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Sample records for gene biases behavior

  1. Down-regulation of honey bee IRS gene biases behavior toward food rich in protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Wang

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Food choice and eating behavior affect health and longevity. Large-scale research efforts aim to understand the molecular and social/behavioral mechanisms of energy homeostasis, body weight, and food intake. Honey bees (Apis mellifera could provide a model for these studies since individuals vary in food-related behavior and social factors can be controlled. Here, we examine a potential role of peripheral insulin receptor substrate (IRS expression in honey bee foraging behavior. IRS is central to cellular nutrient sensing through transduction of insulin/insulin-like signals (IIS. By reducing peripheral IRS gene expression and IRS protein amount with the use of RNA interference (RNAi, we demonstrate that IRS influences foraging choice in two standard strains selected for different food-hoarding behavior. Compared with controls, IRS knockdowns bias their foraging effort toward protein (pollen rather than toward carbohydrate (nectar sources. Through control experiments, we establish that IRS does not influence the bees' sucrose sensory response, a modality that is generally associated with food-related behavior and specifically correlated with the foraging preference of honey bees. These results reveal a new affector pathway of honey bee social foraging, and suggest that IRS expressed in peripheral tissue can modulate an insect's foraging choice between protein and carbohydrate sources.

  2. Down-regulation of honey bee IRS gene biases behavior toward food rich in protein

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Ying; Mutti, Navdeep S; Ihle, Kate E; Siegel, Adam; Dolezal, Adam G; Kaftanoglu, Osman; Amdam, Gro V

    2010-01-01

    Food choice and eating behavior affect health and longevity. Large-scale research efforts aim to understand the molecular and social/behavioral mechanisms of energy homeostasis, body weight, and food intake. Honey bees (Apis mellifera...

  3. BEHAVIORAL BIASES IN TRADING SECURITIES

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    Turcan Ciprian Sebastian

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The main thesis of this paper represents the importance and the effects that human behavior has over capital markets. It is important to see the link between the asset valuation and investor sentiment that motivate to pay for an asset a certain prices over/below the intrinsic value. The main behavioral aspects discussed are emotional factors such as: fear of regret, overconfidence, perseverance, loss aversion ,heuristic biases, misinformation and thinking errors, herding and their consequences.

  4. Neurons That Underlie Drosophila melanogaster Reproductive Behaviors: Detection of a Large Male-Bias in Gene Expression in fruitless-Expressing Neurons

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    Nicole R. Newell

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Male and female reproductive behaviors in Drosophila melanogaster are vastly different, but neurons that express sex-specifically spliced fruitless transcripts (fru P1 underlie these behaviors in both sexes. How this set of neurons can generate such different behaviors between the two sexes is an unresolved question. A particular challenge is that fru P1-expressing neurons comprise only 2–5% of the adult nervous system, and so studies of adult head tissue or whole brain may not reveal crucial differences. Translating Ribosome Affinity Purification (TRAP identifies the actively translated pool of mRNAs from fru P1-expressing neurons, allowing a sensitive, cell-type-specific assay. We find four times more male-biased than female-biased genes in TRAP mRNAs from fru P1-expressing neurons. This suggests a potential mechanism to generate dimorphism in behavior. The male-biased genes may direct male behaviors by establishing cell fate in a similar context of gene expression observed in females. These results suggest a possible global mechanism for how distinct behaviors can arise from a shared set of neurons.

  5. Behavioral Biases in Interpersonal Contexts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Liu (Ning)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractThis thesis presents evidence suggesting that the same types of biases in individual decision making under uncertainty pertain in interpersonal contexts. The chapters above demonstrate in specific contexts how specific interpersonal factors attenuate, amplify, or replicate these bias

  6. Down-Regulation of Honey Bee IRS Gene Biases Behavior toward Food Rich in Protein: e1000896

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ying Wang; Navdeep S Mutti; Kate E Ihle; Adam Siegel; Adam G Dolezal; Osman Kaftanoglu; Gro V Amdam

    2010-01-01

      Food choice and eating behavior affect health and longevity. Large-scale research efforts aim to understand the molecular and social/behavioral mechanisms of energy homeostasis, body weight, and food intake. Honey bees (Apis mellifera...

  7. Genes that bias Mendelian segregation.

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    Pierre Grognet

    Full Text Available Mendel laws of inheritance can be cheated by Meiotic Drive Elements (MDs, complex nuclear genetic loci found in various eukaryotic genomes and distorting segregation in their favor. Here, we identify and characterize in the model fungus Podospora anserina Spok1 and Spok2, two MDs known as Spore Killers. We show that they are related genes with both spore-killing distorter and spore-protecting responder activities carried out by the same allele. These alleles act as autonomous elements, exert their effects independently of their location in the genome and can act as MDs in other fungi. Additionally, Spok1 acts as a resistance factor to Spok2 killing. Genetical data and cytological analysis of Spok1 and Spok2 localization during the killing process suggest a complex mode of action for Spok proteins. Spok1 and Spok2 belong to a multigene family prevalent in the genomes of many ascomycetes. As they have no obvious cellular role, Spok1 and Spok2 Spore Killer genes represent a novel kind of selfish genetic elements prevalent in fungal genome that proliferate through meiotic distortion.

  8. Genes that bias Mendelian segregation.

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    Grognet, Pierre; Lalucque, Hervé; Malagnac, Fabienne; Silar, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Mendel laws of inheritance can be cheated by Meiotic Drive Elements (MDs), complex nuclear genetic loci found in various eukaryotic genomes and distorting segregation in their favor. Here, we identify and characterize in the model fungus Podospora anserina Spok1 and Spok2, two MDs known as Spore Killers. We show that they are related genes with both spore-killing distorter and spore-protecting responder activities carried out by the same allele. These alleles act as autonomous elements, exert their effects independently of their location in the genome and can act as MDs in other fungi. Additionally, Spok1 acts as a resistance factor to Spok2 killing. Genetical data and cytological analysis of Spok1 and Spok2 localization during the killing process suggest a complex mode of action for Spok proteins. Spok1 and Spok2 belong to a multigene family prevalent in the genomes of many ascomycetes. As they have no obvious cellular role, Spok1 and Spok2 Spore Killer genes represent a novel kind of selfish genetic elements prevalent in fungal genome that proliferate through meiotic distortion.

  9. Attentional bias toward safety predicts safety behaviors.

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    Xu, Yaoshan; Li, Yongjuan; Wang, Guangxi; Yuan, Xiao; Ding, Weidong; Shen, Zhongxiang

    2014-10-01

    Safety studies have primarily focused on how explicit processes and measures affect safety behavior and subsequent accidents and injuries. Recently, safety researchers have paid greater attention to the role of implicit processes. Our research focuses on the role of attentional bias toward safety (ABS) in workplace safety. ABS is a basic, early-stage cognitive process involving the automatic and selective allocation of attentional resources toward safety cues, which reflect the implicit motivational state of employees regarding safety goal. In this study, we used two reaction time-based paradigms to measure the ABS of employees in three studies: two modified Stroop tasks (Studies 1 and 2) and a visual dot-probe task (Study 3). Results revealed that employees with better safety behavior showed significant ABS (Study 2), and greater ABS than employees with poorer safety behavior (Studies 1 and 2). Moreover, ABS was positively associated with the perceived safety climate and safety motivation of employees, both of which mediate the effect of ABS on safety behavior (Study 3). These results contributed to a deeper understanding of how early-stage automatic perceptual processing affects safety behavior. The practical implications of these results were also discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Information environment, behavioral biases, and home bias in analysts’ recommendations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farooq, Omar; Taouss, Mohammed

    2012-01-01

    ’ recommendations. Using a large data of analysts’ recommendations from Asian emerging markets, we show that local analysts issue more optimistic recommendations than their foreign counterparts. However, optimism difference between the two groups is greater for firms with poor information environment. Our results......Can information environment of a firm explain home bias in analysts’ recommendations? Can the extent of agency problems explain optimism difference between foreign and local analysts? This paper answers these questions by documenting the effect of information environment on home bias in analysts...... show that optimism difference between the two groups is more than twice as much in firms with poor information environment than in firms with better information environment. We argue that poor information environment pose greater information asymmetries to foreign analysts regarding local firms...

  11. Behavioral experiments on biased voting in networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, Michael; Judd, Stephen; Tan, Jinsong; Wortman, Jennifer

    2009-02-03

    Many distributed collective decision-making processes must balance diverse individual preferences with a desire for collective unity. We report here on an extensive session of behavioral experiments on biased voting in networks of individuals. In each of 81 experiments, 36 human subjects arranged in a virtual network were financially motivated to reach global consensus to one of two opposing choices. No payments were made unless the entire population reached a unanimous decision within 1 min, but different subjects were paid more for consensus to one choice or the other, and subjects could view only the current choices of their network neighbors, thus creating tensions between private incentives and preferences, global unity, and network structure. Along with analyses of how collective and individual performance vary with network structure and incentives generally, we find that there are well-studied network topologies in which the minority preference consistently wins globally; that the presence of "extremist" individuals, or the awareness of opposing incentives, reliably improve collective performance; and that certain behavioral characteristics of individual subjects, such as "stubbornness," are strongly correlated with earnings.

  12. A study on investors’ personality characteristics and behavioral biases: Conservatism bias and availability bias in the Tehran Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Moradi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Most economic and finance theories are based on the assumption that during economic decision making, people would act totally rational and consider all available information. Nevertheless, behavioral finance focuses on studying of the role of psychological factors on economic participants’ behavior. The study shows that in real-world environment, people are influenced by emotional and cognitive errors and may make irrational financial decisions. In many cases, the participants of financial markets are not aware of their talents for error in decision making, so they are dissatisfied with their investments by considering some behavioral biases decisions. These decisions may often yield undesirable outcomes, which could influence economy, significantly. This paper presents a survey on the relationship between personality dimensions with behavioral biases and availability bias among investment managers in the Tehran Stock Exchange using SPSS software, descriptive and inferential statistics. The necessary data are collected through questionnaire and they are analyzed using some statistical tests. The preliminary results indicate that there is a relationship between personality dimensions and behavioral biases like conservatism bias and availability bias among the investors in the Tehran Stock Exchange.

  13. Understanding antigay bias from a cognitive-affective-behavioral perspective.

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    Callender, Kevin A

    2015-01-01

    In general, United States citizens have become increasingly more accepting of lesbians and gay men over the past few decades. Despite this shift in public attitudes, antigay bias remains openly tolerated, accepted, practiced, and even defended by a substantial portion of the population. This article reviews why and how antigay bias persists using a cognitive-affective-behavioral perspective that touches on sociocognitive factors such as prejudice and stereotyping, as well as features unique to antigay bias, such as its concealable nature. The article concludes with a discussion of how understanding modern antigay bias through a cognitive-affective-behavioral lens can be applied to reduce discrimination against gays and lesbians.

  14. Behavioral Biases of Individual Investors: The Effect of Anchoring

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    Salma Zaiane

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to investigate the presence of the anchoring bias in the financial decision making of individual investors. A survey study is carried out to find out how the studied bias affects the investment behavior on the Tunisian stock market. The survey is for exploratory purpose and it is based on multiple factorial correspondence analyses. The results reveal that Tunisian investors do not suffer from the anchoring bias.

  15. Neuroscience Needs Behavior: Correcting a Reductionist Bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krakauer, John W; Ghazanfar, Asif A; Gomez-Marin, Alex; MacIver, Malcolm A; Poeppel, David

    2017-02-08

    There are ever more compelling tools available for neuroscience research, ranging from selective genetic targeting to optogenetic circuit control to mapping whole connectomes. These approaches are coupled with a deep-seated, often tacit, belief in the reductionist program for understanding the link between the brain and behavior. The aim of this program is causal explanation through neural manipulations that allow testing of necessity and sufficiency claims. We argue, however, that another equally important approach seeks an alternative form of understanding through careful theoretical and experimental decomposition of behavior. Specifically, the detailed analysis of tasks and of the behavior they elicit is best suited for discovering component processes and their underlying algorithms. In most cases, we argue that study of the neural implementation of behavior is best investigated after such behavioral work. Thus, we advocate a more pluralistic notion of neuroscience when it comes to the brain-behavior relationship: behavioral work provides understanding, whereas neural interventions test causality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Heterogeneous individuals' behavioral biases model and numerical simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Da-yong; LIANG Guo-wei

    2010-01-01

    A model of the relationships between individual cognitive biases and individual decision-making based on the analysis of cognitive biases of bonded rationality individual,has been established in this paper by introducing a set of new variables callod overconfidence coefficient and attribution bias coefficient to the sentiment model.The irrational expectation and irrational risk aversion as two inseparable aspects of bonded rationality are expressed in an unified model,and a method of measuring individual cognitive biases is proposed,which overcomes the shortcomings of traditional normative models that can not describe the differences of behaviors among heterogeneous individuals.As a result,numerical simulations show that individual cognitive risk is a positive interaction with overconfidence coefficient,and a negative interaction with attribution bias coefficient.

  17. Gene × environment interaction on intergroup bias: the role of 5-HTTLPR and perceived outgroup threat.

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    Cheon, Bobby K; Livingston, Robert W; Hong, Ying-Yi; Chiao, Joan Y

    2014-09-01

    Perceived threat from outgroups is a consistent social-environmental antecedent of intergroup bias (i.e. prejudice, ingroup favoritism). The serotonin transporter gene polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) has been associated with individual variations in sensitivity to context, particularly stressful and threatening situations. Here, we examined how 5-HTTLPR and environmental factors signaling potential outgroup threat dynamically interact to shape intergroup bias. Across two studies, we provide novel evidence for a gene-environment interaction on the acquisition of intergroup bias and prejudice. Greater exposure to signals of outgroup threat, such as negative prior contact with outgroups and perceived danger from the social environment, were more predictive of intergroup bias among participants possessing at least one short allele (vs two long alleles) of 5-HTTLPR. Furthermore, this gene x environment interaction was observed for biases directed at diverse ethnic and arbitrarily-defined outgroups across measures reflecting intergroup biases in evaluation and discriminatory behavior. These findings reveal a candidate genetic mechanism for the acquisition of intergroup bias, and suggest that intergroup bias is dually inherited and transmitted through the interplay of social (i.e. contextual cues of outgroup threat) and biological mechanisms (i.e. genetic sensitivity toward threatening contexts) that regulate perceived intergroup threats.

  18. Biasogram: visualization of confounding technical bias in gene expression data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krzystanek, Marcin; Szallasi, Zoltan Imre; Eklund, Aron Charles

    2013-01-01

    Gene expression profiles of clinical cohorts can be used to identify genes that are correlated with a clinical variable of interest such as patient outcome or response to a particular drug. However, expression measurements are susceptible to technical bias caused by variation in extraneous factors...... such as RNA quality and array hybridization conditions. If such technical bias is correlated with the clinical variable of interest, the likelihood of identifying false positive genes is increased. Here we describe a method to visualize an expression matrix as a projection of all genes onto a plane defined...... by a clinical variable and a technical nuisance variable. The resulting plot indicates the extent to which each gene is correlated with the clinical variable or the technical variable. We demonstrate this method by applying it to three clinical trial microarray data sets, one of which identified genes that may...

  19. Ferromagnetic behavior and exchange bias effect in akaganeite nanorods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tadic, Marin, E-mail: marint@vinca.rs [Condensed Matter Physics Laboratory, Vinca Institute of Nuclear Science, University of Belgrade, P.O. Box 522, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia); Milosevic, Irena; Motte, Laurence [Laboratoire CSPBAT, UMR 7244 CNRS Université Paris 13, 93017 Bobigny Cedex (France); Kralj, Slavko [Department for Materials Synthesis, Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Saboungi, Marie-Louise [CNRS, University of Orleans, F-45071 Orleans 2 (France); IMPMC, Sorbonne Univ-UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR CNRS 7590, Museum National d' Histoire Naturelle, IRD UMR 206, 4 Place Jussieu, F-75005 Paris (France)

    2015-05-04

    We report ferromagnetic-like properties and exchange bias effect in akaganeite (β-FeOOH) nanorods. They exhibit a Néel temperature T{sub N} = 259 K and ferromagnetic-like hysteresis behavior both below and above T{sub N}. An exchange bias effect is observed below T{sub N} and represents an interesting behavior for akaganeite nanorods. These results are explained on the basis of a core-shell structure in which the core has bulk akaganeite magnetic properties (i.e., antiferromagnetic ordering) while the shell exhibits a disordered spin state. Thus, the nanorods show ferromagnetic properties and an exchange bias effect at the same time, increasing their potential for use in practical applications.

  20. Scaling behavior of the exchange-bias training effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polisetty, Srinivas; Sahoo, Sarbeswar; Binek, Christian

    2008-03-01

    The dependence of the exchange-bias training effect on temperature and ferromagnetic film thickness is studied in detail and scaling behavior of the data is presented.^ Thickness-dependent exchange bias and its training are measured using the magneto-optical Kerr effect. A focused laser beam is scanned across a Co wedge probing local hysteresis loops of the Co film which is pinned by an antiferromagnetic CoO layer of uniform thickness. A phenomenological theory is best fitted to the exchange-bias training data resembling the evolution of the exchange-bias field on subsequently cycled hysteresis loops. Best fits are done for various temperatures and Co thicknesses. Data collapse on respective master curves is achieved for the thickness and temperature-dependent fitting parameters as well as the exchange bias and coercive fields of the initial hysteresis loops. The scaling behavior is strong evidence for the validity and the universality of the underlying theoretical approach based on triggered relaxation of the pinning layer towards quasi-equilibrium. ^Srinivas Polisetty, Sarbeswar Sahoo, Christian Binek, Phys. Rev. B 76, 184423 (2007).

  1. Abundance of female-biased and paucity of male-biased somatically expressed genes on the mouse X-chromosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinius, Björn; Johansson, Martin M; Radomska, Katarzyna J; Morrow, Edward H; Pandey, Gaurav K; Kanduri, Chandrasekhar; Sandberg, Rickard; Williams, Robert W; Jazin, Elena

    2012-11-10

    Empirical evaluations of sexually dimorphic expression of genes on the mammalian X-chromosome are needed to understand the evolutionary forces and the gene-regulatory mechanisms controlling this chromosome. We performed a large-scale sex-bias expression analysis of genes on the X-chromosome in six different somatic tissues from mouse. Our results show that the mouse X-chromosome is enriched with female-biased genes and depleted of male-biased genes. This suggests that feminisation as well as de-masculinisation of the X-chromosome has occurred in terms of gene expression in non-reproductive tissues. Several mechanisms may be responsible for the control of female-biased expression on chromosome X, and escape from X-inactivation is a main candidate. We confirmed escape in case of Tmem29 using RNA-FISH analysis. In addition, we identified novel female-biased non-coding transcripts located in the same female-biased cluster as the well-known coding X-inactivation escapee Kdm5c, likely transcribed from the transition-region between active and silenced domains. We also found that previously known escapees only partially explained the overrepresentation of female-biased X-genes, particularly for tissue-specific female-biased genes. Therefore, the gene set we have identified contains tissue-specific escapees and/or genes controlled by other sexually skewed regulatory mechanisms. Analysis of gene age showed that evolutionarily old X-genes (>100 myr, preceding the radiation of placental mammals) are more frequently female-biased than younger genes. Altogether, our results have implications for understanding both gene regulation and gene evolution of mammalian X-chromosomes, and suggest that the final result in terms of the X-gene composition (masculinisation versus feminisation) is a compromise between different evolutionary forces acting on reproductive and somatic tissues.

  2. Reshaping of global gene expression networks and sex‐biased gene expression by integration of a young gene

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chen, Sidi; Ni, Xiaochun; Krinsky, Benjamin H; Zhang, Yong E; Vibranovski, Maria D; White, Kevin P; Long, Manyuan

    2012-01-01

    ...‐biased gene expression in Drosophila . This 4–6 million‐year‐old factor, named Zeus for its role in male fecundity, originated through retroposition of a highly conserved housekeeping gene, Caf40...

  3. Sex-biased gene flow among elk in the greater Yellowstone ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    , Brian K. Hand; , Shanyuan Chen; , N. Anderson; , A. Beja-Pereira; Cross, Paul C.; , M. Ebinger; , H. Edwards; , R.A. Garrott; , M.D. Kardos; Kauffman, Matthew J.; , E.L. Landguth; , A. Middleton; , B. Scurlock; , P.J. White; , P. Zager; , M.K. Schwartz; , G. Luikart

    2014-01-01

    We quantified patterns of population genetic structure to help understand gene flow among elk populations across the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. We sequenced 596 base pairs of the mitochondrial control region of 380 elk from eight populations. Analysis revealed high mitochondrial DNA variation within populations, averaging 13.0 haplotypes with high mean gene diversity (0.85). The genetic differentiation among populations for mitochondrial DNA was relatively high (FST = 0.161; P = 0.001) compared to genetic differentiation for nuclear microsatellite data (FST = 0.002; P = 0.332), which suggested relatively low female gene flow among populations. The estimated ratio of male to female gene flow (mm/mf = 46) was among the highest we have seen reported for large mammals. Genetic distance (for mitochondrial DNA pairwise FST) was not significantly correlated with geographic (Euclidean) distance between populations (Mantel’s r = 0.274, P = 0.168). Large mitochondrial DNA genetic distances (e.g., FST > 0.2) between some of the geographically closest populations (<65 km) suggested behavioral factors and/or landscape features might shape female gene flow patterns. Given the strong sex-biased gene flow, future research and conservation efforts should consider the sexes separately when modeling corridors of gene flow or predicting spread of maternally transmitted diseases. The growing availability of genetic data to compare male vs. female gene flow provides many exciting opportunities to explore the magnitude, causes, and implications of sex-biased gene flow likely to occur in many species

  4. Labeling bias and attitudes toward behavior modification revisited.

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    Katz, R C; Cacciapaglia, H; Cabral, K

    2000-03-01

    Twenty-three years ago, Woolfolk, Woolfolk and Wilson (1977, Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 45, 184-191) described a study about labeling bias and attitudes toward behavior modification. When videotaped depictions of behavior modification procedures were described as "humanistic education", college students rated them more favorably than when the same procedures were called "behavior modification". One implication of this study is that behavioral terminology may be perceived as dehumanizing by potential consumers, leading to lower acceptance of the approach regardless of its effectiveness. With lower acceptance comes the risk of under utilization. More than two decades have passed since the Woolfolk et al. study was published so we felt the time was right to repeat the experiment with a new generation of students. In our study, two groups of college undergraduates (N = 144) gave their opinions about a 10 minute videotape that showed a therapist working with an autistic child. The therapist used behavior modification procedures to treat the child, except in one case the procedures were described as "humanistic educative therapy", and in the other as "behavior modification". An appropriate rationale was provided for each of the two conditions. Unlike Woolfolk et al., we found no differences in how the two depictions were evaluated. In both cases, they were perceived favorably regardless of what they were called, as were the personal qualities of the therapist. These results suggest that negative attitudes toward behavior modification have weakened over the last two decades, and there is wider pubic acceptance of behavioral treatments now than there was then. Implications of the study are briefly discussed.

  5. Hostile attributional bias and aggressive behavior in global context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodge, Kenneth A.; Malone, Patrick S.; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Sorbring, Emma; Skinner, Ann T.; Tapanya, Sombat; Tirado, Liliana Maria Uribe; Zelli, Arnaldo; Alampay, Liane Peña; Al-Hassan, Suha M.; Bacchini, Dario; Bombi, Anna Silvia; Bornstein, Marc H.; Chang, Lei; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Di Giunta, Laura; Oburu, Paul; Pastorelli, Concetta

    2015-01-01

    We tested a model that children’s tendency to attribute hostile intent to others in response to provocation is a key psychological process that statistically accounts for individual differences in reactive aggressive behavior and that this mechanism contributes to global group differences in children’s chronic aggressive behavior problems. Participants were 1,299 children (mean age at year 1 = 8.3 y; 51% girls) from 12 diverse ecological-context groups in nine countries worldwide, followed across 4 y. In year 3, each child was presented with each of 10 hypothetical vignettes depicting an ambiguous provocation toward the child and was asked to attribute the likely intent of the provocateur (coded as benign or hostile) and to predict his or her own behavioral response (coded as nonaggression or reactive aggression). Mothers and children independently rated the child’s chronic aggressive behavior problems in years 2, 3, and 4. In every ecological group, in those situations in which a child attributed hostile intent to a peer, that child was more likely to report that he or she would respond with reactive aggression than in situations when that same child attributed benign intent. Across children, hostile attributional bias scores predicted higher mother- and child-rated chronic aggressive behavior problems, even controlling for prior aggression. Ecological group differences in the tendency for children to attribute hostile intent statistically accounted for a significant portion of group differences in chronic aggressive behavior problems. The findings suggest a psychological mechanism for group differences in aggressive behavior and point to potential interventions to reduce aggressive behavior. PMID:26170281

  6. Amplification biases: possible differences among deviating gene expressions

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    Piumi Francois

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene expression profiling has become a tool of choice to study pathological or developmental questions but in most cases the material is scarce and requires sample amplification. Two main procedures have been used: in vitro transcription (IVT and polymerase chain reaction (PCR, the former known as linear and the latter as exponential. Previous reports identified enzymatic pitfalls in PCR and IVT protocols; however the possible differences between the sequences affected by these amplification defaults were only rarely explored. Results Screening a bovine cDNA array dedicated to embryonic stages with embryonic (n = 3 and somatic tissues (n = 2, we proceeded to moderate amplifications starting from 1 μg of total RNA (global PCR or IVT one round. Whatever the tissue, 16% of the probes were involved in deviating gene expressions due to amplification defaults. These distortions were likely due to the molecular features of the affected sequences (position within a gene, GC content, hairpin number but also to the relative abundance of these transcripts within the tissues. These deviating genes mainly encoded housekeeping genes from physiological or cellular processes (70% and constituted 2 subsets which did not overlap (molecular features, signal intensities, gene ID. However, the differential expressions identified between embryonic stages were both reliable (minor intersect with biased expressions and relevant (biologically validated. In addition, the relative expression levels of those genes were biologically similar between amplified and unamplified samples. Conclusion Conversely to the most recent reports which challenged the use of intense amplification procedures on minute amounts of RNA, we chose moderate PCR and IVT amplifications for our gene profiling study. Conclusively, it appeared that systematic biases arose even with moderate amplification procedures, independently of (i the sample used: brain, ovary or embryos, (ii

  7. Behavioral Economics Matters for HIV Research: The Impact of Behavioral Biases on Adherence to Antiretrovirals (ARVs)

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    Stecher, Chad

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral economics (BE) has been used to study a number of health behaviors such as smoking and drug use, but there is little knowledge of how these insights relate to HIV prevention and care. We present novel evidence on the prevalence of the common behavioral decision-making errors of present-bias, overoptimism, and information salience among 155 Ugandan HIV patients, and analyze their association with subsequent medication adherence. 36 % of study participants are classified as present-biased, 21 % as overoptimistic, and 34 % as having salient HIV information. Patients displaying present-bias were 13 % points (p = 0.006) less likely to have adherence rates above 90 %, overoptimistic clients were 9 % points (p = 0.04) less likely, and those not having salient HIV information were 17 % points (p < 0.001) less likely. These findings indicate that BE may be used to screen for future adherence problems and to better design and target interventions addressing these behavioral biases and the associated suboptimal adherence. PMID:25987190

  8. Cultural and Ethnic Bias in Teacher Ratings of Behavior: A Criterion-Focused Review

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    Mason, Benjamin A.; Gunersel, Adalet Baris; Ney, Emilie A.

    2014-01-01

    Behavior rating scales are indirect measures of emotional and social functioning used for assessment purposes. Rater bias is systematic error that may compromise the validity of behavior rating scale scores. Teacher bias in ratings of behavior has been investigated in multiple studies, but not yet assessed in a research synthesis that focuses on…

  9. Sex-biased gene expression during head development in a sexually dimorphic stalk-eyed fly.

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    Wilkinson, Gerald S; Johns, Philip M; Metheny, Jackie D; Baker, Richard H

    2013-01-01

    Stalk-eyed flies (family Diopsidae) are a model system for studying sexual selection due to the elongated and sexually dimorphic eye-stalks found in many species. These flies are of additional interest because their X chromosome is derived largely from an autosomal arm in other flies. To identify candidate genes required for development of dimorphic eyestalks and investigate how sex-biased expression arose on the novel X, we compared gene expression between males and females using oligonucleotide microarrays and RNA from developing eyestalk tissue or adult heads in the dimorphic diopsid, Teleopsis dalmanni. Microarray analysis revealed sex-biased expression for 26% of 3,748 genes expressed in eye-antennal imaginal discs and concordant sex-biased expression for 86 genes in adult heads. Overall, 415 female-biased and 482 male-biased genes were associated with dimorphic eyestalk development but not differential expression in the adult head. Functional analysis revealed that male-biased genes are disproportionately associated with growth and mitochondrial function while female-biased genes are associated with cell differentiation and patterning or are novel transcripts. With regard to chromosomal effects, dosage compensation occurs by elevated expression of X-linked genes in males. Genes with female-biased expression were more common on the X and less common on autosomes than expected, while male-biased genes exhibited no chromosomal pattern. Rates of protein evolution were lower for female-biased genes but higher for genes that moved on or off the novel X chromosome. These findings cannot be due to meiotic sex chromosome inactivation or by constraints associated with dosage compensation. Instead, they could be consistent with sexual conflict in which female-biased genes on the novel X act primarily to reduce eyespan in females while other genes increase eyespan in both sexes. Additional information on sex-biased gene expression in other tissues and related sexually

  10. Sex-biased gene expression during head development in a sexually dimorphic stalk-eyed fly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald S Wilkinson

    Full Text Available Stalk-eyed flies (family Diopsidae are a model system for studying sexual selection due to the elongated and sexually dimorphic eye-stalks found in many species. These flies are of additional interest because their X chromosome is derived largely from an autosomal arm in other flies. To identify candidate genes required for development of dimorphic eyestalks and investigate how sex-biased expression arose on the novel X, we compared gene expression between males and females using oligonucleotide microarrays and RNA from developing eyestalk tissue or adult heads in the dimorphic diopsid, Teleopsis dalmanni. Microarray analysis revealed sex-biased expression for 26% of 3,748 genes expressed in eye-antennal imaginal discs and concordant sex-biased expression for 86 genes in adult heads. Overall, 415 female-biased and 482 male-biased genes were associated with dimorphic eyestalk development but not differential expression in the adult head. Functional analysis revealed that male-biased genes are disproportionately associated with growth and mitochondrial function while female-biased genes are associated with cell differentiation and patterning or are novel transcripts. With regard to chromosomal effects, dosage compensation occurs by elevated expression of X-linked genes in males. Genes with female-biased expression were more common on the X and less common on autosomes than expected, while male-biased genes exhibited no chromosomal pattern. Rates of protein evolution were lower for female-biased genes but higher for genes that moved on or off the novel X chromosome. These findings cannot be due to meiotic sex chromosome inactivation or by constraints associated with dosage compensation. Instead, they could be consistent with sexual conflict in which female-biased genes on the novel X act primarily to reduce eyespan in females while other genes increase eyespan in both sexes. Additional information on sex-biased gene expression in other tissues and

  11. Age-dependent chromosomal distribution of male-biased genes in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong E; Vibranovski, Maria D; Krinsky, Benjamin H; Long, Manyuan

    2010-11-01

    We investigated the correlation between the chromosomal location and age distribution of new male-biased genes formed by duplications via DNA intermediates (DNA-level) or by de novo origination in Drosophila. Our genome-wide analysis revealed an excess of young X-linked male-biased genes. The proportion of X-linked male-biased genes then diminishes through time, leading to an autosomal excess of male-biased genes. The switch between X-linked and autosomal enrichment of male-biased genes was also present in the distribution of both protein-coding genes on the D. pseudoobscura neo-X chromosome and microRNA genes of D. melanogaster. These observations revealed that the evolution of male-biased genes is more complicated than the previously detected one-step X→A gene traffic and the enrichment of the male-biased genes on autosomes. The pattern we detected suggests that the interaction of various evolutionary forces such as the meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI), faster-X effect, and sexual antagonism in the male germline might have shaped the chromosomal distribution of male-biased genes on different evolutionary time scales.

  12. Age-dependent chromosomal distribution of male-biased genes in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong E.; Vibranovski, Maria D.; Krinsky, Benjamin H.; Long, Manyuan

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the correlation between the chromosomal location and age distribution of new male-biased genes formed by duplications via DNA intermediates (DNA-level) or by de novo origination in Drosophila. Our genome-wide analysis revealed an excess of young X-linked male-biased genes. The proportion of X-linked male-biased genes then diminishes through time, leading to an autosomal excess of male-biased genes. The switch between X-linked and autosomal enrichment of male-biased genes was also present in the distribution of both protein-coding genes on the D. pseudoobscura neo-X chromosome and microRNA genes of D. melanogaster. These observations revealed that the evolution of male-biased genes is more complicated than the previously detected one-step X→A gene traffic and the enrichment of the male-biased genes on autosomes. The pattern we detected suggests that the interaction of various evolutionary forces such as the meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI), faster-X effect, and sexual antagonism in the male germline might have shaped the chromosomal distribution of male-biased genes on different evolutionary time scales. PMID:20798392

  13. Caregivers' attentional bias to pain : does it affect caregiver accuracy in detecting patient pain behaviors?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohammadi, Somayyeh; Dehghani, Mohsen; Khatibi, Ali; Sanderman, Robbert; Hagedoorn, Mariet

    2015-01-01

    Attentional bias to pain among family caregivers of patients with pain may enhance the detection of pain behaviors in patients. However, both relatively high and low levels of attentional bias may increase disagreement between patients and caregivers in reporting pain behaviors. This study aims to p

  14. Transcription-induced mutational strand bias and its effect on substitution rates in human genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugal, Carina F; von Grünberg, Hans-Hennig; Peifer, Martin

    2009-01-01

    If substitution rates are not the same on the two complementary DNA strands, a substitution is considered strand asymmetric. Such substitutional strand asymmetries are determined here for the three most frequent types of substitution on the human genome (C --> T, A --> G, and G --> T). Substitution rate differences between both strands are estimated for 4,590 human genes by aligning all repeats occurring within the introns with their ancestral consensus sequences. For 1,630 of these genes, both coding strand and noncoding strand rates could be compared with rates in gene-flanking regions. All three rates considered are found to be on average higher on the coding strand and lower on the transcribed strand in comparison to their values in the gene-flanking regions. This finding points to the simultaneous action of rate-increasing effects on the coding strand--such as increased adenine and cytosine deamination--and transcription-coupled repair as a rate-reducing effect on the transcribed strand. The common behavior of the three rates leads to strong correlations of the rate asymmetries: Whenever one rate is strand biased, the other two rates are likely to show the same bias. Furthermore, we determine all three rate asymmetries as a function of time: the A --> G and G --> T rate asymmetries are both found to be constant in time, whereas the C --> T rate asymmetry shows a pronounced time dependence, an observation that explains the difference between our results and those of an earlier work by Green et al. (2003. Transcription-associated mutational asymmetry in mammalian evolution. Nat Genet. 33:514-517.). Finally, we show that in addition to transcription also the replication process biases the substitution rates in genes.

  15. Academic Gender Bias and Women's Behavioral Agency Self-Efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancis, Julie R.; Phillips, Susan D.

    1996-01-01

    Examined 67 upper-level college women enrolled in traditional, nontraditional, and gender-neutral majors to study the relationship between academic gender bias and female students' agentic self-efficacy expectations. Results indicate that perceived academic gender bias predicted agentic self-efficacy expectations, beyond the contributions of sex…

  16. Gene expression, nucleotide composition and codon usage bias of genes associated with human Y chromosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Monisha Nath; Uddin, Arif; Chakraborty, Supriyo

    2017-06-01

    Analysis of codon usage pattern is important to understand the genetic and evolutionary characteristics of genomes. We have used bioinformatic approaches to analyze the codon usage bias (CUB) of the genes located in human Y chromosome. Codon bias index (CBI) indicated that the overall extent of codon usage bias was low. The relative synonymous codon usage (RSCU) analysis suggested that approximately half of the codons out of 59 synonymous codons were most frequently used, and possessed a T or G at the third codon position. The codon usage pattern was different in different genes as revealed from correspondence analysis (COA). A significant correlation between effective number of codons (ENC) and various GC contents suggests that both mutation pressure and natural selection affect the codon usage pattern of genes located in human Y chromosome. In addition, Y-linked genes have significant difference in GC contents at the second and third codon positions, expression level, and codon usage pattern of some codons like the SPANX genes in X chromosome.

  17. Large Scale Gene Expression Meta-Analysis Reveals Tissue-Specific, Sex-Biased Gene Expression in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayne, Benjamin T.; Bianco-Miotto, Tina; Buckberry, Sam; Breen, James; Clifton, Vicki; Shoubridge, Cheryl; Roberts, Claire T.

    2016-01-01

    The severity and prevalence of many diseases are known to differ between the sexes. Organ specific sex-biased gene expression may underpin these and other sexually dimorphic traits. To further our understanding of sex differences in transcriptional regulation, we performed meta-analyses of sex biased gene expression in multiple human tissues. We analyzed 22 publicly available human gene expression microarray data sets including over 2500 samples from 15 different tissues and 9 different organs. Briefly, by using an inverse-variance method we determined the effect size difference of gene expression between males and females. We found the greatest sex differences in gene expression in the brain, specifically in the anterior cingulate cortex, (1818 genes), followed by the heart (375 genes), kidney (224 genes), colon (218 genes), and thyroid (163 genes). More interestingly, we found different parts of the brain with varying numbers and identity of sex-biased genes, indicating that specific cortical regions may influence sexually dimorphic traits. The majority of sex-biased genes in other tissues such as the bladder, liver, lungs, and pancreas were on the sex chromosomes or involved in sex hormone production. On average in each tissue, 32% of autosomal genes that were expressed in a sex-biased fashion contained androgen or estrogen hormone response elements. Interestingly, across all tissues, we found approximately two-thirds of autosomal genes that were sex-biased were not under direct influence of sex hormones. To our knowledge this is the largest analysis of sex-biased gene expression in human tissues to date. We identified many sex-biased genes that were not under the direct influence of sex chromosome genes or sex hormones. These may provide targets for future development of sex-specific treatments for diseases.

  18. Large scale gene expression meta-analysis reveals tissue-specific, sex-biased gene expression in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Mayne

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The severity and prevalence of many diseases are known to differ between the sexes. Organ specific sex-biased gene expression may underpin these and other sexually dimorphic traits. To further our understanding of sex differences in transcriptional regulation, we performed meta-analyses of sex biased gene expression in multiple human tissues. We analysed 22 publicly available human gene expression microarray data sets including over 2500 samples from 15 different tissues and 9 different organs. Briefly, by using an inverse-variance method we determined the effect size difference of gene expression between males and females. We found the greatest sex differences in gene expression in the brain, specifically in the anterior cingulate cortex, (1818 genes, followed by the heart (375 genes, kidney (224 genes, colon (218 genes and thyroid (163 genes. More interestingly, we found different parts of the brain with varying numbers and identity of sex-biased genes, indicating that specific cortical regions may influence sexually dimorphic traits. The majority of sex-biased genes in other tissues such as the bladder, liver, lungs and pancreas were on the sex chromosomes or involved in sex hormone production. On average in each tissue, 32% of autosomal genes that were expressed in a sex-biased fashion contained androgen or estrogen hormone response elements. Interestingly, across all tissues, we found approximately two-thirds of autosomal genes that were sex-biased were not under direct influence of sex hormones. To our knowledge this is the largest analysis of sex-biased gene expression in human tissues to date. We identified many sex-biased genes that were not under the direct influence of sex chromosome genes or sex hormones. These may provide targets for future development of sex-specific treatments for diseases.

  19. Genes with minimal phylogenetic information are problematic for coalescent analyses when gene tree estimation is biased.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Zhenxiang; Liu, Liang; Davis, Charles C

    2015-11-01

    The development and application of coalescent methods are undergoing rapid changes. One little explored area that bears on the application of gene-tree-based coalescent methods to species tree estimation is gene informativeness. Here, we investigate the accuracy of these coalescent methods when genes have minimal phylogenetic information, including the implementation of the multilocus bootstrap approach. Using simulated DNA sequences, we demonstrate that genes with minimal phylogenetic information can produce unreliable gene trees (i.e., high error in gene tree estimation), which may in turn reduce the accuracy of species tree estimation using gene-tree-based coalescent methods. We demonstrate that this problem can be alleviated by sampling more genes, as is commonly done in large-scale phylogenomic analyses. This applies even when these genes are minimally informative. If gene tree estimation is biased, however, gene-tree-based coalescent analyses will produce inconsistent results, which cannot be remedied by increasing the number of genes. In this case, it is not the gene-tree-based coalescent methods that are flawed, but rather the input data (i.e., estimated gene trees). Along these lines, the commonly used program PhyML has a tendency to infer one particular bifurcating topology even though it is best represented as a polytomy. We additionally corroborate these findings by analyzing the 183-locus mammal data set assembled by McCormack et al. (2012) using ultra-conserved elements (UCEs) and flanking DNA. Lastly, we demonstrate that when employing the multilocus bootstrap approach on this 183-locus data set, there is no strong conflict between species trees estimated from concatenation and gene-tree-based coalescent analyses, as has been previously suggested by Gatesy and Springer (2014).

  20. When Biased Language Use Is Associated with Bullying and Dominance Behavior: The Moderating Effect of Prejudice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poteat, V. Paul; DiGiovanni, Craig D.

    2010-01-01

    Biased language related to sexual orientation is used frequently among students and is related to prominent social concerns such as bullying. Prejudice toward gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender individuals also has been examined among adolescents, but separately from these behaviors. This study tested whether biased language use was…

  1. Teacher Ratings of ADHD Symptoms in Ethnic Minority Students: Bias or Behavioral Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosterman, Shelley J.; DuPaul, George J.; Jitendra, Asha K.

    2008-01-01

    Disproportionate placement of African American and Hispanic students into disability and special education categories may result from true behavioral and cognitive differences, bias in assessment and referral, or some combination of the two. Studies of commonly used ADHD rating scales suggest teacher bias may contribute to placement discrepancies.…

  2. A thermodynamic theory of codon bias in viral genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, G W; Trainor, L E

    1983-03-21

    The relationship between degeneracy in the genetic code and the occurrence of a strong codon bias is examined, with particular reference to a group of viral genomes. The present paper shows how codon bias may have been imposed by thermodynamic considerations at the time the primitive DNA first formed in the primordial soup. Using a four-state Ising-like model with stacking interactions between successive base pairs, we show how primeval periodic DNA polymers could have arisen the remnants of which are still observed in codon biases today.

  3. Attention Biases to Threat Link Behavioral Inhibition to Social Withdrawal over Time in Very Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Edgar, Koraly; Reeb-Sutherland, Bethany C.; McDermott, Jennifer Martin; White, Lauren K.; Henderson, Heather A.; Degnan, Kathryn A.; Hane, Amie A.; Pine, Daniel S.; Fox, Nathan A.

    2011-01-01

    Behaviorally inhibited children display a temperamental profile characterized by social withdrawal and anxious behaviors. Previous research, focused largely on adolescents, suggests that attention biases to threat may sustain high levels of behavioral inhibition (BI) over time, helping link early temperament to social outcomes. However, no prior…

  4. Personality Traits and Susceptibility to Behavioral Biases among a Sample of Polish Stock Market Investors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rzeszutek Marcin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate whether susceptibility to selected behavioral biases (overconfidence, mental accounting and sunk-cost fallacy is correlated with the Eysenck’s [1978] personality traits (impulsivity, venturesomeness, and empathy. This study was conducted on a sample of 90 retail investors frequently investing on the Warsaw Stock Exchange. Participants filled out a survey made up of two parts: 1 three situational exercises, which assessed susceptibility to behavioral biases and 2 an Impulsiveness Questionnaire, which measures impulsivity, venturesomeness, and empathy. The results demonstrated the relationship between venturesomeness and susceptibility to all behavioral biases explored in this study. We find that higher level of venturesomeness was linked with a lower probability of all behavioral biases included in this study.

  5. The mixed blessings of self-knowledge in behavioral prediction: enhanced discrimination but exacerbated bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epley, Nicholas; Dunning, David

    2006-05-01

    Four experiments demonstrate that self-knowledge provides a mixed blessing in behavioral prediction, depending on how accuracy is measured. Compared with predictions of others, self-knowledge tends to decrease overall accuracy by increasing bias (the mean difference between predicted behavior and reality) but tends to increase overall accuracy by also enhancing discrimination (the correlation between predicted behavior and reality). Overall, participants' self-predictions overestimated the likelihood that they would engage in desirable behaviors (bias), whereas peer predictions were relatively unbiased. However, self-predictions also were more strongly correlated with individual differences in actual behavior (discrimination) than were peer predictions. Discussion addresses the costs and benefits of self-knowledge in behavioral prediction and the broader implications of measuring judgmental accuracy of judgment in terms of bias versus discrimination.

  6. Association between genes, stressful childhood events and processing bias in depression vulnerable individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrijsen, J.N.; Oostrom, I.I.H. van; Arias-Vasquez, A.; Franke, B.; Becker, E.S.; Speckens, A.E.M.

    2014-01-01

    The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) genes are relevant candidates for depression. Variation in these genes is associated with stress sensitivity and depressotypic cognitive biases. The interaction between genes and stressful events is considered as an

  7. Association between genes, stressful childhood events and processing bias in depression vulnerable individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrijsen, J.N.; Oostrom, I.I.H. van; Arias-Vasquez, A.; Franke, B.; Becker, E.S.; Speckens, A.E.M.

    2014-01-01

    The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) genes are relevant candidates for depression. Variation in these genes is associated with stress sensitivity and depressotypic cognitive biases. The interaction between genes and stressful events is considered as an

  8. Market Efficiency and Behavioral Biases in the WNBA Betting Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodney J. Paul

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The betting market for the Women’s National Basketball Association (WNBA is a thin financial market, which does not attract much interest from sports bettors. Given these characteristics, it is possible that profitable wagering strategies could exist for informed bettors of the WNBA. Using betting data on the WNBA from 2007–2012, we find that simple betting strategies do not earn statistically significant returns. WNBA bettors are like NBA bettors; however, in that they strongly prefer the best teams, particularly when they are on the road. Despite this clear bias, betting against the most popular public wagers is not found to earn statistically significant profits.

  9. Chromosomal redistribution of male-biased genes in mammalian evolution with two bursts of gene gain on the X chromosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong E; Vibranovski, Maria D; Landback, Patrick; Marais, Gabriel A B; Long, Manyuan

    2010-10-05

    Mammalian X chromosomes evolved under various mechanisms including sexual antagonism, the faster-X process, and meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI). These forces may contribute to nonrandom chromosomal distribution of sex-biased genes. In order to understand the evolution of gene content on the X chromosome and autosome under these forces, we dated human and mouse protein-coding genes and miRNA genes on the vertebrate phylogenetic tree. We found that the X chromosome recently acquired a burst of young male-biased genes, which is consistent with fixation of recessive male-beneficial alleles by sexual antagonism. For genes originating earlier, however, this pattern diminishes and finally reverses with an overrepresentation of the oldest male-biased genes on autosomes. MSCI contributes to this dynamic since it silences X-linked old genes but not X-linked young genes. This demasculinization process seems to be associated with feminization of the X chromosome with more X-linked old genes expressed in ovaries. Moreover, we detected another burst of gene originations after the split of eutherian mammals and opossum, and these genes were quickly incorporated into transcriptional networks of multiple tissues. Preexisting X-linked genes also show significantly higher protein-level evolution during this period compared to autosomal genes, suggesting positive selection accompanied the early evolution of mammalian X chromosomes. These two findings cast new light on the evolutionary history of the mammalian X chromosome in terms of gene gain, sequence, and expressional evolution.

  10. Chromosomal redistribution of male-biased genes in mammalian evolution with two bursts of gene gain on the X chromosome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong E Zhang

    Full Text Available Mammalian X chromosomes evolved under various mechanisms including sexual antagonism, the faster-X process, and meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI. These forces may contribute to nonrandom chromosomal distribution of sex-biased genes. In order to understand the evolution of gene content on the X chromosome and autosome under these forces, we dated human and mouse protein-coding genes and miRNA genes on the vertebrate phylogenetic tree. We found that the X chromosome recently acquired a burst of young male-biased genes, which is consistent with fixation of recessive male-beneficial alleles by sexual antagonism. For genes originating earlier, however, this pattern diminishes and finally reverses with an overrepresentation of the oldest male-biased genes on autosomes. MSCI contributes to this dynamic since it silences X-linked old genes but not X-linked young genes. This demasculinization process seems to be associated with feminization of the X chromosome with more X-linked old genes expressed in ovaries. Moreover, we detected another burst of gene originations after the split of eutherian mammals and opossum, and these genes were quickly incorporated into transcriptional networks of multiple tissues. Preexisting X-linked genes also show significantly higher protein-level evolution during this period compared to autosomal genes, suggesting positive selection accompanied the early evolution of mammalian X chromosomes. These two findings cast new light on the evolutionary history of the mammalian X chromosome in terms of gene gain, sequence, and expressional evolution.

  11. Characterization of codon usage bias in the dUTPase gene of duck enteritis virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lichan Zhao; Anchun Cheng; Mingshu Wang; Guiping Yuan; Mingsheng Cai

    2008-01-01

    A comparative analysis of the codon usage bias in the newly discovered dUTPase gene(Assigned Accession No.:DQ4861491 of the duck enteritis virus(DEV)and the dUTPase gene of 32 reference herpesviruses was performed.The results indicated that the DEV dUT-Pase gene encodes a protein of 477 amino acids,which includes five conserved motifs with a 3-1-2-4-5 arrangement.The codon adap-tation index(CAI),effective number of codons(ENC),and GC3s values indicated synonymous codon usage bias in the dUTPase gene of herpesviruses,and this synonymous bias was correlated with host evolution.The codon usage pattens of the DEV dUTPase gene were phylogenetically conserved and similar to that of the dUTPase genes of the avian alphaherpesvirus.Although codon usage in each micro-orgamsm was different,there were no strain-specific differences among them.Sixty-one codons in the predicted polypeptide.with a strong bias towards A and T at the third codon position,were used.Comparison of the codon usage in the dUTPase gene of different organisms revealed that there were 19 codons showing distinct codon usage differences between the DEV and Escherichia coli dUTPase genes;16 between the DEV and yeast dUTPase genes;and 15 between the DEV and human dUTPase genes.Analysis of variance(ANOVA) showed significant differences between the DEV and yeast dUTPase genes(r=0.536,P<0.01).The extent of codon usage bias in the DEV dUTPase gene was highly correlated with the gene expression level,therefore the results may provide usefu information for gene classification and functional studies.

  12. Sex-Biased Gene Expression and Evolution of the X Chromosome in Nematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albritton, Sarah Elizabeth; Kranz, Anna-Lena; Rao, Prashant; Kramer, Maxwell; Dieterich, Christoph; Ercan, Sevinç

    2014-01-01

    Studies of X chromosome evolution in various organisms have indicated that sex-biased genes are nonrandomly distributed between the X and autosomes. Here, to extend these studies to nematodes, we annotated and analyzed X chromosome gene content in four Caenorhabditis species and in Pristionchus pacificus. Our gene expression analyses comparing young adult male and female mRNA-seq data indicate that, in general, nematode X chromosomes are enriched for genes with high female-biased expression and depleted of genes with high male-biased expression. Genes with low sex-biased expression do not show the same trend of X chromosome enrichment and depletion. Combined with the observation that highly sex-biased genes are primarily expressed in the gonad, differential distribution of sex-biased genes reflects differences in evolutionary pressures linked to tissue-specific regulation of X chromosome transcription. Our data also indicate that X dosage imbalance between males (XO) and females (XX) is influential in shaping both expression and gene content of the X chromosome. Predicted upregulation of the single male X to match autosomal transcription (Ohno’s hypothesis) is supported by our observation that overall transcript levels from the X and autosomes are similar for highly expressed genes. However, comparison of differentially located one-to-one orthologs between C. elegans and P. pacificus indicates lower expression of X-linked orthologs, arguing against X upregulation. These contradicting observations may be reconciled if X upregulation is not a global mechanism but instead acts locally on a subset of tissues and X-linked genes that are dosage sensitive. PMID:24793291

  13. Sex-Specific Selection and Sex-Biased Gene Expression in Humans and Flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Changde; Kirkpatrick, Mark

    2016-09-01

    Sexual dimorphism results from sex-biased gene expression, which evolves when selection acts differently on males and females. While there is an intimate connection between sex-biased gene expression and sex-specific selection, few empirical studies have studied this relationship directly. Here we compare the two on a genome-wide scale in humans and flies. We find a distinctive "Twin Peaks" pattern in humans that relates the strength of sex-specific selection, quantified by genetic divergence between male and female adults at autosomal loci, to the degree of sex-biased expression. Genes with intermediate degrees of sex-biased expression show evidence of ongoing sex-specific selection, while genes with either little or completely sex-biased expression do not. This pattern apparently results from differential viability selection in males and females acting in the current generation. The Twin Peaks pattern is also found in Drosophila using a different measure of sex-specific selection acting on fertility. We develop a simple model that successfully recapitulates the Twin Peaks. Our results suggest that many genes with intermediate sex-biased expression experience ongoing sex-specific selection in humans and flies.

  14. Sex-Specific Selection and Sex-Biased Gene Expression in Humans and Flies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changde Cheng

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Sexual dimorphism results from sex-biased gene expression, which evolves when selection acts differently on males and females. While there is an intimate connection between sex-biased gene expression and sex-specific selection, few empirical studies have studied this relationship directly. Here we compare the two on a genome-wide scale in humans and flies. We find a distinctive "Twin Peaks" pattern in humans that relates the strength of sex-specific selection, quantified by genetic divergence between male and female adults at autosomal loci, to the degree of sex-biased expression. Genes with intermediate degrees of sex-biased expression show evidence of ongoing sex-specific selection, while genes with either little or completely sex-biased expression do not. This pattern apparently results from differential viability selection in males and females acting in the current generation. The Twin Peaks pattern is also found in Drosophila using a different measure of sex-specific selection acting on fertility. We develop a simple model that successfully recapitulates the Twin Peaks. Our results suggest that many genes with intermediate sex-biased expression experience ongoing sex-specific selection in humans and flies.

  15. Reward bias and lateralization in gambling behavior: behavioral activation system and alpha band analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balconi, Michela; Finocchiaro, Roberta; Canavesio, Ylenia; Messina, Rossella

    2014-11-30

    The present research explored the main factors that can influence subjects' choices in the case of decisions. In order to elucidate the individual differences that influence the decisional processes, making their strategies more or less advantageous, we tested the effect of a reward sensitivity in the behavioral activation system (BAS-Reward) constructed on the ability to distinguish between high- and low-risk decisions. Secondly, the lateralization effect, related to increased activation of the left (BAS-related) hemisphere, was explored. Thirty-one subjects were tested using the Iowa Gambling Task, and the BAS-Reward measure was applied to distinguish between high-BAS and low-BAS groups. Behavioral responses (gain/loss options) and alpha-band modulation were considered. It was found that high-BAS group increased their tendency to opt in favor of the immediate reward (loss strategy) rather than the long-term option (win strategy). Secondly, high-BAS subjects showed an increased left-hemisphere activation in response to losing (with immediate reward) choices in comparison with low-BAS subjects. A "reward bias" effect was supposed to explain both the bad strategy and the unbalanced hemispheric activation for high-BAS and more risk-taking subjects.

  16. Population stratification bias in the case-only study for gene-environment interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liang-Yi; Lee, Wen-Chung

    2008-07-15

    The case-only study is a convenient approach and provides increased statistical efficiency in detecting gene-environment interactions. The validity of a case-only study hinges on one well-recognized assumption: The susceptibility genotypes and the environmental exposures of interest are independent in the population. Otherwise, the study will be biased. The authors show that hidden stratification in the study population could also ruin a case-only study. They derive the formulas for population stratification bias. The bias involves three terms: 1) the coefficient of variation of the exposure prevalence odds, 2) the coefficient of variation of the genotype frequency odds, and 3) the correlation coefficient between the exposure prevalence odds and the genotype frequency odds. The authors perform simulation to investigate the magnitude of bias over a wide range of realistic scenarios. It is found that the estimated interaction effect is frequently biased by more than 5%. For a rarer gene and a rarer exposure, the bias becomes even larger (>30%). Because of the potentially large bias, researchers conducting case-only studies should use the boundary formula presented in this paper to make more prudent interpretations of their results, or they should use stratified analysis or a modeling approach to adjust for population stratification bias in their studies.

  17. The role of genetic biases in shaping the correlations between languages and genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dediu, Dan

    2008-09-21

    It has recently been proposed [Dediu, D., Ladd, D.R., 2007. Linguistic tone is related to the population frequency of the adaptive haplogroups of two brain size genes, ASPM and Microcephalin. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 104(26), 10944-10949] that genetically coded linguistic biases can influence the trajectory of language change. However, the nature of such biases and the conditions under which they can become manifest have remained vague. The present paper explores computationally two plausible types of linguistic acquisition biases in a population of agents implementing realistic genetic, linguistic and demographic processes. One type of bias represents an innate asymmetric initial state (initial expectation bias) while the other an innate asymmetric facility of acquisition (rate of learning bias). It was found that only the second type of bias produces detectable effects on language through cultural transmission across generations and that such effects are produced even by weak biases present at low frequencies in the population. This suggests that learning preference asymmetries, very small at the individual level and not very frequent at the population level, can bias the trajectory of language change through the process of cultural transmission.

  18. Disentangling the relationship between sex-biased gene expression and X-linkage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisel, Richard P.; Malone, John H.; Clark, Andrew G.

    2012-01-01

    X chromosomes are preferentially transmitted through females, which may favor the accumulation of X-linked alleles/genes with female-beneficial effects. Numerous studies have shown that genes with sex-biased expression are under- or over-represented on the X chromosomes of a wide variety of organisms. The patterns, however, vary between different animal species, and the causes of these differences are unresolved. Additionally, genes with sex-biased expression tend to be narrowly expressed in a limited number of tissues, and narrowly expressed genes are also non-randomly X-linked in a taxon-specific manner. It is therefore unclear whether the unique gene content of the X chromosome is the result of selection on genes with sex-biased expression, narrowly expressed genes, or some combination of the two. To address this problem, we measured sex-biased expression in multiple Drosophila species and at different developmental time points. These data were combined with available expression measurements from Drosophila melanogaster and mouse to reconcile the inconsistencies in X-chromosome content among taxa. Our results suggest that most of the differences between Drosophila and mammals are confounded by disparate data collection/analysis approaches as well as the correlation between sex bias and expression breadth. Both the Drosophila and mouse X chromosomes harbor an excess of genes with female-biased expression after controlling for the confounding factors, suggesting that the asymmetrical transmission of the X chromosome favors the accumulation of female-beneficial mutations in X-linked genes. However, some taxon-specific patterns remain, and we provide evidence that these are in part a consequence of constraints imposed by the dosage compensation mechanism in Drosophila. PMID:22499666

  19. Sex-biased gene expression in the brown alga Fucus vesiculosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Maria João F; Mota, Catarina F; Pearson, Gareth A

    2013-05-01

    The fucoid brown algae (Heterokontophyta, Phaeophyceae) are increasingly the focus of ecological genetics, biodiversity, biogeography and speciation research. The molecular genetics underlying mating system variation, where repeated dioecious - hermaphrodite switches during evolution are recognized, and the molecular evolution of sex-related genes are key questions currently hampered by a lack of genomic information. We therefore undertook a comparative analysis of male and female reproductive tissue transcriptomes against a vegetative background during natural reproductive cycles in Fucus vesiculosus. Over 300 k reads were assembled and annotated against public protein databases including a brown alga. Compared with the vegetative tissue, photosynthetic and carbohydrate metabolism pathways were under-expressed, particularly in male tissue, while several pathways involved in genetic information processing and replication were over-expressed. Estimates of sex-biased gene (SBG) expression were higher for male (14% of annotated orthologues) than female tissue (9%) relative to the vegetative background. Mean expression levels and variance were also greater in male- than female-biased genes. Major female-biased genes were carbohydrate-modifying enzymes with likely roles in zygote cell wall biogenesis and/or modification. Male-biased genes reflected distinct sperm development and function, and orthologues for signal perception (a phototropin), transduction (several kinases), and putatively flagella-localized proteins (including candidate gamete-recognition proteins) were uniquely expressed in males. Overall, the results suggest constraint on female-biased genes (possible pleiotropy), and less constrained male-biased genes, mostly associated with sperm-specific functions. Our results support the growing contention that males possess a large array of genes regulating male fitness, broadly supporting findings in evolutionarily distant heterogametic animal models. This work

  20. De Novo Transcriptome Assembly and Sex-Biased Gene Expression in the Cyclical Parthenogenetic Daphnia galeata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huylmans, Ann Kathrin; López Ezquerra, Alberto; Parsch, John; Cordellier, Mathilde

    2016-10-23

    Daphnia species have become models for ecological genomics and exhibit interesting features, such as high phenotypic plasticity and a densely packed genome with many lineage-specific genes. They are also cyclic parthenogenetic, with alternating asexual and sexual cycles and environmental sex determination. Here, we present a de novo transcriptome assembly of over 32,000 D. galeata genes and use it to investigate gene expression in females and spontaneously produced males of two clonal lines derived from lakes in Germany and the Czech Republic. We find that only a low percentage (18%) of genes shows sex-biased expression and that there are many more female-biased gene (FBG) than male-biased gene (MBG). Furthermore, FBGs tend to be more conserved between species than MBGs in both sequence and expression. These patterns may be a consequence of cyclic parthenogenesis leading to a relaxation of purifying selection on MBGs. The two clonal lines show considerable differences in both number and identity of sex-biased genes, suggesting that they may have reproductive strategies differing in their investment in sexual reproduction. Orthologs of key genes in the sex determination and juvenile hormone pathways, which are thought to be important for the transition from asexual to sexual reproduction, are present in D. galeata and highly conserved among Daphnia species. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  1. Codon bias and gene ontology in holometabolous and hemimetabolous insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlini, David B; Makowski, Matthew

    2015-12-01

    The relationship between preferred codon use (PCU), developmental mode, and gene ontology (GO) was investigated in a sample of nine insect species with sequenced genomes. These species were selected to represent two distinct modes of insect development, holometabolism and hemimetabolism, with an aim toward determining whether the differences in developmental timing concomitant with developmental mode would be mirrored by differences in PCU in their developmental genes. We hypothesized that the developmental genes of holometabolous insects should be under greater selective pressure for efficient translation, manifest as increased PCU, than those of hemimetabolous insects because holometabolism requires abundant protein expression over shorter time intervals than hemimetabolism, where proteins are required more uniformly in time. Preferred codon sets were defined for each species, from which the frequency of PCU for each gene was obtained. Although there were substantial differences in the genomic base composition of holometabolous and hemimetabolous insects, both groups exhibited a general preference for GC-ending codons, with the former group having higher PCU averaged across all genes. For each species, the biological process GO term for each gene was assigned that of its Drosophila homolog(s), and PCU was calculated for each GO term category. The top two GO term categories for PCU enrichment in the holometabolous insects were anatomical structure development and cell differentiation. The increased PCU in the developmental genes of holometabolous insects may reflect a general strategy to maximize the protein production of genes expressed in bursts over short time periods, e.g., heat shock proteins. J. Exp. Zool. (Mol. Dev. Evol.) 324B: 686-698, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Attentional bias in addictive behaviors: a review of its development, causes, and consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Matt; Cox, W Miles

    2008-09-01

    A wealth of research from the past two decades shows that addictive behaviors are characterized by attentional biases for substance-related stimuli. We review the relevant evidence and present an integration of existing theoretical models to explain the development, causes, and consequences of addiction-related attentional biases. We suggest that through classical conditioning, substance-related stimuli elicit the expectancy of substance availability, and this expectancy causes both attentional bias for substance-related stimuli and subjective craving. Furthermore, attentional bias and craving have a mutual excitatory relationship such that increases in one lead to increases in the other, a process that is likely to result in substance self-administration. Cognitive avoidance strategies, impulsivity, and impaired inhibitory control appear to influence the strength of attentional biases and subjective craving. However, some measures of attentional bias, particularly the addiction Stroop, might reflect multiple underlying processes, so results need to be interpreted cautiously. We make several predictions that require testing in future research, and we discuss implications for the treatment of addictive behaviors.

  3. Unawareness of Self-interest Bias in Moral Judgments of Others’ Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bocian Konrad

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies (Bocian & Wojciszke, 2014 showed that self-interest biases moral perception of others’ unethical actions. Moreover, affective changes in attitudinal responses towards the perpetrator of an immoral act drives the bias. In the present studies, we attempted to answer the question whether people are aware of the self-interest bias in their judgments of others’ behavior. We conducted two experiments showing that moral judgments of verbally described and imagined actions were dominated by norms rather than self-interest (Study 1 and that people were not aware that self-interest distorted their moral judgment (Study 2. The unawareness of the self-interest bias among the participants was attributable to omission of their own emotional responses when forecasting their moral judgments. We discuss the importance of emotions presence in studies on moral judgments as well as contribution of the present research to the intuitionist approach to moral judgment.

  4. “Rational” or “Intuitive”: Are Behavioral Biases Correlated Across Stock Market Investors?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Kudryavtsev

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Human judgments are systematically affected by various biases and distortions. The main goal of our study is to analyze the effects of five well-documented behavioral biases—namely, the disposition effect, herd behavior, availability heuristic, gambler’s fallacy and hot hand fallacy—on the mechanisms of stock market decision making and, in particular, the correlations between the magnitudes of the biases in the cross-section of market investors. Employing an extensive online survey, we demonstrate that, on average, active capital market investors exhibit moderate degrees of behavioral biases. We then calculate the cross-sectional correlation coefficients between the biases and find that all of them are positive and highly significant for both professional and non-professional investors and for all categories of investors, as classified by their experience levels, genders, and ages. This finding suggests that an investor who is more inclined to employ a certain intuitive decision-making technique will most likely accept other techniques as well. Furthermore, we determine that the correlation coefficients between the biases are higher for more experienced investors and male investors, indicating that these categories of investors are likely to behave more consistently, or, in other words, are more likely to decide for themselves whether to rely on simplifying decision-making techniques in general or to reject all of them. Alternatively, this finding may suggest that these investors develop more sophisticated “adaptive toolboxes”, or collections of heuristics, and apply them more systematically.

  5. Biased distribution of DNA uptake sequences towards genome maintenance genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, T.; Rodland, E.A.; Lagesen, K.

    2004-01-01

    coding regions are the DNA uptake sequences (DUS) required for natural genetic transformation. More importantly, we found a significantly higher density of DUS within genes involved in DNA repair, recombination, restriction-modification and replication than in any other annotated gene group......Repeated sequence signatures are characteristic features of all genomic DNA. We have made a rigorous search for repeat genomic sequences in the human pathogens Neisseria meningitidis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Haemophilus influenzae and found that by far the most frequent 9-10mers residing within...

  6. Association between genes, stressful childhood events and processing bias in depression vulnerable individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrijsen, J N; van Oostrom, I; Arias-Vásquez, A; Franke, B; Becker, E S; Speckens, A

    2014-06-01

    The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) genes are relevant candidates for depression. Variation in these genes is associated with stress sensitivity and depressotypic cognitive biases. The interaction between genes and stressful events is considered as an important mechanism in the development of depression. This study examined the effects of the BDNF and COMT genes on biased processing and the interaction with childhood stress in vulnerable individuals. A total of 198 remitted depressed individuals performed an n-back task with emotional facial stimuli (happy and sad). Childhood events were measured with a questionnaire. Genotype by childhood events interactions were analyzed for happy and sad expressions for BDNF (Val66Met; rs6265) and COMT (Val158Met; rs4680), individually and combined. BDNF and COMT both interacted significantly (P = 0.006 and P = 0.014, respectively) with childhood trauma on reaction time for happy faces. For both genes, Met-carriers with childhood trauma showed less positive bias for happy faces than those without childhood trauma. Val-carriers did not show a differential bias. Individuals with childhood trauma and 3 or 4 risk alleles (BDNF and COMT combined) showed less positive bias than those without childhood trauma (P = 0.011). The BDNF × COMT × childhood trauma interaction yielded a P = 0.055, but had limited power. A potential weakness is the measurement method of the childhood events, as negative bias might have affected participants' recall. Our findings endorse the association of BDNF and COMT with stress and depression and provide a possible intermediate, i.e. biased processing of positive information. Tailoring treatment to specific risk profiles based on genetic susceptibility and childhood stress could be promising. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  7. Biased Immunoglobulin Light Chain Gene Usage in the Shark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacoangeli, Anna; Lui, Anita; Naik, Ushma; Ohta, Yuko; Flajnik, Martin; Hsu, Ellen

    2015-10-15

    This study of a large family of κ L chain clusters in nurse shark completes the characterization of its classical Ig gene content (two H chain isotypes, μ and ω, and four L chain isotypes, κ, λ, σ, and σ-2). The shark κ clusters are minigenes consisting of a simple VL-JL-CL array, where V to J recombination occurs over an ~500-bp interval, and functional clusters are widely separated by at least 100 kb. Six out of ~39 κ clusters are prerearranged in the germline (germline joined). Unlike the complex gene organization and multistep assembly process of Ig in mammals, each shark Ig rearrangement, somatic or in the germline, appears to be an independent event localized to the minigene. This study examined the expression of functional, nonproductive, and sterile transcripts of the κ clusters compared with the other three L chain isotypes. κ cluster usage was investigated in young sharks, and a skewed pattern of split gene expression was observed, one similar in functional and nonproductive rearrangements. These results show that the individual activation of the spatially distant κ clusters is nonrandom. Although both split and germline-joined κ genes are expressed, the latter are prominent in young animals and wane with age. We speculate that, in the shark, the differential activation of the multiple isotypes can be advantageously used in receptor editing.

  8. Biased distribution of DNA uptake sequences towards genome maintenance genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, T.; Rodland, E.A.; Lagesen, K.

    2004-01-01

    in these organisms. Pasteurella multocida also displayed high frequencies of a putative DUS identical to that previously identified in H. influenzae and with a skewed distribution towards genome maintenance genes, indicating that this bacterium might be transformation competent under certain conditions....

  9. Positional bias of general and tissue-specific regulatory motifs in mouse gene promoters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farré Domènec

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The arrangement of regulatory motifs in gene promoters, or promoter architecture, is the result of mutation and selection processes that have operated over many millions of years. In mammals, tissue-specific transcriptional regulation is related to the presence of specific protein-interacting DNA motifs in gene promoters. However, little is known about the relative location and spacing of these motifs. To fill this gap, we have performed a systematic search for motifs that show significant bias at specific promoter locations in a large collection of housekeeping and tissue-specific genes. Results We observe that promoters driving housekeeping gene expression are enriched in particular motifs with strong positional bias, such as YY1, which are of little relevance in promoters driving tissue-specific expression. We also identify a large number of motifs that show positional bias in genes expressed in a highly tissue-specific manner. They include well-known tissue-specific motifs, such as HNF1 and HNF4 motifs in liver, kidney and small intestine, or RFX motifs in testis, as well as many potentially novel regulatory motifs. Based on this analysis, we provide predictions for 559 tissue-specific motifs in mouse gene promoters. Conclusion The study shows that motif positional bias is an important feature of mammalian proximal promoters and that it affects both general and tissue-specific motifs. Motif positional constraints define very distinct promoter architectures depending on breadth of expression and type of tissue.

  10. Reducing an In-Group Bias in Preschool Children: The Impact of Moral Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetherington, Chelsea; Hendrickson, Caroline; Koenig, Melissa

    2014-01-01

    How impressionable are in-group biases in early childhood? Previous research shows that young children display robust preferences for members of their own social group, but also condemn those who harm others. The current study investigates children's evaluations of agents when their group membership and moral behavior conflict. After being…

  11. Cultural Bias: The Albatross of Assessing Behavior-Disordered Children and Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Thomas F.

    1991-01-01

    The decision-making process for determining special education eligibility for students who may have behavior disorders is considered biased because of the subjectivity inherent in the process. Assessment procedures should allow for cultural freedom. Certain minority groups are still vulnerable to discriminatory practices within the field of…

  12. Social desirability bias in diary panels is evident in panelists' behavioral frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toh, Rex S; Lee, Eunkyu; Hu, Michael Y

    2006-10-01

    The purpose was to analyze a large-scale database, a national sample of 1108 heads of households collected by AT&T, to show that behavioral frequencies of the activities of consumer diary panelists may regress toward the population mean during the diary-keeping period given social desirability bias produced by the conditioning effect of keeping diaries. This effect is distinguished from regression toward the mean, a statistical phenomenon reflecting happenstance of extreme initial values. Social desirability bias is demonstrated in two ways-by observing decreasing coefficients of variation over time and by detecting a greater proportion of panelists' behavioral frequencies moving toward the population mean than moving away from it. Both cannot be explained by regression toward the mean. Social desirability bias was manifest only during the early stages of the diary-keeping period and only for activities high in involvement. The presence of social desirability bias in diary panels implies that, when people are subjected to observation, diary observations may be contaminated, leading to the mistaken impression that the population is more homogeneous than it actually is. Thus it is important for researchers to monitor the diary panel carefully to detect social desirability bias when engaged in longitudinal studies.

  13. Characterization of Synonymous Codon Usage Bias in the Pseudorabies Virus US1 Gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meili Li; Zhiyao Zhao; Jianhong Chen; Bingyun Wang; Zi Li; Jian Li; Mingsheng Cai

    2012-01-01

    In the present study,we examined the codon usage bias between pseudorabies virus (PRV) US1 gene and the US1-like genes of 20 reference alphaherpesviruses.Comparative analysis showed noticeable disparities of the synonymous codon usage bias in the 21 alphaherpesviruses,indicated by codon adaptation index,effective number of codons (ENc) and GC3s value.The codon usage pattern of PRV US1 gene was phylogenetically conserved and similar to that of the US1-like genes of the genus Varicellovirus of alphaherpesvirus,with a strong bias towards the codons with C and G at the third codon position.Cluster analysis of codon usage pattern of PRV US1 gene with its reference alphaherpesviruses demonstrated that the codon usage bias of US1-like genes of 21 alphaherpesviruses had a very close relation with their gene functions.ENc-plot revealed that the genetic heterogeneity in PRV US1 gene and the 20 reference alphaherpesviruses was constrained by G+C content,as well as the gene length.In addition,comparison of codon preferences in the US1 gene of PRV with those of E.coli,yeast and human revealed that there were 50 codons showing distinct usage differences between PRV and yeast,49 between PRV and human,but 48 between PRV and E.coli.Although there were slightly fewer differences in codon usages between E.coli and PRV,the difference is unlikely to be statistically significant,and experimental studies are necessary to establish the most suitable expression system for PRV US1.In conclusion,these results may improve our understanding of the evolution,pathogenesis and functional studies of PRV,as well as contributing to the area of herpesvirus research or even studies with other viruses.

  14. Attentional bias in older adults: effects of generalized anxiety disorder and cognitive behavior therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohlman, Jan; Price, Rebecca B; Vietri, Jeff

    2013-08-01

    Attentional biases are known to play a contributing, and perhaps even causal role in the etiology of anxiety and other negative affective states. The prevalence of anxiety disorders in the older cohort is growing, and there are both theoretical and empirical reasons to suspect that age-related factors could moderate attentional bias effects in the context of late-life anxiety. The current study included one of the most widely-used measures of attentional bias, the dot-probe task (Mathews & MacLeod, 1985). Participants were older adults who were either nonanxious or diagnosed with generalized anxiety disorder. The patient subsample also completed cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) or an equivalent wait list condition, after which the dot probe was administered a second time. Results showed that clinical anxiety had no particular importance for the deployment of attention, casting doubt on the universality of biased attention in older anxiety patients. Although there were no maladaptive biases detected toward either threat or depression words at pretreatment, there was nevertheless a marginally significant differential reduction in bias toward threat words following CBT. This reduction did not occur among those in the wait list condition. Implications are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Dopamine system genes are associated with orienting bias among healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zozulinsky, Polina; Greenbaum, Lior; Brande-Eilat, Noa; Braun, Yair; Shalev, Idan; Tomer, Rachel

    2014-09-01

    Healthy individuals display subtle orienting bias, manifested as a tendency to direct greater attention toward one hemispace, and evidence suggests that this bias reflects an individual trait, which may be modulated by asymmetric dopamine signaling in striatal and frontal regions. The current study examined the hypothesis that functional genetic variants within dopaminergic genes (DAT1 3' VNTR, dopamine D2 receptor Taq1A (rs1800497) and COMT Val158Met (rs4680)) contribute to individual differences in orienting bias, as measured by the greyscales paradigm, in a sample of 197 young healthy Israeli Jewish participants. For the Taq1A variant, homozygous carriers of the A2 allele displayed significantly increased leftward orienting bias compared to the carriers of the A1 allele. Additionally, and as previously reported by others, we found that bias towards leftward orienting of attention was significantly greater among carriers of the 9-repeat allele of the DAT1 3' VNTR as compared to the individuals who were homozygous for the 10-repeat allele. No significant effect of the COMT Val158Met on orienting bias was found. Taken together, our findings support the potential influence of genetic variants on inter-individual differences in orienting bias, a phenotype relevant to both normal and impaired cognitive processes.

  16. Persistency of priors-induced bias in decision behavior and the fMRI signal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen eHansen

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that people take advantage of prior knowledge to bias decisions. To investigate this phenomenon behaviorally and in the brain, we acquired fMRI data while human subjects viewed ambiguous abstract shapes and decided whether a shape was of Category A (smoother or B (bumpier. The decision was made in the context of one of two prior knowledge cues, 80/20 and 50/50. The 80/20 cue indicated that upcoming shapes had an 80% probability of being of one category, e.g. B, and a 20% probability of being of the other. The 50/50 cue indicated that upcoming shapes had an equal probability of being of either category. The ideal observer would bias decisions in favor of the indicated alternative at 80/20 and show zero bias at 50/50. We found that subjects did bias their decisions in the predicted direction at 80/20 but did not show zero bias at 50/50. Instead, at 50/50 the subjects retained biases of the same sign as their 80/20 biases, though of diminished magnitude. The signature of a persistent though diminished bias at 50/50 was also evident in fMRI data from frontal and parietal regions previously implicated in decision-making. As a control, we acquired fMRI data from naïve subjects who experienced only the 50/50 stimulus distributions during both the prescan training and the fMRI experiment. The behavioral and fMRI data from the naïve subjects reflected decision biases closer to those of the ideal observer than those of the prior knowledge subjects at 50/50. The results indicate that practice making decisions in the context of non-equal prior probabilities biases decisions made later when prior probabilities are equal. This finding may be related to the anchoring and adjustment strategy described in the psychology, economics and marketing literatures, in which subjects adjust a first approximation response – the anchor – based on additional information, typically applying insufficient adjustment relative to the ideal observer.

  17. APPLIED BEHAVIORAL FINANCE: INVESTOR BIASES, PERFORMANCE REVERSION TO THE MEAN and TREND FORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADRIAN MITROI

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In the pursuit of understanding the behavior of the market player, the basic argument relays on the supposition that the risk appetite increases exactly at the worst moment - when the capacity to assume additional risk decreases significantly.People view a sample randomly drawn from a population as highly representative and cvasi similar to the population in all its essential characteristics. They expect any two samples drawn from a particular population to be more similar to one another and to the population than is statistically justifiable. This behavior is different from the tenets of classic finance theory. The paper aims at demonstating that investor psychological biases lead to investment performance to tilt to the mean in the long run and by following the trend, the financial market population do not enjoy significant sustainable benefits. As a reflection of the behavioral biases and influences, the statistical demonstration supports the conclusion that markets do not random walk.

  18. Same-strand overlapping genes in bacteria: compositional determinants of phase bias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Landan Giddy

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Same-strand overlapping genes may occur in frameshifts of one (phase 1 or two nucleotides (phase 2. In previous studies of bacterial genomes, long phase-1 overlaps were found to be more numerous than long phase-2 overlaps. This bias was explained by either genomic location or an unspecified selection advantage. Models that focused on the ability of the two genes to evolve independently did not predict this phase bias. Here, we propose that a purely compositional model explains the phase bias in a more parsimonious manner. Same-strand overlapping genes may arise through either a mutation at the termination codon of the upstream gene or a mutation at the initiation codon of the downstream gene. We hypothesized that given these two scenarios, the frequencies of initiation and termination codons in the two phases may determine the number for overlapping genes. Results We examined the frequencies of initiation- and termination-codons in the two phases, and found that termination codons do not significantly differ between the two phases, whereas initiation codons are more abundant in phase 1. We found that the primary factors explaining the phase inequality are the frequencies of amino acids whose codons may combine to form start codons in the two phases. We show that the frequencies of start codons in each of the two phases, and, hence, the potential for the creation of overlapping genes, are determined by a universal amino-acid frequency and species-specific codon usage, leading to a correlation between long phase-1 overlaps and genomic GC content. Conclusion Our model explains the phase bias in same-strand overlapping genes by compositional factors without invoking selection. Therefore, it can be used as a null model of neutral evolution to test selection hypotheses concerning the evolution of overlapping genes. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Bill Martin, Itai Yanai, and Mikhail Gelfand.

  19. The genomic distribution of sex-biased genes in drosophila serrata: X chromosome demasculinization, feminization, and hyperexpression in both sexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Scott L; Bonduriansky, Russell; Chenoweth, Stephen F

    2013-01-01

    The chromosomal distribution of genes with sex-biased expression is often nonrandom, and in species with XY sex chromosome systems, it is common to observe a deficit of X-linked male-biased genes and an excess of X-linked female-biased genes. One explanation for this pattern is that sex-specific selection has shaped the gene content of the X. Alternatively, the deficit of male-biased and excess of female-biased genes could be an artifact of differences between the sexes in the global expression level of their X chromosome(s), perhaps brought about by a lack of dosage compensation in males and hyperexpression in females. In the montium fruit fly, Drosophila serrata, both these explanations can account for a deficit of male-biased and excess of female-biased X-linked genes. Using genome-wide expression data from multiple male and female tissues (n = 176 hybridizations), we found that testis- and accessory gland-specific genes are underrepresented whereas female ovary-specific genes are overrepresented on the X chromosome, suggesting that X-linkage is disfavored for male function genes but favored for female function genes. However, genes with such sex-specific functions did not fully account for the deficit of male-biased and excess of female-biased X-linked genes. We did, however, observe sex differences in the global expression level of the X chromosome and autosomes. Surprisingly, and in contrast to other species where a lack of dosage compensation in males is responsible, we found that hyperexpression of X-linked genes in both sexes leads to this imbalance in D. serrata. Our results highlight how common genomic distributions of sex-biased genes, even among closely related species, may arise via quite different evolutionary processes.

  20. Differential sensitivity to the environment: contribution of cognitive biases and genes to psychological wellbeing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, E; Beevers, C G

    2016-01-01

    Negative cognitive biases and genetic variation have been associated with risk of psychopathology in largely independent lines of research. Here, we discuss ways in which these dynamic fields of research might be fruitfully combined. We propose that gene by environment (G × E) interactions may be mediated by selective cognitive biases and that certain forms of genetic ‘reactivity' or ‘sensitivity' may represent heightened sensitivity to the learning environment in a ‘for better and for worse' manner. To progress knowledge in this field, we recommend including assessments of cognitive processing biases; examining G × E interactions in ‘both' negative and positive environments; experimentally manipulating the environment when possible; and moving beyond single-gene effects to assess polygenic sensitivity scores. We formulate a new methodological framework encapsulating cognitive and genetic factors in the development of both psychopathology and optimal wellbeing that holds long-term promise for the development of new personalized therapies. PMID:27431291

  1. Applying signal-detection theory to the study of observer accuracy and bias in behavioral assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerman, Dorothea C; Tetreault, Allison; Hovanetz, Alyson; Bellaci, Emily; Miller, Jonathan; Karp, Hilary; Mahmood, Angela; Strobel, Maggie; Mullen, Shelley; Keyl, Alice; Toupard, Alexis

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated the feasibility and utility of a laboratory model for examining observer accuracy within the framework of signal-detection theory (SDT). Sixty-one individuals collected data on aggression while viewing videotaped segments of simulated teacher-child interactions. The purpose of Experiment 1 was to determine if brief feedback and contingencies for scoring accurately would bias responding reliably. Experiment 2 focused on one variable (specificity of the operational definition) that we hypothesized might decrease the likelihood of bias. The effects of social consequences and information about expected behavior change were examined in Experiment 3. Results indicated that feedback and contingencies reliably biased responding and that the clarity of the definition only moderately affected this outcome.

  2. [Childhood sexual behavior as an indicator of sexual abuse: professionals' criteria and biases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Ortega, Eva; Orgaz Baz, Begoña; López Sánchez, Félix

    2012-01-01

    Some sexual behaviors are related to child sexual abuse experiences, but none unequivocally. Therefore, professionals might use non-empirical-based criteria and be biased when detecting and reporting victims. To check this hypothesis, we presented 974 Spanish and Latin American professionals from different fields (Psychology, Education, Health, Social Services, Justice, and Police Force) with hypothetical situations of child sexual behavior (varying the sex, age and behavior) by using an experimental vignette method based on Factorial Survey. Participants were asked to indicate whether such behaviors are a sign of abuse and whether they would report them. We also measured demographic, academic, professional and attitude factors. According to the analysis, professionals' suspicion of abuse is more affected by personal factors, whereas their reporting intention depends more on situational factors. The main criterion adopted is the type of sexual behavior, with professionals being more likely to suspect and report in response to aggressive sexual behavior and precocious sexual knowledge. Professionals' attitudes to sexuality seem to generate biases, as those who are erotophobic are more likely to suspect abuse. None of the sexual behaviors was seen as evidence of abuse.

  3. Evolutionary Stasis in Cycad Plastomes and the First Case of Plastome GC-Biased Gene Conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chung-Shien; Chaw, Shu-Miaw

    2015-06-27

    In angiosperms, gene conversion has been known to reduce the mutational load of plastid genomes (the plastomes). Particularly, more frequent gene conversions in inverted repeat (IR) than in single copy (SC) regions result in contrasting substitution rates between these two regions. However, little has been known about the effect of gene conversion in the evolution of gymnosperm plastomes. Cycads (Cycadophyta) are the second largest gymnosperm group. Evolutionary study of their plastomes is limited to the basal cycad genus, Cycas. In this study, we addressed three questions. 1) Do the plastomes of other cycad genera evolve slowly as previously observed in the plastome of Cycas taitungensis? 2) Do substitution rates differ between their SC and IR regions? And 3) Does gene conversion occur in the cycad plastomes? If yes, is it AT-biased or GC-biased? Plastomes of eight species from other eight genera of cycads were sequenced. These plastomes are highly conserved in genome organization. Excluding ginkgo, cycad plastomes have significantly lower synonymous and nonsynonymous substitution rates than other gymnosperms, reflecting their evolutionary stasis in nucleotide mutations. In the IRs of cycad plastomes, the reduced substitution rates and GC-biased mutations are associated with a GC-biased gene conversion (gBGC) mechanism. Further investigations suggest that in cycads, gBGC is able to rectify plastome-wide mutations. Therefore, this study is the first to uncover the plastomic gBGC in seed plants. We also propose a gBGC model to interpret the dissimilar evolutionary patterns as well as the compositionally biased mutations in the SC and IR regions of cycad plastomes.

  4. Oxytocin receptor gene and racial ingroup bias in empathy-related brain activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Siyang; Li, Bingfeng; Ma, Yina; Zhang, Wenxia; Rao, Yi; Han, Shihui

    2015-04-15

    The human brain responds more strongly to racial ingroup than outgroup individuals' pain. This racial ingroup bias varies across individuals and has been attributed to social experiences. What remains unknown is whether the racial ingroup bias in brain activity is associated with a genetic polymorphism. We investigated genetic associations of racial ingroup bias in the brain activity to racial ingroup and outgroup faces that received painful or non-painful stimulations by scanning A/A and G/G homozygous of the oxytocin receptor gene polymorphism (OXTR rs53576) using functional MRI. We found that G/G compared to A/A individuals showed stronger activity in the anterior cingulate and supplementary motor area (ACC/SMA) in response to racial ingroup members' pain, whereas A/A relative to G/G individuals exhibited greater activity in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) in response to racial outgroup members' pain. Moreover, the racial ingroup bias in ACC/SMA activity positively predicted participants' racial ingroup bias in implicit attitudes and NAcc activity to racial outgroup individuals' pain negatively predicted participants' motivations to reduce racial outgroup members' pain. Our results suggest that the two variants of OXTR rs53576 are associated with racial ingroup bias in brain activities that are linked to implicit attitude and altruistic motivation, respectively.

  5. The Behavioral Bias of Foreign Debt Usage in Foreign Exchange Risk Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabo, Tom

    Euro (forward contract) or borrows in US dollars (foreign debt) instead of borrowing in Euro makes no difference in foreign exchange exposure terms. Accordingly, Géczy et al. (1997) note that foreign debt can act as a hedge of foreign revenues and displace the need to hedge with derivatives. We analyze......We investigate the behavioral bias in the use of debt denominated in foreign currency (foreign debt) in managing foreign exchange risks. From a strictly financial (rational) point of view foreign debt and derivates are close substitutes. Whether e.g. a European firm sells forward US dollars against...... foreign exchange risk management in medium-sized, non-financial firms in Denmark and find a behavioral bias in the use of foreign debt. Among the firms that are internationally involved (operating revenues, costs and/or assets in foreign currency), on average a quarter of the financial debt is denominated...

  6. Sex-biased gene expression in dioecious garden asparagus (Asparagus officinalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkess, Alex; Mercati, Francesco; Shan, Hong-Yan; Sunseri, Francesco; Falavigna, Agostino; Leebens-Mack, Jim

    2015-08-01

    Sex chromosomes have evolved independently in phylogenetically diverse flowering plant lineages. The genes governing sex determination in dioecious species remain unknown, but theory predicts that the linkage of genes influencing male and female function will spur the origin and early evolution of sex chromosomes. For example, in an XY system, the origin of an active Y may be spurred by the linkage of female suppressing and male promoting genes. Garden asparagus (Asparagus officinalis) serves as a model for plant sex chromosome evolution, given that it has recently evolved an XX/XY sex chromosome system. In order to elucidate the molecular basis of gender differences and sex determination, we used RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq) to identify differentially expressed genes between female (XX), male (XY) and supermale (YY) individuals. We identified 570 differentially expressed genes, and showed that significantly more genes exhibited male-biased than female-biased expression in garden asparagus. In the context of anther development, we identified genes involved in pollen microspore and tapetum development that were specifically expressed in males and supermales. Comparative analysis of genes in the Arabidopsis thaliana, Zea mays and Oryza sativa anther development pathways shows that anther sterility in females probably occurs through interruption of tapetum development before microspore meiosis.

  7. Entropy-based gene ranking without selection bias for the predictive classification of microarray data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serafini Maria

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We describe the E-RFE method for gene ranking, which is useful for the identification of markers in the predictive classification of array data. The method supports a practical modeling scheme designed to avoid the construction of classification rules based on the selection of too small gene subsets (an effect known as the selection bias, in which the estimated predictive errors are too optimistic due to testing on samples already considered in the feature selection process. Results With E-RFE, we speed up the recursive feature elimination (RFE with SVM classifiers by eliminating chunks of uninteresting genes using an entropy measure of the SVM weights distribution. An optimal subset of genes is selected according to a two-strata model evaluation procedure: modeling is replicated by an external stratified-partition resampling scheme, and, within each run, an internal K-fold cross-validation is used for E-RFE ranking. Also, the optimal number of genes can be estimated according to the saturation of Zipf's law profiles. Conclusions Without a decrease of classification accuracy, E-RFE allows a speed-up factor of 100 with respect to standard RFE, while improving on alternative parametric RFE reduction strategies. Thus, a process for gene selection and error estimation is made practical, ensuring control of the selection bias, and providing additional diagnostic indicators of gene importance.

  8. Individual differences in positivity offset and negativity bias: Gender-specific associations with two serotonin receptor genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashare, Rebecca L; Norris, Catherine J; Wileyto, E Paul; Cacioppo, John T; Strasser, Andrew A

    2013-09-01

    Individual differences in the evaluation of affective stimuli, such as the positivity offset and negativity bias may have a biological basis. We tested whether two SNPs (HTR2A; 102T>C and HTR1A; 1019C>G) related to serotonin receptor function, a biological pathway associated with affective regulation, were differentially related to positivity offset and negativity bias for males and females. Participants were 109 cigarette smokers who rated a series of affective stimuli to assess reactions to positive and negative pictures. Gender × genotype interactions were found for both SNPs. Males with the 102T allele showed a greater positivity offset than males with the 102C allele. For females, in contrast, the 1019C allele was associated with a greater positivity offset than the 1019G allele, whereas the 102T allele was associated with a greater negativity bias than the 102C allele. Identifying how gender differences may moderate the effect of serotonin receptor genes on affective information processing may provide insight into their role in guiding behavior and regulating affect.

  9. A Comparison of Cognitive Bias Modification for Interpretation and Computerized Cognitive Behavior Therapy: Effects on Anxiety, Depression, Attentional Control, and Interpretive Bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowler, Jennifer O.; Mackintosh, Bundy; Dunn, Barnaby D.; Mathews, Andrew; Dalgleish, Tim; Hoppitt, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Computerized cognitive behavioral therapy (cCBT) and cognitive bias modification for interpretation (CBM-I) both have demonstrated efficacy in alleviating social anxiety, but how they compare with each other has not been investigated. The present study tested the prediction that both interventions would reduce anxiety relative to a…

  10. A Comparison of Cognitive Bias Modification for Interpretation and Computerized Cognitive Behavior Therapy: Effects on Anxiety, Depression, Attentional Control, and Interpretive Bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowler, Jennifer O.; Mackintosh, Bundy; Dunn, Barnaby D.; Mathews, Andrew; Dalgleish, Tim; Hoppitt, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Computerized cognitive behavioral therapy (cCBT) and cognitive bias modification for interpretation (CBM-I) both have demonstrated efficacy in alleviating social anxiety, but how they compare with each other has not been investigated. The present study tested the prediction that both interventions would reduce anxiety relative to a…

  11. Accelerated rates of protein evolution in barley grain and pistil biased genes might be legacy of domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Tao; Dimitrov, Ivan; Zhang, Yinling; Tax, Frans E; Yi, Jing; Gou, Xiaoping; Li, Jia

    2015-10-01

    Traits related to grain and reproductive organs in grass crops have been under continuous directional selection during domestication. Barley is one of the oldest domesticated crops in human history. Thus genes associated with the grain and reproductive organs in barley may show evidence of dramatic evolutionary change. To understand how artificial selection contributes to protein evolution of biased genes in different barley organs, we used Digital Gene Expression analysis of six barley organs (grain, pistil, anther, leaf, stem and root) to identify genes with biased expression in specific organs. Pairwise comparisons of orthologs between barley and Brachypodium distachyon, as well as between highland and lowland barley cultivars mutually indicated that grain and pistil biased genes show relatively higher protein evolutionary rates compared with the median of all orthologs and other organ biased genes. Lineage-specific protein evolutionary rates estimation showed similar patterns with elevated protein evolution in barley grain and pistil biased genes, yet protein sequences generally evolve much faster in the lowland barley cultivar. Further functional annotations revealed that some of these grain and pistil biased genes with rapid protein evolution are related to nutrient biosynthesis and cell cycle/division. Our analyses provide insights into how domestication differentially shaped the evolution of genes specific to different organs of a crop species, and implications for future functional studies of domestication genes.

  12. Variable Autosomal and X Divergence Near and Far from Genes Affects Estimates of Male Mutation Bias in Great Apes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narang, Pooja; Wilson Sayres, Melissa A

    2016-12-31

    Male mutation bias, when more mutations are passed on via the male germline than via the female germline, is observed across mammals. One common way to infer the magnitude of male mutation bias, α, is to compare levels of neutral sequence divergence between genomic regions that spend different amounts of time in the male and female germline. For great apes, including human, we show that estimates of divergence are reduced in putatively unconstrained regions near genes relative to unconstrained regions far from genes. Divergence increases with increasing distance from genes on both the X chromosome and autosomes, but increases faster on the X chromosome than autosomes. As a result, ratios of X/A divergence increase with increasing distance from genes and corresponding estimates of male mutation bias are significantly higher in intergenic regions near genes versus far from genes. Future studies in other species will need to carefully consider the effect that genomic location will have on estimates of male mutation bias.

  13. Genome-wide analysis reveals diverged patterns of codon bias, gene expression, and rates of sequence evolution in picea gene families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Torre, Amanda R; Lin, Yao-Cheng; Van de Peer, Yves; Ingvarsson, Pär K

    2015-03-05

    The recent sequencing of several gymnosperm genomes has greatly facilitated studying the evolution of their genes and gene families. In this study, we examine the evidence for expression-mediated selection in the first two fully sequenced representatives of the gymnosperm plant clade (Picea abies and Picea glauca). We use genome-wide estimates of gene expression (>50,000 expressed genes) to study the relationship between gene expression, codon bias, rates of sequence divergence, protein length, and gene duplication. We found that gene expression is correlated with rates of sequence divergence and codon bias, suggesting that natural selection is acting on Picea protein-coding genes for translational efficiency. Gene expression, rates of sequence divergence, and codon bias are correlated with the size of gene families, with large multicopy gene families having, on average, a lower expression level and breadth, lower codon bias, and higher rates of sequence divergence than single-copy gene families. Tissue-specific patterns of gene expression were more common in large gene families with large gene expression divergence than in single-copy families. Recent family expansions combined with large gene expression variation in paralogs and increased rates of sequence evolution suggest that some Picea gene families are rapidly evolving to cope with biotic and abiotic stress. Our study highlights the importance of gene expression and natural selection in shaping the evolution of protein-coding genes in Picea species, and sets the ground for further studies investigating the evolution of individual gene families in gymnosperms.

  14. Common sources of bias in gene-lifestyle interaction studies of cardiometabolic disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oskari Kilpeläinen, Tuomas

    2013-01-01

    The role of gene x lifestyle interactions in the development of cardiometabolic diseases is often highlighted, but very few robustly replicated examples of interactions exist in the literature. The slow pace of discoveries may largely be due to interaction effects being generally small in magnitude...... and/or more complex than initially thought. However, the progress may also be hindered by the poor accuracy in large-scale epidemiological studies to estimate the true interaction effect sizes. Often, this bias tends to underestimate the interaction effect, leading to inadequate statistical power...... to detect the interaction. In this review, I will discuss the most common sources of bias in the estimation of gene x lifestyle interactions, and will discuss how such factors could be addressed in the future to enhance our potential to identify and replicate interactions for cardiometabolic diseases....

  15. Transcriptional profiling of human liver identifies sex-biased genes associated with polygenic dyslipidemia and coronary artery disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yijing Zhang

    Full Text Available Sex-differences in human liver gene expression were characterized on a genome-wide scale using a large liver sample collection, allowing for detection of small expression differences with high statistical power. 1,249 sex-biased genes were identified, 70% showing higher expression in females. Chromosomal bias was apparent, with female-biased genes enriched on chrX and male-biased genes enriched on chrY and chr19, where 11 male-biased zinc-finger KRAB-repressor domain genes are distributed in six clusters. Top biological functions and diseases significantly enriched in sex-biased genes include transcription, chromatin organization and modification, sexual reproduction, lipid metabolism and cardiovascular disease. Notably, sex-biased genes are enriched at loci associated with polygenic dyslipidemia and coronary artery disease in genome-wide association studies. Moreover, of the 8 sex-biased genes at these loci, 4 have been directly linked to monogenic disorders of lipid metabolism and show an expression profile in females (elevated expression of ABCA1, APOA5 and LDLR; reduced expression of LIPC that is consistent with the lower female risk of coronary artery disease. Female-biased expression was also observed for CYP7A1, which is activated by drugs used to treat hypercholesterolemia. Several sex-biased drug-metabolizing enzyme genes were identified, including members of the CYP, UGT, GPX and ALDH families. Half of 879 mouse orthologs, including many genes of lipid metabolism and homeostasis, show growth hormone-regulated sex-biased expression in mouse liver, suggesting growth hormone might play a similar regulatory role in human liver. Finally, the evolutionary rate of protein coding regions for human-mouse orthologs, revealed by dN/dS ratio, is significantly higher for genes showing the same sex-bias in both species than for non-sex-biased genes. These findings establish that human hepatic sex differences are widespread and affect diverse cell

  16. Phantom behavioral assimilation effects: systematic biases in social comparison choice studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Herbert W; Seaton, Marjorie; Kuyper, Hans; Dumas, Florence; Huguet, Pascal; Régner, Isabelle; Buunk, Abraham P; Monteil, Jean-Marc; Gibbons, Frederick X

    2010-04-01

    Consistent with social comparison theory (SCT), Blanton, Buunk, Gibbons, and Kuyper (1999) and Huguet, Dumas, Monteil, and Genestoux (2001) found that students tended to choose comparison targets who slightly outperformed them (i.e., upward comparison choices), and this had a beneficial effect on subsequent performance--a behavioral assimilation effect (BAE). We show (Studies 1 and 2) that this apparent BAE is due, in part, to uncontrolled measurement error in pretest achievement. However, using simulated data (Study 3), these phantom BAEs were eliminated with latent-variable models with multiple indicators. In Studies 4 and 5, latent-variable models were applied to the Blanton et al. and Huguet et al. data, resulting in substantially smaller but still significantly positive BAEs. More generally in personality research based on correlational data, failure to control measurement error in pretest/background variables will positively bias the apparent effects of personality variables of interest, but widely applicable approaches demonstrated here can correct for these biases.

  17. BEHAVIORAL BIASES IN INVESTORS' DECISION: STUDIES REVIEW FROM 2006-2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucimar Antônio Cabral de Ávila

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study presents a survey of researches that, through the employment of theoretical precepts, laboratory tests or empiric studies, in the period from 2006 to 2015, related themselves to the examination of anomalies' incidences or irrational effects which affect people's choices on investment decisions. Despite the temporal delimitation, it was set about the seminal study of Kahneman and Tversky, published in 1979, which brings considerations about Perspective Theory, in opposite to Efficient Market Hypothesis (EMH. The used methodology is exploratory and bibliographic, employing a sample composed by international journals of Finances area, besides journals in Accounting and Management in Brazil. A subdivision in the format of findings presentation was carried out, separating those which treat theoretical precepts and laboratory tests, nevertheless linked to possible practical effects - depicted as studies of behavioral incidences, evidences and tendencies - from those which seek empirical evidences greatly related to market operations, identified as studies of behavioral precepts applied to market. In conclusion, it was possible to identify that international researches are more focused on the understanding of behavioral phenomena and their impacts in stock market, while Brazilian studies concentrate on replications of seminal study or identification of biases and specific samples, presenting low possibilities for results' generalization. This occurs due to the lack of deepening and narrow scope of the investigations. Therefore, it's open a great variety of possibilities for studies, notably in fields such as domestic finances, behavioral effects among Latin American countries, standardization of behavior inside organizations, correlation among several biases, identification of other behavioral effects which interfere financial and economic scenery, mainly if the researches involve real market data.

  18. Untangling the Contributions of Sex-Specific Gene Regulation and X-Chromosome Dosage to Sex-Biased Gene Expression in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Maxwell; Rao, Prashant; Ercan, Sevinc

    2016-09-01

    Dosage compensation mechanisms equalize the level of X chromosome expression between sexes. Yet the X chromosome is often enriched for genes exhibiting sex-biased, i.e., imbalanced expression. The relationship between X chromosome dosage compensation and sex-biased gene expression remains largely unexplored. Most studies determine sex-biased gene expression without distinguishing between contributions from X chromosome copy number (dose) and the animal's sex. Here, we uncoupled X chromosome dose from sex-specific gene regulation in Caenorhabditis elegans to determine the effect of each on X expression. In early embryogenesis, when dosage compensation is not yet fully active, X chromosome dose drives the hermaphrodite-biased expression of many X-linked genes, including several genes that were shown to be responsible for hermaphrodite fate. A similar effect is seen in the C. elegans germline, where X chromosome dose contributes to higher hermaphrodite X expression, suggesting that lack of dosage compensation in the germline may have a role in supporting higher expression of X chromosomal genes with female-biased functions in the gonad. In the soma, dosage compensation effectively balances X expression between the sexes. As a result, somatic sex-biased expression is almost entirely due to sex-specific gene regulation. These results suggest that lack of dosage compensation in different tissues and developmental stages allow X chromosome copy number to contribute to sex-biased gene expression and function.

  19. Untangling the Contributions of Sex-Specific Gene Regulation and X-Chromosome Dosage to Sex-Biased Gene Expression in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Maxwell; Rao, Prashant; Ercan, Sevinc

    2016-01-01

    Dosage compensation mechanisms equalize the level of X chromosome expression between sexes. Yet the X chromosome is often enriched for genes exhibiting sex-biased, i.e., imbalanced expression. The relationship between X chromosome dosage compensation and sex-biased gene expression remains largely unexplored. Most studies determine sex-biased gene expression without distinguishing between contributions from X chromosome copy number (dose) and the animal’s sex. Here, we uncoupled X chromosome dose from sex-specific gene regulation in Caenorhabditis elegans to determine the effect of each on X expression. In early embryogenesis, when dosage compensation is not yet fully active, X chromosome dose drives the hermaphrodite-biased expression of many X-linked genes, including several genes that were shown to be responsible for hermaphrodite fate. A similar effect is seen in the C. elegans germline, where X chromosome dose contributes to higher hermaphrodite X expression, suggesting that lack of dosage compensation in the germline may have a role in supporting higher expression of X chromosomal genes with female-biased functions in the gonad. In the soma, dosage compensation effectively balances X expression between the sexes. As a result, somatic sex-biased expression is almost entirely due to sex-specific gene regulation. These results suggest that lack of dosage compensation in different tissues and developmental stages allow X chromosome copy number to contribute to sex-biased gene expression and function. PMID:27356611

  20. Identification of transition bias in oxidized low density lipoprotein receptor 1 gene in buffalo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Shabir

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Though transition bias has been previously demonstrated in cattle, however, there has not been any study that has explored transition bias in buffalo nuclear genome. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the nucleotide substitution pattern in the Intron I of Oxidised Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor 1 (OLR1 gene in four breeds of Indian buffalo using 24 different nucleotide substitution models and evaluate their association with DNA methylation. Materials and Methods: Transition/transversion bias (R was estimated by 24 different nucleotide substitution models available in MEGA 5.0. The transition/transversion bias (R was estimated under the Kimura 2-parameter model. Substitution patterns and the transitions/transversions rates (r were then estimated by Tamura-Nei-I and Tamura-Nei-II models. The CpG Island search was done by using CpG Plot Island online Software available at European Bioinformatics Institute (EBI website. Results: The frequency of transition was found to be 3.5 times higher than that of the transversion mutation frequency. Out of 9 nucleotide substitutions, 7 transitions and 2 transversions were found. Among all the nucleotide substitutions, thymine to cytosine substitutions was observed to be very high. CpG Island search tool revealed that IntronI of OLR1 genes is a CpG rich region, thus prone to methylation. Conclusions: Higher transition frequency was found in the intronI of OLR1 gene, however due to the richness of methylated CpGs in the evaluated stretch of genome, the higher T↔C transitions could likely be a result of frequent deaminations of the methylated cytosines into thymines during the evolution of four buffalo breeds.

  1. The Behavioral Bias of Foreign Debt Usage in Foreign Exchange Risk Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabo, Tom

    We investigate the behavioral bias in the use of debt denominated in foreign currency (foreign debt) in managing foreign exchange risks. From a strictly financial (rational) point of view foreign debt and derivates are close substitutes. Whether e.g. a European firm sells forward US dollars again...... - be a result of mental bookkeeping on the balance sheet at the expense of a forward looking view of cash flows. The findings are important tofirms in other countries with open economies where foreign debt is also used extensively....

  2. Observation of self-organized criticality (SOC) behavior during edge biasing experiment on TEXTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Y.H.; Jachmich, S.; Weynants, R.R. [Ecole Royale Militaire/Koninklijke Militaire School, Laboratory for Plasma Physics, Euratom-Belgian State Association, Brussels, Belgium, Partner in the Trilateral Euregio Cluster (Belgium)

    2004-07-01

    The self-organized criticality (SOC) behavior of the edge plasma transport has been investigated using the fluctuation data measured in the plasma edge and the scrape-off layer of TEXTOR tokamak before and during the edge electrode biasing experiments. In the 'non-shear' discharge phase before biasing, both the potential and density fluctuations clearly exhibit some of the characteristics associated with SOC: (1) existence of f{sup -1} power-law dependence in the frequency spectrum, (2) slowly decaying long tails in the autocorrelation function, (3) values of Hurst parameters larger than 0.5 at all the detected radial locations, (4) non-Gaussian probability density function of fluctuations and (5) radial propagation of avalanche-like events in the edge plasma area. During the biasing phase, with the generation of an edge radial electric field E{sub r} and hence a sheared E{sub r} x B flow, the local turbulence is found to be well de-correlated by the E{sub r} x B velocity shear, consistent with theoretical predictions. Nevertheless, it is concomitantly found that the Hurst parameters are substantially enhanced in the negative flow shear region and in the scrape-off layer as well, which is contrary to theoretical expectation. Implication of these observations to our understanding of plasma transport mechanisms is discussed. (authors)

  3. Transfer RNA gene numbers may not be completely responsible for the codon usage bias in asparagine, isoleucine, phenylalanine, and tyrosine in the high expression genes in bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satapathy, Siddhartha Sankar; Dutta, Malay; Buragohain, Alak Kumar; Ray, Suvendra Kumar

    2012-08-01

    It is generally believed that the effect of translational selection on codon usage bias is related to the number of transfer RNA genes in bacteria, which is more with respect to the high expression genes than the whole genome. Keeping this in the background, we analyzed codon usage bias with respect to asparagine, isoleucine, phenylalanine, and tyrosine amino acids. Analysis was done in seventeen bacteria with the available gene expression data and information about the tRNA gene number. In most of the bacteria, it was observed that codon usage bias and tRNA gene number were not in agreement, which was unexpected. We extended the study further to 199 bacteria, limiting to the codon usage bias in the two highly expressed genes rpoB and rpoC which encode the RNA polymerase subunits β and β', respectively. In concordance with the result in the high expression genes, codon usage bias in rpoB and rpoC genes was also found to not be in agreement with tRNA gene number in many of these bacteria. Our study indicates that tRNA gene numbers may not be the sole determining factor for translational selection of codon usage bias in bacterial genomes.

  4. Tissue Specificity and Sex-Specific Regulatory Variation Permit the Evolution of Sex-Biased Gene Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Rebecca; Mank, Judith E

    2016-09-01

    Genetic correlations between males and females are often thought to constrain the evolution of sexual dimorphism. However, sexually dimorphic traits and the underlying sexually dimorphic gene expression patterns are often rapidly evolving. We explore this apparent paradox by measuring the genetic correlation in gene expression between males and females (Cmf) across broad evolutionary timescales, using two RNA-sequencing data sets spanning multiple populations and multiple species. We find that unbiased genes have higher Cmf than sex-biased genes, consistent with intersexual genetic correlations constraining the evolution of sexual dimorphism. However, we found that highly sex-biased genes (both male and female biased) also had higher tissue specificity, and unbiased genes had greater expression breadth, suggesting that pleiotropy may constrain the breakdown of intersexual genetic correlations. Finally, we show that genes with high Cmf showed some degree of sex-specific changes in gene expression in males and females. Together, our results suggest that genetic correlations between males and females may be less important in constraining the evolution of sex-biased gene expression than pleiotropy. Sex-specific regulatory variation and tissue specificity may resolve the paradox of widespread sex bias within a largely shared genome.

  5. An improved, bias-reduced probabilistic functional gene network of baker's yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Insuk Lee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Probabilistic functional gene networks are powerful theoretical frameworks for integrating heterogeneous functional genomics and proteomics data into objective models of cellular systems. Such networks provide syntheses of millions of discrete experimental observations, spanning DNA microarray experiments, physical protein interactions, genetic interactions, and comparative genomics; the resulting networks can then be easily applied to generate testable hypotheses regarding specific gene functions and associations. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We report a significantly improved version (v. 2 of a probabilistic functional gene network of the baker's yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We describe our optimization methods and illustrate their effects in three major areas: the reduction of functional bias in network training reference sets, the application of a probabilistic model for calculating confidences in pair-wise protein physical or genetic interactions, and the introduction of simple thresholds that eliminate many false positive mRNA co-expression relationships. Using the network, we predict and experimentally verify the function of the yeast RNA binding protein Puf6 in 60S ribosomal subunit biogenesis. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: YeastNet v. 2, constructed using these optimizations together with additional data, shows significant reduction in bias and improvements in precision and recall, in total covering 102,803 linkages among 5,483 yeast proteins (95% of the validated proteome. YeastNet is available from http://www.yeastnet.org.

  6. Biased exonization of transposed elements in duplicated genes: A lesson from the TIF-IA gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shomron Noam

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene duplication and exonization of intronic transposed elements are two mechanisms that enhance genomic diversity. We examined whether there is less selection against exonization of transposed elements in duplicated genes than in single-copy genes. Results Genome-wide analysis of exonization of transposed elements revealed a higher rate of exonization within duplicated genes relative to single-copy genes. The gene for TIF-IA, an RNA polymerase I transcription initiation factor, underwent a humanoid-specific triplication, all three copies of the gene are active transcriptionally, although only one copy retains the ability to generate the TIF-IA protein. Prior to TIF-IA triplication, an Alu element was inserted into the first intron. In one of the non-protein coding copies, this Alu is exonized. We identified a single point mutation leading to exonization in one of the gene duplicates. When this mutation was introduced into the TIF-IA coding copy, exonization was activated and the level of the protein-coding mRNA was reduced substantially. A very low level of exonization was detected in normal human cells. However, this exonization was abundant in most leukemia cell lines evaluated, although the genomic sequence is unchanged in these cancerous cells compared to normal cells. Conclusion The definition of the Alu element within the TIF-IA gene as an exon is restricted to certain types of cancers; the element is not exonized in normal human cells. These results further our understanding of the delicate interplay between gene duplication and alternative splicing and of the molecular evolutionary mechanisms leading to genetic innovations. This implies the existence of purifying selection against exonization in single copy genes, with duplicate genes free from such constrains.

  7. Tumor-suppressor genes that escape from X-inactivation contribute to cancer sex bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunford, Andrew; Weinstock, David M; Savova, Virginia; Schumacher, Steven E; Cleary, John P; Yoda, Akinori; Sullivan, Timothy J; Hess, Julian M; Gimelbrant, Alexander A; Beroukhim, Rameen; Lawrence, Michael S; Getz, Gad; Lane, Andrew A

    2017-01-01

    There is a striking and unexplained male predominance across many cancer types. A subset of X-chromosome genes can escape X-inactivation, which would protect females from complete functional loss by a single mutation. To identify putative 'escape from X-inactivation tumor-suppressor' (EXITS) genes, we examined somatic alterations from >4,100 cancers across 21 tumor types for sex bias. Six of 783 non-pseudoautosomal region (PAR) X-chromosome genes (ATRX, CNKSR2, DDX3X, KDM5C, KDM6A, and MAGEC3) harbored loss-of-function mutations more frequently in males (based on a false discovery rate genes (Fisher's exact P genes that escape X-inactivation were observed in combined analysis across many cancers and in several individual tumor types, suggesting a generalized phenomenon. We conclude that biallelic expression of EXITS genes in females explains a portion of the reduced cancer incidence in females as compared to males across a variety of tumor types.

  8. The relationship between third-codon position nucleotide content, codon bias, mRNA secondary structure and gene expression in the drosophilid alcohol dehydrogenase genes Adh and Adhr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlini, D B; Chen, Y; Stephan, W

    2001-01-01

    To gain insights into the relationship between codon bias, mRNA secondary structure, third-codon position nucleotide distribution, and gene expression, we predicted secondary structures in two related drosophilid genes, Adh and Adhr, which differ in degree of codon bias and level of gene expression. Individual structural elements (helices) were inferred using the comparative method. For each gene, four types of randomization simulations were performed to maintain/remove codon bias and/or to maintain or alter third-codon position nucleotide composition (N3). In the weakly expressed, weakly biased gene Adhr, the potential for secondary structure formation was found to be much stronger than in the highly expressed, highly biased gene Adh. This is consistent with the observation of approximately equal G and C percentages in Adhr ( approximately 31% across species), whereas in Adh the N3 distribution is shifted toward C (42% across species). Perturbing the N3 distribution to approximately equal amounts of A, G, C, and T increases the potential for secondary structure formation in Adh, but decreases it in Adhr. On the other hand, simulations that reduce codon bias without changing N3 content indicate that codon bias per se has only a weak effect on the formation of secondary structures. These results suggest that, for these two drosophilid genes, secondary structure is a relatively independent, negative regulator of gene expression. Whereas the degree of codon bias is positively correlated with level of gene expression, strong individual secondary structural elements may be selected for to retard mRNA translation and to decrease gene expression. PMID:11606539

  9. Attentional bias and emotional reactivity as predictors and moderators of behavioral treatment for social phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niles, Andrea N; Mesri, Bita; Burklund, Lisa J; Lieberman, Matthew D; Craske, Michelle G

    2013-10-01

    Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is a well-established treatment for anxiety disorders, and evidence is accruing for the effectiveness of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT). Little is known about factors that relate to treatment outcome overall (predictors), or who will thrive in each treatment (moderators). The goal of the current project was to test attentional bias and negative emotional reactivity as moderators and predictors of treatment outcome in a randomized controlled trial comparing CBT and ACT for social phobia. Forty-six patients received 12 sessions of CBT or ACT and were assessed for self-reported and clinician-rated symptoms at baseline, post treatment, 6, and 12 months. Attentional bias significantly moderated the relationship between treatment group and outcome with patients slow to disengage from threatening stimuli showing greater clinician-rated symptom reduction in CBT than in ACT. Negative emotional reactivity, but not positive emotional reactivity, was a significant overall predictor with patients high in negative emotional reactivity showing the greatest self-reported symptom reduction.

  10. Gate-Bias Stability Behavior Tailored by Dielectric Polymer Stereostructure in Organic Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Junghwi; Min, Honggi; Park, Namwoo; Jeong, Heejeong; Han, Singu; Kim, Se Hyun; Lee, Hwa Sung

    2015-11-18

    Understanding charge trapping in a polymer dielectric is critical to the design of high-performance organic field-effect transistors (OFETs). We investigated the OFET stability as a function of the dielectric polymer stereostructure under a gate bias stress and during long-term operation. To this end, iso-, syn-, and atactic poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) polymers with identical molecular weights and polydispersity indices were selected. The PMMA stereostructure was found to significantly influence the charge trapping behavior and trap formation in the polymer dielectrics. This influence was especially strong in the bulk region rather than in the surface region. The regular configurational arrangements (isotactic > syntactic > atactic) of the pendant groups on the PMMA backbone chain facilitated closer packing between the polymer interchains and led to a higher crystallinity of the polymer dielectric, which caused a reduction in the free volumes that act as sites for charge trapping and air molecule absorption. The PMMA dielectrics with regular stereostructures (iso- and syn-stereoisomers) exhibited more stable OFET operation under bias stress compared to devices prepared using irregular a-PMMA in both vacuum and air.

  11. Charge ordering and exchange bias behaviors in Co3O4 porous nanoplatelets and nanorings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debnath, J. C.; Wang, Jianli; Zeng, R.

    2017-01-01

    We present the synthesis of α-Co3O4 porous nanoplatelets and hexagonal nanorings using microwave-assisted hydrothermal and conventional chemical reaction methods. The x-ray diffraction (XRD) and refinement analyses indicate the α-Co3O4 crystal structure, and the x-ray photoelectron spectrum (XPS) indicates the high purity of the samples. The M-T (including 1/χ-T) curves indicate an antiferromagnetic transition at about 35 K in both kind of samples but the interesting finding was made that a charge-ordered (CO) state appears at 250 K for the nanoplatelets sample whereas it is inattentive for the nanorings. The antiferromagnetic transition temperature TN is lower than that of the bulk α-Co3O4 single crystal due to the nanosized structures. We observed quite significant exchange bias for nanorings. The exchange bias behavior of the α-Co3O4 hexagonal nanorings is consistent with an antiferromagnetic (AFM) Co3O4 core and spin-glass like shell.

  12. Membrane gene ontology bias in sequencing and microarray obtained by housekeeping-gene analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yijuan; Akintola, Oluwafemi S; Liu, Ken J A; Sun, Bingyun

    2016-01-10

    Microarray (MA) and high-throughput sequencing are two commonly used detection systems for global gene expression profiling. Although these two systems are frequently used in parallel, the differences in their final results have not been examined thoroughly. Transcriptomic analysis of housekeeping (HK) genes provides a unique opportunity to reliably examine the technical difference between these two systems. We investigated here the structure, genome location, expression quantity, microarray probe coverage, as well as biological functions of differentially identified human HK genes by 9 MA and 6 sequencing studies. These in-depth analyses allowed us to discover, for the first time, a subset of transcripts encoding membrane, cell surface and nuclear proteins that were prone to differential identification by the two platforms. We hope that the discovery can aid the future development of these technologies for comprehensive transcriptomic studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Is there a close relationship between synonymous codon bias and codon-anticodon binding strength in human genes?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Synonymous codon bias has been examined in 78 human genes (19967 codons) and measured by relative synonymous codon usage (RSCU). Relative frequencies of all kinds of dinucleotides in 2,3 or 3,4 codon positions have been calculated, and codon-anticodon binding strength has been estimated by the stacking energies of codon-anticodon bases in Watson-Crick pairs. The data show common features in synonymous codon bias for all codon families in human genes: all C-ending codons, which possess the strongest co-don-anticodon binding energies, are the most favored codons in almost all codon families, and those codons with medium codon-anticodon binding energies are avoided. Data analysis suggests that besides isochore and genome signature , codon-anticodon binding strength may be closely related to syn-onymous codon choice in human genes. The join-effect of these factors on human genes results in the common features in codon bias.

  14. GC-biased gene conversion impacts ribosomal DNA evolution in vertebrates, angiosperms, and other eukaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, Juan S; Glémin, Sylvain; Galtier, Nicolas

    2011-09-01

    Ribosomal DNA (rDNA) is one of the most conserved genes in eukaryotes. The multiples copies of rDNA in the genome evolve in a concerted manner, through unequal crossing over and/or gene conversion, two mechanisms related to homologous recombination. Recombination increases local GC content in several organisms through a process known as GC-biased gene conversion (gBGC). gBGC has been well characterized in mammals, birds, and grasses, but its phylogenetic distribution across the tree of life is poorly understood. Here, we test the hypothesis that recombination affects the evolution of base composition in 18S rDNA and examine the reliability of this thoroughly studied molecule as a marker of gBGC in eukaryotes. Phylogenetic analyses of 18S rDNA in vertebrates and angiosperms reveal significant heterogeneity in the evolution of base composition across both groups. Mammals, birds, and grasses experience increases in the GC content of the 18S rDNA, consistent with previous genome-wide analyses. In addition, we observe increased GC contents in Ostariophysi ray-finned fishes and commelinid monocots (i.e., the clade including grasses), suggesting that the genomes of these two groups have been affected by gBGC. Polymorphism analyses in rDNA confirm that gBGC, not mutation bias, is the most plausible explanation for these patterns. We also find that helix and loop sites of the secondary structure of ribosomal RNA do not evolve at the same pace: loops evolve faster than helices, whereas helices are GC richer than loops. We extend analyses to major lineages of eukaryotes and suggest that gBGC might have also affected base composition in Giardia (Diplomonadina), nudibranch gastropods (Mollusca), and Asterozoa (Echinodermata).

  15. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation affects behavior by biasing endogenous cortical oscillations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massihullah Hamidi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A governing assumption about repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS has been that it interferes with task-related neuronal activity – in effect, by “injecting noise” into the brain – and thereby disrupts behavior. Recent reports of rTMS-produced behavioral enhancement, however, call this assumption into question. We investigated the neurophysiological effects of rTMS delivered during the delay period of a visual working memory task by simultaneously recording brain activity with electroencephalography (EEG. Subjects performed visual working memory for locations or for shapes, and in half the trials a 10-Hz train of rTMS was delivered to the superior parietal lobule or a control brain area. The wide range of individual differences in the effects of rTMS on task accuracy, from improvement to impairment, was predicted by individual differences in the effect of rTMS on power in the alpha-band of the EEG (~ 10 Hz: a decrease in alpha-band power corresponded to improved performance, whereas an increase in alpha-band power corresponded to the opposite. The EEG effect was localized to cortical sources encompassing the frontal eye fields and the intraparietal sulcus, and was specific to task (location, but not object memory and to rTMS target (superior parietal lobule, not control area. Furthermore, for the same task condition, rTMS-induced changes in cross-frequency phase synchrony between alpha- and gamma-band (> 40 Hz oscillations predicted changes in behavior. These results suggest that alpha-band oscillations play an active role cognitive processes and do not simply reflect absence of processing. Furthermore, this study shows that the complex effects of rTMS on behavior can result from biasing endogenous patterns of network-level oscillations.

  16. Pangenome evidence for higher codon usage bias and stronger translational selection in core genes of Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shixiang Sun

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Codon usage bias, as a combined interplay from mutation and selection, has been intensively studied in Escherichia coli. However, codon usage analysis in an E. coli pangenome remains unexplored and the relative importance of mutation and selection acting on core genes and strain-specific genes is unknown. Here we perform comprehensive codon usage analyses based on a collection of multiple complete genome sequences of E. coli. Our results show that core genes that are present in all strains have higher codon usage bias than strain-specific genes that are unique to single strains. We further explore the forces in influencing codon usage and investigate the difference of the major force between core and strain-specific genes. Our results demonstrate that although mutation may exert genome-wide influences on codon usage acting similarly in different gene sets, selection dominates as an important force to shape biased codon usage as genes are present in an increased number of strains. Together, our results provide important insights for better understanding genome plasticity and complexity as well as evolutionary mechanisms behind codon usage bias.

  17. Pangenome Evidence for Higher Codon Usage Bias and Stronger Translational Selection in Core Genes of Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shixiang; Xiao, Jingfa; Zhang, Huiyong; Zhang, Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Codon usage bias, as a combined interplay from mutation and selection, has been intensively studied in Escherichia coli. However, codon usage analysis in an E. coli pangenome remains unexplored and the relative importance of mutation and selection acting on core genes and strain-specific genes is unknown. Here we perform comprehensive codon usage analyses based on a collection of multiple complete genome sequences of E. coli. Our results show that core genes that are present in all strains have higher codon usage bias than strain-specific genes that are unique to single strains. We further explore the forces in influencing codon usage and investigate the difference of the major force between core and strain-specific genes. Our results demonstrate that although mutation may exert genome-wide influences on codon usage acting similarly in different gene sets, selection dominates as an important force to shape biased codon usage as genes are present in an increased number of strains. Together, our results provide important insights for better understanding genome plasticity and complexity as well as evolutionary mechanisms behind codon usage bias.

  18. Biased gene conversion and GC-content evolution in the coding sequences of reptiles and vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figuet, Emeric; Ballenghien, Marion; Romiguier, Jonathan; Galtier, Nicolas

    2014-12-19

    Mammalian and avian genomes are characterized by a substantial spatial heterogeneity of GC-content, which is often interpreted as reflecting the effect of local GC-biased gene conversion (gBGC), a meiotic repair bias that favors G and C over A and T alleles in high-recombining genomic regions. Surprisingly, the first fully sequenced nonavian sauropsid (i.e., reptile), the green anole Anolis carolinensis, revealed a highly homogeneous genomic GC-content landscape, suggesting the possibility that gBGC might not be at work in this lineage. Here, we analyze GC-content evolution at third-codon positions (GC3) in 44 vertebrates species, including eight newly sequenced transcriptomes, with a specific focus on nonavian sauropsids. We report that reptiles, including the green anole, have a genome-wide distribution of GC3 similar to that of mammals and birds, and we infer a strong GC3-heterogeneity to be already present in the tetrapod ancestor. We further show that the dynamic of coding sequence GC-content is largely governed by karyotypic features in vertebrates, notably in the green anole, in agreement with the gBGC hypothesis. The discrepancy between third-codon positions and noncoding DNA regarding GC-content dynamics in the green anole could not be explained by the activity of transposable elements or selection on codon usage. This analysis highlights the unique value of third-codon positions as an insertion/deletion-free marker of nucleotide substitution biases that ultimately affect the evolution of proteins.

  19. The relationship between weight stigma and eating behavior is explained by weight bias internalization and psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Kerry S; Latner, Janet D; Puhl, Rebecca M; Vartanian, Lenny R; Giles, Claudia; Griva, Konstadina; Carter, Adrian

    2016-07-01

    Weight stigma is associated with a range of negative outcomes, including disordered eating, but the psychological mechanisms underlying these associations are not well understood. The present study tested whether the association between weight stigma experiences and disordered eating behaviors (emotional eating, uncontrolled eating, and loss-of-control eating) are mediated by weight bias internalization and psychological distress. Six-hundred and thirty-four undergraduate university students completed an online survey assessing weight stigma, weight bias internalization, psychological distress, disordered eating, along with demographic characteristics (i.e., age, gender, weight status). Statistical analyses found that weight stigma was significantly associated with all measures of disordered eating, and with weight bias internalization and psychological distress. In regression and mediation analyses accounting for age, gender and weight status, weight bias internalization and psychological distress mediated the relationship between weight stigma and disordered eating behavior. Thus, weight bias internalization and psychological distress appear to be important factors underpinning the relationship between weight stigma and disordered eating behaviors, and could be targets for interventions, such as, psychological acceptance and mindfulness therapy, which have been shown to reduce the impact of weight stigma. The evidence for the health consequences resulting from weight stigma is becoming clear. It is important that health and social policy makers are informed of this literature and encouraged develop anti-weight stigma policies for school, work, and medical settings.

  20. Opposite nucleotide usage biases in different parts of the Corynebacterium diphtheriae spaC gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khrustalev, Vladislav Victorovich; Barkovsky, Eugene Victorovich; Kolodkina, Valentina Leonidovna; Khrustaleva, Tatyana Aleksandrovna

    2015-01-01

    In this work we described a bacterial open reading frame with two different directions of nucleotide usage biases in its two parts. The level of GC-content in third codon positions (3GC) is equal to 40.17 ± 0.22% during the most of the length of Corynebacterium diphtheriae spaC gene. However, in the 3'-end of the same gene (from codon #1600 to codon #1873) 3GC level is equal to 64.61 ± 0.91%. Using original methodology ('VVTAK Sliding window' and 'VVTAK VarInvar') we approved that there is an ongoing mutational AT-pressure during the most of the length of spaC gene (up to codon #1599), and there is an ongoing mutational G-pressure in the 3′-end of spaC. Intragenic promoters predicted by three different methods may be the cause of the differences in preferable types of nucleotide mutations in spaC parts because of their autonomous transcription.

  1. Population genetic structure, gene flow and sex-biased dispersal in frillneck lizards (Chlamydosaurus kingii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ujvari, Beata; Dowton, Mark; Madsen, Thomas

    2008-08-01

    By using both mitochondrial and nuclear multiloci markers, we explored population genetic structure, gene flow and sex-specific dispersal of frillneck lizards (Chlamydosaurus kingii) sampled at three locations, separated by 10 to 50 km, in a homogenous savannah woodland in tropical Australia. Apart from a recombinant lizard, the mitochondrial analyses revealed two nonoverlapping haplotypes/populations, while the nuclear markers showed that the frillneck lizards represented three separate clusters/populations. Due to the small population size of the mtDNA, fixation may occur via founder effects and/or drift. We therefore suggest that either of these two processes, or a combination of the two, are the most likely causes of the discordant results obtained from the mitochondrial and the nuclear markers. In contrast to the nonoverlapping mitochondrial haplotypes, in 12 out of 74 lizards, mixed nuclear genotypes were observed, hence revealing a limited nuclear gene flow. Although gene flow should ultimately result in a blending of the populations, we propose that the distinct nuclear population structure is maintained by frequent fires resulting in local bottlenecks, and concomitant spatial separation of the frillneck lizard populations. Limited mark-recapture data and the difference in distribution of the mitochondrial and nuclear markers suggest that the mixed nuclear genotypes were caused by juvenile male-biased dispersal.

  2. Gender-biased behavior at work: what can surveys tell us about the link between sexual harassment and gender discrimination?

    OpenAIRE

    Antecol, Heather; Barcus, Vanessa E.; Cobb-Clark, Deborah A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the links between survey-based reports of sexual harassment and gender discrimination. In particular, we are interested in assessing whether these concepts measure similar forms of gender-biased behavior and whether they have the same effect on workers' job satisfaction and intentions to leave their jobs. Our results provide little support for the notion that survey-based measures of sexual harassment and gender discrimination capture the same underlying behavior. Responde...

  3. The surprising negative correlation of gene length and optimal codon use--disentangling translational selection from GC-biased gene conversion in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoletzki, Nina

    2011-04-11

    Surprisingly, in several multi-cellular eukaryotes optimal codon use correlates negatively with gene length. This contrasts with the expectation under selection for translational accuracy. While suggested explanations focus on variation in strength and efficiency of translational selection, it has rarely been noticed that the negative correlation is reported only in organisms whose optimal codons are biased towards codons that end with G or C (-GC). This raises the question whether forces that affect base composition--such as GC-biased gene conversion--contribute to the negative correlation between optimal codon use and gene length. Yeast is a good organism to study this as equal numbers of optimal codons end in -GC and -AT and one may hence compare frequencies of optimal GC- with optimal AT-ending codons to disentangle the forces. Results of this study demonstrate in yeast frequencies of GC-ending (optimal AND non-optimal) codons decrease with gene length and increase with recombination. A decrease of GC-ending codons along genes contributes to the negative correlation with gene length. Correlations with recombination and gene expression differentiate between GC-ending and optimal codons, and also substitution patterns support effects of GC-biased gene conversion. While the general effect of GC-biased gene conversion is well known, the negative correlation of optimal codon use with gene length has not been considered in this context before. Initiation of gene conversion events in promoter regions and the presence of a gene conversion gradient most likely explain the observed decrease of GC-ending codons with gene length and gene position.

  4. The mouse X chromosome is enriched for sex-biased genes not subject to selection by meiotic sex chromosome inactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khil, Pavel P; Smirnova, Natalya A; Romanienko, Peter J; Camerini-Otero, R Daniel

    2004-06-01

    Sex chromosomes are subject to sex-specific selective evolutionary forces. One model predicts that genes with sex-biased expression should be enriched on the X chromosome. In agreement with Rice's hypothesis, spermatogonial genes are over-represented on the X chromosome of mice and sex- and reproduction-related genes are over-represented on the human X chromosome. Male-biased genes are under-represented on the X chromosome in worms and flies, however. Here we show that mouse spermatogenesis genes are relatively under-represented on the X chromosome and female-biased genes are enriched on it. We used Spo11(-/-) mice blocked in spermatogenesis early in meiosis to evaluate the temporal pattern of gene expression in sperm development. Genes expressed before the Spo11 block are enriched on the X chromosome, whereas those expressed later in spermatogenesis are depleted. Inactivation of the X chromosome in male meiosis may be a universal driving force for X-chromosome demasculinization.

  5. A microarray analysis of sex- and gonad-biased gene expression in the zebrafish: Evidence for masculinization of the transcriptome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mo Qianxing

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In many taxa, males and females are very distinct phenotypically, and these differences often reflect divergent selective pressures acting on the sexes. Phenotypic sexual dimorphism almost certainly reflects differing patterns of gene expression between the sexes, and microarray studies have documented widespread sexually dimorphic gene expression. Although the evolutionary significance of sexual dimorphism in gene expression remains unresolved, these studies have led to the formulation of a hypothesis that male-driven evolution has resulted in the masculinization of animal transcriptomes. Here we use a microarray assessment of sex- and gonad-biased gene expression to test this hypothesis in zebrafish. Results By using zebrafish Affymetrix microarrays to compare gene expression patterns in male and female somatic and gonadal tissues, we identified a large number of genes (5899 demonstrating differences in transcript abundance between male and female Danio rerio. Under conservative statistical significance criteria, all sex-biases in gene expression were due to differences between testes and ovaries. Male-enriched genes were more abundant than female-enriched genes, and expression bias for male-enriched genes was greater in magnitude than that for female-enriched genes. We also identified a large number of genes demonstrating elevated transcript abundance in testes and ovaries relative to male body and female body, respectively. Conclusion Overall our results support the hypothesis that male-biased evolutionary pressures have resulted in male-biased patterns of gene expression. Interestingly, our results seem to be at odds with a handful of other microarray-based studies of sex-specific gene expression patterns in zebrafish. However, ours was the only study designed to address this specific hypothesis, and major methodological differences among studies could explain the discrepancies. Regardless, all of these studies agree

  6. Biases in attention, interpretation, memory, and associations in children with varying levels of spider fear: Inter-relations and prediction of behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Anke M; van Niekerk, Rianne; Ten Brink, Giovanni; Rapee, Ronald M; Hudson, Jennifer L; Bögels, Susan M; Becker, Eni S; Rinck, Mike

    2017-03-01

    Cognitive theories suggest that cognitive biases may be related and together influence the anxiety response. However, little is known about the interrelations of cognitive bias tasks and whether they allow for an improved prediction of fear-related behavior in addition to self-reports. This study simultaneously addressed several types of cognitive biases in children, to investigate attention bias, interpretation bias, memory bias and fear-related associations, their interrelations and the prediction of behavior. Eighty-one children varying in their levels of spider fear completed the Spider Anxiety and Disgust Screening for Children and performed two Emotional Stroop tasks, a Free Recall task, an interpretation task including size and distance indication, an Affective Priming Task, and a Behavioral Assessment Test. We found an attention bias, interpretation bias, and fear-related associations, but no evidence for a memory bias. The biases showed little overlap. Attention bias, interpretation bias, and fear-related associations predicted unique variance in avoidance of spiders. Interpretation bias and fear-related associations remained significant predictors, even when self-reported fear was included as a predictor. Children were not seeking help for their spider fear and were not tested on clinical levels of spider phobia. This is the first study to find evidence that different cognitive biases each predict unique variance in avoidance behavior. Furthermore, it is also the first study in which we found evidence for a relation between fear of spiders and size and distance indication. We showed that this bias is distinct from other cognitive biases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The political gender gap: gender bias in facial inferences that predict voting behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Y Chiao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Throughout human history, a disproportionate degree of political power around the world has been held by men. Even in democracies where the opportunity to serve in top political positions is available to any individual elected by the majority of their constituents, most of the highest political offices are occupied by male leaders. What psychological factors underlie this political gender gap? Contrary to the notion that people use deliberate, rational strategies when deciding whom to vote for in major political elections, research indicates that people use shallow decision heuristics, such as impressions of competence solely from a candidate's facial appearance, when deciding whom to vote for. Because gender has previously been shown to affect a number of inferences made from the face, here we investigated the hypothesis that gender of both voter and candidate affects the kinds of facial impressions that predict voting behavior. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: Male and female voters judged a series of male and female political candidates on how competent, dominant, attractive and approachable they seemed based on their facial appearance. Then they saw a series of pairs of political candidates and decided which politician they would vote for in a hypothetical election for President of the United States. Results indicate that both gender of voter and candidate affect the kinds of facial impressions that predict voting behavior. All voters are likely to vote for candidates who appear more competent. However, male candidates that appear more approachable and female candidates who appear more attractive are more likely to win votes. In particular, men are more likely to vote for attractive female candidates whereas women are more likely to vote for approachable male candidates. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Here we reveal gender biases in the intuitive heuristics that voters use when deciding whom to vote for in major political elections. Our

  8. Y-STR diversity and sex-biased gene flow among Caribbean populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simms, Tanya M; Wright, Marisil R; Martinez, Emanuel; Regueiro, Maria; McCartney, Quinn; Herrera, Rene J

    2013-03-01

    In the present study, we report, for the first time, the allele and haplotype frequencies of 17 Y-STR (Y-filer) loci in the populations of Haiti, Jamaica and the Bahamas (Abaco, Eleuthera, Exuma, Grand Bahama, Long Island and New Providence). This investigation was undertaken to assess the paternal genetic structure of the abovementioned Caribbean islands. A total of 607 different haplotypes were identified among the 691 males examined, of which 537 (88.5%) were unique. Haplotype diversities (HD) ranged from 0.989 in Long Island to 1.000 in Grand Bahama, with limited haplotype sharing observed among these Caribbean collections. Discriminatory capacity (DC) values were also high, ranging from 79.1% to 100% in Long Island and Grand Bahama, respectively, illustrating the capacity of this set of markers to differentiate between patrilineal related individuals within each population. Phylogenetic comparison of the Bahamian, Haitian and Jamaican groups with available African, European, East Asian and Native American populations reveals strong genetic ties with the continental African collections, a finding that corroborates our earlier work using autosomal STR and Y-chromosome binary markers. In addition, various degrees of sex-biased gene flow exhibiting disproportionately higher European paternal (as compared to autosomal) influences were detected in all Caribbean islands genotyped except for Abaco and Eleuthera. We attribute the presence or absence of asymmetric gene flow to unique, island specific demographic events and family structures. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluating changes in judgmental biases as mechanisms of cognitive-behavioral therapy for social anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calamaras, Martha R; Tully, Erin C; Tone, Erin B; Price, Matthew; Anderson, Page L

    2015-08-01

    Reductions in judgmental biases concerning the cost and probability of negative social events are presumed to be mechanisms of treatment for SAD. Methodological limitations of extant studies, however, leave open the possibility that, instead of causing symptom relief, reductions in judgmental biases are correlates or consequences of it. The present study evaluated changes in judgmental biases as mechanisms explaining the efficacy of CBT for SAD. Participants were 86 individuals who met DSM-IV-TR criteria for a primary diagnosis of SAD, participated in one of two treatment outcome studies of CBT for SAD, and completed measures of judgmental (i.e., cost and probability) biases and social anxiety at pre-, mid-, and posttreatment. Treated participants had significantly greater reductions in judgmental biases than not-treated participants; pre-to-post changes in cost and probability biases statistically mediated treatment outcome; and probability bias at midtreatment was a significant predictor of treatment outcome, even when modeled with a plausible rival mediator, working alliance. Contrary to hypotheses, cost bias at midtreatment was not a significant predictor of treatment outcome. Results suggest that reduction in probability bias is a mechanism by which CBT for SAD exerts its effects.

  10. Variation in the X:Autosome Distribution of Male-Biased Genes among Drosophila melanogaster Tissues and Its Relationship with Dosage Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huylmans, Ann Kathrin; Parsch, John

    2015-06-24

    Genes that are expressed differently between males and females (sex-biased genes) often show a nonrandom distribution in their genomic location, particularly with respect to the autosomes and the X chromosome. Previous studies of Drosophila melanogaster found a general paucity of male-biased genes on the X chromosome, although this is mainly limited to comparisons of whole flies or body segments containing the reproductive organs. To better understand the chromosomal distribution of sex-biased genes in various tissues, we used a common analysis framework to analyze microarray and RNA sequence data comparing male and female gene expression in individual tissues (brain, Malpighian tubule, and gonads), composite structures (head and gonadectomized carcass), and whole flies. Although there are relatively few sex-biased genes in the brain, there is a strong and highly significant enrichment of male-biased genes on the X chromosome. A weaker enrichment of X-linked male-biased genes is seen in the head, suggesting that most of this signal comes from the brain. In all other tissues, there is either no departure from the random expectation or a significant paucity of male-biased genes on the X chromosome. The brain and head also differ from other tissues in that their male-biased genes are significantly closer to binding sites of the dosage compensation complex. We propose that the interplay of dosage compensation and sex-specific regulation can explain the observed differences between tissues and reconcile disparate results reported in previous studies.

  11. Emergence of male-biased genes on the chicken Z-chromosome: sex-chromosome contrasts between male and female heterogametic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellegren, Hans

    2011-12-01

    There has been extensive traffic of male-biased genes out of the mammalian and Drosophila X-chromosomes, and there are also reports of an under-representation of male-biased genes on the X. This may reflect an adaptive process driven by natural selection where an autosomal location of male-biased genes is favored since male genes are only exposed to selection one-third of the time when X-linked. However, there are several alternative explanations to "out-of-the-X" gene movement, including mutational bias and a means for X-linked genes to escape meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI) during spermatogenesis. As a critical test of the hypothesis that genomic relocation of sex-biased genes is an adaptive process, I examined the emergence, and loss, of genes on the chicken Z-chromosome, i.e., a female heterogametic system (males ZZ, females ZW). Here, the analogous prediction would be an emergence of male-biased genes onto, not a loss from, the Z-chromosome because Z is found more often in males than autosomes are. I found that genes expressed in testis but not in ovary are highly over-represented among genes that have emerged on the Z-chromosome during avian evolution. Moreover, genes with male-biased expression are similarly over-represented among new Z-chromosomal genes. Interestingly, genes with female-biased expression have more often moved from than to the Z-chromosome. These observations show that male and female heterogametic organisms display opposing directionalities in the emergence and loss of sex-biased genes on sex chromosomes. This is consistent with theoretical models on the evolution of sexually antagonistic genes in which new mutations are at least partly dominant.

  12. Men's hostile sexism and biased perceptions of intimate partners: fostering dissatisfaction and negative behavior in close relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Matthew D; Overall, Nickola C

    2013-12-01

    Hostile sexism (HS) expresses attitudes that characterize women who challenge men's power as manipulative and subversive. Does endorsing HS negatively bias perceptions of women's behavior and, in turn, create animosity within intimate relationships? Committed heterosexual couples reported on their own behavior and perceptions of their partner's behavior five times across a year (Study 1) and daily for 3 weeks (Study 2). Men who more strongly endorsed HS perceived their partner's behavior as more negative than was justified by their partner's reports. Furthermore, more negative perceptions of the partner's behavior mediated the links between men's HS and feeling more manipulated by their partners, behaving more negatively toward their partners, and lower relationship quality. This indicates that men who endorse HS behave more negatively toward intimate partners and experience lower relationship satisfaction because their antagonistic attitudes toward women in general permeate the way they perceive those partners.

  13. The deficit of male-biased genes on the D. melanogaster X chromosome is expression-dependent: a consequence of dosage compensation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicoso, Beatriz; Charlesworth, Brian

    2009-05-01

    In Drosophila, there is a consistent deficit of male-biased genes on the X chromosome. It has been suggested that male-biased genes may evolve from initially unbiased genes as a result of increased expression levels in males. If transcription rates are limited, a large increase in expression in the testis may be harder to achieve for single-copy X-linked genes than for autosomal genes, because they are already hypertranscribed due to dosage compensation. This hypothesis predicts that the larger the increase in expression required to make a male-biased gene, the lower the chance of this being achievable if it is located on the X chromosome. Consequently, highly expressed male-biased genes should be located on the X chromosome less often than lowly expressed male-biased genes. This pattern is observed in our analysis of publicly available data, where microarray data or EST data are used to detect male-biased genes in D. melanogaster and to measure their expression levels. This is consistent with the idea that limitations in transcription rates may prevent male-biased genes from accumulating on the X chromosome.

  14. Sex-biased gene expression at homomorphic sex chromosomes in emus and its implication for sex chromosome evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicoso, Beatriz; Kaiser, Vera B; Bachtrog, Doris

    2013-04-16

    Sex chromosomes originate from autosomes. The accumulation of sexually antagonistic mutations on protosex chromosomes selects for a loss of recombination and sets in motion the evolutionary processes generating heteromorphic sex chromosomes. Recombination suppression and differentiation are generally viewed as the default path of sex chromosome evolution, and the occurrence of old, homomorphic sex chromosomes, such as those of ratite birds, has remained a mystery. Here, we analyze the genome and transcriptome of emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae) and confirm that most genes on the sex chromosome are shared between the Z and W. Surprisingly, however, levels of gene expression are generally sex-biased for all sex-linked genes relative to autosomes, including those in the pseudoautosomal region, and the male-bias increases after gonad formation. This expression bias suggests that the emu sex chromosomes have become masculinized, even in the absence of ZW differentiation. Thus, birds may have taken different evolutionary solutions to minimize the deleterious effects imposed by sexually antagonistic mutations: some lineages eliminate recombination along the protosex chromosomes to physically restrict sexually antagonistic alleles to one sex, whereas ratites evolved sex-biased expression to confine the product of a sexually antagonistic allele to the sex it benefits. This difference in conflict resolution may explain the preservation of recombining, homomorphic sex chromosomes in other lineages and illustrates the importance of sexually antagonistic mutations driving the evolution of sex chromosomes.

  15. Differential effect of aneuploidy on the X chromosome and genes with sex-biased expression in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lin; Johnson, Adam F; Li, Jilong; Lambdin, Aaron S; Cheng, Jianlin; Birchler, James A

    2013-10-01

    Global analysis of gene expression via RNA sequencing was conducted for trisomics for the left arm of chromosome 2 (2L) and compared with the normal genotype. The predominant response of genes on 2L was dosage compensation in that similar expression occurred in the trisomic compared with the diploid control. However, the male and female trisomic/normal expression ratio distributions for 2L genes differed in that females also showed a strong peak of genes with increased expression and males showed a peak of reduced expression relative to the opposite sex. For genes in other autosomal regions, the predominant response to trisomy was reduced expression to the inverse of the altered chromosomal dosage (2/3), but a minor peak of increased expression in females and further reduced expression in males were also found, illustrating a sexual dimorphism for the response to aneuploidy. Moreover, genes with sex-biased expression as revealed by comparing amounts in normal males and females showed responses of greater magnitude to trisomy 2L, suggesting that the genes involved in dosage-sensitive aneuploid effects also influence sex-biased expression. Each autosomal chromosome arm responded to 2L trisomy similarly, but the ratio distributions for X-linked genes were distinct in both sexes, illustrating an X chromosome-specific response to aneuploidy.

  16. Male-biased genes in catfish as revealed by RNA-Seq analysis of the testis transcriptome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanyue Sun

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Catfish has a male-heterogametic (XY sex determination system, but genes involved in gonadogenesis, spermatogenesis, testicular determination, and sex determination are poorly understood. As a first step of understanding the transcriptome of the testis, here, we conducted RNA-Seq analysis using high throughput Illumina sequencing. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 269.6 million high quality reads were assembled into 193,462 contigs with a N50 length of 806 bp. Of these contigs, 67,923 contigs had hits to a set of 25,307 unigenes, including 167 unique genes that had not been previously identified in catfish. A meta-analysis of expressed genes in the testis and in the gynogen (double haploid female allowed the identification of 5,450 genes that are preferentially expressed in the testis, providing a pool of putative male-biased genes. Gene ontology and annotation analysis suggested that many of these male-biased genes were involved in gonadogenesis, spermatogenesis, testicular determination, gametogenesis, gonad differentiation, and possibly sex determination. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: We provide the first transcriptome-level analysis of the catfish testis. Our analysis would lay the basis for sequential follow-up studies of genes involved in sex determination and differentiation in catfish.

  17. Male-Biased Genes in Catfish as Revealed by RNA-Seq Analysis of the Testis Transcriptome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Fanyue; Liu, Shikai; Gao, Xiaoyu; Jiang, Yanliang; Perera, Dayan; Wang, Xiuli; Li, Chao; Sun, Luyang; Zhang, Jiaren; Kaltenboeck, Ludmilla; Dunham, Rex; Liu, Zhanjiang

    2013-01-01

    Background Catfish has a male-heterogametic (XY) sex determination system, but genes involved in gonadogenesis, spermatogenesis, testicular determination, and sex determination are poorly understood. As a first step of understanding the transcriptome of the testis, here, we conducted RNA-Seq analysis using high throughput Illumina sequencing. Methodology/Principal Findings A total of 269.6 million high quality reads were assembled into 193,462 contigs with a N50 length of 806 bp. Of these contigs, 67,923 contigs had hits to a set of 25,307 unigenes, including 167 unique genes that had not been previously identified in catfish. A meta-analysis of expressed genes in the testis and in the gynogen (double haploid female) allowed the identification of 5,450 genes that are preferentially expressed in the testis, providing a pool of putative male-biased genes. Gene ontology and annotation analysis suggested that many of these male-biased genes were involved in gonadogenesis, spermatogenesis, testicular determination, gametogenesis, gonad differentiation, and possibly sex determination. Conclusion/Significance We provide the first transcriptome-level analysis of the catfish testis. Our analysis would lay the basis for sequential follow-up studies of genes involved in sex determination and differentiation in catfish. PMID:23874634

  18. Angry facial expressions bias gender categorization in children and adults: behavioral and computational evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurie eBayet

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Angry faces are perceived as more masculine by adults. However, the developmental course and underlying mechanism (bottom-up stimulus driven or top-down belief driven associated with the angry-male bias remain unclear. Here we report that anger biases face gender categorization towards male responding in children as young as 5-6 years. The bias is observed for both own- and other-race faces, and is remarkably unchanged across development (into adulthood as revealed by signal detection analyses (Experiments 1-2. The developmental course of the angry-male bias, along with its extension to other-race faces, combine to suggest that it is not rooted in extensive experience, e.g. observing males engaging in aggressive acts during the school years. Based on several computational simulations of gender categorization (Experiment 3, we further conclude that (1 the angry-male bias results, at least partially, from a strategy of attending to facial features or their second-order relations when categorizing face gender, and (2 any single choice of computational representation (e.g., Principal Component Analysis is insufficient to assess resemblances between face categories, as different representations of the very same faces suggest different bases for the angry-male bias. Our findings are thus consistent with stimulus-and stereotyped-belief driven accounts of the angry-male bias. Taken together, the evidence suggests considerable stability in the interaction between some facial dimensions in social categorization that is present prior to the onset of formal schooling.

  19. Indirect assessment of an interpretation bias in humans: Neurophysiological and behavioral correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita eSchick

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Affective state can influence cognition leading to biased information processing, interpretation, attention, and memory. Such bias has been reported to be essential for the onset and maintenance of different psychopathologies, particularly affective disorders. However, empirical evidence has been very heterogeneous and little is known about the neurophysiological mechanisms underlying cognitive bias and its time-course. We therefore investigated the interpretation of ambiguous stimuli as indicators of biased information processing with an ambiguous cue-conditioning paradigm. In an acquisition phase, participants learned to discriminate two tones of different frequency, which acquired emotional and motivational value due to subsequent feedback (monetary gain or avoidance of monetary loss. In the test phase, three additional tones of intermediate frequencies were presented, whose interpretation as positive (approach of reward or negative (avoidance of punishment, indicated by a button press, was used as an indicator of the bias. Twenty healthy volunteers participated in this paradigm while a 64-channel electroencephalogram was recorded. Participants also completed questionnaires assessing individual differences in depression and rumination. Overall, we found a small positive bias, which correlated negatively with reflective pondering, a type of rumination. As expected, reaction times were increased for intermediate tones. ERP amplitudes between 300 – 700 ms post-stimulus differed depending on the interpretation of the intermediate tones. A negative compared to a positive interpretation led to an amplitude increase over frontal electrodes. Our study provides evidence that in humans, as in animal research, the ambiguous cue-conditioning paradigm is a valid procedure for indirectly assessing ambiguous cue interpretation and a potential interpretation bias, which is sensitive to individual differences in affect-related traits.

  20. Oh, Behave! Behavior as an Interaction between Genes & the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigel, Emily G.; DeNieu, Michael; Gall, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    This lesson is designed to teach students that behavior is a trait shaped by both genes and the environment. Students will read a scientific paper, discuss and generate predictions based on the ideas and data therein, and model the relationships between genes, the environment, and behavior. The lesson is targeted to meet the educational goals of…

  1. Oh, Behave! Behavior as an Interaction between Genes & the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigel, Emily G.; DeNieu, Michael; Gall, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    This lesson is designed to teach students that behavior is a trait shaped by both genes and the environment. Students will read a scientific paper, discuss and generate predictions based on the ideas and data therein, and model the relationships between genes, the environment, and behavior. The lesson is targeted to meet the educational goals of…

  2. Pseudoscorpion mitochondria show rearranged genes and genome-wide reductions of RNA gene sizes and inferred structures, yet typical nucleotide composition bias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovchinnikov Sergey

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pseudoscorpions are chelicerates and have historically been viewed as being most closely related to solifuges, harvestmen, and scorpions. No mitochondrial genomes of pseudoscorpions have been published, but the mitochondrial genomes of some lineages of Chelicerata possess unusual features, including short rRNA genes and tRNA genes that lack sequence to encode arms of the canonical cloverleaf-shaped tRNA. Additionally, some chelicerates possess an atypical guanine-thymine nucleotide bias on the major coding strand of their mitochondrial genomes. Results We sequenced the mitochondrial genomes of two divergent taxa from the chelicerate order Pseudoscorpiones. We find that these genomes possess unusually short tRNA genes that do not encode cloverleaf-shaped tRNA structures. Indeed, in one genome, all 22 tRNA genes lack sequence to encode canonical cloverleaf structures. We also find that the large ribosomal RNA genes are substantially shorter than those of most arthropods. We inferred secondary structures of the LSU rRNAs from both pseudoscorpions, and find that they have lost multiple helices. Based on comparisons with the crystal structure of the bacterial ribosome, two of these helices were likely contact points with tRNA T-arms or D-arms as they pass through the ribosome during protein synthesis. The mitochondrial gene arrangements of both pseudoscorpions differ from the ancestral chelicerate gene arrangement. One genome is rearranged with respect to the location of protein-coding genes, the small rRNA gene, and at least 8 tRNA genes. The other genome contains 6 tRNA genes in novel locations. Most chelicerates with rearranged mitochondrial genes show a genome-wide reversal of the CA nucleotide bias typical for arthropods on their major coding strand, and instead possess a GT bias. Yet despite their extensive rearrangement, these pseudoscorpion mitochondrial genomes possess a CA bias on the major coding strand. Phylogenetic

  3. Female First, Leader Second? Gender Bias in the Encoding of Leadership Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Kristyn A.; Brown, Douglas J.

    2006-01-01

    In the current paper we investigate whether gender affects the encoding of leadership behavior. In three studies we found evidence that perceivers had difficulty encoding leadership behaviors into their underlying prototypical leadership traits when the behavior implied an agentic trait and the behavior was enacted by a female. Using a lexical…

  4. Biased hypermutation occurred frequently in a gene inserted into the IC323 recombinant measles virus during its persistence in the brains of nude mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otani, Sanae [Department of Virology and Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka City University, 1-4-3 Asahimachi, Abeno-ku, Osaka 545-8585 (Japan); Department of Pediatrics, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka City University, Osaka (Japan); Ayata, Minoru, E-mail: maverick@med.osaka-cu.ac.jp [Department of Virology and Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka City University, 1-4-3 Asahimachi, Abeno-ku, Osaka 545-8585 (Japan); Takeuchi, Kaoru [Laboratory of Environmental Microbiology, Division of Biomedical Science, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Takeda, Makoto [Department of Virology 3, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo (Japan); Shintaku, Haruo [Department of Pediatrics, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka City University, Osaka (Japan); Ogura, Hisashi [Department of Virology and Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka City University, 1-4-3 Asahimachi, Abeno-ku, Osaka 545-8585 (Japan)

    2014-08-15

    Measles virus (MV) is the causative agent of measles and its neurological complications, subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) and measles inclusion body encephalitis (MIBE). Biased hypermutation in the M gene is a characteristic feature of SSPE and MIBE. To determine whether the M gene is the preferred target of hypermutation, an additional transcriptional unit containing a humanized Renilla reniformis green fluorescent protein (hrGFP) gene was introduced into the IC323 MV genome, and nude mice were inoculated intracerebrally with the virus. Biased hypermutation occurred in the M gene and also in the hrGFP gene when it was inserted between the leader and the N gene, but not between the H and L gene. These results indicate that biased hypermutation is usually found in a gene whose function is not essential for viral proliferation in the brain and that the location of a gene in the MV genome can affect its mutational frequency. - Highlights: • Wild-type MV can cause persistent infections in nude mice. • Biased hypermutation occurred in the M gene. • Biased hypermutation occurred in an inessential gene inserted between the leader and the N gene.

  5. Experimental Modification of Interpretation Bias about Animal Fear in Young Children: Effects on Cognition, Avoidance Behavior, Anxiety Vulnerability, and Physiological Responding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Kathryn J.; Field, Andy P.; Muris, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of experimentally modifying interpretation biases for children's cognitions, avoidance behavior, anxiety vulnerability, and physiological responding. Sixty-seven children (6-11 years) were randomly assigned to receive a positive or negative interpretation bias modification procedure to induce interpretation…

  6. DNA G+C content of the third codon position and codon usage biases of human genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sueoka, N; Kawanishi, Y

    2000-12-30

    The human genome, as in other eukaryotes, has a wide heterogeneity in the DNA base composition. The evolutionary basis for this heterogeneity has been unknown. A previous study of the human genome (846 genes analyzed) has shown that, in the major range of the G+C content in the third codon position (0.25-0.75), biases from the Parity Rule 2 (PR2) among the synonymous codons of the four-codon amino acids are similar except in the highest G+C range (Sueoka, N., 1999. Translation-coupled violation of Parity Rule 2 in human genes is not the cause of heterogeneity of the DNA G+C content of third codon position. Gene 238, 53-58.). PR2 is an intra-strand rule where A=T and G=C are expected when there are no biases between the two complementary strands of DNA in mutation and selection rates (substitution rates). In this study, 14,026 human genes were analyzed. In addition, the third codon positions of two-codon amino acids were analyzed. New results show the following: (a) The G+C contents of the third codon position of human genes are scattered in the G+C range of 0.22-0.96 in the third codon position. (b) The PR2 biases are similar in the range of 0.25-0.75, whereas, in the high G+C range (0.75-0.96; 13% of the genes), the PR2-bias fingerprints are different from those of the major range. (c) Unlike the PR2 biases, the G+C contents of the third codon position for both four-codon and two-codon amino acids are all correlated almost perfectly with the G+C content of the third codon position over the total G+C ranges. These results support the notion that the directional mutation pressure, rather than the directional selection pressure, is mainly responsible for the heterogeneity of the G+C content of the third codon position.

  7. The restraint bias: how the illusion of self-restraint promotes impulsive behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nordgren, L.F.; van Harreveld, F.; van der Pligt, J.

    2009-01-01

    Four studies examined how impulse-control beliefs—beliefs regarding one's ability to regulate visceral impulses, such as hunger, drug craving, and sexual arousal—influence the self-control process. The findings provide evidence for a restraint bias: a tendency for people to overestimate their capaci

  8. Directional biases reveal utilization of arm's biomechanical properties for optimization of motor behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goble, Jacob A; Zhang, Yanxin; Shimansky, Yury; Sharma, Siddharth; Dounskaia, Natalia V

    2007-09-01

    Strategies used by the CNS to optimize arm movements in terms of speed, accuracy, and resistance to fatigue remain largely unknown. A hypothesis is studied that the CNS exploits biomechanical properties of multijoint limbs to increase efficiency of movement control. To test this notion, a novel free-stroke drawing task was used that instructs subjects to make straight strokes in as many different directions as possible in the horizontal plane through rotations of the elbow and shoulder joints. Despite explicit instructions to distribute strokes uniformly, subjects showed biases to move in specific directions. These biases were associated with a tendency to perform movements that included active motion at one joint and largely passive motion at the other joint, revealing a tendency to minimize intervention of muscle torque for regulation of the effect of interaction torque. Other biomechanical factors, such as inertial resistance and kinematic manipulability, were unable to adequately account for these significant biases. Also, minimizations of jerk, muscle torque change, and sum of squared muscle torque were analyzed; however, these cost functions failed to explain the observed directional biases. Collectively, these results suggest that knowledge of biomechanical cost functions regarding interaction torque (IT) regulation is available to the control system. This knowledge may be used to evaluate potential movements and to select movement of "low cost." The preference to reduce active regulation of interaction torque suggests that, in addition to muscle energy, the criterion for movement cost may include neural activity required for movement control.

  9. A Behavior-Analytic Account of Cognitive Bias in Clinical Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wray, Alisha M.; Freund, Rachel A.; Dougher, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    Cognitive bias refers to a well-established finding that individuals who suffer from certain clinical problems (e.g., depression, anxiety, posttraumatic stress disorder, substance abuse, etc.) selectively attend to, remember, and interpret events relevant to their condition. Although a body of literature exists that has tried to examine this…

  10. Effectiveness of attentional bias modification and cognitive behavioral therapy on the reduction of pain intensity in patients with chronic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fateme Babai

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the effectiveness of Attentional Bias Modification (ABM and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT on the reduction of pain intensityin patients with chronic pain. This study was a quasiexperimental pretest-posttest design with control group. All patients who referred to physiotherapy clinics for pain during 2015 were participated in the study. They completed the Brief Pain Inventory-short form (BPI-SF for assessing severity of pain. Attentional bias was evaluated using computerized Dot-Probe task. The patients with chronic pain were screened by diagnostic criteria of DSM-V; neurologic diagnosis, and interview. 36 people were selected and randomly divided to three groups computer-based ABM, CBT, and control (12 cases in each group. Group A was trained in 8 sessions-each 15 minutes with the modified computerized Dot-Probe task for attentional bias modification. Group B was trained in 11 sessions-each 45 minutes with CBT program of Turk and Ferry for the chronic pain treatment. And Placebo program was administered for group C in which they completed 8 classic DotProbe sessions. In the end, for the posttest (T2 the participants were tested to identify the changes in biased attention to the emotional stimuli using classing Dot-Probe tasks, and BPI questionnaire to evaluate the changes of severity of pain. Data were analyzed using one-way variance analysis(ANOVA. On the BPI-SF, CBT more reduced the pain intensitythan computer-based ABM.In addition ABM treatment is more effective in reduction of attentional bias.Both of treatments are effective but CBT is more effective than ABM in reduction of pain intensity.

  11. Electrophysiological and Behavioral Effects of Combined Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation and Alcohol Approach Bias Retraining in Hazardous Drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Uyl, Tess E; Gladwin, Thomas E; Wiers, Reinout W

    2016-10-01

    Cognitive bias modification (CBM) can be used to retrain automatic approach tendencies for alcohol. We investigated whether changing cortical excitability with transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) could enhance CBM effects in hazardous drinkers. We also studied the underlying mechanisms by including behavioral (craving, implicit associations, approach tendencies) and electrophysiological (event-related potentials) measurements. The analytical sample consisted of 78 hazardous drinkers (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test >8) randomly assigned to 4 conditions in a 2-by-2 factorial design (control/active CBM and sham/active tDCS). The intervention consisted of 3 sessions of CBM, specifically alcohol approach bias retraining, combined with 15 minutes 1 mA tDCS over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. There was a pre- and postassessment before and after the intervention that included experimental tasks (Approach Avoidance Task, Implicit Association Task) and an electroencephalogram with an oddball and cue-reactivity task. tDCS decreased cue-induced craving (but not overall craving) on postassessment. CBM did not induce an avoidance bias during assessment. During the training, active and control-CBM only differed in bias score during the first session. We found no enhancement effects of tDCS on CBM. Electrophysiological data showed no clear effects of active tDCS or CBM on the P300. There were no electrophysiological or behavioral effects of repeated CBM and/or tDCS, except for an effect of tDCS on craving. Applied in these specific ways these techniques appear to have limited effects in a hazardous drinking population. Copyright © 2016 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  12. Nucleotide composition bias and codon usage trends of gene populations in Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capricolum and M. agalactiae

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Xiao-Xia Ma; Yu-Ping Feng; Jia-Ling Bai; De-Rong Zhang; Xin-Shi Lin; Zhong-Ren Ma

    2015-06-01

    Because of the low GC content of the gene population, amino acids of the two mycoplasmas tend to be encoded by synonymous codons with an A or T end. Compared with the codon usage of ovine, Mycoplasma capricolum and M. agalactiae tend to select optimal codons, which are rare codons in ovine. Due to codon usage pattern caused by genes with key biological functions, the overall codon usage trends represent a certain evolutionary direction in the life cycle of the two mycoplasmas. The overall codon usage trends of a gene population of M. capricolum subsp. capricolum can be obviously separated from other mycoplasmas, and the overall codon usage trends of M. agalactiae are highly similar to those of M. bovis. These results partly indicate the independent evolution of the two mycoplasmas without the limits of the host cell’s environment. The GC and AT skews estimate nucleotide composition bias at different positions of nucleotide triplets and the protein consideration caused by the nucleotide composition bias at codon positions 1 and 2 largely take part in synonymous codon usage patterns of the two mycoplasmas. The correlation between the codon adaptation index and codon usage variation indicates that the effect of codon usage on gene expression in M. capricolum subsp. capricolum is opposite to that of M. agalactiae, further suggesting independence of the evolutionary process influencing the overall codon usage trends of gene populations of mycoplasmas.

  13. Mutations in many genes affect aggressive behavior in Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zwarts Liesbeth

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aggressive behavior in animals is important for survival and reproduction. Identifying the underlying genes and environmental contexts that affect aggressive behavior is important for understanding the evolutionary forces that maintain variation for aggressive behavior in natural populations, and to develop therapeutic interventions to modulate extreme levels of aggressive behavior in humans. While the role of neurotransmitters and a few other molecules in mediating and modulating levels of aggression is well established, it is likely that many additional genetic pathways remain undiscovered. Drosophila melanogaster has recently been established as an excellent model organism for studying the genetic basis of aggressive behavior. Here, we present the results of a screen of 170 Drosophila P-element insertional mutations for quantitative differences in aggressive behavior from their co-isogenic control line. Results We identified 59 mutations in 57 genes that affect aggressive behavior, none of which had been previously implicated to affect aggression. Thirty-two of these mutants exhibited increased aggression, while 27 lines were less aggressive than the control. Many of the genes affect the development and function of the nervous system, and are thus plausibly relevant to the execution of complex behaviors. Others affect basic cellular and metabolic processes, or are mutations in computationally predicted genes for which aggressive behavior is the first biological annotation. Most of the mutations had pleiotropic effects on other complex traits. We characterized nine of these mutations in greater detail by assessing transcript levels throughout development, morphological changes in the mushroom bodies, and restoration of control levels of aggression in revertant alleles. All of the P-element insertions affected the tagged genes, and had pleiotropic effects on brain morphology. Conclusion This study reveals that many more

  14. Teachers’ assessment of antisocial behavior in kindergarten : physical aggression and measurement bias across gender

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spilt, J.L.; Koomen, H.M.Y.; Thijs, J.T.; Stoel, R.D.; van der Leij, A.

    2010-01-01

    A confirmatory factor analytic study was conducted to obtain evidence for physical aggression as a distinct construct of nonaggressive antisocial behavior in young children. Second, the authors investigated factorial invariance across gender. Teachers completed the Preschool Behavior Questionnaire

  15. Attributional Biases among Clinicians: A Comparison of Psychoanalysts and Behavior Therapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plous, S.; Zimbardo, Philip G.

    1986-01-01

    Assessed attributional style of psychoanalysts, behavior therapists, and nontherapists. Results indicated that the clinical task of generating explanations for problematic behavior appeared to be handled differently by psychoanalysts and behavior therapists. Selection of a therapist may be an important factor in determining inferred etiology and…

  16. Bias-motivated bullying and psychosocial problems: implications for HIV risk behaviors among young men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Michael Jonathan; Distefano, Anthony; Mouttapa, Michele; Gill, Jasmeet K

    2014-02-01

    The present study aimed to determine whether the experience of bias-motivated bullying was associated with behaviors known to increase the risk of HIV infection among young men who have sex with men (YMSM) aged 18-29, and to assess whether the psychosocial problems moderated this relationship. Using an Internet-based direct marketing approach in sampling, we recruited 545 YMSM residing in the USA to complete an online questionnaire. Multiple linear regression analyses tested three regression models where we controlled for sociodemographics. The first model indicated that bullying during high school was associated with unprotected receptive anal intercourse within the past 12 months, while the second model indicated that bullying after high school was associated with engaging in anal intercourse while under the influence of drugs or alcohol in the past 12 months. In the final regression model, our composite measure of HIV risk behavior was found to be associated with lifetime verbal harassment. None of the psychosocial problems measured in this study - depression, low self-esteem, and internalized homonegativity - moderated any of the associations between bias-motivated bullying victimization and HIV risk behaviors in our regression models. Still, these findings provide novel evidence that bullying prevention programs in schools and communities should be included in comprehensive approaches to HIV prevention among YMSM.

  17. Power Law Behavior of the Zero Bias Tunneling Conductance: the New Evidence for d-Wave Symmetry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Shao-Xiong; TAO Hong-Jie; XUAN Yi; ZHAO Bai-Ru; ZHAO Zhong-Xian

    2000-01-01

    We report temperature-dependent behavior of the zero bias tunneling conductance (ZBTC), derived from tun neling spectroscopies on as-grown Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+5 (Bi2212) single crystals taken with evaporated Zn and Pb planar junctions. At Tc the measured ZBTC shows a kink which gives an in situ measure of the superconducting transition temperature (Tc). Below Tc, the T2 dependence of the ZBTC has been observed repeatedly as a new evidence of the d-wave symmetry in Bi2212.

  18. Sex-biased dispersal and spatial heterogeneity affect landscape resistance to gene flow in fisher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jody M. Tucker; Fred W. Allendorf; Richard L. Truex; Michael K. Schwartz

    2017-01-01

    Genetic connectivity results from the dispersal and reproduction of individuals across landscapes. Mammalian populations frequently exhibit sex-biased dispersal, but this factor has rarely been addressed in individual-based landscape genetics research. In this study, we evaluate the effects of sexbiased dispersal and landscape heterogeneity on genetic connectivity in a...

  19. Predicting hair cortisol levels with hair pigmentation genes: A possible hair pigmentation bias

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neumann, A. (Alexander); G. Noppe (Gerard); F. Liu; M.H. Kayser (Manfred); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); E.F.C. van Rossum (Liesbeth); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractCortisol concentrations in hair are used to create hormone profiles spanning months. This method allows assessment of chronic cortisol exposure, but might be biased by hair pigmentation: dark hair was previously related to higher concentrations. It is unclear whether this association

  20. Hyperexpression of the X chromosome in both sexes results in extensive female bias of X-linked genes in the flour beetle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Eldon G; Kirkland, Donna; Demuth, Jeffery P

    2010-07-12

    A genome's ability to produce two separate sexually dimorphic phenotypes is an intriguing biological mystery. Microarray-based studies of a handful of model systems suggest that much of the mystery can be explained by sex-biased gene expression evolved in response to sexually antagonistic selection. We present the first whole-genome study of sex-biased expression in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. Tribolium is a model for the largest eukaryotic order, Coleoptera, and we show that in whole-body adults, approximately 20% of the transcriptome is differentially regulated between the sexes. Among T. castaneum, Drosophila melanogaster, and Anopheles gambiae, we identify 416 1:1:1 orthologs with conserved sex-biased expression. Overrepresented functional categories among sex-biased genes are primarily those involved in gamete production and development. The genomic distribution of sex-biased genes in T. castaneum is distinctly nonrandom, with the strongest deficit of male-biased genes on the X chromosome (9 of 793) of any species studied to date. Tribolium also shows a significant enrichment of X-linked female-biased genes (408 of 793). Our analyses suggest that the extensive female bias of Tribolium X chromosome gene expression is due to hyperexpression of X-linked genes in both males and females. We propose that the overexpression of X chromosomes in females is an evolutionary side effect of the need to dosage compensate in males and that mechanisms to reduce female X chromosome gene expression to autosomal levels are sufficient but imperfect.

  1. Externalizing psychopathology and behavioral disinhibition: working memory mediates signal discriminability and reinforcement moderates response bias in approach-avoidance learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endres, Michael J; Rickert, Martin E; Bogg, Tim; Lucas, Jesolyn; Finn, Peter R

    2011-05-01

    Research has suggested that reduced working memory capacity plays a key role in disinhibited patterns of behavior associated with externalizing psychopathology. In this study, participants (N = 365) completed 2 versions of a go/no-go mixed-incentive learning task that differed in the relative frequency of monetary rewards and punishments for correct and incorrect active-approach responses, respectively. Using separate structural equation models for conventional (hit and false alarm rates) and signal detection theory (signal discriminability and response bias) performance indices, distinct roles for working memory capacity and changes in payoff structure were found. Specifically, results showed that (a) working memory capacity mediated the effects of externalizing psychopathology on false alarms and discriminability of go versus no-go signals; (b) these effects were not moderated by the relative frequency of monetary rewards and punishments; (c) the relative frequency of monetary rewards and punishments moderated the effects of externalizing psychopathology on hits and response bias for go versus no-go responses; and (d) these effects were not mediated by working memory capacity. The findings implicate distinct roles for reduced working memory capacity and poorly modulated active approach and passive avoidance in the link between externalizing psychopathology and behavioral disinhibition.

  2. Superposition of transcriptional behaviors determines gene state.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sol Efroni

    Full Text Available We introduce a novel technique to determine the expression state of a gene from quantitative information measuring its expression. Adopting a productive abstraction from current thinking in molecular biology, we consider two expression states for a gene--Up or Down. We determine this state by using a statistical model that assumes the data behaves as a combination of two biological distributions. Given a cohort of hybridizations, our algorithm predicts, for the single reading, the probability of each gene's being in an Up or a Down state in each hybridization. Using a series of publicly available gene expression data sets, we demonstrate that our algorithm outperforms the prevalent algorithm. We also show that our algorithm can be used in conjunction with expression adjustment techniques to produce a more biologically sound gene-state call. The technique we present here enables a routine update, where the continuously evolving expression level adjustments feed into gene-state calculations. The technique can be applied in almost any multi-sample gene expression experiment, and holds equal promise for protein abundance experiments.

  3. Gene sampling can bias multi-gene phylogenetic inferences: the relationship between red algae and green plants as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inagaki, Yuji; Nakajima, Yoshihiro; Sato, Mitsuhisa; Sakaguchi, Miako; Hashimoto, Tetsuo

    2009-05-01

    The monophyly of Plantae including glaucophytes, red algae, and green plants (green algae plus land plants) has been recovered in recent phylogenetic analyses of large multi-gene data sets (e.g., those including >30,000 amino acid [aa] positions). On the other hand, Plantae monophyly has not been stably reconstructed in inferences from multi-gene data sets with fewer than 10,000 aa positions. An analysis of 5,216 aa positions in Nozaki et al. (Nozaki H, Iseki M, Hasegawa M, Misawa K, Nakada T, Sasaki N, Watanabe M. 2007. Phylogeny of primary photosynthetic eukaryotes as deduced from slowly evolving nuclear genes. Mol Biol Evol. 24:1592-1595.) strongly rejected the monophyly of Plantae, whereas Hackett et al. (Hackett JD, Yoon HS, Li S, Reyes-Prieto A, Rummele SE, Bhattacharya D. 2007. Phylogenomic analysis supports the monophyly of cryptophytes and haptophytes and the association of rhizaria with chromalveolates. Mol Biol Evol. 24:1702-1713.) robustly recovered the Plantae clade in an analysis of 6,735 aa positions. We suspected that the significant incongruity observed between the two studies was attributable to a bias generally overlooked in multi-gene phylogenetic estimation, rather than data size, taxon sampling, or methods for tree reconstruction. Although glaucophytes were excluded from our analyses due to a shortage of sequence data, we found that the recovery of a sister-group relationship between red algae and green plants primarily depends on gene sampling in phylogenetic inferences from <10,000 aa positions. Phylogenetic analyses of data sets with fewer than 10,000 aa positions, which can be prepared without large-scale sequencing (e.g., expressed sequence tag analyses), are practical in challenging various unresolved issues in eukaryotic evolution. However, our results indicate that severe biases can arise from gene sampling in multi-gene inferences from <10,000 aa positions. We also address the validity of fast-evolving gene exclusion in multi-gene

  4. Candidate Gene Associations with Withdrawn Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, David H.; Althoff, Robert R.; Ehli, Erik A.; Davies, Gareth E.; Rettew, David C.; Crehan, Eileen T.; Walkup, John T.; Hudziak, James J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Social withdrawal is a core neuropsychiatric phenomenon in developmental psychopathology. Its presence predicts psychopathology across many domains, including depression, psychosis, autism, anxiety, and suicide. Withdrawn behavior is highly heritable, persistent, and characteristically worsens without intervention. To date, few studies…

  5. Are languages really independent from genes? If not, what would a genetic bias affecting language diversity look like?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dediu, Dan

    2011-04-01

    It is generally accepted that the relationship between human genes and language is very complex and multifaceted. This has its roots in the “regular” complexity governing the interplay among genes and between genes and environment for most phenotypes, but with the added layer of supraontogenetic and supra-individual processes defining culture. At the coarsest level, focusing on the species, it is clear that human-specific--but not necessarily faculty-specific--genetic factors subtend our capacity for language and a currently very productive research program is aiming at uncovering them. At the other end of the spectrum, it is uncontroversial that individual-level variations in different aspects related to speech and language have an important genetic component and their discovery and detailed characterization have already started to revolutionize the way we think about human nature. However, at the intermediate, glossogenetic/population level, the relationship becomes controversial, partly due to deeply ingrained beliefs about language acquisition and universality and partly because of confusions with a different type of gene-languages correlation due to shared history. Nevertheless, conceptual, mathematical and computational models--and, recently, experimental evidence from artificial languages and songbirds--have repeatedly shown that genetic biases affecting the acquisition or processing of aspects of language and speech can be amplified by population-level intergenerational cultural processes and made manifest either as fixed “universal” properties of language or as structured linguistic diversity. Here, I review several such models as well as the recently proposed case of a causal relationship between the distribution of tone languages and two genes related to brain growth and development, ASPM and Microcephalin, and I discuss the relevance of such genetic biasing for language evolution, change, and diversity.

  6. A model-based analysis of GC-biased gene conversion in the human and chimpanzee genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A Capra

    Full Text Available GC-biased gene conversion (gBGC is a recombination-associated process that favors the fixation of G/C alleles over A/T alleles. In mammals, gBGC is hypothesized to contribute to variation in GC content, rapidly evolving sequences, and the fixation of deleterious mutations, but its prevalence and general functional consequences remain poorly understood. gBGC is difficult to incorporate into models of molecular evolution and so far has primarily been studied using summary statistics from genomic comparisons. Here, we introduce a new probabilistic model that captures the joint effects of natural selection and gBGC on nucleotide substitution patterns, while allowing for correlations along the genome in these effects. We implemented our model in a computer program, called phastBias, that can accurately detect gBGC tracts about 1 kilobase or longer in simulated sequence alignments. When applied to real primate genome sequences, phastBias predicts gBGC tracts that cover roughly 0.3% of the human and chimpanzee genomes and account for 1.2% of human-chimpanzee nucleotide differences. These tracts fall in clusters, particularly in subtelomeric regions; they are enriched for recombination hotspots and fast-evolving sequences; and they display an ongoing fixation preference for G and C alleles. They are also significantly enriched for disease-associated polymorphisms, suggesting that they contribute to the fixation of deleterious alleles. The gBGC tracts provide a unique window into historical recombination processes along the human and chimpanzee lineages. They supply additional evidence of long-term conservation of megabase-scale recombination rates accompanied by rapid turnover of hotspots. Together, these findings shed new light on the evolutionary, functional, and disease implications of gBGC. The phastBias program and our predicted tracts are freely available.

  7. The Success Of Stock Selection Strategies In Emerging Markets: Is It Risk Or Behavioral Bias?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. van der Hart; G.J. de Zwart (Gerben); D.J.C. van Dijk (Dick)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractWe examine competing explanations, based on risk and behavioral models, for the profitability of stock selection strategies in emerging markets. We document that both emerging market risk and global risk factors cannot account for the significant excess returns of selection strategies ba

  8. Correlation between d-wave pairing behavior and magnetic-field-dependent zero-bias conductance peak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekin, J.W.; Xu, Y. [Electromagnetic Technology Division, NIST, Boulder, Colorado 80303 (United States); Mao, S.; Venkatesan, T. [University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Face, D.W. [DuPont Central Research and Development, Wilmington, Delaware 19880-0304 (United States); Eddy, M. [Superconductor Technologies, Inc., Santa Barbara, California 93111-2310 (United States); Wolf, S.A. [Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)

    1997-12-01

    We consistently observe a magnetic-field-dependent conductance peak at zero-bias voltage in a wide range of superconductor/noble-metal junctions fabricated from oxide superconductors (YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7{minus}{delta}} and Tl{sub 2}Ba{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O) that have been reported to exhibit d-wave pairing behavior; however, no measurable peak appears in similar junctions made from an s-wave oxide superconductor (Nd{sub 1.85}Ce{sub 0.15}CuO{sub 4}). Explanations of this correlation are considered in terms of the Appelbaum-Anderson model for magnetic interface scattering and the midgap-state model for d-wave interface states. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  9. Attention Bias Modification Treatment for children with anxiety disorders who do not respond to cognitive behavioral therapy: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechor, Michele; Pettit, Jeremy W; Silverman, Wendy K; Bar-Haim, Yair; Abend, Rany; Pine, Daniel S; Vasey, Michael W; Jaccard, James

    2014-03-01

    Evidence is emerging to support the promise of Attention Bias Modification Treatment (ABMT), a computer-based attention training program, in reducing anxiety in children. ABMT has not been tested as an adjuvant for children with anxiety disorders who do not respond to Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT). This case series presents findings from an open trial of ABMT among six children (four girls; M age = 11.2 years) who completed a CBT protocol and continued to meet diagnostic criteria for an anxiety disorder. All children completed the ABMT protocol with no canceled or missed sessions. Child self-ratings on anxiety symptoms and depressive symptoms significantly decreased from pretreatment to posttreatment, as did parent ratings on child anxiety-related impairment. Parent ratings on child anxiety and internalizing symptoms displayed non-significant decreases from pretreatment to posttreatment. These findings support the potential promise of ABMT as a feasible adjuvant treatment that reduces anxiety and impairment among child anxiety CBT nonresponders.

  10. Transposable element insertion location bias and the dynamics of gene drive in mosquito populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasgon, J L; Gould, F

    2005-10-01

    Some vector-borne disease control strategies using transgenic mosquitoes require transgene spread to high frequency in populations. Transposable elements (TEs) are DNA sequences that replicate and transpose within the genomes of other organisms and may therefore be represented in the next generation in higher frequencies than predicted by Mendelian segregation. This over-representation has allowed some TEs to spread through natural populations. Transgenes incorporated within a TE sequence are expected to be driven into populations as long as there is a positive balance between fitness costs and over-representation. Models have been used to examine parameters that affect this balance but did not take into account biased insertion of TEs to linked sites in the genome. A simulation model was created to examine the impact of insertion bias on TE spread in mosquito populations. TEs that induce no fitness costs are predicted to increase in frequency over a wide range of parameter values but spread is slower for lower levels of transposition and non-local movement. If TEs are costly, high proportions of local movement can slow or halt spread. To function as a robust transgene drive mechanism a TE should replicate and transpose > 10%/insert/generation, induce < 1% fitness cost/insert, and move preferentially to unlinked sites in the genome.

  11. Gender-dependent Expression of Murine Irf5 Gene: Implications for Sex Bias in Autoimmunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Hui; Panchanathan, Ravichandran; Rajavelu, Priya; Duan, Xin; Gould, Karen A.; Choubey, Divaker

    2010-01-01

    Molecular mechanisms that contribute to sex bias in the development of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), an autoimmune disease, remain unknown. We found that the expression levels of interferon regulatory factor 5 (IRF5), a lupus susceptibility factor, depend on gender of mice. We found that steady-state levels of the Irf5 mRNA were relatively higher in splenic cells from certain autoimmune-prone mice (for example, NZB and NZB/W F1) than in non-autoimmune C57BL/6 mice. Additionally, levels of Irf5 mRNA and protein were higher in females than in strain and age-matched males. Accordingly, splenic cells from estrogen receptor-alpha (ERα) knockout, when compared with the wild-type (ERα+/+), female mice expressed relatively lower levels of Irf5 mRNA and the treatment of splenic cells with 17β-estradiol increased the levels. Furthermore, splenic B cells from the female mice had relatively more IRF5 protein in the nucleus than the male mice. Collectively, our observations demonstrate a gender bias in the expression and sub-cellular localization of the murine IRF5. PMID:20802013

  12. Impact of bias discrepancy and amino acid usage on estimates of the effective number of codons used in a gene, and a test for selection on codon usage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglsang, Anders

    2007-01-01

    The effective number of codons (Nc) used in a gene is one of the most commonly used measures of synonymous codon usage bias, owing much of its popularity to the fact that it is species independent and that simulation studies have shown that it is less dependent of gene length than other measures....... that exists for Buchnera sp. APS and Borrelia burgdorferi....

  13. Chromosome-biased binding and gene regulation by the Caenorhabditis elegans DRM complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoko M Tabuchi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available DRM is a conserved transcription factor complex that includes E2F/DP and pRB family proteins and plays important roles in development and cancer. Here we describe new aspects of DRM binding and function revealed through genome-wide analyses of the Caenorhabditis elegans DRM subunit LIN-54. We show that LIN-54 DNA-binding activity recruits DRM to promoters enriched for adjacent putative E2F/DP and LIN-54 binding sites, suggesting that these two DNA-binding moieties together direct DRM to its target genes. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and gene expression profiling reveals conserved roles for DRM in regulating genes involved in cell division, development, and reproduction. We find that LIN-54 promotes expression of reproduction genes in the germline, but prevents ectopic activation of germline-specific genes in embryonic soma. Strikingly, C. elegans DRM does not act uniformly throughout the genome: the DRM recruitment motif, DRM binding, and DRM-regulated embryonic genes are all under-represented on the X chromosome. However, germline genes down-regulated in lin-54 mutants are over-represented on the X chromosome. We discuss models for how loss of autosome-bound DRM may enhance germline X chromosome silencing. We propose that autosome-enriched binding of DRM arose in C. elegans as a consequence of germline X chromosome silencing and the evolutionary redistribution of germline-expressed and essential target genes to autosomes. Sex chromosome gene regulation may thus have profound evolutionary effects on genome organization and transcriptional regulatory networks.

  14. Gene therapy of mitochondrial DNA mutations: a brief, biased history of allotopic expression in mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zullo, S J

    2001-09-01

    Successful treatment of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations might be possible by construction of mtDNA-encoded protein genes so that they can be inserted into the nuclear genome and the protein expressed in the mitochondria (allotopic expression). This technique would require individual assembly of all 13 mtDNA-encoded protein genes with an aminoterminal leader peptide that directs the cytoplasmic translated protein to the mitochondrial membrane. The 13 allotopic genes could be inserted into the nuclear genome of a patient's stem cell that had been "cured" of its nascent mtDNA via ethidium bromide treatment (rho-zero cell). The rho-zero cell would be a uridine auxotroph, and recovery from uridine auxotrophy would indicate successful transformation. The patient's own cells could then be returned to the patient's body. With a selective advantage of recovered oxidative phosphorylation, the transformed cells could replace cells with mtDNA mutations. Results of experiments by us on allotopically expressed CHO ATPase6 and of experiments by other workers suggest that there might be competition with endogenous mtDNA-encoded proteins if the particular protein gene is not removed from the endogenous mitochondrial genomes. Thus, it is likely that all 13 mtDNA-encoded protein genes will need to be allotopically expressed, with concomitant removal of all mtDNA genomes, in order for this form of mtDNA gene therapy to be successful.

  15. Escape of DNA from a weakly biased thin nanopore: Experimental evidence for a universal diffusive behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogerheide, David P.; Albertorio, Fernando; Golovchenko, Jene A.

    2014-01-01

    We report experimental escape time distributions of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) molecules initially threaded halfway through a thin solid-state nanopore. We find a universal behavior of the escape time distributions consistent with a one-dimensional first passage formulation notwithstanding the geometry of the experiment and the potential role of complex molecule-liquid-pore interactions. Diffusion constants that depend on the molecule length and pore size are determined. Also discussed are the practical implications of long time diffusive molecule trapping in the nanopore. PMID:24483704

  16. Codon usage in mammalian genes is biased by sequence slippage mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bains, W

    1993-01-01

    The codons for some conserved amino acids are found to be the same between homologous genes from different species when the statistics of codon usage would suggest that they should be different. I examine whether this 'coincidence' of codon usage could be due to genetic mechanisms homogenising the DNA around specific sites. This paper describes the further analysis of the coincident codons in 19 genes (a total of 96 homologues) for slippage. Coincident codons arise in contexts of increased sequence simplicity, and have a high chance of occurring within sequences similar to the recombination-prone minisatellite 'core' sequence. This suggests a role of genetic homogenisation in their generation.

  17. Synonymous Codon Usage Bias in the Plastid Genome is Unrelated to Gene Structure and Shows Evolutionary Heterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Yueying; Xu, Wenjing; Xing, Tian; Zhao, Mingming; Li, Nana; Yan, Li; Xia, Guangmin; Wang, Mengcheng

    2015-01-01

    Synonymous codon usage bias (SCUB) is the nonuniform usage of codons, occurring often in nearly all organisms. Our previous study found that SCUB is correlated with intron number, is unequal among exons in the plant nuclear genome, and mirrors evolutionary specialization. However, whether this rule exists in the plastid genome has not been addressed. Here, we present an analysis of SCUB in the plastid genomes of 25 species from lower to higher plants (algae, bryophytes, pteridophytes, gymnosperms, and spermatophytes). We found NNA and NNT (A- and T-ending codons) are preferential in the plastid genomes of all plants. Interestingly, this preference is heterogeneous among taxonomies of plants, with the strongest preference in bryophytes and the weakest in pteridophytes, suggesting an association between SCUB and plant evolution. In addition, SCUB frequencies are consistent among genes with varied introns and among exons, indicating that the bias of NNA and NNT is unrelated to either intron number or exon position. Further, SCUB is associated with DNA methylation-induced conversion of cytosine to thymine in the vascular plants but not in algae or bryophytes. These data demonstrate that these SCUB profiles in the plastid genome are distinctly different compared with the nuclear genome.

  18. Synonymous codon usage bias in plant mitochondrial genes is associated with intron number and mirrors species evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjing Xu

    Full Text Available Synonymous codon usage bias (SCUB is a common event that a non-uniform usage of codons often occurs in nearly all organisms. We previously found that SCUB is correlated with both intron number and exon position in the plant nuclear genome but not in the plastid genome; SCUB in both nuclear and plastid genome can mirror the evolutionary specialization. However, how about the rules in the mitochondrial genome has not been addressed. Here, we present an analysis of SCUB in the mitochondrial genome, based on 24 plant species ranging from algae to land plants. The frequencies of NNA and NNT (A- and T-ending codons are higher than those of NNG and NNC, with the strongest preference in bryophytes and the weakest in land plants, suggesting an association between SCUB and plant evolution. The preference for NNA and NNT is more evident in genes harboring a greater number of introns in land plants, but the bias to NNA and NNT exhibits even among exons. The pattern of SCUB in the mitochondrial genome differs in some respects to that present in both the nuclear and plastid genomes.

  19. Clonal CD8+ T Cell Persistence and Variable Gene Usage Bias in a Human Transplanted Hand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Y Kim

    Full Text Available Immune prophylaxis and treatment of transplanted tissue rejection act indiscriminately, risking serious infections and malignancies. Although animal data suggest that cellular immune responses causing rejection may be rather narrow and predictable based on genetic background, there are only limited data regarding the clonal breadth of anti-donor responses in humans after allogeneic organ transplantation. We evaluated the graft-infiltrating CD8+ T lymphocytes in skin punch biopsies of a transplanted hand over 178 days. Profiling of T cell receptor (TCR variable gene usage and size distribution of the infiltrating cells revealed marked skewing of the TCR repertoire indicating oligoclonality, but relatively normal distributions in the blood. Although sampling limitation prevented complete assessment of the TCR repertoire, sequencing further identified 11 TCR clonal expansions that persisted through varying degrees of clinical rejection and immunosuppressive therapy. These 11 clones were limited to three TCR beta chain variable (BV gene families. Overall, these data indicate significant oligoclonality and likely restricted BV gene usage of alloreactive CD8+ T lymphocytes, and suggest that changes in rejection status are more due to varying regulation of their activity or number rather than shifts in the clonal populations in the transplanted organ. Given that controlled animal models produce predictable BV usage in T lymphocytes mediating rejection, understanding the determinants of TCR gene usage associated with rejection in humans may have application in specifically targeted immunotherapy.

  20. Positive imagery cognitive bias modification (CBM) and internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy (iCBT): A randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Alishia D.; O’Moore, Kathleen; Blackwell, Simon E.; Smith, Jessica; Holmes, Emily A.; Andrews, Gavin

    2015-01-01

    Background Accruing evidence suggests that positive imagery-based cognitive bias modification (CBM) could have potential as a standalone targeted intervention for depressive symptoms or as an adjunct to existing treatments. We sought to establish the benefit of this form of CBM when delivered prior to Internet cognitive behavioral therapy (iCBT) for depression Methods A randomized controlled trial (RCT) of a 1-week Internet-delivered positive CBM vs. an active control condition for participants (N=75, 69% female, mean age=42) meeting diagnostic criteria for major depression; followed by a 10-week iCBT program for both groups. Results Modified intent-to-treat marginal and mixed effect models demonstrated no significant difference between conditions following the CBM intervention or the iCBT program. In both conditions there were significant reductions (Cohen׳s d .57–1.58, 95% CI=.12–2.07) in primary measures of depression and interpretation bias (PHQ9, BDI-II, AST-D). Large effect size reductions (Cohen׳s d .81–1.32, 95% CI=.31–1.79) were observed for secondary measures of distress, disability, anxiety and repetitive negative thinking (K10, WHODAS, STAI, RTQ). Per protocol analyses conducted in the sample of participants who completed all seven sessions of CBM indicated between-group superiority of the positive over control group on depression symptoms (PHQ9, BDI-II) and psychological distress (K10) following CBM (Hedges g .55–.88, 95% CI=−.03–1.46) and following iCBT (PHQ9, K10). The majority (>70%) no longer met diagnostic criteria for depression at 3-month follow-up. Limitations The control condition contained many active components and therefore may have represented a smaller ‘dose’ of the positive condition. Conclusions Results provide preliminary support for the successful integration of imagery-based CBM into an existing Internet-based treatment for depression. PMID:25805405

  1. Effect of Female-Biased Sex Ratios on Female Homosexual Behavior in Japanese Macaques: Evidence for the "Bisexual Preference Hypothesis".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leca, Jean-Baptiste; Gunst, Noëlle; Huffman, Michael A; Vasey, Paul L

    2015-11-01

    We aimed to explain the frequent and prevalent female homosexual behavior in the context of female-biased operational sex ratios (OSR) and qualified sex ratios (Q) in a free-ranging group of Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) living at Arashiyama-Kyoto, Japan. Our data included the average availability of sexually mature males during females' putative fertile period (OSR), the ratio of sexually mature males to sexually mature females (Q), as well as heterosexual and female homosexual solicitations and consortships collected during 13 mating seasons from 136 females. Our results did not support the "heterosexual deprivation hypothesis," which holds that female homosexual behavior is attributable to a shortage of male mates. Likewise, our results did not support the "lack of opposite-sex sexual competitor hypothesis," which holds that females have more access to female mates when male sexual rivals are scarce. Of the 11 predictions tested, only one yielded statistically significant results: we found that higher ratios of availability of preferred female partners to preferred male partners were associated with female homosexual consortships rather than female heterosexual consortships. This result supported the "bisexual preference hypothesis," which holds that female homosexual behavior is attributable to female preference for certain female mates relative to certain male mates. We conclude that when a female targets another female as a mate, it is an active choice for a female sexual partner over available male alternatives, rather than a by-default situation that occurs because males are not available as sexual partners, or because females are better able to access female sexual partners due to a scarcity of male sexual competitors.

  2. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of the chlorophycean green alga Scenedesmus obliquus reveals a compact gene organization and a biased distribution of genes on the two DNA strands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemieux Claude

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The phylum Chlorophyta contains the majority of the green algae and is divided into four classes. While the basal position of the Prasinophyceae is well established, the divergence order of the Ulvophyceae, Trebouxiophyceae and Chlorophyceae (UTC remains uncertain. The five complete chloroplast DNA (cpDNA sequences currently available for representatives of these classes display considerable variability in overall structure, gene content, gene density, intron content and gene order. Among these genomes, that of the chlorophycean green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii has retained the least ancestral features. The two single-copy regions, which are separated from one another by the large inverted repeat (IR, have similar sizes, rather than unequal sizes, and differ radically in both gene contents and gene organizations relative to the single-copy regions of prasinophyte and ulvophyte cpDNAs. To gain insights into the various changes that underwent the chloroplast genome during the evolution of chlorophycean green algae, we have sequenced the cpDNA of Scenedesmus obliquus, a member of a distinct chlorophycean lineage. Results The 161,452 bp IR-containing genome of Scenedesmus features single-copy regions of similar sizes, encodes 96 genes, i.e. only two additional genes (infA and rpl12 relative to its Chlamydomonas homologue and contains seven group I and two group II introns. It is clearly more compact than the four UTC algal cpDNAs that have been examined so far, displays the lowest proportion of short repeats among these algae and shows a stronger bias in clustering of genes on the same DNA strand compared to Chlamydomonas cpDNA. Like the latter genome, Scenedesmus cpDNA displays only a few ancestral gene clusters. The two chlorophycean genomes share 11 gene clusters that are not found in previously sequenced trebouxiophyte and ulvophyte cpDNAs as well as a few genes that have an unusual structure; however, their single

  3. Sensorimotor learning biases choice behavior: a learning neural field model for decision making.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Klaes

    Full Text Available According to a prominent view of sensorimotor processing in primates, selection and specification of possible actions are not sequential operations. Rather, a decision for an action emerges from competition between different movement plans, which are specified and selected in parallel. For action choices which are based on ambiguous sensory input, the frontoparietal sensorimotor areas are considered part of the common underlying neural substrate for selection and specification of action. These areas have been shown capable of encoding alternative spatial motor goals in parallel during movement planning, and show signatures of competitive value-based selection among these goals. Since the same network is also involved in learning sensorimotor associations, competitive action selection (decision making should not only be driven by the sensory evidence and expected reward in favor of either action, but also by the subject's learning history of different sensorimotor associations. Previous computational models of competitive neural decision making used predefined associations between sensory input and corresponding motor output. Such hard-wiring does not allow modeling of how decisions are influenced by sensorimotor learning or by changing reward contingencies. We present a dynamic neural field model which learns arbitrary sensorimotor associations with a reward-driven Hebbian learning algorithm. We show that the model accurately simulates the dynamics of action selection with different reward contingencies, as observed in monkey cortical recordings, and that it correctly predicted the pattern of choice errors in a control experiment. With our adaptive model we demonstrate how network plasticity, which is required for association learning and adaptation to new reward contingencies, can influence choice behavior. The field model provides an integrated and dynamic account for the operations of sensorimotor integration, working memory and action

  4. The transcription factor ultraspiracle influences honey bee social behavior and behavior-related gene expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth A Ament

    Full Text Available Behavior is among the most dynamic animal phenotypes, modulated by a variety of internal and external stimuli. Behavioral differences are associated with large-scale changes in gene expression, but little is known about how these changes are regulated. Here we show how a transcription factor (TF, ultraspiracle (usp; the insect homolog of the Retinoid X Receptor, working in complex transcriptional networks, can regulate behavioral plasticity and associated changes in gene expression. We first show that RNAi knockdown of USP in honey bee abdominal fat bodies delayed the transition from working in the hive (primarily "nursing" brood to foraging outside. We then demonstrate through transcriptomics experiments that USP induced many maturation-related transcriptional changes in the fat bodies by mediating transcriptional responses to juvenile hormone. These maturation-related transcriptional responses to USP occurred without changes in USP's genomic binding sites, as revealed by ChIP-chip. Instead, behaviorally related gene expression is likely determined by combinatorial interactions between USP and other TFs whose cis-regulatory motifs were enriched at USP's binding sites. Many modules of JH- and maturation-related genes were co-regulated in both the fat body and brain, predicting that usp and cofactors influence shared transcriptional networks in both of these maturation-related tissues. Our findings demonstrate how "single gene effects" on behavioral plasticity can involve complex transcriptional networks, in both brain and peripheral tissues.

  5. Behavioral meaningful opioidergic stimulation activates kappa receptor gene expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Teodorov

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The periaqueductal gray (PAG has been reported to be a location for opioid regulation of pain and a potential site for behavioral selection in females. Opioid-mediated behavioral and physiological responses differ according to the activity of opioid receptor subtypes. The present study investigated the effects of the peripheral injection of the kappa-opioid receptor agonist U69593 into the dorsal subcutaneous region of animals on maternal behavior and on Oprk1 gene activity in the PAG of female rats. Female Wistar rats weighing 200-250 g at the beginning of the study were randomly divided into 2 groups for maternal behavior and gene expression experiments. On day 5, pups were removed at 7:00 am and placed in another home cage that was distant from their mother. Thirty minutes after removing the pups, the dams were treated with U69593 (0.15 mg/kg, sc or 0.9% saline (up to 1 mL/kg and after 30 min were evaluated in the maternal behavior test. Latencies in seconds for pup retrieval, grouping, crouching, and full maternal behavior were scored. The results showed that U69593 administration inhibited maternal behavior (P < 0.05 because a lower percentage of kappa group dams showed retrieval of first pup, retrieving all pups, grouping, crouching and displaying full maternal behavior compared to the saline group. Opioid gene expression was evaluated using real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. A single injection of U69593 increased Oprk1 PAG expression in both virgin (P < 0.05 and lactating female rats (P < 0.01, with no significant effect on Oprm1 or Oprd1 gene activity. Thus, the expression of kappa-opioid receptors in the PAG may be modulated by single opioid receptor stimulation and behavioral meaningful opioidergic transmission in the adult female might occur simultaneously to specific changes in gene expression of kappa-opioid receptor subtype. This is yet another alert for the complex role of the opioid system in

  6. Behavioral meaningful opioidergic stimulation activates kappa receptor gene expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teodorov, E. [Centro de Matemática, Computação e Cognição, Universidade Federal do ABC, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Ferrari, M.F.R. [Departamento de Genética e Biologia Evolutiva, Instituto de Biociências, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Fior-Chadi, D.R. [Departamento de Fisiologia, Instituto de Biociências, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Camarini, R. [Departamento de Farmacologia, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Felício, L.F. [Departamento de Patologia, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2012-06-01

    The periaqueductal gray (PAG) has been reported to be a location for opioid regulation of pain and a potential site for behavioral selection in females. Opioid-mediated behavioral and physiological responses differ according to the activity of opioid receptor subtypes. The present study investigated the effects of the peripheral injection of the kappa-opioid receptor agonist U69593 into the dorsal subcutaneous region of animals on maternal behavior and on Oprk1 gene activity in the PAG of female rats. Female Wistar rats weighing 200-250 g at the beginning of the study were randomly divided into 2 groups for maternal behavior and gene expression experiments. On day 5, pups were removed at 7:00 am and placed in another home cage that was distant from their mother. Thirty minutes after removing the pups, the dams were treated with U69593 (0.15 mg/kg, sc) or 0.9% saline (up to 1 mL/kg) and after 30 min were evaluated in the maternal behavior test. Latencies in seconds for pup retrieval, grouping, crouching, and full maternal behavior were scored. The results showed that U69593 administration inhibited maternal behavior (P < 0.05) because a lower percentage of U69593 group dams showed retrieval of first pup, retrieving all pups, grouping, crouching and displaying full maternal behavior compared to the saline group. Opioid gene expression was evaluated using real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). A single injection of U69593 increased Oprk1 PAG expression in both virgin (P < 0.05) and lactating female rats (P < 0.01), with no significant effect on Oprm1 or Oprd1 gene activity. Thus, the expression of kappa-opioid receptors in the PAG may be modulated by single opioid receptor stimulation and behavioral meaningful opioidergic transmission in the adult female might occur simultaneously to specific changes in gene expression of kappa-opioid receptor subtype. This is yet another alert for the complex role of the opioid system in female

  7. The Effect of Bias Voltage and Gas Pressure on the Structure, Adhesion and Wear Behavior of Diamond Like Carbon (DLC Coatings With Si Interlayers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liam Ward

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study diamond like carbon (DLC coatings with Si interlayers were deposited on 316L stainless steel with varying gas pressure and substrate bias voltage using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD technology. Coating and interlayer thickness values were determined using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS which also revealed the presence of a gradient layer at the coating substrate interface. Coatings were evaluated in terms of the hardness, elastic modulus, wear behavior and adhesion. Deposition rate generally increased with increasing bias voltage and increasing gas pressure. At low working gas pressures, hardness and modulus of elasticity increased with increasing bias voltage. Reduced hardness and modulus of elasticity were observed at higher gas pressures. Increased adhesion was generally observed at lower bias voltages and higher gas pressures. All DLC coatings significantly improved the overall wear resistance of the base material. Lower wear rates were observed for coatings deposited with lower bias voltages. For coatings that showed wear tracks considerably deeper than the coating thickness but without spallation, the wear behavior was largely attributed to deformation of both the coating and substrate with some cracks at the wear track edges. This suggests that coatings deposited under certain conditions can exhibit ultra high flexible properties.

  8. Recombination Rate Variation Modulates Gene Sequence Evolution Mainly via GC-Biased Gene Conversion, Not Hill-Robertson Interference, in an Avian System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolívar, Paulina; Mugal, Carina F; Nater, Alexander; Ellegren, Hans

    2016-01-01

    The ratio of nonsynonymous to synonymous substitution rates (ω) is often used to measure the strength of natural selection. However, ω may be influenced by linkage among different targets of selection, that is, Hill-Robertson interference (HRI), which reduces the efficacy of selection. Recombination modulates the extent of HRI but may also affect ω by means of GC-biased gene conversion (gBGC), a process leading to a preferential fixation of G:C ("strong," S) over A:T ("weak," W) alleles. As HRI and gBGC can have opposing effects on ω, it is essential to understand their relative impact to make proper inferences of ω. We used a model that separately estimated S-to-S, S-to-W, W-to-S, and W-to-W substitution rates in 8,423 avian genes in the Ficedula flycatcher lineage. We found that the W-to-S substitution rate was positively, and the S-to-W rate negatively, correlated with recombination rate, in accordance with gBGC but not predicted by HRI. The W-to-S rate further showed the strongest impact on both dN and dS. However, since the effects were stronger at 4-fold than at 0-fold degenerated sites, likely because the GC content of these sites is farther away from its equilibrium, ω slightly decreases with increasing recombination rate, which could falsely be interpreted as a consequence of HRI. We corroborated this hypothesis analytically and demonstrate that under particular conditions, ω can decrease with increasing recombination rate. Analyses of the site-frequency spectrum showed that W-to-S mutations were skewed toward high, and S-to-W mutations toward low, frequencies, consistent with a prevalent gBGC-driven fixation bias.

  9. Epigenetics: Behavioral Influences on Gene Function, Part I: Maternal Behavior Permanently Affects Adult Behavior in Offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogren, Marilee P.; Lombroso, Paul J.

    2008-01-01

    The article highlights the field of epigenetics and its relevance in determining the effects of maternal nurturing on behavioral patterns in offsprings. Results concluded that maternal behavior influences the offspring's behavior to stress in adulthood and the effects are transgenerational through epigenetic mechanisms.

  10. Epigenetics: Behavioral Influences on Gene Function, Part I: Maternal Behavior Permanently Affects Adult Behavior in Offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogren, Marilee P.; Lombroso, Paul J.

    2008-01-01

    The article highlights the field of epigenetics and its relevance in determining the effects of maternal nurturing on behavioral patterns in offsprings. Results concluded that maternal behavior influences the offspring's behavior to stress in adulthood and the effects are transgenerational through epigenetic mechanisms.

  11. Number of X-chromosome genes influences social behavior and vasopressin gene expression in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Kimberly H; Quinnies, Kayla M; Eschendroeder, Alex; Didrick, Paula M; Eugster, Erica A; Rissman, Emilie F

    2015-01-01

    Sex differences in behavior are widespread and often caused by hormonal differences between the sexes. In addition to hormones, the composition and numbers of the sex chromosomes also affect a variety of sex differences. In humans, X-chromosome genes are implicated in neurobehavioral disorders (i.e. fragile-X, autism). To investigate the role of X-chromosome genes in social behavior, we used a mouse model that has atypical sex chromosome configurations resembling Turner (45, XO) and Klinefelter syndromes (47, XXY). We examined a number of behaviors in juvenile mice. Mice with only one copy of most X-chromosome genes, regardless of gonadal sex, were less social in dyadic interaction and social preference tasks. In the elevated plus maze, mice with one X-chromosome spent less time in the distal ends of the open arms as compared to mice with two copies of X-chromosome genes. Using qRTPCR, we noted that amygdala from female mice with one X-chromosome had higher expression levels of vasopressin (Avp) as compared to mice in the other groups. Finally, in plasma from girls with Turner syndrome we detected reduced vasopressin (AVP) concentrations as compared to control patients. These novel findings link sex chromosome genes with social behavior via concentrations of AVP in brain, adding to our understanding of sex differences in neurobehavioral disorders.

  12. The removal of multiplicative, systematic bias allows integration of breast cancer gene expression datasets – improving meta-analysis and prediction of prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pepper Stuart D

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The number of gene expression studies in the public domain is rapidly increasing, representing a highly valuable resource. However, dataset-specific bias precludes meta-analysis at the raw transcript level, even when the RNA is from comparable sources and has been processed on the same microarray platform using similar protocols. Here, we demonstrate, using Affymetrix data, that much of this bias can be removed, allowing multiple datasets to be legitimately combined for meaningful meta-analyses. Results A series of validation datasets comparing breast cancer and normal breast cell lines (MCF7 and MCF10A were generated to examine the variability between datasets generated using different amounts of starting RNA, alternative protocols, different generations of Affymetrix GeneChip or scanning hardware. We demonstrate that systematic, multiplicative biases are introduced at the RNA, hybridization and image-capture stages of a microarray experiment. Simple batch mean-centering was found to significantly reduce the level of inter-experimental variation, allowing raw transcript levels to be compared across datasets with confidence. By accounting for dataset-specific bias, we were able to assemble the largest gene expression dataset of primary breast tumours to-date (1107, from six previously published studies. Using this meta-dataset, we demonstrate that combining greater numbers of datasets or tumours leads to a greater overlap in differentially expressed genes and more accurate prognostic predictions. However, this is highly dependent upon the composition of the datasets and patient characteristics. Conclusion Multiplicative, systematic biases are introduced at many stages of microarray experiments. When these are reconciled, raw data can be directly integrated from different gene expression datasets leading to new biological findings with increased statistical power.

  13. Media Bias

    OpenAIRE

    Sendhil Mullainathan; Andrei Shleifer

    2002-01-01

    There are two different types of media bias. One bias, which we refer to as ideology, reflects a news outlet's desire to affect reader opinions in a particular direction. The second bias, which we refer to as spin, reflects the outlet's attempt to simply create a memorable story. We examine competition among media outlets in the presence of these biases. Whereas competition can eliminate the effect of ideological bias, it actually exaggerates the incentive to spin stories.

  14. Evidence for AT-transversion bias in wasp (Hymenoptera: Symphyta) mitochondrial genes and its implications for the origin of parasitism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowton, M; Austin, A D

    1997-04-01

    We inferred the incidence of nucleotide conversions in the COI and 16S rRNA mitochondrial genes of members of the Symphyta and basal Apocrita (Hymenoptera). Character-state reconstructions in both genes suggested that conversions between A and T (AT transversions) occurred much more frequently than any other type of change, although we cannot wholly discount an underlying transition bias. Parsimony analysis of COI nucleotide characters did not recover phylogeny; e.g., neither the Tenthredinoidea nor Apocrita were recovered as monophyletic. However, analysis of COI amino acid characters did recover these relationships, as well as others based on fossil and morphological evidence. Analysis of 16S rRNA characters also recovered these relationships providing conversions between A and T were down-weighted. Analysis of the combined data sets gave relatively strong support for various relationships, suggesting that both data sets supported similar topographies. These data sets, both separately and combined, suggested that the phytophagous Siricidae were more closely related to the predominantly parasitic Apocrita than were the ectoparasitic Orussoidea. This suggests that the wasp parasitic lifestyle did not have a single origin, unless the Siricidae have more recently reverted to phytophagy. Alternatively, parasitism evolved twice independently, once in the Orussoidea and again in the Apocrita. The latter scenario is supported by the observation that the evolution of parasitism was accompanied by a tendency for the larvae to develop inside plant tissues. Adaptations that accompanied the movement of wasps into a confined, wood-boring habitat may have preadapted them to becoming ectoparasitic.

  15. Practical investigation of the gate bias effect on the reverse recovery behavior of the body diode in power MOSFETs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg-Poulsen, Kristian; Petersen, Lars Press; Ouyang, Ziwei

    2014-01-01

    This work considers an alternative method of reducing the body diode reverse recovery by taking advantage of the MOSFET body effect, and applying a bias voltage to the gate before reverse recovery. A test method is presented, allowing the accurate measurement of voltage and current waveforms during...... reverse recovery at high di=dt. Different bias voltages and dead times are combined, giving a loss map which makes it possible to evaluate the practical efficacy of gate bias on reducing the MOSFET body diode reverse recovery, while comparing it to the well known methods of dead time optimization...

  16. Reentrant spin-glass behavior and bipolar exchange-bias effect in “Sn” substituted cobalt-orthotitanate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nayak, S.; Joshi, D. C.; Thota, S., E-mail: subhasht@iitg.ac.in [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati 781039, Assam (India); Krautz, M.; Waske, A. [Institute for Complex Materials, IFW Dresden, P.O. Box 270116, D-01171 Dresden (Germany); Eckert, J. [Erich Schmid Institute of Materials Science, Jahnstrasse 12, A-8700 Leoben (Austria); Department Materials Physics, Montanuniversität Leoben, Jahnstrasse 12, A-8700 Leoben (Austria)

    2016-01-28

    We report the co-existence of longitudinal ferrimagnetic behavior with Néel temperature T{sub N} ∼ 46.1 K and reentrant transverse spin-glass state at 44.05 K in Tin (Sn) doped cobalt-orthotitanate (Co{sub 2}TiO{sub 4}). The ferrimagnetic ordering is resulting from different magnetic moments of Co{sup 2+} on the A-sites (3.87 μ{sub B}) and B-sites (5.069 μ{sub B}). The magnetic compensation temperature (T{sub COMP}) shifts from 31.74 K to 27.1 K when 40 at. % of “Sn{sup 4+}” substitutes “Ti{sup 4+}” at B-sites where the bulk-magnetization of two-sublattices balance each other. For T > T{sub N}, the dc-magnetic susceptibility (χ{sub dc} = M/H{sub dc}) fits well with the Néel's expression for the two-sublattice model with antiferromagnetic molecular field constants N{sub BB} ∼ 15.44, N{sub AB} ∼ 32.01, and N{sub AA} ∼ 20.88. The frequency dependence of ac-magnetic susceptibility χ{sub ac} data follows the Vogel-Fulcher law, and the power-law of critical slowing-down with “zν” = 6.01 suggests the existence of spin-clusters (where “z” and “ν” being dynamic critical-exponent and correlation length of critical-exponent, respectively). This system exhibits unusual hysteresis loops with large bipolar exchange-bias effect (H{sub EB} ∼ 13.6 kOe at 7 K) after zero-field cooling process from an un-magnetized state, and a dramatic collapse of remanence (M{sub R}) and coercive field (H{sub C}) across T{sub COMP}. The possible origins of such anomalous characteristics were discussed.

  17. A gene signature to determine metastatic behavior in thymomas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yesim Gökmen-Polar

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Thymoma represents one of the rarest of all malignancies. Stage and completeness of resection have been used to ascertain postoperative therapeutic strategies albeit with limited prognostic accuracy. A molecular classifier would be useful to improve the assessment of metastatic behaviour and optimize patient management. METHODS: qRT-PCR assay for 23 genes (19 test and four reference genes was performed on multi-institutional archival primary thymomas (n = 36. Gene expression levels were used to compute a signature, classifying tumors into classes 1 and 2, corresponding to low or high likelihood for metastases. The signature was validated in an independent multi-institutional cohort of patients (n = 75. RESULTS: A nine-gene signature that can predict metastatic behavior of thymomas was developed and validated. Using radial basis machine modeling in the training set, 5-year and 10-year metastasis-free survival rates were 77% and 26% for predicted low (class 1 and high (class 2 risk of metastasis (P = 0.0047, log-rank, respectively. For the validation set, 5-year metastasis-free survival rates were 97% and 30% for predicted low- and high-risk patients (P = 0.0004, log-rank, respectively. The 5-year metastasis-free survival rates for the validation set were 49% and 41% for Masaoka stages I/II and III/IV (P = 0.0537, log-rank, respectively. In univariate and multivariate Cox models evaluating common prognostic factors for thymoma metastasis, the nine-gene signature was the only independent indicator of metastases (P = 0.036. CONCLUSION: A nine-gene signature was established and validated which predicts the likelihood of metastasis more accurately than traditional staging. This further underscores the biologic determinants of the clinical course of thymoma and may improve patient management.

  18. Genes, Parenting, Self-Control, and Criminal Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Stephen J; McNulty, Thomas L

    2016-03-01

    Self-control has been found to predict a wide variety of criminal behaviors. In addition, studies have consistently shown that parenting is an important influence on both self-control and offending. However, few studies have examined the role that biological factors may play in moderating the relationship between parenting, self-control, and offending. Using a sample of adolescent males drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 3,610), we explore whether variants of the monoamine oxidase A gene (MAOA) and the dopamine transporter (DAT1) gene interact with parenting to affect self-control and offending. Results reveal that parenting interacts with these genes to influence self-control and offending, and that the parenting-by-gene interaction effect on offending is mediated by self-control. The effects of parenting on self-control and offending are most pronounced for those who carry plasticity alleles for both MAOA and DAT1. Thus, MAOA and DAT1 may be implicated in offending because they increase the negative effects of parenting on self-control. Implications for theory are discussed.

  19. Male-biased aganglionic megacolon in the TashT mouse line due to perturbation of silencer elements in a large gene desert of chromosome 10.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl-F Bergeron

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Neural crest cells (NCC are a transient migratory cell population that generates diverse cell types such as neurons and glia of the enteric nervous system (ENS. Via an insertional mutation screen for loci affecting NCC development in mice, we identified one line-named TashT-that displays a partially penetrant aganglionic megacolon phenotype in a strong male-biased manner. Interestingly, this phenotype is highly reminiscent of human Hirschsprung's disease, a neurocristopathy with a still unexplained male sex bias. In contrast to the megacolon phenotype, colonic aganglionosis is almost fully penetrant in homozygous TashT animals. The sex bias in megacolon expressivity can be explained by the fact that the male ENS ends, on average, around a "tipping point" of minimal colonic ganglionosis while the female ENS ends, on average, just beyond it. Detailed analysis of embryonic intestines revealed that aganglionosis in homozygous TashT animals is due to slower migration of enteric NCC. The TashT insertional mutation is localized in a gene desert containing multiple highly conserved elements that exhibit repressive activity in reporter assays. RNAseq analyses and 3C assays revealed that the TashT insertion results, at least in part, in NCC-specific relief of repression of the uncharacterized gene Fam162b; an outcome independently confirmed via transient transgenesis. The transcriptional signature of enteric NCC from homozygous TashT embryos is also characterized by the deregulation of genes encoding members of the most important signaling pathways for ENS formation-Gdnf/Ret and Edn3/Ednrb-and, intriguingly, the downregulation of specific subsets of X-linked genes. In conclusion, this study not only allowed the identification of Fam162b coding and regulatory sequences as novel candidate loci for Hirschsprung's disease but also provides important new insights into its male sex bias.

  20. Recombination dynamics of a human Y-chromosomal palindrome: rapid GC-biased gene conversion, multi-kilobase conversion tracts, and rare inversions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pille Hallast

    Full Text Available The male-specific region of the human Y chromosome (MSY includes eight large inverted repeats (palindromes in which arm-to-arm similarity exceeds 99.9%, due to gene conversion activity. Here, we studied one of these palindromes, P6, in order to illuminate the dynamics of the gene conversion process. We genotyped ten paralogous sequence variants (PSVs within the arms of P6 in 378 Y chromosomes whose evolutionary relationships within the SNP-defined Y phylogeny are known. This allowed the identification of 146 historical gene conversion events involving individual PSVs, occurring at a rate of 2.9-8.4×10(-4 events per generation. A consideration of the nature of nucleotide change and the ancestral state of each PSV showed that the conversion process was significantly biased towards the fixation of G or C nucleotides (GC-biased, and also towards the ancestral state. Determination of haplotypes by long-PCR allowed likely co-conversion of PSVs to be identified, and suggested that conversion tract lengths are large, with a mean of 2068 bp, and a maximum in excess of 9 kb. Despite the frequent formation of recombination intermediates implied by the rapid observed gene conversion activity, resolution via crossover is rare: only three inversions within P6 were detected in the sample. An analysis of chimpanzee and gorilla P6 orthologs showed that the ancestral state bias has existed in all three species, and comparison of human and chimpanzee sequences with the gorilla outgroup confirmed that GC bias of the conversion process has apparently been active in both the human and chimpanzee lineages.

  1. Experimentally increased codon bias in the Drosophila Adh gene leads to an increase in larval, but not adult, alcohol dehydrogenase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hense, Winfried; Anderson, Nathan; Hutter, Stephan; Stephan, Wolfgang; Parsch, John; Carlini, David B

    2010-02-01

    Although most amino acids can be encoded by more than one codon, the synonymous codons are not used with equal frequency. This phenomenon is known as codon bias and appears to be a universal feature of genomes. The translational selection hypothesis posits that the use of optimal codons, which match the most abundant species of isoaccepting tRNAs, results in increased translational efficiency and accuracy. Previous work demonstrated that the experimental reduction of codon bias in the Drosophila alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) gene led to a significant decrease in ADH protein expression. In this study we performed the converse experiment: we replaced seven suboptimal leucine codons that occur naturally in the Drosophila melanogaster Adh gene with the optimal codon. We then compared the in vivo ADH activities imparted by the wild-type and mutant alleles. The introduction of optimal leucine codons led to an increase in ADH activity in third-instar larvae. In adult flies, however, the introduction of optimal codons led to a decrease in ADH activity. There is no evidence that other selectively constrained features of the Adh gene, or its rate of transcription, were altered by the synonymous replacements. These results are consistent with translational selection for codon bias being stronger in the larval stage and suggest that there may be a selective conflict over optimal codon usage between different developmental stages.

  2. Intergroup bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewstone, Miles; Rubin, Mark; Willis, Hazel

    2002-01-01

    This chapter reviews the extensive literature on bias in favor of in-groups at the expense of out-groups. We focus on five issues and identify areas for future research: (a) measurement and conceptual issues (especially in-group favoritism vs. out-group derogation, and explicit vs. implicit measures of bias); (b) modern theories of bias highlighting motivational explanations (social identity, optimal distinctiveness, uncertainty reduction, social dominance, terror management); (c) key moderators of bias, especially those that exacerbate bias (identification, group size, status and power, threat, positive-negative asymmetry, personality and individual differences); (d) reduction of bias (individual vs. intergroup approaches, especially models of social categorization); and (e) the link between intergroup bias and more corrosive forms of social hostility.

  3. Positive imagery cognitive bias modification (CBM) and internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy (iCBT) : a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williams, Alishia D; O'Moore, Kathleen; Blackwell, Simon E; Smith, Jessica; Holmes, Emily A; Andrews, Gavin

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Accruing evidence suggests that positive imagery-based cognitive bias modification (CBM) could have potential as a standalone targeted intervention for depressive symptoms or as an adjunct to existing treatments. We sought to establish the benefit of this form of CBM when delivered prior

  4. Electrophysiological and Behavioral Effects of Combined Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation and Alcohol Approach Bias Retraining in Hazardous Drinkers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Uyl, T.E.; Gladwin, T.E.; Wiers, R.W.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cognitive bias modification (CBM) can be used to retrain automatic approach tendencies for alcohol. We investigated whether changing cortical excitability with transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) could enhance CBM effects in hazardous drinkers. We also studied the underlying

  5. Positive imagery cognitive bias modification (CBM) and internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy (iCBT) : a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williams, Alishia D; O'Moore, Kathleen; Blackwell, Simon E; Smith, Jessica; Holmes, Emily A; Andrews, Gavin

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Accruing evidence suggests that positive imagery-based cognitive bias modification (CBM) could have potential as a standalone targeted intervention for depressive symptoms or as an adjunct to existing treatments. We sought to establish the benefit of this form of CBM when delivered prior

  6. Gene-Environment Interplay between Peer Rejection and Depressive Behavior in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brendgen, Mara; Vitaro, Frank; Boivin, Michel; Girard, Alain; Bukowski, William M.; Dionne, Ginette; Tremblay, Richard E.; Perusse, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Background: Genetic risk for depressive behavior may increase the likelihood of exposure to environmental stressors (gene-environment correlation, rGE). By the same token, exposure to environmental stressors may moderate the effect of genes on depressive behavior (gene-environment interaction, GxE). Relating these processes to a peer-related…

  7. Gene-Environment Interplay between Peer Rejection and Depressive Behavior in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brendgen, Mara; Vitaro, Frank; Boivin, Michel; Girard, Alain; Bukowski, William M.; Dionne, Ginette; Tremblay, Richard E.; Perusse, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Background: Genetic risk for depressive behavior may increase the likelihood of exposure to environmental stressors (gene-environment correlation, rGE). By the same token, exposure to environmental stressors may moderate the effect of genes on depressive behavior (gene-environment interaction, GxE). Relating these processes to a peer-related…

  8. Exchange bias and spin glass behavior in biphasic NiFe2O4/NiO thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pebley, Andrew C.; Fuks, Preston E.; Pollock, Tresa M.; Gordon, Michael J.

    2016-12-01

    Magnetic exchange bias and coercivity of nanogranular NiFe2O4/NiO thin films, prepared using flow-stabilized microplasmas and post-deposition annealing, have been investigated as a function of ferrimagnet/antiferromagnet phase fraction, grain size, and temperature. Exchange bias (EB) and vertical shifts in hysteresis loops observed in the as-deposited and low-T annealed (≤600 °C) films were attributed to exchange coupling between nanocrystalline NiFe2O4 (~8-10 nm) and a structurally-disordered spin glass (SG)-like phase. At higher annealing temperature (850 °C), the observed EB was found to arise from exchange coupling between NiFe2O4 and NiO, rather than a SG phase, most likely due to reduction of structurally-disordered interfaces and a substantial increase in NiFe2O4 grain size (~26 nm).

  9. Low-frequency noise behavior at reverse bias region in InAs/GaSb superlattice photodiodes on mid-wave infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tansel, T.; Kutluer, K.; Muti, A.; Salihoglu, Ö.; Aydinli, A.; Turan, R.

    2013-06-01

    We describe a relationship between the noise characterization and activation energy of InAs/GaSb superlattice Mid-Wavelength-Infrared photodiodes for different passivation materials applied to the device. The noise measurements exhibited a frequency dependent plateau (i.e. 1/f-noise characteristic) for unpassivated as well as Si3N4 passivated samples whereas 1/f-type low noise suppression (i.e. frequency independent plateau) with a noise current reduction of more than one order of magnitude was observed for SiO2 passivation. For reverse bias values below -0.15V, the classical Schottky-noise calculation alone did not appear to describe the noise mechanism in a SL noise behavior, which shows a divergence between theoretically and experimentally determined noise values. We identify that, the additional noise appears, with and without passivation, at the surface activation energy of < 60 meV and is inversely proportional to the reverse bias. This is believed to be caused by the surface dangling-bonds (as well as surface states) whose response is controlled by the applied reverse bias. The calculated noise characteristics showed a good agreement with the experimental data.

  10. High-Throughput Behavioral Screens: the First Step towards Finding Genes Involved in Vertebrate Brain Function Using Zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Gerlai

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The zebrafish has been in the forefront of developmental biology for three decades and has become a favorite of geneticists. Due to the accumulated genetic knowledge and tools developed for the zebrafish it is gaining popularity in other disciplines, including neuroscience. The zebrafish offers a compromise between system complexity (it is a vertebrate similar in many ways to our own species and practical simplicity (it is small, easy to keep, and prolific. Such features make zebrafish an excellent choice for high throughput mutation and drug screening. For the identification of mutation or drug induced alteration of brain function arguably the best methods are behavioral test paradigms. This review does not present experimental examples for the identification of particular genes or drugs. Instead it describes how behavioral screening methods may enable one to find functional alterations in the vertebrate brain. Furthermore, the review is not comprehensive. The behavioral test examples presented are biased according to the personal interests of the author. They will cover research areas including learning and memory, fear and anxiety, and social behavior. Nevertheless, the general principles will apply to other functional domains and should represent a snapshot of the rapidly evolving behavioral screening field with zebrafish.

  11. Anisotropic behavior of exchange bias effect in tensile-deformed Pt{sub 3}Fe single crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Satoru, E-mail: koba@iwate-u.ac.jp; Morita, Ryo [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Iwate University, Ueda 4-3-5, Morioka 020-8551 (Japan)

    2015-05-07

    Plastic strain in Pt{sub 3}Fe causes changes in the atomic arrangement around the (111) glide plane and induces ferromagnetism even at room temperature. We have performed detailed magnetization measurements on a Pt{sub 3}Fe single crystal with plastic strains of 11.6% under magnetic fields in various directions with respect to the [100] strain axis in order to elucidate the reversal mechanism of induced ferromagnetic domains. We observed that by decreasing the angle between the magnetization direction and strain axis, hysteresis loops are strongly sheared, which is associated with a large increase in coercivity. We also observed that an exchange bias effect appears for all field orientations, but the exchange field maximizes for an intermediate field direction. On the other hand, both phenomena are insensitive to magnetic fields perpendicular to the [100] strain axis. These observations were explained by a single-domain model with uniaxial anisotropy along the [100] strain axis.

  12. Gene-Gene-Environment Interactions of Serotonin Transporter, Monoamine Oxidase A and Childhood Maltreatment Predict Aggressive Behavior in Chinese Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yun; Ming, Qing-sen; Yi, Jin-yao; Wang, Xiang; Chai, Qiao-lian; Yao, Shu-qiao

    2017-01-01

    Gene-environment interactions that moderate aggressive behavior have been identified independently in the serotonin transporter (5-HTT) gene and monoamine oxidase A gene (MAOA). The aim of the present study was to investigate epistasis interactions between MAOA-variable number tandem repeat (VNTR), 5-HTTlinked polymorphism (LPR) and child abuse and the effects of these on aggressive tendencies in a group of otherwise healthy adolescents. A group of 546 Chinese male adolescents completed the Child Trauma Questionnaire and Youth self-report of the Child Behavior Checklist. Buccal cells were collected for DNA analysis. The effects of childhood abuse, MAOA-VNTR, 5-HTTLPR genotypes and their interactive gene-gene-environmental effects on aggressive behavior were analyzed using a linear regression model. The effect of child maltreatment was significant, and a three-way interaction among MAOA-VNTR, 5-HTTLPR and sexual abuse (SA) relating to aggressive behaviors was identified. Chinese male adolescents with high expression of the MAOA-VNTR allele and 5-HTTLPR “SS” genotype exhibited the highest aggression tendencies with an increase in SA during childhood. The findings reported support aggression being a complex behavior involving the synergistic effects of gene-gene-environment interactions. PMID:28203149

  13. Brief Report: Aggression and Stereotypic Behavior in Males with Fragile X Syndrome-- Moderating Secondary Genes in a "Single Gene" Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessl, David; Tassone, Flora; Cordeiro, Lisa; Koldewyn, Kami; McCormick, Carolyn; Green, Cherie; Wegelin, Jacob; Yuhas, Jennifer; Hagerman, Randi J.

    2008-01-01

    Although fragile X syndrome (FXS) is a single gene disorder with a well-described phenotype, it is not known why some individuals develop more significant maladaptive behaviors such as aggression or autistic symptoms. Here, we studied two candidate genes known to affect mood and aggression, the serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR) and monoamine…

  14. Brief Report: Aggression and Stereotypic Behavior in Males with Fragile X Syndrome-- Moderating Secondary Genes in a "Single Gene" Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessl, David; Tassone, Flora; Cordeiro, Lisa; Koldewyn, Kami; McCormick, Carolyn; Green, Cherie; Wegelin, Jacob; Yuhas, Jennifer; Hagerman, Randi J.

    2008-01-01

    Although fragile X syndrome (FXS) is a single gene disorder with a well-described phenotype, it is not known why some individuals develop more significant maladaptive behaviors such as aggression or autistic symptoms. Here, we studied two candidate genes known to affect mood and aggression, the serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR) and monoamine…

  15. Sex-biased expression of sex-differentiating genes FOXL2 and FGF9 in American alligators, Alligator mississippiensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janes, Daniel E.; Elsey, Ruth M.; Langan, Esther M.; Valenzuela, Nicole; Edwards, Scott V.

    2013-01-01

    Across amniotes, sex-determining mechanisms exhibit great variation yet the genes that govern sexual differentiation are largely conserved. Studies of evolution of sex-determining and sex-differentiating genes require an exhaustive characterization of functions of those genes such as FOXL2 and FGF9. FOXL2 is associated with ovarian development and FGF9 is known to play a role in testicular organogenesis in mammals and other amniotes. As a step toward characterization of the evolutionary history of sexual development, we measured expression of FOXL2 and FGF9 across three developmental stages and eight juvenile tissue types in male and female American alligators, Alligator mississippiensis. We report surprisingly high expression of FOXL2 before the stage of embryonic development when sex is determined in response to temperature and sustained and variable expression of FGF9 in juvenile male but not female tissue types. Novel characterization of gene expression in reptiles with temperature-dependent sex determination such as American alligators may inform the evolution of sex-determining and sex-differentiating gene networks as they suggest alternative functions from which the genes may have been exapted. Future functional profiling of sex-differentiating genes should similarly follow other genes and other species to enable a broad comparison across sex-determining mechanisms. PMID:23689672

  16. Screening and analysis of differentially expressed genes of dermal papillae cells with aggregative behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋志强; 郝飞; 杨卫兵; 王继文; 邹锋

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To screen and clone differentially expressed genes of dermal papillae cells (DPC) with aggregative behavior, and to explore the molecular mechanism of their aggregation. Methods: Total RNAs were extracted from DPC with and without aggregative behavior and double strand cDNAs were synthesized by using SMART cDNA synthesis, respectively. The cDNA fragments of differentially expressed genes in DPCs with aggregative behavior were isolated by suppression subtractive hybridization. Positive clones were screened by PCR method and verified by cDNA dot blot, Northern blot and then analyzed through homologous retrieving. Results: A subtractive cDNA library of DPC with aggregative behavior has been successfully constructed. The result of screening and cloning of the library showed that, DPC with aggregative behavior could expresse genes related to homologous aggregation, proliferation and cycle control, including known genes (capping protein, paladin, vascular endothelial growth factor), hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPC) related clone (HSPC011 and HSPC016) and a new gene. Conclusion: The construction of subtracted library of DPC lays solid foundation for screening and cloning new and specific genes related to aggregative behavior of DPC. Several genes might be cooperatively involved in the homologous aggregation, proliferation and cycle control of DPC. Among these genes, capping protein and palladin might be closely related to the aggregative behavior of dermal papilla cells, and VEGF and HSPC related clone would be responsible for the status of higher proliferation of dermal papilla cells.

  17. Gene expression during zombie ant biting behavior reflects the complexity underlying fungal parasitic behavioral manipulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bekker, Charissa; Ohm, Robin A; Loreto, Raquel G; Sebastian, Aswathy; Albert, Istvan; Merrow, Martha; Brachmann, Andreas; Hughes, David P

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Adaptive manipulation of animal behavior by parasites functions to increase parasite transmission through changes in host behavior. These changes can range from slight alterations in existing behaviors of the host to the establishment of wholly novel behaviors. The biting behavior observ

  18. Identification and analysis of unitary loss of long-established protein-coding genes in Poaceae shows evidences for biased gene loss and putatively functional transcription of relics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yi; Tang, Liang; Li, Zhe; Jin, Jinpu; Luo, Jingchu; Gao, Ge

    2015-04-18

    Long-established protein-coding genes may lose their coding potential during evolution ("unitary gene loss"). Members of the Poaceae family are a major food source and represent an ideal model clade for plant evolution research. However, the global pattern of unitary gene loss in Poaceae genomes as well as the evolutionary fate of lost genes are still less-investigated and remain largely elusive. Using a locally developed pipeline, we identified 129 unitary gene loss events for long-established protein-coding genes from four representative species of Poaceae, i.e. brachypodium, rice, sorghum and maize. Functional annotation suggested that the lost genes in all or most of Poaceae species are enriched for genes involved in development and response to endogenous stimulus. We also found that 44 mutated genomic loci of lost genes, which we referred as relics, were still actively transcribed, and of which 84% (37 of 44) showed significantly differential expression across different tissues. More interestingly, we found that there were totally five expressed relics may function as competitive endogenous RNA in brachypodium, rice and sorghum genome. Based on comparative genomics and transcriptome data, we firstly compiled a comprehensive catalogue of unitary gene loss events in Poaceae species and characterized a statistically significant functional preference for these lost genes as well showed the potential of relics functioning as competitive endogenous RNAs in Poaceae genomes.

  19. Left-right symmetry breaking in mice by left-right dynein may occur via a biased chromatid segregation mechanism, without directly involving the Nodal gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan eSauer

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Ever since cloning the classic iv mutation identified the ‘left-right dynein’ (lrd gene in mice, most research on body laterality determination has focused on its function in motile cilia at the node embryonic organizer. This model is attractive, as it links chirality of cilia architecture to asymmetry development. However, lrd is also expressed in blastocysts and embryonic stem cells, where it was shown to bias the segregation of recombined sister chromatids away from each other in mitosis. These data suggested that lrd is part of a cellular mechanism that recognizes and selectively segregates sister chromatids based on their replication history: old ‘Watson’ vs. old ‘Crick’ strands. We previously proposed that the mouse left-right axis is established via an asymmetric cell division prior to/or during gastrulation. In this model, left-right dynein selectively segregates epigenetically differentiated sister chromatids harboring a hypothetical ‘left-right axis development 1’ (‘lra1’ gene during the left-right axis establishing cell division. Here, asymmetry development would be ultimately governed by the chirality of the cytoskeleton and the DNA molecule. Our model predicts that randomization of chromatid segregation in lrd mutants should produce embryos with 25% situs solitus, 25% situs inversus, and 50% embryonic death due to heterotaxia and isomerism. Here we confirmed this prediction by using two distinct lrd mutant alleles. Other than lrd, thus far Nodal gene is the most upstream function implicated in visceral organs laterality determination. We next tested whether the Nodal gene constitutes the lra1 gene hypothesized in the model by testing mutant’s effect on 50% embryonic lethality observed in lrd mutants. Since Nodal mutation did not suppress lethality, we conclude that Nodal is not equivalent to the lra1 gene. In summary, we describe the origin of 50% lethality in lrd mutant mice not yet explained by any other

  20. "To Bluff like a Man or Fold like a Girl?" - Gender Biased Deceptive Behavior in Online Poker.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jussi Palomäki

    Full Text Available Evolutionary psychology suggests that men are more likely than women to deceive to bolster their status and influence. Also gender perception influences deceptive behavior, which is linked to pervasive gender stereotypes: women are typically viewed as weaker and more gullible than men. We assessed bluffing in an online experiment (N = 502, where participants made decisions to bluff or not in simulated poker tasks against opponents represented by avatars. Participants bluffed on average 6% more frequently at poker tables with female-only avatars than at tables with male-only or gender mixed avatars-a highly significant effect in games involving repeated decisions. Nonetheless, participants did not believe the avatar genders affected their decisions. Males bluffed 13% more frequently than females. Unlike most economic games employed exclusively in research contexts, online poker is played for money by tens of millions of people worldwide. Thus, gender effects in bluffing have significant monetary consequences for poker players.

  1. "To Bluff like a Man or Fold like a Girl?" – Gender Biased Deceptive Behavior in Online Poker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomäki, Jussi; Yan, Jeff; Modic, David; Laakasuo, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Evolutionary psychology suggests that men are more likely than women to deceive to bolster their status and influence. Also gender perception influences deceptive behavior, which is linked to pervasive gender stereotypes: women are typically viewed as weaker and more gullible than men. We assessed bluffing in an online experiment (N = 502), where participants made decisions to bluff or not in simulated poker tasks against opponents represented by avatars. Participants bluffed on average 6% more frequently at poker tables with female-only avatars than at tables with male-only or gender mixed avatars—a highly significant effect in games involving repeated decisions. Nonetheless, participants did not believe the avatar genders affected their decisions. Males bluffed 13% more frequently than females. Unlike most economic games employed exclusively in research contexts, online poker is played for money by tens of millions of people worldwide. Thus, gender effects in bluffing have significant monetary consequences for poker players. PMID:27383472

  2. Gene Vaccination to Bias the Immune Response to Amyloid-β Peptide as Therapy for Alzheimer Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Baoxi; Rosenberg, Roger N.; Li, Liping; Boyer, Philip J.; Johnston, Stephen A.

    2006-01-01

    Background The amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide has a central role in the neurodegeneration of Alzheimer disease (AD). Immunization of AD transgenic mice with Aβ1–42 (Aβ42) peptide reduces both the spatial memory impairments and AD-like neuropathologic changes in these mice. Therapeutic immunization with Aβ in patients with AD was shown to be effective in reducing Aβ deposition, but studies were discontinued owing to the development of an autoimmune, cell-mediated meningoencephalitis. We hypothesized that gene vaccination could be used to generate an immune response to Aβ42 that produced antibody response but avoided an adverse cell-mediated immune effect. Objective To develop an effective genetic immunization approach for treatment and prevention of AD without causing an autoimmune, cell-mediated meningoencephalitis. Methods Mice were vaccinated with a plasmid that encodes Aβ42, administered by gene gun. The immune response of the mice to Aβ42 was monitored by measurement of (1) antibody levels by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blot and (2) Aβ42-specific T-cell response as measured by interferon-γ enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay. Results Gene-gun delivery of the mouse Aβ42 dimer gene induced significant humoral immune responses in BALB/c wild-type mice after 3 vaccinations in 10-day intervals. All 3 mice in the treated group showed significant humoral immune responses. The ELISPOT assay for interferon-γ release with mouse Aβ42 peptide and Aβ9–18 showed no evident cytotoxic T-lymphocyte response. We further tested the responses of wild-type BALB/c mice to the monomer Aβ42 gene vaccine. Western blot evaluation showed both human and mouse Aβ monomer gene vaccine elicited detectable humoral immune responses. We also introduced the human Aβ42 monomer gene vaccine into AD double transgenic mice APPswe/PSEN1(A246E). Mice were vaccinated with plasmids that encode Aβ1–42 and Aβ1–16, or with plasmid without the Aβgene

  3. Training and recovery behaviors of exchange bias in FeNi/Cu/Co/FeMn spin valves at high field sweep rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, D.Z. [Institutt for fysikk, NTNU, NO-7491 Trondheim (Norway); Key Laboratory for Magnetism and Magnetic Materials of Ministry of Education, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Kapelrud, A.; Saxegaard, M. [Institutt for fysikk, NTNU, NO-7491 Trondheim (Norway); Wahlstroem, E., E-mail: erik.wahlstrom@ntnu.no [Institutt for fysikk, NTNU, NO-7491 Trondheim (Norway)

    2012-09-15

    Training and recovery of exchange bias in FeNi/Cu/Co/FeMn spin valves have been studied by magnetoresistance curves with field sweep rates from 1000 to 4800 Oe/s. It is found that training and recovery of exchange field are proportional to the logarithm of the training cycles and recovery time, respectively. These behaviors are explained within the model based on thermal activation. For the field sweep rates of 1000, 2000 and 4000 Oe/s, the relaxation time of antiferromagnet spins are 61.4, 27.6, and 11.5 in the unit of ms, respectively, much shorter than the long relaxation time ({approx}10{sup 2}s) in conventional magnetometry measurements. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We measure antiferromagnet (AFM) spin dynamic behaviors at high field sweep rates. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Increasing the field sweep rates will reduce the AFM recovery and relaxation time. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AFM spin is in millisecond timescale, shorter the conventional report ({approx}10{sup 2}-10{sup 4}).

  4. Analysis of phylogeny and codon usage bias and relationship of GC content, amino acid composition with expression of the structural nif genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Sunil Kanti; Kundu, Sudip; Das, Rabindranath; Roy, Sujit

    2016-08-01

    Bacteria and archaea have evolved with the ability to fix atmospheric dinitrogen in the form of ammonia, catalyzed by the nitrogenase enzyme complex which comprises three structural genes nifK, nifD and nifH. The nifK and nifD encodes for the beta and alpha subunits, respectively, of component 1, while nifH encodes for component 2 of nitrogenase. Phylogeny based on nifDHK have indicated that Cyanobacteria is closer to Proteobacteria alpha and gamma but not supported by the tree based on 16SrRNA. The evolutionary ancestor for the different trees was also different. The GC1 and GC2% analysis showed more consistency than GC3% which appeared to below for Firmicutes, Cyanobacteria and Euarchaeota while highest in Proteobacteria beta and clearly showed the proportional effect on the codon usage with a few exceptions. Few genes from Firmicutes, Euryarchaeota, Proteobacteria alpha and delta were found under mutational pressure. These nif genes with low and high GC3% from different classes of organisms showed similar expected number of codons. Distribution of the genes and codons, based on codon usage demonstrated opposite pattern for different orientation of mirror plane when compared with each other. Overall our results provide a comprehensive analysis on the evolutionary relationship of the three structural nif genes, nifK, nifD and nifH, respectively, in the context of codon usage bias, GC content relationship and amino acid composition of the encoded proteins and exploration of crucial statistical method for the analysis of positive data with non-constant variance to identify the shape factors of codon adaptation index.

  5. Differential regulation of the foraging gene associated with task behaviors in harvester ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Krista K; Kleeman, Lindsay; Peteru, Swetha

    2011-08-10

    The division of labor in social insect colonies involves transitions by workers from one task to another and is critical to the organization and ecological success of colonies. The differential regulation of genetic pathways is likely to be a key mechanism involved in plasticity of social insect task behavior. One of the few pathways implicated in social organization involves the cGMP-activated protein kinase gene, foraging, a gene associated with foraging behavior in social insect species. The association of the foraging gene with behavior is conserved across diverse species, but the observed expression patterns and proposed functions of this gene vary across taxa. We compared the protein sequence of foraging across social insects and explored whether the differential regulation of this gene is associated with task behaviors in the harvester ant, Pogonomyrmex occidentalis. Phylogenetic analysis of the coding region of the foraging gene reveals considerable conservation in protein sequence across insects, particularly among hymenopteran species. The absence of amino acid variation in key active and binding sites suggests that differences in behaviors associated with this gene among species may be the result of changes in gene expression rather than gene divergence. Using real time qPCR analyses with a harvester ant ortholog to foraging (Pofor), we found that the brains of harvester ant foragers have a daily fluctuation in expression of foraging with mRNA levels peaking at midday. In contrast, young workers inside the nest have low levels of Pofor mRNA with no evidence of daily fluctuations in expression. As a result, the association of foraging expression with task behavior within a species changes depending on the time of day the individuals are sampled. The amino acid protein sequence of foraging is highly conserved across social insects. Differences in foraging behaviors associated with this gene among social insect species are likely due to differences in gene

  6. Differential regulation of the foraging gene associated with task behaviors in harvester ants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleeman Lindsay

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The division of labor in social insect colonies involves transitions by workers from one task to another and is critical to the organization and ecological success of colonies. The differential regulation of genetic pathways is likely to be a key mechanism involved in plasticity of social insect task behavior. One of the few pathways implicated in social organization involves the cGMP-activated protein kinase gene, foraging, a gene associated with foraging behavior in social insect species. The association of the foraging gene with behavior is conserved across diverse species, but the observed expression patterns and proposed functions of this gene vary across taxa. We compared the protein sequence of foraging across social insects and explored whether the differential regulation of this gene is associated with task behaviors in the harvester ant, Pogonomyrmex occidentalis. Results Phylogenetic analysis of the coding region of the foraging gene reveals considerable conservation in protein sequence across insects, particularly among hymenopteran species. The absence of amino acid variation in key active and binding sites suggests that differences in behaviors associated with this gene among species may be the result of changes in gene expression rather than gene divergence. Using real time qPCR analyses with a harvester ant ortholog to foraging (Pofor, we found that the brains of harvester ant foragers have a daily fluctuation in expression of foraging with mRNA levels peaking at midday. In contrast, young workers inside the nest have low levels of Pofor mRNA with no evidence of daily fluctuations in expression. As a result, the association of foraging expression with task behavior within a species changes depending on the time of day the individuals are sampled. Conclusions The amino acid protein sequence of foraging is highly conserved across social insects. Differences in foraging behaviors associated with this gene among

  7. Synonymous Codon Usage Bias and Overexpression of a Synthetic Gene Encoding Interferon α2b in Yeast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin FANG; Bu-feng LIANG; Guang-yuan HE

    2007-01-01

    To achieve higher level expression of Interferon α2b (IFN-α2b) in methylotrophic yeast (Pichia pastoris), a cDNA fragment coding for the mature IFN-α2b was designed and synthesized based on the synonymous codon bias of P. pastoris and optimized G+C content. The synthetic IFN-α2b was inserted into the secreted expression vector pPICZαA, and then integrated into P. pastoris GS115 genome by electroporation. Multi-copy integrants in the Mut+ recombinant P. pastoris strain were screened by high concentrations of Zeocin. 120 hours culturing allowed expression of the IFN-α2b transformant up to 810 mg/L as detected by SDS-PAGE and quantitative methods. In addition, Western blot analysis showed that the recombinant proteins had immunogenicity. The significant antiviral activity of the recombinant IFN-α2b protein was verified by WISH/ VSV system, which was 3.3×105 IU/mL.

  8. Modulation of social behavior by the agouti pigmentation gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria eCarola

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Agouti is a secreted neuropeptide that acts as an endogenous antagonist of melanocortin receptors. Mice and rats lacking agouti (called non-agouti have dark fur due to a disinhibition of melanocortin signaling and pigment deposition in the hair follicle. Non-agouti animals have also been reported to exhibit altered behavior, despite no evidence for the expression of agouti outside the skin. Here we confirm that non-agouti mice show altered social behavior and uncover expression of agouti in the preputial gland, a sebaceous organ in the urinary tract that secretes molecules involved in social behavior. Non-agouti mice had enlarged preputial glands and altered levels of putative preputial pheromones and surgical removal of the gland reversed the behavioral phenotype. These findings demonstrate the existence of an autologous, out-of-skin pathway for the modulation of social behavior.

  9. The M235T polymorphism in the AGT gene and CHD risk: evidence of a Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium violation and publication bias in a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hadi Zafarmand

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The M235T polymorphism in the AGT gene has been related to an increased risk of hypertension. This finding may also suggest an increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A case-cohort study was conducted in 1,732 unrelated middle-age women (210 CHD cases and 1,522 controls from a prospective cohort of 15,236 initially healthy Dutch women. We applied a Cox proportional hazards model to study the association of the polymorphism with acute myocardial infarction (AMI (n = 71 and CHD. In the case-cohort study, no increased risk for CHD was found under the additive genetic model (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.20; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.86 to 1.68; P = 0.28. This result was not changed by adjustment (HR = 1.17; 95% CI, 0.83 to 1.64; P = 0.38 nor by using dominant, recessive and pairwise genetic models. Analyses for AMI risk under the additive genetic model also did not show any statistically significant association (crude HR = 1.14; 95% CI, 0.93 to 1.39; P = 0.20. To evaluate the association, a comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis were undertaken of all studies published up to February 2007 (searched through PubMed/MEDLINE, Web of Science and EMBASE. The meta-analysis (38 studies with 13284 cases and 18722 controls showed a per-allele odds ratio (OR of 1.08 (95% CI, 1.01 to 1.15; P = 0.02. Moderate to large levels of heterogeneity were identified between studies. Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE violation and the mean age of cases were statistically significant sources of the observed variation. In a stratum of non-HWE violation studies, there was no effect. An asymmetric funnel plot, the Egger's test (P = 0.066, and the Begg-Mazumdar test (P = 0.074 were all suggestive of the presence of publication bias. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The pooled OR of the present meta-analysis, including our own data, presented evidence that there is an increase in the risk of CHD conferred by the M235T variant

  10. Double-Blinding and Bias in Medication and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Trials for Major Depressive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    While double-blinding is a crucial aspect of study design in an interventional clinical trial of medication for a disorder with subjective endpoints such as major depressive disorder, psychotherapy clinical trials, particularly cognitive-behavioral therapy trials, cannot be double-blinded. This paper highlights the evidence-based medicine problem of double-blinding in the outcome research of a psychotherapy and opines that psychotherapy clinical trials should be called, "partially-controlled clinical data" because they are not double-blinded. The implications for practice are, 1. For practitioners to be clear with patients the level of rigor to which interventions have been studied, 2. For authors of psychotherapy outcome studies to be clear that the problem in the inability to blind a psychotherapy trial severely restricts the validity of any conclusions that can be drawn, and 3. To petition National Health Insurance plans to use caution in approving interventions studied without double-blinded confirmatory trials as they may lead patients to avoid other treatments shown to be effective in double-blinded trials.

  11. Behavioral vs. molecular sources of conflict between nuclear and mitochondrial DNA: The role of male-biased dispersal in a Holarctic sea duck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Jeffrey L.; Bolender, Kimberly A.; Pearce, John M.

    2012-01-01

    Genetic studies of waterfowl (Anatidae) have observed the full spectrum of mitochondrial (mt) DNA population divergence, from apparent panmixia to deep, reciprocally monophyletic lineages. Yet, these studies often found weak or no nuclear (nu) DNA structure, which was often attributed to male-biased gene flow, a common behaviour within this family. An alternative explanation for this ‘conflict’ is that the smaller effective population size and faster sorting rate of mtDNA relative to nuDNA lead to different signals of population structure. We tested these alternatives by sequencing 12 nuDNA introns for a Holarctic pair of waterfowl subspecies, the European goosander (Mergus merganser merganser) and the North American common merganser (M. m. americanus), which exhibit strong population structure in mtDNA. We inferred effective population sizes, gene flow and divergence times from published mtDNA sequences and simulated expected differentiation for nuDNA based on those histories. Between Europe and North America, nuDNA ФST was 3.4-fold lower than mtDNA ФST, a result consistent with differences in sorting rates. However, despite geographically structured and monophyletic mtDNA lineages within continents, nuDNA ФST values were generally zero and significantly lower than predicted. This between- and within-continent contrast held when comparing mtDNA and nuDNA among published studies of ducks. Thus, male-mediated gene flow is a better explanation than slower sorting rates for limited nuDNA differentiation within continents, which is also supported by nonmolecular data. This study illustrates the value of quantitatively testing discrepancies between mtDNA and nuDNA to reject the null hypothesis that conflict simply reflects different sorting rates.

  12. BAC-based sequencing of behaviorally-relevant genes in the prairie vole.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa A McGraw

    Full Text Available The prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster is an important model organism for the study of social behavior, yet our ability to correlate genes and behavior in this species has been limited due to a lack of genetic and genomic resources. Here we report the BAC-based targeted sequencing of behaviorally-relevant genes and flanking regions in the prairie vole. A total of 6.4 Mb of non-redundant or haplotype-specific sequence assemblies were generated that span the partial or complete sequence of 21 behaviorally-relevant genes as well as an additional 55 flanking genes. Estimates of nucleotide diversity from 13 loci based on alignments of 1.7 Mb of haplotype-specific assemblies revealed an average pair-wise heterozygosity (8.4×10(-3. Comparative analyses of the prairie vole proteins encoded by the behaviorally-relevant genes identified >100 substitutions specific to the prairie vole lineage. Finally, our sequencing data indicate that a duplication of the prairie vole AVPR1A locus likely originated from a recent segmental duplication spanning a minimum of 105 kb. In summary, the results of our study provide the genomic resources necessary for the molecular and genetic characterization of a high-priority set of candidate genes for regulating social behavior in the prairie vole.

  13. Fishing for genes influencing vertebrate behavior: zebrafish making headway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sison, Margarette; Cawker, Jacob; Buske, Christine; Gerlai, Robert

    2006-05-01

    The zebrafish (Danio rerio) has been a favorite model of developmental biologists and geneticists, but only recently have investigators begun to appreciate its usefulness in behavior genetics. Papers focusing on the behavior or brain function of this species were once extremely rare, but during the past decade rapid growth has taken place. Despite the increased interest, however, the number of studies devoted to the analysis of the behavior of this species is still orders of magnitude less than those conducted on more traditional laboratory subjects including the rat and the mouse. The authors review selected literature and demonstrate that zebrafish is an excellent subject for behavior genetics research, especially in the area of forward genetics (mutagenesis).

  14. Molecular variation at a candidate gene implicated in the regulation of fire ant social behavior.

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    Dietrich Gotzek

    Full Text Available The fire ant Solenopsis invicta and its close relatives display an important social polymorphism involving differences in colony queen number. Colonies are headed by either a single reproductive queen (monogyne form or multiple queens (polygyne form. This variation in social organization is associated with variation at the gene Gp-9, with monogyne colonies harboring only B-like allelic variants and polygyne colonies always containing b-like variants as well. We describe naturally occurring variation at Gp-9 in fire ants based on 185 full-length sequences, 136 of which were obtained from S. invicta collected over much of its native range. While there is little overall differentiation between most of the numerous alleles observed, a surprising amount is found in the coding regions of the gene, with such substitutions usually causing amino acid replacements. This elevated coding-region variation may result from a lack of negative selection acting to constrain amino acid replacements over much of the protein, different mutation rates or biases in coding and non-coding sequences, negative selection acting with greater strength on non-coding than coding regions, and/or positive selection acting on the protein. Formal selection analyses provide evidence that the latter force played an important role in the basal b-like lineages coincident with the emergence of polygyny. While our data set reveals considerable paraphyly and polyphyly of S. invicta sequences with respect to those of other fire ant species, the b-like alleles of the socially polymorphic species are monophyletic. An expanded analysis of colonies containing alleles of this clade confirmed the invariant link between their presence and expression of polygyny. Finally, our discovery of several unique alleles bearing various combinations of b-like and B-like codons allows us to conclude that no single b-like residue is completely predictive of polygyne behavior and, thus, potentially causally

  15. Species-Level Para- and Polyphyly in DNA Barcode Gene Trees: Strong Operational Bias in European Lepidoptera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutanen, Marko; Kivelä, Sami M.; Vos, Rutger A.; Doorenweerd, Camiel; Ratnasingham, Sujeevan; Hausmann, Axel; Huemer, Peter; Dincă, Vlad; van Nieukerken, Erik J.; Lopez-Vaamonde, Carlos; Vila, Roger; Aarvik, Leif; Decaëns, Thibaud; Efetov, Konstantin A.; Hebert, Paul D. N.; Johnsen, Arild; Karsholt, Ole; Pentinsaari, Mikko; Rougerie, Rodolphe; Segerer, Andreas; Tarmann, Gerhard; Zahiri, Reza; Godfray, H. Charles J.

    2016-01-01

    The proliferation of DNA data is revolutionizing all fields of systematic research. DNA barcode sequences, now available for millions of specimens and several hundred thousand species, are increasingly used in algorithmic species delimitations. This is complicated by occasional incongruences between species and gene genealogies, as indicated by situations where conspecific individuals do not form a monophyletic cluster in a gene tree. In two previous reviews, non-monophyly has been reported as being common in mitochondrial DNA gene trees. We developed a novel web service “Monophylizer” to detect non-monophyly in phylogenetic trees and used it to ascertain the incidence of species non-monophyly in COI (a.k.a. cox1) barcode sequence data from 4977 species and 41,583 specimens of European Lepidoptera, the largest data set of DNA barcodes analyzed from this regard. Particular attention was paid to accurate species identification to ensure data integrity. We investigated the effects of tree-building method, sampling effort, and other methodological issues, all of which can influence estimates of non-monophyly. We found a 12% incidence of non-monophyly, a value significantly lower than that observed in previous studies. Neighbor joining (NJ) and maximum likelihood (ML) methods yielded almost equal numbers of non-monophyletic species, but 24.1% of these cases of non-monophyly were only found by one of these methods. Non-monophyletic species tend to show either low genetic distances to their nearest neighbors or exceptionally high levels of intraspecific variability. Cases of polyphyly in COI trees arising as a result of deep intraspecific divergence are negligible, as the detected cases reflected misidentifications or methodological errors. Taking into consideration variation in sampling effort, we estimate that the true incidence of non-monophyly is ∼23%, but with operational factors still being included. Within the operational factors, we separately assessed the

  16. The Association between Infants' Self-Regulatory Behavior and MAOA Gene Polymorphism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Minghao; Chen, Xinyin; Way, Niobe; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Deng, Huihua; Ke, Xiaoyan; Yu, Weiwei; Chen, Ping; He, Chuan; Chi, Xia; Lu, Zuhong

    2011-01-01

    Self-regulatory behavior in early childhood is an important characteristic that has considerable implications for the development of adaptive and maladaptive functioning. The present study investigated the relations between a functional polymorphism in the upstream region of monoamine oxidase A gene (MAOA) and self-regulatory behavior in a sample…

  17. Monoamine Oxidase a Promoter Gene Associated with Problem Behavior in Adults with Intellectual/Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Michael E.; Srour, Ali; Hedges, Lora K.; Lightfoot, David A.; Phillips, John A., III; Blakely, Randy D.; Kennedy, Craig H.

    2009-01-01

    A functional polymorphism in the promoter of the gene encoding monoamine oxidase A has been associated with problem behavior in various populations. We examined the association of MAOA alleles in adult males with intellectual/developmental disabilities with and without established histories of problem behavior. These data were compared with a…

  18. Size-dependent foraging gene expression and behavioral caste differentiation in Bombus ignitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yokoyama Jun

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In eusocial hymenopteran insects, foraging genes, members of the cGMP-dependent protein kinase family, are considered to contribute to division of labor through behavioral caste differentiation. However, the relationship between foraging gene expression and behavioral caste in honeybees is opposite to that observed in ants and wasps. In the previously examined eusocial Hymenoptera, workers behave as foragers or nurses depending on age. We reasoned that examination of a different system of behavioral caste determination might provide new insights into the relationship between foraging genes and division of labor, and accordingly focused on bumblebees, which exhibit size-dependent behavioral caste differentiation. We characterized a foraging gene (Bifor in bumblebees (Bombus ignitus and examined the relationship between Bifor expression and size-dependent behavioral caste differentiation. Findings A putative open reading frame of the Bifor gene was 2004 bp in length. It encoded 668 aa residues and showed high identity to orthologous genes in other hymenopterans (85.3-99.0%. As in ants and wasps, Bifor expression levels were higher in nurses than in foragers. Bifor expression was negatively correlated with individual body size even within the same behavioral castes (regression coefficient = -0.376, P P = 0.018, within foragers. Conclusion These findings indicate that Bifor expression is size dependent and support the idea that Bifor expression levels are related to behavioral caste differentiation in B. ignitus. Thus, the relationship between foraging gene expression and behavioral caste differentiation found in ants and wasps was identified in a different system of labor determination.

  19. The Changes of Gene Expression in Honeybee (Apis mellifera) Brains Associated with Ages(Behavior Biology)

    OpenAIRE

    Mayumi, Tsuchimoto; Makoto, AOKI; Mamoru, Takada; Yoshinori, Kanou; Hiromi, Sasagawa; Yasuo, Kitagawa; Tatsuhiko, Kadowaki; Department of Applied Biological Sciences School of Agricultural Sciences, Nagoya University Chikusa; Tokyo Metropolitan Institute for Neuroscience; Graduate Program for Regulation of Biological Signals Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya University Chikusa

    2004-01-01

    Honeybee (Apis mellifera) worker bees (workers) are known to perform wide variety of tasks depending on their ages. The worker's brains also show the activity and behavior-dependent chemical and structural plasticity. To test if there are any changes of gene expression associated with different ages in the worker brains, we compared the gene expression patterns between the brains of newly emerged bees and old foraging workers (foragers) by macroarray analysis. The expression of genes encoding...

  20. Genetic influences on adolescent sexual behavior: Why genes matter for environmentally oriented researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, K Paige

    2014-03-01

    There are dramatic individual differences among adolescents in how and when they become sexually active adults, and early sexual activity is frequently cited as a cause of concern for scientists, policymakers, and the general public. Understanding the causes and developmental impact of adolescent sexual activity can be furthered by considering genes as a source of individual differences. Quantitative behavioral genetics (i.e., twin and family studies) and candidate gene association studies now provide clear evidence for the genetic underpinnings of individual differences in adolescent sexual behavior and related phenotypes. Genetic influences on sexual behavior may operate through a variety of direct and indirect mechanisms, including pubertal development, testosterone levels, and dopaminergic systems. Genetic differences may be systematically associated with exposure to environments that are commonly treated as causes of sexual behavior (gene-environment correlation). Possible gene-environment correlations pose a serious challenge for interpreting the results of much behavioral research. Multivariate, genetically informed research on adolescent sexual behavior compares twins and family members as a form of quasi experiment: How do twins who differ in their sexual experiences differ in their later development? The small but growing body of genetically informed research has already challenged dominant assumptions regarding the etiology and sequelae of adolescent sexual behavior, with some studies indicating possible positive effects of teenage sexuality. Studies of Gene × Environment interaction may further elucidate the mechanisms by which genes and environments combine to shape the development of sexual behavior and its psychosocial consequences. Overall, the existence of heritable variation in adolescent sexual behavior has profound implications for environmentally oriented theory and research.

  1. Genetic Influences on Adolescent Sexual Behavior: Why Genes Matter for Environmentally-Oriented Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, K. Paige

    2013-01-01

    There are dramatic individual differences among adolescents in how and when they become sexually active adults, and “early” sexual activity is frequently cited as a cause of concern for scientists, policymakers, and the general public. Understanding the causes and developmental impact of adolescent sexual activity can be furthered by considering genes as a source of individual differences. Quantitative behavioral genetics (i.e., twin and family studies) and candidate gene association studies now provide clear evidence for the genetic underpinnings of individual differences in adolescent sexual behavior and related phenotypes. Genetic influences on sexual behavior may operate through a variety of direct and indirect mechanisms, including pubertal development, testosterone levels, and dopaminergic systems. Genetic differences may be systematically associated with exposure to environments that are commonly treated as causes of sexual behavior (gene-environment correlation). Possible gene-environment correlations pose a serious challenge for interpreting the results of much behavioral research. Multivariate, genetically-informed research on adolescent sexual behavior compares twins and family members as a form of “quasi-experiment”: How do twins who differ in their sexual experiences differ in their later development? The small but growing body of genetically-informed research has already challenged dominant assumptions regarding the etiology and sequelae of adolescent sexual behavior, with some studies indicating possible positive effects of teenage sexuality. Studies of gene × environment interaction may further elucidate the mechanisms by which genes and environments combine to shape the development of sexual behavior and its psychosocial consequences. Overall, the existence of heritable variation in adolescent sexual behavior has profound implications for environmentally-oriented theory and research. PMID:23855958

  2. Conservation in Mammals of Genes Associated with Aggression-Related Behavioral Phenotypes in Honey Bees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Liu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The emerging field of sociogenomics explores the relations between social behavior and genome structure and function. An important question is the extent to which associations between social behavior and gene expression are conserved among the Metazoa. Prior experimental work in an invertebrate model of social behavior, the honey bee, revealed distinct brain gene expression patterns in African and European honey bees, and within European honey bees with different behavioral phenotypes. The present work is a computational study of these previous findings in which we analyze, by orthology determination, the extent to which genes that are socially regulated in honey bees are conserved across the Metazoa. We found that the differentially expressed gene sets associated with alarm pheromone response, the difference between old and young bees, and the colony influence on soldier bees, are enriched in widely conserved genes, indicating that these differences have genomic bases shared with many other metazoans. By contrast, the sets of differentially expressed genes associated with the differences between African and European forager and guard bees are depleted in widely conserved genes, indicating that the genomic basis for this social behavior is relatively specific to honey bees. For the alarm pheromone response gene set, we found a particularly high degree of conservation with mammals, even though the alarm pheromone itself is bee-specific. Gene Ontology identification of human orthologs to the strongly conserved honey bee genes associated with the alarm pheromone response shows overrepresentation of protein metabolism, regulation of protein complex formation, and protein folding, perhaps associated with remodeling of critical neural circuits in response to alarm pheromone. We hypothesize that such remodeling may be an adaptation of social animals to process and respond appropriately to the complex patterns of conspecific communication essential for

  3. The dopamine transporter gene, a spectrum of most common risky behaviors, and the legal status of the behaviors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang Guo

    Full Text Available This study tests the specific hypothesis that the 9R/9R genotype in the VNTR of the dopamine transporter gene (DAT1 exerts a general protective effect against a spectrum of risky behaviors in comparison to the 10R/9R and 10R/10R genotypes, drawing on three-time repeated measures of risky behaviors in adolescence and young adulthood on about 822 non-Hispanic white males from the Add Health study. Our data have established two empirical findings. The first is a protective main effect in the DAT1 gene against risky behaviors. The second finding is that the protective effect varies over age, with the effect prominent at ages when a behavior is illegal and the effect largely vanished at ages when the behavior becomes legal or more socially tolerated. Both the protective main effect and the gene-lifecourse interaction effect are replicated across a spectrum of most common risky behaviors: delinquency, variety of sexual partners, binge drinking, drinking quantity, smoking quantity, smoking frequency, marijuana use, cocaine use, other illegal drug use, and seatbelt non-wearing. We also compared individuals with the protective genotype and individuals without it in terms of age, physical maturity, verbal IQ, GPA, received popularity, sent popularity, church attendance, two biological parents, and parental education. These comparisons indicate that the protective effect of DAT1*9R/9R cannot be explained away by these background characteristics. Our work demonstrates how legal/social contexts can enhance or reduce a genetic effect on risky behaviors.

  4. Kindness in the blood: A randomized controlled trial of the gene regulatory impact of prosocial behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson-Coffey, S Katherine; Fritz, Megan M; Lyubomirsky, Sonja; Cole, Steve W

    2017-07-01

    Prosocial behavior is linked to longevity, but few studies have experimentally manipulated prosocial behavior to identify the causal mechanisms underlying this association. One possible mediating pathway involves changes in gene expression that may subsequently influence disease development or resistance. In the current study, we examined changes in a leukocyte gene expression profile known as the Conserved Transcriptional Response to Adversity (CTRA) in 159 adults who were randomly assigned for 4 weeks to engage in prosocial behavior directed towards specific others, prosocial behavior directed towards the world in general, self-focused kindness, or a neutral control task. Those randomized to prosocial behavior towards specific others demonstrated improvements (i.e., reductions) in leukocyte expression of CTRA indicator genes. No significant changes in CTRA gene expression were observed in the other 3 conditions. These findings suggest that prosocial behavior can causally impact leukocyte gene expression profiles in ways that might potentially help explain the previously observed health advantages associated with social ties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A batch-fabricated electret-biased wideband MEMS vibration energy harvester with frequency-up conversion behavior powering a UHF wireless sensor node

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Y.; O'Riordan, E.; Cottone, F.; Boisseau, S.; Galayko, D.; Blokhina, E.; Marty, F.; Basset, P.

    2016-12-01

    This paper reports a batch-fabricated, low-frequency and wideband MEMS electrostatic vibration energy harvester (e-VEH), which implements corona-charged vertical electrets and nonlinear elastic stoppers. A numeric model is used to perform parametric study, where we observe a wideband bi-modality resulting from nonlinearity. The nonlinear stoppers improve the bandwidth and induce a frequency-up feature at low frequencies. When the e-VEH works with a bias of 45 V, the power reaches a maximum value of 6.6 μW at 428 Hz and 2.0 g rms, and is above 1 μW at 50 Hz. When the frequency drops below 60 Hz, a ‘frequency-up’ conversion behavior is observed with peaks of power at 34 Hz and 52 Hz. The  -3 dB bandwidth is more than 60% of its central frequency, both including and excluding the hysteresis introduced by the nonlinear stoppers. We also perform experiments with wideband Gaussian noise. The device is eventually tested with an RF data transmission setup, where a communication node with an internal temperature sensor is powered. Every 2 min, a data transmission at 868 MHz is performed by the sensor node supplied by the e-VEH, and received at a distance of up to 15 m.

  6. Interleukin-18 deficiency reduces neuropeptide gene expressions in the mouse amygdala related with behavioral change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Yuta; Tanahashi, Toshihito; Katsuura, Sakurako; Kurokawa, Ken; Nishida, Kensei; Kuwano, Yuki; Kawai, Tomoko; Teshima-Kondo, Shigetada; Chikahisa, Sachiko; Tsuruo, Yoshihiro; Sei, Hiroyoshi; Rokutan, Kazuhito

    2010-12-15

    In this study, we examined the effects of IL-18 deficiency on behaviors and gene expression profiles in 6 brain regions. IL-18(-/-) mice reduced depressive-like behavior and changed gene expressions predominantly in the amygdala compared with wild-type mice. Pathway analysis of the differentially expressed genes ranked behavior as the top-scored biological function. Of note, the absence of IL-18 decreased Avp, Hcrt, Oxt, and Pmch mRNA levels and the number of arginine vasopressin- and oxytocin-positive cells in the amygdala, but not in the hypothalamus. Our results suggest that IL-18-dependent vasopressinergic and oxytocinergic circuitry in the amygdala may regulate depressive-like behaviors in mice. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Vulnerability or Sensitivity to the Environment? Methodological Issues, Trends, and Recommendations in Gene-Environment Interactions Research in Human Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leighton, Caroline; Botto, Alberto; Silva, Jaime R; Jiménez, Juan Pablo; Luyten, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Research on the potential role of gene-environment interactions (GxE) in explaining vulnerability to psychopathology in humans has witnessed a shift from a diathesis-stress perspective to differential susceptibility approaches. This paper critically reviews methodological issues and trends in this body of research. Databases were screened for studies of GxE in the prediction of personality traits, behavior, and mental health disorders in humans published between January 2002 and January 2015. In total, 315 papers were included. Results showed that 34 candidate genes have been included in GxE studies. Independent of the type of environment studied (early or recent life events, positive or negative environments), about 67-83% of studies have reported significant GxE interactions, which is consistent with a social susceptibility model. The percentage of positive results does not seem to differ depending on the gene studied, although publication bias might be involved. However, the number of positive findings differs depending on the population studied (i.e., young adults vs. older adults). Methodological considerations limit the ability to draw strong conclusions, particularly as almost 90% (n = 283/315) of published papers are based on samples from North America and Europe, and about 70% of published studies (219/315) are based on samples that were also used in other reports. At the same time, there are clear indications of methodological improvements over time, as is shown by a significant increase in longitudinal and experimental studies as well as in improved minimum genotyping. Recommendations for future research, such as minimum quality assessment of genes and environmental factors, specifying theoretical models guiding the study, and taking into account of cultural, ethnic, and lifetime perspectives, are formulated.

  8. Genotype-dependent participation of coat color gene loci in the behavioral traits of laboratory mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamuro, Yutaka; Shiraishi, Aya

    2011-10-01

    To evaluate if loci responsible for coat color phenotypes contribute to behavioral characteristics, we specified novel gene loci associated with social exploratory behavior and examined the effects of the frequency of each allele at distinct loci on behavioral expression. We used the F2 generation, which arose from the mating of F1 mice obtained by interbreeding DBA/2 and ICR mice. Phenotypic analysis indicated that the agouti and albino loci affect behavioral traits. A genotype-based analysis revealed that novel exploratory activity was suppressed in a manner dependent on the frequency of the dominant wild-type allele at the agouti, but not albino, locus. The allele-dependent suppression was restricted to colored mice and was not seen in albino mice. The present results suggest that the agouti locus contributes to a particular behavioral trait in the presence of a wild-type allele at the albino locus, which encodes a structural gene for tyrosinase.

  9. The New Look of Behavioral Genetics in Developmental Psychopathology: Gene-Environment Interplay in Antisocial Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2005-01-01

    This article reviews behavioral-genetic research to show how it can help address questions of causation in developmental psychopathology. The article focuses on studies of antisocial behavior, because these have been leading the way in investigating environmental as well as genetic influences on psychopathology. First, the article illustrates how…

  10. Behavioral biases in intertemporal decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Soypak, Kalender Can

    2013-01-01

    Modeling intertemporal decisions is essential to understand many financial decisions both at the household and at the company level. Most of the time, these decisions are very complicated and it is very difficult to develop a single model that can describe the intertemporal decision making process in different contexts. Still, this does not prevent many researchers from attempting to understand preferences of individuals in intertemporal decision setting, since people face intertemporal decis...

  11. Potential translational targets revealed by linking mouse grooming behavioral phenotypes to gene expression using public databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Andrew; Kyzar, Evan J; Cachat, Jonathan; Stewart, Adam Michael; Green, Jeremy; Gaikwad, Siddharth; O'Leary, Timothy P; Tabakoff, Boris; Brown, Richard E; Kalueff, Allan V

    2013-01-10

    Rodent self-grooming is an important, evolutionarily conserved behavior, highly sensitive to pharmacological and genetic manipulations. Mice with aberrant grooming phenotypes are currently used to model various human disorders. Therefore, it is critical to understand the biology of grooming behavior, and to assess its translational validity to humans. The present in-silico study used publicly available gene expression and behavioral data obtained from several inbred mouse strains in the open-field, light-dark box, elevated plus- and elevated zero-maze tests. As grooming duration differed between strains, our analysis revealed several candidate genes with significant correlations between gene expression in the brain and grooming duration. The Allen Brain Atlas, STRING, GoMiner and Mouse Genome Informatics databases were used to functionally map and analyze these candidate mouse genes against their human orthologs, assessing the strain ranking of their expression and the regional distribution of expression in the mouse brain. This allowed us to identify an interconnected network of candidate genes (which have expression levels that correlate with grooming behavior), display altered patterns of expression in key brain areas related to grooming, and underlie important functions in the brain. Collectively, our results demonstrate the utility of large-scale, high-throughput data-mining and in-silico modeling for linking genomic and behavioral data, as well as their potential to identify novel neural targets for complex neurobehavioral phenotypes, including grooming.

  12. Multiscale Modeling of Gene-Behavior Associations in an Artificial Neural Network Model of Cognitive Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Michael S C; Forrester, Neil A; Ronald, Angelica

    2016-01-01

    In the multidisciplinary field of developmental cognitive neuroscience, statistical associations between levels of description play an increasingly important role. One example of such associations is the observation of correlations between relatively common gene variants and individual differences in behavior. It is perhaps surprising that such associations can be detected despite the remoteness of these levels of description, and the fact that behavior is the outcome of an extended developmental process involving interaction of the whole organism with a variable environment. Given that they have been detected, how do such associations inform cognitive-level theories? To investigate this question, we employed a multiscale computational model of development, using a sample domain drawn from the field of language acquisition. The model comprised an artificial neural network model of past-tense acquisition trained using the backpropagation learning algorithm, extended to incorporate population modeling and genetic algorithms. It included five levels of description-four internal: genetic, network, neurocomputation, behavior; and one external: environment. Since the mechanistic assumptions of the model were known and its operation was relatively transparent, we could evaluate whether cross-level associations gave an accurate picture of causal processes. We established that associations could be detected between artificial genes and behavioral variation, even under polygenic assumptions of a many-to-one relationship between genes and neurocomputational parameters, and when an experience-dependent developmental process interceded between the action of genes and the emergence of behavior. We evaluated these associations with respect to their specificity (to different behaviors, to function vs. structure), to their developmental stability, and to their replicability, as well as considering issues of missing heritability and gene-environment interactions. We argue that gene-behavior

  13. Oxytocin receptor gene polymorphisms are associated with human directed social behavior in dogs (Canis familiaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kis, Anna; Bence, Melinda; Lakatos, Gabriella; Pergel, Enikő; Turcsán, Borbála; Pluijmakers, Jolanda; Vas, Judit; Elek, Zsuzsanna; Brúder, Ildikó; Földi, Levente; Sasvári-Székely, Mária; Miklósi, Adám; Rónai, Zsolt; Kubinyi, Enikő

    2014-01-01

    The oxytocin system has a crucial role in human sociality; several results prove that polymorphisms of the oxytocin receptor gene are related to complex social behaviors in humans. Dogs' parallel evolution with humans and their adaptation to the human environment has made them a useful species to model human social interactions. Previous research indicates that dogs are eligible models for behavioral genetic research, as well. Based on these previous findings, our research investigated associations between human directed social behaviors and two newly described (-212AG, 19131AG) and one known (rs8679684) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the regulatory regions (5' and 3' UTR) of the oxytocin receptor gene in German Shepherd (N = 104) and Border Collie (N = 103) dogs. Dogs' behavior traits have been estimated in a newly developed test series consisting of five episodes: Greeting by a stranger, Separation from the owner, Problem solving, Threatening approach, Hiding of the owner. Buccal samples were collected and DNA was isolated using standard protocols. SNPs in the 3' and 5' UTR regions were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction based techniques followed by subsequent electrophoresis analysis. The gene-behavior association analysis suggests that oxytocin receptor gene polymorphisms have an impact in both breeds on (i) proximity seeking towards an unfamiliar person, as well as their owner, and on (ii) how friendly dogs behave towards strangers, although the mediating molecular regulatory mechanisms are yet unknown. Based on these results, we conclude that similarly to humans, the social behavior of dogs towards humans is influenced by the oxytocin system.

  14. How contemporary human reproductive behaviors influence the role of fertility-related genes: the example of the p53 gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Maria Corbo

    Full Text Available Studies on human fertility genes have identified numerous risk/protective alleles involved in the occurrence of reproductive system diseases causing infertility or subfertility. Investigations we carried out in populations at natural fertility seem to suggest that the clinical relevance that some fertility genes are now acquiring depends on their interaction with contemporary reproductive behaviors (birth control, delayed childbearing, and spacing birth order, among others. In recent years, a new physiological role in human fertility regulation has emerged for the tumor- suppressor p53 gene (P53, and the P53 Arg72Pro polymorphism has been associated with recurrent implantation failure in humans. To lend support to our previous observations, we examined the impact of Arg72Pro polymorphism on fertility in two samples of Italian women not selected for impaired fertility but collected from populations with different (premodern and modern reproductive behaviors. Among the women at near-natural fertility (n = 98, the P53 genotypes were not associated with different reproductive efficiency, whereas among those with modern reproductive behaviors (n = 68, the P53 genotypes were associated with different mean numbers of children [Pro/Pro = 0.75genes may have become "detrimental" following exposure to modern reproductive patterns and might therefore be associated with reduced reproductive success. Set within an evolutionary framework, this change could lead to the selection of a set of gene variants fitter to current reproductive behaviors as the

  15. T cell receptor Vβ gene bias in rheumatoid arthritis%类风湿关节炎T细胞受体Vβ基因的表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张卓莉; 董怡; 张国柱

    2002-01-01

    目的通过对T细胞受体(TCR)的表达进行研究,探讨类风湿关节炎的发病机制.方法应用半定量的逆转录多聚酶链反应(RT-PCR)分析类风湿关节炎、骨关节炎、截肢病人滑膜和外周血中T细胞受体Vβ基因(TCR Vβ1-TCR Vβ24)的使用情况,经基因扫描分析确定其表达水平.结果类风湿关节炎、骨关节炎及截肢病人的滑膜组织与外周血表达绝大多数的Vβ基因;类风湿关节炎病人滑膜组织中Vβ基因的使用呈现更明显的不均衡状态;Vβ6、 Vβ17与Vβ22为优势亚群.其中以Vβ17增高最为显著.结论类风湿关节炎病人滑膜组织中Vβ基因的表达无限制性,但是存在明显的不均衡性.某些特定Vβ基因的选择性扩增支持类风湿关节炎为抗原或超抗原驱动的免疫过程.%Objectives To explore the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) by studying the expression of T cell receptors (TCRs).Methods T cell receptor Vβ (TCR Vβ) gene usage and expression were analyzed from synovial membrane and peripheral blood of 8 RA patients, 2 osteoarthritis patients and 2 accident amputees. The complementary determining region 3 (CDR3) of 25 TCR Vβ subfamily genes in unselected T cell populations were amplified semi-quantitatively by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The products were further studied by genescan for frequency of Vβ usage.Results The numbers of Vβ subfamilies expressed by T cells from RA peripheral blood and synovial membrane were not significantly restricted. More importantly, biasedgene expression in RA synovium was observed and Vβ6, Vβ17, and Vβ22 genes were the predominant subfamilies. It was noteworthy that the expression of Vβ17 in RA synovium was significantly increased. Conclusion Our data were consistent with the hypothesis that several antigen or superantigen-driven processes may be involved in the pathogenesis of RA.

  16. Gene targeting using homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells: The future for behavior genetics?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert eGerlai

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Gene targeting with homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells created a revolution in the analysis of the function of genes in behavioral brain research. The technology allowed unprecedented precision with which one could manipulate genes and study the effect of this manipulation on the central nervous system. With gene targeting, the uncertainty inherent in psychopharmacology regarding whether a particular compound would act only through a specific target was removed. Thus, gene targeting became highly popular. However, with this popularity came the realization that like other methods, gene targeting also suffered from some technical and principal problems. For example, two decades ago, issues about compensatory changes and about genetic linkage were raised. Since then, the technology developed, and its utility has been better delineated. This review will discuss the pros and cons of the technique along with these advancements from the perspective of the neuroscientist user. It will also compare and contrast methods that may represent novel alternatives to the homologous recombination based gene targeting approach, including the TALEN and the CRISPR/Cas9 systems. The goal of the review is not to provide detailed recipes, but to attempt to present a short summary of these approaches a behavioral geneticist or neuroscientist may consider for the analysis of brain function and behavior.

  17. For better and for worse: genes and parenting interact to predict future behavior in romantic relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masarik, April S; Conger, Rand D; Donnellan, M Brent; Stallings, Michael C; Martin, Monica J; Schofield, Thomas J; Neppl, Tricia K; Scaramella, Laura V; Smolen, Andrew; Widaman, Keith F

    2014-06-01

    We tested the differential susceptibility hypothesis with respect to connections between interactions in the family of origin and subsequent behaviors with romantic partners. Focal or target participants (G2) in an ongoing longitudinal study (N = 352) were observed interacting with their parents (G1) during adolescence and again with their romantic partners in adulthood. Independent observers rated positive engagement and hostility by G1 and G2 during structured interaction tasks. We created an index for hypothesized genetic plasticity by summing G2's allelic variation for polymorphisms in 5 genes (serotonin transporter gene [linked polymorphism], 5-HTT; ankyrin repeat and kinase domain containing 1 gene/dopamine receptor D2 gene, ANKK1/DRD2; dopamine receptor D4 gene, DRD4; dopamine active transporter gene, DAT; and catechol-O-methyltransferase gene, COMT). Consistent with the differential susceptibility hypothesis, G2s exposed to more hostile and positively engaged parenting behaviors during adolescence were more hostile or positively engaged toward a romantic partner if they had higher scores on the genetic plasticity index. In short, genetic factors moderated the connection between earlier experiences in the family of origin and future romantic relationship behaviors, for better and for worse.

  18. Gene Targeting Using Homologous Recombination in Embryonic Stem Cells: The Future for Behavior Genetics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlai, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Gene targeting with homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells created a revolution in the analysis of the function of genes in behavioral brain research. The technology allowed unprecedented precision with which one could manipulate genes and study the effect of this manipulation on the central nervous system. With gene targeting, the uncertainty inherent in psychopharmacology regarding whether a particular compound would act only through a specific target was removed. Thus, gene targeting became highly popular. However, with this popularity came the realization that like other methods, gene targeting also suffered from some technical and principal problems. For example, two decades ago, issues about compensatory changes and about genetic linkage were raised. Since then, the technology developed, and its utility has been better delineated. This review will discuss the pros and cons of the technique along with these advancements from the perspective of the neuroscientist user. It will also compare and contrast methods that may represent novel alternatives to the homologous recombination based gene targeting approach, including the TALEN and the CRISPR/Cas9 systems. The goal of the review is not to provide detailed recipes, but to attempt to present a short summary of these approaches a behavioral geneticist or neuroscientist may consider for the analysis of brain function and behavior.

  19. Population genetic structure of the African elephant in Uganda based on variation at mitochondrial and nuclear loci: evidence for male-biased gene flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyakaana, S; Arctander, P

    1999-07-01

    A drastic decline has occurred in the size of the Uganda elephant population in the last 40 years, exacerbated by two main factors; an increase in the size of the human population and poaching for ivory. One of the attendant consequences of such a decline is a reduction in the amount of genetic diversity in the surviving populations due to increased effects of random genetic drift. Information about the amount of genetic variation within and between the remaining populations is vital for their future conservation and management. The genetic structure of the African elephant in Uganda was examined using nucleotide variation of mitochondrial control region sequences and four nuclear microsatellite loci in 72 individuals from three localities. Eleven mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotypes were observed, nine of which were geographically localized. We found significant genetic differentiation between the three populations at the mitochondrial locus while three out of the four microsatellite loci differentiated KV and QE, one locus differentiated KV and MF and no loci differentiated MF and QE. Expected heterozygosity at the four loci varied between 0.51 and 0.84 while nucleotide diversity at the mitochondrial locus was 1.4%. Incongruent patterns of genetic variation within and between populations were revealed by the two genetic systems, and we have explained these in terms of the differences in the effective population sizes of the two genomes and male-biased gene flow between populations.

  20. Teacher-student relationships and adolescent behavioral engagement and rule-breaking behavior: The moderating role of dopaminergic genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Laet, Steven; Colpin, Hilde; Van Leeuwen, Karla; Van den Noortgate, Wim; Claes, Stephan; Janssens, Annelies; Goossens, Luc; Verschueren, Karine

    2016-06-01

    This study examined whether the dopamine transporter DAT1 and the dopamine receptor DRD4 genes moderate the effect of student-reported teacher-student relationship affiliation or dissatisfaction on parent-reported adolescent rule-breaking behavior and behavioral engagement. The sample included 1053 adolescents (51% boys, Mage=13.79) from grades 7 to 9. Regression analyses were conducted using Mplus while controlling for multiple testing and nested data. Adolescents who experienced stronger affiliation with their teachers were more engaged in school, whereas greater dissatisfaction predicted more rule-breaking behavior. In addition, a significant gene-environment interaction was found for both genes examined. The link between low teacher-student affiliation and low engagement was more pronounced for DAT1-10R homozygotes. The link between high teacher-student dissatisfaction and more rule-breaking was stronger for DRD4 non-long carriers. Implications for understanding the role of teacher-student relationships in adolescence and suggestions for future research are outlined.

  1. Global state measures of the dentate gyrus gene expression system predict antidepressant-sensitive behaviors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin A Samuels

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs such as fluoxetine are the most common form of medication treatment for major depression. However, approximately 50% of depressed patients fail to achieve an effective treatment response. Understanding how gene expression systems respond to treatments may be critical for understanding antidepressant resistance. METHODS: We take a novel approach to this problem by demonstrating that the gene expression system of the dentate gyrus responds to fluoxetine (FLX, a commonly used antidepressant medication, in a stereotyped-manner involving changes in the expression levels of thousands of genes. The aggregate behavior of this large-scale systemic response was quantified with principal components analysis (PCA yielding a single quantitative measure of the global gene expression system state. RESULTS: Quantitative measures of system state were highly correlated with variability in levels of antidepressant-sensitive behaviors in a mouse model of depression treated with fluoxetine. Analysis of dorsal and ventral dentate samples in the same mice indicated that system state co-varied across these regions despite their reported functional differences. Aggregate measures of gene expression system state were very robust and remained unchanged when different microarray data processing algorithms were used and even when completely different sets of gene expression levels were used for their calculation. CONCLUSIONS: System state measures provide a robust method to quantify and relate global gene expression system state variability to behavior and treatment. State variability also suggests that the diversity of reported changes in gene expression levels in response to treatments such as fluoxetine may represent different perspectives on unified but noisy global gene expression system state level responses. Studying regulation of gene expression systems at the state level may be useful in guiding new

  2. A novel Italian presenilin 2 gene mutation with prevalent behavioral phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcon, Gabriella; Di Fede, Giuseppe; Giaccone, Giorgio; Rossi, Giacomina; Giovagnoli, Anna Rita; Maccagnano, Elio; Tagliavini, Fabrizio

    2009-01-01

    Presenilin mutations are the main cause of familial Alzheimer's disease. So far, more than 160 mutations in the Presenilin 1 gene (PSEN1) and approximately 10 mutations in the homologous Presenilin 2 gene (PSEN2) have been identified. Some PSEN1 mutations are associated with a phenotype fulfilling the clinical criteria of frontotemporal dementia. In PSEN2, T122P and M239V mutations presented with severe behavioral disturbances. We describe an Italian patient with a novel PSEN2 mutation (Y231C) who showed behavioral abnormalities and language impairment as presenting symptoms, with later involvement of other cognitive abilities, particularly of posterior functions.

  3. Fruitless isoforms and target genes specify the sexually dimorphic nervous system underlying Drosophila reproductive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nojima, Tetsuya; Neville, Megan C; Goodwin, Stephen F

    2014-01-01

    Courtship is pivotal to successful reproduction throughout the animal kingdom. Sexual differences in the nervous system are thought to underlie courtship behavior. Male courtship behavior in Drosophila is in large part regulated by the gene fruitless (fru). fru has been reported to encode at least three putative BTB-zinc-finger transcription factors predicted to have different DNA-binding specificities. Although a large number of previous studies have demonstrated that fru plays essential roles in male courtship behavior, we know little about the function of Fru isoforms at the molecular level. Our recent study revealed that male-specific Fru isoforms are expressed in highly overlapping subsets of neurons in the male brain and ventral nerve cord. Fru isoforms play both distinct and redundant roles in male courtship behavior. Importantly, we have identified for the first time, by means of the DamID technique, direct Fru transcriptional target genes. Fru target genes overwhelmingly represent genes previously reported to be involved in the nervous system development, such as CadN, lola and pdm2. Our study provides important insight into how the sexually dimorphic neural circuits underlying reproductive behavior are established.

  4. Can merely learning about obesity genes affect eating behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dar-Nimrod, Ilan; Cheung, Benjamin Y; Ruby, Matthew B; Heine, Steven J

    2014-10-01

    Public discourse on genetic predispositions for obesity has flourished in recent decades. In three studies, we investigated behaviorally-relevant correlates and consequences of a perceived genetic etiology for obesity. In Study 1, beliefs about etiological explanations for obesity were assessed. Stronger endorsement of genetic etiology was predictive of a belief that obese people have no control over their weight. In Study 2, beliefs about weight and its causes were assessed following a manipulation of the perceived underlying cause. Compared with a genetic attribution, a non-genetic physiological attribution led to increased perception of control over one's weight. In Study 3, participants read a fictional media report presenting either a genetic explanation, a psychosocial explanation, or no explanation (control) for obesity. Results indicated that participants who read the genetic explanation ate significantly more on a follow-up task. Taken together, these studies demonstrate potential effects of genetic attributions for obesity.

  5. Gene expression changes following extinction testing in a heroin behavioral incubation model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freeman Willard M

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of gene expression studies have investigated changes induced by drug exposure, but few reports describe changes that persist following relapse. In this study, genome-wide analysis of gene expression was conducted following an extinction session (90 min in rats that expressed behavioral incubation of heroin-seeking and goal-directed behavior. As an important modulator of goal-directed behavior, the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC was the target of genomic analysis. Rats were trained to self-administer heroin during 3 h daily sessions for 14 d. Following the self-administration period, rats were reintroduced to the self-administration chambers for a 90-minute extinction session in which they could seek heroin, but received none. Extinction sessions were conducted on groups after either 1 d or 14 d of drug-free enforced abstinence to demonstrate behavioral incubation. Results Behavioral data demonstrated incubation (increased expression of heroin-seeking and goal-directed behavior after the 14 d abstinent period. That is, following 14 d of enforced abstinence, animals displayed heightened drug-seeking behavior when returned to the environment where they had previously received heroin. This increased drug-seeking took place despite the fact that they received no drug during this extinction session. Whole genome gene expression analysis was performed and results were confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR. Microarrays identified 66 genes whose expression was identified as changed by at least 1.4 fold (p bdnf, calb1, dusp5, dusp6, egr1, npy, rgs2. Conclusion Ontological analysis indicates that several of the genes confirmed to be changed are important for neuroplasticity, and through that role may impact learning and behavior. The importance of drug-seeking behavior and memory of previous drug-taking sessions suggest that such genes may be important for relapse. The global gene expression analysis adds to the

  6. The Schizophrenia-Associated BRD1 Gene Regulates Behavior, Neurotransmission, and Expression of Schizophrenia Risk Enriched Gene Sets in Mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvist, Per; Christensen, Jane Hvarregaard; Vardya, Irina;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The schizophrenia-associated BRD1 gene encodes a transcriptional regulator whose comprehensive chromatin interactome is enriched with schizophrenia risk genes. However, the biology underlying the disease association of BRD1 remains speculative. METHODS: This study assessed......-inhibition imbalances involving loss of parvalbumin immunoreactive interneurons. RNA-sequencing analyses of cortical and striatal micropunches from Brd1(+/-) and wild-type mice revealed differential expression of genes enriched for schizophrenia risk, including several schizophrenia genome-wide association study risk...... the transcriptional drive of a schizophrenia-associated BRD1 risk variant in vitro. Accordingly, to examine the effects of reduced Brd1 expression, we generated a genetically modified Brd1(+/-) mouse and subjected it to behavioral, electrophysiological, molecular, and integrative genomic analyses with focus...

  7. Testing candidate genes for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in fruit flies using a high throughput assay for complex behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, Palle Duun; Madsen, Lisbeth Strøm; Arvidson, Sandra Marie Neumann

    2016-01-01

    Fruit flies are important model organisms for functional testing of candidate genes in multiple disciplines, including the study of human diseases. Here we use a high-throughput locomotor activity assay to test the response on activity behavior of gene disruption in Drosophila melanogaster. The aim...... was to investigate the impact of disruption of 14 candidate genes for human attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on fly behavior. By obtaining a range of correlated measures describing the space of variables for behavioral activity we show, that some mutants display similar phenotypic responses...... in fruit flies. Results provide additional support for the investigated genes being risk candidate genes for ADHD in humans....

  8. Biased evaluations of in-group and out-group spectator behavior at sporting events: the importance of team identification and threats to social identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wann, Daniel L; Grieve, Frederick G

    2005-10-01

    Previous researchers have demonstrated that sport fans often exhibit in-group bias by reporting more positive evaluations of fellow in-group fans than of rival out-group fans. The authors designed the present investigation to extend previous research by replicating past efforts in a field setting and to advance our understanding of the impact of social identity threat. The present authors hypothesized that, in addition to the base-level in-group bias effect, the bias effect would be most pronounced in situations involving a threat to one's social identity. The authors believed that fans of a losing team and fans of a home team would experience threats to their identity and, consequently, exhibit particularly high levels of in-group favoritism. Further, because past researchers had shown that one's level of group identification plays a vital role in social perception, the present authors predicted an interaction in which the greatest amount of bias would be exhibited by highly identified fans rooting for a home team that had lost. Data gathered from spectators (N = 148) at 2 North American college basketball games confirmed the authors' expectations, with the exception that the supporters of the winning team reported higher levels of bias. The authors discussed the factors underlying the unexpected game outcome effect and the use of in-group bias as a coping strategy.

  9. Oxytocin and Opioid Receptor Gene Polymorphisms Associated with Greeting Behavior in Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enikő Kubinyi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Meeting humans is an everyday experience for most companion dogs, and their behavior in these situations and its genetic background is of major interest. Previous research in our laboratory reported that in German shepherd dogs the lack of G allele, and in Border collies the lack of A allele, of the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR 19208A/G single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP was linked to increased friendliness, which suggests that although broad traits are affected by genetic variability, the specific links between alleles and behavioral variables might be breed-specific. In the current study, we found that Siberian huskies with the A allele approached a friendly unfamiliar woman less frequently in a greeting test, which indicates that certain polymorphisms are related to human directed behavior, but that the relationship patterns between polymorphisms and behavioral phenotypes differ between populations. This finding was further supported by our next investigation. According to primate studies, endogenous opioid peptide (e.g., endorphins receptor genes have also been implicated in social relationships. Therefore, we examined the rs21912990 of the OPRM1 gene. Firstly, we found that the allele frequencies of Siberian huskies and gray wolves were similar, but differed from that of Border collies and German shepherd dogs, which might reflect their genetic relationship. Secondly, we detected significant associations between the OPRM1 SNP and greeting behavior among German shepherd dogs and a trend in Border collies, but we could not detect an association in Siberian huskies. Although our results with OXTR and OPRM1 gene variants should be regarded as preliminary due to the relatively low sample size, they suggest that (1 OXTR and OPRM1 gene variants in dogs affect human-directed social behavior and (2 their effects differ between breeds.

  10. Beyond main effects of gene-sets: Harsh parenting moderates the association between a dopamine gene-set and child externalizing behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Windhorst, D.A.; Mileva, V.R.; Rippe, R.C.A.; Tiemeier, H; Jaddoe, V. W. V.; Verhulst, F. C.; IJzendoorn, van, M.H.; Bakermans, M.J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background In a longitudinal cohort study, we investigated the interplay of harsh parenting and genetic variation across a set of functionally related dopamine genes, in association with children's externalizing behavior. This is one of the first studies to employ gene‐based and gene‐set approaches in tests of Gene by Environment (G × E) effects on complex behavior. This approach can offer an important alternative or complement to candidate gene and genome‐wide environmental interact...

  11. Beyond main effects of gene-sets: harsh parenting moderates the association between a dopamine gene-set and child externalizing behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Windhorst (Judith); V. Mileva-Seitz; R.C.A. Rippe (Ralph C.A.); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); M.H. van IJzendoorn (Marinus); M.J. Bakermans-Kranenburg (Marian)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: In a longitudinal cohort study, we investigated the interplay of harsh parenting and genetic variation across a set of functionally related dopamine genes, in association with children's externalizing behavior. This is one of the first studies to employ gene-based and gene-se

  12. Multiscale Modeling of Gene-Behavior Associations in an Artificial Neural Network Model of Cognitive Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Michael S. C.; Forrester, Neil A.; Ronald, Angelica

    2016-01-01

    In the multidisciplinary field of developmental cognitive neuroscience, statistical associations between levels of description play an increasingly important role. One example of such associations is the observation of correlations between relatively common gene variants and individual differences in behavior. It is perhaps surprising that such…

  13. Methylation of the Glucocorticoid Receptor Gene Promoter in Preschoolers: Links with Internalizing Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parade, Stephanie H.; Ridout, Kathryn K.; Seifer, Ronald; Armstrong, David A.; Marsit, Carmen J.; McWilliams, Melissa A.; Tyrka, Audrey R.

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that early adversity is linked to methylation of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) gene, "NR3C1," which is a key regulator of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Yet no prior work has considered the contribution of methylation of "NR3C1" to emerging behavior problems and psychopathology in…

  14. Gene, Brain, and Behavior Relationships in Fragile X Syndrome: Evidence from Neuroimaging Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightbody, Amy A.; Reiss, Allan L.

    2009-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FraX) remains the most common inherited cause of intellectual disability and provides a valuable model for studying gene-brain-behavior relationships. Over the past 15 years, structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging studies have emerged with the goal of better understanding the neural pathways contributing to the…

  15. Gene, Brain, and Behavior Relationships in Fragile X Syndrome: Evidence from Neuroimaging Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightbody, Amy A.; Reiss, Allan L.

    2009-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FraX) remains the most common inherited cause of intellectual disability and provides a valuable model for studying gene-brain-behavior relationships. Over the past 15 years, structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging studies have emerged with the goal of better understanding the neural pathways contributing to the…

  16. Natural biased coin encoded in the genome determines cell strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorri, Faezeh; Mahini, Hamid; Sharifi-Zarchi, Ali; Totonchi, Mehdi; Tusserkani, Ruzbeh; Pezeshk, Hamid; Sadeghi, Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    Decision making at a cellular level determines different fates for isogenic cells. However, it is not yet clear how rational decisions are encoded in the genome, how they are transmitted to their offspring, and whether they evolve and become optimized throughout generations. In this paper, we use a game theoretic approach to explain how rational decisions are made in the presence of cooperators and competitors. Our results suggest the existence of an internal switch that operates as a biased coin. The biased coin is, in fact, a biochemical bistable network of interacting genes that can flip to one of its stable states in response to different environmental stimuli. We present a framework to describe how the positions of attractors in such a gene regulatory network correspond to the behavior of a rational player in a competing environment. We evaluate our model by considering lysis/lysogeny decision making of bacteriophage lambda in E. coli.

  17. Natural biased coin encoded in the genome determines cell strategy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faezeh Dorri

    Full Text Available Decision making at a cellular level determines different fates for isogenic cells. However, it is not yet clear how rational decisions are encoded in the genome, how they are transmitted to their offspring, and whether they evolve and become optimized throughout generations. In this paper, we use a game theoretic approach to explain how rational decisions are made in the presence of cooperators and competitors. Our results suggest the existence of an internal switch that operates as a biased coin. The biased coin is, in fact, a biochemical bistable network of interacting genes that can flip to one of its stable states in response to different environmental stimuli. We present a framework to describe how the positions of attractors in such a gene regulatory network correspond to the behavior of a rational player in a competing environment. We evaluate our model by considering lysis/lysogeny decision making of bacteriophage lambda in E. coli.

  18. Association study of MAO-A and DRD4 genes in schizophrenic patients with aggressive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresan, Ana; Camarena, Beatriz; Apiquian, Rogelio; Aguilar, Alejandro; Urraca, Nora; Nicolini, Humberto

    2007-01-01

    Genes involved in dopamine neurotransmission are interesting candidates to be analyzed in schizophrenia and aggressive behavior. Therefore, we analyzed the functional polymorphisms of the dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) and monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) genes in a sample of 71 schizophrenic patients assessed with the Overt Aggression Scale to measure aggressive behavior. CLUMP analysis of the DRD4 48-bp repeat-exon III polymorphism in schizophrenic patients showed significant differences between the aggressive behavior and the nonaggressive groups (T1 = 18.77, d.f. = 6, p = 0.0046; T3 = 6.54, p = 0.0195). However, analysis of the promoter polymorphism of the MAO-A gene revealed no significant association between aggressive and nonaggressive patients. Finally, analysis of Overt Aggression Scale dimensions exhibited significant differences for the DRD4 and MAO-A genes. Our preliminary findings suggest that the DRD4 and MAO-A genes may be involved in aggressive schizophrenic patients.

  19. Species differences in brain gene expression profiles associated with adult behavioral maturation in honey bees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robinson Gene E

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Honey bees are known for several striking social behaviors, including a complex pattern of behavioral maturation that gives rise to an age-related colony division of labor and a symbolic dance language, by which successful foragers communicate the location of attractive food sources to their nestmates. Our understanding of honey bees is mostly based on studies of the Western honey bee, Apis mellifera, even though there are 9–10 other members of genus Apis, showing interesting variations in social behavior relative to A. mellifera. To facilitate future in-depth genomic and molecular level comparisons of behavior across the genus, we performed a microarray analysis of brain gene expression for A. mellifera and three key species found in Asia, A. cerana, A. florea and A. dorsata. Results For each species we compared brain gene expression patterns between foragers and adult one-day-old bees on an A. mellifera cDNA microarray and calculated within-species gene expression ratios to facilitate cross-species analysis. The number of cDNA spots showing hybridization fluorescence intensities above the experimental threshold was reduced by an average of 16% in the Asian species compared to A. mellifera, but an average of 71% of genes on the microarray were available for analysis. Brain gene expression profiles between foragers and one-day-olds showed differences that are consistent with a previous study on A. mellifera and were comparable across species. Although 1772 genes showed significant differences in expression between foragers and one-day-olds, only 218 genes showed differences in forager/one-day-old expression between species (p Conclusion We conclude that the A. mellifera cDNA microarray can be used effectively for cross-species comparisons within the genus. Our results indicate that there is a widespread conservation of the molecular processes in the honey bee brain underlying behavioral maturation. Species differences in

  20. Behavioral Resilience In the Post-Genomic Era: Emerging Models Linking Genes With Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard eRende

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important deliverables of the post-genomic era has been a new and nuanced appreciation of how the environment shapes – and holds potential to alter – the expression of susceptibility genes for behavioral dimensions and disorders. This paper will consider three themes that have emerged from cutting-edge research studies that utilize newer molecular genetic approaches as well as tried-and-true genetic epidemiological methodologies, with particular reference to evolving perspectives on resilience and plasticity. These themes are: 1 evidence for replicable and robust shared environmental effects on a number of clinically relevant behaviors in childhood and adolescence; 2 evolving research on gene-environment interaction; and 3 a newer focus on differential susceptibility and plasticity. The net sum of these themes is that consideration of genetic effects on behavioral dimensions and disorders needs to be connected to thinking about the role of environment as a potent source for promoting resilience and change.

  1. Insulin signaling genes modulate nicotine-induced behavioral responses in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wescott, Seth A; Ronan, Elizabeth A; Xu, X Z Shawn

    2016-02-01

    Insulin signaling has been suggested to modulate nicotine dependence, but the underlying genetic evidence has been lacking. Here, we used the nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans, to investigate whether genetic alterations in the insulin signaling pathway affect behavioral responses to nicotine. For this, we challenged drug-naive C. elegans with an acute dose of nicotine (100 μmol/l) while recording changes in their locomotion speed. Although nicotine treatment stimulated locomotion speed in wild-type C. elegans, the same treatment reduced locomotion speed in mutants defective in insulin signaling. This phenotype could be suppressed by mutations in daf-16, a gene encoding a FOXO transcription factor that acts downstream of insulin signaling. Our data suggest that insulin signaling genes, daf-2, age-1, pdk-1, akt-1, and akt-2, modulate behavioral responses to nicotine in C. elegans, indicating a genetic link between nicotine behavior and insulin signaling.

  2. Aggressive behavior, related conduct problems, and variation in genes affecting dopamine turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigorenko, Elena L; De Young, Colin G; Eastman, Maria; Getchell, Marya; Haeffel, Gerald J; Klinteberg, Britt af; Koposov, Roman A; Oreland, Lars; Pakstis, Andrew J; Ponomarev, Oleg A; Ruchkin, Vladislav V; Singh, Jay P; Yrigollen, Carolyn M

    2010-01-01

    A number of dopamine-related genes have been implicated in the etiology of violent behavior and conduct problems. Of these genes, the ones that code for the enzymes that influence the turnover of dopamine (DA) have received the most attention. In this study, we investigated 12 genetic polymorphisms in four genes involved with DA functioning (COMT, MAOA and MAOB, and DbetaH) in 179 incarcerated male Russian adolescents and two groups of matched controls: boys without criminal records referred to by their teachers as (a) "troubled-behavior-free" boys, n=182; and (b) "troubled-behavior" boys, n=60. The participants were classified as (1) being incarcerated or not, (2) having the DSM-IV diagnosis of conduct disorder (CD) or not, and (3) having committed violent or nonviolent crimes (for the incarcerated individuals only). The findings indicate that, although no single genetic variant in any of the four genes differentiated individuals in the investigated groups, various linear combinations (i.e., haplotypes) and nonlinear combinations (i.e., interactions between variants within and across genes) of genetic variants resulted in informative and robust classifications for two of the three groupings. These combinations of genetic variants differentiated individuals in incarceration vs. nonincarcerated and CD vs. no-CD groups; no informative combinations were established consistently for the grouping by crime within the incarcerated individuals. This study underscores the importance of considering multiple rather than single markers within candidate genes and their additive and interactive combinations, both with themselves and with nongenetic indicators, while attempting to understand the genetic background of such complex behaviors as serious conduct problems.

  3. Oxytocin receptor gene polymorphisms are associated with human directed social behavior in dogs (Canis familiaris.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kis

    Full Text Available The oxytocin system has a crucial role in human sociality; several results prove that polymorphisms of the oxytocin receptor gene are related to complex social behaviors in humans. Dogs' parallel evolution with humans and their adaptation to the human environment has made them a useful species to model human social interactions. Previous research indicates that dogs are eligible models for behavioral genetic research, as well. Based on these previous findings, our research investigated associations between human directed social behaviors and two newly described (-212AG, 19131AG and one known (rs8679684 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the regulatory regions (5' and 3' UTR of the oxytocin receptor gene in German Shepherd (N = 104 and Border Collie (N = 103 dogs. Dogs' behavior traits have been estimated in a newly developed test series consisting of five episodes: Greeting by a stranger, Separation from the owner, Problem solving, Threatening approach, Hiding of the owner. Buccal samples were collected and DNA was isolated using standard protocols. SNPs in the 3' and 5' UTR regions were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction based techniques followed by subsequent electrophoresis analysis. The gene-behavior association analysis suggests that oxytocin receptor gene polymorphisms have an impact in both breeds on (i proximity seeking towards an unfamiliar person, as well as their owner, and on (ii how friendly dogs behave towards strangers, although the mediating molecular regulatory mechanisms are yet unknown. Based on these results, we conclude that similarly to humans, the social behavior of dogs towards humans is influenced by the oxytocin system.

  4. Prenatal corticosterone exposure programs growth, behavior, reproductive function and genes in the chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelkareem A. Ahmed

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review paper was to understand the role of prenatal corticosterone exposure on growth, aggressive behavior, reproductive performance and gene expression in the chicken. The phenotype, physiology, reproductive function and behavioral characteristics of an organism are not only influenced by genetic factors, but also by environmental factors that play a critical role in shaping offspring morphology. Exposure to excess glucocorticoids during embryonic development influences offspring growth, physiology and behaviors associated with alterations of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and serotonergic system gene expression. Another influential factor for phenotype, physiology and behavioral development is maternal derived steroid hormones that deposit in the egg. In avian species, maternal influences have aroused much attention after the discovery that avian eggs contain a variety of maternal derived steroid hormones. In addition, the environment condition during ontogeny has played a critical role in behavioral development. In avian species, for example laying chicken, high quality mother care produced chicks that were less fearful. Laying hen maternal care is found to reduce cannibalistic pecking phenomenon. Genetic selection and selection experiments will also play a critical role in animals breeding for the housing systems of the future. To optimize animal welfare and to reduce risks factors such as pecking behavior, fundamental approaches are required that merge selection of the optimal genotype with provision of a positive environment for parents and offspring, both throughout ontogeny and later life.

  5. Copepod swimming behavior, respiration, and expression of stress-related genes in response to high stocking densities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Birgitte; Jakobsen, Hans; Stief, Peter

    2017-01-01

    ,000 ind. L−1. Three biological/physiological end-points were studied: swimming behavior, respiration rate and expression level of stress-related genes. None of the elevated densities caused any significant change in swimming behavior, respiration rate or gene expression level. This study suggests...

  6. Exchange bias effect and glassy-like behavior of EuCrO3 and CeCrO3 nano-powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taheri, M.; Kremer, R. K.; Trudel, S.; Razavi, F. S.

    2015-09-01

    The magnetic properties of nano-sized EuCrO3 and CeCrO3 powders, synthesized by a solution combustion method, were investigated using DC/AC magnetization measurements. An exchange bias effect, magnetization irreversibility and AC susceptibility dispersion in these samples provided evidence for the presence of the spin disorder magnetic phase. The exchange bias phenomenon, which is assigned to the exchange coupling between the glassy-like shell and canted antiferromagnetic core, showed the opposite sign in EuCrO3 and CeCrO3 at low temperatures, suggesting different exchange interactions at the interfaces in these compounds. We also observed a sign reversal of exchange bias in CeCrO3 at different temperatures.

  7. Exchange bias effect and glassy-like behavior of EuCrO{sub 3} and CeCrO{sub 3} nano-powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taheri, M., E-mail: maryam.taheri@brocku.ca; Razavi, F. S. [Department of Physics, Brock University, St. Catharines, Ontario L2S 3A1 (Canada); Kremer, R. K. [Department of Physics, Brock University, St. Catharines, Ontario L2S 3A1 (Canada); Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Trudel, S. [Department of Chemistry, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4 (Canada)

    2015-09-28

    The magnetic properties of nano-sized EuCrO{sub 3} and CeCrO{sub 3} powders, synthesized by a solution combustion method, were investigated using DC/AC magnetization measurements. An exchange bias effect, magnetization irreversibility and AC susceptibility dispersion in these samples provided evidence for the presence of the spin disorder magnetic phase. The exchange bias phenomenon, which is assigned to the exchange coupling between the glassy-like shell and canted antiferromagnetic core, showed the opposite sign in EuCrO{sub 3} and CeCrO{sub 3} at low temperatures, suggesting different exchange interactions at the interfaces in these compounds. We also observed a sign reversal of exchange bias in CeCrO{sub 3} at different temperatures.

  8. Instability in threshold voltage and subthreshold behavior in Hf-In-Zn-O thin film transistors induced by bias-and light-stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffarzadeh, Khashayar; Nathan, Arokia; Robertson, John; Kim, Sangwook; Jeon, Sanghun; Kim, Changjung; Chung, U.-In; Lee, Je-Hun

    2010-09-01

    Electrical bias and light stressing followed by natural recovery of amorphous hafnium-indium-zinc-oxide (HIZO) thin film transistors with a silicon oxide/nitride dielectric stack reveals defect density changes, charge trapping and persistent photoconductivity (PPC). In the absence of light, the polarity of bias stress controls the magnitude and direction of the threshold voltage shift (ΔVT), while under light stress, VT consistently shifts negatively. In all cases, there was no significant change in field-effect mobility. Light stress gives rise to a PPC with wavelength-dependent recovery on time scale of days. We observe that the PPC becomes more pronounced at shorter wavelengths.

  9. No evidence for the association between a polymorphism in the PCLO depression candidate gene with memory bias in remitted depressed patients and healthy individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janna N Vrijsen

    Full Text Available The PCLO rs2522833 candidate polymorphism for depression has been associated to monoaminergic neurotransmission. In healthy and currently depressed individuals, the polymorphism has been found to affect activation of brain areas during memory processing, but no direct association of PCLO with memory bias was found. We hypothesized that the absence of this association might have been obscured by current depressive symptoms or genetically driven individual differences in reactivity to stressful events. Experiencing stressful childhood events fosters dysfunctional assumptions that are related to cognitive biases, and may modulate the predisposition for depression via epigenetic effects. The association between PCLO and memory bias, as well as interaction between PCLO and childhood events was studied in patients remitted from depression (N = 299, as well as a sample of healthy individuals (N = 157. The participants performed an emotional verbal memory task after a sad mood induction. Childhood trauma and adversity were measured with a questionnaire. The Genotype main effect, and Genotype by Childhood Events interaction were analyzed for memory bias in both samples. PCLO risk allele carrying remitted depressed patients did not show more negatively biased memory than non-risk allele carriers, not even patients with stressful childhood events. A similar pattern of results was found in healthy individuals. Memory bias may not be strongly associated with the PCLO rs2522833 polymorphism. We did not find any support for the PCLO-childhood events interaction, but the power of our study was insufficient to exclude this possibility.

  10. Perception bias in route choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreeswijk, Jacob Dirk; Thomas, Tom; van Berkum, Eric C.; van Arem, Bart

    2014-01-01

    Travel time is probably one of the most studied attributes in route choice. Recently, perception of travel time received more attention as several studies have shown its importance in explaining route choice behavior. In particular, travel time estimates by travelers appear to be biased against

  11. Perception bias in route choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreeswijk, Jacob Dirk; Thomas, Tom; van Berkum, Eric C.; van Arem, Bart

    2014-01-01

    Travel time is probably one of the most studied attributes in route choice. Recently, perception of travel time received more attention as several studies have shown its importance in explaining route choice behavior. In particular, travel time estimates by travelers appear to be biased against non-

  12. Stereotype Formation : Biased by Association

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le Pelley, Mike E.; Reimers, Stian J.; Calvini, Guglielmo; Spears, Russell; Beesley, Tom; Murphy, Robin A.

    2010-01-01

    We propose that biases in attitude and stereotype formation might arise as a result of learned differences ill the extent its which social groups have previously been predictive elf behavioral or physical properties Experiments 1 and 2 demonstrate that differences in the experienced predictiveness o

  13. Perception bias in route choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreeswijk, J.D.; Thomas, T.; Berkum, van E.C.; Arem, van B.

    2014-01-01

    Travel time is probably one of the most studied attributes in route choice. Recently, perception of travel time received more attention as several studies have shown its importance in explaining route choice behavior. In particular, travel time estimates by travelers appear to be biased against non-

  14. Impact of prenatal polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure on behavior, cortical gene expression, and DNA methylation of the Bdnf gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel L. Miller

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH has been associated with sustained effects on the brain and behavior in offspring. However, the mechanisms have yet to be determined. We hypothesized that prenatal exposure to ambient PAH in mice would be associated with impaired neurocognition, increased anxiety, altered cortical expression of Bdnf and Grin2b, and greater DNA methylation of Bdnf. Our results indicated that during open-field testing, prenatal PAH–exposed offspring spent more time immobile and less time exploring. Females produced more fecal boli. Offspring prenatally exposed to PAH displayed modest reductions in overall exploration of objects. Further, prenatal PAH exposure was associated with lower cortical expression of Grin2b and Bdnf in males and greater Bdnf IV promoter methylation. Epigenetic differences within the Bdnf IV promoter correlated with Bdnf gene expression but not with the observed behavioral outcomes, suggesting that additional targets may account for these PAH-associated effects.

  15. Epigenetic Regulation of the Oxytocin Receptor Gene: Implications for Behavioral Neuroscience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert eKumsta

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Genetic approaches have improved our understanding of the neurobiological basis of social behavior and cognition. For instance, common polymorphisms of genes involved in oxytocin signaling have been associated with sociobehavioral phenotypes in healthy samples as well as in subjects with mental disorders. More recently, attention has been drawn to epigenetic mechanisms, which regulate genetic function and expression without changes to the underlying DNA sequence. We provide an overview of the functional importance of oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR promoter methylation and summarize studies that have investigated the role of OXTR methylation in behavioral phenotypes. There is first evidence that OXTR methylation is associated with autism, high callous-unemotional traits, and differential activation of brain regions involved in social perception. Furthermore, psychosocial stress exposure might dynamically regulate OXTR. Given evidence that epigenetic states of genes can be modified by experiences, especially those occurring in sensitive periods early in development, we conclude with a discussion on the effects of traumatic experience on the developing oxytocin system. Epigenetic modification of genes involved in oxytocin signaling might be involved in the mechanisms mediating the long-term influence of early adverse experiences on socio-behavioral outcomes.

  16. The Drosophila gene RanBPM functions in the mushroom body to regulate larval behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Scantlebury

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In vertebrates, Ran-Binding Protein in the Microtubule Organizing Center (RanBPM appears to function as a scaffolding protein in a variety of signal transduction pathways. In Drosophila, RanBPM is implicated in the regulation of germ line stem cell (GSC niche organization in the ovary. Here, we addressed the role of RanBPM in nervous system function in the context of Drosophila larval behavior. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We report that in Drosophila, RanBPM is required for larval feeding, light-induced changes in locomotion, and viability. RanBPM is highly expressed in the Kenyon cells of the larval mushroom body (MB, a structure well studied for its role in associative learning in Drosophila and other insects. RanBPM mutants do not display major disruption in nervous system morphology besides reduced proliferation. Expression of the RanBPM gene in the Kenyon cells is sufficient to rescue all behavioral phenotypes. Through genetic epistasis experiments, we demonstrate that RanBPM participates with the Drosophila orthologue of the Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein (FMRP in the development of neuromuscular junction (NMJ. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We demonstrate that the RanBPM gene functions in the MB neurons for larval behavior. Our results suggest a role for this gene in an FMRP-dependent process. Taken together our findings point to a novel role for the MB in larval behavior.

  17. Drosophila switch gene Sex-lethal can bypass its switch-gene target transformer to regulate aspects of female behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Daniel S.; Cline, Thomas W.

    2013-01-01

    The switch gene Sex-lethal (Sxl) was thought to elicit all aspects of Drosophila female somatic differentiation other than size dimorphism by controlling only the switch gene transformer (tra). Here we show instead that Sxl controls an aspect of female sexual behavior by acting on a target other than or in addition to tra. We inferred the existence of this unknown Sxl target from the observation that a constitutively feminizing tra transgene that restores fertility to tra− females failed to restore fertility to Sxl-mutant females that were adult viable but functionally tra−. The sterility of these mutant females was caused by an ovulation failure. Because tra expression is not sufficient to render these Sxl-mutant females fertile, we refer to this pathway as the tra-insufficient feminization (TIF) branch of the sex-determination regulatory pathway. Using a transgene that conditionally expresses two Sxl feminizing isoforms, we find that the TIF branch is required developmentally for neurons that also sex-specifically express fruitless, a tra gene target controlling sexual behavior. Thus, in a subset of fruitless neurons, targets of the TIF and tra pathways appear to collaborate to control ovulation. In most insects, Sxl has no sex-specific functions, and tra, rather than Sxl, is both the target of the primary sex signal and the gene that maintains the female developmental commitment via positive autoregulation. The TIF pathway may represent an ancestral female-specific function acquired by Sxl in an early evolutionary step toward its becoming the regulator of tra in Drosophila. PMID:24191002

  18. Political Accountability, Electoral Control, and Media Bias

    OpenAIRE

    Adachi, Takanori; Hizen, Yoichi

    2012-01-01

    Are anti-establishment mass media really useful in preventing politicians from behaving dishonestly? This paper proposes a voting model for analyzing how differences in the direction of media bias affect politicians' behavior. In particular, the probability of corruption by an incumbent is higher (than that in the case of no media bias) if and only if the mass media have some degree of "anti-incumbent" bias (i.e., information favorable to the incumbent is converted into unfavorable news about...

  19. Core and region-enriched networks of behaviorally regulated genes and the singing genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Osceola; Pfenning, Andreas R.; Howard, Jason T.; Blatti, Charles A; Liu, Fang; Ward, James M.; Wang, Rui; Audet, Jean-Nicolas; Kellis, Manolis; Mukherjee, Sayan; Sinha, Saurabh; Hartemink, Alexander J.; West, Anne E.; Jarvis, Erich D.

    2015-01-01

    Songbirds represent an important model organism for elucidating molecular mechanisms that link genes with complex behaviors, in part because they have discrete vocal learning circuits that have parallels with those that mediate human speech. We found that ~10% of the genes in the avian genome were regulated by singing, and we found a striking regional diversity of both basal and singing-induced programs in the four key song nuclei of the zebra finch, a vocal learning songbird. The region-enriched patterns were a result of distinct combinations of region-enriched transcription factors (TFs), their binding motifs, and presinging acetylation of histone 3 at lysine 27 (H3K27ac) enhancer activity in the regulatory regions of the associated genes. RNA interference manipulations validated the role of the calcium-response transcription factor (CaRF) in regulating genes preferentially expressed in specific song nuclei in response to singing. Thus, differential combinatorial binding of a small group of activity-regulated TFs and predefined epigenetic enhancer activity influences the anatomical diversity of behaviorally regulated gene networks. PMID:25504732

  20. The contributions of oxytocin and vasopressin pathway genes to human behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebstein, Richard P; Knafo, Ariel; Mankuta, David; Chew, Soo Hong; Lai, Poh San

    2012-03-01

    Arginine vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin (OXT) are social hormones and mediate affiliative behaviors in mammals and as recently demonstrated, also in humans. There is intense interest in how these simple nonapeptides mediate normal and abnormal behavior, especially regarding disorders of the social brain such as autism that are characterized by deficits in social communication and social skills. The current review examines in detail the behavioral genetics of the first level of human AVP-OXT pathway genes including arginine vasopressin 1a receptor (AVPR1a), oxytocin receptor (OXTR), AVP (AVP-neurophysin II [NPII]) and OXT (OXT neurophysin I [NPI]), oxytocinase/vasopressinase (LNPEP), ADP-ribosyl cyclase (CD38) and arginine vasopressin 1b receptor (AVPR1b). Wherever possible we discuss evidence from a variety of research tracks including molecular genetics, imaging genomics, pharmacology and endocrinology that support the conclusions drawn from association studies of social phenotypes and detail how common polymorphisms in AVP-OXT pathway genes contribute to the behavioral hard wiring that enables individual Homo sapiens to interact successfully with conspecifics. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Oxytocin, Vasopressin, and Social Behavior.

  1. [Some behavioral features in Drosophila melanogaster lines carrying a flamenco gene mutation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subocheva, E A; Romanova, L G; Romanova, N I; Kim, A I

    2001-11-01

    Olfactory sensitivity and locomotor activity was assayed in Drosophila melanogaster strains carrying a mutation of the flamenco gene, which controls transposition of the mobile genetic element 4 (MGE4) retrotransposon the gypsy mobile element. A change in olfactory sensitivity was detected. The reaction to the odor of acetic acid was inverted in flies of the mutator strain (MS), which carried the flam mutation and active MGE4 copies and were characterized by genetic instability. Flies of the genetically unstable strains displayed a lower locomotor activity. The behavioral changes in MS flies can be explained by the pleiotropic effect of the flam mutation or by insertion mutations which arise in behavior genes as a result of genome destabilization by MGE4.

  2. Antisocial behavior and polymorphisms in the oxytocin receptor gene: findings in two independent samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovey, D; Lindstedt, M; Zettergren, A; Jonsson, L; Johansson, A; Melke, J; Kerekes, N; Anckarsäter, H; Lichtenstein, P; Lundström, S; Westberg, L

    2016-07-01

    The quantitative genetic contribution to antisocial behavior is well established, but few, if any, genetic variants are established as risk factors. Emerging evidence suggests that the neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT) may modulate interpersonal aggression. We here investigated whether single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the OXT receptor gene (OXTR) are associated with the expression of antisocial behavior. A discovery sample, including both sexes, was drawn from the Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden (CATSS; n=2372), and a sample from the Twin Study of Child and Adolescent Development (TCHAD; n=1232) was used for replication. Eight SNPs in OXTR, selected on previous associations with social and antisocial behavior, were genotyped in the participants of CATSS. Significant polymorphisms were subsequently genotyped in TCHAD for replication. Participants completed self-assessment questionnaires-Life History of Aggression (LHA; available only in CATSS), and Self-Reported Delinquency (SRD; available in both samples)-designed to capture antisocial behavior as continuous traits. In the discovery sample, the rs7632287 AA genotype was associated with higher frequency of antisocial behavior in boys, and this was then replicated in the second sample. In particular, overt aggression (directly targeting another individual) was strongly associated with this genotype in boys (P=6.2 × 10(-7) in the discovery sample). Meta-analysis of the results for antisocial behavior from both samples yielded P=2.5 × 10(-5). Furthermore, an association between rs4564970 and LHA (P=0.00013) survived correction in the discovery sample, but there was no association with the SRD in the replication sample. We conclude that the rs7632287 and rs4564970 polymorphisms in OXTR may independently influence antisocial behavior in adolescent boys. Further replication of our results will be crucial to understanding how aberrant social behavior arises, and would support the OXT receptor as one

  3. Awareness Reduces Racial Bias

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Can raising awareness of racial bias subsequently reduce that bias? We address this question by exploiting the widespread media attention highlighting racial bias among professional basketball referees that occurred in May 2007 following the release of an academic study. Using new data, we confirm that racial bias persisted in the years after the study's original sample, but prior to the media coverage. Subsequent to the media coverage though, the bias completely disappeared. We examine poten...

  4. Effects of hypothyroidism induced by perinatal exposure to PTU on rat behavior and synaptic gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Kumiko; Tsuji, Ryozo; Yoshioka, Takafumi; Kushida, Masahiko; Yabushita, Setsuko; Sasaki, Madoka; Mino, Terumasa; Seki, Takaki

    2005-09-01

    Hypothyroidism in the rat induced by perinatal exposure to propylthiouracil (PTU) is a useful animal model to study molecular changes underlying neurobehavioral defects associated with this condition. Understanding the developmental alterations in gene expression related to the neurobehavioral dysfunction should help to identify molecular markers for developmental neurotoxicity at an early stage of development. In the present study, we evaluate the effects of PTU on the expression of a set of genes implicated in neural network formation or synaptic function at a minimal dose of PTU causing behavioral alteration. Various doses of PTU were administered to dams from late pregnancy to the lactation period and the expression of selected genes in the hippocampus and the cerebral cortex of offspring was examined by quantitative RT-PCR. Behavioral performance of PTU-treated rats was also assessed. PTU-treated rats showed increased motor activity and impairment of E-maze learning at weaning and after maturation. At doses causing such behavioral alteration, expression of GAP-43 and M1 mRNAs was changed during neuronal network formation, suggesting that levels of these factors during development are important for accurate postnatal development and function.

  5. Exchange bias behavior in Ni{sub 50.0}Mn{sub 35.5} In{sub 14.5} ribbons annealed at different temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, T. [Dept. de Fisica, Universidad de Oviedo, Calvo Sotelo s/n, 33007 Oviedo (Spain); Sato Turtelli, R.; Groessinger, R. [Institut fur Festkoerperphysik, Technische Universitaet Wien, Wiedner Hauptstr. 8-10, 1040 Vienna (Austria); Sanchez, M.L.; Santos, J.D.; Rosa, W.O.; Prida, V.M. [Dept. de Fisica, Universidad de Oviedo, Calvo Sotelo s/n, 33007 Oviedo (Spain); Escoda, Ll.; Sunol, J.J. [Campus de Montilivi, Universidad de Girona, edifici PII, Lluis Santalo s/n. 17003 Girona (Spain); Koledov, V. [Kotelnikov Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics, RAS, Moscow 125009 (Russian Federation); Hernando, B., E-mail: grande@uniovi.es [Dept. de Fisica, Universidad de Oviedo, Calvo Sotelo s/n, 33007 Oviedo (Spain)

    2012-10-15

    Heusler alloy Ni{sub 50.0}Mn{sub 35.5}In{sub 14.5} ribbons were prepared by melt-spinning technique. Several short time annealings were carried out in order to enhance the exchange bias effect in this alloy ribbon. The magnetic transition temperature increases with the annealing, compared to the as-spun sample, however no significant differences in respective Curie temperatures were observed for austenite and martensite phases in such annealed samples. Exchange bias effect is observed at low temperatures for all samples and practically vanishes at 60 K for the as-spun sample, whereas for the annealed ribbons it vanishes at 100 K.

  6. CSP and takeout genes modulate the switch between attraction and repulsion during behavioral phase change in the migratory locust.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Guo

    Full Text Available Behavioral plasticity is the most striking trait in locust phase transition. However, the genetic basis for behavioral plasticity in locusts is largely unknown. To unravel the molecular mechanisms underlying the behavioral phase change in the migratory locust Locusta migratoria, the gene expression patterns over the time courses of solitarization and gregarization were compared by oligonucleotide microarray analysis. Data analysis revealed that several gene categories relevant to peripheral olfactory perception are strongly regulated in a total of 1,444 differentially expressed genes during both time courses. Among these candidate genes, several CSP (chemosensory protein genes and one takeout gene, LmigTO1, showed higher expression in gregarious and solitarious locusts, respectively, and displayed opposite expression trends during solitarization and gregarization. qRT-PCR experiments revealed that most CSP members and LmigTO1 exhibited antenna-rich expressions. RNA interference combined with olfactory behavioral experiments confirmed that the CSP gene family and one takeout gene, LmigTO1, are involved in the shift from repulsion to attraction between individuals during gregarization and in the reverse transition during solitarization. These findings suggest that the response to locust-emitted olfactory cues regulated by CSP and takeout genes is involved in the behavioral phase change in the migratory locust and provide a previously undescribed molecular mechanism linked to the formation of locust aggregations.

  7. Estrogens Suppress a Behavioral Phenotype in Zebrafish Mutants of the Autism Risk Gene, CNTNAP2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Ellen J; Turner, Katherine J; Fernandez, Joseph M; Cifuentes, Daniel; Ghosh, Marcus; Ijaz, Sundas; Jain, Roshan A; Kubo, Fumi; Bill, Brent R; Baier, Herwig; Granato, Michael; Barresi, Michael J F; Wilson, Stephen W; Rihel, Jason; State, Matthew W; Giraldez, Antonio J

    2016-02-17

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are a group of devastating neurodevelopmental syndromes that affect up to 1 in 68 children. Despite advances in the identification of ASD risk genes, the mechanisms underlying ASDs remain unknown. Homozygous loss-of-function mutations in Contactin Associated Protein-like 2 (CNTNAP2) are strongly linked to ASDs. Here we investigate the function of Cntnap2 and undertake pharmacological screens to identify phenotypic suppressors. We find that zebrafish cntnap2 mutants display GABAergic deficits, particularly in the forebrain, and sensitivity to drug-induced seizures. High-throughput behavioral profiling identifies nighttime hyperactivity in cntnap2 mutants, while pharmacological testing reveals dysregulation of GABAergic and glutamatergic systems. Finally, we find that estrogen receptor agonists elicit a behavioral fingerprint anti-correlative to that of cntnap2 mutants and show that the phytoestrogen biochanin A specifically reverses the mutant behavioral phenotype. These results identify estrogenic compounds as phenotypic suppressors and illuminate novel pharmacological pathways with relevance to autism.

  8. Linking gene, brain, and behavior: DRD4, frontal asymmetry, and temperament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Louis A; Fox, Nathan A; Perez-Edgar, Koraly; Hamer, Dean H

    2009-07-01

    Gene-environment interactions involving exogenous environmental factors are known to shape behavior and personality development. Although gene-environment interactions involving endogenous environmental factors are hypothesized to play an equally important role, this conceptual approach has not been empirically applied in the study of early-developing temperament in humans. Here we report evidence for a gene-endoenvironment (i.e., resting frontal brain electroencephalogram, EEG, asymmetry) interaction in predicting child temperament. The dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) gene (long allele vs. short allele) moderated the relation between resting frontal EEG asymmetry (left vs. right) at 9 months and temperament at 48 months. Children who exhibited left frontal EEG asymmetry at 9 months and who possessed the DRD4 long allele were significantly more soothable at 48 months than other children. Among children with right frontal EEG asymmetry at 9 months, those with the DRD4 long allele had significantly more difficulties focusing and sustaining attention at 48 months than those with the DRD4 short allele. Resting frontal EEG asymmetry did not influence temperament in the absence of the DRD4 long allele. We discuss how the interaction of genetic and endoenvironmental factors may confer risk and protection for different behavioral styles in children.

  9. Implicit Social Biases in People With Autism

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Implicit social biases are ubiquitous and are known to influence social behavior. A core diagnostic criterion of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is abnormal social behavior. We investigated the extent to which individuals with ASD might show a specific attenuation of implicit social biases, using Implicit Association Tests (IATs) involving social (gender, race) and nonsocial (nature, shoes) categories. High-functioning adults with ASD showed intact but reduced IAT effects relative to healthy ...

  10. Citation bias and selective focus on positive findings in the literature on the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR), life stress and depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de Ymkje Anna; Roest, A. M.; Franzen, M.; Munaf, M. R.; Bastiaansen, J. A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Caspi et al.'s 2003 report that 5-HTTLPR genotype moderates the influence of life stress on depression has been highly influential but remains contentious. We examined whether the evidence base for the 5-HTTLPR-stress interaction has been distorted by citation bias and a selective focus o

  11. Implicit Social Biases in People With Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birmingham, Elina; Stanley, Damian; Nair, Remya; Adolphs, Ralph

    2015-11-01

    Implicit social biases are ubiquitous and are known to influence social behavior. A core diagnostic criterion of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is abnormal social behavior. We investigated the extent to which individuals with ASD might show a specific attenuation of implicit social biases, using Implicit Association Tests (IATs) involving social (gender, race) and nonsocial (nature, shoes) categories. High-functioning adults with ASD showed intact but reduced IAT effects relative to healthy control participants. We observed no selective attenuation of implicit social (vs. nonsocial) biases in our ASD population. To extend these results, we supplemented our healthy control data with data collected from a large online sample from the general population and explored correlations between autistic traits and IAT effects. We observed no systematic relationship between autistic traits and implicit social biases in our online and control samples. Taken together, these results suggest that implicit social biases, as measured by the IAT, are largely intact in ASD.

  12. What we think we do (to each other): how personality can bias behavior schemas through the projection of if-then profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammrath, Lara K

    2011-10-01

    People's knowledge about others includes not only person schemas about the typical traits of others but also behavior schemas about the likely interpersonal consequences of different behaviors. In this article, it is argued that perceiver effects can be interactive at the level of behavior schemas. A person's own personality configuration of if-then responses in social interactions (Mischel & Shoda, 1995) may contribute to that person's beliefs about the meaning and impact of relational behaviors more generally. In consequence, people who experience strong (or weak) responses to behaviors that vary along a particular trait dimension, such as warmth-coldness, may expect others to experience similarly strong (or weak) responses to those same kinds of behaviors. In 3 studies, people who were high in trait communion expected others to respond more strongly to behaviors that varied in warmth-coldness than did people who were low in trait communion, and people who were low in trait agency expected others to respond more strongly to behaviors that varied in assertiveness-unassertiveness than did people who were high in trait agency. Studies 2 and 3 provided evidence that participants' behavior schemas were based on assumptions derived from their own if-then personality profiles.

  13. Changes of osteosarcoma cell biological behavior afterId1 gene silencing by siRNA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    De-Li Xu

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the changes of osteosarcoma cell biological behaviors proliferation, migration and invasion afterId1gene silencing by siRNA.Methods:Osteosarcoma HEK293 cell lines were cultured and transfected with Id1-siRNA and NC-siRNA respectively, cell proliferation, migration and invasion were detected after 24 h and 48 h of transfection, and the expression levels of proliferation-promoting genes, proliferation-inhibiting genes as well as migration and invasion-related genes in cells were detected after 48 h of transfection. Results:After 24 h and 48 h of transfection, cell OD value and the number of invasive cells of Id1-siRNA group were significantly lower than those of NC-siRNA group, and scratch area was significantly larger than that of NC-siRNA group; after 48 h of transfection, hnRNP A2, hnRNP B1, S100A6, RUNX2, Aurora-A, Grb2, Gab2 and Rap2a expression levels of Id1-siRNA group were significantly lower than those of NC-siRNA group, and p53, TAp73 and IGFBP5 were significantly higher than those of NC-siRNA group.Conclusions:Id1 gene silencing by siRNA can inhibit osteosarcoma cell proliferation, migration and invasion.

  14. Altered behavior in mice with deletion of the alpha2-antiplasmin gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashita, Eri; Kanno, Yosuke; Ikeda, Kanako; Kuretake, Hiromi; Matsuo, Osamu; Matsuno, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    The α2-antiplasmin (α2AP) protein is known to be a principal physiological inhibitor of plasmin, and is expressed in various part of the brain, including the hippocampus, cortex, hypothalamus and cerebellum, thus suggesting a potential role for α2AP in brain functions. However, the involvement of α2AP in brain functions is currently unclear. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of the deletion of the α2AP gene on the behavior of mice. The motor function was examined by the wire hang test and rotarod test. To evaluate the cognitive function, a repeated rotarod test, Y-maze test, Morris water maze test, passive or shuttle avoidance test and fear conditioning test were performed. An open field test, dark/light transition test or tail suspension test was performed to determine the involvement of α2AP in anxiety or depression-like behavior. The α2AP knockout (α2AP-/-) mice exhibited impaired motor function compared with α2AP+/+ mice. The α2AP-/- mice also exhibited impairments in motor learning, working memory, spatial memory and fear conditioning memory. Furthermore, the deletion of α2AP induced anxiety-like behavior, and caused an anti-depression-like effect in tail suspension. Therefore, our findings suggest that α2AP is a crucial mediator of motor function, cognitive function, anxiety-like behavior and depression-like behavior, providing new insights into the role of α2AP in the brain functions.

  15. Polymorphism of the Oxytocin Receptor Gene Modulates Behavioral and Attitudinal Trust among Men but Not Women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuniyuki Nishina

    Full Text Available A relationship between the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR and behavioral and attitudinal trust has been suggested, but the nature of this relationship has not yet been established. We obtained behavioral trust data from 470 Japanese participants (242 women aged 20-59 years, together with their levels of general trust and personality traits (NEO-FFI. Saliva buccal swabs were collected from 411 of these 470 participants and used for genotyping of OXTR rs53576. Our participants were found to have more AA alleles (40% than GG alleles (12%. The GG men were more trusting and also rated higher on attitudinal trust than AA men, and this difference did not diminish when personality traits were controlled for. However, this pattern was not observed among women. In addition, controlling for attitudinal trust reduced the difference in behavioral trust among men to a non-significant level, but the difference in attitudinal trust remained significant when behavioral trust was controlled. These results indicate that the OXTR genotype affects attitudinal trust as part of an individual's relatively stable disposition, and further affects behavioral trust through changes in attitudinal trust.

  16. ANKRD7 and CYTL1 are novel risk genes for alcohol drinking behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xiang-ding; YAN Han; LIU Xiao-gang; LEI Shu-feng; LI Xi; NING Ling-ling; ZHU Xue-zhen; Shawn Levy; Henry R.Kranzler; Lindsay A.Farrer; Joel Gelernter; XIONG Dong-hai; Robert R.Recker; DENG Hong-wen; YANG Tie-lin; PEI Yu-fang; GUO Yan-fang; LI Jian; YANG Fang; PAN Feng; TAN Li-jun

    2012-01-01

    Background Alcohol dependence (AD) is a complex disorder characterized by impaired control over drinking.It is determined by both genetic and environmental factors.The recent approach of genome-wide association study (GWAS)is a powerful tool for identifying complex disease-associated susceptibility alleles,however,a few GWASs have been conducted for AD,and their results are largely inconsistent.The present study aimed to screen the loci associated with alcohol-related phenotypes using GWAS technology.Methods A genome-wide association study with the behavior of regular alcohol drinking and alcohol consumption was performed to identify susceptibility genes associated with AD,using the Affymetrix 500K SNP array in an initial sample consisting of 904 unrelated Caucasian subjects.Then,the initial results in GWAS were replicated in three independent samples:1972 Caucasians in 593 nuclear families,761 unrelated Caucasian subjects,and 2955 unrelated Chinese Hans.Results Several genes were associated with the alcohol-related phenotypes at the genome-wide significance level,with the ankyrin repeat domain 7 gene (ANKRD7) showing the strongest statistical evidence for regular alcohol drinking and suggestive statistical evidence for alcohol consumption.In addition,certain haplotypes within the ANKRD7 and cytokine-like1 (CYTL 1) genes were significantly associated with regular drinking behavior,such as one ANKRD7 block composed of the SNPs rs6466686-rs4295599-rs12531086 (P =6.51 ×10-8).The association of alcohol consumption was successfully replicated with rs4295599 in ANKRD7 gene in independent Caucasian nuclear families and independent unrelated Chinese Hans,and with rs16836497 in CYTL1 gene in independent unrelated Caucasians.Meta-analyses based on both the GWAS and replication samples further supported the observed significant associations between the ANKRD7or CYTL 1 gene and alcohol consumption.Conclusion The evidence suggests that ANKRD7 and CYTL1 genes may play an

  17. [Male reproductive behavior in Drosophila melanogaster strains with different alleles of the flamenco gene].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subocheva, E A; Romanova, N I; Karpova, N N; Iuneva, A O; Kim, A I

    2003-05-01

    The allelic state of gene flamenco has been determined in a number of Drosophila melanogaster strains using the ovoD test. The presence of an active copy of gypsy in these strains was detected by restriction analysis. Then male reproduction behavior was studied in the strains carrying a mutation in gene flamenco. In these experiments mating success has been experimentally estimated in groups of flies. It has been demonstrated that the presence of mutant allele flamMS decreases male mating activity irrespective of the presence or absence of mutation white. The active copy of gypsy does not affect mating activity in the absence of the mutation in gene flamenco. Individual analysis has demonstrated that that mutation flamMS results in characteristic changes in courtship: flamMS males exhibit a delay in the transition from the orientation stage to the vibration stage (the so-called vibration delay). The role of locus flamenco in the formation of male mating behavior in Drosophila is discussed.

  18. Reduced CAG repeats length in androgen receptor gene is associated with violent criminal behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajender, Singh; Pandu, Guguluth; Sharma, J D; Gandhi, K P C; Singh, Lalji; Thangaraj, Kumarasamy

    2008-09-01

    Androgens mediate their functions through androgen receptors (AR). The two triplet repeats in the AR gene (CAG and GGN) are highly polymorphic among various populations and have been extensively studied in diverse clinical conditions and antisocial personality disorders. Several studies have reported either higher levels of testosterone among rapists or the correlation of shorter CAG repeats with criminal activities. However, to date, no study has analyzed AR gene in rapists worldwide, and no study has been conducted on criminals from Indian subcontinent. Therefore, we have analyzed the AR-CAG repeat length in 645 men, of which 241 were convicted for rape, 107 for murder, 26 for both murder and rape, and 271 were control males. The aim was to explore if there was any correlation between CAG repeat length and criminal behavior. The study revealed significantly shorter CAG repeats in the rapists (mean 18.44 repeats) and murderers (mean 17.59 repeats) compared to the control men (mean 21.19 repeats). The criminals who committed murder after rape had a far shorter mean repeat length (mean 17.31 repeats) in comparison to the controls or those convicted of rape or murder alone. In short, our study suggests that the reduced CAG repeats in the AR gene are associated with criminal behavior. This, along with other studies, would help in understanding the biological factors associated with the antisocial or criminal activities.

  19. Effects of defect creation on bidirectional behavior with hump characteristics of InGaZnO TFTs under bias and thermal stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Hwarim; Song, Hyunsoo; Jeong, Jaewook; Hong, Yewon; Hong, Yongtaek

    2015-03-01

    We investigated the hump characteristics of amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide thin-film transistors. The device showed a field effect mobility of 24.3 cm2 V-1 s-1, a threshold voltage (Vth) of 4.8 V, and a subthreshold swing of 120 mV/dec. Under positive gate bias stress, Vth showed bidirectional shift with a hump. Vth was positively and negatively shifted in the above-threshold and subthreshold regions, respectively. At high temperatures, Vth was more positively shifted without bidirectional shift. Under simultaneous drain bias stress (VDS,stress), the hump was maintained. However, the bidirectional shift was not observed with an increasing VDS,stress. The hump and positive shift are related to the defect creation of the shallow donor-like and deep-level acceptor-like states, respectively. We performed a two-dimensional device simulation to further investigate this phenomenon. By varying the peak values of the Gaussian shallow donor-like and deep acceptor-like states, we qualitatively confirmed the relationship between the two states and transfer curve changes.

  20. The Oxytocin Receptor Gene (OXTR) and gazing behavior during social interaction: An observational study in young adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, M.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Roekel, G.H. van

    2014-01-01

    Background: In the present study, the relation between a polymorphic marker within the OXTR gene (rs53576) and gazing behavior during two separate social interaction tasks was examined. Gazing behavior was considered to be an integral part of belonging regulation processes. Methods: We conducted an

  1. Constitutive expression of the Period1 gene impairs behavioral and molecular circadian rhythms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numano, Rika; Yamazaki, Shin; Umeda, Nanae; Samura, Tomonori; Sujino, Mitsugu; Takahashi, Ri-ichi; Ueda, Masatsugu; Mori, Akiko; Yamada, Kazunori; Sakaki, Yoshiyuki; Inouye, Shin-ichi T; Menaker, Michael; Tei, Hajime

    2006-03-07

    Three mammalian Period (Per) genes, termed Per1, Per2, and Per3, have been identified as structural homologues of the Drosophila circadian clock gene, period (per). The three Per genes are rhythmically expressed in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), the central circadian pacemaker in mammals. The phases of peak mRNA levels for the three Per genes in the SCN are slightly different. Light sequentially induces the transcripts of Per1 and Per2 but not of Per3 in mice. These data and others suggest that each Per gene has a different but partially redundant function in mammals. To elucidate the function of Per1 in the circadian system in vivo, we generated two transgenic rat lines in which the mouse Per1 (mPer1) transcript was constitutively expressed under the control of either the human elongation factor-1alpha (EF-1alpha) or the rat neuron-specific enolase (NSE) promoter. The transgenic rats exhibited an approximately 0.6-1.0-h longer circadian period than their wild-type siblings in both activity and body temperature rhythms. Entrainment in response to light cycles was dramatically impaired in the transgenic rats. Molecular analysis revealed that the amplitudes of oscillation in the rat Per1 (rPer1) and rat Per2 (rPer2) mRNAs were significantly attenuated in the SCN and eyes of the transgenic rats. These results indicate that either the level of Per1, which is raised by overexpression, or its rhythmic expression, which is damped or abolished in over expressing animals, is critical for normal entrainment of behavior and molecular oscillation of other clock genes.

  2. Consistent Differential Expression Pattern (CDEP on microarray to identify genes related to metastatic behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsoi Lam C

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To utilize the large volume of gene expression information generated from different microarray experiments, several meta-analysis techniques have been developed. Despite these efforts, there remain significant challenges to effectively increasing the statistical power and decreasing the Type I error rate while pooling the heterogeneous datasets from public resources. The objective of this study is to develop a novel meta-analysis approach, Consistent Differential Expression Pattern (CDEP, to identify genes with common differential expression patterns across different datasets. Results We combined False Discovery Rate (FDR estimation and the non-parametric RankProd approach to estimate the Type I error rate in each microarray dataset of the meta-analysis. These Type I error rates from all datasets were then used to identify genes with common differential expression patterns. Our simulation study showed that CDEP achieved higher statistical power and maintained low Type I error rate when compared with two recently proposed meta-analysis approaches. We applied CDEP to analyze microarray data from different laboratories that compared transcription profiles between metastatic and primary cancer of different types. Many genes identified as differentially expressed consistently across different cancer types are in pathways related to metastatic behavior, such as ECM-receptor interaction, focal adhesion, and blood vessel development. We also identified novel genes such as AMIGO2, Gem, and CXCL11 that have not been shown to associate with, but may play roles in, metastasis. Conclusions CDEP is a flexible approach that borrows information from each dataset in a meta-analysis in order to identify genes being differentially expressed consistently. We have shown that CDEP can gain higher statistical power than other existing approaches under a variety of settings considered in the simulation study, suggesting its robustness and

  3. Humans as Superorganisms: How Microbes, Viruses, Imprinted Genes, and Other Selfish Entities Shape Our Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Peter; Bressan, Paola

    2015-07-01

    Psychologists and psychiatrists tend to be little aware that (a) microbes in our brains and guts are capable of altering our behavior; (b) viral DNA that was incorporated into our DNA millions of years ago is implicated in mental disorders; (c) many of us carry the cells of another human in our brains; and (d) under the regulation of viruslike elements, the paternally inherited and maternally inherited copies of some genes compete for domination in the offspring, on whom they have opposite physical and behavioral effects. This article provides a broad overview, aimed at a wide readership, of the consequences of our coexistence with these selfish entities. The overarching message is that we are not unitary individuals but superorganisms, built out of both human and nonhuman elements; it is their interaction that determines who we are.

  4. Decomposing Bias in Different Types of Simple Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Corey N.; Poldrack, Russell A.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to adjust bias, or preference for an option, allows for great behavioral flexibility. Decision bias is also important for understanding cognition as it can provide useful information about underlying cognitive processes. Previous work suggests that bias can be adjusted in 2 primary ways: by adjusting how the stimulus under…

  5. Alcohol and aggressive behavior in men--moderating effects of oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, A; Bergman, H; Corander, J; Waldman, I D; Karrani, N; Salo, B; Jern, P; Algars, M; Sandnabba, K; Santtila, P; Westberg, L

    2012-03-01

    We explored if the disposition to react with aggression while alcohol intoxicated was moderated by polymorphic variants of the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR). Twelve OXTR polymorphisms were genotyped in 116 Finnish men [aged 18-30, M = 22.7, standard deviation (SD) = 2.4] who were randomly assigned to an alcohol condition in which they received an alcohol dose of 0.7 g pure ethanol/kg body weight or a placebo condition. Aggressive behavior was measured using a laboratory paradigm in which it was operationalized as the level of aversive noise administered to a fictive opponent. No main effects of the polymorphisms on aggressive behavior were found after controlling for multiple testing. The interactive effects between alcohol and two of the OXTR polymorphisms (rs4564970 and rs1488467) on aggressive behavior were nominally significant and remained significant for the rs4564970 when controlled for multiple tests. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first experimental study suggesting interactive effects of specific genetic variants and alcohol on aggressive behavior in humans.

  6. 外部性约束、认知偏差、行为偏差与农户贷款困境——来自716户农户贷款调查问卷数据的实证检验%Exterior Restrictions, Congnitive Bias, Behavior Bias, and the Farmer's Loan Dilemma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王冀宁; 赵顺龙

    2007-01-01

    以往的研究认为:正规金融机构对农村金融服务的缺位等外部性约束(external constraints)是农户贷款困境的主因.但是,农户对于贷款的认知偏差(cognitive bias)、在贷款使用过程中的行为偏差(behavior bias)是否也是制约农户贷款困境的重要因素?正规金融机构的外部性约束,农户自身的认知偏差和行为偏差是否交织影响、导致困境愈陷愈深?本文通过对716户农民贷款调查问卷数据的实证研究,建立SEM结构方程模型,揭示了正规金融机构的外部性约束、农户自身的认知偏差和行为偏差和农户贷款困境的相互影响关系,提出相应的政策建议.

  7. Frequency of 3' VNTR Polymorphism in the Dopamine Transporter Gene SLC6A3 in Humans Predisposed to Antisocial Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherepkova, E V; Aftanas, L I; Maksimov, N; Menshanov, P N

    2016-11-01

    Predisposition to antisocial behavior can be related to the presence of certain polymorphic variants of genes encoding dopaminergic system proteins. We studied the frequencies of allele variants and genotypes of variable number tandem repeat polymorphism in 3' untranslated region (3' VTNR) of the dopaminergic transporter SLC6A3 gene in Caucasian men committed socially dangerous violent and non-violent crimes. Alleles with 9 and 10 repeats were most frequent in both the control group and group of men predisposed to antisocial behavior. At the same time, the 10/10 genotype was more frequently observed in the group of men prone to antisocial non-violent behavior. Hence, the presence of certain variants of 3' VTNR polymorphism of SLC6A3 gene in men is associated with predisposition to certain forms of antisocial behavior.

  8. Altered behavior in mice with deletion of the alpha2-antiplasmin gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eri Kawashita

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The α2-antiplasmin (α2AP protein is known to be a principal physiological inhibitor of plasmin, and is expressed in various part of the brain, including the hippocampus, cortex, hypothalamus and cerebellum, thus suggesting a potential role for α2AP in brain functions. However, the involvement of α2AP in brain functions is currently unclear. OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of the deletion of the α2AP gene on the behavior of mice. METHODS: The motor function was examined by the wire hang test and rotarod test. To evaluate the cognitive function, a repeated rotarod test, Y-maze test, Morris water maze test, passive or shuttle avoidance test and fear conditioning test were performed. An open field test, dark/light transition test or tail suspension test was performed to determine the involvement of α2AP in anxiety or depression-like behavior. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: The α2AP knockout (α2AP-/- mice exhibited impaired motor function compared with α2AP+/+ mice. The α2AP-/- mice also exhibited impairments in motor learning, working memory, spatial memory and fear conditioning memory. Furthermore, the deletion of α2AP induced anxiety-like behavior, and caused an anti-depression-like effect in tail suspension. Therefore, our findings suggest that α2AP is a crucial mediator of motor function, cognitive function, anxiety-like behavior and depression-like behavior, providing new insights into the role of α2AP in the brain functions.

  9. The Psychological Price of Media Bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babad, Elisha

    2005-01-01

    Media bias was investigated through the effects of a TV interviewer's preferential behavior on the image of the interviewee in the eyes of the viewers. Judges viewed a political interview with either a friendly or a hostile interviewer then rated their impressions of the interviewed politician, whose behavior was identical in all conditions. The…

  10. Multidrug resistance 1 gene polymorphisms may determine Crohn's disease behavior in patients from Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Teresa P. Carvalho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Conflicting data from studies on the potential role of multidrug resistance 1 gene polymorphisms in inflammatory bowel disease may result from the analysis of genetically and geographically distinct populations. Here, we investigated whether multidrug resistance 1 gene polymorphisms are associated with inflammatory bowel diseases in patients from Rio de Janeiro. METHODS: We analyzed 123 Crohn's disease patients and 83 ulcerative colitis patients to determine the presence of the multidrug resistance 1 gene polymorphisms C1236T, G2677T and C3435T. In particular, the genotype frequencies of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis patients were analyzed. Genotype-phenotype associations with major clinical characteristics were established, and estimated risks were calculated for the mutations. RESULTS: No significant difference was observed in the genotype frequencies of the multidrug resistance 1 G2677T/A and C3435T polymorphisms between Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis patients. In contrast, the C1236T polymorphism was significantly more common in Crohn's disease than in ulcerative colitis (p = 0.047. A significant association was also found between the multidrug resistance 1 C3435T polymorphism and the stricturing form of Crohn's disease (OR: 4.13; p = 0.009, whereas no association was found with penetrating behavior (OR: 0.33; p = 0.094. In Crohn's disease, a positive association was also found between the C3435T polymorphism and corticosteroid resistance/refractoriness (OR: 4.14; p = 0.010. However, no significant association was found between multidrug resistance 1 gene polymorphisms and UC subphenotypic categories. CONCLUSION: The multidrug resistance 1 gene polymorphism C3435T is associated with the stricturing phenotype and an inappropriate response to therapy in Crohn's disease. This association with Crohn's disease may support additional pathogenic roles for the multidrug resistance 1 gene in regulating gut

  11. Gene-physical activity interactions in the etiology of obesity: behavioral considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dishman, Rod K

    2008-12-01

    Understanding how genes, environment, and personal motivation operate to influence physical activity will require (i) inclusion of properly validated measures of putative mediators (e.g., cultural values, efficacy and control beliefs, goals, intentions, enjoyment, and self-management skills) and moderators (e.g., age or maturation, personality, race/ethnicity, fitness, fatness, skill, and competing behaviors) of physical activity, (ii) a search for candidate genes involved with motivational systems of energy expenditure in addition to energy intake pathways, (iii) assessment of specific features physical activity exposure (i.e., type, intensity, timing, and context), (iv) manipulation of physical activity or prospective observation of change in physical activity at multiple times, rather than cross-sectional association and linkage studies, and (v) use of statistical procedures that permit multilevel modeling (i.e., personal and group-level variables) of direct, indirect (i.e., mediated), and moderated (i.e., interactions of mediators with external factors) relations with physical activity within theoretical gene-environment networks.

  12. Keeping the blood flowing—plasminogen activator genes and feeding behavior in vampire bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellgren-Roth, Åsa; Dittmar, Katharina; Massey, Steven E.; Kemi, Cecilia; Tellgren-Roth, Christian; Savolainen, Peter; Lyons, Leslie A.; Liberles, David A.

    2009-01-01

    The blood feeding vampire bats emerged from New World leaf-nosed bats that fed on fruit and insects. Plasminogen activator, a serine protease that regulates blood coagulation, is known to be expressed in the saliva of Desmodus rotundus (common vampire bat) and is thought to be a key enzyme for the emergence of blood feeding in vampire bats. To better understand the evolution of this biological function, we studied the plasminogen activator (PA) genes from all vampire bat species in light of their feeding transition to bird and subsequently mammalian blood. We include the rare species Diphylla ecaudata and Diaemus youngi, where plasminogen activator had not previously been studied and demonstrate that PA gene duplication observed in Desmodus is not essential to the vampire phenotype, but relates to the emergence of predominant mammalian blood feeding in this species. Plasminogen activator has evolved through gene duplication, domain loss, and sequence evolution leading to change in fibrin-specificity and susceptibility to plasminogen activator inhibitor-1. Before undertaking this study, only the four plasminogen activator isoforms from Desmodus were known. The evolution of vampire bat plasminogen activators can now be linked phylogenetically to the transition in feeding behavior among vampire bat species from bird to mammalian blood.

  13. Polymorphisms in the Dopamine D4 and D2 Receptor Genes and Reproductive and Sexual Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan T.A. Eisenberg

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Human reproductive and sexual behaviors are heritable and may represent integral life history traits that are likely partially subserved by the dopamine system. Two dopamine receptor polymorphisms, DRD4 48bp VNTR and DRD2 TaqI A, were examined in relation to the Sexual-Orientation Inventory (SOI, age at first sexual intercourse, desired age of marriage, and desired age to have children in 195 (45% male individuals from a general student population. As DRD4 7R alleles have been associated with migratory behavior, we also examined whether those with more 7R alleles had a greater frequency of multi-racial ancestries. Minor alleles of both polymorphisms (7R and A1 respectively are believed to decrease the function of their respective receptors. Individuals with DRD4 7R alleles were more likely to have had sexual intercourse and to desire children earlier in life. In addition, DRD4 7R+ individuals were more likely to report multi-racial ancestries. Individuals with DRD2 A1 alleles were more likely to not want children and not want to marry. These results suggest that polymorphisms in the DRD4 and DRD2 genes are meaningfully associated with variation in reproductive and sexual behaviors. These results are provisionally interpreted as consistent with other findings suggesting that DRD4 7R and DRD2 A1 alleles are adaptive for lower offspring investment strategies in dynamic social environments.

  14. [Investigating genes-to-behavior pathways in psychiatric diseases: an approach using a comprehensive behavioral test battery on genetically engineered mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takao, Keizo; Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi

    2008-06-01

    We have been investigating the relationships between genes and behaviors by conducting a systematic and well-defined behavioral test battery with mice that have a mutation on a gene of interest. The behavioral test battery covers a relatively broad range of various behavioral domains such as learning and memory, sensory-motor functions, emotion, motivation, and drug sensitivity/preference. Recently, we subjected mice lacking calcineurin (CN), a calcium/calmodulin protein phosphatase, to the comprehensive behavioral test battery. The mutant mice had a severe working memory deficit, increased locomotor activity, decreased social interaction, and impairments in prepulse and latent inhibition. The abnormalities of CN mutant mice were strikingly similar to those described for schizophrenic patients. Consistent with these findings, human genetics studies in a large sample of affected families detected a significant association of the PPP3CC gene, which encodes the CN gamma catalytic subunit with schizophrenia. The idea that abnormalities in the CN signaling pathway are involved in schizophrenia pathogenesis is consistent with traditional theories of schizophrenia and with many facts known about schizophrenia. A tremendous amount of knowledge about CN has accumulated and, by utilizing this information, the studies on the pathogenesis/pathophysiology of schizophrenia and its related mental disorders will be potentially accelerated. We discuss the potential impact of a large-scale mouse phenotyping project on the study of psychiatric disorders.

  15. Investigating gene-to-behavior pathways in psychiatric disorders: the use of a comprehensive behavioral test battery on genetically engineered mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takao, Keizo; Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi

    2006-11-01

    We have been investigating the relationships between genes and behaviors by conducting a systematic and well-defined behavioral test battery with mice that have a mutation on a gene of interest. The behavioral test battery covers a relatively broad range of various behavioral domains such as learning and memory, sensory-motor functions, emotion, motivation, and drug sensitivity/preference. Recently, we subjected mice lacking calcineurin (CN), a calcium/calmodulin protein phosphatase, to the comprehensive behavioral test battery. The mutant mice had a severe working memory deficit, increased locomotor activity, decreased social interaction, and impairments in prepulse and latent inhibition. The abnormalities of CN mutant mice were strikingly similar to those described for schizophrenic patients. Consistent with these findings, human genetics studies in a large sample of affected families detected a significant association of the PPP3CC gene, which encodes the CN gamma catalytic subunit with schizophrenia. The idea that abnormalities in the CN signaling pathway are involved in schizophrenia pathogenesis is consistent with traditional theories of schizophrenia and with many facts known about schizophrenia. A tremendous amount of knowledge about CN has accumulated and, by utilizing this information, the studies on the pathogenesis/pathophysiology of schizophrenia and its related mental disorders will be potentially accelerated. We discuss the potential impact of a large-scale mouse phenotyping project on the study of psychiatric disorders.

  16. CPI Bias in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chul Chung

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available We estimate the CPI bias in Korea by employing the approach of Engel’s Law as suggested by Hamilton (2001. This paper is the first attempt to estimate the bias using Korean panel data, Korean Labor and Income Panel Study(KLIPS. Following Hamilton’s model with non­linear specification correction, our estimation result shows that the cumulative CPI bias over the sample period (2000-2005 was 0.7 percent annually. This CPI bias implies that about 21 percent of the inflation rate during the period can be attributed to the bias. In light of purchasing power parity, we provide an interpretation of the estimated bias.

  17. Bias in research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simundić, Ana-Maria

    2013-01-01

    By writing scientific articles we communicate science among colleagues and peers. By doing this, it is our responsibility to adhere to some basic principles like transparency and accuracy. Authors, journal editors and reviewers need to be concerned about the quality of the work submitted for publication and ensure that only studies which have been designed, conducted and reported in a transparent way, honestly and without any deviation from the truth get to be published. Any such trend or deviation from the truth in data collection, analysis, interpretation and publication is called bias. Bias in research can occur either intentionally or unintentionally. Bias causes false conclusions and is potentially misleading. Therefore, it is immoral and unethical to conduct biased research. Every scientist should thus be aware of all potential sources of bias and undertake all possible actions to reduce or minimize the deviation from the truth. This article describes some basic issues related to bias in research.

  18. SUBJECTIVE AGE BIASES AMONG ADOLESCENT GIRLS

    OpenAIRE

    Guiot, Denis

    2000-01-01

    International audience; Until now, the concept of subjective age has only been used to segment the mature market. Research on consumer behavior has shown the effects of a youthful bias, the tendency to see oneself as younger. Using a conceptual framework based on self-concept, social comparison, and symbolic consumption, this research proposes to characterize the antecedents and the effects of an analogous but opposed tendency: an older bias among adolescent girls. An empirical study carried ...

  19. On commercial media bias

    OpenAIRE

    Germano, Fabrizio

    2008-01-01

    Within the spokes model of Chen and Riordan (2007) that allows for non-localized competition among arbitrary numbers of media outlets, we quantify the effect of concentration of ownership on quality and bias of media content. A main result shows that too few commercial outlets, or better, too few separate owners of commercial outlets can lead to substantial bias in equilibrium. Increasing the number of outlets (commercial and non-commercial) tends to bring down this bias; but the strongest ef...

  20. Glucocorticoid receptor gene inactivation in dopamine-innervated areas selectively decreases behavioral responses to amphetamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastien eParnaudeau

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The meso-cortico-limbic system, via dopamine release, encodes the rewarding and reinforcing properties of natural rewards. It is also activated in response to abused substances and is believed to support drug-related behaviors. Dysfunctions of this system lead to several psychiatric conditions including feeding disorders and drug addiction. These disorders are also largely influenced by environmental factors and in particular stress exposure. Stressors activate the corticotrope axis ultimately leading to glucocorticoid hormone (GCs release. GCs bind the glucocorticoid receptor (GR a transcription factor ubiquitously expressed including within the meso-cortico-limbic tract. While the GR within dopamine-innervated areas drives cocaine’s behavioral responses, its implication in responses to other psychostimulants such as amphetamine has never been clearly established. Moreover, while extensive work has been made to uncover the role of this receptor in addicted behaviors, its contribution to the rewarding and reinforcing properties of food has yet to be investigated. Using mouse models carrying GR gene inactivation in either dopamine neurons or in dopamine-innervated areas, we found that GR in dopamine responsive neurones is essential to properly build amphetamine-induced conditioned place preference and locomotor sensitization. c-Fos quantification in the nucleus accumbens further confirmed defective neuronal activation following amphetamine injection. These diminished neuronal and behavioral responses to amphetamine may involve alterations in glutamate transmission as suggested by the decreased MK801-elicited hyperlocomotion and by the hyporeactivity to glutamate of a subpopulation of medium spiny neurons. In contrast, GR inactivation did not affect rewarding and reinforcing properties of food suggesting that responding for natural reward under basal conditions is preserved in these mice.

  1. Interpretation biases in paranoia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savulich, George; Freeman, Daniel; Shergill, Sukhi; Yiend, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    Information in the environment is frequently ambiguous in meaning. Emotional ambiguity, such as the stare of a stranger, or the scream of a child, encompasses possible good or bad emotional consequences. Those with elevated vulnerability to affective disorders tend to interpret such material more negatively than those without, a phenomenon known as "negative interpretation bias." In this study we examined the relationship between vulnerability to psychosis, measured by trait paranoia, and interpretation bias. One set of material permitted broadly positive/negative (valenced) interpretations, while another allowed more or less paranoid interpretations, allowing us to also investigate the content specificity of interpretation biases associated with paranoia. Regression analyses (n=70) revealed that trait paranoia, trait anxiety, and cognitive inflexibility predicted paranoid interpretation bias, whereas trait anxiety and cognitive inflexibility predicted negative interpretation bias. In a group comparison those with high levels of trait paranoia were negatively biased in their interpretations of ambiguous information relative to those with low trait paranoia, and this effect was most pronounced for material directly related to paranoid concerns. Together these data suggest that a negative interpretation bias occurs in those with elevated vulnerability to paranoia, and that this bias may be strongest for material matching paranoid beliefs. We conclude that content-specific biases may be important in the cause and maintenance of paranoid symptoms.

  2. Hippocampal gene expression analysis highlights Ly6a/Sca-1 as candidate gene for previously mapped novelty induced behaviors in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Simone; Kas, Martien J H; Kiernan, Jeffrey; de Mooij-van Malsen, Annetrude G; Oppelaar, Hugo; Janson, Esther; Vukobradovic, Igor; Farber, Charles R; Stanford, William L; Ophoff, Roel A

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we show that the covariance between behavior and gene expression in the brain can help further unravel the determinants of neurobehavioral traits. Previously, a QTL for novelty induced motor activity levels was identified on murine chromosome 15 using consomic strains. With the goal o

  3. Contextual modulation of biases in face recognition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima Maria Felisberti

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The ability to recognize the faces of potential cooperators and cheaters is fundamental to social exchanges, given that cooperation for mutual benefit is expected. Studies addressing biases in face recognition have so far proved inconclusive, with reports of biases towards faces of cheaters, biases towards faces of cooperators, or no biases at all. This study attempts to uncover possible causes underlying such discrepancies. METHODOLOGY AND FINDINGS: Four experiments were designed to investigate biases in face recognition during social exchanges when behavioral descriptors (prosocial, antisocial or neutral embedded in different scenarios were tagged to faces during memorization. Face recognition, measured as accuracy and response latency, was tested with modified yes-no, forced-choice and recall tasks (N = 174. An enhanced recognition of faces tagged with prosocial descriptors was observed when the encoding scenario involved financial transactions and the rules of the social contract were not explicit (experiments 1 and 2. Such bias was eliminated or attenuated by making participants explicitly aware of "cooperative", "cheating" and "neutral/indifferent" behaviors via a pre-test questionnaire and then adding such tags to behavioral descriptors (experiment 3. Further, in a social judgment scenario with descriptors of salient moral behaviors, recognition of antisocial and prosocial faces was similar, but significantly better than neutral faces (experiment 4. CONCLUSION: The results highlight the relevance of descriptors and scenarios of social exchange in face recognition, when the frequency of prosocial and antisocial individuals in a group is similar. Recognition biases towards prosocial faces emerged when descriptors did not state the rules of a social contract or the moral status of a behavior, and they point to the existence of broad and flexible cognitive abilities finely tuned to minor changes in social context.

  4. Developmental lead effects on behavior and brain gene expression in male and female BALB/cAnNTac mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasten-Jolly, Jane; Pabello, Nina; Bolivar, Valerie J; Lawrence, David A

    2012-10-01

    Lead (Pb) was one of the first poisons identified, and the developing nervous system is particularly vulnerable to its toxic effects. Relatively low, subclinical doses, of Pb that produce no overt signs of encephalopathy can affect cognitive, emotional, and motor functions. In the present study, the effects of developmental Pb-exposure on behavioral performance and gene expression in BALB/cAnNTac mice were evaluated. Pups were exposed to Pb from gestational-day (gd) 8 to postnatal-day (pnd) 21 and later evaluated in exploratory behavior, rotarod, Morris water maze, and resident-intruder assays as adults. Pb-exposure caused significant alterations in exploratory behavior and water maze performance during the probe trial, but rotarod performance was not affected. Pb-exposed males displayed violent behavior towards their cage mates, but not to a stranger in the resident-intruder assay. Gene expression analysis at pnd21 by microarray and qRT-PCR was performed to provide a molecular link to the behavior changes that were observed. Pb strongly up-regulated gene expression within the signaling pathways of mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs), extra-cellular matrix (ECM) receptor, focal adhesion, and vascular endothelial growth-factor (VEGF), but Pb down-regulated gene expression within the pathways for glycan structures-biosynthesis 1, purine metabolism, and N-glycan biosynthesis. Pb increased transcription of genes for major histocompatibility (MHC) proteins, the chemokine Ccl28, chemokine receptors, IL-7, IL7R, and proteases. The qRT-PCR analysis indicated an increase of gene expression in the whole brain for caspase 1 and NOS2. Analysis of IL-1β, caspase 1, NOS2, Trail, IL-18 and IL-33 gene expression of brain regions indicated that Pb perturbed the inter-regional expression pattern of pro-inflammatory genes. Brain region protein concentrations for IL-10, an anti-inflammatory cytokine, showed a significant decrease only within the cortex region. Results indicate

  5. A compendium of human genes regulating feeding behavior and body weight, its functional characterization and identification of GWAS genes involved in brain-specific PPI network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignatieva, Elena V; Afonnikov, Dmitry A; Saik, Olga V; Rogaev, Evgeny I; Kolchanov, Nikolay A

    2016-12-22

    Obesity is heritable. It predisposes to many diseases. The objectives of this study were to create a compendium of genes relevant to feeding behavior (FB) and/or body weight (BW) regulation; to construct and to analyze networks formed by associations between genes/proteins; and to identify the most significant genes, biological processes/pathways, and tissues/organs involved in BW regulation. The compendium of genes controlling FB or BW includes 578 human genes. Candidate genes were identified from various sources, including previously published original research and review articles, GWAS meta-analyses, and OMIM (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man). All genes were ranked according to knowledge about their biological role in body weight regulation and classified according to expression patterns or functional characteristics. Substantial and overrepresented numbers of genes from the compendium encoded cell surface receptors, signaling molecules (hormones, neuropeptides, cytokines), transcription factors, signal transduction proteins, cilium and BBSome components, and lipid binding proteins or were present in the brain-specific list of tissue-enriched genes identified with TSEA tool. We identified 27 pathways from KEGG, REACTOME and BIOCARTA whose genes were overrepresented in the compendium. Networks formed by physical interactions or homological relationships between proteins or interactions between proteins involved in biochemical/signaling pathways were reconstructed and analyzed. Subnetworks and clusters identified by the MCODE tool included genes/proteins associated with cilium morphogenesis, signal transduction proteins (particularly, G protein-coupled receptors, kinases or proteins involved in response to insulin stimulus) and transcription regulation (particularly nuclear receptors). We ranked GWAS genes according to the number of neighbors in three networks and revealed 22 GWAS genes involved in the brain-specific PPI network. On the base of the most

  6. [Association between the canine monoamine oxidase B (MAOB) gene polymorphisms and behavior of puppies in open-field test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Hui; Xu, Han-Kun; Mao, Da-Gan; Ma, Da-Jun; Chen, Peng; Yang, Li-Guo

    2006-11-01

    Excitability, activity and exploration behavior of puppies in a novel open-field were tested in a total of 204 two-month-old German shepherd dog, labrador retriever or English springer spaniel puppies. The polymorphisms of monoamine oxidase B gene (MAOB) were detected by PCR-RFLP. Statistics analysis indicated that genotype and allele frequencies of the polymorphisms were significantly different among three breeds (P open-field test. The results showed that MAOB gene polymorphisms had a significant effect on walking time, squares crossed, lying time, the times of standing up against walls(P open-field test and TT genotype has favorable effects in these behavior traits.

  7. Political bias is tenacious.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditto, Peter H; Wojcik, Sean P; Chen, Eric Evan; Grady, Rebecca Hofstein; Ringel, Megan M

    2015-01-01

    Duarte et al. are right to worry about political bias in social psychology but they underestimate the ease of correcting it. Both liberals and conservatives show partisan bias that often worsens with cognitive sophistication. More non-liberals in social psychology is unlikely to speed our convergence upon the truth, although it may broaden the questions we ask and the data we collect.

  8. Biases in categorization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Das-Smaal, E.A.

    1990-01-01

    On what grounds can we conclude that an act of categorization is biased? In this chapter, it is contended that in the absence of objective norms of what categories actually are, biases in categorization can only be specified in relation to theoretical understandings of categorization. Therefore, the

  9. Variation in oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) polymorphisms is associated with emotional and behavioral reactions to betrayal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabak, Benjamin A; McCullough, Michael E; Carver, Charles S; Pedersen, Eric J; Cuccaro, Michael L

    2014-06-01

    Variations in the gene that encodes the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) have been associated with many aspects of social cognition as well as several prosocial behaviors. However, potential associations of OXTR variants with reactions to betrayals of trust while cooperating for mutual benefit have not yet been explored. We examined how variations in 10 single-nucleotide polymorphisms on OXTR were associated with behavior and emotional reactions after a betrayal of trust in an iterated Prisoner's Dilemma Game. After correction for multiple testing, one haplotype (C-rs9840864, T-rs2268494) was significantly associated with faster retaliation post-betrayal-an association that appeared to be due to this haplotype's intermediate effect of exacerbating people's anger after they had been betrayed. Furthermore, a second haplotype (A-rs237887, C-rs2268490) was associated with higher levels of post-betrayal satisfaction, and a third haplotype (G-rs237887, C-rs2268490) was associated with lower levels of post-betrayal satisfaction.

  10. Decision Bias and Relative Rationality in Behavioral Fionance%行为金融理论中的决策偏差与相对理性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金雪军; 蔡健琦

    2003-01-01

    行为金融(behavioral finance)结合了心理学与金融学的研究,认为人具有启发式(heuristic)和框架依赖(frame-depndence)两大类心理决策偏差,从而在金融市场上造成了用标准金融理论难以解释的异常(anomalies)现象.基于行为金融理论中的决策偏差,并结合经济学理性假设中的理性行为假设和有限理性假设,提出相对理性的概念.

  11. Delinquent behavior, poor relationship quality with parents, and involvement with deviant peers in delinquent and nondelinquent adolescents: different processes, informant bias, or both?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asscher, Jessica J; Wissink, Inge B; Deković, Maja; Prinzie, Peter; Stams, Geert Jan J M

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether two risk factors that are frequently selected as targets for prevention and intervention purposes-involvement with deviant peers and parent-adolescent relationship quality-are associated with delinquent behavior in the same way in a juvenile general population sample (n = 88) as in a juvenile offender sample (n = 85). Information on delinquency and the quality of parent-adolescent relationship was obtained from adolescents and parents. The results of path analyses showed that relations between poor parent-adolescent relationship quality, involvement with deviant peers, and delinquency depended on whose point of view is used (adolescent or parent) and which sample is used (general population or delinquent sample). These findings indicate that caution is warranted when theories based on research with community samples are used for development of intervention programs for juvenile delinquents. © The Author(s) 2013.

  12. A Dynamic Gene Regulatory Network Model That Recovers the Cyclic Behavior of Arabidopsis thaliana Cell Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Gutiérrez, Elizabeth; García-Cruz, Karla; Azpeitia, Eugenio; Castillo, Aaron; Sánchez, María de la Paz; Álvarez-Buylla, Elena R.

    2015-01-01

    Cell cycle control is fundamental in eukaryotic development. Several modeling efforts have been used to integrate the complex network of interacting molecular components involved in cell cycle dynamics. In this paper, we aimed at recovering the regulatory logic upstream of previously known components of cell cycle control, with the aim of understanding the mechanisms underlying the emergence of the cyclic behavior of such components. We focus on Arabidopsis thaliana, but given that many components of cell cycle regulation are conserved among eukaryotes, when experimental data for this system was not available, we considered experimental results from yeast and animal systems. We are proposing a Boolean gene regulatory network (GRN) that converges into only one robust limit cycle attractor that closely resembles the cyclic behavior of the key cell-cycle molecular components and other regulators considered here. We validate the model by comparing our in silico configurations with data from loss- and gain-of-function mutants, where the endocyclic behavior also was recovered. Additionally, we approximate a continuous model and recovered the temporal periodic expression profiles of the cell-cycle molecular components involved, thus suggesting that the single limit cycle attractor recovered with the Boolean model is not an artifact of its discrete and synchronous nature, but rather an emergent consequence of the inherent characteristics of the regulatory logic proposed here. This dynamical model, hence provides a novel theoretical framework to address cell cycle regulation in plants, and it can also be used to propose novel predictions regarding cell cycle regulation in other eukaryotes. PMID:26340681

  13. Feeding behavior and gene expression of appetite-related neuropeptides in mice lacking for neuropeptide Y Y5 receptor subclass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hiroshi Higuchi; Takeshi Nild; Tomohiro Shiiya

    2008-01-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a potent neurotransmitter for feeding. Besides NPY, orexigenic neuropeptides such as agouti-related protein (AgRP), and anorexi-genic neuropeptides such as a-melatonin stimulating hormone (MSH) and cocaine-amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) are also involved in central feeding regulation. During fasting, NPY and AgRP gene expres-sions are up-regulated and POMC and CART gene ex-pressions are down-regulated in hypothalamus. Based on the network of peptidergic neurons, the former are involved in positive feeding regulation, and the latter are involved in negative feeding, which exert these feeding-regulated peptides especially in paraventricular nucleus (PVN). To clarify the compensatory mecha-nism of knock-out of NPY system on feeding, change in gene expressions of appetite-related neuropeptides and the feeding behavior was studied in NPY Y5-KO mice. Food intake was increased in Y5-KO mice. Fast-ing increased the amounts of food and water intake in the KO mice more profoundly. These data indicated the compensatory phenomenon of feeding behavior in YS-KO mice. RT-PCR and [SH suggested that the compensation of feeding is due to change in gene ex-pressions of AgRP, CART and POMC in hypothalamus. Thus, these findings indicated that the compensatory mechanism involves change in POMC/CART gene ex-pression in arcuate nucleus (ARC). The POMC/CART gene expression is important for central compensatory regulation in feeding behavior.

  14. Multiferroic behavior, enhanced magnetization and exchange bias effect of Zn substituted nanocrystalline LaFeO{sub 3} (La{sub (1-x)}Zn{sub x}FeO{sub 3}, x=0.10, and 0.30)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukhopadhyay, K.; Mahapatra, A.S. [Solid State Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, Burdwan University, Burdwan-713104 (India); Chakrabarti, P.K., E-mail: pabitra_c@hotmail.com [Solid State Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, Burdwan University, Burdwan-713104 (India)

    2013-03-15

    Nanocrystalline Zn-substituted lanthanum orthoferrite La{sub (1-x)}Zn{sub x}FeO{sub 3} (x=0.1 and 0.3) (LZFO1 for x=0.1 and LZFO2 for x= 0.3) was prepared by a chemical co-precipitation method. The as-prepared samples were annealed at 500 Degree-Sign C for 12 h. The formation of the pure crystallographic phase of LaFeO{sub 3} (LFO) and the substitution of Zn{sup 2+} in the doped samples were confirmed by X-ray diffractograms. Magnetization curves and hysteresis loops in the range of 300-2 K showed that magnetization of the doped samples was considerably enhanced compared to that of the pristine LFO. The maximum enhancement factor of {approx}2.5 for the saturation magnetization measured at room temperature was found in LZFO2. Interestingly, an exchange bias effect was observed in the nanoparticles LFO and LZFOs, which suggest the formation of antiferromagnetic-ferromagnetic (AFM-FM) core-shell structure of the AFM nanoparticles of LFO and LZFOs. The hysteretic behavior observed in the polarization-electric field curves recorded at room temperature indicates the onset of ferroelectric ordering of the samples. The dielectric constant measured in the presence and absence of a magnetic field confirmed that the samples are type-II multiferroics with positive magneto-coupling effect. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer La{sub (1-x)}Zn{sub x}FeO{sub 3} (x=0.1 and 0.3) were prepared by co-precipitation method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Magnetization of the samples was considerably enhanced compared to LaFeO{sub 3}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Exchange bias effect (EBE) was observed in all the samples. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EBE suggests antiferromagnetic-ferromagnetic core-shell structure of nanoparticles.

  15. Association between 5-hydroxytryptamine transporter gene-linked polymorphic region and smoking behavior in Chinese males

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHU Shui-lian; XIAO Dan; WANG Chen; JING Hang

    2009-01-01

    Background Tobacco use is the major risk factor for numerous health problems. However, only 5% of smokers can successfully quit without therapy owing to the highly addictive properties of nicotine. The serotoninergic system may be involved in smoking behavior because nicotine increases brain serotonin secretion, nicotine withdrawal decreases serotonin levels, and a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antagonizes the response to nicotine withdrawal. Serotonin transporter (5-HTT) is the most important protein, as it adjusts the serotonin concentration in the synaptic cleft. There is a polymorphism in the upstream regulatory region of the 5-HTT gene, named 5-hydroxytryptamine transporter gene-Iinked poyymorphic region (5-HTTLPR). Compared with the L allele, the S allele of the polymorphism is associated with decreased transcription efficiency of the 5-HTT gene. In this study, we investigated the relationship between this gene polymorphism and smoking behavior in Chinese males.Methods Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) was performed to find 5-HTTLPR gene polymorphisms in 144 smokers and 135 age-matched healthy non-smokers. A questionnaire was completed in all recruited subjects.Results The proportion of L/L (15.3% vs 5.2%) and S/L (50.0% vs 33.3%) genotypes was significantly higher in the smokers than that in the non-smokers (χ2=21.9; P <0.01). The odds ratio (OR) adjusted by age, education, effects of family members and friends who smoke, and alcohol intake was 2.9 (95%CI 1.78-4.80). In smokers, the number of cigarettes/day (L/L vs S/L vs S/S: 28+12 vs 20±8 vs 16±6, χ2=18.5, P <0.01), smoking index (L/L vs S/L vs S/S.. 561±446vs 393±341 vs 237+901, χ2=12.5, P <0.01) and score on the Fagerstrom test for nicotine dependence (FTND) (L/L vs S/L vs S/S. 7.8±1.6 vs 6.2±9.5 vs 3.5±9.1, χ2=48.3, P <0.01) were significantly higher in smokers with an L/L or S/L genotype than that in the smokers with the S/S genotype

  16. Cognitive sophistication does not attenuate the bias blind spot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Richard F; Meserve, Russell J; Stanovich, Keith E

    2012-09-01

    The so-called bias blind spot arises when people report that thinking biases are more prevalent in others than in themselves. Bias turns out to be relatively easy to recognize in the behaviors of others, but often difficult to detect in one's own judgments. Most previous research on the bias blind spot has focused on bias in the social domain. In 2 studies, we found replicable bias blind spots with respect to many of the classic cognitive biases studied in the heuristics and biases literature (e.g., Tversky & Kahneman, 1974). Further, we found that none of these bias blind spots were attenuated by measures of cognitive sophistication such as cognitive ability or thinking dispositions related to bias. If anything, a larger bias blind spot was associated with higher cognitive ability. Additional analyses indicated that being free of the bias blind spot does not help a person avoid the actual classic cognitive biases. We discuss these findings in terms of a generic dual-process theory of cognition.

  17. Double-Blinding and Bias in Medication and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Trials for Major Depressive Disorder [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Berger

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available While double-blinding is a crucial aspect of study design in an interventional clinical trial of medication for a disorder with subjective endpoints such as major depressive disorder, psychotherapy clinical trials, particularly cognitive-behavioral therapy trials, cannot be double-blinded. This paper highlights the evidence-based medicine problem of double-blinding in the outcome research of a psychotherapy and opines that psychotherapy clinical trials should be called, “partially-controlled clinical data” because they are not double-blinded. The implications for practice are, 1. For practitioners to be clear with patients the level of rigor to which interventions have been studied, 2. For authors of psychotherapy outcome studies to be clear that the problem in the inability to blind a psychotherapy trial severely restricts the validity of any conclusions that can be drawn, and 3. To petition National Health Insurance plans to use caution in approving interventions studied without double-blinded confirmatory trials as they may lead patients to avoid other treatments shown to be effective in double-blinded trials.

  18. Analysis of Codon Bias of MC1R Gene in Pig (Sus scrofa)%猪黑皮质素受体1基因密码子偏好分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖红卫; 刘西梅; 郑新民; 华文君; 李莉; 张立苹; 毕延震; 华再东

    2013-01-01

    遗传密码子是生命信息的基本遗传单位,每种氨基酸对应1~6个同义密码子。特定物种在长期进化中形成了适应自身基因环境的密码子使用偏好。运用CHIPS、CUPS和CodonW程序分析猪黑皮质素受体1基因密码子偏好,并与牛、羊、小鼠、人等多种动物的黑皮质素受体1基因密码子偏好进行比较,以期为转基因动物育种提供依据。结果表明,猪偏好使用以C、G结尾的密码子(96.88%),且在整个编码区序列中G+C含量(67.81%)大于A+T(32.19%),该基因在猪体内表达水平很高(CAI=0.849),并且发现,猪的密码子偏好性与牛、犬等动物类似,明显不同于鲀、雀、獾、大猩猩等动物。要实现目的基因在猪MC1R基因中进行定点整合并成功表达和尽可能地提高其表达量,需对目的基因的部分密码子进行改造。%Genetic codon is the basic hereditary unit of life information , and each amino acid is corresponding to 1~6 synony-mous codons.Specific organisms formed codon bias in long -term evolution to adapt their genetic environment .In this paper, the codon bias of MC1R gene in the pig was analyzed by Codon W , CHIPS and CUSP programs , and it was compared with that in vari-ous animals, such as cattle, sheep, mice, human etc., so as to provide a basis for transgenic animals breeding .The results showed that the pig preferred to use the codons ending with C and G (96.88%), the content of G+C (67.81%) was higher than that of A+T (32.19%) in the whole coding sequence , and MC1R gene in the pig had very high expression level (CAI=0.849).It was also found that the codon usage bias of the pig was similar to that of cattle , dog and so on , while it was obviously different from that of Takifugu rubripes, Taeniopygia guttata, Sarcophilus harrisii, Gorilla gorilla etc..In order to realize the site-specific integration of target gene into pig MC1R gene as well as its

  19. Effects of immunostimulation on social behavior, chemical communication and genome-wide gene expression in honey bee workers (Apis mellifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Freddie-Jeanne

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Social insects, such as honey bees, use molecular, physiological and behavioral responses to combat pathogens and parasites. The honey bee genome contains all of the canonical insect immune response pathways, and several studies have demonstrated that pathogens can activate expression of immune effectors. Honey bees also use behavioral responses, termed social immunity, to collectively defend their hives from pathogens and parasites. These responses include hygienic behavior (where workers remove diseased brood and allo-grooming (where workers remove ectoparasites from nestmates. We have previously demonstrated that immunostimulation causes changes in the cuticular hydrocarbon profiles of workers, which results in altered worker-worker social interactions. Thus, cuticular hydrocarbons may enable workers to identify sick nestmates, and adjust their behavior in response. Here, we test the specificity of behavioral, chemical and genomic responses to immunostimulation by challenging workers with a panel of different immune stimulants (saline, Sephadex beads and Gram-negative bacteria E. coli. Results While only bacteria-injected bees elicited altered behavioral responses from healthy nestmates compared to controls, all treatments resulted in significant changes in cuticular hydrocarbon profiles. Immunostimulation caused significant changes in expression of hundreds of genes, the majority of which have not been identified as members of the canonical immune response pathways. Furthermore, several new candidate genes that may play a role in cuticular hydrocarbon biosynthesis were identified. Effects of immune challenge expression of several genes involved in immune response, cuticular hydrocarbon biosynthesis, and the Notch signaling pathway were confirmed using quantitative real-time PCR. Finally, we identified common genes regulated by pathogen challenge in honey bees and other insects. Conclusions These results demonstrate that

  20. The role of the monoamine oxidase A gene in moderating the response to adversity and associated antisocial behavior: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buades-Rotger M

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Macià Buades-Rotger,1,2 David Gallardo-Pujol1,3 1Department of Personality, Faculty of Psychology, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; 2Department of Neurology, University of Lübeck, Lübeck, Germany; 3Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behavior (IR3C, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain Abstract: Hereditary factors are increasingly attracting the interest of behavioral scientists and practitioners. Our aim in the present article is to introduce some state-of-the-art topics in behavioral genetics, as well as selected findings in the field, in order to illustrate how genetic makeup can modulate the impact of environmental factors. We focus on the most-studied polymorphism to date for antisocial responses to adversity: the monoamine oxidase A gene. Advances, caveats, and promises of current research are reviewed. We also discuss implications for the use of genetic information in applied settings. Keywords: behavioral genetics, antisocial behaviors, monoamine oxidase A

  1. Media Bias and Reputation

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew Gentzkow; Jesse M. Shapiro

    2005-01-01

    A Bayesian consumer who is uncertain about the quality of an information source will infer that the source is of higher quality when its reports conform to the consumer's prior expectations. We use this fact to build a model of media bias in which firms slant their reports toward the prior beliefs of their customers in order to build a reputation for quality. Bias emerges in our model even though it can make all market participants worse off. The model predicts that bias will be less severe w...

  2. Biased predecision processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownstein, Aaron L

    2003-07-01

    Decision makers conduct biased predecision processing when they restructure their mental representation of the decision environment to favor one alternative before making their choice. The question of whether biased predecision processing occurs has been controversial since L. Festinger (1957) maintained that it does not occur. The author reviews relevant research in sections on theories of cognitive dissonance, decision conflict, choice certainty, action control, action phases, dominance structuring, differentiation and consolidation, constructive processing, motivated reasoning, and groupthink. Some studies did not find evidence of biased predecision processing, but many did. In the Discussion section, the moderators are summarized and used to assess the theories.

  3. Behaviorism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moore, J

    2011-01-01

    .... Watson proposed an alternative: classical S-R behaviorism. According to Watson, behavior was a subject matter in its own right, to be studied by the observational methods common to all sciences...

  4. Brief report: the dopamine-3-receptor gene (DRD3) is associated with specific repetitive behavior in autism spectrum disorder (ASD)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staal, W.G.; Krom, M. de; Jonge, M.V. de

    2012-01-01

    Recently the DRD3 gene has been associated with ASD in two independent samples. Follow up analysis of the risk allele of the SNP rs167771 in 91 subjects revealed a significant association with a specific type of repetitive behavior: the factor "insistence on sameness" (IS) derived from the Autism Di

  5. Interaction of Dopamine Transporter Gene and Observed Parenting Behaviors on Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, James J.; Lee, Steve S.

    2013-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that some individuals may be simultaneously more responsive to the effects from environmental adversity "and" enrichment (i.e., differential susceptibility). Given that parenting behavior and a variable number tandem repeat polymorphism in the 3'untranslated region of the dopamine transporter (DAT1) gene are…

  6. Gene by Environment Research to Prevent Externalizing Problem Behavior : Ethical Questions Raised from a Public Healthcare Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chhangur, Rabia R.; Weeland, Joyce|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/328240583; Matthys, Walter; Overbeek, Geertjan|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/25233602X

    2015-01-01

    The main public health advantages of examining gene by environment interactions (i.e., G x E) in externalizing behavior lie in the realm of personalized interventions. Nevertheless, the incorporation of genetic data in randomized controlled trials is fraught with difficulties and raises ethical

  7. Gene by Environment Research to Prevent Externalizing Problem Behavior : Ethical Questions Raised from a Public Healthcare Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chhangur, Rabia R.; Weeland, Joyce; Matthys, Walter; Overbeek, Geertjan

    2015-01-01

    The main public health advantages of examining gene by environment interactions (i.e., G x E) in externalizing behavior lie in the realm of personalized interventions. Nevertheless, the incorporation of genetic data in randomized controlled trials is fraught with difficulties and raises ethical ques

  8. Underlying Mechanisms of Gene-Environment Interactions in Externalizing Behavior: A Systematic Review and Search for Theoretical Mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weeland, J.; Overbeek, G.; Orobio de Castro, B.; Matthys, W.

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decade, several candidate genes (i.e., MAOA, DRD4, DRD2, DAT1, 5-HTTLPR, and COMT) have been extensively studied as potential moderators of the detrimental effects of postnatal family adversity on child externalizing behaviors, such as aggression and conduct disorder. Many studies on s

  9. Polymorphism of growth hormone gene and its association with seminal and sexual behavioral traits in crossbred cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Aruna; Chakravarty, Atish Kumar; Chatterjee, Paresh Nath

    2014-02-01

    The decline in the male reproductive ability in terms of sexual behavior and seminal traits might lead to nonavailability of required number of bulls in a progeny testing program. The present study was conducted in 493 crossbred cattle (Bos taurus × Bos indicus) bulls to study polymorphisms of growth hormone (GH) gene and its association with seminal and sexual behavioral characteristics. A 428-base pair fragment of GH gene spanning over the fourth exon, fourth intron, and fifth exon was amplified and digested with AluI restriction enzyme. Bulls were found to be polymorphic, with two variants, LL and LV, and higher genotypic frequency for LL being 0.88. Twelve nucleotide changes and a single nonsynonymous substitution of Leucine by Valine were observed from GH1 (L) to GH2 (V). Statistical analysis revealed that the genotype of the GH gene had a significant effect on libido score, reaction time, Flehmen response, requirement of mounting stimulus, sperm mass activity, number of semen doses per collection, individual fresh sperm motility, postthaw sperm motility, acrosome integrity, hypo-osmotic swelling test, live and dead count, total morphological abnormality, and head abnormality of sperm in crossbred bulls. Growth hormone gene might be considered a candidate gene for seminal and sexual behavioral traits in crossbred cattle.

  10. Colony-level behavioral variation correlates with differences in expression of the foraging gene in red imported fire ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockoven, Alison A; Coates, Craig J; Eubanks, Micky D

    2017-09-13

    Among social insects, colony-level variation is likely to be widespread and have significant ecological consequences. Very few studies, however, have documented how genetic factors relate to behavior at the colony level. Differences in expression of the foraging gene have been associated with differences in foraging and activity of a wide variety of organisms. We quantified expression of the red imported fire ant foraging gene (sifor) in workers from 21 colonies collected across the natural range of Texas fire ant populations, but maintained under standardized, environmentally controlled conditions. Colonies varied significantly in their behavior. The most active colonies had up to 10 times more active foragers than the least active colony and more than 16 times as many workers outside the nest. Expression differences among colonies correlated with this colony-level behavioral variation. Colonies with higher sifor expression in foragers had, on average, significantly higher foraging activity, exploratory activity, and recruitment to nectar than colonies with lower expression. Expression of sifor was also strongly correlated with worker task (foraging versus working in the interior of the nest). These results provide insight into the genetic and physiological processes underlying collective differences in social behavior. Quantifying variation in expression of the foraging gene may provide an important tool for understanding and predicting the ecological consequences of colony-level behavioral variation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  11. 加偏压光伏光折变晶体中空间灰孤子的时问特性%Temporal Behavior of Grey Spatial Solitons in an Biased Photovoltaic Photorefractive Media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吉选芒; 姜其畅; 王金来; 刘劲松

    2011-01-01

    Based on the time-dependent band-transport model in a biased photovoltaic photorefractive medium, grey screening-photovoltaic spatial solitons is theoretically investigated.Comparing these time-independent models, theoretical results reveal that quasi-steady and steady-seate gray screening-photovoltaic can be obtained. The results indicate that when the ratio between the soliton peak intensity and dark irradiance is larger, the FWHM of solitons first decrease to a minimum then increases to a constant value. The FWHM of soliton increases as soliton grey scale parameters increase. Temporal behavior of screening soliton is obtained under the closed circuit condition in the absence of photovoltaic effect, whereas temporal behavior of grey screening-photovoltaic spatial solitons is obtained when the applied bias field is too strong to be neglected.%基于加偏压的光伏光折变介质中的时间特性的带输运模型,对屏蔽光伏空间灰孤子进行了理论研究.通过对这些时间特性的比较,结果显示能获得准稳态和稳态屏蔽光伏空间灰孤子.研究表明:当孤子的峰值强度与暗辐射的比值较大时,孤子的半峰宽度先是随时间增加递减到一个最小值,然后又开始增加到一个稳定的常数值.在相同的演化时间内,孤子的半峰全宽随着孤子灰度的增大而增大.在外加电场不存在的情况下,可以得到闭路光伏灰孤子的时间特性;当外加电场足够强可忽略光伏效应时,可得到屏蔽灰孤子的时间特性.

  12. Berkson’s bias, selection bias, and missing data

    OpenAIRE

    Westreich, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    While Berkson’s bias is widely recognized in the epidemiologic literature, it remains underappreciated as a model of both selection bias and bias due to missing data. Simple causal diagrams and 2×2 tables illustrate how Berkson’s bias connects to collider bias and selection bias more generally, and show the strong analogies between Berksonian selection bias and bias due to missing data. In some situations, considerations of whether data are missing at random or missing not at random is less i...

  13. Introduction to Unconscious Bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmelz, Joan T.

    2010-05-01

    We all have biases, and we are (for the most part) unaware of them. In general, men and women BOTH unconsciously devalue the contributions of women. This can have a detrimental effect on grant proposals, job applications, and performance reviews. Sociology is way ahead of astronomy in these studies. When evaluating identical application packages, male and female University psychology professors preferred 2:1 to hire "Brian” over "Karen” as an assistant professor. When evaluating a more experienced record (at the point of promotion to tenure), reservations were expressed four times more often when the name was female. This unconscious bias has a repeated negative effect on Karen's career. This talk will introduce the concept of unconscious bias and also give recommendations on how to address it using an example for a faculty search committee. The process of eliminating unconscious bias begins with awareness, then moves to policy and practice, and ends with accountability.

  14. Social reward shapes attentional biases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Brian A

    2016-01-01

    Paying attention to stimuli that predict a reward outcome is important for an organism to survive and thrive. When visual stimuli are associated with tangible, extrinsic rewards such as money or food, these stimuli acquire high attentional priority and come to automatically capture attention. In humans and other primates, however, many behaviors are not motivated directly by such extrinsic rewards, but rather by the social feedback that results from performing those behaviors. In the present study, I examine whether positive social feedback can similarly influence attentional bias. The results show that stimuli previously associated with a high probability of positive social feedback elicit value-driven attentional capture, much like stimuli associated with extrinsic rewards. Unlike with extrinsic rewards, however, such stimuli also influence task-specific motivation. My findings offer a potential mechanism by which social reward shapes the information that we prioritize when perceiving the world around us.

  15. Codon 201 Mutation of DCC Gene and Tumor Biologic Behavior in Human Colorectal Carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective To explore the relationship between a point mutation of codon 201 in deleted in colorectal carcinoma ( DCC) gene and the biological behavior of colorectal carcinoma. Methods Tumor tissues and matched adjacent normal colon mucosa collected in 35 patients during surgical resection for colorectal carcinoma were analyzed. Forty normal colon mucosa tissues obtained by biopsy from patients who had neither colorectal tumor nor a family history of colorectal cancer during colonscop ic examination were used as control. Codon 201 mutatian was detected with allele-specific PCR and a restriction enzyme digestion method. The tumors were reviewed as clinical data, tumor location, histology,metastasis, and pathological staging (Dukes classification). Results The frequency of mutation at codon 201 in tumor tissue and corresponding adjacent normal mucosa was 71.4 % and 60 %, respectively, and either of the rates was significantly higher than that of normal control(32.5 % ). The point mutation rate in tumor tissues did not differ from that in the corresponding normal adjacent tissues. Statistic analysis showed that the mutation rate had no relationship to the sex, age of the patients, the histological pattern , differentiation, and invasion depth of the tumors. However, 93. 8 % of the mutation rate in colorectal cancer with lymph node invasion and/or distant metastasis is significantly higher than 52. 6 % of mutant rate in colorectal cancer uithout lymph nodes invasion or metastasis ( P <0. 05). Conclusion The point mutation at codon 201 of DCC gene is an early genetic event in colorectal cancer, and play some role in invasion and metastasis of colorectal carcinoma. It may serve as a useful genetic marker for identifying higher risk patients with colorectal carcinoma.

  16. Codon 201 Mutation of DCC Gene and Tumor Biologic Behavior in Human Colorectal Carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective To explore the relationship between a point mutation of codon 201 in deleted in colorectal carcinoma ( DCC) gene and the biological behavior of colorectal carcinoma. Methods Tumor tissues and matched adjacent normal colon mucosa collected in 35 patients during surgical resection for colorectal carcinoma were analyzed. Forty normal colon mucosa tissues obtained by biopsy from patients who had neither colorectal tumor nor a family history of colorectal cancer during colonscop ic examination were used as control. Codon 201 mutatian was detected with allele-specific PCR and a restriction enzyme digestion method. The tumors were reviewed as clinical data, tumor location, histology,metastasis, and pathological staging (Dukes classification). Results The frequency of mutation at codon 201 in tumor tissue and corresponding adjacent normal mucosa was 71.4 % and 60 %, respectively, and either of the rates was significantly higher than that of normal control(32.5 % ). The point mutation rate in tumor tissues did not differ from that in the corresponding normal adjacent tissues. Statistic analysis showed that the mutation rate had no relationship to the sex, age of the patients, the histological pattern , differentiation, and invasion depth of the tumors. However, 93. 8 % of the mutation rate in colorectal cancer with lymph node invasion and/or distant metastasis is significantly higher than 52. 6 % of mutant rate in colorectal cancer uithout lymph nodes invasion or metastasis ( P <0. 05). Conclusion The point mutation at codon 201 of DCC gene is an early genetic event in colorectal cancer, and play some role in invasion and metastasis of colorectal carcinoma. It may serve as a useful genetic marker for identifying higher risk patients with colorectal carcinoma.

  17. Increasingly minimal bias routing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bataineh, Abdulla; Court, Thomas; Roweth, Duncan

    2017-02-21

    A system and algorithm configured to generate diversity at the traffic source so that packets are uniformly distributed over all of the available paths, but to increase the likelihood of taking a minimal path with each hop the packet takes. This is achieved by configuring routing biases so as to prefer non-minimal paths at the injection point, but increasingly prefer minimal paths as the packet proceeds, referred to herein as Increasing Minimal Bias (IMB).

  18. Biased causal inseparable game

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharya, Some Sankar

    2015-01-01

    Here we study the \\emph{causal inseparable} game introduced in [\\href{http://www.nature.com/ncomms/journal/v3/n10/full/ncomms2076.html}{Nat. Commun. {\\bf3}, 1092 (2012)}], but it's biased version. Two separated parties, Alice and Bob, generate biased bits (say input bit) in their respective local laboratories. Bob generates another biased bit (say decision bit) which determines their goal: whether Alice has to guess Bob's bit or vice-verse. Under the assumption that events are ordered with respect to some global causal relation, we show that the success probability of this biased causal game is upper bounded, giving rise to \\emph{biased causal inequality} (BCI). In the \\emph{process matrix} formalism, which is locally in agreement with quantum physics but assume no global causal order, we show that there exist \\emph{inseparable} process matrices that violate the BCI for arbitrary bias in the decision bit. In such scenario we also derive the maximal violation of the BCI under local operations involving tracele...

  19. Developing the Bias Blind Spot: Increasing Skepticism towards Others.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadwa B Elashi

    Full Text Available Two experiments with eighty-eight 7- to 10-year-olds examined the bias blind spot in children. Both younger and older children rated themselves as less likely than a specific other (Experiment 1 or an average child (Experiment 2 to commit various biases. These self-other differences were also more extreme for biased behaviors than for other behaviors. At times, older children demonstrated stronger self-other differences than younger children, which seemed primarily driven by older children's judgments about bias in others. These findings suggest that, although the bias blind spot exists as soon as children recognize other-committed biases, what changes over development is how skeptical children are towards others.

  20. Influence of behavioral biases on the assessment of multi-hazard risks and the implementation of multi-hazard risks mitigation measures: case study of multi-hazard cyclone shelters in Tamil Nadu, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komendantova, Nadejda; Patt, Anthony

    2013-04-01

    In December 2004, a multiple hazards event devastated the Tamil Nadu province of India. The Sumatra -Andaman earthquake with a magnitude of Mw=9.1-9.3 caused the Indian Ocean tsunami with wave heights up to 30 m, and flooding that reached up to two kilometers inland in some locations. More than 7,790 persons were killed in the province of Tamil Nadu, with 206 in its capital Chennai. The time lag between the earthquake and the tsunami's arrival in India was over an hour, therefore, if a suitable early warning system existed, a proper means of communicating the warning and shelters existing for people would exist, than while this would not have prevented the destruction of infrastructure, several thousands of human lives would have been saved. India has over forty years of experience in the construction of cyclone shelters. With additional efforts and investment, these shelters could be adapted to other types of hazards such as tsunamis and flooding, as well as the construction of new multi-hazard cyclone shelters (MPCS). It would therefore be possible to mitigate one hazard such as cyclones by the construction of a network of shelters while at the same time adapting these shelters to also deal with, for example, tsunamis, with some additional investment. In this historical case, the failure to consider multiple hazards caused significant human losses. The current paper investigates the patterns of the national decision-making process with regards to multiple hazards mitigation measures and how the presence of behavioral and cognitive biases influenced the perceptions of the probabilities of multiple hazards and the choices made for their mitigation by the national decision-makers. Our methodology was based on the analysis of existing reports from national and international organizations as well as available scientific literature on behavioral economics and natural hazards. The results identified several biases in the national decision-making process when the

  1. Knowledge of Social Affiliations Biases Economic Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Joel E; Mack, Michael L; Gelman, Bernard D; Preston, Alison R

    2016-01-01

    An individual's reputation and group membership can produce automatic judgments and behaviors toward that individual. Whether an individual's social reputation impacts interactions with affiliates has yet to be demonstrated. We tested the hypothesis that during initial encounters with others, existing knowledge of their social network guides behavior toward them. Participants learned reputations (cooperate, defect, or equal mix) for virtual players through an iterated economic game (EG). Then, participants learned one novel friend for each player. The critical question was how participants treated the friends in a single-shot EG after the friend-learning phase. Participants tended to cooperate with friends of cooperators and defect on friends of defectors, indicative of a decision making bias based on memory for social affiliations. Interestingly, participants' explicit predictions of the friends' future behavior showed no such bias. Moreover, the bias to defect on friends of defectors was enhanced when affiliations were learned in a social context; participants who learned to associate novel faces with player faces during reinforcement learning did not show reputation-based bias for associates of defectors during single-shot EG. These data indicate that when faced with risky social decisions, memories of social connections influence behavior implicitly.

  2. Increased anxiety-like behavior in neuropsin (kallikrein-related peptidase 8) gene-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horii, Yoichiro; Yamasaki, Nobuyuki; Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi; Shiosaka, Sadao

    2008-06-01

    Neuropsin (kallikrein-related peptidase 8) is concentrated in the hippocampus, amygdala, olfactory bulb, and prefrontal cortex. Earlier studies showed that protease deficiency causes a significant impairment of early-phase long-term potentiation in the Schaffer collateral pathway and hippocampus-dependent memory in the Y maze and Morris water maze (Z. Chen et al., 1995; A. Hirata et al., 2001; H. Tamura et al., 2006). In addition to neuropsin's participation in the hippocampal memory, amygdalar and cortical localization of the gene suggests extrahippocampal behavioral function, and the authors therefore examined neuropsin-deficient mice, including tests of sensory motor reflex, open field, light-dark transition, Rota-Rod, elevated plus-maze, hot plate, startle response-prepulse inhibition, Porsolt forced swim, Barnes maze, eight-arm radial maze, and contextual and cued fear conditioning tests. Here, the authors found increased anxiety in neuropsin-deficient mice, suggesting the involvement of this protease in emotional responses. (Copyright) 2008 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. Mutations in the clk-1 gene of Caenorhabditis elegans affect developmental and behavioral timing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, A.; Boutis, P.; Hekimi, S. [McGill Univ., Quebec (Canada)

    1995-03-01

    We have identified three allelic, maternal-effect mutations that affect developmental and behavioral timing in Caenorhabditis elegans. They result in a mean lengthening of embryonic and postembryonic development, the cell cycle period and life span, as well as the periods of the defecation, swimming and pumping cycles. These mutants also display a number of additional phenotypes related to timing. For example, the variability in the length of embryonic development is several times larger in the mutants than in the wild type, resulting in the occasional production of mutant embryos developing more rapidly than the most rapidly developing wild-type embryos. In addition, the duration of embryonic development of the mutants, but not of the wild type, depends on the temperature at which their parents were raised. Finally, individual variations in the severity of distinct mutant phenotypes are correlated in a counterintuitive way. For example, the animals with the shortest embryonic development have the longest defecation cycle and those with the longest embryonic development have the shortest defecation cycle. Most of the features affected by these mutations are believed to be controlled by biological clocks, and we therefore call the gene defined by these mutations clk-1, for {open_quotes}abnormal function of biological clocks.{close_quotes} 52 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. Behavioral response and gene expression changes in fipronil-administered male Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Samah R; Awad, Ashraf; Mohammed, Hesham H

    2017-04-01

    Fipronil is an important member of the phenylpyrazole group of insecticides and is widely used for various crops and vegetables to control insects, thereby exposing birds, animals, and humans to fipronil. Currently, there is limited information on the effects of fipronil exposure in Japanese quail. Therefore, our aim was to assess the reproductive toxicological effects of fipronil in the Japanese quail in a 15-day gavage study and then its recovery over a period of 60 days. Fipronil-administration led to significant losses in both feed intake and body weight. Whereas, the gonadosomatic index was not affected, and histological changes observed in the testes were reversible, particularly by day 45 and day 60 of recovery. Cloacal gland atrophy, reduced foam quantity and a reduction in fertility, sexual and aggressive behaviors, and serum testosterone with elevated estradiol (E2) hormone levels were also observed. All these changes gradually reversed during various recovery periods. Further, alterations in hepatic vitellogenin (Vtg) and estrogen receptor α (ERα) gene expression, assessed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction, were also observed. Specifically, ERα1 was induced after fipronil administration, while the Vtg transcript was elevated during both exposure and recovery periods. Our results showed that fipronil exposure has a profound negative influence on reproductive traits in the male Japanese quail and exhibits an estrogenic activity that can raise the incidence of infertility in males. Nevertheless, most of the changes could be reversed after a recovery period of 30-45 days. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Expectancy biases in fear and anxiety and their link to biases in attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aue, Tatjana; Okon-Singer, Hadas

    2015-12-01

    Healthy individuals often exhibit prioritized processing of aversive information, as manifested in enhanced orientation of attention to threatening stimuli compared with neutral items. In contrast to this adaptive behavior, anxious, fearful, and phobic individuals show exaggerated attention biases to threat. In addition, they overestimate the likelihood of encountering their feared stimulus and the severity of the consequences; both are examples of expectancy biases. The co-occurrence of attention and expectancy biases in fear and anxiety raises the question about causal influences. Herein, we summarize findings related to expectancy biases in fear and anxiety, and their association with attention biases. We suggest that evidence calls for more comprehensive research strategies in the investigation of mutual influences between expectancy and attention biases, as well as their combined effects on fear and anxiety. Moreover, both types of bias need to be related to other types of distorted information processing commonly observed in fear and anxiety (e.g., memory and interpretation biases). Finally, we propose new research directions that may be worth considering in developing more effective treatments for anxiety disorders.

  6. Prenatal ethanol exposure disrupts intraneocortical circuitry, cortical gene expression, and behavior in a mouse model of FASD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Shawa, Hani; Abbott, Charles W; Huffman, Kelly J

    2013-11-27

    In utero ethanol exposure from a mother's consumption of alcoholic beverages impacts brain and cognitive development, creating a range of deficits in the child (Levitt, 1998; Lebel et al., 2012). Children diagnosed with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are often born with facial dysmorphology and may exhibit cognitive, behavioral, and motor deficits from ethanol-related neurobiological damage in early development. Prenatal ethanol exposure (PrEE) is the number one cause of preventable mental and intellectual dysfunction globally, therefore the neurobiological underpinnings warrant systematic research. We document novel anatomical and gene expression abnormalities in the neocortex of newborn mice exposed to ethanol in utero. This is the first study to demonstrate large-scale changes in intraneocortical connections and disruption of normal patterns of neocortical gene expression in any prenatal ethanol exposure animal model. Neuroanatomical defects and abnormal neocortical RZRβ, Id2, and Cadherin8 expression patterns are observed in PrEE newborns, and abnormal behavior is present in 20-d-old PrEE mice. The vast network of neocortical connections is responsible for high-level sensory and motor processing as well as complex cognitive thought and behavior in humans. Disruptions to this network from PrEE-related changes in gene expression may underlie some of the cognitive-behavioral phenotypes observed in children with FASD.

  7. Graphene nanoribbon devices at high bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Melinda Y.; Kim, Philip

    2014-02-01

    We present the electron transport in graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) at high electric bias conduction. When graphene is patterned into a few tens of nanometer width of a ribbon shape, the carriers are confined to a quasi-one-dimensional (1D) system. Combining with the disorders in the system, this quantum confinement can lead into a transport gap in the energy spectrum of the GNRs. Similar to CNTs, this gap depends on the width of the GNR. In this review, we examine the electronic properties of lithographically fabricated GNRs, focusing on the high bias transport characteristics of GNRs as a function of density tuned by a gate voltage. We investigate the transport behavior of devices biased up to a few volts, a regime more relevant for electronics applications. We find that the high bias transport behavior in this limit can be described by hot electron scattered by the surface phonon emission, leading to a carrier velocity saturation. We also showed an enhanced current saturation effect in the GNRs with an efficient gate coupling. This effect results from the introduction of the charge neutrality point into the channel, and is similar to pinch-off in MOSFET devices. We also observe that heating effects in graphene at high bias are significant.

  8. Neural correlates of attentional bias in addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hester, Robert; Luijten, Maartje

    2014-06-01

    A small but growing neuroimaging literature has begun to examine the neural mechanisms underlying the difficulty that substance-use dependent (SUD) groups have with ignoring salient, drug-related stimuli. Drug-related attentional bias appears to implicate the countermanding forces of cognitive control and reward salience. Basic cognitive neuroscience research suggests that ignoring emotionally evocative stimuli in our environment requires both up-regulation of control networks and down-regulation of processing in emotion and reward regions. Research to date suggests that attentional biases for drug-related stimuli emerge from a failure to sufficiently increase control of attention over salient, but task-irrelevant stimuli. While SUD samples have typically shown increased activity in the cognitive control regions (ie, lateral prefrontal and dorsal anterior cingulate), during attentional bias such increases appear to have been insufficient for the concomitant increases in processing by the emotion/reward regions (ie, amygdala, insula, and striatum). Given the potential contribution of attentional biases to perpetuating drug use and the development of interventions (both pharmaceutical and cognitive-behavioral) to treat biases, understanding the neural basis of successfully reducing bias remains an important, but as yet unanswered, question for our field.

  9. Effects of MC4R, FTO, and NMB gene variants to obesity, physical activity, and eating behavior phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirac, Deniz; Kasimay Cakir, Ozgur; Avcilar, Tuba; Deyneli, Oguzhan; Kurtel, Hizir; Yazici, Dilek; Kaspar, Elif Cigdem; Celik, Nurgul; Guney, Ahmet Ilter

    2016-10-01

    Obesity is a major contributory factor of morbidity and mortality. It has been suggested that biological systems may be involved in the tendency to be and to remain physically inactive also behaviors such as food and beverage preferences and nutrient intake may at least partially genetically determined. Consequently, besides environment, genetic factors may also contribute to the level of physical activity and eating behaviors thus effect obesity. Therefore the aim of this study is to investigate the effect of various gene mutations on obesity, physical activity levels and eating behavior phenotypes. One hundred patients and 100 controls were enrolled to the study. Physical activity levels were measured with an actical acceloremeter device. Eating behaviors were evaluated using Three-Factor Eating questionnaire (TFEQ). Associations between eating behavior scores and physical characteristics were also evaluated. The information about other obesity risk factors were also collected. Mutations were investigated with PCR, direct sequencing and Real-Time PCR. rs1051168, rs8050146 -2778C > T mutations were found statistically significant in patients, rs1121980 was found statistically significant in controls. 21 mutations were found in MC4R and near MC4R of which 18 of them are novel and 8 of them cause amino acid change. In addition, it was found that, some obesity related factors and questions of TFEQ are associated with various investigated gene mutations. Any relation between gene mutations and physical activity levels were not detected. It is thought that, due to the genotype data and eating behaviors, it may be possible to recommend patients for proper eating patterns to prevent obesity. © 2016 IUBMB Life, 68(10):806-816, 2016. © 2016 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  10. The role of D4 receptor gene exon III polymorphisms in shaping human altruism and prosocial behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yushi eJiang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Human beings are an extraordinarily altruistic species often willing to help strangers at a considerable cost (sometimes life itself to themselves. But as Darwin noted …he who was ready to sacrifice his life, as many a savage has been, rather than betray his comrades, would often leave no offspring to inherit his noble nature. Hence, this is the paradox of altruism. Twin studies have shown that altruism and other prosocial behavior show considerable heritability and more recently a number of candidate genes have been identified with this phenotype. Among these first provisional findings are genes encoding elements of dopaminergic transmission. In this article we will review the evidence for the involvement of one of these, the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4 gene, in shaping human prosocial behavior and consider the methodologies employed in measuring this trait, specific molecular genetic findings and finally, evidence from several Gene x Environment (GxE studies that imply differential susceptibility of this gene to environmental influences.

  11. Association between the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) gene and autism: relationship to Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerer, E; Levi, S; Salomon, S; Darvasi, A; Yirmiya, N; Ebstein, R P

    2008-10-01

    Evidence both from animal and human studies suggests that common polymorphisms in the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) gene are likely candidates to confer risk for autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In lower mammals, oxytocin is important in a wide range of social behaviors, and recent human studies have shown that administration of oxytocin modulates behavior in both clinical and non-clinical groups. Additionally, two linkage studies and two recent association investigations also underscore a possible role for the OXTR gene in predisposing to ASD. We undertook a comprehensive study of all 18 tagged SNPs across the entire OXTR gene region identified using HapMap data and the Haploview algorithm. Altogether 152 subjects diagnosed with ASDs (that is, DSM IV autistic disorder or pervasive developmental disorder--NOS) from 133 families were genotyped (parents and affected siblings). Both individual SNPs and haplotypes were tested for association using family-based association tests as provided in the UNPHASED set of programs. Significant association with single SNPs and haplotypes (global P-values OXTR gene confer risk for ASD. The current investigation also shows association with IQ and total VABS scores (as well as the communication, daily living skills and socialization subdomains), suggesting that this gene shapes both cognition and daily living skills that may cross diagnostic boundaries.

  12. Child maltreatment, impulsivity, and antisocial behavior in African American children: Moderation effects from a cumulative dopaminergic gene index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibodeau, Eric L; Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A

    2015-11-01

    A model examining the effects of an increasing number of maltreatment subtypes experienced on antisocial behavior, as mediated by impulsivity and moderated by a polygenic index of dopaminergic genotypes, was investigated. An African American sample of children (N = 1,012, M age = 10.07) with and without maltreatment histories participated. Indicators of aggression, delinquency, and disruptive peer behavior were obtained from peer- and counselor-rated measures to form a latent variable of antisocial behavior; impulsivity was assessed by counselor report. Five genotypes in four dopaminergic genes (dopamine receptors D4, D2, known as DRD4, DRD2; dopamine active transporter 1, known as DAT1; and catechol-O-methyltransferase, known as COMT) conferring heightened environmental sensitivity were combined into one polygenic index. Using structural equation modeling, a first-stage, moderated-mediation model was evaluated. Age and sex were entered as covariates, both as main effects and in interaction with maltreatment and the gene index. The model had excellent fit: χ2 (32, N = 1,012) = 86.51, p impulsivity (β = 0.173, p impulsivity was stronger as children evinced more differentiating genotypes, thereby strengthening the mediational effect of impulsivity on antisocial behavior. These findings elucidate the manner by which maltreated children develop early signs of antisocial behavior, and the genetic mechanisms involved in greater vulnerability for maladaptation in impulse control within the context of child maltreatment.

  13. Behaviorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J.

    2011-01-01

    Early forms of psychology assumed that mental life was the appropriate subject matter for psychology, and introspection was an appropriate method to engage that subject matter. In 1913, John B. Watson proposed an alternative: classical S-R behaviorism. According to Watson, behavior was a subject matter in its own right, to be studied by the…

  14. Behaviorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J.

    2011-01-01

    Early forms of psychology assumed that mental life was the appropriate subject matter for psychology, and introspection was an appropriate method to engage that subject matter. In 1913, John B. Watson proposed an alternative: classical S-R behaviorism. According to Watson, behavior was a subject matter in its own right, to be studied by the…

  15. Generational Association Studies of Dopaminergic Genes in Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS Subjects: Selecting Appropriate Phenotypes for Reward Dependence Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Fornari

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abnormal behaviors involving dopaminergic gene polymorphisms often reflect an insufficiency of usual feelings of satisfaction, or Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS. RDS results from a dysfunction in the “brain reward cascade,” a complex interaction among neurotransmitters (primarily dopaminergic and opioidergic. Individuals with a family history of alcoholism or other addictions may be born with a deficiency in the ability to produce or use these neurotransmitters. Exposure to prolonged periods of stress and alcohol or other substances also can lead to a corruption of the brain reward cascade function. We evaluated the potential association of four variants of dopaminergic candidate genes in RDS (dopamine D1 receptor gene [DRD1]; dopamine D2 receptor gene [DRD2]; dopamine transporter gene [DAT1]; dopamine beta-hydroxylase gene [DBH]. Methodology: We genotyped an experimental group of 55 subjects derived from up to five generations of two independent multiple-affected families compared to rigorously screened control subjects (e.g., N = 30 super controls for DRD2 gene polymorphisms. Data related to RDS behaviors were collected on these subjects plus 13 deceased family members. Results: Among the genotyped family members, the DRD2 Taq1 and the DAT1 10/10 alleles were significantly (at least p < 0.015 more often found in the RDS families vs. controls. The TaqA1 allele occurred in 100% of Family A individuals (N = 32 and 47.8% of Family B subjects (11 of 23. No significant differences were found between the experimental and control positive rates for the other variants. Conclusions: Although our sample size was limited, and linkage analysis is necessary, the results support the putative role of dopaminergic polymorphisms in RDS behaviors. This study shows the importance of a nonspecific RDS phenotype and informs an understanding of how evaluating single subset behaviors of RDS may lead to spurious results. Utilization of a nonspecific

  16. Are most samples of animals systematically biased? Consistent individual trait differences bias samples despite random sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biro, Peter A

    2013-02-01

    Sampling animals from the wild for study is something nearly every biologist has done, but despite our best efforts to obtain random samples of animals, 'hidden' trait biases may still exist. For example, consistent behavioral traits can affect trappability/catchability, independent of obvious factors such as size and gender, and these traits are often correlated with other repeatable physiological and/or life history traits. If so, systematic sampling bias may exist for any of these traits. The extent to which this is a problem, of course, depends on the magnitude of bias, which is presently unknown because the underlying trait distributions in populations are usually unknown, or unknowable. Indeed, our present knowledge about sampling bias comes from samples (not complete population censuses), which can possess bias to begin with. I had the unique opportunity to create naturalized populations of fish by seeding each of four small fishless lakes with equal densities of slow-, intermediate-, and fast-growing fish. Using sampling methods that are not size-selective, I observed that fast-growing fish were up to two-times more likely to be sampled than slower-growing fish. This indicates substantial and systematic bias with respect to an important life history trait (growth rate). If correlations between behavioral, physiological and life-history traits are as widespread as the literature suggests, then many animal samples may be systematically biased with respect to these traits (e.g., when collecting animals for laboratory use), and affect our inferences about population structure and abundance. I conclude with a discussion on ways to minimize sampling bias for particular physiological/behavioral/life-history types within animal populations.

  17. Social context-induced song variation affects female behavior and gene expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah C Woolley

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Social cues modulate the performance of communicative behaviors in a range of species, including humans, and such changes can make the communication signal more salient. In songbirds, males use song to attract females, and song organization can differ depending on the audience to which a male sings. For example, male zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata change their songs in subtle ways when singing to a female (directed song compared with when they sing in isolation (undirected song, and some of these changes depend on altered neural activity from a specialized forebrain-basal ganglia circuit, the anterior forebrain pathway (AFP. In particular, variable activity in the AFP during undirected song is thought to actively enable syllable variability, whereas the lower and less-variable AFP firing during directed singing is associated with more stereotyped song. Consequently, directed song has been suggested to reflect a "performance" state, and undirected song a form of vocal motor "exploration." However, this hypothesis predicts that directed-undirected song differences, despite their subtlety, should matter to female zebra finches, which is a question that has not been investigated. We tested female preferences for this natural variation in song in a behavioral approach assay, and we found that both mated and socially naive females could discriminate between directed and undirected song-and strongly preferred directed song. These preferences, which appeared to reflect attention especially to aspects of song variability controlled by the AFP, were enhanced by experience, as they were strongest for mated females responding to their mate's directed songs. We then measured neural activity using expression of the immediate early gene product ZENK, and found that social context and song familiarity differentially modulated the number of ZENK-expressing cells in telencephalic auditory areas. Specifically, the number of ZENK-expressing cells in the

  18. How Communication Goals Determine when Audience Tuning Biases Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echterhoff, Gerald; Higgins, E. Tory; Kopietz, Rene; Groll, Stephan

    2008-01-01

    After tuning their message to suit their audience's attitude, communicators' own memories for the original information (e.g., a target person's behaviors) often reflect the biased view expressed in their message--producing an audience-congruent memory bias. Exploring the motivational circumstances of message production, the authors investigated…

  19. Specificity and Modifiability of Cognitive Biases in Hypochondriasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gropalis, Maria; Bleichhardt, Gaby; Hiller, Wolfgang; Witthoft, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Objective: According to cognitive-behavioral models of hypochondriasis (HYP), biased attentional and memory processes related to health threat stimuli are crucial for the development and maintenance of severe health anxiety. Little is known about the specificity, temporal stability, and modifiability of these biases via psychotherapy. Method: In…

  20. Distinguishing Selection Bias and Confounding Bias in Comparative Effectiveness Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haneuse, Sebastien

    2016-04-01

    Comparative effectiveness research (CER) aims to provide patients and physicians with evidence-based guidance on treatment decisions. As researchers conduct CER they face myriad challenges. Although inadequate control of confounding is the most-often cited source of potential bias, selection bias that arises when patients are differentially excluded from analyses is a distinct phenomenon with distinct consequences: confounding bias compromises internal validity, whereas selection bias compromises external validity. Despite this distinction, however, the label "treatment-selection bias" is being used in the CER literature to denote the phenomenon of confounding bias. Motivated by an ongoing study of treatment choice for depression on weight change over time, this paper formally distinguishes selection and confounding bias in CER. By formally distinguishing selection and confounding bias, this paper clarifies important scientific, design, and analysis issues relevant to ensuring validity. First is that the 2 types of biases may arise simultaneously in any given study; even if confounding bias is completely controlled, a study may nevertheless suffer from selection bias so that the results are not generalizable to the patient population of interest. Second is that the statistical methods used to mitigate the 2 biases are themselves distinct; methods developed to control one type of bias should not be expected to address the other. Finally, the control of selection and confounding bias will often require distinct covariate information. Consequently, as researchers plan future studies of comparative effectiveness, care must be taken to ensure that all data elements relevant to both confounding and selection bias are collected.

  1. Measuring Agricultural Bias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henning Tarp; Robinson, Sherman; Tarp, Finn

    . For the 15 sample countries, the results indicate that the agricultural price incentive bias, which was generally perceived to exist during the 1980s, was largely eliminated during the 1990s. The results also demonstrate that general equilibrium effects and country-specific characteristics - including trade...... shares and intersectoral linkages - are crucial for determining the sign and magnitude of trade policy bias. The GE-ERP measure is therefore uniquely suited to capture the full impact of trade policies on agricultural price incentives. A Monte Carlo procedure confirms that the results are robust...

  2. Measuring agricultural policy bias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henning Tarp; Robinson, Sherman; Tarp, Finn

    2010-01-01

    Measurement is a key issue in the literature on price incentive bias induced by trade policy. We introduce a general equilibrium measure of the relative effective rate of protection, which generalizes earlier protection measures. For our fifteen sample countries, results indicate that the agricul......Measurement is a key issue in the literature on price incentive bias induced by trade policy. We introduce a general equilibrium measure of the relative effective rate of protection, which generalizes earlier protection measures. For our fifteen sample countries, results indicate...... protection measure is therefore uniquely suited to capture the full impact of trade policies on relative agricultural price incentives....

  3. Gene-environment interplay in the link of friends' and nonfriends' behaviors with children's social reticence in a competitive situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimond, Fanny-Alexandra; Brendgen, Mara; Vitaro, Frank; Forget-Dubois, Nadine; Dionne, Ginette; Tremblay, Richard E; Boivin, Michel

    2014-03-01

    This study used a genetically informed design to assess the effects of friends' and nonfriends' reticent and dominant behaviors on children's observed social reticence in a competitive situation. Potential gene-environment correlations (rGE) and gene-environment interactions (GxE) in the link between (a) friends' and nonfriends' behaviors and (b) children's social reticence were examined. The sample comprised 466 twin children (i.e., the target children), each of whom was assessed in kindergarten together with a same-sex friend and two nonfriend classmates of either sex. Multilevel regression analyses revealed that children with a genetic disposition for social reticence showed more reticent behavior in the competitive situation and were more likely to affiliate with reticent friends (i.e., rGE). Moreover, a higher level of children's reticent behavior was predicted by their friends' higher social reticence (particularly for girls) and their friends' higher social dominance, independently of children's genetic disposition. Children's social reticence was also predicted by their nonfriends' behaviors. Specifically, children were less reticent when male nonfriends showed high levels of social reticence in the competitive situation, and this was particularly true for children with a genetic disposition for social reticence (i.e., GxE). Moreover, children genetically vulnerable for social reticence seemed to foster dominant behavior in their female nonfriend peers (i.e., rGE). In turn, male nonfriends seemed to be more dominant as soon as the target children were reticent, even if the target children did not have a stable genetic disposition for this behavior.

  4. Racial bias shapes social reinforcement learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindström, Björn; Selbing, Ida; Molapour, Tanaz; Olsson, Andreas

    2014-03-01

    Both emotional facial expressions and markers of racial-group belonging are ubiquitous signals in social interaction, but little is known about how these signals together affect future behavior through learning. To address this issue, we investigated how emotional (threatening or friendly) in-group and out-group faces reinforced behavior in a reinforcement-learning task. We asked whether reinforcement learning would be modulated by intergroup attitudes (i.e., racial bias). The results showed that individual differences in racial bias critically modulated reinforcement learning. As predicted, racial bias was associated with more efficiently learned avoidance of threatening out-group individuals. We used computational modeling analysis to quantitatively delimit the underlying processes affected by social reinforcement. These analyses showed that racial bias modulates the rate at which exposure to threatening out-group individuals is transformed into future avoidance behavior. In concert, these results shed new light on the learning processes underlying social interaction with racial-in-group and out-group individuals.

  5. Recursive bias estimation and L2 boosting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hengartner, Nicolas W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cornillon, Pierre - Andre [INRA, FRANCE; Matzner - Lober, Eric [RENNE, FRANCE

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a general iterative bias correction procedure for regression smoothers. This bias reduction schema is shown to correspond operationally to the L{sub 2} Boosting algorithm and provides a new statistical interpretation for L{sub 2} Boosting. We analyze the behavior of the Boosting algorithm applied to common smoothers S which we show depend on the spectrum of I - S. We present examples of common smoother for which Boosting generates a divergent sequence. The statistical interpretation suggest combining algorithm with an appropriate stopping rule for the iterative procedure. Finally we illustrate the practical finite sample performances of the iterative smoother via a simulation study.

  6. Isoform-specific control of male neuronal differentiation and behavior in Drosophila by the fruitless gene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Billeter, Jean-Christophe; Villella, Adriana; Allendorfer, Jane B; Dornan, Anthony J; Richardson, Michael; Gailey, Donald A; Goodwin, Stephen F

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: How the central nervous system (CNS) develops to implement innate behaviors remains largely unknown. Drosophila male sexual behavior has long been used as a model to address this question. The male-specific products of fruitless (fru) are pivotal to the emergence of this behavior. These

  7. AAV-mediated gene transfer of the obesity-associated gene Etv5 in rat midbrain does not affect energy balance or motivated behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjen J Boender

    Full Text Available Several genome-wide association studies have implicated the transcription factor E-twenty- six version 5 (Etv5 in the regulation of body mass index. Further substantiating the role of Etv5 in feeding behavior are the findings that targeted disruption of Etv5 in mice leads to decreased body weight gain and that expression of Etv5 is decreased in the ventral tegmental area and substantia nigra pars compacta (VTA/SNpc after food restriction. As Etv5 has been suggested to influence dopaminergic neurotransmission by driving the expression of genes that are responsible for the synthesis and release of dopamine, we investigated if expression levels of Etv5 are dependent on nutritional state and subsequently influence the expression levels of tyrosine hydroxylase. While it was shown that Etv5 expression in the VTA/SNpc increases after central administration of leptin and that Etv5 was able to drive expression of tyrosine hydroxylase in vitro, AAV-mediated gene transfer of Etv5 into the VTA/SNpc of rats did not alter expression of tyrosine hydroxylase in vivo. Moreover, AAV-mediated gene transfer of Etv5 in the VTA/SNpc did not affect measures of energy balance or performances in a progressive ratio schedule. Thus, these data do not support a role for increased expression of Etv5 in the VTA/SNpc in the regulation of feeding behavior.

  8. AAV-mediated gene transfer of the obesity-associated gene Etv5 in rat midbrain does not affect energy balance or motivated behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boender, Arjen J; Koning, Nivard A; van den Heuvel, José K; Luijendijk, Mieneke C M; van Rozen, Andrea J; la Fleur, Susanne E; Adan, Roger A H

    2014-01-01

    Several genome-wide association studies have implicated the transcription factor E-twenty- six version 5 (Etv5) in the regulation of body mass index. Further substantiating the role of Etv5 in feeding behavior are the findings that targeted disruption of Etv5 in mice leads to decreased body weight gain and that expression of Etv5 is decreased in the ventral tegmental area and substantia nigra pars compacta (VTA/SNpc) after food restriction. As Etv5 has been suggested to influence dopaminergic neurotransmission by driving the expression of genes that are responsible for the synthesis and release of dopamine, we investigated if expression levels of Etv5 are dependent on nutritional state and subsequently influence the expression levels of tyrosine hydroxylase. While it was shown that Etv5 expression in the VTA/SNpc increases after central administration of leptin and that Etv5 was able to drive expression of tyrosine hydroxylase in vitro, AAV-mediated gene transfer of Etv5 into the VTA/SNpc of rats did not alter expression of tyrosine hydroxylase in vivo. Moreover, AAV-mediated gene transfer of Etv5 in the VTA/SNpc did not affect measures of energy balance or performances in a progressive ratio schedule. Thus, these data do not support a role for increased expression of Etv5 in the VTA/SNpc in the regulation of feeding behavior.

  9. Candidate SNP markers of gender-biased autoimmune complications of monogenic diseases are predicted by a significant change in the affinity of TATA-binding protein for human gene promoters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail P. Ponomarenko

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Some variations of human genome (for example, single nucleotide polymorphisms [SNPs] are markers of hereditary diseases and drug responses. Analysis of them can help to improve treatment. Computer-based analysis of millions of SNPs in the 1000 Genomes project makes a search for SNP markers more targeted. Here we combined two computer-based approaches: DNA sequence analysis and keyword search in databases. In the binding sites for TATA-binding protein (TBP in human gene promoters, we found candidate SNP markers of gender-biased autoimmune diseases, including rs1143627 (cachexia in rheumatoid arthritis [double prevalence among women]; rs11557611 (demyelinating diseases [thrice more prevalent among young white women than among nonwhite individuals]; rs17231520 and rs569033466 (both: atherosclerosis comorbid with related diseases [double prevalence among women]; rs563763767 (Hughes syndrome-related thrombosis [lethal during pregnancy]; rs2814778 (autoimmune diseases [excluding multiple sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis] underlying hypergammaglobulinemia in women; rs72661131 and rs562962093 (both: preterm delivery in pregnant diabetic women; and rs35518301, rs34166473, rs34500389, rs33981098, rs33980857, rs397509430, rs34598529, rs33931746, rs281864525, and rs63750953 (all: autoimmune diseases underlying hypergammaglobulinemia in women. Validation of these predicted candidate SNP markers using the clinical standards may advance personalized medicine.

  10. Simulating currency substitution bias

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Boon (Martin); C.J.M. Kool (Clemens); C.G. de Vries (Casper)

    1989-01-01

    textabstractThe sign and size of estimates of the elasticity of currency substitution critically depend on the definition of the oppurtunity costs of holding money. We investigate possible biases by means of Monte Carlo experiments, as sufficient real data are not available.

  11. Sex Bias in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalk, Sue Rosenberg; And Others

    This study investigated children's sex biased attitudes as a function of the sex, age, and race of the child as well as a geographical-SES factor. Two attitudes were measured on a 55-item questionnaire: Sex Pride (attributing positive characteristics to a child of the same sex) and Sex Prejudice (attributing negative characteristics to a child of…

  12. Cognitive bias measurement and social anxiety disorder: Correlating self-report data and attentional bias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Miloff

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Social anxiety disorder (SAD and attentional bias are theoretically connected in cognitive behavioral therapeutic models. In fact, there is an emerging field focusing on modifying attentional bias as a stand-alone treatment. However, it is unclear to what degree these attentional biases are present before commencing treatment. The purpose of this study was to measure pre-treatment attentional bias in 153 participants diagnosed with SAD using a home-based Internet version of the dot-probe paradigm. Results showed no significant correlation for attentional bias (towards or away from negative words or faces and the self-rated version of the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS-SR. However, two positive correlations were found for the secondary measures Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7 (GAD-7 and Patient Health Questionnaire 9 (PHQ-9. These indicated that those with elevated levels of anxiety and depression had a higher bias towards negative faces in neutral–negative and positive–negative valence combinations, respectively. The unreliability of the dot-probe paradigm and home-based Internet delivery are discussed to explain the lack of correlations between LSAS-SR and attentional bias. Changes to the dot-probe task are suggested that could improve reliability.

  13. Proliferation, behavior, and cytokine gene expression of human umbilical vascular endothelial cells in response to different titanium surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Na; Schedle, Andreas; Wieland, Marco; Andrukhov, Oleh; Matejka, Michael; Rausch-Fan, Xiaohui

    2010-04-01

    Success of dental implantation is initially affected by wound healing of both, hard and soft tissues. Endothelial cells (ECs) are involved as crucial cells in the angiogenesis and inflammation process of wound healing. In the present study, proliferation, mobility, cluster formation, and gene expression of angiogenesis-related molecules of human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs) were investigated on titanium surfaces with different roughnesses: acid-etched (A), coarse-grit-blasted and acid-etched (SLA) surfaces, as well as on hydrophilic modified modA and modSLA surfaces. Cell behaviors were analyzed by proliferation assay and time-lapse microscopy, gene expression was analyzed by real time PCR. Results showed that cell proliferation, mobility, and cluster formation were highest on modA surfaces compared with all other surfaces. HUVECs moved slowly and exhibited seldom cell aggregation on SLA and modSLA surfaces during the whole observing period of 120 h. The gene expressions of the angiogenesis-related factors von Willebrand factor, thrombomodulin, endothelial cell protein C receptor, and adhesion molecules intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and E-selectin were most enhanced on modSLA surfaces. These results suggest that modA surface is optimal for proliferation and angiogenic behavior of ECs. However, modSLA surface seems to promote ECs to express angiogenesis-related factor genes, which play essential roles in controlling inflammation and revascularization of wound healing.

  14. Genetic risk for violent behavior and environmental exposure to disadvantage and violent crime: the case for gene-environment interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, J C; Jacobs, Bruce A

    2013-01-01

    Despite mounds of evidence to suggest that neighborhood structural factors predict violent behavior, almost no attention has been given to how these influences work synergistically (i.e., interact) with an individual's genetic propensity toward violent behavior. Indeed, two streams of research have, heretofore, flowed independently of one another. On one hand, criminologists have underscored the importance of neighborhood context in the etiology of violence. On the other hand, behavioral geneticists have argued that individual-level genetic propensities are important for understanding violence. The current study seeks to integrate these two compatible frameworks by exploring gene-environment interactions (GxE). Two GxEs were examined and supported by the data (i.e., the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health). Using a scale of genetic risk based on three dopamine genes, the analysis revealed that genetic risk had a greater influence on violent behavior when the individual was also exposed to neighborhood disadvantage or when the individual was exposed to higher violent crime rates. The relevance of these findings for criminological theorizing was considered.

  15. Effects of Metabolic Programming on Juvenile Play Behavior and Gene Expression in the Prefrontal Cortex of Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hehar, Harleen; Ma, Irene; Mychasiuk, Richelle

    2016-01-01

    Early developmental processes, such as metabolic programming, can provide cues to an organism, which allow it to make modifications that are predicted to be beneficial for survival. Similarly, social play has a multifaceted role in promoting survival and fitness of animals. Play is a complex behavior that is greatly influenced by motivational and reward circuits, as well as the energy reserves and metabolism of an organism. This study examined the association between metabolic programming and juvenile play behavior in an effort to further elucidate insight into the consequences that early adaptions have on developmental trajectories. The study also examined changes in expression of four genes (Drd2, IGF1, Opa1, and OxyR) in the prefrontal cortex known to play significant roles in reward, bioenergetics, and social-emotional functioning. Using four distinct variations in developmental programming (high-fat diet, caloric restriction, exercise, or high-fat diet combined with exercise), we found that dietary programming (high-fat diet vs. caloric restriction) had the greatest impact on play behavior and gene expression. However, exercise also induced changes in both measures. This study demonstrates that metabolic programming can alter neural circuits and bioenergetics involved in play behavior, thus providing new insights into mechanisms that allow programming to influence the evolutionary success of an organism.

  16. Child Maltreatment, Impulsivity, and Antisocial Behavior in African-American Children: Moderation Effects from a Cumulative Dopaminergic Gene Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibodeau, Eric L.; Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A.

    2015-01-01

    A model examining the effects of an increasing number of maltreatment subtypes experienced on antisocial behavior, as mediated by impulsivity and moderated by a polygenic index of dopaminergic genotypes, was investigated. An African American sample of children (N = 1012, M age = 10.07) with and without maltreatment histories participated. Indicators of aggression, delinquency, and disruptive peer behavior were obtained from peer and counselor rated measures to form a latent variable of antisocial behavior; impulsivity was assessed by counselor report. Five genotypes in four dopaminergic genes (DRD4, DRD2, DAT1, and COMT) conferring heightened environmental sensitivity were combined into one polygenic index. Using SEM, a first-stage, moderated-mediation model was evaluated. Age and sex were entered as covariates, both as main effects and in interaction with maltreatment and the gene index. The model had excellent fit: χ2(32, N =1012) = 86..51, p<0.001; CFI = 0.982; TLI = 0.977; RMSEA = 0.041; SRMR = 0.022. The effect of maltreatment subtypes on antisocial behavior was partially mediated by impulsivity (β= 0.173, p<0.001), and these relations were moderated by the number of differentiating dopaminergic genotypes. Specifically, a significant GxE interaction (b = 0.016, p = 0.013) indicated that the relation between maltreatment and impulsivity was stronger as children evinced more differentiating genotypes, thereby strengthening the mediational effect of impulsivity on antisocial behavior. These findings elucidate the manner by which maltreated children develop early signs of antisocial behavior, and the genetic mechanisms involved in greater vulnerability for maladaptation in impulse-control within context of child maltreatment. PMID:26535948

  17. Associations between oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) polymorphisms and self-reported aggressive behavior and anger: Interactions with alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Ada; Westberg, Lars; Sandnabba, Kenneth; Jern, Patrick; Salo, Benny; Santtila, Pekka

    2012-09-01

    Oxytocin has been implicated in the regulation of social as well as aggressive behaviors, and in a recent study we found that the effect of alcohol on aggressive behavior was moderated by the individual's genotype on an oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) polymorphism (Johansson et al., 2012). In this study we wanted to deepen and expand the analysis by exploring associations between three (rs1488467, rs4564970, rs1042778) OXTR polymorphisms and aggressive behavior, trait anger as well as anger control in a population-based sample of Finnish men and women (N=3577) aged between 18 and 49 years (M=26.45 years, SD=5.02). A specific aim was to investigate if the polymorphisms would show interactive effects with alcohol consumption on aggressive behavior and trait anger, as well as to explore whether these polymorphisms affect differences in anger control between self-reported sober and intoxicated states. The results showed no main effects of the polymorphisms, however, three interactions between the polymorphisms and alcohol consumption were found. The effect of alcohol consumption on aggressive behavior was moderated by the genotype of the individual on the rs4564970 polymorphism, in line with previous results (Johansson et al., 2012). For trait anger, both the rs1488467 and the rs4564970 polymorphisms interacted with alcohol consumption. It appears that the region of the OXTR gene including both the rs4564970 and the rs1488467 polymorphisms may be involved in the regulation of the relationship between alcohol and aggressive behavior as well as between alcohol and the propensity to react to situations with elevated levels of anger.

  18. Motion, identity and the bias toward agency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris eFields

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The well-documented human bias toward agency as a cause and therefore an explanation of observed events is typically attributed to evolutionary selection for a social brain. Based on a review of developmental and adult behavioral and neurocognitive data, it is argued that the bias toward agency is a result of the default human solution, developed during infancy, to the computational requirements of object re-identification over gaps in observation of more than a few seconds. If this model is correct, overriding the bias toward agency to construct mechanistic explanations of observed events requires structure-mapping inferences, implemented by the pre-motor action planning system, that replace agents with mechanisms as causes of unobserved changes in contextual or featural properties of objects. Experiments that would test this model are discussed.

  19. Reference List About Implicit and Unconscious Bias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munar, Ana Maria; Villeseche, Florence; Weidemann, Cecilie Dam

    The compilation of this reference list is one of the initiatives of the action plan developed by the Council for Diversity and Inclusion at Copenhagen Business School (CBS). This reference list is the first in a series of efforts initiated by this Council to develop an academic resource pool...... and knowledge base on diversity- and inclusion-related topics. An implicit and/or unconscious bias is a bias that we are unaware of and is therefore expressed unwillingly and unknowingly. As recent studies on implicit bias indicate “we now know that the operation of prejudice and stereotyping in social judgment...... and behavior does not require personal animus, hostility, or even awareness. In fact, prejudice is often ‘unconscious’ or ‘implicit’ – that is, unwitting, unintentional, and uncontrollable even among the most well-intentioned people. […] Prejudice also lives and thrives in the banal workings of normal...

  20. Suicidal behavior and haplotypes of the dopamine receptor gene (DRD2 and ANKK1 gene polymorphisms in patients with alcohol dependence--preliminary report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Jasiewicz

    Full Text Available Suicide is a significant public health issue and a major cause of death throughout the world. According to WHO it accounts for almost 2% of deaths worldwide. The etiology of suicidal behavior is complex but the results of many studies suggest that genetic determinants are of significant importance. In our study,--we have analyzed selected SNPs polymorphisms in the DRD2 and ANKK1 genes in patients with alcohol dependence syndrome (169 Caucasian subjects including a subgroup of individuals (n = 61 who have experienced at least one suicide attempt. The aim of the study was to verify if various haplotypes of selected genes, comprising Taq1A, Taq1B, and Taq1D single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP, play any role in the development of alcohol dependence and suicidal behavior. The control group comprised 157 unrelated individuals matched for ethnicity, gender,- and age and included no individuals with mental disorders. All subjects were recruited in the North West region of Poland. The study showed that alcohol dependent subjects with a history of at least one suicidal attempt were characterized by a significantly higher frequency of the T-G-A2 haplotype when compared to individuals in whom alcohol dependence was not associated with suicidal behavior (p = 0.006. It appears that studies based on identifying correlation between SNPs is the future for research on genetic risk factors that contribute to the development of alcohol addiction and other associated disorders. To sum up, there is a necessity to perform further research to explain dependencies between the dopaminergic system, alcohol use disorders and suicidal behavior.

  1. Sex-biased dispersal at different geographical scales in a cooperative breeder from fragmented rainforest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Vangestel

    Full Text Available Dispersal affects both social behavior and population structure and is therefore a key determinant of long-term population persistence. However, dispersal strategies and responses to spatial habitat alteration may differ between sexes. Here we analyzed spatial and temporal variation in ten polymorphic microsatellite DNA loci of male and female Cabanis's greenbuls (Phyllastrephuscabanisi, a cooperative breeder of Afrotropical rainforest, to quantify rates of gene flow and fine-grained genetic structuring within and among fragmented populations. We found genetic evidence for female-biased dispersal at small spatial scales, but not at the landscape level. Local autocorrelation analysis provided evidence of positive genetic structure within 300 m distance ranges, which is consistent with behavioral observations of short-distance natal dispersal. At a landscape scale, individual-based autocorrelation values decreased over time while levels of admixture increased, possibly indicating increased gene flow over the past decade.

  2. Is p53 gene mutation an indicatior of the biological behaviors of recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    I-Shyan Sheen; Kuo-Shyang Jeng; Ju-Yann Wu

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate mutant p53 gene in primary hepatocellular carcinoma and to investigate the correlation between it and the recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma.METHODS: Mutations of p53 gene were examined using antihuman p53 monoclonal antibody and immunohistochemical staining in 79 resected hepatocellular carcinomas. The correlations among variables of p53 positivity and invasiveness, disease free interval and survival were studied.In addition, in those who developed recurrence, the correlation among p53 positivity, clinical features and postrecurrence survival were also studied.RESULTS: Of these 79 cases, 64 (81%) had p53 mutation.Those patients with mutant p53 positivityhad significantly more tumor recurrence (76.6 % vs 40.0 %, P=0.0107).However, the COX proportional hazards model showed that p53 overexpression had only weak correlations with recurrence free interval and survival time (P=0.088 and 0.081), which was probably related to the short duration of follow-up. The invasiveness variables may be predictors of HCC recurrence. On univariate analysis, more patients with mutant p53 positivity had vascular permeation [78.1vs 40.0 %, P=0.0088, O.R. (odds ratio) =5.3], grade Ⅱ-ⅣV differentiation (98.4 vs 80.0 %, P=0.0203, O.R. =15.7), no complete capsule (82.8 vs 53.3 %, P=0.0346, O.R. =4.2)and daughter nodules (60.9 vs. 33.3 %, P=0.0527, O.R.=3.1) than patients with negative p53 staining. Onmultivariate analysis, only vascular permeation and grade of differentiation remained significant (P=0.042 and 0.012).There was no statistically significant correlation betweenthe status of p53 in the primary lesion and the clinical features of recurrent hepatocellular carcinomas examined,including extrahepatic metastasis (P=0.1103) and the number of recurrent tumors (P= 1.000) except for diseaseover more than one segment in the extent of recurrent tumors (P=0.0043). The post-recurrence median survival was lower in patients in whom p53 mutation had been detected in the

  3. Face processing biases in social anxiety: an electrophysiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Jason S; Huppert, Jonathan D; Duval, Elizabeth; Simons, Robert F

    2008-04-01

    Studies of information processing biases in social anxiety suggest abnormal processing of negative and positive social stimuli. To further investigate these biases, behavioral performance and event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were measured, while high- and low-socially anxious individuals performed a modified version of the Erikson flanker task comprised of negative and positive facial expressions. While no group differences emerged on behavioral measures, ERP results revealed the presence of a negative face bias in socially anxious subjects as indexed by the parietally maximal attention- and memory-related P3/late positive potential. Additionally, non-anxious subjects evidenced the presence of a positive face bias as reflected in the centrally maximal early attention- and emotion-modulated P2 and the frontally maximal response monitoring-related correct response negativity. These results demonstrate the sensitivity of different processing stages to different biases in high- versus low-socially anxious individuals that may prove important in advancing models of anxious pathology.

  4. Heroin self-administration: II. CNS gene expression following withdrawal and cue-induced drug-seeking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntz, Kara L; Patel, Kruti M; Grigson, Patricia S; Freeman, Willard M; Vrana, Kent E

    2008-09-01

    In the accompanying paper, we described incubation of heroin-seeking behavior in rats following 14 days of abstinence. To gain an understanding of genomic changes that accompany this behavioral observation, we measured the expression of genes previously reported to respond to drugs of abuse. Specifically, after 1 or 14 days of abstinence, mRNA expression was measured for 11 genes in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and nucleus accumbens (NAc) immediately following a single 90 min extinction session. Additionally, the role of contingency was examined in control rats that received yoked, response-independent heroin administration. Gene expression was quantified by real-time quantitative PCR. Expression of five genes (Arc, EGR1, EGR2, Fos, and Homer1b/c) was changed in the mPFC. EGR1 and EGR2 expression was increased following the 90 min extinction session in a contingency-specific manner and this increase persisted through the 14 days of abstinence. Fos expression was also increased after 1 and 14 days of abstinence, but at 14 days this increase was response-independent (i.e., it occurred in both the rats with a history of heroin self-administration and in the yoked controls). Arc expression increased following the extinction session only in rats with a history of heroin self-administration and only when tested following 1, but not 14, days of abstinence. Homer 1 b/c decreased after 14 days of enforced abstinence in rats that received non-contingent heroin. Expression of only a single gene (EGR2) was increased in the NAc. These data demonstrate that behavioral incubation is coincident with altered levels of specific transcripts and that this response is contingently-specific. Moreover, EGR1 and EGR2 are specifically upregulated in self-administering rats following extinction and this finding persists through 14 days of abstinence, suggesting that these genes are particularly associated with the incubation phenomenon. These latter observations of persistent changes

  5. Targeted deletion of the mouse α2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit gene (Chrna2) potentiates nicotine-modulated behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotfipour, Shahrdad; Byun, Janet S; Leach, Prescott; Fowler, Christie D; Murphy, Niall P; Kenny, Paul J; Gould, Thomas J; Boulter, Jim

    2013-05-01

    Baseline and nicotine-modulated behaviors were assessed in mice harboring a null mutant allele of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunit gene α2 (Chrna2). Homozygous Chrna2(-/-) mice are viable, show expected sex and Mendelian genotype ratios, and exhibit no gross neuroanatomical abnormalities. A broad range of behavioral tests designed to assess genotype-dependent effects on anxiety (elevated plus maze and light/dark box), motor coordination (narrow bean traverse and gait), and locomotor activity revealed no significant differences between mutant mice and age-matched wild-type littermates. Furthermore, a panel of tests measuring traits, such as body position, spontaneous activity, respiration, tremors, body tone, and startle response, revealed normal responses for Chrna2-null mutant mice. However, Chrna2(-/-) mice do exhibit a mild motor or coordination phenotype (a decreased latency to fall during the accelerating rotarod test) and possess an increased sensitivity to nicotine-induced analgesia in the hotplate assay. Relative to wild-type, Chrna2(-/-) mice show potentiated nicotine self-administration and withdrawal behaviors and exhibit a sex-dependent enhancement of nicotine-facilitated cued, but not trace or contextual, fear conditioning. Overall, our results suggest that loss of the mouse nAChR α2 subunit has very limited effects on baseline behavior but does lead to the potentiation of several nicotine-modulated behaviors.

  6. Temperature trend biases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venema, Victor; Lindau, Ralf

    2016-04-01

    In an accompanying talk we show that well-homogenized national dataset warm more than temperatures from global collections averaged over the region of common coverage. In this poster we want to present auxiliary work about possible biases in the raw observations and on how well relative statistical homogenization can remove trend biases. There are several possible causes of cooling biases, which have not been studied much. Siting could be an important factor. Urban stations tend to move away from the centre to better locations. Many stations started inside of urban areas and are nowadays more outside. Even for villages the temperature difference between the centre and edge can be 0.5°C. When a city station moves to an airport, which often happened around WWII, this takes the station (largely) out of the urban heat island. During the 20th century the Stevenson screen was established as the dominant thermometer screen. This screen protected the thermometer much better against radiation than earlier designs. Deficits of earlier measurement methods have artificially warmed the temperatures in the 19th century. Newer studies suggest we may have underestimated the size of this bias. Currently we are in a transition to Automatic Weather Stations. The net global effect of this transition is not clear at this moment. Irrigation on average decreases the 2m-temperature by about 1 degree centigrade. At the same time, irrigation has increased significantly during the last century. People preferentially live in irrigated areas and weather stations serve agriculture. Thus it is possible that there is a higher likelihood that weather stations are erected in irrigated areas than elsewhere. In this case irrigation could lead to a spurious cooling trend. In the Parallel Observations Science Team of the International Surface Temperature Initiative (ISTI-POST) we are studying influence of the introduction of Stevenson screens and Automatic Weather Stations using parallel measurements

  7. Gene-Environment Interplay between Number of Friends and Prosocial Leadership Behavior in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivizzigno, Alessandra S.; Brendgen, Mara; Feng, Bei; Vitaro, Frank; Dionne, Ginette; Tremblay, Richard E.; Boivin, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Enriched environments may moderate the effect of genetic factors on prosocial leadership (gene-environment interaction, G × E). However, positive environmental experiences may also themselves be influenced by a genetic disposition for prosocial leadership (gene-environment correlation, rGE). Relating these processes to friendships, the present…

  8. Gene-Environment Interplay between Number of Friends and Prosocial Leadership Behavior in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivizzigno, Alessandra S.; Brendgen, Mara; Feng, Bei; Vitaro, Frank; Dionne, Ginette; Tremblay, Richard E.; Boivin, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Enriched environments may moderate the effect of genetic factors on prosocial leadership (gene-environment interaction, G × E). However, positive environmental experiences may also themselves be influenced by a genetic disposition for prosocial leadership (gene-environment correlation, rGE). Relating these processes to friendships, the present…

  9. Psychological and Behavioral Characteristics of Chromosomal Anomalies and Congenital Contiguous Gene Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Congenital anomalies exert significant impact on individuals and their families, with particularly negative effects on their quality of life. However, studies focusing on the psychological and behavioral characteristics of children with congenital anomalies are still limited, though this information is indispensable for the educational support of such children. In this paper, we reviewed articles dealing with psychological, behavioral and socioemotionalcharacteristics of children with congeni...

  10. Differential gene expression associated with honey bee grooming behavior in response to varroa mites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honey bee (Apis mellifera) grooming behavior is an important mechanism of resistance against the parasitic mite Varroa destructor. This research was conducted to study associations between grooming behavior and the expression of selected immune, neural, detoxification, developmental and health-relat...

  11. Bias in collegiate courts

    OpenAIRE

    Olowofoyeku, AA

    2016-01-01

    This article addresses the issues attending common law collegiate courts’ engagements with allegations of bias within their own ranks. It will be argued that, in such cases, it would be inappropriate to involve the collegiate panel or any member thereof in the decision, since such involvement inevitably encounters difficulties. The common law’s dilemmas require drastic solutions, but the common law arguably is illequipped to implement the required change. The answer, it will be argued, is ...

  12. FractBias: a graphical tool for assessing fractionation bias following polyploidy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Blake L; Haug-Baltzell, Asher; Davey, Sean; Bomhoff, Matthew; Schnable, James C; Lyons, Eric

    2017-02-15

    Following polyploidy events, genomes undergo massive reduction in gene content through a process known as fractionation. Importantly, the fractionation process is not always random, and a bias as to which homeologous chromosome retains or loses more genes can be observed in some species. The process of characterizing whole genome fractionation requires identifying syntenic regions across genomes followed by post-processing of those syntenic datasets to identify and plot gene retention patterns. We have developed a tool, FractBias, to calculate and visualize gene retention and fractionation patterns across whole genomes. Through integration with SynMap and its parent platform CoGe, assembled genomes are pre-loaded and available for analysis, as well as letting researchers integrate their own data with security options to keep them private or make them publicly available. FractBias is freely available as a web application at https://genomevolution.org/CoGe/SynMap.pl . The software is open source (MIT license) and executable with Python 2.7 or iPython notebook, and available on GitHub ( https://goo.gl/PaAtqy ). Documentation for FractBias is available on CoGepedia ( https://goo.gl/ou9dt6 ). ericlyons@email.arizona.edu. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  13. Fine-tuning notes in the behavioral symphony: parent-of-origin allelic gene expression in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sittig, Laura J; Redei, Eva E

    2014-01-01

    The gene encoding the thyroid hormone (TH)-metabolizing enzyme, deiodinase type III (Dio3), exhibits a preferential paternal expression in most tissues. Dio3 is part of the Dlk1-Dio3 imprinted locus, so named according to its ancestral genes, Delta-like homolog 1 (Dlk1) and Dio3, which among other important functions control metabolic programming in the developing embryo and fetus. Here, we describe the aspects of the genomic imprinting patterns exhibited by Dio3 across brain regions and development. The corresponding local changes in the dosage of the Dio3 enzyme are inversely related to TH levels that vary from one brain region to another, and affect social and cognitive behaviors. We show that this regional tuning of brain region-specific expression is dependent on parent of origin-specific genetic polymorphisms in the rat, is sexually dimorphic, and is affected by the early environmental challenge of fetal exposure to alcohol, opening the possibility that the potential for variant expression patterns of the Dio3 gene is quite large. The multiple regulatory genomic features within the Dlk1-Dio3 locus, and other imprinted loci, allow mammals to specifically modulate parent-of-origin allelic gene expression brain region. These regulatory structures seem to have evolved as a possible mechanism of adaptation in response to the simultaneous need for highly regulated expression in some tissues during development, but variable expression across specific regions of the brain over the complete life span. Here, we use Dio3 as a single gene example of the epigenetic parent-of-origin allelic expression in specific brain regions and discuss the potential of this general phenomenon to shape evolutionarily relevant social and cognitive behavior in eutherian mammals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Approach-Induced Biases in Human Information Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Laurence T.; Rutledge, Robb B.; Malalasekera, W. M. Nishantha; Kennerley, Steven W.; Dolan, Raymond J.

    2016-01-01

    Information sampling is often biased towards seeking evidence that confirms one’s prior beliefs. Despite such biases being a pervasive feature of human behavior, their underlying causes remain unclear. Many accounts of these biases appeal to limitations of human hypothesis testing and cognition, de facto evoking notions of bounded rationality, but neglect more basic aspects of behavioral control. Here, we investigated a potential role for Pavlovian approach in biasing which information humans will choose to sample. We collected a large novel dataset from 32,445 human subjects, making over 3 million decisions, who played a gambling task designed to measure the latent causes and extent of information-sampling biases. We identified three novel approach-related biases, formalized by comparing subject behavior to a dynamic programming model of optimal information gathering. These biases reflected the amount of information sampled (“positive evidence approach”), the selection of which information to sample (“sampling the favorite”), and the interaction between information sampling and subsequent choices (“rejecting unsampled options”). The prevalence of all three biases was related to a Pavlovian approach-avoid parameter quantified within an entirely independent economic decision task. Our large dataset also revealed that individual differences in the amount of information gathered are a stable trait across multiple gameplays and can be related to demographic measures, including age and educational attainment. As well as revealing limitations in cognitive processing, our findings suggest information sampling biases reflect the expression of primitive, yet potentially ecologically adaptive, behavioral repertoires. One such behavior is sampling from options that will eventually be chosen, even when other sources of information are more pertinent for guiding future action. PMID:27832071

  15. Increasing maternal or post-weaning folic acid alters gene expression and moderately changes behavior in the offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subit Barua

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Studies have indicated that altered maternal micronutrients and vitamins influence the development of newborns and altered nutrient exposure throughout the lifetime may have potential health effects and increased susceptibility to chronic diseases. In recent years, folic acid (FA exposure has significantly increased as a result of mandatory FA fortification and supplementation during pregnancy. Since FA modulates DNA methylation and affects gene expression, we investigated whether the amount of FA ingested during gestation alters gene expression in the newborn cerebral hemisphere, and if the increased exposure to FA during gestation and throughout the lifetime alters behavior in C57BL/6J mice. METHODS: Dams were fed FA either at 0.4 mg or 4 mg/kg diet throughout the pregnancy and the resulting pups were maintained on the diet throughout experimentation. Newborn pups brain cerebral hemispheres were used for microarray analysis. To confirm alteration of several genes, quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR and Western blot analyses were performed. In addition, various behavior assessments were conducted on neonatal and adult offspring. RESULTS: Results from microarray analysis suggest that the higher dose of FA supplementation during gestation alters the expression of a number of genes in the newborns' cerebral hemispheres, including many involved in development. QRT-PCR confirmed alterations of nine genes including down-regulation of Cpn2, Htr4, Zfp353, Vgll2 and up-regulation of Xist, Nkx6-3, Leprel1, Nfix, Slc17a7. The alterations in the expression of Slc17a7 and Vgll2 were confirmed at the protein level. Pups exposed to the higher dose of FA exhibited increased ultrasonic vocalizations, greater anxiety-like behavior and hyperactivity. These findings suggest that although FA plays a significant role in mammalian cellular machinery, there may be a loss of benefit from higher amounts of FA. Unregulated high FA supplementation during pregnancy

  16. Characterization of the rec-1 gene of Haemophilus influenzae and behavior of the gene in Escherichia coli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Setlow, J.K.; Spikes, D.; Griffin, K.

    1988-09-01

    The rec-1 gene of Haemophilus influenzae was cloned into a shuttle vector that replicates in Escherichia coli as well as in H. influenzae. The plasmid, called pRec1, complemented the defects of a rec-1 mutant in repair of UV damage, transformation, and ability of prophage to be induced by UV radiation. Although UV resistance and recombination were caused by pRec1 in E. coli recA mutants, UV induction of lambda and UV mutagenesis were not. We suggest that the ability of the H. influenzae Rec-1 protein to cause cleavage of repressors but not the recombinase function differs from that of the E. coli RecA protein.

  17. [Association between serotonin receptor 2C gene Cys23Ser polymorphism and social behavior in schizophrenia patients and healthy individuals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfimova, M V; Golimbet, V E; Korovaitseva, G I; Abramova, L I; Kaleda, V G

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this work was to search for associations between the serotonin receptor 2C gene (HTR2C) and the peculiarities of social behavior and social cognition in schizophrenia. To do this, patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and healthy control subjects were genotyped for the Cys23Ser HTR2C marker and underwent psychological examination, including assessment of Machiavellianism, recognition of emotions in facial expression, and theory of mind. In addition, we estimated the trait anxiety level as a potential factor affecting the relationship between the gene HTR2C and social behavior. We found a significant association between the Ser allele and a reduction of estimates on the Mach-LV Machiavellianism scale in the total sample of patients (n = 182) and control subjects (n = 189), which did not reach the confidence level in either of the groups. A tendency towards a HTR2C gene influence on the trait anxiety level was also revealed. The association between HTR2C and Machiavellianism was retained if the anxiety level was taken into account. The results suggest a pleiotropic effect of HTR2Con anxiety and Machiavellianism.

  18. Altered gene expression in hippocampus and depressive-like behavior in young adult female mice by early protein malnutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belluscio, L M; Alberca, C D; Pregi, N; Cánepa, E T

    2016-11-01

    Perinatal development represents a critical period in the life of an individual. A common cause of poor development is that which comes from undernutrition or malnutrition. In particular, protein deprivation during development has been shown to have deep deleterious effects on brain's growth and plasticity. Early-life stress has also been linked with an increased risk to develop different psychopathologies later in life. We have previously shown that perinatal protein malnutrition in mice leads to the appearance of anxiety-related behaviors in the adulthood. We also found evidence that the female offspring was more susceptible to the development of depression-related behaviors. In the present work, we further investigated this behavior together with its molecular bases. We focused our study on the hippocampus, as it is a structure involved in coping with stressful situations. We found an increase in immobility time in the forced swimming test in perinatally malnourished females, and an alteration in the expression of genes related with neuroplasticity, early growth response 1, calcineurin and c-fos. We also found that perinatal malnutrition causes a reduction in the number of neurons in the hippocampus. This reduction, together with altered gene expression, could be related to the increment in immobility time observed in the forced swimming test. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  19. Dynamic Nigrostriatal Dopamine Biases Action Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Christopher D; Li, Hao; Geddes, Claire E; Jin, Xin

    2017-03-22

    Dopamine is thought to play a critical role in reinforcement learning and goal-directed behavior, but its function in action selection remains largely unknown. Here we demonstrate that nigrostriatal dopamine biases ongoing action selection. When mice were trained to dynamically switch the action selected at different time points, changes in firing rate of nigrostriatal dopamine neurons, as well as dopamine signaling in the dorsal striatum, were found to be associated with action selection. This dopamine profile is specific to behavioral choice, scalable with interval duration, and doesn't reflect reward prediction error, timing, or value as single factors alone. Genetic deletion of NMDA receptors on dopamine or striatal neurons or optogenetic manipulation of dopamine concentration alters dopamine signaling and biases action selection. These results unveil a crucial role of nigrostriatal dopamine in integrating diverse information for regulating upcoming actions, and they have important implications for neurological disorders, including Parkinson's disease and substance dependence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. An SIS model for cultural trait transmission with conformity bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Caroline E; Kendal, Jeremy R

    2013-12-01

    Epidemiological models have been applied to human health-related behaviors that are affected by social interaction. Typically these models have not considered conformity bias, that is, the exaggerated propensity to adopt commonly observed behaviors or opinions, or content biases, where the content of the learned trait affects the probability of adoption. Here we consider an interaction of these two effects, presenting an SIS-type model for the spread and persistence of a behavior which is transmitted via social learning. Uptake is controlled by a nonlinear dependence on the proportion of individuals demonstrating the behavior in a population. Three equilibrium solutions are found, their linear stability is analyzed and the results are compared with a model for unbiased social learning. Our analysis focuses on the effects of the strength of conformity bias and the effects of content biases which alter a conformity threshold frequency of the behavior, above which there is an exaggerated propensity for adoption. The strength of the conformity bias is found to qualitatively alter the predictions regarding whether the trait becomes endemic within the population and the proportion of individuals who display the trait when it is endemic. As the conformity strength increases, the number of feasible equilibrium solutions increases from two to three, leading to a situation where the stable equilibrium attained is dependent upon the initial state. Varying the conformity threshold frequency directionally alters the behavior invasion threshold. Finally we discuss the possible application of this model to binge drinking behavior.

  1. Promoting Institutional Change Through Bias Literacy

    OpenAIRE

    Carnes, Molly; Devine, Patricia G.; Isaac, Carol; Manwell, Linda Baier; Ford, Cecelia E.; Byars-Winston, Angela; Fine, Eve; Sheridan, Jennifer Thurik

    2012-01-01

    The National Science Foundation and others conclude that institutional transformation is required to ensure equal opportunities for the participation and advancement of men and women in academic science, technology, engineering, mathematics, and medicine (STEMM). Such transformation requires changing the habitual attitudes and behaviors of faculty. Approaching implicit bias as a remediable habit, we present the theoretical basis and conceptual model underpinning an educational intervention to...

  2. Mitigating Hypothetical Bias in Stated Preference Data: Evidence from Sports Tourism

    OpenAIRE

    John Whitehead; Melissa S. Weddell; Pete Groothuis

    2014-01-01

    One of the major criticisms of stated preference data is hypothetical bias. Using a unique data set of both stated and actual behavior we test for hypothetical bias of stated preference survey responses. We consider whether respondents tend to overstate their participatory sporting event behavior ex ante when compared to their actual behavior at different registration fees. We find that behavioral intentions accurately predicts actual behavior at a middle level of respondent certainty, over p...

  3. Assessing Bias in Search Engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowshowitz, Abbe; Kawaguchi, Akira

    2002-01-01

    Addresses the measurement of bias in search engines on the Web, defining bias as the balance and representation of items in a collection retrieved from a database for a set of queries. Assesses bias by measuring the deviation from the ideal of the distribution produced by a particular search engine. (Author/LRW)

  4. Influence of genes and family environment on adult smoking behavior assessed in an adoption study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osler, M; Holst, C; Prescott, E

    2001-01-01

    Twin studies suggest that genetic factors influence smoking behavior. However, in these studies, genetic and environmental influences may be confounded. We examined whether smoking behavior of adoptees is associated with smoking behavior in adoptive and biological relatives in a design in which...... was not associated with adoptive or biological parents' status as current smokers. This study of smoking behavior in adult adoptees and their biological and adoptee family supports the finding in twin studies of a genetic influence on smoking within the same generation....... this confounding is minimized. Data on smoking status were collected using a mailed questionnaire in a sample of 840 adoptive families from the Danish Adoption Register including all non-familial adoptions from 1924 through 1947. Smoking data were available for 706 adoptees, 451 biological fathers, 580 biological...

  5. When bias binds: Effect of implicit outgroup bias on ingroup affiliation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacoby-Senghor, Drew S; Sinclair, Stacey; Smith, Colin Tucker

    2015-09-01

    We tested a novel process we term implicit homophily in which perceivers' implicit outgroup bias shapes their affiliative responses toward ingroup targets with outgroup friends as a function of perceived similarity. Across 4 studies, we tested implicit homophily in the context of racial groups. We found that White participants with higher implicit anti-Black bias reported less affiliative responses toward White targets with Black friends compared with White targets with White friends, and this effect persisted above and beyond the effects of implicit pro-White bias and explicit racial bias (Studies 1-3). We further found evidence that this relationship between implicit anti-Black bias and affiliation exists because participants infer how comfortable targets are around outgroup members (Preliminary Study) and use this information to infer similarity on this dimension (Studies 1-3). Our findings also suggested that stigma transference and expectancy violation were not viable alternative mediators (Preliminary Study and Study 1). Finally, women's implicit anti-Black bias predicted their likelihood of having Facebook friends with Black friends, providing ecological and behavioral evidence of implicit homophily (Study 4). Implications for research on stigma by association, extended contact, affiliation, and network formation are discussed.

  6. Biases in human sequential predictions as a consequence of incorrect world models, noise and limited memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Narain, D.; Beers, R.J. van; Smeets, J.B.J.

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies demonstrate that biases found in human behavior can be explained by rational agents that make incorrect generative-model assumptions. While predicting a sequence of uncorrelated events, humans are biased towards overestimating its serial correlation. We demonstrate how such biases may

  7. Study on Relationship Between Halothane Gene and Behavioral Stereotypies in Pregnant Sows

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Wei-guo; LI Jian-hong; BAO Jun

    2003-01-01

    A simple preparation using the ear tissue for PCR amplification was established for diagnosis of genotypes for halothane in 181 sows.3 halothane heterozygous pigs were detected.The behaviors of the sows that have different genotypes were observed.The heterozygous sows expressed seem more behavioral stereotypies than halothane resistant.But there is no difference in two genotypes.The behaviour directed trough in heterozygous sows is higher than halothane resistant.

  8. Oxytocin and vasopressin receptor gene variation as a proximate base for inter- and intraspecific behavioral differences in bonobos and chimpanzees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicky Staes

    Full Text Available Recent literature has revealed the importance of variation in neuropeptide receptor gene sequences in the regulation of behavioral phenotypic variation. Here we focus on polymorphisms in the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR and vasopressin receptor gene 1a (Avpr1a in chimpanzees and bonobos. In humans, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP in the third intron of OXTR (rs53576 SNP (A/G is linked with social behavior, with the risk allele (A carriers showing reduced levels of empathy and prosociality. Bonobos and chimpanzees differ in these same traits, therefore we hypothesized that these differences might be reflected in variation at the rs53576 position. We sequenced a 320 bp region surrounding rs53576 but found no indications of this SNP in the genus Pan. However, we identified previously unreported SNP variation in the chimpanzee OXTR sequence that differs from both humans and bonobos. Humans and bonobos have previously been shown to have a more similar 5' promoter region of Avpr1a when compared to chimpanzees, who are polymorphic for the deletion of ∼ 360 bp in this region (+/- DupB which includes a microsatellite (RS3. RS3 has been linked with variation in levels of social bonding, potentially explaining part of the interspecies behavioral differences found in bonobos, chimpanzees and humans. To date, results for bonobos have been based on small sample sizes. Our results confirmed that there is no DupB deletion in bonobos with a sample size comprising approximately 90% of the captive founder population, whereas in chimpanzees the deletion of DupB had the highest frequency. Because of the higher frequency of DupB alleles in our bonobo population, we suggest that the presence of this microsatellite may partly reflect documented differences in levels of sociability found in bonobos and chimpanzees.

  9. Effects of perinatal exposure to phthalate/adipate esters on hypothalamic gene expression and sexual behavior in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hwi-Cheul; Yamanouchi, Keitaro; Nishihara, Masugi

    2006-06-01

    Our previous research has identified the granulin (grn) and p130 genes as sex steroid-regulated genes in the neonatal rat hypothalamus that might be involved in sexual differentiation of the brain. Since phthalate/adipate esters such as di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), diisononyl phthalate (DINP), and di-2-ethylhexyl adipate (DEHA) are suspected to interfere with the endocrine system as environmental endocrine disruptors having estrogenic or antiandrogenic properties, these chemicals may affect sexual differentiation of the brain. The present study assessed the effects of perinatal exposure to DBP, DINP, and DEHA on grn and p130 mRNA expressions in the hypothalamus on postnatal day (PND) 7 and sexual behaviors after maturation in rats. Maternal rats were given a phytoestrogen-free diet containing different doses of DBP (20, 200, 2,000, and 10,000 ppm), DINP (40, 400, 4,000, and 20,000 ppm) and DEHA (480, 2,400, and 12,000 ppm) from gestational day 15 to the day of weaning (PND 21). DBP and DINP exposure during the perinatal period resulted in an increase in hypothalamic grn and p130 mRNA levels in females and males, respectively, but DEHA exposure decreased expression levels of grn in males and p130 in females, although the effects were not dose-dependent. After maturation, male rats that were exposed to several doses of DBP, DINP, and DEHA displayed decreased copulatory behavior. The lordosis quotient was decreased in females perinatally exposed to DBP, DINP, and DEHA at all the doses used. On the other hand, serum levels of LH and FSH in both sexes and the estrous cycles in females were not affected by the treatments. These results suggest that inappropriate expression of grn and/or p130 genes in the brains of male and female neonatal rats by perinatal exposure to these chemicals may exert permanent effects on the hypothalamus, thereby decreasing sexual behavior after maturation.

  10. High-resolution linkage analyses to identify genes that influence Varroa sensitive hygiene behavior in honey bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuruda, Jennifer M; Harris, Jeffrey W; Bourgeois, Lanie; Danka, Robert G; Hunt, Greg J

    2012-01-01

    Varroa mites (V. destructor) are a major threat to honey bees (Apis melilfera) and beekeeping worldwide and likely lead to colony decline if colonies are not treated. Most treatments involve chemical control of the mites; however, Varroa has evolved resistance to many of these miticides, leaving beekeepers with a limited number of alternatives. A non-chemical control method is highly desirable for numerous reasons including lack of chemical residues and decreased likelihood of resistance. Varroa sensitive hygiene behavior is one of two behaviors identified that are most important for controlling the growth of Varroa populations in bee hives. To identify genes influencing this trait, a study was conducted to map quantitative trait loci (QTL). Individual workers of a backcross family were observed and evaluated for their VSH behavior in a mite-infested observation hive. Bees that uncapped or removed pupae were identified. The genotypes for 1,340 informative single nucleotide polymorphisms were used to construct a high-resolution genetic map and interval mapping was used to analyze the association of the genotypes with the performance of Varroa sensitive hygiene. We identified one major QTL on chromosome 9 (LOD score = 3.21) and a suggestive QTL on chromosome 1 (LOD = 1.95). The QTL confidence interval on chromosome 9 contains the gene 'no receptor potential A' and a dopamine receptor. 'No receptor potential A' is involved in vision and olfaction in Drosophila, and dopamine signaling has been previously shown to be required for aversive olfactory learning in honey bees, which is probably necessary for identifying mites within brood cells. Further studies on these candidate genes may allow for breeding bees with this trait using marker-assisted selection.

  11. Retroviral Vector-mediated Gene Therapy to Mucopolysaccharidosis I Mice Improves Sensorimotor Impairments and Other Behavior Deficits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldo, Guilherme; Wozniak, David F.; Ohlemiller, Kevin K.; Zhang, Yanming; Giugliani, Roberto; Ponder, Katherine P.

    2012-01-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis I (MPS I) is a lysosomal storage disease due to α-L-iduronidase (IDUA) deficiency that results in the accumulation of glycosaminoglycans (GAG). Systemic gene therapy to MPS I mice can reduce lysosomal storage in the brain, but few data are available regarding the effect upon behavioral function. Here, we investigated the effect of gene therapy with a long-terminal repeat (LTR)-intact retroviral vector or a self-inactivating (SIN) vector on behavioral function in MPS I mice. The LTR vector was injected intravenously to 6 week-old MPS I mice, while the SIN vector was given to neonatal or 6 week-old mice. Adult-LTR, Neonatal-SIN, and Adult-SIN-treated mice achieved serum IDUA activity that was 235±20 (84-fold normal), 127±10, and 71±7 units/ml, respectively. All groups had reduction in histochemical evidence of lysosomal storage in the brain, with the Adult-LTR group showing the best response, while Adult-LTR mice had reductions in lysosomal storage in the cristae of the vestibular system. Behavioral evaluation was performed at 8 months. Untreated MPS I mice had a markedly reduced ability to hold onto an inverted screen or climb down a pole. LTR vector-treated mice had marked improvements on both of these tests, while Neonatal-SIN mice had improvements in the pole test. We conclude that both vectors can reduce brain disease in MPS I mice, with the LTR vector achieving higher serum IDUA levels and better correction. Vestibular abnormalities may contribute to mobility problems in patients with MPS I, and gene therapy may reduce symptoms. PMID:22983812

  12. Gene-Environment Interplay in the Link of Friends' and Nonfriends' Behaviors with Children's Social Reticence in a Competitive Situation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimond, Fanny-Alexandra; Brendgen, Mara; Vitaro, Frank; Forget-Dubois, Nadine; Dionne, Ginette; Tremblay, Richard E.; Boivin, Michel

    2014-01-01

    This study used a genetically informed design to assess the effects of friends' and nonfriends' reticent and dominant behaviors on children's observed social reticence in a competitive situation. Potential gene-environment correlations (rGE) and gene-environment interactions (GxE) in the link between (a) friends' and…

  13. Brief Report: Glutamate Transporter Gene ("SLC1A1") Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (rs301430) and Repetitive Behaviors and Anxiety in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadow, Kenneth D.; Roohi, Jasmin; DeVincent, Carla J.; Kirsch, Sarah; Hatchwell, Eli

    2010-01-01

    Investigated association of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs301430 in glutamate transporter gene ("SLC1A1") with severity of repetitive behaviors (obsessive-compulsive behaviors, tics) and anxiety in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Mothers and/or teachers completed a validated DSM-IV-referenced rating scale for 67 children…

  14. Chronic mild stress and imipramine treatment elicit opposite changes in behavior and in gene expression in the mouse prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erburu, M; Cajaleon, L; Guruceaga, E; Venzala, E; Muñoz-Cobo, I; Beltrán, E; Puerta, E; Tordera, R M

    2015-08-01

    Many studies suggest that the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is a target limbic region for stress response because a dysfunction here is linked to anhedonia, a decrease in reactivity to rewards, and to anxiety. It is suggested that stress-induced persistent molecular changes in this brain region could bring some light on the mechanisms perpetuating depressive episodes. In order to address this issue, here we have studied the long-term PFC gene expression pattern and behavioral effects induced by a chronic mild stress (CMS) model and antidepressant treatment in mice. CMS was applied to mice for six weeks and imipramine (10mg/kg, i.p.) or saline treatment was administered for five weeks starting from the third week of CMS. Mice were sacrificed one month after CMS and following two weeks after the discontinuation of drug treatment and the PFC was dissected and prepared for gene (mRNA) and protein expression studies. Using the same experimental design, a separate group of mice was tested for anhedonia, recognition memory, social interaction and anxiety. CMS induced a long-term altered gene expression profile in the PFC that was partially reverted by imipramine. Specifically, the circadian rhythm signaling pathway and functions such as gene expression, cell proliferation, survival and apoptosis as well as neurological and psychiatric disorders were affected. Of these, some changes of the circadian rhythm pathway (Hdac5, Per1, and Per2) were validated by RT-PCR and western-blot. Moreover, CMS induced long-lasting anhedonia that was reverted by imipramine treatment. Impaired memory, decreased social interaction and anxiety behavior were also induced by chronic stress. We have identified in the PFC molecular targets oppositely regulated by CMS and imipramine that could be relevant for chronic depression and antidepressant action. Among these, a possible candidate for further investigation could be the circadian rhythm pathway.

  15. Identifying context-specific gene profiles of social, reproductive, and mate preference behavior in a fish species with female mate choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Mary E; Maginnis, Tara L; Wong, Ryan Y; Brock, Chad; Cummings, Molly E

    2012-01-01

    Sensory and social inputs interact with underlying gene suites to coordinate social behavior. Here we use a naturally complex system in sexual selection studies, the swordtail, to explore how genes associated with mate preference, receptivity, and social affiliation interact in the female brain under specific social conditions. We focused on 11 genes associated with mate preference in this species (neuroserpin, neuroligin-3, NMDA receptor, tPA, stathmin-2, β-1 adrenergic receptor) or with female sociosexual behaviors in other taxa (vasotocin, isotocin, brain aromatase, α-1 adrenergic receptor, tyrosine hydroxylase). We exposed females to four social conditions, including pairings of differing mate choice complexity (large males, large/small males, small males), and a social control (two females). Female mate preference differed significantly by context. Multiple discriminant analysis (MDA) of behaviors revealed a primary axis (explaining 50.2% between-group variance) highlighting differences between groups eliciting high preference behaviors (LL, LS) vs. other contexts, and a secondary axis capturing general measures distinguishing a non-favored group (SS) from other groups. Gene expression MDA revealed a major axis (68.4% between-group variance) that distinguished amongst differential male pairings and was driven by suites of "preference and receptivity genes"; whereas a second axis, distinguishing high affiliation groups (large males, females) from low (small males), was characterized by traditional affiliative-associated genes (isotocin, vasotocin). We found context-specific correlations between behavior and gene MDA, suggesting gene suites covary with behaviors in a socially relevant context. Distinct associations between "affiliative" and "preference" axes suggest mate preference may be mediated by distinct clusters from those of social affiliation. Our results highlight the need to incorporate natural complexity of mating systems into behavioral genomics.

  16. Bias aware Kalman filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drecourt, J.-P.; Madsen, H.; Rosbjerg, Dan

    2006-01-01

    . The colored noise filter formulation is extended to correct both time correlated and uncorrelated model error components. A more stable version of the separate filter without feedback is presented. The filters are implemented in an ensemble framework using Latin hypercube sampling. The techniques...... are illustrated on a simple one-dimensional groundwater problem. The results show that the presented filters outperform the standard Kalman filter and that the implementations with bias feedback work in more general conditions than the implementations without feedback. 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  17. Modeling Temporal Bias of Uplift Events in Recommender Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Altaf, Basmah

    2013-05-08

    Today, commercial industry spends huge amount of resources in advertisement campaigns, new marketing strategies, and promotional deals to introduce their product to public and attract a large number of customers. These massive investments by a company are worthwhile because marketing tactics greatly influence the consumer behavior. Alternatively, these advertising campaigns have a discernible impact on recommendation systems which tend to promote popular items by ranking them at the top, resulting in biased and unfair decision making and loss of customers’ trust. The biasing impact of popularity of items on recommendations, however, is not fixed, and varies with time. Therefore, it is important to build a bias-aware recommendation system that can rank or predict items based on their true merit at given time frame. This thesis proposes a framework that can model the temporal bias of individual items defined by their characteristic contents, and provides a simple process for bias correction. Bias correction is done either by cleaning the bias from historical training data that is used for building predictive model, or by ignoring the estimated bias from the predictions of a standard predictor. Evaluated on two real world datasets, NetFlix and MovieLens, our framework is shown to be able to estimate and remove the bias as a result of adopted marketing techniques from the predicted popularity of items at a given time.

  18. Divergent Functions Through Alternative Splicing: The Drosophila CRMP Gene in Pyrimidine Metabolism, Brain, and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Deanna H.; Dubnau, Josh; Park, Jae H.; Rawls, John M.

    2012-01-01

    DHP and CRMP proteins comprise a family of structurally similar proteins that perform divergent functions, DHP in pyrimidine catabolism in most organisms and CRMP in neuronal dynamics in animals. In vertebrates, one DHP and five CRMP proteins are products of six genes; however, Drosophila melanogaster has a single CRMP gene that encodes one DHP and one CRMP protein through tissue-specific, alternative splicing of a pair of paralogous exons. The proteins derived from the fly gene are identical over 90% of their lengths, suggesting that unique, novel functions of these proteins derive from the segment corresponding to the paralogous exons. Functional homologies of the Drosophila and mammalian CRMP proteins are revealed by several types of evidence. Loss-of-function CRMP mutation modifies both Ras and Rac misexpression phenotypes during fly eye development in a manner that is consistent with the roles of CRMP in Ras and Rac signaling pathways in mammalian neurons. In both mice and flies, CRMP mutation impairs learning and memory. CRMP mutant flies are defective in circadian activity rhythm. Thus, DHP and CRMP proteins are derived by different processes in flies (tissue-specific, alternative splicing of paralogous exons of a single gene) and vertebrates (tissue-specific expression of different genes), indicating that diverse genetic mechanisms have mediated the evolution of this protein family in animals. PMID:22649077

  19. Artificial selection on brain-expressed genes during the domestication of dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Vonholdt, Bridgett M; Reynolds, Andy; Boyko, Adam R; Wayne, Robert K; Wu, Dong-Dong; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2013-08-01

    Domesticated dogs have many unique behaviors not found in gray wolves that have augmented their interaction and communication with humans. The genetic basis of such unique behaviors in dogs remains poorly understood. We found that genes within regions highly differentiated between outbred Chinese native dogs (CNs) and wolves show high bias for expression localized to brain tissues, particularly the prefrontal cortex, a specific region responsible for complex cognitive behaviors. In contrast, candidate genes showing high population differentiation between CNs and German Shepherd dogs (GSs) did not demonstrate significant expression bias. These observations indicate that these candidate genes highly expressed in the brain have rapidly evolved. This rapid evolution was probably driven by artificial selection during the primary transition from wolves to ancient dogs and was consistent with the evolution of dog-specific characteristics, such as behavior transformation, for thousands of years.

  20. Altered cohesin gene dosage affects Mammalian meiotic chromosome structure and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdoch, Brenda; Owen, Nichole; Stevense, Michelle; Smith, Helen; Nagaoka, So; Hassold, Terry; McKay, Michael; Xu, Huiling; Fu, Jun; Revenkova, Ekaterina; Jessberger, Rolf; Hunt, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Based on studies in mice and humans, cohesin loss from chromosomes during the period of protracted meiotic arrest appears to play a major role in chromosome segregation errors during female meiosis. In mice, mutations in meiosis-specific cohesin genes cause meiotic disturbances and infertility. However, the more clinically relevant situation, heterozygosity for mutations in these genes, has not been evaluated. We report here evidence from the mouse that partial loss of gene function for either Smc1b or Rec8 causes perturbations in the formation of the synaptonemal complex (SC) and affects both synapsis and recombination between homologs during meiotic prophase. Importantly, these defects increase the frequency of chromosomally abnormal eggs in the adult female. These findings have important implications for humans: they suggest that women who carry mutations or variants that affect cohesin function have an elevated risk of aneuploid pregnancies and may even be at increased risk of transmitting structural chromosome abnormalities.

  1. Altered cohesin gene dosage affects Mammalian meiotic chromosome structure and behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda Murdoch

    Full Text Available Based on studies in mice and humans, cohesin loss from chromosomes during the period of protracted meiotic arrest appears to play a major role in chromosome segregation errors during female meiosis. In mice, mutations in meiosis-specific cohesin genes cause meiotic disturbances and infertility. However, the more clinically relevant situation, heterozygosity for mutations in these genes, has not been evaluated. We report here evidence from the mouse that partial loss of gene function for either Smc1b or Rec8 causes perturbations in the formation of the synaptonemal complex (SC and affects both synapsis and recombination between homologs during meiotic prophase. Importantly, these defects increase the frequency of chromosomally abnormal eggs in the adult female. These findings have important implications for humans: they suggest that women who carry mutations or variants that affect cohesin function have an elevated risk of aneuploid pregnancies and may even be at increased risk of transmitting structural chromosome abnormalities.

  2. The Role of the Catechol-o-methyltransferase (COMT) Gene Val158Met in Aggressive Behavior, A Review of Genetic Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qayyum, Arqam; Zai, Clement C.; Hirata, Yuko; Tiwari, Arun K.; Cheema, Sheraz; Nowrouzi, Behdin; Beitchman, Joseph H.; Kennedy, James L.

    2015-01-01

    Aggressive behaviors have become a major public health problem, and early-onset aggression can lead to outcomes such as substance abuse, antisocial personality disorder among other issues. In recent years, there has been an increase in research in the molecular and genetic underpinnings of aggressive behavior, and one of the candidate genes codes for the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT). COMT is involved in catabolizing catecholamines such as dopamine. These neurotransmitters appear to be involved in regulating mood which can contribute to aggression. The most common gene variant studied in the COMT gene is the Valine (Val) to Methionine (Met) substitution at codon 158. We will be reviewing the current literature on this gene variant in aggressive behavior. PMID:26630958

  3. Mab-3 is a direct tra-1 target gene regulating diverse aspects of C. elegans male sexual development and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, W; Ross, J M; Zarkower, D

    2000-10-01

    Sex determination is controlled by global regulatory genes, such as tra-1 in Caenorhabditis elegans, Sex lethal in Drosophila, or Sry in mammals. How these genes coordinate sexual differentiation throughout the body is a key unanswered question. tra-1 encodes a zinc finger transcription factor, TRA-1A, that regulates, directly or indirectly, all genes required for sexual development. mab-3 (male abnormal 3), acts downstream of tra-1 and is known to be required for sexual differentiation of at least two tissues. mab-3 directly regulates yolk protein transcription in the intestine and specifies male sense organ differentiation in the nervous system. It encodes a transcription factor related to the products of the Drosophila sexual regulator doublesex (dsx), which also regulates yolk protein transcription and male sense-organ differentiation. The similarities between mab-3 and dsx led us to suggest that some aspects of sex determination may be evolutionarily conserved. Here we find that mab-3 is also required for expression of male-specific genes in sensory neurons of the head and tail and for male interaction with hermaphrodites. These roles in male development and behavior suggest further functional similarity to dsx. In male sensory ray differentiation we find that MAB-3 acts synergistically with LIN-32, a neurogenic bHLH transcription factor. Expression of LIN-32 is spatially restricted by the combined action of the Hox gene mab-5 and the hairy homolog lin-22, while MAB-3 is expressed throughout the lateral hypodermis. Finally, we find that mab-3 transcription is directly regulated in the intestine by TRA-1A, providing a molecular link between the global regulatory pathway and terminal sexual differentiation.

  4. Effect of ketamine combined with fluoxetine on behavior indexes and related gene expression in depression rat model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang Yuan; Bin Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To study the effect of ketamine combined with fluoxetine on behavior indexes and related gene expression in depression rat model.Methods:SD rats were used as experimental animals and randomly divided into control group (C group), model group (M group), ketamine group (K group), fluoxetine group (F group) and ketamine combined with fluoxetine group (KF group); chronic unpredictable stress depression models were built and different medications were given. Then behavior indicators were detected by tail suspension test and open field test; contents of monoamine neurotransmitters were determined by HPLC-electrochemical detection assay; mRNA contents of monoamine neurotransmitter-metabolizing enzymes, BDNF and its receptor were detected by PCR method.Results: (1)behavior indexes: compared with M group, behavior indexes of K group, F group and KF group were all improved; tail suspension immobility time and central grid staying time of KF group were shorter than those of K group and F group; squares crossed number, standing up number and decoration number were more than those of K group and F group; (2) molecular indexes: compared with M group, molecular markers of K group, F group and KF group were all improved; NE, 5-HT, TH, TPH, BDNF and TrkB contents in hippocampal and prefrontal cortex tissue of KF group were higher than those of K group and F group.Conclusion:Ketamine combined with fluoxetine therapy can more effectively reduce depression-related behavior; its mechanism may be related to the regulation of monoamine neurotransmitter metabolism and brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression in hippocampus and prefrontal cortex.

  5. The effect of genetic variation of the serotonin 1B receptor gene on impulsive aggressive behavior and suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zouk, Hana; McGirr, Alexander; Lebel, Véronique; Benkelfat, Chawky; Rouleau, Guy; Turecki, Gustavo

    2007-12-05

    Impulsive-aggressive behaviors (IABs) are regarded as possible suicide intermediate phenotypes, mediating the relationship between genes and suicide outcome. In this study, we aimed to investigate the putative relationship between genetic variation at the 5-HT1B receptor gene, which in animal models is involved in impulse-aggression control, IABs, and suicide risk. We investigated the relationship of variation at five 5-HT1B loci and IAB measures in a sample of 696 subjects, including 338 individuals who died by suicide and 358 normal epidemiological controls. We found that variation at the 5-HT1B promoter A-161T locus had a significant effect on levels of IABs, as measured by the Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory (BDHI). Suicides also differed from controls in distribution of variants at this locus. The A-161T locus, which seems to impact 5-HT1B transcription, could play a role in suicide predisposition by means of mediating impulsive-aggressive behaviors.

  6. Identifying context-specific gene profiles of social, reproductive and mate preference behavior in a fish species with female mate choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary E Ramsey

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Sensory and social inputs interact with underlying gene suites to coordinate social behavior. Here we use a naturally complex system in sexual selection studies, the swordtail, to explore how genes associated with mate preference, receptivity, and social affiliation interact in the female brain under specific social conditions. We focused on 11 genes associated with mate preference in this species (neuroserpin, neuroligin-3, NMDA-receptor, tPA, stathmin-2,β-1 adrenergic receptor or with female sociosexual behaviors in other taxa (vasotocin, isotocin, brain aromatase, α-1 adrenergic receptor, tyrosine hydroxylase. We exposed females to four social conditions, including pairings of differing mate choice complexity (large males, large/small males, small males, and a social control (two females. Female mate preference differed significantly by context. Multiple discriminant analysis (MDA of behaviors revealed a primary axis (explaining 50.2% between-group variance highlighting differences between groups eliciting high preference behaviors (LL, LS versus other contexts, and a secondary axis capturing general measures distinguishing a non-favored group (SS from other groups. Gene expression MDA revealed a major axis (68.4% between-group variance that distinguished amongst differential male pairings and was driven by suites of ‘preference and receptivity genes’; whereas a second axis, distinguishing high affiliation groups (large males, females from low (small males, was characterized by traditional affiliative-associated genes (isotocin, vasotocin. We found context-specific correlations between behavior and gene MDA, suggesting gene suites covary with behaviors in a socially relevant context. Distinct associations between ‘affiliative’ and ‘preference’ axes suggest mate preference may be mediated by distinct clusters from those of social affiliation. Our results highlight the need to incorporate natural complexity of mating systems into

  7. Very Massive Tracers and Higher Derivative Biases

    CERN Document Server

    Fujita, Tomohiro; Senatore, Leonardo; Vlah, Zvonimir; Angulo, Raul

    2016-01-01

    Most of the upcoming cosmological information will come from analyzing the clustering of the Large Scale Structures (LSS) of the universe through LSS or CMB observations. It is therefore essential to be able to understand their behavior with exquisite precision. The Effective Field Theory of Large Scale Structures (EFTofLSS) provides a consistent framework to make predictions for LSS observables in the mildly non-linear regime. In this paper we focus on biased tracers. We argue that in calculations at a given order in the dark matter perturbations, highly biased tracers will underperform because of their larger higher derivative biases. A natural prediction of the EFTofLSS is therefore that by simply adding higher derivative biases, all tracers should perform comparably well. We implement this prediction for the halo-halo and the halo-matter power spectra at one loop, and the halo-halo-halo, halo-halo-matter, and halo-matter-matter bispectra at tree-level, and compare with simulations. We find good agreement ...

  8. Exchange bias mediated by interfacial nanoparticles (invited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berkowitz, A. E., E-mail: aberk@ucsd.edu [Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Center for Magnetic Recording Research, University of California, California 92093 (United States); Sinha, S. K. [Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Fullerton, E. E. [Center for Magnetic Recording Research, University of California, California 92093 (United States); Smith, D. J. [Department of Physics, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States)

    2015-05-07

    The objective of this study on the iconic exchange-bias bilayer Permalloy/CoO has been to identify those elements of the interfacial microstructure and accompanying magnetic properties that are responsible for the exchange-bias and hysteretic properties of this bilayer. Both epitaxial and polycrystalline samples were examined. X-ray and neutron reflectometry established that there existed an interfacial region, of width ∼1 nm, whose magnetic properties differed from those of Py or CoO. A model was developed for the interfacial microstructure that predicts all the relevant properties of this system; namely; the temperature and Permalloy thickness dependence of the exchange-bias, H{sub EX}, and coercivity, H{sub C}; the much smaller measured values of H{sub EX} from what was nominally expected; the different behavior of H{sub EX} and H{sub C} in epitaxial and polycrystalline bilayers. A surprising result is that the exchange-bias does not involve direct exchange-coupling between Permalloy and CoO, but rather is mediated by CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles in the interfacial region.

  9. High School Students' Understanding of Chromosome/Gene Behavior during Meiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Jim; Dale, Michael

    1989-01-01

    Investigates high school students' understanding of the physical relationship of chromosomes and genes as expressed in their conceptual models and in their ability to manipulate the models to explain solutions to dihybrid cross problems. Describes three typical models and three students' reasoning processes. Discusses four implications. (YP)

  10. High School Students' Understanding of Chromosome/Gene Behavior during Meiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Jim; Dale, Michael

    1989-01-01

    Investigates high school students' understanding of the physical relationship of chromosomes and genes as expressed in their conceptual models and in their ability to manipulate the models to explain solutions to dihybrid cross problems. Describes three typical models and three students' reasoning processes. Discusses four implications. (YP)

  11. Childhood problem behavior and parental divorce: evidence for gene-environment interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.C.C. Robbers (Sylvana); F.V.A. van Oort (Floor); A.C. Huizink (Anja); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); C.E.M. van Beijsterveldt (Toos); D.I. Boomsma (Dorret); M. Bartels (Meike)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractObjective: The importance of genetic and environmental influences on children's behavioral and emotional problems may vary as a function of environmental exposure. We previously reported that 12-year-olds with divorced parents showed more internalizing and externalizing problems than

  12. Epigenetics: Behavioral Influences on Gene Function, Part II--Molecular Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogren, Marilee P.; Lombroso, Paul J.

    2008-01-01

    A study presented on the effect of parenting on stress response and other behaviors show that animals exposed to a high degree of nurturing show a blunted response to stress. Molecular mechanisms responsible for these differences in the adult offspring as well as the molecular mechanisms by which epigenetic effects are propagated from one…

  13. Dyslexia across Languages: Orthography and the Brain-Gene-Behavior Link

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCardle, Peggy, Ed.; Miller, Brett, Ed.; Lee, Jun Ren, Ed.; Tzeng, Ovid J. L., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    What causes dyslexia, and how does it manifest across languages? As bilingualism becomes increasingly important globally, these questions have never been more critical--and this comprehensive volume from The Dyslexia Foundation explores them in unprecedented depth. Bringing together the best brain-based, genetics, and behavioral research in the…

  14. Epigenetics: Behavioral Influences on Gene Function, Part II--Molecular Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogren, Marilee P.; Lombroso, Paul J.

    2008-01-01

    A study presented on the effect of parenting on stress response and other behaviors show that animals exposed to a high degree of nurturing show a blunted response to stress. Molecular mechanisms responsible for these differences in the adult offspring as well as the molecular mechanisms by which epigenetic effects are propagated from one…

  15. Childhood problem behavior and parental divorce: evidence for gene-environment interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.C.C. Robbers (Sylvana); F.V.A. van Oort (Floor); A.C. Huizink (Anja); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); C.E.M. van Beijsterveldt (Toos); D.I. Boomsma (Dorret); M. Bartels (Meike)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractObjective: The importance of genetic and environmental influences on children's behavioral and emotional problems may vary as a function of environmental exposure. We previously reported that 12-year-olds with divorced parents showed more internalizing and externalizing problems than chi

  16. Exchange bias training effect in coupled all ferromagnetic bilayer structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binek, Ch; Polisetty, S; He, Xi; Berger, A

    2006-02-17

    Exchange coupled bilayers of soft and hard ferromagnetic thin films show remarkable analogies to conventional antiferromagnetic/ferromagnetic exchange bias heterostructures. Not only do all these ferromagnetic bilayers exhibit a tunable exchange bias effect, they also show a distinct training behavior upon cycling the soft layer through consecutive hysteresis loops. In contrast with conventional exchange bias systems, such all ferromagnetic bilayer structures allow the observation of training induced changes in the bias-setting hardmagnetic layer by means of simple magnetometry. Our experiments show unambiguously that the exchange bias training effect is driven by deviations from equilibrium in the pinning layer. A comparison of our experimental data with predictions from a theory based upon triggered relaxation phenomena shows excellent agreement.

  17. Survival bias and drug interaction can attenuate cross-sectional case-control comparisons of genes with health outcomes. An example of the kinesin-like protein 6 (KIF6 Trp719Arg polymorphism and coronary heart disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pendyala Lakshmana

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Case-control studies typically exclude fatal endpoints from the case set, which we hypothesize will substantially underestimate risk if survival is genotype-dependent. The loss of fatal cases is particularly nontrivial for studies of coronary heart disease (CHD because of significantly reduced survival (34% one-year fatality following a coronary attack. A case in point is the KIF6 Trp719Arg polymorphism (rs20455. Whereas six prospective studies have shown that carriers of the KIF6 Trp719Arg risk allele have 20% to 50% greater CHD risk than non-carriers, several cross-sectional case-control studies failed to show that carrier status is related to CHD. Computer simulations were therefore employed to assess the impact of the loss of fatal events on gene associations in cross-sectional case-control studies, using KIF6 Trp719Arg as an example. Results Ten replicates of 1,000,000 observations each were generated reflecting Canadian demographics. Cardiovascular disease (CVD risks were assigned by the Framingham equation and events distributed among KIF6 Trp719Arg genotypes according to published prospective studies. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate odds ratios between KIF6 genotypes. Results were examined for 33%, 41.5%, and 50% fatality rates for incident CVD. In the absence of any difference in percent fatalities between genotypes, the odds ratios (carriers vs. noncarriers were unaffected by survival bias, otherwise the odds ratios were increasingly attenuated as the disparity between fatality rates increased between genotypes. Additional simulations demonstrated that statin usage, shown in four clinical trials to substantially reduce the excess CHD risk in the KIF6 719Arg variant, should also attenuate the KIF6 719Arg odds ratio in case-control studies. Conclusions These computer simulations show that exclusions of prior CHD fatalities attenuate odds ratios of case-control studies in proportion to the difference

  18. Editorial bias in scientific publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matías-Guiu, J; García-Ramos, R

    2011-01-01

    Many authors believe that there are biases in scientific publications. Editorial biases include publication bias; which refers to those situations where the results influence the editor's decision, and editorial bias refers to those situations where factors related with authors or their environment influence the decision. This paper includes an analysis of the situation of editorial biases. One bias is where mainly articles with positive results are accepted, as opposed to those with negative results. Another is latent bias, where positive results are published before those with negative results. In order to examine editorial bias, this paper analyses the influence of where the article originated; the country or continent, academic centre of origin, belonging to cooperative groups, and the maternal language of the authors. The article analyses biases in the editorial process in the publication of funded clinical trials. Editorial biases exists. Authors, when submitting their manuscript, should analyse different journals and decide where their article will receive adequate treatment. Copyright © 2010 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of NHE1 antisense gene transfection on the biological behavior of SGC-7901 human gastric carcinoma cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-Feng Liu; Xiao-Chun Teng; Jing-Chen Zheng; Gang Chen; Xing-Wei Wang

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To study the effect of type 1 Na+/H+ exchanger (NHE1) antisense human gene transfection on the biological behavior of gastric carcinoma cell line SGC-7901.METHODS: Antisense NHE1 eukaryotic expression on vector pcDNA3.1 was constructed by recombinant DNA technique and transfected into gastric carcinoma cell line SGC-7901 with DOTAP liposome transfection method.Morphological changes of cells were observed with optic and electron microscopes. Changes in cell proliferative capacity, apoptosis, intracellular pH (pH1), cell cycle,clone formation in two-layer soft agar, and tumorigenicity in nude mice were examined.RESULTS: Antisense eukaryotic expressing vectors were successfully constructed and transfected into 5GC-7901.The transfectant obtained named 7901-antisense (7901-,45) stablely produced antisense NHE1. There was a significant difference between the pH1 of 7901-AS cells (6.77 ± 0.05) and that of 7901-zeo cells and SGC-7901 cells (7.24 ± 0.03 and 7.26 ± 0.03, P < 0.01). Compared with SGC-7901 and 7901-zeo cells, 7901-AS cells mostly showed cell proliferation inhibition, G1/Go phase arrest, increased cell apoptotic rate, recovery of contact inhibition, and density contact. The tumorigenicity in nude mice and cloning efficiency in the two-layer soft agar were dearly inhibited.CONCLUSION: NHE1 antisense gene significantly restrains the malignant behavior of human gastric carcinoma cells, suppresses cell growth and induces cell apoptosis, and partially reverses the malignant phenotypes of SGC-7901. These results suggest a potential role for human tumor gene therapy.

  20. Outcome predictability biases learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Oren; Mitchell, Chris J; Bethmont, Anna; Lovibond, Peter F

    2015-01-01

    Much of contemporary associative learning research is focused on understanding how and when the associative history of cues affects later learning about those cues. Very little work has investigated the effects of the associative history of outcomes on human learning. Three experiments extended the "learned irrelevance" paradigm from the animal conditioning literature to examine the influence of an outcome's prior predictability on subsequent learning of relationships between cues and that outcome. All 3 experiments found evidence for the idea that learning is biased by the prior predictability of the outcome. Previously predictable outcomes were readily associated with novel predictive cues, whereas previously unpredictable outcomes were more readily associated with novel nonpredictive cues. This finding highlights the importance of considering the associative history of outcomes, as well as cues, when interpreting multistage designs. Associative and cognitive explanations of this certainty matching effect are discussed.

  1. Histone acetylation of the htr3a gene in the prefrontal cortex of Wistar rats regulates ethanol-seeking behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yahui Xu; Xuebing Liu; Xiaojie Zhang; Guanbai Zhang; Ruiling Zhang; Tieqiao Liu; Wei Hao

    2012-01-01

    Previous reports showed that decreased histone deacetylase activity significantly potentiated the rewarding effects of psychostimulants, and that encoding of the 5-HT3 receptor by the htr3a gene was related to ethanol-seeking behavior. However, the effects of a histone deacetylase inhibitor on ethanol-seeking behavior and epigenetic regulation of htr3a mRNA expression after chronic ethanol exposure are not fully understood. Using quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis, we investigated the effects of chronic ethanol exposure and its interaction with a histone deacetylase inhibitor on histone-acetylation-mediated changes in htr3a mRNA expression in the htr3a promoter region. The conditioned place preference procedure was used to evaluate ethanol-seeking behavior. Chronic exposure to ethanol effectively elicited place conditioning. In the prefrontal cortex, the acetylation of H3K9 and htr3a mRNA expression in the htr3a promoter region were significantly higher in the ethanol group than in the saline group. The histone deacetylase inhibitor sodium butyrate potentiated the effects of ethanol on htr3a mRNA expression and enhanced ethanol-induced conditioned place preferences. These results suggest that ethanol upregulates htr3a levels through mechanisms involving H3K9 acetylation, and that histone acetylation may be a therapeutic target for treating ethanol abuse.

  2. Bias temperature instability for devices and circuits

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a single-source reference to one of the more challenging reliability issues plaguing modern semiconductor technologies, negative bias temperature instability.  Readers will benefit from state-of-the art coverage of research in topics such as time dependent defect spectroscopy, anomalous defect behavior, stochastic modeling with additional metastable states, multiphonon theory, compact modeling with RC ladders and implications on device reliability and lifetime.  ·         Enables readers to understand and model negative bias temperature instability, with an emphasis on dynamics; ·         Includes coverage of DC vs. AC stress, duty factor dependence and bias dependence; ·         Explains time dependent defect spectroscopy, as a measurement method that operates on nanoscale MOS