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Sample records for gene biases behavior

  1. Down-regulation of honey bee IRS gene biases behavior toward food rich in protein.

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    Ying Wang

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Food choice and eating behavior affect health and longevity. Large-scale research efforts aim to understand the molecular and social/behavioral mechanisms of energy homeostasis, body weight, and food intake. Honey bees (Apis mellifera could provide a model for these studies since individuals vary in food-related behavior and social factors can be controlled. Here, we examine a potential role of peripheral insulin receptor substrate (IRS expression in honey bee foraging behavior. IRS is central to cellular nutrient sensing through transduction of insulin/insulin-like signals (IIS. By reducing peripheral IRS gene expression and IRS protein amount with the use of RNA interference (RNAi, we demonstrate that IRS influences foraging choice in two standard strains selected for different food-hoarding behavior. Compared with controls, IRS knockdowns bias their foraging effort toward protein (pollen rather than toward carbohydrate (nectar sources. Through control experiments, we establish that IRS does not influence the bees' sucrose sensory response, a modality that is generally associated with food-related behavior and specifically correlated with the foraging preference of honey bees. These results reveal a new affector pathway of honey bee social foraging, and suggest that IRS expressed in peripheral tissue can modulate an insect's foraging choice between protein and carbohydrate sources.

  2. Neurons That Underlie Drosophila melanogaster Reproductive Behaviors: Detection of a Large Male-Bias in Gene Expression in fruitless-Expressing Neurons

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    Nicole R. Newell

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Male and female reproductive behaviors in Drosophila melanogaster are vastly different, but neurons that express sex-specifically spliced fruitless transcripts (fru P1 underlie these behaviors in both sexes. How this set of neurons can generate such different behaviors between the two sexes is an unresolved question. A particular challenge is that fru P1-expressing neurons comprise only 2–5% of the adult nervous system, and so studies of adult head tissue or whole brain may not reveal crucial differences. Translating Ribosome Affinity Purification (TRAP identifies the actively translated pool of mRNAs from fru P1-expressing neurons, allowing a sensitive, cell-type-specific assay. We find four times more male-biased than female-biased genes in TRAP mRNAs from fru P1-expressing neurons. This suggests a potential mechanism to generate dimorphism in behavior. The male-biased genes may direct male behaviors by establishing cell fate in a similar context of gene expression observed in females. These results suggest a possible global mechanism for how distinct behaviors can arise from a shared set of neurons.

  3. BEHAVIORAL BIASES IN TRADING SECURITIES

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    Turcan Ciprian Sebastian

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The main thesis of this paper represents the importance and the effects that human behavior has over capital markets. It is important to see the link between the asset valuation and investor sentiment that motivate to pay for an asset a certain prices over/below the intrinsic value. The main behavioral aspects discussed are emotional factors such as: fear of regret, overconfidence, perseverance, loss aversion ,heuristic biases, misinformation and thinking errors, herding and their consequences.

  4. An inclusive taxonomy of behavioral biases

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    David Peón

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper overviews the theoretical and empirical research on behavioral biases and their influence in the literature. To provide a systematic exposition, we present a unified framework that takes the reader through an original taxonomy, based on the reviews of relevant authors in the field. In particular, we establish three broad categories that may be distinguished: heuristics and biases; choices, values and frames; and social factors. We then describe the main biases within each category, and revise the main theoretical and empirical developments, linking each bias with other biases and anomalies that are related to them, according to the literature.

  5. An inclusive taxonomy of behavioral biases

    OpenAIRE

    David Peón; Manel Antelo; Anxo Calvo-Silvosa

    2017-01-01

    This paper overviews the theoretical and empirical research on behavioral biases and their influence in the literature. To provide a systematic exposition, we present a unified framework that takes the reader through an original taxonomy, based on the reviews of relevant authors in the field. In particular, we establish three broad categories that may be distinguished: heuristics and biases; choices, values and frames; and social factors. We then describe the main biases within each category,...

  6. Genes that bias Mendelian segregation.

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    Grognet, Pierre; Lalucque, Hervé; Malagnac, Fabienne; Silar, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Mendel laws of inheritance can be cheated by Meiotic Drive Elements (MDs), complex nuclear genetic loci found in various eukaryotic genomes and distorting segregation in their favor. Here, we identify and characterize in the model fungus Podospora anserina Spok1 and Spok2, two MDs known as Spore Killers. We show that they are related genes with both spore-killing distorter and spore-protecting responder activities carried out by the same allele. These alleles act as autonomous elements, exert their effects independently of their location in the genome and can act as MDs in other fungi. Additionally, Spok1 acts as a resistance factor to Spok2 killing. Genetical data and cytological analysis of Spok1 and Spok2 localization during the killing process suggest a complex mode of action for Spok proteins. Spok1 and Spok2 belong to a multigene family prevalent in the genomes of many ascomycetes. As they have no obvious cellular role, Spok1 and Spok2 Spore Killer genes represent a novel kind of selfish genetic elements prevalent in fungal genome that proliferate through meiotic distortion.

  7. Genes that bias Mendelian segregation.

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    Pierre Grognet

    Full Text Available Mendel laws of inheritance can be cheated by Meiotic Drive Elements (MDs, complex nuclear genetic loci found in various eukaryotic genomes and distorting segregation in their favor. Here, we identify and characterize in the model fungus Podospora anserina Spok1 and Spok2, two MDs known as Spore Killers. We show that they are related genes with both spore-killing distorter and spore-protecting responder activities carried out by the same allele. These alleles act as autonomous elements, exert their effects independently of their location in the genome and can act as MDs in other fungi. Additionally, Spok1 acts as a resistance factor to Spok2 killing. Genetical data and cytological analysis of Spok1 and Spok2 localization during the killing process suggest a complex mode of action for Spok proteins. Spok1 and Spok2 belong to a multigene family prevalent in the genomes of many ascomycetes. As they have no obvious cellular role, Spok1 and Spok2 Spore Killer genes represent a novel kind of selfish genetic elements prevalent in fungal genome that proliferate through meiotic distortion.

  8. Information environment, behavioral biases, and home bias in analysts’ recommendations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farooq, Omar; Taouss, Mohammed

    2012-01-01

    Can information environment of a firm explain home bias in analysts’ recommendations? Can the extent of agency problems explain optimism difference between foreign and local analysts? This paper answers these questions by documenting the effect of information environment on home bias in analysts’...

  9. Genes and Social Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Gene E.; Fernald, Russell D.; Clayton, David F.

    2008-01-01

    What specific genes and regulatory sequences contribute to the organization and functioning of brain circuits that support social behavior? How does social experience interact with information in the genome to modulate these brain circuits? Here we address these questions by highlighting progress that has been made in identifying and understanding two key “vectors of influence” that link genes, brain, and social behavior: 1) social information alters gene readout in the brain to influence beh...

  10. A study on investors’ personality characteristics and behavioral biases: Conservatism bias and availability bias in the Tehran Stock Exchange

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    Mahmoud Moradi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Most economic and finance theories are based on the assumption that during economic decision making, people would act totally rational and consider all available information. Nevertheless, behavioral finance focuses on studying of the role of psychological factors on economic participants’ behavior. The study shows that in real-world environment, people are influenced by emotional and cognitive errors and may make irrational financial decisions. In many cases, the participants of financial markets are not aware of their talents for error in decision making, so they are dissatisfied with their investments by considering some behavioral biases decisions. These decisions may often yield undesirable outcomes, which could influence economy, significantly. This paper presents a survey on the relationship between personality dimensions with behavioral biases and availability bias among investment managers in the Tehran Stock Exchange using SPSS software, descriptive and inferential statistics. The necessary data are collected through questionnaire and they are analyzed using some statistical tests. The preliminary results indicate that there is a relationship between personality dimensions and behavioral biases like conservatism bias and availability bias among the investors in the Tehran Stock Exchange.

  11. Understanding antigay bias from a cognitive-affective-behavioral perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callender, Kevin A

    2015-01-01

    In general, United States citizens have become increasingly more accepting of lesbians and gay men over the past few decades. Despite this shift in public attitudes, antigay bias remains openly tolerated, accepted, practiced, and even defended by a substantial portion of the population. This article reviews why and how antigay bias persists using a cognitive-affective-behavioral perspective that touches on sociocognitive factors such as prejudice and stereotyping, as well as features unique to antigay bias, such as its concealable nature. The article concludes with a discussion of how understanding modern antigay bias through a cognitive-affective-behavioral lens can be applied to reduce discrimination against gays and lesbians.

  12. Evaluating codon bias perspective in barbiturase gene using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abdullah

    2014-01-08

    Jan 8, 2014 ... along with codon usage was done to reveal dynamics of gene evolution and expression ... analysis is a potent approach for detecting mutations, selection methods and finding rationale of biased and unbiased gene changes and hence, evolutionary ... in the perception of the molecular basics plus potential.

  13. Biasogram: visualization of confounding technical bias in gene expression data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krzystanek, Marcin; Szallasi, Zoltan Imre; Eklund, Aron Charles

    2013-01-01

    Gene expression profiles of clinical cohorts can be used to identify genes that are correlated with a clinical variable of interest such as patient outcome or response to a particular drug. However, expression measurements are susceptible to technical bias caused by variation in extraneous factors...... such as RNA quality and array hybridization conditions. If such technical bias is correlated with the clinical variable of interest, the likelihood of identifying false positive genes is increased. Here we describe a method to visualize an expression matrix as a projection of all genes onto a plane defined...... by a clinical variable and a technical nuisance variable. The resulting plot indicates the extent to which each gene is correlated with the clinical variable or the technical variable. We demonstrate this method by applying it to three clinical trial microarray data sets, one of which identified genes that may...

  14. The relationship between codon usage bias and cold resistant genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barozai, M.Y.; Din, M.

    2014-01-01

    This research is based on synonymous codon usage which has been well-known as a feature that affects typical expression level of protein in an organism. Different organisms prefer different codons for same amino acid and this is called Codon Usage Bias (CUB). The codon usage directly affects the level or even direction of changes in protein expression in responses to environmental stimuli. Cold stress is a major abiotic factor that limits the agricultural productivity of plants. In the recent study CUB has been studied in Arabidopsis thaliana cold resistant and housekeeping genes and their homologs in rice (Oryza sativa) to understand the cold stress and housekeeping genes relation with CUB. Six cold resistant and three housekeeping genes in Arabidopsis thaliana and their homologs in rice, were subjected to CUB analysis. The three cold resistant genes (DREB1B, RCI and MYB15) showed more than 50% (52%, 61% and 66% respectively) similar codon usage bias for Arabidopsis thaliana and rice. On the other hand three cold resistant genes (MPK3, ICE1 and ZAT12) showed less than 50% (38%, 38% and 47% respectively) similar codon usage bias for Arabidopsis thaliana and rice. The three housekeeping genes (Actin, Tubulin and Ubiquitin) showed 76% similar codon usage bias for Arabidopsis thaliana and rice. This study will help to manage the plant gene expression through codon optimization under the cold stress. (author)

  15. A strong deletion bias in nonallelic gene conversion.

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    Raquel Assis

    Full Text Available Gene conversion is the unidirectional transfer of genetic information between orthologous (allelic or paralogous (nonallelic genomic segments. Though a number of studies have examined nucleotide replacements, little is known about length difference mutations produced by gene conversion. Here, we investigate insertions and deletions produced by nonallelic gene conversion in 338 Drosophila and 10,149 primate paralogs. Using a direct phylogenetic approach, we identify 179 insertions and 614 deletions in Drosophila paralogs, and 132 insertions and 455 deletions in primate paralogs. Thus, nonallelic gene conversion is strongly deletion-biased in both lineages, with almost 3.5 times as many conversion-induced deletions as insertions. In primates, the deletion bias is considerably stronger for long indels and, in both lineages, the per-site rate of gene conversion is orders of magnitudes higher than that of ordinary mutation. Due to this high rate, deletion-biased nonallelic gene conversion plays a key role in genome size evolution, leading to the cooperative shrinkage and eventual disappearance of selectively neutral paralogs.

  16. The relationship between attentional bias toward safety and driving behavior.

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    Zheng, Tingting; Qu, Weina; Zhang, Kan; Ge, Yan

    2016-11-01

    As implicit cognitive processes garner more and more importance, studies in the fields of healthy psychology and organizational safety research have focused on attentional bias, a kind of selective allocation of attentional resources in the early stage of cognitive processing. However, few studies have explored the role of attentional bias on driving behavior. This study assessed drivers' attentional bias towards safety-related words (ABS) using the dot-probe paradigm and self-reported daily driving behaviors. The results revealed significant negative correlations between attentional bias scores and several indicators of dangerous driving. Drivers with fewer dangerous driving behaviors showed greater ABS. We also built a significant linear regression model between ABS and the total DDDI score, as well as ABS and the number of accidents. Finally, we discussed the possible mechanism underlying these associations and several limitations of our study. This study opens up a new topic for the exploration of implicit processes in driving safety research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Nucleus accumbens shell moderates preference bias during voluntary choice behavior.

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    Jang, Hyeran; Jung, Kanghoon; Jeong, Jaehoon; Park, Sang Ki; Kralik, Jerald D; Jeong, Jaeseung

    2017-09-01

    The nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell lies anatomically at a critical intersection within the brain's reward system circuitry, however, its role in voluntary choice behavior remains unclear. Rats with electrolytic lesions in the NAc shell were tested in a novel foraging paradigm. Over a continuous two-week period they freely chose among four nutritionally identical but differently flavored food pellets by pressing corresponding levers. We examined the lesion's effects on three behavioral dynamics components: motivation (when to eat), preference bias (what to choose) and persistence (how long to repeat the same choice). The lesion led to a marked increase in the preference bias: i.e., increased selection of the most-preferred choice option, and decreased selection of the others. We found no effects on any other behavioral measures, suggesting no effect on motivation or choice persistence. The results implicate the NAc shell in moderating the instrumental valuation process by inhibiting excessive bias toward preferred choice options. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press.

  18. Amplification biases: possible differences among deviating gene expressions

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    Piumi Francois

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene expression profiling has become a tool of choice to study pathological or developmental questions but in most cases the material is scarce and requires sample amplification. Two main procedures have been used: in vitro transcription (IVT and polymerase chain reaction (PCR, the former known as linear and the latter as exponential. Previous reports identified enzymatic pitfalls in PCR and IVT protocols; however the possible differences between the sequences affected by these amplification defaults were only rarely explored. Results Screening a bovine cDNA array dedicated to embryonic stages with embryonic (n = 3 and somatic tissues (n = 2, we proceeded to moderate amplifications starting from 1 μg of total RNA (global PCR or IVT one round. Whatever the tissue, 16% of the probes were involved in deviating gene expressions due to amplification defaults. These distortions were likely due to the molecular features of the affected sequences (position within a gene, GC content, hairpin number but also to the relative abundance of these transcripts within the tissues. These deviating genes mainly encoded housekeeping genes from physiological or cellular processes (70% and constituted 2 subsets which did not overlap (molecular features, signal intensities, gene ID. However, the differential expressions identified between embryonic stages were both reliable (minor intersect with biased expressions and relevant (biologically validated. In addition, the relative expression levels of those genes were biologically similar between amplified and unamplified samples. Conclusion Conversely to the most recent reports which challenged the use of intense amplification procedures on minute amounts of RNA, we chose moderate PCR and IVT amplifications for our gene profiling study. Conclusively, it appeared that systematic biases arose even with moderate amplification procedures, independently of (i the sample used: brain, ovary or embryos, (ii

  19. Genes, Environment, and Human Behavior.

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    Bloom, Mark V.; Cutter, Mary Ann; Davidson, Ronald; Dougherty, Michael J.; Drexler, Edward; Gelernter, Joel; McCullough, Laurence B.; McInerney, Joseph D.; Murray, Jeffrey C.; Vogler, George P.; Zola, John

    This curriculum module explores genes, environment, and human behavior. This book provides materials to teach about the nature and methods of studying human behavior, raise some of the ethical and public policy dilemmas emerging from the Human Genome Project, and provide professional development for teachers. An extensive Teacher Background…

  20. Rapid Evolution of Ovarian-Biased Genes in the Yellow Fever Mosquito (Aedes aegypti).

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    Whittle, Carrie A; Extavour, Cassandra G

    2017-08-01

    Males and females exhibit highly dimorphic phenotypes, particularly in their gonads, which is believed to be driven largely by differential gene expression. Typically, the protein sequences of genes upregulated in males, or male-biased genes, evolve rapidly as compared to female-biased and unbiased genes. To date, the specific study of gonad-biased genes remains uncommon in metazoans. Here, we identified and studied a total of 2927, 2013, and 4449 coding sequences (CDS) with ovary-biased, testis-biased, and unbiased expression, respectively, in the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti The results showed that ovary-biased and unbiased CDS had higher nonsynonymous to synonymous substitution rates (dN/dS) and lower optimal codon usage (those codons that promote efficient translation) than testis-biased genes. Further, we observed higher dN/dS in ovary-biased genes than in testis-biased genes, even for genes coexpressed in nonsexual (embryo) tissues. Ovary-specific genes evolved exceptionally fast, as compared to testis- or embryo-specific genes, and exhibited higher frequency of positive selection. Genes with ovary expression were preferentially involved in olfactory binding and reception. We hypothesize that at least two potential mechanisms could explain rapid evolution of ovary-biased genes in this mosquito: (1) the evolutionary rate of ovary-biased genes may be accelerated by sexual selection (including female-female competition or male-mate choice) affecting olfactory genes during female swarming by males, and/or by adaptive evolution of olfactory signaling within the female reproductive system ( e.g. , sperm-ovary signaling); and/or (2) testis-biased genes may exhibit decelerated evolutionary rates due to the formation of mating plugs in the female after copulation, which limits male-male sperm competition. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  1. Attentional bias modification for addictive behaviors: clinical implications.

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    Cox, W Miles; Fadardi, Javad S; Intriligator, James M; Klinger, Eric

    2014-06-01

    When a person has a goal of drinking alcohol or using another addictive substance, the person appears to be automatically distracted by stimuli related to the goal. Because the attentional bias might propel the person to use the substance, an intervention might help modify it. In this article, we discuss techniques that have been developed to help people overcome their attentional bias for alcohol, smoking-related stimuli, drugs, or unhealthy food. We also discuss how these techniques are being adapted for use on mobile devices. The latter would allow people with an addictive behavior to use the attentional training in privacy and as frequently as needed. The attentional training techniques discussed here appear to have several advantages. They are inexpensive, can be fun to use, and have flexibility in when, where, and how often they are used. The evidence so far also suggests that they are effective.

  2. Sex-biased gene expression during head development in a sexually dimorphic stalk-eyed fly.

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    Gerald S Wilkinson

    Full Text Available Stalk-eyed flies (family Diopsidae are a model system for studying sexual selection due to the elongated and sexually dimorphic eye-stalks found in many species. These flies are of additional interest because their X chromosome is derived largely from an autosomal arm in other flies. To identify candidate genes required for development of dimorphic eyestalks and investigate how sex-biased expression arose on the novel X, we compared gene expression between males and females using oligonucleotide microarrays and RNA from developing eyestalk tissue or adult heads in the dimorphic diopsid, Teleopsis dalmanni. Microarray analysis revealed sex-biased expression for 26% of 3,748 genes expressed in eye-antennal imaginal discs and concordant sex-biased expression for 86 genes in adult heads. Overall, 415 female-biased and 482 male-biased genes were associated with dimorphic eyestalk development but not differential expression in the adult head. Functional analysis revealed that male-biased genes are disproportionately associated with growth and mitochondrial function while female-biased genes are associated with cell differentiation and patterning or are novel transcripts. With regard to chromosomal effects, dosage compensation occurs by elevated expression of X-linked genes in males. Genes with female-biased expression were more common on the X and less common on autosomes than expected, while male-biased genes exhibited no chromosomal pattern. Rates of protein evolution were lower for female-biased genes but higher for genes that moved on or off the novel X chromosome. These findings cannot be due to meiotic sex chromosome inactivation or by constraints associated with dosage compensation. Instead, they could be consistent with sexual conflict in which female-biased genes on the novel X act primarily to reduce eyespan in females while other genes increase eyespan in both sexes. Additional information on sex-biased gene expression in other tissues and

  3. The unique genomic properties of sex-biased genes: Insights from avian microarray data

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    Webster Matthew T

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to develop a framework for the analysis of sex-biased genes, we present a characterization of microarray data comparing male and female gene expression in 18 day chicken embryos for brain, gonad, and heart tissue. Results From the 15982 significantly expressed coding regions that have been assigned to either the autosomes or the Z chromosome (12979 in brain, 13301 in gonad, and 12372 in heart, roughly 18% were significantly sex-biased in any one tissue, though only 4 gene targets were biased in all tissues. The gonad was the most sex-biased tissue, followed by the brain. Sex-biased autosomal genes tended to be expressed at lower levels and in fewer tissues than unbiased gene targets, and autosomal somatic sex-biased genes had more expression noise than similar unbiased genes. Sex-biased genes linked to the Z-chromosome showed reduced expression in females, but not in males, when compared to unbiased Z-linked genes, and sex-biased Z-linked genes were also expressed in fewer tissues than unbiased Z coding regions. Third position GC content, and codon usage bias showed some sex-biased effects, primarily for autosomal genes expressed in the gonad. Finally, there were several over-represented Gene Ontology terms in the sex-biased gene sets. Conclusion On the whole, this analysis suggests that sex-biased genes have unique genomic and organismal properties that delineate them from genes that are expressed equally in males and females.

  4. Dynamical behavior of RF-biased Josephson junctions (I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zi-Dan, Wang; Xi-Xian, Yao

    1985-09-01

    A lot of numerical investigation of equations of RF-biased Josephson junctions is carried out, in which the interference term is included in current-phase relation. Chaotic behavior, sequence of period-doubling bifurcations, inverse sequence of chaotic band and intermittent chaos are found separately in various parameter regions. The convergent factor delta n of 2/sup /P sequence and the ratio Phi(k)/Phi(k+1) are calculated, where Phi(k) is the average height of the peaks corresponding to 2/sup k/P in the power spectrum. We also study the symmetry possessed by period solutions and its relation to the nature of approach to chaos.

  5. Sex-biased gene flow among elk in the greater Yellowstone ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand, Brian K.; Chen, Shanyuan; Anderson, Neil; Beja-Pereira, Albano; Cross, Paul C.; Ebinger, Michael R.; Edwards, Hank; Garrott, Robert A.; Kardos, Marty D.; Kauffman, Matthew J.; Landguth, Erin L.; Middleton, Arthur; Scurlock, Brandon M.; White, P.J.; Zager, Pete; Schwartz, Michael K.; Luikart, Gordon

    2014-01-01

    We quantified patterns of population genetic structure to help understand gene flow among elk populations across the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. We sequenced 596 base pairs of the mitochondrial control region of 380 elk from eight populations. Analysis revealed high mitochondrial DNA variation within populations, averaging 13.0 haplotypes with high mean gene diversity (0.85). The genetic differentiation among populations for mitochondrial DNA was relatively high (FST  =  0.161; P  =  0.001) compared to genetic differentiation for nuclear microsatellite data (FST  =  0.002; P  =  0.332), which suggested relatively low female gene flow among populations. The estimated ratio of male to female gene flow (mm/mf  =  46) was among the highest we have seen reported for large mammals. Genetic distance (for mitochondrial DNA pairwise FST) was not significantly correlated with geographic (Euclidean) distance between populations (Mantel's r  =  0.274, P  =  0.168). Large mitochondrial DNA genetic distances (e.g., FST > 0.2) between some of the geographically closest populations (<65 km) suggested behavioral factors and/or landscape features might shape female gene flow patterns. Given the strong sex-biased gene flow, future research and conservation efforts should consider the sexes separately when modeling corridors of gene flow or predicting spread of maternally transmitted diseases. The growing availability of genetic data to compare male vs. female gene flow provides many exciting opportunities to explore the magnitude, causes, and implications of sex-biased gene flow likely to occur in many species.

  6. Gene expression, nucleotide composition and codon usage bias of genes associated with human Y chromosome.

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    Choudhury, Monisha Nath; Uddin, Arif; Chakraborty, Supriyo

    2017-06-01

    Analysis of codon usage pattern is important to understand the genetic and evolutionary characteristics of genomes. We have used bioinformatic approaches to analyze the codon usage bias (CUB) of the genes located in human Y chromosome. Codon bias index (CBI) indicated that the overall extent of codon usage bias was low. The relative synonymous codon usage (RSCU) analysis suggested that approximately half of the codons out of 59 synonymous codons were most frequently used, and possessed a T or G at the third codon position. The codon usage pattern was different in different genes as revealed from correspondence analysis (COA). A significant correlation between effective number of codons (ENC) and various GC contents suggests that both mutation pressure and natural selection affect the codon usage pattern of genes located in human Y chromosome. In addition, Y-linked genes have significant difference in GC contents at the second and third codon positions, expression level, and codon usage pattern of some codons like the SPANX genes in X chromosome.

  7. Large scale gene expression meta-analysis reveals tissue-specific, sex-biased gene expression in humans

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    Benjamin Mayne

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The severity and prevalence of many diseases are known to differ between the sexes. Organ specific sex-biased gene expression may underpin these and other sexually dimorphic traits. To further our understanding of sex differences in transcriptional regulation, we performed meta-analyses of sex biased gene expression in multiple human tissues. We analysed 22 publicly available human gene expression microarray data sets including over 2500 samples from 15 different tissues and 9 different organs. Briefly, by using an inverse-variance method we determined the effect size difference of gene expression between males and females. We found the greatest sex differences in gene expression in the brain, specifically in the anterior cingulate cortex, (1818 genes, followed by the heart (375 genes, kidney (224 genes, colon (218 genes and thyroid (163 genes. More interestingly, we found different parts of the brain with varying numbers and identity of sex-biased genes, indicating that specific cortical regions may influence sexually dimorphic traits. The majority of sex-biased genes in other tissues such as the bladder, liver, lungs and pancreas were on the sex chromosomes or involved in sex hormone production. On average in each tissue, 32% of autosomal genes that were expressed in a sex-biased fashion contained androgen or estrogen hormone response elements. Interestingly, across all tissues, we found approximately two-thirds of autosomal genes that were sex-biased were not under direct influence of sex hormones. To our knowledge this is the largest analysis of sex-biased gene expression in human tissues to date. We identified many sex-biased genes that were not under the direct influence of sex chromosome genes or sex hormones. These may provide targets for future development of sex-specific treatments for diseases.

  8. Genes with minimal phylogenetic information are problematic for coalescent analyses when gene tree estimation is biased.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Zhenxiang; Liu, Liang; Davis, Charles C

    2015-11-01

    The development and application of coalescent methods are undergoing rapid changes. One little explored area that bears on the application of gene-tree-based coalescent methods to species tree estimation is gene informativeness. Here, we investigate the accuracy of these coalescent methods when genes have minimal phylogenetic information, including the implementation of the multilocus bootstrap approach. Using simulated DNA sequences, we demonstrate that genes with minimal phylogenetic information can produce unreliable gene trees (i.e., high error in gene tree estimation), which may in turn reduce the accuracy of species tree estimation using gene-tree-based coalescent methods. We demonstrate that this problem can be alleviated by sampling more genes, as is commonly done in large-scale phylogenomic analyses. This applies even when these genes are minimally informative. If gene tree estimation is biased, however, gene-tree-based coalescent analyses will produce inconsistent results, which cannot be remedied by increasing the number of genes. In this case, it is not the gene-tree-based coalescent methods that are flawed, but rather the input data (i.e., estimated gene trees). Along these lines, the commonly used program PhyML has a tendency to infer one particular bifurcating topology even though it is best represented as a polytomy. We additionally corroborate these findings by analyzing the 183-locus mammal data set assembled by McCormack et al. (2012) using ultra-conserved elements (UCEs) and flanking DNA. Lastly, we demonstrate that when employing the multilocus bootstrap approach on this 183-locus data set, there is no strong conflict between species trees estimated from concatenation and gene-tree-based coalescent analyses, as has been previously suggested by Gatesy and Springer (2014). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Common method biases in behavioral research: a critical review of the literature and recommended remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podsakoff, Philip M; MacKenzie, Scott B; Lee, Jeong-Yeon; Podsakoff, Nathan P

    2003-10-01

    Interest in the problem of method biases has a long history in the behavioral sciences. Despite this, a comprehensive summary of the potential sources of method biases and how to control for them does not exist. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to examine the extent to which method biases influence behavioral research results, identify potential sources of method biases, discuss the cognitive processes through which method biases influence responses to measures, evaluate the many different procedural and statistical techniques that can be used to control method biases, and provide recommendations for how to select appropriate procedural and statistical remedies for different types of research settings.

  10. Cultural and Ethnic Bias in Teacher Ratings of Behavior: A Criterion-Focused Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Benjamin A.; Gunersel, Adalet Baris; Ney, Emilie A.

    2014-01-01

    Behavior rating scales are indirect measures of emotional and social functioning used for assessment purposes. Rater bias is systematic error that may compromise the validity of behavior rating scale scores. Teacher bias in ratings of behavior has been investigated in multiple studies, but not yet assessed in a research synthesis that focuses on…

  11. Caregivers' attentional bias to pain : does it affect caregiver accuracy in detecting patient pain behaviors?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohammadi, Somayyeh; Dehghani, Mohsen; Khatibi, Ali; Sanderman, Robbert; Hagedoorn, Mariet

    Attentional bias to pain among family caregivers of patients with pain may enhance the detection of pain behaviors in patients. However, both relatively high and low levels of attentional bias may increase disagreement between patients and caregivers in reporting pain behaviors. This study aims to

  12. Nucleotide composition bias and codon usage trends of gene ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-06-10

    Jun 10, 2015 ... In a wide variety of organisms, synonymous codons are selected with different ... In addition, a series of GC skew and AT skew data was calculated for codon positions 1, ..... bias from different perspectives. Interestingly .... This study was supported by programme for Changjiang Scholars and Innovative ...

  13. Mutational Biases and GC-Biased Gene Conversion Affect GC Content in the Plastomes of Dendrobium Genus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhitao Niu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The variation of GC content is a key genome feature because it is associated with fundamental elements of genome organization. However, the reason for this variation is still an open question. Different kinds of hypotheses have been proposed to explain the variation of GC content during genome evolution. However, these hypotheses have not been explicitly investigated in whole plastome sequences. Dendrobium is one of the largest genera in the orchid species. Evolutionary studies of the plastomic organization and base composition are limited in this genus. In this study, we obtained the high-quality plastome sequences of D. loddigesii and D. devonianum. The comparison results showed a nearly identical organization in Dendrobium plastomes, indicating that the plastomic organization is highly conserved in Dendrobium genus. Furthermore, the impact of three evolutionary forces—selection, mutational biases, and GC-biased gene conversion (gBGC—on the variation of GC content in Dendrobium plastomes was evaluated. Our results revealed: (1 consistent GC content evolution trends and mutational biases in single-copy (SC and inverted repeats (IRs regions; and (2 that gBGC has influenced the plastome-wide GC content evolution. These results suggest that both mutational biases and gBGC affect GC content in the plastomes of Dendrobium genus.

  14. Mutational Biases and GC-Biased Gene Conversion Affect GC Content in the Plastomes of Dendrobium Genus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Zhitao; Xue, Qingyun; Wang, Hui; Xie, Xuezhu; Zhu, Shuying; Liu, Wei; Ding, Xiaoyu

    2017-01-01

    The variation of GC content is a key genome feature because it is associated with fundamental elements of genome organization. However, the reason for this variation is still an open question. Different kinds of hypotheses have been proposed to explain the variation of GC content during genome evolution. However, these hypotheses have not been explicitly investigated in whole plastome sequences. Dendrobium is one of the largest genera in the orchid species. Evolutionary studies of the plastomic organization and base composition are limited in this genus. In this study, we obtained the high-quality plastome sequences of D. loddigesii and D. devonianum. The comparison results showed a nearly identical organization in Dendrobium plastomes, indicating that the plastomic organization is highly conserved in Dendrobium genus. Furthermore, the impact of three evolutionary forces—selection, mutational biases, and GC-biased gene conversion (gBGC)—on the variation of GC content in Dendrobium plastomes was evaluated. Our results revealed: (1) consistent GC content evolution trends and mutational biases in single-copy (SC) and inverted repeats (IRs) regions; and (2) that gBGC has influenced the plastome-wide GC content evolution. These results suggest that both mutational biases and gBGC affect GC content in the plastomes of Dendrobium genus. PMID:29099062

  15. Transcription regulation of sex-biased genes during ontogeny in the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae.

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    Kalle Magnusson

    Full Text Available In Anopheles gambiae, sex-regulated genes are responsible for controlling gender dimorphism and are therefore crucial in determining the ability of female mosquitoes to transmit human malaria. The identification and functional characterization of these genes will shed light on the sexual development and maturation of mosquitoes and provide useful targets for genetic control measures aimed at reducing mosquito fertility and/or distorting the sex ratio.We conducted a genome wide transcriptional analysis of sex-regulated genes from early developmental stages through adulthood combined with functional screening of novel gonadal genes. Our results demonstrate that the male-biased genes undergo a major transcription turnover starting from larval stages to adulthood. The male biased genes at the adult stage include a significant high number of unique sequences compared to the rest of the genome. This is in contrast to female-biased genes that are much more conserved and are mainly activated during late developmental stages.The high frequency of unique sequences would indicate that male-biased genes evolve more rapidly than the rest of the genome. This finding is particularly intriguing because A. gambiae is a strictly female monogamous species suggesting that driving forces in addition to sperm competition must account for the rapid evolution of male-biased genes. We have also identified and functionally characterized a number of previously unknown A. gambiae testis- and ovary-specific genes. Two of these genes, zero population growth and a suppressor of defective silencing 3 domain of the histone deacetylase co-repressor complex, were shown to play a key role in gonad development.

  16. Length bias correction in gene ontology enrichment analysis using logistic regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Gu; Di, Yanming; Emerson, Sarah; Cumbie, Jason S; Chang, Jeff H

    2012-01-01

    When assessing differential gene expression from RNA sequencing data, commonly used statistical tests tend to have greater power to detect differential expression of genes encoding longer transcripts. This phenomenon, called "length bias", will influence subsequent analyses such as Gene Ontology enrichment analysis. In the presence of length bias, Gene Ontology categories that include longer genes are more likely to be identified as enriched. These categories, however, are not necessarily biologically more relevant. We show that one can effectively adjust for length bias in Gene Ontology analysis by including transcript length as a covariate in a logistic regression model. The logistic regression model makes the statistical issue underlying length bias more transparent: transcript length becomes a confounding factor when it correlates with both the Gene Ontology membership and the significance of the differential expression test. The inclusion of the transcript length as a covariate allows one to investigate the direct correlation between the Gene Ontology membership and the significance of testing differential expression, conditional on the transcript length. We present both real and simulated data examples to show that the logistic regression approach is simple, effective, and flexible.

  17. Codon bias and gene ontology in holometabolous and hemimetabolous insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlini, David B; Makowski, Matthew

    2015-12-01

    The relationship between preferred codon use (PCU), developmental mode, and gene ontology (GO) was investigated in a sample of nine insect species with sequenced genomes. These species were selected to represent two distinct modes of insect development, holometabolism and hemimetabolism, with an aim toward determining whether the differences in developmental timing concomitant with developmental mode would be mirrored by differences in PCU in their developmental genes. We hypothesized that the developmental genes of holometabolous insects should be under greater selective pressure for efficient translation, manifest as increased PCU, than those of hemimetabolous insects because holometabolism requires abundant protein expression over shorter time intervals than hemimetabolism, where proteins are required more uniformly in time. Preferred codon sets were defined for each species, from which the frequency of PCU for each gene was obtained. Although there were substantial differences in the genomic base composition of holometabolous and hemimetabolous insects, both groups exhibited a general preference for GC-ending codons, with the former group having higher PCU averaged across all genes. For each species, the biological process GO term for each gene was assigned that of its Drosophila homolog(s), and PCU was calculated for each GO term category. The top two GO term categories for PCU enrichment in the holometabolous insects were anatomical structure development and cell differentiation. The increased PCU in the developmental genes of holometabolous insects may reflect a general strategy to maximize the protein production of genes expressed in bursts over short time periods, e.g., heat shock proteins. J. Exp. Zool. (Mol. Dev. Evol.) 324B: 686-698, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Heuristic Processes in Ratings of Leader Behavior: Assessing Item-Induced Availability Biases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binning, John F.; Fernandez, Guadalupe

    Since observers' memory-based ratings of organizational phenomena provide data in research and decision-making contexts, bias in observers' judgments must be examined. A study was conducted to explore the extent to which leader behavior ratings are more generally biased by the availability heuristic. The availability heuristic is operative when a…

  19. When Biased Language Use Is Associated with Bullying and Dominance Behavior: The Moderating Effect of Prejudice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poteat, V. Paul; DiGiovanni, Craig D.

    2010-01-01

    Biased language related to sexual orientation is used frequently among students and is related to prominent social concerns such as bullying. Prejudice toward gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender individuals also has been examined among adolescents, but separately from these behaviors. This study tested whether biased language use was…

  20. Teacher Ratings of ADHD Symptoms in Ethnic Minority Students: Bias or Behavioral Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosterman, Shelley J.; DuPaul, George J.; Jitendra, Asha K.

    2008-01-01

    Disproportionate placement of African American and Hispanic students into disability and special education categories may result from true behavioral and cognitive differences, bias in assessment and referral, or some combination of the two. Studies of commonly used ADHD rating scales suggest teacher bias may contribute to placement discrepancies.…

  1. Attention Biases to Threat Link Behavioral Inhibition to Social Withdrawal over Time in Very Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Edgar, Koraly; Reeb-Sutherland, Bethany C.; McDermott, Jennifer Martin; White, Lauren K.; Henderson, Heather A.; Degnan, Kathryn A.; Hane, Amie A.; Pine, Daniel S.; Fox, Nathan A.

    2011-01-01

    Behaviorally inhibited children display a temperamental profile characterized by social withdrawal and anxious behaviors. Previous research, focused largely on adolescents, suggests that attention biases to threat may sustain high levels of behavioral inhibition (BI) over time, helping link early temperament to social outcomes. However, no prior…

  2. Personality Traits and Susceptibility to Behavioral Biases among a Sample of Polish Stock Market Investors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rzeszutek Marcin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate whether susceptibility to selected behavioral biases (overconfidence, mental accounting and sunk-cost fallacy is correlated with the Eysenck’s [1978] personality traits (impulsivity, venturesomeness, and empathy. This study was conducted on a sample of 90 retail investors frequently investing on the Warsaw Stock Exchange. Participants filled out a survey made up of two parts: 1 three situational exercises, which assessed susceptibility to behavioral biases and 2 an Impulsiveness Questionnaire, which measures impulsivity, venturesomeness, and empathy. The results demonstrated the relationship between venturesomeness and susceptibility to all behavioral biases explored in this study. We find that higher level of venturesomeness was linked with a lower probability of all behavioral biases included in this study.

  3. Biased immunoglobulin light chain gene usage in the shark1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacoangeli, Anna; Lui, Anita; Naik, Ushma; Ohta, Yuko; Flajnik, Martin; Hsu, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    This study of a large family of kappa light (L) chain clusters in nurse shark completes the characterization of its classical immunoglobulin (Ig) gene content (two heavy chain classes, mu and omega, and four L chain isotopes, kappa, lambda, sigma, and sigma-2). The shark kappa clusters are minigenes consisting of a simple VL-JL-CL array, where V to J recombination occurs over a ~500 bp interval, and functional clusters are widely separated by at least 100 kb. Six out of ca. 39 kappa clusters are pre-rearranged in the germline (GL-joined). Unlike the complex gene organization and multistep assembly process of Ig in mammals, each shark Ig rearrangement, somatic or in the germline, appears to be an independent event localized to the minigene. This study examined the expression of functional, non-productive, and sterile transcripts of the kappa clusters compared to the other three L chain isotypes. Kappa cluster usage was investigated in young sharks, and a skewed pattern of split gene expression was observed, one similar in functional and non-productive rearrangements. These results show that the individual activation of the spatially distant kappa clusters is non-random. Although both split and GL-joined kappa genes are expressed, the latter are prominent in young animals and wane with age. We speculate that, in the shark, the differential activation of the multiple isotypes can be advantageously used in receptor editing. PMID:26342033

  4. Biased Immunoglobulin Light Chain Gene Usage in the Shark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacoangeli, Anna; Lui, Anita; Naik, Ushma; Ohta, Yuko; Flajnik, Martin; Hsu, Ellen

    2015-10-15

    This study of a large family of κ L chain clusters in nurse shark completes the characterization of its classical Ig gene content (two H chain isotypes, μ and ω, and four L chain isotypes, κ, λ, σ, and σ-2). The shark κ clusters are minigenes consisting of a simple VL-JL-CL array, where V to J recombination occurs over an ~500-bp interval, and functional clusters are widely separated by at least 100 kb. Six out of ~39 κ clusters are prerearranged in the germline (germline joined). Unlike the complex gene organization and multistep assembly process of Ig in mammals, each shark Ig rearrangement, somatic or in the germline, appears to be an independent event localized to the minigene. This study examined the expression of functional, nonproductive, and sterile transcripts of the κ clusters compared with the other three L chain isotypes. κ cluster usage was investigated in young sharks, and a skewed pattern of split gene expression was observed, one similar in functional and nonproductive rearrangements. These results show that the individual activation of the spatially distant κ clusters is nonrandom. Although both split and germline-joined κ genes are expressed, the latter are prominent in young animals and wane with age. We speculate that, in the shark, the differential activation of the multiple isotypes can be advantageously used in receptor editing. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  5. Positional bias of general and tissue-specific regulatory motifs in mouse gene promoters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farré Domènec

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The arrangement of regulatory motifs in gene promoters, or promoter architecture, is the result of mutation and selection processes that have operated over many millions of years. In mammals, tissue-specific transcriptional regulation is related to the presence of specific protein-interacting DNA motifs in gene promoters. However, little is known about the relative location and spacing of these motifs. To fill this gap, we have performed a systematic search for motifs that show significant bias at specific promoter locations in a large collection of housekeeping and tissue-specific genes. Results We observe that promoters driving housekeeping gene expression are enriched in particular motifs with strong positional bias, such as YY1, which are of little relevance in promoters driving tissue-specific expression. We also identify a large number of motifs that show positional bias in genes expressed in a highly tissue-specific manner. They include well-known tissue-specific motifs, such as HNF1 and HNF4 motifs in liver, kidney and small intestine, or RFX motifs in testis, as well as many potentially novel regulatory motifs. Based on this analysis, we provide predictions for 559 tissue-specific motifs in mouse gene promoters. Conclusion The study shows that motif positional bias is an important feature of mammalian proximal promoters and that it affects both general and tissue-specific motifs. Motif positional constraints define very distinct promoter architectures depending on breadth of expression and type of tissue.

  6. Attention biases to threat and behavioral inhibition in early childhood shape adolescent social withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Edgar, Koraly; Bar-Haim, Yair; McDermott, Jennifer Martin; Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea; Pine, Daniel S; Fox, Nathan A

    2010-06-01

    Behavioral inhibition (BI) is a temperament characterized in young children by a heightened sensitivity to novelty, social withdrawal, and anxious behaviors. For many children, these social difficulties dissipate over time. For others, patterns of social withdrawal continue into adolescence. Over time, attention biases to threat may influence the stability of BI and its association with social withdrawal, ultimately modulating the risk for anxiety disorders in BI children. However, we know relatively little about the cognitive processes that accompany BI and shape later socio-emotional functioning. We examined the relations among BI in childhood, attention biases to threat in adolescence, and adolescent social withdrawal in a longitudinal study (N = 126, Mean age = 15 years). As has been reported in anxious adults, adolescents who were behaviorally inhibited as toddlers and young children showed heightened attention bias to threat. In addition, attention bias to threat moderated the relation between childhood BI and adolescent social withdrawal.

  7. Market Efficiency and Behavioral Biases in the WNBA Betting Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodney J. Paul

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The betting market for the Women’s National Basketball Association (WNBA is a thin financial market, which does not attract much interest from sports bettors. Given these characteristics, it is possible that profitable wagering strategies could exist for informed bettors of the WNBA. Using betting data on the WNBA from 2007–2012, we find that simple betting strategies do not earn statistically significant returns. WNBA bettors are like NBA bettors; however, in that they strongly prefer the best teams, particularly when they are on the road. Despite this clear bias, betting against the most popular public wagers is not found to earn statistically significant profits.

  8. Biased distribution of DNA uptake sequences towards genome maintenance genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, T.; Rodland, E.A.; Lagesen, K.

    2004-01-01

    Repeated sequence signatures are characteristic features of all genomic DNA. We have made a rigorous search for repeat genomic sequences in the human pathogens Neisseria meningitidis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Haemophilus influenzae and found that by far the most frequent 9-10mers residing within...... in these organisms. Pasteurella multocida also displayed high frequencies of a putative DUS identical to that previously identified in H. influenzae and with a skewed distribution towards genome maintenance genes, indicating that this bacterium might be transformation competent under certain conditions....

  9. Same-strand overlapping genes in bacteria: compositional determinants of phase bias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Landan Giddy

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Same-strand overlapping genes may occur in frameshifts of one (phase 1 or two nucleotides (phase 2. In previous studies of bacterial genomes, long phase-1 overlaps were found to be more numerous than long phase-2 overlaps. This bias was explained by either genomic location or an unspecified selection advantage. Models that focused on the ability of the two genes to evolve independently did not predict this phase bias. Here, we propose that a purely compositional model explains the phase bias in a more parsimonious manner. Same-strand overlapping genes may arise through either a mutation at the termination codon of the upstream gene or a mutation at the initiation codon of the downstream gene. We hypothesized that given these two scenarios, the frequencies of initiation and termination codons in the two phases may determine the number for overlapping genes. Results We examined the frequencies of initiation- and termination-codons in the two phases, and found that termination codons do not significantly differ between the two phases, whereas initiation codons are more abundant in phase 1. We found that the primary factors explaining the phase inequality are the frequencies of amino acids whose codons may combine to form start codons in the two phases. We show that the frequencies of start codons in each of the two phases, and, hence, the potential for the creation of overlapping genes, are determined by a universal amino-acid frequency and species-specific codon usage, leading to a correlation between long phase-1 overlaps and genomic GC content. Conclusion Our model explains the phase bias in same-strand overlapping genes by compositional factors without invoking selection. Therefore, it can be used as a null model of neutral evolution to test selection hypotheses concerning the evolution of overlapping genes. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Bill Martin, Itai Yanai, and Mikhail Gelfand.

  10. Relative codon adaptation: a generic codon bias index for prediction of gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Jesse M; Erill, Ivan

    2010-06-01

    The development of codon bias indices (CBIs) remains an active field of research due to their myriad applications in computational biology. Recently, the relative codon usage bias (RCBS) was introduced as a novel CBI able to estimate codon bias without using a reference set. The results of this new index when applied to Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae led the authors of the original publications to conclude that natural selection favours higher expression and enhanced codon usage optimization in short genes. Here, we show that this conclusion was flawed and based on the systematic oversight of an intrinsic bias for short sequences in the RCBS index and of biases in the small data sets used for validation in E. coli. Furthermore, we reveal that how the RCBS can be corrected to produce useful results and how its underlying principle, which we here term relative codon adaptation (RCA), can be made into a powerful reference-set-based index that directly takes into account the genomic base composition. Finally, we show that RCA outperforms the codon adaptation index (CAI) as a predictor of gene expression when operating on the CAI reference set and that this improvement is significantly larger when analysing genomes with high mutational bias.

  11. Dynamical behavior of RF-biased Josephson junctions (II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xi-Dan, Wang; Xi-Xian, Yao

    1985-09-01

    Numerical investigations of a differential equation describing a rf-biased Josephson junction, in which the interference term current is included, are carried out in some parameter region. The existence of the intermittant transition to chaos is obtained and the critical exponent of the scaling law is determined in agreement with theoretical predictions. Furthermore, the Lyapunov exponent is calculated for several parameters, then the fractal dimension of strange attractor d/sub L/ is obtained, its dependence on the Lyapunov exponent is defined by Kaplan and Yorke. In addition, the Kolmogorov capacity of strange attractor d/sub c/ is also calculated by box-counting algorithm. Such calculated values of d/sub L/ and d/sub c/ are close to each other as expected.

  12. Does a Positive Bias Relate to Social Behavior in Children with ADHD?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnea, Kate; Hoza, Betsy; Tomb, Meghan; Kaiser, Nina

    2012-01-01

    This study examines whether positively biased self-perceptions relate to social behaviors in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as compared to control children. The social behaviors of children with ADHD (n = 87) were examined relative to control children (CTL; n = 38) during a laboratory-based dyadic social interaction…

  13. Disentangling the effects of selection and loss bias on gene dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iranzo, J.; Cuesta, J.A.; Manrubia, S.; Katsnelson, M.I.; Koonin, E.V.

    2017-01-01

    We combine mathematical modeling of genome evolution with comparative analysis of prokaryotic genomes to estimate the relative contributions of selection and intrinsic loss bias to the evolution of different functional classes of genes and mobile genetic elements (MGE). An exact solution for the

  14. PDK1 and HR46 gene homologs tie social behavior to ovary signals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Wang

    Full Text Available The genetic basis of division of labor in social insects is a central question in evolutionary and behavioral biology. The honey bee is a model for studying evolutionary behavioral genetics because of its well characterized age-correlated division of labor. After an initial period of within-nest tasks, 2-3 week-old worker bees begin foraging outside the nest. Individuals often specialize by biasing their foraging efforts toward collecting pollen or nectar. Efforts to explain the origins of foraging specialization suggest that division of labor between nectar and pollen foraging specialists is influenced by genes with effects on reproductive physiology. Quantitative trait loci (QTL mapping of foraging behavior also reveals candidate genes for reproductive traits. Here, we address the linkage of reproductive anatomy to behavior, using backcross QTL analysis, behavioral and anatomical phenotyping, candidate gene expression studies, and backcross confirmation of gene-to-anatomical trait associations. Our data show for the first time that the activity of two positional candidate genes for behavior, PDK1 and HR46, have direct genetic relationships to ovary size, a central reproductive trait that correlates with the nectar and pollen foraging bias of workers. These findings implicate two genes that were not known previously to influence complex social behavior. Also, they outline how selection may have acted on gene networks that affect reproductive resource allocation and behavior to facilitate the evolution of social foraging in honey bees.

  15. Rapid evolution of female-biased genes among four species of Anopheles malaria mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, Francesco; Windbichler, Nikolai; Waterhouse, Robert M; Cagnetti, Alessia; D'Amato, Rocco; Persampieri, Tania; Lawniczak, Mara K N; Nolan, Tony; Papathanos, Philippos Aris

    2017-09-01

    Understanding how phenotypic differences between males and females arise from the sex-biased expression of nearly identical genomes can reveal important insights into the biology and evolution of a species. Among Anopheles mosquito species, these phenotypic differences include vectorial capacity, as it is only females that blood feed and thus transmit human malaria. Here, we use RNA-seq data from multiple tissues of four vector species spanning the Anopheles phylogeny to explore the genomic and evolutionary properties of sex-biased genes. We find that, in these mosquitoes, in contrast to what has been found in many other organisms, female-biased genes are more rapidly evolving in sequence, expression, and genic turnover than male-biased genes. Our results suggest that this atypical pattern may be due to the combination of sex-specific life history challenges encountered by females, such as blood feeding. Furthermore, female propensity to mate only once in nature in male swarms likely diminishes sexual selection of post-reproductive traits related to sperm competition among males. We also develop a comparative framework to systematically explore tissue- and sex-specific splicing to document its conservation throughout the genus and identify a set of candidate genes for future functional analyses of sex-specific isoform usage. Finally, our data reveal that the deficit of male-biased genes on the X Chromosomes in Anopheles is a conserved feature in this genus and can be directly attributed to chromosome-wide transcriptional regulation that de-masculinizes the X in male reproductive tissues. © 2017 Papa et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  16. Sex-biased gene expression in dioecious garden asparagus (Asparagus officinalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkess, Alex; Mercati, Francesco; Shan, Hong-Yan; Sunseri, Francesco; Falavigna, Agostino; Leebens-Mack, Jim

    2015-08-01

    Sex chromosomes have evolved independently in phylogenetically diverse flowering plant lineages. The genes governing sex determination in dioecious species remain unknown, but theory predicts that the linkage of genes influencing male and female function will spur the origin and early evolution of sex chromosomes. For example, in an XY system, the origin of an active Y may be spurred by the linkage of female suppressing and male promoting genes. Garden asparagus (Asparagus officinalis) serves as a model for plant sex chromosome evolution, given that it has recently evolved an XX/XY sex chromosome system. In order to elucidate the molecular basis of gender differences and sex determination, we used RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq) to identify differentially expressed genes between female (XX), male (XY) and supermale (YY) individuals. We identified 570 differentially expressed genes, and showed that significantly more genes exhibited male-biased than female-biased expression in garden asparagus. In the context of anther development, we identified genes involved in pollen microspore and tapetum development that were specifically expressed in males and supermales. Comparative analysis of genes in the Arabidopsis thaliana, Zea mays and Oryza sativa anther development pathways shows that anther sterility in females probably occurs through interruption of tapetum development before microspore meiosis. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  17. Classification based upon gene expression data: bias and precision of error rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Ian A; Visscher, Peter M; Mengersen, Kerrie L

    2007-06-01

    Gene expression data offer a large number of potentially useful predictors for the classification of tissue samples into classes, such as diseased and non-diseased. The predictive error rate of classifiers can be estimated using methods such as cross-validation. We have investigated issues of interpretation and potential bias in the reporting of error rate estimates. The issues considered here are optimization and selection biases, sampling effects, measures of misclassification rate, baseline error rates, two-level external cross-validation and a novel proposal for detection of bias using the permutation mean. Reporting an optimal estimated error rate incurs an optimization bias. Downward bias of 3-5% was found in an existing study of classification based on gene expression data and may be endemic in similar studies. Using a simulated non-informative dataset and two example datasets from existing studies, we show how bias can be detected through the use of label permutations and avoided using two-level external cross-validation. Some studies avoid optimization bias by using single-level cross-validation and a test set, but error rates can be more accurately estimated via two-level cross-validation. In addition to estimating the simple overall error rate, we recommend reporting class error rates plus where possible the conditional risk incorporating prior class probabilities and a misclassification cost matrix. We also describe baseline error rates derived from three trivial classifiers which ignore the predictors. R code which implements two-level external cross-validation with the PAMR package, experiment code, dataset details and additional figures are freely available for non-commercial use from http://www.maths.qut.edu.au/profiles/wood/permr.jsp

  18. Tumor suppressor genes that escape from X-inactivation contribute to cancer sex bias

    OpenAIRE

    Dunford, Andrew; Weinstock, David M.; Savova, Virginia; Schumacher, Steven E.; Cleary, John P.; Yoda, Akinori; Sullivan, Timothy J.; Hess, Julian M.; Gimelbrant, Alexander A.; Beroukhim, Rameen; Lawrence, Michael S.; Getz, Gad; Lane, Andrew A.

    2016-01-01

    There is a striking and unexplained male predominance across many cancer types. A subset of X chromosome (chrX) genes can escape X-inactivation, which would protect females from complete functional loss by a single mutation. To identify putative “Escape from X-Inactivation Tumor Suppressor” (EXITS) genes, we compared somatic alterations from >4100 cancers across 21 tumor types for sex bias. Six of 783 non-pseudoautosomal region (PAR) chrX genes (ATRX, CNKSR2, DDX3X, KDM5C, KDM6A, and MAGEC3) ...

  19. Looking on the bright side: biased attention and the human serotonin transporter gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Elaine; Ridgewell, Anna; Ashwin, Chris

    2009-05-22

    Humans differ in terms of biased attention for emotional stimuli and these biases can confer differential resilience and vulnerability to emotional disorders. Selective processing of positive emotional information, for example, is associated with enhanced sociability and well-being while a bias for negative material is associated with neuroticism and anxiety. A tendency to selectively avoid negative material might also be associated with mental health and well-being. The neurobiological mechanisms underlying these cognitive phenotypes are currently unknown. Here we show for the first time that allelic variation in the promotor region of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) is associated with differential biases for positive and negative affective pictures. Individuals homozygous for the long allele (LL) showed a marked bias to selectively process positive affective material alongside selective avoidance of negative affective material. This potentially protective pattern was absent among individuals carrying the short allele (S or SL). Thus, allelic variation on a common genetic polymorphism was associated with the tendency to selectively process positive or negative information. The current study is important in demonstrating a genotype-related alteration in a well-established processing bias, which is a known risk factor in determining both resilience and vulnerability to emotional disorders.

  20. Threat Interference Biases Predict Socially Anxious Behavior: The Role of Inhibitory Control and Minute of Stressor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorlin, Eugenia I; Teachman, Bethany A

    2015-07-01

    The current study brings together two typically distinct lines of research. First, social anxiety is inconsistently associated with behavioral deficits in social performance, and the factors accounting for these deficits remain poorly understood. Second, research on selective processing of threat cues, termed cognitive biases, suggests these biases typically predict negative outcomes, but may sometimes be adaptive, depending on the context. Integrating these research areas, the current study examined whether conscious and/or unconscious threat interference biases (indexed by the unmasked and masked emotional Stroop) can explain unique variance, beyond self-reported anxiety measures, in behavioral avoidance and observer-rated anxious behavior during a public speaking task. Minute of speech and general inhibitory control (indexed by the color-word Stroop) were examined as within-subject and between-subject moderators, respectively. Highly socially anxious participants (N=135) completed the emotional and color-word Stroop blocks prior to completing a 4-minute videotaped speech task, which was later coded for anxious behaviors (e.g., speech dysfluency). Mixed-effects regression analyses revealed that general inhibitory control moderated the relationship between both conscious and unconscious threat interference bias and anxious behavior (though not avoidance), such that lower threat interference predicted higher levels of anxious behavior, but only among those with relatively weaker (versus stronger) inhibitory control. Minute of speech further moderated this relationship for unconscious (but not conscious) social-threat interference, such that lower social-threat interference predicted a steeper increase in anxious behaviors over the course of the speech (but only among those with weaker inhibitory control). Thus, both trait and state differences in inhibitory control resources may influence the behavioral impact of threat biases in social anxiety. Copyright © 2015

  1. Entropy-based gene ranking without selection bias for the predictive classification of microarray data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serafini Maria

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We describe the E-RFE method for gene ranking, which is useful for the identification of markers in the predictive classification of array data. The method supports a practical modeling scheme designed to avoid the construction of classification rules based on the selection of too small gene subsets (an effect known as the selection bias, in which the estimated predictive errors are too optimistic due to testing on samples already considered in the feature selection process. Results With E-RFE, we speed up the recursive feature elimination (RFE with SVM classifiers by eliminating chunks of uninteresting genes using an entropy measure of the SVM weights distribution. An optimal subset of genes is selected according to a two-strata model evaluation procedure: modeling is replicated by an external stratified-partition resampling scheme, and, within each run, an internal K-fold cross-validation is used for E-RFE ranking. Also, the optimal number of genes can be estimated according to the saturation of Zipf's law profiles. Conclusions Without a decrease of classification accuracy, E-RFE allows a speed-up factor of 100 with respect to standard RFE, while improving on alternative parametric RFE reduction strategies. Thus, a process for gene selection and error estimation is made practical, ensuring control of the selection bias, and providing additional diagnostic indicators of gene importance.

  2. Codon usage bias and phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial ND1 gene in pisces, aves, and mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Arif; Choudhury, Monisha Nath; Chakraborty, Supriyo

    2018-01-01

    The mitochondrially encoded NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase core subunit 1 (MT-ND1) gene is a subunit of the respiratory chain complex I and involved in the first step of the electron transport chain of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). To understand the pattern of compositional properties, codon usage and expression level of mitochondrial ND1 genes in pisces, aves, and mammals, we used bioinformatic approaches as no work was reported earlier. In this study, a perl script was used for calculating nucleotide contents and different codon usage bias parameters. The codon usage bias of MT-ND1 was low but the expression level was high as revealed from high ENC and CAI value. Correspondence analysis (COA) suggests that the pattern of codon usage for MT-ND1 gene is not same across species and that compositional constraint played an important role in codon usage pattern of this gene among pisces, aves, and mammals. From the regression equation of GC12 on GC3, it can be inferred that the natural selection might have played a dominant role while mutation pressure played a minor role in influencing the codon usage patterns. Further, ND1 gene has a discrepancy with cytochrome B (CYB) gene in preference of codons as evident from COA. The codon usage bias was low. It is influenced by nucleotide composition, natural selection, mutation pressure, length (number) of amino acids, and relative dinucleotide composition. This study helps in understanding the molecular biology, genetics, evolution of MT-ND1 gene, and also for designing a synthetic gene.

  3. Attachment insecurity, biased perceptions of romantic partners' negative emotions, and hostile relationship behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overall, Nickola C; Fletcher, Garth J O; Simpson, Jeffry A; Fillo, Jennifer

    2015-05-01

    In the current research, we tested the extent to which attachment insecurity produces inaccurate and biased perceptions of intimate partners' emotions and whether more negative perceptions of partners' emotions elicit the damaging behavior often associated with attachment insecurity. Perceptions of partners' emotions as well as partners' actual emotions were assessed multiple times in couples' conflict discussions (Study 1) and daily during a 3-week period in 2 independent samples (Study 2). Using partners' reports of their own emotional experiences as the accuracy benchmark, we simultaneously tested whether attachment insecurity was associated with the degree to which individuals (a) accurately detected shifts in their partners' negative emotions (tracking accuracy), and (b) perceived their partners were feeling more negative relationship-related emotions than they actually experienced (directional bias). Highly avoidant perceivers were equally accurate at tracking their partners' changing emotions compared to less avoidant individuals (tracking accuracy), but they overestimated the intensity of their partners' negative emotions to a greater extent than less avoidant individuals (directional bias). In addition, more negative perceptions of partners' emotions triggered more hostile and defensive behavior in highly avoidant perceivers both during conflict discussions (Study 1) and in daily life (Study 2). In contrast, attachment anxiety was not associated with tracking accuracy, directional bias, or hostile reactions to perceptions of their partners' negative emotions. These findings demonstrate the importance of assessing biased perceptions in actual relationship interactions and reveal that biased perceptions play an important role in activating the defenses of avoidantly attached people. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Unawareness of Self-interest Bias in Moral Judgments of Others’ Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bocian Konrad

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies (Bocian & Wojciszke, 2014 showed that self-interest biases moral perception of others’ unethical actions. Moreover, affective changes in attitudinal responses towards the perpetrator of an immoral act drives the bias. In the present studies, we attempted to answer the question whether people are aware of the self-interest bias in their judgments of others’ behavior. We conducted two experiments showing that moral judgments of verbally described and imagined actions were dominated by norms rather than self-interest (Study 1 and that people were not aware that self-interest distorted their moral judgment (Study 2. The unawareness of the self-interest bias among the participants was attributable to omission of their own emotional responses when forecasting their moral judgments. We discuss the importance of emotions presence in studies on moral judgments as well as contribution of the present research to the intuitionist approach to moral judgment.

  5. Publication bias in studies of an applied behavior-analytic intervention: an initial analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sham, Elyssa; Smith, Tristram

    2014-01-01

    Publication bias arises when studies with favorable results are more likely to be reported than are studies with null findings. If this bias occurs in studies with single-subject experimental designs(SSEDs) on applied behavior-analytic (ABA) interventions, it could lead to exaggerated estimates of intervention effects. Therefore, we conducted an initial test of bias by comparing effect sizes, measured by percentage of nonoverlapping data (PND), in published SSED studies (n=21) and unpublished dissertations (n=10) on 1 well-established intervention for children with autism, pivotal response treatment (PRT). Although published and unpublished studies had similar methodologies, the mean PND in published studies was 22% higher than in unpublished studies, 95% confidence interval (4%, 38%). Even when unpublished studies are included, PRT appeared to be effective (PNDM=62%). Nevertheless, the disparity between published and unpublished studies suggests a need for further assessment of publication bias in the ABA literature.

  6. “Rational” or “Intuitive”: Are Behavioral Biases Correlated Across Stock Market Investors?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Kudryavtsev

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Human judgments are systematically affected by various biases and distortions. The main goal of our study is to analyze the effects of five well-documented behavioral biases—namely, the disposition effect, herd behavior, availability heuristic, gambler’s fallacy and hot hand fallacy—on the mechanisms of stock market decision making and, in particular, the correlations between the magnitudes of the biases in the cross-section of market investors. Employing an extensive online survey, we demonstrate that, on average, active capital market investors exhibit moderate degrees of behavioral biases. We then calculate the cross-sectional correlation coefficients between the biases and find that all of them are positive and highly significant for both professional and non-professional investors and for all categories of investors, as classified by their experience levels, genders, and ages. This finding suggests that an investor who is more inclined to employ a certain intuitive decision-making technique will most likely accept other techniques as well. Furthermore, we determine that the correlation coefficients between the biases are higher for more experienced investors and male investors, indicating that these categories of investors are likely to behave more consistently, or, in other words, are more likely to decide for themselves whether to rely on simplifying decision-making techniques in general or to reject all of them. Alternatively, this finding may suggest that these investors develop more sophisticated “adaptive toolboxes”, or collections of heuristics, and apply them more systematically.

  7. Tumor suppressor genes that escape from X-inactivation contribute to cancer sex bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunford, Andrew; Weinstock, David M.; Savova, Virginia; Schumacher, Steven E.; Cleary, John P.; Yoda, Akinori; Sullivan, Timothy J.; Hess, Julian M.; Gimelbrant, Alexander A.; Beroukhim, Rameen; Lawrence, Michael S.; Getz, Gad; Lane, Andrew A.

    2016-01-01

    There is a striking and unexplained male predominance across many cancer types. A subset of X chromosome (chrX) genes can escape X-inactivation, which would protect females from complete functional loss by a single mutation. To identify putative “Escape from X-Inactivation Tumor Suppressor” (EXITS) genes, we compared somatic alterations from >4100 cancers across 21 tumor types for sex bias. Six of 783 non-pseudoautosomal region (PAR) chrX genes (ATRX, CNKSR2, DDX3X, KDM5C, KDM6A, and MAGEC3) more frequently harbored loss-of-function mutations in males (based on false discovery rate <0.1), compared to zero of 18,055 autosomal and PAR genes (P<0.0001). Male-biased mutations in genes that escape X-inactivation were observed in combined analysis across many cancers and in several individual tumor types, suggesting a generalized phenomenon. We conclude that biallelic expression of EXITS genes in females explains a portion of the reduced cancer incidence compared to males across a variety of tumor types. PMID:27869828

  8. Tumor-suppressor genes that escape from X-inactivation contribute to cancer sex bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunford, Andrew; Weinstock, David M; Savova, Virginia; Schumacher, Steven E; Cleary, John P; Yoda, Akinori; Sullivan, Timothy J; Hess, Julian M; Gimelbrant, Alexander A; Beroukhim, Rameen; Lawrence, Michael S; Getz, Gad; Lane, Andrew A

    2017-01-01

    There is a striking and unexplained male predominance across many cancer types. A subset of X-chromosome genes can escape X-inactivation, which would protect females from complete functional loss by a single mutation. To identify putative 'escape from X-inactivation tumor-suppressor' (EXITS) genes, we examined somatic alterations from >4,100 cancers across 21 tumor types for sex bias. Six of 783 non-pseudoautosomal region (PAR) X-chromosome genes (ATRX, CNKSR2, DDX3X, KDM5C, KDM6A, and MAGEC3) harbored loss-of-function mutations more frequently in males (based on a false discovery rate < 0.1), in comparison to zero of 18,055 autosomal and PAR genes (Fisher's exact P < 0.0001). Male-biased mutations in genes that escape X-inactivation were observed in combined analysis across many cancers and in several individual tumor types, suggesting a generalized phenomenon. We conclude that biallelic expression of EXITS genes in females explains a portion of the reduced cancer incidence in females as compared to males across a variety of tumor types.

  9. On the biased motion of a brownian particle for the pausing time behavior of the CTRW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K.S.

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the biased Brownian motion with the absorbing barrier for the pausing time behavior of the CTRW (continuous-time random walk method), regarding a Brownian particle as a walker. For two pausing time density functions, the respective values for the transport averaged velocity and the dispersion are calculated as the time t becomes large. (KAERI)

  10. Skip or Stay: Users' Behavior in Dealing with Onsite Information Interaction Crowd-Bias

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hashemi, S.H.; Kamps, J.

    2017-01-01

    Mobile devices and the internet of things blend our virtual online behavior with our actions in the real-world. The physical context creates numerous external factors that play a role in the user's online interactions, thus creating new external biases in the collected information interaction logs.

  11. Untangling the Contributions of Sex-Specific Gene Regulation and X-Chromosome Dosage to Sex-Biased Gene Expression in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Maxwell; Rao, Prashant; Ercan, Sevinc

    2016-01-01

    Dosage compensation mechanisms equalize the level of X chromosome expression between sexes. Yet the X chromosome is often enriched for genes exhibiting sex-biased, i.e., imbalanced expression. The relationship between X chromosome dosage compensation and sex-biased gene expression remains largely unexplored. Most studies determine sex-biased gene expression without distinguishing between contributions from X chromosome copy number (dose) and the animal’s sex. Here, we uncoupled X chromosome dose from sex-specific gene regulation in Caenorhabditis elegans to determine the effect of each on X expression. In early embryogenesis, when dosage compensation is not yet fully active, X chromosome dose drives the hermaphrodite-biased expression of many X-linked genes, including several genes that were shown to be responsible for hermaphrodite fate. A similar effect is seen in the C. elegans germline, where X chromosome dose contributes to higher hermaphrodite X expression, suggesting that lack of dosage compensation in the germline may have a role in supporting higher expression of X chromosomal genes with female-biased functions in the gonad. In the soma, dosage compensation effectively balances X expression between the sexes. As a result, somatic sex-biased expression is almost entirely due to sex-specific gene regulation. These results suggest that lack of dosage compensation in different tissues and developmental stages allow X chromosome copy number to contribute to sex-biased gene expression and function. PMID:27356611

  12. Transcriptional profiling of human liver identifies sex-biased genes associated with polygenic dyslipidemia and coronary artery disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yijing Zhang

    Full Text Available Sex-differences in human liver gene expression were characterized on a genome-wide scale using a large liver sample collection, allowing for detection of small expression differences with high statistical power. 1,249 sex-biased genes were identified, 70% showing higher expression in females. Chromosomal bias was apparent, with female-biased genes enriched on chrX and male-biased genes enriched on chrY and chr19, where 11 male-biased zinc-finger KRAB-repressor domain genes are distributed in six clusters. Top biological functions and diseases significantly enriched in sex-biased genes include transcription, chromatin organization and modification, sexual reproduction, lipid metabolism and cardiovascular disease. Notably, sex-biased genes are enriched at loci associated with polygenic dyslipidemia and coronary artery disease in genome-wide association studies. Moreover, of the 8 sex-biased genes at these loci, 4 have been directly linked to monogenic disorders of lipid metabolism and show an expression profile in females (elevated expression of ABCA1, APOA5 and LDLR; reduced expression of LIPC that is consistent with the lower female risk of coronary artery disease. Female-biased expression was also observed for CYP7A1, which is activated by drugs used to treat hypercholesterolemia. Several sex-biased drug-metabolizing enzyme genes were identified, including members of the CYP, UGT, GPX and ALDH families. Half of 879 mouse orthologs, including many genes of lipid metabolism and homeostasis, show growth hormone-regulated sex-biased expression in mouse liver, suggesting growth hormone might play a similar regulatory role in human liver. Finally, the evolutionary rate of protein coding regions for human-mouse orthologs, revealed by dN/dS ratio, is significantly higher for genes showing the same sex-bias in both species than for non-sex-biased genes. These findings establish that human hepatic sex differences are widespread and affect diverse cell

  13. Persistency of priors-induced bias in decision behavior and the fMRI signal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen eHansen

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that people take advantage of prior knowledge to bias decisions. To investigate this phenomenon behaviorally and in the brain, we acquired fMRI data while human subjects viewed ambiguous abstract shapes and decided whether a shape was of Category A (smoother or B (bumpier. The decision was made in the context of one of two prior knowledge cues, 80/20 and 50/50. The 80/20 cue indicated that upcoming shapes had an 80% probability of being of one category, e.g. B, and a 20% probability of being of the other. The 50/50 cue indicated that upcoming shapes had an equal probability of being of either category. The ideal observer would bias decisions in favor of the indicated alternative at 80/20 and show zero bias at 50/50. We found that subjects did bias their decisions in the predicted direction at 80/20 but did not show zero bias at 50/50. Instead, at 50/50 the subjects retained biases of the same sign as their 80/20 biases, though of diminished magnitude. The signature of a persistent though diminished bias at 50/50 was also evident in fMRI data from frontal and parietal regions previously implicated in decision-making. As a control, we acquired fMRI data from naïve subjects who experienced only the 50/50 stimulus distributions during both the prescan training and the fMRI experiment. The behavioral and fMRI data from the naïve subjects reflected decision biases closer to those of the ideal observer than those of the prior knowledge subjects at 50/50. The results indicate that practice making decisions in the context of non-equal prior probabilities biases decisions made later when prior probabilities are equal. This finding may be related to the anchoring and adjustment strategy described in the psychology, economics and marketing literatures, in which subjects adjust a first approximation response – the anchor – based on additional information, typically applying insufficient adjustment relative to the ideal observer.

  14. APPLIED BEHAVIORAL FINANCE: INVESTOR BIASES, PERFORMANCE REVERSION TO THE MEAN and TREND FORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADRIAN MITROI

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In the pursuit of understanding the behavior of the market player, the basic argument relays on the supposition that the risk appetite increases exactly at the worst moment - when the capacity to assume additional risk decreases significantly.People view a sample randomly drawn from a population as highly representative and cvasi similar to the population in all its essential characteristics. They expect any two samples drawn from a particular population to be more similar to one another and to the population than is statistically justifiable. This behavior is different from the tenets of classic finance theory. The paper aims at demonstating that investor psychological biases lead to investment performance to tilt to the mean in the long run and by following the trend, the financial market population do not enjoy significant sustainable benefits. As a reflection of the behavioral biases and influences, the statistical demonstration supports the conclusion that markets do not random walk.

  15. Illustrating, Quantifying, and Correcting for Bias in Post-hoc Analysis of Gene-Based Rare Variant Tests of Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinde, Kelsey E.; Arbet, Jaron; Green, Alden; O'Connell, Michael; Valcarcel, Alessandra; Westra, Jason; Tintle, Nathan

    2017-01-01

    To date, gene-based rare variant testing approaches have focused on aggregating information across sets of variants to maximize statistical power in identifying genes showing significant association with diseases. Beyond identifying genes that are associated with diseases, the identification of causal variant(s) in those genes and estimation of their effect is crucial for planning replication studies and characterizing the genetic architecture of the locus. However, we illustrate that straightforward single-marker association statistics can suffer from substantial bias introduced by conditioning on gene-based test significance, due to the phenomenon often referred to as “winner's curse.” We illustrate the ramifications of this bias on variant effect size estimation and variant prioritization/ranking approaches, outline parameters of genetic architecture that affect this bias, and propose a bootstrap resampling method to correct for this bias. We find that our correction method significantly reduces the bias due to winner's curse (average two-fold decrease in bias, p bias and improve inference in post-hoc analysis of gene-based tests under a wide variety of genetic architectures. PMID:28959274

  16. Biased exonization of transposed elements in duplicated genes: A lesson from the TIF-IA gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shomron Noam

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene duplication and exonization of intronic transposed elements are two mechanisms that enhance genomic diversity. We examined whether there is less selection against exonization of transposed elements in duplicated genes than in single-copy genes. Results Genome-wide analysis of exonization of transposed elements revealed a higher rate of exonization within duplicated genes relative to single-copy genes. The gene for TIF-IA, an RNA polymerase I transcription initiation factor, underwent a humanoid-specific triplication, all three copies of the gene are active transcriptionally, although only one copy retains the ability to generate the TIF-IA protein. Prior to TIF-IA triplication, an Alu element was inserted into the first intron. In one of the non-protein coding copies, this Alu is exonized. We identified a single point mutation leading to exonization in one of the gene duplicates. When this mutation was introduced into the TIF-IA coding copy, exonization was activated and the level of the protein-coding mRNA was reduced substantially. A very low level of exonization was detected in normal human cells. However, this exonization was abundant in most leukemia cell lines evaluated, although the genomic sequence is unchanged in these cancerous cells compared to normal cells. Conclusion The definition of the Alu element within the TIF-IA gene as an exon is restricted to certain types of cancers; the element is not exonized in normal human cells. These results further our understanding of the delicate interplay between gene duplication and alternative splicing and of the molecular evolutionary mechanisms leading to genetic innovations. This implies the existence of purifying selection against exonization in single copy genes, with duplicate genes free from such constrains.

  17. Applying signal-detection theory to the study of observer accuracy and bias in behavioral assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerman, Dorothea C; Tetreault, Allison; Hovanetz, Alyson; Bellaci, Emily; Miller, Jonathan; Karp, Hilary; Mahmood, Angela; Strobel, Maggie; Mullen, Shelley; Keyl, Alice; Toupard, Alexis

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated the feasibility and utility of a laboratory model for examining observer accuracy within the framework of signal-detection theory (SDT). Sixty-one individuals collected data on aggression while viewing videotaped segments of simulated teacher-child interactions. The purpose of Experiment 1 was to determine if brief feedback and contingencies for scoring accurately would bias responding reliably. Experiment 2 focused on one variable (specificity of the operational definition) that we hypothesized might decrease the likelihood of bias. The effects of social consequences and information about expected behavior change were examined in Experiment 3. Results indicated that feedback and contingencies reliably biased responding and that the clarity of the definition only moderately affected this outcome.

  18. Aggression, emotional self-regulation, attentional bias, and cognitive inhibition predict risky driving behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sani, Susan Raouf Hadadi; Tabibi, Zahra; Fadardi, Javad Salehi; Stavrinos, Despina

    2017-12-01

    The present study explored whether aggression, emotional regulation, cognitive inhibition, and attentional bias towards emotional stimuli were related to risky driving behavior (driving errors, and driving violations). A total of 117 applicants for taxi driver positions (89% male, M age=36.59years, SD=9.39, age range 24-62years) participated in the study. Measures included the Ahwaz Aggression Inventory, the Difficulties in emotion regulation Questionnaire, the emotional Stroop task, the Go/No-go task, and the Driving Behavior Questionnaire. Correlation and regression analyses showed that aggression and emotional regulation predicted risky driving behavior. Difficulties in emotion regulation, the obstinacy and revengeful component of aggression, attentional bias toward emotional stimuli, and cognitive inhibition predicted driving errors. Aggression was the only significant predictive factor for driving violations. In conclusion, aggression and difficulties in regulating emotions may exacerbate risky driving behaviors. Deficits in cognitive inhibition and attentional bias toward negative emotional stimuli can increase driving errors. Predisposition to aggression has strong effect on making one vulnerable to violation of traffic rules and crashes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The saccadic flow baseline: Accounting for image-independent biases in fixation behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Alasdair D F; Stainer, Matthew J; Tatler, Benjamin W; Hunt, Amelia R

    2017-09-01

    Much effort has been made to explain eye guidance during natural scene viewing. However, a substantial component of fixation placement appears to be a set of consistent biases in eye movement behavior. We introduce the concept of saccadic flow, a generalization of the central bias that describes the image-independent conditional probability of making a saccade to (xi+1, yi+1), given a fixation at (xi, yi). We suggest that saccadic flow can be a useful prior when carrying out analyses of fixation locations, and can be used as a submodule in models of eye movements during scene viewing. We demonstrate the utility of this idea by presenting bias-weighted gaze landscapes, and show that there is a link between the likelihood of a saccade under the flow model, and the salience of the following fixation. We also present a minor improvement to our central bias model (based on using a multivariate truncated Gaussian), and investigate the leftwards and coarse-to-fine biases in scene viewing.

  20. Anomalous degradation behaviors under illuminated gate bias stress in a-Si:H thin film transistor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, Ming-Yen; Chang, Ting-Chang; Chu, Ann-Kuo; Hsieh, Tien-Yu; Lin, Kun-Yao; Wu, Yi-Chun; Huang, Shih-Feng; Chiang, Cheng-Lung; Chen, Po-Lin; Lai, Tzu-Chieh; Lo, Chang-Cheng; Lien, Alan

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the impact of gate bias stress with and without light illumination in a-Si:H thin film transistors. It has been observed that the I–V curve shifts toward the positive direction after negative and positive gate bias stress due to interface state creation at the gate dielectric. However, this study found that threshold voltages shift negatively and that the transconductance curve maxima are anomalously degraded under illuminated positive gate bias stress. In addition, threshold voltages shift positively under illuminated negative gate bias stress. These degradation behaviors can be ascribed to charge trapping in the passivation layer dominating degradation instability and are verified by a double gate a-Si:H device. - Highlights: • There is abnormal V T shift induced by illuminated gate bias stress in a-Si:H thin film transistors. • Electron–hole pair is generated via trap-assisted photoexcitation. • Abnormal transconductance hump is induced by the leakage current from back channel. • Charge trapping in the passivation layer is likely due to the fact that a constant voltage has been applied to the top gate

  1. The Behavioral Bias of Foreign Debt Usage in Foreign Exchange Risk Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabo, Tom

    We investigate the behavioral bias in the use of debt denominated in foreign currency (foreign debt) in managing foreign exchange risks. From a strictly financial (rational) point of view foreign debt and derivates are close substitutes. Whether e.g. a European firm sells forward US dollars against...... foreign exchange risk management in medium-sized, non-financial firms in Denmark and find a behavioral bias in the use of foreign debt. Among the firms that are internationally involved (operating revenues, costs and/or assets in foreign currency), on average a quarter of the financial debt is denominated...... in foreign currency. The use / non-use of foreign debt is positively related to a number of internationality measures but most significantly to the existence of subsidiaries abroad whereas the degree of usage is particularly related to the magnitude of foreign operating assets. The use of foreign debt...

  2. An improved, bias-reduced probabilistic functional gene network of baker's yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Insuk Lee

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Probabilistic functional gene networks are powerful theoretical frameworks for integrating heterogeneous functional genomics and proteomics data into objective models of cellular systems. Such networks provide syntheses of millions of discrete experimental observations, spanning DNA microarray experiments, physical protein interactions, genetic interactions, and comparative genomics; the resulting networks can then be easily applied to generate testable hypotheses regarding specific gene functions and associations.We report a significantly improved version (v. 2 of a probabilistic functional gene network of the baker's yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We describe our optimization methods and illustrate their effects in three major areas: the reduction of functional bias in network training reference sets, the application of a probabilistic model for calculating confidences in pair-wise protein physical or genetic interactions, and the introduction of simple thresholds that eliminate many false positive mRNA co-expression relationships. Using the network, we predict and experimentally verify the function of the yeast RNA binding protein Puf6 in 60S ribosomal subunit biogenesis.YeastNet v. 2, constructed using these optimizations together with additional data, shows significant reduction in bias and improvements in precision and recall, in total covering 102,803 linkages among 5,483 yeast proteins (95% of the validated proteome. YeastNet is available from http://www.yeastnet.org.

  3. Illustrating, Quantifying, and Correcting for Bias in Post-hoc Analysis of Gene-Based Rare Variant Tests of Association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelsey E. Grinde

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available To date, gene-based rare variant testing approaches have focused on aggregating information across sets of variants to maximize statistical power in identifying genes showing significant association with diseases. Beyond identifying genes that are associated with diseases, the identification of causal variant(s in those genes and estimation of their effect is crucial for planning replication studies and characterizing the genetic architecture of the locus. However, we illustrate that straightforward single-marker association statistics can suffer from substantial bias introduced by conditioning on gene-based test significance, due to the phenomenon often referred to as “winner's curse.” We illustrate the ramifications of this bias on variant effect size estimation and variant prioritization/ranking approaches, outline parameters of genetic architecture that affect this bias, and propose a bootstrap resampling method to correct for this bias. We find that our correction method significantly reduces the bias due to winner's curse (average two-fold decrease in bias, p < 2.2 × 10−6 and, consequently, substantially improves mean squared error and variant prioritization/ranking. The method is particularly helpful in adjustment for winner's curse effects when the initial gene-based test has low power and for relatively more common, non-causal variants. Adjustment for winner's curse is recommended for all post-hoc estimation and ranking of variants after a gene-based test. Further work is necessary to continue seeking ways to reduce bias and improve inference in post-hoc analysis of gene-based tests under a wide variety of genetic architectures.

  4. Genetic clusters and sex-biased gene flow in a unicolonial Formica ant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chapuisat Michel

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Animal societies are diverse, ranging from small family-based groups to extraordinarily large social networks in which many unrelated individuals interact. At the extreme of this continuum, some ant species form unicolonial populations in which workers and queens can move among multiple interconnected nests without eliciting aggression. Although unicoloniality has been mostly studied in invasive ants, it also occurs in some native non-invasive species. Unicoloniality is commonly associated with very high queen number, which may result in levels of relatedness among nestmates being so low as to raise the question of the maintenance of altruism by kin selection in such systems. However, the actual relatedness among cooperating individuals critically depends on effective dispersal and the ensuing pattern of genetic structuring. In order to better understand the evolution of unicoloniality in native non-invasive ants, we investigated the fine-scale population genetic structure and gene flow in three unicolonial populations of the wood ant F. paralugubris. Results The analysis of geo-referenced microsatellite genotypes and mitochondrial haplotypes revealed the presence of cryptic clusters of genetically-differentiated nests in the three populations of F. paralugubris. Because of this spatial genetic heterogeneity, members of the same clusters were moderately but significantly related. The comparison of nuclear (microsatellite and mitochondrial differentiation indicated that effective gene flow was male-biased in all populations. Conclusion The three unicolonial populations exhibited male-biased and mostly local gene flow. The high number of queens per nest, exchanges among neighbouring nests and restricted long-distance gene flow resulted in large clusters of genetically similar nests. The positive relatedness among clustermates suggests that kin selection may still contribute to the maintenance of altruism in unicolonial

  5. The Impact of Selection, Gene Conversion, and Biased Sampling on the Assessment of Microbial Demography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapierre, Marguerite; Blin, Camille; Lambert, Amaury; Achaz, Guillaume; Rocha, Eduardo P C

    2016-07-01

    Recent studies have linked demographic changes and epidemiological patterns in bacterial populations using coalescent-based approaches. We identified 26 studies using skyline plots and found that 21 inferred overall population expansion. This surprising result led us to analyze the impact of natural selection, recombination (gene conversion), and sampling biases on demographic inference using skyline plots and site frequency spectra (SFS). Forward simulations based on biologically relevant parameters from Escherichia coli populations showed that theoretical arguments on the detrimental impact of recombination and especially natural selection on the reconstructed genealogies cannot be ignored in practice. In fact, both processes systematically lead to spurious interpretations of population expansion in skyline plots (and in SFS for selection). Weak purifying selection, and especially positive selection, had important effects on skyline plots, showing patterns akin to those of population expansions. State-of-the-art techniques to remove recombination further amplified these biases. We simulated three common sampling biases in microbiological research: uniform, clustered, and mixed sampling. Alone, or together with recombination and selection, they further mislead demographic inferences producing almost any possible skyline shape or SFS. Interestingly, sampling sub-populations also affected skyline plots and SFS, because the coalescent rates of populations and their sub-populations had different distributions. This study suggests that extreme caution is needed to infer demographic changes solely based on reconstructed genealogies. We suggest that the development of novel sampling strategies and the joint analyzes of diverse population genetic methods are strictly necessary to estimate demographic changes in populations where selection, recombination, and biased sampling are present. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for

  6. Sex bias in copy number variation of olfactory receptor gene family depends on ethnicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh eShadravan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Gender plays a pivotal role in the human genetic identity and is also manifested in many genetic disorders particularly mental retardation. In this study its effect on copy number variation (CNV, known to cause genetic disorders was explored. As the olfactory receptor (OR repertoire comprises the largest human gene family, it was selected for this study, which was carried out within and between three populations, derived from 150 individuals from the 1000 Genome Project. Analysis of 3872 CNVs detected among 791 OR loci, in which 307 loci showed CNV, revealed the following novel findings: Sex bias in CNV was significantly more prevalent in uncommon than common CNV variants of OR pseudogenes, in which the male genome showed more CNVs; and in one-copy number loss compared to complete deletion of OR pseudogenes; both findings implying a more recent evolutionary role for gender. Sex bias in copy number gain was also detected. Another novel finding was that the observed six bias was largely dependent on ethnicity and was in general absent in East Asians. Using a CNV public database for sick children (ISCA the application of these findings for improving clinical molecular diagnostics is discussed by showing an example of sex bias in CNV among kids with autism. Additional clinical relevance is discussed, as the most polymorphic CNV-enriched OR cluster in the human genome, located on chr 15q11.2, is found near the PWS/AS bi-directionally imprinted region associated with two well-known mental retardation syndromes. As olfaction represents the primitive cognition in most mammals, arguably in competition with the development of a larger brain, the extensive retention of OR pseudogenes in females of this study, might point to a parent-of-origin indirect regulatory role for OR pseudogenes in the embryonic development of human brain. Thus any perturbation in the temporal regulation of olfactory system could lead to developmental delay disorders including

  7. Neural correlates of attention biases, behavioral inhibition, and social anxiety in children: An ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thai, Nhi; Taber-Thomas, Bradley C; Pérez-Edgar, Koraly E

    2016-06-01

    Behavioral inhibition (BI) is a biologically-based temperament characterized by vigilance toward threat. Over time, many children with BI increasingly fear social circumstances and display maladaptive social behavior. BI is also one of the strongest individual risk factors for developing social anxiety disorder. Although research has established a link between BI and anxiety, its causal mechanism remains unclear. Attention biases may underlie this relation. The current study examined neural markers of the BI-attention-anxiety link in children ages 9-12 years (N=99, Mean=9.97, SD=0.97). ERP measures were collected as children completed an attention-bias (dot-probe) task with neutral and angry faces. P2 and N2 amplitudes were associated with social anxiety and attention bias, respectively. Specifically, augmented P2 was related to decreased symptoms of social anxiety and moderated the relation between BI and social anxiety, suggesting that increasing attention mobilization may serve as a compensatory mechanism that attenuates social anxiety in individuals with high BI. The BI by N2 interaction found that larger N2 related to threat avoidance with increasing levels of BI, consistent with over-controlled socio-emotional functioning. Lastly, children without BI (BN) showed an augmented P1 to probes replacing angry faces, suggesting maintenance of attentional resources in threat-related contexts. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Opposing Forces of A/T-Biased Mutations and G/C-Biased Gene Conversions Shape the Genome of the Nematode Pristionchus pacificus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, Andreas M.; Rödelsperger, Christian; Eberhardt, Gabi; Molnar, Ruxandra I.; Sommer, Ralf J.

    2014-01-01

    Base substitution mutations are a major source of genetic novelty and mutation accumulation line (MAL) studies revealed a nearly universal AT bias in de novo mutation spectra. While a comparison of de novo mutation spectra with the actual nucleotide composition in the genome suggests the existence of general counterbalancing mechanisms, little is known about the evolutionary and historical details of these opposing forces. Here, we correlate MAL-derived mutation spectra with patterns observed from population resequencing. Variation observed in natural populations has already been subject to evolutionary forces. Distinction between rare and common alleles, the latter of which are close to fixation and of presumably older age, can provide insight into mutational processes and their influence on genome evolution. We provide a genome-wide analysis of de novo mutations in 22 MALs of the nematode Pristionchus pacificus and compare the spectra with natural variants observed in resequencing of 104 natural isolates. MALs show an AT bias of 5.3, one of the highest values observed to date. In contrast, the AT bias in natural variants is much lower. Specifically, rare derived alleles show an AT bias of 2.4, whereas common derived alleles close to fixation show no AT bias at all. These results indicate the existence of a strong opposing force and they suggest that the GC content of the P. pacificus genome is in equilibrium. We discuss GC-biased gene conversion as a potential mechanism acting against AT-biased mutations. This study provides insight into genome evolution by combining MAL studies with natural variation. PMID:24414549

  9. Correction of gene expression data: Performance-dependency on inter-replicate and inter-treatment biases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbani, Behrooz; Stewart, C Neal; Noeparvar, Shahin; Borg, Søren

    2014-10-20

    This report investigates for the first time the potential inter-treatment bias source of cell number for gene expression studies. Cell-number bias can affect gene expression analysis when comparing samples with unequal total cellular RNA content or with different RNA extraction efficiencies. For maximal reliability of analysis, therefore, comparisons should be performed at the cellular level. This could be accomplished using an appropriate correction method that can detect and remove the inter-treatment bias for cell-number. Based on inter-treatment variations of reference genes, we introduce an analytical approach to examine the suitability of correction methods by considering the inter-treatment bias as well as the inter-replicate variance, which allows use of the best correction method with minimum residual bias. Analyses of RNA sequencing and microarray data showed that the efficiencies of correction methods are influenced by the inter-treatment bias as well as the inter-replicate variance. Therefore, we recommend inspecting both of the bias sources in order to apply the most efficient correction method. As an alternative correction strategy, sequential application of different correction approaches is also advised. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Biased perception about gene technology: How perceived naturalness and affect distort benefit perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegrist, Michael; Hartmann, Christina; Sütterlin, Bernadette

    2016-01-01

    In two experiments, the participants showed biased responses when asked to evaluate the benefits of gene technology. They evaluated the importance of additional yields in corn fields due to a newly introduced variety, which would increase a farmer's revenues. In one condition, the newly introduced variety was described as a product of traditional breeding; in the other, it was identified as genetically modified (GM). The two experiments' findings showed that the same benefits were perceived as less important for a farmer when these were the result of GM crops compared with traditionally bred crops. Mediation analyses suggest that perceived naturalness and the affect associated with the technology per se influence the interpretation of the new information. The lack of perceived naturalness of gene technology seems to be the reason for the participants' perceived lower benefits of a new corn variety in the gene technology condition compared with the perceptions of the participants assigned to the traditional breeding condition. The strategy to increase the acceptance of gene technology by introducing plant varieties that better address consumer and producer needs may not work because people discount its associated benefits. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The negativity bias predicts response rate to Behavioral Activation for depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollan, Jackie K; Hoxha, Denada; Hunnicutt-Ferguson, Kallio; Norris, Catherine J; Rosebrock, Laina; Sankin, Lindsey; Cacioppo, John

    2016-09-01

    This treatment study investigated the extent to which asymmetric dimensions of affective responding, specifically the positivity offset and the negativity bias, at pretreatment altered the rate of response to Behavioral Activation treatment for depression. Forty-one depressed participants were enrolled into 16 weekly sessions of BA. An additional 36 lifetime healthy participants were evaluated prospectively for 16 weeks to compare affective responding between healthy and remitted patients at post-treatment. All participants were assessed at Weeks 0, 8 and 16 using repeated measures, involving a structured clinical interview for DSM-IV Axis I disorders, questionnaires, and a computerized task designed to measure affective responses to unpleasant, neutral, and pleasant images. The negativity bias at pre-treatment predicted the rate of response to BA, while the positivity offset did not. Only one treatment condition was used in this study and untreated depressed participants were not enrolled, limiting our ability to compare the effect of BA. Baseline negativity bias may serve as a signal for patients to engage in and benefit from the goal-directed BA strategies, thereby accelerating rate of response. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Observation of self-organized criticality (SOC) behavior during edge biasing experiment on TEXTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Y.H.; Jachmich, S.; Weynants, R.R. [Ecole Royale Militaire/Koninklijke Militaire School, Laboratory for Plasma Physics, Euratom-Belgian State Association, Brussels, Belgium, Partner in the Trilateral Euregio Cluster (Belgium)

    2004-07-01

    The self-organized criticality (SOC) behavior of the edge plasma transport has been investigated using the fluctuation data measured in the plasma edge and the scrape-off layer of TEXTOR tokamak before and during the edge electrode biasing experiments. In the 'non-shear' discharge phase before biasing, both the potential and density fluctuations clearly exhibit some of the characteristics associated with SOC: (1) existence of f{sup -1} power-law dependence in the frequency spectrum, (2) slowly decaying long tails in the autocorrelation function, (3) values of Hurst parameters larger than 0.5 at all the detected radial locations, (4) non-Gaussian probability density function of fluctuations and (5) radial propagation of avalanche-like events in the edge plasma area. During the biasing phase, with the generation of an edge radial electric field E{sub r} and hence a sheared E{sub r} x B flow, the local turbulence is found to be well de-correlated by the E{sub r} x B velocity shear, consistent with theoretical predictions. Nevertheless, it is concomitantly found that the Hurst parameters are substantially enhanced in the negative flow shear region and in the scrape-off layer as well, which is contrary to theoretical expectation. Implication of these observations to our understanding of plasma transport mechanisms is discussed. (authors)

  13. Biased Gene Conversion and GC-Content Evolution in the Coding Sequences of Reptiles and Vertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figuet, Emeric; Ballenghien, Marion; Romiguier, Jonathan; Galtier, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Mammalian and avian genomes are characterized by a substantial spatial heterogeneity of GC-content, which is often interpreted as reflecting the effect of local GC-biased gene conversion (gBGC), a meiotic repair bias that favors G and C over A and T alleles in high-recombining genomic regions. Surprisingly, the first fully sequenced nonavian sauropsid (i.e., reptile), the green anole Anolis carolinensis, revealed a highly homogeneous genomic GC-content landscape, suggesting the possibility that gBGC might not be at work in this lineage. Here, we analyze GC-content evolution at third-codon positions (GC3) in 44 vertebrates species, including eight newly sequenced transcriptomes, with a specific focus on nonavian sauropsids. We report that reptiles, including the green anole, have a genome-wide distribution of GC3 similar to that of mammals and birds, and we infer a strong GC3-heterogeneity to be already present in the tetrapod ancestor. We further show that the dynamic of coding sequence GC-content is largely governed by karyotypic features in vertebrates, notably in the green anole, in agreement with the gBGC hypothesis. The discrepancy between third-codon positions and noncoding DNA regarding GC-content dynamics in the green anole could not be explained by the activity of transposable elements or selection on codon usage. This analysis highlights the unique value of third-codon positions as an insertion/deletion-free marker of nucleotide substitution biases that ultimately affect the evolution of proteins. PMID:25527834

  14. 1000 human genomes carry widespread signatures of GC biased gene conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Rajib; Saha-Mandal, Arnab; Cheng, Xi; Qiu, Shuhao; Serpen, Jasmine; Fedorova, Larisa; Fedorov, Alexei

    2018-04-16

    GC-Biased Gene Conversion (gBGC) is one of the important theories put forward to explain profound long-range non-randomness in nucleotide compositions along mammalian chromosomes. Nucleotide changes due to gBGC are hard to distinguish from regular mutations. Here, we present an algorithm for analysis of millions of known SNPs that detects a subset of so-called "SNP flip-over" events representing recent gBGC nucleotide changes, which occurred in previous generations via non-crossover meiotic recombination. This algorithm has been applied in a large-scale analysis of 1092 sequenced human genomes. Altogether, 56,328 regions on all autosomes have been examined, which revealed 223,955 putative gBGC cases leading to SNP flip-overs. We detected a strong bias (11.7% ± 0.2% excess) in AT- > GC over GC- > AT base pair changes within the entire set of putative gBGC cases. On average, a human gamete acquires 7 SNP flip-over events, in which one allele is replaced by its complementary allele during the process of meiotic non-crossover recombination. In each meiosis event, on average, gBGC results in replacement of 7 AT base pairs by GC base pairs, while only 6 GC pairs are replaced by AT pairs. Therefore, every human gamete is enriched by one GC pair. Happening over millions of years of evolution, this bias may be a noticeable force in changing the nucleotide composition landscape along chromosomes.

  15. Genetic and codon usage bias analyses of polymerase genes of equine influenza virus and its relation to evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bera, Bidhan Ch; Virmani, Nitin; Kumar, Naveen; Anand, Taruna; Pavulraj, S; Rash, Adam; Elton, Debra; Rash, Nicola; Bhatia, Sandeep; Sood, Richa; Singh, Raj Kumar; Tripathi, Bhupendra Nath

    2017-08-23

    Equine influenza is a major health problem of equines worldwide. The polymerase genes of influenza virus have key roles in virus replication, transcription, transmission between hosts and pathogenesis. Hence, the comprehensive genetic and codon usage bias of polymerase genes of equine influenza virus (EIV) were analyzed to elucidate the genetic and evolutionary relationships in a novel perspective. The group - specific consensus amino acid substitutions were identified in all polymerase genes of EIVs that led to divergence of EIVs into various clades. The consistent amino acid changes were also detected in the Florida clade 2 EIVs circulating in Europe and Asia since 2007. To study the codon usage patterns, a total of 281,324 codons of polymerase genes of EIV H3N8 isolates from 1963 to 2015 were systemically analyzed. The polymerase genes of EIVs exhibit a weak codon usage bias. The ENc-GC3s and Neutrality plots indicated that natural selection is the major influencing factor of codon usage bias, and that the impact of mutation pressure is comparatively minor. The methods for estimating host imposed translation pressure suggested that the polymerase acidic (PA) gene seems to be under less translational pressure compared to polymerase basic 1 (PB1) and polymerase basic 2 (PB2) genes. The multivariate statistical analysis of polymerase genes divided EIVs into four evolutionary diverged clusters - Pre-divergent, Eurasian, Florida sub-lineage 1 and 2. Various lineage specific amino acid substitutions observed in all polymerase genes of EIVs and especially, clade 2 EIVs underwent major variations which led to the emergence of a phylogenetically distinct group of EIVs originating from Richmond/1/07. The codon usage bias was low in all the polymerase genes of EIVs that was influenced by the multiple factors such as the nucleotide compositions, mutation pressure, aromaticity and hydropathicity. However, natural selection was the major influencing factor in defining the

  16. Brown and polar bear Y chromosomes reveal extensive male-biased gene flow within brother lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidon, Tobias; Janke, Axel; Fain, Steven R; Eiken, Hans Geir; Hagen, Snorre B; Saarma, Urmas; Hallström, Björn M; Lecomte, Nicolas; Hailer, Frank

    2014-06-01

    Brown and polar bears have become prominent examples in phylogeography, but previous phylogeographic studies relied largely on maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) or were geographically restricted. The male-specific Y chromosome, a natural counterpart to mtDNA, has remained underexplored. Although this paternally inherited chromosome is indispensable for comprehensive analyses of phylogeographic patterns, technical difficulties and low variability have hampered its application in most mammals. We developed 13 novel Y-chromosomal sequence and microsatellite markers from the polar bear genome and screened these in a broad geographic sample of 130 brown and polar bears. We also analyzed a 390-kb-long Y-chromosomal scaffold using sequencing data from published male ursine genomes. Y chromosome evidence support the emerging understanding that brown and polar bears started to diverge no later than the Middle Pleistocene. Contrary to mtDNA patterns, we found 1) brown and polar bears to be reciprocally monophyletic sister (or rather brother) lineages, without signals of introgression, 2) male-biased gene flow across continents and on phylogeographic time scales, and 3) male dispersal that links the Alaskan ABC islands population to mainland brown bears. Due to female philopatry, mtDNA provides a highly structured estimate of population differentiation, while male-biased gene flow is a homogenizing force for nuclear genetic variation. Our findings highlight the importance of analyzing both maternally and paternally inherited loci for a comprehensive view of phylogeographic history, and that mtDNA-based phylogeographic studies of many mammals should be reevaluated. Recent advances in sequencing technology render the analysis of Y-chromosomal variation feasible, even in nonmodel organisms. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e

  17. Progressive current degradation and breakdown behavior in GaN LEDs under high reverse bias stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Linna; Yu Peihong; Yan Dawei; Zhou Hao; Wu Jinbo; Cui Zhiqiang; Gu Xiaofeng; Guo Zixiang; Sun Huarui

    2017-01-01

    The progressive current degradation and breakdown behaviors of GaN-based light emitting diodes under high reverse-bias stress are studied by combining the electrical, optical, and surface morphology characterizations. The current features a typical “soft breakdown” behavior, which is linearly correlated to an increase of the accumulative number of electroluminescence spots. The time-to-failure for each failure site approximately obeys a Weibull distribution with slopes of about 0.67 and 4.09 at the infant and wear-out periods, respectively. After breakdown, visible craters can be observed at the device surface as a result of transient electrostatic discharge. By performing focused ion beam cuts coupled with scan electron microscope, we observed a local current shunt path in the surface layer, caused by the rapid microstructure deterioration due to significant current heating effect, consistent well with the optical beam induced resistance change observations. (paper)

  18. A microarray analysis of sex- and gonad-biased gene expression in the zebrafish: Evidence for masculinization of the transcriptome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mo Qianxing

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In many taxa, males and females are very distinct phenotypically, and these differences often reflect divergent selective pressures acting on the sexes. Phenotypic sexual dimorphism almost certainly reflects differing patterns of gene expression between the sexes, and microarray studies have documented widespread sexually dimorphic gene expression. Although the evolutionary significance of sexual dimorphism in gene expression remains unresolved, these studies have led to the formulation of a hypothesis that male-driven evolution has resulted in the masculinization of animal transcriptomes. Here we use a microarray assessment of sex- and gonad-biased gene expression to test this hypothesis in zebrafish. Results By using zebrafish Affymetrix microarrays to compare gene expression patterns in male and female somatic and gonadal tissues, we identified a large number of genes (5899 demonstrating differences in transcript abundance between male and female Danio rerio. Under conservative statistical significance criteria, all sex-biases in gene expression were due to differences between testes and ovaries. Male-enriched genes were more abundant than female-enriched genes, and expression bias for male-enriched genes was greater in magnitude than that for female-enriched genes. We also identified a large number of genes demonstrating elevated transcript abundance in testes and ovaries relative to male body and female body, respectively. Conclusion Overall our results support the hypothesis that male-biased evolutionary pressures have resulted in male-biased patterns of gene expression. Interestingly, our results seem to be at odds with a handful of other microarray-based studies of sex-specific gene expression patterns in zebrafish. However, ours was the only study designed to address this specific hypothesis, and major methodological differences among studies could explain the discrepancies. Regardless, all of these studies agree

  19. IMPACTS OF BEHAVIORAL BIASES IN FINANCE ON THE EMPLOYEES IN THE INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY (ICT SECTOR: A SCALE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cagri Hamurcu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available As it is seen that behavioral factors are more effective than expected and predictable factors in the world of finance; to determine the behavioral factors, functioning mechanisms and evaluation of results about the factors has been entailed in one sense. In this study it is aimed to reveal the behavioral finance dimension of investment decisions and a behavioral finance scale has been tried to be created by the factor analysis study applied over the data obtained by field study performed on the ICT sector employees. The distinctive aspect of the study compared to the previous ones is that it has the features of the first known study in the literature made for determining the behavioral finance trends of investors employed in the ICT sector. The survey study made to determine the participants' behavioral biases in finance has been prepared in two propositions defining 42 biases of which 21 are defined in the literature. In the study, firstly concepts of investment, decision making and behavioral biases in finance has been outlined and then detailed with a field study. With the analyses, it is achieved that all 21 behavioral biases affected the investors’ investment behaviors middle or higher level. As a result of the factor analysis 12 factors has been detected. In terms of the findings obtained, this study is expected to contribute to the literature and to the subsequent studies.

  20. Sex− and species−biased gene flow in a spotted eagle hybrid zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Väli Ülo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent theoretical and empirical work points toward a significant role for sex-chromosome linked genes in the evolution of traits that induce reproductive isolation and for traits that evolve under influence of sexual selection. Empirical studies including recently diverged (Pleistocene, short-lived avian species pairs with short generation times have found that introgression occurs on the autosomes but not on the Z-chromosome. Here we study genetic differentiation and gene flow in the long-lived greater spotted eagle (Aquila clanga and lesser spotted eagle (A. pomarina, two species with comparatively long generation times. Results Our data suggest that there is a directional bias in migration rates between hybridizing spotted eagles in eastern Europe. We find that a model including post divergence gene flow fits our data best for both autosomal and Z-chromosome linked loci but, for the Z-chromosome, the rate is reduced in the direction from A. pomarina to A. clanga. Conclusions The fact that some introgression still occurs on the Z-chromosome between these species suggests that the differentiation process is in a more premature phase in our study system than in previously studied avian species pairs and that could be explained by a shorter divergence time and/or a longer average generation time in the spotted eagles. The results are in agreement with field observations and provide further insight into the role of sex-linked loci for the build-up of barriers to gene flow among diverging populations and species.

  1. Variations in the serotonin-transporter gene are associated with attention bias patterns to positive and negative emotion faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Edgar, Koraly; Bar-Haim, Yair; McDermott, Jennifer Martin; Gorodetsky, Elena; Hodgkinson, Colin A; Goldman, David; Ernst, Monique; Pine, Daniel S; Fox, Nathan A

    2010-03-01

    Both attention biases to threat and a serotonin-transporter gene polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) have been linked to heightened neural activation to threat and the emergence of anxiety. The short allele of 5-HTTLPR may act via its effect on neurotransmitter availability, while attention biases shape broad patterns of cognitive processing. We examined individual differences in attention bias to emotion faces as a function of 5-HTTLPR genotype. Adolescents (N=117) were classified for presumed SLC6A4 expression based on 5-HTTLPR-low (SS, SL(G), or L(G)L(G)), intermediate (SL(A) or L(A)L(G)), or high (L(A)L(A)). Participants completed the dot-probe task, measuring attention biases toward or away from angry and happy faces. Biases for angry faces increased with the genotype-predicted neurotransmission levels (low>intermediate>high). The reverse pattern was evident for happy faces. The data indicate a linear relation between 5-HTTLPR allelic status and attention biases to emotion, demonstrating a genetic mechanism for biased attention using ecologically valid stimuli that target socioemotional adaptation. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Attentional bias and emotional reactivity as predictors and moderators of behavioral treatment for social phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niles, Andrea N; Mesri, Bita; Burklund, Lisa J; Lieberman, Matthew D; Craske, Michelle G

    2013-10-01

    Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is a well-established treatment for anxiety disorders, and evidence is accruing for the effectiveness of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT). Little is known about factors that relate to treatment outcome overall (predictors), or who will thrive in each treatment (moderators). The goal of the current project was to test attentional bias and negative emotional reactivity as moderators and predictors of treatment outcome in a randomized controlled trial comparing CBT and ACT for social phobia. Forty-six patients received 12 sessions of CBT or ACT and were assessed for self-reported and clinician-rated symptoms at baseline, post treatment, 6, and 12 months. Attentional bias significantly moderated the relationship between treatment group and outcome with patients slow to disengage from threatening stimuli showing greater clinician-rated symptom reduction in CBT than in ACT. Negative emotional reactivity, but not positive emotional reactivity, was a significant overall predictor with patients high in negative emotional reactivity showing the greatest self-reported symptom reduction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Cognitive biases and use of e-government. A behavioral perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cayetano Medina-Molina

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available E-government is conceived as a tool to improve efficiency and effectiveness in the provision of public services. However, in spite of the efforts to achieve a widespread adoption of e-government, it has lower usage rates than expected. Although this fact has been studied from different viewpoints, in the present work the behavioral perspective is presented as an approach that may answer to this challenge. To get it, the relationship between different cognitive biases linked to the SQB (habit, inertia and resistance with the intention (of use for users and continuation for users is analyzed. The data were collected after a qualitative (two group sessions and a quantitative work (923 questionnaires, aimed at two different samples of citizens (non-users and users of e-government. The results confirm the presence of the trend towards the status quo in the use of e-government. Besides, while in the case of non-users of e-government the cognitive biases analyzed are present, leading to delay its use, among the users of e-government habit lacks relevance, so they remain in use as a channel of access to public services.

  4. Male-biased genes in catfish as revealed by RNA-Seq analysis of the testis transcriptome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanyue Sun

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Catfish has a male-heterogametic (XY sex determination system, but genes involved in gonadogenesis, spermatogenesis, testicular determination, and sex determination are poorly understood. As a first step of understanding the transcriptome of the testis, here, we conducted RNA-Seq analysis using high throughput Illumina sequencing. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 269.6 million high quality reads were assembled into 193,462 contigs with a N50 length of 806 bp. Of these contigs, 67,923 contigs had hits to a set of 25,307 unigenes, including 167 unique genes that had not been previously identified in catfish. A meta-analysis of expressed genes in the testis and in the gynogen (double haploid female allowed the identification of 5,450 genes that are preferentially expressed in the testis, providing a pool of putative male-biased genes. Gene ontology and annotation analysis suggested that many of these male-biased genes were involved in gonadogenesis, spermatogenesis, testicular determination, gametogenesis, gonad differentiation, and possibly sex determination. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: We provide the first transcriptome-level analysis of the catfish testis. Our analysis would lay the basis for sequential follow-up studies of genes involved in sex determination and differentiation in catfish.

  5. Oh, Behave! Behavior as an Interaction between Genes & the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigel, Emily G.; DeNieu, Michael; Gall, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    This lesson is designed to teach students that behavior is a trait shaped by both genes and the environment. Students will read a scientific paper, discuss and generate predictions based on the ideas and data therein, and model the relationships between genes, the environment, and behavior. The lesson is targeted to meet the educational goals of…

  6. Genes: Interactions with Language on Three Levels—Inter-Individual Variation, Historical Correlations and Genetic Biasing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dediu, Dan

    The complex inter-relationships between genetics and linguistics encompass all four scales highlighted by the contributions to this book and, together with cultural transmission, the genetics of language holds the promise to offer a unitary understanding of this fascinating phenomenon. There are inter-individual differences in genetic makeup which contribute to the obvious fact that we are not identical in the way we understand and use language and, by studying them, we will be able to both better treat and enhance ourselves. There are correlations between the genetic configuration of human groups and their languages, reflecting the historical processes shaping them, and there also seem to exist genes which can influence some characteristics of language, biasing it towards or against certain states by altering the way language is transmitted across generations. Besides the joys of pure knowledge, the understanding of these three aspects of genetics relevant to language will potentially trigger advances in medicine, linguistics, psychology or the understanding of our own past and, last but not least, a profound change in the way we regard one of the emblems of being human: our capacity for language.

  7. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation affects behavior by biasing endogenous cortical oscillations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massihullah Hamidi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A governing assumption about repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS has been that it interferes with task-related neuronal activity – in effect, by “injecting noise” into the brain – and thereby disrupts behavior. Recent reports of rTMS-produced behavioral enhancement, however, call this assumption into question. We investigated the neurophysiological effects of rTMS delivered during the delay period of a visual working memory task by simultaneously recording brain activity with electroencephalography (EEG. Subjects performed visual working memory for locations or for shapes, and in half the trials a 10-Hz train of rTMS was delivered to the superior parietal lobule or a control brain area. The wide range of individual differences in the effects of rTMS on task accuracy, from improvement to impairment, was predicted by individual differences in the effect of rTMS on power in the alpha-band of the EEG (~ 10 Hz: a decrease in alpha-band power corresponded to improved performance, whereas an increase in alpha-band power corresponded to the opposite. The EEG effect was localized to cortical sources encompassing the frontal eye fields and the intraparietal sulcus, and was specific to task (location, but not object memory and to rTMS target (superior parietal lobule, not control area. Furthermore, for the same task condition, rTMS-induced changes in cross-frequency phase synchrony between alpha- and gamma-band (> 40 Hz oscillations predicted changes in behavior. These results suggest that alpha-band oscillations play an active role cognitive processes and do not simply reflect absence of processing. Furthermore, this study shows that the complex effects of rTMS on behavior can result from biasing endogenous patterns of network-level oscillations.

  8. Dielectric behavior and phase transition in [111]-oriented PIN–PMN–PT single crystals under dc bias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhui Wan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Temperature and electric field dependences of the dielectric behavior and phase transition for [111]-oriented 0.23PIN–0.52PMN–0.25PT (PIN-PMN–0.25PT and 0.24PIN–0.43PMN–0.33PT (PIN–PMN–0.33PT single crystals were investigated over a temperature range from -100°C to 250°C using field-heating (FH dielectric measurements. The transition phenomenon from ferroelectric microdomain to macrodomain was found in rhombohedra (R phase region in the single crystals under dc bias. This transition temperature Tf of micro-to-macrodomain is sensitive to dc bias and move quickly to lower temperature with increasing dc bias. The phase transition temperatures in the two single crystals shift toward high temperature and the dielectric permittivities at the phase transition temperature decrease with increasing dc bias. Especially, the phase transition peaks are gradually broad in PIN–PMN–0.33PT single crystal with the increasing dc bias. Effects of dc bias on the dielectric behavior and phase transition in PIN–PMN–PT single crystals are discussed.

  9. Y-chromosomal diversity in Haiti and Jamaica: contrasting levels of sex-biased gene flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simms, Tanya M; Wright, Marisil R; Hernandez, Michelle; Perez, Omar A; Ramirez, Evelyn C; Martinez, Emanuel; Herrera, Rene J

    2012-08-01

    Although previous studies have characterized the genetic structure of populations from Haiti and Jamaica using classical and autosomal STR polymorphisms, the patrilineal influences that are present in these countries have yet to be explored. To address this lacuna, the current study aims to investigate, for the first time, the potential impact of different ancestral sources, unique colonial histories, and distinct family structures on the paternal profile of both groups. According to previous reports examining populations from the Americas, island-specific demographic histories can greatly impact population structure, including various patterns of sex-biased gene flow. Also, given the contrasting autosomal profiles provided in our earlier study (Simms et al.: Am J Phys Anthropol 142 (2010) 49-66), we hypothesize that the degree and directionality of gene flow from Europeans, Africans, Amerindians, and East Asians are dissimilar in the two countries. To test this premise, 177 high-resolution Y-chromosome binary markers and 17 Y-STR loci were typed in Haiti (n = 123) and Jamaica (n = 159) and subsequently utilized for phylogenetic comparisons to available reference collections encompassing Africa, Europe, Asia (East and South), and the New World. Our results reveal that both studied populations exhibit a predominantly South-Saharan paternal component, with haplogroups A1b-V152, A3-M32, B2-M182, E1a-M33, E1b1a-M2, E2b-M98, and R1b2-V88 comprising 77.2% and 66.7% of the Haitian and Jamaican paternal gene pools, respectively. Yet, European derived chromosomes (i.e., haplogroups G2a*-P15, I-M258, R1b1b-M269, and T-M184) were detected at commensurate levels in Haiti (20.3%) and Jamaica (18.9%), whereas Y-haplogroups indicative of Chinese [O-M175 (3.8%)] and Indian [H-M69 (0.6%) and L-M20 (0.6%)] ancestry were restricted to Jamaica. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Looking on the bright side: biased attention and the human serotonin transporter gene

    OpenAIRE

    Fox, Elaine; Ridgewell, Anna; Ashwin, Chris

    2009-01-01

    Humans differ in terms of biased attention for emotional stimuli and these biases can confer differential resilience and vulnerability to emotional disorders. Selective processing of positive emotional information, for example, is associated with enhanced sociability and well-being while a bias for negative material is associated with neuroticism and anxiety. A tendency to selectively avoid negative material might also be associated with mental health and well-being. The neurobiological mecha...

  11. Evidence of sex-bias in gene expression in the brain transcriptome of two populations of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) with divergent life histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Matthew C; McKinney, Garrett J; Thrower, Frank P; Nichols, Krista M

    2018-01-01

    Sex-bias in gene expression is a mechanism that can generate phenotypic variance between the sexes, however, relatively little is known about how patterns of sex-bias vary during development, and how variable sex-bias is between different populations. To that end, we measured sex-bias in gene expression in the brain transcriptome of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) during the first two years of development. Our sampling included from the fry stage through to when O. mykiss either migrate to the ocean or remain resident and undergo sexual maturation. Samples came from two F1 lines: One from migratory steelhead trout and one from resident rainbow trout. All samples were reared in a common garden environment and RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) was used to estimate patterns of gene expression. A total of 1,716 (4.6% of total) genes showed evidence of sex-bias in gene expression in at least one time point. The majority (96.7%) of sex-biased genes were differentially expressed during the second year of development, indicating that patterns of sex-bias in expression are tied to key developmental events, such as migration and sexual maturation. Mapping of differentially expressed genes to the O. mykiss genome revealed that the X chromosome is enriched for female upregulated genes, and this may indicate a lack of dosage compensation in rainbow trout. There were many more sex-biased genes in the migratory line than the resident line suggesting differences in patterns of gene expression in the brain between populations subjected to different forces of selection. Overall, our results suggest that there is considerable variation in the extent and identity of genes exhibiting sex-bias during the first two years of life. These differentially expressed genes may be connected to developmental differences between the sexes, and/or between adopting a resident or migratory life history.

  12. The relationship between weight stigma and eating behavior is explained by weight bias internalization and psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Kerry S; Latner, Janet D; Puhl, Rebecca M; Vartanian, Lenny R; Giles, Claudia; Griva, Konstadina; Carter, Adrian

    2016-07-01

    Weight stigma is associated with a range of negative outcomes, including disordered eating, but the psychological mechanisms underlying these associations are not well understood. The present study tested whether the association between weight stigma experiences and disordered eating behaviors (emotional eating, uncontrolled eating, and loss-of-control eating) are mediated by weight bias internalization and psychological distress. Six-hundred and thirty-four undergraduate university students completed an online survey assessing weight stigma, weight bias internalization, psychological distress, disordered eating, along with demographic characteristics (i.e., age, gender, weight status). Statistical analyses found that weight stigma was significantly associated with all measures of disordered eating, and with weight bias internalization and psychological distress. In regression and mediation analyses accounting for age, gender and weight status, weight bias internalization and psychological distress mediated the relationship between weight stigma and disordered eating behavior. Thus, weight bias internalization and psychological distress appear to be important factors underpinning the relationship between weight stigma and disordered eating behaviors, and could be targets for interventions, such as, psychological acceptance and mindfulness therapy, which have been shown to reduce the impact of weight stigma. The evidence for the health consequences resulting from weight stigma is becoming clear. It is important that health and social policy makers are informed of this literature and encouraged develop anti-weight stigma policies for school, work, and medical settings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Gender-biased behavior at work: what can surveys tell us about the link between sexual harassment and gender discrimination?

    OpenAIRE

    Antecol, Heather; Barcus, Vanessa E.; Cobb-Clark, Deborah A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the links between survey-based reports of sexual harassment and gender discrimination. In particular, we are interested in assessing whether these concepts measure similar forms of gender-biased behavior and whether they have the same effect on workers' job satisfaction and intentions to leave their jobs. Our results provide little support for the notion that survey-based measures of sexual harassment and gender discrimination capture the same underlying behavior. Responde...

  14. Biased hypermutation occurred frequently in a gene inserted into the IC323 recombinant measles virus during its persistence in the brains of nude mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otani, Sanae [Department of Virology and Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka City University, 1-4-3 Asahimachi, Abeno-ku, Osaka 545-8585 (Japan); Department of Pediatrics, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka City University, Osaka (Japan); Ayata, Minoru, E-mail: maverick@med.osaka-cu.ac.jp [Department of Virology and Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka City University, 1-4-3 Asahimachi, Abeno-ku, Osaka 545-8585 (Japan); Takeuchi, Kaoru [Laboratory of Environmental Microbiology, Division of Biomedical Science, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Takeda, Makoto [Department of Virology 3, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo (Japan); Shintaku, Haruo [Department of Pediatrics, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka City University, Osaka (Japan); Ogura, Hisashi [Department of Virology and Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka City University, 1-4-3 Asahimachi, Abeno-ku, Osaka 545-8585 (Japan)

    2014-08-15

    Measles virus (MV) is the causative agent of measles and its neurological complications, subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) and measles inclusion body encephalitis (MIBE). Biased hypermutation in the M gene is a characteristic feature of SSPE and MIBE. To determine whether the M gene is the preferred target of hypermutation, an additional transcriptional unit containing a humanized Renilla reniformis green fluorescent protein (hrGFP) gene was introduced into the IC323 MV genome, and nude mice were inoculated intracerebrally with the virus. Biased hypermutation occurred in the M gene and also in the hrGFP gene when it was inserted between the leader and the N gene, but not between the H and L gene. These results indicate that biased hypermutation is usually found in a gene whose function is not essential for viral proliferation in the brain and that the location of a gene in the MV genome can affect its mutational frequency. - Highlights: • Wild-type MV can cause persistent infections in nude mice. • Biased hypermutation occurred in the M gene. • Biased hypermutation occurred in an inessential gene inserted between the leader and the N gene.

  15. Biased hypermutation occurred frequently in a gene inserted into the IC323 recombinant measles virus during its persistence in the brains of nude mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otani, Sanae; Ayata, Minoru; Takeuchi, Kaoru; Takeda, Makoto; Shintaku, Haruo; Ogura, Hisashi

    2014-01-01

    Measles virus (MV) is the causative agent of measles and its neurological complications, subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) and measles inclusion body encephalitis (MIBE). Biased hypermutation in the M gene is a characteristic feature of SSPE and MIBE. To determine whether the M gene is the preferred target of hypermutation, an additional transcriptional unit containing a humanized Renilla reniformis green fluorescent protein (hrGFP) gene was introduced into the IC323 MV genome, and nude mice were inoculated intracerebrally with the virus. Biased hypermutation occurred in the M gene and also in the hrGFP gene when it was inserted between the leader and the N gene, but not between the H and L gene. These results indicate that biased hypermutation is usually found in a gene whose function is not essential for viral proliferation in the brain and that the location of a gene in the MV genome can affect its mutational frequency. - Highlights: • Wild-type MV can cause persistent infections in nude mice. • Biased hypermutation occurred in the M gene. • Biased hypermutation occurred in an inessential gene inserted between the leader and the N gene

  16. Biases in attention, interpretation, memory, and associations in children with varying levels of spider fear: Inter-relations and prediction of behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Anke M; van Niekerk, Rianne; Ten Brink, Giovanni; Rapee, Ronald M; Hudson, Jennifer L; Bögels, Susan M; Becker, Eni S; Rinck, Mike

    2017-03-01

    Cognitive theories suggest that cognitive biases may be related and together influence the anxiety response. However, little is known about the interrelations of cognitive bias tasks and whether they allow for an improved prediction of fear-related behavior in addition to self-reports. This study simultaneously addressed several types of cognitive biases in children, to investigate attention bias, interpretation bias, memory bias and fear-related associations, their interrelations and the prediction of behavior. Eighty-one children varying in their levels of spider fear completed the Spider Anxiety and Disgust Screening for Children and performed two Emotional Stroop tasks, a Free Recall task, an interpretation task including size and distance indication, an Affective Priming Task, and a Behavioral Assessment Test. We found an attention bias, interpretation bias, and fear-related associations, but no evidence for a memory bias. The biases showed little overlap. Attention bias, interpretation bias, and fear-related associations predicted unique variance in avoidance of spiders. Interpretation bias and fear-related associations remained significant predictors, even when self-reported fear was included as a predictor. Children were not seeking help for their spider fear and were not tested on clinical levels of spider phobia. This is the first study to find evidence that different cognitive biases each predict unique variance in avoidance behavior. Furthermore, it is also the first study in which we found evidence for a relation between fear of spiders and size and distance indication. We showed that this bias is distinct from other cognitive biases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The Political Gender Gap: Gender Bias in Facial Inferences that Predict Voting Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiao, Joan Y.; Bowman, Nicholas E.; Gill, Harleen

    2008-01-01

    Background Throughout human history, a disproportionate degree of political power around the world has been held by men. Even in democracies where the opportunity to serve in top political positions is available to any individual elected by the majority of their constituents, most of the highest political offices are occupied by male leaders. What psychological factors underlie this political gender gap? Contrary to the notion that people use deliberate, rational strategies when deciding whom to vote for in major political elections, research indicates that people use shallow decision heuristics, such as impressions of competence solely from a candidate's facial appearance, when deciding whom to vote for. Because gender has previously been shown to affect a number of inferences made from the face, here we investigated the hypothesis that gender of both voter and candidate affects the kinds of facial impressions that predict voting behavior. Methodology/Principal Finding Male and female voters judged a series of male and female political candidates on how competent, dominant, attractive and approachable they seemed based on their facial appearance. Then they saw a series of pairs of political candidates and decided which politician they would vote for in a hypothetical election for President of the United States. Results indicate that both gender of voter and candidate affect the kinds of facial impressions that predict voting behavior. All voters are likely to vote for candidates who appear more competent. However, male candidates that appear more approachable and female candidates who appear more attractive are more likely to win votes. In particular, men are more likely to vote for attractive female candidates whereas women are more likely to vote for approachable male candidates. Conclusions/Significance Here we reveal gender biases in the intuitive heuristics that voters use when deciding whom to vote for in major political elections. Our findings underscore

  18. The political gender gap: gender bias in facial inferences that predict voting behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Y Chiao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Throughout human history, a disproportionate degree of political power around the world has been held by men. Even in democracies where the opportunity to serve in top political positions is available to any individual elected by the majority of their constituents, most of the highest political offices are occupied by male leaders. What psychological factors underlie this political gender gap? Contrary to the notion that people use deliberate, rational strategies when deciding whom to vote for in major political elections, research indicates that people use shallow decision heuristics, such as impressions of competence solely from a candidate's facial appearance, when deciding whom to vote for. Because gender has previously been shown to affect a number of inferences made from the face, here we investigated the hypothesis that gender of both voter and candidate affects the kinds of facial impressions that predict voting behavior. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: Male and female voters judged a series of male and female political candidates on how competent, dominant, attractive and approachable they seemed based on their facial appearance. Then they saw a series of pairs of political candidates and decided which politician they would vote for in a hypothetical election for President of the United States. Results indicate that both gender of voter and candidate affect the kinds of facial impressions that predict voting behavior. All voters are likely to vote for candidates who appear more competent. However, male candidates that appear more approachable and female candidates who appear more attractive are more likely to win votes. In particular, men are more likely to vote for attractive female candidates whereas women are more likely to vote for approachable male candidates. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Here we reveal gender biases in the intuitive heuristics that voters use when deciding whom to vote for in major political elections. Our

  19. Prediction of Navigation Satellite Clock Bias Considering Clock's Stochastic Variation Behavior with Robust Least Square Collocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Yupu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to better express the characteristic of satellite clock bias (SCB and further improve its prediction precision, a new SCB prediction model is proposed, which can take the physical feature, cyclic variation and stochastic variation behaviors of the space-borne atomic clock into consideration by using a robust least square collocation (LSC method. The proposed model firstly uses a quadratic polynomial model with periodic terms to fit and abstract the trend term and cyclic terms of SCB. Then for the residual stochastic variation part and possible gross errors hidden in SCB data, the model employs a robust LSC method to process them. The covariance function of the LSC is determined by selecting an empirical function and combining SCB prediction tests. Using the final precise IGS SCB products to conduct prediction tests, the results show that the proposed model can get better prediction performance. Specifically, the results' prediction accuracy can enhance 0.457 ns and 0.948 ns respectively, and the corresponding prediction stability can improve 0.445 ns and 1.233 ns, compared with the results of quadratic polynomial model and grey model. In addition, the results also show that the proposed covariance function corresponding to the new model is reasonable.

  20. Gene by cognition interaction on stress-induced attention bias for food: Effects of 5-HTTLPR and ruminative thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schepers, Robbie; Markus, C Rob

    2017-09-01

    Stress is often found to increase the preference and intake of high caloric foods. This effect is known as emotional eating and is influenced by cognitive as well as biological stress vulnerabilities. An S-allele of the 5-HTTLPR gene has been linked to decreased (brain) serotonin efficiency, leading to decreased stress resilience and increased risks for negative affect and eating related disturbances. Recently it has been proposed that a cognitive ruminative thinking style can further exacerbate the effect of this gene by prolonging the already increased stress response, thereby potentially increasing the risk of compensating by overeating high palatable foods. This study was aimed at investigating whether there is an increased risk for emotional eating in high ruminative S/S-allele carriers reflected by an increased attention bias for high caloric foods during stress. From a large (N=827) DNA database, participants (N=100) were selected based on genotype (S/S or L/L) and ruminative thinking style and performed an eye-tracking visual food-picture probe task before and after acute stress exposure. A significant Genotype x Rumination x Stress-interaction was found on attention bias for savory food; indicating that a stress-induced attention bias for specifically high-caloric foods is moderated by a gene x cognitive risk factor. Both a genetic (5-HTTLPR) and cognitive (ruminative thinking) stress vulnerability may mutually increase the risk for stress-related abnormal eating patterns. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Experimental modification of interpretation bias about animal fear in young children: effects on cognition, avoidance behavior, anxiety vulnerability, and physiological responding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Kathryn J; Field, Andy P; Muris, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of experimentally modifying interpretation biases for children's cognitions, avoidance behavior, anxiety vulnerability, and physiological responding. Sixty-seven children (6-11 years) were randomly assigned to receive a positive or negative interpretation bias modification procedure to induce interpretation biases toward or away from threat about ambiguous situations involving Australian marsupials. Children rapidly learned to select outcomes of ambiguous situations, which were congruent with their assigned condition. Furthermore, following positive modification, children's threat biases about novel ambiguous situations significantly decreased, whereas threat biases significantly increased after negative modification. In response to a stress-evoking behavioral avoidance test, positive modification attenuated behavioral avoidance compared to negative modification. However, no significant effects of bias modification on anxiety vulnerability or physiological responses to this stress-evoking Behavioral Avoidance Task were observed.

  2. Using RNA-seq to determine patterns of sex-bias in gene expression in the brain of the sex-role reversed Gulf Pipefish (Syngnathus scovelli).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beal, Andria P; Martin, F Douglas; Hale, Matthew C

    2018-02-01

    Sex-bias in gene expression is a widespread mechanism for controlling the development of phenotypes that differ between males and females. Most studies on sex-bias in gene expression have focused on species that exhibit traditional sex-roles (male-male competition and female parental care). By contrast the Syngnathid fishes (sea horses, pipefish, and sea dragons) are a group of organisms where many species exhibit male brooding and sex-role reversal (female-female competition for mates and paternal parental care), and little is known about how patterns of sex-bias in gene expression vary in species with sex-role reversal. Here we utilize RNA-seq technology to investigate patterns of sex-bias in gene expression in the brain tissue of the Gulf Pipefish (Syngnathus scovelli) a species that exhibits sex-role reversal. Gene expression analysis identified 73 sex-biased genes, 26 genes upregulated in females and 47 genes upregulated in males. Gene ontology analysis found 52 terms enriched for the sex-biased genes in a wide range of pathways suggesting that multiple functions and processes differ between the sexes. We focused on two areas of interest: sex steroids/hormones and circadian rhythms, both of which exhibited sex-bias in gene expression, and are known to influence sexual development in other species. Lastly, the work presented herein contributes to a growing body of genome data available for the Syngnathids, increasing our knowledge on patterns of gene expression in these unusual fishes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Candidate Gene Associations with Withdrawn Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, David H.; Althoff, Robert R.; Ehli, Erik A.; Davies, Gareth E.; Rettew, David C.; Crehan, Eileen T.; Walkup, John T.; Hudziak, James J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Social withdrawal is a core neuropsychiatric phenomenon in developmental psychopathology. Its presence predicts psychopathology across many domains, including depression, psychosis, autism, anxiety, and suicide. Withdrawn behavior is highly heritable, persistent, and characteristically worsens without intervention. To date, few studies…

  4. Men's hostile sexism and biased perceptions of intimate partners: fostering dissatisfaction and negative behavior in close relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Matthew D; Overall, Nickola C

    2013-12-01

    Hostile sexism (HS) expresses attitudes that characterize women who challenge men's power as manipulative and subversive. Does endorsing HS negatively bias perceptions of women's behavior and, in turn, create animosity within intimate relationships? Committed heterosexual couples reported on their own behavior and perceptions of their partner's behavior five times across a year (Study 1) and daily for 3 weeks (Study 2). Men who more strongly endorsed HS perceived their partner's behavior as more negative than was justified by their partner's reports. Furthermore, more negative perceptions of the partner's behavior mediated the links between men's HS and feeling more manipulated by their partners, behaving more negatively toward their partners, and lower relationship quality. This indicates that men who endorse HS behave more negatively toward intimate partners and experience lower relationship satisfaction because their antagonistic attitudes toward women in general permeate the way they perceive those partners.

  5. Social Desirability Bias and Prevalence of Sexual HIV Risk Behaviors Among People Who Use Drugs in Baltimore, Maryland: Implications for Identifying Individuals Prone to Underreporting Sexual Risk Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Amrita; Tobin, Karin; Davey-Rothwell, Melissa; Latkin, Carl A

    2017-07-01

    The role of social desirability bias (SDB) in self-reported HIV risk behaviors continues to be problematic. This study examined whether SDB was associated with self-reported, via audio computer assisted self-interviewing, sexual risk behaviors among people who use drugs. The present study was conducted among 559 participants who reported having a recent sexual partner at their 6-month visit of a longitudinal study. Robust Poisson regression was used to model the association between SDB and five risk behaviors. Analyses were stratified by gender and partner type. Higher scores of SDB were associated with decreased reporting of selling sex and having more than one sexual partner. Higher SDB scores were associated with increased reporting of always using condoms during oral, vaginal, and anal sex. Gender-specific differences were observed. The inclusion of a measure of SDB in data collection, along with other strategies, can be used to both identify and reduce self-report biases.

  6. Insight into pattern of codon biasness and nucleotide base usage in serotonin receptor gene family from different mammalian species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dass, J Febin Prabhu; Sudandiradoss, C

    2012-07-15

    5-HT (5-Hydroxy-tryptamine) or serotonin receptors are found both in central and peripheral nervous system as well as in non-neuronal tissues. In the animal and human nervous system, serotonin produces various functional effects through a variety of membrane bound receptors. In this study, we focus on 5-HT receptor family from different mammals and examined the factors that account for codon and nucleotide usage variation. A total of 110 homologous coding sequences from 11 different mammalian species were analyzed using relative synonymous codon usage (RSCU), correspondence analysis (COA) and hierarchical cluster analysis together with nucleotide base usage frequency of chemically similar amino acid codons. The mean effective number of codon (ENc) value of 37.06 for 5-HT(6) shows very high codon bias within the family and may be due to high selective translational efficiency. The COA and Spearman's rank correlation reveals that the nucleotide compositional mutation bias as the major factors influencing the codon usage in serotonin receptor genes. The hierarchical cluster analysis suggests that gene function is another dominant factor that affects the codon usage bias, while species is a minor factor. Nucleotide base usage was reported using Goldman, Engelman, Stietz (GES) scale reveals the presence of high uracil (>45%) content at functionally important hydrophobic regions. Our in silico approach will certainly help for further investigations on critical inference on evolution, structure, function and gene expression aspects of 5-HT receptors family which are potential antipsychotic drug targets. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Angry facial expressions bias gender categorization in children and adults: behavioral and computational evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayet, Laurie; Pascalis, Olivier; Quinn, Paul C.; Lee, Kang; Gentaz, Édouard; Tanaka, James W.

    2015-01-01

    Angry faces are perceived as more masculine by adults. However, the developmental course and underlying mechanism (bottom-up stimulus driven or top-down belief driven) associated with the angry-male bias remain unclear. Here we report that anger biases face gender categorization toward “male” responding in children as young as 5–6 years. The bias is observed for both own- and other-race faces, and is remarkably unchanged across development (into adulthood) as revealed by signal detection analyses (Experiments 1–2). The developmental course of the angry-male bias, along with its extension to other-race faces, combine to suggest that it is not rooted in extensive experience, e.g., observing males engaging in aggressive acts during the school years. Based on several computational simulations of gender categorization (Experiment 3), we further conclude that (1) the angry-male bias results, at least partially, from a strategy of attending to facial features or their second-order relations when categorizing face gender, and (2) any single choice of computational representation (e.g., Principal Component Analysis) is insufficient to assess resemblances between face categories, as different representations of the very same faces suggest different bases for the angry-male bias. Our findings are thus consistent with stimulus-and stereotyped-belief driven accounts of the angry-male bias. Taken together, the evidence suggests considerable stability in the interaction between some facial dimensions in social categorization that is present prior to the onset of formal schooling. PMID:25859238

  8. Indirect assessment of an interpretation bias in humans: Neurophysiological and behavioral correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita eSchick

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Affective state can influence cognition leading to biased information processing, interpretation, attention, and memory. Such bias has been reported to be essential for the onset and maintenance of different psychopathologies, particularly affective disorders. However, empirical evidence has been very heterogeneous and little is known about the neurophysiological mechanisms underlying cognitive bias and its time-course. We therefore investigated the interpretation of ambiguous stimuli as indicators of biased information processing with an ambiguous cue-conditioning paradigm. In an acquisition phase, participants learned to discriminate two tones of different frequency, which acquired emotional and motivational value due to subsequent feedback (monetary gain or avoidance of monetary loss. In the test phase, three additional tones of intermediate frequencies were presented, whose interpretation as positive (approach of reward or negative (avoidance of punishment, indicated by a button press, was used as an indicator of the bias. Twenty healthy volunteers participated in this paradigm while a 64-channel electroencephalogram was recorded. Participants also completed questionnaires assessing individual differences in depression and rumination. Overall, we found a small positive bias, which correlated negatively with reflective pondering, a type of rumination. As expected, reaction times were increased for intermediate tones. ERP amplitudes between 300 – 700 ms post-stimulus differed depending on the interpretation of the intermediate tones. A negative compared to a positive interpretation led to an amplitude increase over frontal electrodes. Our study provides evidence that in humans, as in animal research, the ambiguous cue-conditioning paradigm is a valid procedure for indirectly assessing ambiguous cue interpretation and a potential interpretation bias, which is sensitive to individual differences in affect-related traits.

  9. Angry facial expressions bias gender categorization in children and adults: behavioral and computational evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurie eBayet

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Angry faces are perceived as more masculine by adults. However, the developmental course and underlying mechanism (bottom-up stimulus driven or top-down belief driven associated with the angry-male bias remain unclear. Here we report that anger biases face gender categorization towards male responding in children as young as 5-6 years. The bias is observed for both own- and other-race faces, and is remarkably unchanged across development (into adulthood as revealed by signal detection analyses (Experiments 1-2. The developmental course of the angry-male bias, along with its extension to other-race faces, combine to suggest that it is not rooted in extensive experience, e.g. observing males engaging in aggressive acts during the school years. Based on several computational simulations of gender categorization (Experiment 3, we further conclude that (1 the angry-male bias results, at least partially, from a strategy of attending to facial features or their second-order relations when categorizing face gender, and (2 any single choice of computational representation (e.g., Principal Component Analysis is insufficient to assess resemblances between face categories, as different representations of the very same faces suggest different bases for the angry-male bias. Our findings are thus consistent with stimulus-and stereotyped-belief driven accounts of the angry-male bias. Taken together, the evidence suggests considerable stability in the interaction between some facial dimensions in social categorization that is present prior to the onset of formal schooling.

  10. Are languages really independent from genes? If not, what would a genetic bias affecting language diversity look like?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dediu, Dan

    2011-04-01

    It is generally accepted that the relationship between human genes and language is very complex and multifaceted. This has its roots in the “regular” complexity governing the interplay among genes and between genes and environment for most phenotypes, but with the added layer of supraontogenetic and supra-individual processes defining culture. At the coarsest level, focusing on the species, it is clear that human-specific--but not necessarily faculty-specific--genetic factors subtend our capacity for language and a currently very productive research program is aiming at uncovering them. At the other end of the spectrum, it is uncontroversial that individual-level variations in different aspects related to speech and language have an important genetic component and their discovery and detailed characterization have already started to revolutionize the way we think about human nature. However, at the intermediate, glossogenetic/population level, the relationship becomes controversial, partly due to deeply ingrained beliefs about language acquisition and universality and partly because of confusions with a different type of gene-languages correlation due to shared history. Nevertheless, conceptual, mathematical and computational models--and, recently, experimental evidence from artificial languages and songbirds--have repeatedly shown that genetic biases affecting the acquisition or processing of aspects of language and speech can be amplified by population-level intergenerational cultural processes and made manifest either as fixed “universal” properties of language or as structured linguistic diversity. Here, I review several such models as well as the recently proposed case of a causal relationship between the distribution of tone languages and two genes related to brain growth and development, ASPM and Microcephalin, and I discuss the relevance of such genetic biasing for language evolution, change, and diversity.

  11. Experimental evidence of spin glass and exchange bias behavior in sputtered grown α-MnO{sub 2} nanorods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Ashwani; Sanger, Amit; Singh, Amit Kumar; Kumar, Arvind [Nanoscience Laboratory, Institute Instrumentation Centre, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee 247667 (India); Kumar, Mohit [Department of Condensed Matter Physics, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel); Chandra, Ramesh [Nanoscience Laboratory, Institute Instrumentation Centre, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee 247667 (India)

    2017-07-01

    Highlights: • We have synthesized the α-MnO{sub 2} nanorods by using DC reactive sputtering. • We observed Spin glass and exchange bias behavior at low temperature in sputtered grown α-MnO{sub 2} nanorods. • Exchange bias arises due to exchange coupling of uncompensated FM spins and AFM spins at FM/AFM interface. - Abstract: Here, we present a single-step process to synthesize the α-MnO{sub 2} nanorods forest using reactive DC magnetron sputtering for the application of magnetic memories. The structural and morphological properties of the α-MnO{sub 2} nanorods were systematically studied using numerous analytical techniques, including X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, field-emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The magnetic measurements suggest that the α-MnO{sub 2} nanorods exhibit spin glass and exchange bias behaviour at low temperature. Such low temperature behaviour is explained by the core-shell type structure of nanorods. Antiferromagnetic core and shell of uncompensated ferromagnetic spins leads to the formation of antiferromagnetic/ferromagnetic (AFM/FM) interfaces, which originates exchange bias in the sample.

  12. Internalized weight bias mediates the relationship between depressive symptoms and disordered eating behavior among women who think they are overweight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sienko, Rachel M; Saules, Karen K; Carr, Meagan M

    2016-08-01

    This study tested the potential mediating role of Internalized Weight Bias (IWB) in the relationship between depressive symptoms (DEP-SX) and disordered eating behavior. In particular, we hypothesized that IWB may be an intervening variable in the well documented association between depression and disordered eating. College women (N=172) who were taking undergraduate psychology courses and who endorsed thinking they were overweight completed the Patient Health Questionnaire depression screener (PHQ-9), the Weight Bias Internalization Scale (WBIS), and the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q). Bootstrapping mediation analyses were conducted to explore the relationships between these variables. IWB was significantly correlated with eating disorder symptoms and DEP-SX, but not Body Mass Index. Mediation analyses supported a model in which IWB mediated the relationship between DEP-SX and disordered eating behavior. Results indicate that individuals with elevated DEP-SX may be likely to internalize weight bias, which may in turn lead to maladaptive approaches to eating and weight control, regardless of one's actual weight status. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Nested PCR Biases in Interpreting Microbial Community Structure in 16S rRNA Gene Sequence Datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Guoqin; Fadrosh, Doug; Goedert, James J; Ravel, Jacques; Goldstein, Alisa M

    2015-01-01

    Sequencing of the PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene has become a common approach to microbial community investigations in the fields of human health and environmental sciences. This approach, however, is difficult when the amount of DNA is too low to be amplified by standard PCR. Nested PCR can be employed as it can amplify samples with DNA concentration several-fold lower than standard PCR. However, potential biases with nested PCRs that could affect measurement of community structure have received little attention. In this study, we used 17 DNAs extracted from vaginal swabs and 12 DNAs extracted from stool samples to study the influence of nested PCR amplification of the 16S rRNA gene on the estimation of microbial community structure using Illumina MiSeq sequencing. Nested and standard PCR methods were compared on alpha- and beta-diversity metrics and relative abundances of bacterial genera. The effects of number of cycles in the first round of PCR (10 vs. 20) and microbial diversity (relatively low in vagina vs. high in stool) were also investigated. Vaginal swab samples showed no significant difference in alpha diversity or community structure between nested PCR and standard PCR (one round of 40 cycles). Stool samples showed significant differences in alpha diversity (except Shannon's index) and relative abundance of 13 genera between nested PCR with 20 cycles in the first round and standard PCR (Pnested PCR with 10 cycles in the first round and standard PCR. Operational taxonomic units (OTUs) that had low relative abundance (sum of relative abundance 27% of total OTUs in stool). Nested PCR introduced bias in estimated diversity and community structure. The bias was more significant for communities with relatively higher diversity and when more cycles were applied in the first round of PCR. We conclude that nested PCR could be used when standard PCR does not work. However, rare taxa detected by nested PCR should be validated by other technologies.

  14. The restraint bias: how the illusion of self-restraint promotes impulsive behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nordgren, L.F.; van Harreveld, F.; van der Pligt, J.

    2009-01-01

    Four studies examined how impulse-control beliefs—beliefs regarding one's ability to regulate visceral impulses, such as hunger, drug craving, and sexual arousal—influence the self-control process. The findings provide evidence for a restraint bias: a tendency for people to overestimate their

  15. Directional biases reveal utilization of arm's biomechanical properties for optimization of motor behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goble, Jacob A; Zhang, Yanxin; Shimansky, Yury; Sharma, Siddharth; Dounskaia, Natalia V

    2007-09-01

    Strategies used by the CNS to optimize arm movements in terms of speed, accuracy, and resistance to fatigue remain largely unknown. A hypothesis is studied that the CNS exploits biomechanical properties of multijoint limbs to increase efficiency of movement control. To test this notion, a novel free-stroke drawing task was used that instructs subjects to make straight strokes in as many different directions as possible in the horizontal plane through rotations of the elbow and shoulder joints. Despite explicit instructions to distribute strokes uniformly, subjects showed biases to move in specific directions. These biases were associated with a tendency to perform movements that included active motion at one joint and largely passive motion at the other joint, revealing a tendency to minimize intervention of muscle torque for regulation of the effect of interaction torque. Other biomechanical factors, such as inertial resistance and kinematic manipulability, were unable to adequately account for these significant biases. Also, minimizations of jerk, muscle torque change, and sum of squared muscle torque were analyzed; however, these cost functions failed to explain the observed directional biases. Collectively, these results suggest that knowledge of biomechanical cost functions regarding interaction torque (IT) regulation is available to the control system. This knowledge may be used to evaluate potential movements and to select movement of "low cost." The preference to reduce active regulation of interaction torque suggests that, in addition to muscle energy, the criterion for movement cost may include neural activity required for movement control.

  16. Biases in attention, interpretation, memory, and associations in children with varying levels of spider fear : Inter-relations and prediction of behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein, A.M.; van Niekerk, R.; ten Brink, G.; Rapee, R.M.; Hudson, J.L.; Bögels, S.M.; Becker, E.S.; Rinck, M.

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Cognitive theories suggest that cognitive biases may be related and together influence the anxiety response. However, little is known about the interrelations of cognitive bias tasks and whether they allow for an improved prediction of fear-related behavior in addition to

  17. Effectiveness of attentional bias modification and cognitive behavioral therapy on the reduction of pain intensity in patients with chronic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fateme Babai

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the effectiveness of Attentional Bias Modification (ABM and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT on the reduction of pain intensityin patients with chronic pain. This study was a quasiexperimental pretest-posttest design with control group. All patients who referred to physiotherapy clinics for pain during 2015 were participated in the study. They completed the Brief Pain Inventory-short form (BPI-SF for assessing severity of pain. Attentional bias was evaluated using computerized Dot-Probe task. The patients with chronic pain were screened by diagnostic criteria of DSM-V; neurologic diagnosis, and interview. 36 people were selected and randomly divided to three groups computer-based ABM, CBT, and control (12 cases in each group. Group A was trained in 8 sessions-each 15 minutes with the modified computerized Dot-Probe task for attentional bias modification. Group B was trained in 11 sessions-each 45 minutes with CBT program of Turk and Ferry for the chronic pain treatment. And Placebo program was administered for group C in which they completed 8 classic DotProbe sessions. In the end, for the posttest (T2 the participants were tested to identify the changes in biased attention to the emotional stimuli using classing Dot-Probe tasks, and BPI questionnaire to evaluate the changes of severity of pain. Data were analyzed using one-way variance analysis(ANOVA. On the BPI-SF, CBT more reduced the pain intensitythan computer-based ABM.In addition ABM treatment is more effective in reduction of attentional bias.Both of treatments are effective but CBT is more effective than ABM in reduction of pain intensity.

  18. Charge ordering and exchange bias behaviors in Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} porous nanoplatelets and nanorings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debnath, J.C., E-mail: jcd341@uowmail.edu.au [Institute for Frontier Materials, Deakin University, Geelong, VIC 3216 (Australia); Wang, Jianli [Institute for Superconductivity and Electronic Materials, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Zeng, R. [Institute for Superconductivity and Electronic Materials, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Faculty of Science, UNSW, Sydney NSW 2052 (Australia)

    2017-01-01

    We present the synthesis of α-Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} porous nanoplatelets and hexagonal nanorings using microwave-assisted hydrothermal and conventional chemical reaction methods. The x-ray diffraction (XRD) and refinement analyses indicate the α-Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} crystal structure, and the x-ray photoelectron spectrum (XPS) indicates the high purity of the samples. The M–T (including 1/χ–T) curves indicate an antiferromagnetic transition at about 35 K in both kind of samples but the interesting finding was made that a charge-ordered (CO) state appears at 250 K for the nanoplatelets sample whereas it is inattentive for the nanorings. The antiferromagnetic transition temperature T{sub N} is lower than that of the bulk α-Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} single crystal due to the nanosized structures. We observed quite significant exchange bias for nanorings. The exchange bias behavior of the α-Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} hexagonal nanorings is consistent with an antiferromagnetic (AFM) Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} core and spin-glass like shell. - Highlights: ●Charge-ordered state appears for the Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoplatelets but absent for the nanorings. ●Quite significant exchange bias is only observed for Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanorings. ●Exchange bias behavior of Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanorings is consistent with spin-glass like shell. ●Potential for ultrahigh-density magnetic recording and spin valve devices.

  19. The role of gene-gene interaction in the prediction of criminal behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutwell, Brian B; Menard, Scott; Barnes, J C; Beaver, Kevin M; Armstrong, Todd A; Boisvert, Danielle

    2014-04-01

    A host of research has examined the possibility that environmental risk factors might condition the influence of genes on various outcomes. Less research, however, has been aimed at exploring the possibility that genetic factors might interact to impact the emergence of human traits. Even fewer studies exist examining the interaction of genes in the prediction of behavioral outcomes. The current study expands this body of research by testing the interaction between genes involved in neural transmission. Our findings suggest that certain dopamine genes interact to increase the odds of criminogenic outcomes in a national sample of Americans. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A Language for Modeling Cultural Norms, Biases and Stereotypes for Human Behavior Models

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Solomon, Steven; van Lent, Michael; Core, Mark; Carpenter, Paul; Rosenberg, Milton

    2008-01-01

    .... The Culturally-Affected Behavior project seeks to define a language for encoding ethnographic data in order to capture cultural knowledge and use that knowledge to affect human behavior models...

  1. Event-related potentials reveal early attention bias for negative, unexpected behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Jerónimo, R.; Volpert, H. I.; Bartholow, B. D.

    2017-01-01

    WOS:000395098000012 (Nº de Acesso Web of Science) Numerous studies have documented that expectancy-violating (EV) behavior (i.e., behavior that violates existing person impressions) elicits more effortful cognitive processing compared to expectancy-consistent (EC) behavior. Some studies also have shown that this effect is modulated by the valence of behavior, though this finding is inconsistent with some extant models of expectancy processes. The current research investigated whether the v...

  2. The effects of a novel hostile interpretation bias modification paradigm on hostile interpretations, mood, and aggressive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlMoghrabi, Nouran; Huijding, Jorg; Franken, Ingmar H A

    2018-03-01

    Cognitive theories of aggression propose that biased information processing is causally related to aggression. To test these ideas, the current study investigated the effects of a novel cognitive bias modification paradigm (CBM-I) designed to target interpretations associated with aggressive behavior. Participants aged 18-33 years old were randomly assigned to either a single session of positive training (n = 40) aimed at increasing prosocial interpretations or negative training (n = 40) aimed at increasing hostile interpretations. The results revealed that the positive training resulted in an increase in prosocial interpretations while the negative training seemed to have no effect on interpretations. Importantly, in the positive condition, a positive change in interpretations was related to lower anger and verbal aggression scores after the training. In this condition, participants also reported an increase in happiness. In the negative training no such effects were found. However, the better participants performed on the negative training, the more their interpretations were changed in a negative direction and the more aggression they showed on the behavioral aggression task. Participants were healthy university students. Therefore, results should be confirmed within a clinical population. These findings provide support for the idea that this novel CBM-I paradigm can be used to modify interpretations, and suggests that these interpretations are related to mood and aggressive behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of the chlorophycean green alga Scenedesmus obliquus reveals a compact gene organization and a biased distribution of genes on the two DNA strands

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Cambiaire, Jean-Charles; Otis, Christian; Lemieux, Claude; Turmel, Monique

    2006-01-01

    Background The phylum Chlorophyta contains the majority of the green algae and is divided into four classes. While the basal position of the Prasinophyceae is well established, the divergence order of the Ulvophyceae, Trebouxiophyceae and Chlorophyceae (UTC) remains uncertain. The five complete chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) sequences currently available for representatives of these classes display considerable variability in overall structure, gene content, gene density, intron content and gene order. Among these genomes, that of the chlorophycean green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii has retained the least ancestral features. The two single-copy regions, which are separated from one another by the large inverted repeat (IR), have similar sizes, rather than unequal sizes, and differ radically in both gene contents and gene organizations relative to the single-copy regions of prasinophyte and ulvophyte cpDNAs. To gain insights into the various changes that underwent the chloroplast genome during the evolution of chlorophycean green algae, we have sequenced the cpDNA of Scenedesmus obliquus, a member of a distinct chlorophycean lineage. Results The 161,452 bp IR-containing genome of Scenedesmus features single-copy regions of similar sizes, encodes 96 genes, i.e. only two additional genes (infA and rpl12) relative to its Chlamydomonas homologue and contains seven group I and two group II introns. It is clearly more compact than the four UTC algal cpDNAs that have been examined so far, displays the lowest proportion of short repeats among these algae and shows a stronger bias in clustering of genes on the same DNA strand compared to Chlamydomonas cpDNA. Like the latter genome, Scenedesmus cpDNA displays only a few ancestral gene clusters. The two chlorophycean genomes share 11 gene clusters that are not found in previously sequenced trebouxiophyte and ulvophyte cpDNAs as well as a few genes that have an unusual structure; however, their single-copy regions differ

  4. Exploring the Great Schism in the Social Sciences: Confirmation Bias and the Interpretation of Results Relating to Biological Influences on Human Behavior and Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winking, Jeffrey

    2018-01-01

    The nature-nurture debate is one that biologists often dismiss as a false dichotomy, as all phenotypic traits are the results of complex processes of gene and environment interactions. However, such dismissiveness belies the ongoing debate that is unmistakable throughout the biological and social sciences concerning the role of biological influences in the development of psychological and behavioral traits in humans. Many have proposed that this debate is due to ideologically driven biases in the interpretation of results. Those favoring biological approaches have been accused of a greater willingness to accept biological explanations so as to rationalize or justify the status quo of inequality. Those rejecting biological approaches have been accused of an unwillingness to accept biological explanations so as to attribute inequalities solely to social and institutional factors, ultimately allowing for the possibility of social equality. While it is important to continue to investigate this topic through further research and debate, another approach is to examine the degree to which the allegations of bias are indeed valid. To accomplish this, a convenience sample of individuals with relevant postgraduate degrees was recruited from Mechanical Turk and social media. Participants were asked to rate the inferential power of different research designs and of mock results that varied in the degree to which they supported different ideologies. Results were suggestive that researchers harbor sincere differences of opinion concerning the inferential value of relevant research. There was no suggestion that ideological confirmation biases drive these differences. However, challenges associated with recruiting a large enough sample of experts as well as identifying believable mock scenarios limit the study's inferential scope.

  5. Behavioral meaningful opioidergic stimulation activates kappa receptor gene expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teodorov, E.; Ferrari, M.F.R.; Fior-Chadi, D.R.; Camarini, R.; Felício, L.F.

    2012-01-01

    The periaqueductal gray (PAG) has been reported to be a location for opioid regulation of pain and a potential site for behavioral selection in females. Opioid-mediated behavioral and physiological responses differ according to the activity of opioid receptor subtypes. The present study investigated the effects of the peripheral injection of the kappa-opioid receptor agonist U69593 into the dorsal subcutaneous region of animals on maternal behavior and on Oprk1 gene activity in the PAG of female rats. Female Wistar rats weighing 200-250 g at the beginning of the study were randomly divided into 2 groups for maternal behavior and gene expression experiments. On day 5, pups were removed at 7:00 am and placed in another home cage that was distant from their mother. Thirty minutes after removing the pups, the dams were treated with U69593 (0.15 mg/kg, sc) or 0.9% saline (up to 1 mL/kg) and after 30 min were evaluated in the maternal behavior test. Latencies in seconds for pup retrieval, grouping, crouching, and full maternal behavior were scored. The results showed that U69593 administration inhibited maternal behavior (P < 0.05) because a lower percentage of U69593 group dams showed retrieval of first pup, retrieving all pups, grouping, crouching and displaying full maternal behavior compared to the saline group. Opioid gene expression was evaluated using real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). A single injection of U69593 increased Oprk1 PAG expression in both virgin (P < 0.05) and lactating female rats (P < 0.01), with no significant effect on Oprm1 or Oprd1 gene activity. Thus, the expression of kappa-opioid receptors in the PAG may be modulated by single opioid receptor stimulation and behavioral meaningful opioidergic transmission in the adult female might occur simultaneously to specific changes in gene expression of kappa-opioid receptor subtype. This is yet another alert for the complex role of the opioid system in female

  6. Behavioral meaningful opioidergic stimulation activates kappa receptor gene expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teodorov, E. [Centro de Matemática, Computação e Cognição, Universidade Federal do ABC, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Ferrari, M.F.R. [Departamento de Genética e Biologia Evolutiva, Instituto de Biociências, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Fior-Chadi, D.R. [Departamento de Fisiologia, Instituto de Biociências, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Camarini, R. [Departamento de Farmacologia, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Felício, L.F. [Departamento de Patologia, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2012-06-01

    The periaqueductal gray (PAG) has been reported to be a location for opioid regulation of pain and a potential site for behavioral selection in females. Opioid-mediated behavioral and physiological responses differ according to the activity of opioid receptor subtypes. The present study investigated the effects of the peripheral injection of the kappa-opioid receptor agonist U69593 into the dorsal subcutaneous region of animals on maternal behavior and on Oprk1 gene activity in the PAG of female rats. Female Wistar rats weighing 200-250 g at the beginning of the study were randomly divided into 2 groups for maternal behavior and gene expression experiments. On day 5, pups were removed at 7:00 am and placed in another home cage that was distant from their mother. Thirty minutes after removing the pups, the dams were treated with U69593 (0.15 mg/kg, sc) or 0.9% saline (up to 1 mL/kg) and after 30 min were evaluated in the maternal behavior test. Latencies in seconds for pup retrieval, grouping, crouching, and full maternal behavior were scored. The results showed that U69593 administration inhibited maternal behavior (P < 0.05) because a lower percentage of U69593 group dams showed retrieval of first pup, retrieving all pups, grouping, crouching and displaying full maternal behavior compared to the saline group. Opioid gene expression was evaluated using real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). A single injection of U69593 increased Oprk1 PAG expression in both virgin (P < 0.05) and lactating female rats (P < 0.01), with no significant effect on Oprm1 or Oprd1 gene activity. Thus, the expression of kappa-opioid receptors in the PAG may be modulated by single opioid receptor stimulation and behavioral meaningful opioidergic transmission in the adult female might occur simultaneously to specific changes in gene expression of kappa-opioid receptor subtype. This is yet another alert for the complex role of the opioid system in female

  7. Behavioral meaningful opioidergic stimulation activates kappa receptor gene expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Teodorov

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The periaqueductal gray (PAG has been reported to be a location for opioid regulation of pain and a potential site for behavioral selection in females. Opioid-mediated behavioral and physiological responses differ according to the activity of opioid receptor subtypes. The present study investigated the effects of the peripheral injection of the kappa-opioid receptor agonist U69593 into the dorsal subcutaneous region of animals on maternal behavior and on Oprk1 gene activity in the PAG of female rats. Female Wistar rats weighing 200-250 g at the beginning of the study were randomly divided into 2 groups for maternal behavior and gene expression experiments. On day 5, pups were removed at 7:00 am and placed in another home cage that was distant from their mother. Thirty minutes after removing the pups, the dams were treated with U69593 (0.15 mg/kg, sc or 0.9% saline (up to 1 mL/kg and after 30 min were evaluated in the maternal behavior test. Latencies in seconds for pup retrieval, grouping, crouching, and full maternal behavior were scored. The results showed that U69593 administration inhibited maternal behavior (P < 0.05 because a lower percentage of kappa group dams showed retrieval of first pup, retrieving all pups, grouping, crouching and displaying full maternal behavior compared to the saline group. Opioid gene expression was evaluated using real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. A single injection of U69593 increased Oprk1 PAG expression in both virgin (P < 0.05 and lactating female rats (P < 0.01, with no significant effect on Oprm1 or Oprd1 gene activity. Thus, the expression of kappa-opioid receptors in the PAG may be modulated by single opioid receptor stimulation and behavioral meaningful opioidergic transmission in the adult female might occur simultaneously to specific changes in gene expression of kappa-opioid receptor subtype. This is yet another alert for the complex role of the opioid system in

  8. Common sources of bias in gene-lifestyle interaction studies of cardiometabolic disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oskari Kilpeläinen, Tuomas

    2013-01-01

    The role of gene x lifestyle interactions in the development of cardiometabolic diseases is often highlighted, but very few robustly replicated examples of interactions exist in the literature. The slow pace of discoveries may largely be due to interaction effects being generally small in magnitude...

  9. Teachers' Assessment of Antisocial Behavior in Kindergarten: Physical Aggression and Measurement Bias across Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spilt, Jantine L.; Koomen, Helma M. Y.; Thijs, Jochem T.; Stoel, Reinoud D.; van der Leij, Aryan

    2010-01-01

    A confirmatory factor analytic study was conducted to obtain evidence for physical aggression as a distinct construct of nonaggressive antisocial behavior in young children. Second, the authors investigated factorial invariance across gender. Teachers completed the Preschool Behavior Questionnaire (PBQ) for two independent samples of…

  10. Parents behaving badly: Gender biases in the perception of parental alienating behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harman, Jennifer J; Biringen, Zeynep; Ratajack, Ellen M; Outland, Pearl L; Kraus, Allyson

    2016-10-01

    According to gender role theory, individuals who confirm expectations associated with their gender roles are rewarded and judged against these expectations when they deviate. Parental roles are strongly tied to gender, and there are very different expectations for behaviors of mothers and fathers. This study examined how mothers' and fathers' behaviors that support or discourage a positive relationship with the other parent are perceived in terms of their acceptability. Two-hundred twenty-eight parents completed an online survey assessing perceptions of acceptability of negative (parental alienating) and positive coparenting behaviors. Results provided support for our hypothesis: Although parental alienating behaviors were rated unacceptable, they were more acceptable for mothers than fathers. Expectancy violation theory can explain why parental alienating behaviors are not viewed as negatively when mothers exhibit them than fathers. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Racial Bias in Drivers' Yielding Behavior at Crosswalks : Understanding the Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    This project explores social identity factors (race and gender) that influence drivers' behavior in interactions with pedestrians at crosswalks. One dangerous potential point of conflict for pedestrians within the transportation system is interaction...

  12. Bias and Undermatching in Delinquent Boys' Verbal Behavior As a Function of Their Level of Deviance

    OpenAIRE

    McDowell, J.J; Caron, Marcia L

    2010-01-01

    Eighty-one 13- to 14-year-old boys at risk for delinquency (target boys) engaged in brief dyadic conversations with their peer friends. The target boys' verbal behavior was coded into two mutually exclusive content categories, rule-break talk and normative talk. Positive social responses from peer boys for each category of talk were also recorded, and were presumed to reinforce the target boys' verbal behavior. A measure of child deviance was available for each target boy. The generalized mat...

  13. Beating Bias in the Directed Evolution of Proteins: Combining High-Fidelity on-Chip Solid-Phase Gene Synthesis with Efficient Gene Assembly for Combinatorial Library Construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Aitao; Acevedo-Rocha, Carlos G; Sun, Zhoutong; Cox, Tony; Xu, Jia Lucy; Reetz, Manfred T

    2018-02-02

    Saturation mutagenesis (SM) constitutes a widely used technique in the directed evolution of selective enzymes as catalysts in organic chemistry and in the manipulation of metabolic paths and genomes, but the quality of the libraries is far from optimal due to the inherent amino acid bias. Herein, it is shown how this fundamental problem can be solved by applying high-fidelity solid-phase chemical gene synthesis on silicon chips followed by efficient gene assembly. Limonene epoxide hydrolase was chosen as the catalyst in the model desymmetrization of cyclohexene oxide with the stereoselective formation of (R,R)- and (S,S)-cyclohexane-1,2-diol. A traditional combinatorial PCR-based SM library, produced by simultaneous randomization at several residues by using a reduced amino acid alphabet, and the respective synthetic library were constructed and compared. Statistical analysis at the DNA level with massive sequencing demonstrates that, in the synthetic approach, 97 % of the theoretically possible DNA mutants are formed, whereas the traditional SM library contained only about 50 %. Screening at the protein level also showed the superiority of the synthetic library; many highly (R,R)- and (S,S)-selective variants being discovered are not found in the traditional SM library. With the prices of synthetic genes decreasing, this approach may point the way to future directed evolution. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Caste-biased gene expression in a facultatively eusocial bee suggests a role for genetic accommodation in the evolution of eusociality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Beryl M; Kingwell, Callum J; Wcislo, William T; Robinson, Gene E

    2017-01-11

    Developmental plasticity may accelerate the evolution of phenotypic novelty through genetic accommodation, but studies of genetic accommodation often lack knowledge of the ancestral state to place selected traits in an evolutionary context. A promising approach for assessing genetic accommodation involves using a comparative framework to ask whether ancestral plasticity is related to the evolution of a particular trait. Bees are an excellent group for such comparisons because caste-based societies (eusociality) have evolved multiple times independently and extant species exhibit different modes of eusociality. We measured brain and abdominal gene expression in a facultatively eusocial bee, Megalopta genalis, and assessed whether plasticity in this species is functionally linked to eusocial traits in other bee lineages. Caste-biased abdominal genes in M. genalis overlapped significantly with caste-biased genes in obligately eusocial bees. Moreover, caste-biased genes in M. genalis overlapped significantly with genes shown to be rapidly evolving in multiple studies of 10 bee species, particularly for genes in the glycolysis pathway and other genes involved in metabolism. These results provide support for the idea that eusociality can evolve via genetic accommodation, with plasticity in facultatively eusocial species like M. genalis providing a substrate for selection during the evolution of caste in obligately eusocial lineages. © 2017 The Author(s).

  15. Two-way shape memory behavior of shape memory polyurethanes with a bias load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Seok Jin; Yu, Woong-Ryeol; Youk, Ji Ho

    2010-01-01

    Thermo-responsive shape memory polyurethane (SMPU) is a smart material that can respond to external heat by changing its macroscopic shape from a temporary configuration to a memorized permanent one. The temporary shape can be processed using mechanical forces above a certain temperature (the transition temperature) and can be maintained until the material acquires a certain thermal energy. Thereafter, the material will recover its memorized permanent shape. However, it is unclear what will occur if the thermal energy is then dissipated, i.e., the material temperature decreases. There are two possibilities: the material will respond to the dissipated energy, resulting in another macroscopic shape change; or nothing will happen beyond the thermal contraction. The former is called two-way shape memory (TWSM) behavior and the latter is called one-way shape memory behavior. This paper reports novel findings showing that TWSM behavior can be imparted to SMPUs using a thermo-mechanical treatment, i.e., imposing a constant stress on them after their temporary shaping. A series of experiments were carried out to characterize the TWSM behavior of SMPUs and to explain its mechanism

  16. The Success Of Stock Selection Strategies In Emerging Markets: Is It Risk Or Behavioral Bias?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. van der Hart; G.J. de Zwart (Gerben); D.J.C. van Dijk (Dick)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractWe examine competing explanations, based on risk and behavioral models, for the profitability of stock selection strategies in emerging markets. We document that both emerging market risk and global risk factors cannot account for the significant excess returns of selection strategies

  17. Bias and Undermatching in Delinquent Boys' Verbal Behavior as a Function of Their Level of Deviance

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, J. J.; Caron, Marcia L.

    2010-01-01

    Eighty-one 13- to 14-year-old boys at risk for delinquency (target boys) engaged in brief dyadic conversations with their peer friends. The target boys' verbal behavior was coded into two mutually exclusive content categories, rule-break talk and normative talk. Positive social responses from peer boys for each category of talk were also recorded,…

  18. The theory of planned behavior without compatibility? : beyond method bias and past trivial associations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaiser, F.G.; Schultz, P.W.; Scheuthle, H.

    2007-01-01

    Overreliance on one measurement approach can challenge accurate statements about reality, as findings can represent by-products of the compulsory measurement paradigm. Within the theory of planned behavior (TPB), the compatibility principle represents one such strictly imposed paradigm. Using 2

  19. Complete depletion of primordial germ cells in an All-female fish leads to Sex-biased gene expression alteration and sterile All-male occurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Li, Shi-Zhu; Li, Zhi; Wang, Yang; Li, Xi-Yin; Zhong, Jian-Xiang; Zhang, Xiao-Juan; Zhang, Jun; Zhou, Li; Gui, Jian-Fang

    2015-11-18

    Gynogenesis is one of unisexual reproduction modes in vertebrates, and produces all-female individuals with identical genetic background. In sexual reproduction vertebrates, the roles of primordial germ cells on sexual dimorphism and gonadal differentiation have been largely studied, and two distinct functional models have been proposed. However, the role of primordial germ cells remains unknown in unisexual animals, and it is also unclear whether the functional models in sexual reproduction animals are common in unisexual animals. To solve these puzzles, we attempt to utilize the gynogenetic superiority of polyploid Carassius gibelio to create a complete germ cell-depleted gonad model by a similar morpholino-mediated knockdown approach used in other examined sexual reproduction fishes. Through the germ cell-depleted gonad model, we have performed comprehensive and comparative transcriptome analysis, and revealed a complete alteration of sex-biased gene expression. Moreover, the expression alteration leads to up-regulation of testis-biased genes and down-regulation of ovary-biased genes, and results in the occurrence of sterile all-males with testis-like gonads and secondary sex characteristics in the germ cell-depleted gynogenetic Carassius gibelio. Our current results have demonstrated that unisexual gynogenetic embryos remain keeping male sex determination information in the genome, and the complete depletion of primordial germ cells in the all-female fish leads to sex-biased gene expression alteration and sterile all-male occurrence.

  20. Slutsky Equation and Negative Elasticity of Labor Supply: Behavioral Bias or Optimal Consumption-Leisure Choice?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey MALAKHOV

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the applications of the prospect theory is the behavioral phenomenon of the negative elasticity of the individual labor supply. This paper argues that the negative elasticity of labor supply can be understood better with the help of the interpretation of the Slutsky equation with regard to the common consumption-leisure choice. The interpretation of the Slutsky equation corresponds to the empirical evidence that leisure is a net complement for an important part of consumption.

  1. Serotonin depletion induces pessimistic-like behavior in a cognitive bias paradigm in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stracke, Jenny; Otten, Winfried; Tuchscherer, Armin; Puppe, Birger; Düpjan, Sandra

    2017-05-15

    Cognitive and affective processes are highly interrelated. This has implications for neuropsychiatric disorders such as major depressive disorder in humans but also for the welfare of non-human animals. The brain serotonergic system might play a key role in mediating the relationship between cognitive functions and affective regulation. The aim of our study was to examine the influence of serotonin depletion on the affective state and cognitive processing in pigs, an important farm animal species but also a potential model species for biomedical research in humans. For this purpose, we modified a serotonin depletion model using para-chlorophenylalanine (pCPA) to decrease serotonin levels in brain areas involved in cognitive and affective processing (part 1). The consequences of serotonin depletion were then measured in two behavioral tests (part 2): the spatial judgement task (SJT), providing information about the effects of the affective state on cognitive processing, and the open field/novel object (OFNO) test, which measures behavioral reactions to novelty that are assumed to reflect affective state. In part 1, 40 pigs were treated with either pCPA or saline for six consecutive days. Serotonin levels were assessed in seven different brain regions 4, 5, 6, 11 and 13days after the first injection. Serotonin was significantly depleted in all analyzed brain regions up to 13days after the first application. In part 2, the pCPA model was applied to 48 animals in behavioral testing. Behavioral tests, the OFNO test and the SJT, were conducted both before and after pCPA/saline injections. While results from the OFNO tests were inconclusive, an effect of treatment as well as an effect of the phase (before and after treatment) was observed in the SJT. Animals treated with pCPA showed more pessimistic-like behavior, suggesting a more negative affective state due to serotonin depletion. Thus, our results confirm that the serotonergic system is a key player in cognitive

  2. Leaf swallowing behavior in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): biased learning and the emergence of group level cultural differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Michael A; Spiezio, Caterina; Sgaravatti, Andrea; Leca, Jean-Baptiste

    2010-11-01

    Demonstrating the ability to 'copy' the behavior of others is an important aspect in determining whether social learning occurs and whether group level differences in a given behavior represent cultural differences or not. Understanding the occurrence of this process in its natural context is essential, but can be a daunting task in the wild. In order to test the social learning hypothesis for the acquisition of leaf swallowing (LS), a self-medicative behavior associated with the expulsion of parasites, we conducted semi-naturalistic experiments on two captive groups of parasite-free, naïve chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Individuals in the group were systematically provided appropriate stimuli (rough hispid leaves) identical to those used by chimpanzees in the wild. Individuals initially responded in a variety of ways, ranging from total aversion to normal chewing and swallowing. Over time, however, the two groups adopted different variants for inserting and folding the leaves in the mouth prior to swallowing them (complete and partial LS), following the specific method spontaneously displayed by the first and primary LS models in their respective groups. These variants were similar to LS displayed by chimpanzees in the wild. Using the option-bias method, we found evidence for social learning leading to group-level biased transmission and group-level stabilization of these two variants. This is the first report on two distinct cultural variants innovated in response to the introduction of natural stimuli that emerged and spread spontaneously and concurrently within two adjacent groups of socially housed primates. These observations support the assertion that LS may reflect a generalized propensity for ingesting rough hispid leaves, which can be socially induced and transmitted within a group. Ingesting an adequate number of these leaves induces increased gut motility, which is responsible for the subsequent expulsion of particular parasite species in the wild

  3. A gene signature to determine metastatic behavior in thymomas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yesim Gökmen-Polar

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Thymoma represents one of the rarest of all malignancies. Stage and completeness of resection have been used to ascertain postoperative therapeutic strategies albeit with limited prognostic accuracy. A molecular classifier would be useful to improve the assessment of metastatic behaviour and optimize patient management. METHODS: qRT-PCR assay for 23 genes (19 test and four reference genes was performed on multi-institutional archival primary thymomas (n = 36. Gene expression levels were used to compute a signature, classifying tumors into classes 1 and 2, corresponding to low or high likelihood for metastases. The signature was validated in an independent multi-institutional cohort of patients (n = 75. RESULTS: A nine-gene signature that can predict metastatic behavior of thymomas was developed and validated. Using radial basis machine modeling in the training set, 5-year and 10-year metastasis-free survival rates were 77% and 26% for predicted low (class 1 and high (class 2 risk of metastasis (P = 0.0047, log-rank, respectively. For the validation set, 5-year metastasis-free survival rates were 97% and 30% for predicted low- and high-risk patients (P = 0.0004, log-rank, respectively. The 5-year metastasis-free survival rates for the validation set were 49% and 41% for Masaoka stages I/II and III/IV (P = 0.0537, log-rank, respectively. In univariate and multivariate Cox models evaluating common prognostic factors for thymoma metastasis, the nine-gene signature was the only independent indicator of metastases (P = 0.036. CONCLUSION: A nine-gene signature was established and validated which predicts the likelihood of metastasis more accurately than traditional staging. This further underscores the biologic determinants of the clinical course of thymoma and may improve patient management.

  4. Behavioral science and the study of gene-nutrition and gene-physical activity interactions in obesity research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faith, Myles S

    2008-12-01

    This report summarizes emerging opportunities for behavioral science to help advance the field of gene-environment and gene-behavior interactions, based on presentations at The National Cancer Institute (NCI) Workshop, "Gene-Nutrition and Gene-Physical Activity Interactions in the Etiology of Obesity." Three opportunities are highlighted: (i) designing potent behavioral "challenges" in experiments, (ii) determining viable behavioral phenotypes for genetics studies, and (iii) identifying specific measures of the environment or environmental exposures. Additional points are underscored, including the need to incorporate novel findings from neuroimaging studies regarding motivation and drive for eating and physical activity. Advances in behavioral science theory and methods can play an important role in advancing understanding of gene-brain-behavior relationships in obesity onset.

  5. Comprehensive Transcriptome Analysis of Sex-Biased Expressed Genes Reveals Discrete Biological and Physiological Features of Male and Female Schistosoma japonicum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengfei Cai

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is a chronic and debilitating disease caused by blood flukes (digenetic trematodes of the genus Schistosoma. Schistosomes are sexually dimorphic and exhibit dramatic morphological changes during a complex lifecycle which requires subtle gene regulatory mechanisms to fulfil these complex biological processes. In the current study, a 41,982 features custom DNA microarray, which represents the most comprehensive probe coverage for any schistosome transcriptome study, was designed based on public domain and local databases to explore differential gene expression in S. japonicum. We found that approximately 1/10 of the total annotated genes in the S. japonicum genome are differentially expressed between adult males and females. In general, genes associated with the cytoskeleton, and motor and neuronal activities were readily expressed in male adult worms, whereas genes involved in amino acid metabolism, nucleotide biosynthesis, gluconeogenesis, glycosylation, cell cycle processes, DNA synthesis and genome fidelity and stability were enriched in females. Further, miRNAs target sites within these gene sets were predicted, which provides a scenario whereby the miRNAs potentially regulate these sex-biased expressed genes. The study significantly expands the expressional and regulatory characteristics of gender-biased expressed genes in schistosomes with high accuracy. The data provide a better appreciation of the biological and physiological features of male and female schistosome parasites, which may lead to novel vaccine targets and the development of new therapeutic interventions.

  6. Comprehensive Transcriptome Analysis of Sex-Biased Expressed Genes Reveals Discrete Biological and Physiological Features of Male and Female Schistosoma japonicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Pengfei; Liu, Shuai; Piao, Xianyu; Hou, Nan; Gobert, Geoffrey N; McManus, Donald P; Chen, Qijun

    2016-04-01

    Schistosomiasis is a chronic and debilitating disease caused by blood flukes (digenetic trematodes) of the genus Schistosoma. Schistosomes are sexually dimorphic and exhibit dramatic morphological changes during a complex lifecycle which requires subtle gene regulatory mechanisms to fulfil these complex biological processes. In the current study, a 41,982 features custom DNA microarray, which represents the most comprehensive probe coverage for any schistosome transcriptome study, was designed based on public domain and local databases to explore differential gene expression in S. japonicum. We found that approximately 1/10 of the total annotated genes in the S. japonicum genome are differentially expressed between adult males and females. In general, genes associated with the cytoskeleton, and motor and neuronal activities were readily expressed in male adult worms, whereas genes involved in amino acid metabolism, nucleotide biosynthesis, gluconeogenesis, glycosylation, cell cycle processes, DNA synthesis and genome fidelity and stability were enriched in females. Further, miRNAs target sites within these gene sets were predicted, which provides a scenario whereby the miRNAs potentially regulate these sex-biased expressed genes. The study significantly expands the expressional and regulatory characteristics of gender-biased expressed genes in schistosomes with high accuracy. The data provide a better appreciation of the biological and physiological features of male and female schistosome parasites, which may lead to novel vaccine targets and the development of new therapeutic interventions.

  7. Genes, Parenting, Self-Control, and Criminal Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Stephen J; McNulty, Thomas L

    2016-03-01

    Self-control has been found to predict a wide variety of criminal behaviors. In addition, studies have consistently shown that parenting is an important influence on both self-control and offending. However, few studies have examined the role that biological factors may play in moderating the relationship between parenting, self-control, and offending. Using a sample of adolescent males drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 3,610), we explore whether variants of the monoamine oxidase A gene (MAOA) and the dopamine transporter (DAT1) gene interact with parenting to affect self-control and offending. Results reveal that parenting interacts with these genes to influence self-control and offending, and that the parenting-by-gene interaction effect on offending is mediated by self-control. The effects of parenting on self-control and offending are most pronounced for those who carry plasticity alleles for both MAOA and DAT1. Thus, MAOA and DAT1 may be implicated in offending because they increase the negative effects of parenting on self-control. Implications for theory are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. Sensorimotor learning biases choice behavior: a learning neural field model for decision making.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Klaes

    Full Text Available According to a prominent view of sensorimotor processing in primates, selection and specification of possible actions are not sequential operations. Rather, a decision for an action emerges from competition between different movement plans, which are specified and selected in parallel. For action choices which are based on ambiguous sensory input, the frontoparietal sensorimotor areas are considered part of the common underlying neural substrate for selection and specification of action. These areas have been shown capable of encoding alternative spatial motor goals in parallel during movement planning, and show signatures of competitive value-based selection among these goals. Since the same network is also involved in learning sensorimotor associations, competitive action selection (decision making should not only be driven by the sensory evidence and expected reward in favor of either action, but also by the subject's learning history of different sensorimotor associations. Previous computational models of competitive neural decision making used predefined associations between sensory input and corresponding motor output. Such hard-wiring does not allow modeling of how decisions are influenced by sensorimotor learning or by changing reward contingencies. We present a dynamic neural field model which learns arbitrary sensorimotor associations with a reward-driven Hebbian learning algorithm. We show that the model accurately simulates the dynamics of action selection with different reward contingencies, as observed in monkey cortical recordings, and that it correctly predicted the pattern of choice errors in a control experiment. With our adaptive model we demonstrate how network plasticity, which is required for association learning and adaptation to new reward contingencies, can influence choice behavior. The field model provides an integrated and dynamic account for the operations of sensorimotor integration, working memory and action

  9. Analysis of odorant-binding protein gene family members in the polyembryonic wasp, Copidosoma floridanum: evidence for caste bias and host interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnell, David M

    2014-01-01

    The polyembryonic wasp Copidosoma floridanum produces two larval castes, soldiers and reproductives, during development within its caterpillar host. Primary structures were determined for 6 odorant-binding protein (OBP) gene family members in Copidosoma and then analyzed alongside two formerly sequenced OBP genes from this wasp. The genes were examined for caste-bias in expression patterns using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and in situ expression studies. Six of the 8 genes show a clear bias in gene expression towards one or the other larval caste. Of the 3 distinct in situ probe hybridization patterns observed in this study, none lie in tissues with clear chemosensory functions. Two of the patterns suggest the majority of the Copidosoma OBP gene family members discovered thus far come into contact with host hemolymph. Most of these OBPs are expressed exclusively in the serosal membrane encompassing each of the reproductive larvae. The absence of expression in the membrane surrounding soldier larvae strongly suggests these OBPs are performing caste-specific functions in the host. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Cognitive Bias as a Mediator in the Relation Between Fear-Enhancing Parental Behaviors and Anxiety Symptoms in Children: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fliek, Lorraine; Dibbets, Pauline; Roelofs, Jeffrey; Muris, Peter

    2017-02-01

    The present cross-sectional study explored the relations between fear-enhancing parenting behaviors (modeling and threat information transmission) and children's cognitive biases and anxiety symptoms. Participants were 258 children aged 7-12 years (132 boys and 126 girls), and their mothers (n = 199) and/or fathers (n = 117). Children and parents completed the Parental Enhancement of Anxious Cognitions questionnaire, which measures parental modeling and threat information transmission, while children also filled in a scale for assessing anxiety symptoms. In addition, children conducted a number of computerized tasks for measuring confirmation and interpretation bias. The data indicated that both biases mediated the relationship between threat information transmission (of both parents) and children's anxiety symptoms. Only interpretation bias significantly mediated the relationship between modeling (of mothers) and anxiety symptoms. These findings give partial support for the hypothesis that cognitive biases play a mediating role in the relation between fear-enhancing parental behaviors and children's anxiety symptoms.

  11. The Effect of Bias Voltage and Gas Pressure on the Structure, Adhesion and Wear Behavior of Diamond Like Carbon (DLC Coatings With Si Interlayers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liam Ward

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study diamond like carbon (DLC coatings with Si interlayers were deposited on 316L stainless steel with varying gas pressure and substrate bias voltage using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD technology. Coating and interlayer thickness values were determined using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS which also revealed the presence of a gradient layer at the coating substrate interface. Coatings were evaluated in terms of the hardness, elastic modulus, wear behavior and adhesion. Deposition rate generally increased with increasing bias voltage and increasing gas pressure. At low working gas pressures, hardness and modulus of elasticity increased with increasing bias voltage. Reduced hardness and modulus of elasticity were observed at higher gas pressures. Increased adhesion was generally observed at lower bias voltages and higher gas pressures. All DLC coatings significantly improved the overall wear resistance of the base material. Lower wear rates were observed for coatings deposited with lower bias voltages. For coatings that showed wear tracks considerably deeper than the coating thickness but without spallation, the wear behavior was largely attributed to deformation of both the coating and substrate with some cracks at the wear track edges. This suggests that coatings deposited under certain conditions can exhibit ultra high flexible properties.

  12. Investigating degradation behavior of InGaZnO thin-film transistors induced by charge-trapping effect under DC and AC gate bias stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh, Tien-Yu; Chang, Ting-Chang; Chen, Te-Chih; Tsai, Ming-Yen; Chen, Yu-Te

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the degradation mechanism of amorphous InGaZnO thin-film transistors under DC and AC gate bias stress. Comparing the degradation behavior at equal accumulated effective stress time, more pronounced threshold voltage shift under AC positive gate bias stress in comparison with DC stress indicates extra electron-trapping phenomenon that occurs in the duration of rising/falling time in pulse. Contrarily, illuminated AC negative gate bias stress exhibits much less threshold voltage shift than DC stress, suggesting that the photo-generated hole does not have sufficient time to drift to the interface of IGZO/gate insulator and causes hole-trapping under AC operation. Since the evolution of threshold voltage fits the stretched-exponential equation well, the different degradation tendencies under DC/AC stress can be attributed to the different electron- and hole-trapping efficiencies, and this is further verified by varying pulse waveform. - Highlights: ► Static and dynamic gate bias stresses are imposed on InGaZnO TFTs. ► Dynamic positive gate bias induces more pronounced threshold voltage shift. ► Static negative-bias illumination stress induces more severe threshold voltage shift. ► Evolution of threshold voltage fits the stretched-exponential equation well

  13. Assembling large genomes: analysis of the stick insect (Clitarchus hookeri) genome reveals a high repeat content and sex-biased genes associated with reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chen; Twort, Victoria G; Crowhurst, Ross N; Newcomb, Richard D; Buckley, Thomas R

    2017-11-16

    Stick insects (Phasmatodea) have a high incidence of parthenogenesis and other alternative reproductive strategies, yet the genetic basis of reproduction is poorly understood. Phasmatodea includes nearly 3000 species, yet only the genome of Timema cristinae has been published to date. Clitarchus hookeri is a geographical parthenogenetic stick insect distributed across New Zealand. Sexual reproduction dominates in northern habitats but is replaced by parthenogenesis in the south. Here, we present a de novo genome assembly of a female C. hookeri and use it to detect candidate genes associated with gamete production and development in females and males. We also explore the factors underlying large genome size in stick insects. The C. hookeri genome assembly was 4.2 Gb, similar to the flow cytometry estimate, making it the second largest insect genome sequenced and assembled to date. Like the large genome of Locusta migratoria, the genome of C. hookeri is also highly repetitive and the predicted gene models are much longer than those from most other sequenced insect genomes, largely due to longer introns. Miniature inverted repeat transposable elements (MITEs), absent in the much smaller T. cristinae genome, is the most abundant repeat type in the C. hookeri genome assembly. Mapping RNA-Seq reads from female and male gonadal transcriptomes onto the genome assembly resulted in the identification of 39,940 gene loci, 15.8% and 37.6% of which showed female-biased and male-biased expression, respectively. The genes that were over-expressed in females were mostly associated with molecular transportation, developmental process, oocyte growth and reproductive process; whereas, the male-biased genes were enriched in rhythmic process, molecular transducer activity and synapse. Several genes involved in the juvenile hormone synthesis pathway were also identified. The evolution of large insect genomes such as L. migratoria and C. hookeri genomes is most likely due to the

  14. The Utility of Impulsive Bias and Altered Decision Making as Predictors of Drug Efficacy and Target Selection: Rethinking Behavioral Screening for Antidepressant Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek, Gerard J; Day, Mark; Hudzik, Thomas J

    2016-03-01

    Cognitive dysfunction may be a core feature of major depressive disorder, including affective processing bias, abnormal response to negative feedback, changes in decision making, and increased impulsivity. Accordingly, a translational medicine paradigm predicts clinical action of novel antidepressants by examining drug-induced changes in affective processing bias. With some exceptions, these concepts have not been systematically applied to preclinical models to test new chemical entities. The purpose of this review is to examine whether an empirically derived behavioral screen for antidepressant drugs may screen for compounds, at least in part, by modulating an impulsive biasing of responding and altered decision making. The differential-reinforcement-of-low-rate (DRL) 72-second schedule is an operant schedule with a documented fidelity for discriminating antidepressant drugs from nonantidepressant drugs. However, a theoretical basis for this empirical relationship has been lacking. Therefore, this review will discuss whether response bias toward impulsive behavior may be a critical screening characteristic of DRL behavior requiring long inter-response times to obtain rewards. This review will compare and contrast DRL behavior with the five-choice serial reaction time task, a test specifically designed for assessing motoric impulsivity, with respect to psychopharmacological testing and the neural basis of distributed macrocircuits underlying these tasks. This comparison suggests that the existing empirical basis for the DRL 72-second schedule as a pharmacological screen for antidepressant drugs is complemented by a novel hypothesis that altering impulsive response bias for rodents trained on this operant schedule is a previously unrecognized theoretical cornerstone for this screening paradigm. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  15. Do polymorphisms in chemosensory genes matter for human ingestive behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, John E; Feeney, Emma L; Allen, Alissa L

    2013-12-01

    In the last decade, basic research in chemoreceptor genetics and neurobiology have revolutionized our understanding of individual differences in chemosensation. From an evolutionary perspective, chemosensory variations appear to have arisen in response to different living environments, generally in the avoidance of toxins and to better detect vital food sources. Today, it is often assumed that these differences may drive variable food preferences and choices, with downstream effects on health and wellness. A growing body of evidence indicates chemosensory variation is far more complex than previously believed. However, just because a genetic polymorphism results in altered receptor function in cultured cells or even behavioral phenotypes in the laboratory, this variation may not be sufficient to influence food choice in free living humans. Still, there is ample evidence to indicate allelic variation in TAS2R38 predicts variation in bitterness of synthetic pharmaceuticals (e.g., propylthiouracil) and natural plant compounds (e.g., goitrin), and this variation associates with differential intake of alcohol and vegetables. Further, this is only one of 25 unique bitter taste genes ( TAS2Rs ) in humans, and emerging evidence suggests other TAS2Rs may also contain polymorphisms that a functional with respect to ingestive behavior. For example, TAS2R16 polymorphisms are linked to the bitterness of naturally occurring plant compounds and alcoholic beverage intake, a TAS2R19 polymorphism predicts differences in quinine bitterness and grapefruit bitterness and liking, and TAS2R31 polymorphisms associate with differential bitterness of plant compounds like aristolochic acid and the sulfonyl amide sweeteners saccharin and acesulfame-K. More critically with respect to food choices, these polymorphisms may vary independently from each other within and across individuals, meaning a monolithic one-size-fits-all approach to bitterness needs to be abandoned. Nor are genetic

  16. The effects of a novel hostile interpretation bias modification paradigm on hostile interpretations, mood, and aggressive behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    AlMoghrabi, Nouran; Huijding, Jorg; Franken, Ingmar H A

    2018-01-01

    Background and objectives Cognitive theories of aggression propose that biased information processing is causally related to aggression. To test these ideas, the current study investigated the effects of a novel cognitive bias modification paradigm (CBM-I) designed to target interpretations

  17. Practical investigation of the gate bias effect on the reverse recovery behavior of the body diode in power MOSFETs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg-Poulsen, Kristian; Petersen, Lars Press; Ouyang, Ziwei

    2014-01-01

    This work considers an alternative method of reducing the body diode reverse recovery by taking advantage of the MOSFET body effect, and applying a bias voltage to the gate before reverse recovery. A test method is presented, allowing the accurate measurement of voltage and current waveforms during...... reverse recovery at high di=dt. Different bias voltages and dead times are combined, giving a loss map which makes it possible to evaluate the practical efficacy of gate bias on reducing the MOSFET body diode reverse recovery, while comparing it to the well known methods of dead time optimization...

  18. Genomic GC-content affects the accuracy of 16S rRNA gene sequencing bsed microbial profiling due to PCR bias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Martin F.; Dalgaard, Marlene Danner; Bahl, Martin Iain

    2017-01-01

    Profiling of microbial community composition is frequently performed by partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing on benchtop platforms following PCR amplification of specific hypervariable regions within this gene. Accuracy and reproducibility of this strategy are two key parameters to consider, which may...... be influenced during all processes from sample collection and storage, through DNA extraction and PCR based library preparation to the final sequencing. In order to evaluate both the reproducibility and accuracy of 16S rRNA gene based microbial profiling using the Ion Torrent PGM platform, we prepared libraries...... be explained partly by premature read truncation, but to larger degree their genomic GC-content, which correlated negatively with the observed relative abundances, suggesting a PCR bias against GC-rich species during library preparation. Increasing the initial denaturation time during the PCR amplification...

  19. Evaluation of Bias-Variance Trade-Off for Commonly Used Post-Summarizing Normalization Procedures in Large-Scale Gene Expression Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Xing; Hu, Rui; Wu, Zhixin

    2014-01-01

    Normalization procedures are widely used in high-throughput genomic data analyses to remove various technological noise and variations. They are known to have profound impact to the subsequent gene differential expression analysis. Although there has been some research in evaluating different normalization procedures, few attempts have been made to systematically evaluate the gene detection performances of normalization procedures from the bias-variance trade-off point of view, especially with strong gene differentiation effects and large sample size. In this paper, we conduct a thorough study to evaluate the effects of normalization procedures combined with several commonly used statistical tests and MTPs under different configurations of effect size and sample size. We conduct theoretical evaluation based on a random effect model, as well as simulation and biological data analyses to verify the results. Based on our findings, we provide some practical guidance for selecting a suitable normalization procedure under different scenarios. PMID:24941114

  20. Co-expression network analysis of duplicate genes in maize (Zea mays L.) reveals no subgenome bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lin; Briskine, Roman; Schaefer, Robert; Schnable, Patrick S; Myers, Chad L; Flagel, Lex E; Springer, Nathan M; Muehlbauer, Gary J

    2016-11-04

    Gene duplication is prevalent in many species and can result in coding and regulatory divergence. Gene duplications can be classified as whole genome duplication (WGD), tandem and inserted (non-syntenic). In maize, WGD resulted in the subgenomes maize1 and maize2, of which maize1 is considered the dominant subgenome. However, the landscape of co-expression network divergence of duplicate genes in maize is still largely uncharacterized. To address the consequence of gene duplication on co-expression network divergence, we developed a gene co-expression network from RNA-seq data derived from 64 different tissues/stages of the maize reference inbred-B73. WGD, tandem and inserted gene duplications exhibited distinct regulatory divergence. Inserted duplicate genes were more likely to be singletons in the co-expression networks, while WGD duplicate genes were likely to be co-expressed with other genes. Tandem duplicate genes were enriched in the co-expression pattern where co-expressed genes were nearly identical for the duplicates in the network. Older gene duplications exhibit more extensive co-expression variation than younger duplications. Overall, non-syntenic genes primarily from inserted duplications show more co-expression divergence. Also, such enlarged co-expression divergence is significantly related to duplication age. Moreover, subgenome dominance was not observed in the co-expression networks - maize1 and maize2 exhibit similar levels of intra subgenome correlations. Intriguingly, the level of inter subgenome co-expression was similar to the level of intra subgenome correlations, and genes from specific subgenomes were not likely to be the enriched in co-expression network modules and the hub genes were not predominantly from any specific subgenomes in maize. Our work provides a comprehensive analysis of maize co-expression network divergence for three different types of gene duplications and identifies potential relationships between duplication types

  1. Psilocybin biases facial recognition, goal-directed behavior, and mood state toward positive relative to negative emotions through different serotonergic subreceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kometer, Michael; Schmidt, André; Bachmann, Rosilla; Studerus, Erich; Seifritz, Erich; Vollenweider, Franz X

    2012-12-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) 1A and 2A receptors have been associated with dysfunctional emotional processing biases in mood disorders. These receptors further predominantly mediate the subjective and behavioral effects of psilocybin and might be important for its recently suggested antidepressive effects. However, the effect of psilocybin on emotional processing biases and the specific contribution of 5-HT2A receptors across different emotional domains is unknown. In a randomized, double-blind study, 17 healthy human subjects received on 4 separate days placebo, psilocybin (215 μg/kg), the preferential 5-HT2A antagonist ketanserin (50 mg), or psilocybin plus ketanserin. Mood states were assessed by self-report ratings, and behavioral and event-related potential measurements were used to quantify facial emotional recognition and goal-directed behavior toward emotional cues. Psilocybin enhanced positive mood and attenuated recognition of negative facial expression. Furthermore, psilocybin increased goal-directed behavior toward positive compared with negative cues, facilitated positive but inhibited negative sequential emotional effects, and valence-dependently attenuated the P300 component. Ketanserin alone had no effects but blocked the psilocybin-induced mood enhancement and decreased recognition of negative facial expression. This study shows that psilocybin shifts the emotional bias across various psychological domains and that activation of 5-HT2A receptors is central in mood regulation and emotional face recognition in healthy subjects. These findings may not only have implications for the pathophysiology of dysfunctional emotional biases but may also provide a framework to delineate the mechanisms underlying psylocybin's putative antidepressant effects. Copyright © 2012 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. High-Throughput Behavioral Screens: the First Step towards Finding Genes Involved in Vertebrate Brain Function Using Zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Gerlai

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The zebrafish has been in the forefront of developmental biology for three decades and has become a favorite of geneticists. Due to the accumulated genetic knowledge and tools developed for the zebrafish it is gaining popularity in other disciplines, including neuroscience. The zebrafish offers a compromise between system complexity (it is a vertebrate similar in many ways to our own species and practical simplicity (it is small, easy to keep, and prolific. Such features make zebrafish an excellent choice for high throughput mutation and drug screening. For the identification of mutation or drug induced alteration of brain function arguably the best methods are behavioral test paradigms. This review does not present experimental examples for the identification of particular genes or drugs. Instead it describes how behavioral screening methods may enable one to find functional alterations in the vertebrate brain. Furthermore, the review is not comprehensive. The behavioral test examples presented are biased according to the personal interests of the author. They will cover research areas including learning and memory, fear and anxiety, and social behavior. Nevertheless, the general principles will apply to other functional domains and should represent a snapshot of the rapidly evolving behavioral screening field with zebrafish.

  3. The rapid evolution of X-linked male-biased gene expression and the large-X effect in Drosophila yakuba, D. santomea, and their hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llopart, Ana

    2012-12-01

    The X chromosome has a large effect on hybrid dysfunction, particularly on hybrid male sterility. Although the evidence for this so-called large-X effect is clear, its molecular causes are not yet fully understood. One possibility is that, under certain conditions, evolution proceeds faster in X-linked than in autosomal loci (i.e., faster-X effect) due to both natural selection and their hemizygosity in males, an effect that is expected to be greatest in genes with male-biased expression. Here, I study genome-wide variation in transcript abundance between Drosophila yakuba and D. santomea, within these species and in their hybrid males to evaluate both the faster-X and large-X effects at the level of expression. I find that in X-linked male-biased genes (MBGs) expression evolves faster than in their autosomal counterparts, an effect that is accompanied by a unique reduction in expression polymorphism. This suggests that Darwinian selection is driving expression differences between species, likely enhanced by the hemizygosity of the X chromosome in males. Despite the recent split of the two sister species under study, abundant changes in both cis- and trans-regulatory elements underlie expression divergence in the majority of the genes analyzed, with significant differences in allelic ratios of transcript abundance between the two reciprocal F(1) hybrid males. Cis-trans coevolution at molecular level, evolved shortly after populations become isolated, may therefore contribute to explain the breakdown of the regulation of gene expression in hybrid males. Additionally, the X chromosome plays a large role in this hybrid male misexpression, which affects not only MBG but also, to a lesser degree, nonsex-biased genes. Interestingly, hybrid male misexpression is concentrated mostly in autosomal genes, likely facilitated by the rapid evolution of sex-linked trans-acting factors. I suggest that the faster evolution of X-linked MBGs, at both protein and expression levels

  4. Electrophysiological and Behavioral Effects of Combined Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation and Alcohol Approach Bias Retraining in Hazardous Drinkers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Uyl, T.E.; Gladwin, T.E.; Wiers, R.W.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cognitive bias modification (CBM) can be used to retrain automatic approach tendencies for alcohol. We investigated whether changing cortical excitability with transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) could enhance CBM effects in hazardous drinkers. We also studied the underlying

  5. Behavioral and ERP measures of attentional bias to threat in the dot-probe task: Poor reliability and lack of correlation with anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily S. Kappenman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The dot-probe task is often considered a gold standard in the field for investigating attentional bias to threat. However, serious issues with the task have been raised. Specifically, a number of studies have demonstrated that the traditional reaction time measure of attentional bias to threat in the dot-probe task has poor internal reliability and poor test-retest reliability. In addition, although threatening stimuli capture attention in other paradigms, attentional bias to threat has not usually been found in typical research participants in the dot-probe task. However, when attention is measured in the dot-probe task with the N2pc component of the event-related potential (ERP waveform, substantial attentional orienting to threat is observed, and the internal reliability is moderate. To provide a rigorous comparison of the reliability of this N2pc measure and the conventional behavioral measure, as well as to examine the relationship of these measures to anxiety, the present study examined the N2pc in conjunction with reaction time in the dot-probe task in a large sample of participants (N = 96. As in previous studies, reaction time showed no bias to threatening images across the sample and exhibited poor internal reliability. Moreover, this measure did not relate to trait anxiety. By contrast, the N2pc revealed a significant initial shift of attention to threat, and this measure was internally reliable. However, the N2pc was not correlated with trait anxiety, indicating that it does not provide a meaningful index of individual differences in anxiety in the dot-probe task. Together, these results indicate a serious need to develop new tasks and methods to more reliably investigate attentional bias to threat and its relationship to anxiety in both clinical and non-clinical populations.

  6. HIV1 V3 loop hypermutability is enhanced by the guanine usage bias in the part of env gene coding for it.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khrustalev, Vladislav Victorovich

    2009-01-01

    Guanine is the most mutable nucleotide in HIV genes because of frequently occurring G to A transitions, which are caused by cytosine deamination in viral DNA minus strands catalyzed by APOBEC enzymes. Distribution of guanine between three codon positions should influence the probability for G to A mutation to be nonsynonymous (to occur in first or second codon position). We discovered that nucleotide sequences of env genes coding for third variable regions (V3 loops) of gp120 from HIV1 and HIV2 have different kinds of guanine usage biases. In the HIV1 reference strain and 100 additionally analyzed HIV1 strains the guanine usage bias in V3 loop coding regions (2G>1G>3G) should lead to elevated nonsynonymous G to A transitions occurrence rates. In the HIV2 reference strain and 100 other HIV2 strains guanine usage bias in V3 loop coding regions (3G>2G>1G) should protect V3 loops from hypermutability. According to the HIV1 and HIV2 V3 alignment, insertion of the sequence enriched with 2G (21 codons in length) occurred during the evolution of HIV1 predecessor, while insertion of the different sequence enriched with 3G (19 codons in length) occurred during the evolution of HIV2 predecessor. The higher is the level of 3G in the V3 coding region, the lower should be the immune escaping mutation occurrence rates. This hypothesis was tested in this study by comparing the guanine usage in V3 loop coding regions from HIV1 fast and slow progressors. All calculations have been performed by our algorithms "VVK In length", "VVK Dinucleotides" and "VVK Consensus" (www.barkovsky.hotmail.ru).

  7. Differential regulation of the foraging gene associated with task behaviors in harvester ants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleeman Lindsay

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The division of labor in social insect colonies involves transitions by workers from one task to another and is critical to the organization and ecological success of colonies. The differential regulation of genetic pathways is likely to be a key mechanism involved in plasticity of social insect task behavior. One of the few pathways implicated in social organization involves the cGMP-activated protein kinase gene, foraging, a gene associated with foraging behavior in social insect species. The association of the foraging gene with behavior is conserved across diverse species, but the observed expression patterns and proposed functions of this gene vary across taxa. We compared the protein sequence of foraging across social insects and explored whether the differential regulation of this gene is associated with task behaviors in the harvester ant, Pogonomyrmex occidentalis. Results Phylogenetic analysis of the coding region of the foraging gene reveals considerable conservation in protein sequence across insects, particularly among hymenopteran species. The absence of amino acid variation in key active and binding sites suggests that differences in behaviors associated with this gene among species may be the result of changes in gene expression rather than gene divergence. Using real time qPCR analyses with a harvester ant ortholog to foraging (Pofor, we found that the brains of harvester ant foragers have a daily fluctuation in expression of foraging with mRNA levels peaking at midday. In contrast, young workers inside the nest have low levels of Pofor mRNA with no evidence of daily fluctuations in expression. As a result, the association of foraging expression with task behavior within a species changes depending on the time of day the individuals are sampled. Conclusions The amino acid protein sequence of foraging is highly conserved across social insects. Differences in foraging behaviors associated with this gene among

  8. Lateralized Feeding Behavior is Associated with Asymmetrical Neuroanatomy and Lateralized Gene Expressions in the Brain in Scale-Eating Cichlid Fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyuk Je; Schneider, Ralf F; Manousaki, Tereza; Kang, Ji Hyoun; Lein, Etienne; Franchini, Paolo; Meyer, Axel

    2017-11-01

    Lateralized behavior ("handedness") is unusual, but consistently found across diverse animal lineages, including humans. It is thought to reflect brain anatomical and/or functional asymmetries, but its neuro-molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown. Lake Tanganyika scale-eating cichlid fish, Perissodus microlepis show pronounced asymmetry in their jaw morphology as well as handedness in feeding behavior-biting scales preferentially only from one or the other side of their victims. This makes them an ideal model in which to investigate potential laterality in neuroanatomy and transcription in the brain in relation to behavioral handedness. After determining behavioral handedness in P. microlepis (preferred attack side), we estimated the volume of the hemispheres of brain regions and captured their gene expression profiles. Our analyses revealed that the degree of behavioral handedness is mirrored at the level of neuroanatomical asymmetry, particularly in the tectum opticum. Transcriptome analyses showed that different brain regions (tectum opticum, telencephalon, hypothalamus, and cerebellum) display distinct expression patterns, potentially reflecting their developmental interrelationships. For numerous genes in each brain region, their extent of expression differences between hemispheres was found to be correlated with the degree of behavioral lateralization. Interestingly, the tectum opticum and telencephalon showed divergent biases on the direction of up- or down-regulation of the laterality candidate genes (e.g., grm2) in the hemispheres, highlighting the connection of handedness with gene expression profiles and the different roles of these brain regions. Hence, handedness in predation behavior may be caused by asymmetric size of brain hemispheres and also by lateralized gene expressions in the brain. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  9. Do we overemphasize the role of culture in the behavior of racial/ethnic minorities? Evidence of a cultural (mis)attribution bias in American psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Causadias, José M; Vitriol, Joseph A; Atkin, Annabelle L

    2018-04-01

    Although culture influences all human beings, there is an assumption in American psychology that culture matters more for members of certain groups. This article identifies and provides evidence of the cultural (mis)attribution bias: a tendency to overemphasize the role of culture in the behavior of racial/ethnic minorities, and to underemphasize it in the behavior of Whites. Two studies investigated the presence of this bias with an examination of a decade of peer reviewed research conducted in the United States (N = 434 articles), and an experiment and a survey with psychology professors in the United States (N = 361 psychologists). Archival analyses revealed differences in the composition of samples used in studies examining cultural or noncultural psychological phenomena. We also find evidence to suggest that psychologists in the United States favor cultural explanations over psychological explanations when considering the behavior and cognition of racial/ethnic minorities, whereas the opposite pattern emerged in reference to Whites. The scientific ramifications of this phenomenon, as well as alternatives to overcome it, are discussed in detail. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Gene expression during zombie ant biting behavior reflects the complexity underlying fungal parasitic behavioral manipulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bekker, Charissa; Ohm, Robin A; Loreto, Raquel G; Sebastian, Aswathy; Albert, Istvan; Merrow, Martha; Brachmann, Andreas; Hughes, David P

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Adaptive manipulation of animal behavior by parasites functions to increase parasite transmission through changes in host behavior. These changes can range from slight alterations in existing behaviors of the host to the establishment of wholly novel behaviors. The biting behavior

  11. Peri-pubertal gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist treatment affects sex biased gene expression of amygdala in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuruddin, Syed; Krogenæs, Anette; Brynildsrud, Ola Brønstad; Verhaegen, Steven; Evans, Neil P; Robinson, Jane E; Haraldsen, Ira Ronit Hebold; Ropstad, Erik

    2013-12-01

    The nature of hormonal involvement in pubertal brain development has attracted wide interest. Structural changes within the brain that occur during pubertal development appear mainly in regions closely linked with emotion, motivation and cognitive functions. Using a sheep model, we have previously shown that peri-pubertal pharmacological blockade of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) receptors, results in exaggerated sex-differences in cognitive executive function and emotional control, as well as sex and hemisphere specific patterns of expression of hippocampal genes associated with synaptic plasticity and endocrine signaling. In this study, we explored effects of this treatment regime on the gene expression profile of the ovine amygdala. The study was conducted with 30 same-sex twin lambs (14 female and 16 male), half of which were treated with the GnRH agonist (GnRHa) goserelin acetate every 4th week, beginning before puberty, until approximately 50 weeks of age. Gene expression profiles of the left and right amygdala were measured using 8×15 K Agilent ovine microarrays. Differential expression of selected genes was confirmed by qRT-PCR (Quantitative real time PCR). Networking analyses and Gene Ontology (GO) Term analyses were performed with Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA), version 7.5 and DAVID (Database for Annotation, Visualization and integrated Discovery) version 6.7 software packages, respectively. GnRHa treatment was associated with significant sex- and hemisphere-specific differential patterns of gene expression. GnRHa treatment was associated with differential expression of 432 (|logFC|>0.3, adj. p value expressed as a result of GnRHa treatment in the male animals. The results indicated that GnRH may, directly and/or indirectly, be involved in the regulation of sex- and hemisphere-specific differential expression of genes in the amygdala. This finding should be considered when long-term peri-pubertal GnRHa treatment is used in children. Copyright

  12. Influence of polarized bias and porous silicon morphology on the electrical behavior of Au-porous silicon contacts*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yue; Li, Dong-sheng; Xing, Shou-xiang; Yang, De-ren; Jiang, Min-hua

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports the surface morphology and I-V curves of porous silicon (PS) samples and related devices. The observed fabrics on the PS surface were found to affect the electrical property of PS devices. When the devices were operated under different external bias (10 V or 3 V) for 10 min, their observed obvious differences in electrical properties may be due to the different control mechanisms in the Al/PS interface and PS matrix morphology. PMID:16252350

  13. Left-right symmetry breaking in mice by left-right dynein may occur via a biased chromatid segregation mechanism, without directly involving the Nodal gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sauer, Stephan; Klar, Amar J. S., E-mail: sauers@mail.nih.gov, E-mail: klara@mail.nih.gov [Gene Regulation and Chromosome Biology Laboratory, Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research, Frederick, MD (United States)

    2012-11-16

    Ever since cloning the classic iv (inversedviscerum) mutation identified the “left-right dynein” (lrd) gene in mice, most research on body laterality determination has focused on its function in motile cilia at the node embryonic organizer. This model is attractive, as it links chirality of cilia architecture to asymmetry development. However, lrd is also expressed in blastocysts and embryonic stem cells, where it was shown to bias the segregation of recombined sister chromatids away from each other in mitosis. These data suggested that lrd is part of a cellular mechanism that recognizes and selectively segregates sister chromatids based on their replication history: old “Watson” versus old “Crick” strands. We previously proposed that the mouse left-right axis is established via an asymmetric cell division prior to/or during gastrulation. In this model, left-right dynein selectively segregates epigenetically differentiated sister chromatids harboring a hypothetical “left-right axis development 1” (“lra1”) gene during the left-right axis establishing cell division. Here, asymmetry development would be ultimately governed by the chirality of the cytoskeleton and the DNA molecule. Our model predicts that randomization of chromatid segregation in lrd mutants should produce embryos with 25% situs solitus, 25% situs inversus, and 50% embryonic death due to heterotaxia and isomerism. Here we confirmed this prediction by using two distinct lrd mutant alleles. Other than lrd, thus far Nodal gene is the most upstream function implicated in visceral organs laterality determination. We next tested whether the Nodal gene constitutes the lra1 gene hypothesized in the model by testing mutant’s effect on 50% embryonic lethality observed in lrd mutants. Since Nodal mutation did not suppress lethality, we conclude that Nodal is not equivalent to the lra1 gene. In summary, we describe the origin of 50% lethality in lrd mutant mice not yet explained by any other

  14. Left-right symmetry breaking in mice by left-right dynein may occur via a biased chromatid segregation mechanism, without directly involving the Nodal gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan eSauer

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Ever since cloning the classic iv mutation identified the ‘left-right dynein’ (lrd gene in mice, most research on body laterality determination has focused on its function in motile cilia at the node embryonic organizer. This model is attractive, as it links chirality of cilia architecture to asymmetry development. However, lrd is also expressed in blastocysts and embryonic stem cells, where it was shown to bias the segregation of recombined sister chromatids away from each other in mitosis. These data suggested that lrd is part of a cellular mechanism that recognizes and selectively segregates sister chromatids based on their replication history: old ‘Watson’ vs. old ‘Crick’ strands. We previously proposed that the mouse left-right axis is established via an asymmetric cell division prior to/or during gastrulation. In this model, left-right dynein selectively segregates epigenetically differentiated sister chromatids harboring a hypothetical ‘left-right axis development 1’ (‘lra1’ gene during the left-right axis establishing cell division. Here, asymmetry development would be ultimately governed by the chirality of the cytoskeleton and the DNA molecule. Our model predicts that randomization of chromatid segregation in lrd mutants should produce embryos with 25% situs solitus, 25% situs inversus, and 50% embryonic death due to heterotaxia and isomerism. Here we confirmed this prediction by using two distinct lrd mutant alleles. Other than lrd, thus far Nodal gene is the most upstream function implicated in visceral organs laterality determination. We next tested whether the Nodal gene constitutes the lra1 gene hypothesized in the model by testing mutant’s effect on 50% embryonic lethality observed in lrd mutants. Since Nodal mutation did not suppress lethality, we conclude that Nodal is not equivalent to the lra1 gene. In summary, we describe the origin of 50% lethality in lrd mutant mice not yet explained by any other

  15. Left-right symmetry breaking in mice by left-right dynein may occur via a biased chromatid segregation mechanism, without directly involving the Nodal gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauer, Stephan; Klar, Amar J. S.

    2012-01-01

    Ever since cloning the classic iv (inversedviscerum) mutation identified the “left-right dynein” (lrd) gene in mice, most research on body laterality determination has focused on its function in motile cilia at the node embryonic organizer. This model is attractive, as it links chirality of cilia architecture to asymmetry development. However, lrd is also expressed in blastocysts and embryonic stem cells, where it was shown to bias the segregation of recombined sister chromatids away from each other in mitosis. These data suggested that lrd is part of a cellular mechanism that recognizes and selectively segregates sister chromatids based on their replication history: old “Watson” versus old “Crick” strands. We previously proposed that the mouse left-right axis is established via an asymmetric cell division prior to/or during gastrulation. In this model, left-right dynein selectively segregates epigenetically differentiated sister chromatids harboring a hypothetical “left-right axis development 1” (“lra1”) gene during the left-right axis establishing cell division. Here, asymmetry development would be ultimately governed by the chirality of the cytoskeleton and the DNA molecule. Our model predicts that randomization of chromatid segregation in lrd mutants should produce embryos with 25% situs solitus, 25% situs inversus, and 50% embryonic death due to heterotaxia and isomerism. Here we confirmed this prediction by using two distinct lrd mutant alleles. Other than lrd, thus far Nodal gene is the most upstream function implicated in visceral organs laterality determination. We next tested whether the Nodal gene constitutes the lra1 gene hypothesized in the model by testing mutant’s effect on 50% embryonic lethality observed in lrd mutants. Since Nodal mutation did not suppress lethality, we conclude that Nodal is not equivalent to the lra1 gene. In summary, we describe the origin of 50% lethality in lrd mutant mice not yet explained by any other

  16. Suicidal ideation and suicidal behavior according to the C-SSRS in a European cohort of Huntington's disease gene expansion carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Duijn, Erik; Vrijmoeth, Eslie M; Giltay, Erik J; Bernhard Landwehrmeyer, G

    2018-03-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) gene expansion carriers are at an increased risk of suicide, but so far, no studies have investigated the full spectrum of suicidality, including suicidal ideation, suicidal behavior and self-injurious behavior. We included 1451 HD gene expansion carriers (age 48.4 years (SD 14.0), 54.8% female) of the REGISTRY study of the European Huntington's Disease Network. Lifetime suicidal ideation and suicidal behavior were assessed with the Columbia-Suicidal Severity Rating Scale. Motor symptoms and disease stage were assessed using subscales of the Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale, and depressed mood and irritability were assessed by the Problem Behaviors Assessment. Lifetime passive suicidal ideation was reported by 21.2%. Participants in stage II showed the highest prevalence rate of suicidal ideation, while participants in stage IV/V showed the highest prevalence of suicidal behavior. A lifetime suicide attempt was reported by 6.5% of the HD gene expansion carriers. In multivariate regression analyses, both suicidal ideation and suicidal behavior were associated with a depressed mood, and to a lesser extend to irritability. Results may have been affected by denial or recall bias and no conclusions can be made about the temporal and causal relationships with depressed mood and irritability because of the cross-sectional analyses. Given the high prevalence of suicidal ideation and suicidal behavior in all stages of HD, it is important to screen HD gene expansion carriers for suicidal ideation and suicidal behavior on a regular basis in clinical practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Kindness in the blood: A randomized controlled trial of the gene regulatory impact of prosocial behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson-Coffey, SK; Fritz, MM; Lyubomirsky, S; Cole, SW

    2017-01-01

    Prosocial behavior is linked to longevity, but few studies have experimentally manipulated prosocial behavior to identify the causal mechanisms underlying this association. One possible mediating pathway involves changes in gene expression that may subsequently influence disease development or resistance.In the current study, we examined changes in a leukocyte gene expression profile known as the Conserved Transcriptional Response to Adversity (CTRA) in 159 adults who were randomly assigned f...

  18. The relation of serotonin-related gene and COMT gene polymorphisms with criminal behavior in schizophrenic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Kyung Bong; Choi, Eun Hee; Lee, Young-joon; Han, Mooyoung; Choi, Sang-Sup; Kim, So Won; Lee, Min Goo

    2012-02-01

    It has been suggested that patients with schizophrenia might be involved in criminal behavior, such as homicidal and violent behavior. However, the relationship between criminal behavior and genes in patients with schizophrenia has not been clearly elucidated. The objective of this study was to examine the relation between criminal behavior and serotonin-related gene or catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene polymorphisms in patients with schizophrenia. Serotonin-related and COMT polymorphic markers were assessed by using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping. Ninety-nine crime-related inpatients with schizophrenia (57 homicidal and 42 nonhomicidal violent) and 133 healthy subjects were enrolled between October 2005 and May 2008. Diagnoses were made according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) criteria. The genotype frequencies of tryptophan hydroxylase-1 (TPH1) A218C and COMT V158M were compared between groups. The TPH1 CC genotype had 2.7-fold higher odds of crime-related schizophrenia compared with A-carrier genotype after the analysis was controlled for sex and age (OR, 2.69; 95% CI, 1.22 - 5.91; P = .01). In addition, the TPH1 CC genotype had 3.4-fold higher odds of homicidal schizophrenia compared with A-carrier genotype after the analysis was controlled for sex and age (OR, 3.38; 95% CI, 1.40 - 8.18; P = .007). However, no significant differences were found in the frequencies of genotype of COMT polymorphism between criminal schizophrenics and healthy subjects, nor were any significant differences found between nonhomicidal schizophrenics and healthy subjects. These results indicate that the TPH1 CC recessive genotype is likely to be a genetic risk factor for criminal behavior, especially homicidal behavior in patients with schizophrenia. However, COMT gene polymorphisms were not associated with criminal behavior in schizophrenic patients. © Copyright 2012 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  19. A conceptual framework that links pollinator foraging behavior to gene flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    In insect-pollinated crops such as alfalfa, a better understanding of how pollinator foraging behavior affects gene flow could lead to the development of management strategies to reduce gene flow and facilitate the coexistence of distinct seed-production markets. Here, we introduce a conceptual fram...

  20. Confluence of genes, environment, development, and behavior in a post Genome-Wide Association Study world

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vrieze, S. I.; Iacono, W. G.; McGue, M.

    2012-01-01

    This article serves to outline a research paradigm to investigate main effects and interactions of genes, environment, and development on behavior and psychiatric illness. We provide a historical context for candidate gene studies and genome-wide association studies, including benefits, limitations...

  1. Payoff Information Biases a Fast Guess Process in Perceptual Decision Making under Deadline Pressure: Evidence from Behavior, Evoked Potentials, and Quantitative Model Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noorbaloochi, Sharareh; Sharon, Dahlia; McClelland, James L

    2015-08-05

    We used electroencephalography (EEG) and behavior to examine the role of payoff bias in a difficult two-alternative perceptual decision under deadline pressure in humans. The findings suggest that a fast guess process, biased by payoff and triggered by stimulus onset, occurred on a subset of trials and raced with an evidence accumulation process informed by stimulus information. On each trial, the participant judged whether a rectangle was shifted to the right or left and responded by squeezing a right- or left-hand dynamometer. The payoff for each alternative (which could be biased or unbiased) was signaled 1.5 s before stimulus onset. The choice response was assigned to the first hand reaching a squeeze force criterion and reaction time was defined as time to criterion. Consistent with a fast guess account, fast responses were strongly biased toward the higher-paying alternative and the EEG exhibited an abrupt rise in the lateralized readiness potential (LRP) on a subset of biased payoff trials contralateral to the higher-paying alternative ∼ 150 ms after stimulus onset and 50 ms before stimulus information influenced the LRP. This rise was associated with poststimulus dynamometer activity favoring the higher-paying alternative and predicted choice and response time. Quantitative modeling supported the fast guess account over accounts of payoff effects supported in other studies. Our findings, taken with previous studies, support the idea that payoff and prior probability manipulations produce flexible adaptations to task structure and do not reflect a fixed policy for the integration of payoff and stimulus information. Humans and other animals often face situations in which they must make choices based on uncertain sensory information together with information about expected outcomes (gains or losses) about each choice. We investigated how differences in payoffs between available alternatives affect neural activity, overt choice, and the timing of choice

  2. Sex-biased gene flow in spectacled eiders (Anatidae): Inferences from molecular markers with contrasting modes of inheritance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scribner, Kim T.; Petersen, Margaret R.; Fields, Raymond L.; Talbot, Sandra L.; Pearce, John M.; Chesser, Ronald K.

    2001-01-01

    Genetic markers that differ in mode of inheritance and rate of evolution (a sex-linked Z-specific microsatellite locus, five biparentally inherited microsatellite loci, and maternally inherited mitochondrial [mtDNA] sequences) were used to evaluate the degree of spatial genetic structuring at macro- and microgeographic scales, among breeding regions and local nesting populations within each region, respectively, for a migratory sea duck species, the spectacled eider (Somateria fisheri). Disjunct and declining breeding populations coupled with sex-specific differences in seasonal migratory patterns and life history provide a series of hypotheses regarding rates and directionality of gene flow among breeding populations from the Indigirka River Delta, Russia, and the North Slope and Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska. The degree of differentiation in mtDNA haplotype frequency among breeding regions and populations within regions was high (ϕCT = 0.189, P 0.05; biparentally inherited microsatellites: mean θ = 0.001, P > 0.05) than was observed for mtDNA. Using models explicitly designed for uniparental and biparentally inherited genes, estimates of spatial divergence based on nuclear and mtDNA data together with elements of the species' breeding ecology were used to estimate effective population size and degree of male and female gene flow. Differences in the magnitude and spatial patterns of gene correlations for maternally inherited and nuclear genes revealed that females exhibit greater natal philopatry than do males. Estimates of generational female and male rates of gene flow among breeding regions differed markedly (3.67 × 10−4 and 1.28 × 10−2, respectively). Effective population size for mtDNA was estimated to be at least three times lower than that for biparental genes (30,671 and 101,528, respectively). Large disparities in population sizes among breeding areas greatly reduces the proportion of total genetic variance captured by dispersal, which may

  3. Lateralized Feeding Behavior is Associated with Asymmetrical Neuroanatomy and Lateralized Gene Expressions in the Brain in Scale-Eating Cichlid Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyuk Je; Schneider, Ralf F; Manousaki, Tereza; Kang, Ji Hyoun; Lein, Etienne; Franchini, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Lateralized behavior (“handedness”) is unusual, but consistently found across diverse animal lineages, including humans. It is thought to reflect brain anatomical and/or functional asymmetries, but its neuro-molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown. Lake Tanganyika scale-eating cichlid fish, Perissodus microlepis show pronounced asymmetry in their jaw morphology as well as handedness in feeding behavior—biting scales preferentially only from one or the other side of their victims. This makes them an ideal model in which to investigate potential laterality in neuroanatomy and transcription in the brain in relation to behavioral handedness. After determining behavioral handedness in P. microlepis (preferred attack side), we estimated the volume of the hemispheres of brain regions and captured their gene expression profiles. Our analyses revealed that the degree of behavioral handedness is mirrored at the level of neuroanatomical asymmetry, particularly in the tectum opticum. Transcriptome analyses showed that different brain regions (tectum opticum, telencephalon, hypothalamus, and cerebellum) display distinct expression patterns, potentially reflecting their developmental interrelationships. For numerous genes in each brain region, their extent of expression differences between hemispheres was found to be correlated with the degree of behavioral lateralization. Interestingly, the tectum opticum and telencephalon showed divergent biases on the direction of up- or down-regulation of the laterality candidate genes (e.g., grm2) in the hemispheres, highlighting the connection of handedness with gene expression profiles and the different roles of these brain regions. Hence, handedness in predation behavior may be caused by asymmetric size of brain hemispheres and also by lateralized gene expressions in the brain. PMID:29069363

  4. Cognitive genomics: Linking genes to behavior in the human brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genevieve Konopka

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Correlations of genetic variation in DNA with functional brain activity have already provided a starting point for delving into human cognitive mechanisms. However, these analyses do not provide the specific genes driving the associations, which are complicated by intergenic localization as well as tissue-specific epigenetics and expression. The use of brain-derived expression datasets could build upon the foundation of these initial genetic insights and yield genes and molecular pathways for testing new hypotheses regarding the molecular bases of human brain development, cognition, and disease. Thus, coupling these human brain gene expression data with measurements of brain activity may provide genes with critical roles in brain function. However, these brain gene expression datasets have their own set of caveats, most notably a reliance on postmortem tissue. In this perspective, I summarize and examine the progress that has been made in this realm to date, and discuss the various frontiers remaining, such as the inclusion of cell-type-specific information, additional physiological measurements, and genomic data from patient cohorts.

  5. Analysis of phylogeny and codon usage bias and relationship of GC content, amino acid composition with expression of the structural nif genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Sunil Kanti; Kundu, Sudip; Das, Rabindranath; Roy, Sujit

    2016-08-01

    Bacteria and archaea have evolved with the ability to fix atmospheric dinitrogen in the form of ammonia, catalyzed by the nitrogenase enzyme complex which comprises three structural genes nifK, nifD and nifH. The nifK and nifD encodes for the beta and alpha subunits, respectively, of component 1, while nifH encodes for component 2 of nitrogenase. Phylogeny based on nifDHK have indicated that Cyanobacteria is closer to Proteobacteria alpha and gamma but not supported by the tree based on 16SrRNA. The evolutionary ancestor for the different trees was also different. The GC1 and GC2% analysis showed more consistency than GC3% which appeared to below for Firmicutes, Cyanobacteria and Euarchaeota while highest in Proteobacteria beta and clearly showed the proportional effect on the codon usage with a few exceptions. Few genes from Firmicutes, Euryarchaeota, Proteobacteria alpha and delta were found under mutational pressure. These nif genes with low and high GC3% from different classes of organisms showed similar expected number of codons. Distribution of the genes and codons, based on codon usage demonstrated opposite pattern for different orientation of mirror plane when compared with each other. Overall our results provide a comprehensive analysis on the evolutionary relationship of the three structural nif genes, nifK, nifD and nifH, respectively, in the context of codon usage bias, GC content relationship and amino acid composition of the encoded proteins and exploration of crucial statistical method for the analysis of positive data with non-constant variance to identify the shape factors of codon adaptation index.

  6. Sympathetic bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, David M; Peart, Sandra J

    2008-06-01

    We wish to deal with investigator bias in a statistical context. We sketch how a textbook solution to the problem of "outliers" which avoids one sort of investigator bias, creates the temptation for another sort. We write down a model of the approbation seeking statistician who is tempted by sympathy for client to violate the disciplinary standards. We give a simple account of one context in which we might expect investigator bias to flourish. Finally, we offer tentative suggestions to deal with the problem of investigator bias which follow from our account. As we have given a very sparse and stylized account of investigator bias, we ask what might be done to overcome this limitation.

  7. Behavioral phenotyping of minipigs transgenic for the Huntington gene

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schramke, S.; Schuldenzucker, V.; Schubert, R.; Frank, F.; Wirsig, M.; Ott, S.; Motlík, Jan; Fels, M.; Kemper, N.; Hölzner, E.; Reilmann, R.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 265, S1 (2016), s. 34-45 ISSN 0165-0270 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : animal models * minipig * phenotyping * behavioral * motor Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 2.554, year: 2016

  8. Gene-Environment Interplay for Childhood and Adolescent Antisocial Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Falk, Avital Elisa

    2014-01-01

    Individual differences in parenting behavior are associated with youth conduct problems (CP), but few studies examine the independent associations of positive and negative parenting with CP, despite their factorial independence. Monoamine oxidase-A (MAOA) genotype and callous-unemotional (CU) traits are also associated with CP and may moderate the association between parenting behavior and CP. This dissertation is based on two independent samples: Sample 1 is a two-year prospective longitudin...

  9. Estrous behavior in dairy cows: identification of underlying mechanisms and gene functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, H.M.T.; Veerkamp, R.F.; Beerda, B.; Woelders, H.

    2010-01-01

    Selection in dairy cattle for a higher milk yield has coincided with declined fertility. One of the factors is reduced expression of estrous behavior. Changes in systems that regulate the estrous behavior could be manifested by altered gene expression. This literature review describes the current

  10. Dopamine Transporter Gene Moderates Response to Behavioral Parent Training in Children With ADHD : A Pilot Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Hoofdakker, Barbara J.; Dijck-Brouwer, D. A. Janneke; Nauta, Maaike H.; van der Veen-Mulders, Lianne; Sytema, Sjoerd; Emmelkamp, Paul M. G.; Minderaa, Ruud B.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.

    There is great variability in the degree to which children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) improve through behavioral treatments. This study investigates the influence of the dopamine transporter gene (SCL6A3/DAT1) on outcome of behavioral parent training (BPT). Study subjects

  11. Dopamine transporter gene moderates response to behavioral parent training in children with ADHD: A pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Hoofdakker, B.J.; Nauta, M.H.; Dijck-Brouwer, D.A.J.; van der Veen-Mulders, L.; Sytema, S.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.; Minderaa, R.B.; Hoekstra, P.J.

    2012-01-01

    There is great variability in the degree to which children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) improve through behavioral treatments. This study investigates the influence of the dopamine transporter gene (SCL6A3/DAT1) on outcome of behavioral parent training (BPT). Study subjects

  12. The Association between Infants' Self-Regulatory Behavior and MAOA Gene Polymorphism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Minghao; Chen, Xinyin; Way, Niobe; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Deng, Huihua; Ke, Xiaoyan; Yu, Weiwei; Chen, Ping; He, Chuan; Chi, Xia; Lu, Zuhong

    2011-01-01

    Self-regulatory behavior in early childhood is an important characteristic that has considerable implications for the development of adaptive and maladaptive functioning. The present study investigated the relations between a functional polymorphism in the upstream region of monoamine oxidase A gene (MAOA) and self-regulatory behavior in a sample…

  13. Transcriptional Regulation in Ebola Virus: Effects of Gene Border Structure and Regulatory Elements on Gene Expression and Polymerase Scanning Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauburger, Kristina; Boehmann, Yannik; Krähling, Verena; Mühlberger, Elke

    2016-02-15

    The highly pathogenic Ebola virus (EBOV) has a nonsegmented negative-strand (NNS) RNA genome containing seven genes. The viral genes either are separated by intergenic regions (IRs) of variable length or overlap. The structure of the EBOV gene overlaps is conserved throughout all filovirus genomes and is distinct from that of the overlaps found in other NNS RNA viruses. Here, we analyzed how diverse gene borders and noncoding regions surrounding the gene borders influence transcript levels and govern polymerase behavior during viral transcription. Transcription of overlapping genes in EBOV bicistronic minigenomes followed the stop-start mechanism, similar to that followed by IR-containing gene borders. When the gene overlaps were extended, the EBOV polymerase was able to scan the template in an upstream direction. This polymerase feature seems to be generally conserved among NNS RNA virus polymerases. Analysis of IR-containing gene borders showed that the IR sequence plays only a minor role in transcription regulation. Changes in IR length were generally well tolerated, but specific IR lengths led to a strong decrease in downstream gene expression. Correlation analysis revealed that these effects were largely independent of the surrounding gene borders. Each EBOV gene contains exceptionally long untranslated regions (UTRs) flanking the open reading frame. Our data suggest that the UTRs adjacent to the gene borders are the main regulators of transcript levels. A highly complex interplay between the different cis-acting elements to modulate transcription was revealed for specific combinations of IRs and UTRs, emphasizing the importance of the noncoding regions in EBOV gene expression control. Our data extend those from previous analyses investigating the implication of noncoding regions at the EBOV gene borders for gene expression control. We show that EBOV transcription is regulated in a highly complex yet not easily predictable manner by a set of interacting cis

  14. Conservation in Mammals of Genes Associated with Aggression-Related Behavioral Phenotypes in Honey Bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Robinson, Gene E; Jakobsson, Eric

    2016-06-01

    The emerging field of sociogenomics explores the relations between social behavior and genome structure and function. An important question is the extent to which associations between social behavior and gene expression are conserved among the Metazoa. Prior experimental work in an invertebrate model of social behavior, the honey bee, revealed distinct brain gene expression patterns in African and European honey bees, and within European honey bees with different behavioral phenotypes. The present work is a computational study of these previous findings in which we analyze, by orthology determination, the extent to which genes that are socially regulated in honey bees are conserved across the Metazoa. We found that the differentially expressed gene sets associated with alarm pheromone response, the difference between old and young bees, and the colony influence on soldier bees, are enriched in widely conserved genes, indicating that these differences have genomic bases shared with many other metazoans. By contrast, the sets of differentially expressed genes associated with the differences between African and European forager and guard bees are depleted in widely conserved genes, indicating that the genomic basis for this social behavior is relatively specific to honey bees. For the alarm pheromone response gene set, we found a particularly high degree of conservation with mammals, even though the alarm pheromone itself is bee-specific. Gene Ontology identification of human orthologs to the strongly conserved honey bee genes associated with the alarm pheromone response shows overrepresentation of protein metabolism, regulation of protein complex formation, and protein folding, perhaps associated with remodeling of critical neural circuits in response to alarm pheromone. We hypothesize that such remodeling may be an adaptation of social animals to process and respond appropriately to the complex patterns of conspecific communication essential for social organization.

  15. Conservation in Mammals of Genes Associated with Aggression-Related Behavioral Phenotypes in Honey Bees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Liu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The emerging field of sociogenomics explores the relations between social behavior and genome structure and function. An important question is the extent to which associations between social behavior and gene expression are conserved among the Metazoa. Prior experimental work in an invertebrate model of social behavior, the honey bee, revealed distinct brain gene expression patterns in African and European honey bees, and within European honey bees with different behavioral phenotypes. The present work is a computational study of these previous findings in which we analyze, by orthology determination, the extent to which genes that are socially regulated in honey bees are conserved across the Metazoa. We found that the differentially expressed gene sets associated with alarm pheromone response, the difference between old and young bees, and the colony influence on soldier bees, are enriched in widely conserved genes, indicating that these differences have genomic bases shared with many other metazoans. By contrast, the sets of differentially expressed genes associated with the differences between African and European forager and guard bees are depleted in widely conserved genes, indicating that the genomic basis for this social behavior is relatively specific to honey bees. For the alarm pheromone response gene set, we found a particularly high degree of conservation with mammals, even though the alarm pheromone itself is bee-specific. Gene Ontology identification of human orthologs to the strongly conserved honey bee genes associated with the alarm pheromone response shows overrepresentation of protein metabolism, regulation of protein complex formation, and protein folding, perhaps associated with remodeling of critical neural circuits in response to alarm pheromone. We hypothesize that such remodeling may be an adaptation of social animals to process and respond appropriately to the complex patterns of conspecific communication essential for

  16. Molecular variation at a candidate gene implicated in the regulation of fire ant social behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dietrich Gotzek

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The fire ant Solenopsis invicta and its close relatives display an important social polymorphism involving differences in colony queen number. Colonies are headed by either a single reproductive queen (monogyne form or multiple queens (polygyne form. This variation in social organization is associated with variation at the gene Gp-9, with monogyne colonies harboring only B-like allelic variants and polygyne colonies always containing b-like variants as well. We describe naturally occurring variation at Gp-9 in fire ants based on 185 full-length sequences, 136 of which were obtained from S. invicta collected over much of its native range. While there is little overall differentiation between most of the numerous alleles observed, a surprising amount is found in the coding regions of the gene, with such substitutions usually causing amino acid replacements. This elevated coding-region variation may result from a lack of negative selection acting to constrain amino acid replacements over much of the protein, different mutation rates or biases in coding and non-coding sequences, negative selection acting with greater strength on non-coding than coding regions, and/or positive selection acting on the protein. Formal selection analyses provide evidence that the latter force played an important role in the basal b-like lineages coincident with the emergence of polygyny. While our data set reveals considerable paraphyly and polyphyly of S. invicta sequences with respect to those of other fire ant species, the b-like alleles of the socially polymorphic species are monophyletic. An expanded analysis of colonies containing alleles of this clade confirmed the invariant link between their presence and expression of polygyny. Finally, our discovery of several unique alleles bearing various combinations of b-like and B-like codons allows us to conclude that no single b-like residue is completely predictive of polygyne behavior and, thus, potentially causally

  17. Genetic Influences on Adolescent Sexual Behavior: Why Genes Matter for Environmentally-Oriented Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, K. Paige

    2013-01-01

    There are dramatic individual differences among adolescents in how and when they become sexually active adults, and “early” sexual activity is frequently cited as a cause of concern for scientists, policymakers, and the general public. Understanding the causes and developmental impact of adolescent sexual activity can be furthered by considering genes as a source of individual differences. Quantitative behavioral genetics (i.e., twin and family studies) and candidate gene association studies now provide clear evidence for the genetic underpinnings of individual differences in adolescent sexual behavior and related phenotypes. Genetic influences on sexual behavior may operate through a variety of direct and indirect mechanisms, including pubertal development, testosterone levels, and dopaminergic systems. Genetic differences may be systematically associated with exposure to environments that are commonly treated as causes of sexual behavior (gene-environment correlation). Possible gene-environment correlations pose a serious challenge for interpreting the results of much behavioral research. Multivariate, genetically-informed research on adolescent sexual behavior compares twins and family members as a form of “quasi-experiment”: How do twins who differ in their sexual experiences differ in their later development? The small but growing body of genetically-informed research has already challenged dominant assumptions regarding the etiology and sequelae of adolescent sexual behavior, with some studies indicating possible positive effects of teenage sexuality. Studies of gene × environment interaction may further elucidate the mechanisms by which genes and environments combine to shape the development of sexual behavior and its psychosocial consequences. Overall, the existence of heritable variation in adolescent sexual behavior has profound implications for environmentally-oriented theory and research. PMID:23855958

  18. Beautiful, but not so Nice in Memory: Romantic Relationship Status Biases the Processing of an Attractive Alternative’s Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visserman, M.L.; Karremans, J.C.

    2014-01-01

    Prior research demonstrated that romantically involved individuals devaluate the physical attractiveness of potential alternative mates (i.e., the derogation effect). The present research examines whether romantically involved individuals also process behavioral information of attractive

  19. Species-Level Para- and Polyphyly in DNA Barcode Gene Trees: Strong Operational Bias in European Lepidoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutanen, Marko; Kivelä, Sami M; Vos, Rutger A; Doorenweerd, Camiel; Ratnasingham, Sujeevan; Hausmann, Axel; Huemer, Peter; Dincă, Vlad; van Nieukerken, Erik J; Lopez-Vaamonde, Carlos; Vila, Roger; Aarvik, Leif; Decaëns, Thibaud; Efetov, Konstantin A; Hebert, Paul D N; Johnsen, Arild; Karsholt, Ole; Pentinsaari, Mikko; Rougerie, Rodolphe; Segerer, Andreas; Tarmann, Gerhard; Zahiri, Reza; Godfray, H Charles J

    2016-11-01

    The proliferation of DNA data is revolutionizing all fields of systematic research. DNA barcode sequences, now available for millions of specimens and several hundred thousand species, are increasingly used in algorithmic species delimitations. This is complicated by occasional incongruences between species and gene genealogies, as indicated by situations where conspecific individuals do not form a monophyletic cluster in a gene tree. In two previous reviews, non-monophyly has been reported as being common in mitochondrial DNA gene trees. We developed a novel web service "Monophylizer" to detect non-monophyly in phylogenetic trees and used it to ascertain the incidence of species non-monophyly in COI (a.k.a. cox1) barcode sequence data from 4977 species and 41,583 specimens of European Lepidoptera, the largest data set of DNA barcodes analyzed from this regard. Particular attention was paid to accurate species identification to ensure data integrity. We investigated the effects of tree-building method, sampling effort, and other methodological issues, all of which can influence estimates of non-monophyly. We found a 12% incidence of non-monophyly, a value significantly lower than that observed in previous studies. Neighbor joining (NJ) and maximum likelihood (ML) methods yielded almost equal numbers of non-monophyletic species, but 24.1% of these cases of non-monophyly were only found by one of these methods. Non-monophyletic species tend to show either low genetic distances to their nearest neighbors or exceptionally high levels of intraspecific variability. Cases of polyphyly in COI trees arising as a result of deep intraspecific divergence are negligible, as the detected cases reflected misidentifications or methodological errors. Taking into consideration variation in sampling effort, we estimate that the true incidence of non-monophyly is ∼23%, but with operational factors still being included. Within the operational factors, we separately assessed the

  20. Improving Breakdown Behavior by Substrate Bias in a Novel Double Epi-layer Lateral Double Diffused MOS Transistor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Qi; Wang Wei-Dong; Liu Yun; Wei Xue-Ming

    2012-01-01

    A new lateral double diffused MOS (LDMOS) transistor with a double epitaxial layer formed by an n-type substrate and a p-type epitaxial layer is reported (DEL LDMOS). The mechanism of the improved breakdown characteristic is that the high electric field around the drain is reduced by substrate reverse bias, which causes the redistribution of the bulk electric field in the drift region, and the vertical blocking voltage is shared by the drain side and the source side. The numerical results indicate that the trade-off between breakdown voltage and on-resistance of the proposed device is improved greatly in comparison to that of the conventional LDMOS. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  1. The dopamine transporter gene, a spectrum of most common risky behaviors, and the legal status of the behaviors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang Guo

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This study tests the specific hypothesis that the 9R/9R genotype in the VNTR of the dopamine transporter gene (DAT1 exerts a general protective effect against a spectrum of risky behaviors in comparison to the 10R/9R and 10R/10R genotypes, drawing on three-time repeated measures of risky behaviors in adolescence and young adulthood on about 822 non-Hispanic white males from the Add Health study. Our data have established two empirical findings. The first is a protective main effect in the DAT1 gene against risky behaviors. The second finding is that the protective effect varies over age, with the effect prominent at ages when a behavior is illegal and the effect largely vanished at ages when the behavior becomes legal or more socially tolerated. Both the protective main effect and the gene-lifecourse interaction effect are replicated across a spectrum of most common risky behaviors: delinquency, variety of sexual partners, binge drinking, drinking quantity, smoking quantity, smoking frequency, marijuana use, cocaine use, other illegal drug use, and seatbelt non-wearing. We also compared individuals with the protective genotype and individuals without it in terms of age, physical maturity, verbal IQ, GPA, received popularity, sent popularity, church attendance, two biological parents, and parental education. These comparisons indicate that the protective effect of DAT1*9R/9R cannot be explained away by these background characteristics. Our work demonstrates how legal/social contexts can enhance or reduce a genetic effect on risky behaviors.

  2. Beyond main effects of gene-sets: harsh parenting moderates the association between a dopamine gene-set and child externalizing behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windhorst, Dafna A; Mileva-Seitz, Viara R; Rippe, Ralph C A; Tiemeier, Henning; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Verhulst, Frank C; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J

    2016-08-01

    In a longitudinal cohort study, we investigated the interplay of harsh parenting and genetic variation across a set of functionally related dopamine genes, in association with children's externalizing behavior. This is one of the first studies to employ gene-based and gene-set approaches in tests of Gene by Environment (G × E) effects on complex behavior. This approach can offer an important alternative or complement to candidate gene and genome-wide environmental interaction (GWEI) studies in the search for genetic variation underlying individual differences in behavior. Genetic variants in 12 autosomal dopaminergic genes were available in an ethnically homogenous part of a population-based cohort. Harsh parenting was assessed with maternal (n = 1881) and paternal (n = 1710) reports at age 3. Externalizing behavior was assessed with the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) at age 5 (71 ± 3.7 months). We conducted gene-set analyses of the association between variation in dopaminergic genes and externalizing behavior, stratified for harsh parenting. The association was statistically significant or approached significance for children without harsh parenting experiences, but was absent in the group with harsh parenting. Similarly, significant associations between single genes and externalizing behavior were only found in the group without harsh parenting. Effect sizes in the groups with and without harsh parenting did not differ significantly. Gene-environment interaction tests were conducted for individual genetic variants, resulting in two significant interaction effects (rs1497023 and rs4922132) after correction for multiple testing. Our findings are suggestive of G × E interplay, with associations between dopamine genes and externalizing behavior present in children without harsh parenting, but not in children with harsh parenting experiences. Harsh parenting may overrule the role of genetic factors in externalizing behavior. Gene-based and gene

  3. Potential translational targets revealed by linking mouse grooming behavioral phenotypes to gene expression using public databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Andrew; Kyzar, Evan J; Cachat, Jonathan; Stewart, Adam Michael; Green, Jeremy; Gaikwad, Siddharth; O'Leary, Timothy P; Tabakoff, Boris; Brown, Richard E; Kalueff, Allan V

    2013-01-10

    Rodent self-grooming is an important, evolutionarily conserved behavior, highly sensitive to pharmacological and genetic manipulations. Mice with aberrant grooming phenotypes are currently used to model various human disorders. Therefore, it is critical to understand the biology of grooming behavior, and to assess its translational validity to humans. The present in-silico study used publicly available gene expression and behavioral data obtained from several inbred mouse strains in the open-field, light-dark box, elevated plus- and elevated zero-maze tests. As grooming duration differed between strains, our analysis revealed several candidate genes with significant correlations between gene expression in the brain and grooming duration. The Allen Brain Atlas, STRING, GoMiner and Mouse Genome Informatics databases were used to functionally map and analyze these candidate mouse genes against their human orthologs, assessing the strain ranking of their expression and the regional distribution of expression in the mouse brain. This allowed us to identify an interconnected network of candidate genes (which have expression levels that correlate with grooming behavior), display altered patterns of expression in key brain areas related to grooming, and underlie important functions in the brain. Collectively, our results demonstrate the utility of large-scale, high-throughput data-mining and in-silico modeling for linking genomic and behavioral data, as well as their potential to identify novel neural targets for complex neurobehavioral phenotypes, including grooming. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Gene targeting using homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells: The future for behavior genetics?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert eGerlai

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Gene targeting with homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells created a revolution in the analysis of the function of genes in behavioral brain research. The technology allowed unprecedented precision with which one could manipulate genes and study the effect of this manipulation on the central nervous system. With gene targeting, the uncertainty inherent in psychopharmacology regarding whether a particular compound would act only through a specific target was removed. Thus, gene targeting became highly popular. However, with this popularity came the realization that like other methods, gene targeting also suffered from some technical and principal problems. For example, two decades ago, issues about compensatory changes and about genetic linkage were raised. Since then, the technology developed, and its utility has been better delineated. This review will discuss the pros and cons of the technique along with these advancements from the perspective of the neuroscientist user. It will also compare and contrast methods that may represent novel alternatives to the homologous recombination based gene targeting approach, including the TALEN and the CRISPR/Cas9 systems. The goal of the review is not to provide detailed recipes, but to attempt to present a short summary of these approaches a behavioral geneticist or neuroscientist may consider for the analysis of brain function and behavior.

  5. Oxytocin receptor gene polymorphisms are associated with human directed social behavior in dogs (Canis familiaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kis, Anna; Bence, Melinda; Lakatos, Gabriella; Pergel, Enikő; Turcsán, Borbála; Pluijmakers, Jolanda; Vas, Judit; Elek, Zsuzsanna; Brúder, Ildikó; Földi, Levente; Sasvári-Székely, Mária; Miklósi, Adám; Rónai, Zsolt; Kubinyi, Enikő

    2014-01-01

    The oxytocin system has a crucial role in human sociality; several results prove that polymorphisms of the oxytocin receptor gene are related to complex social behaviors in humans. Dogs' parallel evolution with humans and their adaptation to the human environment has made them a useful species to model human social interactions. Previous research indicates that dogs are eligible models for behavioral genetic research, as well. Based on these previous findings, our research investigated associations between human directed social behaviors and two newly described (-212AG, 19131AG) and one known (rs8679684) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the regulatory regions (5' and 3' UTR) of the oxytocin receptor gene in German Shepherd (N = 104) and Border Collie (N = 103) dogs. Dogs' behavior traits have been estimated in a newly developed test series consisting of five episodes: Greeting by a stranger, Separation from the owner, Problem solving, Threatening approach, Hiding of the owner. Buccal samples were collected and DNA was isolated using standard protocols. SNPs in the 3' and 5' UTR regions were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction based techniques followed by subsequent electrophoresis analysis. The gene-behavior association analysis suggests that oxytocin receptor gene polymorphisms have an impact in both breeds on (i) proximity seeking towards an unfamiliar person, as well as their owner, and on (ii) how friendly dogs behave towards strangers, although the mediating molecular regulatory mechanisms are yet unknown. Based on these results, we conclude that similarly to humans, the social behavior of dogs towards humans is influenced by the oxytocin system.

  6. The Schizophrenia-Associated BRD1 Gene Regulates Behavior, Neurotransmission, and Expression of Schizophrenia Risk Enriched Gene Sets in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qvist, Per; Christensen, Jane Hvarregaard; Vardya, Irina; Rajkumar, Anto Praveen; Mørk, Arne; Paternoster, Veerle; Füchtbauer, Ernst-Martin; Pallesen, Jonatan; Fryland, Tue; Dyrvig, Mads; Hauberg, Mads Engel; Lundsberg, Birgitte; Fejgin, Kim; Nyegaard, Mette; Jensen, Kimmo; Nyengaard, Jens Randel; Mors, Ole; Didriksen, Michael; Børglum, Anders Dupont

    2017-07-01

    The schizophrenia-associated BRD1 gene encodes a transcriptional regulator whose comprehensive chromatin interactome is enriched with schizophrenia risk genes. However, the biology underlying the disease association of BRD1 remains speculative. This study assessed the transcriptional drive of a schizophrenia-associated BRD1 risk variant in vitro. Accordingly, to examine the effects of reduced Brd1 expression, we generated a genetically modified Brd1 +/- mouse and subjected it to behavioral, electrophysiological, molecular, and integrative genomic analyses with focus on schizophrenia-relevant parameters. Brd1 +/- mice displayed cerebral histone H3K14 hypoacetylation and a broad range of behavioral changes with translational relevance to schizophrenia. These behaviors were accompanied by striatal dopamine/serotonin abnormalities and cortical excitation-inhibition imbalances involving loss of parvalbumin immunoreactive interneurons. RNA-sequencing analyses of cortical and striatal micropunches from Brd1 +/- and wild-type mice revealed differential expression of genes enriched for schizophrenia risk, including several schizophrenia genome-wide association study risk genes (e.g., calcium channel subunits [Cacna1c and Cacnb2], cholinergic muscarinic receptor 4 [Chrm4)], dopamine receptor D 2 [Drd2], and transcription factor 4 [Tcf4]). Integrative analyses further found differentially expressed genes to cluster in functional networks and canonical pathways associated with mental illness and molecular signaling processes (e.g., glutamatergic, monoaminergic, calcium, cyclic adenosine monophosphate [cAMP], dopamine- and cAMP-regulated neuronal phosphoprotein 32 kDa [DARPP-32], and cAMP responsive element binding protein signaling [CREB]). Our study bridges the gap between genetic association and pathogenic effects and yields novel insights into the unfolding molecular changes in the brain of a new schizophrenia model that incorporates genetic risk at three levels: allelic

  7. Time course of affective bias in visual attention: convergent evidence from steady-state visual evoked potentials and behavioral data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindi Attar, Catherine; Andersen, Søren K; Müller, Matthias M

    2010-12-01

    Selective attention to a primary task can be biased by the occurrence of emotional distractors that involuntary attract attention due to their intrinsic stimulus significance. What is largely unknown is the time course and magnitude of competitive interactions between a to-be-attended foreground task and emotional distractors. We used pleasant, unpleasant and neutral pictures from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS) that were either presented in intact or phase-scrambled form. Pictures were superimposed by a flickering display of moving random dots, which constituted the primary task and enabled us to record steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEPs) as a continuous measure of attentional resource allocation directed to the task. Subjects were required to attend to the dots and to detect short intervals of coherent motion while ignoring the background pictures. We found that pleasant and unpleasant relative to neutral pictures more strongly influenced task-related processing as reflected in a significant decrease in SSVEP amplitudes and target detection rates, both covering a time window of several hundred milliseconds. Strikingly, the effect of semantic relative to phase-scrambled pictures on task-related activity was much larger, emerged earlier and lasted longer in time compared to the specific effect of emotion. The observed differences in size and duration of time courses of semantic and emotional picture processing strengthen the assumption of separate functional mechanisms for both processes rather than a general boosting of neural activity in favor of emotional stimulus processing. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Boolean decision problems with competing interactions on scale-free networks: Equilibrium and nonequilibrium behavior in an external bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zheng; Andresen, Juan Carlos; Moore, M. A.; Katzgraber, Helmut G.

    2014-02-01

    We study the equilibrium and nonequilibrium properties of Boolean decision problems with competing interactions on scale-free networks in an external bias (magnetic field). Previous studies at zero field have shown a remarkable equilibrium stability of Boolean variables (Ising spins) with competing interactions (spin glasses) on scale-free networks. When the exponent that describes the power-law decay of the connectivity of the network is strictly larger than 3, the system undergoes a spin-glass transition. However, when the exponent is equal to or less than 3, the glass phase is stable for all temperatures. First, we perform finite-temperature Monte Carlo simulations in a field to test the robustness of the spin-glass phase and show that the system has a spin-glass phase in a field, i.e., exhibits a de Almeida-Thouless line. Furthermore, we study avalanche distributions when the system is driven by a field at zero temperature to test if the system displays self-organized criticality. Numerical results suggest that avalanches (damage) can spread across the whole system with nonzero probability when the decay exponent of the interaction degree is less than or equal to 2, i.e., that Boolean decision problems on scale-free networks with competing interactions can be fragile when not in thermal equilibrium.

  9. Religious Attitudes and Home Bias

    OpenAIRE

    C. Reggiani; G. Rossini

    2008-01-01

    Home bias affects trade in goods, services and financial assets. It is mostly generated by "natural" trade barriers. Among these dividers we may list many behavioral and sociological factors, such as status quo biases and a few kind of ‘embeddedness’. Unfortunately these factors are difficult to measure. An important part of ‘embeddedness’ may be related to religious attitudes. Is there any relation between economic home bias and religious attitudes at the individual tier? Our aim is to provi...

  10. Behavior of aircraft antiskid braking systems on dry and wet runway surfaces. A slip-velocity-controlled, pressure-bias-modulated system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbs, S. M.; Tanner, J. A.; Smith, E. G.

    1979-01-01

    The braking and cornering response of a slip velocity controlled, pressure bias modulated aircraft antiskid braking system is investigated. The investigation, conducted on dry and wet runway surfaces, utilized one main gear wheel, brake, and tire assembly of a McDonnell Douglas DC 9 series 10 airplane. The landing gear strut was replaced by a dynamometer. The parameters, which were varied, included the carriage speed, tire loading, yaw angle, tire tread condition, brake system operating pressure, and runway wetness conditions. The effects of each of these parameters on the behavior of the skid control system is presented. Comparisons between data obtained with the skid control system and data obtained from single cycle braking tests without antiskid protection are examined.

  11. The influence of common method bias on the relationship of the socio-ecological model in predicting physical activity behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingate, Savanna; Sng, Eveleen; Loprinzi, Paul D.

    2018-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the extent, if any, that the association between socio-ecological parameters and physical activity may be influenced by common method bias (CMB). Methods: This study took place between February and May of 2017 at a Southeastern University in the United States. A randomized controlled experiment was employed among 119 young adults.Participants were randomized into either group 1 (the group we attempted to minimize CMB)or group 2 (control group). In group 1, CMB was minimized via various procedural remedies,such as separating the measurement of predictor and criterion variables by introducing a time lag (temporal; 2 visits several days apart), creating a cover story (psychological), and approximating measures to have data collected in different media (computer-based vs. paper and pencil) and different locations to control method variance when collecting self-report measures from the same source. Socio-ecological parameters (self-efficacy; friend support; family support)and physical activity were self-reported. Results: Exercise self-efficacy was significantly associated with physical activity. This association (β = 0.74, 95% CI: 0.33-1.1; P = 0.001) was only observed in group 2 (control), but not in group 1 (experimental group) (β = 0.03; 95% CI: -0.57-0.63; P = 0.91). The difference in these coefficients (i.e., β = 0.74 vs. β = 0.03) was statistically significant (P = 0.04). Conclusion: Future research in this field, when feasible, may wish to consider employing procedural and statistical remedies to minimize CMB. PMID:29423361

  12. Sociocultural behavior, sex-biased admixture, and effective population sizes in Central African Pygmies and non-Pygmies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdu, Paul; Becker, Noémie S A; Froment, Alain; Georges, Myriam; Grugni, Viola; Quintana-Murci, Lluis; Hombert, Jean-Marie; Van der Veen, Lolke; Le Bomin, Sylvie; Bahuchet, Serge; Heyer, Evelyne; Austerlitz, Frédéric

    2013-04-01

    Sociocultural phenomena, such as exogamy or phylopatry, can largely determine human sex-specific demography. In Central Africa, diverging patterns of sex-specific genetic variation have been observed between mobile hunter-gatherer Pygmies and sedentary agricultural non-Pygmies. However, their sex-specific demography remains largely unknown. Using population genetics and approximate Bayesian computation approaches, we inferred male and female effective population sizes, sex-specific migration, and admixture rates in 23 Central African Pygmy and non-Pygmy populations, genotyped for autosomal, X-linked, Y-linked, and mitochondrial markers. We found much larger effective population sizes and migration rates among non-Pygmy populations than among Pygmies, in agreement with the recent expansions and migrations of non-Pygmies and, conversely, the isolation and stationary demography of Pygmy groups. We found larger effective sizes and migration rates for males than for females for Pygmies, and vice versa for non-Pygmies. Thus, although most Pygmy populations have patrilocal customs, their sex-specific genetic patterns resemble those of matrilocal populations. In fact, our results are consistent with a lower prevalence of polygyny and patrilocality in Pygmies compared with non-Pygmies and a potential female transmission of reproductive success in Pygmies. Finally, Pygmy populations showed variable admixture levels with the non-Pygmies, with often much larger introgression from male than from female lineages. Social discrimination against Pygmies triggering complex movements of spouses in intermarriages can explain these male-biased admixture patterns in a patrilocal context. We show how gender-related sociocultural phenomena can determine highly variable sex-specific demography among populations, and how population genetic approaches contrasting chromosomal types allow inferring detailed human sex-specific demographic history.

  13. Sexual Dimorphism of Parental Care: From Genes to Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilkha, Noga; Scott, Niv; Kimchi, Tali

    2017-07-25

    Parental care is found in species across the animal kingdom, from small insects to large mammals, with a conserved purpose of increasing offspring survival. Yet enormous variability exists between different species and between the sexes in the pattern and level of parental investment. Here, we review the literature on the neurobiological mechanisms underlying maternal and paternal care, especially in rodents, and discuss the relationship between sex differences in behavior and sexual dimorphism in the brain. We argue that although several brain regions and circuits regulating parental care are shared by both sexes, some of the fundamental components comprising the maternal brain are innate and sex specific. Moreover, we suggest that a more comprehensive understanding of the underlying mechanisms can be achieved by expanding the methodological toolbox, applying ethologically relevant approaches such as nontraditional wild-derived animal models and complex seminatural experimental set-ups.

  14. Oxytocin and Opioid Receptor Gene Polymorphisms Associated with Greeting Behavior in Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enikő Kubinyi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Meeting humans is an everyday experience for most companion dogs, and their behavior in these situations and its genetic background is of major interest. Previous research in our laboratory reported that in German shepherd dogs the lack of G allele, and in Border collies the lack of A allele, of the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR 19208A/G single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP was linked to increased friendliness, which suggests that although broad traits are affected by genetic variability, the specific links between alleles and behavioral variables might be breed-specific. In the current study, we found that Siberian huskies with the A allele approached a friendly unfamiliar woman less frequently in a greeting test, which indicates that certain polymorphisms are related to human directed behavior, but that the relationship patterns between polymorphisms and behavioral phenotypes differ between populations. This finding was further supported by our next investigation. According to primate studies, endogenous opioid peptide (e.g., endorphins receptor genes have also been implicated in social relationships. Therefore, we examined the rs21912990 of the OPRM1 gene. Firstly, we found that the allele frequencies of Siberian huskies and gray wolves were similar, but differed from that of Border collies and German shepherd dogs, which might reflect their genetic relationship. Secondly, we detected significant associations between the OPRM1 SNP and greeting behavior among German shepherd dogs and a trend in Border collies, but we could not detect an association in Siberian huskies. Although our results with OXTR and OPRM1 gene variants should be regarded as preliminary due to the relatively low sample size, they suggest that (1 OXTR and OPRM1 gene variants in dogs affect human-directed social behavior and (2 their effects differ between breeds.

  15. Oxytocin and Opioid Receptor Gene Polymorphisms Associated with Greeting Behavior in Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubinyi, Enikő; Bence, Melinda; Koller, Dora; Wan, Michele; Pergel, Eniko; Ronai, Zsolt; Sasvari-Szekely, Maria; Miklósi, Ádám

    2017-01-01

    Meeting humans is an everyday experience for most companion dogs, and their behavior in these situations and its genetic background is of major interest. Previous research in our laboratory reported that in German shepherd dogs the lack of G allele, and in Border collies the lack of A allele, of the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) 19208A/G single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) was linked to increased friendliness, which suggests that although broad traits are affected by genetic variability, the specific links between alleles and behavioral variables might be breed-specific. In the current study, we found that Siberian huskies with the A allele approached a friendly unfamiliar woman less frequently in a greeting test, which indicates that certain polymorphisms are related to human directed behavior, but that the relationship patterns between polymorphisms and behavioral phenotypes differ between populations. This finding was further supported by our next investigation. According to primate studies, endogenous opioid peptide (e.g., endorphins) receptor genes have also been implicated in social relationships. Therefore, we examined the rs21912990 of the OPRM1 gene. Firstly, we found that the allele frequencies of Siberian huskies and gray wolves were similar, but differed from that of Border collies and German shepherd dogs, which might reflect their genetic relationship. Secondly, we detected significant associations between the OPRM1 SNP and greeting behavior among German shepherd dogs and a trend in Border collies, but we could not detect an association in Siberian huskies. Although our results with OXTR and OPRM1 gene variants should be regarded as preliminary due to the relatively low sample size, they suggest that (1) OXTR and OPRM1 gene variants in dogs affect human-directed social behavior and (2) their effects differ between breeds.

  16. Behavioral vs. molecular sources of conflict between nuclear and mitochondrial DNA: The role of male-biased dispersal in a Holarctic sea duck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Jeffrey L.; Bolender, Kimberly A.; Pearce, John M.

    2012-01-01

    Genetic studies of waterfowl (Anatidae) have observed the full spectrum of mitochondrial (mt) DNA population divergence, from apparent panmixia to deep, reciprocally monophyletic lineages. Yet, these studies often found weak or no nuclear (nu) DNA structure, which was often attributed to male-biased gene flow, a common behaviour within this family. An alternative explanation for this ‘conflict’ is that the smaller effective population size and faster sorting rate of mtDNA relative to nuDNA lead to different signals of population structure. We tested these alternatives by sequencing 12 nuDNA introns for a Holarctic pair of waterfowl subspecies, the European goosander (Mergus merganser merganser) and the North American common merganser (M. m. americanus), which exhibit strong population structure in mtDNA. We inferred effective population sizes, gene flow and divergence times from published mtDNA sequences and simulated expected differentiation for nuDNA based on those histories. Between Europe and North America, nuDNA ФST was 3.4-fold lower than mtDNA ФST, a result consistent with differences in sorting rates. However, despite geographically structured and monophyletic mtDNA lineages within continents, nuDNA ФST values were generally zero and significantly lower than predicted. This between- and within-continent contrast held when comparing mtDNA and nuDNA among published studies of ducks. Thus, male-mediated gene flow is a better explanation than slower sorting rates for limited nuDNA differentiation within continents, which is also supported by nonmolecular data. This study illustrates the value of quantitatively testing discrepancies between mtDNA and nuDNA to reject the null hypothesis that conflict simply reflects different sorting rates.

  17. Journal bias or author bias?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Ian

    2016-01-01

    I read with interest the comment by Mark Wilson in the Indian Journal of Medical Ethics regarding bias and conflicts of interest in medical journals. Wilson targets one journal (the New England Journal of Medicine: NEJM) and one particular "scandal" to make his point that journals' decisions on publication are biased by commercial conflicts of interest (CoIs). It is interesting that he chooses the NEJM which, by his own admission, had one of the strictest CoI policies and had published widely on this topic. The feeling is that if the NEJM can be guilty, they can all be guilty.

  18. "To Bluff like a Man or Fold like a Girl?" - Gender Biased Deceptive Behavior in Online Poker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomäki, Jussi; Yan, Jeff; Modic, David; Laakasuo, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Evolutionary psychology suggests that men are more likely than women to deceive to bolster their status and influence. Also gender perception influences deceptive behavior, which is linked to pervasive gender stereotypes: women are typically viewed as weaker and more gullible than men. We assessed bluffing in an online experiment (N = 502), where participants made decisions to bluff or not in simulated poker tasks against opponents represented by avatars. Participants bluffed on average 6% more frequently at poker tables with female-only avatars than at tables with male-only or gender mixed avatars-a highly significant effect in games involving repeated decisions. Nonetheless, participants did not believe the avatar genders affected their decisions. Males bluffed 13% more frequently than females. Unlike most economic games employed exclusively in research contexts, online poker is played for money by tens of millions of people worldwide. Thus, gender effects in bluffing have significant monetary consequences for poker players.

  19. "To Bluff like a Man or Fold like a Girl?" - Gender Biased Deceptive Behavior in Online Poker.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jussi Palomäki

    Full Text Available Evolutionary psychology suggests that men are more likely than women to deceive to bolster their status and influence. Also gender perception influences deceptive behavior, which is linked to pervasive gender stereotypes: women are typically viewed as weaker and more gullible than men. We assessed bluffing in an online experiment (N = 502, where participants made decisions to bluff or not in simulated poker tasks against opponents represented by avatars. Participants bluffed on average 6% more frequently at poker tables with female-only avatars than at tables with male-only or gender mixed avatars-a highly significant effect in games involving repeated decisions. Nonetheless, participants did not believe the avatar genders affected their decisions. Males bluffed 13% more frequently than females. Unlike most economic games employed exclusively in research contexts, online poker is played for money by tens of millions of people worldwide. Thus, gender effects in bluffing have significant monetary consequences for poker players.

  20. How Gene-Environment Interaction Affects Children's Anxious and Fearful Behavior. Science Briefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Scientific Council on the Developing Child, 2007

    2007-01-01

    "Science Briefs" summarize the findings and implications of a recent study in basic science or clinical research. This brief reports on the study "Evidence for a Gene-Environment Interaction in Predicting Behavioral Inhibition in Middle Childhood" (N. A. Fox, K E. Nichols, H. A. Henderson, K. Rubin, L. Schmidt, D. Hamer, M. Ernst, and D. S.…

  1. Multiscale Modeling of Gene-Behavior Associations in an Artificial Neural Network Model of Cognitive Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Michael S. C.; Forrester, Neil A.; Ronald, Angelica

    2016-01-01

    In the multidisciplinary field of developmental cognitive neuroscience, statistical associations between levels of description play an increasingly important role. One example of such associations is the observation of correlations between relatively common gene variants and individual differences in behavior. It is perhaps surprising that such…

  2. Gene, Brain, and Behavior Relationships in Fragile X Syndrome: Evidence from Neuroimaging Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightbody, Amy A.; Reiss, Allan L.

    2009-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FraX) remains the most common inherited cause of intellectual disability and provides a valuable model for studying gene-brain-behavior relationships. Over the past 15 years, structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging studies have emerged with the goal of better understanding the neural pathways contributing to the…

  3. Species differences in brain gene expression profiles associated with adult behavioral maturation in honey bees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robinson Gene E

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Honey bees are known for several striking social behaviors, including a complex pattern of behavioral maturation that gives rise to an age-related colony division of labor and a symbolic dance language, by which successful foragers communicate the location of attractive food sources to their nestmates. Our understanding of honey bees is mostly based on studies of the Western honey bee, Apis mellifera, even though there are 9–10 other members of genus Apis, showing interesting variations in social behavior relative to A. mellifera. To facilitate future in-depth genomic and molecular level comparisons of behavior across the genus, we performed a microarray analysis of brain gene expression for A. mellifera and three key species found in Asia, A. cerana, A. florea and A. dorsata. Results For each species we compared brain gene expression patterns between foragers and adult one-day-old bees on an A. mellifera cDNA microarray and calculated within-species gene expression ratios to facilitate cross-species analysis. The number of cDNA spots showing hybridization fluorescence intensities above the experimental threshold was reduced by an average of 16% in the Asian species compared to A. mellifera, but an average of 71% of genes on the microarray were available for analysis. Brain gene expression profiles between foragers and one-day-olds showed differences that are consistent with a previous study on A. mellifera and were comparable across species. Although 1772 genes showed significant differences in expression between foragers and one-day-olds, only 218 genes showed differences in forager/one-day-old expression between species (p Conclusion We conclude that the A. mellifera cDNA microarray can be used effectively for cross-species comparisons within the genus. Our results indicate that there is a widespread conservation of the molecular processes in the honey bee brain underlying behavioral maturation. Species differences in

  4. Gene-environment interaction and behavioral disorders: a developmental perspective based on endophenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglia, Marco; Marino, Cecilia; Maziade, Michel; Molteni, Massimo; D'Amato, Francesca

    2008-01-01

    It has been observed that 'No aspect of human behavioral genetics has caused more confusion and generated more obscurantism than the analysis and interpretation of various types of non-additivity and non-independence of gene and environmental action and interaction' (Eaves LJ et al 1977 Br J Math Stat Psychol 30:1-42). On the other hand, a bulk of newly published studies appear to speak in favour of common and frequent interplay--and possibly interaction--between identified genetic polymorphisms and specified environmental variables in shaping behavior and behavioral disorders. Considerable interest has arisen from the introduction of putative functional 'endophenotypes' which would represent a more proximate biological link to genes, as well as an obligatory intermediate of behavior. While explicit criteria to identify valid endophenotypes have been offered, a number of new 'alternative phenotypes' are now being proposed as possible 'endophenotypes' for behavioral and psychiatric genetics research, sometimes with less than optimal stringency. Nonetheless, we suggest that some endophenotypes can be helpful in investigating several instances of gene-environment interactions and be employed as additional tools to reduce the risk for spurious results in this controversial area.

  5. Genes and Aggressive Behavior: Epigenetic Mechanisms Underlying Individual Susceptibility to Aversive Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Palumbo

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the last two decades, the study of the relationship between nature and nurture in shaping human behavior has encountered a renewed interest. Behavioral genetics showed that distinct polymorphisms of genes that code for proteins that control neurotransmitter metabolic and synaptic function are associated with individual vulnerability to aversive experiences, such as stressful and traumatic life events, and may result in an increased risk of developing psychopathologies associated with violence. On the other hand, recent studies indicate that experiencing aversive events modulates gene expression by introducing stable changes to DNA without modifying its sequence, a mechanism known as “epigenetics”. For example, experiencing adversities during periods of maximal sensitivity to the environment, such as prenatal life, infancy and early adolescence, may introduce lasting epigenetic marks in genes that affect maturational processes in brain, thus favoring the emergence of dysfunctional behaviors, including exaggerate aggression in adulthood. The present review discusses data from recent research, both in humans and animals, concerning the epigenetic regulation of four genes belonging to the neuroendocrine, serotonergic and oxytocinergic pathways—Nuclear receptor subfamily 3-group C-member 1 (NR3C1, oxytocin receptor (OXTR, solute carrier-family 6 member 4 (SLC6A4 and monoamine oxidase A (MAOA—and their role in modulating vulnerability to proactive and reactive aggressive behavior. Behavioral genetics and epigenetics are shedding a new light on the fine interaction between genes and environment, by providing a novel tool to understand the molecular events that underlie aggression. Overall, the findings from these studies carry important implications not only for neuroscience, but also for social sciences, including ethics, philosophy and law.

  6. Shear behavior of thermoformed woven-textile thermoplastic prepregs: An analysis combining bias-extension test and X-ray microtomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassoumi, M.; Rolland du Roscoat, S.; Casari, P.; Dumont, P. J. J.; Orgéas, L.; Jacquemin, F.

    2017-10-01

    Thermoforming allows the manufacture of structural parts for the automotive and aeronautical domains using long fiber thermoplastic prepregs with short cycle times. During this operation, several sheets of molten prepregs are stacked and subjected to large macroscale strains, mainly via in-plane shear, out-of-plane consolidation or dilatation, and bending of the fibrous reinforcement. These deformation modes and the related meso and microstructure evolutions are still poorly understood. However, they can drastically alter the end-use macroscale properties of fabricated parts. To better understand these phenomena, bias extension tests were performed using specimens made of several stacked layers of glass woven fabrics and polyamide matrix. The macroscale shear behavior of these prepregs was investigated at various temperatures. A multiscale analysis of deformed samples was performed using X-ray microtomography images of the deformed specimens acquired at two different spatial resolutions. The low-resolution images were used to analyze the deformation mechanisms and the structural characteristics of prepregs at the macroscale and bundle scales. It was possible to analyze the 3D shapes of deformed samples and, in particular, the spatial variations of their thickness so as to quantify the out-of-plane dilatancy or consolidation phenomena induced by the in-plane shear of prepregs. At a lower scale, the analysis of the high-resolution images showed that these mechanisms were accompanied by the growth of pores and the deformation of fiber bundles. The orientation of the fiber bundles and its through-thickness evolution were measured along the weft and warp directions in the deformed samples, allowing the relevance of geometrical models currently used to analyze bias extension tests to be discussed. Results can be used to enhance the current rheological models for the prediction of thermoforming of thermoplastic prepregs.

  7. Biased Supervision

    OpenAIRE

    Josse Delfgaauw; Michiel Souverijn

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ When verifiable performance measures are imperfect, organizations often resort to subjective performance pay. This may give supervisors the power to direct employees towards tasks that mainly benefit the supervisor rather than the organization. We cast a principal-supervisor-agent model in a multitask setting, where the supervisor has an intrinsic preference towards specific tasks. We show that subjective performance pay based on evaluation by a biased supervisor ...

  8. Impact of prenatal polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure on behavior, cortical gene expression and DNA methylation of the Bdnf gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Rachel L; Yan, Zhonghai; Maher, Christina; Zhang, Hanjie; Gudsnuk, Kathryn; McDonald, Jacob; Champagne, Frances A

    2016-03-01

    Prenatal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) has been associated with sustained effects on the brain and behavior in offspring. However, the mechanisms have yet to be determined. We hypothesized that prenatal exposure to ambient PAH in mice would be associated with impaired neurocognition, increased anxiety, altered cortical expression of Bdnf and Grin2b , and greater DNA methylation of Bdnf . Our results indicated that during open-field testing, prenatal PAH exposed offspring spent more time immobile and less time exploring. Females produced more fecal boli. Offspring prenatally exposed to PAH displayed modest reductions in overall exploration of objects. Further, prenatal PAH exposure was associated with lower cortical expression of Grin2b and Bdnf in males, and greater Bdnf IV promoter methylation. Epigenetic differences within the Bdnf IV promoter correlated with Bdnf gene expression, but not with the observed behavioral outcomes, suggesting that additional targets may account for these PAH-associated effects.

  9. Impact of prenatal polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure on behavior, cortical gene expression, and DNA methylation of the Bdnf gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel L. Miller

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH has been associated with sustained effects on the brain and behavior in offspring. However, the mechanisms have yet to be determined. We hypothesized that prenatal exposure to ambient PAH in mice would be associated with impaired neurocognition, increased anxiety, altered cortical expression of Bdnf and Grin2b, and greater DNA methylation of Bdnf. Our results indicated that during open-field testing, prenatal PAH–exposed offspring spent more time immobile and less time exploring. Females produced more fecal boli. Offspring prenatally exposed to PAH displayed modest reductions in overall exploration of objects. Further, prenatal PAH exposure was associated with lower cortical expression of Grin2b and Bdnf in males and greater Bdnf IV promoter methylation. Epigenetic differences within the Bdnf IV promoter correlated with Bdnf gene expression but not with the observed behavioral outcomes, suggesting that additional targets may account for these PAH-associated effects.

  10. Oxytocin receptor gene polymorphisms are associated with human directed social behavior in dogs (Canis familiaris.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kis

    Full Text Available The oxytocin system has a crucial role in human sociality; several results prove that polymorphisms of the oxytocin receptor gene are related to complex social behaviors in humans. Dogs' parallel evolution with humans and their adaptation to the human environment has made them a useful species to model human social interactions. Previous research indicates that dogs are eligible models for behavioral genetic research, as well. Based on these previous findings, our research investigated associations between human directed social behaviors and two newly described (-212AG, 19131AG and one known (rs8679684 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the regulatory regions (5' and 3' UTR of the oxytocin receptor gene in German Shepherd (N = 104 and Border Collie (N = 103 dogs. Dogs' behavior traits have been estimated in a newly developed test series consisting of five episodes: Greeting by a stranger, Separation from the owner, Problem solving, Threatening approach, Hiding of the owner. Buccal samples were collected and DNA was isolated using standard protocols. SNPs in the 3' and 5' UTR regions were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction based techniques followed by subsequent electrophoresis analysis. The gene-behavior association analysis suggests that oxytocin receptor gene polymorphisms have an impact in both breeds on (i proximity seeking towards an unfamiliar person, as well as their owner, and on (ii how friendly dogs behave towards strangers, although the mediating molecular regulatory mechanisms are yet unknown. Based on these results, we conclude that similarly to humans, the social behavior of dogs towards humans is influenced by the oxytocin system.

  11. Copepod swimming behavior, respiration, and expression of stress-related genes in response to high stocking densities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Birgitte; Jakobsen, Hans H.; Stief, Peter

    2017-01-01

    ,000 ind. L−1. Three biological/physiological end-points were studied: swimming behavior, respiration rate and expression level of stress-related genes. None of the elevated densities caused any significant change in swimming behavior, respiration rate or gene expression level. This study suggests...

  12. Epigenetic Regulation of the Oxytocin Receptor Gene: Implications for Behavioral Neuroscience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert eKumsta

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Genetic approaches have improved our understanding of the neurobiological basis of social behavior and cognition. For instance, common polymorphisms of genes involved in oxytocin signaling have been associated with sociobehavioral phenotypes in healthy samples as well as in subjects with mental disorders. More recently, attention has been drawn to epigenetic mechanisms, which regulate genetic function and expression without changes to the underlying DNA sequence. We provide an overview of the functional importance of oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR promoter methylation and summarize studies that have investigated the role of OXTR methylation in behavioral phenotypes. There is first evidence that OXTR methylation is associated with autism, high callous-unemotional traits, and differential activation of brain regions involved in social perception. Furthermore, psychosocial stress exposure might dynamically regulate OXTR. Given evidence that epigenetic states of genes can be modified by experiences, especially those occurring in sensitive periods early in development, we conclude with a discussion on the effects of traumatic experience on the developing oxytocin system. Epigenetic modification of genes involved in oxytocin signaling might be involved in the mechanisms mediating the long-term influence of early adverse experiences on socio-behavioral outcomes.

  13. Differential Gene Expression Associated with Honey Bee Grooming Behavior in Response to Varroa Mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamiduzzaman, Mollah Md; Emsen, Berna; Hunt, Greg J; Subramanyam, Subhashree; Williams, Christie E; Tsuruda, Jennifer M; Guzman-Novoa, Ernesto

    2017-05-01

    Honey bee (Apis mellifera) grooming behavior is an important mechanism of resistance against the parasitic mite Varroa destructor. This research was conducted to study associations between grooming behavior and the expression of selected immune, neural, detoxification, developmental and health-related genes. Individual bees tested in a laboratory assay for various levels of grooming behavior in response to V. destructor were also analyzed for gene expression. Intense groomers (IG) were most efficient in that they needed significantly less time to start grooming and fewer grooming attempts to successfully remove mites from their bodies than did light groomers (LG). In addition, the relative abundance of the neurexin-1 mRNA, was significantly higher in IG than in LG, no groomers (NG) or control (bees without mite). The abundance of poly U binding factor kd 68 and cytochrome p450 mRNAs were significantly higher in IG than in control bees. The abundance of hymenoptaecin mRNA was significantly higher in IG than in NG, but it was not different from that of control bees. The abundance of vitellogenin mRNA was not changed by grooming activity. However, the abundance of blue cheese mRNA was significantly reduced in IG compared to LG or NG, but not to control bees. Efficient removal of mites by IG correlated with different gene expression patterns in bees. These results suggest that the level of grooming behavior may be related to the expression pattern of vital honey bee genes. Neurexin-1, in particular, might be useful as a bio-marker for behavioral traits in bees.

  14. Impact of oxygen precursor flow on the forward bias behavior of MOCVD-Al2O3 dielectrics grown on GaN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Silvia H.; Bisi, Davide; Liu, Xiang; Yeluri, Ramya; Tahhan, Maher; Keller, Stacia; DenBaars, Steven P.; Meneghini, Matteo; Mishra, Umesh K.

    2017-11-01

    This paper investigates the effects of the oxygen precursor flow supplied during metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) of Al2O3 films on the forward bias behavior of Al2O3/GaN metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors. The low oxygen flow (100 sccm) delivered during the in situ growth of Al2O3 on GaN resulted in films that exhibited a stable capacitance under forward stress, a lower density of stress-generated negative fixed charges, and a higher dielectric breakdown strength compared to Al2O3 films grown under high oxygen flow (480 sccm). The low oxygen grown Al2O3 dielectrics exhibited lower gate current transients in stress/recovery measurements, providing evidence of a reduced density of trap states near the GaN conduction band and an enhanced robustness under accumulated gate stress. This work reveals oxygen flow variance in MOCVD to be a strategy for controlling the dielectric properties and performance.

  15. Genotype-dependent participation of coat color gene loci in the behavioral traits of laboratory mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamuro, Yutaka; Shiraishi, Aya

    2011-10-01

    To evaluate if loci responsible for coat color phenotypes contribute to behavioral characteristics, we specified novel gene loci associated with social exploratory behavior and examined the effects of the frequency of each allele at distinct loci on behavioral expression. We used the F2 generation, which arose from the mating of F1 mice obtained by interbreeding DBA/2 and ICR mice. Phenotypic analysis indicated that the agouti and albino loci affect behavioral traits. A genotype-based analysis revealed that novel exploratory activity was suppressed in a manner dependent on the frequency of the dominant wild-type allele at the agouti, but not albino, locus. The allele-dependent suppression was restricted to colored mice and was not seen in albino mice. The present results suggest that the agouti locus contributes to a particular behavioral trait in the presence of a wild-type allele at the albino locus, which encodes a structural gene for tyrosinase. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Beyond main effects of gene-sets: harsh parenting moderates the association between a dopamine gene-set and child externalizing behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Windhorst (Judith); V. Mileva-Seitz (Viara); R.C.A. Rippe (Ralph C.A.); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); M.H. van IJzendoorn (Rien); M.J. Bakermans-Kranenburg (Marian)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: In a longitudinal cohort study, we investigated the interplay of harsh parenting and genetic variation across a set of functionally related dopamine genes, in association with children's externalizing behavior. This is one of the first studies to employ gene-based and

  17. The behavior of antibiotic resistance genes and arsenic influenced by biochar during different manure composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Erping; Wu, Ying; Jiao, Yanan; Zuo, Yiru; Rensing, Christopher; Chen, Hong

    2017-06-01

    The effect of two different biochar types, rice straw biochar (RSB) and mushroom biochar (MB), on chicken manure composting was previously examined by monitoring the fate of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and arsenic. The behavior of ARGs and arsenic in other kinds of manure composting with the same biochar types had not been examined. In this study, we added either RSB or MB to pig and duck manure composts to study the behavior of ARGs (tet genes, sul genes, and chloramphenicol resistance genes) and arsenic under the same experimental condition. The results showed that the average removal values of selected ARGs were respectively 2.56 and 2.09 log units in duck and pig manure compost without the addition of biochar. The effect of biochar addition on the average removal value of ARGs depended on the type of biochar and manure. For instance, in pig manure compost, MB addition increased the average removal value of ARGs, while RSB addition decreased. And both biochar additions had a negative influence on the average removal value of ARGs in duck manure compost. Analytical results also demonstrated that MB addition reduced total arsenic and the percentage of bioavailable arsenic more than RSB.

  18. CACNA1C gene regulates behavioral strategies in operant rule learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppe, Georgia; Mallien, Anne Stephanie; Berger, Stefan; Bartsch, Dusan; Gass, Peter; Vollmayr, Barbara; Durstewitz, Daniel

    2017-06-01

    Behavioral experiments are usually designed to tap into a specific cognitive function, but animals may solve a given task through a variety of different and individual behavioral strategies, some of them not foreseen by the experimenter. Animal learning may therefore be seen more as the process of selecting among, and adapting, potential behavioral policies, rather than mere strengthening of associative links. Calcium influx through high-voltage-gated Ca2+ channels is central to synaptic plasticity, and altered expression of Cav1.2 channels and the CACNA1C gene have been associated with severe learning deficits and psychiatric disorders. Given this, we were interested in how specifically a selective functional ablation of the Cacna1c gene would modulate the learning process. Using a detailed, individual-level analysis of learning on an operant cue discrimination task in terms of behavioral strategies, combined with Bayesian selection among computational models estimated from the empirical data, we show that a Cacna1c knockout does not impair learning in general but has a much more specific effect: the majority of Cacna1c knockout mice still managed to increase reward feedback across trials but did so by adapting an outcome-based strategy, while the majority of matched controls adopted the experimentally intended cue-association rule. Our results thus point to a quite specific role of a single gene in learning and highlight that much more mechanistic insight could be gained by examining response patterns in terms of a larger repertoire of potential behavioral strategies. The results may also have clinical implications for treating psychiatric disorders.

  19. Negativity Bias in Dangerous Drivers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Chai

    Full Text Available The behavioral and cognitive characteristics of dangerous drivers differ significantly from those of safe drivers. However, differences in emotional information processing have seldom been investigated. Previous studies have revealed that drivers with higher anger/anxiety trait scores are more likely to be involved in crashes and that individuals with higher anger traits exhibit stronger negativity biases when processing emotions compared with control groups. However, researchers have not explored the relationship between emotional information processing and driving behavior. In this study, we examined the emotional information processing differences between dangerous drivers and safe drivers. Thirty-eight non-professional drivers were divided into two groups according to the penalty points that they had accrued for traffic violations: 15 drivers with 6 or more points were included in the dangerous driver group, and 23 drivers with 3 or fewer points were included in the safe driver group. The emotional Stroop task was used to measure negativity biases, and both behavioral and electroencephalograph data were recorded. The behavioral results revealed stronger negativity biases in the dangerous drivers than in the safe drivers. The bias score was correlated with self-reported dangerous driving behavior. Drivers with strong negativity biases reported having been involved in mores crashes compared with the less-biased drivers. The event-related potentials (ERPs revealed that the dangerous drivers exhibited reduced P3 components when responding to negative stimuli, suggesting decreased inhibitory control of information that is task-irrelevant but emotionally salient. The influence of negativity bias provides one possible explanation of the effects of individual differences on dangerous driving behavior and traffic crashes.

  20. Neuroscience of resilience and vulnerability for addiction medicine: From genes to behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Jonathan D; Flagel, Shelly B

    2016-01-01

    Addiction is a complex behavioral disorder arising from roughly equal contributions of genetic and environmental factors. Behavioral traits such as novelty-seeking, impulsivity, and cue-reactivity have been associated with vulnerability to addiction. These traits, at least in part, arise from individual variation in functional neural systems, such as increased striatal dopaminergic activity and decreased prefrontal cortical control over subcortical emotional and motivational responses. With a few exceptions, genetic studies have largely failed to consistently identify specific alleles that affect addiction liability. This may be due to the multifactorial nature of addiction, with different genes becoming more significant in certain environments or in certain subsets of the population. Epigenetic mechanisms may also be an important source of risk. Adolescence is a particularly critical time period in the development of addiction, and environmental factors at this stage of life can have a large influence on whether inherited risk factors are actually translated into addictive behaviors. Knowledge of how individual differences affect addiction liability at the level of genes, neural systems, behavioral traits, and sociodevelopmental trajectories can help to inform and improve clinical practice. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Confluence of genes, environment, development, and behavior in a post Genome-Wide Association Study world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrieze, Scott I; Iacono, William G; McGue, Matt

    2012-11-01

    This article serves to outline a research paradigm to investigate main effects and interactions of genes, environment, and development on behavior and psychiatric illness. We provide a historical context for candidate gene studies and genome-wide association studies, including benefits, limitations, and expected payoffs. Using substance use and abuse as our driving example, we then turn to the importance of etiological psychological theory in guiding genetic, environmental, and developmental research, as well as the utility of refined phenotypic measures, such as endophenotypes, in the pursuit of etiological understanding and focused tests of genetic and environmental associations. Phenotypic measurement has received considerable attention in the history of psychology and is informed by psychometrics, whereas the environment remains relatively poorly measured and is often confounded with genetic effects (i.e., gene-environment correlation). Genetically informed designs, which are no longer limited to twin and adoption studies thanks to ever-cheaper genotyping, are required to understand environmental influences. Finally, we outline the vast amount of individual difference in structural genomic variation, most of which remains to be leveraged in genetic association tests. Although the genetic data can be massive and burdensome (tens of millions of variants per person), we argue that improved understanding of genomic structure and function will provide investigators with new tools to test specific a priori hypotheses derived from etiological psychological theory, much like current candidate gene research but with less confusion and more payoff than candidate gene research has to date.

  2. Circuit-Host Coupling Induces Multifaceted Behavioral Modulations of a Gene Switch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Andrew E; Liao, Chen; Lu, Ting

    2018-02-06

    Quantitative modeling of gene circuits is fundamentally important to synthetic biology, as it offers the potential to transform circuit engineering from trial-and-error construction to rational design and, hence, facilitates the advance of the field. Currently, typical models regard gene circuits as isolated entities and focus only on the biochemical processes within the circuits. However, such a standard paradigm is getting challenged by increasing experimental evidence suggesting that circuits and their host are intimately connected, and their interactions can potentially impact circuit behaviors. Here we systematically examined the roles of circuit-host coupling in shaping circuit dynamics by using a self-activating gene switch as a model circuit. Through a combination of deterministic modeling, stochastic simulation, and Fokker-Planck equation formalism, we found that circuit-host coupling alters switch behaviors across multiple scales. At the single-cell level, it slows the switch dynamics in the high protein production regime and enlarges the difference between stable steady-state values. At the population level, it favors cells with low protein production through differential growth amplification. Together, the two-level coupling effects induce both quantitative and qualitative modulations of the switch, with the primary component of the effects determined by the circuit's architectural parameters. This study illustrates the complexity and importance of circuit-host coupling in modulating circuit behaviors, demonstrating the need for a new paradigm-integrated modeling of the circuit-host system-for quantitative understanding of engineered gene networks. Copyright © 2017 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Gene Expression in Accumbens GABA Neurons from Inbred Rats with Different Drug-Taking Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, B.M.; Chen, H.; Gong, S.; Wu, X.; Liu, Z.; Hiler, K.; Taylor, W.L.; Matta, S.G.

    2011-01-01

    Inbred Lewis and Fisher 344 rat strains differ greatly in drug self-administration; Lewis rats operantly self-administer drugs of abuse including nicotine, whereas Fisher self-administer poorly. As shown herein, operant food self-administration is similar. Based on their pivotal role in drug reward, we hypothesized that differences in basal gene expression in GABAergic neurons projecting from nucleus accumbens (NAcc) to ventral pallidum (VP) play a role in vulnerability to drug taking behavior. The transcriptomes of NAcc shell-VP GABAergic neurons from these two strains were analyzed in adolescents, using a multidisciplinary approach that combined stereotaxic ionotophoretic brain microinjections, laser-capture microdissection (LCM) and microarray measurement of transcripts. LCM enriched the gene transcripts detected in GABA neurons compared to the residual NAcc tissue: a ratio of neuron/residual > 1 and false discovery rate (FDR) 3 yielded 3,514. Strain-dependent differences in gene expression within GABA neurons were identified; 322 vs. 60 transcripts showed 1.5-fold vs. 2-fold differences in expression (FDR<5%). Classification by gene ontology showed these 322 transcripts were widely distributed, without categorical enrichment. This is most consistent with a global change in GABA neuron function. Literature-mining by Chilibot found 38 genes related to synaptic plasticity, signaling and gene transcription, all of which determine drug-abuse; 33 genes have no known association with addiction or nicotine. In Lewis rats, upregulation of Mint-1, Cask, CamkIIδ, Ncam1, Vsnl1, Hpcal1 and Car8 indicates these transcripts likely contribute to altered signaling and synaptic function in NAcc GABA projection neurons to VP. PMID:21745336

  4. Gender Bias: Inequities in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Reeve

    1993-01-01

    This article explores sex bias in curricular materials for elementary and secondary schools. Sex bias is defined as a set of unconscious behaviors that, in themselves, are often trivial and generally favorable. Although these behaviors do not hurt if they happen only once, they can cause a great deal of harm if a pattern develops that serves to…

  5. Genetic effect of monoamine oxidase B (MAOB gene on ASD associated behavior phenotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Verma

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorder (ASD is a male predominance, behaviorally defined neurodevelopmental disorder which is characterized by impairment in social communication and restricted and repetitive activities. Abnormalities in serotoninergic function play a major role in ASD pathophysiology. Monoamine oxidases, encoded by two X-chromosomal genes MAOA and MAOB regulate the serotonergic function by the degradation of serotonin and other biological amines. Therefore, the objective of present study is to investigate genetic correlation of MAOB markers with the severity of specific behavioral traits as scored by Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS has been examined as quantitative trait (QT analysis using IBM-SPSS program. A total of 225 ASD patients (190 male and 35 female were recruited after psychometric evaluation done by DSM-IV-TR/DSM-5 criteria and assessment by CARS. Genotyping carried by PCR/RFLP/sequencing methods, and population were found in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The outcome of the QT analysis indicating the increased score in overall CARS were associated with G and C allele of MAOB marker rs3027449 (p-value: 0.03 and rs1040399 (p-value: 0.01, respectively in male ASD children. In addition to this, major alleles of studied polymorphisms of gene were found to be statistically associated with the higher impairment in social communication domain only in male ASD children. Overall outcome of the study suggests likely involvement of MAOB with ASD in a gender-specific manner with the severity in behavior phenotypes. Considering the cumulative impact of these markers in regulating the severity of the behavioral symptoms of ASD, it is likely that MAOB gene is associated with the disorder.

  6. Natural biased coin encoded in the genome determines cell strategy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faezeh Dorri

    Full Text Available Decision making at a cellular level determines different fates for isogenic cells. However, it is not yet clear how rational decisions are encoded in the genome, how they are transmitted to their offspring, and whether they evolve and become optimized throughout generations. In this paper, we use a game theoretic approach to explain how rational decisions are made in the presence of cooperators and competitors. Our results suggest the existence of an internal switch that operates as a biased coin. The biased coin is, in fact, a biochemical bistable network of interacting genes that can flip to one of its stable states in response to different environmental stimuli. We present a framework to describe how the positions of attractors in such a gene regulatory network correspond to the behavior of a rational player in a competing environment. We evaluate our model by considering lysis/lysogeny decision making of bacteriophage lambda in E. coli.

  7. Consistent Differential Expression Pattern (CDEP) on microarray to identify genes related to metastatic behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoi, Lam C; Qin, Tingting; Slate, Elizabeth H; Zheng, W Jim

    2011-11-11

    To utilize the large volume of gene expression information generated from different microarray experiments, several meta-analysis techniques have been developed. Despite these efforts, there remain significant challenges to effectively increasing the statistical power and decreasing the Type I error rate while pooling the heterogeneous datasets from public resources. The objective of this study is to develop a novel meta-analysis approach, Consistent Differential Expression Pattern (CDEP), to identify genes with common differential expression patterns across different datasets. We combined False Discovery Rate (FDR) estimation and the non-parametric RankProd approach to estimate the Type I error rate in each microarray dataset of the meta-analysis. These Type I error rates from all datasets were then used to identify genes with common differential expression patterns. Our simulation study showed that CDEP achieved higher statistical power and maintained low Type I error rate when compared with two recently proposed meta-analysis approaches. We applied CDEP to analyze microarray data from different laboratories that compared transcription profiles between metastatic and primary cancer of different types. Many genes identified as differentially expressed consistently across different cancer types are in pathways related to metastatic behavior, such as ECM-receptor interaction, focal adhesion, and blood vessel development. We also identified novel genes such as AMIGO2, Gem, and CXCL11 that have not been shown to associate with, but may play roles in, metastasis. CDEP is a flexible approach that borrows information from each dataset in a meta-analysis in order to identify genes being differentially expressed consistently. We have shown that CDEP can gain higher statistical power than other existing approaches under a variety of settings considered in the simulation study, suggesting its robustness and insensitivity to data variation commonly associated with microarray

  8. Testing candidate genes for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in fruit flies using a high throughput assay for complex behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, Palle Duun; Madsen, Lisbeth Strøm; Arvidson, Sandra Marie Neumann

    2016-01-01

    Fruit flies are important model organisms for functional testing of candidate genes in multiple disciplines, including the study of human diseases. Here we use a high-throughput locomotor activity assay to test the response on activity behavior of gene disruption in Drosophila melanogaster. The aim...

  9. Mice lacking the kf-1 gene exhibit increased anxiety- but not despair-like behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Tsujimura

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available KF-1 was originally identified as a protein encoded by human gene with increased expression in the cerebral cortex of a patient with Alzheimer’s disease. In mouse brain, kf-1 mRNA is detected predominantly in the hippocampus and cerebellum, and kf-1 gene expression is elevated also in the frontal cortex of rats after chronic antidepressant treatments. KF-1 mediates E2-dependent ubiquitination and may modulate cellular protein levels as an E3 ubiquitin ligase, though its target proteins are not yet identified. To elucidate the role of kf-1 in the central nervous system, we generated kf-1 knockout mice by gene targeting, using Cre-lox recombination. The resulting kf-1−/− mice were normal and healthy in appearance. Behavioral analyses revealed that kf-1−/− mice showed significantly increased anxiety-like behavior compared with kf-1+/+ littermates in the light/dark transition and elevated plus maze tests; however, no significant differences were observed in exploratory locomotion using the open field test or in behavioral despair using the forced swim and tail suspension tests. These observations suggest that KF-1 suppresses selectively anxiety under physiological conditions probably through modulating protein levels of its unknown target(s. Interestingly, kf-1−/− mice exhibited significantly increased prepulse inhibition, which is usually reduced in human schizophrenic patients. Thus, the kf-1−/− mice provide a novel animal model for elucidating molecular mechanisms of psychiatric diseases such as anxiety/depression, and may be useful for screening novel anxiolytic/antidepressant compounds.

  10. Humans as Superorganisms: How Microbes, Viruses, Imprinted Genes, and Other Selfish Entities Shape Our Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Peter; Bressan, Paola

    2015-07-01

    Psychologists and psychiatrists tend to be little aware that (a) microbes in our brains and guts are capable of altering our behavior; (b) viral DNA that was incorporated into our DNA millions of years ago is implicated in mental disorders; (c) many of us carry the cells of another human in our brains; and (d) under the regulation of viruslike elements, the paternally inherited and maternally inherited copies of some genes compete for domination in the offspring, on whom they have opposite physical and behavioral effects. This article provides a broad overview, aimed at a wide readership, of the consequences of our coexistence with these selfish entities. The overarching message is that we are not unitary individuals but superorganisms, built out of both human and nonhuman elements; it is their interaction that determines who we are. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Interaction of neonatal irradiation and single-genes upon growth and behavior in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nash, D.J.

    1977-01-01

    Postnatal growth and behavior following neonatal irradiation were studied in congenic strains of mice. Mice were genetically similar except for single-gene substitutions at either the steel or dominant spotting loci. Adult behavior was measured by locomotion and elimination in the open field and by spontaneous activity in exercise wheels. In general, neonatal irradiation caused a decrease in body weight, activity in exercise wheels, and elimination in the open field, but an increase in locomotion in the open field. Significant differences due to genotype and sex were observed for locomotion and body weight. Differential responses of the genotypes to neonatal irradiation were observed in body weight and in activity in exercise wheels. The genotypes, in order of increasing sensitivity, were +/+, Wsup(a)/+, and Slsup(gb)/+. (author)

  12. The Oxytocin Receptor Gene (OXTR) and gazing behavior during social interaction: An observational study in young adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, M.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Roekel, G.H. van

    2014-01-01

    Background: In the present study, the relation between a polymorphic marker within the OXTR gene (rs53576) and gazing behavior during two separate social interaction tasks was examined. Gazing behavior was considered to be an integral part of belonging regulation processes. Methods: We conducted an

  13. Bias Within

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marla B. Hall

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer mortality has affected African American women at a disproportionate rate. The purpose of this research was to assess how health professionals’ cultural competence contributes to African American women’s barriers to and receipt of mammograms. Sixty-one African American women residing in Harris County, Texas, shared their views within a series of focus groups. Theoretical propositions from the PEN-3 model were used to understand mammography adherence at the interpersonal level. Participants noted various perceived factors associated with mammography incompliance. Lack of professionalism of clinicians and clerical staff contributed to a decrease in health care services utilization. In addition, cultural insensitivity and discriminatory behavior enabled an attitude of medical mistrust. Improving patient–provider communication, through culturally appropriate centered educational efforts, is a beneficial strategy for breast health programs among underserved populations.

  14. Food-Anticipatory Behavior in Neonatal Rabbits and Rodents: An Update on the Role of Clock Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Caba

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In mammals, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN, the master circadian clock, is mainly synchronized to the environmental light/dark cycle. SCN oscillations are maintained by a molecular clockwork in which certain genes, Period 1–2, Cry1–2, Bmal1, and Clock, are rhythmically expressed. Disruption of these genes leads to a malfunctioning clockwork and behavioral and physiological rhythms are altered. In addition to synchronization of circadian rhythms by light, when subjects are exposed to food for a few hours daily, behavioral and physiological rhythms are entrained to anticipate mealtime, even in the absence of the SCN. The presence of anticipatory rhythms synchronized by food suggests the existence of an SCN-independent circadian pacemaker that might be dependent on clock genes. Interestingly, rabbit pups, unable to perceive light, suckle milk once a day, which entrains behavioral rhythms to anticipate nursing time. Mutations of clock genes, singly or in combination, affect diverse rhythms in brain activity and physiological processes, but anticipatory behavior and physiology to feeding time remains attenuated or unaffected. It had been suggested that compensatory upregulation of paralogs or subtypes genes, or even non-transcriptional mechanisms, are able to maintain circadian oscillations entrained to mealtime. In the present mini-review, we evaluate the current state of the role played by clock genes in meal anticipation and provide evidence for rabbit pups as a natural model of food-anticipatory circadian behavior.

  15. Bias against research on gender bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cislak, Aleksandra; Formanowicz, Magdalena; Saguy, Tamar

    2018-01-01

    The bias against women in academia is a documented phenomenon that has had detrimental consequences, not only for women, but also for the quality of science. First, gender bias in academia affects female scientists, resulting in their underrepresentation in academic institutions, particularly in higher ranks. The second type of gender bias in science relates to some findings applying only to male participants, which produces biased knowledge. Here, we identify a third potentially powerful source of gender bias in academia: the bias against research on gender bias. In a bibliometric investigation covering a broad range of social sciences, we analyzed published articles on gender bias and race bias and established that articles on gender bias are funded less often and published in journals with a lower Impact Factor than articles on comparable instances of social discrimination. This result suggests the possibility of an underappreciation of the phenomenon of gender bias and related research within the academic community. Addressing this meta-bias is crucial for the further examination of gender inequality, which severely affects many women across the world.

  16. Codon usage bias analysis for the coding sequences of Camellia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sunny t

    2016-02-24

    Feb 24, 2016 ... suggested that codon usage bias is driven by selection, particularly for .... For example, as mentioned above, highly expressed genes tend to use fewer ... directional codon bias measure effective number of codons (ENc) was ...

  17. Comparative Genomic Hybridization (CGH) reveals a neo-X chromosome and biased gene movement in stalk-eyed flies (genus Teleopsis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Richard H; Wilkinson, Gerald S

    2010-09-16

    Chromosomal location has a significant effect on the evolutionary dynamics of genes involved in sexual dimorphism, impacting both the pattern of sex-specific gene expression and the rate of duplication and protein evolution for these genes. For nearly all non-model organisms, however, knowledge of chromosomal gene content is minimal and difficult to obtain on a genomic scale. In this study, we utilized Comparative Genomic Hybridization (CGH), using probes designed from EST sequence, to identify genes located on the X chromosome of four species in the stalk-eyed fly genus Teleopsis. Analysis of log(2) ratio values of female-to-male hybridization intensities from the CGH microarrays for over 3,400 genes reveals a strongly bimodal distribution that clearly differentiates autosomal from X-linked genes for all four species. Genotyping of 33 and linkage mapping of 28 of these genes in Teleopsis dalmanni indicate the CGH results correctly identified chromosomal location in all cases. Syntenic comparison with Drosophila indicates that 90% of the X-linked genes in Teleopsis are homologous to genes located on chromosome 2L in Drosophila melanogaster, suggesting the formation of a nearly complete neo-X chromosome from Muller element B in the dipteran lineage leading to Teleopsis. Analysis of gene movement both relative to Drosophila and within Teleopsis indicates that gene movement is significantly associated with 1) rates of protein evolution, 2) the pattern of gene duplication, and 3) the evolution of eyespan sexual dimorphism. Overall, this study reveals that diopsids are a critical group for understanding the evolution of sex chromosomes within Diptera. In addition, we demonstrate that CGH is a useful technique for identifying chromosomal sex-linkage and should be applicable to other organisms with EST or partial genomic information.

  18. Comparative Genomic Hybridization (CGH reveals a neo-X chromosome and biased gene movement in stalk-eyed flies (genus Teleopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard H Baker

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Chromosomal location has a significant effect on the evolutionary dynamics of genes involved in sexual dimorphism, impacting both the pattern of sex-specific gene expression and the rate of duplication and protein evolution for these genes. For nearly all non-model organisms, however, knowledge of chromosomal gene content is minimal and difficult to obtain on a genomic scale. In this study, we utilized Comparative Genomic Hybridization (CGH, using probes designed from EST sequence, to identify genes located on the X chromosome of four species in the stalk-eyed fly genus Teleopsis. Analysis of log(2 ratio values of female-to-male hybridization intensities from the CGH microarrays for over 3,400 genes reveals a strongly bimodal distribution that clearly differentiates autosomal from X-linked genes for all four species. Genotyping of 33 and linkage mapping of 28 of these genes in Teleopsis dalmanni indicate the CGH results correctly identified chromosomal location in all cases. Syntenic comparison with Drosophila indicates that 90% of the X-linked genes in Teleopsis are homologous to genes located on chromosome 2L in Drosophila melanogaster, suggesting the formation of a nearly complete neo-X chromosome from Muller element B in the dipteran lineage leading to Teleopsis. Analysis of gene movement both relative to Drosophila and within Teleopsis indicates that gene movement is significantly associated with 1 rates of protein evolution, 2 the pattern of gene duplication, and 3 the evolution of eyespan sexual dimorphism. Overall, this study reveals that diopsids are a critical group for understanding the evolution of sex chromosomes within Diptera. In addition, we demonstrate that CGH is a useful technique for identifying chromosomal sex-linkage and should be applicable to other organisms with EST or partial genomic information.

  19. Multidrug resistance 1 gene polymorphisms may determine Crohn's disease behavior in patients from Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Teresa P. Carvalho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Conflicting data from studies on the potential role of multidrug resistance 1 gene polymorphisms in inflammatory bowel disease may result from the analysis of genetically and geographically distinct populations. Here, we investigated whether multidrug resistance 1 gene polymorphisms are associated with inflammatory bowel diseases in patients from Rio de Janeiro. METHODS: We analyzed 123 Crohn's disease patients and 83 ulcerative colitis patients to determine the presence of the multidrug resistance 1 gene polymorphisms C1236T, G2677T and C3435T. In particular, the genotype frequencies of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis patients were analyzed. Genotype-phenotype associations with major clinical characteristics were established, and estimated risks were calculated for the mutations. RESULTS: No significant difference was observed in the genotype frequencies of the multidrug resistance 1 G2677T/A and C3435T polymorphisms between Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis patients. In contrast, the C1236T polymorphism was significantly more common in Crohn's disease than in ulcerative colitis (p = 0.047. A significant association was also found between the multidrug resistance 1 C3435T polymorphism and the stricturing form of Crohn's disease (OR: 4.13; p = 0.009, whereas no association was found with penetrating behavior (OR: 0.33; p = 0.094. In Crohn's disease, a positive association was also found between the C3435T polymorphism and corticosteroid resistance/refractoriness (OR: 4.14; p = 0.010. However, no significant association was found between multidrug resistance 1 gene polymorphisms and UC subphenotypic categories. CONCLUSION: The multidrug resistance 1 gene polymorphism C3435T is associated with the stricturing phenotype and an inappropriate response to therapy in Crohn's disease. This association with Crohn's disease may support additional pathogenic roles for the multidrug resistance 1 gene in regulating gut

  20. A part of patients with autism spectrum disorder has haploidy of HPC-1/syntaxin1A gene that possibly causes behavioral disturbance as in experimentally gene ablated mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofuji, Takefumi; Hayashi, Yuko; Fujiwara, Tomonori; Sanada, Masumi; Tamaru, Masao; Akagawa, Kimio

    2017-03-22

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is highly heritable and encompasses a various set of neuropsychiatric disorders with a wide-ranging presentation. HPC-1/syntaxin1A (STX1A) encodes a neuronal plasma membrane protein that regulates the secretion of neurotransmitters and neuromodulators. STX1A gene ablated mice (null and heterozygote mutant) exhibit abnormal behavioral profiles similar to human autistic symptoms, accompanied by reduction of monoamine secretion. To determine whether copy number variation of STX1A gene and the change of its expression correlate with ASD as in STX1A gene ablated mice, we performed copy number assay and real-time quantitative RT-PCR using blood or saliva samples from ASD patients. We found that some ASD patients were haploid for the STX1A gene similar to STX1A heterozygote mutant mice. However, copy number of STX1A gene was normal in the parents and siblings of ASD patients with STX1A gene haploidy. In ASD patients with gene haploidy, STX1A mRNA expression was reduced to about half of their parents. Thus, a part of ASD patients had haploidy of STX1A gene and lower STX1A gene expression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Gene environment interaction studies in depression and suicidal behavior: An update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandelli, Laura; Serretti, Alessandro

    2013-12-01

    Increasing evidence supports the involvement of both heritable and environmental risk factors in major depression (MD) and suicidal behavior (SB). Studies investigating gene-environment interaction (G × E) may be useful for elucidating the role of biological mechanisms in the risk for mental disorders. In the present paper, we review the literature regarding the interaction between genes modulating brain functions and stressful life events in the etiology of MD and SB and discuss their potential added benefit compared to genetic studies only. Within the context of G × E investigation, thus far, only a few reliable results have been obtained, although some genes have consistently shown interactive effects with environmental risk in MD and, to a lesser extent, in SB. Further investigation is required to disentangle the direct and mediated effects that are common or specific to MD and SB. Since traditional G × E studies overall suffer from important methodological limitations, further effort is required to develop novel methodological strategies with an interdisciplinary approach. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The endocannabinoid gene faah2a modulates stress-associated behavior in zebrafish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randall G Krug

    Full Text Available The ability to orchestrate appropriate physiological and behavioral responses to stress is important for survival, and is often dysfunctional in neuropsychiatric disorders that account for leading causes of global disability burden. Numerous studies have shown that the endocannabinoid neurotransmitter system is able to regulate stress responses and could serve as a therapeutic target for the management of these disorders. We used quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reactions to show that genes encoding enzymes that synthesize (abhd4, gde1, napepld, enzymes that degrade (faah, faah2a, faah2b, and receptors that bind (cnr1, cnr2, gpr55-like endocannabinoids are expressed in zebrafish (Danio rerio. These genes are conserved in many other vertebrates, including humans, but fatty acid amide hydrolase 2 has been lost in mice and rats. We engineered transcription activator-like effector nucleases to create zebrafish with mutations in cnr1 and faah2a to test the role of these genes in modulating stress-associated behavior. We showed that disruption of cnr1 potentiated locomotor responses to hyperosmotic stress. The increased response to stress was consistent with rodent literature and served to validate the use of zebrafish in this field. Moreover, we showed for the first time that disruption of faah2a attenuated the locomotor responses to hyperosmotic stress. This later finding suggests that FAAH2 may be an important mediator of stress responses in non-rodent vertebrates. Accordingly, FAAH and FAAH2 modulators could provide distinct therapeutic options for stress-aggravated disorders.

  3. Transcript profiling of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. using the GeneChip® Soybean Genome Array: optimizing analysis by masking biased probes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gronwald John W

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and soybean (Glycine max both belong to the Phaseoleae tribe and share significant coding sequence homology. This suggests that the GeneChip® Soybean Genome Array (soybean GeneChip may be used for gene expression studies using common bean. Results To evaluate the utility of the soybean GeneChip for transcript profiling of common bean, we hybridized cRNAs purified from nodule, leaf, and root of common bean and soybean in triplicate to the soybean GeneChip. Initial data analysis showed a decreased sensitivity and accuracy of measuring differential gene expression in common bean cross-species hybridization (CSH GeneChip data compared to that of soybean. We employed a method that masked putative probes targeting inter-species variable (ISV regions between common bean and soybean. A masking signal intensity threshold was selected that optimized both sensitivity and accuracy of measuring differential gene expression. After masking for ISV regions, the number of differentially-expressed genes identified in common bean was increased by 2.8-fold reflecting increased sensitivity. Quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR analysis of 20 randomly selected genes and purine-ureide pathway genes demonstrated an increased accuracy of measuring differential gene expression after masking for ISV regions. We also evaluated masked probe frequency per probe set to gain insight into the sequence divergence pattern between common bean and soybean. The sequence divergence pattern analysis suggested that the genes for basic cellular functions and metabolism were highly conserved between soybean and common bean. Additionally, our results show that some classes of genes, particularly those associated with environmental adaptation, are highly divergent. Conclusions The soybean GeneChip is a suitable cross-species platform for transcript profiling in common bean when used in combination with the masking protocol described. In

  4. Chronic low-dose γ-irradiation of Drosophila melanogaster larvae induces gene expression changes and enhances locomotive behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Cha Soon; Lee, Byung Sub; Lee, In Kyung; Yang, Kwang Hee; Kim, Ji-Young; Nam, Seon Young; Seong, Ki Moon

    2015-01-01

    Although radiation effects have been extensively studied, the biological effects of low-dose radiation (LDR) are controversial. This study investigates LDR-induced alterations in locomotive behavior and gene expression profiles of Drosophila melanogaster. We measured locomotive behavior using larval pupation height and the rapid iterative negative geotaxis (RING) assay after exposure to 0.1 Gy γ-radiation (dose rate of 16.7 mGy/h). We also observed chronic LDR effects on development (pupation and eclosion rates) and longevity (life span). To identify chronic LDR effects on gene expression, we performed whole-genome expression analysis using gene-expression microarrays, and confirmed the results using quantitative real-time PCR. The pupation height of the LDR-treated group at the first larval instar was significantly higher (∼2-fold increase in PHI value, P < 0.05). The locomotive behavior of LDR-treated male flies (∼3 − 5 weeks of age) was significantly increased by 7.7%, 29% and 138%, respectively (P < 0.01), but pupation and eclosion rates and life spans were not significantly altered. Genome-wide expression analysis identified 344 genes that were differentially expressed in irradiated larvae compared with in control larvae. We identified several genes belonging to larval behavior functional groups such as locomotion (1.1%), oxidation reduction (8.0%), and genes involved in conventional functional groups modulated by irradiation such as defense response (4.9%), and sensory and perception (2.5%). Four candidate genes were confirmed as differentially expressed genes in irradiated larvae using qRT-PCR (>2-fold change). These data suggest that LDR stimulates locomotion-related genes, and these genes can be used as potential markers for LDR. (author)

  5. Perception bias in route choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreeswijk, Jacob Dirk; Thomas, Tom; van Berkum, Eric C.; van Arem, Bart

    2014-01-01

    Travel time is probably one of the most studied attributes in route choice. Recently, perception of travel time received more attention as several studies have shown its importance in explaining route choice behavior. In particular, travel time estimates by travelers appear to be biased against

  6. Childhood problem behavior and parental divorce: evidence for gene-environment interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbers, Sylvana; van Oort, Floor; Huizink, Anja; Verhulst, Frank; van Beijsterveldt, Catharina; Boomsma, Dorret; Bartels, Meike

    2012-10-01

    The importance of genetic and environmental influences on children's behavioral and emotional problems may vary as a function of environmental exposure. We previously reported that 12-year-olds with divorced parents showed more internalizing and externalizing problems than children with married parents, and that externalizing problems in girls precede and predict later parental divorce. The aim of the current study was to investigate as to whether genetic and environmental influences on internalizing and externalizing problems were different for children from divorced versus non-divorced families. Maternal ratings on internalizing and externalizing problems were collected with the Child Behavior Checklist in 4,592 twin pairs at ages 3 and 12 years, of whom 367 pairs had experienced a parental divorce between these ages. Variance in internalizing and externalizing problems at ages 3 and 12 was analyzed with biometric models in which additive genetic and environmental effects were allowed to depend on parental divorce and sex. A difference in the contribution of genetic and environmental influences between divorced and non-divorced groups would constitute evidence for gene-environment interaction. For both pre- and post-divorce internalizing and externalizing problems, the total variances were larger for children from divorced families, which was mainly due to higher environmental variances. As a consequence, heritabilities were lower for children from divorced families, and the relative contributions of environmental influences were higher. Environmental influences become more important in explaining variation in children's problem behaviors in the context of parental divorce.

  7. Differential effects of social isolation in adolescent and adult mice on behavior and cortical gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lander, Sharon S; Linder-Shacham, Donna; Gaisler-Salomon, Inna

    2017-01-01

    Intact function of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) function relies on proper development of excitatory and inhibitory neuronal populations and on integral myelination processes. Social isolation (SI) affects behavior and brain circuitry in adulthood, but previous rodent studies typically induced prolonged (post-weaning) exposure and failed to directly compare between the effects of SI in adolescent and adulthood. Here, we assessed the impact of a 3-week SI period, starting in mid-adolescence (around the onset of puberty) or adulthood, on a wide range of behaviors in adult male mice. Additionally, we asked whether adolescent SI would differentially affect the expression of excitatory and inhibitory neuronal markers and myelin-related genes in mPFC. Our findings indicate that mid-adolescent or adult SI increase anxiogenic behavior and locomotor activity. However, SI in adolescence uniquely affects the response to the psychotomimetic drug amphetamine, social and novelty exploration and performance in reversal and attentional set shifting tasks. Furthermore, adolescent but not adult SI increased the expression of glutamate markers in the adult mPFC. Our results imply that adolescent social deprivation is detrimental for normal development and may be particularly relevant to the investigation of developmental psychopathology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Retrieval of a million high-quality, full-length microbial 16S and 18S rRNA gene sequences without primer bias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karst, Søren Michael; Dueholm, Morten Simonsen; McIlroy, Simon Jon

    2018-01-01

    Small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) genes, 16S in bacteria and 18S in eukaryotes, have been the standard phylogenetic markers used to characterize microbial diversity and evolution for decades. However, the reference databases of full-length SSU rRNA gene sequences are skewed to well-studied e...

  9. Circadian Rhythms and Clock Genes in Reproduction: Insights From Behavior and the Female Rabbit’s Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Caba

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Clock gene oscillations are necessary for a successful pregnancy and parturition, but little is known about their function during lactation, a period demanding from the mother multiple physiological and behavioral adaptations to fulfill the requirements of the offspring. First, we will focus on circadian rhythms and clock genes in reproductive tissues mainly in rodents. Disruption of circadian rhythms or proper rhythmic oscillations of clock genes provoke reproductive problems, as found in clock gene knockout mice. Then, we will focus mainly on the rabbit doe as this mammal nurses the young just once a day with circadian periodicity. This daily event synchronizes the behavior and the activity of specific brain regions critical for reproductive neuroendocrinology and maternal behavior, like the preoptic area. This region shows strong rhythms of the PER1 protein (product of the Per1 clock gene associated with circadian nursing. Additionally, neuroendocrine cells related to milk production and ejections are also synchronized to daily nursing. A threshold of suckling is necessary to entrain once a day nursing; this process is independent of milk output as even virgin does (behaving maternally following anosmia can display circadian nursing behavior. A timing motivational mechanism may regulate such behavior as mesolimbic dopaminergic cells are entrained by daily nursing. Finally, we will explore about the clinical importance of circadian rhythms. Indeed, women in chronic shift-work schedules show problems in their menstrual cycles and pregnancies and also have a high risk of preterm delivery, making this an important field of translational research.

  10. Dopamine D2 receptor gene polymorphisms and externalizing behaviors in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Torre, Osmar Henrique; Paes, Lúcia Arisaka; Henriques, Taciane Barbosa; de Mello, Maricilda Palandi; Celeri, Eloisa Helena Rubello Valler; Dalgalarrondo, Paulo; Guerra-Júnior, Gil; Santos-Júnior, Amilton Dos

    2018-05-02

    Dopamine is involved in several cerebral physiological processes, and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in the dopamine D2 receptor gene (DRD2) have been associated with numerous neurological and mental disorders, including those involving alterations in cognitive and emotional processes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between the SNPs c.957C > T (rs6277) and c.-585A > G (rs1799978) in the DRD2 gene and behavioral characteristics of children and adolescents based on an inventory of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Children and adolescents between 8 and 20 years old who were clinically followed-up were genotyped for the SNPs c.957C > T and c.-585A > G, and related to data of the CBCL/6-18 scale assessment performed with the help of caregivers. The chi-squared test was used to assess the differences in the frequencies of the C and T alleles in the polymorphism c.957C > T and of the A and G alleles in the polymorphism c.-585A > G with respect to the grouped CBCL scores at a significance level of 5%. Multiple logistic regression models were performed, to control whether sex and/or ethnicity could influence the results. Eighty-five patients were assessed overall, and the presence of the T allele (C/T and T/T) of DRD2 c.957C > T polymorphism was found to be significantly associated with the occurrence of defiant and oppositional problems and with attention and hyperactivity problems. There were no associations detected with polymorphism DRD2 c.-585A > G polymorphism. Both SNPs were in Hardy-Weinberg-equilibrium. Although the findings of this study are preliminary, due to its small number of participants, the presence of T allele (C/T, T/T) in c.957C > T SNP was associated with difficulty in impulse control, self-control of emotions, and conduct adjustment, which can contribute to improving the identification of mental and behavioral phenotypes associated with gene expression.

  11. Glucocorticoid receptor gene inactivation in dopamine-innervated areas selectively decreases behavioral responses to amphetamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnaudeau, Sébastien; Dongelmans, Marie-louise; Turiault, Marc; Ambroggi, Frédéric; Delbes, Anne-Sophie; Cansell, Céline; Luquet, Serge; Piazza, Pier-Vincenzo; Tronche, François; Barik, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    The meso-cortico-limbic system, via dopamine release, encodes the rewarding and reinforcing properties of natural rewards. It is also activated in response to abused substances and is believed to support drug-related behaviors. Dysfunctions of this system lead to several psychiatric conditions including feeding disorders and drug addiction. These disorders are also largely influenced by environmental factors and in particular stress exposure. Stressors activate the corticotrope axis ultimately leading to glucocorticoid hormone (GCs) release. GCs bind the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) a transcription factor ubiquitously expressed including within the meso-cortico-limbic tract. While GR within dopamine-innervated areas drives cocaine's behavioral responses, its implication in responses to other psychostimulants such as amphetamine has never been clearly established. Moreover, while extensive work has been made to uncover the role of this receptor in addicted behaviors, its contribution to the rewarding and reinforcing properties of food has yet to be investigated. Using mouse models carrying GR gene inactivation in either dopamine neurons or in dopamine-innervated areas, we found that GR in dopamine responsive neurons is essential to properly build amphetamine-induced conditioned place preference and locomotor sensitization. c-Fos quantification in the nucleus accumbens further confirmed defective neuronal activation following amphetamine injection. These diminished neuronal and behavioral responses to amphetamine may involve alterations in glutamate transmission as suggested by the decreased MK801-elicited hyperlocomotion and by the hyporeactivity to glutamate of a subpopulation of medium spiny neurons. In contrast, GR inactivation did not affect rewarding and reinforcing properties of food suggesting that responding for natural reward under basal conditions is preserved in these mice. PMID:24574986

  12. Glucocorticoid receptor gene inactivation in dopamine-innervated areas selectively decreases behavioral responses to amphetamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastien eParnaudeau

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The meso-cortico-limbic system, via dopamine release, encodes the rewarding and reinforcing properties of natural rewards. It is also activated in response to abused substances and is believed to support drug-related behaviors. Dysfunctions of this system lead to several psychiatric conditions including feeding disorders and drug addiction. These disorders are also largely influenced by environmental factors and in particular stress exposure. Stressors activate the corticotrope axis ultimately leading to glucocorticoid hormone (GCs release. GCs bind the glucocorticoid receptor (GR a transcription factor ubiquitously expressed including within the meso-cortico-limbic tract. While the GR within dopamine-innervated areas drives cocaine’s behavioral responses, its implication in responses to other psychostimulants such as amphetamine has never been clearly established. Moreover, while extensive work has been made to uncover the role of this receptor in addicted behaviors, its contribution to the rewarding and reinforcing properties of food has yet to be investigated. Using mouse models carrying GR gene inactivation in either dopamine neurons or in dopamine-innervated areas, we found that GR in dopamine responsive neurones is essential to properly build amphetamine-induced conditioned place preference and locomotor sensitization. c-Fos quantification in the nucleus accumbens further confirmed defective neuronal activation following amphetamine injection. These diminished neuronal and behavioral responses to amphetamine may involve alterations in glutamate transmission as suggested by the decreased MK801-elicited hyperlocomotion and by the hyporeactivity to glutamate of a subpopulation of medium spiny neurons. In contrast, GR inactivation did not affect rewarding and reinforcing properties of food suggesting that responding for natural reward under basal conditions is preserved in these mice.

  13. The Impact of Oxytocin Gene Knockout on Sexual Behavior and Gene Expression Related to Neuroendocrine Systems in the Brain of Female Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann-Peruzatto, Josi Maria; Lazzari, Virgínia Meneghini; Agnes, Grasiela; Becker, Roberta Oriques; de Moura, Ana Carolina; Guedes, Renata Padilha; Lucion, Aldo Bolten; Almeida, Silvana; Giovenardi, Márcia

    2017-07-01

    Social relations are built and maintained from the interaction among individuals. The oxytocin (OT), vasopressin (VP), estrogen, dopamine, and their receptors are involved in the modulation of sexual behavior in females. This study aimed to analyze the impact of OT gene knockout (OTKO) on sexual behavior and the gene expression of oxytocin (OTR), estrogen alpha (ERα), estrogen beta (ERβ), vasopressin (V 1a R), and dopamine (D 2 R) receptors in the olfactory bulb (OB), prefrontal cortex (PFC), hippocampus (HPC), and hypothalamus (HPT), as well as in the synthesis of VP in the HPT of female mice. Wild-type (WT) littermates were used for comparisons. The C DNAs were synthesized by polymerase chain reaction and the gene expression was calculated with the 2 -ΔΔCt formula. Our results showed that the absence of OT caused an increase in the frequency and duration of non-receptive postures and a decrease in receptive postures in the OTKO. OTKO females showed a significant decrease in the gene expression of OTR in the HPC, V 1a R in the HPT, and ERα and ERβ in the PFC. There was no significant difference in the gene expression of D 2 R of OTKO. However, OTKO showed an increased gene expression of V 1a R in the HPC. There is no significant difference in VP mRNA synthesis in the HPT between OTKO and WT. Our findings demonstrate that the absence of OT leads to significant changes in the expression of the studied genes (OTR, ERα, ERβ, V 1a R), and these changes may contribute to the decreased sexual behavior observed in OTKO females.

  14. [Effects of aquaporin-4 gene knockout on behavior changes and cerebral morphology during aging in mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Shengan; Lu, Yunbi; Zhang, Weiping

    2013-05-01

    To investigate the effects of aquaporin-4 (AQP4) gene knockout on the behavior changes and cerebral morphology during aging in mice,and to compare that of young and aged mice between AQP4 knockout mice (AQP4(-/-)) and wild type mice (AQP4(+/+)). Fifty-eight CD-1 mice were divided into four groups: young (2-3 months old) AQP4(-/-), aged (17-19 months old) AQP4(-/-), young AQP4(+/+) and aged AQP4(+/+). The activity levels and exploring behavior of mice were tested in open field. The neurons were stained with toluidine blue and NeuN, the astrocytes and microglia were stained with GFAP and Iba-1, respectively. The morphological changes of neuron, astrocyte and microglia were then analyzed. Compared with young mice, the total walking distance in open field of aged AQP4(+/+) mice and aged AQP4(-/-) mice decreased 41.2% and 44.1%, respectively (Ptime in the central area of open field. The density of neuron in cortex of aged AQP4(+/+) mice and aged AQP4(-/-) mice decreased 19.6% and 15.8%, respectively (P<0.05), while there was no difference in the thickness of neuron cell body in hippocampus CA1 region. The density of astrocyte in hippocampus CA3 region of aged AQP4(+/+) mice and aged AQP4(-/-) mice increased 57.7% and 64.3%, respectively (P<0.001), while there was no difference in the area of astrocyte. The area of microglia in hippocampus CA3 region of aged AQP4(+/+) mice and aged AQP4(-/-) mice increased 46.9% and 52.0%, respectively (P<0.01), while there was no difference in the density of microglia. Compared with AQP4(+/+) mice, the young and aged AQP4(-/-) mice showed smaller area of astrocyte in hippocampus CA3 region, reduced 18.0% in young mice and 23.6% in aged mice. There was no difference between AQP4(+/+) mice and AQP4(-/-) mice for other observed indexes. AQP4 may be involved in change of astrocyte and astrocyte-related behaviors during aging. AQP4 gene knockout may have limited effects on the change of neuron, microglia and most neuronal behaviors in aging

  15. The gene-immune-behavioral pathway: Gamma-interferon (IFN-γ) simultaneously coordinates susceptibility to infectious disease and harm avoidance behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMurray, James; Comings, David E; Napolioni, Valerio

    2014-01-01

    Cytokine gene variants are known to influence both infectious disease susceptibility and harm-avoidant behaviors, suggesting that these risk variants may be pleiotropically linked to instinctual disease-avoidant traits. The gamma-interferon (IFNG) +874 T>A polymorphism (rs2430561) is an ideal candidate gene variant for immune-behavioral studies. It is a functional SNP, regulating IFNG mRNA expression; it is known to modulate serotonergic activity and is therefore capable of modifying behavior; and it has previously been associated with increased susceptibility to malaria, tuberculosis, leprosy and Chagas disease. We hypothesized that the infectious disease-high-risk IFNG +874 A-allele would be associated with four personality traits previously reported as behavioral defenses against infection: Harm Avoidance (HA), Extraversion (E), Exploratory Excitability (Exp E), and Openness to Experience (O). We tested this hypothesis in a sample of 168 healthy university students from Southern California genotyped for IFNG +874 T>A and evaluated by the Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised (TCI-R) and the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI). We found that the infectious disease-high-risk IFNG +874 A-allele was associated with increased HA (P=0.001) and decreased E (P=0.030) and Exp E (P=0.030). These findings suggest that the IFNG +874 A gene variant is linked both to infectious disease susceptibility and to proactive behavioral defenses that reduce infection risk in healthy subjects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Exchange bias behavior in Ni{sub 50.0}Mn{sub 35.5} In{sub 14.5} ribbons annealed at different temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, T. [Dept. de Fisica, Universidad de Oviedo, Calvo Sotelo s/n, 33007 Oviedo (Spain); Sato Turtelli, R.; Groessinger, R. [Institut fur Festkoerperphysik, Technische Universitaet Wien, Wiedner Hauptstr. 8-10, 1040 Vienna (Austria); Sanchez, M.L.; Santos, J.D.; Rosa, W.O.; Prida, V.M. [Dept. de Fisica, Universidad de Oviedo, Calvo Sotelo s/n, 33007 Oviedo (Spain); Escoda, Ll.; Sunol, J.J. [Campus de Montilivi, Universidad de Girona, edifici PII, Lluis Santalo s/n. 17003 Girona (Spain); Koledov, V. [Kotelnikov Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics, RAS, Moscow 125009 (Russian Federation); Hernando, B., E-mail: grande@uniovi.es [Dept. de Fisica, Universidad de Oviedo, Calvo Sotelo s/n, 33007 Oviedo (Spain)

    2012-10-15

    Heusler alloy Ni{sub 50.0}Mn{sub 35.5}In{sub 14.5} ribbons were prepared by melt-spinning technique. Several short time annealings were carried out in order to enhance the exchange bias effect in this alloy ribbon. The magnetic transition temperature increases with the annealing, compared to the as-spun sample, however no significant differences in respective Curie temperatures were observed for austenite and martensite phases in such annealed samples. Exchange bias effect is observed at low temperatures for all samples and practically vanishes at 60 K for the as-spun sample, whereas for the annealed ribbons it vanishes at 100 K.

  17. Hydrogen Permeation, and Mechanical and Tribological Behavior, of CrNx Coatings Deposited at Various Bias Voltages on IN718 by Direct Current Reactive Sputtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egor B. Kashkarov

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In the current work, the microstructure, hydrogen permeability, and properties of chromium nitride (CrNx thin films deposited on the Inconel 718 superalloy using direct current reactive sputtering are investigated. The influence of the substrate bias voltage on the crystal structure, mechanical, and tribological properties before and after hydrogen exposure was studied. It was found that increasing the substrate bias voltage leads to densification of the coating. X-ray diffraction (XRD results reveal a change from mixed fcc-CrN + hcp-Cr2N to the approximately stoichiometric hcp-Cr2N phase with increasing substrate bias confirmed by wavelength-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (WDS. The texture coefficients of (113, (110, and (111 planes vary significantly with increasing substrate bias voltage. The hydrogen permeability was measured by gas-phase hydrogenation. The CrN coating deposited at 60 V with mixed c-CrN and (113 textured hcp-Cr2N phases exhibits the lowest hydrogen absorption at 873 K. It is suggested that the crystal orientation is only one parameter influencing the permeation resistance of the CrNx coating together with the film structure, the presence of mixing phases, and the packing density of the structure. After hydrogenation, the hardness increased for all coatings, which could be related to the formation of a Cr2O3 oxide film on the surface, as well as the defect formation after hydrogen loading. Tribological tests reveal that hydrogenation leads to a decrease of the friction coefficient by up to 40%. The lowest value of 0.25 ± 0.02 was reached for the CrNx coating deposited at 60 V after hydrogenation.

  18. [Changes of biological behavioral of E. coli K1 after ppk1 gene deletion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Liang; Pan, Jiayun; Luo, Su; Yang, Zhenghui; Huang, Mufang; Cao, Hong

    2014-06-01

    To study the changes in biological behaviors of meningitis E. coli K1 strain E44 after deletion of polyphosphate kinase 1 (ppk1) gene and explore the role of ppk1 in the pathogenesis of E. coli K1-induced meningitis. The wild-type strain E. coli K1 and ppk1 deletion mutant were exposed to heat at 56 degrees celsius; for 6 min, and their survival rates were determined. The adhesion and invasion of the bacteria to human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMECs) were observed using electron microscopy and quantitative tests. HBMECs were co-incubated with wild-type strain or ppk1 deletion mutant, and the cytoskeleton rearrangement was observed under laser scanning confocal microscope. The survival rate of the ppk1 deletion mutant was significantly lower than that of the wild-type strain after heat exposure. The ppk1 deletion mutant also showed lowered cell adhesion and invasion abilities and weakened ability to induce cytoskeleton rearrangement in HBMECs. ppk1 gene is important for E.coli K1 for heat resistance, cell adhesion and invasion, and for inducing cytoskeletal rearrangement in HBMECs.

  19. Neurogenetics of developmental dyslexia: from genes to behavior through brain neuroimaging and cognitive and sensorial mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascheretti, S; De Luca, A; Trezzi, V; Peruzzo, D; Nordio, A; Marino, C; Arrigoni, F

    2017-01-01

    Developmental dyslexia (DD) is a complex neurodevelopmental deficit characterized by impaired reading acquisition, in spite of adequate neurological and sensorial conditions, educational opportunities and normal intelligence. Despite the successful characterization of DD-susceptibility genes, we are far from understanding the molecular etiological pathways underlying the development of reading (dis)ability. By focusing mainly on clinical phenotypes, the molecular genetics approach has yielded mixed results. More optimally reduced measures of functioning, that is, intermediate phenotypes (IPs), represent a target for researching disease-associated genetic variants and for elucidating the underlying mechanisms. Imaging data provide a viable IP for complex neurobehavioral disorders and have been extensively used to investigate both morphological, structural and functional brain abnormalities in DD. Performing joint genetic and neuroimaging studies in humans is an emerging strategy to link DD-candidate genes to the brain structure and function. A limited number of studies has already pursued the imaging–genetics integration in DD. However, the results are still not sufficient to unravel the complexity of the reading circuit due to heterogeneous study design and data processing. Here, we propose an interdisciplinary, multilevel, imaging–genetic approach to disentangle the pathways from genes to behavior. As the presence of putative functional genetic variants has been provided and as genetic associations with specific cognitive/sensorial mechanisms have been reported, new hypothesis-driven imaging–genetic studies must gain momentum. This approach would lead to the optimization of diagnostic criteria and to the early identification of ‘biologically at-risk’ children, supporting the definition of adequate and well-timed prevention strategies and the implementation of novel, specific remediation approach. PMID:28045463

  20. Neurogenetics of developmental dyslexia: from genes to behavior through brain neuroimaging and cognitive and sensorial mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascheretti, S; De Luca, A; Trezzi, V; Peruzzo, D; Nordio, A; Marino, C; Arrigoni, F

    2017-01-03

    Developmental dyslexia (DD) is a complex neurodevelopmental deficit characterized by impaired reading acquisition, in spite of adequate neurological and sensorial conditions, educational opportunities and normal intelligence. Despite the successful characterization of DD-susceptibility genes, we are far from understanding the molecular etiological pathways underlying the development of reading (dis)ability. By focusing mainly on clinical phenotypes, the molecular genetics approach has yielded mixed results. More optimally reduced measures of functioning, that is, intermediate phenotypes (IPs), represent a target for researching disease-associated genetic variants and for elucidating the underlying mechanisms. Imaging data provide a viable IP for complex neurobehavioral disorders and have been extensively used to investigate both morphological, structural and functional brain abnormalities in DD. Performing joint genetic and neuroimaging studies in humans is an emerging strategy to link DD-candidate genes to the brain structure and function. A limited number of studies has already pursued the imaging-genetics integration in DD. However, the results are still not sufficient to unravel the complexity of the reading circuit due to heterogeneous study design and data processing. Here, we propose an interdisciplinary, multilevel, imaging-genetic approach to disentangle the pathways from genes to behavior. As the presence of putative functional genetic variants has been provided and as genetic associations with specific cognitive/sensorial mechanisms have been reported, new hypothesis-driven imaging-genetic studies must gain momentum. This approach would lead to the optimization of diagnostic criteria and to the early identification of 'biologically at-risk' children, supporting the definition of adequate and well-timed prevention strategies and the implementation of novel, specific remediation approach.

  1. Variation in oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) polymorphisms is associated with emotional and behavioral reactions to betrayal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabak, Benjamin A; McCullough, Michael E; Carver, Charles S; Pedersen, Eric J; Cuccaro, Michael L

    2014-06-01

    Variations in the gene that encodes the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) have been associated with many aspects of social cognition as well as several prosocial behaviors. However, potential associations of OXTR variants with reactions to betrayals of trust while cooperating for mutual benefit have not yet been explored. We examined how variations in 10 single-nucleotide polymorphisms on OXTR were associated with behavior and emotional reactions after a betrayal of trust in an iterated Prisoner's Dilemma Game. After correction for multiple testing, one haplotype (C-rs9840864, T-rs2268494) was significantly associated with faster retaliation post-betrayal-an association that appeared to be due to this haplotype's intermediate effect of exacerbating people's anger after they had been betrayed. Furthermore, a second haplotype (A-rs237887, C-rs2268490) was associated with higher levels of post-betrayal satisfaction, and a third haplotype (G-rs237887, C-rs2268490) was associated with lower levels of post-betrayal satisfaction. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Insulin-like peptide genes in honey bee fat body respond differently to manipulation of social behavioral physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Kari-Anne; Ihle, Kate E; Frederick, Katy; Fondrk, M Kim; Smedal, Bente; Hartfelder, Klaus; Amdam, Gro V

    2011-05-01

    Nutrient sensitive insulin-like peptides (ILPs) have profound effects on invertebrate metabolism, nutrient storage, fertility and aging. Many insects transcribe ILPs in specialized neurosecretory cells at changing levels correlated with life history. However, the major site of insect metabolism and nutrient storage is not the brain, but rather the fat body, where functions of ILP expression are rarely studied and poorly understood. Fat body is analogous to mammalian liver and adipose tissue, with nutrient stores that often correlate with behavior. We used the honey bee (Apis mellifera), an insect with complex behavior, to test whether ILP genes in fat body respond to experimentally induced changes of behavioral physiology. Honey bee fat body influences endocrine state and behavior by secreting the yolk protein precursor vitellogenin (Vg), which suppresses lipophilic juvenile hormone and social foraging behavior. In a two-factorial experiment, we used RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated vg gene knockdown and amino acid nutrient enrichment of hemolymph (blood) to perturb this regulatory module. We document factor-specific changes in fat body ilp1 and ilp2 mRNA, the bee's ILP-encoding genes, and confirm that our protocol affects social behavior. We show that ilp1 and ilp2 are regulated independently and differently and diverge in their specific expression-localization between fat body oenocyte and trophocyte cells. Insect ilp functions may be better understood by broadening research to account for expression in fat body and not only brain.

  3. High throughput analysis reveals dissociable gene expression profiles in two independent neural systems involved in the regulation of social behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevenson Tyler J

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Production of contextually appropriate social behaviors involves integrated activity across many brain regions. Many songbird species produce complex vocalizations called ‘songs’ that serve to attract potential mates, defend territories, and/or maintain flock cohesion. There are a series of discrete interconnect brain regions that are essential for the successful production of song. The probability and intensity of singing behavior is influenced by the reproductive state. The objectives of this study were to examine the broad changes in gene expression in brain regions that control song production with a brain region that governs the reproductive state. Results We show using microarray cDNA analysis that two discrete brain systems that are both involved in governing singing behavior show markedly different gene expression profiles. We found that cortical and basal ganglia-like brain regions that control the socio-motor production of song in birds exhibit a categorical switch in gene expression that was dependent on their reproductive state. This pattern is in stark contrast to the pattern of expression observed in a hypothalamic brain region that governs the neuroendocrine control of reproduction. Subsequent gene ontology analysis revealed marked variation in the functional categories of active genes dependent on reproductive state and anatomical localization. HVC, one cortical-like structure, displayed significant gene expression changes associated with microtubule and neurofilament cytoskeleton organization, MAP kinase activity, and steroid hormone receptor complex activity. The transitions observed in the preoptic area, a nucleus that governs the motivation to engage in singing, exhibited variation in functional categories that included thyroid hormone receptor activity, epigenetic and angiogenetic processes. Conclusions These findings highlight the importance of considering the temporal patterns of gene expression

  4. Combination of biased forecasts: Bias correction or bias based weights?

    OpenAIRE

    Wenzel, Thomas

    1999-01-01

    Most of the literature on combination of forecasts deals with the assumption of unbiased individual forecasts. Here, we consider the case of biased forecasts and discuss two different combination techniques resulting in an unbiased forecast. On the one hand we correct the individual forecasts, and on the other we calculate bias based weights. A simulation study gives some insight in the situations where we should use the different methods.

  5. The M235T polymorphism in the AGT gene and CHD risk: evidence of a Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium violation and publication bias in a meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zafarmand, Mohammad Hadi; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Grobbee, Diederick E.; de Leeuw, Peter W.; Bots, Michiel L.

    2008-01-01

    The M235T polymorphism in the AGT gene has been related to an increased risk of hypertension. This finding may also suggest an increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). A case-cohort study was conducted in 1,732 unrelated middle-age women (210 CHD cases and 1,522 controls) from a prospective

  6. Effects of immunostimulation on social behavior, chemical communication and genome-wide gene expression in honey bee workers (Apis mellifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Freddie-Jeanne

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Social insects, such as honey bees, use molecular, physiological and behavioral responses to combat pathogens and parasites. The honey bee genome contains all of the canonical insect immune response pathways, and several studies have demonstrated that pathogens can activate expression of immune effectors. Honey bees also use behavioral responses, termed social immunity, to collectively defend their hives from pathogens and parasites. These responses include hygienic behavior (where workers remove diseased brood and allo-grooming (where workers remove ectoparasites from nestmates. We have previously demonstrated that immunostimulation causes changes in the cuticular hydrocarbon profiles of workers, which results in altered worker-worker social interactions. Thus, cuticular hydrocarbons may enable workers to identify sick nestmates, and adjust their behavior in response. Here, we test the specificity of behavioral, chemical and genomic responses to immunostimulation by challenging workers with a panel of different immune stimulants (saline, Sephadex beads and Gram-negative bacteria E. coli. Results While only bacteria-injected bees elicited altered behavioral responses from healthy nestmates compared to controls, all treatments resulted in significant changes in cuticular hydrocarbon profiles. Immunostimulation caused significant changes in expression of hundreds of genes, the majority of which have not been identified as members of the canonical immune response pathways. Furthermore, several new candidate genes that may play a role in cuticular hydrocarbon biosynthesis were identified. Effects of immune challenge expression of several genes involved in immune response, cuticular hydrocarbon biosynthesis, and the Notch signaling pathway were confirmed using quantitative real-time PCR. Finally, we identified common genes regulated by pathogen challenge in honey bees and other insects. Conclusions These results demonstrate that

  7. Gene by Environment Research to Prevent Externalizing Problem Behavior : Ethical Questions Raised from a Public Healthcare Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chhangur, Rabia R.; Weeland, Joyce; Matthys, Walter; Overbeek, Geertjan

    2015-01-01

    The main public health advantages of examining gene by environment interactions (i.e., G x E) in externalizing behavior lie in the realm of personalized interventions. Nevertheless, the incorporation of genetic data in randomized controlled trials is fraught with difficulties and raises ethical

  8. Brief Report: The Dopamine-3-Receptor Gene ("DRD3") Is Associated with Specific Repetitive Behavior in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staal, Wouter G.; de Krom, Mariken; de Jonge, Maretha V.

    2012-01-01

    Recently the "DRD3" gene has been associated with ASD in two independent samples. Follow up analysis of the risk allele of the SNP rs167771 in 91 subjects revealed a significant association with a specific type of repetitive behavior: the factor "insistence on sameness" (IS) derived from the Autism Diagnostic Interview. This risk allele was…

  9. Gene by environment research to prevent externalizing problem behavior: Ethical questions raised from a public healthcare perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chhangur, R.R.; Weeland, J.; Matthys, W.; Overbeek, G.

    2015-01-01

    The main public health advantages of examining gene by environment interactions (i.e., G × E) in externalizing behavior lie in the realm of personalized interventions. Nevertheless, the incorporation of genetic data in randomized controlled trials is fraught with difficulties and raises ethical

  10. Investigating degradation behavior of hole-trapping effect under static and dynamic gate-bias stress in a dual gate a-InGaZnO thin film transistor with etch stop layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, Po-Yung; Chang, Ting-Chang; Hsieh, Tien-Yu; Tsai, Ming-Yen; Chen, Bo-Wei; Chu, Ann-Kuo; Chou, Cheng-Hsu; Chang, Jung-Fang

    2016-01-01

    The degree of degradation between the amorphous-indium–gallium–zinc oxide (a-IGZO) thin film transistor (TFT) using the top-gate only or bottom-gate only is compared. Under negative gate bias illumination stress (NBIS), the threshold voltage (V T ) after bottom-gate NBIS monotonically shifts in the negative direction, whereas top-gate NBIS operation exhibits on-state current increases without V T shift. Such anomalous degradation behavior of NBIS under top-gate operation is due to hole-trapping in the etch stop layer above the central portion of the channel. These phenomena can be ascribed to the screening of the electric field by redundant source/drain electrodes. In addition, the device degradation of dual gate a-IGZO TFT stressed with different top gate pulse waveforms is investigated. It is observed that the degradation is dependent on the frequency of the top gate pulses. The V T shift increases with decreasing frequency, indicating the hole mobility of IGZO is low. - Highlights: • Static and dynamic gate bias stresses are imposed on dual gate InGaZnO TFTs. • Top-gate NBIS operation exhibits on-state current increases without VT shift. • The degradation behavior of top-gate NBIS is due to hole-trapping in the ESL. • The degradation is dependent on the frequency of the top gate pulses. • The V T shift increases with decreasing frequency of the top gate pulses.

  11. [Effect of NOR1 gene knockdown on the biological behavior of HeLa cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yixin; Li, Wenjuan; Yi, Mei; Wang, Wei; Zheng, Pan; Zhang, Haijing; Xiang, Bo; Li, Guiyuan

    2014-08-01

    To explore the effect of the oxidored nitro domain containing protein 1 (NOR1) gene knockdown on the biological behavior of HeLa cells in cervical carcinoma. The recombinant plasmids pSUPER-shNOR1-1, pSUPER-shNOR1-2 and pSUPERscramble, which targeted to NOR1 gene, were constructed by pSUPER.neo+GFP vector, transfected into HeLa cells respectively using Lipofectamine 2000 reagent, and followed by G418 selection. The expression level of NOR1 mRNA and protein were determined by RT-PCR and Western blotting, respectively. Methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay was performed to determine the growth curve of cell viability. The stable transfectants were treated with H₂O₂ and cell apoptosis was determined by Hoechst 33258 staining and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferasemediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. The expression levels of Bcl-2, cleaved caspase 9 and poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) were measured by Western blot. NOR1- knockdown HeLa cells were successfully constructed by transfection of pSUPER-shNOR1-1 or pSUPER-shNOR1-2 plasmids into HeLa cells. MTT assay showed that the silence of endogenous NOR1 in HeLa cells could lead to the increase in cell viability and proliferation, and the inhibition of H₂O₂-induced apoptosis compared with the negative control. Western blot showed that the expression level of active caspase 9 and cleaved PARP was inhibited in NOR1-knockdown cells when they were treated with H₂O₂ while the expression level of Bcl-2 protein increased. Silence of endogenous NOR1 facilitates the cell viability and growth of HeLa cells, and attenuates HeLa cells apoptosis induced by H₂O₂, which might be mediated by up-regulation of Bcl-2 level and down-regulation of the cleaved caspase 9 cascade.

  12. The role of the monoamine oxidase A gene in moderating the response to adversity and associated antisocial behavior: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buades-Rotger M

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Macià Buades-Rotger,1,2 David Gallardo-Pujol1,3 1Department of Personality, Faculty of Psychology, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; 2Department of Neurology, University of Lübeck, Lübeck, Germany; 3Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behavior (IR3C, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain Abstract: Hereditary factors are increasingly attracting the interest of behavioral scientists and practitioners. Our aim in the present article is to introduce some state-of-the-art topics in behavioral genetics, as well as selected findings in the field, in order to illustrate how genetic makeup can modulate the impact of environmental factors. We focus on the most-studied polymorphism to date for antisocial responses to adversity: the monoamine oxidase A gene. Advances, caveats, and promises of current research are reviewed. We also discuss implications for the use of genetic information in applied settings. Keywords: behavioral genetics, antisocial behaviors, monoamine oxidase A

  13. Function and structure in social brain regions can link oxytocin-receptor genes with autistic social behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasue, Hidenori

    2013-02-01

    Difficulties in appropriate social and communicative behaviors are the most prevalent and core symptoms of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Although recent intensive research has focused on the neurobiological background of these difficulties, many aspects of them were not yet elucidated. Recent studies have employed multimodal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) indices as intermediate phenotypes of this behavioral phenotype to link candidate genes with the autistic social difficulty. As MRI indices, functional MRI (fMRI), structural MRI, and MR-spectroscopy have been examined in subjects with autism spectrum disorders. As candidate genes, this mini-review has much interest in oxytocin-receptor genes (OXTR), since recent studies have repeatedly reported their associations with normal variations in social cognition and behavior as well as with their extremes, autistic social dysfunction. Through previous increasing studies, medial prefrontal cortex, hypothalamus and amygdala have repeatedly been revealed as neural correlates of autistic social behavior by MRI multimodalities and their relationship to OXTR. For further development of this research area, this mini-review integrates recent accumulating evidence about human behavioral and neural correlates of OXTR. Copyright © 2012 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Oral cancer cells with different potential of lymphatic metastasis displayed distinct biologic behaviors and gene expression profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Zhang; Jian, Pan; Longjiang, Li; Bo, Han; Wenlin, Xiao

    2010-02-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) often spreads from the primary tumor to regional lymph nodes in the early stage. Better understanding of the biology of lymphatic spread of oral cancer cells is important for improving the survival rate of cancer patients. We established the cell line LNMTca8113 by repeated injections in foot pads of nude mice, which had a much higher lymphatic metastasis rate than its parental cell line Tca8113. Then, we compared the biologic behaviors of cancer cells between them. Moreover, microarray-based expression profiles between them were also compared, and a panel of differential genes was validated using real-time-PCR. In contrast to Tca8113 cells, LNMTca8113 cells were more proliferative and resistant to apoptosis in the absence of serum, and had enhanced ability of inducing capillary-like structures. Moreover, microarray-based expression profiles between them identified 1341 genes involved in cell cycle, cell adhesion, lymphangiogenesis, regulation of apoptosis, and so on. Some genes dedicating to the metastatic potential, including JAM2, TNC, CTSC, LAMB1, VEGFC, HAPLN1, ACPP, GDF9 and FGF11, were upregulated in LNMTca8113 cells. These results suggested that LNMTca8113 and Tca8113 cells were proper models for lymphatic metastasis study because there were differences in biologic behaviors and metastasis-related genes between them. Additionally, the differentially expressed gene profiles in cancer progression may be helpful in exploring therapeutic targets and provide the foundation for further functional validation of these specific candidate genes for OSCC.

  15. Benefits of being biased!

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Journal of Genetics, Vol. 83, No. 2, August 2004. Keywords. codon bias; alcohol dehydrogenase; Darwinian ... RESEARCH COMMENTARY. Benefits of being biased! SUTIRTH DEY*. Evolutionary Biology Laboratory, Evolutionary & Organismal Biology Unit,. Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research,.

  16. Contrasting invertebrate immune defense behaviors caused by a single gene, the Caenorhabditis elegans neuropeptide receptor gene npr-1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nakad, Rania; Snoek, Basten; Yang, Wentao; Ellendt, S.; Schneider, Franziska; Mohr, T.G.; Rösingh, Lone; Masche, Anna C.; Rosenstiel, P.C.; Dierking, K.; Kammenga, Jan E.; Schulenburg, Hinrich

    2016-01-01

    Background: The invertebrate immune system comprises physiological mechanisms, physical barriers and also behavioral responses. It is generally related to the vertebrate innate immune system and widely believed to provide
    nonspecific defense against pathogens, whereby the response to different

  17. Contrasting invertebrate immune defense behaviors caused by a single gene, the Caenorhabditis elegans neuropeptide receptor gene npr-1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nakad, Rania; Snoek, L.B.; Yang, Wentao; Ellendt, S.; Schneider, Franziska; Mohr, T.G.; Rösingh, Lone; Masche, Anna C.; Rosenstiel, P.C.; Dierking, K.; Kammenga, J.E.; Schulenburg, Hinrich

    2016-01-01

    Background The invertebrate immune system comprises physiological mechanisms, physical barriers and also behavioral responses. It is generally related to the vertebrate innate immune system and widely believed to provide nonspecific defense against pathogens, whereby the response to different

  18. Contrasting invertebrate immune defense behaviors caused by a single gene, the Caenorhabditis elegans neuropeptide receptor gene npr-1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nakad, Rania; Snoek, L Basten; Yang, Wentao; Ellendt, Sunna; Schneider, Franziska; Mohr, Timm G; Rösingh, Lone; Masche, Anna C; Rosenstiel, Philip C; Dierking, Katja; Kammenga, Jan E; Schulenburg, Hinrich

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The invertebrate immune system comprises physiological mechanisms, physical barriers and also behavioral responses. It is generally related to the vertebrate innate immune system and widely believed to provide nonspecific defense against pathogens, whereby the response to different

  19. Child Maltreatment, Impulsivity, and Antisocial Behavior in African-American Children: Moderation Effects from a Cumulative Dopaminergic Gene Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibodeau, Eric L.; Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A.

    2015-01-01

    A model examining the effects of an increasing number of maltreatment subtypes experienced on antisocial behavior, as mediated by impulsivity and moderated by a polygenic index of dopaminergic genotypes, was investigated. An African American sample of children (N = 1012, M age = 10.07) with and without maltreatment histories participated. Indicators of aggression, delinquency, and disruptive peer behavior were obtained from peer and counselor rated measures to form a latent variable of antisocial behavior; impulsivity was assessed by counselor report. Five genotypes in four dopaminergic genes (DRD4, DRD2, DAT1, and COMT) conferring heightened environmental sensitivity were combined into one polygenic index. Using SEM, a first-stage, moderated-mediation model was evaluated. Age and sex were entered as covariates, both as main effects and in interaction with maltreatment and the gene index. The model had excellent fit: χ2(32, N =1012) = 86..51, pmaltreatment subtypes on antisocial behavior was partially mediated by impulsivity (β= 0.173, pmaltreatment and impulsivity was stronger as children evinced more differentiating genotypes, thereby strengthening the mediational effect of impulsivity on antisocial behavior. These findings elucidate the manner by which maltreated children develop early signs of antisocial behavior, and the genetic mechanisms involved in greater vulnerability for maladaptation in impulse-control within context of child maltreatment. PMID:26535948

  20. Citation bias and selective focus on positive findings in the literature on the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR), life stress and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Y A; Roest, A M; Franzen, M; Munafò, M R; Bastiaansen, J A

    2016-10-01

    Caspi et al.'s 2003 report that 5-HTTLPR genotype moderates the influence of life stress on depression has been highly influential but remains contentious. We examined whether the evidence base for the 5-HTTLPR-stress interaction has been distorted by citation bias and a selective focus on positive findings. A total of 73 primary studies were coded for study outcomes and focus on positive findings in the abstract. Citation rates were compared between studies with positive and negative results, both within this network of primary studies and in Web of Science. In addition, the impact of focus on citation rates was examined. In all, 24 (33%) studies were coded as positive, but these received 48% of within-network and 68% of Web of Science citations. The 38 (52%) negative studies received 42 and 23% of citations, respectively, while the 11 (15%) unclear studies received 10 and 9%. Of the negative studies, the 16 studies without a positive focus (42%) received 47% of within-network citations and 32% of Web of Science citations, while the 13 (34%) studies with a positive focus received 39 and 51%, respectively, and the nine (24%) studies with a partially positive focus received 14 and 17%. Negative studies received fewer citations than positive studies. Furthermore, over half of the negative studies had a (partially) positive focus, and Web of Science citation rates were higher for these studies. Thus, discussion of the 5-HTTLPR-stress interaction is more positive than warranted. This study exemplifies how evidence-base-distorting mechanisms undermine the authenticity of research findings.

  1. Anhedonic behavior in cryptochrome 2-deficient mice is paralleled by altered diurnal patterns of amygdala gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savalli, Giorgia; Diao, Weifei; Berger, Stefanie; Ronovsky, Marianne; Partonen, Timo; Pollak, Daniela D

    2015-07-01

    Mood disorders are frequently paralleled by disturbances in circadian rhythm-related physiological and behavioral states and genetic variants of clock genes have been associated with depression. Cryptochrome 2 (Cry2) is one of the core components of the molecular circadian machinery which has been linked to depression, both, in patients suffering from the disease and animal models of the disorder. Despite this circumstantial evidence, a direct causal relationship between Cry2 expression and depression has not been established. Here, a genetic mouse model of Cry2 deficiency (Cry2 (-/-) mice) was employed to test the direct relevance of Cry2 for depression-like behavior. Augmented anhedonic behavior in the sucrose preference test, without alterations in behavioral despair, was observed in Cry2 (-/-) mice. The novelty suppressed feeding paradigm revealed reduced hyponeophagia in Cry2 (-/-) mice compared to wild-type littermates. Given the importance of the amygdala in the regulation of emotion and their relevance for the pathophysiology of depression, potential alterations in diurnal patterns of basolateral amygdala gene expression in Cry2 (-/-) mice were investigated focusing on core clock genes and neurotrophic factor systems implicated in the pathophysiology of depression. Differential expression of the clock gene Bhlhe40 and the neurotrophic factor Vegfb were found in the beginning of the active (dark) phase in Cry2 (-/-) compared to wild-type animals. Furthermore, amygdala tissue of Cry2 (-/-) mice contained lower levels of Bdnf-III. Collectively, these results indicate that Cry2 exerts a critical role in the control of depression-related emotional states and modulates the chronobiological gene expression profile in the mouse amygdala.

  2. Conceptual shifts needed to understand the dynamic interactions of genes, environment, epigenetics, social processes, and behavioral choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Fatimah L C; Niculescu, Mihai D; Jackson, Robert T

    2013-10-01

    Social and behavioral research in public health is often intimately tied to profound, but frequently neglected, biological influences from underlying genetic, environmental, and epigenetic events. The dynamic interplay between the life, social, and behavioral sciences often remains underappreciated and underutilized in addressing complex diseases and disorders and in developing effective remediation strategies. Using a case-study format, we present examples as to how the inclusion of genetic, environmental, and epigenetic data can augment social and behavioral health research by expanding the parameters of such studies, adding specificity to phenotypic assessments, and providing additional internal control in comparative studies. We highlight the important roles of gene-environment interactions and epigenetics as sources of phenotypic change and as a bridge between the life and social and behavioral sciences in the development of robust interdisciplinary analyses.

  3. AAV-mediated gene transfer of the obesity-associated gene Etv5 in rat midbrain does not affect energy balance or motivated behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjen J Boender

    Full Text Available Several genome-wide association studies have implicated the transcription factor E-twenty- six version 5 (Etv5 in the regulation of body mass index. Further substantiating the role of Etv5 in feeding behavior are the findings that targeted disruption of Etv5 in mice leads to decreased body weight gain and that expression of Etv5 is decreased in the ventral tegmental area and substantia nigra pars compacta (VTA/SNpc after food restriction. As Etv5 has been suggested to influence dopaminergic neurotransmission by driving the expression of genes that are responsible for the synthesis and release of dopamine, we investigated if expression levels of Etv5 are dependent on nutritional state and subsequently influence the expression levels of tyrosine hydroxylase. While it was shown that Etv5 expression in the VTA/SNpc increases after central administration of leptin and that Etv5 was able to drive expression of tyrosine hydroxylase in vitro, AAV-mediated gene transfer of Etv5 into the VTA/SNpc of rats did not alter expression of tyrosine hydroxylase in vivo. Moreover, AAV-mediated gene transfer of Etv5 in the VTA/SNpc did not affect measures of energy balance or performances in a progressive ratio schedule. Thus, these data do not support a role for increased expression of Etv5 in the VTA/SNpc in the regulation of feeding behavior.

  4. Generational Association Studies of Dopaminergic Genes in Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS Subjects: Selecting Appropriate Phenotypes for Reward Dependence Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Fornari

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abnormal behaviors involving dopaminergic gene polymorphisms often reflect an insufficiency of usual feelings of satisfaction, or Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS. RDS results from a dysfunction in the “brain reward cascade,” a complex interaction among neurotransmitters (primarily dopaminergic and opioidergic. Individuals with a family history of alcoholism or other addictions may be born with a deficiency in the ability to produce or use these neurotransmitters. Exposure to prolonged periods of stress and alcohol or other substances also can lead to a corruption of the brain reward cascade function. We evaluated the potential association of four variants of dopaminergic candidate genes in RDS (dopamine D1 receptor gene [DRD1]; dopamine D2 receptor gene [DRD2]; dopamine transporter gene [DAT1]; dopamine beta-hydroxylase gene [DBH]. Methodology: We genotyped an experimental group of 55 subjects derived from up to five generations of two independent multiple-affected families compared to rigorously screened control subjects (e.g., N = 30 super controls for DRD2 gene polymorphisms. Data related to RDS behaviors were collected on these subjects plus 13 deceased family members. Results: Among the genotyped family members, the DRD2 Taq1 and the DAT1 10/10 alleles were significantly (at least p < 0.015 more often found in the RDS families vs. controls. The TaqA1 allele occurred in 100% of Family A individuals (N = 32 and 47.8% of Family B subjects (11 of 23. No significant differences were found between the experimental and control positive rates for the other variants. Conclusions: Although our sample size was limited, and linkage analysis is necessary, the results support the putative role of dopaminergic polymorphisms in RDS behaviors. This study shows the importance of a nonspecific RDS phenotype and informs an understanding of how evaluating single subset behaviors of RDS may lead to spurious results. Utilization of a nonspecific

  5. Effects of MC4R, FTO, and NMB gene variants to obesity, physical activity, and eating behavior phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirac, Deniz; Kasimay Cakir, Ozgur; Avcilar, Tuba; Deyneli, Oguzhan; Kurtel, Hizir; Yazici, Dilek; Kaspar, Elif Cigdem; Celik, Nurgul; Guney, Ahmet Ilter

    2016-10-01

    Obesity is a major contributory factor of morbidity and mortality. It has been suggested that biological systems may be involved in the tendency to be and to remain physically inactive also behaviors such as food and beverage preferences and nutrient intake may at least partially genetically determined. Consequently, besides environment, genetic factors may also contribute to the level of physical activity and eating behaviors thus effect obesity. Therefore the aim of this study is to investigate the effect of various gene mutations on obesity, physical activity levels and eating behavior phenotypes. One hundred patients and 100 controls were enrolled to the study. Physical activity levels were measured with an actical acceloremeter device. Eating behaviors were evaluated using Three-Factor Eating questionnaire (TFEQ). Associations between eating behavior scores and physical characteristics were also evaluated. The information about other obesity risk factors were also collected. Mutations were investigated with PCR, direct sequencing and Real-Time PCR. rs1051168, rs8050146 -2778C > T mutations were found statistically significant in patients, rs1121980 was found statistically significant in controls. 21 mutations were found in MC4R and near MC4R of which 18 of them are novel and 8 of them cause amino acid change. In addition, it was found that, some obesity related factors and questions of TFEQ are associated with various investigated gene mutations. Any relation between gene mutations and physical activity levels were not detected. It is thought that, due to the genotype data and eating behaviors, it may be possible to recommend patients for proper eating patterns to prevent obesity. © 2016 IUBMB Life, 68(10):806-816, 2016. © 2016 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  6. Social context-induced song variation affects female behavior and gene expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah C Woolley

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Social cues modulate the performance of communicative behaviors in a range of species, including humans, and such changes can make the communication signal more salient. In songbirds, males use song to attract females, and song organization can differ depending on the audience to which a male sings. For example, male zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata change their songs in subtle ways when singing to a female (directed song compared with when they sing in isolation (undirected song, and some of these changes depend on altered neural activity from a specialized forebrain-basal ganglia circuit, the anterior forebrain pathway (AFP. In particular, variable activity in the AFP during undirected song is thought to actively enable syllable variability, whereas the lower and less-variable AFP firing during directed singing is associated with more stereotyped song. Consequently, directed song has been suggested to reflect a "performance" state, and undirected song a form of vocal motor "exploration." However, this hypothesis predicts that directed-undirected song differences, despite their subtlety, should matter to female zebra finches, which is a question that has not been investigated. We tested female preferences for this natural variation in song in a behavioral approach assay, and we found that both mated and socially naive females could discriminate between directed and undirected song-and strongly preferred directed song. These preferences, which appeared to reflect attention especially to aspects of song variability controlled by the AFP, were enhanced by experience, as they were strongest for mated females responding to their mate's directed songs. We then measured neural activity using expression of the immediate early gene product ZENK, and found that social context and song familiarity differentially modulated the number of ZENK-expressing cells in telencephalic auditory areas. Specifically, the number of ZENK-expressing cells in the

  7. Statistical indicators of collective behavior and functional clusters in gene networks of yeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Živković, J.; Tadić, B.; Wick, N.; Thurner, S.

    2006-03-01

    We analyze gene expression time-series data of yeast (S. cerevisiae) measured along two full cell-cycles. We quantify these data by using q-exponentials, gene expression ranking and a temporal mean-variance analysis. We construct gene interaction networks based on correlation coefficients and study the formation of the corresponding giant components and minimum spanning trees. By coloring genes according to their cell function we find functional clusters in the correlation networks and functional branches in the associated trees. Our results suggest that a percolation point of functional clusters can be identified on these gene expression correlation networks.

  8. Drosophila mutants of the autism candidate gene neurobeachin (rugose) exhibit neuro-developmental disorders, aberrant synaptic properties, altered locomotion, impaired adult social behavior and activity patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Wise, Alexandra; Tenezaca, Luis; Fernandez, Robert W.; Schatoff, Emma; Flores, Julian; Ueda, Atsushi; Zhong, Xiaotian; Wu, Chun-Fang; Simon, Anne F.; Venkatesh, Tadmiri

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder in humans characterized by complex behavioral deficits, including intellectual disability, impaired social interactions and hyperactivity. ASD exhibits a strong genetic component with underlying multi-gene interactions. Candidate gene studies have shown that the neurobeachin gene is disrupted in human patients with idiopathic autism (Castermans et al., 2003). The gene for neurobeachin (NBEA) spans the common fragile site FRA 13A ...

  9. [Behavior in the forced-swimming test and expression of BDNF and Bcl-xl genes in the rat brain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berezova, I V; Shishkina, G T; Kalinina, T S; Dygalo, N N

    2011-01-01

    A single exposure of rats to the forced-swimming stress decreased BDNF mRNA levels in the cortex and increased Bcl-xl gene expression in the hippocampus and amygdala 24 h after the stress. The animals demonstrated a depressive-like behavior and elevated blood corticosterone level. There was a significant negative correlation between BDNF mRNA level in the cortex and immobility time during swimming. Repeated exposure to swimming stress caused the elevation of the hippocampal BDNF mRNA level assessed 24 h after the second swimming session. The data suggest that stress-induced down-regulation of cortical BDNF gene expression and behavioral despair in the forced-swimming test may be interrelated. The increase in the BDNF and Bcl-xl mRNA levels may contribute to the mechanisms protecting the brain against negative effects of stress.

  10. Copepod swimming behavior, respiration, and expression of stress-related genes in response to high stocking densities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Birgitte; Jakobsen, Hans Henrik; Stief, Peter

    2017-01-01

    is problematic for calanoid copepod species like Acartia tonsa. In the present study, we evaluated the response of copepods experiencing stress under high-density conditions by assessing the acute stress level of A. tonsa. Control density was at 100 ind. L−1 while the treatments were increased stepwise up to 10......,000 ind. L−1. Three biological/physiological end-points were studied: swimming behavior, respiration rate and expression level of stress-related genes. None of the elevated densities caused any significant change in swimming behavior, respiration rate or gene expression level. This study suggests...... that adults of A. tonsa do not exhibit any measurable acute stress response when exposed to high culture densities for 12 h....

  11. Gene

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes,...

  12. Investigating degradation behavior of hole-trapping effect under static and dynamic gate-bias stress in a dual gate a-InGaZnO thin film transistor with etch stop layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Po-Yung [Department of Physics, National Sun Yat-sen University, 70 Lien-hai Road, Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan (China); Chang, Ting-Chang, E-mail: tcchang3708@gmail.com [Department of Physics, National Sun Yat-sen University, 70 Lien-hai Road, Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan (China); Advanced Optoelectronics Technology Center, National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan (China); Hsieh, Tien-Yu [Department of Physics, National Sun Yat-sen University, 70 Lien-hai Road, Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Ming-Yen; Chen, Bo-Wei; Chu, Ann-Kuo [Department of Photonics, National Sun Yat-Sen University, 70 Lien-hai Road, Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan (China); Chou, Cheng-Hsu; Chang, Jung-Fang [Product Technology Center, Chimei Innolux Corp., Tainan 741, Taiwan (China)

    2016-03-31

    The degree of degradation between the amorphous-indium–gallium–zinc oxide (a-IGZO) thin film transistor (TFT) using the top-gate only or bottom-gate only is compared. Under negative gate bias illumination stress (NBIS), the threshold voltage (V{sub T}) after bottom-gate NBIS monotonically shifts in the negative direction, whereas top-gate NBIS operation exhibits on-state current increases without V{sub T} shift. Such anomalous degradation behavior of NBIS under top-gate operation is due to hole-trapping in the etch stop layer above the central portion of the channel. These phenomena can be ascribed to the screening of the electric field by redundant source/drain electrodes. In addition, the device degradation of dual gate a-IGZO TFT stressed with different top gate pulse waveforms is investigated. It is observed that the degradation is dependent on the frequency of the top gate pulses. The V{sub T} shift increases with decreasing frequency, indicating the hole mobility of IGZO is low. - Highlights: • Static and dynamic gate bias stresses are imposed on dual gate InGaZnO TFTs. • Top-gate NBIS operation exhibits on-state current increases without VT shift. • The degradation behavior of top-gate NBIS is due to hole-trapping in the ESL. • The degradation is dependent on the frequency of the top gate pulses. • The V{sub T} shift increases with decreasing frequency of the top gate pulses.

  13. CPI Bias in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chul Chung

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available We estimate the CPI bias in Korea by employing the approach of Engel’s Law as suggested by Hamilton (2001. This paper is the first attempt to estimate the bias using Korean panel data, Korean Labor and Income Panel Study(KLIPS. Following Hamilton’s model with non­linear specification correction, our estimation result shows that the cumulative CPI bias over the sample period (2000-2005 was 0.7 percent annually. This CPI bias implies that about 21 percent of the inflation rate during the period can be attributed to the bias. In light of purchasing power parity, we provide an interpretation of the estimated bias.

  14. Experimental heart failure causes depression-like behavior together with differential regulation of inflammatory and structural genes in the brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna eFrey

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background-Depression and anxiety are common and independent outcome predictors in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF. However, it is unclear whether CHF causes depression. Thus, we investigated whether mice develop anxiety- and depression-like behavior after induction of ischemic CHF by myocardial infarction (MI.Methods and Results- In order to assess depression-like behavior, anhedonia was investigated by repeatedly testing sucrose preference for 8 weeks after coronary artery ligation or sham operation. Mice with large MI and increased left ventricular dimensions on echocardiography (termed CHF mice showed reduced preference for sucrose, indicating depression-like behavior. 6 weeks after MI, mice were tested for exploratory activity, anxiety-like behavior and cognitive function using the elevated plus maze (EPM, light-dark box (LDB, open field (OF and object recognition (OR tests. In the EPM and OF, CHF mice exhibited diminished exploratory behavior and motivation despite similar movement capability. In the OR, CHF mice had reduced preference for novelty and impaired short-term memory. On histology, CHF mice had unaltered overall cerebral morphology. However, analysis of gene expression by RNA-sequencing in prefrontal cortical, hippocampal, and left ventricular tissue revealed changes in genes related to inflammation and cofactors of neuronal signal transduction in CHF mice, with Nr4a1 being dysregulated both in prefrontal cortex and myocardium after MI. Conclusions-After induction of ischemic CHF, mice exhibited anhedonic behavior, decreased exploratory activity and interest in novelty, and cognitive impairment. Thus, ischemic CHF leads to distinct behavioral changes in mice analogous to symptoms observed in humans with CHF and comorbid depression.

  15. Suicidal behavior and haplotypes of the dopamine receptor gene (DRD2 and ANKK1 gene polymorphisms in patients with alcohol dependence--preliminary report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Jasiewicz

    Full Text Available Suicide is a significant public health issue and a major cause of death throughout the world. According to WHO it accounts for almost 2% of deaths worldwide. The etiology of suicidal behavior is complex but the results of many studies suggest that genetic determinants are of significant importance. In our study,--we have analyzed selected SNPs polymorphisms in the DRD2 and ANKK1 genes in patients with alcohol dependence syndrome (169 Caucasian subjects including a subgroup of individuals (n = 61 who have experienced at least one suicide attempt. The aim of the study was to verify if various haplotypes of selected genes, comprising Taq1A, Taq1B, and Taq1D single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP, play any role in the development of alcohol dependence and suicidal behavior. The control group comprised 157 unrelated individuals matched for ethnicity, gender,- and age and included no individuals with mental disorders. All subjects were recruited in the North West region of Poland. The study showed that alcohol dependent subjects with a history of at least one suicidal attempt were characterized by a significantly higher frequency of the T-G-A2 haplotype when compared to individuals in whom alcohol dependence was not associated with suicidal behavior (p = 0.006. It appears that studies based on identifying correlation between SNPs is the future for research on genetic risk factors that contribute to the development of alcohol addiction and other associated disorders. To sum up, there is a necessity to perform further research to explain dependencies between the dopaminergic system, alcohol use disorders and suicidal behavior.

  16. delta-biased Josephson tunnel junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monaco, R.; Mygind, Jesper; Koshelet, V.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract: The behavior of a long Josephson tunnel junction drastically depends on the distribution of the dc bias current. We investigate the case in which the bias current is fed in the central point of a one-dimensional junction. Such junction configuration has been recently used to detect...... the persistent currents circulating in a superconducting loop. Analytical and numerical results indicate that the presence of fractional vortices leads to remarkable differences from the conventional case of uniformly distributed dc bias current. The theoretical findings are supported by detailed measurements...

  17. Genetic Localization of Foraging (For): A Major Gene for Larval Behavior in Drosophila Melanogaster

    OpenAIRE

    de-Belle, J. S.; Hilliker, A. J.; Sokolowski, M. B.

    1989-01-01

    Localizing genes for quantitative traits by conventional recombination mapping is a formidable challenge because environmental variation, minor genes, and genetic markers have modifying effects on continuously varying phenotypes. We describe ``lethal tagging,'' a method used in conjunction with deficiency mapping for localizing major genes associated with quantitative traits. Rover/sitter is a naturally occurring larval foraging polymorphism in Drosophila melanogaster which has a polygenic pa...

  18. Evaluation of in vitro spermatogenesis system effectiveness to study genes behavior: monitoring the expression of the testis specific 10 (Tsga10) gene as a model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miryounesi, Mohammad; Nayernia, Karim; Mobasheri, Maryam Beigom; Dianatpour, Mahdi; Oko, Richard; Savad, Shahram; Modarressi, Mohammad Hossein

    2014-10-01

    In vitro generation of germ cells introduces a novel approach to male infertility and provides an effective system in gene tracking studies, however many aspects of this process have remained unclear. We aimed to promote mouse embryonic stem cells (mESC) differentiation into germ cells and evaluate its effectiveness with tracking the expression of the Tsga10 during this process. mESCs were differentiated into germ cells in the presence of Retinoic Acid. Based on developmental schedule of the postnatal testis, samples were taken on the 7th, 12th, and 25th days of the culture and were subjected to expression analysis of a panel of germ cell specific genes. Expression of Tsga10 in RNA and protein levels was then analyzed. Transition from mitosis to meiosis occurred between 7th and 12th days of mESC culture and post-meiotic gene expression did not occur until the 25th day of the culture. Results showed low level of Tsga10expression in undifferentiated stem cells. During transition from meiotic to post-meiotic phase, Tsga10 expression increased in 6.6 folds. This finding is in concordance with in vivo changes during transition from pre-pubertal to pubertal stage. Localization of processed and unprocessed forms of the related protein was similar to those in vivo as well. Expression pattern of Tsga10, as a gene with critical function in spermatogenesis, is similar during in vitro and in vivo germ cell generation. The results suggest that in vitro derived germ cells could be a trusted model to study genes behavior during spermatogenesis.

  19. Effects of Metabolic Programming on Juvenile Play Behavior and Gene Expression in the Prefrontal Cortex of Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hehar, Harleen; Ma, Irene; Mychasiuk, Richelle

    2016-01-01

    Early developmental processes, such as metabolic programming, can provide cues to an organism, which allow it to make modifications that are predicted to be beneficial for survival. Similarly, social play has a multifaceted role in promoting survival and fitness of animals. Play is a complex behavior that is greatly influenced by motivational and reward circuits, as well as the energy reserves and metabolism of an organism. This study examined the association between metabolic programming and juvenile play behavior in an effort to further elucidate insight into the consequences that early adaptions have on developmental trajectories. The study also examined changes in expression of four genes (Drd2, IGF1, Opa1, and OxyR) in the prefrontal cortex known to play significant roles in reward, bioenergetics, and social-emotional functioning. Using four distinct variations in developmental programming (high-fat diet, caloric restriction, exercise, or high-fat diet combined with exercise), we found that dietary programming (high-fat diet vs. caloric restriction) had the greatest impact on play behavior and gene expression. However, exercise also induced changes in both measures. This study demonstrates that metabolic programming can alter neural circuits and bioenergetics involved in play behavior, thus providing new insights into mechanisms that allow programming to influence the evolutionary success of an organism. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Genetic risk for violent behavior and environmental exposure to disadvantage and violent crime: the case for gene-environment interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, J C; Jacobs, Bruce A

    2013-01-01

    Despite mounds of evidence to suggest that neighborhood structural factors predict violent behavior, almost no attention has been given to how these influences work synergistically (i.e., interact) with an individual's genetic propensity toward violent behavior. Indeed, two streams of research have, heretofore, flowed independently of one another. On one hand, criminologists have underscored the importance of neighborhood context in the etiology of violence. On the other hand, behavioral geneticists have argued that individual-level genetic propensities are important for understanding violence. The current study seeks to integrate these two compatible frameworks by exploring gene-environment interactions (GxE). Two GxEs were examined and supported by the data (i.e., the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health). Using a scale of genetic risk based on three dopamine genes, the analysis revealed that genetic risk had a greater influence on violent behavior when the individual was also exposed to neighborhood disadvantage or when the individual was exposed to higher violent crime rates. The relevance of these findings for criminological theorizing was considered.

  1. Characterization of the rec-1 gene of Haemophilus influenzae and behavior of the gene in Escherichia coli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Setlow, J.K.; Spikes, D.; Griffin, K.

    1988-09-01

    The rec-1 gene of Haemophilus influenzae was cloned into a shuttle vector that replicates in Escherichia coli as well as in H. influenzae. The plasmid, called pRec1, complemented the defects of a rec-1 mutant in repair of UV damage, transformation, and ability of prophage to be induced by UV radiation. Although UV resistance and recombination were caused by pRec1 in E. coli recA mutants, UV induction of lambda and UV mutagenesis were not. We suggest that the ability of the H. influenzae Rec-1 protein to cause cleavage of repressors but not the recombinase function differs from that of the E. coli RecA protein.

  2. Characterization of the rec-1 gene of Haemophilus influenzae and behavior of the gene in Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setlow, J.K.; Spikes, D.; Griffin, K.

    1988-01-01

    The rec-1 gene of Haemophilus influenzae was cloned into a shuttle vector that replicates in Escherichia coli as well as in H. influenzae. The plasmid, called pRec1, complemented the defects of a rec-1 mutant in repair of UV damage, transformation, and ability of prophage to be induced by UV radiation. Although UV resistance and recombination were caused by pRec1 in E. coli recA mutants, UV induction of lambda and UV mutagenesis were not. We suggest that the ability of the H. influenzae Rec-1 protein to cause cleavage of repressors but not the recombinase function differs from that of the E. coli RecA protein

  3. Stress-induced gene expression and behavior are controlled by DNA methylation and methyl donor availability in the dentate gyrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunderson, Emily A.; Spiers, Helen; Gutierrez-Mecinas, Maria; Trollope, Alexandra F.; Shaikh, Abeera; Mill, Jonathan; Reul, Johannes M. H. M.

    2016-01-01

    Stressful events evoke long-term changes in behavioral responses; however, the underlying mechanisms in the brain are not well understood. Previous work has shown that epigenetic changes and immediate-early gene (IEG) induction in stress-activated dentate gyrus (DG) granule neurons play a crucial role in these behavioral responses. Here, we show that an acute stressful challenge [i.e., forced swimming (FS)] results in DNA demethylation at specific CpG (5′-cytosine–phosphate–guanine-3′) sites close to the c-Fos (FBJ murine osteosarcoma viral oncogene homolog) transcriptional start site and within the gene promoter region of Egr-1 (early growth response protein 1) specifically in the DG. Administration of the (endogenous) methyl donor S-adenosyl methionine (SAM) did not affect CpG methylation and IEG gene expression at baseline. However, administration of SAM before the FS challenge resulted in an enhanced CpG methylation at the IEG loci and suppression of IEG induction specifically in the DG and an impaired behavioral immobility response 24 h later. The stressor also specifically increased the expression of the de novo DNA methyltransferase Dnmt3a [DNA (cytosine-5-)-methyltransferase 3 alpha] in this hippocampus region. Moreover, stress resulted in an increased association of Dnmt3a enzyme with the affected CpG loci within the IEG genes. No effects of SAM were observed on stress-evoked histone modifications, including H3S10p-K14ac (histone H3, phosphorylated serine 10 and acetylated lysine-14), H3K4me3 (histone H3, trimethylated lysine-4), H3K9me3 (histone H3, trimethylated lysine-9), and H3K27me3 (histone H3, trimethylated lysine-27). We conclude that the DNA methylation status of IEGs plays a crucial role in FS-induced IEG induction in DG granule neurons and associated behavioral responses. In addition, the concentration of available methyl donor, possibly in conjunction with Dnmt3a, is critical for the responsiveness of dentate neurons to environmental

  4. Prenatal stress, regardless of concurrent escitalopram treatment, alters behavior and amygdala gene expression of adolescent female rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlich, David E.; Neigh, Gretchen N.; Bourke, Chase H.; Nemeth, Christina L.; Hazra, Rimi; Ryan, Steven J.; Rowson, Sydney; Jairam, Nesha; Sholar, Courtney; Rainnie, Donald G.; Stowe, Zachary N.; Owens, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Depression during pregnancy has been linked to in utero stress and is associated with long-lasting symptoms in offspring, including anxiety, helplessness, attentional deficits, and social withdrawal. Depression is diagnosed in 10-20% of expectant mothers, but the impact of antidepressant treatment on offspring development is not well documented, particularly for females. Here, we used a prenatal stress model of maternal depression to test the hypothesis that in utero antidepressant treatment could mitigate the effects of prenatal stress. We also investigated the effects of prenatal stress and antidepressant treatment on gene expression related to GABAergic and serotonergic neurotransmission in the amygdala, which may underlie behavioral effects of prenatal stress. Nulliparous female rats were implanted with osmotic minipumps delivering clinically-relevant concentrations of escitalopram and mated. Pregnant dams were exposed to 12 days of mixed-modality stressors, and offspring were behaviorally assessed in adolescence (postnatal day 28) and adulthood (beyond day 90) to determine the extent of behavioral change. We found that in utero stress exposure, regardless of escitalopram treatment, increased anxiety-like behavior in adolescent females and profoundly influenced amygdala expression of the chloride transporters KCC2 and NKCC1, which regulate GABAergic function. In contrast, prenatal escitalopram exposure alone elevated amygdala expression of 5-HT1A receptors. In adulthood, anxiety-like behavior returned to baseline and gene expression effects in the amygdala abated, whereas deficits emerged in novel object recognition for rats exposed to stress during gestation. These findings suggest prenatal stress causes age-dependent deficits in anxiety-like behavior and amygdala function in female offspring, regardless of antidepressant exposure. PMID:26032436

  5. Acute Exposure to Fluoxetine Alters Aggressive Behavior of Zebrafish and Expression of Genes Involved in Serotonergic System Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michail Pavlidis

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Zebrafish, Danio rerio, is an emerging model organism in stress and neurobehavioral studies. In nature, the species forms shoals, yet when kept in pairs it exhibits an agonistic and anxiety-like behavior that leads to the establishment of dominant-subordinate relationships. Fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, is used as an anxiolytic tool to alter aggressive behavior in several vertebrates and as an antidepressant drug in humans. Pairs of male zebrafish were held overnight to develop dominant—subordinate behavior, either treated or non-treated for 2 h with fluoxetine (5 mg L−1, and allowed to interact once more for 1 h. Behavior was recorded both prior and after fluoxetine administration. At the end of the experiment, trunk and brain samples were also taken for cortisol determination and mRNA expression studies, respectively. Fluoxetine treatment significantly affected zebrafish behavior and the expression levels of several genes, by decreasing offensive aggression in dominants and by eliminating freezing in the subordinates. There was no statistically significant difference in whole-trunk cortisol concentrations between dominant and subordinate fish, while fluoxetine treatment resulted in higher (P = 0.004 cortisol concentrations in both groups. There were statistically significant differences between dominant and subordinate fish in brain mRNA expression levels of genes involved in stress axis (gr, mr, neural activity (bdnf, c-fos, and the serotonergic system (htr2b, slc6a4b. The significant decrease in the offensive and defensive aggression following fluoxetine treatment was concomitant with a reversed pattern in c-fos expression levels. Overall, an acute administration of a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor alters aggressive behavior in male zebrafish in association with changes in the neuroendocrine mediators of coping styles.

  6. Gene-Environment Interplay between Number of Friends and Prosocial Leadership Behavior in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivizzigno, Alessandra S.; Brendgen, Mara; Feng, Bei; Vitaro, Frank; Dionne, Ginette; Tremblay, Richard E.; Boivin, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Enriched environments may moderate the effect of genetic factors on prosocial leadership (gene-environment interaction, G × E). However, positive environmental experiences may also themselves be influenced by a genetic disposition for prosocial leadership (gene-environment correlation, rGE). Relating these processes to friendships, the present…

  7. Normally occurring environmental and behavioral influences on gene activity: from central dogma to probabilistic epigenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, G

    1998-10-01

    The central dogma of molecular biology holds that "information" flows from the genes to the structure of the proteins that the genes bring about through the formula DNA-->RNA-->Protein. In this view, a set of master genes activates the DNA necessary to produce the appropriate proteins that the organism needs during development. In contrast to this view, probabilistic epigenesis holds that necessarily there are signals from the internal and external environment that activate DNA to produce the appropriate proteins. To support this view, a substantial body of evidence is reviewed showing that external environmental influences on gene activation are normally occurring events in a large variety of organisms, including humans. This demonstrates how genes and environments work together to produce functional organisms, thus extending the author's model of probabilistic epigenesis.

  8. Sampler bias -- Phase 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, R.J.

    1995-01-01

    This documents Phase 1 determinations on sampler induced bias for four sampler types used in tank characterization. Each sampler, grab sampler or bottle-on-a-string, auger sampler, sludge sampler and universal sampler, is briefly discussed and their physical limits noted. Phase 2 of this document will define additional testing and analysis to further define Sampler Bias

  9. Photovoltaic Bias Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-01

    Department of the Army position unless so designated by other authorized documents. Citation of manufacturer’s or trade names does not constitute an... Interior view of the photovoltaic bias generator showing wrapped-wire side of circuit board...3 Fig. 4 Interior view of the photovoltaic bias generator showing component side of circuit board

  10. Biases in categorization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Das-Smaal, E.A.

    1990-01-01

    On what grounds can we conclude that an act of categorization is biased? In this chapter, it is contended that in the absence of objective norms of what categories actually are, biases in categorization can only be specified in relation to theoretical understandings of categorization. Therefore, the

  11. Paternal Aging Affects Behavior in Pax6 Mutant Mice: A Gene/Environment Interaction in Understanding Neurodevelopmental Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshizaki, Kaichi; Furuse, Tamio; Kimura, Ryuichi; Tucci, Valter; Kaneda, Hideki; Wakana, Shigeharu; Osumi, Noriko

    2016-01-01

    Neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have increased over the last few decades. These neurodevelopmental disorders are characterized by a complex etiology, which involves multiple genes and gene-environmental interactions. Various genes that control specific properties of neural development exert pivotal roles in the occurrence and severity of phenotypes associated with neurodevelopmental disorders. Moreover, paternal aging has been reported as one of the factors that contribute to the risk of ASD and ADHD. Here we report, for the first time, that paternal aging has profound effects on the onset of behavioral abnormalities in mice carrying a mutation of Pax6, a gene with neurodevelopmental regulatory functions. We adopted an in vitro fertilization approach to restrict the influence of additional factors. Comprehensive behavioral analyses were performed in Sey/+ mice (i.e., Pax6 mutant heterozygotes) born from in vitro fertilization of sperm taken from young or aged Sey/+ fathers. No body weight changes were found in the four groups, i.e., Sey/+ and wild type (WT) mice born to young or aged father. However, we found important differences in maternal separation-induced ultrasonic vocalizations of Sey/+ mice born from young father and in the level of hyperactivity of Sey/+ mice born from aged fathers in the open-field test, respectively, compared to WT littermates. Phenotypes of anxiety were observed in both genotypes born from aged fathers compared with those born from young fathers. No significant difference was found in social behavior and sensorimotor gating among the four groups. These results indicate that mice with a single genetic risk factor can develop different phenotypes depending on the paternal age. Our study advocates for serious considerations on the role of paternal aging in breeding strategies for animal studies.

  12. Paternal Aging Affects Behavior in Pax6 Mutant Mice: A Gene/Environment Interaction in Understanding Neurodevelopmental Disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaichi Yoshizaki

    Full Text Available Neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD and attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD have increased over the last few decades. These neurodevelopmental disorders are characterized by a complex etiology, which involves multiple genes and gene-environmental interactions. Various genes that control specific properties of neural development exert pivotal roles in the occurrence and severity of phenotypes associated with neurodevelopmental disorders. Moreover, paternal aging has been reported as one of the factors that contribute to the risk of ASD and ADHD. Here we report, for the first time, that paternal aging has profound effects on the onset of behavioral abnormalities in mice carrying a mutation of Pax6, a gene with neurodevelopmental regulatory functions. We adopted an in vitro fertilization approach to restrict the influence of additional factors. Comprehensive behavioral analyses were performed in Sey/+ mice (i.e., Pax6 mutant heterozygotes born from in vitro fertilization of sperm taken from young or aged Sey/+ fathers. No body weight changes were found in the four groups, i.e., Sey/+ and wild type (WT mice born to young or aged father. However, we found important differences in maternal separation-induced ultrasonic vocalizations of Sey/+ mice born from young father and in the level of hyperactivity of Sey/+ mice born from aged fathers in the open-field test, respectively, compared to WT littermates. Phenotypes of anxiety were observed in both genotypes born from aged fathers compared with those born from young fathers. No significant difference was found in social behavior and sensorimotor gating among the four groups. These results indicate that mice with a single genetic risk factor can develop different phenotypes depending on the paternal age. Our study advocates for serious considerations on the role of paternal aging in breeding strategies for animal studies.

  13. Polymorphisms in dopaminergic system genes; association with criminal behavior and self-reported aggression in violent prison inmates from Pakistan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Imran Qadeer

    Full Text Available Genetic factors contribute to antisocial and criminal behavior. Dopamine transporter DAT-1 (SLC6A3 and DRD2 gene for the dopamine-2 receptor are dopaminergic system genes that regulate dopamine reuptake and signaling, and may be part of the pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders including antisocial behaviors and traits. No previous studies have analyzed DAT-1 and DRD2 polymorphisms in convicted murderers, particularly from Indian subcontinent. In this study we investigated the association of 40 bp VNTR polymorphism of DAT-1 and Taq1 variant of DRD2 gene (rs1800479 with criminal behavior and self-reported aggression in 729 subjects, including 370 men in Pakistani prisons convicted of first degree murder(s and 359 control men without any history of violence or criminal tendency. The 9R allele of DAT-1 VNTR polymorphism was more prevalent in convicted murderers compared with control samples, for either one or two risk alleles (OR = 1.49 and 3.99 respectively, P = 0.003. This potential association of DAT-1 9R allele polymorphism with murderer phenotype was confirmed assuming different genetic models of inheritance. However, no genetic association was found for DRD2 Taq1 polymorphism. In addition, a combined haplotype (9R-A2 of DAT-1 and DRD2 genes was associated with this murderer phenotype. Further, 9R allele of DAT-1 was also associated with response to verbal abuse and parental marital complications, but not with other measures pertinent to self-reported aggression. These results suggest that 9R allele, which may influence levels of intra-synaptic dopamine in the brain, may contribute to criminal tendency in this sample of violent murderers of Pakistani origin. Future studies are needed to replicate this finding in other populations of murderers and see if this finding extends to other forms of violence and lesser degrees of aggression.

  14. Approximate Bias Correction in Econometrics

    OpenAIRE

    James G. MacKinnon; Anthony A. Smith Jr.

    1995-01-01

    This paper discusses ways to reduce the bias of consistent estimators that are biased in finite samples. It is necessary that the bias function, which relates parameter values to bias, should be estimable by computer simulation or by some other method. If so, bias can be reduced or, in some cases that may not be unrealistic, even eliminated. In general, several evaluations of the bias function will be required to do this. Unfortunately, reducing bias may increase the variance, or even the mea...

  15. Observed parenting behaviors interact with a polymorphism of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene to predict the emergence of oppositional defiant and callous-unemotional behaviors at age 3 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willoughby, Michael T; Mills-Koonce, Roger; Propper, Cathi B; Waschbusch, Daniel A

    2013-11-01

    Using the Durham Child Health and Development Study, this study (N = 171) tested whether observed parenting behaviors in infancy (6 and 12 months) and toddlerhood/preschool (24 and 36 months) interacted with a child polymorphism of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene to predict oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and callous-unemotional (CU) behaviors at age 3 years. Child genotype interacted with observed harsh and intrusive (but not sensitive) parenting to predict ODD and CU behaviors. Harsh-intrusive parenting was more strongly associated with ODD and CU for children with a methionine allele of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene. CU behaviors were uniquely predicted by harsh-intrusive parenting in infancy, whereas ODD behaviors were predicted by harsh-intrusive parenting in both infancy and toddlerhood/preschool. The results are discussed from the perspective of the contributions of caregiving behaviors as contributing to distinct aspects of early onset disruptive behavior.

  16. Calibration of SMA material model for the prediction of the ‘evolutionary’ load-bias behavior under conditions of extended thermal cycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleeb, A F; Dhakal, B; Padula II, S A; Gaydosh, D J

    2013-01-01

    This work is focused on the characterization of the cyclic response of the 55NiTi polycrystalline material system using a recently formulated, multimechanism-based, modeling framework. It has a number of significant contributions. First, it presents a comprehensive characterization of such a complex material system under broad thermo-mechanical loading conditions in isobaric experiments that cover: (a) the entire relevant stress range from 10 to 300 MPa, and (b) sufficient number of thermal cycles to enable the investigation of the details of the evolution of the cyclic strain-versus-temperature hysteresis loops. Second, the detailed comparisons presented for the model results and the experimental measurements provide the necessary validation of the modeling capabilities of the multimechanism framework. Third, specific plots are given detailing the variations with thermal cycling of the internal variables associated with each of the individual inelastic mechanisms. Fourth, an anatomical discussion details the interplay between the internal mechanisms to describe the material behavior within all the important response characteristic regions, thus providing a convenient means to complement the theoretical concepts in the mathematical approach. Given the comprehensive nature of this model, and its successful experimental validation under a wide range of conditions, it is believed that the model is capable of analyzing 55NiTi actuators. It is also emphasized that the insights provided in this work will carry forth to characterization of other SMA material systems. (paper)

  17. Double-Blinding and Bias in Medication and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Trials for Major Depressive Disorder [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Berger

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available While double-blinding is a crucial aspect of study design in an interventional clinical trial of medication for a disorder with subjective endpoints such as major depressive disorder, psychotherapy clinical trials, particularly cognitive-behavioral therapy trials, cannot be double-blinded. This paper highlights the evidence-based medicine problem of double-blinding in the outcome research of a psychotherapy and opines that psychotherapy clinical trials should be called, “partially-controlled clinical data” because they are not double-blinded. The implications for practice are, 1. For practitioners to be clear with patients the level of rigor to which interventions have been studied, 2. For authors of psychotherapy outcome studies to be clear that the problem in the inability to blind a psychotherapy trial severely restricts the validity of any conclusions that can be drawn, and 3. To petition National Health Insurance plans to use caution in approving interventions studied without double-blinded confirmatory trials as they may lead patients to avoid other treatments shown to be effective in double-blinded trials.

  18. Differential gene expression associated with honey bee grooming behavior in response to varroa mites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honey bee (Apis mellifera) grooming behavior is an important mechanism of resistance against the parasitic mite Varroa destructor. This research was conducted to study associations between grooming behavior and the expression of selected immune, neural, detoxification, developmental and health-relat...

  19. Redox-Active Antibiotics Control Gene Expression and Community Behavior in Divergent Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Dietrich, Lars E. P.; Teal, Tracy K.; Price-Whelan, Alexa; Newman, Dianne K.

    2008-01-01

    It is thought that bacteria excrete redox-active pigments as antibiotics to inhibit competitors. In Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the endogenous antibiotic pyocyanin activates SoxR, a transcription factor conserved in Proteo- and Actinobacteria. In Escherichia coli, SoxR regulates the superoxide stress response. Bioinformatic analysis coupled with gene expression studies in P. aeruginosa and Streptomyces coelicolor revealed that the majority of SoxR regulons in bacteria lack the genes required for ...

  20. Context and Individual Characteristics Modulate the Association between Oxytocin Receptor Gene Polymorphism and Social Behavior in Border Collies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borbála Turcsán

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies suggest that the relationship between endogenous oxytocin and social affiliative behavior can be critically moderated by contextual and individual factors in humans. While oxytocin has been shown to influence human-directed affiliative behaviors in dogs, no study investigated yet how such factors moderate these effects. Our study aimed to investigate whether the context and the dogs’ individual characteristics moderate the associations between the social affiliative (greeting behavior and four single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs of the oxytocin receptor (OXTR gene. We recorded the greeting behavior in three contexts: (1 when the dog first met an unfamiliar experimenter, (2 during a separation from the owner, and (3 after the experimenter approached the dog in a threatening manner. In the latter two contexts (during separation and after threatening, we categorized the dogs into stressed and non-stressed groups based on their behavior in the preceding situations. In line with previous studies, we found that polymorphisms in the OXTR gene are related to the greeting behavior of dogs. However, we also showed that the analyzed SNPs were associated with greeting in different contexts and in different individuals, suggesting that the four SNPs might be related to different functions of the oxytocin system. The -213A/G was associated with greeting only when the dog had no prior negative experience with the experimenter. The rs8679682 was found in association with greeting in all three contexts but these associations were significant only in non-stressed dogs. The -94T/C was associated with greeting only when the dog was stressed and had an interaction with the sex of the dog. The -74C/G SNP was associated with greeting only when the dog was stressed during separation and also had a sex interaction. Taken together, our results suggest that, similarly to humans, the effects of oxytocin on the dogs’ social behavior are not universal

  1. Systematic biases in human heading estimation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi F Cuturi

    Full Text Available Heading estimation is vital to everyday navigation and locomotion. Despite extensive behavioral and physiological research on both visual and vestibular heading estimation over more than two decades, the accuracy of heading estimation has not yet been systematically evaluated. Therefore human visual and vestibular heading estimation was assessed in the horizontal plane using a motion platform and stereo visual display. Heading angle was overestimated during forward movements and underestimated during backward movements in response to both visual and vestibular stimuli, indicating an overall multimodal bias toward lateral directions. Lateral biases are consistent with the overrepresentation of lateral preferred directions observed in neural populations that carry visual and vestibular heading information, including MSTd and otolith afferent populations. Due to this overrepresentation, population vector decoding yields patterns of bias remarkably similar to those observed behaviorally. Lateral biases are inconsistent with standard bayesian accounts which predict that estimates should be biased toward the most common straight forward heading direction. Nevertheless, lateral biases may be functionally relevant. They effectively constitute a perceptual scale expansion around straight ahead which could allow for more precise estimation and provide a high gain feedback signal to facilitate maintenance of straight-forward heading during everyday navigation and locomotion.

  2. High-resolution linkage analyses to identify genes that influence Varroa sensitive hygiene behavior in honey bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuruda, Jennifer M; Harris, Jeffrey W; Bourgeois, Lanie; Danka, Robert G; Hunt, Greg J

    2012-01-01

    Varroa mites (V. destructor) are a major threat to honey bees (Apis melilfera) and beekeeping worldwide and likely lead to colony decline if colonies are not treated. Most treatments involve chemical control of the mites; however, Varroa has evolved resistance to many of these miticides, leaving beekeepers with a limited number of alternatives. A non-chemical control method is highly desirable for numerous reasons including lack of chemical residues and decreased likelihood of resistance. Varroa sensitive hygiene behavior is one of two behaviors identified that are most important for controlling the growth of Varroa populations in bee hives. To identify genes influencing this trait, a study was conducted to map quantitative trait loci (QTL). Individual workers of a backcross family were observed and evaluated for their VSH behavior in a mite-infested observation hive. Bees that uncapped or removed pupae were identified. The genotypes for 1,340 informative single nucleotide polymorphisms were used to construct a high-resolution genetic map and interval mapping was used to analyze the association of the genotypes with the performance of Varroa sensitive hygiene. We identified one major QTL on chromosome 9 (LOD score = 3.21) and a suggestive QTL on chromosome 1 (LOD = 1.95). The QTL confidence interval on chromosome 9 contains the gene 'no receptor potential A' and a dopamine receptor. 'No receptor potential A' is involved in vision and olfaction in Drosophila, and dopamine signaling has been previously shown to be required for aversive olfactory learning in honey bees, which is probably necessary for identifying mites within brood cells. Further studies on these candidate genes may allow for breeding bees with this trait using marker-assisted selection.

  3. High-resolution linkage analyses to identify genes that influence Varroa sensitive hygiene behavior in honey bees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M Tsuruda

    Full Text Available Varroa mites (V. destructor are a major threat to honey bees (Apis melilfera and beekeeping worldwide and likely lead to colony decline if colonies are not treated. Most treatments involve chemical control of the mites; however, Varroa has evolved resistance to many of these miticides, leaving beekeepers with a limited number of alternatives. A non-chemical control method is highly desirable for numerous reasons including lack of chemical residues and decreased likelihood of resistance. Varroa sensitive hygiene behavior is one of two behaviors identified that are most important for controlling the growth of Varroa populations in bee hives. To identify genes influencing this trait, a study was conducted to map quantitative trait loci (QTL. Individual workers of a backcross family were observed and evaluated for their VSH behavior in a mite-infested observation hive. Bees that uncapped or removed pupae were identified. The genotypes for 1,340 informative single nucleotide polymorphisms were used to construct a high-resolution genetic map and interval mapping was used to analyze the association of the genotypes with the performance of Varroa sensitive hygiene. We identified one major QTL on chromosome 9 (LOD score = 3.21 and a suggestive QTL on chromosome 1 (LOD = 1.95. The QTL confidence interval on chromosome 9 contains the gene 'no receptor potential A' and a dopamine receptor. 'No receptor potential A' is involved in vision and olfaction in Drosophila, and dopamine signaling has been previously shown to be required for aversive olfactory learning in honey bees, which is probably necessary for identifying mites within brood cells. Further studies on these candidate genes may allow for breeding bees with this trait using marker-assisted selection.

  4. Cognitive bias in symptomatic and recovered agoraphobics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoler, L S; McNally, R J

    1991-01-01

    Symptomatic agoraphobics, recovered agoraphobics, and normal control subjects completed a series of sentence stems that had either ambiguous or unambiguous meanings, and had either a potentially threatening or a nonthreatening connotation. The written completions made by subjects to these stems were classified as indicating either a biased (i.e. threat-related) or unbiased interpretation of the meaning of the stem, and if a biased interpretation was made, whether the subject indicated efforts at adaptive coping with the perceived threat. Results indicated that symptomatic agoraphobics exhibited strong biases for interpreting information as threatening, relative to normal control subjects. Moreover, recovered agoraphobics resembled symptomatic agoraphobics more than normal control subjects, thus indicating that cognitive biases may persist following cessation of panic attacks and reductions in avoidance behavior. However, recovered agoraphobics also exhibited tendencies to cope adaptively with perceived threats whereas symptomatic agoraphobics did not.

  5. Bias aware Kalman filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drecourt, J.-P.; Madsen, H.; Rosbjerg, Dan

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews two different approaches that have been proposed to tackle the problems of model bias with the Kalman filter: the use of a colored noise model and the implementation of a separate bias filter. Both filters are implemented with and without feedback of the bias into the model state....... The colored noise filter formulation is extended to correct both time correlated and uncorrelated model error components. A more stable version of the separate filter without feedback is presented. The filters are implemented in an ensemble framework using Latin hypercube sampling. The techniques...... are illustrated on a simple one-dimensional groundwater problem. The results show that the presented filters outperform the standard Kalman filter and that the implementations with bias feedback work in more general conditions than the implementations without feedback. 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  6. Biases in casino betting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Sundali

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available We examine two departures of individual perceptions of randomness from probability theory: the hot hand and the gambler's fallacy, and their respective opposites. This paper's first contribution is to use data from the field (individuals playing roulette in a casino to demonstrate the existence and impact of these biases that have been previously documented in the lab. Decisions in the field are consistent with biased beliefs, although we observe significant individual heterogeneity in the population. A second contribution is to separately identify these biases within a given individual, then to examine their within-person correlation. We find a positive and significant correlation across individuals between hot hand and gambler's fallacy biases, suggesting a common (root cause of the two related errors. We speculate as to the source of this correlation (locus of control, and suggest future research which could test this speculation.

  7. Introduction to Unconscious Bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmelz, Joan T.

    2010-05-01

    We all have biases, and we are (for the most part) unaware of them. In general, men and women BOTH unconsciously devalue the contributions of women. This can have a detrimental effect on grant proposals, job applications, and performance reviews. Sociology is way ahead of astronomy in these studies. When evaluating identical application packages, male and female University psychology professors preferred 2:1 to hire "Brian” over "Karen” as an assistant professor. When evaluating a more experienced record (at the point of promotion to tenure), reservations were expressed four times more often when the name was female. This unconscious bias has a repeated negative effect on Karen's career. This talk will introduce the concept of unconscious bias and also give recommendations on how to address it using an example for a faculty search committee. The process of eliminating unconscious bias begins with awareness, then moves to policy and practice, and ends with accountability.

  8. Birth and Adoptive Parent Antisocial Behavior and Parenting: A Study of Evocative Gene-Environment Correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klahr, Ashlea M; Burt, S Alexandra; Leve, Leslie D; Shaw, Daniel S; Ganiban, Jody M; Reiss, David; Neiderhiser, Jenae M

    2017-03-01

    Negative parenting is shaped by the genetically influenced characteristics of children (via evocative rGE) and by parental antisocial behavior; however, it is unclear how these factors jointly impact parenting. This study examined the effects of birth parent and adoptive parent antisocial behavior on negative parenting. Participants included 546 families within a prospective adoption study. Adoptive parent antisocial behavior emerged as a small but significant predictor of negative parenting at 18 months and of change in parenting from 18 to 27 months. Birth parent antisocial behavior predicted change in adoptive father's (but not mother's) parenting over time. These findings highlight the role of parent characteristics and suggest that evocative rGE effects on parenting may be small in magnitude in early childhood. © 2016 The Authors. Child Development © 2016 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  9. Australia's Bond Home Bias

    OpenAIRE

    Anil V. Mishra; Umaru B. Conteh

    2014-01-01

    This paper constructs the float adjusted measure of home bias and explores the determinants of bond home bias by employing the International Monetary Fund's high quality dataset (2001 to 2009) on cross-border bond investment. The paper finds that Australian investors' prefer investing in countries with higher economic development and more developed bond markets. Exchange rate volatility appears to be an impediment for cross-border bond investment. Investors prefer investing in countries with ...

  10. Social reward shapes attentional biases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Brian A

    2016-01-01

    Paying attention to stimuli that predict a reward outcome is important for an organism to survive and thrive. When visual stimuli are associated with tangible, extrinsic rewards such as money or food, these stimuli acquire high attentional priority and come to automatically capture attention. In humans and other primates, however, many behaviors are not motivated directly by such extrinsic rewards, but rather by the social feedback that results from performing those behaviors. In the present study, I examine whether positive social feedback can similarly influence attentional bias. The results show that stimuli previously associated with a high probability of positive social feedback elicit value-driven attentional capture, much like stimuli associated with extrinsic rewards. Unlike with extrinsic rewards, however, such stimuli also influence task-specific motivation. My findings offer a potential mechanism by which social reward shapes the information that we prioritize when perceiving the world around us.

  11. Redox-active antibiotics control gene expression and community behavior in divergent bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Lars E P; Teal, Tracy K; Price-Whelan, Alexa; Newman, Dianne K

    2008-08-29

    It is thought that bacteria excrete redox-active pigments as antibiotics to inhibit competitors. In Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the endogenous antibiotic pyocyanin activates SoxR, a transcription factor conserved in Proteo- and Actinobacteria. In Escherichia coli, SoxR regulates the superoxide stress response. Bioinformatic analysis coupled with gene expression studies in P. aeruginosa and Streptomyces coelicolor revealed that the majority of SoxR regulons in bacteria lack the genes required for stress responses, despite the fact that many of these organisms still produce redox-active small molecules, which indicates that redox-active pigments play a role independent of oxidative stress. These compounds had profound effects on the structural organization of colony biofilms in both P. aeruginosa and S. coelicolor, which shows that "secondary metabolites" play important conserved roles in gene expression and development.

  12. OCD candidate gene SLC1A1/EAAT3 impacts basal ganglia-mediated activity and stereotypic behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zike, Isaac D; Chohan, Muhammad O; Kopelman, Jared M; Krasnow, Emily N; Flicker, Daniel; Nautiyal, Katherine M; Bubser, Michael; Kellendonk, Christoph; Jones, Carrie K; Stanwood, Gregg; Tanaka, Kenji Fransis; Moore, Holly; Ahmari, Susanne E; Veenstra-VanderWeele, Jeremy

    2017-05-30

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic, disabling condition with inadequate treatment options that leave most patients with substantial residual symptoms. Structural, neurochemical, and behavioral findings point to a significant role for basal ganglia circuits and for the glutamate system in OCD. Genetic linkage and association studies in OCD point to SLC1A1 , which encodes the neuronal glutamate/aspartate/cysteine transporter excitatory amino acid transporter 3 (EAAT3)/excitatory amino acid transporter 1 (EAAC1). However, no previous studies have investigated EAAT3 in basal ganglia circuits or in relation to OCD-related behavior. Here, we report a model of Slc1a1 loss based on an excisable STOP cassette that yields successful ablation of EAAT3 expression and function. Using amphetamine as a probe, we found that EAAT3 loss prevents expected increases in ( i ) locomotor activity, ( ii ) stereotypy, and ( iii ) immediate early gene induction in the dorsal striatum following amphetamine administration. Further, Slc1a1 -STOP mice showed diminished grooming in an SKF-38393 challenge experiment, a pharmacologic model of OCD-like grooming behavior. This reduced grooming is accompanied by reduced dopamine D 1 receptor binding in the dorsal striatum of Slc1a1 -STOP mice. Slc1a1 -STOP mice also exhibit reduced extracellular dopamine concentrations in the dorsal striatum both at baseline and following amphetamine challenge. Viral-mediated restoration of Slc1a1 /EAAT3 expression in the midbrain but not in the striatum results in partial rescue of amphetamine-induced locomotion and stereotypy in Slc1a1 -STOP mice, consistent with an impact of EAAT3 loss on presynaptic dopaminergic function. Collectively, these findings indicate that the most consistently associated OCD candidate gene impacts basal ganglia-dependent repetitive behaviors.

  13. Differential impact of Met receptor gene interaction with early-life stress on neuronal morphology and behavior in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heun-Johnson, Hanke; Levitt, Pat

    2018-02-01

    Early adversity in childhood increases the risk of anxiety, mood, and post-traumatic stress disorders in adulthood, and specific gene-by-environment interactions may increase risk further. A common functional variant in the promoter region of the gene encoding the human MET receptor tyrosine kinase (rs1858830 ' C' allele) reduces expression of MET and is associated with altered cortical circuit function and structural connectivity. Mice with reduced Met expression exhibit changes in anxiety-like and conditioned fear behavior, precocious synaptic maturation in the hippocampus, and reduced neuronal arbor complexity and synaptogenesis. These phenotypes also can be produced independently by early adversity in wild-type mice. The present study addresses the outcome of combining early-life stress and genetic influences that alter timing of maturation on enduring functional and structural phenotypes. Using a model of reduced Met expression ( Met +/- ) and early-life stress from postnatal day 2-9, social, anxiety-like, and contextual fear behaviors in later life were measured. Mice that experienced early-life stress exhibited impairments in social interaction, whereas alterations in anxiety-like behavior and fear learning were driven by Met haploinsufficiency, independent of rearing condition. Early-life stress or reduced Met expression decreased arbor complexity of ventral hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons projecting to basolateral amygdala. Paradoxically, arbor complexity in Met +/- mice was increased following early-life stress, and thus not different from arbors in wild-type mice raised in control conditions. The changes in dendritic morphology are consistent with the hypothesis that the physiological state of maturation of CA1 neurons in Met +/- mice influences their responsiveness to early-life stress. The dissociation of behavioral and structural changes suggests that there may be phenotype-specific sensitivities to early-life stress.

  14. Social Isolation Stress Induces Anxious-Depressive-Like Behavior and Alterations of Neuroplasticity-Related Genes in Adult Male Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Ieraci

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress is a major risk factor in the onset of several neuropsychiatric disorders including anxiety and depression. Although several studies have shown that social isolation stress during postweaning period induces behavioral and brain molecular changes, the effects of social isolation on behavior during adulthood have been less characterized. Aim of this work was to investigate the relationship between the behavioral alterations and brain molecular changes induced by chronic social isolation stress in adult male mice. Plasma corticosterone levels and adrenal glands weight were also analyzed. Socially isolated (SI mice showed higher locomotor activity, spent less time in the open field center, and displayed higher immobility time in the tail suspension test compared to group-housed (GH mice. SI mice exhibited reduced plasma corticosterone levels and reduced difference between right and left adrenal glands. SI showed lower mRNA levels of the BDNF-7 splice variant, c-Fos, Arc, and Egr-1 in both hippocampus and prefrontal cortex compared to GH mice. Finally, SI mice exhibited selectively reduced mGluR1 and mGluR2 levels in the prefrontal cortex. Altogether, these results suggest that anxious- and depressive-like behavior induced by social isolation stress correlates with reduction of several neuroplasticity-related genes in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex of adult male mice.

  15. Early life stress affects mortality rate more than social behavior, gene expression or oxidative damage in honey bee workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueppell, Olav; Yousefi, Babak; Collazo, Juan; Smith, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    Early life stressors can affect aging and life expectancy in positive or negative ways. Individuals can adjust their behavior and molecular physiology based on early life experiences but relatively few studies have connected such mechanisms to demographic patterns in social organisms. Sociality buffers individuals from environmental influences and it is unclear how much early life stress affects later life history. Workers of the honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) were exposed to two stressors, Varroa parasitism and Paraquat exposure, early in life. Consequences were measured at the molecular, behavioral, and demographic level. While treatments did not significantly affect levels of oxidative damage, expression of select genes, and titers of the common deformed wing virus, most of these measures were affected by age. Some of the age effects, such as declining levels of deformed wing virus and oxidative damage, were opposite to our predictions but may be explained by demographic selection. Further analyses suggested some influences of worker behavior on mortality and indicated weak treatment effects on behavior. The latter effects were inconsistent among the two experiments. However, mortality rate was consistently reduced by Varroa mite stress during development. Thus, mortality was more responsive to early life stress than our other response variables. The lack of treatment effects on these measures may be due to the social organization of honey bees that buffers the individual from the impact of stressful developmental conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. DHA Mitigates Autistic Behaviors Accompanied by Dopaminergic Change in a Gene/Prenatal Stress Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Fumihiro; Hecht, Patrick; Yoshimoto, Kanji; Watanabe, Yoshihisa; Morimoto, Masafumi; Fritsche, Kevin; Will, Matthew; Beversdorf, David

    2018-02-10

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is characterized by impairments in social interaction, social communication, and repetitive and stereotyped behaviors. Recent work has begun to explore gene × environmental interactions in the etiology of ASD. We previously reported that prenatal stress exposure in stress-susceptible heterozygous serotonin transporter (SERT) KO pregnant dams in a mouse model resulted in autism-like behavior in the offspring (SERT/S mice). The association between prenatal stress and ASD appears to be affected by maternal SERT genotype in clinical populations as well. Using the mouse model, we examined autistic-like behaviors in greater detail, and additionally explored whether diet supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) may mitigate the behavioral changes. Only male SERT/S mice showed social impairment and stereotyped behavior, and DHA supplementation ameliorated some of these behaviors. We also measured monoamine levels in the SERT/S mice after three treatment paradigms: DHA-rich diet continuously from breeding (DHA diet), DHA-rich diet only after weaning (CTL/DHA diet) and control diet only (CTL diet). The dopamine (DA) content in the striatum was significantly increased in the SERT/S mice compared with wild-type (WT) mice, whereas no difference was observed with noradrenaline and serotonin content. Moreover, DA content in the striatum was significantly reduced in the SERT/S mice with the DHA-rich diet provided continuously from breeding. The results indicate that autism-associated behaviors and changes in the dopaminergic system in this setting can be mitigated with DHA supplementation. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Human amyloid β peptide and tau co-expression impairs behavior and causes specific gene expression changes in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chenyin; Saar, Valeria; Leung, Ka Lai; Chen, Liang; Wong, Garry

    2018-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the presence of extracellular amyloid plaques consisting of Amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) aggregates and neurofibrillary tangles formed by aggregation of hyperphosphorylated microtubule-associated protein tau. We generated a novel invertebrate model of AD by crossing Aβ1-42 (strain CL2355) with either pro-aggregating tau (strain BR5270) or anti-aggregating tau (strain BR5271) pan-neuronal expressing transgenic Caenorhabditis elegans. The lifespan and progeny viability of the double transgenic strains were significantly decreased compared with wild type N2 (P5E-21). RNA interference of 13 available top up-regulated genes in Aβ1-42+pro-aggregating tau animals revealed that F-box family genes and nep-4 could enhance life span deficits and chemotaxis deficits while Y39G8C.2 (TTBK2) could suppress these behaviors. Comparing the list of regulated genes from C. elegans to the top 60 genes related to human AD confirmed an overlap of 8 genes: patched homolog 1, PTCH1 (ptc-3), the Rab GTPase activating protein, TBC1D16 (tbc-16), the WD repeat and FYVE domain-containing protein 3, WDFY3 (wdfy-3), ADP-ribosylation factor guanine nucleotide exchange factor 2, ARFGEF2 (agef-1), Early B-cell Factor, EBF1 (unc-3), d-amino-acid oxidase, DAO (daao-1), glutamate receptor, metabotropic 1, GRM1 (mgl-2), prolyl 4-hydroxylase subunit alpha 2, P4HA2 (dpy-18 and phy-2). Taken together, our C. elegans double transgenic model provides insight on the fundamental neurobiologic processes underlying human AD and recapitulates selected transcriptomic changes observed in human AD brains. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Influence of behavioral biases on the assessment of multi-hazard risks and the implementation of multi-hazard risks mitigation measures: case study of multi-hazard cyclone shelters in Tamil Nadu, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komendantova, Nadejda; Patt, Anthony

    2013-04-01

    In December 2004, a multiple hazards event devastated the Tamil Nadu province of India. The Sumatra -Andaman earthquake with a magnitude of Mw=9.1-9.3 caused the Indian Ocean tsunami with wave heights up to 30 m, and flooding that reached up to two kilometers inland in some locations. More than 7,790 persons were killed in the province of Tamil Nadu, with 206 in its capital Chennai. The time lag between the earthquake and the tsunami's arrival in India was over an hour, therefore, if a suitable early warning system existed, a proper means of communicating the warning and shelters existing for people would exist, than while this would not have prevented the destruction of infrastructure, several thousands of human lives would have been saved. India has over forty years of experience in the construction of cyclone shelters. With additional efforts and investment, these shelters could be adapted to other types of hazards such as tsunamis and flooding, as well as the construction of new multi-hazard cyclone shelters (MPCS). It would therefore be possible to mitigate one hazard such as cyclones by the construction of a network of shelters while at the same time adapting these shelters to also deal with, for example, tsunamis, with some additional investment. In this historical case, the failure to consider multiple hazards caused significant human losses. The current paper investigates the patterns of the national decision-making process with regards to multiple hazards mitigation measures and how the presence of behavioral and cognitive biases influenced the perceptions of the probabilities of multiple hazards and the choices made for their mitigation by the national decision-makers. Our methodology was based on the analysis of existing reports from national and international organizations as well as available scientific literature on behavioral economics and natural hazards. The results identified several biases in the national decision-making process when the

  19. High School Students' Understanding of Chromosome/Gene Behavior during Meiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Jim; Dale, Michael

    1989-01-01

    Investigates high school students' understanding of the physical relationship of chromosomes and genes as expressed in their conceptual models and in their ability to manipulate the models to explain solutions to dihybrid cross problems. Describes three typical models and three students' reasoning processes. Discusses four implications. (YP)

  20. Downregulation of HOPX controls metastatic behavior in sarcoma cells and identifies genes associated with metastasis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kovářová, Denisa; Plachý, Jiří; Kosla, Jan; Trejbalová, Kateřina; Čermák, Vladimír; Hejnar, Jiří

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 10 (2013), s. 1235-1247 ISSN 1541-7786 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06061 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : homeobox gene * metastasis * HOPX Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.502, year: 2013

  1. The Role of the Catechol-o-methyltransferase (COMT) Gene Val158Met in Aggressive Behavior, A Review of Genetic Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qayyum, Arqam; Zai, Clement C.; Hirata, Yuko; Tiwari, Arun K.; Cheema, Sheraz; Nowrouzi, Behdin; Beitchman, Joseph H.; Kennedy, James L.

    2015-01-01

    Aggressive behaviors have become a major public health problem, and early-onset aggression can lead to outcomes such as substance abuse, antisocial personality disorder among other issues. In recent years, there has been an increase in research in the molecular and genetic underpinnings of aggressive behavior, and one of the candidate genes codes for the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT). COMT is involved in catabolizing catecholamines such as dopamine. These neurotransmitters appear to be involved in regulating mood which can contribute to aggression. The most common gene variant studied in the COMT gene is the Valine (Val) to Methionine (Met) substitution at codon 158. We will be reviewing the current literature on this gene variant in aggressive behavior. PMID:26630958

  2. Gender-Biased Communication in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valley, Julia A.; Graber, Kim C.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined physical education teachers' awareness of gender equitable practices as well as the language and behaviors they employed in the physical education environment. The purpose of the study was to determine (a) what teachers know about gender equitable practices, (b) what types of gender bias are demonstrated, and (c) how…

  3. [Association between the canine monoamine oxidase B (MAOB) gene polymorphisms and behavior of puppies in open-field test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Hui; Xu, Han-Kun; Mao, Da-Gan; Ma, Da-Jun; Chen, Peng; Yang, Li-Guo

    2006-11-01

    Excitability, activity and exploration behavior of puppies in a novel open-field were tested in a total of 204 two-month-old German shepherd dog, labrador retriever or English springer spaniel puppies. The polymorphisms of monoamine oxidase B gene (MAOB) were detected by PCR-RFLP. Statistics analysis indicated that genotype and allele frequencies of the polymorphisms were significantly different among three breeds (P open-field test. The results showed that MAOB gene polymorphisms had a significant effect on walking time, squares crossed, lying time, the times of standing up against walls(P times of posture change (P=0.064). Walking time and squares crossed were higher in TT genotype puppies than those in TC and CC puppies (P times of posture change and standing up against walls were also higher than those in CC (P time in CC genotype puppies were higher than that in TT (P walking time, lying time, squares crossed, the times of posture change, the times of standing up against walls in the three dog breeds that was highly statistically significant (P open-field test and TT genotype has favorable effects in these behavior traits.

  4. The effect of genetic variation of the serotonin 1B receptor gene on impulsive aggressive behavior and suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zouk, Hana; McGirr, Alexander; Lebel, Véronique; Benkelfat, Chawky; Rouleau, Guy; Turecki, Gustavo

    2007-12-05

    Impulsive-aggressive behaviors (IABs) are regarded as possible suicide intermediate phenotypes, mediating the relationship between genes and suicide outcome. In this study, we aimed to investigate the putative relationship between genetic variation at the 5-HT1B receptor gene, which in animal models is involved in impulse-aggression control, IABs, and suicide risk. We investigated the relationship of variation at five 5-HT1B loci and IAB measures in a sample of 696 subjects, including 338 individuals who died by suicide and 358 normal epidemiological controls. We found that variation at the 5-HT1B promoter A-161T locus had a significant effect on levels of IABs, as measured by the Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory (BDHI). Suicides also differed from controls in distribution of variants at this locus. The A-161T locus, which seems to impact 5-HT1B transcription, could play a role in suicide predisposition by means of mediating impulsive-aggressive behaviors. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Boys' serotonin transporter genotype affects maternal behavior through self-control: a case of evocative gene-environment correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pener-Tessler, Roni; Avinun, Reut; Uzefovsky, Florina; Edelman, Shany; Ebstein, Richard P; Knafo, Ariel

    2013-02-01

    Self-control, involving processes such as delaying gratification, concentrating, planning, following instructions, and adapting emotions and behavior to situational requirements and social norms, may have a profound impact on children's adjustment. The importance of self-control suggests that parents are likely to modify their parenting based on children's ability for self-control. We study the effect of children's self-control, a trait partially molded by genetics, on their mothers' parenting, a process of evocative gene-environment correlation. Israeli 3.5-year-old twins (N = 320) participated in a lab session in which their mothers' parenting was observed. DNA was available from most children (N = 228). Mothers described children's self-control in a questionnaire. Boys were lower in self-control and received less positive parenting from their mothers, in comparison with girls. For boys, and not for girls, the serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region gene predicted mothers' levels of positive parenting, an effect mediated by boys' self-control. The implications of this evocative gene-environment correlation and the observed sex differences are discussed.

  6. The Cstf2t Polyadenylation Gene Plays a Sex-Specific Role in Learning Behaviors in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaryse C Harris

    Full Text Available Polyadenylation is an essential mechanism for the processing of mRNA 3' ends. CstF-64 (the 64,000 Mr subunit of the cleavage stimulation factor; gene symbol Cstf2 is an RNA-binding protein that regulates mRNA polyadenylation site usage. We discovered a paralogous form of CstF-64 called τCstF-64 (Cstf2t. The Cstf2t gene is conserved in all eutherian mammals including mice and humans, but the τCstF-64 protein is expressed only in a subset of mammalian tissues, mostly testis and brain. Male mice that lack Cstf2t (Cstf2t-/- mice experience disruption of spermatogenesis and are infertile, although female fertility is unaffected. However, a role for τCstF-64 in the brain has not yet been determined. Given the importance of RNA polyadenylation and splicing in neuronal gene expression, we chose to test the hypothesis that τCstF-64 is important for brain function. Male and female 185-day old wild type and Cstf2t-/- mice were examined for motor function, general activity, learning, and memory using rotarod, open field activity, 8-arm radial arm maze, and Morris water maze tasks. Male wild type and Cstf2t-/- mice did not show differences in learning and memory. However, female Cstf2t-/- mice showed significantly better retention of learned maze tasks than did female wild type mice. These results suggest that τCstf-64 is important in memory function in female mice. Interestingly, male Cstf2t-/- mice displayed less thigmotactic behavior than did wild type mice, suggesting that Cstf2t may play a role in anxiety in males. Taken together, our studies highlight the importance of mRNA processing in cognition and behavior as well as their established functions in reproduction.

  7. Recovery of behavioral symptoms in hemi-parkinsonian rhesus monkeys through combined gene and stem cell therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yan; Sun, Maosheng; Li, Hongjun; Yan, Min; He, Zhanlong; Wang, Wenju; Wang, Wanpu; Lu, Shuaiyao

    2013-04-01

    The use of adipose mesenchymal stromal cells (ASCs) in cellular and genic therapy has attracted considerable attention as a possible treatment for neurodegenerative disorders, including Parkinson disease. However, the effects of gene therapy combined with intracerebral cell transplantation have not been well defined. Recent studies have demonstrated the respective roles of LIM homeobox transcription factor 1, alpha (LMX1A) and Neurturin (NTN) in the commitment of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) to a midbrain dopaminergic neuronal fate and the commitment of mesenchymal stromal cells to cells supporting the nutrition and protection of neurons. We investigated a novel in vitro neuronal differentiation strategy with the use of LMX1A and Neurturin. We were able to elicit a neural phenotype regarding cell morphology, specific gene/protein expression and physiological function. Neuronal-primed ASCs derived from rhesus monkey (rASCs) combined with adenovirus containing NTN and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) (Ad-NTN-TH) were implanted into the striatum and substantia nigra of methyl-4-phenyl-1, 2, 3, 6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-lesioned hemi-parkinsonian rhesus monkeys. Monkeys were monitored with the use of behavioral tests and health measures until the fourth month after implantation. The differentiated cells transcribed and expressed a variety of dopaminergic neuron-specific genes involved in the SHH/LMX1A pathway. Single-photon emission computed tomography analysis and postmortem analysis revealed that the grafting of rASCs combined with Ad-NTN-TH had neuroprotective effects compared with Ad-NTN-TH or rASCs alone. Behavioral measures demonstrated autograft survival and symptom amelioration. These findings may lead to cellular sources for autologous transplantation of Parkinson disease. Combined transplantation of Ad-NTN-TH and induced rASCs expressing LMX1A and NTN may be a better therapy candidate for the treatment of Parkinson disease. Copyright © 2013 International Society

  8. Melatonin counteracts changes in hypothalamic gene expression of signals regulating feeding behavior in high-fat fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos-Lugo, María J; Jiménez-Ortega, Vanesa; Cano-Barquilla, Pilar; Mateos, Pilar Fernández; Spinedi, Eduardo J; Cardinali, Daniel P; Esquifino, Ana I

    2015-03-01

    Previous studies indicate that the administration of melatonin caused body weight and abdominal visceral fat reductions in rodent models of hyperadiposity. The objective of the present study performed in high-fat fed rats was to evaluate the activity of melatonin on gene expression of some medial basal hypothalamus (MBH) signals involved in feeding behavior regulation, including neuropeptide Y (NPY), proopiomelanocortin (POMC), prolactin-releasing peptide (PrRP), leptin- and insulin-receptors (R) and insulin-R substrate (IRS)-1 and -2. Blood levels of leptin and adiponectin were also measured. Adult Wistar male rats were divided into four groups (n=16 per group): (i) control diet (3% fat); (ii) high-fat (35%) diet; (iii) high-fat diet+melatonin; (iv) control diet+melatonin. Rats had free access to high-fat or control chow and one of the following drinking solutions: (a) tap water; (b) 25 μg/mL of melatonin. After 10 weeks, the high-fat fed rats showed augmented MBH mRNA levels of NPY, leptin-R, PrRP, insulin-R, IRS-1 and IRS-2. The concomitant administration of melatonin counteracted this increase. Feeding of rats with a high-fat diet augmented expression of the MBH POMC gene through an effect insensitive to melatonin treatment. The augmented levels of circulating leptin and adiponectin seen in high-fat fed rats were counteracted by melatonin as was the augmented body weight: melatonin significantly attenuated a body weight increase in high-fat fed rats without affecting chow or water consumption. Melatonin augmented plasma leptin and adiponectin in control rats. The results indicate that an effect on gene expression of feeding behavior signals at the central nervous system (CNS) may complement a peripheral rise of the energy expenditure produced by melatonin to decrease body weight in high-fat fed rats.

  9. Simulating publication bias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paldam, Martin

    is censoring: selection by the size of estimate; SR3 selects the optimal combination of fit and size; and SR4 selects the first satisficing result. The last four SRs are steered by priors and result in bias. The MST and the FAT-PET have been developed for detection and correction of such bias. The simulations......Economic research typically runs J regressions for each selected for publication – it is often selected as the ‘best’ of the regressions. The paper examines five possible meanings of the word ‘best’: SR0 is ideal selection with no bias; SR1 is polishing: selection by statistical fit; SR2...... are made by data variation, while the model is the same. It appears that SR0 generates narrow funnels much at odds with observed funnels, while the other four funnels look more realistic. SR1 to SR4 give the mean a substantial bias that confirms the prior causing the bias. The FAT-PET MRA works well...

  10. Behaviorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J.

    2011-01-01

    Early forms of psychology assumed that mental life was the appropriate subject matter for psychology, and introspection was an appropriate method to engage that subject matter. In 1913, John B. Watson proposed an alternative: classical S-R behaviorism. According to Watson, behavior was a subject matter in its own right, to be studied by the…

  11. Linking gene regulation to cell behaviors in the posterior growth zone of sequentially segmenting arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Terri A; Nagy, Lisa M

    2017-05-01

    Virtually all arthropods all arthropods add their body segments sequentially, one by one in an anterior to posterior progression. That process requires not only segment specification but typically growth and elongation. Here we review the functions of some of the key genes that regulate segmentation: Wnt, caudal, Notch pathway, and pair-rule genes, and discuss what can be inferred about their evolution. We focus on how these regulatory factors are integrated with growth and elongation and discuss the importance and challenges of baseline measures of growth and elongation. We emphasize a perspective that integrates the genetic regulation of segment patterning with the cellular mechanisms of growth and elongation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Bias Correction with Jackknife, Bootstrap, and Taylor Series

    OpenAIRE

    Jiao, Jiantao; Han, Yanjun; Weissman, Tsachy

    2017-01-01

    We analyze the bias correction methods using jackknife, bootstrap, and Taylor series. We focus on the binomial model, and consider the problem of bias correction for estimating $f(p)$, where $f \\in C[0,1]$ is arbitrary. We characterize the supremum norm of the bias of general jackknife and bootstrap estimators for any continuous functions, and demonstrate the in delete-$d$ jackknife, different values of $d$ may lead to drastically different behavior in jackknife. We show that in the binomial ...

  13. Childhood problem behavior and parental divorce: evidence for gene-environment interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.C.C. Robbers (Sylvana); F.V.A. van Oort (Floor); A.C. Huizink (Anja); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); C.E.M. van Beijsterveldt (Toos); D.I. Boomsma (Dorret); M. Bartels (Meike)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractObjective: The importance of genetic and environmental influences on children's behavioral and emotional problems may vary as a function of environmental exposure. We previously reported that 12-year-olds with divorced parents showed more internalizing and externalizing problems than

  14. Behavioral testing of minipigs transgenic for the Huntington gene-A three-year observational study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schuldenzucker, V.; Schubert, R.; Muratori, L. M.; Freisfeld, F.; Rieke, L.; Matheis, T.; Schramke, S.; Motlík, Jan; Kemper, N.; Radespiel, U.; Reilmann, R.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 10 (2017), č. článku e0185970. E-ISSN 1932-6203 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : Huntington´s disease * minipigs Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Behavioral sciences biology Impact factor: 2.806, year: 2016

  15. Case Study: Skinny Genes? An Interdisciplinary Look at a Complex Behavioral Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gow, Joan-Beth; Carpino, Lisa A.

    2018-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa is a complex behavioral disorder with the highest risk of death of any psychological disorder. Between 15% and 20% of those suffering from anorexia die from complications that are attributed either directly or indirectly to self-starvation. Heritability for anorexia is around 0.5, meaning about 50% of the risk for anorexia is…

  16. Behavior of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes in eco-agricultural system: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Weixiao; Li, Jianan; Wu, Ying; Xu, Like; Su, Chao; Qian, Yanyun [Department of Environmental Engineering, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Zhu, Yong-Guan [Key Lab of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Chen, Hong, E-mail: chen_hong@zju.edu.cn [Department of Environmental Engineering, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China)

    2016-03-05

    Highlights: • TetQ had the highest relative abundance and tetG was the most persistent gene. • The anaerobic digestion has no effective removal of most ARGs. • The abundance of ARGs in soils and fishpond was higher than that of control system. • Positive correlations were observed between the total ARGs and TN, TP and TOC. - Abstract: This study aims to determine abundance and persistence of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in eco-agricultural system (EAS), which starts from swine feces to anaerobic digestion products, then application of anaerobic digestion solid residue (ADSR) and anaerobic digestion liquid residue (ADLR) to the soil to grow ryegrass, one of swine feed. Oxytetracycline had the highest concentration in manure reaching up to 138.7 mg/kg. Most of antibiotics could be effectively eliminated by anaerobic digestion and removal rates ranged from 11% to 86%. ARGs abundance fluctuated within EAS. TetQ had the highest relative abundance and the relative abundance of tetG had the least variation within the system, which indicates that tetG is persistent in the agricultural environment and requires more attention. Compared to the relative abundance in manure, tetC and tetM increased in biogas residue while three ribosomal protection proteins genes (tetO, tetQ, tetW) decreased (p < 0.05), with other genes showing no significant change after anaerobic fermentation (p > 0.05). Most ARGs in downstream components (soils and fishpond) of EAS showed significantly higher relative abundance than the control agricultural system (p < 0.05), except for tetG and sulI.

  17. Incentives, behavioral biases, and risk taking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pikulina, E.S.

    2014-01-01

    While economists believe that monetary incentives provide the most powerful motivation for individuals to undertake an activity, major schools in psychology and sociology emphasize the motives coming from within the individual and from the personal and cultural differences among individuals. This

  18. Measuring Agricultural Bias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henning Tarp; Robinson, Sherman; Tarp, Finn

    The measurement issue is the key issue in the literature on trade policy-induced agri-cultural price incentive bias. This paper introduces a general equilibrium effective rate of protection (GE-ERP) measure, which extends and generalizes earlier partial equilibrium nominal protection measures...... shares and intersectoral linkages - are crucial for determining the sign and magnitude of trade policy bias. The GE-ERP measure is therefore uniquely suited to capture the full impact of trade policies on agricultural price incentives. A Monte Carlo procedure confirms that the results are robust....... For the 15 sample countries, the results indicate that the agricultural price incentive bias, which was generally perceived to exist during the 1980s, was largely eliminated during the 1990s. The results also demonstrate that general equilibrium effects and country-specific characteristics - including trade...

  19. Programming of stress-related behavior and epigenetic neural gene regulation in mice offspring through maternal exposure to predator odor

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Cyr, Sophie; McGowan, Patrick O.

    2015-01-01

    Perinatal stress mediated through the mother can lead to long-term alterations in stress-related phenotypes in offspring. The capacity for adaptation to adversity in early life depends in part on the life history of the animal. This study was designed to examine the behavioral and neural response in adult offspring to prenatal exposure to predator odor: an ethologically-relevant psychological stressor. Pregnant mice were exposed daily to predator odors or distilled water control over the second half of the pregnancy. Predator odor exposure lead to a transient decrease in maternal care in the mothers. As adults, the offspring of predator odor-exposed mothers showed increased anti-predator behavior, a predator-odor induced decrease in activity and, in female offspring, an increased corticosterone (CORT) response to predator odor exposure. We found a highly specific response among stress-related genes within limbic brain regions. Transcript abundance of Corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 1 (CRHR1) was elevated in the amygdala in adult female offspring of predator odor-exposed mothers. In the hippocampus of adult female offspring, decreased Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) transcript abundance was correlated with a site-specific decrease in DNA methylation in Bdnf exon IV, indicating the potential contribution of this epigenetic mechanism to maternal programming by maternal predator odor exposure. These data indicate that maternal predator odor exposure alone is sufficient to induce an altered stress-related phenotype in adulthood, with implications for anti-predator behavior in offspring. PMID:26082698

  20. Behavioral, Morphological, and Gene Expression Changes Induced by 60Co-γ Ray Irradiation in Bactrocera tau (Walker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Cai

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The sterile insect technique (SIT may reduce pest populations by allowing sufficient amount of irradiation-induced sterile males to mate with wild females whilst maintaining mating ability comparable to wild males. Although the SIT methods are well understood, the optimal sterilizing dose and processing development stage for application vary among species. To ensure effective pest control programs, effects of irradiation on physiology, behavior, and gene function in the target species should be defined, however, little is known about irradiation effects in Bactrocera tau. Here, the effects of irradiation on rates of fecundity, egg hatch, eclosion, mating competitiveness, flight capability, morphology of reproductive organs, and yolk protein (YP gene expression were studied. The results showed that rates of female fecundity and egg hatch decreased significantly (51 ± 19 to 0.06 ± 0.06 and 98.90 ± 1.01 to 0, respectively when pupae were treated with >150 Gy irradiation. Flight capability and mating competitiveness were not significantly influenced at doses <250 Gy. Ovaries and fallopian tubes became smaller after irradiation, but there was no change in testes size. Finally, we found that expression of the YP gene was up-regulated by irradiation at 30 and 45 days post-emergence, but the mechanisms were unclear. Our study provides information on the determination of the optimal irradiation sterilizing dose in B. tau, and the effects of irradiation on physiology, morphology and gene expression that will facilitate an understanding of sub-lethal impacts of the SIT and expand its use to the control of other species.

  1. Sex-biased dispersal at different geographical scales in a cooperative breeder from fragmented rainforest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Vangestel

    Full Text Available Dispersal affects both social behavior and population structure and is therefore a key determinant of long-term population persistence. However, dispersal strategies and responses to spatial habitat alteration may differ between sexes. Here we analyzed spatial and temporal variation in ten polymorphic microsatellite DNA loci of male and female Cabanis's greenbuls (Phyllastrephuscabanisi, a cooperative breeder of Afrotropical rainforest, to quantify rates of gene flow and fine-grained genetic structuring within and among fragmented populations. We found genetic evidence for female-biased dispersal at small spatial scales, but not at the landscape level. Local autocorrelation analysis provided evidence of positive genetic structure within 300 m distance ranges, which is consistent with behavioral observations of short-distance natal dispersal. At a landscape scale, individual-based autocorrelation values decreased over time while levels of admixture increased, possibly indicating increased gene flow over the past decade.

  2. Are most samples of animals systematically biased? Consistent individual trait differences bias samples despite random sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biro, Peter A

    2013-02-01

    Sampling animals from the wild for study is something nearly every biologist has done, but despite our best efforts to obtain random samples of animals, 'hidden' trait biases may still exist. For example, consistent behavioral traits can affect trappability/catchability, independent of obvious factors such as size and gender, and these traits are often correlated with other repeatable physiological and/or life history traits. If so, systematic sampling bias may exist for any of these traits. The extent to which this is a problem, of course, depends on the magnitude of bias, which is presently unknown because the underlying trait distributions in populations are usually unknown, or unknowable. Indeed, our present knowledge about sampling bias comes from samples (not complete population censuses), which can possess bias to begin with. I had the unique opportunity to create naturalized populations of fish by seeding each of four small fishless lakes with equal densities of slow-, intermediate-, and fast-growing fish. Using sampling methods that are not size-selective, I observed that fast-growing fish were up to two-times more likely to be sampled than slower-growing fish. This indicates substantial and systematic bias with respect to an important life history trait (growth rate). If correlations between behavioral, physiological and life-history traits are as widespread as the literature suggests, then many animal samples may be systematically biased with respect to these traits (e.g., when collecting animals for laboratory use), and affect our inferences about population structure and abundance. I conclude with a discussion on ways to minimize sampling bias for particular physiological/behavioral/life-history types within animal populations.

  3. How Communication Goals Determine when Audience Tuning Biases Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echterhoff, Gerald; Higgins, E. Tory; Kopietz, Rene; Groll, Stephan

    2008-01-01

    After tuning their message to suit their audience's attitude, communicators' own memories for the original information (e.g., a target person's behaviors) often reflect the biased view expressed in their message--producing an audience-congruent memory bias. Exploring the motivational circumstances of message production, the authors investigated…

  4. Exchange bias in nearly perpendicularly coupled ferromagnetic/ferromagnetic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bu, K.M.; Kwon, H.Y.; Oh, S.W.; Won, C.

    2012-01-01

    Exchange bias phenomena appear not only in ferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic systems but also in ferromagnetic/ferromagnetic systems in which two layers are nearly perpendicularly coupled. We investigated the origin of the symmetry-breaking mechanism and the relationship between the exchange bias and the system's energy parameters. We compared the results of computational Monte Carlo simulations with those of theoretical model calculation. We found that the exchange bias exhibited nonlinear behaviors, including sign reversal and singularities. These complicated behaviors were caused by two distinct magnetization processes depending on the interlayer coupling strength. The exchange bias reached a maximum at the transition between the two magnetization processes. - Highlights: ► Exchange bias phenomena are found in perpendicularly coupled F/F systems. ► Exchange bias exhibits nonlinear behaviors, including sign reversal and singularities. ► These complicated behaviors were caused by two distinct magnetization processes. ► Exchange bias reached a maximum at the transition between the two magnetization processes. ► We established an equation to maximize the exchange bias in perpendicularly coupled F/F system.

  5. Behavior of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes in eco-agricultural system: A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Weixiao; Li, Jianan; Wu, Ying; Xu, Like; Su, Chao; Qian, Yanyun; Zhu, Yong-Guan; Chen, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • TetQ had the highest relative abundance and tetG was the most persistent gene. • The anaerobic digestion has no effective removal of most ARGs. • The abundance of ARGs in soils and fishpond was higher than that of control system. • Positive correlations were observed between the total ARGs and TN, TP and TOC. - Abstract: This study aims to determine abundance and persistence of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in eco-agricultural system (EAS), which starts from swine feces to anaerobic digestion products, then application of anaerobic digestion solid residue (ADSR) and anaerobic digestion liquid residue (ADLR) to the soil to grow ryegrass, one of swine feed. Oxytetracycline had the highest concentration in manure reaching up to 138.7 mg/kg. Most of antibiotics could be effectively eliminated by anaerobic digestion and removal rates ranged from 11% to 86%. ARGs abundance fluctuated within EAS. TetQ had the highest relative abundance and the relative abundance of tetG had the least variation within the system, which indicates that tetG is persistent in the agricultural environment and requires more attention. Compared to the relative abundance in manure, tetC and tetM increased in biogas residue while three ribosomal protection proteins genes (tetO, tetQ, tetW) decreased (p 0.05). Most ARGs in downstream components (soils and fishpond) of EAS showed significantly higher relative abundance than the control agricultural system (p < 0.05), except for tetG and sulI.

  6. Changes in the Gene Expression Profiles of the Hypopharyngeal Gland of Worker Honeybees in Association with Worker Behavior and Hormonal Factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayuki Ueno

    Full Text Available The hypopharyngeal glands (HPGs of worker honeybees undergo physiological changes along with the age-dependent role change from nursing to foraging: nurse bee HPGs secrete mainly major royal jelly proteins, whereas forager HPGs secrete mainly α-glucosidase III, which converts the sucrose in the nectar into glucose and fructose. We previously identified two other genes, Apis mellifera buffy (Ambuffy and Apis mellifera matrix metalloproteinase 1 (AmMMP1, with enriched expression in nurse bee and forager HPGs, respectively. In the present study, to clarify the molecular mechanisms that coordinate HPG physiology with worker behavior, we first analyzed whether Ambuffy, AmMMP1, mrjp2 (a gene encoding one of major royal jelly protein isoforms, and Hbg3 (a gene encoding α-glucosidase III expression, is associated with worker behavior in 'single-cohort colonies' where workers of almost the same age perform different tasks. Expression of these genes correlated with the worker's role, while controlling for age, indicating their regulation associated with the worker's behavior. Associated gene expression suggested the possible involvement of some hormonal factors in its regulation. We therefore examined the relationship between ecdysone- and juvenile hormone (JH-signaling, and the expression profiles of these 'indicator' genes (nurse bee HPG-selective genes: mrjp2 and Ambuffy, and forager HPG-selective genes: Hbg3 and AmMMP1. Expression of both ecdysone-regulated genes (ecdysone receptor, mushroom body large type Kenyon cell specific protein-1, and E74 and JH-regulated genes (Methoprene tolerant and Krüppel homolog 1 was higher in the forager HPGs than in the nurse bee HPGs, suggesting the possible roles of ecdysone- and JH-regulated genes in worker HPGs. Furthermore, 20-hydroxyecdysone-treatment repressed both nurse bee- and forager-selective gene expression, whereas methoprene-treatment enhanced the expression of forager-selective genes and repressed

  7. Biases in Visual, Auditory, and Audiovisual Perception of Space.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Odegaard

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Localization of objects and events in the environment is critical for survival, as many perceptual and motor tasks rely on estimation of spatial location. Therefore, it seems reasonable to assume that spatial localizations should generally be accurate. Curiously, some previous studies have reported biases in visual and auditory localizations, but these studies have used small sample sizes and the results have been mixed. Therefore, it is not clear (1 if the reported biases in localization responses are real (or due to outliers, sampling bias, or other factors, and (2 whether these putative biases reflect a bias in sensory representations of space or a priori expectations (which may be due to the experimental setup, instructions, or distribution of stimuli. Here, to address these questions, a dataset of unprecedented size (obtained from 384 observers was analyzed to examine presence, direction, and magnitude of sensory biases, and quantitative computational modeling was used to probe the underlying mechanism(s driving these effects. Data revealed that, on average, observers were biased towards the center when localizing visual stimuli, and biased towards the periphery when localizing auditory stimuli. Moreover, quantitative analysis using a Bayesian Causal Inference framework suggests that while pre-existing spatial biases for central locations exert some influence, biases in the sensory representations of both visual and auditory space are necessary to fully explain the behavioral data. How are these opposing visual and auditory biases reconciled in conditions in which both auditory and visual stimuli are produced by a single event? Potentially, the bias in one modality could dominate, or the biases could interact/cancel out. The data revealed that when integration occurred in these conditions, the visual bias dominated, but the magnitude of this bias was reduced compared to unisensory conditions. Therefore, multisensory integration not only

  8. Biases in Visual, Auditory, and Audiovisual Perception of Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odegaard, Brian; Wozny, David R.; Shams, Ladan

    2015-01-01

    Localization of objects and events in the environment is critical for survival, as many perceptual and motor tasks rely on estimation of spatial location. Therefore, it seems reasonable to assume that spatial localizations should generally be accurate. Curiously, some previous studies have reported biases in visual and auditory localizations, but these studies have used small sample sizes and the results have been mixed. Therefore, it is not clear (1) if the reported biases in localization responses are real (or due to outliers, sampling bias, or other factors), and (2) whether these putative biases reflect a bias in sensory representations of space or a priori expectations (which may be due to the experimental setup, instructions, or distribution of stimuli). Here, to address these questions, a dataset of unprecedented size (obtained from 384 observers) was analyzed to examine presence, direction, and magnitude of sensory biases, and quantitative computational modeling was used to probe the underlying mechanism(s) driving these effects. Data revealed that, on average, observers were biased towards the center when localizing visual stimuli, and biased towards the periphery when localizing auditory stimuli. Moreover, quantitative analysis using a Bayesian Causal Inference framework suggests that while pre-existing spatial biases for central locations exert some influence, biases in the sensory representations of both visual and auditory space are necessary to fully explain the behavioral data. How are these opposing visual and auditory biases reconciled in conditions in which both auditory and visual stimuli are produced by a single event? Potentially, the bias in one modality could dominate, or the biases could interact/cancel out. The data revealed that when integration occurred in these conditions, the visual bias dominated, but the magnitude of this bias was reduced compared to unisensory conditions. Therefore, multisensory integration not only improves the

  9. Identification of Genes that Maintain Behavioral and Structural Plasticity during Sleep Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Seugnet

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Although patients with primary insomnia experience sleep disruption, they are able to maintain normal performance on a variety of cognitive tasks. This observation suggests that insomnia may be a condition where predisposing factors simultaneously increase the risk for insomnia and also mitigate against the deleterious consequences of waking. To gain insight into processes that might regulate sleep and buffer neuronal circuits during sleep loss, we manipulated three genes, fat facet (faf, highwire (hiw and the GABA receptor Resistance to dieldrin (Rdl, that were differentially modulated in a Drosophila model of insomnia. Our results indicate that increasing faf and decreasing hiw or Rdl within wake-promoting large ventral lateral clock neurons (lLNvs induces sleep loss. As expected, sleep loss induced by decreasing hiw in the lLNvs results in deficits in short-term memory and increases of synaptic growth. However, sleep loss induced by knocking down Rdl in the lLNvs protects flies from sleep-loss induced deficits in short-term memory and increases in synaptic markers. Surprisingly, decreasing hiw and Rdl within the Mushroom Bodies (MBs protects against the negative effects of sleep deprivation (SD as indicated by the absence of a subsequent homeostatic response, or deficits in short-term memory. Together these results indicate that specific genes are able to disrupt sleep and protect against the negative consequences of waking in a circuit dependent manner.

  10. Measuring agricultural policy bias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henning Tarp; Robinson, Sherman; Tarp, Finn

    2010-01-01

    Measurement is a key issue in the literature on price incentive bias induced by trade policy. We introduce a general equilibrium measure of the relative effective rate of protection, which generalizes earlier protection measures. For our fifteen sample countries, results indicate that the agricul...

  11. Alcohol-related interpretation bias in alcohol-dependent patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woud, M.L.; Pawelczack, S.; Rinck, M.; Lindenmeyer, J.; Souren, P.M.; Wiers, R.W.H.J.; Becker, E.S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Models of addictive behaviors postulate that implicit alcohol-related memory associations and biased interpretation processes contribute to the development and maintenance of alcohol misuse and abuse. The present study examined whether alcohol-dependent patients (AP) show an

  12. Alcohol‐related interpretation bias in alcohol-dependent patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woud, M.L.; Pawelczak, S.; Rinck, M.; Lindenmeyer, J.; Souren, P.; Wiers, R.W.; Becker, E.S.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Models of addictive behaviors postulate that implicit alcohol-related memory associations and biased interpretation processes contribute to the development and maintenance of alcohol misuse and abuse. The present study examined whether alcohol-dependent patients (AP) show an

  13. The Selective Advantage of Synonymous Codon Usage Bias in Salmonella.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerrit Brandis

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The genetic code in mRNA is redundant, with 61 sense codons translated into 20 different amino acids. Individual amino acids are encoded by up to six different codons but within codon families some are used more frequently than others. This phenomenon is referred to as synonymous codon usage bias. The genomes of free-living unicellular organisms such as bacteria have an extreme codon usage bias and the degree of bias differs between genes within the same genome. The strong positive correlation between codon usage bias and gene expression levels in many microorganisms is attributed to selection for translational efficiency. However, this putative selective advantage has never been measured in bacteria and theoretical estimates vary widely. By systematically exchanging optimal codons for synonymous codons in the tuf genes we quantified the selective advantage of biased codon usage in highly expressed genes to be in the range 0.2-4.2 x 10-4 per codon per generation. These data quantify for the first time the potential for selection on synonymous codon choice to drive genome-wide sequence evolution in bacteria, and in particular to optimize the sequences of highly expressed genes. This quantification may have predictive applications in the design of synthetic genes and for heterologous gene expression in biotechnology.

  14. The effects of child maltreatment on early signs of antisocial behavior: Genetic moderation by Tryptophan Hydroxylase, Serotonin Transporter, and Monoamine Oxidase-A-Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A.; Thibodeau, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Gene-environment interaction effects in predicting antisocial behavior in late childhood were investigated among maltreated and nonmaltreated low-income children (N = 627, M age = 11.27). Variants in three genes, TPH1, 5-HTTLPR, and MAOA uVNTR, were examined. In addition to child maltreatment status, we also considered the impact of maltreatment subtypes, developmental timing of maltreatment, and chronicity. Indicators of antisocial behavior were obtained from self-, peer-, and adult counselor-reports. In a series of ANCOVAs, child maltreatment and its parameters demonstrated strong main effects on early antisocial behavior as assessed by all forms of report. Genetic effects operated primarily in the context of gene-environment interactions, moderating the impact of child maltreatment on outcomes. Across the three genes, among nonmaltreated children no differences in antisocial behavior were found based on genetic variation. In contrast, among maltreated children specific polymorphisms of TPH1, 5-HTTLPR, and MAOA were each related to heightened self-report of antisocial behavior; the interaction of 5-HTTLPR and developmental timing of maltreatment also indicated more severe antisocial outcomes for children with early onset and recurrent maltreatment based on genotype. TPH1 and 5-HTTLPR interacted with maltreatment subtype to predict peer-report of antisocial behavior; genetic variation contributed to larger differences in antisocial behavior among abused children. TPH1 and 5-HTTLPR polymorphisms also moderated the effects of maltreatment subtype on adult report of antisocial behavior; again genetic effects were strongest for children who were abused. Additionally, TPH1 moderated the effect of developmental timing of maltreatment and chronicity on adult report of antisocial behavior. The findings elucidate how genetic variation contributes to identifying which maltreated children are most vulnerable to antisocial development. PMID:22781862

  15. Biases in Drosophila melanogaster protein trap screens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müller Ilka

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ability to localise or follow endogenous proteins in real time in vivo is of tremendous utility for cell biology or systems biology studies. Protein trap screens utilise the random genomic insertion of a transposon-borne artificial reporter exon (e.g. encoding the green fluorescent protein, GFP into an intron of an endogenous gene to generate a fluorescent fusion protein. Despite recent efforts aimed at achieving comprehensive coverage of the genes encoded in the Drosophila genome, the repertoire of genes that yield protein traps is still small. Results We analysed the collection of available protein trap lines in Drosophila melanogaster and identified potential biases that are likely to restrict genome coverage in protein trap screens. The protein trap screens investigated here primarily used P-element vectors and thus exhibit some of the same positional biases associated with this transposon that are evident from the comprehensive Drosophila Gene Disruption Project. We further found that protein trap target genes usually exhibit broad and persistent expression during embryonic development, which is likely to facilitate better detection. In addition, we investigated the likely influence of the GFP exon on host protein structure and found that protein trap insertions have a significant bias for exon-exon boundaries that encode disordered protein regions. 38.8% of GFP insertions land in disordered protein regions compared with only 23.4% in the case of non-trapping P-element insertions landing in coding sequence introns (p -4. Interestingly, even in cases where protein domains are predicted, protein trap insertions frequently occur in regions encoding surface exposed areas that are likely to be functionally neutral. Considering the various biases observed, we predict that less than one third of intron-containing genes are likely to be amenable to trapping by the existing methods. Conclusion Our analyses suggest that the

  16. Behavior of QQ-plots and genomic control in studies of gene-environment interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arend Voorman

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies of gene-environment interaction (GxE GWAS are becoming popular. As with main effects GWAS, quantile-quantile plots (QQ-plots and Genomic Control are being used to assess and correct for population substructure. However, in G x E work these approaches can be seriously misleading, as we illustrate; QQ-plots may give strong indications of substructure when absolutely none is present. Using simulation and theory, we show how and why spurious QQ-plot inflation occurs in G x E GWAS, and how this differs from main-effects analyses. We also explain how simple adjustments to standard regression-based methods used in G x E GWAS can alleviate this problem.

  17. Cognitive bias measurement and social anxiety disorder: Correlating self-report data and attentional bias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Miloff

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Social anxiety disorder (SAD and attentional bias are theoretically connected in cognitive behavioral therapeutic models. In fact, there is an emerging field focusing on modifying attentional bias as a stand-alone treatment. However, it is unclear to what degree these attentional biases are present before commencing treatment. The purpose of this study was to measure pre-treatment attentional bias in 153 participants diagnosed with SAD using a home-based Internet version of the dot-probe paradigm. Results showed no significant correlation for attentional bias (towards or away from negative words or faces and the self-rated version of the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS-SR. However, two positive correlations were found for the secondary measures Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7 (GAD-7 and Patient Health Questionnaire 9 (PHQ-9. These indicated that those with elevated levels of anxiety and depression had a higher bias towards negative faces in neutral–negative and positive–negative valence combinations, respectively. The unreliability of the dot-probe paradigm and home-based Internet delivery are discussed to explain the lack of correlations between LSAS-SR and attentional bias. Changes to the dot-probe task are suggested that could improve reliability.

  18. The role of unconscious bias in surgical safety and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santry, Heena P; Wren, Sherry M

    2012-02-01

    Racial, ethnic, and gender disparities in health outcomes are a major challenge for the US health care system. Although the causes of these disparities are multifactorial, unconscious bias on the part of health care providers plays a role. Unconscious bias occurs when subconscious prejudicial beliefs about stereotypical individual attributes result in an automatic and unconscious reaction and/or behavior based on those beliefs. This article reviews the evidence in support of unconscious bias and resultant disparate health outcomes. Although unconscious bias cannot be entirely eliminated, acknowledging it, encouraging empathy, and understanding patients' sociocultural context promotes just, equitable, and compassionate care to all patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Health risk perception, optimistic bias, and personal satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bränström, Richard; Brandberg, Yvonne

    2010-01-01

    To examine change in risk perception and optimistic bias concerning behavior-linked health threats and environmental health threats between adolescence and young adulthood and how these factors related to personal satisfaction. In 1996 and 2002, 1624 adolescents responded to a mailed questionnaire. Adolescents showed strong positive optimistic bias concerning behaviorlinked risks, and this optimistic bias increased with age. Increase in optimistic bias over time predicted increase in personal satisfaction. The capacity to process and perceive potential threats in a positive manner might be a valuable human ability positively influencing personal satisfaction and well-being.

  20. Positron Emission Tomography Imaging Demonstrates Correlation between Behavioral Recovery and Correction of Dopamine Neurotransmission after Gene Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leriche, L.; Besret, L.; Gregoire, M.C.; Deglon, N.; Hantraye, Ph.; Leriche, L.; Besret, L.; Gregoire, M.C.; Deglon, N.; Hantraye, Ph.; Bjorklund, T.; Breysse, N.; Carlsson, T.; Kirik, D.; Dolle, F.; Mandel, R.J.; Kirik, D.

    2009-01-01

    In vivo gene transfer using viral vectors is an emerging therapy for neuro-degenerative diseases with a clinical impact recently demonstrated in Parkinson's disease patients. Recombinant adeno-associated viral (rAAV) vectors, in particular, provide an excellent tool for long-term expression of therapeutic genes in the brain. Here we used the [ 11 C]raclopride [(S)-(-)-3, 5-dichloro-N-((1-ethyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)methyl)-2-hydroxy- 6-methoxybenzamide] micro-positron emission tomography (PET) technique to demonstrate that delivery of the tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and GTP-cyclohydrolase 1 (GCH1) enzymes using an rAAV5 vector normalizes the increased [ 11 C]raclopride binding in hemi-parkinsonian rats. Importantly, we show in vivo by micro-PET imaging and postmortem by classical binding assays performed in the very same animals that the changes in [ 11 C]raclopride after viral vector-based enzyme replacement therapy is attributable to a decrease in the affinity of the tracer binding to the D2 receptors, providing evidence for reconstitution of a functional pool of endogenous dopamine in the striatum. Moreover, the extent of the normalization in this non-invasive imaging measure was highly correlated with the functional recovery in motor behavior. The PET imaging protocol used in this study is fully adaptable to humans and thus can serve as an in vivo imaging technique to follow TH+GCH1 gene therapy in PD patients and provide an additional objective measure to a potential clinical trial using rAAV vectors to deliver L-3, 4-dihydroxyphenylalanine in the brain. (authors)

  1. Motion, identity and the bias toward agency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris eFields

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The well-documented human bias toward agency as a cause and therefore an explanation of observed events is typically attributed to evolutionary selection for a social brain. Based on a review of developmental and adult behavioral and neurocognitive data, it is argued that the bias toward agency is a result of the default human solution, developed during infancy, to the computational requirements of object re-identification over gaps in observation of more than a few seconds. If this model is correct, overriding the bias toward agency to construct mechanistic explanations of observed events requires structure-mapping inferences, implemented by the pre-motor action planning system, that replace agents with mechanisms as causes of unobserved changes in contextual or featural properties of objects. Experiments that would test this model are discussed.

  2. Lack of increased immediate early gene expression in rats reinstating cocaine-seeking behavior to discrete sensory cues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew D Riedy

    Full Text Available Drug-seeking behavior elicited by drug-associated cues contributes to relapse in addiction; however, whether relapse elicited by drug-associated conditioned reinforcers (CR versus discriminative stimuli (DS involves distinct or overlapping neuronal populations is unknown. To address this question, we developed a novel cocaine self-administration and cue-induced reinstatement paradigm that exposed the same rats to distinct cocaine-associated CR and DS. Rats were trained to self-administer cocaine in separate sessions. In one, a DS signaled cocaine availability; in the other, cocaine delivery was paired with a different CR. After extinction training and reinstatement testing, where both cues were presented in separate sessions, rats were sacrificed and processed for cellular analysis of temporal activity by fluorescent in situ hybridization (CatFISH for activity regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc mRNA and for radioactive in situ hybridization for Arc and zif268 mRNAs. CatFISH did not reveal significant changes in Arc mRNA expression. Similar results were obtained with radioactive in situ hybridization. We have shown that while rats reinstate drug seeking in response to temporally discrete presentations of distinct drug-associated cues, such reinstatement is not associated with increased transcriptional activation of Arc or zif268 mRNAs, suggesting that expression of these genes may not be necessary for cue-induced reinstatement of drug-seeking behavior.

  3. Estimation bias and bias correction in reduced rank autoregressions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Heino Bohn

    2017-01-01

    This paper characterizes the finite-sample bias of the maximum likelihood estimator (MLE) in a reduced rank vector autoregression and suggests two simulation-based bias corrections. One is a simple bootstrap implementation that approximates the bias at the MLE. The other is an iterative root...

  4. Understanding and Overcoming Implicit Gender Bias in Plastic Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Nicole A; Tannan, Shruti C; Kalliainen, Loree K

    2016-11-01

    Although explicit sex-based discrimination has largely been deemed unacceptable in professional settings, implicit gender bias persists and results in a significant lack of parity in plastic surgery and beyond. Implicit gender bias is the result of a complex interplay of cultural and societal expectations, learned behaviors, and standardized associations. As such, both male and female surgeons are subject to its influence. A review of the literature was conducted, examining theories of gender bias, current manifestations of gender bias in plastic surgery and other fields, and interventions designed to address gender bias. Multiple studies demonstrate persistent gender bias that impacts female physicians at all levels of training. Several institutions have enacted successful interventions to identify and address gender bias. Explicit gender bias has largely disappeared, yet unconscious or implicit gender bias persists. A wide-scale commitment to addressing implicit gender bias in plastic surgery is necessary and overdue. Recommendations include immediate actions that can be undertaken on an individual basis, and changes that should be implemented at a national and international level by leaders in the field.

  5. Accelerated variant of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: clinical behavior and gene expression pattern.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moisés Selman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF is characterized by the insidious onset of dyspnea or cough. However, a subset of patients has a short duration of symptoms with rapid progression to end-stage disease. In this study, we evaluated clinical and molecular features of "rapid" and "slow" progressors with IPF. METHODS AND FINDINGS: 26 patients with 24 months of symptoms [slow progressors] were studied. Survival was analyzed by the Kaplan-Meyer method and proportional hazard's model. Lung microarrays and tissue proteins were measured in a subset of patients. No differences were found in age, physiologic impairment and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL cellular profile. There were more males (OR = 6.5; CI:1.4-29.5; p = 0.006 and smokers (OR = 3.04; CI:1.1-8.3; p = 0.04 in the rapid progressors group. Survival from the beginning of symptoms was significantly reduced in rapid progressors (HR = 9.0; CI:4.48-18.3; p2-fold increase of active matrix metalloproteinase-9, and induced a higher fibroblast migration compared with slow progressors and controls [238+/-98% versus 123+/-29% (p<0.05 and 30+/-17% (p<0.01]. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A subgroup of IPF patients, predominantly smoking males, display an accelerated clinical course and have a gene expression pattern that is different from those with slower progression and longer survival. These findings highlight the variability in the progression of IPF, and may explain, in part, the difficulty in obtaining significant and reproducible results in studies of therapeutic interventions in patients with IPF.

  6. Behavioral analysis of Drosophila transformants expressing human taste receptor genes in the gustatory receptor neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Ryota; Sasaki, Yuko; Morita, Hiromi; Komai, Michio; Shirakawa, Hitoshi; Goto, Tomoko; Furuyama, Akira; Isono, Kunio

    2012-06-01

    Transgenic Drosophila expressing human T2R4 and T2R38 bitter-taste receptors or PKD2L1 sour-taste receptor in the fly gustatory receptor neurons and other tissues were prepared using conventional Gal4/UAS binary system. Molecular analysis showed that the transgene mRNAs are expressed according to the tissue specificity of the Gal4 drivers. Transformants expressing the transgene taste receptors in the fly taste neurons were then studied by a behavioral assay to analyze whether transgene chemoreceptors are functional and coupled to the cell response. Since wild-type flies show strong aversion against the T2R ligands as in mammals, the authors analyzed the transformants where the transgenes are expressed in the fly sugar receptor neurons so that they promote feeding ligand-dependently if they are functional and activate the neurons. Although the feeding preference varied considerably among different strains and individuals, statistical analysis using large numbers of transformants indicated that transformants expressing T2R4 showed a small but significant increase in the preference for denatonium and quinine, the T2R4 ligands, as compared to the control flies, whereas transformants expressing T2R38 did not. Similarly, transformants expressing T2R38 and PKD2L1 also showed a similar preference increase for T2R38-specific ligand phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) and a sour-taste ligand, citric acid, respectively. Taken together, the transformants expressing mammalian taste receptors showed a small but significant increase in the feeding preference that is taste receptor and also ligand dependent. Although future improvements are required to attain performance comparable to the endogenous robust response, Drosophila taste neurons may serve as a potential in vivo heterologous expression system for analyzing chemoreceptor function.

  7. Approach-Induced Biases in Human Information Sampling.

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    Laurence T Hunt

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Information sampling is often biased towards seeking evidence that confirms one's prior beliefs. Despite such biases being a pervasive feature of human behavior, their underlying causes remain unclear. Many accounts of these biases appeal to limitations of human hypothesis testing and cognition, de facto evoking notions of bounded rationality, but neglect more basic aspects of behavioral control. Here, we investigated a potential role for Pavlovian approach in biasing which information humans will choose to sample. We collected a large novel dataset from 32,445 human subjects, making over 3 million decisions, who played a gambling task designed to measure the latent causes and extent of information-sampling biases. We identified three novel approach-related biases, formalized by comparing subject behavior to a dynamic programming model of optimal information gathering. These biases reflected the amount of information sampled ("positive evidence approach", the selection of which information to sample ("sampling the favorite", and the interaction between information sampling and subsequent choices ("rejecting unsampled options". The prevalence of all three biases was related to a Pavlovian approach-avoid parameter quantified within an entirely independent economic decision task. Our large dataset also revealed that individual differences in the amount of information gathered are a stable trait across multiple gameplays and can be related to demographic measures, including age and educational attainment. As well as revealing limitations in cognitive processing, our findings suggest information sampling biases reflect the expression of primitive, yet potentially ecologically adaptive, behavioral repertoires. One such behavior is sampling from options that will eventually be chosen, even when other sources of information are more pertinent for guiding future action.

  8. Codon Bias Patterns of E. coli's Interacting Proteins.

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    Maddalena Dilucca

    Full Text Available Synonymous codons, i.e., DNA nucleotide triplets coding for the same amino acid, are used differently across the variety of living organisms. The biological meaning of this phenomenon, known as codon usage bias, is still controversial. In order to shed light on this point, we propose a new codon bias index, CompAI, that is based on the competition between cognate and near-cognate tRNAs during translation, without being tuned to the usage bias of highly expressed genes. We perform a genome-wide evaluation of codon bias for E.coli, comparing CompAI with other widely used indices: tAI, CAI, and Nc. We show that CompAI and tAI capture similar information by being positively correlated with gene conservation, measured by the Evolutionary Retention Index (ERI, and essentiality, whereas, CAI and Nc appear to be less sensitive to evolutionary-functional parameters. Notably, the rate of variation of tAI and CompAI with ERI allows to obtain sets of genes that consistently belong to specific clusters of orthologous genes (COGs. We also investigate the correlation of codon bias at the genomic level with the network features of protein-protein interactions in E.coli. We find that the most densely connected communities of the network share a similar level of codon bias (as measured by CompAI and tAI. Conversely, a small difference in codon bias between two genes is, statistically, a prerequisite for the corresponding proteins to interact. Importantly, among all codon bias indices, CompAI turns out to have the most coherent distribution over the communities of the interactome, pointing to the significance of competition among cognate and near-cognate tRNAs for explaining codon usage adaptation. Notably, CompAI may potentially correlate with translation speed measurements, by accounting for the specific delay induced by wobble-pairing between codons and anticodons.

  9. Clinical Predictors of Response to Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy in Pediatric Anxiety Disorders : The Genes for Treatment (GxT) Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hudson, Jennifer L.; Keers, Robert; Roberts, Susanna; Coleman, Jonathan R. I.; Breen, Gerome; Arendt, Kristian; Boegels, Susan; Cooper, Peter; Creswell, Cathy; Hartman, Catharina; Heiervang, Einar R.; Hoetzel, Katrin; In-Albon, Tina; Lavallee, Kristen; Lyne-Ham, Heidi J.; Marin, Carla E.; McKinnon, Anna; Meiser-Stedman, Richard; Morris, Talia; Nauta, Maaike; Rapee, Ronald M.; Schneider, Silvia; Schneider, Sophie C.; Silverman, Wendy K.; Thastum, Mikael; Thirlwall, Kerstin; Waite, Polly; Wergeland, Gro Janne; Lester, Kathryn J.; Eley, Thalia C.

    Objective: The Genes for Treatment study is an international, multisite collaboration exploring the role of genetic, demographic, and clinical predictors in response to cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) in pediatric anxiety disorders. The current article, the first from the study, examined

  10. Clinical predictors of response to Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy in pediatric anxiety disorders: The genes for treatment (GxT) study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hudson, J.L.; Keers, R.; Roberts, S.; Coleman, J.R.I.; Breen, G.; Arendt, K.; Cooper, P.; Bögels, S.; Creswell, C.; Hartman, C.; Heiervang, E.R.; Hötzel, K.; In-Albon, T.; Lavallee, K.; Lyneham, H.J.; Marin, C.E.; McKinnon, A.; Meiser-Stedman, R.; Morris, T.; Nauta, M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The Genes for Treatment study is an international, multisite collaboration exploring the role of genetic, demographic, and clinical predictors in response to cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) in pediatric anxiety disorders. The current article, the first from the study, examined

  11. Evaluation of the Serotonergic Genes htr1A, htr1B, htr2A, and slc6A4 in Aggressive Behavior of Golden Retriever Dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, L. van den; Vos-Loohuis, M.; Schilder, M.B.H.; Oost, B.A. van; Hazewinkel, H.A.W.; Wade, C.M.; Karlsson, E.K.; Lindblad-Toh, K.; Liinamo, A.E.; Leegwater, P.A.J.

    2008-01-01

    Aggressive behavior displays a high heritability in our study group ofGolden Retriever dogs.Alterations in brain serotonin metabolism have been described in aggressive dogs before. Here, we evaluate whether four genes of the canine serotonergic system, coding for the serotonin receptors 1A, 1B,

  12. Association between a genetic variant in the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4) and suicidal behavior in patients with schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholm Carlstrom, Eva; Saetre, Peter; Rosengren, Anders

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamin; 5-HT) system has a central role in the circuitry of cognition and emotions. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that genetic variation in the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4; 5-HTT) is associated with schizophrenia and suicidal behavior. ...

  13. Evaluation of bias associated with high-multiplex, target-specific pre-amplification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven T. Okino

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We developed a novel PCR-based pre-amplification (PreAmp technology that can increase the abundance of over 350 target genes one million-fold. To assess potential bias introduced by PreAmp we utilized ERCC RNA reference standards, a model system that quantifies measurement error in RNA analysis. We assessed three types of bias: amplification bias, dynamic range bias and fold-change bias. We show that our PreAmp workflow introduces only minimal amplification and fold-change bias under stringent conditions. We do detect dynamic range bias if a target gene is highly abundant and PreAmp occurred for 16 or more PCR cycles; however, this type of bias is easily correctable. To assess PreAmp bias in a gene expression profiling experiment, we analyzed a panel of genes that are regulated during differentiation using the NTera2 stem cell model system. We find that results generated using PreAmp are similar to results obtained using standard qPCR (without the pre-amplification step. Importantly, PreAmp maintains patterns of gene expression changes across samples; the same biological insights would be derived from a PreAmp experiment as with a standard gene expression profiling experiment. We conclude that our PreAmp technology can facilitate analysis of extremely limited samples in gene expression quantification experiments.

  14. An SIS model for cultural trait transmission with conformity bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Caroline E; Kendal, Jeremy R

    2013-12-01

    Epidemiological models have been applied to human health-related behaviors that are affected by social interaction. Typically these models have not considered conformity bias, that is, the exaggerated propensity to adopt commonly observed behaviors or opinions, or content biases, where the content of the learned trait affects the probability of adoption. Here we consider an interaction of these two effects, presenting an SIS-type model for the spread and persistence of a behavior which is transmitted via social learning. Uptake is controlled by a nonlinear dependence on the proportion of individuals demonstrating the behavior in a population. Three equilibrium solutions are found, their linear stability is analyzed and the results are compared with a model for unbiased social learning. Our analysis focuses on the effects of the strength of conformity bias and the effects of content biases which alter a conformity threshold frequency of the behavior, above which there is an exaggerated propensity for adoption. The strength of the conformity bias is found to qualitatively alter the predictions regarding whether the trait becomes endemic within the population and the proportion of individuals who display the trait when it is endemic. As the conformity strength increases, the number of feasible equilibrium solutions increases from two to three, leading to a situation where the stable equilibrium attained is dependent upon the initial state. Varying the conformity threshold frequency directionally alters the behavior invasion threshold. Finally we discuss the possible application of this model to binge drinking behavior. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Bias of genetic trend of genomic predictions based on both real dairy cattle and simulated data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Peipei; Lund, Mogens Sandø; Nielsen, Ulrik Sander

    This study investigated the phenomenon of bias in the trend of genomic predictions and attempted to find the reason and solution for this bias. The data used in this study include Danish Jersey data and simulation data. In Jersey data, the bias was reduced when cows were included in the reference...... population. In simulated data, there was no bias when the test animals were unselected cows. When the G matrix was derived from genotypes of causal genes, the bias was reduced. The results suggest that the main reasons for causing the bias of the prediction trends are the selection of bulls and bull dams...

  16. Smooth-muscle-specific gene transfer with the human maxi-k channel improves erectile function and enhances sexual behavior in atherosclerotic cynomolgus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christ, George J; Andersson, Karl-Erik; Williams, Koudy; Zhao, Weixin; D'Agostino, Ralph; Kaplan, Jay; Aboushwareb, Tamer; Yoo, James; Calenda, Giulia; Davies, Kelvin P; Sellers, Rani S; Melman, Arnold

    2009-12-01

    Despite the advent of effective oral therapies for erectile dysfunction (ED), many patients are not successfully treated, and side effects have been documented. To further evaluate the potential utility of naked DNA-based gene transfer as an attractive treatment option for ED. The effects of gene transfer on erectile function and sexual behavior were evaluated in eight male cynomolgus monkeys with ED secondary to moderately severe, diet-induced atherosclerosis. Following establishment of baseline characteristics, animals were subjected to intracavernous injection of a smooth-muscle-specific gene transfer vector (pSMAA-hSlo) encoding the pore-forming subunit of the human large-conductance, calcium-sensitive potassium channel (Maxi-K). For the sexual behavior studies, 2 wk of baseline data were obtained, and then animals were placed in the presence of estrogen-implanted females (n=2) three times per week for 30 min, and sexual behavior was recorded. The intracavernous pressure response to papaverine injection was also monitored. Dramatic changes in erectile function and sexual behavior were observed after intracorporal gene transfer. The frequency of partial (6±2 to 10±2) and full (2±1.5 to 5±1.4) erections were significantly increased, with a parallel 2-3-fold increase in the duration of the observed erections. The frequency and latency of ejaculation were increased and decreased, respectively. Frequency and duration of grooming by the female were increased, and the latency decreased. Increased latency and decreased frequency of body contact was also observed, and this is characteristic of the typical drop in consort intimacy that occurs after mating in most macaque species. In addition, an increased responsiveness to intracavernous papaverine injection was observed. The data indicate that intracorporal Maxi-K-channel gene transfer enhances erectile capacity and sexual behavior; the data imply that increased erectile function per se may lead to increased sexual

  17. Immediate early gene activity-regulated cytoskeletal-associated protein regulates estradiol-induced lordosis behavior in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Amy; Dewing, Phoebe; Micevych, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    Sensory feedback is an important component of any behavior, with each instance influencing subsequent activity. Female sexual receptivity is mediated both by the steroid hormone milieu and interaction with the male. We tested the influence of repeated mating on the level of sexual receptivity in ovariectomized rats treated with estradiol benzoate (EB) once every fourth day to mimic the normal phasic changes of circulating estradiol. Females were divided into two groups: naïve, which were tested for lordosis behavior once, and experienced rats, which were tested for lordosis after each EB injection. To monitor the effect of mating, the number of neurons expressing the immediate early gene activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc) were counted in the mediobasal hypothalamus. Females were unreceptive following the first EB treatment, but the mating induced Arc expression. In naïve rats, each subsequent EB injection increased the levels of sexual receptivity. This ramping was not observed in experienced rats, which achieved only a moderate level of sexual receptivity. However, experienced females treated with EB and progesterone were maximally receptive and did not have Arc expression. To test whether the expression of Arc attenuated lordosis, Arc antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (asODN) were microinjected into experienced females' arcuate nuclei. Arc expression was attenuated, and the experienced EB-treated females achieved maximal sexual receptivity. These results demonstrate that Arc expression in the hypothalamus might influence future sexual receptivity and provides evidence of learning in the arcuate nucleus. The loss of Arc results in unrestrained sexual receptivity. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Clinical effectiveness of attentional bias modification training in abstinent alcoholic patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoenmakers, T.M.; Bruin, de M.; Lux, I.F.M.; Goertz, A.G.; Kerkhof, van D.H.A.T.; Wiers, R.W.

    2010-01-01

    A new training to decrease attentional bias (attentional bias modification training, ABM) was tested in a randomized controlled experimental study with alcohol-dependent patients as an addition to cognitive behavioral therapy. In alcohol dependence, attentional bias has been associated with severity

  19. Greek Physical Education Teachers' Gender Biases in Learning and Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouratidou, Katerina; Barkoukis, Vassilis

    2018-01-01

    Gender biases have often been observed in physical education (PE) classes, as many teachers adopt a male-biased perspective in teaching and learning. This might affect their evaluation of students' behavior and may lead students to accept and reproduce gender biases in other social contexts. The aim of this study was to examine whether PE teachers…

  20. Apparent directional selection by biased pleiotropic mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yoshinari

    2010-07-01

    Pleiotropic effects of deleterious mutations are considered to be among the factors responsible for genetic constraints on evolution by long-term directional selection acting on a quantitative trait. If pleiotropic phenotypic effects are biased in a particular direction, mutations generate apparent directional selection, which refers to the covariance between fitness and the trait owing to a linear association between the number of mutations possessed by individuals and the genotypic values of the trait. The present analysis has shown how the equilibrium mean value of the trait is determined by a balance between directional selection and biased pleiotropic mutations. Assuming that genes act additively both on the trait and on fitness, the total variance-standardized directional selection gradient was decomposed into apparent and true components. Experimental data on mutation bias from the bristle traits of Drosophila and life history traits of Daphnia suggest that apparent selection explains a small but significant fraction of directional selection pressure that is observed in nature; the data suggest that changes induced in a trait by biased pleiotropic mutation (i.e., by apparent directional selection) are easily compensated for by (true) directional selection.

  1. HDAC5 and Its Target Gene, Npas4, Function in the Nucleus Accumbens to Regulate Cocaine-Conditioned Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Makoto; Carreira, Maria B; Cooper, Yonatan A; Bobadilla, Ana-Clara; Heinsbroek, Jasper A; Koike, Nobuya; Larson, Erin B; Balmuth, Evan A; Hughes, Brandon W; Penrod, Rachel D; Kumar, Jaswinder; Smith, Laura N; Guzman, Daniel; Takahashi, Joseph S; Kim, Tae-Kyung; Kalivas, Peter W; Self, David W; Lin, Yingxi; Cowan, Christopher W

    2017-09-27

    Individuals suffering from substance-use disorders develop strong associations between the drug's rewarding effects and environmental cues, creating powerful, enduring triggers for relapse. We found that dephosphorylated, nuclear histone deacetylase 5 (HDAC5) in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) reduced cocaine reward-context associations and relapse-like behaviors in a cocaine self-administration model. We also discovered that HDAC5 associates with an activity-sensitive enhancer of the Npas4 gene and negatively regulates NPAS4 expression. Exposure to cocaine and the test chamber induced rapid and transient NPAS4 expression in a small subpopulation of FOS-positive neurons in the NAc. Conditional deletion of Npas4 in the NAc significantly reduced cocaine conditioned place preference and delayed learning of the drug-reinforced action during cocaine self-administration, without affecting cue-induced reinstatement of drug seeking. These data suggest that HDAC5 and NPAS4 in the NAc are critically involved in reward-relevant learning and memory processes and that nuclear HDAC5 limits reinstatement of drug seeking independent of NPAS4. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Gallic acid modulates phenotypic behavior and gene expression in oral squamous cell carcinoma cells by interfering with leptin pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Eliane Macedo Sobrinho; da Rocha, Rogério Gonçalves; Santos, Hércules Otacílio; Guimarães, Talita Antunes; de Carvalho Fraga, Carlos Alberto; da Silveira, Luiz Henrique; Batista, Paulo Ricardo; de Oliveira, Paulo Sérgio Lopes; Melo, Geraldo Aclécio; Santos, Sérgio Henrique; de Paula, Alfredo Maurício Batista; Guimarães, André Luiz Sena; Farias, Lucyana Conceição

    2018-01-01

    Gallic acid is a polyphenolic compost appointed to interfere with neoplastic cells behavior. Evidence suggests an important role of leptin in carcinogenesis pathways, inducing a proliferative phenotype. We investigated the potential of gallic acid to modulate leptin-induced cell proliferation and migration of oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines. The gallic acid effect on leptin secretion by oral squamous cell carcinoma cells, as well as the underlying molecular mechanisms, was also assessed. For this, we performed proliferation, migration, immunocytochemical and qPCR assays. The expression levels of cell migration-related genes (MMP2, MMP9, Col1A1, and E-cadherin), angiogenesis (HIF-1α, mir210), leptin signaling (LepR, p44/42 MAPK), apoptosis (casp-3), and secreted leptin levels by oral squamous cell carcinoma cells were also measured. Gallic acid decreased proliferation and migration of leptin-treated oral squamous cell carcinoma cells, and reduced mRNA expression of MMP2, MMP9, Col1A1, mir210, but did not change HIF-1α. Gallic acid decreased levels of leptin secreted by oral squamous cell carcinoma cells, accordingly with downregulation of p44/42 MAPK expression. Thus, gallic acid appears to break down neoplastic phenotype of oral squamous cell carcinoma cells by interfering with leptin pathway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Modeling Temporal Bias of Uplift Events in Recommender Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Altaf, Basmah

    2013-05-08

    Today, commercial industry spends huge amount of resources in advertisement campaigns, new marketing strategies, and promotional deals to introduce their product to public and attract a large number of customers. These massive investments by a company are worthwhile because marketing tactics greatly influence the consumer behavior. Alternatively, these advertising campaigns have a discernible impact on recommendation systems which tend to promote popular items by ranking them at the top, resulting in biased and unfair decision making and loss of customers’ trust. The biasing impact of popularity of items on recommendations, however, is not fixed, and varies with time. Therefore, it is important to build a bias-aware recommendation system that can rank or predict items based on their true merit at given time frame. This thesis proposes a framework that can model the temporal bias of individual items defined by their characteristic contents, and provides a simple process for bias correction. Bias correction is done either by cleaning the bias from historical training data that is used for building predictive model, or by ignoring the estimated bias from the predictions of a standard predictor. Evaluated on two real world datasets, NetFlix and MovieLens, our framework is shown to be able to estimate and remove the bias as a result of adopted marketing techniques from the predicted popularity of items at a given time.

  4. [Courtship behavior, communicative sound production and resistance to stress in Drosophila mutants with defective agnostic gene, coding for LIMK1].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, A V; Kaminskaia, A N; Savvateeva-Popova, E V

    2009-01-01

    To elucidate the role of one of the main elements of signal cascade of actin remodeling--LIM-kinase 1 (LIMK1)--in the control of animal behavior we studied the characteristics of courtship behavior, parameters of acoustic communicative signals and their resistance to heat shock (HS, 37 degrees C, 30 min) in Drosophila melanogaster males from the strain with mutation in locus agnostic (agn(ts3)) containing gene CG1848 for LIMK1. The data obtained was compared with the results of our previous similar investigation on wild type CS males (Popov et al., 2006). Flies were divided into 4 groups. The males of control groups were not subjected to heat shock. The rest of males were subjected to heat shock either at the beginning of larval development when predominantly mushroom body neuroblasts are dividing (groups HS1), or at the prepupal stage when the brain central complex is developing (groups HS2), or at the imago stage one hour before the test (groups HS3). All males were tested at the age of 5 days. Virgin and fertilized CS females were used as courtship objects. Comparison of control groups of the two strains--CS and agnostic--have shown that the mutation agn(ts3) has no influence on the main parameters of courtship behavior of intact (not subjected to HS) males (courtship latency, the rapidity of achieving copulation, courtship efficiency) but leads to lowering of their sexual activity, increase of duration of sound trains in the songs and to slight increase of rate and stability of working of singing pacemakers. Agnostic males in comparison to wild type males are more resistant to HS given 1 hour before the test. After HS their courtship intensity does not decrease and the main parameters of their courtship behavior and communicative sound signals in comparison tu wild type males either do not change, or appear to be even better stabilized. The frequency of distorted sound pulses (an indicator of frequency of impairments in the activity pattern of neuro

  5. The psychological price of media bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babad, Elisha

    2005-12-01

    Media bias was investigated through the effects of a TV interviewer's preferential behavior on the image of the interviewee in the eyes of the viewers. Judges viewed a political interview with either a friendly or a hostile interviewer then rated their impressions of the interviewed politician, whose behavior was identical in all conditions. The preferential nonverbal behavior of the interviewer (controlling for recognition and comprehension of verbal content) systematically influenced viewers' ratings of the politician. The effect consisted mainly of damage to the politician in the hostile interviewer condition. Describing the interviewee as a professor yielded a similar preferential behavior effect. A strong halo effect was identified, but it was ruled out as the mechanism accounting for the interviewer effect.

  6. Association of Polymorphisms of Serotonin Transporter (5HTTLPR) and 5-HT2C Receptor Genes with Criminal Behavior in Russian Criminal Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toshchakova, Valentina A.; Bakhtiari, Yalda; Kulikov, Alexander V.; Gusev, Sergey I.; Trofimova, Marina V.; Fedorenko, Olga Yu.; Mikhalitskaya, Ekaterina V.; Popova, Nina K.; Bokhan, Nikolay A.; Hovens, Johannes E.; Loonen, Anton J.M.; Wilffert, Bob; Ivanova, Svetlana A.

    2018-01-01

    Background Human aggression is a heterogeneous behavior with biological, psychological, and social backgrounds. As the biological mechanisms that regulate aggression are components of both reward-seeking and adversity-fleeing behavior, these phenomena are difficult to disentangle into separate neurochemical processes. Nevertheless, evidence exists linking some forms of aggression to aberrant serotonergic neurotransmission. We determined possible associations between 6 serotonergic neurotransmission-related gene variants and severe criminal offenses. Methods Male Russian prisoners who were convicted for murder (n = 117) or theft (n = 77) were genotyped for variants of the serotonin transporter (5HTTLPR), tryptophan hydroxylase, tryptophan-2,3-dioxygenase, or type 2C (5-HT2C) receptor genes and compared with general-population male controls (n = 161). Prisoners were psychologically phenotyped using the Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory and the Beck Depression Inventory. Results No differences were found between murderers and thieves either concerning genotypes or concerning psychological measures. Comparison of polymorphism distribution between groups of prisoners and controls revealed highly significant associations of 5HTTLPR and 5-HTR2C (rs6318) gene polymorphisms with being convicted for criminal behavior. Conclusions The lack of biological differences between the 2 groups of prisoners indicates that the studied 5HT-related genes do not differentiate between the types of crimes committed. PMID:29621775

  7. Cat odor exposure induces distinct changes in the exploratory behavior and Wfs1 gene expression in C57Bl/6 and 129Sv mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raud, Sirli; Sütt, Silva; Plaas, Mario; Luuk, Hendrik; Innos, Jürgen; Philips, Mari-Anne; Kõks, Sulev; Vasar, Eero

    2007-10-16

    129Sv and C57Bl/6 (Bl6) strains are two most widely used inbred mice strains for generation of transgenic animals. The present study confirms the existence of substantial differences in the behavior of these two mice strains. The exploratory behavior of Bl6 mice in a novel environment was significantly higher compared to 129Sv mice. The exposure of mice to cat odor-induced an anxiety-like state in Bl6, but not in 129Sv mice. The levels of Wfs1 gene expression did not differ in the prefrontal cortex, mesolimbic area and temporal lobe of experimentally naive Bl6 and 129Sv mice. However, after cat odor exposure the expression of Wfs1 gene was significantly lower in the mesolimbic area and temporal lobe of Bl6 mice compared to 129Sv strain. Dynamics of Wfs1 gene expression and exploratory behavior suggest that the down-regulation of Wfs1 gene in Bl6 mice might be related to the increased anxiety. Further studies are needed to test the robustness and possible causal relationship of this finding.

  8. Interpretation bias towards vague faces in individuals with paranoid personality disorder traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Doustkam

    2017-10-01

     Conclusion: Individuals with paranoid personality traits have more biases than normal individuals in terms of interpreting vague faces. The results of this study indicated the importance of attention to cognitive biases among individuals with paranoid personality traits or paranoid personality disorder because such biases can significantly influence behavioral patterns in individuals, and consequently degrade their functioning. Also, bias towards the processing of negative signs appears to be the most important cognitive element is involved in interpersonal relationships.

  9. Two sides of the same coin: Information processing style and reverse biases

    OpenAIRE

    Shahar Ayal; Guy Hochman; Dan Zakay

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of information processing styles (indexed by the Rational-Experiential Inventory of Pacini and Epstein, 1999) on adherence to bias judgments, and particularly to reverse biases; i.e., when two choice questions that comprise identical normative components are set in different situations and yield seemingly opposite behavioral biases. We found consistent evidence for a negative correlation between rational score and adherence to reverse biases, as well as overall ...

  10. Exchange bias mediated by interfacial nanoparticles (invited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berkowitz, A. E., E-mail: aberk@ucsd.edu [Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Center for Magnetic Recording Research, University of California, California 92093 (United States); Sinha, S. K. [Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Fullerton, E. E. [Center for Magnetic Recording Research, University of California, California 92093 (United States); Smith, D. J. [Department of Physics, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States)

    2015-05-07

    The objective of this study on the iconic exchange-bias bilayer Permalloy/CoO has been to identify those elements of the interfacial microstructure and accompanying magnetic properties that are responsible for the exchange-bias and hysteretic properties of this bilayer. Both epitaxial and polycrystalline samples were examined. X-ray and neutron reflectometry established that there existed an interfacial region, of width ∼1 nm, whose magnetic properties differed from those of Py or CoO. A model was developed for the interfacial microstructure that predicts all the relevant properties of this system; namely; the temperature and Permalloy thickness dependence of the exchange-bias, H{sub EX}, and coercivity, H{sub C}; the much smaller measured values of H{sub EX} from what was nominally expected; the different behavior of H{sub EX} and H{sub C} in epitaxial and polycrystalline bilayers. A surprising result is that the exchange-bias does not involve direct exchange-coupling between Permalloy and CoO, but rather is mediated by CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles in the interfacial region.

  11. Eukaryotic evolutionary transitions are associated with extreme codon bias in functionally-related proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas J Hudson

    Full Text Available Codon bias in the genome of an organism influences its phenome by changing the speed and efficiency of mRNA translation and hence protein abundance. We hypothesized that differences in codon bias, either between-species differences in orthologous genes, or within-species differences between genes, may play an evolutionary role. To explore this hypothesis, we compared the genome-wide codon bias in six species that occupy vital positions in the Eukaryotic Tree of Life. We acquired the entire protein coding sequences for these organisms, computed the codon bias for all genes in each organism and explored the output for relationships between codon bias and protein function, both within- and between-lineages. We discovered five notable coordinated patterns, with extreme codon bias most pronounced in traits considered highly characteristic of a given lineage. Firstly, the Homo sapiens genome had stronger codon bias for DNA-binding transcription factors than the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome, whereas the opposite was true for ribosomal proteins--perhaps underscoring transcriptional regulation in the origin of complexity. Secondly, both mammalian species examined possessed extreme codon bias in genes relating to hair--a tissue unique to mammals. Thirdly, Arabidopsis thaliana showed extreme codon bias in genes implicated in cell wall formation and chloroplast function--which are unique to plants. Fourthly, Gallus gallus possessed strong codon bias in a subset of genes encoding mitochondrial proteins--perhaps reflecting the enhanced bioenergetic efficiency in birds that co-evolved with flight. And lastly, the G. gallus genome had extreme codon bias for the Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor--which may help to explain their spontaneous recovery from deafness. We propose that extreme codon bias in groups of genes that encode functionally related proteins has a pathway-level energetic explanation.

  12. Exchange bias theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiwi, Miguel

    2001-01-01

    Research on the exchange bias (EB) phenomenon has witnessed a flurry of activity during recent years, which stems from its use in magnetic sensors and as stabilizers in magnetic reading heads. EB was discovered in 1956 but it attracted only limited attention until these applications, closely related to giant magnetoresistance, were developed during the last decade. In this review, I initially give a short introduction, listing the most salient experimental results and what is required from an EB theory. Next, I indicate some of the obstacles in the road towards a satisfactory understanding of the phenomenon. The main body of the text reviews and critically discusses the activity that has flourished, mainly during the last 5 years, in the theoretical front. Finally, an evaluation of the progress made, and a critical assessment as to where we stand nowadays along the road to a satisfactory theory, is presented

  13. A polymorphism in the 5'-flanking region of the serotonin transporter (5-HTT) gene affects fear-related behaviors of adult domestic chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, E Tobias; Kjaer, Joergen B; Lüders, Carolin; van, Loc Phi

    2017-07-14

    The neural serotonin (5-HT)/serotonin transporter (5-HTT) system is involved in the regulation of physiological processes and emotional states. In humans, the short (S) allele in the 5-HTT gene-linked polymorphic region, which decreases 5-HTT expression, has been shown to be associated with behavioral changes including an increased level of anxiety. Also in birds a polymorphism in the 5-HTT gene is described, a deletion (D) has been found to have functional consequences on growth and locomotion. Furthermore, the D-allele leads to an increased 5-HTT expression compared to the wild type (W), a feature which is linked to lower levels of fear in mammalian species. Thus, we aimed here to test whether the polymorphism in the chicken 5-HTT gene also leads to respective alternations of fear-related behaviors. We tested 268 hens of three genotypes (W/W, W/D, D/D) in two behavioral paradigms (open field, light-dark test) to assess fear-related behavior. Both tests revealed that hens possessing the D-allele showed lower levels of fear than those having the W-allele. These similar outcomes in fear-related behaviors in an avian and a mammalian species are associated with an increased 5-HTT expression. In the human 5-HTT gene, the long (L) allele is linked to such increased expression, whereas in chickens it is the D-allele. Thus, increased 5-HTT expression causing decreased fear may be a general mechanism in vertebrates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Bias modification training can alter approach bias and chocolate consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Sophie E; Kemps, Eva; Tiggemann, Marika

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence has demonstrated that bias modification training has potential to reduce cognitive biases for attractive targets and affect health behaviours. The present study investigated whether cognitive bias modification training could be applied to reduce approach bias for chocolate and affect subsequent chocolate consumption. A sample of 120 women (18-27 years) were randomly assigned to an approach-chocolate condition or avoid-chocolate condition, in which they were trained to approach or avoid pictorial chocolate stimuli, respectively. Training had the predicted effect on approach bias, such that participants trained to approach chocolate demonstrated an increased approach bias to chocolate stimuli whereas participants trained to avoid such stimuli showed a reduced bias. Further, participants trained to avoid chocolate ate significantly less of a chocolate muffin in a subsequent taste test than participants trained to approach chocolate. Theoretically, results provide support for the dual process model's conceptualisation of consumption as being driven by implicit processes such as approach bias. In practice, approach bias modification may be a useful component of interventions designed to curb the consumption of unhealthy foods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Bias temperature instability for devices and circuits

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a single-source reference to one of the more challenging reliability issues plaguing modern semiconductor technologies, negative bias temperature instability.  Readers will benefit from state-of-the art coverage of research in topics such as time dependent defect spectroscopy, anomalous defect behavior, stochastic modeling with additional metastable states, multiphonon theory, compact modeling with RC ladders and implications on device reliability and lifetime.  ·         Enables readers to understand and model negative bias temperature instability, with an emphasis on dynamics; ·         Includes coverage of DC vs. AC stress, duty factor dependence and bias dependence; ·         Explains time dependent defect spectroscopy, as a measurement method that operates on nanoscale MOSFETs; ·         Introduces new defect model for metastable defect states, nonradiative multiphonon theory and stochastic behavior.

  16. Bias in clinical intervention research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, Lise Lotte

    2006-01-01

    Research on bias in clinical trials may help identify some of the reasons why investigators sometimes reach the wrong conclusions about intervention effects. Several quality components for the assessment of bias control have been suggested, but although they seem intrinsically valid, empirical...... evidence is needed to evaluate their effects on the extent and direction of bias. This narrative review summarizes the findings of methodological studies on the influence of bias in clinical trials. A number of methodological studies suggest that lack of adequate randomization in published trial reports...

  17. Gaze Bias in Preference Judgments by Younger and Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiki Saito

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Individuals’ gaze behavior reflects the choice they will ultimately make. For example, people confronting a choice among multiple stimuli tend to look longer at stimuli that are subsequently chosen than at other stimuli. This tendency, called the gaze bias effect, is a key aspect of visual decision-making. Nevertheless, no study has examined the generality of the gaze bias effect in older adults. Here, we used a two-alternative forced-choice task (2AFC to compare the gaze behavior reflective of different stages of decision processes demonstrated by younger and older adults. Participants who had viewed two faces were instructed to choose the one that they liked/disliked or the one that they judged to be more/less similar to their own face. Their eye movements were tracked while they chose. The results show that the gaze bias effect occurred during the remaining time in both age groups irrespective of the decision type. However, no gaze bias effect was observed for the preference judgment during the first dwell time. Our study demonstrated that the gaze bias during the remaining time occurred regardless of decision-making task and age. Further study using diverse participants, such as clinic patients or infants, may help to generalize the gaze bias effect and to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the gaze bias.

  18. Threat bias, not negativity bias, underpins differences in political ideology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilienfeld, Scott O; Latzman, Robert D

    2014-06-01

    Although disparities in political ideology are rooted partly in dispositional differences, Hibbing et al.'s analysis paints with an overly broad brush. Research on the personality correlates of liberal-conservative differences points not to global differences in negativity bias, but to differences in threat bias, probably emanating from differences in fearfulness. This distinction bears implications for etiological research and persuasion efforts.

  19. A Study of Learning Achievement and Learning Behavior in Biology on “Genes and Chromosomes” Using Storyline Teaching for 12th Grade Students

    OpenAIRE

    Ubonwan Leawudomchai; Kittima Panprueksa; Somsiri Singlop; Thanawuth Latwong

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this research were to study learning achievement and learning behavior in Biology on “genes and chromosomes” using storyline teaching for 12th grade students. The sample for this research consisted of 36 twelfth grade students from Piboonbumpen Demonstration School in the first semester of 2014. The sample was randomly selected for the experimental group using cluster random sampling. The research instruments were the lesson plans using storyline teaching on g...

  20. Association of dopamine receptor D2 gene (DRD2) Taq1 polymorphisms with eating behaviors and obesity among Chinese and Indian Malaysian university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lek, Fang-Ying; Ong, Hing-Huat; Say, Yee-How

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated the association of DRD2 Taq1A, Taq1B and Taq1D gene polymorphisms with eating behavior, the preference/intake frequency/craving of high-fat foods and obesity in 394 Malaysian adults (161 males, 233 females; 308 Chinese, 86 Indians; 67 obese, 327 non-obese). Eating behaviors namely Cognitive Restraint, Uncontrolled Eating and Emotional Eating scores were assessed by the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire-R18. The preference/intake frequency/craving of 26 common high-fat Malaysian foods was assessed using a 7-point hedonic scale. Anthropometric measurements were taken and Taq1 gene polymorphisms were genotyped by PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism using DNA extracted from mouthwash samples. The overall minor allele frequencies of Taq1A, Taq1B and Taq1D according to ethnicities (Chinese/Indian) were 0.37/0.29, 0.39/0.28, 0.06/0.30, respectively; genotype and allele distributions of Taq1B and Taq1D were significantly different between ethnicities. Eating behaviorscores were not significantly different between gender and ethnicities. Those with A1 or B1 allele had lower Cognitive Restraint score and higher Uncontrolled Eating score, while those with A1/A1 or B1/B1 genotype had higher fast food preference. D1 allele was associated with increased starchy food craving and mamak (Malaysian Indian-Muslim) food preference, but not eating behavior scores. All three gene variants were not associated with obesity and adiposity. Taken together, we posit that three DRD2 Taq1 gene polymorphisms influence the eating behavior and preference/intake frequency/craving of certain high-fat foods in Malaysian adults, but their role in obesity and adiposity is still inconclusive and needs further investigation.

  1. Identification of a cys-ser substitution in the 5-HT{sub 2C} (HTR2C) receptor gene and allelic association to violent behavior and alcoholism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lappalainen, J.; Ozaki, N.; Goldman, D. [National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Rockville, MD (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that brain serotonergic functions, including behavioral and neurochemical responses to 5-HT{sub 2C} agonist, are abnormal in some individuals with alcoholism and aggressive behaviors. The aim of the present study was to identify coding sequence variants in the human 5-HT{sub 2C} receptor gene which may cause abnormal or variant function of this receptor. Using SSCP analysis, a non-conservative cys-ser substitution was found in the 5-HT{sub 2C} receptor (designated 5-HT{sub 2Ccys} and 5-HT{sub 2Cser}). The polymorphism was typed in CEPH families to genetically map the gene. To test for association of the variant to alcoholism, violent behavior and serotonin function, the 5-HT{sub 2C} genotypes of 151 non-related Finnish male alcoholic violent offenders and impulsive fire setters and 127 Finnish psychiatrically interviewed healthy male volunteers were determined. CSF 5-HIAA concentrations were available for 74 alcoholic violent offenders and 25 healthy volunteers. Linkage analysis placed the 5-HT{sub 2C} gene on Xq21, a region that has been previously shown to contain genes for several mental retardation syndromes. The 5-HT{sub 2Ccys}/5-HT{sub 2Cser} genotype frequencies in alcoholic violent offenders and controls differed significantly (0.90/0.10 and 0.82/0.18, respectively, P=0.048). The association was found to be strongest in the violent offenders who did not fulfill the criteria for antisocial personality disorder (5-HT{sub 2Ccys}/5-HT{sub 2Cser} 0.93/0.07, p=0.021). No association was found between CSF 5-HIAA concentrations and 5-HT{sub 2C} genotype. These results implicate a 5-HT{sub 2C} receptor amino acid substitution in predisposition to alcohol abuse and violent behavior in a subgroup of alcoholics.

  2. Characterization of the behavior of three definitions of prostate-specific antigen-based biochemical failure in relation to detection and follow-up biases: comparison with the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology consensus definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Scott G

    2006-03-01

    To examine the impact of detection biases on three prostate cancer biochemical failure (bF) definitions in comparison with the existing American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology Consensus Definition (ACD). Three alternative bF definitions were tested against the ACD: three rises in prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level without backdating, nadir plus 2 ng/mL, and a threshold PSA level of >3 ng/mL, according to data from 1050 men. The mean time between PSA tests (MTBT), regularity of collection, and calendar year of analysis were examined in each bF definition. The MTBT produced a statistically significant difference in the derived hazard ratio for identification of bF in all definitions. The influence of test regularity was statistically significant beyond the median level of regularity in all definitions. The year of analysis impacted greatly on the ACD, whereas the three alternative definitions exhibited minor follow-up duration variations by comparison. The alternative definitions had reliable follow-up when the crude median time to censoring was at least 1.6 times greater than that of failure. Detection biases will always be a significant issue in defining bF. A number of alternative failure definitions have more predictable interactions with these biases than the existing ACD.

  3. Characterization of the behavior of three definitions of prostate-specific antigen-based biochemical failure in relation to detection and follow-up biases: Comparison with the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology consensus definition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, Scott G.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the impact of detection biases on three prostate cancer biochemical failure (bF) definitions in comparison with the existing American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology Consensus Definition (ACD). Methods and Materials: Three alternative bF definitions were tested against the ACD: three rises in prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level without backdating, nadir plus 2 ng/mL, and a threshold PSA level of >3 ng/mL, according to data from 1050 men. The mean time between PSA tests (MTBT), regularity of collection, and calendar year of analysis were examined in each bF definition. Results: The MTBT produced a statistically significant difference in the derived hazard ratio for identification of bF in all definitions. The influence of test regularity was statistically significant beyond the median level of regularity in all definitions. The year of analysis impacted greatly on the ACD, whereas the three alternative definitions exhibited minor follow-up duration variations by comparison. The alternative definitions had reliable follow-up when the crude median time to censoring was at least 1.6 times greater than that of failure. Conclusions: Detection biases will always be a significant issue in defining bF. A number of alternative failure definitions have more predictable interactions with these biases than the existing ACD

  4. Association of the melanocortin 4 receptor gene rs17782313 polymorphism with rewarding value of food and eating behavior in Chilean children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obregón, A M; Oyarce, K; Santos, J L; Valladares, M; Goldfield, G

    2017-02-01

    Studies conducted in monozygotic and dizygotic twins have established a strong genetic component in eating behavior. Rare mutations and common variants of the melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) gene have been linked to obesity and eating behavior scores. However, few studies have assessed common variants in MC4R gene with the rewarding value of food in children. The objective of the study was to evaluate the association between the MC4R rs17782313 polymorphism with homeostatic and non-homeostatic eating behavior patterns in Chileans children. This is a cross-sectional study in 258 Chilean children (44 % female, 8-14 years old) showing a wide variation in BMI. Anthropometric measurements (weight, height, Z-score of BMI and waist circumference) were performed by standard procedures. Eating behavior was assessed using the Eating in Absence of Hunger Questionnaire (EAHQ), the Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire (CEBQ), the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ), and the Food Reinforcement Value Questionnaire (FRVQ). Genotype of the rs17782313 nearby MC4R was determined by a Taqman assay. Association of the rs17782313 C allele with eating behavior was assessed using non-parametric tests. We found that children carrying the CC genotype have higher scores of food responsiveness (p value = 0.02). In obese girls, carriers of the C allele showed lower scores of satiety responsiveness (p value = 0.02) and higher scores of uncontrolled eating (p value = 0.01). Obese boys carrying the C allele showed lower rewarding value of food in relation to non-carriers. The rs17782313 C allele is associated with eating behavior traits that may predispose obese children to increased energy intake and obesity.

  5. Correction of technical bias in clinical microarray data improves concordance with known biological information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eklund, Aron Charles; Szallasi, Zoltan Imre

    2008-01-01

    The performance of gene expression microarrays has been well characterized using controlled reference samples, but the performance on clinical samples remains less clear. We identified sources of technical bias affecting many genes in concert, thus causing spurious correlations in clinical data...... sets and false associations between genes and clinical variables. We developed a method to correct for technical bias in clinical microarray data, which increased concordance with known biological relationships in multiple data sets....

  6. Feeding the developing brain: Juvenile rats fed diet rich in prebiotics and bioactive milk fractions exhibit reduced anxiety-related behavior and modified gene expression in emotion circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mika, Agnieszka; Gaffney, Michelle; Roller, Rachel; Hills, Abigail; Bouchet, Courtney A; Hulen, Kristina A; Thompson, Robert S; Chichlowski, Maciej; Berg, Brian M; Fleshner, Monika

    2018-01-30

    Early life nutrition is critical for brain development. Dietary prebiotics and bioactive milk fractions support brain development by increasing plasticity and altering activity in brain regions important for cognition and emotion regulation, perhaps through the gut-microbiome-brain axis. Here we examined the impact of a diet containing prebiotics, lactoferrin, and milk fat globule membrane (test diet) on beneficial gut bacteria, basal gene expression for activity and plasticity markers within brain circuits important for cognition and anxiety, and anxiety-related behavior in the open field. Juvenile male F344 rats were fed the test diet or a calorically matched control diet beginning postnatal day 24. After 4 weeks on diets, rats were sacrificed and brains were removed. Test diet significantly increased mRNA expression for cfos, brain derived neurotropic factor, and the GluN1 subunit of the NMDA receptor in the prefrontal cortex and reduced cfos mRNA within the amygdala. Diet-induced increases in fecal Lactobacillus spp., measured using selective bacterial culture, positively correlated with altered gene expression for cfos and serotonin receptors within multiple brain regions. In a separate cohort of juvenile rats, 4 weeks of the test diet increased time spent in the center of the open field, a behavior indicative of reduced anxiety. These data demonstrate that early life diets containing prebiotics and bioactive milk fractions can adaptively alter genes in neural circuits underlying emotion regulation and decrease anxiety-related behavior. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Heuristic Biases in Mathematical Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglis, Matthew; Simpson, Adrian

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we briefly describe the dual process account of reasoning, and explain the role of heuristic biases in human thought. Concentrating on the so-called matching bias effect, we describe a piece of research that indicates a correlation between success at advanced level mathematics and an ability to override innate and misleading…

  8. Gender bias affects forests worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlène Elias; Susan S Hummel; Bimbika S Basnett; Carol J.P. Colfer

    2017-01-01

    Gender biases persist in forestry research and practice. These biases result in reduced scientific rigor and inequitable, ineffective, and less efficient policies, programs, and interventions. Drawing from a two-volume collection of current and classic analyses on gender in forests, we outline five persistent and inter-related themes: gendered governance, tree tenure,...

  9. Anti-Bias Education: Reflections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derman-Sparks, Louise

    2011-01-01

    It is 30 years since NAEYC published "Anti-Bias Curriculum Tools for Empowering Young Children" (Derman-Sparks & ABC Task Force, 1989). Since then, anti-bias education concepts have become part of the early childhood education (ECE) narrative in the United States and many other countries. It has brought a fresh way of thinking about…

  10. Polymorphisms in the dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4) contribute to individual differences in human sexual behavior: desire, arousal and sexual function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Zion, I Z; Tessler, R; Cohen, L; Lerer, E; Raz, Y; Bachner-Melman, R; Gritsenko, I; Nemanov, L; Zohar, A H; Belmaker, R H; Benjamin, J; Ebstein, R P

    2006-08-01

    Although there is some evidence from twin studies that individual differences in sexual behavior are heritable, little is known about the specific molecular genetic design of human sexuality. Recently, a specific dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) agonist was shown in rats to induce penile erection through a central mechanism. These findings prompted us to examine possible association between the well-characterized DRD4 gene and core phenotypes of human sexual behavior that included desire, arousal and function in a group of 148 nonclinical university students. We observed association between the exon 3 repeat region, and the C-521T and C-616G promoter region SNPs, with scores on scales that measure human sexual behavior. The single most common DRD4 5-locus haplotype (19%) was significantly associated with Desire, Function and Arousal scores. The current results are consistent with animal studies that show a role for dopamine and specifically the DRD4 receptor in sexual behavior and suggest that one pathway by which individual variation in human desire, arousal and function are mediated is based on allelic variants coding for differences in DRD4 receptor gene expression and protein concentrations in key brain areas.

  11. Homeopathic potencies of Arnica montana L. change gene expression in a Tamm-Horsfall protein-1 cell line in vitro model: the role of ethanol as a possible confounder and statistical bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirumbolo, Salvatore; Bjørklund, Geir

    2017-07-01

    Marzotto et al. showed that homeopathic preparations of Arnica montana L. acted directly on gene expression of Tamm-Horsfall protein-1 (THP-1) monocyte/macrophage cell lines activated with phorbol12-myristate13-acetate and interleukin-4 (IL-4). A. montana homeopathic dilutions are used in complementary and alternative medicine to treat inflammation disorders and post-traumatic events as well as for wound repair. The French Pharmacopoeia of these remedies uses 0.3% ethanol in each centesimal dilution. In this paper, we discuss how ethanol-containing A. montana homeopathic centesimal dilutions can change gene expression in IL-4-treated monocyte/macrophage THP-1. We assessed the role of ethanol in the Arnica homeopathic dilutions containing this alcohol by investigating its action on gene expression of THP-1 cell. Evidence would strongly suggest that the presence of ethanol in these remedies might play a fundamental role in the dilutions ability to affect gene expression, particularly for doses from 5c to 15c. Where, rather than playing a major role in the mesoscopic structure of water, the ethanol might have a chemical-physical role in the induction of THP-1 gene expression, apoptosis, and deoxyribonucleic acid function. This evidence generates a debate about the suggestion that the use of a binary-mixed solvent in homeopathic chemistry, used by Hahnemann since 1810, may be fundamental to explain the activity of homeopathy on cell models.

  12. Large-scale galaxy bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjacques, Vincent; Jeong, Donghui; Schmidt, Fabian

    2018-02-01

    This review presents a comprehensive overview of galaxy bias, that is, the statistical relation between the distribution of galaxies and matter. We focus on large scales where cosmic density fields are quasi-linear. On these scales, the clustering of galaxies can be described by a perturbative bias expansion, and the complicated physics of galaxy formation is absorbed by a finite set of coefficients of the expansion, called bias parameters. The review begins with a detailed derivation of this very important result, which forms the basis of the rigorous perturbative description of galaxy clustering, under the assumptions of General Relativity and Gaussian, adiabatic initial conditions. Key components of the bias expansion are all leading local gravitational observables, which include the matter density but also tidal fields and their time derivatives. We hence expand the definition of local bias to encompass all these contributions. This derivation is followed by a presentation of the peak-background split in its general form, which elucidates the physical meaning of the bias parameters, and a detailed description of the connection between bias parameters and galaxy statistics. We then review the excursion-set formalism and peak theory which provide predictions for the values of the bias parameters. In the remainder of the review, we consider the generalizations of galaxy bias required in the presence of various types of cosmological physics that go beyond pressureless matter with adiabatic, Gaussian initial conditions: primordial non-Gaussianity, massive neutrinos, baryon-CDM isocurvature perturbations, dark energy, and modified gravity. Finally, we discuss how the description of galaxy bias in the galaxies' rest frame is related to clustering statistics measured from the observed angular positions and redshifts in actual galaxy catalogs.

  13. Large-scale galaxy bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Donghui; Desjacques, Vincent; Schmidt, Fabian

    2018-01-01

    Here, we briefly introduce the key results of the recent review (arXiv:1611.09787), whose abstract is as following. This review presents a comprehensive overview of galaxy bias, that is, the statistical relation between the distribution of galaxies and matter. We focus on large scales where cosmic density fields are quasi-linear. On these scales, the clustering of galaxies can be described by a perturbative bias expansion, and the complicated physics of galaxy formation is absorbed by a finite set of coefficients of the expansion, called bias parameters. The review begins with a detailed derivation of this very important result, which forms the basis of the rigorous perturbative description of galaxy clustering, under the assumptions of General Relativity and Gaussian, adiabatic initial conditions. Key components of the bias expansion are all leading local gravitational observables, which include the matter density but also tidal fields and their time derivatives. We hence expand the definition of local bias to encompass all these contributions. This derivation is followed by a presentation of the peak-background split in its general form, which elucidates the physical meaning of the bias parameters, and a detailed description of the connection between bias parameters and galaxy (or halo) statistics. We then review the excursion set formalism and peak theory which provide predictions for the values of the bias parameters. In the remainder of the review, we consider the generalizations of galaxy bias required in the presence of various types of cosmological physics that go beyond pressureless matter with adiabatic, Gaussian initial conditions: primordial non-Gaussianity, massive neutrinos, baryon-CDM isocurvature perturbations, dark energy, and modified gravity. Finally, we discuss how the description of galaxy bias in the galaxies' rest frame is related to clustering statistics measured from the observed angular positions and redshifts in actual galaxy catalogs.

  14. The role of the Cys23Ser (rs6318) polymorphism of the HTR2C gene in suicidal behavior: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Castro, Thelma B; Hernandez-Diaz, Yazmín; Juárez-Rojop, Isela E; López-Narváez, Lilia; Tovilla-Zárate, Carlos A; Rodriguez-Perez, José M; Sánchez-de la Cruz, Juan P

    2017-12-01

    The polymorphisms of the serotonin receptor 2C (HTR2C) gene have been proposed to influence suicidal behavior. The aim of our study was to explore the role of the HTR2C gene variant Cys23Ser (rs6318) in the pathogenesis of suicidal behavior through a systematic review and meta-analysis. The search was performed using EBSCO and PubMed databases. To be included in the analysis, the studies had to evaluate suicidal behavior (attempted, ideation, or completed suicide). The results of the meta-analysis were expressed as odds ratios (ORs). Because HTR2C lies on chromosome X, pooled ORs were calculated, respectively, for each of the models used, namely: allelic, homozygous, dominant, and recessive for the female group and allelic for the male group. The meta-analysis comprised 3867 individuals, including 1668 cases and 2199 controls. The HTR2C Cys23Ser (rs6318) polymorphism did not show a significant association with suicidal behavior either in women (OR: 0.75; 95% confidence interval: 0.55-1.00) or in men (OR: 0.89; 95% confidence interval: 0.64-1.23). Similarly, nonsignificant associations were observed for all of the genetic models used in any of the populations/subgroups studied. Our findings suggest that the rs6318 (Cys23Ser) polymorphism is not associated with suicidal behavior. Howev