmark), Anke Reinacher-Schick (University of Bochum, Germany), Christoph Röcken (University of Berlin, Germany), Wolff Schmiegel (University of Bochum, Germany) and Thomas Seufferlein (University of Halle, Germany).

  15. Conference Report: The BPS Annual Conference 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Roncaglia

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article I will review four papers presented at the British Psychological Society Annual Conference held this year in London held over a 3 day period. The Conference included a variety of scientific presentations and discussions through symposia, roundtable discussions, single papers and poster sessions. Although numerous papers took an experimental approach, few applied any type of qualitative methodology. The topics covered within the different psychological disciplines spanned from early childhood through old age; I have chosen four papers that covered a life course perspective and took into consideration clinical issues as well. The first paper discusses a grounded theory approach used to analyse a play therapy session between therapist and child. The second review reports some recent findings in the way the brains of people on the autistic spectrum disorder might function. The third paper discusses positive psychology and how such an emerging movement has influenced new research in the field. The last paper reviewed will discuss the issue of the ageing process, and I will present some arguments related to the useful application of qualitative methodologies within this area of research. In conclusion, I will highlight some personal reflections on the Conference and the need for a greater balance between qualitative and quantitative methodologies to be used in collaboration rather than as antagonists. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0402176

  16. 2nd Bozeman Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Lund, John

    1991-01-01

    This volume contains a collection of papers delivered by the partici­ pants at the second Conference on Computation and Control held at Mon­ tana State University in Bozeman, Montana from August 1-7, 1990. The conference, as well as this proceedings, attests to the vitality and cohesion between the control theorist and the numerical analyst that was adver­ tised by the first Conference on Computation and Control in 1988. The proceedings of that initial conference was published by Birkhiiuser Boston as the first volume of this same series entitled Computation and Control, Proceedings of the Bozeman Conference, Bozeman, Montana, 1988. Control theory and numerical analysis are both, by their very nature, interdisciplinary subjects as evidenced by their interaction with other fields of mathematics and engineering. While it is clear that new control or es­ timation algorithms and new feedback design methodologies will need to be implemented computationally, it is likewise clear that new problems in computation...

  17. Identificación de Genes R1 y R2 que confieren resistencia a Phytophthora infestans en genotipos colombianos de papa Identification of R1 and R2 Genes conferring resistance to Phytophthora infestans in Colombian potato genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Núñez Víctor M.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available En Colombia, actualmente existen genotipos de papa con excelente calidad industrial pero muy susceptibles a P. infestans. La mejor manera de combatir este problema es mediante resistencia genética, puesto que la inversión para controlar esta enfermedad por medios químicos es muy costosa, sin olvidar la contaminación ambiental que producen. El objetivo de este trabajo fue la identificación de genes R1 y R2 en los diferenciales de papa respectivos (Solanum tuberosum ssp. tuberosum mediante evaluación de resistencia a P. infestans y la detección molecular por medio de PCR (alelo R1 y AFLP (alelo R2. Para la detección del alelo R1 fueron empleados los primers GP179, GP21, 76-2SF2/76-2SR, SPUD237 y Sol 2749-2770F / Sol 3246-3267R. Los primers GP179, GP21 y SPUD237 fueron inespecíficos para Rl, ya que se generó un producto de amplificación en los diferenciales 1 y 2, así como también en Solanum phureja. Los primers 76-2SF2/76-2SR, y Sol 2749-2770F / Sol 3246-3267R generaron un producto de amplificación en los diferenciales 1 y 2; por el contrario, el fragmento estuvo ausente en el material susceptible. Para la detección del alelo R2, fueron implementados cinco marca­dores AFLP, de los cuales sólo dos fueron reconocidos visualmente en el diferencial 2. Los resultados mostra­ron una evidente correspondencia fenotípica y genotípica con respecto a la presencia de los genes Rl y R2. La identificación molecular de genes de resistencia a P. infestans permitirá desarrollar programas de mejoramiento genético que beneficien directamente los rendimientos de los cultivos de papa, sobre todo los de mayor interés industrial para nuestro país.Excellent industrial quality potato genotypes are currently available in Colombia; however, they are very sus­ceptible to P. infestans. The best way of fighting this problem is by genetic resistance, given that the expense of controlling this disease through chemicals is high, plus the environmental

  18. 5th ESCOM Conference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner

    2003-01-01

    What happens when a music therapist participates in a conference of the European Society for the Cognitive Sciences of Music? Well, she seems to get a lot of inspiration and sees very interesting and useful research, - and sometimes she is astonished about which kind of research some people are i...... are investigating time and money in. In the following you will find thoughts and impressions from the conference where there were a huge number of presentations with a common theme on cognitive science of music, and here seen from a music therapeutic perspective....

  19. PHYSICS FOR HEALTH: CONFERENCE

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    ICTR-PHE 2016 - International Conference on Translational Research in Radio-Oncology and Physics for Health -, co organized by CERN, aims at developing new strategies to better diagnose and treat cancer, by uniting biology and physics with clinics. Through the various sessions and symposia, the scientific programme offers the delegates the opportunity to discuss, in a friendly atmosphere, the latest progress in physics breakthroughs for health applications. The third edition of this conference took place at CICG (Centre International de Conférence Genève) from 15 to 19 Feb 2016.

  20. 78 FR 27963 - Reliability Technical Conference; Notice of Technical Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-13

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Reliability Technical Conference; Notice of Technical Conference Take notice that the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission will hold a Technical Conference on Tuesday, July 9, 2013... to the webcast. The Capitol Connection provides technical support for webcasts and offers the...

  1. International conference on string theory

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    The Strings conference is an annual event that brings the entire string theory community together. Since the 1980s, it has grown to be the largest and most important conference in the field. The aim is to review recent developments in string theory and to stimulate scientific exchanges among the participants. This is the second Strings conference organised in Beijing, after Strings 2006. Following the tradition, besides scientific talks, the conference will also include some public lectures open to a general audience.

  2. On the Conference Circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyckoson, David A.

    1987-01-01

    Summarizes three conference presentations on the effects of the economic climate on academic libraries in Iowa. These presentations focused on the impact of austerity budgets on collection development, library services and personnel, and possible management approaches to retrenchment in these areas. (CLB)

  3. Metabolic Engineering X Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flach, Evan [American Institute of Chemical Engineers

    2015-05-07

    The International Metabolic Engineering Society (IMES) and the Society for Biological Engineering (SBE), both technological communities of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE), hosted the Metabolic Engineering X Conference (ME-X) on June 15-19, 2014 at the Westin Bayshore in Vancouver, British Columbia. It attracted 395 metabolic engineers from academia, industry and government from around the globe.

  4. CONFERENCE OF YOUNG SCIENTISTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    article editorial

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A conference of young scientists dedicated to the 245th anniversary of the Scientific Center of Children's Health was held on September 12, 2008.Speakers at the conference were young professionals working at SCCH of RAMS, Sechenov Moscow Medical Academy, Institute of Pediatric Hematology, Oncology, and Immunology. During the conference the poster session was held in which young scientists of the Centre took part. Presentations of participants were evaluated by the members of the Academic Council of SCCH, leading specialists of the Center. Gifts to the winners of the conference were provided by "Procter & Gamble".Winners and awardees:I place: Chistyakova V.P. - Clinical intern at SCCH of RAMS;II place: Gudkova E.Yu. - Researcher at the Department of Rheumatology of SCCH of RAMS;III place: Darmanyan A.S. - Researcher at the Department of diagnostics and rehabilitation treatment of SCCH of RAMS.Best poster paper: Plyakin V.A. - Researcher at Surgical Department NTSZD RAMS.Audience Award: Tikhomirova E.A. - Researcher at the Department of functional diagnostics of SCCH of RAMS.

  5. Graphics Conference Calendar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    1. The 13th International Conference in Central Europe on Computer Graphics, Visualization and Computer Vision'2005, University of West Bohemia, Campus-Bory Plzen (very close to Prague, the capital of the Czech Republic)Czech Republic, January 31 - February 4, 2005. http://wscg.zcu.cz, skala@kiv.zcu.cz

  6. International Nuclear Physics Conference

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    We are pleased to announce that the 26th International Nuclear Physics Conference (INPC2016) will take place in Adelaide (Australia) from September 11-16, 2016. The 25th INPC was held in Firenze in 2013 and the 24th INPC in Vancouver, Canada, in 2010. The Conference is organized by the Centre for the Subatomic Structure of Matter at the University of Adelaide, together with the Australian National University and ANSTO. It is also sponsored by the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP) and by a number of organisations, including AUSHEP, BNL, CoEPP, GSI and JLab. INPC 2016 will be held in the heart of Adelaide at the Convention Centre on the banks of the River Torrens. It will consist of 5 days of conference presentations, with plenary sessions in the mornings, up to ten parallel sessions in the afternoons, poster sessions and a public lecture. The Conference will officially start in the evening of Sunday 11th September with Registration and a Reception and will end late on the afternoon of ...

  7. Creating Better Satellite Conferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Tommy

    1998-01-01

    Presents four ways to improve broadcasts of company satellite conferences, including creative site selection (using facilities at educational institutions rather than hotel rooms); creative programming (using graphics and other interruptions to break up lectures or speeches); creative crew selection; and creative downlink site activities (to…

  8. 2002 NASPSA Conference Abstracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Contains abstracts from the 2002 conference of the North American Society for the Psychology of Sport and Physical Activity. The publication is divided into three sections: the preconference workshop, "Effective Teaching Methods in the Classroom;" symposia (motor development, motor learning and control, and sport psychology); and free…

  9. Report on the Conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ralph S.

    1983-01-01

    The themes of the 1982 annual conference of the American Association of University Professors are outlined. They include the importance of planning, selective versus across-the-board retrenchment strategies, definitions and problems of financial exigency, program reduction, and affirmative action claims. (MSE)

  10. Grammar! A Conference Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Lid, Ed.; Boaks, Peter, Ed.

    Papers from a conference on the teaching of grammar, particularly in second language instruction, include: "Grammar: Acquisition and Use" (Richard Johnstone); "Grammar and Communication" (Brian Page); "Linguistic Progression and Increasing Independence" (Bernardette Holmes); "La grammaire? C'est du bricolage!" ("Grammar? That's Hardware!") (Barry…

  11. Indico CONFERENCE: Define the Programme

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva; Ferreira, Pedro

    2017-01-01

    In this tutorial you are going to learn how to define the programme of a conference in Indico. The program of your conference is divided in different “tracks”. Tracks represent the subject matter of the conference, such as “Online Computing”, “Offline Computing”, and so on.

  12. ALA Conference 2009: Chicago Hope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, John N., III

    2009-01-01

    There is joy among those who have the funds to go to Chicago for the American Library Association (ALA) annual conference, July 9-15. Every librarian knows there is nothing better than a Chicago gathering, with the city's wonderful haunts, museums, restaurants, and fine memories of past conferences. The conference program covers nearly every…

  13. US green building conference - 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fanney, A.H.; Whitter, K.M.; Traugott, A.E.; Simon, L.N. [eds.

    1994-12-31

    This report constitutes the proceedings of the Green Building Conference held in Gaithersburg, Maryland, February 16-17, 1994. The conference was co-sponsored by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the US Green Building Council (USGBC). Over 450 individuals attended the conference representing building product manufacturers, building owners and managers, environmental groups, utilities, contractors, builders, architects, engineers, and the local, state, and the federal governments. The conference provided an opportunity to acquire practical, useful information on green buildings, resources, and guidelines. Eighteen papers were presented at the conference. Separate abstracts and indexing were prepared for each paper for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  14. European Conference on Health Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmivaara, Antti

    2010-12-01

    The biennial European Conference on Health Economics was held in Finland this year, at the Finlandia Hall in the centre of Helsinki. The European conferences rotate among European countries and fall between the biennial world congresses organized by the International Health Economics Association (iHEA). A record attendance of approximately 800 delegates from 50 countries around the world were present at the Helsinki conference. The theme of the conference was 'Connecting Health and Economics'. All major topics of health economics were covered in the sessions. For the first time, social care economics was included in the agenda of the European Conference as a session of its own.

  15. Energy Conferences and Symposia; (USA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osborne, J.H.; Simpson, W.F. Jr. (eds.)

    1991-01-01

    Energy Conferences and Symposia, a monthly publication, was instituted to keep scientists, engineers, managers, and related energy professionals abreast of meetings sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE) and by other technical associations. Announcements cover conference, symposia, workshops, congresses, and other formal meetings pertaining to DOE programmatic interests. Complete meeting information, including title, sponsor, and contact, is presented in the main section, which is arranged alphabetically by subject area. Within a subject, citations are sorted by beginning data of the meeting. New listings are indicated by a bullet after the conference number and DOE-sponsored conferences are indicated by a star. Two indexes are provided for cross referencing conference information. The Chronological Index lists conference titles by dates and gives the subject area where complete information they may be found. The Location Index is alphabetically sorted by the city where the conference will be held.

  16. Computational Intelligence : International Joint Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Rosa, Agostinho; Cadenas, José; Dourado, António; Madani, Kurosh; Filipe, Joaquim

    2016-01-01

    The present book includes a set of selected extended papers from the sixth International Joint Conference on Computational Intelligence (IJCCI 2014), held in Rome, Italy, from 22 to 24 October 2014. The conference was composed by three co-located conferences:  The International Conference on Evolutionary Computation Theory and Applications (ECTA), the International Conference on Fuzzy Computation Theory and Applications (FCTA), and the International Conference on Neural Computation Theory and Applications (NCTA). Recent progresses in scientific developments and applications in these three areas are reported in this book. IJCCI received 210 submissions, from 51 countries, in all continents. After a double blind paper review performed by the Program Committee, 15% were accepted as full papers and thus selected for oral presentation. Additional papers were accepted as short papers and posters. A further selection was made after the Conference, based also on the assessment of presentation quality and audience in...

  17. Indico CONFERENCE tutorial

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva; Manzoni, Alex Marc

    2017-01-01

    This short tutorial explains how to create a CONFERENCE in indico and how to handle abstracts and registration forms, in detail: Timestamps: 1:01 - Programme  2:28 - Call for abstracts  11:50 - Abstract submission  13:41 - Abstract Review 15:41 - The Judge's Role 17:23 - Registration forms' creation 23:34 - Candidate participant's registration/application 25:54 - Customisation of Indico pages - Layout 28:08 - Customisation of Indico pages - Menus 29:47 - Configuring Event reminders and import into calendaring tools   See HERE a recent presentation by Pedro about the above steps in the life of an indico CONFERENCE event.

  18. Metabolic Engineering VII Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Korpics

    2012-12-04

    The aims of this Metabolic Engineering conference are to provide a forum for academic and industrial researchers in the field; to bring together the different scientific disciplines that contribute to the design, analysis and optimization of metabolic pathways; and to explore the role of Metabolic Engineering in the areas of health and sustainability. Presentations, both written and oral, panel discussions, and workshops will focus on both applications and techniques used for pathway engineering. Various applications including bioenergy, industrial chemicals and materials, drug targets, health, agriculture, and nutrition will be discussed. Workshops focused on technology development for mathematical and experimental techniques important for metabolic engineering applications will be held for more in depth discussion. This 2008 meeting will celebrate our conference tradition of high quality and relevance to both industrial and academic participants, with topics ranging from the frontiers of fundamental science to the practical aspects of metabolic engineering.

  19. 7th IAASS Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Rongier, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    The 7th IAASS Conference, “Space Safety is No Accident” is an invitation to reflect and exchange information on a number of topics in space safety and sustainability of national and international interest. The conference is also a forum to promote mutual understanding, trust and the widest possible international cooperation in such matters. The once exclusive “club” of nations with autonomous sub-orbital and orbital space access capabilities is becoming crowded with fresh and ambitious new entrants. New commercial spaceports are starting operations and others are being built. In the manned spaceflight arena a commercial market is becoming a tangible reality with suborbital spaceflights and government use of commercial services for cargo and crew transportation to orbit. Besides the national ambitions in space, the international cooperation both civil and commercial is also gaining momentum. In the meantime robotic space exploration will accelerate and with it the need to internationally better regulat...

  20. XIX Edoardo Amaldi Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Abousahl, Said; Plastino, Wolfango

    2016-01-01

    This book, comprising contributions presented at the XIX Edoardo Amaldi Conference, examines important aspects of international cooperation aimed at enhancing nuclear safety, security, safeguards (the “3S”), and non-proliferation, thereby assisting in the development and maintenance of the verification regime and progress toward a nuclear weapon-free world. The Conference served as a forum where eminent scientists, diplomats, and policymakers could compare national perspectives and update international collaborations. The book opens by addressing the political, institutional, and legal dimensions of the 3S and non-proliferation; current challenges are discussed and attempts made to identify possible solutions and future improvements. Subsequent sections consider scientific developments that can contribute to increased effectiveness in the implementation of international regimes, particularly in critical areas, technology foresight, and the ongoing evaluation of current capabilities. The closing sections d...

  1. 2013 APPLEPIES Conference

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a thorough overview of cutting-edge research on electronics applications relevant to industry, the environment, and society at large. A wide spectrum of application domains are covered, from automotive to space and from health to security, and special attention is devoted to the use of embedded devices and sensors for imaging, communication, and control. The book is based on the 2013 APPLEPIES Conference, held in Rome, which brought together researchers and stakeholders to consider the most significant current trends in the field of applied electronics and to debate visions for the future. Areas covered by the conference included information communication technology; biotechnology and biomedical imaging; space; secure, clean, and efficient energy; the environment; and smart, green, and integrated transport. As electronics technology continues to develop apace, constantly meeting previously unthinkable targets, further attention needs to be directed toward the electronics applications and th...

  2. Mississippi Climate & Hydrology Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawford, R.; Huang, J.

    2002-05-01

    The GEWEX Continental International Project (GCIP), which started in 1995 and completed in 2001, held its grand finale conference in New Orleans, LA in May 2002. Participants at this conference along with the scientists funded through the GCIP program are invited to contribute a paper to a special issue of Journal of Geophysical Research (JGR). This special JGR issue (called GCIP3) will serve as the final report on scientific research conducted by GCIP investigators. Papers are solicited on the following topical areas, but are not limited to, (1) water energy budget studies; (2) warm season precipitation; (3) predictability and prediction system; (4) coupled land-atmosphere models; (5) climate and water resources applications. The research areas cover observations, modeling, process studies and water resources applications.

  3. Moldova. Historic regional conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshin, V

    1995-05-01

    The Directorate of Maternal and Child Health and the Family Planning Association of Moldova organized a regional conference, which was held October 18-19, 1994, in Kishinev, Moldova, with the support of the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), the World Health Organization (WHO), and the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF). The conference,"Problems of Family Planning in Eastern Europe," was attended by approximately 400 Moldovan delegates of governmental and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), and by 25 delegates from Romania, Russia, Belarus, the Ukraine, and Georgia. The President of Moldova and the Ministry of Public Health of Moldova gave their approval. The main objectives of the conference were to inform the public about the recommendations of the ICPD, to analyze the status of women's reproductive health and family planning in Eastern Europe, and to find ways of implementing the ICPD Plan of Action. Major problems identified during the conference were: 1) the social and economic problems facing most families; 2) the high rate of morbidity and mortality; 3) the decrease in birth rate; 4) the increase in abortions; 5) the rising incidence of venereal disease; and 6) the absence of an effective family planning system. It was agreed that cooperation between governments and NGOs is essential in designing population programs for each country. The following goals were set: 1) to provide populations with sufficient contraceptives; 2) to actively promote family planning concepts through the mass media; 3) to train specialists and to open family planning offices and centers; 4) to introduce sex education in the curricula of Pedagogical Institutes; and 5) to create national and regional statistical and sociological databases on population issues.

  4. Genome sequencing conference II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    Genome Sequencing Conference 2 was held September 30 to October 30, 1990. 26 speaker abstracts and 33 poster presentations were included in the program report. New and improved methods for DNA sequencing and genetic mapping were presented. Many of the papers were concerned with accuracy and speed of acquisition of data with computers and automation playing an increasing role. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the database.

  5. Conference on Logical Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Remmel, Jeffrey; Shore, Richard; Sweedler, Moss; Progress in Computer Science and Applied Logic

    1993-01-01

    The twenty-six papers in this volume reflect the wide and still expanding range of Anil Nerode's work. A conference on Logical Methods was held in honor of Nerode's sixtieth birthday (4 June 1992) at the Mathematical Sciences Institute, Cornell University, 1-3 June 1992. Some of the conference papers are here, but others are from students, co-workers and other colleagues. The intention of the conference was to look forward, and to see the directions currently being pursued, in the development of work by, or with, Nerode. Here is a brief summary of the contents of this book. We give a retrospective view of Nerode's work. A number of specific areas are readily discerned: recursive equivalence types, recursive algebra and model theory, the theory of Turing degrees and r.e. sets, polynomial-time computability and computer science. Nerode began with automata theory and has also taken a keen interest in the history of mathematics. All these areas are represented. The one area missing is Nerode's applied mathematica...

  6. 2004 Mutagenesis Gordon Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Sue Jinks-Robertson

    2005-09-16

    Mutations are genetic alterations that drive biological evolution and cause many, if not all, human diseases. Mutation originates via two distinct mechanisms: ''vertical'' variation is de novo change of one or few bases, whereas ''horizontal'' variation occurs by genetic recombination, which creates new mosaics of pre-existing sequences. The Mutagenesis Conference has traditionally focused on the generation of mutagenic intermediates during normal DNA synthesis or in response to environmental insults, as well as the diverse repair mechanisms that prevent the fixation of such intermediates as permanent mutations. While the 2004 Conference will continue to focus on the molecular mechanisms of mutagenesis, there will be increased emphasis on the biological consequences of mutations, both in terms of evolutionary processes and in terms of human disease. The meeting will open with two historical accounts of mutation research that recapitulate the intellectual framework of this field and thereby place the current research paradigms into perspective. The two introductory keynote lectures will be followed by sessions on: (1) mutagenic systems, (2) hypermutable sequences, (3) mechanisms of mutation, (4) mutation avoidance systems, (5) mutation in human hereditary and infectious diseases, (6) mutation rates in evolution and genotype-phenotype relationships, (7) ecology, mutagenesis and the modeling of evolution and (8) genetic diversity of the human population and models for human mutagenesis. The Conference will end with a synthesis of the meeting as the keynote closing lecture.

  7. PREFACE: Wake Conference 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barney, Andrew; Nørkær Sørensen, Jens; Ivanell, Stefan

    2015-06-01

    The 44 papers in this volume constitute the proceedings of the 2015 Wake Conference, held in Visby on the island of Gotland in Sweden. It is the fourth time this conference has been held. The Wake Conference series started in Visby, where it was held in 2009 and 2011. In 2013 it took place in Copenhagen where it was combined with the International Conference on Offshore Wind Energy and Ocean Energy. In 2015 it is back where it started in Visby, where it takes place at Uppsala University Campus Gotland, June 9th-11th. The global yearly production of electrical energy by wind turbines has grown tremendously in the past decade and it now comprises more than 3% of the global electrical power consumption. Today the wind power industry has a global annual turnover of more than 50 billion USD and an annual average growth rate of more than 20%. State-of-the-art wind turbines have rotor diameters of up to 150 m and 8 MW installed capacity. These turbines are often placed in large wind farms that have a total production capacity corresponding to that of a nuclear power plant. In order to make a substantial impact on one of the most significant challenges of our time, global warming, the industry's growth has to continue for a decade or two yet. This in turn requires research into the physics of wind turbine wakes and wind farms. Modern wind turbines are today clustered in wind farms in which the turbines are fully or partially influenced by the wake of upstream turbines. As a consequence, the wake behind the wind turbines has a lower mean wind speed and an increased turbulence level, as compared to the undisturbed flow outside the farm. Hence, wake interaction results in decreased total production of power, caused by lower kinetic energy in the wind, and an increase in the turbulence intensity. Therefore, understanding the physical nature of the vortices and their dynamics in the wake of a turbine is important for the optimal design of a wind farm. This conference is aimed

  8. Conference Report: The First ATLAS.ti User Conference

    OpenAIRE

    Evers, Jeanine C.; Silver, Christina

    2014-01-01

    This report on the First ATLAS.ti User Conference shares our impressions and experiences as longstanding ATLAS.ti users and trainers about the First ATLAS.ti User Conference in Berlin 2013. The origins, conceptual principles and development of the program are outlined, the conference themes discussed and experiences shared. Finally, the future of the program is discussed.URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1401197

  9. Computational Intelligence : International Joint Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Dourado, António; Rosa, Agostinho; Filipe, Joaquim; Kacprzyk, Janusz

    2016-01-01

    The present book includes a set of selected extended papers from the fifth International Joint Conference on Computational Intelligence (IJCCI 2013), held in Vilamoura, Algarve, Portugal, from 20 to 22 September 2013. The conference was composed by three co-located conferences:  The International Conference on Evolutionary Computation Theory and Applications (ECTA), the International Conference on Fuzzy Computation Theory and Applications (FCTA), and the International Conference on Neural Computation Theory and Applications (NCTA). Recent progresses in scientific developments and applications in these three areas are reported in this book. IJCCI received 111 submissions, from 30 countries, in all continents. After a double blind paper review performed by the Program Committee, only 24 submissions were accepted as full papers and thus selected for oral presentation, leading to a full paper acceptance ratio of 22%. Additional papers were accepted as short papers and posters. A further selection was made after ...

  10. Joint US/German Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Gulledge, Thomas; Jones, Albert

    1993-01-01

    This proceedings volume contains selected and refereed contributions that were presented at the conference on "Recent Developments and New Perspectives of Operations Research in the Area of Production Planning and Control" in Hagen/Germany, 25. - 26. June 1992. This conference was organized with the cooperation of the FernuniversiHit Hagen and was jointly hosted by the "Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Operations Research (DGOR)" and the "Manufacturing Special Interest Group of the Operations Research Society of America (ORSA-SIGMA)". For the organization of the conference we received generous financial support from the sponsors listed at the end of this volume. We wish to express our appreciation to all supporters for their contributions. This conference was the successor of the JOInt ORSA/DGOR-conference in Gaithersburg/Maryland, USA, on the 30. and 31. July 1991. Both OR-societies committed themselves in 1989 to host joint conferences on special topics of interest from the field of operations research. This goal ...

  11. Applied and Environmental Microbiology Gordon Research Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wall, Judy D.

    2003-11-19

    The main objective of the Gordon Research Conference on Applied and Environmental Microbiology was to present and discuss new, fundamental research findings on microorganisms, their activities in the environment, their ecosystem-level effects, and their environmental or commercial applications. To accomplish this goal, knowledge of microbial diversity, interactions and population dynamics was required. The genomic basis of microbial processes, the cycling of naturally occurring and hazardous substances, and methodologies to assess the functional relationships of microorganisms in their habitats were essential for understanding the ecological consequences of microbial activities and the formulation of generalizing principles. In the last decade, molecular technology has revealed that microbial diversity is far more extensive than the limited view obtained from culturing procedures. Great advances in environmental microbiology have resulted from the development and application of molecular approaches to ecology and molecular evolution. A further surprise resulting from the application of these new tools is the blurring of the distinction between pathogenic traits versus those considered non-pathogenic. This year's conference addressed the issues of biodiversity, its development, and the impact of stress on gene selection and expression. In addition microbial metabolic versatility with toxins such as heavy metals, antibiotics, and organic pollutants were discussed. The nine session topics were (1) biodiversity and the bacterial species, (2) mechanisms of biodiversification, (3) biofilms in health and environment, (4) a genomic view of microbial response to stress, (5) microbial use of toxic metals, (6) microbial mineral formation and dissolution, (7) power and limitations of antimicrobials, (8) biodegradation of organic pollutants, and (9) astrobiology. The Conference had an international profile: the Conference Vice-Chair, Dr. Gerard Muyzer, was from The Nether

  12. 14th International Cryocooler Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Ross, Ronald G

    2007-01-01

    This is the 14th volume in the conference series. Over the years the International Cryocoolers Conference has become the preeminent worldwide conference for the presentation of the latest developments and test experiences with cryocoolers. The typical applications of this technology include cooling space and terrestrial infrared focal plane arrays, space x-ray detectors, medical applications, and a growing number of high-temperature superconductor applications.

  13. 15th International Cryocooler Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Ross, Ronald G

    2009-01-01

    This is the 15th volume in the conference series. Over the years the International Cryocooler Conference has become the preeminent worldwide conference for the presentation of the latest developments and test experiences with cryocoolers. The typical applications of this technology include cooling space and terrestrial infrared focal plane arrays, space x-ray detectors, medical applications, and a growing number of high-temperature superconductor applications.

  14. International conference on string theory

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    The Strings 2017 conference is part of the "Strings" series of annual conferences, that bring the entire string theory community together. It will include reviews of major developments in the field, and specialized talks on specific topics. There will also be several public lectures given by conference participants, a pre-Strings school at the Technion, and a post-Strings workshop at the Weizmann Institute.

  15. 17th International Cryocooler Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Ross, Ronald G

    2012-01-01

    Cryocoolers 17 archives developments and performance measurements in the field of cryocoolers based on the contributions of leading international experts at the 17th International Cryocooler Conference that was held in Los Angeles, California, on July 9-12, 2012. The program of this conference consisted of 94 papers; of these, 71 are published here. Over the years the International Cryocoolers Conference has become the preeminent worldwide conference for the presentation of the latest developments and test experiences with cryocoolers. The typical applications of this technology include cooling space and terrestrial infrared focal plane arrays, space x-ray detectors, medical applications, and a growing number of high-temperature superconductor applications.

  16. 16th International Cryocooler Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Ross, Ronald G

    2011-01-01

    Cryocoolers 16 archives developments and performance measurements in the field of cryocoolers based on the contributions of leading international experts at the 16th International Cryocooler Conference that was held in Atlanta, Georgia, on May 17-20, 2010. The program of this conference consisted of 116 papers; of these, 89 are published here. Over the years the International Cryocoolers Conference has become the preeminent worldwide conference for the presentation of the latest developments and test experiences with cryocoolers. The typical applications of this technology include cooling space and terrestrial infrared focal plane arrays, space x-ray detectors, medical applications, and a growing number of high-temperature superconductor applications.

  17. VIENNA INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCES - FEBRUARY 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VIPCA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available VIPCA, the Vienna International Plant Conference Association, a non-commercial and non-profit organization consisting of academy and industry scientists from across the world, founded to support the international plant and agricultural science community by initiating several major conferences every year in Vienna. The Vienna International Plant Conference Association provides, on an international level, an opportunity for researchers to explore ideas for future innovations and collaborations. The VIPCA is organizing 4 international conferences in 2012. Meetings will be held in Vienna, the capital of Austria. Topics will cover the hottest issues in current plant science. For more details please download the full text file.

  18. 4th International Cryocoolers Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Patton, George; Knox, Margaret

    1987-01-01

    The Cryocoolers 4 proceedings archives the contributions of leading international experts at the 4th International Cryocooler Conference that was held in Easton, Maryland on September 25-26, 1986. About 170 people attended the conference representing 11 countries, 14 universities, 21 government laboratories and 60 industrial companies. Thirty-one papers were presented describing advancements and applications of cryocoolers in the temperature range below 80K. This year's conference was sponsored by the David Taylor Naval Ship Research and Development Center of Annapolis, Maryland, and the conference proceedings reproduced here was published by them.

  19. Dynamical Systems Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Gils, S; Hoveijn, I; Takens, F; Nonlinear Dynamical Systems and Chaos

    1996-01-01

    Symmetries in dynamical systems, "KAM theory and other perturbation theories", "Infinite dimensional systems", "Time series analysis" and "Numerical continuation and bifurcation analysis" were the main topics of the December 1995 Dynamical Systems Conference held in Groningen in honour of Johann Bernoulli. They now form the core of this work which seeks to present the state of the art in various branches of the theory of dynamical systems. A number of articles have a survey character whereas others deal with recent results in current research. It contains interesting material for all members of the dynamical systems community, ranging from geometric and analytic aspects from a mathematical point of view to applications in various sciences.

  20. 2nd UNet conference

    CERN Document Server

    Menasche, Daniel; Sabir, Essaïd; Pellegrini, Francesco; Benjillali, Mustapha

    2017-01-01

    This volume offers the proceedings of the 2nd UNet conference, held in Casablanca May 30 - June 1, 2016. It presents new trends and findings in hot topics related to ubiquitous computing/networking, covered in three tracks and three special sessions: Main Track 1: Context-Awareness and Autonomy Paradigms Track Main Track 2: Mobile Edge Networking and Virtualization Track Main Track 3: Enablers, Challenges and Applications Special Session 1: Smart Cities and Urban Informatics for Sustainable Development Special Session 2: Unmanned Aerial Vehicles From Theory to Applications Special Session 3: From Data to Knowledge: Big Data applications and solutions.

  1. 76 FR 57746 - Conference on the International Conference on Harmonisation Q10 Pharmaceutical Quality System: A...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Conference on the International Conference on Harmonisation... teaching the principles of the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for... Systems and Processes for Pharmaceutical Manufacturing; Public Conference AGENCY: Food and...

  2. CONFERENCE REPORT: Code4Lib 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birong Ho

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Conference reports from the 5th Code4Lib Conference, held in Asheville, NC, from February 22 to 25, 2010. The Code4Lib conference is a collective volunteer effort of the Code4Lib community of library technologists. Included are three brief reports on the conference from the recipients of conference scholarships.

  3. CONFERENCE REPORT: Code4Lib 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Ko

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Conference reports from the 4th Code4Lib conference, held in Providence, RI from February 23 to 26, 2009. The Code4Lib conference is a collective volunteer effort of the informal Code4Lib community of library technologists. Included are four brief reports on the conference from the recipients of conference scholarships.

  4. Comment: studies of the Pro12Ala polymorphism of the PPAR-gamma gene in the Danish MONICA cohort: homozygosity of the Ala allele confers a decreased risk of the insulin resistance syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Laura; Brødbaek, Kasper; Fenger, Mogens

    2002-01-01

    The Pro12Ala polymorphism of PPAR-gamma 2 has been shown to influence insulin sensitivity and the risk of type 2 diabetes in various ethnic populations. We examined whether the polymorphism was related to the insulin resistance syndrome (IRS) among nondiabetic Danish subjects. The Pro12Ala varian...... of body composition (BMI and waist circumference). In conclusion, homozygosity of the codon 12 variant of PPAR-gamma 2 confers a reduced risk of the IRS among Danish Caucasian subjects....

  5. 2012 MICROBIAL STRESS RESPONSE GORDON RESEARCH CONFERENCE, JULY 20-25, 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timothy Donohue

    2012-07-25

    The Gordon Research Conference on MICROBIAL STRESS RESPONSE was held at Mount Holyoke College, South Hadley, Massachusetts, July 15-20, 2012. The Conference was well-attended with 180 participants. The 2012 Microbial Stress Responses Gordon Research Conference will provide a forum for the open reporting of recent discoveries on the diverse mechanisms employed by microbes to respond to stress. Approaches range from analysis at the molecular level (how are signals perceived and transmitted to change gene expression or function) to cellular and microbial community responses. Gordon Research Conferences does not permit publication of meeting proceedings.

  6. The 1993 Gordon Research Conference on Chronobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, William J.

    1993-01-01

    The study of biological timekeeping is now at a particularly fertile stage, encompassing multiple levels of biological organization, recruiting a wide array of disciplines and methodologies and uniting a host of investigators. This report summarizes a research conference on Chronobiology. Some of the topics focused on transcriptional and translational mechanisms of circadian rhythmicity, with discussions of putative 'clock genes' in cyanobacteria, algae, fungi, fruitflies, and hamsters. Cellular analysis, with emphasis on photoreceptors in frogs, neurons in molluscs, and testis in moths was addressed. New methods for investigating the circadian clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus were introduced.

  7. 20. AINSE plasma science and technology conference. Conference handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The 20th AINSE plasma science and technology conference was held at Flinders University of South Australia on 13-14 February 1995. Topics under discussion included plasma physics studies, current status of rotamak devices, plasma processing and material studies. The handbook contains the conference program, 54 abstracts and a list of participants.

  8. Partnering for functional genomics research conference: Abstracts of poster presentations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    This reports contains abstracts of poster presentations presented at the Functional Genomics Research Conference held April 16--17, 1998 in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Attention is focused on the following areas: mouse mutagenesis and genomics; phenotype screening; gene expression analysis; DNA analysis technology development; bioinformatics; comparative analyses of mouse, human, and yeast sequences; and pilot projects to evaluate methodologies.

  9. (Tribology conferences and forums)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yust, C.S.

    1990-11-30

    The principal meeting attended during this trip was the Japan International Tribology Conference Nagoya 1990. The conference encompassed a wide range of topics, including the tribology of ceramics, the tribology in high-performance automobiles, and many aspects of lubrication technology. Associated forums were also held on the tribology of advanced ceramics, on solid lubrication, and on automotive lubricants. Presentations made during the latter forum discussed anticipated trends in engine development and anticipated improvements in lubricants required for the next generation of engines. In addition to meetings, site visits were made to five industrial organizations to discuss ceramic tribology. Nippon Steel Corporation and Toshiba Corporation are both very active in the ceramic area, Nippon Steel from their interest in research on new materials and Toshiba from both an interest in new materials and in support of their work in electronic devices. Two engine manufacturers were also visited, Toyota Motor Corporation, and Nissan Motor Co., Ltd. These companies were somewhat reserved in their discussion of progress in the utilization of ceramics in automobile engines.

  10. Annual conference SAEE 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    Technical and economic challenges of a 1 t CO{sub 2} society was the topic addressed by the 2008 annual conference of the Swiss Association for Energy Economics. One tonne of carbon dioxide per head and year as a long-term energy strategy is the theme of a presentation made by professor Konstantin Boulouchos from the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology ETH in Zurich, Switzerland. Professor Dr. Rainhard Madlener from the Institute for Future Energy Consumer Needs and Behaviour in Aachen, Germany, took a look at the one-ton CO{sub 2} vision as a focus for technical development. Professor Thomas F. Rutherford from the ETH presented an economic analysis of one-ton CO{sub 2} scenarios. Eduard Schumacher, former Chairman of the Board at the IWB utility in Basel, Switzerland, presented examples of how energy policy can be implemented, using the IWB's activities as an example. Hansruedi Kunz, Head of the Energy Department in the Building Department of the Canton of Zurich discussed the chances offered and the problems posed by the implementation of measures that are to lead to the meeting of energy visions for the year 2050. A podium and discussion session completed the conference

  11. History of NAMES Conferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippov, Lev

    2013-03-01

    -Russian International Centre was demonstrated. By the high standards of the reports presented, as well as by its overall organization, the second Seminar met the standards of an international conference. Reviews of state-of-the-art developments in materials science were given by leading scientists from Moscow and from the Lorraine region. The three days of the seminar were structured into four main themes: Functional Materials Coatings, Films and Surface Engineering Nanomaterials and Nanotechnologies The Environment and three Round Table discussions: Defining practical means of carrying out Franco-Russian collaborations in technology transfer and innovation Materials science ARCUS: Lorraine-Russian collaboration in materials science and the environment 32 oral and 25 poster presentations within four sections were given by a total of 110 participants. NAMES 2007, the 3rd Franco-Russian Seminar on New Achievements in Materials and Environmental Sciences, took place in Metz, France on 7-9 November 2007. The conference highlights fundamentals and development of the five main themes connected to the Lorraine-Russia ARCUS project with possible extension to other topics. The five main subjects included in the ARCUS project are: Bulk-surface-interface material sciences Nanomaterials and nanotechnologies Environment and natural resources Plasma physics—ITER project Vibrational dynamics The first, second and third NAMES conferences were financially supported by the following organizations: Ambassade de France à Moscou Communauté Urbaine du Grand Nancy Région Lorraine Conseil Général de Meurthe et Moselle Institut National Polytechnique de Lorraine Université de Metz Université Henry Poincaré CNRS ANVAR Federal Agency on Science and Innovations of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation Moscow Committee on Science and Technologies Moscow Institute of Steel and Alloys (Technological University) The 4th conference is supported by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of

  12. Calendar of Conferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-08-01

    8 - 18 August 1996 International Summer School on Plasma Physics and Technology La Jolla, CA, USA Contact: Mr V Stefan, Institute for Advanced Physics Studies, PO Box 2964, La Jolla, CA 92038, USA. Tel +1-619-456-5737. 26 - 30 August 1996 Joint Varenna - Lausanne International Workshop on Theory of Fusion Plasmas Villa Monastero, Varenna, Italy Contact: Centro di Cultura Villa Monastero, 1 Piazza Venini, 22050 Varenna (Lecco), Italy. Tel +39-341-831261, Fax +39-341-831281. Application and abstract deadline: 15 June 1996. 2 - 5 September 1996 EU - US Workshop on Transport in Fusion Plasmas Villa Monastero, Varenna, Italy Further information: G Gorini, ISPP, 16 Via Celoria, I-20133 Milano, Italy. Tel +39-2-2392637, Fax +39-2-2392205, E-mail ggorini@mi.infn.it. Administrative contact: Centro di Cultura Villa Monastero, 1 Piazza Venini, 22050 Varenna (Lecco), Italy. Tel +39-341-831261, Fax +39-341-831281. Application and abstract deadline: 15 June 1996. 9 - 13 September 1996 International Conference on Plasma Physics Nagoya, Japan Contact: Conference Secretariat, c/o Prof. Hiromu Momota, National Institute for Fusion Science, Nagoya 464-01, Japan. Tel +81-52-789-4260, Fax +81-52-789-1037, E-mail icpp96@nifs.ac.jp. Abstract deadline: 31 March 1996. 16 - 20 September 1996 19th Symposium on Fusion Technology Lisbon, Portugal Contact: Professor Carlos Varandas, Centro de Fusão Nuclear, 1096 Lisboa Codex, Portugal. Fax +351-1-8417819, E-mail cvarandas@cfn.ist.utl.pt. General information will be available via WWW with URL http://www.cfn.ist.utl.pt. 25 - 29 September 1996 Summer University of Plasma Physics Garching, Germany Contact: Ms Ch Stahlberg, Max-Planck-Institut für PlasmaPhysik, Boltzmannstr 2, D-85748 Garching, Germany. Tel +49-89-3299-2232, Fax +49-89-3299-1001. 11 - 15 November 1996 38th Annual Meeting of the Division of Plasma Physics, APS Denver, CO, USA Contact: Dr Richard Hazeltine, University of Texas, Institute for Fusion Studies, RLM 11.314, Austin, TX

  13. SPECIAL REPORT: Creating Conference Video

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noel F. Peden

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Capturing video at a conference is easy. Doing it so the product is useful is another matter. Many subtle problems come into play so that video and audio obtained can be used to create a final product. This article discusses what the author learned in the two years of shooting and editing video for Code4Lib conference.

  14. Building Bridges through Scientific Conferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zierath, Juleen R

    2016-01-01

    Getting together to exchange ideas, forge collaborations, and disseminate knowledge is a long-standing tradition of scientific communities. How conferences are serving the community, what their current challenges are, and what is in store for the future of conferences are the topics covered...

  15. The Writing Conference as Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newkirk, Thomas

    1995-01-01

    Provides an overview of the conversational roles taken on by students and teachers during college-level writing conferences. Uses the performative theory of Erving Goffman to analyze these role patterns. Illuminates the specific performative demands presented by writing conferences on both students and teachers. (HB)

  16. Vague Language in Conference Abstracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutting, Joan

    2012-01-01

    This study examined abstracts for a British Association for Applied Linguistics conference and a Sociolinguistics Symposium, to define the genre of conference abstracts in terms of vague language, specifically universal general nouns (e.g. people) and research general nouns (e.g. results), and to discover if the language used reflected the level…

  17. Solar energy conference, final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-05-24

    The conference attendance, publicity and press coverage, brochure mailing, presentations, displays, exhibitors, management seminar checklist, and seminar evaluation by attendees are presented. Also included are the proposal for funding of the conference, the list of attendees, keynote speeches, agenda, and feedback questionnaire. (MHR)

  18. SLA at 100: Conference Preview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenstein, Lynn

    2009-01-01

    When School Library Association (SLA) convenes its annual conference in Washington, DC, June 14-17, 2009, the association will be celebrating its 100th birthday. This occasion allows for grand gestures--the SLA Salutes! Awards and Leadership Reception will be held in the Library of Congress's Great Hall. The conference also draws upon Washington…

  19. 4th European Turbulence Conference

    CERN Document Server

    1993-01-01

    The European Turbulence Conferences have been organized under the auspices of the European Mechanics Committee (Euromech) to provide a forum for discussion and exchange of recent and new results in the field of turbulence. The first conference was organized in Lyon in 1986 with 152 participants. The second and third conferences were held in Berlin (1988) and Stockholm (1990) with 165 and 172 participants respectively. The fourth was organized in Delft from 30 June to 3 July 1992 by the J.M. Burgers Centre. There were 214 participants from 22 countries. This steadily growing number of participants demonstrates both the success and need for this type of conference. The main topics of the Fourth European Turbulence Conference were: Dynamical Systems and Transition; Statistical Physics and Turbulence; Experiments and Novel Experimental Techniques; Particles and Bubbles in Turbulence; Simulation Methods; Coherent Structures; Turbulence Modelling and Compressibility Effects. In addition a special session was held o...

  20. Eastern Pacific Ocean Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    The promotion of interaction among investigators of all oceanographic disciplines studying the eastern Pacific Ocean was the goal of the 1990 Eastern Pacific Ocean Conference (EPOC), held October 17-19 on the snow-covered slopes of Mt. Hood, Oreg. Thirty oceanographers representing all disciplines attended.Dick Barber, Duke University Marine Lab, Beaufort, N.C., chaired a session on the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean, emphasizing issues related to biological activity. Steve Ramp of the Naval Postgraduate School in Montery, Calif., chaired a session on recent results from northern and central California experiments. On October 19, following an early morning earthquake, a business meeting and discussions regarding a collaboration in future experiments were held.

  1. Conference on Multibody Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Multibody Dynamics : Computational Methods and Applications

    2014-01-01

    By having its origin in analytical and continuum mechanics, as well as in computer science and applied mathematics, multibody dynamics provides a basis for analysis and virtual prototyping of innovative applications in many fields of contemporary engineering. With the utilization of computational models and algorithms that classically belonged to different fields of applied science, multibody dynamics delivers reliable simulation platforms for diverse highly-developed industrial products such as vehicle and railway systems, aeronautical and space vehicles, robotic manipulators, smart structures, biomechanical applications and nano-technologies. The chapters of this volume are based on the revised and extended versions of the selected scientific papers from amongst 255 original contributions that have been accepted to be presented within the program of the distinguished international ECCOMAS conference. It reflects state-of-the-art in the advances of multibody dynamics, providing excellent insight in the recen...

  2. ICPAQGP 2001: Conference summary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Reinhard Stock

    2003-05-01

    I review recent progress in ultrarelativistic nucleus–nucleus collisions, and the connection of this field to modern QCD theory of deconfinement and/or chiral symmetry restoration. The talks at this Conference have shown a convergence of data and theory as far as the CERN SPS investigations at $\\sqrt{s}=17$ GeV are concerned; the parton–hadron phase boundary seems now located at = 170 ± 10 MeV. New data from RHIC and direct photon production results from CERN have been shown that point out the field’s future direction: analysis of partonic matter at > 200 MeV. Astrophysics analysis was shown to be linked crucially to further theoretical progress with non-perturbative QCD.

  3. COMPDYN 2011 Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Fragiadakis, Michalis; Plevris, Vagelis; Computational Methods in Earthquake Engineering v.2

    2013-01-01

    This book provides an insight on advanced methods and concepts for the design and analysis of structures against earthquake loading. This second volume is a collection of 28 chapters written by leading experts in the field of structural analysis and earthquake engineering. Emphasis is given on current state-of-the-art methods and concepts in computing methods and their application in engineering practice. The book content is suitable for both practicing engineers and academics, covering a wide variety of topics in an effort to assist the timely dissemination of research findings for the mitigation of seismic risk. Due to the devastating socioeconomic consequences of seismic events, the topic is of great scientific interest and is expected to be of valuable help to scientists and engineers. The chapters of this volume are extended versions of selected papers presented at the COMPDYN 2011 conference, held in the island of Corfu, Greece, under the auspices of the European Community on Computational Methods in Ap...

  4. International Conference UMC 2013

    CERN Document Server

    Hübner, Wolfgang; Rasing, Theo; Chantrell, Roy

    2015-01-01

    This volume on Ultrafast Magnetism is a collection of articles presented at the international “Ultrafast Magnetization Conference” held at the Congress Center in Strasbourg, France, from October 28th to November 1st, 2013. This first conference, which is intended to be held every two years, received a wonderful attendance and gathered scientists from 27 countries in the field of Femtomagnetism, encompassing many theoretical and experimental research subjects related to the spins dynamics in bulk or nanostructured materials. The participants appreciated this unique opportunity for discussing new ideas and debating on various physical interpretations of the reported phenomena. The format of a single session with many oral contributions as well as extensive time for poster presentations allowed researchers to have a detailed overview of the field. Importantly, one could sense that, in addition to studying fundamental magnetic phenomena, ultrafast magnetism has entered in a phase where applied physics and eng...

  5. The Haltenbanken Conference; Haltenbankenkonferansen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    The publication includes a collection of papers from a conference on the development of Haltenbanken on the Norwegian continental shelf. Topics are as follow: Future perspectives for the Norwegian oil and gas activity; Haltenbanken - Saga`s new basic area; The Tyrihans field; The Njord field, from development to operation in 1997. The Ormen Lange field, feasibility of new technical solutions on great depths of water; The Norne field, experience from the commissioning of a production vessel; construction of hulls in Norway, self-reliance for the Norwegian industry; Experience of contractual concepts of maintenance and modification in Statoil; the Heidrun field, experience from the first working year and further challenges; Tjeldbergodden, small-scale utilization of gas; development of Tjeldbergodden as an industrial location. None of the papers are prepared. 38 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. International Logistics Science Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Hompel, Michael; Meier, J

    2014-01-01

    The importance of logistics in all its variations is still increasing. New technologies emerge, new planning methods and algorithms are developed, only to face a market with a growing complexity and the need of weighting monetary costs against ecological impact. Mastering these challenges requires a scientific viewpoint on logistics, but always with applications in mind. This volume presents up-to-date logistics research in all its diversity and interconnectedness. It grew out of the “International Logistics Science Conference” (ILSC) held in Dortmund in September 2013, bringing together leading scientists and young academics from nine different countries. The conference was jointly organized by the “Efficiency Cluster Logistics” and the “Fraunhofer Institute for Material Flow and Logistics”. The Program Committee used a double blind review process to choose the 12 strongest contributions, which were then grouped in four areas: - Sustainability logistics, including electric mobility, smart inform...

  7. Istanbul Bridge Conference 2014

    CERN Document Server

    Gülkan, Polat; Mahmoud, Khaled

    2016-01-01

      The book includes peer-reviewed contributions selected from presentations given at the Istanbul Bridge Conference 2014, held from August 11 – 13 in Istanbul, Turkey. It reports on the current challenges in bridge engineering faced by professionals around the globe, giving a special emphasis to recently developed techniques, innovations and opportunities. The book covers key topics in the field, including modeling and analysis methods; construction and erection techniques; design for extreme events and condition assessment and structural health monitoring. There is a balanced presentation of theory, research and practice. This book, which provides the readers with a comprehensive and timely reference guide on current practices in bridge engineering, is intended for professionals, academic researchers and students alike.

  8. The Geometry Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Bárány, Imre; Vilcu, Costin

    2016-01-01

    This volume presents easy-to-understand yet surprising properties obtained using topological, geometric and graph theoretic tools in the areas covered by the Geometry Conference that took place in Mulhouse, France from September 7–11, 2014 in honour of Tudor Zamfirescu on the occasion of his 70th anniversary. The contributions address subjects in convexity and discrete geometry, in distance geometry or with geometrical flavor in combinatorics, graph theory or non-linear analysis. Written by top experts, these papers highlight the close connections between these fields, as well as ties to other domains of geometry and their reciprocal influence. They offer an overview on recent developments in geometry and its border with discrete mathematics, and provide answers to several open questions. The volume addresses a large audience in mathematics, including researchers and graduate students interested in geometry and geometrical problems.

  9. Nostradamus conference 2013

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Guanrong; Rössler, Otto; Snasel, Vaclav; Abraham, Ajith; Nostradamus 2013: Prediction, Modeling and Analysis of Complex Systems

    2013-01-01

    Prediction of behavior of the dynamical systems, analysis and modeling of its structure is vitally important problem in engineering, economy and science today. Examples of such systems can be seen in the world around us and of course in almost every scientific discipline including such “exotic” domains like the earth’s atmosphere, turbulent fluids, economies (exchange rate and stock markets), population growth, physics (control of plasma), information flow in social networks and its dynamics, chemistry and complex networks. To understand such dynamics and to use it in research or industrial applications, it is important to create its models. For this purpose there is rich spectra of methods, from classical like ARMA models or Box Jenkins method to such modern ones like evolutionary computation, neural networks, fuzzy logic, fractal geometry, deterministic chaos and more. This proceeding book is a collection of the accepted papers to conference Nostradamus that has been held in Ostrava, Czech Republic. P...

  10. A sugar beet chlorophyll a/b binding protein promoter void of G-box like elements confers strong and leaf specific reporter gene expression in transgenic sugar beet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kloos Dorothee U

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Modification of leaf traits in sugar beet requires a strong leaf specific promoter. With such a promoter, expression in taproots can be avoided which may otherwise take away available energy resources for sugar accumulation. Results Suppression Subtractive Hybridization (SSH was utilized to generate an enriched and equalized cDNA library for leaf expressed genes from sugar beet. Fourteen cDNA fragments corresponding to thirteen different genes were isolated. Northern blot analysis indicates the desired tissue specificity of these genes. The promoters for two chlorophyll a/b binding protein genes (Bvcab11 and Bvcab12 were isolated, linked to reporter genes, and transformed into sugar beet using promoter reporter gene fusions. Transient and transgenic analysis indicate that both promoters direct leaf specific gene expression. A bioinformatic analysis revealed that the Bvcab11 promoter is void of G-box like regulatory elements with a palindromic ACGT core sequence. The data indicate that the presence of a G-box element is not a prerequisite for leaf specific and light induced gene expression in sugar beet. Conclusions This work shows that SSH can be successfully employed for the identification and subsequent isolation of tissue specific sugar beet promoters. These promoters are shown to drive strong leaf specific gene expression in transgenic sugar beet. The application of these promoters for expressing resistance improving genes against foliar diseases is discussed.

  11. Interspecies transfer of the penicillin-binding protein 3-encoding gene ftsI between Haemophilus influenzae and Haemophilus haemolyticus can confer reduced susceptibility to β-lactam antimicrobial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Søndergaard, Annette; Witherden, Elizabeth A; Nørskov-Lauritsen, Niels; Tristram, Stephen G

    2015-07-01

    Mutations in ftsI, encoding penicillin-binding protein 3, can cause decreased β-lactam susceptibility in Haemophilus influenzae. Sequencing of ftsI from clinical strains has indicated interspecies recombination of ftsI between H. influenzae and Haemophilus haemolyticus. This study documented apparently unrestricted homologous recombination of ftsI between H. influenzae and H. haemolyticus in vitro. Transfer of ftsI from resistant isolates conferred similar but not identical increases in the MICs of susceptible strains of H. influenzae and H. haemolyticus.

  12. 2003 Plant Cell Walls Gordon Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel J. Cosgrove

    2004-09-21

    This conference will address recent progress in many aspects of cell wall biology. Molecular, genetic, and genomic approaches are yielding major advances in our understanding of the composition, synthesis, and architecture of plant cell walls and their dynamics during growth, and are identifying the genes that encode the machinery needed to make their biogenesis possible. This meeting will bring together international scientists from academia, industry and government labs to share the latest breakthroughs and perspectives on polysaccharide biosynthesis, wood formation, wall modification, expansion and interaction with other organisms, and genomic & evolutionary analyses of wall-related genes, as well as to discuss recent ''nanotechnological'' advances that take wall analysis to the level of a single cell.

  13. 11th International Conference of Radiation Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-18

    Topics discussed in the conference included the following: Radiation Physics, Radiation Chemistry and modelling--Radiation physics and dosimetry; Electron transfer in biological media; Radiation chemistry; Biophysical and biochemical modelling; Mechanisms of DNA damage; Assays of DNA damage; Energy deposition in micro volumes; Photo-effects; Special techniques and technologies; Oxidative damage. Molecular and cellular effects-- Photobiology; Cell cycle effects; DNA damage: Strand breaks; DNA damage: Bases; DNA damage Non-targeted; DNA damage: other; Chromosome aberrations: clonal; Chromosomal aberrations: non-clonal; Interactions: Heat/Radiation/Drugs; Biochemical effects; Protein expression; Gene induction; Co-operative effects; ``Bystander'' effects; Oxidative stress effects; Recovery from radiation damage. DNA damage and repair -- DNA repair genes; DNA repair deficient diseases; DNA repair enzymology; Epigenetic effects on repair; and Ataxia and ATM.

  14. Conference Report: 5th Annual Georgia Conference on Information Literacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Ziegler

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The 5th annual Georgia Conference on Information Literacy took place in Savannah, Georgia on October 3-4, 2008. Since its inception, this conference has drawn participants from across the United States and even a few from abroad. Jointly sponsored by the Zach S. Henderson Library, the Department of Writing and Linguistics, the College of Education, and the Center for Continuing Education at Georgia Southern University, the conference offers both theoretical and practical discussions of the complex issues involved in teaching students how to find, interpret and use information in emerging electronic technologies against the backdrop of one of America’s loveliest cities.

  15. The 9. European nuclear conference; La 9. conference nucleaire europeenne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurel, V.; Lewis, D.; Smirnov, V.P.; Gutierrez, J.E.; Paulin, Ph.; Markov, D.V.; Smirnov, A.V.; Polenok, V.S.; Horhoianu, G.; Olteanu, G.; Van der Schaaf, B.; Gavillet, D.; Lapena, J.; Ohms, C.; Roth, A.; Van Dyck, St.; Mardon, J.P.; Thomas, A.; Cipiere, M.F.; Faidy, C.; Hedin, F.; Delnondedieu, M.; Chassignole, B.; Doudet, L.; Dupond, O.; Kang, K.; Park, K.; Kim, K.; Ha, J.; Hoon-Seok, Jung; Yong-koo, Lee; Kwang-Ho, Kim; Seungwoo, Paek; Heui-Joo, Choi; Do-Hee, Ahn; Kwang-Rag, Kim; Minsoo, Lee; Sung-Paal, Yim; Hongsuk, Chung; Detroux, P.; Meessen, O.; Defloor, J.; Lars-Erik, Holm; Barescut, J.C.; Vacquier, B.; Laurier, D.; Caer, S.; Quesne, B.; Oudalova, A.; Geras' kin, St.; Dikarev, V.; Dikareva, N.; Chernonog, E.; Yang-Geun, Chung; Gab-Bock, Lee; Sun-Young, Bang; Yong-Sun, Lee; Bolognese-Milsztajn, T.; Frank, D.; Lacoste, V.; Pihet, P.; Lacronique, J.F.; Chauliac, C.; Verwaerde, D.; Pavageau, O.; Zaetta, A.; Varaine, F.; Warin, D.; Hudelot, J.P.; Bioux, Ph.; Klann, R.; Petruzzi, A.; D' auria, F.; Yung Kwon, Jin; Chul Jin, Chol; Mihalache, M.; Radu, V.; Pavelescu, M.; Schneidesch, Ch.R.; Jinzhao, Zhang; Dalleur, J.P.; Nuttin, A.; Meplan, O.; Wilson, J.; Perdu, F.; Campioni, G.; Mounier, C.; Sigrist, J.F.; Laine, Ch.; Broc, D.; Robbe, M.F.; Cariou, Y.; Seok-Kyun, Yoon; Win, Naing; Myung-Hyun, Kim; Kyung, Hee; Fridman, E.; Shwageraus, E.; Galperin, A.; Meplan, O.; Laulan, O.; Mechel-Sendis, F.; Belgaid, M.; Kadem, F.; Amokrane, A.; Hamidouche, T.; El-Khider, Si-Ahmed

    2005-11-15

    This issue gathers the abstracts of the papers presented at the ninth European nuclear conference (ENC-2005). The main part of the conference is split into 20 sessions. These sessions cover all technical aspects of nuclear power, from reactor design to waste management, without forgetting experimental and research reactors, reactor dismantling, economy, resources, safety, radioprotection and education issues. Perspectives of a nuclear renaissance are clearly visible in the world. This renaissance, mainly due to political, economical, societal and ecological factors, is fuelled by scientific and technical progress. This conference was the opportunity to present together these aspects of nuclear power and to analyze their mutual interactions.

  16. CONFERENCE REPORT ANTIRETROVIRAL RESISTANCE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    selection of NNRTI-resistant virus should therefore come as no surprise. The consequences of suboptimal nevirapine use are probably not unique to .... Africa) frequently has a natural polymorphism at codon 93 in the protease gene known as ...

  17. PREFACE: Quark Matter 2006 Conference Quark Matter 2006 Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yu-Gang; Wang, En-Ke; Cai, Xu; Huang, Huan-Zhong; Wang, Xin-Nian; Zhu, Zhi-Yuan

    2007-07-01

    The Quark Matter 2006 conference was held on 14-20 November 2006 at the Shanghai Science Hall of the Shanghai Association of Sciences and Technology in Shanghai, China. It was the 19th International Conference on Ultra-Relativistic Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions. The conference was organized jointly by SINAP (Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS)) and CCNU (Central China Normal University, Wuhan). Over 600 scientists from 32 countries in five continents attended the conference. This is the first time that China has hosted such a premier conference in the field of relativistic heavy-ion collisions, an important event for the Chinese high energy nuclear physics community. About one half of the conference participants are junior scientists—a clear indication of the vigor and momentum for this field, in search of the fundamental nature of the nuclear matter at extreme conditions. Professor T D Lee, honorary chair of the conference and one of the founders of the quark matter research, delivered an opening address with his profound and philosophical remarks on the recent discovery of the nature of strongly-interacting quark-gluon-plasma (sQGP). Professor Hongjie Xu, director of SINAP, gave a welcome address to all participants on behalf of the two hosting institutions. Dr Peiwen Ji, deputy director of the Mathematics and Physics Division of the Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC), also addressed the conference participants and congratulated them on the opening of the conference. Professor Mianheng Jiang, vice president of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), gave a concise introduction about the CAS as the premier research institution in China. He highlighted continued efforts at CAS to foster international collaborations between China and other nations. The Quark Matter 2006 conference is an example of such a successful collaboration between high energy nuclear physicists in China and other nations all over the world. The

  18. 33rd Actinide Separations Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, L M; Wilk, P A

    2009-05-04

    Welcome to the 33rd Actinide Separations Conference hosted this year by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. This annual conference is centered on the idea of networking and communication with scientists from throughout the United States, Britain, France and Japan who have expertise in nuclear material processing. This conference forum provides an excellent opportunity for bringing together experts in the fields of chemistry, nuclear and chemical engineering, and actinide processing to present and discuss experiences, research results, testing and application of actinide separation processes. The exchange of information that will take place between you, and other subject matter experts from around the nation and across the international boundaries, is a critical tool to assist in solving both national and international problems associated with the processing of nuclear materials used for both defense and energy purposes, as well as for the safe disposition of excess nuclear material. Granlibakken is a dedicated conference facility and training campus that is set up to provide the venue that supports communication between scientists and engineers attending the 33rd Actinide Separations Conference. We believe that you will find that Granlibakken and the Lake Tahoe views provide an atmosphere that is stimulating for fruitful discussions between participants from both government and private industry. We thank the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and the United States Department of Energy for their support of this conference. We especially thank you, the participants and subject matter experts, for your involvement in the 33rd Actinide Separations Conference.

  19. PREFACE: The Irago Conference 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, Adarsh; Okada, Hiroshi

    2013-04-01

    The Irago Conference 2012 - 360 degree outlook on critical scientific and technological challenges for a sustainable society Organized by the Electronics-Inspired Interdisciplinary Research Institute (EIIRIS) at Toyohashi University of Technology, the Irago Conference, held recently (15-16 November) in Aichi, Japan, aimed to enhance mutual understanding between scientists, engineers and policymakers. Over 180 participants tackled topics ranging from energy and natural resources to public health and disaster prevention. The 360-degree outlook of the conference impressed speakers and guests. ''This conference has been extremely informative,'' noted Robert Gellar from the University of Tokyo. ''A unique conference with experts from a range of backgrounds,'' agreed Uracha Ruktanonchai from the National Nanotechnology Center (NANOTEC) in Thailand. Similarly, G P Li, professor of electrical engineering and computer science at the University of California Irvine commented that he had been ''able to think the unthinkable'' as a range of topics came together. The conference was streamed live on Ustream to ensure that researchers from across the world could benefit from thought-provoking presentations examining global issues such as energy, disaster mitigation and nanotechnology. ''This was wonderful,'' said Oussama Khatib from Stanford University, ''A good recipe of speakers from such a range of backgrounds.'' Manuscripts submitted to the organizers were peer-reviewed, and the papers in this proceedings were accepted for Journal of Physics: Conference Series. In addition to the formal speaker programme, graduate-student sessions provided a platform for graduate students to describe their latest findings as oral presentations. A series of excursions to relevant locations, such as the Tahara megasolar region under construction and a local car-manufacturing factory, gave participants the opportunity to further consider practical applications of their research in industry

  20. AINSE conference on radiation biology and chemistry. Conference handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    The conference handbook contains 60 oral and poster presentations dealing with recent advances in radiation chemistry applied to biological studies, radiopharmaceuticals, radiosensitizers as well as to solid state chemical physics.

  1. 6th International Cryocoolers Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Knox, Margaret

    1991-01-01

    Cryocoolers 6 archives developments and performance measurements in the field of cryocoolers based on the contributions of leading international experts at the 6th International Cryocooler Conference that was held in Plymouth, Massachusetts, on October 25-26, 1990. This year's conference consisted of 54 papers and was sponsored by the David Taylor Naval Ship Research and Development Center of Annapolis, Maryland. The conference proceedings containing 49 submitted manuscripts was published by the David Taylor Naval Ship Research and Development Center in the report reproduced here.

  2. 7th International Cryocooler Conference

    CERN Document Server

    1993-01-01

    Cryocoolers 7 archives developments and performance measurements in the field of cryocoolers based on the contributions of leading international experts at the 7th International Cryocooler Conference which was held in Santa Fe, New Mexico, on November 17-19, 1992. This year's conference consisted of over 100 papers and was hosted by the Nichols Research Corp. and the Air Force Phillips Laboratory of Albuquerque, New Mexico. The conference proceedings were published by the Air Force Phillips Laboratory in the four-volume set reproduced here.

  3. International Conference on Cosmic Rays

    CERN Multimedia

    W.O. LOCK

    1964-01-01

    Towards the end of last year the 8th International conference on cosmic rays, held under the auspices of the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (I.U.P.A.P.) and the Department of Atomic Energy of the Government of India, was held at Jaipur, India. Among the participants was W.O. Lock, head of CERN's Emulsion Group, who gave an invited talk on recent work in the field of what is normally known as high-energy physics — though in the context of this conference such energies seem quite low. In this article, Dr. Lock gives a general review of the conference and of the subjects discussed.

  4. Conference on High Energy Physics

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    Conference on High Energy Physics (HEP 2016) will be held from August 24 to 26, 2016 in Xi'an, China. This Conference will cover issues on High Energy Physics. It dedicates to creating a stage for exchanging the latest research results and sharing the advanced research methods. HEP 2016 will be an important platform for inspiring international and interdisciplinary exchange at the forefront of High Energy Physics. The Conference will bring together researchers, engineers, technicians and academicians from all over the world, and we cordially invite you to take this opportunity to join us for academic exchange and visit the ancient city of Xi’an.

  5. International Conference on Algebraic Topology

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen, Ralph; Miller, Haynes; Ravenel, Douglas

    1989-01-01

    These are proceedings of an International Conference on Algebraic Topology, held 28 July through 1 August, 1986, at Arcata, California. The conference served in part to mark the 25th anniversary of the journal Topology and 60th birthday of Edgar H. Brown. It preceded ICM 86 in Berkeley, and was conceived as a successor to the Aarhus conferences of 1978 and 1982. Some thirty papers are included in this volume, mostly at a research level. Subjects include cyclic homology, H-spaces, transformation groups, real and rational homotopy theory, acyclic manifolds, the homotopy theory of classifying spaces, instantons and loop spaces, and complex bordism.

  6. DOE Workshop at Tapia Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Valerie [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2015-02-19

    The DE-SC0013568 DOE Grant, in the amount of $11,822.79, was used to support five doctoral students from underrepresented groups to attend the 2015 Richard Tapia Celebration of Diversity in Computing Conference, held February 18-21 in Boston, MA. Each scholarship was approximately $1200 to cover conference registration, travel, and lodging for the duration of the conference. The remaining $5,822.79 was used to support a DOE Breakfast Workshop during breakfast on Thursday, February 19. The Breakfast supported approximately 140 graduate students from underrepresented groups to learn about the different career opportunities at the different DOE National Laboratories.

  7. AINSE`s 40th anniversary conference. Conference handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    Highlights of 40 years of activity of the Australian Institute of Nuclear Science and Engineering (AINSE) were the main focus of this conference. Topics covered include nuclear physics, plasma physics, radiation chemistry, radiation biology, neutron diffraction, nuclear techniques of analysis and other relevant aspects of nuclear science and technology. The conference handbook contains the summaries of the 78 papers and posters presented and the list of participants

  8. Genome-wide analysis of autophagy-associated genes in foxtail millet (Setaria italica L.) and characterization of the function of SiATG8a in conferring tolerance to nitrogen starvation in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weiwei; Chen, Ming; Wang, Erhui; Hu, Liqin; Hawkesford, Malcolm J; Zhong, Li; Chen, Zhu; Xu, Zhaoshi; Li, Liancheng; Zhou, Yongbin; Guo, Changhong; Ma, Youzhi

    2016-10-12

    Autophagy is a cellular degradation process that is highly evolutionarily-conserved in yeast, plants, and animals. In plants, autophagy plays important roles in regulating intracellular degradation and recycling of amino acids in response to nutrient starvation, senescence, and other environmental stresses. Foxtail millet (Setaria italica) has strong resistance to stresses and has been proposed as an ideal material for use in the study of the physiological mechanisms of abiotic stress tolerance in plants. Although the genome sequence of foxtail millet (Setaria italica) is available, the characteristics and functions of abiotic stress-related genes remain largely unknown for this species. A total of 37 putative ATG (autophagy-associated genes) genes in the foxtail millet genome were identified. Gene duplication analysis revealed that both segmental and tandem duplication events have played significant roles in the expansion of the ATG gene family in foxtail millet. Comparative synteny mapping between the genomes of foxtail millet and rice suggested that the ATG genes in both species have common ancestors, as their ATG genes were primarily located in similar syntenic regions. Gene expression analysis revealed the induced expression of 31 SiATG genes by one or more phytohormone treatments, 26 SiATG genes by drought, salt and cold, 24 SiATG genes by darkness and 25 SiATG genes by nitrogen starvation. Results of qRT-PCR showing that among 37 SiATG genes, the expression level of SiATG8a was the highest after nitrogen starvation treatment 24 h, suggesting its potential role in tolerance to nutrient starvation. Moreover, the heterologous expression of SiATG8a in rice improved nitrogen starvation tolerance. Compared to wild type rice, the transgenic rice performed better and had higher aboveground total nitrogen content when the plants were grown under nitrogen starvation conditions. Our results deepen understanding about the characteristics and functions of ATG genes in

  9. PREFACE: Quark Matter 2006 Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yu-Gang; Wang, En-Ke; Cai, Xu; Huang, Huan-Zhong; Wang, Xin-Nian; Zhu, Zhi-Yuan

    2007-07-01

    The Quark Matter 2006 conference was held on 14 20 November 2006 at the Shanghai Science Hall of the Shanghai Association of Sciences and Technology in Shanghai, China. It was the 19th International Conference on Ultra-Relativistic Nucleus Nucleus Collisions. The conference was organized jointly by SINAP (Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS)) and CCNU (Central China Normal University, Wuhan). Over 600 scientists from 32 countries in five continents attended the conference. This is the first time that China has hosted such a premier conference in the field of relativistic heavy-ion collisions, an important event for the Chinese high energy nuclear physics community. About one half of the conference participants are junior scientists—a clear indication of the vigor and momentum for this field, in search of the fundamental nature of the nuclear matter at extreme conditions. Professor T D Lee, honorary chair of the conference and one of the founders of the quark matter research, delivered an opening address with his profound and philosophical remarks on the recent discovery of the nature of strongly-interacting quark-gluon-plasma (sQGP). Professor Hongjie Xu, director of SINAP, gave a welcome address to all participants on behalf of the two hosting institutions. Dr Peiwen Ji, deputy director of the Mathematics and Physics Division of the Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC), also addressed the conference participants and congratulated them on the opening of the conference. Professor Mianheng Jiang, vice president of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), gave a concise introduction about the CAS as the premier research institution in China. He highlighted continued efforts at CAS to foster international collaborations between China and other nations. The Quark Matter 2006 conference is an example of such a successful collaboration between high energy nuclear physicists in China and other nations all over the world. The

  10. 18th International Cryocooler Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Ross, Ronald G

    2014-01-01

    Cryocoolers 18 Cryocoolers 18 archives developments and performance measurements in the field of cryocoolers based on the contributions of leading international experts at the 18th International Cryocooler Conference that was held in Syracuse, New York, on June 9-12, 2014. The program of this conference lead to the 76 peer-reviewed papers that are published here. Over the years the International Cryocoolers Conference has become the preeminent worldwide conference for the presentation of the latest developments and test experiences with cryocoolers. The typical applications of this technology include cooling space and terrestrial infrared focal plane arrays, space x-ray detectors, medical applications, and a growing number of high-temperature superconductor applications.

  11. Waterfowl disease conference report : 1980

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A Waterfowl Disease Conference was held in Denver the fall of 1980 to develop a better program for dealing with waterfowl disease problems. Most of the report dealt...

  12. Climate Leadership Awards and Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    The seventh annual Climate Leadership Awards Dinner will be held during the 2018 Climate Leadership Conference; the event publicly recognize individuals and organizations for their outstanding leadership in reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

  13. International Conference on Robot Ethics

    CERN Document Server

    Sequeira, Joao; Tokhi, Mohammad; Kadar, Endre; Virk, Gurvinder

    2017-01-01

    This book contains the Proceedings of the International Conference on Robot Ethics, held in Lisbon on October 23 and 24, 2015. The conference provided a multidisciplinary forum for discussing central and evolving issues concerning safety and ethics that have arisen in various contexts where robotic technologies are being applied. The papers are intended to promote the formulation of more precise safety standards and ethical frameworks for the rapidly changing field of robotic applications. The conference was held at Pavilhão do Conhecimento/Ciência Viva in Lisbon and brought together leading researchers and industry representatives, promoting a dialogue that combines different perspectives and experiences to arrive at viable solutions for ethical problems in the context of robotics. The conference topics included but were not limited to emerging ethical, safety, legal and societal problems in the following domains: • Service/Social Robots: Robots performing tasks in human environments and involving close ...

  14. European Metals Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Vereecken, Jean

    1991-01-01

    This volume contains the papers that will be presented at 'EMC '91 '-the European Metals Conference-to be held in Brussels, Belgium, from 15 to 20 September 1991, and organized by Benelux Metallurgie, GDMB (Gesellschaft Deutscher Metallhutten­ und Bergleute) and IMM (the Institution of Mining and Metallurgy). 'EMC '91' is the first of an intended major series organized at the European level with the aim of bringing together all those who are involved with the extraction and processing of non-ferrous metals-European metallurgists and their international colleagues-to provide them with the opportunity to exchange views on the state and evolution of their industry. The programme covers all the different aspects of the metallurgy of non-ferrous metals from mining to fabricated products. Particular attention is being paid to the European non -ferrous industry with respect to changes in demand, the technology used, pressures on the environment and the competitive position of manufacturers. The contributions of the...

  15. 4th Machining Innovations Conference

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This contributed volume contains the research results presented at the 4th Machining Innovations Conference, Hannover, September 2013. The topic of the conference are new production technologies in aerospace industry and the focus is on energy efficient machine tools as well as sustainable process planning. The target audience primarily comprises researchers and experts in the field but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.

  16. A National Airport Conference Held

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>A national working conference on civil airport was held at Ramada Pudong Airport Hotel on August 10. At the two-day conference, CAAC Minister Yang Yuanyuan and Shanghai Vice-Mayor Yang Xiong delivered speeches. Yang Guoqing, vice minister of CAAC, gave a working report on upgrading China’s civil airports.Yang Yuanyuan required all the airports to adhere to the

  17. Topics in Number Theory Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Andrews, George; Ono, Ken

    1999-01-01

    From July 31 through August 3,1997, the Pennsylvania State University hosted the Topics in Number Theory Conference. The conference was organized by Ken Ono and myself. By writing the preface, I am afforded the opportunity to express my gratitude to Ken for beng the inspiring and driving force behind the whole conference. Without his energy, enthusiasm and skill the entire event would never have occurred. We are extremely grateful to the sponsors of the conference: The National Sci­ ence Foundation, The Penn State Conference Center and the Penn State Depart­ ment of Mathematics. The object in this conference was to provide a variety of presentations giving a current picture of recent, significant work in number theory. There were eight plenary lectures: H. Darmon (McGill University), "Non-vanishing of L-functions and their derivatives modulo p. " A. Granville (University of Georgia), "Mean values of multiplicative functions. " C. Pomerance (University of Georgia), "Recent results in primality testing. " C. ...

  18. PREFACE: XXI Fluid Mechanics Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szmyd, Janusz S.; Fornalik-Wajs, Elzbieta; Jaszczur, Marek

    2014-08-01

    This Conference Volume contains the papers presented at the 21st Fluid Mechanics Conference (XXI FMC) held at AGH - University of Science and Technology in Krakow, Poland, 15-18 June 2014, and accepted for Proceedings published in the Journal of Physics: Conference Series. The Fluid Mechanics Conferences have been taking place every two years since 1974, a total of forty years. The 21st Fluid Mechanics Conference (XXI FMC) is being organized under the auspices of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Committee of Mechanics. The goal of this conference is to provide a forum for the exposure and exchange of ideas, methods and results in fluid mechanics. Conference topics include, but are not limited to Aerodynamics, Atmospheric Science, Bio-Fluids, Combustion and Reacting Flows, Computational Fluid Dynamics, Experimental Fluid Mechanics, Flow Machinery, General Fluid Dynamics, Hydromechanics, Heat and Fluid Flow, Measurement Techniques, Micro- and Nano- Flow, Multi-Phase Flow, Non-Newtonian Fluids, Rotating and Stratified Flows, Turbulence. Within the general subjects of this conference, the Professor Janusz W. Elsner Competition for the best fluid mechanics paper presented during the Conference is organized. Authors holding a M.Sc. or a Ph.D. degree and who are not older than 35 years of age may enter the Competition. Authors with a Ph.D. degree must present individual papers; authors with a M.Sc. degree may present papers with their supervisor as coauthor, including original results of experimental, numerical or analytic research. Six state-of-the-art keynote papers were delivered by world leading experts. All contributed papers were peer reviewed. Recommendations were received from the International Scientific Committee, reviewers and the advisory board. Accordingly, of the 163 eligible extended abstracts submitted, after a review process by the International Scientific Committee, 137 papers were selected for presentation at the 21st Fluid Mechanics Conference, 68

  19. A sugar beet chlorophyll a/b binding protein promoter void of G-box like elements confers strong and leaf specific reporter gene expression in transgenic sugar beet

    OpenAIRE

    Kloos Dorothee U; Stahl Dietmar J; Hehl Reinhard

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Background Modification of leaf traits in sugar beet requires a strong leaf specific promoter. With such a promoter, expression in taproots can be avoided which may otherwise take away available energy resources for sugar accumulation. Results Suppression Subtractive Hybridization (SSH) was utilized to generate an enriched and equalized cDNA library for leaf expressed genes from sugar beet. Fourteen cDNA fragments corresponding to thirteen different genes were isolated. Northern blot...

  20. A Novel R2R3-MYB Transcription Factor BpMYB106 of Birch (Betula platyphylla) Confers Increased Photosynthesis and Growth Rate through Up-regulating Photosynthetic Gene Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chenguang; Li, Chenghao

    2016-01-01

    We isolated a R2R3-MYB transcription factor BpMYB106, which regulates photosynthesis in birch (Betula platyphylla Suk.). BpMYB106 mainly expresses in the leaf and shoot tip of birch, and its protein is localized in the nucleus. We further fused isolated a 1588 bp promoter of BpMYB106 and analyzed it by PLACE, which showed some cis-acting elements related to photosynthesis. BpMYB106 promoter β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter fusion studies gene, the result, showed the GUS reporter gene in transgenic birch with BpMYB106 promoter showed strong activities in shoot tip, cotyledon margins, and mature leaf trichomes. The overexpression of BpMYB106 in birch resulted in significantly increased trichome density, net photosynthetic rate, and growth rate as compared with the wild-type birch. RNA-Seq profiling revealed the upregulation of several photosynthesis-related genes in the photosynthesis and oxidative phosphorylation pathways in the leaves of transgenic plants. Yeast one-hybrid analysis, coupled with transient assay in tobacco, revealed that BpMYB106 binds a MYB binding site MYB2 in differentially expressed gene promoters. Thus, BpMYB106 may directly activate the expression of a range of photosynthesis related genes through interacting with the MYB2 element in their promoters. Our study demonstrating the overexpression of BpMYB106-a R2R3-MYB transcription factor-upregulates the genes of the photosynthesis and oxidative phosphorylation pathways to improve photosynthesis.

  1. 2012 Gordon Research Conference, Mitochondria and Chloroplasts, July 29 - Aug 3 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barkan, Alice [Univ. of Oregon, Eugene, OR (United States)

    2012-08-03

    The 2012 Gordon Research Conference on Mitochondria and Chloroplasts will assemble an international group of scientists investigating fundamental properties of these organelles, and their integration into broader physiological processes. The conference will emphasize the many commonalities between mitochondria and chloroplasts: their evolution from bacterial endosymbionts, their genomes and gene expression systems, their energy transducing membranes whose proteins derive from both nuclear and organellar genes, the challenge of maintaining organelle integrity in the presence of the reactive oxygen species that are generated during energy transduction, their incorporation into organismal signaling pathways, and more. The conference will bring together investigators working in animal, plant, fungal and protozoan systems who specialize in cell biology, genetics, biochemistry, physiology, proteomics, genomics, and structural biology. As such, this conference will provide a unique forum that engenders cross-disciplinary discussions concerning the biogenesis, dynamics, and regulation of these key cellular structures. By fostering interactions among mammalian, fungal and plant organellar biologists, this conference also provides a conduit for the transmission of mechanistic insights obtained in model organisms to applications in medicine and agriculture. The 2012 conference will highlight areas that are moving rapidly and emerging themes. These include new insights into the ultrastructure and organization of the energy transducing membranes, the coupling of organellar gene expression with the assembly of photosynthetic and respiratory complexes, the regulatory networks that couple organelle biogenesis with developmental and physiological signals, the signaling events through which organellar physiology influences nuclear gene expression, and the roles of organelles in disease and development.

  2. Conference Proceedings: Photography and Britishness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Willcock

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The video-recordings presented here were made at the conference Photography and Britishness, held at the Yale Center for British Art on November 4 – 5, 2016. The conference was the result of a collaboration between the Yale Center for British Art, New Haven, the Paul Mellon Centre for Studies in British Art, London, and the Huntington Library, Art Collections, and Botanical Gardens in San Marino—three research institutions that have a converging interest in British art. The conference sought to investigate the various ways in which notions of “Britishness” have been communicated, inflected, and contested through the photographic image. It was not a conference about the history of photography in Britain, or about British photography. Rather, it sought to consider the nature of the relationship between photography and Britishness: the notion that photography can capture images of Britishness, at the same time that our sense of what Britishness constitutes is produced by the photographic image. A key question for the conference was whether Britishness can have a photographic referent—or whether it is itself an effect of representation. Speakers at the conference approached these questions from a wide range of perspectives and focusing on a diverse number of photographic materials—from family albums and studio portraits to advertisements, reportage, and aerial photography—which demonstrated the complexities and instabilities not only of the term Britishness, but also of the medium of photography. The conference was opened with an introduction by John Tagg. The videos included here are presented in the order they were delivered.

  3. Annual International DIC Society Conference and SEM Fall Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Reu, Phillip

    2017-01-01

    This collection represents a single volume of technical papers presented at the Annual International DIC Society Conference and SEM Fall Conference organized by the Society for Experimental Mechanics and Sandia National Laboratories and held in Philadelphia, PA, November 7-10, 2016. The volume presents early findings from experimental, standards development and various other investigations concerning digital image correlation - an important area within Experimental Mechanics. The area of Digital Image Correlation has been an integral track within the SEM Annual Conference spearheaded by Professor Michael Sutton from the University of South Carolina. In 2016, the SEM and Sandia joined their collaborative strengths to launch a standing fall meeting focusing specifically on developments in the area of Digital Image Correlation. The contributed papers within this volume span numerous technical aspects of DIC including standards development for the industry. .

  4. Constitutive Overexpression of Myo-inositol-1-Phosphate Synthase Gene (GsMIPS2) fromGlycine soja Confers Enhanced Salt Tolerance at Various Growth Stages inArabidopsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zaib-un-Nisa; Chen Chen; Yang Yu; Chao Chen; ALi Inayat Mallano; Duan Xiang-bo; Sun Xiao-li; Zhu Yan-ming

    2016-01-01

    The enzymemyo-inositol-1-phosphate synthase (MIPS EC 5.5.1.4) catalyzes the first step ofmyo-inositol biosynthesis, a product that plays crucial roles in plants as an osmoprotectant, transduction molecule, cell wall constituent and production of stress related molecule. Previous reports highlighted an important role of MIPS family genes in abiotic stresses particularly under salt stress tolerance in several plant species; however, little is known about the cellular and physiological functions ofMIPS2 genes under abiotic conditions. In this study, a novel salt stress responsive gene designatedGsMIPS2 from wild soybean Glycine soja07256 was functionally characterized contained an open reading frame (ORF) of 1 533 bp coding a peptide sequence of 510 amino acids along with mass of 56 445 ku. Multiple sequence alignment analysis revealed its 92%-99% similarity with other MIPS family members in legume proteins. Quantitative real-time PCR results demonstrated thatGsMIPS2 was induced by salt stress and expressed in roots of soybean. The positive function ofGsMIPS2 under salt response at different growth stages of transgenicArabidopsis was also elucidated. The results showed thatGsMIPS2 transgenic lines displayed increased tolerance as compared to WT andatmips2 mutant lines under salt stress. Furthermore, the expression levels of some salt stress responsive marker genes, including KIN1,RD29A, RD29B,P5CsandCOR47 were significantly up-regulated inGsMIPS2 overexpression lines than wild type andatmips2 mutant. Collectively, these results suggested thatGsMIPS2 gene was a positive regulator of plant tolerance to salt stress. This was the first report to demonstrate that overexpression ofGsMIPS2 gene from wild soybean improved salt tolerance in transgenicArabidopsis.

  5. Mutation in domain II of IAA1 confers diverse auxin-related phenotypes and represses auxin-activated expression of Aux/IAA genes in steroid regulator-inducible system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin-Young; Kim, Hye-Joung; Kim, Jungmook

    2002-12-01

    Most of Aux/IAA genes are rapidly induced by auxin. The Aux/IAA proteins are short-lived nuclear proteins sharing the four conserved domains. Domain II is critical for rapid degradation of Aux/IAA proteins. Among these gene family members, IAA1 is one of the earliest auxin-inducible genes. We used a steroid hormone-inducible system to reveal putative roles and downstream signaling of IAA1 in auxin response. Arabidopsis transgenic plants were generated expressing fusion protein of IAA1 (IAA1-GR) or IAA1 with a mutation in domain II (iaa1-GR) and the glucocorticoid hormone-binding domain (GR). IAA1-GR transgenic plants did not exhibit any discernable phenotypic differences by DEX treatment that allows nuclear translocation of the fusion protein. In contrast, diverse auxin-related physiological processes including gravitropism and phototropism were impaired by DEX treatment in roots, hypocotyls, stems, and leaves in iaa1-GR transgenic plants. Auxin induction of seven Aux/IAA mRNAs including IAA1 itself was repressed by DEX treatment, suggesting that IAA1 functions in the nucleus by mediating auxin response and might act as a negative feedback regulator for the expression of Aux/IAA genes including IAA1 itself. Auxin induction of Aux/IAA genes in the presence of cycloheximide can be repressed by DEX treatment, showing that the repression of transcription of the Aux/IAAs by the iaa1 mutant protein is primary. Wild-type IAA1-GR could not suppress auxin induction of IAA1 and IAA2. These results indicate that inhibition of auxin-activated transcription of Aux/IAA genes by the iaa1 mutant protein might be responsible for alteration of various auxin responses.

  6. Variants of the PPARG, IGF2BP2, CDKAL1, HHEX, and TCF7L2 genes confer risk of type 2 diabetes independently of BMI in the German KORA studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herder, C; Rathmann, W; Strassburger, K; Finner, H; Grallert, H; Huth, C; Meisinger, C; Gieger, C; Martin, S; Giani, G; Scherbaum, W A; Wichmann, H-E; Illig, T

    2008-10-01

    Genome-wide association (GWA) studies identified novel gene variants that are associated with type 2 diabetes. However, results were not always consistent across different populations. Thus, the aims of this study were (i) to replicate findings from previous GWA studies in mainly Northern European populations using data from the German KORA 500 K diabetes project and (ii) to assess the impact of BMI on associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and type 2 diabetes. The KORA 500 K diabetes project includes 433 cases with validated type 2 diabetes and 1 438 nondiabetic controls from two population-based KORA surveys. Genotyping was performed using the Affymetrix GeneChip Human Mapping 500 K Array Set. We investigated associations between SNPs and type 2 diabetes in 10 genes that have been reported to increase the risk of type 2 diabetes or were in complete or near-complete linkage disequilibrium with these variants. SNPs in the CDKAL1 gene showed the strongest association with type 2 diabetes [range of age and sex-adjusted odds ratios (OR): 1.30-1.39, p-values 0.0008-0.0004]. In addition, we found evidence for association of SNPs in the genes PPARG, IGF2BP2, HHEX, TCF7L2, and FTO with type 2 diabetes in the same directions as previously described (p<0.05), but not for WFS1, CDKN2A/B, KCNJ11, or EXT2. Adjustment for BMI slightly strengthened the link between CDKAL1 and type 2 diabetes, but had almost no impact on the other associations. We conclude that gene variants of CDKAL1, PPARG, IGF2BP2, HHEX, TCF7L2, and FTO predispose to type 2 diabetes in the German KORA 500 K study population. These associations appear to be independent of BMI.

  7. International Conference on Computational Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Atluri, Satya

    1986-01-01

    It is often said that these days there are too many conferences on general areas of computational mechanics. mechanics. and numer ical methods. vJhile this may be true. the his tory of scientific conferences is itself quite short. According to Abraham Pais (in "Subtle is the Lord ...• " Oxford University Press. 1982. p.80). the first international scientific conference ever held was the Karlsruhe Congress of Chemists. 3-5 September 1860 in Karlsruhe. Germany. There were 127 chemists in attendance. and the participants came from Austria. Belgium. France. Germany. Great Britain. Italy. Mexico. Poland. Russia. Spain. Sweden. and Switzerland. At the top of the agenda of the points to be discussed at this conference was the question: "Shall a difference be made between the expressions molecule and atom?" Pais goes on to note: "The conference did not at once succeed in bringing chemists closer together ... It is possible that the older men were offended by the impetuous behavior and imposing manner of the younger...

  8. QCD@LHC International Conference

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    The particle physics groups of UZH and ETH will host the QCD@LHC2016 conference (22.8.-26.8., UZH downtown campus), which is part of an annual conference series bringing together theorists and experimentalists working on hard scattering processes at the CERN LHC, ranging from precision studies of Standard Model processes to searches for new particles and phenomena. The format of the conference is a combination of plenary review talks and parallel sessions, with the latter providing a particularly good opportunity for junior researchers to present their results. The conference will take place shortly after the release of the new data taken by the LHC in sping 2016 at a collision energy of 13TeV, expected to more than double the currently available data set. It will be one of the first opportunities to discuss these data in a broader context, and we expect the conference to become a very lively forum at the interface of phenomenology and experiment.

  9. A coding polymorphism in NALP1 confers risk for autoimmune Addison's disease and type 1 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Magitta, N. F.; Wolff, A. S. Boe; Johansson, S.; Skinningsrud, B.; Lie, B. A.; Myhr, K-M; Undlien, D. E.; Joner, G.; Njolstad, P. R.; Kvien, T. K.; Forre, O.; Knappskog, P. M.; Husebye, E. S.

    Variants in the gene encoding NACHT leucine-rich-repeat protein 1 (NALP1), an important molecule in innate immunity, have recently been shown to confer risk for vitiligo and associated autoimmunity. We hypothesized that sequence variants in this gene may be involved in susceptibility to a wider

  10. A coding polymorphism in NALP1 confers risk for autoimmune Addison's disease and type 1 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Magitta, N. F.; Wolff, A. S. Boe; Johansson, S.; Skinningsrud, B.; Lie, B. A.; Myhr, K-M; Undlien, D. E.; Joner, G.; Njolstad, P. R.; Kvien, T. K.; Forre, O.; Knappskog, P. M.; Husebye, E. S.

    2009-01-01

    Variants in the gene encoding NACHT leucine-rich-repeat protein 1 (NALP1), an important molecule in innate immunity, have recently been shown to confer risk for vitiligo and associated autoimmunity. We hypothesized that sequence variants in this gene may be involved in susceptibility to a wider spec

  11. Common variants conferring risk of schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefansson, Hreinn; Ophoff, Roel A; Steinberg, Stacy

    2009-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a complex disorder, caused by both genetic and environmental factors and their interactions. Research on pathogenesis has traditionally focused on neurotransmitter systems in the brain, particularly those involving dopamine. Schizophrenia has been considered a separate disease...... conform to classical nosological disease boundaries. Certain CNVs confer not only high relative risk of schizophrenia but also of other psychiatric disorders. The structural variations associated with schizophrenia can involve several genes and the phenotypic syndromes, or the 'genomic disorders', have.......2. Our findings implicating the MHC region are consistent with an immune component to schizophrenia risk, whereas the association with NRGN and TCF4 points to perturbation of pathways involved in brain development, memory and cognition....

  12. Transgenic strategies to confer resistance against viruses in rice plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahide eSasaya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rice (Oryza sativa L. is cultivated in more than 100 countries and supports nearly half of the world’s population. Developing efficient methods to control rice viruses is thus an urgent necessity because viruses cause serious losses in rice yield. Most rice viruses are transmitted by insect vectors, notably planthoppers and leafhoppers. Viruliferous insect vectors can disperse their viruses over relatively long distances, and eradication of the viruses is very difficult once they become widespread. Exploitation of natural genetic sources of resistance is one of the most effective approaches to protect crops from virus infection; however, only a few naturally occurring rice genes confer resistance against rice viruses. In an effort to improve control, many investigators are using genetic engineering of rice plants as a potential strategy to control viral diseases. Using viral genes to confer pathogen-derived resistance against crops is a well-established procedure, and the expression of various viral gene products has proved to be effective in preventing or reducing infection by various plant viruses since the 1990s. RNA-interference (RNAi, also known as RNA silencing, is one of the most efficient methods to confer resistance against plant viruses on their respective crops. In this article, we review the recent progress, mainly conducted by our research group, in transgenic strategies to confer resistance against tenuiviruses and reoviruses in rice plants. Our findings also illustrate that not all RNAi constructs against viral RNAs are equally effective in preventing virus infection and that it is important to identify the viral Achilles’ heel gene to target for RNAi attack when engineering plants.

  13. Single amino acid substitution in the methyltransferase domain of Paprika mild mottle virus replicase proteins confers the ability to overcome the high temperature-dependent Hk gene-mediated resistance in Capsicum plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Katsutoshi; Johnishi, Kousuke; Hamada, Hiroyuki; Sawada, Hiromasa; Takeuchi, Shigeharu; Kobayashi, Kappei; Suzuki, Kazumi; Kiba, Akinori; Hikichi, Yasufumi

    2009-03-01

    Capsicum plants harboring the Hk gene (Hk) show resistance to Paprika mild mottle virus (PaMMV) at 32 degrees C but not 24 degrees C. To identify the viral elicitor that activates the Hk-mediated resistance, several chimeric viral genomes were constructed between PaMMV and Tobacco mosaic virus-L. Infection patterns of these chimeric viruses in Hk-harboring plants revealed responsibility of PaMMV replicase genes for activation of the Hk-mediated resistance. The comparison of nucleotide sequence of replicase genes between PaMMV and PaHk1, an Hk-resistance-breaking strain of PaMMV, revealed that the adenine-to-uracil substitution at the nucleotide position 721 causes an amino acid change from threonine to serine at the 241st residue in the methyltransferase domain. Introduction of the A721U mutation into the replicase genes of parental PaMMV overcame the Hk resistance at 32 degrees C. The results indicate that Hk-mediated resistance is induced by PaMMV replicase proteins and that methyltransferase domain has a role in this elicitation.

  14. Expression of a Chimeric Gene Encoding Insecticidal Crystal Protein Cry1Aabc of Bacillus thuringiensis in Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. Confers Resistance to Gram Pod Borer (Helicoverpa armigera Hubner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alok Das

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Domain swapping and generation of chimeric insecticidal crystal protein is an emerging area of insect pest management. The lepidopteran insect pest, gram pod borer (Helicoverpa armigera H. wreaks havoc to chickpea crop affecting production. Lepidopteran insects were reported to be controlled by Bt (cryI genes. We designed a plant codon optimized chimeric Bt gene (cry1Aabc using three domains from three different cry1A genes (domains I, II, and III from cry1Aa, cry1Ab, and cry1Ac, respectively and expressed it under the control of a constitutive promoter in chickpea (cv. DCP92-3 to assess its effect on gram pod borer. A total of six transgenic chickpea shoots were established by grafting into mature fertile plants. The in vitro regenerated (organogenetic shoots were selected based on antibiotic kanamycin monosulfate (100 mg/L with transformation efficiency of 0.076%. Three transgenic events were extensively studied based on gene expression pattern and insect mortality across generations. Protein expression in pod walls, immature seeds and leaves (pre- and post-flowering were estimated and expression in pre-flowering stage was found higher than that of post-flowering. Analysis for the stable integration, expression and insect mortality (detached leaf and whole plant bioassay led to identification of efficacious transgenic chickpea lines. The chimeric cry1Aabc expressed in chickpea is effective against gram pod borer and generated events can be utilized in transgenic breeding program.

  15. Expression of a Chimeric Gene Encoding Insecticidal Crystal Protein Cry1Aabc of Bacillus thuringiensis in Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) Confers Resistance to Gram Pod Borer (Helicoverpa armigera Hubner.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Alok; Datta, Subhojit; Thakur, Shallu; Shukla, Alok; Ansari, Jamal; Sujayanand, G K; Chaturvedi, Sushil K; Kumar, P A; Singh, N P

    2017-01-01

    Domain swapping and generation of chimeric insecticidal crystal protein is an emerging area of insect pest management. The lepidopteran insect pest, gram pod borer (Helicoverpa armigera H.) wreaks havoc to chickpea crop affecting production. Lepidopteran insects were reported to be controlled by Bt (cryI) genes. We designed a plant codon optimized chimeric Bt gene (cry1Aabc) using three domains from three different cry1A genes (domains I, II, and III from cry1Aa, cry1Ab, and cry1Ac, respectively) and expressed it under the control of a constitutive promoter in chickpea (cv. DCP92-3) to assess its effect on gram pod borer. A total of six transgenic chickpea shoots were established by grafting into mature fertile plants. The in vitro regenerated (organogenetic) shoots were selected based on antibiotic kanamycin monosulfate (100 mg/L) with transformation efficiency of 0.076%. Three transgenic events were extensively studied based on gene expression pattern and insect mortality across generations. Protein expression in pod walls, immature seeds and leaves (pre- and post-flowering) were estimated and expression in pre-flowering stage was found higher than that of post-flowering. Analysis for the stable integration, expression and insect mortality (detached leaf and whole plant bioassay) led to identification of efficacious transgenic chickpea lines. The chimeric cry1Aabc expressed in chickpea is effective against gram pod borer and generated events can be utilized in transgenic breeding program.

  16. Plant-mediated RNA interference of effector gene Mc16D10L confers resistance against Meloidogyne chitwoodi in diverse genetic backgrounds of potato and reduces pathogenicity of nematode offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meloidogyne chitwoodi is a major problem for potato production in the Pacific Northwest of the USA. In spite of long-term breeding efforts no commercial potato cultivars with resistance to M. chitwoodi exist to date. The RMc1 resistance gene against M. chitwoodi has been introgressed from Solanum bu...

  17. 37th International MATADOR Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Lin

    2013-01-01

    Presented here are 97 refereed papers given at the 37th MATADOR Conference held at The University of Manchester in July 2012. The MATADOR series of conferences covers the topics of Manufacturing Automation and Systems Technology, Applications, Design, Organisation and Management, and Research.   The proceedings of this conference contain original papers contributed by researchers from many countries on different continents. The papers cover the principles, techniques and applications in aerospace, automotive, biomedical, energy, consumable goods and process industries.    The papers in this volume reflect: the importance of manufacturing to international wealth creation; the emerging fields of micro- and nano-manufacture; the increasing trend towards the fabrication of parts using lasers; the growing demand for precision engineering and part inspection techniques, and the changing trends in manufacturing within a global environment. .

  18. Positivity VII (Zaanen Centennial Conference)

    CERN Document Server

    Pagter, Ben; Gaans, Onno; Veraar, Mark

    2016-01-01

    This book presents the proceedings of Positivity VII, held from 22-26 July 2013, in Leiden, the Netherlands. Positivity is the mathematical field concerned with ordered structures and their applications in the broadest sense of the word. A biyearly series of conferences is devoted to presenting the latest developments in this lively and growing discipline. The lectures at the conference covered a broad spectrum of topics, ranging from order-theoretic approaches to stochastic processes, positive solutions of evolution equations and positive operators on vector lattices, to order structures in the context of algebras of operators on Hilbert spaces. The contributions in the book reflect this variety and appeal to university researchers in functional analysis, operator theory, measure and integration theory and operator algebras. Positivity VII was also the Zaanen Centennial Conference to mark the 100th birth year of Adriaan Cornelis Zaanen, who held the chair of Analysis in Leiden for more than 25 years and was ...

  19. International Conference GIREP EPEC 2015

    CERN Document Server

    Dębowska, Ewa

    2017-01-01

    This book presents a selection of the best contributions to GIREP EPEC 2015, the Conference of the International Research Group on Physics Teaching (GIREP) and the European Physical Society’s Physics Education Division (EPS PED). It introduces readers interested in the field to the problem of identifying strategies and tools to improve physics teaching and learning so as to convey Key Competences and help students acquire them. The main topic of the conference was Key Competences (KC) in physics teaching and learning in the form of knowledge, skills and attitudes that are fundamental for every member of society. Given the role of physics as a field strongly connected not only to digital competence but also to several other Key Competences, this conference provided a forum for in-depth discussions of related issues.

  20. International Conference on Health Informatics

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This volume presents the proceedings of the International Conference on Health Informatics (ICHI). The conference was a new special topic conference initiative by the International Federation of Medical and Biological Engineering (IFMBE), held in Vilamoura, Portugal on 7-9 November, 2013. The main theme of the ICHI2013 was “Integrating Information and Communication Technologies with Biomedicine for Global Health”. The proceedings offer a unique forum to examine enabling technologies of sensors, devices and systems that optimize the acquisition, transmission, processing, storage, retrieval of biomedical and health information as well as to report novel clinical applications of health information systems and the deployment of m-Health, e-Health, u-Health, p-Health and Telemedicine.

  1. International Conference on Underwater Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Jaulin, Luc; Creuze, Vincent; Debese, Nathalie; Quidu, Isabelle; Clement, Benoît; Billon-Coat, Annick

    2016-01-01

    This volume constitutes the results of the International Conference on Underwater Environment, MOQESM’14, held at “Le Quartz” Conference Center in Brest, France, on October 14-15, 2014, within the framework of the 9th Sea Tech Week, International Marine Science and Technology Event. The objective of MOQESM'14 was to bring together researchers from both academia and industry, interested in marine robotics and hydrography with application to the coastal environment mapping and underwater infrastructures surveys. The common thread of the conference is the combination of technical control, perception, and localization, typically used in robotics, with the methods of mapping and bathymetry. The papers presented in this book focus on two main topics. Firstly, coastal and infrastructure mapping is addressed, focusing not only on hydrographic systems, but also on positioning systems, bathymetry, and remote sensing. The proposed methods rely on acoustic sensors such as side scan sonars, multibeam echo sounders, ...

  2. Groups and Geometries : Siena Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Kantor, William; Lunardon, Guglielmo; Pasini, Antonio; Tamburini, Maria

    1998-01-01

    On September 1-7, 1996 a conference on Groups and Geometries took place in lovely Siena, Italy. It brought together experts and interested mathematicians from numerous countries. The scientific program centered around invited exposi­ tory lectures; there also were shorter research announcements, including talks by younger researchers. The conference concerned a broad range of topics in group theory and geometry, with emphasis on recent results and open problems. Special attention was drawn to the interplay between group-theoretic methods and geometric and combinatorial ones. Expanded versions of many of the talks appear in these Proceedings. This volume is intended to provide a stimulating collection of themes for a broad range of algebraists and geometers. Among those themes, represented within the conference or these Proceedings, are aspects of the following: 1. the classification of finite simple groups, 2. the structure and properties of groups of Lie type over finite and algebraically closed fields of f...

  3. Conference on Environmental Data Management

    CERN Document Server

    Oppenheimer, Dorothy; Brogden, William; Environmental Data Management

    1976-01-01

    Throughout the world a staggering amount of resources have been used to obtain billions of environmental data points. Some, such as meteorological data, have been organized for weather map display where many thousands of data points are synthesized in one compressed map. Most environmental data, however, are still widely scattered and generally not used for a systems approach, but only for the purpose for which they were originally taken. These data are contained in relatively small computer programs, research files, government and industrial reports, etc. This Conference was called to bring together some of the world's leaders from research centers and government agencies, and others concerned with environmental data management. The purpose of the Conference was to organize discussion on the scope of world environmental data, its present form and documentation, and whether a systematic approach to a total system is feasible now or in the future. This same subject permeated indirectly the Stockholm Conference...

  4. Fifth International Conference KSE 2013

    CERN Document Server

    Denoeux, Thierry; Tran, Dang; Le, Anh; Pham, Son; Knowledge and Systems Engineering

    2014-01-01

    The field of Knowledge and Systems Engineering (KSE) has experienced rapid development and inspired many applications in the world of information technology during the last decade. The KSE conference aims at providing an open international forum for presentation, discussion and exchange of the latest advances and challenges in research of the field. These proceedings contain papers presented at the Fifth International Conference on Knowledge and Systems Engineering (KSE 2013), which was held in Hanoi, Vietnam, during 17–19 October, 2013. Besides the main track of contributed papers, which are compiled into the first volume, the conference also featured several special sessions focusing on specific topics of interest as well as included one workshop, of which the papers form the second volume of these proceedings. The book gathers a total of 68 papers describing recent advances and development on various topics including knowledge discovery and data mining, natural language processing, expert systems, intell...

  5. 2012 Gordon Research Conference on Microbial Stress Response, Schedule and Speaker/Poster Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donohue, Timothy J. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2012-07-20

    The Gordon Research Conference on Microbial Stress Response was held at Mount Holyoke College, South Hadley, Massachusetts, July 15-20, 2012. The Conference was well-attended with 180 participants. The 2012 Microbial Stress Responses Gordon Research Conference will provide a forum for the open reporting of recent discoveries on the diverse mechanisms employed by microbes to respond to stress. Approaches range from analysis at the molecular level (how are signals perceived and transmitted to change gene expression or function) to cellular and microbial community responses. Attached is a copy of the formal schedule and speaker program and the poster program.

  6. International Conference on Risk Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Oliveira, Teresa; Rigas, Alexandros; Gulati, Sneh

    2015-01-01

    This book covers the latest results in the field of risk analysis. Presented topics include probabilistic models in cancer research, models and methods in longevity, epidemiology of cancer risk, engineering reliability and economical risk problems. The contributions of this volume originate from the 5th International Conference on Risk Analysis (ICRA 5). The conference brought together researchers and practitioners working in the field of risk analysis in order to present new theoretical and computational methods with applications in biology, environmental sciences, public health, economics and finance.

  7. Chapman Conference on Rainfall Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, V. K.

    The Chapman Conference on Rainfall Fields, sponsored by AGU, was the first of its kind; it was devoted to strengthening scientific interaction between the North American and Latin American geophysics communities. It was hosted by Universidad Simon Bolivar and Instituto Internacional de Estudios Avanzados, in Caracas, Venezuela, during March 24-27, 1986. A total of 36 scientists from Latin America, the United States, Canada, and Europe participated. The conference, which was convened by I. Rodriguez-Iturbe (Universidad Simon Bolivar) and V. K. Gupta (University of Mississippi, University), brought together hydrologists, meteorologists, and mathematicians/statisticians in the name of enhancing an interdisciplinary focus on rainfall research.

  8. 2nd Tourism Postdisciplinarity Conference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Following the noted success of the 1st international conference on postdisciplinary approaches to tourism studies (held in Neuchatel, Switzerland, 19-22 June, 2013), we are happy to welcome you to the 2nd Tourism Postdisciplinarity Conference. Postdisciplinarity surpasses the boundaries...... of study less embedded in that system of thought. Postdisciplinarity is an epistemological endeavour that speaks of knowledge production and the ways in which the world of physical and social phenomena can be known. It is also an ontological discourse as it concerns what we call ‘tourism...

  9. Customised DSS and decision conferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Michael Bruhn; Leleur, Steen

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents and exemplifies a combination of techniques for deriving and modelling decision-maker and/or stakeholder preferences using a decision conference process. The applied techniques are used for the development of customised decision support systems (C-DSS) which can be used...... for appraisals of large transport infrastructure projects. The paper exemplifies how the process at a decision conference can be effectively supported by a DSS customised using appropriate techniques for the specific task in hand. In this respect a conventional cost-benefit analysis (CBA) is combined...

  10. PHYSICS FOR HEALTH: CONFERENCE HIGHLIGHTS

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Highlights of ICTR-PHE 2016 - International Conference on Translational Research in Radio-Oncology and Physics for Health -, co organized by CERN, aims at developing new strategies to better diagnose and treat cancer, by uniting biology and physics with clinics. Through the various sessions and symposia, the scientific programme offers the delegates the opportunity to discuss, in a friendly atmosphere, the latest progress in physics breakthroughs for health applications. The third edition of this conference took place at CICG (Centre International de Conférence Genève) from 15 to 19 Feb 2016.

  11. First Stars III Conference Summary

    CERN Document Server

    O'Shea, Brian W; Heger, Alexander; Abel, Tom

    2008-01-01

    The understanding of the formation, life, and death of Population III stars, as well as the impact that these objects had on later generations of structure formation, is one of the foremost issues in modern cosmological research and has been an active area of research during the past several years. We summarize the results presented at "First Stars III," a conference sponsored by Los Alamos National Laboratory, the Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, and the Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics. This conference, the third in a series, took place in July 2007 at the La Fonda Hotel in Santa Fe, New Mexico, U.S.A.

  12. Nineteenth annual actinide separations conference: Conference program and abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronson, M. [ed.

    1995-12-31

    This report contains the abstracts from the conference presentations. Sessions were divided into the following topics: Waste treatment; Spent fuel treatment; Issues and responses to Defense Nuclear Facility Safety Board 94-1; Pyrochemical technologies; Disposition technologies; and Aqueous separation technologies.

  13. Living green : Conference proceedings of the living green scientific conference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kersten, W.C.

    2013-01-01

    Presentaties van Livinggreen Scientific Conference: Stimulating energy efficiency in households - Comparison of the Livinggreen.eu methods to theory – Daphne Geelen Engaging households in sustainable renovation – Exploration of a complementary approach - Meijer, S.A., Geelen, D.V., Franken, V., Kers

  14. Initiation and beyond: molecular determinants of gene regulation. Mechanisms of Transcription Control, A Jacques Monod Conference, sponsored by the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Roscoff, France, September 30-October 4, 1991.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umek, R M

    1992-03-01

    The study of the mechanisms of transcriptional control continues to be an exciting area of research. The characterization of the constituents of the initiation complex and their interactions are leading to a greater understanding of gene regulation. The findings presented at this meeting emphasized the need to understand these interactions in three-dimensional space to effectively account for the observed regulation of the initiation of transcription.

  15. Transformation of Mexican lime with an intron-hairpin construct expressing untranslatable versions of the genes coding for the three silencing suppressors of Citrus tristeza virus confers complete resistance to the virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, Nuria; Plomer, Montserrat; Fagoaga, Carmen; Moreno, Pedro; Navarro, Luis; Flores, Ricardo; Peña, Leandro

    2012-06-01

    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV), the causal agent of the most devastating viral disease of citrus, has evolved three silencing suppressor proteins acting at intra- (p23 and p20) and/or intercellular level (p20 and p25) to overcome host antiviral defence. Previously, we showed that Mexican lime transformed with an intron-hairpin construct including part of the gene p23 and the adjacent 3' untranslated region displays partial resistance to CTV, with a fraction of the propagations from some transgenic lines remaining uninfected. Here, we transformed Mexican lime with an intron-hairpin vector carrying full-length, untranslatable versions of the genes p25, p20 and p23 from CTV strain T36 to silence the expression of these critical genes in CTV-infected cells. Three transgenic lines presented complete resistance to viral infection, with all their propagations remaining symptomless and virus-free after graft inoculation with CTV-T36, either in the nontransgenic rootstock or in the transgenic scion. Accumulation of transgene-derived siRNAs was necessary but not sufficient for CTV resistance. Inoculation with a divergent CTV strain led to partially breaking the resistance, thus showing the role of sequence identity in the underlying mechanism. Our results are a step forward to developing transgenic resistance to CTV and also show that targeting simultaneously by RNA interference (RNAi) the three viral silencing suppressors appears critical for this purpose, although the involvement of concurrent RNAi mechanisms cannot be excluded.

  16. Conferences in Context: Status, Communication, and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, L. Wesley; Brinkerhoff, Merlin

    1975-01-01

    The relationship between managers and three variables are examined: time commitments of managers to staff conferences, status or rank of managers, and the quality of communicative exchange in conference settings. (Author/DEP)

  17. International conference on defects in insulating crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    Short summaries of conference papers are presented. Some of the conference topics included transport properties, defect levels, superionic conductors, radiation effects, John-Teller effect, electron-lattice interactions, and relaxed excited states. (SDF)

  18. 1995 International Sherwood Fusion Theory Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    This book is a guide to the 1995 International Sherwood Fusion Theory Conference. It consists largely of abstracts of the oral and poster presentations that were to be made, and gives some general information about the conference and its schedule.

  19. CERN to host conference on information society

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN will host a conference on the Role of Science in the Information Society (RSIS) in December. This conference will focus on ensuring that the information society benefits people to the greatest extent possible, especially in developing regions.

  20. Autism's 'Worryingly' High Suicide Rates Spur Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_165946.html Autism's 'Worryingly' High Suicide Rates Spur Conference Signs of ... News) -- High rates of suicide among people with autism are drawing specialists to a conference this week ...

  1. Rapid development of molecular markers by next-generation sequencing linked to a gene conferring phomopsis stem blight disease resistance for marker-assisted selection in lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.) breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huaan; Tao, Ye; Zheng, Zequn; Shao, Di; Li, Zhenzhong; Sweetingham, Mark W; Buirchell, Bevan J; Li, Chengdao

    2013-02-01

    Selection for phomopsis stem blight disease (PSB) resistance is one of the key objectives in lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.) breeding programs. A cross was made between cultivar Tanjil (resistant to PSB) and Unicrop (susceptible). The progeny was advanced into F(8) recombinant inbred lines (RILs). The RIL population was phenotyped for PSB disease resistance. Twenty plants from the RIL population representing disease resistance and susceptibility was subjected to next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based restriction site-associated DNA sequencing on the NGS platform Solexa HiSeq2000, which generated 7,241 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Thirty-three SNP markers showed the correlation between the marker genotypes and the PSB disease phenotype on the 20 representative plants, which were considered as candidate markers linked to a putative R gene for PSB resistance. Seven candidate markers were converted into sequence-specific PCR markers, which were designated as PhtjM1, PhtjM2, PhtjM3, PhtjM4, PhtjM5, PhtjM6 and PhtjM7. Linkage analysis of the disease phenotyping data and marker genotyping data on a F(8) population containing 187 RILs confirmed that all the seven converted markers were associated with the putative R gene within the genetic distance of 2.1 CentiMorgan (cM). One of the PCR markers, PhtjM3, co-segregated with the R gene. The seven established PCR markers were tested in the 26 historical and current commercial cultivars released in Australia. The numbers of "false positives" (showing the resistance marker allele band but lack of the putative R gene) for each of the seven PCR markers ranged from nil to eight. Markers PhtjM4 and PhtjM7 are recommended in marker-assisted selection for PSB resistance in the Australian national lupin breeding program due to its wide applicability on breeding germplasm and close linkage to the putative R gene. The results demonstrated that application of NGS technology is a rapid and cost-effective approach in

  2. Training or vacation? The academic conference tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Veloutsou, Cleopatra; Chreppas, Chrisovalantis

    2015-01-01

    The current study concentrates on factors affecting the intentions of academics attending an academic conference. It highlights the importance of academic conferences and academic conference tourism and discusses meetings, the convention industry and also their utility in the career development of academics. Through qualitative research and a review of the literature on conference tourism push and pull motivation factors are suggested. The power of these factors to predict the intention to at...

  3. Conference on Islamic Accounting and Finance

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan AYAYDIN

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. Hasan Kalyoncu Univeristy organized first of its conference series as “Conference on Islamic Accounting and Finance” themed on October 27-28, 2016 in Gaziantep, Turkey. Conference on Islamic Accounting and Finance aims to establish an academic forum for scholars, researchers and practitioners to exchange their ideas about aspects of Islamic accounting, auditing, business ethics and financial reporting. Submitted papers as well as presentations and discussions at the conference were ...

  4. Conferences as a Dramaturgical Learning Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Nicoline Jacoby

    Arguing that conferences are an important but under-researched and under-developed dimension of continuing education, the paper proposes a notion of conferences as a dramatic learning space. Using the design-based research methodology, a theoretical framework drawing on adult learning theories...... and dramaturgy is developed, consisting of four design principles: rhythm, reflection, involvement and interaction. These are sought implemented in a specific conference program, the case of the ECCI X conference, and the final program is explained and discussed....

  5. Gordon Research Conference on Electrodeposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-04

    ORME LAWRENCE LIVERMORE NATIONAL Speaker Registered LABORATORY ANDRE A PASA DEPARTAMENTO DE FISICA - UFSC Poster Presenter Registered GYANARANJAN...deposited at the electrode surface from molecular and ionic precursors in solution. The morphology and orientation of electrodeposited films can be precisely...topics at this year’s conference are molecular electronics, nucleation and growth, epitaxial electrodeposition, shape control, magnetic materials

  6. Business Meets Biodiversity Conference 2012

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vollaard, B.; Man, M. de; Verweij, P.A.

    2012-01-01

    How can companies successfully integrate the sustainable management of ecosystems and biodiversity into their business models? This was the central question at the international conference ‘Business Meets Biodiversity’ held in Utrecht, The Netherlands, on June 27th 2012. The organizing committee, co

  7. Business Meets Biodiversity Conference 2012

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vollaard, B.; Man, M. de; Verweij, P.A.

    2012-01-01

    How can companies successfully integrate the sustainable management of ecosystems and biodiversity into their business models? This was the central question at the international conference ‘Business Meets Biodiversity’ held in Utrecht, The Netherlands, on June 27th 2012. The organizing committee,

  8. Solar 78 Northwest conference proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-01-01

    Thirty eight papers are included. One was abstracted previously. Separate entries were prepared for thirty-seven. Also included are the conference evaluation summary, Pacific Northwest Solar Energy Association organization information, lists of commercial and non-commercial exhibitors, speakers and stearing committee members, and attendees. (MHR)

  9. 3rd International Algebra Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Fong, Yuen; Zelmanov, Efim

    2003-01-01

    This volume contains one invited lecture which was presented by the 1994 Fields Medal­ ist Professor E. Zelmanov and twelve other papers which were presented at the Third International Conference on Algebra and Their Related Topics at Chang Jung Christian University, Tainan, Republic of China, during the period June 26-July 1, 200l. All papers in this volume have been refereed by an international referee board and we would like to express our deepest thanks to all the referees who were so helpful and punctual in submitting their reports. Thanks are also due to the Promotion and Research Center of National Science Council of Republic of China and the Chang Jung Christian University for their generous financial support of this conference. The spirit of this conference is a continuation of the last two International Tainan­ Moscow Algebra Workshop on Algebras and Their Related Topics which were held in the mid-90's of the last century. The purpose of this very conference was to give a clear picture of the rece...

  10. Conference of CAS History Commission

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ The Commission of CAS History held its third conference on Oct. 31 in Beijing. CAS Vice-President Yang Bailing and Vice-Secretary of the CPC Leading Group at CAS Guo Chuanjie addressed the meeting, which was chaired by Guo Huadong, CAS vice secretary -general.

  11. Gordon Conference on Microbial Adhesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-07-01

    Sweden Al fa-Laval, Sweden Eli Lilly Monsanto Barnes-Hind Labs Bristol -Myers Pfizer Gillette Following the conference, many positive comments were...clays and metals: R. Mitchell, discussion leader -’S- F. Dazzo, Attachment of Rhizobium trifolii to 9:00-9:45 a.m. white clover root hairs. E. Bayer

  12. What Good Are Conferences, Anyway?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietro, David C.

    1996-01-01

    According to Frederick Herzberg's studies of employee motivation, humans are driven by motivating factors that allow them to grow psychologically and hygiene factors that help them meet physical needs. Good education conferences can enhance both factors by helping principals refocus their energies, exchange ideas with trusted colleagues, and view…

  13. IEEE Conference Publications in Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Karl E.

    1984-01-01

    Conclusions of surveys (63 libraries, OCLC database, University of Rhode Island users) assessing handling of Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) conference publications indicate that most libraries fully catalog these publications using LC cataloging, and library patrons frequently require series access to publications. Eight…

  14. IEEE Conference Publications in Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Karl E.

    1984-01-01

    Conclusions of surveys (63 libraries, OCLC database, University of Rhode Island users) assessing handling of Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) conference publications indicate that most libraries fully catalog these publications using LC cataloging, and library patrons frequently require series access to publications. Eight…

  15. IUPAC conference on chemical thermodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-01-01

    The 39th Calorimetry Conference includes papers on the following typics: thermodynamic properties of various compounds and materials; measuring methods and equipment for determination of thermodynamic quantities; calculation of thermodynamic quantities. Fossil fuels, nuclear fuels, electrochemistry, photochemistry, and biochemistry are areas of applications which are emphasized.

  16. CIEE 1993 annual conference: Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    The California Institute for Energy efficiency`s third annual conference highlights the results of CIEE-sponsored multiyear research in three programs: Building Energy Efficiency, Air Quality Impacts of Energy Efficiency, and End-Use Resource Planning. Results from scoping studies, Director`s discretionary research, and exploratory research are also featured.

  17. National Hospitality Conference 2016: a Report

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, James Peter

    2015-01-01

    The 2015 National Hospitality Conference took place recently at the Intercontinental Hotel, Ballsbridge, Dublin. The main theme of the 2015 conference was ‘Challenges and Opportunities’ , DIT Bar Studies students from the School of Culinary Arts & Food Technology joined delegates in debating and discussing the significant issues surrounding the conference theme. This report highlights the issues discussed.

  18. National Hospitality Conference 2014: a Report

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, James Peter

    2014-01-01

    The 2014 National Hospitality Conference took place on November 3rd and was held at the Four Seasons Hotel, Ballsbridge, Dublin. The main theme of this year’s conference was ‘Preparing for growth’ , DIT Bar Studies students from the School of Culinary Arts & Food Technology joined delegates in debating and discussing the significant issues surrounding the conference theme.

  19. Conference-Courses for Academic Credit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobes, Marvin

    1979-01-01

    The Wayne State University Studies/Weekend College Program demonstrates a cost effective, flexible model for conference courses. Designed to give adult, part-time students short-term intensive learning experiences, the conference course adapts typical conference activities (guest speakers, films, workshops) to a single or multidisciplinary theme,…

  20. 7 CFR 1.167 - Conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Proceedings Under Section 2 of the Capper-Volstead Act § 1.167 Conference. (a) Purpose. Upon motion of a party... that conducting the conference by audio-visual telecommunication: (i) Is necessary to prevent prejudice... in the conference: (i) Is necessary to prevent prejudice to a party; (ii) Is necessary because of...