WorldWideScience

Sample records for gene batteries comparison

  1. Performance Comparison of Commercial Mobile Phone Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mat, Azrulnizam; Buniran, Surani; Sulaiman, Mohd Ali

    2002-12-01

    Mobile phone is not only accepted as a communication apparatus, but also as a contemporary life style. Multifunctional mobile phone requires high energy density battery and at the same time, the miniaturization of the device requires slimmer and lighter battery. There are many brands of lithium-ion battery manufactured by different companies available in the market. In order to focus on the perspective of the battery performance, a study on the performance of the commercial battery was conducted. Various brands and designs of lithium-ion batteries manufactured by different companies from different countries were purchased from open market. Samples were analyzed based on the cycle life and discharging rate. The cycle life tests were performed with 1C current discharge, whereas the discharge rate was performed using discharge current at 0.2C, 0.5C, 1C and 2C. Recovery capacity at high rate discharge, 2C is about 90 to 96% of 0.2C capacity. Cycle life performance is above 300 cycles and some good sample can achieve more than 500 cycles.

  2. Predictive screening for regulators of conserved functional gene modules (gene batteries in mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigvardsson Mikael

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The expression of gene batteries, genomic units of functionally linked genes which are activated by similar sets of cis- and trans-acting regulators, has been proposed as a major determinant of cell specialization in metazoans. We developed a predictive procedure to screen the mouse and human genomes and transcriptomes for cases of gene-battery-like regulation. Results In a screen that covered ~40 per cent of all annotated protein-coding genes, we identified 21 co-expressed gene clusters with statistically supported sharing of cis-regulatory sequence elements. 66 predicted cases of over-represented transcription factor binding motifs were validated against the literature and fell into three categories: (i previously described cases of gene battery-like regulation, (ii previously unreported cases of gene battery-like regulation with some support in a limited number of genes, and (iii predicted cases that currently lack experimental support. The novel predictions include for example Sox 17 and RFX transcription factor binding sites that were detected in ~10% of all testis specific genes, and HNF-1 and 4 binding sites that were detected in ~30% of all kidney specific genes respectively. The results are publicly available at http://www.wlab.gu.se/lindahl/genebatteries. Conclusion 21 co-expressed gene clusters were enriched for a total of 66 shared cis-regulatory sequence elements. A majority of these predictions represent novel cases of potential co-regulation of functionally coupled proteins. Critical technical parameters were evaluated, and the results and the methods provide a valuable resource for future experimental design.

  3. Energy efficiency of neptunium redox battery in comparison with vanadium battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamura, T. [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8577 (Japan); Watanabe, N. [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8577 (Japan); Shiokawa, Y. [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8577 (Japan)]. E-mail: shiokawa@imr.tohoku.ac.jp

    2006-02-09

    A neptunium ion possesses two isostructural and reversible redox couples (Np{sup 3+}/Np{sup 4+} and NpO{sub 2} {sup +}/NpO{sub 2} {sup 2+}) and is therefore suitable as an active material for a redox-flow battery. Since the plastic formed carbon (PFC) is known to show the largest k values for Np(IV)/Np(III) and Np(V)/Np(VI) reactions among various carbon electrodes, a cell was constructed by using the PFC, with the circulation induced by bubbling gas through the electrolyte. In discharge experiments with a neptunium and a vanadium battery using the cell, the former showed a lower voltage loss which suggests a smaller reaction overvoltage. Because of the high radioactivity of the neptunium, it was difficult to obtain sufficient circulation required for the redox-flow battery, therefore a model for evaluating the energy efficiency of the redox-flow battery was developed. By using the known k values for neptunium and vanadium electrode reactions at PFC electrodes, the energy efficiency of the neptunium battery was calculated to be 99.1% at 70 mA cm{sup -2}, which exceeds that of the vanadium battery by ca. 16%.

  4. A Comparison of Two Panasonic Lithium-Ion Batteries and Cells for the IBM Thinkpad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeevarajan, Judith A.; Cook, Joseph S.; Davies, Francis J.; Collins, Jacob; Bragg, Bobby J.

    2003-01-01

    The IBM Thinkpad 760XD has been used in the Orbiter and International Space Station since 2000. The Thinkpad is powered by a Panasonic Li-ion battery that has a voltage of 10.8 V and 3.0 Ah capacity. This Thinkpad is now being replaced by the IBM Thinkpad A31P which has a Panasonic Li-ion battery that has a voltage of 10.8 V and 4.0 Ah capacity. Both batteries have protective circuit boards. The Panasonic battery for the Thinkpad 760XD had 12 Panasonic 17500 cells of 0.75 Ah capacity in a 4P3S cOnfiguration. The new Panasonic battery has 6 Panasonic 18650 cells of 2.0 Ah capacity in a 2P3S configuration. The batteries and cells for both models have been evaluated for performance and safety. A comparison of the cells under similar test conditions will be presented. The performance of the cells has been evaluated under different rates of charge and discharge and different temperatures. The cells have been tested under abuse conditions and the safety features in the cells evaluated. The protective circuit board in the battery was also tested under conditions of overcharge, overdischarge, short circuit and unbalanced cell configurations. The results of the studies will be presented in this paper.

  5. Comparison of Parametrization Techniques for an Electrical Circuit Model of Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knap, Vaclav; Stroe, Daniel Loan; Teodorescu, Remus

    2015-01-01

    Lithium-Sulfur (Li-S) batteries are an emerging energy storage technology, which draw interest due to its high theoretical specific capacity (approx. 1675 Ah/kg) and theoretical energy density of almost 2600 Wh/kg. In order to analyse their dynamic behaviour and to determine their suitability...... for various commercial applications, battery performance models are needed. The development of such models represents a challenging task especially for Li-S batteries because this technology during their operation undergo several different chemical reactions, known as polysulfide shuttle. This paper focuses...... on the comparison of different parametrization methods of electrical circuit models (ECMs) for Li-S batteries. These methods are used to parametrize an ECM based on laboratory measurements performed on a Li-S pouch cell. Simulation results of ECMs are presented and compared against measurement values...

  6. Component-cost and performance based comparison of flow and static batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Brandon J.; Smith, Kyle C.; Slocum, Alexander H.; Chiang, Yet-Ming

    2015-10-01

    Flow batteries are a promising grid-storage technology that is scalable, inherently flexible in power/energy ratio, and potentially low cost in comparison to conventional or "static" battery architectures. Recent advances in flow chemistries are enabling significantly higher energy density flow electrodes. When the same battery chemistry can arguably be used in either a flow or static electrode design, the relative merits of either design choice become of interest. Here, we analyze the costs of the electrochemically active stack for both architectures under the constraint of constant energy efficiency and charge and discharge rates, using as case studies the aqueous vanadium-redox chemistry, widely used in conventional flow batteries, and aqueous lithium-iron-phosphate (LFP)/lithium-titanium-phosphate (LTP) suspensions, an example of a higher energy density suspension-based electrode. It is found that although flow batteries always have a cost advantage (kWh-1) at the stack level modeled, the advantage is a strong function of flow electrode energy density. For the LFP/LTP case, the cost advantages decreases from ∼50% to ∼10% over experimentally reasonable ranges of suspension loading. Such results are important input for design choices when both battery architectures are viable options.

  7. Nonlinear Filtering Techniques Comparison for Battery State Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aspasia Papazoglou

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The performance of estimation algorithms is vital for the correct functioning of batteries in electric vehicles, as poor estimates will inevitably jeopardize the operations that rely on un-measurable quantities, such as State of Charge and State of Health. This paper compares the performance of three nonlinear estimation algorithms: the Extended Kalman Filter, the Unscented Kalman Filter and the Particle Filter, where a lithium-ion cell model is considered. The effectiveness of these algorithms is measured by their ability to produce accurate estimates against their computational complexity in terms of number of operations and execution time required. The trade-offs between estimators' performance and their computational complexity are analyzed.

  8. NIH Toolbox Cognitive Battery (NIHTB-CB): The NIHTB Pattern Comparison Processing Speed Test

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The NIH Toolbox (NIHTB) Pattern Comparison Processing Speed Test was developed to assess processing speed within the NIHTB for the Assessment of Neurological Behavior and Function Cognition Battery (NIHTB-CB). This study highlights validation data collected in adults ages 18–85 on this measure and reports descriptive data, test–retest reliability, construct validity, and preliminary work creating a composite index of processing speed. Results indicated good test–retest reliability. There was ...

  9. Battery. Batterie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiem, U.; Thielen, C.

    1992-03-19

    The invention concerns a battery consisting of at least one battery trough, which surrounds individual cells and has a lower inlet opening to connect to a pressurized pipe for a gaseous cooling medium; in its inside it has a lower distribution device for the cooling medium connected to the inlet opening and connected guide ducts taken through the internal space, and at least one upper outlet opening for the cooling medium. To achieve a better cooling system, it is proposed that the battery trough should surround several trough modules, which consist of a module container, whose floor has floor openings flush with the flow ducts between the individual cells and that the distribution device should have vertical separating bars, to the top edge of which the floor of the module container concerned is sealed.

  10. Comparison of electrochemical performances of olivine NaFePO4 in sodium-ion batteries and olivine LiFePO4 in lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yujie; Xu, Yunhua; Liu, Yihang; Luo, Chao; Wang, Chunsheng

    2012-12-01

    Carbon-coated olivine NaFePO4 (C-NaFePO4) spherical particles with a uniform diameter of ~80 nm are obtained by chemical delithiation and subsequent electrochemical sodiation of carbon-coated olivine LiFePO4 (C-LiFePO4), which is synthesized by a solvothermal method. The C-NaFePO4 electrodes are identical (particle size, particle size distribution, surface coating, and active material loading, etc.) to C-LiFePO4 except that Li ions in C-LiFePO4 are replaced by Na ions, making them ideal for comparison of thermodynamics and kinetics between C-NaFePO4 cathode in sodium-ion (Na-ion) batteries and C-LiFePO4 in lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries. In this paper, the equilibrium potentials, reaction resistances, and diffusion coefficient of Na in C-NaFePO4 are systematically investigated by using the galvanostatic intermittent titration technique (GITT), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV), and compared to those of the well-known LiFePO4 cathodes in Li-ion batteries. Due to the lower diffusion coefficient of Na-ion and higher contact and charge transfer resistances in NaFePO4 cathodes, the rate performance of C-NaFePO4 in Na-ion batteries is much worse than that of C-LiFePO4 in Li-ion batteries. However, the cycling stability of C-NaFePO4 is almost comparable to C-LiFePO4 by retaining 90% of its capacity even after 100 charge-discharge cycles at a charge-discharge rate of 0.1 C.Carbon-coated olivine NaFePO4 (C-NaFePO4) spherical particles with a uniform diameter of ~80 nm are obtained by chemical delithiation and subsequent electrochemical sodiation of carbon-coated olivine LiFePO4 (C-LiFePO4), which is synthesized by a solvothermal method. The C-NaFePO4 electrodes are identical (particle size, particle size distribution, surface coating, and active material loading, etc.) to C-LiFePO4 except that Li ions in C-LiFePO4 are replaced by Na ions, making them ideal for comparison of thermodynamics and kinetics between C-NaFePO4 cathode in

  11. NIH Toolbox Cognitive Battery (NIHTB-CB): the NIHTB Pattern Comparison Processing Speed Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlozzi, Noelle E; Tulsky, David S; Chiaravalloti, Nancy D; Beaumont, Jennifer L; Weintraub, Sandra; Conway, Kevin; Gershon, Richard C

    2014-07-01

    The NIH Toolbox (NIHTB) Pattern Comparison Processing Speed Test was developed to assess processing speed within the NIHTB for the Assessment of Neurological Behavior and Function Cognition Battery (NIHTB-CB). This study highlights validation data collected in adults ages 18-85 on this measure and reports descriptive data, test-retest reliability, construct validity, and preliminary work creating a composite index of processing speed. Results indicated good test-retest reliability. There was also evidence for both convergent and discriminant validity; the Pattern Comparison Processing Speed Test demonstrated moderate significant correlations with other processing speed tests (i.e., WAIS-IV Coding, Symbol Search and Processing Speed Index), small significant correlations with measures of working memory (i.e., WAIS-IV Letter-Number Sequencing and PASAT), and non-significant correlations with a test of vocabulary comprehension (i.e., PPVT-IV). Finally, analyses comparing and combining scores on the NIHTB Pattern Comparison Processing Speed Test with other measures of simple reaction time from the NIHTB-CB indicated that a Processing Speed Composite score performed better than any test examined in isolation. The NIHTB Pattern Comparison Processing Speed Test exhibits several strengths: it is appropriate for use across the lifespan (ages, 3-85 years), it is short and easy to administer, and it has high construct validity.

  12. Comparison of electrochemical performances of olivine NaFePO4 in sodium-ion batteries and olivine LiFePO4 in lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yujie; Xu, Yunhua; Liu, Yihang; Luo, Chao; Wang, Chunsheng

    2013-01-21

    Carbon-coated olivine NaFePO(4) (C-NaFePO(4)) spherical particles with a uniform diameter of ∼80 nm are obtained by chemical delithiation and subsequent electrochemical sodiation of carbon-coated olivine LiFePO(4) (C-LiFePO(4)), which is synthesized by a solvothermal method. The C-NaFePO(4) electrodes are identical (particle size, particle size distribution, surface coating, and active material loading, etc.) to C-LiFePO(4) except that Li ions in C-LiFePO(4) are replaced by Na ions, making them ideal for comparison of thermodynamics and kinetics between C-NaFePO(4) cathode in sodium-ion (Na-ion) batteries and C-LiFePO(4) in lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries. In this paper, the equilibrium potentials, reaction resistances, and diffusion coefficient of Na in C-NaFePO(4) are systematically investigated by using the galvanostatic intermittent titration technique (GITT), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV), and compared to those of the well-known LiFePO(4) cathodes in Li-ion batteries. Due to the lower diffusion coefficient of Na-ion and higher contact and charge transfer resistances in NaFePO(4) cathodes, the rate performance of C-NaFePO(4) in Na-ion batteries is much worse than that of C-LiFePO(4) in Li-ion batteries. However, the cycling stability of C-NaFePO(4) is almost comparable to C-LiFePO(4) by retaining 90% of its capacity even after 100 charge-discharge cycles at a charge-discharge rate of 0.1 C.

  13. Comparison Study on Two Model-Based Adaptive Algorithms for SOC Estimation of Lithium-Ion Batteries in Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Tian

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available State of charge (SOC estimation is essential to battery management systems in electric vehicles (EVs to ensure the safe operations of batteries and providing drivers with the remaining range of the EVs. A number of estimation algorithms have been developed to get an accurate SOC value because the SOC cannot be directly measured with sensors and is closely related to various factors, such as ambient temperature, current rate and battery aging. In this paper, two model-based adaptive algorithms, including the adaptive unscented Kalman filter (AUKF and adaptive slide mode observer (ASMO are applied and compared in terms of convergence behavior, tracking accuracy, computational cost and estimation robustness against parameter uncertainties of the battery model in SOC estimation. Two typical driving cycles, including the Dynamic Stress Test (DST and New European Driving Cycle (NEDC are applied to evaluate the performance of the two algorithms. Comparison results show that the AUKF has merits in convergence ability and tracking accuracy with an accurate battery model, while the ASMO has lower computational cost and better estimation robustness against parameter uncertainties of the battery model.

  14. A 37.5-kW point design comparison of the nickel-cadmium battery, bipolar nickel-hydrogen battery, and regenerative hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell energy storage subsystems for low earth orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzo, M. A.; Hoberecht, M. A.

    1984-01-01

    Nickel-cadmium batteries, bipolar nickel-hydrogen batteries, and regenerative fuel cell storage subsystems were evaluated for use as the storage subsystem in a 37.5 kW power system for Space Station. Design requirements were set in order to establish a common baseline for comparison purposes. The storage subsystems were compared on the basis of effective energy density, round trip electrical efficiency, total subsystem weight and volume, and life.

  15. Performance and Comparison of Lithium-Ion Batteries Under Low-Earth-Orbit Mission Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Concha M.; Smart, Marshall C.; Bugga, Ratnakumar V.; Manzo, Michelle A.; Miller, Thomas B.; Gitzendanner, Rob

    2007-01-01

    The performance of two 28 V, 25 Ah lithium-ion batteries is being evaluated under low-Earth-orbit mission profiles for satellite and orbiter applications. The batteries are undergoing life testing and have achieved over 12,000 cycles to 40 percent depth-of-discharge.

  16. Comparison Study on the Battery SoC Estimation with EKF and UKF Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwen He

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The battery state of charge (SoC, whose estimation is one of the basic functions of battery management system (BMS, is a vital input parameter in the energy management and power distribution control of electric vehicles (EVs. In this paper, two methods based on an extended Kalman filter (EKF and unscented Kalman filter (UKF, respectively, are proposed to estimate the SoC of a lithium-ion battery used in EVs. The lithium-ion battery is modeled with the Thevenin model and the model parameters are identified based on experimental data and validated with the Beijing Driving Cycle. Then space equations used for SoC estimation are established. The SoC estimation results with EKF and UKF are compared in aspects of accuracy and convergence. It is concluded that the two algorithms both perform well, while the UKF algorithm is much better with a faster convergence ability and a higher accuracy.

  17. Hybrid Vehicle Comparison Testing Using Ultracapacitor vs. Battery Energy Storage (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonder, J.; Pesaran, A.; Lustbader, J.; Tataria, H.

    2010-02-01

    With support from General Motors, NREL researchers converted and tested a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) with three energy storage configurations: a nickel metal-hydride battery and two ultracapacitor (Ucap) modules. They found that the HEV equipped with one Ucap module performed as well as or better than the HEV with a stock NiMH battery configuration. Thus, Ucaps could increase the market penetration and fuel savings of HEVs.

  18. Reranking candidate gene models with cross-species comparison for improved gene prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira Fernando CN

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most gene finders score candidate gene models with state-based methods, typically HMMs, by combining local properties (coding potential, splice donor and acceptor patterns, etc. Competing models with similar state-based scores may be distinguishable with additional information. In particular, functional and comparative genomics datasets may help to select among competing models of comparable probability by exploiting features likely to be associated with the correct gene models, such as conserved exon/intron structure or protein sequence features. Results We have investigated the utility of a simple post-processing step for selecting among a set of alternative gene models, using global scoring rules to rerank competing models for more accurate prediction. For each gene locus, we first generate the K best candidate gene models using the gene finder Evigan, and then rerank these models using comparisons with putative orthologous genes from closely-related species. Candidate gene models with lower scores in the original gene finder may be selected if they exhibit strong similarity to probable orthologs in coding sequence, splice site location, or signal peptide occurrence. Experiments on Drosophila melanogaster demonstrate that reranking based on cross-species comparison outperforms the best gene models identified by Evigan alone, and also outperforms the comparative gene finders GeneWise and Augustus+. Conclusion Reranking gene models with cross-species comparison improves gene prediction accuracy. This straightforward method can be readily adapted to incorporate additional lines of evidence, as it requires only a ranked source of candidate gene models.

  19. Comparison of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Life Across Geographies and Drive-Cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, K.; Warleywine, M.; Wood, E.; Neubauer, J.; Pesaran, A.

    2012-06-01

    In a laboratory environment, it is cost prohibitive to run automotive battery aging experiments across a wide range of possible ambient environment, drive cycle and charging scenarios. Since worst-case scenarios drive the conservative sizing of electric-drive vehicle batteries, it is useful to understand how and why those scenarios arise and what design or control actions might be taken to mitigate them. In an effort to explore this problem, this paper applies a semi-empirical life model of the graphite/nickel-cobalt-aluminum lithium-ion chemistry to investigate impacts of geographic environments under storage and simplified cycling conditions. The model is then applied to analyze complex cycling conditions, using battery charge/discharge profiles generated from simulations of PHEV10 and PHEV40 vehicles across 782 single-day driving cycles taken from Texas travel survey data.

  20. Comparison of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Life Across Geographies and Drive-Cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, K.; Warleywine, M.; Wood, E.; Neubauer, J.; Pesaran, A.

    2012-06-01

    In a laboratory environment, it is cost prohibitive to run automotive battery aging experiments across a wide range of possible ambient environment, drive cycle and charging scenarios. Since worst-case scenarios drive the conservative sizing of electric-drive vehicle batteries, it is useful to understand how and why those scenarios arise and what design or control actions might be taken to mitigate them. In an effort to explore this problem, this paper applies a semi-empirical life model of the graphite/nickel-cobalt-aluminum lithium-ion chemistry to investigate impacts of geographic environments under storage and simplified cycling conditions. The model is then applied to analyze complex cycling conditions, using battery charge/discharge profiles generated from simulations of PHEV10 and PHEV40 vehicles across 782 single-day driving cycles taken from Texas travel survey data.

  1. 3D analysis of thermal exchange in finned batteries. A comparison between round and elliptical tubes; Analisi tridimensionale dello scambio termico nelle batterie alettate. Confronto fra tubi tondi e tubi ellittici

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valdiserri, P. [Bologna Univ., Bologna (Italy). Facolta' di Ingegneria, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Energetica, Nucleare e del Controllo Ambientale

    2001-05-01

    In this paper a numerical 3D analysis of the thermal exchange in air-cooled finned batteries has been carried out. Speed and temperature values in each hub of the numerical simulation domain have been reckoned both at different air flows and with different shapes of the tubes. The thermal power exchanged between tubes and air is obtained by the simulation of a numerical model of a finned battery with round section tubes and is compared to the values obtained for three batteries with elliptical section tubes. The comparison has been performed for different values of the air input speed. [Italian] In questo lavoro e' stata condotta un'analisi numerica tridimensionale dei fenomeni di scambio termico in batterie alettate raffreddate ad aria. I valori di velocita' e temperatura nei singoli nodi del dominio di simulazione numerica sono stati calcolati sia al variare della portata dell'aria sia della forma dei tubi. La potenza termica scambiata tra tubi ed aria, ottenuta dalle simulazioni in un modello numerico di batteria alettata composta da tubi di sezione circolare, e' stata confrontata con i valori ottenuti per tre batterie formate da tubi di sezione elittica. Il confronto e' stato eseguito per diversi valori della velocita' d'ingresso dell'aria.

  2. Comparison of rechargeable versus battery-operated insulin pumps: temperature fluctuations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vereshchetin P

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Paul Vereshchetin, Thomas W McCann Jr, Navdeep Ojha, Ramakrishna Venugopalan, Brian L Levy Johnson & Johnson Diabetes Care Companies, Chesterbrook, PA, USA Abstract: The role of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (insulin pumps has become increasingly important in diabetes management, and many different types of these systems are currently available. This exploratory study focused on the reported heating issues that lithium-ion battery-powered pumps may have during charging compared with battery-operated pumps. It was found that pump temperature increased by 6.4°C during a long charging cycle of a lithium-ion battery-operated pump under ambient temperatures. In an environmental-chamber kept at 35°C, the pump temperature increased by 4.4°C, which indicates that the pump temperature was above that of the recommended safety limit for insulin storage of 37°C. When designing new pumps, and when using currently available rechargeable pumps in warmer climates, the implications of these temperature increases should be taken into consideration. Future studies should also further examine insulin quality after charging. Keywords: insulin pumps, diabetes mellitus, safety, heating

  3. Comparison of Nonlinear Filtering Methods for Estimating the State of Charge of Li4Ti5O12 Lithium-Ion Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianping Gao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate state of charge (SoC estimation is of great significance for the lithium-ion battery to ensure its safety operation and to prevent it from overcharging or overdischarging. To achieve reliable SoC estimation for Li4Ti5O12 lithium-ion battery cell, three filtering methods have been compared and evaluated. A main contribution of this study is that a general three-step model-based battery SoC estimation scheme has been proposed. It includes the processes of battery data measurement, parametric modeling, and model-based SoC estimation. With the proposed general scheme, multiple types of model-based SoC estimators have been developed and evaluated for battery management system application. The detailed comparisons on three advanced adaptive filter techniques, which include extend Kalman filter, unscented Kalman filter, and adaptive extend Kalman filter (AEKF, have been implemented with a Li4Ti5O12 lithium-ion battery. The experimental results indicate that the proposed model-based SoC estimation approach with AEKF algorithm, which uses the covariance matching technique, performs well with good accuracy and robustness; the mean absolute error of the SoC estimation is within 1% especially with big SoC initial error.

  4. Comparison of reduction products from graphite oxide and graphene oxide for anode applications in lithium-ion batteries and sodium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yige; Tang, Jie; Zhang, Kun; Yuan, Jinshi; Li, Jing; Zhu, Da-Ming; Ozawa, Kiyoshi; Qin, Lu-Chang

    2017-02-16

    Hydrazine-reduced graphite oxide and graphene oxide were synthesized to compare their performances as anode materials in lithium-ion batteries and sodium-ion batteries. Reduced graphite oxide inherits the layer structure of graphite, with an average spacing between neighboring layers (d-spacing) of 0.374 nm; this exceeds the d-spacing of graphite (0.335 nm). The larger d-spacing provides wider channels for transporting lithium ions and sodium ions in the material. We showed that reduced graphite oxide as an anode in lithium-ion batteries can reach a specific capacity of 917 mA h g(-1), which is about three times of 372 mA h g(-1), the value expected for the LiC6 structures on the electrode. This increase is consistent with the wider d-spacing, which enhances lithium intercalation and de-intercalation on the electrodes. The electrochemical performance of the lithium-ion batteries and sodium-ion batteries with reduced graphite oxide anodes show a noticeable improvement compared to those with reduced graphene oxide anodes. This improvement indicates that reduced graphite oxide, with larger interlayer spacing, has fewer defects and is thus more stable. In summary, we found that reduced graphite oxide may be a more favorable form of graphene for the fabrication of electrodes for lithium-ion and sodium-ion batteries and other energy storage devices.

  5. Comparison of lithium//polyaniline secondary batteries with different dopants of HCl and lithium ionic salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Kwang Sun; Kim, Kwang Man; Kang, Seong-Gu; Joo, Jinsoo; Chang, Soon Ho

    Polyanilines doped either with a protonic acid (HCl) or an electrolytic solution containing a lithium ionic salt (LiPF 6 or LiBF 4) are prepared and their electrochemical characteristics for use as polymer electrodes of lithium secondary batteries are investigated. An emeraldine base (EB) film doped with HCl has the highest d.c. conductivity (˜10 S/cm). An EB-LiPF 6 film has higher conductivity (˜0.52 S/cm) than an EB-LiBF4 (˜0.082 S/cm) film. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic analysis of the films shows that some of the quinoid rings in EB are transformed into benzeniod rings through a doping process to generate polarons. The charge-discharge characteristics of lithium secondary batteries using the polyaniline films as positive electrodes are determined. The cell using the EB-LiPF 6 film and an electrolytic solution containing LiPF 6 exhibits the highest specific discharge capacity (˜50 mA h/g), whereas the cell using EB-HCl and LiPF 6 solution has superior performance in the rapid saturation of discharge capacity and in stability.

  6. Atomic Batteries: Energy from Radioactivity

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Suhas

    2015-01-01

    With alternate, sustainable, natural sources of energy being sought after, there is new interest in energy from radioactivity, including natural and waste radioactive materials. A study of various atomic batteries is presented with perspectives of development and comparisons of performance parameters and cost. We discuss radioisotope thermal generators, indirect conversion batteries, direct conversion batteries, and direct charge batteries. We qualitatively describe their principles of operat...

  7. Comparison of evolutionary algorithms in gene regulatory network model inference.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The evolution of high throughput technologies that measure gene expression levels has created a data base for inferring GRNs (a process also known as reverse engineering of GRNs). However, the nature of these data has made this process very difficult. At the moment, several methods of discovering qualitative causal relationships between genes with high accuracy from microarray data exist, but large scale quantitative analysis on real biological datasets cannot be performed, to date, as existing approaches are not suitable for real microarray data which are noisy and insufficient. RESULTS: This paper performs an analysis of several existing evolutionary algorithms for quantitative gene regulatory network modelling. The aim is to present the techniques used and offer a comprehensive comparison of approaches, under a common framework. Algorithms are applied to both synthetic and real gene expression data from DNA microarrays, and ability to reproduce biological behaviour, scalability and robustness to noise are assessed and compared. CONCLUSIONS: Presented is a comparison framework for assessment of evolutionary algorithms, used to infer gene regulatory networks. Promising methods are identified and a platform for development of appropriate model formalisms is established.

  8. Are Score Comparisons across Language Proficiency Test Batteries Justified?: An IELTS-TOEFL Comparability Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geranpayeh, Ardeshir

    1994-01-01

    This paper reports on a study conducted to determine if comparisons between scores on the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) and the International English Language Testing Service (IELTS) are justifiable. The test scores of 216 Iranian graduate students who took the TOEFL and IELTS, as well as the Iranian Ministry of Culture and Higher…

  9. Button batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002764.htm Button batteries To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Button batteries are tiny, round batteries. They are commonly ...

  10. Assessing Visuospatial Skills in Parkinson's: Comparison of Neuropsychological Assessment Battery Visual Discrimination to the Judgment of Line Orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renfroe, Jenna B; Turner, Travis H; Hinson, Vanessa K

    2017-02-01

    Judgment of Line Orientation (JOLO) test is widely used in assessing visuospatial deficits in Parkinson's disease (PD). The neuropsychological assessment battery (NAB) offers the Visual Discrimination test, with age and education correction, parallel forms, and co-normed standardization sample for comparisons within and between domains. However, NAB Visual Discrimination has not been validated in PD, and may not measure the same construct as JOLO. A heterogeneous sample of 47 PD patients completed the JOLO and NAB Visual Discrimination within a broader neuropsychological evaluation. Pearson correlations assessed relationships between JOLO and NAB Visual Discrimination performances. Raw and demographically corrected scores from JOLO and Visual Discrimination were only weakly correlated. NAB Visual Discrimination subtest was moderately correlated with overall cognitive functioning, whereas the JOLO was not. Despite apparent virtues, results do not support NAB Visual Discrimination as an alternative to JOLO in assessing visuospatial functioning in PD. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Multiclass cancer classification based on gene expression comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sitan; Naiman, Daniel Q.

    2016-01-01

    As the complexity and heterogeneity of cancer is being increasingly appreciated through genomic analyses, microarray-based cancer classification comprising multiple discriminatory molecular markers is an emerging trend. Such multiclass classification problems pose new methodological and computational challenges for developing novel and effective statistical approaches. In this paper, we introduce a new approach for classifying multiple disease states associated with cancer based on gene expression profiles. Our method focuses on detecting small sets of genes in which the relative comparison of their expression values leads to class discrimination. For an m-class problem, the classification rule typically depends on a small number of m-gene sets, which provide transparent decision boundaries and allow for potential biological interpretations. We first test our approach on seven common gene expression datasets and compare it with popular classification methods including support vector machines and random forests. We then consider an extremely large cohort of leukemia cancer to further assess its effectiveness. In both experiments, our method yields comparable or even better results to benchmark classifiers. In addition, we demonstrate that our approach can integrate pathway analysis of gene expression to provide accurate and biological meaningful classification. PMID:24918456

  12. A comparison of iron phthalocyanine and cobalt porphyrin on the electrochemical catalysis in Ni-MH battery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Fang; WU Feng; CHEN Shi; QIU XinPing; CHEN LiQuan

    2007-01-01

    The effects of iron phthalocyanine (FePc) and cobalt porphyrin (CoPp) on inner pressure and cycle behavior of sealed Ni-MH batteries were investigated in this study. The morphology of battery electrode was observed by SEM. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy of floating-charge/discharge battery was also measured. Experimental results show that the addition of FePc or CoPp to the alloy electrode is an effective approach to decrease the internal pressure of battery during the process of charge and overcharge. In contrast to CoPp, the battery with FePc exhibits a slower capacity decay and a smaller overpotential at the same charge-discharge rate. As an electrocatalyst, FePc may more effectively speed up the reduction of oxygen, and decrease its reduction potential. As a result, the charge process is accelerated, the gas evolution is reduced and the pulverization of electrode materials is slowed down.

  13. MYB98 positively regulates a battery of synergid-expressed genes encoding filiform apparatus localized proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punwani, Jayson A; Rabiger, David S; Drews, Gary N

    2007-08-01

    The synergid cells within the female gametophyte are essential for reproduction in angiosperms. MYB98 encodes an R2R3-MYB protein required for pollen tube guidance and filiform apparatus formation by the synergid cells. To test the predicted function of MYB98 as a transcriptional regulator, we determined its subcellular localization and examined its DNA binding properties. We show that MYB98 binds to a specific DNA sequence (TAAC) and that a MYB98-green fluorescent protein fusion protein localizes to the nucleus, consistent with a role in transcriptional regulation. To identify genes regulated by MYB98, we tested previously identified synergid-expressed genes for reduced expression in myb98 female gametophytes and identified 16 such genes. We dissected the promoter of one of the downstream genes, DD11, and show that it contains a MYB98 binding site required for synergid expression, suggesting that DD11 is regulated directly by MYB98. To gain insight into the functions of the downstream genes, we chose five genes and determined the subcellular localization of the encoded proteins. We show that these five proteins are secreted into the filiform apparatus, suggesting that they play a role in either the formation or the function of this unique structure. Together, these data suggest that MYB98 functions as a transcriptional regulator in the synergid cells and activates the expression of genes required for pollen tube guidance and filiform apparatus formation.

  14. Battery Modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, M.R.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.

    2008-01-01

    The use of mobile devices is often limited by the capacity of the employed batteries. The battery lifetime determines how long one can use a device. Battery modeling can help to predict, and possibly extend this lifetime. Many different battery models have been developed over the years. However,

  15. [Investigating genes-to-behavior pathways in psychiatric diseases: an approach using a comprehensive behavioral test battery on genetically engineered mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takao, Keizo; Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi

    2008-06-01

    We have been investigating the relationships between genes and behaviors by conducting a systematic and well-defined behavioral test battery with mice that have a mutation on a gene of interest. The behavioral test battery covers a relatively broad range of various behavioral domains such as learning and memory, sensory-motor functions, emotion, motivation, and drug sensitivity/preference. Recently, we subjected mice lacking calcineurin (CN), a calcium/calmodulin protein phosphatase, to the comprehensive behavioral test battery. The mutant mice had a severe working memory deficit, increased locomotor activity, decreased social interaction, and impairments in prepulse and latent inhibition. The abnormalities of CN mutant mice were strikingly similar to those described for schizophrenic patients. Consistent with these findings, human genetics studies in a large sample of affected families detected a significant association of the PPP3CC gene, which encodes the CN gamma catalytic subunit with schizophrenia. The idea that abnormalities in the CN signaling pathway are involved in schizophrenia pathogenesis is consistent with traditional theories of schizophrenia and with many facts known about schizophrenia. A tremendous amount of knowledge about CN has accumulated and, by utilizing this information, the studies on the pathogenesis/pathophysiology of schizophrenia and its related mental disorders will be potentially accelerated. We discuss the potential impact of a large-scale mouse phenotyping project on the study of psychiatric disorders.

  16. Investigating gene-to-behavior pathways in psychiatric disorders: the use of a comprehensive behavioral test battery on genetically engineered mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takao, Keizo; Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi

    2006-11-01

    We have been investigating the relationships between genes and behaviors by conducting a systematic and well-defined behavioral test battery with mice that have a mutation on a gene of interest. The behavioral test battery covers a relatively broad range of various behavioral domains such as learning and memory, sensory-motor functions, emotion, motivation, and drug sensitivity/preference. Recently, we subjected mice lacking calcineurin (CN), a calcium/calmodulin protein phosphatase, to the comprehensive behavioral test battery. The mutant mice had a severe working memory deficit, increased locomotor activity, decreased social interaction, and impairments in prepulse and latent inhibition. The abnormalities of CN mutant mice were strikingly similar to those described for schizophrenic patients. Consistent with these findings, human genetics studies in a large sample of affected families detected a significant association of the PPP3CC gene, which encodes the CN gamma catalytic subunit with schizophrenia. The idea that abnormalities in the CN signaling pathway are involved in schizophrenia pathogenesis is consistent with traditional theories of schizophrenia and with many facts known about schizophrenia. A tremendous amount of knowledge about CN has accumulated and, by utilizing this information, the studies on the pathogenesis/pathophysiology of schizophrenia and its related mental disorders will be potentially accelerated. We discuss the potential impact of a large-scale mouse phenotyping project on the study of psychiatric disorders.

  17. Comparison of three-dimensional analysis and stereological techniques for quantifying lithium-ion battery electrode microstructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taiwo, Oluwadamilola O; Finegan, Donal P; Eastwood, David S; Fife, Julie L; Brown, Leon D; Darr, Jawwad A; Lee, Peter D; Brett, Daniel J L; Shearing, Paul R

    2016-09-01

    Lithium-ion battery performance is intrinsically linked to electrode microstructure. Quantitative measurement of key structural parameters of lithium-ion battery electrode microstructures will enable optimization as well as motivate systematic numerical studies for the improvement of battery performance. With the rapid development of 3-D imaging techniques, quantitative assessment of 3-D microstructures from 2-D image sections by stereological methods appears outmoded; however, in spite of the proliferation of tomographic imaging techniques, it remains significantly easier to obtain two-dimensional (2-D) data sets. In this study, stereological prediction and three-dimensional (3-D) analysis techniques for quantitative assessment of key geometric parameters for characterizing battery electrode microstructures are examined and compared. Lithium-ion battery electrodes were imaged using synchrotron-based X-ray tomographic microscopy. For each electrode sample investigated, stereological analysis was performed on reconstructed 2-D image sections generated from tomographic imaging, whereas direct 3-D analysis was performed on reconstructed image volumes. The analysis showed that geometric parameter estimation using 2-D image sections is bound to be associated with ambiguity and that volume-based 3-D characterization of nonconvex, irregular and interconnected particles can be used to more accurately quantify spatially-dependent parameters, such as tortuosity and pore-phase connectivity. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Microscopy published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Royal Microscopical Society.

  18. Paintable battery

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Singh, Neelam; Galande, Charudatta; Miranda, Andrea; Mathkar, Akshay; Gao, Wei; Reddy, Arava Leela Mohana; Vlad, Alexandru; Ajayan, Pulickel M

    2012-01-01

    If the components of a battery, including electrodes, separator, electrolyte and the current collectors can be designed as paints and applied sequentially to build a complete battery, on any arbitrary...

  19. Comparison of a timed motor test battery to the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale-III in Parkinson's disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haaxma, C.A.; Bloem, B.R.; Borm, G.F.; Horstink, M.W.I.M.

    2008-01-01

    The most widely used scale currently available for the clinical evaluation of motor dysfunction in Parkinson's disease (PD)-the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale-III (UPDRS-III) -is time-consuming, subjective, and has suboptimal sensitivity. A brief timed motor test (TMT) battery could possib

  20. Dry cell battery poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batteries - dry cell ... Acidic dry cell batteries contain: Manganese dioxide Ammonium chloride Alkaline dry cell batteries contain: Sodium hydroxide Potassium hydroxide Lithium dioxide dry cell batteries ...

  1. 浅谈阀控式密封胶体电池技术(二)--胶体电池和AGM电池的比较%Discussion on gel battery technologies of VRLA batteries--Comparisons between gel battery and AGM battery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵杰权; 张骥小; 柳厚田

    2016-01-01

    阀控式铅酸蓄电池包含胶体电池和 AGM电池。本文从设计、结构和性能方面系统地比较了胶体电池和 AGM电池的差异。从设计上看,两种电池在电解液的固定方式、电解液用量、电解液浓度、极群装配要求、氧气传输通道等方面均有明显不同。从结构上看,它们的外观尺寸、隔板性能、硫酸电解液分布、极板的类型等亦有较大差异。电池的设计和结构决定了电池的性能:胶体电池在使用寿命、深循环性能、耐过充电能力、浮充特性、耐用性、热失控风险、自放电等方面具有明显优势;而 AGM电池的体积相对较小,在初始容量和大电流放电性能方面更好。%There are two types of valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries: gel battery and AGM (Absorbed Glass Mat) battery. In this paper, the differences of the gel battery and AGM battery are compared from each other with respect to the design, structure, and performance. In terms of the design, gel battery and AGM battery are distinct from the electrolyte ifxed way, electrolyte quantity, electrolyte concentration, assembly requirements, and oxygen transmission channel. In regard to the battery structure, these two types of batteries are different in the battery size, separator, electrolyte distribution, and plate type. The battery performance is determined by the design and battery structure. The gel battery offers clear advantages in service life, deep cyclic endurance, overcharging endurance, lfoating characteristic, robustness, self-discharge, and thermal runaway. Compared to gel battery, AGM battery is relatively smaller in size and offers better initial capacity and better high-current discharge performance.

  2. Comparison of Physical Fitness Parameters with EUROFIT Test Battery of Male Adolescent Soccer Players and Sedentary Counterparts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgür ERİKOĞLU

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare physical fitness parameters of male adolescent soccer players and sedentary counterparts. A total of 26 male adolescents participated in this study voluntarily: Active soccer players (n: 3, age x : 13,00 ± 0,00 and sedentary counterparts (n: 13, age x :12,92 ± 0,75. The EUROFIT test battery was used to determine physical fitness. The test battery includes body height and weight measurements, touching the discs, flamingo balan ce, throwing health ball, vertical jumping, sit and reach, sit - up for 30 s, 20 meter sprint run, and 20 meter shuttle run tests. Data were analyzed by Mann Whitney U test. Significance was defined as p.05. In conclusion, children who do sports are more successful on most of the fitness parameters than sedentary children.

  3. Hubble Space Telescope Battery Capacity Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollandsworth, Roger; Armantrout, Jon; Rao, Gopalakrishna M.

    2007-01-01

    Orbital battery performance for the Hubble Space Telescope is discussed and battery life is predicted which supports decision to replace orbital batteries by 2009-2010 timeframe. Ground characterization testing of cells from the replacement battery build is discussed, with comparison of data from battery capacity characterization with cell studies of Cycle Life and 60% Stress Test at the Naval Weapons Surface Center (NWSC)-Crane, and cell Cycle Life testing at the Marshal Space Flight Center (MSFC). The contents of this presentation includes an update to the performance of the on-orbit batteries, as well as a discussion of the HST Service Mission 4 (SM4) batteries manufactured in 1996 and activated in 2000, and a second set of SM4 backup replacement batteries which began manufacture Jan 11, 2007, with delivery scheduled for July 2008.

  4. Life-cycle cost comparisons of advanced storage batteries and fuel cells for utility, stand-alone, and electric vehicle applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humphreys, K.K.; Brown, D.R.

    1990-01-01

    This report presents a comparison of battery and fuel cell economics for ten different technologies. To develop an equitable economic comparison, the technologies were evaluated on a life-cycle cost (LCC) basis. The LCC comparison involved normalizing source estimates to a standard set of assumptions and preparing a lifetime cost scenario for each technology, including the initial capital cost, replacement costs, operating and maintenance (O M) costs, auxiliary energy costs, costs due to system inefficiencies, the cost of energy stored, and salvage costs or credits. By considering all the costs associated with each technology over its respective lifetime, the technology that is most economical to operate over any given period of time can be determined. An analysis of this type indicates whether paying a high initial capital cost for a technology with low O M costs is more or less economical on a lifetime basis than purchasing a technology with a low initial capital cost and high O M costs. It is important to realize that while minimizing cost is important, the customer will not always purchase the least expensive technology. The customer may identify benefits associated with a more expensive option that make it the more attractive over all (e.g., reduced construction lead times, modularity, environmental benefits, spinning reserve, etc.). The LCC estimates presented in this report represent three end-use applications: utility load-leveling, stand-alone power systems, and electric vehicles.

  5. Paintable battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Neelam; Galande, Charudatta; Miranda, Andrea; Mathkar, Akshay; Gao, Wei; Reddy, Arava Leela Mohana; Vlad, Alexandru; Ajayan, Pulickel M

    2012-01-01

    If the components of a battery, including electrodes, separator, electrolyte and the current collectors can be designed as paints and applied sequentially to build a complete battery, on any arbitrary surface, it would have significant impact on the design, implementation and integration of energy storage devices. Here, we establish a paradigm change in battery assembly by fabricating rechargeable Li-ion batteries solely by multi-step spray painting of its components on a variety of materials such as metals, glass, glazed ceramics and flexible polymer substrates. We also demonstrate the possibility of interconnected modular spray painted battery units to be coupled to energy conversion devices such as solar cells, with possibilities of building standalone energy capture-storage hybrid devices in different configurations.

  6. Comparison of histopathology to gene expression profiling for the diagnosis of metastatic cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulkarni Anand

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Determining the primary site of metastatic cancer with confidence can be challenging. Pathologists commonly use a battery of immunohistochemical (IHC stains to determine the primary site. Gene expression profiling (GEP has found increasing use, particularly in the most difficult cases. In this pilot study, a direct comparison between GEP and IHC-guided methods was performed. Methods Ten archived formalin-fixed paraffin embedded metastatic tumor samples for which the primary site had been clinically determined were selected. Five pathologists who were blinded to the diagnosis were asked to determine the primary site using IHC and other stains selected from a panel of 84 stains. Each pathologist was provided patient sex, biopsy site and gross sample description only. Slides were digitized using ScanScope®XT at 0.25 μm/pixel. Each evaluating pathologist was allowed to provide a diagnosis in three stages: initial (after reviewing the H&E image, intermediate (after reviewing images from the first batch of stains and final diagnosis (after the second batch of stains if requested. GEP was performed using the only FDA-cleared test for this intended use, the Pathwork Tissue of Origin Test. No sample information was provided for GEP testing except for patient sex. Results were reported as the tumor tissue type with the highest similarity score. Results In this feasibility study, GEP determined the correct primary site in 9 of the 10 cases (90%, compared to the IHC-guided method which determined the correct primary site for 32 of 50 case evaluations (average 64%, range 50% to 80%. The five pathologists directing the IHC-guided method ordered an average of 8.8 stains per case (range 1 to 18. GEP required an average of 3 slides per case (range 1 to 4. Conclusions Results of the pilot study suggest that GEP provides correct primary site identification in a higher percentage of metastatic cases than IHC-guided methods, and uses less

  7. A 3800 gene microarray for cattle functional genomics: comparison of gene expression in spleen, placenta, and brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Band, Mark R; Olmstead, Colleen; Everts, Robin E; Liu, Zonglin L; Lewin, Harris A

    2002-05-01

    A cDNA microarray representing approximately 3800 cattle genes was created for functional genomic studies. The array elements were selected from > 7000 cDNA clones identified in a large-scale expressed sequence tag (EST) project that utilized spleen and normalized and subtracted placenta cDNA libraries. Sequence similarity searches of the 3820 ESTs represented on the array using BLASTN identified 3290 (86.1%) as putative human orthologs, with the remainder consisting of "novel" genes or highly divergent orthologs. Experiments were conducted with a prototype 768 gene microarray created from spleen cDNAs and with the 3800 gene array that included genes from spleen and placenta. The 768 gene array was used to profile RNA transcripts expressed by adult and fetal spleen. The 3800 gene array was used to profile transcripts expressed by adult brain and placenta. Microarray analysis of RNA extracted from fetal and adult spleen identified 29 genes that were differentially expressed two-fold or more. Transcriptional differences of two of these genes, IGJ and CTSS, were confirmed using TaqMan technology. The comparison of brain and placenta revealed 400 genes expressed at higher levels in brain and 72 genes expressed at higher levels in placenta. These results demonstrate the potential power of microarrays for understanding the molecular mechanisms of cattle development, disease resistance, nutrition, fertility and production traits.

  8. Large-scale prokaryotic gene prediction and comparison to genome annotation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Pernille; Krogh, Anders Stærmose

    2005-01-01

    Motivation: Prokaryotic genomes are sequenced and annotated at an increasing rate. The methods of annotation vary between sequencing groups. It makes genome comparison difficult and may lead to propagation of errors when questionable assignments are adapted from one genome to another. Genome...... genefinder EasyGene. Comparison of the GenBank and RefSeq annotations with the EasyGene predictions reveals that in some genomes up to 60% of the genes may have been annotated with a wrong start codon, especially in the GC-rich genomes. The fractional difference between annotated and predicted confirms......-annotated. These results are based on the difference between the number of annotated genes not found by EasyGene and the number of predicted genes that are not annotated in GenBank. We argue that the average performance of our standardized and fully automated method is slightly better than the annotation....

  9. Primary Frequency Regulation with Li-Ion Battery Energy Storage System - Evaluation and Comparison of Different Control Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorbergsson, Egill; Knap, Vaclav; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef

    2013-01-01

    devices is becoming more attractive, the aim of this paper is to analyse the viability of providing primary frequency regulation with Lithium-ion based energy storage systems. Three control strategies of the energy storage system are analysed and compared in terms of economic benefits on the Danish energy...... market. The revenues and degradation of the Lithium-ion batteries are obtained by simulations. Furthermore, an energy management strategy based on variable state-of-charge (SOC) set-point is evaluated. Preliminary, the influence of different state-of-charge levels on the cycle lifetime is estimated....... Finally, the economic analysis is based on simulations performed with different bidding ratios, i.e. different SOC set-points, for primary upward and primary downward frequency regulation. The results showed that all three control strategies were associated with considerable economic benefits even though...

  10. Comparison of the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status Effort Scale and Effort Index in a Dementia Sample†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, Kathryn J.; Shadi, Sarah; Sofko, Channing A.; Denney, Robert L.; Calloway, Jordan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to compare two embedded measures of effort for the repeatable battery for the assessment of neuropsychological status (RBANS). Sensitivity and specificity of the Effort Index (EI) and Effort Scale (ES) were compared in a sample of individuals with genuine memory impairment (MI) and individuals coached to simulate MI. Overall, the EI yielded a sensitivity of 0.89 and specificity of 0.41, while the ES yielded a sensitivity of 0.88 and specificity of 0.81. When those in the MI group were separated by level of impairment, the EI was more specific when RBANS Total Scores were in the average or mildly impaired range, and the ES had greater specificity when RBANS Total Scores were in the severely impaired range. These results suggest that the embedded measure should be selected based on the level of impairment on the RBANS. PMID:25236719

  11. Comparison of the canine and human olfactory receptor gene repertoires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quignon, P; Kirkness, E; Cadieu, E; Touleimat, N; Guyon, R; Renier, C; Hitte, C; Andre, C; Fraser, C; Galibert, F

    2003-01-01

    Background: Olfactory receptors (ORs), the first dedicated molecules with which odorants physically interact to arouse an olfactory sensation, constitute the largest gene family in vertebrates, including around 900 genes in human and 1,500 in the mouse. Whereas dogs, like many other mammals, have a

  12. Comparison of somatic mutation frequency among immunoglobulin genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motoyama, N; Miwa, T; Suzuki, Y; Okada, H; Azuma, T

    1994-02-01

    We analyzed the frequency of somatic mutation in immunoglobulin genes from hybridomas that secrete anti-(4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenyl)acetyl (NP) monoclonal antibodies. A high frequency of mutation (3.3-4.4%) was observed in both the rearranged VH186.2 and V lambda 1 genes, indicating that somatic mutation occurs with similar frequency in these genes in spite of the absence of an intron enhancer in lambda 1 chain genes. In contrast to the high frequency in J-C introns, only two nucleotide substitutions occurred at positions -462 and -555 in the 5' noncoding region in one of the lambda 1-chain genes and in none of the other three so far studied. Since a similar low frequency of somatic mutation was observed in the 5' noncoding region of inactive lambda 2-chain genes rendered inactive because of incorrect rearrangement, this region may not be a target or alternatively, may be protected from the mutator system. We observed a low frequency of nucleotide substitution in unrearranged V lambda 1 genes (approximately 1/15 that of rearranged genes). Together with previous results (Azuma T., N. Motoyama, L. Fields, and D. Loh, 1993. Int. Immunol. 5:121), these findings suggest that the 5' noncoding region, which contains the promoter element, provides a signal for the somatic mutator system and that rearrangement, which brings the promoter into close proximity to the enhancer element, should increase mutation efficiency.

  13. Comparison of gene expression patterns between porcine cumulus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UPuser

    1 Department of Gene and Cell Engineering, Institute of Animal Science, ... The benefit of this method lies in the small quantities of total RNA required for ..... supported by the “863 Project” from the Science and Technology Ministry of China.

  14. Comparison of Starting Performance Between LYP Battery and Lead -acid Battery%稀土锂钇蓄电池与铅酸蓄电池的起动性能比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱诗顺; 闫世良; 朱道伟; 程建伟; 胡继锡

    2012-01-01

    依据我国现行汽车起动用铅酸蓄电池国家标准,对一种新型稀土锂钇蓄电池和传统铅酸蓄电池进行实验,主要包括充放电性能、电池储备容量、比能量、低温放电、-18℃起动放电、充电接受能力和自放电等性能的实验比较研究以及实车起动实验研究。结果表明,该型稀土锂钇蓄电池在用作起动电池时较传统的铅酸蓄电池具有明显的优势,适合作汽车起动用蓄电池。%Based on current national standards of lead - acid battery for starting, some experiments on a new type of LYP ( rare - earth - lithium - yttrium power) battery and the traditional lead - acid battery were done. The charge - discharge performance, battery reserve capacity, specific energy, low - temperature discharge capacity, starter discharge capacity un- der - 18 ℃, charge acceptance ability, self- discharge capacity, and starting test were studied. The results show that the LYP battery has the advantage over the traditional lead - acid battery when used as the starter battery, and is more suitable to be used as the car starter battery.

  15. Graphlet Based Metrics for the Comparison of Gene Regulatory Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Alberto J. M.; Dominguez, Calixto; Contreras-Riquelme, Sebastián; Holmes, David S.; Perez-Acle, Tomas

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the control of gene expression remains one of the main challenges in the post-genomic era. Accordingly, a plethora of methods exists to identify variations in gene expression levels. These variations underlay almost all relevant biological phenomena, including disease and adaptation to environmental conditions. However, computational tools to identify how regulation changes are scarce. Regulation of gene expression is usually depicted in the form of a gene regulatory network (GRN). Structural changes in a GRN over time and conditions represent variations in the regulation of gene expression. Like other biological networks, GRNs are composed of basic building blocks called graphlets. As a consequence, two new metrics based on graphlets are proposed in this work: REConstruction Rate (REC) and REC Graphlet Degree (RGD). REC determines the rate of graphlet similarity between different states of a network and RGD identifies the subset of nodes with the highest topological variation. In other words, RGD discerns how th GRN was rewired. REC and RGD were used to compare the local structure of nodes in condition-specific GRNs obtained from gene expression data of Escherichia coli, forming biofilms and cultured in suspension. According to our results, most of the network local structure remains unaltered in the two compared conditions. Nevertheless, changes reported by RGD necessarily imply that a different cohort of regulators (i.e. transcription factors (TFs)) appear on the scene, shedding light on how the regulation of gene expression occurs when E. coli transits from suspension to biofilm. Consequently, we propose that both metrics REC and RGD should be adopted as a quantitative approach to conduct differential analyses of GRNs. A tool that implements both metrics is available as an on-line web server (http://dlab.cl/loto). PMID:27695050

  16. A comparison of the CogState Schizophrenia Battery and the Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (MATRICS) Battery in assessing cognitive impairment in chronic schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrzak, Robert H; Olver, James; Norman, Trevor; Piskulic, Danijela; Maruff, Paul; Snyder, Peter J

    2009-10-01

    This study examined the criterion and construct validity of a brief computerized cognitive test battery (CogState Schizophrenia Battery) compared to a conventional cognitive test battery recommended by the Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (MATRICS) consensus. The CogState and MATRICS batteries yielded comparable effect sizes in comparing patients with schizophrenia to healthy controls (Cohen's ds = -1.50 for both batteries). Moderate to large correlations were observed between CogState and MATRICS measures of processing speed, attention/vigilance, working memory, verbal and visual learning, reasoning/problem solving, and social cognition (rs = .56-.79). CogState and MATRICS composite scores also correlated strongly with scores on the University of California at San Diego (UCSD) Performance-Based Skills Assessment (UPSA; rs = .76 and .79, respectively) in patients with schizophrenia. Results of this study suggest that the CogState Schizophrenia Battery provides valid measurement of the cognitive domains nominated by the MATRICS consensus group as being important to consider in the context of pharmacological treatments for cognitive impairment in schizophrenia.

  17. Comparison of methods for genomic localization of gene trap sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferrin Thomas E

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene knockouts in a model organism such as mouse provide a valuable resource for the study of basic biology and human disease. Determining which gene has been inactivated by an untargeted gene trapping event poses a challenging annotation problem because gene trap sequence tags, which represent sequence near the vector insertion site of a trapped gene, are typically short and often contain unresolved residues. To understand better the localization of these sequences on the mouse genome, we compared stand-alone versions of the alignment programs BLAT, SSAHA, and MegaBLAST. A set of 3,369 sequence tags was aligned to build 34 of the mouse genome using default parameters for each algorithm. Known genome coordinates for the cognate set of full-length genes (1,659 sequences were used to evaluate localization results. Results In general, all three programs performed well in terms of localizing sequences to a general region of the genome, with only relatively subtle errors identified for a small proportion of the sequence tags. However, large differences in performance were noted with regard to correctly identifying exon boundaries. BLAT correctly identified the vast majority of exon boundaries, while SSAHA and MegaBLAST missed the majority of exon boundaries. SSAHA consistently reported the fewest false positives and is the fastest algorithm. MegaBLAST was comparable to BLAT in speed, but was the most susceptible to localizing sequence tags incorrectly to pseudogenes. Conclusion The differences in performance for sequence tags and full-length reference sequences were surprisingly small. Characteristic variations in localization results for each program were noted that affect the localization of sequence at exon boundaries, in particular.

  18. Comparison of Envelope-Related Genes in Unicellular and Filamentous Cyanobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Yang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available To elucidate the evolution of cyanobacterial envelopes and the relation between gene content and environmental adaptation, cell envelope structures and components of unicellular and filamentous cyanobacteria were analyzed in comparative genomics. Hundreds of envelope biogenesis genes were divided into 5 major groups and annotated according to their conserved domains and phylogenetic profiles. Compared to unicellular species, the gene numbers of filamentous cyanobacteria expanded due to genome enlargement effect, but only few gene families amplified disproportionately, such as those encoding waaG and glycosyl transferase 2. Comparison of envelope genes among various species suggested that the significant variance of certain cyanobacterial envelope biogenesis genes should be the response to their environmental adaptation, which might be also related to the emergence of filamentous shapes with some new functions.

  19. Comparison of battery replacement stations and charging stations. Key elements of the supply system; Vergleich von Batteriewechselstationen und Ladesaeulen. Schluesselrolle fuer das Gesamtsystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knorr, Romy; Dietz, Eric; Kremp, Sebastian [Technische Univ. Chemnitz (Germany). Studiengang ' Nachhaltige Energieversorgungstechnologien' ; Goetz, Andreas [Technische Univ. Chemnitz (Germany). Professur Energie- und Hochspannungstechnik; Rehme, Marco [Technische Univ. Chemnitz (Germany). Professur fuer Unternehmensrechnung und Controlling

    2011-10-17

    The battery is one of the most important and most costly components of electric-powered vehicles. Due to its high material cost, it has decisive influence on the whole investment cost of an electric-powered vehicle. It also decides the mileage and weight of the vehicle. The contribution compares various options for battery replacement or recharging. (orig./AKB)

  20. Detecting Periodic Genes from Irregularly Sampled Gene Expressions: A Comparison Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward R. Dougherty

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Time series microarray measurements of gene expressions have been exploited to discover genes involved in cell cycles. Due to experimental constraints, most microarray observations are obtained through irregular sampling. In this paper three popular spectral analysis schemes, namely, Lomb-Scargle, Capon and missing-data amplitude and phase estimation (MAPES, are compared in terms of their ability and efficiency to recover periodically expressed genes. Based on in silico experiments for microarray measurements of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Lomb-Scargle is found to be the most efficacious scheme. 149 genes are then identified to be periodically expressed in the Drosophila melanogaster data set.

  1. Lithium batteries and other electrochemical storage systems

    CERN Document Server

    Glaize, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Lithium batteries were introduced relatively recently in comparison to lead- or nickel-based batteries, which have been around for over 100 years. Nevertheless, in the space of 20 years, they have acquired a considerable market share - particularly for the supply of mobile devices. We are still a long way from exhausting the possibilities that they offer. Numerous projects will undoubtedly further improve their performances in the years to come. For large-scale storage systems, other types of batteries are also worthy of consideration: hot batteries and redox flow systems, for example.

  2. MYB98 Positively Regulates a Battery of Synergid-Expressed Genes Encoding Filiform Apparatus–Localized Proteins[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punwani, Jayson A.; Rabiger, David S.; Drews, Gary N.

    2007-01-01

    The synergid cells within the female gametophyte are essential for reproduction in angiosperms. MYB98 encodes an R2R3-MYB protein required for pollen tube guidance and filiform apparatus formation by the synergid cells. To test the predicted function of MYB98 as a transcriptional regulator, we determined its subcellular localization and examined its DNA binding properties. We show that MYB98 binds to a specific DNA sequence (TAAC) and that a MYB98–green fluorescent protein fusion protein localizes to the nucleus, consistent with a role in transcriptional regulation. To identify genes regulated by MYB98, we tested previously identified synergid-expressed genes for reduced expression in myb98 female gametophytes and identified 16 such genes. We dissected the promoter of one of the downstream genes, DD11, and show that it contains a MYB98 binding site required for synergid expression, suggesting that DD11 is regulated directly by MYB98. To gain insight into the functions of the downstream genes, we chose five genes and determined the subcellular localization of the encoded proteins. We show that these five proteins are secreted into the filiform apparatus, suggesting that they play a role in either the formation or the function of this unique structure. Together, these data suggest that MYB98 functions as a transcriptional regulator in the synergid cells and activates the expression of genes required for pollen tube guidance and filiform apparatus formation. PMID:17693534

  3. Memel's Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander F. Mitrofanov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the history and equipment of the coastal and antiaircraft artillery batteries of German Navy (Kriegsmarine constructed in Memel area before and during the World War. There is given the brief description of the Soviet Navy stationed in the area in the postwar years.

  4. Digital Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubler, Alfred

    2009-03-01

    The energy density in conventional capacitors is limited by sparking. We present nano-capacitor arrays, where - like in laser diodes and quantum wells [1] - quantization prevents dielectric breakthrough. We show that the energy density and the power/weight ratio are very high, possibly larger than in hydrogen [2]. Digital batteries are a potential clean energy source for cars, laptops, and mobile devices. The technology is related to flash drives. However, because of the high energy density, safety is a concern. Digital batteries can be easily and safely charged and discharged. In the discharged state they pose no danger. Even if a charged digital battery were to explode, it would produce no radioactive waste, no long-term radiation, and probably could be designed to produce no noxious chemicals. We discuss methodologies to prevent shorts and other measures to make digital batteries safe. [1] H. Higuraskh, A. Toriumi, F. Yamaguchi, K. Kawamura, A. Hubler, Correlation Tunnel Device, U. S. Patent No. 5,679,961 (1997) [2] Alfred Hubler, http://server10.how-why.com/blog/

  5. Multicell LiSOCl sub 2 reserve battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, A. R.; Garoutte, K. F.

    Recent development work on reverse lithium thionyl chloride (RLTC) batteries at SNLA and Honeywell has included safety and performance evaluations. The RLTC battery is being considered for applications that were traditionally fulfilled by state-of-the-art thermal batteries and reserve silver oxide zinc electrochemical systems. These applications typically demand a reserve battery having a rapid voltage rise, high reliability, operational safety and useful active lifetime ranging from minutes to hours. The RLTC work reported here was directed toward a power battery capable of meeting or exceeding the design requirements. Performance and safety test data indicate that the RLTC battery may be better suited than thermal batteries for some long-life applications. A comparison between Li(Si)/FeS2 thermal battery and an RLTC battery, both of which were designed to fulfill the requirements is presented.

  6. A comparison of organophosphate degradation genes and bioremediation applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Rupa; Iken, Brian; Damania, Ashish

    2013-12-01

    Organophosphates (OPs) form the bulk of pesticides that are currently in use around the world accounting for more than 30% of the world market. They also form the core for many nerve-based warfare agents including sarin and soman. The widespread use and the resultant build-up of OP pesticides and chemical nerve agents has led to the development of major health problems due to their extremely toxic interaction with any biological system that encounters them. Growing concern over the accumulation of OP compounds in our food products, in the soils from which they are harvested and in wastewater run-off has fuelled a growing interest in microbial biotechnology that provides cheap, efficient OP detoxification to supplement expensive chemical methods. In this article, we review the current state of knowledge of OP pesticide and chemical agent degradation and attempt to clarify confusion over identification and nomenclature of two major families of OP-degrading enzymes through a comparison of their structure and function. The isolation, characterization, utilization and manipulation of the major detoxifying enzymes and the molecular basis of degradation of OP pesticides and chemical nerve agents are discussed as well as the achievements and technological advancements made towards the bioremediation of such compounds.

  7. Batteries: Overview of Battery Cathodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doeff, Marca M

    2010-07-12

    The very high theoretical capacity of lithium (3829 mAh/g) provided a compelling rationale from the 1970's onward for development of rechargeable batteries employing the elemental metal as an anode. The realization that some transition metal compounds undergo reductive lithium intercalation reactions reversibly allowed use of these materials as cathodes in these devices, most notably, TiS{sub 2}. Another intercalation compound, LiCoO{sub 2}, was described shortly thereafter but, because it was produced in the discharged state, was not considered to be of interest by battery companies at the time. Due to difficulties with the rechargeability of lithium and related safety concerns, however, alternative anodes were sought. The graphite intercalation compound (GIC) LiC{sub 6} was considered an attractive candidate but the high reactivity with commonly used electrolytic solutions containing organic solvents was recognized as a significant impediment to its use. The development of electrolytes that allowed the formation of a solid electrolyte interface (SEI) on surfaces of the carbon particles was a breakthrough that enabled commercialization of Li-ion batteries. In 1990, Sony announced the first commercial batteries based on a dual Li ion intercalation system. These devices are assembled in the discharged state, so that it is convenient to employ a prelithiated cathode such as LiCoO{sub 2} with the commonly used graphite anode. After charging, the batteries are ready to power devices. The practical realization of high energy density Li-ion batteries revolutionized the portable electronics industry, as evidenced by the widespread market penetration of mobile phones, laptop computers, digital music players, and other lightweight devices since the early 1990s. In 2009, worldwide sales of Li-ion batteries for these applications alone were US$ 7 billion. Furthermore, their performance characteristics (Figure 1) make them attractive for traction applications such as

  8. Batteries: Overview of Battery Cathodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doeff, Marca M

    2010-07-12

    The very high theoretical capacity of lithium (3829 mAh/g) provided a compelling rationale from the 1970's onward for development of rechargeable batteries employing the elemental metal as an anode. The realization that some transition metal compounds undergo reductive lithium intercalation reactions reversibly allowed use of these materials as cathodes in these devices, most notably, TiS{sub 2}. Another intercalation compound, LiCoO{sub 2}, was described shortly thereafter but, because it was produced in the discharged state, was not considered to be of interest by battery companies at the time. Due to difficulties with the rechargeability of lithium and related safety concerns, however, alternative anodes were sought. The graphite intercalation compound (GIC) LiC{sub 6} was considered an attractive candidate but the high reactivity with commonly used electrolytic solutions containing organic solvents was recognized as a significant impediment to its use. The development of electrolytes that allowed the formation of a solid electrolyte interface (SEI) on surfaces of the carbon particles was a breakthrough that enabled commercialization of Li-ion batteries. In 1990, Sony announced the first commercial batteries based on a dual Li ion intercalation system. These devices are assembled in the discharged state, so that it is convenient to employ a prelithiated cathode such as LiCoO{sub 2} with the commonly used graphite anode. After charging, the batteries are ready to power devices. The practical realization of high energy density Li-ion batteries revolutionized the portable electronics industry, as evidenced by the widespread market penetration of mobile phones, laptop computers, digital music players, and other lightweight devices since the early 1990s. In 2009, worldwide sales of Li-ion batteries for these applications alone were US$ 7 billion. Furthermore, their performance characteristics (Figure 1) make them attractive for traction applications such as

  9. Minimization of Construction Costs for an All Battery-Swapping Electric-Bus Transportation System: Comparison with an All Plug-In System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyang-Chyuan Fang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The greenhouse gases and air pollution generated by extensive energy use have exacerbated climate change. Electric-bus (e-bus transportation systems help reduce pollution and carbon emissions. This study analyzed the minimization of construction costs for an all battery-swapping public e-bus transportation system. A simulation was conducted according to existing timetables and routes. Daytime charging was incorporated during the hours of operation; the two parameters of the daytime charging scheme were the residual battery capacity and battery-charging energy during various intervals of daytime peak electricity hours. The parameters were optimized using three algorithms: particle swarm optimization (PSO, a genetic algorithm (GA, and a PSO–GA. This study observed the effects of optimization on cost changes (e.g., number of e-buses, on-board battery capacity, number of extra batteries, charging facilities, and energy consumption and compared the plug-in and battery-swapping e-bus systems. The results revealed that daytime charging can reduce the construction costs of both systems. In contrast to the other two algorithms, the PSO–GA yielded the most favorable optimization results for the charging scheme. Finally, according to the cases investigated and the parameters of this study, the construction cost of the plug-in e-bus system was shown to be lower than that of the battery-swapping e-bus system.

  10. ParsEval: parallel comparison and analysis of gene structure annotations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Standage Daniel S

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate gene structure annotation is a fundamental but somewhat elusive goal of genome projects, as witnessed by the fact that (model genomes typically undergo several cycles of re-annotation. In many cases, it is not only different versions of annotations that need to be compared but also different sources of annotation of the same genome, derived from distinct gene prediction workflows. Such comparisons are of interest to annotation providers, prediction software developers, and end-users, who all need to assess what is common and what is different among distinct annotation sources. We developed ParsEval, a software application for pairwise comparison of sets of gene structure annotations. ParsEval calculates several statistics that highlight the similarities and differences between the two sets of annotations provided. These statistics are presented in an aggregate summary report, with additional details provided as individual reports specific to non-overlapping, gene-model-centric genomic loci. Genome browser styled graphics embedded in these reports help visualize the genomic context of the annotations. Output from ParsEval is both easily read and parsed, enabling systematic identification of problematic gene models for subsequent focused analysis. Results ParsEval is capable of analyzing annotations for large eukaryotic genomes on typical desktop or laptop hardware. In comparison to existing methods, ParsEval exhibits a considerable performance improvement, both in terms of runtime and memory consumption. Reports from ParsEval can provide relevant biological insights into the gene structure annotations being compared. Conclusions Implemented in C, ParsEval provides the quickest and most feature-rich solution for genome annotation comparison to date. The source code is freely available (under an ISC license at http://parseval.sourceforge.net/.

  11. Cloning and Homology Comparison of S Gene for Isolate TH-98 of Porcine Transmissible Gastroenteritis Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Xiao-feng; LI Yi-jing; LIU Bao-quan

    2003-01-01

    TH-98 isolate of transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) was propagated and harvested onswine testicle (ST) monolayer ceil. Two pairs of primers were designed to amplify S gene by RT-PCR accord-ing to the published sequence of TGEV'S gene cDNA with Oligo version 4.1 and DNasis software. The productsof PCR were named Sa and Sb, of 2.3 kb and 2.1 kb respectively. Sa was inserted in EcoR I and Kpn I sitesafter Sb was cloned in Kpn I and Pst I multiple cloning sites of the same pUC18 plasmid. The recombinantpUC-S plasmid was identified and analyzed by corresponding restriction endonuclease and nested PCR on thebasis of the genetic sites of S gene and pUC18 plasmid, which was identified as S gene of TGEV. RecombinantpUC-S was sequenced and analyzed in comparison with the other strains. Gene sequence comparison indicatedthat TH-98 shared 99, 97, 98, 97 and 94% identities with Purdue-115(US), Miller(US), TO14(Japan),FS772(British), 96-1933(British), respectively, their deduced amino acid homology was 99, 97, 97, 96 and93% correspondingly. In addition, the analysis report verified that pUC-S owned a complete open readingframe (ORF) including initiation codon, signal sequences, remaining sequences and termination codon aswell. Therefore, the results affirmed that S gene of TGEV TH-98 was extremely conservative.

  12. Batteries for Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conover, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    Report summarizes results of test on "near-term" electrochemical batteries - (batteries approaching commercial production). Nickel/iron, nickel/zinc, and advanced lead/acid batteries included in tests and compared with conventional lead/acid batteries. Batteries operated in electric vehicles at constant speed and repetitive schedule of accerlerating, coasting, and braking.

  13. Battery Safety Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Ken

    2010-01-01

    Batteries commonly used in flashlights and other household devices produce hydrogen gas as a product of zinc electrode corrosion. The amount of gas produced is affected by the batteries' design and charge rate. Dangerous levels of hydrogen gas can be released if battery types are mixed, batteries are damaged, batteries are of different ages, or…

  14. Gain and loss of phototrophic genes revealed by comparison of two Citromicrobium bacterial genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Zheng

    Full Text Available Proteobacteria are thought to have diverged from a phototrophic ancestor, according to the scattered distribution of phototrophy throughout the proteobacterial clade, and so the occurrence of numerous closely related phototrophic and chemotrophic microorganisms may be the result of the loss of genes for phototrophy. A widespread form of bacterial phototrophy is based on the photochemical reaction center, encoded by puf and puh operons that typically are in a 'photosynthesis gene cluster' (abbreviated as the PGC with pigment biosynthesis genes. Comparison of two closely related Citromicrobial genomes (98.1% sequence identity of complete 16S rRNA genes, Citromicrobium sp. JL354, which contains two copies of reaction center genes, and Citromicrobium strain JLT1363, which is chemotrophic, revealed evidence for the loss of phototrophic genes. However, evidence of horizontal gene transfer was found in these two bacterial genomes. An incomplete PGC (pufLMC-puhCBA in strain JL354 was located within an integrating conjugative element, which indicates a potential mechanism for the horizontal transfer of genes for phototrophy.

  15. An Advanced HIL Simulation Battery Model for Battery Management System Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barreras, Jorge Varela; Fleischer, Christian; Christensen, Andreas Elkjær

    2016-01-01

    Developers and manufacturers of battery management systems (BMSs) require extensive testing of controller Hardware (HW) and Software (SW), such as analog front-end and performance of generated control code. In comparison with the tests conducted on real batteries, tests conducted on a state-of-th...

  16. Colorectal cancer driver genes identified by patient specific comparison of cytogenetic microarray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Azhar Aziz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC, which has high prevalence in Saudi Arabia and worldwide, needs better understanding by exploiting the latest available cytogenetic microarrays. We used biopsy tissue from consenting colorectal cancer patients to extract DNA and carry out microarray analysis using a CytoScan HD platform from Affymetrix. Patient specific comparisons of tumor–normal pairs were carried out. To find out the high probability key players, we performed Genomic Identification of Significant Targets in Cancer analysis and found 144 genes to form the list of driver genes. Of these, 24 genes attained high GISTIC scores and suggest being significantly associated with CRC. Loss of heterozygosity and uniparental disomy were found to affect 9 genes and suggest different mechanisms associated with CRC in every patient. Here we present the details of the methods used in carrying out the above analyses. Also, we provide some additional data on biomarker analysis that would complement the findings.

  17. Battery chargers; Chargeurs de batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peutot, Ch. [Lycee Leonard-de-Vinci de Melun, 77 (France)

    2001-05-01

    Two categories of battery chargers exist: external ones and internal ones. In the first category two types are developing today: direct contact chargers for fast and normal charging, and contact-less chargers. The second category is mainly devoted to vehicle applications (automobiles, trains etc..) and must fulfill strict technical-economical criteria (cost, weight, size, vibrations and shocks resistance, service life, power etc..). This article presents todays advance in chargers technology: 1 - general principles (different battery types, charging profiles, multiple chargers); 2 - chargers for low-cost applications (direct chargers, constant voltage chargers, voltage regulated chargers, integrated chargers, applications); 3 - advanced sinusoidal absorption chargers (general scheme, safety constraints, energy conversion structures ('buck', 'boost', 'cuck', 'flyback' switching power supplies), regulation control); 4 - concrete cases: single output and multi-output chargers. (J.S.)

  18. Homologous Comparisons of Photosynthetic System 1 Genes among Cyanobacteria and Chloroplasts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie Yu; Pei-Jun Ma; Ding-Ji Shi; Shi-Ming Li; Chang-Lu Wang

    2008-01-01

    It has now believed that chloroplasts arose from cyanobacteria,however,during endosymbiosis,the photosynthetic genes in chloroplasts have been reduced.How these changes occurred during plant evolution was the focus of the present study.Beginning with photosystem Ⅰ (PSI) genes,a homologous comparison of amino acid sequences of 18 subunits of PSI from 10 species of cyanobacteria,chloroplasts in 12 species of eucaryotic algae,and 28 species of plants (including bryophytes,pteridophytes,gymnospermae,dicotyledon and monocotyledon) was undertaken.The data showed that 18 genes of PSIcan be divided into two groups: Part Ⅰ including seven genes (psaA,psaB,psaC,psaI,psaJ,yct3 and ycf4) shared both by cyanobacteria and plant chloroplasts;Part Ⅱ containing another 11 genes (psaD,psaE,psaF,psaK,psaL,psaM,btpA,ycf37,psaG,psaH and psaN) appeared to have diversified in different plant groups.Among Part I genes,psaC,psaA and psaB had higher homology in all species of cyanobacteria and chloroplasts.Among Part II genes,only psaG,psaH and psaN emerged in seed plants.

  19. Gene tree discordance of wild and cultivated Asian rice deciphered by genome-wide sequence comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ching-chia; Sakai, Hiroaki; Numa, Hisataka; Itoh, Takeshi

    2011-05-15

    Although a large number of genes are expected to correctly solve a phylogenetic relationship, inconsistent gene tree topologies have been observed. This conflicting evidence in gene tree topologies, known as gene tree discordance, becomes increasingly important as advanced sequencing technologies produce an enormous amount of sequence information for phylogenomic studies among closely related species. Here, we aim to characterize the gene tree discordance of the Asian cultivated rice Oryza sativa and its progenitor, O. rufipogon, which will be an ideal case study of gene tree discordance. Using genome and cDNA sequences of O. sativa and O. rufipogon, we have conducted the first in-depth analyses of gene tree discordance in Asian rice. Our comparison of full-length cDNA sequences of O. rufipogon with the genome sequences of the japonica and indica cultivars of O. sativa revealed that 60% of the gene trees showed a topology consistent with the expected one, whereas the remaining genes supported significantly different topologies. Moreover, the proportions of the topologies deviated significantly from expectation, suggesting at least one hybridization event between the two subgroups of O. sativa, japonica and indica. In fact, a genome-wide alignment between japonica and indica indicated that significant portions of the indica genome are derived from japonica. In addition, literature concerning the pedigree of the indica cultivar strongly supported the hybridization hypothesis. Our molecular evolutionary analyses deciphered complicated evolutionary processes in closely related species. They also demonstrated the importance of gene tree discordance in the era of high-speed DNA sequencing.

  20. Comparison of protein coding gene contents of the fungal phyla Pezizomycotina and Saccharomycotina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvas, Mikko; Kivioja, Teemu; Mitchell, Alex

    2007-01-01

    wide comparison of protein coding gene content of Saccharomycotina and Pezizomycotina, which include industrially important yeasts and filamentous fungi, respectively. RESULTS: Our analysis shows that based on genome redundancy, the traditional model organisms Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Neurospora......BACKGROUND: Several dozen fungi encompassing traditional model organisms, industrial production organisms and human and plant pathogens have been sequenced recently and their particular genomic features analysed in detail. In addition comparative genomics has been used to analyse specific sub...

  1. A feasibility study on direct methanol fuel cells for laptop computers based on a cost comparison with lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, Jung-Ho

    This paper compares the total cost of direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) and lithium (Li)-ion battery systems when applied as the power supply for laptop computers in the Korean environment. The average power output and operational time of the laptop computers were assumed to be 20 W and 3000 h, respectively. Considering the status of their technologies and with certain conditions assumed, the total costs were calculated to be US140 for the Li-ion battery and US362 for DMFC. The manufacturing costs of the DMFC and Li-ion battery systems were calculated to be 16.65 W -1 and 0.77 W h -1, and the energy consumption costs to be 0.00051 W h -1 and 0.00032 W h -1, respectively. The higher fuel consumption cost of the DMFC system was due to the methanol (MeOH) crossover loss. Therefore, the requirements for DMFCs to be able to compete with Li-ion batteries in terms of energy cost include reducing the crossover level to at an order magnitude of -9 and the MeOH price to under 0.5 kg -1. Under these conditions, if the DMFC manufacturing cost could be reduced to 6.30 W -1, then the DMFC system would become at least as competitive as the Li-ion battery system for powering laptop computers in Korea.

  2. A Comparison of Collection Techniques for Gene Expression Analysis of Human Oral Taste Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Nicholas Steven; Liu, Dongli; Shaw, Jan; Hannan, Garry; Duesing, Konsta; Keast, Russell

    2016-01-01

    Variability in human taste perception is associated with both genetic and environmental factors. The influence of taste receptor expression on this variability is unknown, in part, due to the difficulty in obtaining human oral tissue that enables quantitative expression measures of taste genes. In a comparison of six current techniques (Oragene RNeasy Kit, Isohelix swab, Livibrush cytobrush, tongue saliva, cheek saliva collection, and fungiform papillae biopsy), we identify the fungiform papillae biopsy is the optimal sampling technique to analyse human taste gene expression. The fungiform papillae biopsy resulted in the highest RNA integrity, enabling amplification of all the assessed taste receptor genes (TAS1R1, TAS1R2, TAS1R3, SCNN1A and CD36) and taste tissue marker genes (NCAM1, GNAT3 and PLCβ2). Furthermore, quantitative expression was observed in a subset of taste genes assessed from the saliva collection techniques (cheek saliva, tongue saliva and Oragene RNA kit). These saliva collection techniques may be useful as a non-invasive alternative sampling technique to the fungiform papillae biopsy. Identification of the fungiform papillae biopsy as the optimal collection method will facilitate further research into understanding the effect of gene expression on variability in human taste perception.

  3. A Comparison of Collection Techniques for Gene Expression Analysis of Human Oral Taste Tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Steven Archer

    Full Text Available Variability in human taste perception is associated with both genetic and environmental factors. The influence of taste receptor expression on this variability is unknown, in part, due to the difficulty in obtaining human oral tissue that enables quantitative expression measures of taste genes. In a comparison of six current techniques (Oragene RNeasy Kit, Isohelix swab, Livibrush cytobrush, tongue saliva, cheek saliva collection, and fungiform papillae biopsy, we identify the fungiform papillae biopsy is the optimal sampling technique to analyse human taste gene expression. The fungiform papillae biopsy resulted in the highest RNA integrity, enabling amplification of all the assessed taste receptor genes (TAS1R1, TAS1R2, TAS1R3, SCNN1A and CD36 and taste tissue marker genes (NCAM1, GNAT3 and PLCβ2. Furthermore, quantitative expression was observed in a subset of taste genes assessed from the saliva collection techniques (cheek saliva, tongue saliva and Oragene RNA kit. These saliva collection techniques may be useful as a non-invasive alternative sampling technique to the fungiform papillae biopsy. Identification of the fungiform papillae biopsy as the optimal collection method will facilitate further research into understanding the effect of gene expression on variability in human taste perception.

  4. Elucidating gene function and function evolution through comparison of co-expression networks in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek eMutwil

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of gene expression data has shown that transcriptionally coordinated (co-expressed genes are often functionally related, enabling scientists to use expression data in gene function prediction. This Focused Review discusses our original paper (Large-scale co-expression approach to dissect secondary cell wall formation across plant species, Frontiers in Plant Science 2:23. In this paper we applied cross-species analysis to co-expression networks of genes involved in cellulose biosynthesis. We show that the co-expression networks from different species are highly similar, indicating that whole biological pathways are conserved across species. This finding has two important implications. First, the analysis can transfer gene function annotation from well-studied plants, such as Arabidopsis, to other, uncharacterized plant species. As the analysis finds genes that have similar sequence and similar expression pattern across different organisms, functionally equivalent genes can be identified. Second, since co-expression analyses are often noisy, a comparative analysis should have higher performance, as parts of co-expression networks that are conserved are more likely to be functionally relevant. In this Focused Review, we outline the comparative analysis done in the original paper and comment on the recent advances and approaches that allow comparative analyses of co-function networks. We hypothesize that, in comparison to simple co-expression analysis, comparative analysis would yield more accurate gene function predictions. Finally, by combining comparative analysis with genomic information of green plants, we propose a possible composition of cellulose biosynthesis machinery during earlier stages of plant evolution.

  5. Evolution of paralogous genes: Reconstruction of genome rearrangements through comparison of multiple genomes within Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuru, Takeshi; Kawai, Mikihiko; Mizutani-Ui, Yoko; Uchiyama, Ikuo; Kobayashi, Ichizo

    2006-06-01

    Analysis of evolution of paralogous genes in a genome is central to our understanding of genome evolution. Comparison of closely related bacterial genomes, which has provided clues as to how genome sequences evolve under natural conditions, would help in such an analysis. With species Staphylococcus aureus, whole-genome sequences have been decoded for seven strains. We compared their DNA sequences to detect large genome polymorphisms and to deduce mechanisms of genome rearrangements that have formed each of them. We first compared strains N315 and Mu50, which make one of the most closely related strain pairs, at the single-nucleotide resolution to catalogue all the middle-sized (more than 10 bp) to large genome polymorphisms such as indels and substitutions. These polymorphisms include two paralogous gene sets, one in a tandem paralogue gene cluster for toxins in a genomic island and the other in a ribosomal RNA operon. We also focused on two other tandem paralogue gene clusters and type I restriction-modification (RM) genes on the genomic islands. Then we reconstructed rearrangement events responsible for these polymorphisms, in the paralogous genes and the others, with reference to the other five genomes. For the tandem paralogue gene clusters, we were able to infer sequences for homologous recombination generating the change in the repeat number. These sequences were conserved among the repeated paralogous units likely because of their functional importance. The sequence specificity (S) subunit of type I RM systems showed recombination, likely at the homology of a conserved region, between the two variable regions for sequence specificity. We also noticed novel alleles in the ribosomal RNA operons and suggested a role for illegitimate recombination in their formation. These results revealed importance of recombination involving long conserved sequence in the evolution of paralogous genes in the genome.

  6. Molecular Characterization of Duplicate Cytosolic Phosphoglucose Isomerase Genes in Clarkia and Comparison to the Single Gene in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, B. R.; Ford, V. S.; Pichersky, E.; Gottlieb, L. D.

    1993-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence of PgiC1-a which encodes a cytosolic isozyme of phosphoglucose isomerase (PGIC; EC 5.3.1.9) in Clarkia lewisii, a wildflower native to California, is described and compared to the previously published sequence of the duplicate PgiC2-a from the same genome. Both genes have the same structure of 23 exons and 22 introns located in identical positions, and they encode proteins of 569 amino acids. Exon and inferred protein sequences of the two genes are 96.4% and 97.2% identical, respectively. Intron sequences are 88.2% identical. The high nucleotide similarity of the two genes is consistent with previous genetic and biosystematic findings that suggest the duplication arose within Clarkia. A partial sequence of PgiC2-b was also obtained. It is 99.5% identical to PgiC2-a in exons and 99.7% in introns. The nucleotide sequence of the single PgiC from Arabidopsis thaliana was also determined for comparison to the Clarkia genes. The A. thaliana PgiC has 21 introns located at positions identical to those in Clarkia PgiC1 and PgiC2, but lacks the intron that divides Clarkia exons 21 and 22. The A. thaliana PGIC protein is shorter, with 560 amino acids, and differs by about 17% from the Clarkia PGICs. The PgiC in A. thaliana was mapped to a site 20 cM from restriction fragment length polymorphism marker 331 on chromosome 5. PMID:8293986

  7. Alkaline battery operational methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sholklapper, Tal; Gallaway, Joshua; Steingart, Daniel; Ingale, Nilesh; Nyce, Michael

    2016-08-16

    Methods of using specific operational charge and discharge parameters to extend the life of alkaline batteries are disclosed. The methods can be used with any commercial primary or secondary alkaline battery, as well as with newer alkaline battery designs, including batteries with flowing electrolyte. The methods include cycling batteries within a narrow operating voltage window, with minimum and maximum cut-off voltages that are set based on battery characteristics and environmental conditions. The narrow voltage window decreases available capacity but allows the batteries to be cycled for hundreds or thousands of times.

  8. Modeling of the capacity loss of a 12 V automotive lead-acid battery due to ageing and comparison with measurement data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ui Seong; Shin, Chee Burm; Chung, Seung Myun; Kim, Sung Tae; Cho, Byung Won

    One-dimensional modeling was carried-out to predict the capacity loss of a 12 V automotive lead-acid battery due to ageing. The model not only accounted for electrochemical kinetics and ionic mass transfer in a battery cell, but also considered the anodic corrosion of lead in sulfuric acid. In order to validate the modeling, modeling results were compared with the measurement data of the cycling behaviors of the lead-acid batteries having nominal capacity of 68 Ah that are mounted on the automobiles manufactured by Hyundai Motor Company. The cycling was performed under the protocol of the constant-current discharge and the constant-voltage charge. The discharge rate of C/3 was used. The range of state of charge was between 1 and 0.85. The voltage was kept constant at the gassing voltage until the charge current tapered to 10 mA. The retention capacity of the battery was measured with C/3 discharge rate before the beginning of cycling and after every 40 cycles of cycling. The modeling results were in good agreement with the measurement data.

  9. Performance on the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Test Battery-Children's Revision: A Comparison of Children with and without Significant WISC-R VIQ-PIQ Discrepancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilger, J. W.; Geary, D. C.

    1985-01-01

    Compared the performance of 56 children on the 11 subscales of the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery-Children's Revision. Results revealed significant differences on Receptive Speech and Expressive Language subscales, suggesting a possible differential sensitivity of the children's Luria-Nebraska to verbal and nonverbal cognitive deficits.…

  10. Performance on the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Test Battery-Children's Revision: A Comparison of Children with and without Significant WISC-R VIQ-PIQ Discrepancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilger, J. W.; Geary, D. C.

    1985-01-01

    Compared the performance of 56 children on the 11 subscales of the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery-Children's Revision. Results revealed significant differences on Receptive Speech and Expressive Language subscales, suggesting a possible differential sensitivity of the children's Luria-Nebraska to verbal and nonverbal cognitive deficits.…

  11. Bipolar batteries based on Ebonex ® technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyns, A. C.; Hill, A.; Ellis, K. G.; Partington, T. J.; Hill, J. M.

    Continuing work by Atraverda on the production of a composite-laminate form of the Ebonex ® material, that can be cheaply formulated and manufactured to form substrate plates for bipolar lead-acid batteries, is described. Ebonex ® is the registered trade name of a range of titanium suboxide ceramic materials, typically Ti 4O 7 and Ti 5O 9, which combine electrical conductivity with high corrosion and oxidation resistance. Details of the structure of the composite, battery construction techniques and methods for filling and forming of batteries are discussed. In addition, lifetime and performance data obtained by Atraverda from laboratory bipolar lead-acid batteries and cells are presented. Battery production techniques for both conventional monopolar and bipolar batteries are reviewed. The findings indicate that substantial time and cost savings may be realised in the manufacture of bipolar batteries in comparison to conventional designs. This is due to the fewer processing steps required and more efficient formation. The results indicate that the use of Ebonex ® composite material as a bipolar substrate will provide lightweight and durable high-voltage lead-acid batteries suitable for a wide range of applications including advanced automotive, stationary power and portable equipment.

  12. Comparison of regional gene expression differences in the brains of the domestic dog and human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kennerly Erin

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Comparison of the expression profiles of 2,721 genes in the cerebellum, cortex and pituitary gland of three American Staffordshire terriers, one beagle and one fox hound revealed regional expression differences in the brain but failed to reveal marked differences among breeds, or even individual dogs. Approximately 85 per cent (42 of 49 orthologue comparisons of the regional differences in the dog are similar to those that differentiate the analogous human brain regions. A smaller percentage of human differences were replicated in the dog, particularly in the cortex, which may generally be evolving more rapidly than other brain regions in mammals. This study lays the foundation for detailed analysis of the population structure of transcriptional variation as it relates to cognitive and neurological phenotypes in the domestic dog.

  13. Genes underlying reproductive division of labor in termites, with comparisons to social Hymenoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith eKorb

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available All social insects are characterized by a reproductive division of labor. Within a colony only a few individuals reproduce (queens and in termites, also a king while the large majority (workers and soldiers forgo reproduction, at least temporarily. The evolution of such reproductive altruism can ultimately be explained by inclusive fitness theory. Here, I will review the proximate genetic mechanisms underlying this altruism in termites. As social cockroaches they evolved eusociality independently from the social Hymenoptera, which makes them interesting test cases to look for common underlying mechanisms of eusociality and lineage specific idiosyncrasies. First, I will provide a summary of the genes and their function that have been identified to underlie reproductive division of labor - so called 'queen genes,' - in the drywood termite Cryptotermes secundus, an emerging model to study termite social evolution. Second, I outline how widespread these queen genes are across the termite phylogeny, using also evidence from recent genome analyses. I will provide hypotheses about the evolutionary origin of these queen genes, aiming to link proximate mechanisms with ultimate functions. Finally, I will draw comparisons to social Hymenoptera to indicate potential common underpinnings that warrant further testing.

  14. Comparisons of Modeling and State of Charge Estimation for Lithium-Ion Battery Based on Fractional Order and Integral Order Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renxin Xiao

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to properly manage lithium-ion batteries of electric vehicles (EVs, it is essential to build the battery model and estimate the state of charge (SOC. In this paper, the fractional order forms of Thevenin and partnership for a new generation of vehicles (PNGV models are built, of which the model parameters including the fractional orders and the corresponding resistance and capacitance values are simultaneously identified based on genetic algorithm (GA. The relationships between different model parameters and SOC are established and analyzed. The calculation precisions of the fractional order model (FOM and integral order model (IOM are validated and compared under hybrid test cycles. Finally, extended Kalman filter (EKF is employed to estimate the SOC based on different models. The results prove that the FOMs can simulate the output voltage more accurately and the fractional order EKF (FOEKF can estimate the SOC more precisely under dynamic conditions.

  15. Influence of Battery/Ultracapacitor Energy-Storage Sizing on Battery Lifetime in a Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaltz, Erik; Rasmussen, Peter Omand; Khaligh, Alireza

    2009-01-01

    Combining high-energy-density batteries and high-power-density ultracapacitors in fuel cell hybrid electric vehicles (FCHEVs) results in a high-performance, highly efficient, low-size, and light system. Often, the battery is rated with respect to its energy requirement to reduce its volume and mass....... This does not prevent deep discharges of the battery, which are critical to the lifetime of the battery. In this paper, the ratings of the battery and ultracapacitors are investigated. Comparisons of the system volume, the system mass, and the lifetime of the battery due to the rating of the energy storage...... devices are presented. It is concluded that not only should the energy storage devices of a FCHEV be sized by their power and energy requirements, but the battery lifetime should also be considered. Two energy-management strategies, which sufficiently divide the load power between the fuel cell stack...

  16. Comparison of hybridization-based and sequencing-based gene expression technologies on biological replicates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cepko Connie L

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High-throughput systems for gene expression profiling have been developed and have matured rapidly through the past decade. Broadly, these can be divided into two categories: hybridization-based and sequencing-based approaches. With data from different technologies being accumulated, concerns and challenges are raised about the level of agreement across technologies. As part of an ongoing large-scale cross-platform data comparison framework, we report here a comparison based on identical samples between one-dye DNA microarray platforms and MPSS (Massively Parallel Signature Sequencing. Results The DNA microarray platforms generally provided highly correlated data, while moderate correlations between microarrays and MPSS were obtained. Disagreements between the two types of technologies can be attributed to limitations inherent to both technologies. The variation found between pooled biological replicates underlines the importance of exercising caution in identification of differential expression, especially for the purposes of biomarker discovery. Conclusion Based on different principles, hybridization-based and sequencing-based technologies should be considered complementary to each other, rather than competitive alternatives for measuring gene expression, and currently, both are important tools for transcriptome profiling.

  17. Solar battery energizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, M. E.

    1985-09-03

    A battery energizer for button batteries, such as zinc-silver oxide or zinc-mercuric oxide batteries, that are normally considered unchargeable, provides for energizing of the batteries in a safe and simple manner. A solar cell having a maximum current output (e.g., 20 milliamps) is operatively connected to terminals for releasably receiving a button battery. A light emitting diode, or like indicator, provides an indication of when the battery is fully energized, and additionally assists in preventing overenergization of the battery. The solar cell, terminals, LED, and the like can be mounted on a nonconductive material mounting plate which is mounted by a suction cup and hook to a window, adjacent a light bulb, or the like. A battery charger for conventional dry cell rechargeable batteries (such as nickel-cadmium batteries) utilizes the solar cells, and LED, and a zener diode connected in parallel with terminals. An adaptor may be provided with the terminal for adapting them for use with any conventional size dry cell battery, and a simple dummy battery may be utilized so that less than the full complement of batteries may be charged utilizing the charger.

  18. Dehydration stress memory genes of Zea mays; comparison with Arabidopsis thaliana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Pre-exposing plants to diverse abiotic stresses may alter their physiological and transcriptional responses to a subsequent stress, suggesting a form of “stress memory”. Arabidopsis thaliana plants that have experienced multiple exposures to dehydration stress display transcriptional behavior suggesting “memory” from an earlier stress. Genes that respond to a first stress by up-regulating or down-regulating their transcription but in a subsequent stress provide a significantly different response define the ‘memory genes’ category. Genes responding similarly to each stress form the ‘non-memory’ category. It is unknown whether such memory responses exists in other Angiosperm lineages and whether memory is an evolutionarily conserved response to repeated dehydration stresses. Results Here, we determine the transcriptional responses of maize (Zea mays L.) plants that have experienced repeated exposures to dehydration stress in comparison with plants encountering the stress for the first time. Four distinct transcription memory response patterns similar to those displayed by A. thaliana were revealed. The most important contribution is the evidence that monocot and eudicot plants, two lineages that have diverged 140 to 200 M years ago, display similar abilities to ‘remember’ a dehydration stress and to modify their transcriptional responses, accordingly. The highly sensitive RNA-Seq analyses allowed to identify genes that function similarly in the two lineages, as well as genes that function in species-specific ways. Memory transcription patterns indicate that the transcriptional behavior of responding genes under repeated stresses is different from the behavior during an initial dehydration stress, suggesting that stress memory is a complex phenotype resulting from coordinated responses of multiple signaling pathways. Conclusions Structurally related genes displaying the same memory responses in the two species would suggest conservation

  19. Comparison of protein coding gene contents of the fungal phyla Pezizomycotina and Saccharomycotina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ussery David

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several dozen fungi encompassing traditional model organisms, industrial production organisms and human and plant pathogens have been sequenced recently and their particular genomic features analysed in detail. In addition comparative genomics has been used to analyse specific sub groups of fungi. Notably, analysis of the phylum Saccharomycotina has revealed major events of evolution such as the recent genome duplication and subsequent gene loss. However, little has been done to gain a comprehensive comparative view to the fungal kingdom. We have carried out a computational genome wide comparison of protein coding gene content of Saccharomycotina and Pezizomycotina, which include industrially important yeasts and filamentous fungi, respectively. Results Our analysis shows that based on genome redundancy, the traditional model organisms Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Neurospora crassa are exceptional among fungi. This can be explained by the recent genome duplication in S. cerevisiae and the repeat induced point mutation mechanism in N. crassa. Interestingly in Pezizomycotina a subset of protein families related to plant biomass degradation and secondary metabolism are the only ones showing signs of recent expansion. In addition, Pezizomycotina have a wealth of phylum specific poorly characterised genes with a wide variety of predicted functions. These genes are well conserved in Pezizomycotina, but show no signs of recent expansion. The genes found in all fungi except Saccharomycotina are slightly better characterised and predicted to encode mainly enzymes. The genes specific to Saccharomycotina are enriched in transcription and mitochondrion related functions. Especially mitochondrial ribosomal proteins seem to have diverged from those of Pezizomycotina. In addition, we highlight several individual gene families with interesting phylogenetic distributions. Conclusion Our analysis predicts that all Pezizomycotina unlike

  20. Ionene membrane battery separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moacanin, J.; Tom, H. Y.

    1969-01-01

    Ionic transport characteristics of ionenes, insoluble membranes from soluble polyelectrolyte compositions, are studied for possible application in a battery separator. Effectiveness of the thin film of separator membrane essentially determines battery lifetime.

  1. Comparing the Energy Content of Batteries, Fuels, and Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsara, Nitash P.; Newman, John

    2013-01-01

    A methodology for calculating the theoretical and practical specific energies of rechargeable batteries, fuels, and materials is presented. The methodology enables comparison of the energy content of diverse systems such as the lithium-ion battery, hydrocarbons, and ammonia. The methodology is relevant for evaluating the possibility of using…

  2. Comparison of 16S ribosomal RNA genes in Clavibacter michiganensis subspecies with other coryneform bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X; De Boer, S H

    1995-10-01

    Nearly complete sequences (97-99%) of the 16S rRNA genes were determined for type strains of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis, Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. insidiosus, Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus, and Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. nebraskensis. The four subspecies had less than 1% dissimilarity in their 16S rRNA genes. Comparative studies indicated that the C. michiganensis subsp. shared relatively high homology with the 16S rRNA gene of Clavibacter xyli. Further comparison with representatives of other Gram-positive coryneform and related bacteria with high G+C% values showed that this group of bacteria was subdivided into three clusters. One cluster consisted of the Clavibacter michiganensis subsp., Clavibacter xyli, Arthrobacter globiformis, Arthrobacter simplex, and Frankia sp.; another cluster consisted of members of the corynebacteria-mycobacteria-nocardia (CMN) group of Mycobacteriaceae including Tsukamurella paurometabolum; and Propionibacterium freudenreichii alone formed a unique cluster, which was remote from other coryneform bacteria analyzed. The three clusters may reflect a systematic rank higher than the genus level among these bacteria.

  3. Rechargeable batteries applications handbook

    CERN Document Server

    1998-01-01

    Represents the first widely available compendium of the information needed by those design professionals responsible for using rechargeable batteries. This handbook introduces the most common forms of rechargeable batteries, including their history, the basic chemistry that governs their operation, and common design approaches. The introduction also exposes reader to common battery design terms and concepts.Two sections of the handbook provide performance information on two principal types of rechargeable batteries commonly found in consumer and industrial products: sealed nickel-cad

  4. Micro Calorimeter for Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santhanagopalan, Shriram [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-01

    As battery technology forges ahead and consumer demand for safer, more affordable, high-performance batteries grows, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has added a patented Micro Calorimeter to its existing family of R&D 100 Award-winning Isothermal Battery Calorimeters (IBCs). The Micro Calorimeter examines the thermal signature of battery chemistries early on in the design cycle using popular coin cell and small pouch cell designs, which are simple to fabricate and study.

  5. Battery systems engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Rahn, Christopher D

    2012-01-01

    A complete all-in-one reference on the important interdisciplinary topic of Battery Systems Engineering Focusing on the interdisciplinary area of battery systems engineering, this book provides the background, models, solution techniques, and systems theory that are necessary for the development of advanced battery management systems. It covers the topic from the perspective of basic electrochemistry as well as systems engineering topics and provides a basis for battery modeling for system engineering of electric and hybrid electric vehicle platforms. This original

  6. Battery Aging and the Kinetic Battery Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, M.R.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Batteries are omnipresent, and with the uprise of the electrical vehicles will their use will grow even more. However, the batteries can deliver their required power for a limited time span. They slowly degrade with every charge-discharge cycle. This degradation needs to be taken into account when c

  7. Battery Aging and the Kinetic Battery Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, M.R.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.

    Batteries are omnipresent, and with the uprise of the electrical vehicles will their use will grow even more. However, the batteries can deliver their required power for a limited time span. They slowly degrade with every charge-discharge cycle. This degradation needs to be taken into account when

  8. Electric Vehicle Battery Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2014-01-01

    A serious drawback to electric vehicles [batteries only] is the idle time needed to recharge their batteries. In this challenge, students can develop ideas and concepts for battery change-out at automotive service stations. Such a capability would extend the range of electric vehicles.

  9. Battery charging system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carollo, J.A.; Kalinsky, W.A.

    1984-02-21

    A battery charger utilizes three basic modes of operation that includes a maintenance mode, a rapid charge mode and time controlled limited charging mode. The device utilizes feedback from the battery being charged of voltage, current and temperature to determine the mode of operation and the time period during which the battery is being charged.

  10. Electric Vehicle Battery Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2014-01-01

    A serious drawback to electric vehicles [batteries only] is the idle time needed to recharge their batteries. In this challenge, students can develop ideas and concepts for battery change-out at automotive service stations. Such a capability would extend the range of electric vehicles.

  11. [Comparison and application of two risk assessment methods for occupational lead exposure risk classification in a lead-acid battery enterprise].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H F; Yao, Z H; Yan, X H; Zhao, L; Wang, S; Lin, J; Huang, H L

    2017-02-20

    Objective: To apply and compare two risk assessment methods for occupational lead exposure risk classification in a lead-acid battery enterprise. Methods: In April 2013, an occupational health survey was carried out in a lead-acid battery enterprise. Lead smoke and lead dust were tested in the workplace. The risk assessment index system for occupational chemical hazards that was established and optimized by the research group (referred to as "optimized index system" ) , as well as the Singapore semi-quantitative risk assessment model, was used for occupational lead exposure risk classification in the lead-acid battery enterprise. The two risk classification results were analyzed and compared. Results: In the lead smoke risk classification results, the optimized index system classified the raw material group and foundry group workshops as Class I hazardous and the assembling group workshop as Class II hazardous. The Singapore semi-quantitative risk assessment model classified the raw material group workshop as high risk and foundry group and assembling group workshops as extremely high risk. In the lead dust risk classification results, the optimized index system classified the raw material group workshop as Class I hazardous, while the plate painting group, plate cutting group, and assembling group workshops were classified as Class II hazardous. The Singapore semi-quantitative risk assessment model classified the raw material group workshop as medium risk, the plate painting group and plate cutting group workshops as high risk, and the assembling group workshop as extremely high risk. Conclusion: There are some differences in risk assessment of occupational lead exposure between the two risk assessment methods. The optimized index system is comparably more reasonable and feasible, and is highly operable.

  12. Comparisons of power of statistical methods for gene-environment interaction analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ege, Markus J; Strachan, David P

    2013-10-01

    Any genome-wide analysis is hampered by reduced statistical power due to multiple comparisons. This is particularly true for interaction analyses, which have lower statistical power than analyses of associations. To assess gene-environment interactions in population settings we have recently proposed a statistical method based on a modified two-step approach, where first genetic loci are selected by their associations with disease and environment, respectively, and subsequently tested for interactions. We have simulated various data sets resembling real world scenarios and compared single-step and two-step approaches with respect to true positive rate (TPR) in 486 scenarios and (study-wide) false positive rate (FPR) in 252 scenarios. Our simulations confirmed that in all two-step methods the two steps are not correlated. In terms of TPR, two-step approaches combining information on gene-disease association and gene-environment association in the first step were superior to all other methods, while preserving a low FPR in over 250 million simulations under the null hypothesis. Our weighted modification yielded the highest power across various degrees of gene-environment association in the controls. An optimal threshold for step 1 depended on the interacting allele frequency and the disease prevalence. In all scenarios, the least powerful method was to proceed directly to an unbiased full interaction model, applying conventional genome-wide significance thresholds. This simulation study confirms the practical advantage of two-step approaches to interaction testing over more conventional one-step designs, at least in the context of dichotomous disease outcomes and other parameters that might apply in real-world settings.

  13. Single stage grid converters for battery energy storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trintis, Ionut; Munk-Nielsen, Stig; Teodorescu, Remus

    2010-01-01

    Integration of renewable energy systems in the power system network such as wind and solar is still a challenge in our days. Energy storage systems (ESS) can overcome the disadvantage of volatile generation of the renewable energy sources. This paper presents power converters for battery energy...... storage systems (BESS) which can interface mediumvoltage batteries to the grid. Converter topologies comparison is performed in terms of efficiency, common mode voltage and redundancy for a 6kV series connected medium voltage batteries with a nominal power of 5MVA to act as a battery charger/discharger....

  14. Cross-species comparison of biological themes and underlying genes on a global gene expression scale in a mouse model of colorectal liver metastasis and in clinical specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schirmacher Peter

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Invasion-related genes over-expressed by tumor cells as well as by reacting host cells represent promising drug targets for anti-cancer therapy. Such candidate genes need to be validated in appropriate animal models. Results This study examined the suitability of a murine model (CT26/Balb/C of colorectal liver metastasis to represent clinical liver metastasis specimens using a global gene expression approach. Cross-species similarity was examined between pure liver, liver invasion, tumor invasion and pure tumor compartments through overlap of up-regulated genes and gene ontology (GO-based biological themes on the level of single GO-terms and of condensed GO-term families. Three out of four GO-term families were conserved in a compartment-specific way between the species: secondary metabolism (liver, invasion (invasion front, and immune response (invasion front and liver. Among the individual GO-terms over-represented in the invasion compartments in both species were "extracellular matrix", "cell motility", "cell adhesion" and "antigen presentation" indicating that typical invasion related processes are operating in both species. This was reflected on the single gene level as well, as cross-species overlap of potential target genes over-expressed in the combined invasion front compartments reached up to 36.5%. Generally, histopathology and gene expression correlated well as the highest single gene overlap was found to be 44% in syn-compartmental comparisons (liver versus liver whereas cross-compartmental overlaps were much lower (e.g. liver versus tumor: 9.7%. However, single gene overlap was surprisingly high in some cross-compartmental comparisons (e.g. human liver invasion compartment and murine tumor invasion compartment: 9.0% despite little histolopathologic similarity indicating that invasion relevant genes are not necessarily confined to histologically defined compartments. Conclusion In summary, cross

  15. Synthesis of graphitized carbon, nanodiamond and graphene supported Li4Ti5O12 and comparison of their electrochemical performance as anodes for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shuai; Miao, Juan; Wang, Qiufen; Lu, Mengwei; Sun, Jiufang; Wen, Tao

    2016-12-01

    Graphitized carbon (GC), nanodiamond (ND) and graphene (GE) supported Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) composites have been synthesized via a solid-state reaction, respectively. The particle sizes of LTO/GC, LTO/ND and LTO/GE are smaller than pure LTO. When tested as the anode for lithium ion batteries, the discharge capacities of LTO, LTO/GC, LTO/ND and LTO/GE composites are 100.1 mAh g-1, 150.4 mAh g-1, 90.4 mAh g-1 and 218.3 mAh g-1 at the current density of 175 mA g-1 after 500 cycles. Their rate capacities retain 59.8%, 80.0%, 81.0% and 85.7% at the current density of 175 mA g-1, 438 mA g-1, 875 mA g-1 and 175 mA g-1, respectively. Moreover, the recovery rates of their rate capacities are 78.6%, 83.4%, 88.9% and 90.1% when returned to the current density of 175 mA g-1, respectively. The reasons can be attributed to the synergistic effect between GC (ND and GE) and LTO as well as the features of the different carbon supports. This strategy, with the carbon constituting a good supporting structure, is an effective way to improve the cycling performance of anode materials for lithium ion batteries.

  16. Movement Assessment Battery for Children - second edition: Cross-cultural comparison between 11–15 year old children from the Czech Republic and the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf Psotta

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: With the exception of specific clinical methods, no widely used diagnostic tool for motor development assessment of children exists in the Czech Republic. The Movement Assessment Battery for Children – second edition (MABC-2 seems to be one the most developed instruments for children's motor coordination assessment. However, to use it in the Czech population of children in educational and psychological practice including physical education, the cross-validity of the test battery needs to be examined. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to make a comparative analysis of performance in motor tasks of the MABC-2 measured in a Czech sample of 11–15 year old children and the United Kingdom (UK normative sample from which the norms of the MABC-2 were established. METHODS: The Czech sample of 11–15 year old children (total n = 589; 310 boys, 279 girls formed from a random selection of schools from all the geographical regions of the Czech Republic and all size categories of municipalities, was tested by the MABC-2. The results were compared to the performance of the UK normative sample of the same age (n = 344 reported in the MABC-2 Examiner's Manual by Henderson et al. (2007. For this comparative analysis, the effects size coefficient (d and the z-test were used. RESULTS: From three manual dexterity tests of the MABC-2, mean performance of the Czech sample in the Drawing trail test was shown to be significantly higher than the mean performance of the UK sample in all the age groups of both genders (d = 0.68–1.32; p CONCLUSIONS: The study revealed that the MABC-2 is valid only for assessment of gross motor coordination in Czech children, but not for assessment of manual dexterity and balance. Before the use of this test battery for Czech children for both practical and research purposes, an adjustment of the norms is needed for the Drawing trail test, Two-board balance test and Zig-zag hopping test.

  17. Electrochemical accumulators batteries; Accumulateurs electrochimiques batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ansart, F.; Castillo, S.; Laberty- Robert, C.; Pellizon-Birelli, M. [Universite Paul Sabatier, Lab. de Chimie des Materiaux Inorganiques et Energetiques, CIRIMAT, UMR CNRS 5085, 31 - Toulouse (France)] [and others

    2000-07-01

    It is necessary to storage the electric power in batteries to join the production and the utilization. In this domain progresses are done every days in the technics and also in the available materials. These technical days present the state of the art in this domain. Many papers were presented during these two days giving the research programs and recent results on the following subjects: the lithium batteries, the electrolytes performances and behaviour, lead accumulators, economic analysis of the electrochemical storage market, the batteries applied to the transportation sector and the telephones. (A.L.B.)

  18. Pairwise comparisons of ten porcine tissues identify differential transcriptional regulation at the gene, isoform, promoter and transcription start site level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farajzadeh, Leila; Hornshøj, Henrik; Momeni, Jamal; Thomsen, Bo; Larsen, Knud; Hedegaard, Jakob; Bendixen, Christian; Madsen, Lone Bruhn, E-mail: LoneB.Madsen@agrsci.dk

    2013-08-23

    Highlights: •Transcriptome sequencing yielded 223 mill porcine RNA-seq reads, and 59,000 transcribed locations. •Establishment of unique transcription profiles for ten porcine tissues including four brain tissues. •Comparison of transcription profiles at gene, isoform, promoter and transcription start site level. •Highlights a high level of regulation of neuro-related genes at both gene, isoform, and TSS level. •Our results emphasize the pig as a valuable animal model with respect to human biological issues. -- Abstract: The transcriptome is the absolute set of transcripts in a tissue or cell at the time of sampling. In this study RNA-Seq is employed to enable the differential analysis of the transcriptome profile for ten porcine tissues in order to evaluate differences between the tissues at the gene and isoform expression level, together with an analysis of variation in transcription start sites, promoter usage, and splicing. Totally, 223 million RNA fragments were sequenced leading to the identification of 59,930 transcribed gene locations and 290,936 transcript variants using Cufflinks with similarity to approximately 13,899 annotated human genes. Pairwise analysis of tissues for differential expression at the gene level showed that the smallest differences were between tissues originating from the porcine brain. Interestingly, the relative level of differential expression at the isoform level did generally not vary between tissue contrasts. Furthermore, analysis of differential promoter usage between tissues, revealed a proportionally higher variation between cerebellum (CBE) versus frontal cortex and cerebellum versus hypothalamus (HYP) than in the remaining comparisons. In addition, the comparison of differential transcription start sites showed that the number of these sites is generally increased in comparisons including hypothalamus in contrast to other pairwise assessments. A comprehensive analysis of one of the tissue contrasts, i

  19. Mechanism of Reaction in NaAlCl4 Molten Salt Batteries with Nickel Felt Cathodes and Aluminum Anodes. Part II: Experimental Results and Comparison with Model Calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knutz, B.C.; Berg, Rolf W.; Hjuler, Hans Aage

    1993-01-01

    The battery systems: Al/NaCl-AlCl3-Al(2)X(3)/Ni-felt (X = S, Se, Te) and the corresponding system without chalcogen have been studied experimentally at 175 degrees C. Charge/discharge experimental performed on cells with NaCl saturated melts, show that advantages with regard to rate capability....../decomposition of essentially NiySz and NiySez in the sulfide and selenide system, respectively. Cells containing selenide revealed extra capacity below the NiySez-plateau, most probably associated with a AlvNiySez compound. On the second plateau of sulfide systems NiCl2 or a NiySzCl2y-2z compound with y > (4.4 +/- 0.2). z...

  20. Optimal Conditions for Fast Charging and Long Cycling Stability of Silicon Microwire Anodes for Lithium Ion Batteries, and Comparison with the Performance of Other Si Anode Concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Quiroga-González

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Cycling tests under various conditions have been performed for lithium ion battery anodes made from free-standing silicon microwires embedded at one end in a copper current collector. Optimum charging/discharging conditions have been found for which the anode shows negligible fading (< 0.001% over 80 cycles; an outstanding result for this kind of anodes. Several performance parameters of the anode have been compared to the ones of other Si anode concepts, showing that especially the capacity as well as the rates of charge flow per nominal area of anode are the highest for the present anode. With regard to applications, the specific parameters per area are more important than the specific gravimetric parameters like the gravimetric capacity, which is good for comparing the capacity between materials but not enough for comparing between anodes.

  1. Comparison of pollen gene flow among four European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) populations characterized by different management regimes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piotti, A.; Leonardi, S.; Buiteveld, J.; Geburek, T.; Gerber, S.; Kramer, K.; Vettori, C.; Vendramin, G.G.

    2012-01-01

    The study of the dispersal capability of a species can provide essential information for the management and conservation of its genetic variability. Comparison of gene flow rates among populations characterized by different management and evolutionary histories allows one to decipher the role of fac

  2. Efficacy of flagellin gene typing for epidemiological studies of Campylobacter jejuni in poultry estimated by comparison with macrorestriction profiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, L.; On, S.L.W.

    2000-01-01

    isolates were obtained. The PCR-Fla type of one isolate changed spontaneously after five subcultures, illustrating the relative plasticity of the gene locus. Comparison of MRPs within and between Fla-types support the view that some PCR-Fla types may be conserved within clonal lines. It is concluded...

  3. Electric-vehicle batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oman, Henry; Gross, Sid

    1995-02-01

    Electric vehicles that can't reach trolley wires need batteries. In the early 1900's electric cars disappeared when owners found that replacing the car's worn-out lead-acid battery costs more than a new gasoline-powered car. Most of today's electric cars are still propelled by lead-acid batteries. General Motors in their prototype Impact, for example, used starting-lighting-ignition batteries, which deliver lots of power for demonstrations, but have a life of less than 100 deep discharges. Now promising alternative technology has challenged the world-wide lead miners, refiners, and battery makers into forming a consortium that sponsors research into making better lead-acid batteries. Horizon's new bipolar battery delivered 50 watt-hours per kg (Wh/kg), compared with 20 for ordinary transport-vehicle batteries. The alternatives are delivering from 80 Wh/kg (nickel-metal hydride) up to 200 Wh/kg (zinc-bromine). A Fiat Panda traveled 260 km on a single charge of its zinc-bromine battery. A German 3.5-ton postal truck traveled 300 km with a single charge in its 650-kg (146 Wh/kg) zinc-air battery. Its top speed was 110 km per hour.

  4. Lifetime Improvement by Battery Scheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, M.R.; Schmitt, Jens B.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.

    2012-01-01

    The use of mobile devices is often limited by the lifetime of their batteries. For devices that have multiple batteries or that have the option to connect an extra battery, battery scheduling, thereby exploiting the recovery properties of the batteries, can help to extend the system lifetime. Due to

  5. Lifetime improvement by battery scheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, M.R.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.

    2011-01-01

    The use of mobile devices is often limited by the lifetime of its battery. For devices that have multiple batteries or that have the option to connect an extra battery, battery scheduling, thereby exploiting the recovery properties of the batteries, can help to extend the system lifetime. Due to the

  6. Lifetime Improvement by Battery Scheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, M.R.; Schmitt, Jens B.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.

    The use of mobile devices is often limited by the lifetime of their batteries. For devices that have multiple batteries or that have the option to connect an extra battery, battery scheduling, thereby exploiting the recovery properties of the batteries, can help to extend the system lifetime. Due to

  7. Lifetime improvement by battery scheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, M.R.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.

    The use of mobile devices is often limited by the lifetime of its battery. For devices that have multiple batteries or that have the option to connect an extra battery, battery scheduling, thereby exploiting the recovery properties of the batteries, can help to extend the system lifetime. Due to the

  8. A comparison of synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides, DNA fragments and AAV-1 for targeted episomal and chromosomal gene repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leclerc Xavier

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current strategies for gene therapy of inherited diseases consist in adding functional copies of the gene that is defective. An attractive alternative to these approaches would be to correct the endogenous mutated gene in the affected individual. This study presents a quantitative comparison of the repair efficiency using different forms of donor nucleic acids, including synthetic DNA oligonucleotides, double stranded DNA fragments with sizes ranging from 200 to 2200 bp and sequences carried by a recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV-1. Evaluation of each gene repair strategy was carried out using two different reporter systems, a mutated eGFP gene or a dual construct with a functional eGFP and an inactive luciferase gene, in several different cell systems. Gene targeting events were scored either following transient co-transfection of reporter plasmids and donor DNAs, or in a system where a reporter construct was stably integrated into the chromosome. Results In both episomal and chromosomal assays, DNA fragments were more efficient at gene repair than oligonucleotides or rAAV-1. Furthermore, the gene targeting frequency could be significantly increased by using DNA repair stimulating drugs such as doxorubicin and phleomycin. Conclusion Our results show that it is possible to obtain repair frequencies of 1% of the transfected cell population under optimized transfection protocols when cells were pretreated with phleomycin using rAAV-1 and dsDNA fragments.

  9. A desalination battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasta, Mauro; Wessells, Colin D; Cui, Yi; La Mantia, Fabio

    2012-02-08

    Water desalination is an important approach to provide fresh water around the world, although its high energy consumption, and thus high cost, call for new, efficient technology. Here, we demonstrate the novel concept of a "desalination battery", which operates by performing cycles in reverse on our previously reported mixing entropy battery. Rather than generating electricity from salinity differences, as in mixing entropy batteries, desalination batteries use an electrical energy input to extract sodium and chloride ions from seawater and to generate fresh water. The desalination battery is comprised by a Na(2-x)Mn(5)O(10) nanorod positive electrode and Ag/AgCl negative electrode. Here, we demonstrate an energy consumption of 0.29 Wh l(-1) for the removal of 25% salt using this novel desalination battery, which is promising when compared to reverse osmosis (~ 0.2 Wh l(-1)), the most efficient technique presently available.

  10. Potassium Secondary Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eftekhari, Ali; Jian, Zelang; Ji, Xiulei

    2017-02-08

    Potassium may exhibit advantages over lithium or sodium as a charge carrier in rechargeable batteries. Analogues of Prussian blue can provide millions of cyclic voltammetric cycles in aqueous electrolyte. Potassium intercalation chemistry has recently been demonstrated compatible with both graphite and nongraphitic carbons. In addition to potassium-ion batteries, potassium-O2 (or -air) and potassium-sulfur batteries are emerging. Additionally, aqueous potassium-ion batteries also exhibit high reversibility and long cycling life. Because of potentially low cost, availability of basic materials, and intriguing electrochemical behaviors, this new class of secondary batteries is attracting much attention. This mini-review summarizes the current status, opportunities, and future challenges of potassium secondary batteries.

  11. A Desalination Battery

    KAUST Repository

    Pasta, Mauro

    2012-02-08

    Water desalination is an important approach to provide fresh water around the world, although its high energy consumption, and thus high cost, call for new, efficient technology. Here, we demonstrate the novel concept of a "desalination battery", which operates by performing cycles in reverse on our previously reported mixing entropy battery. Rather than generating electricity from salinity differences, as in mixing entropy batteries, desalination batteries use an electrical energy input to extract sodium and chloride ions from seawater and to generate fresh water. The desalination battery is comprised by a Na 2-xMn 5O 10 nanorod positive electrode and Ag/AgCl negative electrode. Here, we demonstrate an energy consumption of 0.29 Wh l -1 for the removal of 25% salt using this novel desalination battery, which is promising when compared to reverse osmosis (∼ 0.2 Wh l -1), the most efficient technique presently available. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  12. A comprehensive comparison of RNA-Seq-based transcriptome analysis from reads to differential gene expression and cross-comparison with microarrays: a case study in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nookaew, Intawat; Papini, Marta; Pornputtapong, Natapol

    2012-01-01

    RNA-seq, has recently become an attractive method of choice in the studies of transcriptomes, promising several advantages compared with microarrays. In this study, we sought to assess the contribution of the different analytical steps involved in the analysis of RNA-seq data generated...... the consistency between RNA-seq analysis using reference genome and de novo assembly approach. High reproducibility among biological replicates (correlation ≥0.99) and high consistency between the two platforms for analysis of gene expression levels (correlation ≥0.91) are reported. The results from differential...... gene expression identification derived from the different statistical methods, as well as their integrated analysis results based on gene ontology annotation are in good agreement. Overall, our study provides a useful and comprehensive comparison between the two platforms (RNA-seq and microrrays...

  13. Batteries not included

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valiante, U.

    1999-01-01

    Serious questions have arisen about the environmental damage caused by cadmium from rechargeable nickel cadmium batteries in municipal solid waste. Sweden, Belgium, several American states and Canadian provinces either have enacted, or are contemplating legislation to address disposal of cadmium-containing batteries. In a preemptive strike, industry is now developing its own recycling initiatives through the Rechargeable Battery Recycling Corporation (RBRC), established in the USA in 1996, and launched in Ontario in September 1997. The primary role of RBRC in Canada is to collect licensee funds from participating battery manufacturers and administer Ni-Cd battery recycling programs. RBRC is also tasked to establish consensus within provincial and federal regulatory bodies with regard to the issue of Ni-Cd battery waste management. Mounting concerns are expressed about conflicting statistics as to the volume of batteries collected for recycling, and more particularly, about the method of recycling that RBRC may be contemplating. The fear is that in the absence of a profitable incentive to battery distributors, or a profitable product that might result from the recycled material, combined with the pressure of the high cost of recycling Ni-Cd batteries, many of the recovered batteries could end up in landfills sites for hazardous wastes. This is especially likely since Ni-Cd batteries are not banned from landfill sites in Ontario. It is the view of this author that while RBRC`s `charge up to recycle` program makes all the right noises, it lacks a meaningful approach to actually increase diversion, measure results, or to prevent Ni-Cd rechargeable batteries from entering the solid waste stream.

  14. Polyoxometalate flow battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Travis M.; Pratt, Harry D.

    2016-03-15

    Flow batteries including an electrolyte of a polyoxometalate material are disclosed herein. In a general embodiment, the flow battery includes an electrochemical cell including an anode portion, a cathode portion and a separator disposed between the anode portion and the cathode portion. Each of the anode portion and the cathode portion comprises a polyoxometalate material. The flow battery further includes an anode electrode disposed in the anode portion and a cathode electrode disposed in the cathode portion.

  15. Lithium battery management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Thomas J [Waukesha, WI

    2012-05-08

    Provided is a system for managing a lithium battery system having a plurality of cells. The battery system comprises a variable-resistance element electrically connected to a cell and located proximate a portion of the cell; and a device for determining, utilizing the variable-resistance element, whether the temperature of the cell has exceeded a predetermined threshold. A method of managing the temperature of a lithium battery system is also included.

  16. Electronically configured battery pack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemper, D.

    1997-03-01

    Battery packs for portable equipment must sometimes accommodate conflicting requirements to meet application needs. An electronically configurable battery pack was developed to support two highly different operating modes, one requiring very low power consumption at a low voltage and the other requiring high power consumption at a higher voltage. The configurable battery pack optimizes the lifetime and performance of the system by making the best use of all available energy thus enabling the system to meet its goals of operation, volume, and lifetime. This paper describes the cell chemistry chosen, the battery pack electronics, and tradeoffs made during the evolution of its design.

  17. Ballistic negatron battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, M.S.R. [Koneru Lakshmiah Univ.. Dept. of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Green fields, Vaddeswaram (India)

    2012-07-01

    If we consider the Statistics there is drastic increase in dependence of batteries from year to year, due to necessity of power storage equipment at homes, power generating off grid and on grid Wind, PV systems, etc.. Where wind power is leading in renewable sector, there is a need to look at its development. Considering the scenario in India, most of the wind resource areas are far away from grid and the remaining areas which are near to grid are of low wind currents which is of no use connecting these equipment directly to grid. So, there is a need for a power storage utility to be integrated, such as the BNB (Ballistic Negatron Battery). In this situation a country like India need a battery which should be reliable, cheap and which can be industrialized. So this paper presents the concept of working, design, operation, adaptability of a Ballistic Negatron Battery. Unlike present batteries with low energy density, huge size, more weight, more charging time and low resistant to wear level, this Ballistic Negatron Battery comes with, 1) High energy storage capability (many multiples more than the present most advanced battery). 2) Very compact in size. 3) Almost negligible in weight compared to present batteries. 4) Charges with in very less time. 5) Never exhibits a wear level greater than zero. Seems like inconceivable but adoptable with simple physics. This paper will explains in detail the principle, model, design, construction and practical considerations considered in making this battery. (Author)

  18. Battery Thermal Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keyser, Matthew; Saxon, Aron; Powell, Mitchell; Shi, Ying

    2016-06-07

    This poster shows the progress in battery thermal characterization over the previous year. NREL collaborated with U.S. DRIVE and USABC battery developers to obtain thermal properties of their batteries, obtained heat capacity and heat generation of cells under various power profiles, obtained thermal images of the cells under various drive cycles, and used the measured results to validate thermal models. Thermal properties are used for the thermal analysis and design of improved battery thermal management systems to support achieve life and performance targets.

  19. Battery Thermal Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keyser, Matthew A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-08

    The operating temperature is critical in achieving the right balance between performance, cost, and life for both Li-ion batteries and ultracapacitors. The chemistries of advanced energy-storage devices - such as lithium-based batteries - are very sensitive to operating temperature. High temperatures degrade batteries faster while low temperatures decrease their power and capacity, affecting vehicle range, performance, and cost. Understanding heat generation in battery systems - from the individual cells within a module, to the inter-connects between the cells, and across the entire battery system - is imperative for designing effective thermal-management systems and battery packs. At NREL, we have developed unique capabilities to measure the thermal properties of cells and evaluate thermal performance of battery packs (air or liquid cooled). We also use our electro-thermal finite element models to analyze the thermal performance of battery systems in order to aid battery developers with improved thermal designs. NREL's tools are used to meet the weight, life, cost, and volume goals set by the U.S. Department of Energy for electric drive vehicles.

  20. An Empirical Comparison of Competing Factor Structures for the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status: A Project FRONTIER Study†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrence, Nicole D.; John, Samantha E.; Gavett, Brandon E.; O'Bryant, Sid E.

    2016-01-01

    The original factor structure of the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) has received little empirical support, but at least eight alternative factor structures have been identified in the literature. The current study used confirmatory factor analysis to compare the original RBANS model with eight alternatives, which were adjusted to include a general factor. Participant data were obtained from Project FRONTIER, an epidemiological study of rural health, and comprised 341 adults (229 women, 112 men) with mean age of 61.2 years (SD = 12.1) and mean education of 12.4 years (SD = 3.3). A bifactor version of the model proposed by Duff and colleagues provided the best fit to the data (CFI = 0.98; root-mean-squared error of approximation = 0.07), but required further modification to produce appropriate factor loadings. The results support the inclusion of a general factor and provide partial replication of the Duff and colleagues RBANS model. PMID:26429558

  1. Visual-spatial perception: a comparison between instruments frequently used in the primary care setting and a computerized cognitive assessment battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punchik, Boris; Shapovalov, Avital; Dwolatzky, Tzvi; Press, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Background The development of screening instruments will help the primary care team to determine when further comprehensive cognitive assessment is necessary. Design A retrospective analysis based on medical records. Patients and setting Patients referred to a comprehensive geriatric assessment unit. Analysis Cognitive screening and assessment included visual-spatial components: the Mini Mental State Examination, the Clock Drawing Test, the Montreal Cognitive Assessment Test, and the Neurotrax (Mindstreams) computerized cognitive assessment battery. Results The average age of the 190 eligible patients was 81.09±5.42 years. Comparing the individual tests with that of the visual-spatial index of Neurotrax, we found the Trail Making B test to be most sensitive (72.4%) and the Cube Test to have the highest specificity (72.8%). A combination of tests resulted in higher sensitivity and lower specificity. Conclusion The use of a combination of visual-spatial tests for screening in neurocognitive disorders should be evaluated in further prospective studies. PMID:26648704

  2. Comparison of the Short-Term Forecasting Accuracy on Battery Electric Vehicle between Modified Bass and Lotka-Volterra Model: A Case Study of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunxi Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential demand of battery electric vehicle (BEV is the base of the decision-making to the government policy formulation, enterprise manufacture capacity expansion, and charging infrastructure construction. How to predict the future amount of BEV accurately is very important to the development of BEV both in practice and in theory. The present paper tries to compare the short-term accuracy of a proposed modified Bass model and Lotka-Volterra (LV model, by taking China’s BEV development as the case study. Using the statistics data of China’s BEV amount of 21 months from Jan 2015 to Sep 2016, we compare the simulation accuracy based on the value of mean absolute percentage error (MAPE and discuss the forecasting capacity of the two models according to China’s government expectation. According to the MAPE value, the two models have good prediction accuracy, but the Bass model is more accurate than LV model. Bass model has only one dimension and focuses on the diffusion trend, while LV model has two dimensions and mainly describes the relationship and competing process between the two populations. In future research, the forecasting advantages of Bass model and LV model should be combined to get more accurate predicting effect.

  3. Mechanism of reaction in NaAlCl4 molten salt batteries with nickel felt cathodes and aluminum anodes. 2: Experimental results and comparison with model calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutz, B. C.; Berg, R. W.; Hjuler, H. A.; Bjerrum, N. J.

    1993-12-01

    The battery systems: Al/NaCl-AlCl3-Al2 X3/Ni-felt (X = S, Se, Te) and the corresponding system without chalcogen have been studied experimentally at 175 C. Charge/discharge experiments, performed on cells with NaCl saturated melts, show that advantages with regard to rate capability and cyclability can be obtained with systems containing dissolved chalcogen compared with the chalcogen-free system. Exchange of chalcogen between cathode and electrolyte during cycling was confirmed by performing gravimetric analysis and Raman spectroscopy of the electrolytes. Cathode reactions were studied by coulometric titrations (performed on cells with slightly acidic NaCl-AlCl3 melts and small amounts of chalcogen) and compared with model calculations. Cells containing chalcogen revealed at least three voltage plateaus during cycling. The lowest plateau is associated with formation/decomposition of essentially Ni(y)S(z) an d Ni(y)Se(z) in the sulfide and selenide system, respectively. Cells containing selenide revealed extra capacity below the Ni(y) Se(z)-plateau, most probably associated with a Al(v)Ni(y)Se(z) compound. On the second plateau of sulfide systems NiCl2 or a Ni(y)S(z) Cl(2y - 2z) compound with y greater than (4.4 +/- 0.2), z is formed during charging. Reduction of the formed compound to Ni takes place via consumption of sodium chloride.

  4. A comparison of reptilian and avian olfactory receptor gene repertoires: Species-specific expansion of group γ genes in birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kempenaers Bart

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The detection of odorants is mediated by olfactory receptors (ORs. ORs are G-protein coupled receptors that form a remarkably large protein superfamily in vertebrate genomes. We used data that became available through recent sequencing efforts of reptilian and avian genomes to identify the complete OR gene repertoires in a lizard, the green anole (Anolis carolinensis, and in two birds, the chicken (Gallus gallus and the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata. Results We identified 156 green anole OR genes, including 42 pseudogenes. The OR gene repertoire of the two bird species was substantially larger with 479 and 553 OR gene homologs in the chicken and zebra finch, respectively (including 111 and 221 pseudogenes, respectively. We show that the green anole has a higher fraction of intact OR genes (~72% compared with the chicken (~66% and the zebra finch (~38%. We identified a larger number and a substantially higher proportion of intact OR gene homologs in the chicken genome than previously reported (214 versus 82 genes and 66% versus 15%, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis showed that lizard and bird OR gene repertoires consist of group α, θ and γ genes. Interestingly, the vast majority of the avian OR genes are confined to a large expansion of a single branch (the so called γ-c clade. An analysis of the selective pressure on the paralogous genes of each γ-c clade revealed that they have been subjected to adaptive evolution. This expansion appears to be bird-specific and not sauropsid-specific, as it is lacking from the lizard genome. The γ-c expansions of the two birds do not intermix, i.e., they are lineage-specific. Almost all (group γ-c OR genes mapped to the unknown chromosome. The remaining OR genes mapped to six homologous chromosomes plus three to four additional chromosomes in the zebra finch and chicken. Conclusion We identified a surprisingly large number of potentially functional avian OR genes. Our data

  5. Feasibility of sodium/iodide symporter gene as a new imaging reporter gene: comparison with HSV1-tk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Jae Hoon; Chung, June-Key; Lee, Yong Jin; Kim, Kwang Il [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Cancer Research Institute, Seoul National University College of Medicine, 28 Yongon-dong, 110-744, Chongno-gu, Seoul (Korea); Department of Tumor Biology, Cancer Research Institute, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea); Laboratory of Molecular Imaging and Therapy, Cancer Research Institute, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea); Kang, Joo Hyun; Jeong, Jae Min; Lee, Dong Soo [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Cancer Research Institute, Seoul National University College of Medicine, 28 Yongon-dong, 110-744, Chongno-gu, Seoul (Korea); Kim, Chul Woo [Department of Pathology, Cancer Research Institute, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea); Lee, Myung Chul [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Cancer Research Institute, Seoul National University College of Medicine, 28 Yongon-dong, 110-744, Chongno-gu, Seoul (Korea)

    2004-03-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging reporter genes, such as HSV1-tk and D{sub 2} receptor genes, make it possible to visualise gene expression non-invasively and repetitively in vivo. However, these systems require the synthesis of complicated substrates and the availability of expensive PET equipment. Expression of the sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) gene can be easily monitored with radioiodines and technetium-99m using a gamma camera. To evaluate the possibility of using NIS as an imaging reporter gene, we compared its characteristics with those of the conventional HSV1-tk gene. The CM cell line was made by transfecting the HSV1-tk gene into CT-26 (mouse colon carcinoma cell line). The CTN and CMN cell lines were then made by transfecting the NIS gene into CT-26 and CM. We measured the uptake of iodine-125 iodovinyldeoxyuridine ([{sup 125}I]IVDU) and {sup 125}I to evaluate the expression of the HSV1-tk and NIS genes, respectively. Each cell line was injected into four flank sites in Balb/c mice. The biodistribution study was performed after intravenously injecting [{sup 125}I]IVDU and {sup 131}I, and {sup 131}I scintigraphy was performed for the evaluation of NIS expression. In vitro studies indicated that CTN and CMN had 40- to 79-fold and 150- to 256-fold higher uptake of {sup 125}I than CT-26 and CM, respectively. Furthermore, CM and CMN showed 57- to 69-fold higher uptake of [{sup 125}I]IVDU than CT-26 and CTN. NIS gene expression and {sup 125}I accumulation were found to be directly correlated (R{sup 2}=0.923), as were HSV1-tk gene expression and [{sup 125}I]IVDU accumulation (R{sup 2}=0.956). Calculated signal per unit NIS and HSV1-tk mRNA expression was 23,240{+-}3,755 cpm and 34,039{+-}5,346 cpm, respectively. In vivo study indicated that CTN and CMN had 2.3- and 5.8-fold higher uptake of {sup 131}I than CT-26 and CM, and 1.8- and 3.5-fold higher uptake of [{sup 125}I]IVDU than CT-26 and CTN. Scintigraphy using {sup 131}I easily visualised CTN and

  6. Battery Lifetime Analysis and Simulation Tool (BLAST) Documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neubauer, J.

    2014-12-01

    The deployment and use of lithium-ion batteries in automotive and stationary energy storage applications must be optimized to justify their high up-front costs. Given that batteries degrade with use and storage, such optimizations must evaluate many years of operation. As the degradation mechanisms are sensitive to temperature, state-of-charge histories, current levels, and cycle depth and frequency, it is important to model both the battery and the application to a high level of detail to ensure battery response is accurately predicted. To address these issues, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory has developed the Battery Lifetime Analysis and Simulation Tool (BLAST) suite of tools. This suite of tools pairs NREL's high-fidelity battery degradation model with a battery electrical and thermal performance model, application-specific electrical and thermal performance models of the larger system (e.g., an electric vehicle), application-specific system use data (e.g., vehicle travel patterns and driving data), and historic climate data from cities across the United States. This provides highly realistic, long-term predictions of battery response and thereby enables quantitative comparisons of varied battery use strategies.

  7. Battery Lifetime Analysis and Simulation Tool (BLAST) Documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neubauer, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The deployment and use of lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries in automotive and stationary energy storage applications must be optimized to justify their high up-front costs. Given that batteries degrade with use and storage, such optimizations must evaluate many years of operation. As the degradation mechanisms are sensitive to temperature, state-of-charge (SOC) histories, current levels, and cycle depth and frequency, it is important to model both the battery and the application to a high level of detail to ensure battery response is accurately predicted. To address these issues, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has developed the Battery Lifetime Analysis and Simulation Tool (BLAST) suite. This suite of tools pairs NREL’s high-fidelity battery degradation model with a battery electrical and thermal performance model, application-specific electrical and thermal performance models of the larger system (e.g., an electric vehicle), application-specific system use data (e.g., vehicle travel patterns and driving data), and historic climate data from cities across the United States. This provides highly realistic long-term predictions of battery response and thereby enables quantitative comparisons of varied battery use strategies.

  8. Comparison of Affymetrix Gene Array with the Exon Array shows potential application for detection of transcript isoform variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coulombe-Huntington Jasmin

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The emergence of isoform-sensitive microarrays has helped fuel in-depth studies of the human transcriptome. The Affymetrix GeneChip Human Exon 1.0 ST Array (Exon Array has been previously shown to be effective in profiling gene expression at the isoform level. More recently, the Affymetrix GeneChip Human Gene 1.0 ST Array (Gene Array has been released for measuring gene expression and interestingly contains a large subset of probes from the Exon Array. Here, we explore the potential of using Gene Array probes to assess expression variation at the sub-transcript level. Utilizing datasets of the high quality Microarray Quality Control (MAQC RNA samples previously assayed on the Exon Array and Gene Array, we compare the expression measurements of the two platforms to determine the performance of the Gene Array in detecting isoform variations. Results Overall, we show that the Gene Array is comparable to the Exon Array in making gene expression calls. Moreover, to examine expression of different isoforms, we modify the Gene Array probe set definition file to enable summarization of probe intensity values at the exon level and show that the expression profiles between the two platforms are also highly correlated. Next, expression calls of previously known differentially spliced genes were compared and also show concordant results. Splicing index analysis, representing estimates of exon inclusion levels, shows a lower but good correlation between platforms. As the Gene Array contains a significant subset of probes from the Exon Array, we note that, in comparison, the Gene Array overlaps with fewer but still a high proportion of splicing events annotated in the Known Alt Events UCSC track, with abundant coverage of cassette exons. We discuss the ability of the Gene Array to detect alternative splicing and isoform variation and address its limitations. Conclusion The Gene Array is an effective expression profiling tool at gene and

  9. BodyMap-Xs: anatomical breakdown of 17 million animal ESTs for cross-species comparison of gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogasawara, Osamu; Otsuji, Makiko; Watanabe, Kouji; Iizuka, Takayasu; Tamura, Takuro; Hishiki, Teruyoshi; Kawamoto, Shoko; Okubo, Kousaku

    2006-01-01

    BodyMap-Xs (http://bodymap.jp) is a database for cross-species gene expression comparison. It was created by the anatomical breakdown of 17 million animal expressed sequence tag (EST) records in DDBJ using a sorting program tailored for this purpose. In BodyMap-Xs, users are allowed to compare the expression patterns of orthologous and paralogous genes in a coherent manner. This will provide valuable insights for the evolutionary study of gene expression and identification of a responsive motif for a particular expression pattern. In addition, starting from a concise overview of the taxonomical and anatomical breakdown of all animal ESTs, users can navigate to obtain gene expression ranking of a particular tissue in a particular animal. This method may lead to the understanding of the similarities and differences between the homologous tissues across animal species. BodyMap-Xs will be automatically updated in synchronization with the major update in DDBJ, which occurs periodically.

  10. RNA editing of 10 Didymium iridis mitochondrial genes and comparison with the homologous genes in Physarum polycephalum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traphagen, Stephen J; Dimarco, Michael J; Silliker, Margaret E

    2010-04-01

    Regions of the Didymium iridis mitochondrial genome were identified with similarity to typical mitochondrial genes; however, these regions contained numerous stop codons. We used RT-PCR and DNA sequencing to determine whether, through RNA editing, these regions were transcribed into mRNAs that could encode functional proteins. Ten putative gene regions were examined: atp1, atp6, atp8, atp9, cox1, cox2, cytb, nad4L, nad6, and nad7. The cDNA sequences of each gene could encode a functional mitochondrial protein that was highly conserved compared with homologous genes. The type of editing events and editing sequence features were very similar to those observed in the homologous genes of Physarum polycephalum, though the actual editing locations showed a variable degree of conservation. Edited sites were compared with encoded sites in D. iridis and P. polycephalum for all 10 genes. Edited sequence for a portion of the cox1 gene was available for six myxomycetes, which, when compared, showed a high degree of conservation at the protein level. Different types of editing events showed varying degrees of site conservation with C-to-U base changes being the least conserved. Several aspects of single C insertion editing events led to the preferential creation of hydrophobic amino acid codons that may help to minimize adverse effects on the resulting protein structure.

  11. RNA editing of 10 Didymium iridis mitochondrial genes and comparison with the homologous genes in Physarum polycephalum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traphagen, Stephen J.; Dimarco, Michael J.; Silliker, Margaret E.

    2010-01-01

    Regions of the Didymium iridis mitochondrial genome were identified with similarity to typical mitochondrial genes; however, these regions contained numerous stop codons. We used RT-PCR and DNA sequencing to determine whether, through RNA editing, these regions were transcribed into mRNAs that could encode functional proteins. Ten putative gene regions were examined: atp1, atp6, atp8, atp9, cox1, cox2, cytb, nad4L, nad6, and nad7. The cDNA sequences of each gene could encode a functional mitochondrial protein that was highly conserved compared with homologous genes. The type of editing events and editing sequence features were very similar to those observed in the homologous genes of Physarum polycephalum, though the actual editing locations showed a variable degree of conservation. Edited sites were compared with encoded sites in D. iridis and P. polycephalum for all 10 genes. Edited sequence for a portion of the cox1 gene was available for six myxomycetes, which, when compared, showed a high degree of conservation at the protein level. Different types of editing events showed varying degrees of site conservation with C-to-U base changes being the least conserved. Several aspects of single C insertion editing events led to the preferential creation of hydrophobic amino acid codons that may help to minimize adverse effects on the resulting protein structure. PMID:20159952

  12. Battery energy storage system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, C.S.P.; Evenblij, B.H.

    2009-01-01

    The ability to store electrical energy adds several interesting features to a ships distribution network, as silent power, peak shaving and a ride through in case of generator failure. Modern intrinsically safe Li-ion batteries bring these within reach. For this modern lithium battery applications t

  13. Computing Battery Lifetime Distributions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cloth, L.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.; Jongerden, M.R.

    The usage of mobile devices like cell phones, navigation systems, or laptop computers, is limited by the lifetime of the included batteries. This lifetime depends naturally on the rate at which energy is consumed, however, it also depends on the usage pattern of the battery. Continuous drawing of a

  14. Battery thermal management unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Nicholas A.

    1989-03-01

    A battery warming device has been designed which uses waste heat from an operating internal combustion engine to warm a battery. A portion of the waste heat is stored in the sensible and latent heat of a phase change type material for use in maintaining the battery temperature after the engine is shut off. The basic design of the device consists of a Phase Change Material (PCM) reservoir and a simple heat exchanger connected to the engineer's cooling system. Two types of units were built, tested and field trialed. A strap-on type which was strapped to the side of an automotive battery and was intended for the automotive after-market and a tray type on which a battery or batteries sat. This unit was intended for the heavy duty truck market. It was determined that both types of units increased the average cranking power of the batteries they were applied to. Although there were several design problems with the units such as the need for an automatic thermostatically controlled bypass valve, the overall feeling is that there is a market opportunity for both the strap-on and tray type battery warming units.

  15. Hydrophobic, Porous Battery Boxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragg, Bobby J.; Casey, John E., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Boxes made of porous, hydrophobic polymers developed to contain aqueous potassium hydroxide electrolyte solutions of zinc/air batteries while allowing air to diffuse in as needed for operation. Used on other types of batteries for in-cabin use in which electrolytes aqueous and from which gases generated during operation must be vented without allowing electrolytes to leak out.

  16. Computing Battery Lifetime Distributions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cloth, Lucia; Jongerden, Marijn R.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.

    2007-01-01

    The usage of mobile devices like cell phones, navigation systems, or laptop computers, is limited by the lifetime of the included batteries. This lifetime depends naturally on the rate at which energy is consumed, however, it also depends on the usage pattern of the battery. Continuous drawing of a

  17. Silicon Betavoltaic Batteries Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.N. Murashev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available For low-power miniature energy creation sources the particular interest is nickel Ni63. This paper discusses the main types of betavoltaic battery structures with the prospects for industrial application using - isotope of nickel Ni63. It is shown that the prospects for improving the effective efficiency are planar multijunction betavoltaic batteries.

  18. Battery energy storage system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, C.S.P.; Evenblij, B.H.

    2009-01-01

    The ability to store electrical energy adds several interesting features to a ships distribution network, as silent power, peak shaving and a ride through in case of generator failure. Modern intrinsically safe Li-ion batteries bring these within reach. For this modern lithium battery applications t

  19. Battery energy storage system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, C.S.P.; Evenblij, B.H.

    2009-01-01

    The ability to store electrical energy adds several interesting features to a ships distribution network, as silent power, peak shaving and a ride through in case of generator failure. Modern intrinsically safe Li-ion batteries bring these within reach. For this modern lithium battery applications

  20. Thermal conductivity of thermal-battery insulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guidotti, R.A.; Moss, M.

    1995-08-01

    The thermal conductivities of a variety of insulating materials used in thermal batteries were measured in atmospheres of argon and helium using several techniques. (Helium was used to simulate the hydrogen atmosphere that results when a Li(Si)/FeS{sub 2} thermal battery ages.) The guarded-hot-plate method was used with the Min-K insulation because of its extremely low thermal conductivity. For comparison purposes, the thermal conductivity of the Min-K insulating board was also measured using the hot-probe method. The thermal-comparator method was used for the rigid Fiberfrax board and Fiberfrax paper. The thermal conductivity of the paper was measured under several levels of compression to simulate the conditions of the insulating wrap used on the stack in a thermal battery. The results of preliminary thermal-characterization tests with several silica aerogel materials are also presented.

  1. High-Power-Density Organic Radical Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friebe, Christian; Schubert, Ulrich S

    2017-02-01

    Batteries that are based on organic radical compounds possess superior charging times and discharging power capability in comparison to established electrochemical energy-storage technologies. They do not rely on metals and, hence, feature a favorable environmental impact. They furthermore offer the possibility of roll-to-roll processing through the use of different printing techniques, which enables the cost-efficient fabrication of mechanically flexible devices. In this review, organic radical batteries are presented with the focus on the hitherto developed materials and the key properties thereof, e.g., voltage, capacity, and cycle life. Furthermore, basic information, such as significant characteristics, housing approaches, and applied additives, are presented and discussed in the context of organic radical batteries.

  2. Battery Pack Thermal Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesaran, Ahmad

    2016-06-14

    This presentation describes the thermal design of battery packs at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. A battery thermal management system essential for xEVs for both normal operation during daily driving (achieving life and performance) and off-normal operation during abuse conditions (achieving safety). The battery thermal management system needs to be optimized with the right tools for the lowest cost. Experimental tools such as NREL's isothermal battery calorimeter, thermal imaging, and heat transfer setups are needed. Thermal models and computer-aided engineering tools are useful for robust designs. During abuse conditions, designs should prevent cell-to-cell propagation in a module/pack (i.e., keep the fire small and manageable). NREL's battery ISC device can be used for evaluating the robustness of a module/pack to cell-to-cell propagation.

  3. Electrolytes for advanced batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomgren, G.E. [Energizer, Westlake, OH (United States)

    1999-09-01

    The choices of the components of the electrolyte phase for advanced batteries (lithium and lithium ion batteries) are very sensitive to the electrodes which are used. There are also a number of other requirements for the electrolyte phase, which depend on the cell design and the materials chosen for the battery. The difficulty of choice is compounded when the cell is a rechargeable one. This paper looks at each of these requirements and the degree to which they are met for lithium and lithium ion batteries. The discussion is broken into sections on anode or negative electrode stability requirements, cathode or positive electrode stability requirements, conductivity needs, viscosity and wetting requirements. The effects of these properties and interactions on the performance of batteries are also discussed. (orig.)

  4. Functional study of the novel multidrug resistance gene HA117 and its comparison to multidrug resistance gene 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Tingfu

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The novel gene HA117 is a multidrug resistance (MDR gene expressed by all-trans retinoic acid-resistant HL-60 cells. In the present study, we compared the multidrug resistance of the HA117 with that of the classical multidrug resistance gene 1 (MDR1 in breast cancer cell line 4T1. Methods Transduction of the breast cancer cell line 4T1 with adenoviral vectors encoding the HA117 gene and the green fluorescence protein gene (GFP (Ad-GFP-HA117, the MDR1 and GFP (Ad-GFP-MDR1 or GFP (Ad-GFP was respectively carried out. The transduction efficiency and the multiplicity of infection (MOI were detected by fluorescence microscope and flow cytometry. The transcription of HA117 gene and MDR1 gene were detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Western blotting analysis was used to detect the expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp but the expression of HA117 could not be analyzed as it is a novel gene and its antibody has not yet been synthesized. The drug-excretion activity of HA117 and MDR1 were determined by daunorubicin (DNR efflux assay. The drug sensitivities of 4T1/HA117 and 4T1/MDR1 to chemotherapeutic agents were detected by Methyl-Thiazolyl-Tetrazolium (MTT assay. Results The transducted efficiency of Ad-GFP-HA117 and Ad-GFP-MDR1 were 75%-80% when MOI was equal to 50. The transduction of Ad-GFP-HA117 and Ad-GFP-MDR1 could increase the expression of HA117 and MDR1. The drug resistance index to Adriamycin (ADM, vincristine (VCR, paclitaxel (Taxol and bleomycin (BLM increased to19.8050, 9.0663, 9.7245, 3.5650 respectively for 4T1/HA117 and 24.2236, 11.0480, 11.3741, 0.9630 respectively for 4T1/MDR1 as compared to the control cells. There were no significant differences in drug sensitivity between 4T1/HA117 and 4T1/MDR1 for the P-gp substrates (ADM, VCR and Taxol (P Conclusions These results confirm that HA117 is a strong MDR gene in both HL-60 and 4T1 cells. Furthermore, our results indicate that the MDR

  5. Comparison of different protocols for DNA preparation and PCR amplification of mitochondrial genes of tardigrades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph O. SCHILL

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Phylogenetic relationships and molecular taxonomy within the Tardigrada have been given a lot of attention in recent years. Here I present the first comparison of different protocols for DNA preparation by investigating six commercial available DNA extraction kits and the CTAB method. Successful extraction of DNA from tardigrades depends strongly on the life-stage (embryo, adult, and on the condition of the specimens, respectively on the preservation (anhydrobiotic, ethanol. Although the extraction kits showed differences in the amount of extracted DNA, in all cases fresh tissue of live animals or embryos resulted in the best quality and quantity of DNA. A lesser amount of DNA was extractable from anhydrobiotic animals and embryos and the results of specimens fixed in ethanol were unsatisfactory. All used commercially available DNA extraction kits and PCR cocktails have been focused on vertebrate tissues, blood, cultured cells, bacteria and yeast. However, I used successfully the kits according to the manufacturer’s instruction without changes in the protocols for DNA extraction of tardigrades. Commercial kits provide a simple and convenient way to isolate pure genomic DNA of high-quality from tardigrades. Furthermore I tested eight different Taq polymerase enzymes for PCR amplification of mitochondrial genes of tardigrades. Each of the enzymes resulted in a PCR product, and even if the amount of the PCR products was quite different, it was possible to use it successful for direct sequencing. Summarizing, the successful PCR of the target DNA depends on the purity and quality of the DNA template and for this the species preservation is more critical than the extraction method or the PCR cocktail which can be optimized.

  6. Comparison of gene activation by two TAL effectors from Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. manihotis reveals candidate host susceptibility genes in cassava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Megan; Morbitzer, Robert; Lahaye, Thomas; Staskawicz, Brian J

    2016-08-01

    Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. manihotis (Xam) employs transcription activator-like (TAL) effectors to promote bacterial growth and symptom formation during infection of cassava. TAL effectors are secreted via the bacterial type III secretion system into plant cells, where they are directed to the nucleus, bind DNA in plant promoters and activate the expression of downstream genes. The DNA-binding activity of TAL effectors is carried out by a central domain which contains a series of repeat variable diresidues (RVDs) that dictate the sequence of bound nucleotides. TAL14Xam668 promotes virulence in Xam strain Xam668 and has been shown to activate multiple cassava genes. In this study, we used RNA sequencing to identify the full target repertoire of TAL14Xam668 in cassava, which includes over 50 genes. A subset of highly up-regulated genes was tested for activation by TAL14CIO151 from Xam strain CIO151. Although TAL14CIO151 and TAL14Xam668 differ by only a single RVD, they display differential activation of gene targets. TAL14CIO151 complements the TAL14Xam668 mutant defect, implying that shared target genes are important for TAL14Xam668 -mediated disease susceptibility. Complementation with closely related TAL effectors is a novel approach to the narrowing down of biologically relevant susceptibility genes of TAL effectors with multiple targets. This study provides an example of how TAL effector target activation by two strains within a single species of Xanthomonas can be dramatically affected by a small change in RVD-nucleotide affinity at a single site, and reflects the parameters of RVD-nucleotide interaction determined using designer TAL effectors in transient systems.

  7. Fully Coupled Simulation of Lithium Ion Battery Cell Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trembacki, Bradley L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Murthy, Jayathi Y. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Roberts, Scott Alan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Lithium-ion battery particle-scale (non-porous electrode) simulations applied to resolved electrode geometries predict localized phenomena and can lead to better informed decisions on electrode design and manufacturing. This work develops and implements a fully-coupled finite volume methodology for the simulation of the electrochemical equations in a lithium-ion battery cell. The model implementation is used to investigate 3D battery electrode architectures that offer potential energy density and power density improvements over traditional layer-by-layer particle bed battery geometries. Advancement of micro-scale additive manufacturing techniques has made it possible to fabricate these 3D electrode microarchitectures. A variety of 3D battery electrode geometries are simulated and compared across various battery discharge rates and length scales in order to quantify performance trends and investigate geometrical factors that improve battery performance. The energy density and power density of the 3D battery microstructures are compared in several ways, including a uniform surface area to volume ratio comparison as well as a comparison requiring a minimum manufacturable feature size. Significant performance improvements over traditional particle bed electrode designs are observed, and electrode microarchitectures derived from minimal surfaces are shown to be superior. A reduced-order volume-averaged porous electrode theory formulation for these unique 3D batteries is also developed, allowing simulations on the full-battery scale. Electrode concentration gradients are modeled using the diffusion length method, and results for plate and cylinder electrode geometries are compared to particle-scale simulation results. Additionally, effective diffusion lengths that minimize error with respect to particle-scale results for gyroid and Schwarz P electrode microstructures are determined.

  8. The effect of missing marker genotypes on the accuracy of gene-assisted breeding value estimation: a comparison of methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, H A; Meuwissen, T H E; Calus, M P L; Veerkamp, R F

    2010-01-01

    In livestock populations, missing genotypes on a large proportion of the animals is a major problem when implementing gene-assisted breeding value estimation for genes with known effect. The objective of this study was to compare different methods to deal with missing genotypes on accuracy of gene-assisted breeding value estimation for identified bi-allelic genes using Monte Carlo simulation. A nested full-sib half-sib structure was simulated with a mixed inheritance model with one bi-allelic quantitative trait loci (QTL) and a polygenic effect due to infinite number of polygenes. The effect of the QTL was included in gene-assisted BLUP either by random regression on predicted gene content, i.e. the number of positive alleles, or including haplotype effects in the model with an inverse IBD matrix to account for identity-by-descent relationships between haplotypes using linkage analysis information (IBD-LA). The inverse IBD matrix was constructed using segregation indicator probabilities obtained from multiple marker iterative peeling. Gene contents for unknown genotypes were predicted using either multiple marker iterative peeling or mixed model methodology. For both methods, gene-assisted breeding value estimation increased accuracies of total estimated breeding value (EBV) with 0% to 22% for genotyped animals in comparison to conventional breeding value estimation. For animals that were not genotyped, the increase in accuracy was much lower (0% to 5%), but still substantial when the heritability was 0.1 and when the QTL explained at least 15% of the genetic variance. Regression on predicted gene content yielded higher accuracies than IBD-LA. Allele substitution effects were, however, overestimated, especially when only sires and males in the last generation were genotyped. For juveniles without phenotypic records and traits measured only on females, the superiority of regression on gene content over IBD-LA was larger than when all animals had phenotypes. Missing

  9. Mathematical Storage-Battery Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, C. P.; Aston, M.

    1985-01-01

    Empirical formula represents performance of electrical storage batteries. Formula covers many battery types and includes numerous coefficients adjusted to fit peculiarities of each type. Battery and load parameters taken into account include power density in battery, discharge time, and electrolyte temperature. Applications include electric-vehicle "fuel" gages and powerline load leveling.

  10. Comparison of gene expression in segregating families identifies genes and genomic regions involved in a novel adaptation, zinc hyperaccumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filatov, Victor; Dowdle, John; Smirnoff, Nicholas; Ford-Lloyd, Brian; Newbury, H John; Macnair, Mark R

    2006-09-01

    One of the challenges of comparative genomics is to identify specific genetic changes associated with the evolution of a novel adaptation or trait. We need to be able to disassociate the genes involved with a particular character from all the other genetic changes that take place as lineages diverge. Here we show that by comparing the transcriptional profile of segregating families with that of parent species differing in a novel trait, it is possible to narrow down substantially the list of potential target genes. In addition, by assuming synteny with a related model organism for which the complete genome sequence is available, it is possible to use the cosegregation of markers differing in transcription level to identify regions of the genome which probably contain quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for the character. This novel combination of genomics and classical genetics provides a very powerful tool to identify candidate genes. We use this methodology to investigate zinc hyperaccumulation in Arabidopsis halleri, the sister species to the model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana. We compare the transcriptional profile of A. halleri with that of its sister nonaccumulator species, Arabidopsis petraea, and between accumulator and nonaccumulator F(3)s derived from the cross between the two species. We identify eight genes which consistently show greater expression in accumulator phenotypes in both roots and shoots, including two metal transporter genes (NRAMP3 and ZIP6), and cytoplasmic aconitase, a gene involved in iron homeostasis in mammals. We also show that there appear to be two QTLs for zinc accumulation, on chromosomes 3 and 7.

  11. VennPainter: A Tool for the Comparison and Identification of Candidate Genes Based on Venn Diagrams.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoliang Lin

    Full Text Available VennPainter is a program for depicting unique and shared sets of genes lists and generating Venn diagrams, by using the Qt C++ framework. The software produces Classic Venn, Edwards' Venn and Nested Venn diagrams and allows for eight sets in a graph mode and 31 sets in data processing mode only. In comparison, previous programs produce Classic Venn and Edwards' Venn diagrams and allow for a maximum of six sets. The software incorporates user-friendly features and works in Windows, Linux and Mac OS. Its graphical interface does not require a user to have programing skills. Users can modify diagram content for up to eight datasets because of the Scalable Vector Graphics output. VennPainter can provide output results in vertical, horizontal and matrix formats, which facilitates sharing datasets as required for further identification of candidate genes. Users can obtain gene lists from shared sets by clicking the numbers on the diagram. Thus, VennPainter is an easy-to-use, highly efficient, cross-platform and powerful program that provides a more comprehensive tool for identifying candidate genes and visualizing the relationships among genes or gene families in comparative analysis.

  12. Battery energy storage systems life cycle costs case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swaminathan, S.; Miller, N.F.; Sen, R.K. [SENTECH, Inc., Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1998-08-01

    This report presents a comparison of life cycle costs between battery energy storage systems and alternative mature technologies that could serve the same utility-scale applications. Two of the battery energy storage systems presented in this report are located on the supply side, providing spinning reserve and system stability benefits. These systems are compared with the alternative technologies of oil-fired combustion turbines and diesel generators. The other two battery energy storage systems are located on the demand side for use in power quality applications. These are compared with available uninterruptible power supply technologies.

  13. Definition of the Cattle Killer Cell Ig–like Receptor Gene Family: Comparison with Aurochs and Human Counterparts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Nicholas D.; Norman, Paul J.; Guethlein, Lisbeth A.; Ellis, Shirley A.; Williams, Christina; Breen, Matthew; Park, Steven D. E.; Magee, David A.; Babrzadeh, Farbod; Warry, Andrew; Watson, Mick; Bradley, Daniel G.; MacHugh, David E.; Parham, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Under selection pressure from pathogens, variable NK cell receptors that recognize polymorphic MHC class I evolved convergently in different species of placental mammal. Unexpectedly, diversified killer cell Ig–like receptors (KIRs) are shared by simian primates, including humans, and cattle, but not by other species. Whereas much is known of human KIR genetics and genomics, knowledge of cattle KIR is limited to nine cDNA sequences. To facilitate comparison of the cattle and human KIR gene families, we determined the genomic location, structure, and sequence of two cattle KIR haplotypes and defined KIR sequences of aurochs, the extinct wild ancestor of domestic cattle. Larger than its human counterpart, the cattle KIR locus evolved through successive duplications of a block containing ancestral KIR3DL and KIR3DX genes that existed before placental mammals. Comparison of two cattle KIR haplotypes and aurochs KIR show the KIR are polymorphic and the gene organization and content appear conserved. Of 18 genes, 8 are functional and 10 were inactivated by point mutation. Selective inactivation of KIR3DL and activating receptor genes leaves a functional cohort of one inhibitory KIR3DL, one activating KIR3DX, and six inhibitory KIR3DX. Functional KIR diversity evolved from KIR3DX in cattle and from KIR3DL in simian primates. Although independently evolved, cattle and human KIR gene families share important function-related properties, indicating that cattle KIR are NK cell receptors for cattle MHC class I. Combinations of KIR and MHC class I are the major genetic factors associated with human disease and merit investigation in cattle. PMID:25398326

  14. Definition of the cattle killer cell Ig-like receptor gene family: comparison with aurochs and human counterparts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Nicholas D; Norman, Paul J; Guethlein, Lisbeth A; Ellis, Shirley A; Williams, Christina; Breen, Matthew; Park, Steven D E; Magee, David A; Babrzadeh, Farbod; Warry, Andrew; Watson, Mick; Bradley, Daniel G; MacHugh, David E; Parham, Peter; Hammond, John A

    2014-12-15

    Under selection pressure from pathogens, variable NK cell receptors that recognize polymorphic MHC class I evolved convergently in different species of placental mammal. Unexpectedly, diversified killer cell Ig-like receptors (KIRs) are shared by simian primates, including humans, and cattle, but not by other species. Whereas much is known of human KIR genetics and genomics, knowledge of cattle KIR is limited to nine cDNA sequences. To facilitate comparison of the cattle and human KIR gene families, we determined the genomic location, structure, and sequence of two cattle KIR haplotypes and defined KIR sequences of aurochs, the extinct wild ancestor of domestic cattle. Larger than its human counterpart, the cattle KIR locus evolved through successive duplications of a block containing ancestral KIR3DL and KIR3DX genes that existed before placental mammals. Comparison of two cattle KIR haplotypes and aurochs KIR show the KIR are polymorphic and the gene organization and content appear conserved. Of 18 genes, 8 are functional and 10 were inactivated by point mutation. Selective inactivation of KIR3DL and activating receptor genes leaves a functional cohort of one inhibitory KIR3DL, one activating KIR3DX, and six inhibitory KIR3DX. Functional KIR diversity evolved from KIR3DX in cattle and from KIR3DL in simian primates. Although independently evolved, cattle and human KIR gene families share important function-related properties, indicating that cattle KIR are NK cell receptors for cattle MHC class I. Combinations of KIR and MHC class I are the major genetic factors associated with human disease and merit investigation in cattle. Copyright © 2014 The Authors.

  15. LoTo: a graphlet based method for the comparison of local topology between gene regulatory networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto J. Martin

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the main challenges of the post-genomic era is the understanding of how gene expression is controlled. Changes in gene expression lay behind diverse biological phenomena such as development, disease and the adaptation to different environmental conditions. Despite the availability of well-established methods to identify these changes, tools to discern how gene regulation is orchestrated are still required. The regulation of gene expression is usually depicted as a Gene Regulatory Network (GRN where changes in the network structure (i.e., network topology represent adjustments of gene regulation. Like other networks, GRNs are composed of basic building blocks; small induced subgraphs called graphlets. Here we present LoTo, a novel method that using Graphlet Based Metrics (GBMs identifies topological variations between different states of a GRN. Under our approach, different states of a GRN are analyzed to determine the types of graphlet formed by all triplets of nodes in the network. Subsequently, graphlets occurring in a state of the network are compared to those formed by the same three nodes in another version of the network. Once the comparisons are performed, LoTo applies metrics from binary classification problems calculated on the existence and absence of graphlets to assess the topological similarity between both network states. Experiments performed on randomized networks demonstrate that GBMs are more sensitive to topological variation than the same metrics calculated on single edges. Additional comparisons with other common metrics demonstrate that our GBMs are capable to identify nodes whose local topology changes between different states of the network. Notably, due to the explicit use of graphlets, LoTo captures topological variations that are disregarded by other approaches. LoTo is freely available as an online web server at http://dlab.cl/loto.

  16. Battery Technology Stores Clean Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Headquartered in Fremont, California, Deeya Energy Inc. is now bringing its flow batteries to commercial customers around the world after working with former Marshall Space Flight Center scientist, Lawrence Thaller. Deeya's liquid-cell batteries have higher power capability than Thaller's original design, are less expensive than lead-acid batteries, are a clean energy alternative, and are 10 to 20 times less expensive than nickel-metal hydride batteries, lithium-ion batteries, and fuel cell options.

  17. The Evaluation and Comparison of Transcriptionally Targeted Noxa and Puma Killer Genes to Initiate Apoptosis Under Cancer-Specific Promoter CXCR1 in Hepatocarcinoma Gene Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khoshtinat Nikkhoi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Cancerous cells proliferate as fast as possible without a proper surveillance system. This rapid cell division leads to enormous mutation rates, which help a tumor establish. Objectives This study evaluated the potential of inducing apoptosis using Noxa and Puma in a hepatocarcinoma cell line. Methods The current study generated two recombinant lentiviruses, pLEX-GCN and pLEX-GCP, bearing Noxa and Puma, respectively. Transduction of both genes to hepatocarcinoma (HepG2 was verified using fluorescent microscopic analysis, western blotting, and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR. To evaluate the potential of Noxa and Puma to initiate apoptosis, a caspase-9 real-time, MTT assay, and a 4’, 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI reagent were performed to stain apoptotic cells. Results The data verified successful transduction to HepG2 and HEK293T. Higher relative expression of Noxa and Puma rather than the untransduced cell line showed these genes are expressed more in HepG2 in comparison to HEK293T. The results of the real-time PCR, MTT assay, and DAPI reagent illustrated that higher cells initiated apoptosis following Puma transduction rather than Noxa. Conclusions In this approach, the suicide gene was transferred to transformed cells and ignited apoptosis to exterminate them. Puma is a more potent killer gene and has higher capabilities to start intrinsic apoptosis pathway.

  18. Bidirectional promoters of insects: genome-wide comparison, evolutionary implication and influence on gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behura, Susanta K; Severson, David W

    2015-01-30

    Bidirectional promoters are widespread in insect genomes. By analyzing 23 insect genomes we show that the frequency of bidirectional gene pairs varies according to genome compactness and density of genes among the species. The density of bidirectional genes expected based on number of genes per megabase of genome explains the observed density suggesting that bidirectional pairing of genes may be due to random event. We identified specific transcription factor binding motifs that are enriched in bidirectional promoters across insect species. Furthermore, we observed that bidirectional promoters may act as transcriptional hotspots in insect genomes where protein coding genes tend to aggregate in significantly biased (p promoters. Natural selection seems to have an association with the extent of bidirectionality of genes among the species. The rate of non-synonymous-to-synonymous changes (dN/dS) shows a second-order polynomial distribution with bidirectionality between species indicating that bidirectionality is dependent upon evolutionary pressure acting on the genomes. Analysis of genome-wide microarray expression data of multiple insect species suggested that bidirectionality has a similar association with transcriptome variation across species. Furthermore, bidirectional promoters show significant association with correlated expression of the divergent gene pairs depending upon their motif composition. Analysis of gene ontology showed that bidirectional genes tend to have a common association with functions related to "binding" (including ion binding, nucleotide binding and protein binding) across genomes. Such functional constraint of bidirectional genes may explain their widespread persistence in genome of diverse insect species.

  19. Lithium Sulfuryl Chloride Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primary batteries , Electrochemistry, Ionic current, Electrolytes, Cathodes(Electrolytic cell), Anodes(Electrolytic cell), Thionyl chloride ...Phosphorus compounds, Electrical conductivity, Calibration, Solutions(Mixtures), Electrical resistance, Performance tests, Solvents, Lithium compounds

  20. Thermal battery degradation mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Missert, Nancy A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brunke, Lyle Brent [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Diffuse reflectance IR spectroscopy (DRIFTS) was used to investigate the effect of accelerated aging on LiSi based anodes in simulated MC3816 batteries. DRIFTS spectra showed that the oxygen, carbonate, hydroxide and sulfur content of the anodes changes with aging times and temperatures, but not in a monotonic fashion that could be correlated to phase evolution. Bands associated with sulfur species were only observed in anodes taken from batteries aged in wet environments, providing further evidence for a reaction pathway facilitated by H2S transport from the cathode, through the separator, to the anode. Loss of battery capacity with accelerated aging in wet environments was correlated to loss of FeS2 in the catholyte pellets, suggesting that the major contribution to battery performance degradation results from loss of active cathode material.

  1. High temperature battery. Hochtemperaturbatterie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulling, M.

    1992-06-04

    To prevent heat losses of a high temperature battery, it is proposed to make the incoming current leads in the area of their penetration through the double-walled insulating housing as thermal throttle, particularly spiral ones.

  2. A Comparison between Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy and Incremental Capacity-Differential Voltage as Li-ion Diagnostic Techniques to Identify and Quantify the Effects of Degradation Modes within Battery Management Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor-Fernández, Carlos; Uddin, Kotub; Chouchelamane, Gael H.; Widanage, W. Dhammika; Marco, James

    2017-08-01

    Degradation of Lithium-ion batteries is a complex process that is caused by a variety of mechanisms. For simplicity, ageing mechanisms are often grouped into three degradation modes (DMs): conductivity loss (CL), loss of active material (LAM) and loss of lithium inventory (LLI). State of Health (SoH) is typically the parameter used by the Battery Management System (BMS) to quantify battery degradation based on the decrease in capacity and the increase in resistance. However, the definition of SoH within a BMS does not currently include an indication of the underlying DMs causing the degradation. Previous studies have analysed the effects of the DMs using incremental capacity and differential voltage (IC-DV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The aim of this study is to compare IC-DV and EIS on the same data set to evaluate if both techniques provide similar insights into the causes of battery degradation. For an experimental case of parallelized cells aged differently, the effects due to LAM and LLI were found to be the most pertinent, outlining that both techniques are correlated. This approach can be further implemented within a BMS to quantify the causes of battery ageing which would support battery lifetime control strategies and future battery designs.

  3. Structural comparison and chromosomal localization of the human and mouse IL-13 genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKenzie, A.N.J.; Sato, A.; Doyle, E.L.; Zurawski, G. (DNAX Research Institute of Cellular and Molecular Biology, Palo Alto, CA (United States)); Li, X.; Milatovich, A.; Francke, U. (Stanford Univ. Medical School, CA (United States)); Largaespada, D.A.; Copeland, N.G.; Jenkins, N.A. (National Cancer Institute, Frederick, MD (United States))

    1993-06-15

    The genomic structure of the recently described cytokine IL-13 has been determined for both human and mouse genes. The nucleotide sequence of a 4.6-kb DNA segment of the human gene is described. The human IL-13 gene (IL 13) occurs as a single copy in the haploid genome and maps to human chromosome 5. A 4.3-kb DNA fragment of the mouse IL-13 gene (Il 13) has been sequenced and found to occur as a single copy, mapping to mouse chromosome 11. Intrachromosomal mapping studies revealed that both genes contain four exons and three introns and show a high degree of sequence identify throughout their length. Potential recognition sequences for transcription factors that are present in the 5'-flanking region and are conserved between both genes include IFN-responsive elements, binding sites for AP-1, AP-2, and AP-3, an NF-lL 6 site, and a TATA-like sequence. Both genes map to chromosomal locations adjacent to genes encoding other cytokines, including IL-3, GM-CSF, IL-5, and IL-4 suggesting that IL-13 is another member of this cytokine gene family that may have arisen by gene duplication. 26 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Battery energy storage technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Max D.; Carr, Dodd S.

    1993-03-01

    Battery energy storage systems, comprising lead-acid batteries, power conversion systems, and control systems, are used by three main groups: power generating utilities, power distributing utilities, and major power consumers (such as electric furnace foundries). The principal advantages of battery energy storage systems to generating utilities include load leveling, frequency control, spinning reserve, modular construction, convenient siting, no emissions, and investment deferral for new generation and transmission equipment. Power distributing utilities and major power consumers can avoid costly demand changes by discharging their batteries at peak periods and then recharging with lower cost off-peak power (say, at night). Battery energy storage systems are most cost effective when designed for discharge periods of less than 5 h; other systems (for example, pumped water storage) are better suited for longer discharges. It is estimated that by the year 2000 there will be a potential need for 4000 MW of battery energy storage. New construction of five plants totaling 100 MW is presently scheduled for completion by the Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority between 1992 and 1995.

  5. Investigation of Battery/Ultracapacitor Energy Storage Rating for a Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaltz, Erik; Khaligh, A.; Rasmussen, Peter Omand

    2008-01-01

    Combining high energy density batteries and high power density ultracapacitors in Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicles (FCHEV) results in a high efficient, high performance, low size, and light system. Often the batteries are rated with respect to their energy requirement in order to reduce...... their volume and mass. This does not prevent deep discharges of the batteries, which is critical to their lifetime. In this paper, the ratings of the batteries and ultracapacitors in a FCHEV are investigated. Comparison of system volume, mass, efficiency, and battery lifetime due to the rating of the energy...... storage devices are presented. It is concluded, that by sufficient rating of the battery or ultracapacitors, an appropriate balance between system volume, mass, efficiency, and battery lifetime is achievable....

  6. Strain measurement based battery testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Jeff Qiang; Steiber, Joe; Wall, Craig M.; Smith, Robert; Ng, Cheuk

    2017-05-23

    A method and system for strain-based estimation of the state of health of a battery, from an initial state to an aged state, is provided. A strain gauge is applied to the battery. A first strain measurement is performed on the battery, using the strain gauge, at a selected charge capacity of the battery and at the initial state of the battery. A second strain measurement is performed on the battery, using the strain gauge, at the selected charge capacity of the battery and at the aged state of the battery. The capacity degradation of the battery is estimated as the difference between the first and second strain measurements divided by the first strain measurement.

  7. Comparison of gene sets for expression profiling: prediction of metastasis from low-malignant breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Mads; Tan, Qihua; Eiriksdottir, Freyja;

    2007-01-01

    -six tumors from low-risk patients and 34 low-malignant T2 tumors from patients with slightly higher risk have been examined by genome-wide gene expression analysis. Nine prognostic gene sets were tested in this data set. RESULTS: A 32-gene profile (HUMAC32) that accurately predicts metastasis has previously...... sets, mainly developed in high-risk cancers, predict metastasis from low-malignant cancer....

  8. The roles of gene duplication, gene conversion and positive selection in rodent Esp and Mup pheromone gene families with comparison to the Abp family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karn, Robert C; Laukaitis, Christina M

    2012-01-01

    Three proteinaceous pheromone families, the androgen-binding proteins (ABPs), the exocrine-gland secreting peptides (ESPs) and the major urinary proteins (MUPs) are encoded by large gene families in the genomes of Mus musculus and Rattus norvegicus. We studied the evolutionary histories of the Mup and Esp genes and compared them with what is known about the Abp genes. Apparently gene conversion has played little if any role in the expansion of the mouse Class A and Class B Mup genes and pseudogenes, and the rat Mups. By contrast, we found evidence of extensive gene conversion in many Esp genes although not in all of them. Our studies of selection identified at least two amino acid sites in β-sheets as having evolved under positive selection in the mouse Class A and Class B MUPs and in rat MUPs. We show that selection may have acted on the ESPs by determining K(a)/K(s) for Exon 3 sequences with and without the converted sequence segment. While it appears that purifying selection acted on the ESP signal peptides, the secreted portions of the ESPs probably have undergone much more rapid evolution. When the inner gene converted fragment sequences were removed, eleven Esp paralogs were present in two or more pairs with K(a)/K(s) >1.0 and thus we propose that positive selection is detectable by this means in at least some mouse Esp paralogs. We compare and contrast the evolutionary histories of all three mouse pheromone gene families in light of their proposed functions in mouse communication.

  9. Comparison of the expression profile of apoptosis-associated genes in rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qingchun, Huang; Runyue, Huang; LiGang, Jie; Yongliang, Chu; Song, Wei; Shujing, Zhao

    2008-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to employ microarray analysis to evaluate differential gene expression in synovial tissue samples obtained from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) or osteoarthritis (OA) to study the expression profile of apoptosis-associated genes in these tissues. Four samples were obtained from RA-affected patients and three from osteoarthritis patients. After total RNA was extracted from synovial tissue, the RNA was processed using two-cycle target labeling, followed by hybridization and scanning procedure. The GeneChip Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0 containing 900471 gene loci was used and eight genes associated with apoptosis were identified with a selected p value<0.05 and a twofold change in expression in rheumatoid samples compared to osteoarthritis tissues. Anti-apoptotic genes were generally upregulated whereas apoptotic genes were downregulated suggesting that these genes may play a role in the pathogenesis of RA. Furthermore, these genes may serve as novel therapeutic targets for the treatment of RA.

  10. Comparison of Fusarium graminearum transcriptomes on living or dead wheat differentiates substrate-responsive and defense-responsive genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Boedi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium graminearum is an opportunistic pathogen of cereals where it causes severe yield losses and concomitant mycotoxin contamination of the grains. The pathogen has mixed biotrophic and necrotrophic (saprophytic growth phases during infection and the regulatory networks associated with these phases have so far always been analyzed together. In this study we compared the transcriptomes of fungal cells infecting a living, actively defending plant representing the mixed live style (pathogenic growth on living flowering wheat heads to the response of the fungus infecting identical, but dead plant tissues (cold-killed flowering wheat heads representing strictly saprophytic conditions. We found that the living plant actively suppressed fungal growth and promoted much higher toxin production in comparison to the identical plant tissue without metabolism suggesting that molecules signaling secondary metabolite induction are not pre-existing or not stable in the plant in sufficient amounts before infection. Differential gene expression analysis was used to define gene sets responding to the active or the passive plant as main impact factor and driver for gene expression. We correlated our results to the published F. graminearum transcriptomes, proteomes and secretomes and found that only a limited number of in planta- expressed genes require the living plant for induction but the majority uses simply the plant tissue as signal. Many secondary metabolite (SM gene clusters show a heterogeneous expression pattern within the cluster indicating that different genetic or epigenetic signals govern the expression of individual genes within a physically linked cluster. Our bioinformatic approach also identified fungal genes which were actively repressed by signals derived from the active plant and may thus represent direct targets of the plant defense against the invading pathogen.

  11. Comparison of Fusarium graminearum Transcriptomes on Living or Dead Wheat Differentiates Substrate-Responsive and Defense-Responsive Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boedi, Stefan; Berger, Harald; Sieber, Christian; Münsterkötter, Martin; Maloku, Imer; Warth, Benedikt; Sulyok, Michael; Lemmens, Marc; Schuhmacher, Rainer; Güldener, Ulrich; Strauss, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium graminearum is an opportunistic pathogen of cereals where it causes severe yield losses and concomitant mycotoxin contamination of the grains. The pathogen has mixed biotrophic and necrotrophic (saprophytic) growth phases during infection and the regulatory networks associated with these phases have so far always been analyzed together. In this study we compared the transcriptomes of fungal cells infecting a living, actively defending plant representing the mixed live style (pathogenic growth on living flowering wheat heads) to the response of the fungus infecting identical, but dead plant tissues (cold-killed flowering wheat heads) representing strictly saprophytic conditions. We found that the living plant actively suppressed fungal growth and promoted much higher toxin production in comparison to the identical plant tissue without metabolism suggesting that molecules signaling secondary metabolite induction are not pre-existing or not stable in the plant in sufficient amounts before infection. Differential gene expression analysis was used to define gene sets responding to the active or the passive plant as main impact factor and driver for gene expression. We correlated our results to the published F. graminearum transcriptomes, proteomes, and secretomes and found that only a limited number of in planta- expressed genes require the living plant for induction but the majority uses simply the plant tissue as signal. Many secondary metabolite (SM) gene clusters show a heterogeneous expression pattern within the cluster indicating that different genetic or epigenetic signals govern the expression of individual genes within a physically linked cluster. Our bioinformatic approach also identified fungal genes which were actively repressed by signals derived from the active plant and may thus represent direct targets of the plant defense against the invading pathogen. PMID:27507961

  12. Comparison of gene regulatory networks of benign and malignant breast cancer samples with normal samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, D B; Yang, H J

    2014-11-11

    The aim of this study was to explain the pathogenesis and deterioration process of breast cancer. Breast cancer expression profile data GSE27567 was downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database, and breast cancer-related genes were extracted from databases, including Cancer-Resource and Online Mendelian Inheritance In Man (OMIM). Next, h17 transcription factor data were obtained from the University of California, Santa Cruz. Database for Annotation, Visualization, and Integrated Discovery (DAVID)-enrichment analysis was applied and gene-regulatory networks were constructed by double-two-way t-tests in 3 states, including normal, benign, and malignant. Furthermore, network topological properties were compared between 2 states, and breast cancer-related bub genes were ranked according to their different degrees between each of the two states. A total of 2380 breast cancer-related genes and 215 transcription factors were screened by exploring databases; the genes were mainly enriched in their functions, such as cell apoptosis and proliferation, and pathways, such as p53 signaling and apoptosis, which were related with carcinogenesis. In addition, gene-regulatory networks in the 3 conditions were constructed. By comparing their network topological properties, we found that there is a larger transition of differences between malignant and benign breast cancer. Moreover, 8 hub genes (YBX1, ZFP36, YY1, XRCC5, XRCC4, ZFHX3, ZMAT3, and XPC) were identified in the top 10 genes ranked by different degrees. Through comparative analysis of gene-regulation networks, we identified the link between related genes and the pathogenesis of breast cancer. However, further experiments are needed to confirm our results.

  13. Comparison of the aflR gene sequences of strains in Aspergillus section Flavi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chao-Zong; Liou, Guey-Yuh; Yuan, Gwo-Fang

    2006-01-01

    Aflatoxins are polyketide-derived secondary metabolites produced by Aspergillus parasiticus, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus nomius and a few other species. The toxic effects of aflatoxins have adverse consequences for human health and agricultural economics. The aflR gene, a regulatory gene for aflatoxin biosynthesis, encodes a protein containing a zinc-finger DNA-binding motif. Although Aspergillus oryzae and Aspergillus sojae, which are used in fermented foods and in ingredient manufacture, have no record of producing aflatoxin, they have been shown to possess an aflR gene. This study examined 34 strains of Aspergillus section Flavi. The aflR gene of 23 of these strains was successfully amplified and sequenced. No aflR PCR products were found in five A. sojae strains or six strains of A. oryzae. These PCR results suggested that the aflR gene is absent or significantly different in some A. sojae and A. oryzae strains. The sequenced aflR genes from the 23 positive strains had greater than 96.6 % similarity, which was particularly conserved in the zinc-finger DNA-binding domain. The aflR gene of A. sojae has two obvious characteristics: an extra CTCATG sequence fragment and a C to T transition that causes premature termination of AFLR protein synthesis. Differences between A. parasiticus/A. sojae and A. flavus/A. oryzae aflR genes were also identified. Some strains of A. flavus as well as A. flavus var. viridis, A. oryzae var. viridis and A. oryzae var. effuses have an A. oryzae-type aflR gene. For all strains with the A. oryzae-type aflR gene, there was no evidence of aflatoxin production. It is suggested that for safety reasons, the aflR gene could be examined to assess possible aflatoxin production by Aspergillus section Flavi strains.

  14. COBE battery overview: History, handling, and performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Thomas; Tiller, Smith; Sullivan, David

    1991-01-01

    The following topics are presented in viewgraph format: Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) mission background; battery background and specifications; cell history; battery mechanical/structural design; battery test data; and flowcharts of the various battery approval procedures.

  15. Impact of cigarette smoke on the human and mouse lungs: a gene-expression comparison study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu C Morissette

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoke is well known for its adverse effects on human health, especially on the lungs. Basic research is essential to identify the mechanisms involved in the development of cigarette smoke-related diseases, but translation of new findings from pre-clinical models to the clinic remains difficult. In the present study, we aimed at comparing the gene expression signature between the lungs of human smokers and mice exposed to cigarette smoke to identify the similarities and differences. Using human and mouse whole-genome gene expression arrays, changes in gene expression, signaling pathways and biological functions were assessed. We found that genes significantly modulated by cigarette smoke in humans were enriched for genes modulated by cigarette smoke in mice, suggesting a similar response of both species. Sixteen smoking-induced genes were in common between humans and mice including six newly reported to be modulated by cigarette smoke. In addition, we identified a new conserved pulmonary response to cigarette smoke in the induction of phospholipid metabolism/degradation pathways. Finally, the majority of biological functions modulated by cigarette smoke in humans were also affected in mice. Altogether, the present study provides information on similarities and differences in lung gene expression response to cigarette smoke that exist between human and mouse. Our results foster the idea that animal models should be used to study the involvement of pathways rather than single genes in human diseases.

  16. Comparison of quantitative PCR assays for Escherichia coli targeting ribosomal RNA and single copy genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aims: Compare specificity and sensitivity of quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays targeting single and multi-copy gene regions of Escherichia coli. Methods and Results: A previously reported assay targeting the uidA gene (uidA405) was used as the basis for comparing the taxono...

  17. Functional comparison of three transformer gene introns regulating conditional female lethality

    Science.gov (United States)

    The trasformer gene plays a critical role in the sex determination pathways of many insects. We cloned two transformer gene introns from Anastrepha suspensa, the Caribbean fruit fly. These introns have sequences that putatively have a role in sex-specific splicing patterns that affect sex determinat...

  18. Lithium use in batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goonan, Thomas G.

    2012-01-01

    Lithium has a number of uses but one of the most valuable is as a component of high energy-density rechargeable lithium-ion batteries. Because of concerns over carbon dioxide footprint and increasing hydrocarbon fuel cost (reduced supply), lithium may become even more important in large batteries for powering all-electric and hybrid vehicles. It would take 1.4 to 3.0 kilograms of lithium equivalent (7.5 to 16.0 kilograms of lithium carbonate) to support a 40-mile trip in an electric vehicle before requiring recharge. This could create a large demand for lithium. Estimates of future lithium demand vary, based on numerous variables. Some of those variables include the potential for recycling, widespread public acceptance of electric vehicles, or the possibility of incentives for converting to lithium-ion-powered engines. Increased electric usage could cause electricity prices to increase. Because of reduced demand, hydrocarbon fuel prices would likely decrease, making hydrocarbon fuel more desirable. In 2009, 13 percent of worldwide lithium reserves, expressed in terms of contained lithium, were reported to be within hard rock mineral deposits, and 87 percent, within brine deposits. Most of the lithium recovered from brine came from Chile, with smaller amounts from China, Argentina, and the United States. Chile also has lithium mineral reserves, as does Australia. Another source of lithium is from recycled batteries. When lithium-ion batteries begin to power vehicles, it is expected that battery recycling rates will increase because vehicle battery recycling systems can be used to produce new lithium-ion batteries.

  19. Comparison of gene expression profiles predicting progression in breast cancer patients treated with tamoxifen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Marleen; Linn, Sabine C; Van Laar, Ryan K; Jansen, Maurice P H M; van den Berg, Teun M; Delahaye, Leonie J M J; Glas, Annuska M; Peterse, Johannes L; Hauptmann, Michael; Foekens, John A; Klijn, Jan G M; Wessels, Lodewyk F A; Van't Veer, Laura J; Berns, Els M J J

    2009-01-01

    Molecular signatures that predict outcome in tamoxifen treated breast cancer patients have been identified. For the first time, we compared these response profiles in an independent cohort of (neo)adjuvant systemic treatment naïve breast cancer patients treated with first-line tamoxifen for metastatic disease. From a consecutive series of 246 estrogen receptor (ER) positive primary tumors, gene expression profiling was performed on available frozen tumors using 44K oligoarrays (n = 69). A 78-gene tamoxifen response profile (formerly consisting of 81 cDNA-clones), a 21-gene set (microarray-based Recurrence Score), as well as the HOXB13-IL17BR ratio (Two-Gene-Index, RT-PCR) were analyzed. Performance of signatures in relation to time to progression (TTP) was compared with standard immunohistochemical (IHC) markers: ER, progesterone receptor (PgR) and HER2. In univariate analyses, the 78-gene tamoxifen response profile, 21-gene set and HOXB13-IL17BR ratio were all significantly associated with TTP with hazard ratios of 2.2 (95% CI 1.3-3.7, P = 0.005), 2.3 (95% CI 1.3-4.0, P = 0.003) and 4.2 (95% CI 1.4-12.3, P = 0.009), respectively. The concordance among the three classifiers was relatively low, they classified only 45-61% of patients in the same category. In multivariate analyses, the association remained significant for the 78-gene profile and the 21-gene set after adjusting for ER and PgR. The 78-gene tamoxifen response profile, the 21-gene set and the HOXB13-IL17BR ratio were all significantly associated with TTP in an independent patient series treated with tamoxifen. The addition of multigene assays to ER (IHC) improves the prediction of outcome in tamoxifen treated patients and deserves incorporation in future clinical studies.

  20. Comparison of pollen gene flow among four European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) populations characterized by different management regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotti, A; Leonardi, S; Buiteveld, J; Geburek, T; Gerber, S; Kramer, K; Vettori, C; Vendramin, G G

    2012-03-01

    The study of the dispersal capability of a species can provide essential information for the management and conservation of its genetic variability. Comparison of gene flow rates among populations characterized by different management and evolutionary histories allows one to decipher the role of factors such as isolation and tree density on gene movements. We used two paternity analysis approaches and different strategies to handle the possible presence of genotyping errors to obtain robust estimates of pollen flow in four European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) populations from Austria and France. In each country one of the two plots is located in an unmanaged forest; the other plots are managed with a shelterwood system and inside a colonization area (in Austria and France, respectively). The two paternity analysis approaches provided almost identical estimates of gene flow. In general, we found high pollen immigration (~75% of pollen from outside), with the exception of the plot from a highly isolated forest remnant (~50%). In the two unmanaged plots, the average within-population pollen dispersal distances (from 80 to 184 m) were higher than previously estimated for beech. From the comparison between the Austrian managed and unmanaged plots, that are only 500 m apart, we found no evidence that either gene flow or reproductive success distributions were significantly altered by forest management. The investigated phenotypic traits (crown area, height, diameter and flowering phenology) were not significantly related with male reproductive success. Shelterwood seems to have an effect on the distribution of within-population pollen dispersal distances. In the managed plot, pollen dispersal distances were shorter, possibly because adult tree density is three-fold (163 versus 57 trees per hectare) with respect to the unmanaged one.

  1. Multi-species sequence comparison reveals conservation of ghrelin gene-derived splice variants encoding a truncated ghrelin peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seim, Inge; Jeffery, Penny L; Thomas, Patrick B; Walpole, Carina M; Maugham, Michelle; Fung, Jenny N T; Yap, Pei-Yi; O'Keeffe, Angela J; Lai, John; Whiteside, Eliza J; Herington, Adrian C; Chopin, Lisa K

    2016-06-01

    The peptide hormone ghrelin is a potent orexigen produced predominantly in the stomach. It has a number of other biological actions, including roles in appetite stimulation, energy balance, the stimulation of growth hormone release and the regulation of cell proliferation. Recently, several ghrelin gene splice variants have been described. Here, we attempted to identify conserved alternative splicing of the ghrelin gene by cross-species sequence comparisons. We identified a novel human exon 2-deleted variant and provide preliminary evidence that this splice variant and in1-ghrelin encode a C-terminally truncated form of the ghrelin peptide, termed minighrelin. These variants are expressed in humans and mice, demonstrating conservation of alternative splicing spanning 90 million years. Minighrelin appears to have similar actions to full-length ghrelin, as treatment with exogenous minighrelin peptide stimulates appetite and feeding in mice. Forced expression of the exon 2-deleted preproghrelin variant mirrors the effect of the canonical preproghrelin, stimulating cell proliferation and migration in the PC3 prostate cancer cell line. This is the first study to characterise an exon 2-deleted preproghrelin variant and to demonstrate sequence conservation of ghrelin gene-derived splice variants that encode a truncated ghrelin peptide. This adds further impetus for studies into the alternative splicing of the ghrelin gene and the function of novel ghrelin peptides in vertebrates.

  2. Identification and Validation of Commonly Overexpressed Genes in Solid Tumors by Comparison of Microarray Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Pilarsky

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Cancers originating from epithelial cells are the most common malignancies. No common expression profile of solid tumors compared to normal tissues has been described so far. Therefore we were interested if genes differentially expressed in the majority of carcinomas could be identified using bioinformatic methods. Complete data sets were downloaded for carcinomas of the prostate, breast, lung, ovary, colon, pancreas, stomach, bladder, liver, and kidney, and were subjected to an expression analysis using SAM. In each experiment, a gene was scored as differentially expressed if the q value was below 25%. Probe identifiers were unified by comparing the respective probe sequences to the Unigene build 155 using BIastN. To obtain differentially expressed genes within the set of analyzed carcinomas, the number of experiments in which differential expression was observed was counted. Differential expression was assigned to genes if they were differentially expressed in at least eight experiments of tumors from different origin. The identified candidate genes ADRM1, EBNA1BP2, FDPS, FOXM1, H2AFX, HDAC3, IRAK1, and YY1 were subjected to further validation. Using this comparative approach, 100 genes were identified as upregulated and 21 genes as downregulated in the carcinomas.

  3. Comparison of inherently essential genes of Porphyromonas gingivalis identified in two transposon-sequencing libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutcherson, J A; Gogeneni, H; Yoder-Himes, D; Hendrickson, E L; Hackett, M; Whiteley, M; Lamont, R J; Scott, D A

    2016-08-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis is a Gram-negative anaerobe and keystone periodontal pathogen. A mariner transposon insertion mutant library has recently been used to define 463 genes as putatively essential for the in vitro growth of P. gingivalis ATCC 33277 in planktonic culture (Library 1). We have independently generated a transposon insertion mutant library (Library 2) for the same P. gingivalis strain and herein compare genes that are putatively essential for in vitro growth in complex media, as defined by both libraries. In all, 281 genes (61%) identified by Library 1 were common to Library 2. Many of these common genes are involved in fundamentally important metabolic pathways, notably pyrimidine cycling as well as lipopolysaccharide, peptidoglycan, pantothenate and coenzyme A biosynthesis, and nicotinate and nicotinamide metabolism. Also in common are genes encoding heat-shock protein homologues, sigma factors, enzymes with proteolytic activity, and the majority of sec-related protein export genes. In addition to facilitating a better understanding of critical physiological processes, transposon-sequencing technology has the potential to identify novel strategies for the control of P. gingivalis infections. Those genes defined as essential by two independently generated TnSeq mutant libraries are likely to represent particularly attractive therapeutic targets.

  4. Gene Signature of Human Oral Mucosa Fibroblasts: Comparison with Dermal Fibroblasts and Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiko Miyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral mucosa is a useful material for regeneration therapy with the advantages of its accessibility and versatility regardless of age and gender. However, little is known about the molecular characteristics of oral mucosa. Here we report the first comparative profiles of the gene signatures of human oral mucosa fibroblasts (hOFs, human dermal fibroblasts (hDFs, and hOF-derived induced pluripotent stem cells (hOF-iPSCs, linking these with biological roles by functional annotation and pathway analyses. As a common feature of fibroblasts, both hOFs and hDFs expressed glycolipid metabolism-related genes at higher levels compared with hOF-iPSCs. Distinct characteristics of hOFs compared with hDFs included a high expression of glycoprotein genes, involved in signaling, extracellular matrix, membrane, and receptor proteins, besides a low expression of HOX genes, the hDFs-markers. The results of the pathway analyses indicated that tissue-reconstructive, proliferative, and signaling pathways are active, whereas senescence-related genes in p53 pathway are inactive in hOFs. Furthermore, more than half of hOF-specific genes were similarly expressed to those of hOF-iPSC genes and might be controlled by WNT signaling. Our findings demonstrated that hOFs have unique cellular characteristics in specificity and plasticity. These data may provide useful insight into application of oral fibroblasts for direct reprograming.

  5. Comparison of three summary statistics for ranking genes in genome-wide association studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freytag, Saskia; Bickeböller, Heike

    2014-05-20

    Problems associated with insufficient power have haunted the analysis of genome-wide association studies and are likely to be the main challenge for the analysis of next-generation sequencing data. Ranking genes according to their strength of association with the investigated phenotype is one solution. To obtain rankings for genes, researchers can draw from a wide range of statistics summarizing the relationships between variants mapped to a gene and the phenotype. Hence, it is of interest to explore the performance of these statistics in the context of rankings. To this end, we conducted a simulation study (limited to genes of equal sizes) of three different summary statistics examining the ability to rank genes in a meaningful order. The weighted sum of squared marginal score test (Pan, 2009), RareCover algorithm (Bahtia et al., 2010) and the elastic net regularization (Zou and Hastie, 2005) were chosen, because they can handle common as well as rare variants. The test based on the score statistic outperformed both other methods in almost all investigated scenarios. It was the only measure to consistently detect genes with interacting causal variants. However, the RareCover algorithm proved better at identifying genes including causal variants with small effect sizes and low minor allele frequency than the weighted sum of squared marginal score test. The performance of the elastic net regularization was unimpressive for all but the simplest scenarios. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Battery charging control methods, electric vehicle charging methods, battery charging apparatuses and rechargeable battery systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuffner, Francis K [Richland, WA; Kintner-Meyer, Michael C. W. [Richland, WA; Hammerstrom, Donald J [West Richland, WA; Pratt, Richard M [Richland, WA

    2012-05-22

    Battery charging control methods, electric vehicle charging methods, battery charging apparatuses and rechargeable battery systems. According to one aspect, a battery charging control method includes accessing information regarding a presence of at least one of a surplus and a deficiency of electrical energy upon an electrical power distribution system at a plurality of different moments in time, and using the information, controlling an adjustment of an amount of the electrical energy provided from the electrical power distribution system to a rechargeable battery to charge the rechargeable battery.

  7. A comparison of brain gene expression levels in domesticated and wild animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank W Albert

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Domestication has led to similar changes in morphology and behavior in several animal species, raising the question whether similarities between different domestication events also exist at the molecular level. We used mRNA sequencing to analyze genome-wide gene expression patterns in brain frontal cortex in three pairs of domesticated and wild species (dogs and wolves, pigs and wild boars, and domesticated and wild rabbits. We compared the expression differences with those between domesticated guinea pigs and a distant wild relative (Cavia aperea as well as between two lines of rats selected for tameness or aggression towards humans. There were few gene expression differences between domesticated and wild dogs, pigs, and rabbits (30-75 genes (less than 1% of expressed genes were differentially expressed, while guinea pigs and C. aperea differed more strongly. Almost no overlap was found between the genes with differential expression in the different domestication events. In addition, joint analyses of all domesticated and wild samples provided only suggestive evidence for the existence of a small group of genes that changed their expression in a similar fashion in different domesticated species. The most extreme of these shared expression changes include up-regulation in domesticates of SOX6 and PROM1, two modulators of brain development. There was almost no overlap between gene expression in domesticated animals and the tame and aggressive rats. However, two of the genes with the strongest expression differences between the rats (DLL3 and DHDH were located in a genomic region associated with tameness and aggression, suggesting a role in influencing tameness. In summary, the majority of brain gene expression changes in domesticated animals are specific to the given domestication event, suggesting that the causative variants of behavioral domestication traits may likewise be different.

  8. Used batteries - REMINDER

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    With colder weather drawing in, it is quite likely that older car batteries will fail. On this subject, the Safety Commission wishes to remind everyone that CERN is not responsible for the disposal of used batteries from private vehicles. So please refrain from abandoning them on pavements or around or inside buildings. Used batteries can be disposed of safely, free-of-charge and without any damage to the environment at waste disposal sites (déchetteries) close to CERN in both France (Ain and Haute-Savoie) and in the Canton of Geneva in Switzerland (Cheneviers). Since the average car battery lasts a number of years, this only represents a small effort on your part over the whole lifetime of your vehicle. Most people don't need reminding that car batteries contain concentrated sulphuric acid, which can cause severe burns. Despite this, we frequently find them casually dumped in scrap metal bins! For more information, please contact R. Magnier/SC-GS 160879 We all have a responsibility for safety and th...

  9. NUCLEOTIDE COMPARISON OF GDF9 GENE IN INDIAN YAK AND GADDI GOAT: HIGH ALTITUDE LIVESTOCK ANIMALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshya Veer Singh

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to characterize exon 1 and exon 2 sequence of one of fecundity genes: GDF9 (Growth differentiation factor 9, in high altitude livestock animal (Yak and Gaddi goat. Six nucleotide differences were identified between sheep (AF078545 and goats (EF446168 in exon 1 and exon 2. Sequencing revealed nine novel single nucleotide mutations in exon 1 and exon 2 of Indian yak that compared with Bos taurus (GQ922451. These results preliminarily showed that the GDF9 gene might be a major gene that influences prolificacy of Gaddi goats and Indian yak.

  10. Power supply system for traction batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perkuhn, E. (DETA Akkumulatorenwerk G.m.b.H., Bad Lauterberg (Germany, F.R.))

    1977-12-01

    Battery life is usually shortest in combined systems. The author discusses the causes of battery wear; if the battery is serviced correctly, it is mainly the charging process which is responsible. This process is described and explained. Battery chargers are mentioned where charging voltage and charging current are best adapted to the battery requirements. These battery chargers are also switched off automatically.

  11. Distinguishing between cancer driver and passenger gene alteration candidates via cross-species comparison: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Xinglai

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We are developing a cross-species comparison strategy to distinguish between cancer driver- and passenger gene alteration candidates, by utilizing the difference in genomic location of orthologous genes between the human and other mammals. As an initial test of this strategy, we conducted a pilot study with human colorectal cancer (CRC and its mouse model C57BL/6J ApcMin/+, focusing on human 5q22.2 and 18q21.1-q21.2. Methods We first performed bioinformatics analysis on the evolution of 5q22.2 and 18q21.1-q21.2 regions. Then, we performed exon-targeted sequencing, real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR, and real time quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR analyses on a number of genes of both regions with both human and mouse colon tumors. Results These two regions (5q22.2 and 18q21.1-q21.2 are frequently deleted in human CRCs and encode genuine colorectal tumor suppressors APC and SMAD4. They also encode genes such as MCC (mutated in colorectal cancer with their role in CRC etiology unknown. We have discovered that both regions are evolutionarily unstable, resulting in genes that are clustered in each human region being found scattered at several distinct loci in the genome of many other species. For instance, APC and MCC are within 200 kb apart in human 5q22.2 but are 10 Mb apart in the mouse genome. Importantly, our analyses revealed that, while known CRC driver genes APC and SMAD4 were disrupted in both human colorectal tumors and tumors from ApcMin/+ mice, the questionable MCC gene was disrupted in human tumors but appeared to be intact in mouse tumors. Conclusions These results indicate that MCC may not actually play any causative role in early colorectal tumorigenesis. We also hypothesize that its disruption in human CRCs is likely a mere result of its close proximity to APC in the human genome. Expanding this pilot study to the entire genome may identify more questionable genes like MCC

  12. Relativity and the mercury battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaleski-Ejgierd, Patryk; Pyykkö, Pekka

    2011-10-06

    Comparative, fully relativistic (FR), scalar relativistic (SR) and non-relativistic (NR) DFT calculations attribute about 30% of the mercury-battery voltage to relativity. The obtained percentage is smaller than for the lead-acid battery, but not negligible.

  13. A Martian Air Battery Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project will investigate an entirely new battery chemistry by developing A Martian Air Battery. Specifically the project will explore the concept of a Martian...

  14. Sequence Comparison of Partial Cytochrome b Genes of Two Coilia species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jinxian; GAO Tianxiang; WANG Yujiang; ZHANG Yaping

    2005-01-01

    Sequence variation of partial cytochrome b genes between two Coilia species, C. ectenes and C. mystus, was investigated. Of the 402 nucleotides, twenty-seven (6.72%) are polymorphic and all are synonymous substitutions. At the third positions of genetic condon of cytochrome b gene, the two species show an extreme anti-G bias (< 4 % ) and a pronounced bias towards A and C (>68%). There is no amino acid sequence divergence between the partial cytochrome b genes of the two species, indicating a close genetic relationship between them. The k-2p genetic distance of partial cytochrome b segment of the two species is 0.072, suggesting that the species were separated 3.6 Ma ago, in the middle Pliocene. Our result reveals that the cytochrome b gene is an appropriate marker for studies of population genetic structures and phylogeographic patterns of the two species.

  15. Comparison of carotenoid accumulation and biosynthetic gene expression between Valencia and Rohde Red Valencia sweet oranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carotenoid accumulation and biosynthetic gene expression levels during fruit maturation were compared between ordinary Valencia (VAL) and its more deeply colored mutant Rohde Red Valencia orange (RRV). The two cultivars exhibited different carotenoid profiles and regulatory mechanisms in flavedo and...

  16. Genes controlling seed dormancy and pre-harvest sprouting in a rice-wheat-barley comparison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Chengdao; Ni, Peixiang; Francki, Michael;

    2004-01-01

    Pre-harvest sprouting results in significant economic loss for the grain industry around the world. Lack of adequate seed dormancy is the major reason for pre-harvest sprouting in the field under wet weather conditions. Although this trait is governed by multiple genes it is also highly heritable....... A major QTL controlling both pre-harvest sprouting and seed dormancy has been identified on the long arm of barley chromosome 5H, and it explains over 70% of the phenotypic variation. Comparative genomics approaches among barley, wheat and rice were used to identify candidate gene(s) controlling seed...... dormancy and hence one aspect of pre-harvest sprouting. The barley seed dormancy/pre-harvest sprouting QTL was located in a region that showed good synteny with the terminal end of the long arm of rice chromosome 3. The rice DNA sequences were annotated and a gene encoding GA20-oxidase was identified...

  17. Global gene expression and comparison between multiple populations in the mouse epidermis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Patrik Gunnarsson

    2016-07-01

    Our data shows that flow cytometry using multicolor panels can identify further subsets of cells within the epidermis and also highlights a marked discrepancy in gene expression between directly isolated cells and tissue cultured cells.

  18. Fusion analysis of MH-Ni batteries characteristics by neural network data fusion method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Presents the fusion analysis of the charging and dischargingcharacteristics of MH-Ni batteries in wide applications by neural network data fusion method to generate a specific vector and the use of this specific vector for selection of MH-Ni batteries, and the comparison of two results of selection.

  19. Functional Analysis of Battery Management Systems using Multi-Cell HIL Simulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barreras, Jorge Varela; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Schaltz, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Developers and manufacturers of Battery Management Systems (BMSs) require extensive testing of controller HW and SW, such as analog front-end (AFE) and performance of generated control code. In comparison with tests conducted on real batteries, tests conducted on hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simula...

  20. Evolution of the Genome 3D Organization: Comparison of Fused and Segregated Globin Gene Clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovina, Anastasia P; Petrova, Natalia V; Gushchanskaya, Ekaterina S; Dolgushin, Konstantin V; Gerasimov, Evgeny S; Galitsyna, Aleksandra A; Penin, Alexey A; Flyamer, Ilya M; Ioudinkova, Elena S; Gavrilov, Alexey A; Vassetzky, Yegor S; Ulianov, Sergey V; Iarovaia, Olga V; Razin, Sergey V

    2017-06-01

    The genomes are folded in a complex three-dimensional (3D) structure. Some features of this organization are common for all eukaryotes, but little is known about its evolution. Here, we have studied the 3D organization and regulation of zebrafish globin gene domain and compared its organization and regulation with those of other vertebrate species. In birds and mammals, the α- and β-globin genes are segregated into separate clusters located on different chromosomes and organized into chromatin domains of different types, whereas in cold-blooded vertebrates, including Danio rerio, α- and β-globin genes are organized into common clusters. The major globin gene locus of Danio rerio is of particular interest as it is located in a genomic area that is syntenic in vertebrates and is controlled by a conserved enhancer. We have found that the major globin gene locus of Danio rerio is structurally and functionally segregated into two spatially distinct subloci harboring either adult or embryo-larval globin genes. These subloci demonstrate different organization at the level of chromatin domains and different modes of spatial organization, which appears to be due to selective interaction of the upstream enhancer with the sublocus harboring globin genes of the adult type. These data are discussed in terms of evolution of linear and 3D organization of gene clusters in vertebrates. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. A comparison of 100 human genes using an alu element-based instability model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George W Cook

    Full Text Available The human retrotransposon with the highest copy number is the Alu element. The human genome contains over one million Alu elements that collectively account for over ten percent of our DNA. Full-length Alu elements are randomly distributed throughout the genome in both forward and reverse orientations. However, full-length widely spaced Alu pairs having two Alus in the same (direct orientation are statistically more prevalent than Alu pairs having two Alus in the opposite (inverted orientation. The cause of this phenomenon is unknown. It has been hypothesized that this imbalance is the consequence of anomalous inverted Alu pair interactions. One proposed mechanism suggests that inverted Alu pairs can ectopically interact, exposing both ends of each Alu element making up the pair to a potential double-strand break, or "hit". This hypothesized "two-hit" (two double-strand breaks potential per Alu element was used to develop a model for comparing the relative instabilities of human genes. The model incorporates both 1 the two-hit double-strand break potential of Alu elements and 2 the probability of exon-damaging deletions extending from these double-strand breaks. This model was used to compare the relative instabilities of 50 deletion-prone cancer genes and 50 randomly selected genes from the human genome. The output of the Alu element-based genomic instability model developed here is shown to coincide with the observed instability of deletion-prone cancer genes. The 50 cancer genes are collectively estimated to be 58% more unstable than the randomly chosen genes using this model. Seven of the deletion-prone cancer genes, ATM, BRCA1, FANCA, FANCD2, MSH2, NCOR1 and PBRM1, were among the most unstable 10% of the 100 genes analyzed. This algorithm may lay the foundation for comparing genetic risks posed by structural variations that are unique to specific individuals, families and people groups.

  2. Systematic comparison of CRISPR/Cas9 and RNAi screens for essential genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgens, David W; Deans, Richard M; Li, Amy; Bassik, Michael C

    2016-06-01

    We compared the ability of short hairpin RNA (shRNA) and CRISPR/Cas9 screens to identify essential genes in the human chronic myelogenous leukemia cell line K562. We found that the precision of the two libraries in detecting essential genes was similar and that combining data from both screens improved performance. Notably, results from the two screens showed little correlation, which can be partially explained by the identification of distinct essential biological processes with each technology.

  3. Systematic comparison of CRISPR-Cas9 and RNAi screens for essential genes

    OpenAIRE

    Morgens, David W; Deans, Richard M.; Li, Amy; Bassik, Michael C.

    2016-01-01

    We compare the ability of shRNA and CRISPR/Cas9 screens to identify essential genes in the human chronic myelogenous leukemia cell line K562. We find that the precision of the two libraries in detecting essential genes is similar and that combining data from both screens improves performance. Notably, results from the two screens show little correlation, which can be partially explained by identification of distinct essential biological processes with each technology.

  4. A non-circadian role for clock-genes in sleep homeostasis:a strain comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomason Ryan

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have previously reported that the expression of circadian clock-genes increases in the cerebral cortex after sleep deprivation (SD and that the sleep rebound following SD is attenuated in mice deficient for one or more clock-genes. We hypothesized that besides generating circadian rhythms, clock-genes also play a role in the homeostatic regulation of sleep. Here we follow the time course of the forebrain changes in the expression of the clock-genes period (per-1, per2, and of the clock-controlled gene albumin D-binding protein (dbp during a 6 h SD and subsequent recovery sleep in three inbred strains of mice for which the homeostatic sleep rebound following SD differs. We reasoned that if clock genes are functionally implicated in sleep homeostasis then the SD-induced changes in gene expression should vary according to the genotypic differences in the sleep rebound. Results In all three strains per expression was increased when animals were kept awake but the rate of increase during the SD as well as the relative increase in per after 6 h SD were highest in the strain for which the sleep rebound was smallest; i.e., DBA/2J (D2. Moreover, whereas in the other two strains per1 and per2 reverted to control levels with recovery sleep, per2 expression specifically, remained elevated in D2 mice. dbp expression increased during the light period both during baseline and during SD although levels were reduced during the latter condition compared to baseline. In contrast to per2, dbp expression reverted to control levels with recovery sleep in D2 only, whereas in the two other strains expression remained decreased. Conclusion These findings support and extend our previous findings that clock genes in the forebrain are implicated in the homeostatic regulation of sleep and suggest that sustained, high levels of per2 expression may negatively impact recovery sleep.

  5. Large scale comparison of gene expression levels by microarrays and RNAseq using TCGA data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yan; Sheng, Quanhu; Li, Jiang; Ye, Fei; Samuels, David C; Shyr, Yu

    2013-01-01

    RNAseq and microarray methods are frequently used to measure gene expression level. While similar in purpose, there are fundamental differences between the two technologies. Here, we present the largest comparative study between microarray and RNAseq methods to date using The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) data. We found high correlations between expression data obtained from the Affymetrix one-channel microarray and RNAseq (Spearman correlations coefficients of ∼0.8). We also observed that the low abundance genes had poorer correlations between microarray and RNAseq data than high abundance genes. As expected, due to measurement and normalization differences, Agilent two-channel microarray and RNAseq data were poorly correlated (Spearman correlations coefficients of only ∼0.2). By examining the differentially expressed genes between tumor and normal samples we observed reasonable concordance in directionality between Agilent two-channel microarray and RNAseq data, although a small group of genes were found to have expression changes reported in opposite directions using these two technologies. Overall, RNAseq produces comparable results to microarray technologies in term of expression profiling. The RNAseq normalization methods RPKM and RSEM produce similar results on the gene level and reasonably concordant results on the exon level. Longer exons tended to have better concordance between the two normalization methods than shorter exons.

  6. A comparison of gene set analysis methods in terms of sensitivity, prioritization and specificity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adi L Tarca

    Full Text Available Identification of functional sets of genes associated with conditions of interest from omics data was first reported in 1999, and since, a plethora of enrichment methods were published for systematic analysis of gene sets collections including Gene Ontology and biological pathways. Despite their widespread usage in reducing the complexity of omics experiment results, their performance is poorly understood. Leveraging the existence of disease specific gene sets in KEGG and Metacore® databases, we compared the performance of sixteen methods under relaxed assumptions while using 42 real datasets (over 1,400 samples. Most of the methods ranked high the gene sets designed for specific diseases whenever samples from affected individuals were compared against controls via microarrays. The top methods for gene set prioritization were different from the top ones in terms of sensitivity, and four of the sixteen methods had large false positives rates assessed by permuting the phenotype of the samples. The best overall methods among those that generated reasonably low false positive rates, when permuting phenotypes, were PLAGE, GLOBALTEST, and PADOG. The best method in the category that generated higher than expected false positives was MRGSE.

  7. A comparison of Drosophila melanogaster detoxification gene induction responses for six insecticides, caffeine and phenobarbital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willoughby, Lee; Chung, Henry; Lumb, Chris; Robin, Charles; Batterham, Philip; Daborn, Phillip J

    2006-12-01

    Modifications of metabolic pathways are important in insecticide resistance evolution. Mutations leading to changes in expression levels or substrate specificities of cytochrome P450 (P450), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and esterase genes have been linked to many cases of resistance with the responsible enzyme shown to utilize the insecticide as a substrate. Many studies show that the substrates of enzymes are capable of inducing the expression of those enzymes. We investigated if this was the case for insecticides and the enzymes responsible for their metabolism. The induction responses for P450s, GSTs and esterases to six different insecticides were investigated using a custom designed microarray in Drosophila melanogaster. Even though these gene families can all contribute to insecticide resistance, their induction responses when exposed to insecticides are minimal. The insecticides spinosad, diazinon, nitenpyram, lufenuron and dicyclanil did not induce any P450, GST or esterase gene expression after a short exposure to high lethal concentrations of insecticide. DDT elicited the low-level induction of one GST and one P450. These results are in contrast to induction responses we observed for the natural plant compound caffeine and the barbituate drug phenobarbital, both of which highly induced a number of P450 and GST genes under the same short exposure regime. Our results indicate that, under the insecticide exposure conditions we used, constitutive over-expression of metabolic genes play more of a role in insect survival than induction of members of these gene families.

  8. Human Jk recombination signal binding protein gene (IGKJRB): Comparison with its mouse homologue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amakawa, Ryuichi; Jing, Wu; Matsunami, Norisada; Hamaguchi, Yasushi; Matsuda, Fumihiko; Kawaichi, Masashi; Honjo, Tasuku (Kyoto Univ., Sakyo-ku, Kyoto (Japan)); Ozawa, Kazuo (Tsukuba Life Science Center, Tsukuba, Ibraraki (Japan))

    1993-08-01

    The mouse Igkjrb protein specifically binds to the immunoglobulin Jk recombination signal sequence. The IGKJRB gene is highly conserved among many species such as human, Xenopus, and Drosophila. Using cDNA fragments of the mouse Igkjrb gene, the authors isolated its human counterpart, IGKJRB. The human genome contains one functional IGKJRB gene and two types of processed pseudogenes. In situ chromosome hybridization analysis demonstrated that the functional gene is localized at chromosome 3q25, and the pseudogenes (IGKJRBP1 and IGKJRBP2, respectively) are located at chromosomes 9p13 and 9q13. The functional gene is composed of 13 exons spanning at least 67 kb. Three types of cDNA with different 5[prime] sequences were isolated by rapid amplification of cDNA ends, suggesting the presence of three proteins. The aPCR-1 protein, which possessed the exon 1 sequence, was the counterpart of the mouse RBP-2 type protein. The aPCR-2 and 3 proteins may be specific to human cells because the mouse counterparts were not detected. The amino acid sequences of the human and mouse IGKJRB genes were 98% homologous in exons 2-11, whereas the homology of the human and mouse exon 1 sequences was 75%. 40 refs., 7 figs.

  9. HOX Gene Promoter Prediction and Inter-genomic Comparison: An Evo-Devo Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marla A. Endriga

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Homeobox genes direct the anterior-posterior axis of the body plan in eukaryotic organisms. Promoter regions upstream of the Hox genes jumpstart the transcription process. CpG islands found within the promoter regions can cause silencing of these promoters. The locations of the promoter regions and the CpG islands of Homeo sapiens sapiens (human, Pan troglodytes (chimpanzee, Mus musculus (mouse, and Rattus norvegicus (brown rat are compared and related to the possible influence on the specification of the mammalian body plan. The sequence of each gene in Hox clusters A-D of the mammals considered were retrieved from Ensembl and locations of promoter regions and CpG islands predicted using Exon Finder. The predicted promoter sequences were confirmed via BLAST and verified against the Eukaryotic Promoter Database. The significance of the locations was determined using the Kruskal-Wallis test. Among the four clusters, only promoter locations in cluster B showed significant difference. HOX B genes have been linked with the control of genes that direct the development of axial morphology, particularly of the vertebral column bones. The magnitude of variation among the body plans of closely-related species can thus be partially attributed to the promoter kind, location and number, and gene inactivation via CpG methylation.

  10. Comparison of linear discriminant analysis methods for the classification of cancer based on gene expression data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Miao

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background More studies based on gene expression data have been reported in great detail, however, one major challenge for the methodologists is the choice of classification methods. The main purpose of this research was to compare the performance of linear discriminant analysis (LDA and its modification methods for the classification of cancer based on gene expression data. Methods The classification performance of linear discriminant analysis (LDA and its modification methods was evaluated by applying these methods to six public cancer gene expression datasets. These methods included linear discriminant analysis (LDA, prediction analysis for microarrays (PAM, shrinkage centroid regularized discriminant analysis (SCRDA, shrinkage linear discriminant analysis (SLDA and shrinkage diagonal discriminant analysis (SDDA. The procedures were performed by software R 2.80. Results PAM picked out fewer feature genes than other methods from most datasets except from Brain dataset. For the two methods of shrinkage discriminant analysis, SLDA selected more genes than SDDA from most datasets except from 2-class lung cancer dataset. When comparing SLDA with SCRDA, SLDA selected more genes than SCRDA from 2-class lung cancer, SRBCT and Brain dataset, the result was opposite for the rest datasets. The average test error of LDA modification methods was lower than LDA method. Conclusions The classification performance of LDA modification methods was superior to that of traditional LDA with respect to the average error and there was no significant difference between theses modification methods.

  11. High energy density aluminum battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Gilbert M.; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Dai, Sheng; Dudney, Nancy J.; Manthiram, Arumugan; McIntyre, Timothy J.; Sun, Xiao-Guang; Liu, Hansan

    2016-10-11

    Compositions and methods of making are provided for a high energy density aluminum battery. The battery comprises an anode comprising aluminum metal. The battery further comprises a cathode comprising a material capable of intercalating aluminum or lithium ions during a discharge cycle and deintercalating the aluminum or lithium ions during a charge cycle. The battery further comprises an electrolyte capable of supporting reversible deposition and stripping of aluminum at the anode, and reversible intercalation and deintercalation of aluminum or lithium at the cathode.

  12. High energy density aluminum battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Gilbert M.; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Dai, Sheng; Dudney, Nancy J.; Manthiram, Arumugan; McIntyre, Timothy J.; Sun, Xiao-Guang; Liu, Hansan

    2016-10-11

    Compositions and methods of making are provided for a high energy density aluminum battery. The battery comprises an anode comprising aluminum metal. The battery further comprises a cathode comprising a material capable of intercalating aluminum or lithium ions during a discharge cycle and deintercalating the aluminum or lithium ions during a charge cycle. The battery further comprises an electrolyte capable of supporting reversible deposition and stripping of aluminum at the anode, and reversible intercalation and deintercalation of aluminum or lithium at the cathode.

  13. Microfluidic redox battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin Wook; Goulet, Marc-Antoni; Kjeang, Erik

    2013-07-01

    A miniaturized microfluidic battery is proposed, which is the first membraneless redox battery demonstrated to date. This unique concept capitalizes on dual-pass flow-through porous electrodes combined with stratified, co-laminar flow to generate electrical power on-chip. The fluidic design is symmetric to allow for both charging and discharging operations in forward, reverse, and recirculation modes. The proof-of-concept device fabricated using low-cost materials integrated in a microfluidic chip is shown to produce competitive power levels when operated on a vanadium redox electrolyte. A complete charge/discharge cycle is performed to demonstrate its operation as a rechargeable battery, which is an important step towards providing sustainable power to lab-on-a-chip and microelectronic applications.

  14. Safe battery solvents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrup, Mason K.; Delmastro, Joseph R.; Stewart, Frederick F.; Luther, Thomas A.

    2007-10-23

    An ion transporting solvent maintains very low vapor pressure, contains flame retarding elements, and is nontoxic. The solvent in combination with common battery electrolyte salts can be used to replace the current carbonate electrolyte solution, creating a safer battery. It can also be used in combination with polymer gels or solid polymer electrolytes to produce polymer batteries with enhanced conductivity characteristics. The solvents may comprise a class of cyclic and acyclic low molecular weight phosphazenes compounds, comprising repeating phosphorus and nitrogen units forming a core backbone and ion-carrying pendent groups bound to the phosphorus. In preferred embodiments, the cyclic phosphazene comprises at least 3 phosphorus and nitrogen units, and the pendent groups are polyethers, polythioethers, polyether/polythioethers or any combination thereof, and/or other groups preferably comprising other atoms from Group 6B of the periodic table of elements.

  15. Staphylococcal enterotoxin genes are common in Staphylococcus aureus intestinal flora in Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) and live comparison infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Highet, Amanda R; Goldwater, Paul N

    2009-11-01

    Pathological and epidemiological findings in sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) suggest an infectious aetiology with indications of involvement of staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs). While SEA, SEB and SEC have been found in the sera and tissues of SIDS cases, little is known about the role of intestinal Staphylococcus aureus or the roles of later-described toxins SEE, SEG, SEH, SEI and SEJ in SIDS. We used a molecular-based approach to define whether the intestinal tract could be a source of SEs to support the staphylococcal toxic shock hypothesis for SIDS. Intestinal contents from 57 SIDS infants and faeces from 79 age- and gender-matched live comparison infants were cultured and tested for S. aureus and sea-b-c-e-g-h-j and TSST using PCR. High proportions of infants in both groups carried toxigenic and nontoxigenic S. aureus. Significantly greater proportions of SIDS compared with comparison babies were positive for S. aureus (68.4% vs. 40.5%) and for SE genes (43.8% vs. 21.5%), suggesting a possible role in SIDS. The results indicate that colonization by S. aureus with SE genes is common in infants; however, their detection is unlikely to be a strong predictive tool for SIDS. Other factors (including immune response) may reveal a specific susceptibility to SEs in SIDS infants.

  16. Batteries, from Cradle to Grave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael J.; Gray, Fiona M.

    2010-01-01

    As battery producers and vendors, legislators, and the consumer population become aware of the consequences of inappropriate disposal of batteries to landfill sites instead of responsible chemical neutralization and reuse, the topic of battery recycling has begun to appear on the environmental agenda. In the United Kingdom, estimates of annual…

  17. Batteries, from Cradle to Grave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael J.; Gray, Fiona M.

    2010-01-01

    As battery producers and vendors, legislators, and the consumer population become aware of the consequences of inappropriate disposal of batteries to landfill sites instead of responsible chemical neutralization and reuse, the topic of battery recycling has begun to appear on the environmental agenda. In the United Kingdom, estimates of annual…

  18. Battery switch for downhole tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boling, Brian E.

    2010-02-23

    An electrical circuit for a downhole tool may include a battery, a load electrically connected to the battery, and at least one switch electrically connected in series with the battery and to the load. The at least one switch may be configured to close when a tool temperature exceeds a selected temperature.

  19. Automotive battery technology

    CERN Document Server

    Watzenig, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The use of electrochemical energy storage systems in automotive applications also involves new requirements for modeling these systems, especially in terms of model depth and model quality. Currently, mainly simple application-oriented models are used to describe the physical behavior of batteries. This book provides a step beyond of state-of-the-art modeling showing various different approaches covering following aspects: system safety, misuse behavior (crash, thermal runaway), battery state estimation and electrochemical modeling with the needed analysis (pre/post mortem). All this different approaches are developed to support the overall integration process from a multidisciplinary point-of-view and depict their further enhancements to this process.

  20. Lithium-ion batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Yoshio, Masaki; Kozawa, Akiya

    2010-01-01

    This book is a compilation of up-to-date information relative to Li-Ion technology. It provides the reader with a single source covering all important aspects of Li-Ion battery operations. It fills the gap between the old original Li-Ion technology and present state of the technology that has developed into a high state of practice. The book is designed to provide a single source for an up-to-date description of the technology associated with the Li-Ion battery industry. It will be useful to researchers interested in energy conversion for the direct conversion of chemical energy into electrica

  1. Antennal transcriptome analysis and comparison of olfactory genes in two sympatric defoliators, Dendrolimus houi and Dendrolimus kikuchii (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sufang; Zhang, Zhen; Wang, Hongbin; Kong, Xiangbo

    2014-09-01

    The Yunnan pine and Simao pine caterpillar moths, Dendrolimus houi Lajonquière and Dendrolimus kikuchii Matsumura (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae), are two closely related and sympatric pests of coniferous forests in southwestern China, and olfactory communication systems of these two insects have received considerable attention because of their economic importance. However, there is little information on the molecular aspect of odor detection about these insects. Furthermore, although lepidopteran species have been widely used in studies of insect olfaction, few work made comparison between sister moths on the olfactory recognition mechanisms. In this study, next-generation sequencing of the antennal transcriptome of these two moths were performed to identify the major olfactory genes. After comparing the antennal transcriptome of these two moths, we found that they exhibit highly similar transcripts-associated GO terms. Chemosensory gene families were further analyzed in both species. We identified 23 putative odorant binding proteins (OBP), 17 chemosensory proteins (CSP), two sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMP), 33 odorant receptors (OR), and 10 ionotropic receptors (IR) in D. houi; and 27 putative OBPs, 17 CSPs, two SNMPs, 33 ORs, and nine IRs in D. kikuchii. All these transcripts were full-length or almost full-length. The predicted protein sequences were compared with orthologs in other species of Lepidoptera and model insects, including Bombyx mori, Manduca sexta, Heliothis virescens, Danaus plexippus, Sesamia inferens, Cydia pomonella, and Drosophila melanogaster. The sequence homologies of the orthologous genes in D. houi and D. kikuchii are very high. Furthermore, the olfactory genes were classed according to their expression level, and the highly expressed genes are our target for further function investigation. Interestingly, many highly expressed genes are ortholog gene of D. houi and D. kikuchii. We also found that the Classic OBPs were

  2. Comparison of gene expression profiles of T cells in porcine colostrum and peripheral blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Shohei; Okutani, Mie; Tsukahara, Takamitsu; Nakanishi, Nobuo; Kato, Yoshihiro; Fukuta, Kikuto; Romero-Pérez, Gustavo A; Ushida, Kazunari; Inoue, Ryo

    2016-09-01

    OBJECTIVE To compare gene expression patterns of T cells in porcine colostrum and peripheral blood. ANIMALS 10 multiparous sows. PROCEDURES Cytotoxic and CD4-CD8 double-positive T cells were separated from porcine colostrum and peripheral blood. Total RNA was extracted. The cDNA prepared from RNA was amplified, labeled, fragmented, and competitively hybridized to DNA microarray slides. The DNA microarray data were validated by use of a real-time reverse-transcription PCR assay, and expression of the genes FOS, NFKBI, IFNG, CXCR6, CCR5, ITGB2, CCR7, and SELL was assessed. Finally, DNA microarray data were validated at the protein level by use of flow cytometry via expression of c-Fos and integrin β-2. RESULTS Evaluation of gene expression profiles indicated that in contrast to results for peripheral blood, numerous cell-signaling pathways might be activated in colostrum. Profile analysis also revealed that FOS and NFKBI (genes of transcription factors) were involved in most cell-signaling pathways and that expression of these genes was significantly higher in colostral T cells than in peripheral blood T cells. Furthermore, CCR7 and SELL (genes of T-cell differentiation markers) in colostral T cells had expression patterns extremely similar to those found in effector or effector memory T cells. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE All or most of the T cells in colostrum had an effector-like phenotype and thus were more activated than those in peripheral blood. This gene expression profile would enable T cells to migrate to mammary glands, be secreted in colostrum, and likely contribute to passive immunity provided by sows to newborn pigs.

  3. Comparison of gene expression profiles induced by coarse, fine, and ultrafine particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yuh-Chin T; Karoly, Edward D; Dailey, Lisa A; Schmitt, Michael T; Silbajoris, Robert; Graff, Donald W; Devlin, Robert B

    2011-01-01

    Coarse, fine, and ultrafine particulate matter (PM) fractions possess different physical properties and chemical compositions and may produce different adverse health effects. Studies were undertaken to determine whether or not gene expression patterns may be used to discriminate among the three size fractions. Airway epithelial cells obtained from 6 normal individuals were exposed to Chapel Hill coarse, fine or ultrafine PM (250 μg/ml) for 6 and 24 h (n=3 different individuals each). RNA was isolated and hybridized to Affymetrix cDNA microarrays. Significant genes were identified and mapped to canonical pathways. Expression of selected genes was confirmed by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The numbers of genes altered by coarse, fine, and ultrafine PM increased from 0, 6, and 17 at 6 h to 1281, 302, and 455 at 24 h, respectively. The NRF2-mediated oxidative stress response, cell cycle:G2/M DNA damage checkpoint regulation, and mitotic roles of polo-like kinase were the top three pathways altered by all three fractions. Fine and ultrafine PM displayed more similar gene expression patterns. One example was the increased expression of metallothionein isoforms, reflecting the higher zinc content associated with fine and ultrafine fractions. A set of 10 genes was identified that could discriminate fine and ultrafine PM from coarse PM. These results indicate that common properties shared by the three size fractions as well as size-specific factors, e.g., compositions, may determine the effects on gene expression. Genomic markers may be used to discriminate coarse from fine and ultrafine PM.

  4. Temporal mapping of CEBPA and CEBPB binding during liver regeneration reveals dynamic occupancy and specific regulatory codes for homeostatic and cell cycle gene batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Janus Schou; Waage, Johannes; Rapin, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    quantified the genome-wide binding patterns of two key hepatocyte transcription factors, CEBPA and CEBPB (also known as C/EBPalpha and C/EBPbeta), at multiple time points during the highly dynamic process of liver regeneration elicited by partial hepatectomy in mouse. Combining these profiles with RNA...... polymerase II binding data, we find three temporal classes of transcription factor binding to be associated with distinct sets of regulated genes involved in the acute phase response, metabolic/homeostatic functions, or cell cycle progression. Moreover, we demonstrate a previously unrecognized early phase......-renewal of differentiated cells. Taken together, our work emphasizes the power of global temporal analyses of transcription factor occupancy to elucidate mechanisms regulating dynamic biological processes in complex higher organisms....

  5. Simulated Microgravity Regulates Gene Transcript Profiles of 2T3 Preosteoblasts: Comparison of the Random Positioning Machine and the Rotating Wall Vessel Bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Mamta J.; Liu, Wenbin; Sykes, Michelle C.; Ward, Nancy E.; Risin, Semyon A.; Risin, Diana; Hanjoong, Jo

    2007-01-01

    Microgravity of spaceflight induces bone loss due in part to decreased bone formation by osteoblasts. We have previously examined the microgravity-induced changes in gene expression profiles in 2T3 preosteoblasts using the Random Positioning Machine (RPM) to simulate microgravity conditions. Here, we hypothesized that exposure of preosteoblasts to an independent microgravity simulator, the Rotating Wall Vessel (RWV), induces similar changes in differentiation and gene transcript profiles, resulting in a more confined list of gravi-sensitive genes that may play a role in bone formation. In comparison to static 1g controls, exposure of 2T3 cells to RWV for 3 days inhibited alkaline phosphatase activity, a marker of differentiation, and downregulated 61 genes and upregulated 45 genes by more than two-fold as shown by microarray analysis. The microarray results were confirmed with real time PCR for downregulated genes osteomodulin, bone morphogenic protein 4 (BMP4), runx2, and parathyroid hormone receptor 1. Western blot analysis validated the expression of three downregulated genes, BMP4, peroxiredoxin IV, and osteoglycin, and one upregulated gene peroxiredoxin I. Comparison of the microarrays from the RPM and the RWV studies identified 14 gravi-sensitive genes that changed in the same direction in both systems. Further comparison of our results to a published database showing gene transcript profiles of mechanically loaded mouse tibiae revealed 16 genes upregulated by the loading that were shown to be downregulated by RWV and RPM. These mechanosensitive genes identified by the comparative studies may provide novel insights into understanding the mechanisms regulating bone formation and potential targets of countermeasure against decreased bone formation both in astronauts and in general patients with musculoskeletal disorders.

  6. An empiric comparison of linkage disequilibrium parameters in disease gene localizations; the myotonic dystrophy experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podolsky, L.; Baird, S.; Korneluk, R.G. [Children`s Hospital of Eastern Ontario, Ottawa (Canada)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Analyses of linkage disequilibrium (LD) between markers of known location and disease phenotypes often provide valuable information in efforts to clone the causative genes. However, there exist a number of factors which may attenuate a consistent inverse relationship between physical distance and LD for a given pairing of a genetic marker and a human disease gene. Chief among these is the effect of the general population frequency of an allele which demonstrates LD with a disease gene. Possibly as a result of this, a number of methods of calculating LD has been proposed. We have calculated seven such LD parameters for twelve physically mapped RFLP`s from a 1.3 Mb DM gene containing region of 19q13.3 using 107 DM and 213 non-DM chromosomes. Correlation of the DM-marker physical distance with LD for the 12 loci reveals the Yule coefficient and Dij{prime} parameter to give the most consistent relationship. The D{prime} parameter shown to have a relative allele frequency independence gave only a weak correlation. A similar analysis is being carried out on published cystic fibrosis genetic and physical mapping data. The parameters identified in this study may be the most appropriate for future LD based localizations of disease genes.

  7. Comparison between gene expression of conidia and germinating phase in Trichophyton rubrum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Trichophyton rubrum is a dominating superficial dermatophyte, whose conidial germination is corre- lated to pathopoiesis and a highly important developmental process. To investigate the changes of physiology, biochemistry and cytology during the germination, we selected 3364 function identified ESTs from T. rubrum cDNA library to construct cDNA microarrays, and compared the gene expression levels of conidia and germinating phase. Data analysis indicated that 335 genes were up-regulated during the germination, which mainly encoded translated, modified proteins and structural proteins. The constituents of cell wall and cell membrane were synthetized abundantly, suggesting that they are the foundation of cell morphogenesis. The ingredients of the two-component signal transduction sys- tem were up-regulated, presuming that they were important for the conidial germination. Genes of various metabolic pathways were expressed prosperously, especially the genes that participated in glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation were up-regulated on the whole, demonstrating that in the environment with sufficient oxygen and glucose, conidia obtained energy through aerobic respiration. This paper provides important clues which are helpful to understanding the changes in gene expres- sion, signal conduction and metabolism characteristics during T. rubrum conidial germination, and possess significant meaning to the study of other superficial dermatophytes.

  8. Identification of Ohnolog Genes Originating from Whole Genome Duplication in Early Vertebrates, Based on Synteny Comparison across Multiple Genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Param Priya; Arora, Jatin; Isambert, Hervé

    2015-07-01

    Whole genome duplications (WGD) have now been firmly established in all major eukaryotic kingdoms. In particular, all vertebrates descend from two rounds of WGDs, that occurred in their jawless ancestor some 500 MY ago. Paralogs retained from WGD, also coined 'ohnologs' after Susumu Ohno, have been shown to be typically associated with development, signaling and gene regulation. Ohnologs, which amount to about 20 to 35% of genes in the human genome, have also been shown to be prone to dominant deleterious mutations and frequently implicated in cancer and genetic diseases. Hence, identifying ohnologs is central to better understand the evolution of vertebrates and their susceptibility to genetic diseases. Early computational analyses to identify vertebrate ohnologs relied on content-based synteny comparisons between the human genome and a single invertebrate outgroup genome or within the human genome itself. These approaches are thus limited by lineage specific rearrangements in individual genomes. We report, in this study, the identification of vertebrate ohnologs based on the quantitative assessment and integration of synteny conservation between six amniote vertebrates and six invertebrate outgroups. Such a synteny comparison across multiple genomes is shown to enhance the statistical power of ohnolog identification in vertebrates compared to earlier approaches, by overcoming lineage specific genome rearrangements. Ohnolog gene families can be browsed and downloaded for three statistical confidence levels or recompiled for specific, user-defined, significance criteria at http://ohnologs.curie.fr/. In the light of the importance of WGD on the genetic makeup of vertebrates, our analysis provides a useful resource for researchers interested in gaining further insights on vertebrate evolution and genetic diseases.

  9. Identification of Ohnolog Genes Originating from Whole Genome Duplication in Early Vertebrates, Based on Synteny Comparison across Multiple Genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Param Priya Singh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Whole genome duplications (WGD have now been firmly established in all major eukaryotic kingdoms. In particular, all vertebrates descend from two rounds of WGDs, that occurred in their jawless ancestor some 500 MY ago. Paralogs retained from WGD, also coined 'ohnologs' after Susumu Ohno, have been shown to be typically associated with development, signaling and gene regulation. Ohnologs, which amount to about 20 to 35% of genes in the human genome, have also been shown to be prone to dominant deleterious mutations and frequently implicated in cancer and genetic diseases. Hence, identifying ohnologs is central to better understand the evolution of vertebrates and their susceptibility to genetic diseases. Early computational analyses to identify vertebrate ohnologs relied on content-based synteny comparisons between the human genome and a single invertebrate outgroup genome or within the human genome itself. These approaches are thus limited by lineage specific rearrangements in individual genomes. We report, in this study, the identification of vertebrate ohnologs based on the quantitative assessment and integration of synteny conservation between six amniote vertebrates and six invertebrate outgroups. Such a synteny comparison across multiple genomes is shown to enhance the statistical power of ohnolog identification in vertebrates compared to earlier approaches, by overcoming lineage specific genome rearrangements. Ohnolog gene families can be browsed and downloaded for three statistical confidence levels or recompiled for specific, user-defined, significance criteria at http://ohnologs.curie.fr/. In the light of the importance of WGD on the genetic makeup of vertebrates, our analysis provides a useful resource for researchers interested in gaining further insights on vertebrate evolution and genetic diseases.

  10. A comparison of high-speed flywheels, batteries, and ultracapacitors on the bases of cost and fuel economy as the energy storage system in a fuel cell based hybrid electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doucette, Reed T.; McCulloch, Malcolm D.

    Fuel cells aboard hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) are often hybridized with an energy storage system (ESS). Batteries and ultracapacitors are the most common technologies used in ESSs aboard HEVs. High-speed flywheels are an emerging technology with traits that have the potential to make them competitive with more established battery and ultracapacitor technologies in certain vehicular applications. This study compares high-speed flywheels, ultracapacitors, and batteries functioning as the ESS in a fuel cell based HEV on the bases of cost and fuel economy. In this study, computer models were built to simulate the powertrain of a fuel cell based HEV where high-speed flywheels, batteries, and ultracapacitors of a range of sizes were used as the ESS. A simulated vehicle with a powertrain using each of these technologies was run over two different drive cycles in order to see how the different ESSs performed under different driving patterns. The results showed that when cost and fuel economy were both considered, high-speed flywheels were competitive with batteries and ultracapacitors.

  11. Calculation of buffer batteries with voltage-adding storage batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boldin, R.V.; Koloskov, A.A.; Ratner, G.B.; Sharov, V.N.

    1982-01-01

    A technique is proposed for buffer storage batteries of the NKG type with voltage-adding storage batteries. These batteries (B) guarantee comparatively narrow range of change in the voltage for load with discharge of the storage batteries of the main B to the assigned minimum voltage. The purpose of the calculation is to determine the number of voltage-adding B and the number of storage batteries in each of them. The initial data for calculation are minimum and maximum values of voltage for load and storage batteries of the main B. Expressions have been obtained for determining the depth of the discharge and the final expression for determining the depth of the discharge and the final discharge voltage of the storage batteries of each voltage-adding B. The necessary formulas are presented and the order for making the calculation is given.

  12. Degradation Behaviour of Lithium-Ion Batteries based on Field Measured Frequency Regulation Mission Profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroe, Daniel Ioan; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stroe, Ana-Irina

    2015-01-01

    competitiveness in comparison to other storage technologies or with the traditional frequency regulation methods. In order to surpass this challenge and to allow for optimal sizing and proper use of the battery, accurate knowledge about the lifetime of the Lithium-ion battery and its degradation behaviour......Energy storage systems based on Lithium-ion batteries have been proposed as an environmental friendly alternative to traditional conventional generating units for providing grid frequency regulation. One major challenge regarding the use of Lithium-ion batteries in such applications is their cost...

  13. Development of Software and Strategies for Battery Management System Testing on HIL Simulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fleischer, Christian; Barreras, Jorge Varela; Christensen, Andreas Elkjær;

    2016-01-01

    In comparison with tests conducted on real Li-ion batteries, Battery Management System (BMS) tests conducted on a Hardware-In-the-Loop (HIL) battery simulator may be more cost and time effective, more flexible and traceable, easier to reproduce and safer beyond the normal range of operation....... This is particularly the case of tests at early stages in the development process or during fault simulation. However, the use of a HIL battery simulator requires the development of software (SW) and strategies for testing. While the possibilities are immense, it should be noted that the greater the level...

  14. Comparison of multiple genes of spring viremia of carp viruses isolated in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warg, Janet V; Dikkeboom, Audrey L; Goodwin, Andrew E; Snekvik, Kevin; Whitney, John

    2007-08-01

    Five spring viremia of carp viruses (SVCV), Rhabdovirus carpio, were isolated in the United States (US) between 2002 and 2004. Single tube reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to generate overlapping cDNA fragments from the US isolates of SVCV. Multiple pairs of specific primers were designed to amplify a portion of the phosphoprotein gene, the matrix gene, and the glycoprotein gene of SVCV genogroup Id (corresponding to nucleotides 2174-4942 of GenBank accession NC_002803). Sequences were proofread and aligned to generate a consensus sequence for each isolate. Phylogenetic analysis of the 2705 nucleotide consensus sequence revealed that all five US isolates belong to SVCV genogroup Ia, Asian origin isolates, and a PCR primer binding site unique to SVCV genogroup Ia was identified.

  15. Comparisons of Graph-structure Clustering Methods for Gene Expression Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhuo FANG; Lei LIU; Jiong YANG; Qing-Ming LUO; Yi-Xue LI

    2006-01-01

    Although many numerical clustering algorithms have been applied to gene expression data analysis, the essential step is still biological interpretation by manual inspection. The correlation between genetic co-regulation and affiliation to a common biological process is what biologists expect. Here, we introduce some clustering algorithms that are based on graph structure constituted by biological knowledge. After applying a widely used dataset, we compared the result clusters of two of these algorithms in terms of the homogeneity of clusters and coherence of annotation and matching ratio. The results show that the clusters of knowledge-guided analysis are the kernel parts of the clusters of Gene Ontology (GO)-Cluster software, which contains the genes that are most expression correlative and most consistent with biological functions. Moreover, knowledge-guided analysis seems much more applicable than GO-Cluster in a larger dataset.

  16. Lithium/cobalt sulfide pulse power battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiger, Harvey N.

    The author describes a bipolar battery having a Li alloy anode, CoS2 cathode material, and electrolyte of mixed Li halides. The system is semi-dry because the amount of electrolyte is limited. Fundamental investigations to determine operating voltage limits, active material utilizations, capacity ratios, states of charge, and capacity reserves need to be determined in semi-dry conditions to be unequivocal. This requirement precludes a reference electrode and, instead, the function of a counter-electrode and reference electrodes were combined. The author describes methods and shows comparisons with literature voltammetry data and use of galvanostatic procedures. The results obtained with several Li alloys and with CoS2 electrodes are discussed along with application of these electrochemical design of pulse batteries.

  17. Remote RF Battery Charging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, H.J.; Pop, V.; Op het Veld, J.H.G.; Vullers, R.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    The design of a remote RF battery charger is discussed through the analysis and design of the subsystems of a rectenna (rectifying antenna): antenna, rectifying circuit and loaded DC-to-DC voltage (buck-boost) converter. Optimum system power generation performance is obtained by adopting a system in

  18. Batteries: Imaging degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearing, Paul R.

    2016-11-01

    The degradation and failure of Li-ion batteries is strongly associated with electrode microstructure change upon (de)lithiation. Now, an operando X-ray tomography approach is shown to correlate changes in the microstructure of electrodes to cell performance, and thereby predict degradation pathways.

  19. Secondary alkaline batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBreen, J.

    1984-03-01

    The overall reactions (charge/discharge characteristics); electrode structures and materials; and cell construction are studied for nickel oxide-cadmium, nickel oxide-iron, nickel oxide-hydrogen, nickel oxide-zinc, silver oxide-zinc, and silver oxide-cadmium, silver oxide-iron, and manganese dioxide-zinc batteries.

  20. Weston Standard battery

    CERN Multimedia

    This is a Weston AOIP standard battery with its calibration certificate (1956). Inside, the glassware forms an "H". Its name comes from the British physicist Edward Weston. A standard is the materialization of a given quantity whose value is known with great accuracy.

  1. High energy battery. Hochenergiebatterie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, H.; Beyermann, G.; Bulling, M.

    1992-03-26

    In a high energy battery with a large number of individual cells in a housing with a cooling medium flowing through it, it is proposed that the cooling medium should be guided so that it only affects one or both sides of the cells thermally.

  2. USED BATTERIES-REMINDER

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Note from the TIS Division: Although it is not an obligation for CERN to collect, store and dispose of used batteries from private vehicles, they are often found abandoned on the site and even in the scrap metal bins. As well as being very dangerous (they contain sulphuric acid which is highly corrosive), this practise costs CERN a non-negligible amount of money to dispose of them safely. The disposal of used batteries in the host state could not be simpler, there are 'déchetteries' in neighbouring France at Saint-Genis, Gaillard and Annemasse as well as in other communes. In Geneva Canton the centre de traitement des déchets spéciaux, at Cheneviers on the river Rhône a few kilometers from CERN, will dispose of your batterie free of charge. So we ask you to use a little common sense and to help protect the environnement from the lead and acid in these batteries and even more important, to avoid the possibility of a colleague being seriously injured. It doesn't take m...

  3. Battery cell module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shambaugh, J.S.

    1981-11-23

    A modular lithium battery having a plurality of cells, having electrical connecting means connecting the cells to output terminals, and venting means for releasing discharge byproducts to a chemical scrubber is disclosed. Stainless steel cell casings are potted in an aluminum modular case with syntactic foam and epoxy. The wall thickness resulting is about 0.5 inches.

  4. Lightweight bipolar storage battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowlette, John J. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    An apparatus [10] is disclosed for a lightweight bipolar battery of the end-plate cell stack design. Current flow through a bipolar cell stack [12] is collected by a pair of copper end-plates [16a,16b] and transferred edgewise out of the battery by a pair of lightweight, low resistance copper terminals [28a,28b]. The copper terminals parallel the surface of a corresponding copper end-plate [16a,16b] to maximize battery throughput. The bipolar cell stack [12], copper end-plates [16a,16b] and copper terminals [28a,28b] are rigidly sandwiched between a pair of nonconductive rigid end-plates [20] having a lightweight fiber honeycomb core which eliminates distortion of individual plates within the bipolar cell stack due to internal pressures. Insulating foam [30] is injected into the fiber honeycomb core to reduce heat transfer into and out of the bipolar cell stack and to maintain uniform cell performance. A sealed battery enclosure [ 22] exposes a pair of terminal ends [26a,26b] for connection with an external circuit.

  5. Comparison of gene expression changes induced by biguanides in db/db mice liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heishi, Masayuki; Hayashi, Koji; Ichihara, Junji; Ishikawa, Hironori; Kawamura, Takao; Kanaoka, Masaharu; Taiji, Mutsuo; Kimura, Toru

    2008-08-01

    Large-scale clinical studies have shown that the biguanide drug metformin, widely used for type 2 diabetes, to be very safe. By contrast, another biguanide, phenformin, has been withdrawn from major markets because of a high incidence of serious adverse effects. The difference in mode of action between the two biguanides remains unclear. To gain insight into the different modes of action of the two drugs, we performed global gene expression profiling using the livers of obese diabetic db/db mice after a single administration of phenformin or metformin at levels sufficient to cause a significant reduction in blood glucose level. Metformin induced modest expression changes, including G6pc in the liver as previously reported. By contrast, phenformin caused changes in expression level of many additional genes. We used a knowledge-based bioinformatic analysis to study the effects of phenformin. Differentially expressed genes identified in this study constitute a large gene network, which may be related to cell death, inflammation or wound response. Our results suggest that the two biguanides show a similar hypoglycemic effect in db/db mice, but phenformin induces a greater stress on the liver even a short time after a single administration. These findings provide a novel insight into the cause of the relatively high occurrence of serious adverse effect after phenformin treatment.

  6. Comparison of gene expression profile in embryonic mesencephalon and neuronal primary cultures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Greco

    Full Text Available In the mammalian central nervous system (CNS an important contingent of dopaminergic neurons are localized in the substantia nigra and in the ventral tegmental area of the ventral midbrain. They constitute an anatomically and functionally heterogeneous group of cells involved in a variety of regulatory mechanisms, from locomotion to emotional/motivational behavior. Midbrain dopaminergic neuron (mDA primary cultures represent a useful tool to study molecular mechanisms involved in their development and maintenance. Considerable information has been gathered on the mDA neurons development and maturation in vivo, as well as on the molecular features of mDA primary cultures. Here we investigated in detail the gene expression differences between the tissue of origin and ventral midbrain primary cultures enriched in mDA neurons, using microarray technique. We integrated the results based on different re-annotations of the microarray probes. By using knowledge-based gene network techniques and promoter sequence analysis, we also uncovered mechanisms that might regulate the expression of CNS genes involved in the definition of the identity of specific cell types in the ventral midbrain. We integrate bioinformatics and functional genomics, together with developmental neurobiology. Moreover, we propose guidelines for the computational analysis of microarray gene expression data. Our findings help to clarify some molecular aspects of the development and differentiation of DA neurons within the midbrain.

  7. Analysis and comparison of fragrant gene sequence in some rice cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karami Noushafarin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is known that the fragrant trait in rice (Oryza sativa L. is largely controlled by fgr gene on chromosome 8 and it has been specified that the existence of an 8 bp deletion and three single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP in exon 7 is effective on this trait. In this study, sequence alignment analysis of fgr exon7 on chromosome 8 for 11 different fragrant and non-fragrant cultivars revealed that 5 aromatic rice cultivars carried 3 SNPs and 8 bp deletion in exon7 which terminates prematurely at a TAA stop codon. However, 5 of the non-aromatics showed a sequence identical to the published Nipponbare, being non-fragrant Japonica variety sequence. An exception among them was Bejar, which had 8 bp deletion and 3SNPs but it was non-aromatic. Sequencing can determine nucleotide alignment of a gene and give beneficial information about gene function. In silico prediction showed proteins sequences alignment of fgr gene for Khazar and Domsiah genotypes were different. Betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase complete enzyme belongs to Khazar non-fragrant genotype that has complete length and 503 amino acids while non-functional BADH2 enzyme for Domsiah fragrant genotype has 251 amino acids that result in accumulate 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2AP and produces aroma in fragrant genotypes.

  8. Comparison of Proinflammatory Gene Expression in Lesions Caused by either Burn Injuries or Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

    OpenAIRE

    Akhzari; Rezvan; Zolhavarieh; Moafi

    2016-01-01

    Background Leishmaniasis is a worldwide disease prevalent in tropical and sub-tropical countries in the world. Characterization of inflammatory responses produced in cutaneous Leishmaniasis has not yet been completed. The current study aims to assess and compare pro-inflammatory cytokines between burning injuries and Leishmania infection. Methods the specific primers were designed for 10 proinflammatory genes including CCL4, CCL3,...

  9. Gene expression profile comparison of Barrett's esophagus epithelial cell cultures and biopsies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Baal, J. W. P. M.; Rygiel, A. M.; Milano, F.; Anderson, M.; Bergman, J. J. G. H. M.; Spek, C. A.; Wang, K. K.; Peppelenbosch, M. P.; Krishnadath, K. K.

    2008-01-01

    Barrett's esophagus (BE) is a metaplastic process in which the normal squamous epithelium of the distal esophagus is replaced by columnar lined epithelium. The aim was to gain more insight in the process of metaplasia and to identify which genes are specifically expressed by the epithelial cells and

  10. Comparison of genome-wide selection strategies to identify furfural tolerance genes in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glebes, Tirzah Y; Sandoval, Nicholas R; Gillis, Jacob H; Gill, Ryan T

    2015-01-01

    Engineering both feedstock and product tolerance is important for transitioning towards next-generation biofuels derived from renewable sources. Tolerance to chemical inhibitors typically results in complex phenotypes, for which multiple genetic changes must often be made to confer tolerance. Here, we performed a genome-wide search for furfural-tolerant alleles using the TRackable Multiplex Recombineering (TRMR) method (Warner et al. (2010), Nature Biotechnology), which uses chromosomally integrated mutations directed towards increased or decreased expression of virtually every gene in Escherichia coli. We employed various growth selection strategies to assess the role of selection design towards growth enrichments. We also compared genes with increased fitness from our TRMR selection to those from a previously reported genome-wide identification study of furfural tolerance genes using a plasmid-based genomic library approach (Glebes et al. (2014) PLOS ONE). In several cases, growth improvements were observed for the chromosomally integrated promoter/RBS mutations but not for the plasmid-based overexpression constructs. Through this assessment, four novel tolerance genes, ahpC, yhjH, rna, and dicA, were identified and confirmed for their effect on improving growth in the presence of furfural.

  11. 典型蓄电池的建模与荷电状态估算的对比研究%Comparison study on model and state of charge estimation of typical battery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴红斌; 顾缃; 赵波; 朱承治

    2014-01-01

    研究不同蓄电池荷电状态(state of charge, SOC)的变化特征有助于在实际应用过程中对蓄电池类型进行选择。基于铅酸电池、磷酸铁锂电池、全钒液流电池3种典型蓄电池模型,采用电池容量修正过的改进安时计量法和改进安时-卡尔曼预测法( Ah-Kal法),对各电池在不同充放电模式下,用MATLAB软件编程得到两种估算方法下的SOC变化曲线。通过SOC对比曲线可以发现铅酸电池的自放电较严重,循环寿命短;磷酸铁锂电池可迅速提供大功率;而全钒液流电池适合作为长期大容量储能支持。同时,改进安时计量法和Ah-Kal的估算结果基本相同,验证了Ah-Kal法的正确性。%It is helpful to make the reasonable choice on types of battery in actual application through studying on state of charge (SOC) of the different batteries.Based on the models of Lead-acid battery, LiFePO4Li-ion battery and Vanadium Redox Flow battery(VRB), the SOC of each battery was estimated through the improved Ah count-ing method and the method of combined improved Ah counting-Kalman filtering(Ah-kal method).Under the differ-ent charging or discharging modes, it obtained the curves of SOC with MATLAB software.It can be found that the Lead-acid battery has the serious self-discharge and short cycle life, the LiFePO4Li-ion battery could supply rapidly high power, and VRB has the large-capacity energy storage support for long-term.With the simulation results, it validates that the improved Ah counting method and Ah-Kal method have almost equal result .And it verifies the correctness of the Ah-Kal method.

  12. Impedance and self-discharge mechanism studies of nickel metal hydride batteries for energy storage applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wenhua; Zhu, Ying; Tatarchuk, Bruce

    2013-04-01

    Nickel metal hydride battery packs have been found wide applications in the HEVs (hybrid electric vehicles) through the on-board rapid energy conservation and efficient storage to decrease the fossil fuel consumption rate and reduce CO2 emissions as well as other harmful exhaust gases. In comparison to the conventional Ni-Cd battery, the Ni-MH battery exhibits a relatively higher self-discharge rate. In general, there are quite a few factors that speed up the self-discharge of the electrodes in the sealed nickel metal hydride batteries. This disadvantage eventually reduces the overall efficiency of the energy conversion and storage system. In this work, ac impedance data were collected from the nickel metal hydride batteries. The self-discharge mechanism and battery capacity degradation were analyzed and discussed for further performance improvement.

  13. Modeling Stationary Lithium-Ion Batteries for Optimization and Predictive Control: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raszmann, Emma; Baker, Kyri; Shi, Ying; Christensen, Dane

    2017-02-22

    Accurately modeling stationary battery storage behavior is crucial to understand and predict its limitations in demand-side management scenarios. In this paper, a lithium-ion battery model was derived to estimate lifetime and state-of-charge for building-integrated use cases. The proposed battery model aims to balance speed and accuracy when modeling battery behavior for real-time predictive control and optimization. In order to achieve these goals, a mixed modeling approach was taken, which incorporates regression fits to experimental data and an equivalent circuit to model battery behavior. A comparison of the proposed battery model output to actual data from the manufacturer validates the modeling approach taken in the paper. Additionally, a dynamic test case demonstrates the effects of using regression models to represent internal resistance and capacity fading.

  14. A novel BEV concept based on fixed and swappable li-ion battery packs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barreras, Jorge Varela; Pinto, C.; de Castro, R.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper a novel battery electric vehicle (BEV) concept based on a small fixed and a big swappable li-ion battery pack is proposed in order to achieve: longer range, lower initial purchase price and lower energy consumption at short ranges. For short ranges the BEV is only powered...... by the relatively small fixed battery pack, without the large swappable battery pack. In this way the mass of the vehicle is reduced and therefore the energy consumed per unit distance is improved. For higher ranges the BEV is powered by both battery packs. This concept allows the introduction of subscription-based...... ownership models to distribute the cost of the large battery pack over the vehicle lifetime. A methodology is proposed for the analysis and evaluation of the proposed concept in comparison with a direct owned non swappable single pack BEV, proving that significant improvements on city fuel economy (up to 20...

  15. SOC EKF Estimation based on a Second-order LiFePO4 Battery Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Zhu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available An accurate battery State of Charge (SOC estimation has great significance in improving battery life and vehicle performance. An improved second-order battery model is proposed in this paper through quantities of LiFePO4 battery experiments. The parameters of the model were acquired by the HPPC composite pulse condition under different temperature, charging and discharging rates, SOC. Based on the model, battery SOC is estimated by Extended Kalman Filter (EKF. Comparison of three different pulse conditions shows that the average error of SOC estimation of this algorithm is about 4.2%. The improved model is able to reflect the dynamic performance of batteries suitably, and the SOC estimation algorithm is provided with higher accuracy and better dynamic adaptability.

  16. Modeling Stationary Lithium-Ion Batteries for Optimization and Predictive Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Kyri A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Shi, Ying [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Christensen, Dane T [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Raszmann, Emma [University of Pittsburgh

    2017-06-01

    Accurately modeling stationary battery storage behavior is crucial to understand and predict its limitations in demand-side management scenarios. In this paper, a lithium-ion battery model was derived to estimate lifetime and state-of-charge for building-integrated use cases. The proposed battery model aims to balance speed and accuracy when modeling battery behavior for real-time predictive control and optimization. In order to achieve these goals, a mixed modeling approach was taken, which incorporates regression fits to experimental data and an equivalent circuit to model battery behavior. A comparison of the proposed battery model output to actual data from the manufacturer validates the modeling approach taken in the paper. Additionally, a dynamic test case demonstrates the effects of using regression models to represent internal resistance and capacity fading.

  17. Diagnosis of Lithium-Ion Batteries State-of-Health based on Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroe, Daniel Ioan; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stan, Ana-Irina

    2014-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries have developed into a popular energy storage choice for a wide range of applications because of their superior characteristics in comparison to other energy storage technologies. Besides modelling the performance behavior of Lithium-ion batteries, it has become of huge...... interest to accurately diagnose their state-of-health (SOH). At present, Lithium-ion batteries are diagnosed by performing capacity or resistance (current pulse) measurements; however, in the majority of the cases, these measurements are time consuming and result in changing the state of the battery...... as well. This paper investigates the use of the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) technique for SOH diagnosis of Lithium-ion battery cells, instead of using the aforementioned techniques, since this new method allows for online and direct measurement of the battery cell response in any working...

  18. Evaluation of a Novel BEV Concept Based on Fixed and Swappable Li-Ion Battery Packs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barreras, Jorge Varela; Pinto, Claudio; de Castro, Ricardo;

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a novel battery electric vehicle (BEV) concept based on a small fixed and a big swappable Li-ion battery pack is proposed in order to achieve longer range, lower initial purchase priceand lower energy consumption at short ranges. For short ranges, the BEV is only powered...... by the relatively small-fixed battery pack, without the large swappable battery pack. In this way, the mass of the vehicle is reduced and, therefore, the energy consumed per unit distance is improved. For higher ranges, the BEV is powered by both battery packs. This concept allows the introduction of subscription......-based ownership models to distribute the cost of the large battery pack over the vehicle lifetime. A methodology is proposed for the analysis and evaluation of the proposed concept in comparison with a direct owned nonswappable single-pack BEV, proving that significant improvements on city fuel economy (up to 14...

  19. The smallest known genomes of multicellular and toxic cyanobacteria: comparison, minimal gene sets for linked traits and the evolutionary implications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Stucken

    Full Text Available Cyanobacterial morphology is diverse, ranging from unicellular spheres or rods to multicellular structures such as colonies and filaments. Multicellular species represent an evolutionary strategy to differentiate and compartmentalize certain metabolic functions for reproduction and nitrogen (N(2 fixation into specialized cell types (e.g. akinetes, heterocysts and diazocytes. Only a few filamentous, differentiated cyanobacterial species, with genome sizes over 5 Mb, have been sequenced. We sequenced the genomes of two strains of closely related filamentous cyanobacterial species to yield further insights into the molecular basis of the traits of N(2 fixation, filament formation and cell differentiation. Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii CS-505 is a cylindrospermopsin-producing strain from Australia, whereas Raphidiopsis brookii D9 from Brazil synthesizes neurotoxins associated with paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP. Despite their different morphology, toxin composition and disjunct geographical distribution, these strains form a monophyletic group. With genome sizes of approximately 3.9 (CS-505 and 3.2 (D9 Mb, these are the smallest genomes described for free-living filamentous cyanobacteria. We observed remarkable gene order conservation (synteny between these genomes despite the difference in repetitive element content, which accounts for most of the genome size difference between them. We show here that the strains share a specific set of 2539 genes with >90% average nucleotide identity. The fact that the CS-505 and D9 genomes are small and streamlined compared to those of other filamentous cyanobacterial species and the lack of the ability for heterocyst formation in strain D9 allowed us to define a core set of genes responsible for each trait in filamentous species. We presume that in strain D9 the ability to form proper heterocysts was secondarily lost together with N(2 fixation capacity. Further comparisons to all available cyanobacterial

  20. The smallest known genomes of multicellular and toxic cyanobacteria: comparison, minimal gene sets for linked traits and the evolutionary implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stucken, Karina; John, Uwe; Cembella, Allan; Murillo, Alejandro A; Soto-Liebe, Katia; Fuentes-Valdés, Juan J; Friedel, Maik; Plominsky, Alvaro M; Vásquez, Mónica; Glöckner, Gernot

    2010-02-16

    Cyanobacterial morphology is diverse, ranging from unicellular spheres or rods to multicellular structures such as colonies and filaments. Multicellular species represent an evolutionary strategy to differentiate and compartmentalize certain metabolic functions for reproduction and nitrogen (N(2)) fixation into specialized cell types (e.g. akinetes, heterocysts and diazocytes). Only a few filamentous, differentiated cyanobacterial species, with genome sizes over 5 Mb, have been sequenced. We sequenced the genomes of two strains of closely related filamentous cyanobacterial species to yield further insights into the molecular basis of the traits of N(2) fixation, filament formation and cell differentiation. Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii CS-505 is a cylindrospermopsin-producing strain from Australia, whereas Raphidiopsis brookii D9 from Brazil synthesizes neurotoxins associated with paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP). Despite their different morphology, toxin composition and disjunct geographical distribution, these strains form a monophyletic group. With genome sizes of approximately 3.9 (CS-505) and 3.2 (D9) Mb, these are the smallest genomes described for free-living filamentous cyanobacteria. We observed remarkable gene order conservation (synteny) between these genomes despite the difference in repetitive element content, which accounts for most of the genome size difference between them. We show here that the strains share a specific set of 2539 genes with >90% average nucleotide identity. The fact that the CS-505 and D9 genomes are small and streamlined compared to those of other filamentous cyanobacterial species and the lack of the ability for heterocyst formation in strain D9 allowed us to define a core set of genes responsible for each trait in filamentous species. We presume that in strain D9 the ability to form proper heterocysts was secondarily lost together with N(2) fixation capacity. Further comparisons to all available cyanobacterial genomes

  1. An optimal control strategy for standalone PV system with Battery-Supercapacitor Hybrid Energy Storage System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Lee Wai; Wong, Yee Wan; Rajkumar, Rajprasad Kumar; Isa, Dino

    2016-11-01

    This paper proposes an optimal control strategy for a standalone PV system with Battery-Supercapacitor Hybrid Energy Storage System to prolong battery lifespan by reducing the dynamic stress and peak current demand of the battery. Unlike the conventional methods which only use either filtration based controller (FBC) or fuzzy logic controller (FLC), the proposed control strategy comprises of a low-pass filter (LPF) and FLC. Firstly, LPF removes the high dynamic components from the battery demand. FLC minimizes the battery peak current demand while constantly considering the state-of-charge of the supercapacitor. Particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm optimizes the membership functions of the FLC to achieve optimal battery peak current reduction. The proposed system is compared to the conventional system with battery-only storage and the systems with conventional control strategies (Rule Based Controller and FBC). The proposed system reduces the battery peak current, battery peak power, maximum absolute value of the rate of change of power and average absolute value of the rate of change of power by 16.05%, 15.19%, 77.01%, and 95.59%, respectively as compared to the conventional system with battery-only storage. Moreover, he proposed system increases the level of supercapacitor utilization up to 687.122% in comparison to the conventional control strategies.

  2. A comparison and evaluation of five biclustering algorithms by quantifying goodness of biclusters for gene expression data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Li

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several biclustering algorithms have been proposed to identify biclusters, in which genes share similar expression patterns across a number of conditions. However, different algorithms would yield different biclusters and further lead to distinct conclusions. Therefore, some testing and comparisons between these algorithms are strongly required. Methods In this study, five biclustering algorithms (i.e. BIMAX, FABIA, ISA, QUBIC and SAMBA were compared with each other in the cases where they were used to handle two expression datasets (GDS1620 and pathway with different dimensions in Arabidopsis thaliana (A. thaliana GO (gene ontology annotation and PPI (protein-protein interaction network were used to verify the corresponding biological significance of biclusters from the five algorithms. To compare the algorithms’ performance and evaluate quality of identified biclusters, two scoring methods, namely weighted enrichment (WE scoring and PPI scoring, were proposed in our study. For each dataset, after combining the scores of all biclusters into one unified ranking, we could evaluate the performance and behavior of the five biclustering algorithms in a better way. Results Both WE and PPI scoring methods has been proved effective to validate biological significance of the biclusters, and a significantly positive correlation between the two sets of scores has been tested to demonstrate the consistence of these two methods. A comparative study of the above five algorithms has revealed that: (1 ISA is the most effective one among the five algorithms on the dataset of GDS1620 and BIMAX outperforms the other algorithms on the dataset of pathway. (2 Both ISA and BIMAX are data-dependent. The former one does not work well on the datasets with few genes, while the latter one holds well for the datasets with more conditions. (3 FABIA and QUBIC perform poorly in this study and they may be suitable to large datasets with more genes and

  3. Gene and genetic diagnostic method patent claims: a comparison under current European and US patent law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huys, Isabelle; Van Overwalle, Geertrui; Matthijs, Gert

    2011-10-01

    The paper focuses on the fundamental debate that is going on in Europe and the United States about whether genes and genetic diagnostic methods are to be regarded as inventions or subject matter eligible for patent protection, or whether they are discoveries or principles of nature and thus excluded from patentability. The study further explores some possible scenarios of American influences on European patent applications with respect to genetic diagnostic methods. Our analysis points out that patent eligibility for genes and genetic diagnostic methods, as discussed in the United States in the Association of Molecular Pathology versus US Patent and Trademark Office decision, is based on a different reasoning compared with the European Patent Convention.

  4. Phylogenetic conservation of immunoglobulin heavy chains: direct comparison of hamster and mouse Cmu genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, K L; Duncan, W R; Tucker, P W

    1985-08-12

    We have analyzed the JH-Cmu locus of the Syrian hamster by DNA cloning and sequencing. The single Cmu gene is highly homologous to that of the mouse. The hamster equivalents of the JH and switch (S) recombination regions are arranged as in the mouse, but surprisingly are not highly conserved. Also unlike its close murine relative, the Smu regions among inbred hamster strains are not polymorphic. The complete nucleotide sequence of hamster and mouse Cmu genes have been compared to partial Cmu sequences of other species. Conservation within a portion of the 3' untranslated region may signify functional requirements for 3' end processing. Mutational frequencies within exons and introns of hamster and mouse do not support the theory that the rate of DNA transitions to transversions decreases with evolutionary distance.

  5. Rapid high resolution genotyping of Francisella tularensis by whole genome sequence comparison of annotated genes ("MLST+".

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus H Antwerpen

    Full Text Available The zoonotic disease tularemia is caused by the bacterium Francisella tularensis. This pathogen is considered as a category A select agent with potential to be misused in bioterrorism. Molecular typing based on DNA-sequence like canSNP-typing or MLVA has become the accepted standard for this organism. Due to the organism's highly clonal nature, the current typing methods have reached their limit of discrimination for classifying closely related subpopulations within the subspecies F. tularensis ssp. holarctica. We introduce a new gene-by-gene approach, MLST+, based on whole genome data of 15 sequenced F. tularensis ssp. holarctica strains and apply this approach to investigate an epidemic of lethal tularemia among non-human primates in two animal facilities in Germany. Due to the high resolution of MLST+ we are able to demonstrate that three independent clones of this highly infectious pathogen were responsible for these spatially and temporally restricted outbreaks.

  6. Comparison in gene expression of secretory human endometrium using laser microdissection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida Tadateru

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The endometrium prepares for implantation under the control of steroid hormones. It has been suggested that there are complicated interactions between the epithelium and stroma in the endometrium during menstrual cycle. In this study, we demonstrate a difference in gene expression between the epithelial and stromal areas of the secretory human endometrium using microdissection and macroarray technique. Methods The epithelial and stromal areas were microdissected from the human endometrium during the secretory phase. RNA was extracted and amplified by PCR. Macroarray analysis of nearly 1000 human genes was carried out in this study. Some genes identified by macroarray analysis were verified using real-time PCR. Results In this study, changes in expression 5-fold were WAP four-disulfide core domain 2 (44.1 fold, matrix metalloproteinase 7 (40.1 fold, homeo box B5 (19.8 fold, msh homeo box homolog (18.8 fold, homeo box B7 (12.7 fold and protein kinase C, theta (6.4 fold. On the other hand, decorin (55.6 fold, discoidin domain receptor member 2 (17.3 fold, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (9 fold, ribosomal protein S3A (6.3 fold, and tyrosine kinase with immunoglobulin and epidermal growth factor homology domains (5.2 fold were strongly expressed in the stromal areas. WAP four-disulfide core domain 2 (19.4 fold, matrix metalloproteinase 7 (9.7-fold, decorin (16.3-fold and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (7.2-fold were verified by real-time PCR. Conclusions Some of the genes we identified with differential expression are related to the immune system. These results are telling us the new information for understanding the secretory human endometrium.

  7. A general co-expression network-based approach to gene expression analysis: comparison and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Weixiong

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Co-expression network-based approaches have become popular in analyzing microarray data, such as for detecting functional gene modules. However, co-expression networks are often constructed by ad hoc methods, and network-based analyses have not been shown to outperform the conventional cluster analyses, partially due to the lack of an unbiased evaluation metric. Results Here, we develop a general co-expression network-based approach for analyzing both genes and samples in microarray data. Our approach consists of a simple but robust rank-based network construction method, a parameter-free module discovery algorithm and a novel reference network-based metric for module evaluation. We report some interesting topological properties of rank-based co-expression networks that are very different from that of value-based networks in the literature. Using a large set of synthetic and real microarray data, we demonstrate the superior performance of our approach over several popular existing algorithms. Applications of our approach to yeast, Arabidopsis and human cancer microarray data reveal many interesting modules, including a fatal subtype of lymphoma and a gene module regulating yeast telomere integrity, which were missed by the existing methods. Conclusions We demonstrated that our novel approach is very effective in discovering the modular structures in microarray data, both for genes and for samples. As the method is essentially parameter-free, it may be applied to large data sets where the number of clusters is difficult to estimate. The method is also very general and can be applied to other types of data. A MATLAB implementation of our algorithm can be downloaded from http://cs.utsa.edu/~jruan/Software.html.

  8. Comparison of Anticoagulant Effects on Vein Grafts between Human TFPI Gene Transfection and Aspirin Oral Administration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deguang FENG; Cheng ZHOU; Quan LI; Kailin ZHANG; Xionggang JIANG; Song LENG; Heping DENG; Jiane FENG; Tucheng SUN; Long WU

    2008-01-01

    To develop a more efficient antithrombotic way after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), the anticoagulant effects were compared of human tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) gene transfection and aspirin oral administration (traditional method) on vein grafts. An eukaryotic expression plasmid pCMV-(Kozak) TFPI was prepared. Animal model of carotid artery bypass grafting was constructed. In operation, endothelial cells of vein grafts in TFPI group and empty plasmid control group were transfected with pCMV-(Kozak) TFPI and empty plasmid pCMV respectively, while no transfection was conducted in aspirin control group. After operation, aspirin (2 mg·kg-1·d-1) was administered (I.g.) in aspirin control group. Three days later, grafts (n=10) were harvested for RT-PCR, Western blotting and immunohistochemical analyses of exogenous gone expression and for pathological, scanning electron microscopic observation of thrombus. Thirty days later, the patency rates of remnant grafts (n=10) were recorded by vessel Doppler ultrasonography. Human TFPI gene products were detected in gene transferred vein grafts. Three days later, thrombi were found in 7 animals of aspirin control group and in 8 animals of empty plasmid control group, but in only 1 of TFPI group (P<0.01). Thirty days later, 5 grafts were occluded in empty plasmid control group, but none of grafts was occluded in the other groups (P<0.05). The endothelial surfaces of grafts in both of the control groups were covered with aggregated erythrocytes and platelets, and it were not seen in TFPI group. R was suggested that the anticoagulant effects on vein grafts of human TFPI gene trans- fection are better than those of aspirin.

  9. Comparison of adhesin genes and antimicrobial susceptibilities between uropathogenic and intestinal commensal Escherichia coli strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Xiaohua; Hu, Fupin; Wu, Shi; Ye, Xinyu; Zhu, Demei; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Minggui

    2013-01-01

    The presence of adhesins is arguably an important determinant of pathogenicity for Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC). Antimicrobial susceptibilities were tested by agar dilution method, fifteen adhesin genes were detected by polymerase chain reaction, and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was analyzed in 70 UPEC isolates and 41 commensal E. coli strains. Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) was determined with confirmatory test. The prevalence of ESBL-producers in UPEC (53%, 37/70) was higher than the commensal intestinal isolates (7%, 3/41), and 97% (36/37) of the ESBL-producing UPEC harbored bla CTX-M genes. afa was present in 36% (10/28) UPEC isolates from recurrent lower urinary tract infection (UTI), and none in the acute pyelonephritis, acute uncomplicated cystitis or commensal strains (PUPEC isolates, while 5% (2/41) of the commensal strains were papG positive (P = 0.0025), and the prevalence of papG was significantly higher in acute pyelonephritis group (71%) than the other two UTI groups (PUPEC isolates than in the commensal strains. ESBL-producing UPEC showed a lower prevalence of adhesin genes compared with non-ESBL-producing strains. The MLST profiles were different between UPEC and commensal strains, with ST131 (19%, 13/70) and ST10 (20%, 8/41) being the most common MLSTs, respectively. This study demonstrated that several adhesin genes were more prevalent in UPEC isolates than in commensal E. coli, and afa may be associated with recurrent lower UTI whereas papG is more frequently associated with acute pyelonephritis.

  10. Characterization of WAP2 gene in Aegilops tauschii and comparison with homoeologous loci in wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shun-Zong NING; Qi-Jiao CHEN; Zhong-Wei YUAN; Lian-Quan ZHANG; Ze-Hong YAN; You-Liang ZHENG; Deng-Cai LIU

    2009-01-01

    The Q/q gene, also known as WAP2, is an important gene for wheat domestication and is a member of the AP2 (APETALA2) class of transcription factors. In the present study, we first isolated the W~t AP2 allele (where the superscript "t" refers to the speciese source, in this case "tauschii") on chromosome 5D from Aegilops tauschii Coss., the D-genome donor species of common wheat. We found that W~t AP2 and the AP2 gene from Arabidopsis share a central core of the AP2 polypeptide, a highly basic 10-amino acid domain, and an AASSGF box, although there are many differences in the 37-amino acid serine-rich acidic domain and the remaining regions. In addition, W~t AP2 was highly homologous to the homoeologous loci on 5A and 5B of wheat at both the nucleotide and amino acid level. However, there were some variations that are probably related to gene function. In the first AP2 domain, the amino acids VYL on the 5D and 5A loci were replaced with LLR on 5B. In the 37-amino acid serine-rich acidic domain, W~t AP2 on 5D had an extra amino acid insertion. There was also a variation at the 329 amino acid position, which is thought to be related to the appearance of free-threshing wheat. At this position, the amino acid is isoleucine on 5A for the Q allele and valine for the q allele, whereas the amino acid is leucine on 5D and 5B. Furthermore, a Stowaway miniature terminal inverted repeat element (MITE) insertion was present in the ninth intron of WAP2 on 5B of all common wheats and partial tetraploid Triticum turgidum wheats. These results provide new clues for studies into the evolutionary biology of WAP2 and the origin of common wheat.

  11. Expression Comparison of Oil Biosynthesis Genes in Oil Palm Mesocarp Tissue Using Custom Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yick Ching Wong

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Gene expression changes that occur during mesocarp development are a major research focus in oil palm research due to the economic importance of this tissue and the relatively rapid increase in lipid content to very high levels at fruit ripeness. Here, we report the development of a transcriptome-based 105,000-probe oil palm mesocarp microarray. The expression of genes involved in fatty acid (FA and triacylglycerol (TAG assembly, along with the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA and glycolysis pathway at 16 Weeks After Anthesis (WAA exhibited significantly higher signals compared to those obtained from a cross-species hybridization to the Arabidopsis (p-value < 0.01, and rice (p-value < 0.01 arrays. The oil palm microarray data also showed comparable correlation of expression (r2 = 0.569, p < 0.01 throughout mesocarp development to transcriptome (RNA sequencing data, and improved correlation over quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR (r2 = 0.721, p < 0.01 of the same RNA samples. The results confirm the advantage of the custom microarray over commercially available arrays derived from model species. We demonstrate the utility of this custom microarray to gain a better understanding of gene expression patterns in the oil palm mesocarp that may lead to increasing future oil yield.

  12. Comparison of Two Mouse Ameloblast-like Cell Lines for Enamel-specific Gene Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juni eSarkar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Ameloblasts are ectoderm-derived cells that produce an extracellular enamel matrix that mineralizes to form enamel. The development and use of immortalized cell lines, with a stable phenotype, is an important contribution to biological studies as it allows for the investigation of molecular activities without the continuous need for animals. In this study we compare the expression profiles of enamel-specific genes in two mouse derived ameloblast-like cell lines: LS8 and ALC cells. Quantitative PCR analysis indicates that, relative to each other, LS8 cells express greater mRNA levels for genes that define secretory-stage activities (Amelx, Ambn, Enam and Mmp20, while ALC express greater mRNA levels for genes that define maturation-stage activities (Odam and Klk4. Western blot analyses show that Amelx, Ambn and Odam proteins are detectable in ALC, but not LS8 cells. Unstimulated ALC cells form calcified nodules, while LS8 cells do not. These data provide greater insight as to the suitability of both cell lines to contribute to biological studies on enamel formation and biomineralization, and highlight some of the strengths and weaknesses when relying on enamel epithelial organ-derived cell lines to study molecular activities of amelogenesis.

  13. Systematic Comparisons of Orthologous Selenocysteine Methyltransferase and Homocysteine Methyltransferase Genes from Seven Monocots Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De-yong ZHAO

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Identifying and manipulating genes underlying selenium metabolism could be helpful for increasing selenium content in crop grain, which is an important way to overcome diseases resulted from selenium deficiency. A reciprocal smallest distance algorithm (RSD approach was applied using two experimentally confirmed Homocysteine S-Methyltransferases genes (HMT1 and HMT2 and a putative Selenocysteine Methyltransferase (SMT from dicots plant Arabidopsis thaliana, to explore their orthologs in seven sequenced diploid monocot species: Oryza sativa, Zea mays, Sorghum bicolor, Brachypodium distachyon, Hordeum vulgare, Aegilops tauschii (the D-genome donor of common wheat and Triticum urartu (the A-genome donor of common wheat. HMT1 was apparently diverged from HMT2 and most of SMT orthologs were the same with that of HMT2 in this study, leading to the hypothesis that SMT and HMT originate from one common ancestor gene. Identifying orthologs provide candidates for further experimental confirmation; also it could be helpful in designing primers to clone SMT or HMT orthologs in other crops.

  14. Comparison between Sendai virus and adenovirus vectors to transduce HIV-1 genes into human dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosoya, Noriaki; Miura, Toshiyuki; Kawana-Tachikawa, Ai; Koibuchi, Tomohiko; Shioda, Tatsuo; Odawara, Takashi; Nakamura, Tetsuya; Kitamura, Yoshihiro; Kano, Munehide; Kato, Atsushi; Hasegawa, Mamoru; Nagai, Yoshiyuki; Iwamoto, Aikichi

    2008-03-01

    Immuno-genetherapy using dendritic cells (DCs) can be applied to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. Sendai virus (SeV) has unique features such as cytoplasmic replication and high protein expression as a vector for genetic manipulation. In this study, we compared the efficiency of inducing green fluorescent protein (GFP) and HIV-1 gene expression in human monocyte-derived DCs between SeV and adenovirus (AdV). Human monocyte-derived DCs infected with SeV showed the maximum gene expression 24 hr after infection at a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 2. Although SeV vector showed higher cytopathic effect on DCs than AdV, SeV vector induced maximum gene expression earlier and at much lower MOI. In terms of cell surface phenotype, both SeV and AdV vectors induced DC maturation. DCs infected with SeV as well as AdV elicited HIV-1 specific T-cell responses detected by interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) enzyme-linked immunospot (Elispot). Our data suggest that SeV could be one of the reliable vectors for immuno-genetherapy for HIV-1 infected patients.

  15. Gene Expression Profiles for Predicting Metastasis in Breast Cancer: A Cross-Study Comparison of Classification Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Burton

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Machine learning has increasingly been used with microarray gene expression data and for the development of classifiers using a variety of methods. However, method comparisons in cross-study datasets are very scarce. This study compares the performance of seven classification methods and the effect of voting for predicting metastasis outcome in breast cancer patients, in three situations: within the same dataset or across datasets on similar or dissimilar microarray platforms. Combining classification results from seven classifiers into one voting decision performed significantly better during internal validation as well as external validation in similar microarray platforms than the underlying classification methods. When validating between different microarray platforms, random forest, another voting-based method, proved to be the best performing method. We conclude that voting based classifiers provided an advantage with respect to classifying metastasis outcome in breast cancer patients.

  16. Modular Battery Charge Controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Button, Robert; Gonzalez, Marcelo

    2009-01-01

    A new approach to masterless, distributed, digital-charge control for batteries requiring charge control has been developed and implemented. This approach is required in battery chemistries that need cell-level charge control for safety and is characterized by the use of one controller per cell, resulting in redundant sensors for critical components, such as voltage, temperature, and current. The charge controllers in a given battery interact in a masterless fashion for the purpose of cell balancing, charge control, and state-of-charge estimation. This makes the battery system invariably fault-tolerant. The solution to the single-fault failure, due to the use of a single charge controller (CC), was solved by implementing one CC per cell and linking them via an isolated communication bus [e.g., controller area network (CAN)] in a masterless fashion so that the failure of one or more CCs will not impact the remaining functional CCs. Each micro-controller-based CC digitizes the cell voltage (V(sub cell)), two cell temperatures, and the voltage across the switch (V); the latter variable is used in conjunction with V(sub cell) to estimate the bypass current for a given bypass resistor. Furthermore, CC1 digitizes the battery current (I1) and battery voltage (V(sub batt) and CC5 digitizes a second battery current (I2). As a result, redundant readings are taken for temperature, battery current, and battery voltage through the summation of the individual cell voltages given that each CC knows the voltage of the other cells. For the purpose of cell balancing, each CC periodically and independently transmits its cell voltage and stores the received cell voltage of the other cells in an array. The position in the array depends on the identifier (ID) of the transmitting CC. After eight cell voltage receptions, the array is checked to see if one or more cells did not transmit. If one or more transmissions are missing, the missing cell(s) is (are) eliminated from cell

  17. The statistics of identifying differentially expressed genes in Expresso and TM4: a comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heath Lenwood S

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Analysis of DNA microarray data takes as input spot intensity measurements from scanner software and returns differential expression of genes between two conditions, together with a statistical significance assessment. This process typically consists of two steps: data normalization and identification of differentially expressed genes through statistical analysis. The Expresso microarray experiment management system implements these steps with a two-stage, log-linear ANOVA mixed model technique, tailored to individual experimental designs. The complement of tools in TM4, on the other hand, is based on a number of preset design choices that limit its flexibility. In the TM4 microarray analysis suite, normalization, filter, and analysis methods form an analysis pipeline. TM4 computes integrated intensity values (IIV from the average intensities and spot pixel counts returned by the scanner software as input to its normalization steps. By contrast, Expresso can use either IIV data or median intensity values (MIV. Here, we compare Expresso and TM4 analysis of two experiments and assess the results against qRT-PCR data. Results The Expresso analysis using MIV data consistently identifies more genes as differentially expressed, when compared to Expresso analysis with IIV data. The typical TM4 normalization and filtering pipeline corrects systematic intensity-specific bias on a per microarray basis. Subsequent statistical analysis with Expresso or a TM4 t-test can effectively identify differentially expressed genes. The best agreement with qRT-PCR data is obtained through the use of Expresso analysis and MIV data. Conclusion The results of this research are of practical value to biologists who analyze microarray data sets. The TM4 normalization and filtering pipeline corrects microarray-specific systematic bias and complements the normalization stage in Expresso analysis. The results of Expresso using MIV data have the best

  18. Advanced Battery Manufacturing (VA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stratton, Jeremy

    2012-09-30

    LiFeBATT has concentrated its recent testing and evaluation on the safety of its batteries. There appears to be a good margin of safety with respect to overheating of the cells and the cases being utilized for the batteries are specifically designed to dissipate any heat built up during charging. This aspect of LiFeBATT’s products will be even more fully investigated, and assuming ongoing positive results, it will become a major component of marketing efforts for the batteries. LiFeBATT has continued to receive prismatic 20 Amp hour cells from Taiwan. Further testing continues to indicate significant advantages over the previously available 15 Ah cells. Battery packs are being assembled with battery management systems in the Danville facility. Comprehensive tests are underway at Sandia National Laboratory to provide further documentation of the advantages of these 20 Ah cells. The company is pursuing its work with Hybrid Vehicles of Danville to critically evaluate the 20 Ah cells in a hybrid, armored vehicle being developed for military and security applications. Results have been even more encouraging than they were initially. LiFeBATT is expanding its work with several OEM customers to build a worldwide distribution network. These customers include a major automotive consulting group in the U.K., an Australian maker of luxury off-road campers, and a number of makers of E-bikes and scooters. LiFeBATT continues to explore the possibility of working with nations that are woefully short of infrastructure. Negotiations are underway with Siemens to jointly develop a system for using photovoltaic generation and battery storage to supply electricity to communities that are not currently served adequately. The IDA has continued to monitor the progress of LiFeBATT’s work to ensure that all funds are being expended wisely and that matching funds will be generated as promised. The company has also remained current on all obligations for repayment of an IDA loan and lease

  19. In silico comparison of genomic regions containing genes coding for enzymes and transcription factors for the phenylpropanoid pathway in Phaseolus vulgaris L. and Glycine max L. Merr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yarmilla eReinprecht

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Legumes contain a variety of phytochemicals derived from the phenylpropanoid pathway that have important effects on human health as well as seed coat color, plant disease resistance and nodulation. However, the information about the genes involved in this important pathway is fragmentary in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.. The objectives of this research were to isolate genes that function in and control the phenylpropanoid pathway in common bean, determine their genomic locations in silico in common bean and soybean, and analyze sequences of the 4CL gene family in two common bean genotypes. Sequences of phenylpropanoid pathway genes available for common bean or other plant species were aligned, and the conserved regions were used to design sequence-specific primers. The PCR products were cloned and sequenced and the gene sequences along with common bean gene-based (g markers were BLASTed against the Glycine max v.1.0 genome and the P. vulgaris v.1.0 (Andean early release genome. In addition, gene sequences were BLASTed against the OAC Rex (Mesoamerican genome sequence assembly. In total, fragments of 46 structural and regulatory phenylpropanoid pathway genes were characterized in this way and placed in silico on common bean and soybean sequence maps. The maps contain over 250 common bean g and SSR (simple sequence repeat markers and identify the positions of more than 60 additional phenylpropanoid pathway gene sequences, plus the putative locations of seed coat color genes. The majority of cloned phenylpropanoid pathway gene sequences were mapped to one location in the common bean genome but had two positions in soybean. The comparison of the genomic maps confirmed previous studies, which show that common bean and soybean share genomic regions, including those containing phenylpropanoid pathway gene sequences, with conserved synteny. Indels identified in the comparison of Andean and Mesoamerican common bean sequences might be used to develop

  20. Comparison of the cancer gene targeting and biochemical selectivities of all targeted kinase inhibitors approved for clinical use.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joost C M Uitdehaag

    Full Text Available The anti-proliferative activities of all twenty-five targeted kinase inhibitor drugs that are in clinical use were measured in two large assay panels: (1 a panel of proliferation assays of forty-four human cancer cell lines from diverse tumour tissue origins; and (2 a panel of more than 300 kinase enzyme activity assays. This study provides a head-on comparison of all kinase inhibitor drugs in use (status Nov. 2013, and for six of these drugs, the first kinome profiling data in the public domain. Correlation of drug activities with cancer gene mutations revealed novel drug sensitivity markers, suggesting that cancers dependent on mutant CTNNB1 will respond to trametinib and other MEK inhibitors, and cancers dependent on SMAD4 to small molecule EGFR inhibitor drugs. Comparison of cellular targeting efficacies reveals the most targeted inhibitors for EGFR, ABL1 and BRAF(V600E-driven cell growth, and demonstrates that the best targeted agents combine high biochemical potency with good selectivity. For ABL1 inhibitors, we computationally deduce optimized kinase profiles for use in a next generation of drugs. Our study shows the power of combining biochemical and cellular profiling data in the evaluation of kinase inhibitor drug action.

  1. 49 CFR 173.159 - Batteries, wet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Batteries, wet. 173.159 Section 173.159... Batteries, wet. (a) Electric storage batteries, containing electrolyte acid or alkaline corrosive battery fluid (wet batteries), may not be packed with other materials except as provided in paragraphs (g)...

  2. Side-by-side comparison of gene-based smallpox vaccine with MVA in nonhuman primates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph W Golden

    Full Text Available Orthopoxviruses remain a threat as biological weapons and zoonoses. The licensed live-virus vaccine is associated with serious health risks, making its general usage unacceptable. Attenuated vaccines are being developed as alternatives, the most advanced of which is modified-vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA. We previously developed a gene-based vaccine, termed 4pox, which targets four orthopoxvirus antigens, A33, B5, A27 and L1. This vaccine protects mice and non-human primates from lethal orthopoxvirus disease. Here, we investigated the capacity of the molecular adjuvants GM-CSF and Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin (LT to enhance the efficacy of the 4pox gene-based vaccine. Both adjuvants significantly increased protective antibody responses in mice. We directly compared the 4pox plus LT vaccine against MVA in a monkeypox virus (MPXV nonhuman primate (NHP challenge model. NHPs were vaccinated twice with MVA by intramuscular injection or the 4pox/LT vaccine delivered using a disposable gene gun device. As a positive control, one NHP was vaccinated with ACAM2000. NHPs vaccinated with each vaccine developed anti-orthopoxvirus antibody responses, including those against the 4pox antigens. After MPXV intravenous challenge, all control NHPs developed severe disease, while the ACAM2000 vaccinated animal was well protected. All NHPs vaccinated with MVA were protected from lethality, but three of five developed severe disease and all animals shed virus. All five NHPs vaccinated with 4pox/LT survived and only one developed severe disease. None of the 4pox/LT-vaccinated animals shed virus. Our findings show, for the first time, that a subunit orthopoxvirus vaccine delivered by the same schedule can provide a degree of protection at least as high as that of MVA.

  3. Side-by-Side Comparison of Gene-Based Smallpox Vaccine with MVA in Nonhuman Primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Joseph W.; Josleyn, Matthew; Mucker, Eric M.; Hung, Chien-Fu; Loudon, Peter T.; Wu, T. C.; Hooper, Jay W.

    2012-01-01

    Orthopoxviruses remain a threat as biological weapons and zoonoses. The licensed live-virus vaccine is associated with serious health risks, making its general usage unacceptable. Attenuated vaccines are being developed as alternatives, the most advanced of which is modified-vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA). We previously developed a gene-based vaccine, termed 4pox, which targets four orthopoxvirus antigens, A33, B5, A27 and L1. This vaccine protects mice and non-human primates from lethal orthopoxvirus disease. Here, we investigated the capacity of the molecular adjuvants GM-CSF and Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) to enhance the efficacy of the 4pox gene-based vaccine. Both adjuvants significantly increased protective antibody responses in mice. We directly compared the 4pox plus LT vaccine against MVA in a monkeypox virus (MPXV) nonhuman primate (NHP) challenge model. NHPs were vaccinated twice with MVA by intramuscular injection or the 4pox/LT vaccine delivered using a disposable gene gun device. As a positive control, one NHP was vaccinated with ACAM2000. NHPs vaccinated with each vaccine developed anti-orthopoxvirus antibody responses, including those against the 4pox antigens. After MPXV intravenous challenge, all control NHPs developed severe disease, while the ACAM2000 vaccinated animal was well protected. All NHPs vaccinated with MVA were protected from lethality, but three of five developed severe disease and all animals shed virus. All five NHPs vaccinated with 4pox/LT survived and only one developed severe disease. None of the 4pox/LT-vaccinated animals shed virus. Our findings show, for the first time, that a subunit orthopoxvirus vaccine delivered by the same schedule can provide a degree of protection at least as high as that of MVA. PMID:22860117

  4. Impact of lithium abundance and cost on electric vehicle battery applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Will, Fritz G.

    This paper addresses the issues of realistic specific energy levels attainable with Li batteries, the maximum number of electric vehicles as limited by the identified Li world reserves and the anticipated battery price. The Li-ion battery, {LiC6}/{LixNiO2}, is taken as the basis for the analysis presented here. It is shown that economically recoverable Li world reserves are sufficient to meet the demands of current new passenger car world production and its anticipated growth in the next 50 years. Currently identified world reserves can power 2 billion cars with Li-ion batteries, that is four times the number of cars presently registered in the world. World annual Li production of 10 000 metric tons would have to be increased l3-fold to power current new car world production with Li batteries. Such increase of the production capacity is seen as principally feasible. The 'theoretical reactant cost' — the absolute minimum reactant cost — for the Li-ion battery with Ni oxide cathode is US 19.20/kWh, compared to US 15.40 for the {Ni}/{Cd} and US 29.40 for the Ni/metal-hydride (AB 2) battery. By comparison with the large-volume price for {Ni}/{Cd} vehicle batteries, a miniμm price of US 330/kWh or US 8000 per 24 kWh battery is predicted for mass-produced Li-ion vehicle batteries, once the technology has matured. A battery life of 1000 cycles, already demonstrated in laboratory cells, results in a total vehicle mileage of approximately 126 000 miles when based on a 24 kWh battery. The cost of battery ownership and 'electric fuel' combined is 11 ¢/mile, that of car ownership and fuel combined 27 ¢/toile, if based on a vehicle price of US 23 000.

  5. Comparison on the genotoxic effects of nuclear vs cytoplas-mic irradiation from the alteration of CD59 gene locus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Using microbeam to irradiate human-hamster hybrid AL cells withdefined number of a particles in a highly localized spatial region, this paper showed that cytoplasmic irradiation induced very little toxicity. For example, the cell killing by 4 a particle traversal through the cytoplasm was about 10%, and about 70% cells survived after their cytoplasm was irradiated with 32 a particles. In contrast, the survival fractions for nuclear irradiation at the same doses were 35% and less than 1% respectively. Mutation induction showed that while nuclear irradiation induced 3-4-fold more CD59- mutants than cytoplasmic irradiation at equivalent particle traversal, at an equitoxic dose level of 90% survival, the latter exposure mode induced 3.3-fold more mutants than nuclear irradia-tion. Moreover, using multiplex PCR to analyze five marker genes on chromosome 11 (WT, CAT, PTH, APO-A1 and RAS), the results showed that the majority of mutants induced by cytoplasmic irradiation had retained all of the marker genes analyzed. By comparison, the proportion of mutants suffering loss of additional chromosomal markers increased with increasing number of particle traversal through nuclei.

  6. Nucleotide sequence of the DNA polymerase gene of herpes simplex virus type 2 and comparison with the type 1 counterpart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsurumi, T; Maeno, K; Nishiyama, Y

    1987-01-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of the DNA polymerase gene of herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 2 strain 186 has been determined. The gene included a 3720-bp major open reading frame capable of encoding 1240 amino acids. The predicted primary translation product had an Mr of 137,354, which was slightly larger than its HSV-1 counterpart. A comparison of the predicted functional amino acid sequences of the HSV-1 and HSV-2 DNA polymerases revealed 95.5% overall amino acid homology, the value of which was the highest among those of the other known polypeptides encoded by HSV-1 and HSV-2. The functional amino acid changes were spread in the N-terminal one-third of the protein, whereas the C-terminal two-third was almost identical between the two types except a particular hydrophilic region. A highly conserved sequence of 6 aa, YGDTDS, which has been observed in DNA polymerases of HSV-1, Epstein-Barr virus, adenovirus, and vaccinia virus, was also present at positions 889 to 894 in the C-terminal region of HSV-2 DNA polymerase.

  7. Novel, low-cost alternative technologies to tackle practical, industrial conundrums – a case study of batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Victor K. Y.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Whereas batteries in comparison with most other means of energy storage are more environmentally friendly and economical in their operation, they are beset by low energy replenishment rates, low energy storage density, high capital cost of themselves, and high capital cost of energy replenishment infrastructures. Mainly based on ergonomics, this paper proposes a novel, low-cost alternative technology to practically and industrially make these weaknesses irrelevant to some extent without calling for revolutionary technological breakthroughs in material science, batteries’ microstructures, or battery manufacturing technologies. The technology takes advantage of modularization of battery systems, prioritization of charging and discharging of battery module(s according to ease of unloading and/or loading the battery module(s and/or ease of loading replacement battery module(s of the battery module(s.

  8. 77 FR 20688 - Seventh Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-05

    ... Batteries and Battery Systems, Small and Medium Size AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S... Batteries and Battery Systems, Small and Medium Size. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of the seventh meeting of RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery...

  9. 77 FR 8325 - Sixth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-14

    ... Batteries and Battery Systems, Small and Medium Size AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S... Batteries and Battery Systems, Small and Medium Size. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of the sixth meeting of RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery...

  10. 78 FR 55773 - Fourteenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-11

    ... Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S... Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to... Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size DATES: The meeting will be held October 1-3, 2013, from...

  11. 78 FR 38093 - Thirteenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-25

    ... Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size AGENCY: Federal... Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size. SUMMARY... Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size. DATES: The meeting...

  12. 75 FR 63 - Hazardous Materials: Revision to Requirements for the Transportation of Batteries and Battery...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-04

    ... Batteries and Battery-Powered Devices; and Harmonization With the United Nations Recommendations... safe transportation of batteries and battery-powered devices. This final rule corrects several errors... clarifications addressing the safe transportation of batteries and battery-powered devices. This final rule...

  13. Block copolymer battery separator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, David; Balsara, Nitash Pervez

    2016-04-26

    The invention herein described is the use of a block copolymer/homopolymer blend for creating nanoporous materials for transport applications. Specifically, this is demonstrated by using the block copolymer poly(styrene-block-ethylene-block-styrene) (SES) and blending it with homopolymer polystyrene (PS). After blending the polymers, a film is cast, and the film is submerged in tetrahydrofuran, which removes the PS. This creates a nanoporous polymer film, whereby the holes are lined with PS. Control of morphology of the system is achieved by manipulating the amount of PS added and the relative size of the PS added. The porous nature of these films was demonstrated by measuring the ionic conductivity in a traditional battery electrolyte, 1M LiPF.sub.6 in EC/DEC (1:1 v/v) using AC impedance spectroscopy and comparing these results to commercially available battery separators.

  14. The nuclear battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozier, K. S.; Rosinger, H. E.

    The evolution and present status of an Atomic Energy of Canada Limited program to develop a small, solid-state, passively cooled reactor power supply known as the Nuclear Battery is reviewed. Key technical features of the Nuclear Battery reactor core include a heat-pipe primary heat transport system, graphite neutron moderator, low-enriched uranium TRISO coated-particle fuel and the use of burnable poisons for long-term reactivity control. An external secondary heat transport system extracts useful heat energy, which may be converted into electricity in an organic Rankine cycle engine or used to produce high-pressure steam. The present reference design is capable of producing about 2400 kW(t) (about 600 kW(e) net) for 15 full-power years. Technical and safety features are described along with recent progress in component hardware development programs and market assessment work.

  15. Battery separator manufacturing process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, N.I.; Sugarman, N.

    1974-12-27

    A battery with a positive plate, a negative plate, and a separator of polymeric resin having a degree of undesirable hydrophobia, solid below 180/sup 0/F, extrudable as a hot melt, and resistant to degradation by at least either acids or alkalies positioned between the plates is described. The separator comprises a nonwoven mat of fibers, the fibers being comprised of the polymeric resin and a wetting agent in an amount of 0.5 to 20 percent by weight based on the weight of the resin with the amount being incompatible with the resin below the melting point of the resin such that the wetting agent will bloom over a period of time at ambient temperatures in a battery, yet being compatible with the resin at the extrusion temperature and bringing about blooming to the surface of the fibers when the fibers are subjected to heat and pressure.

  16. Block copolymer battery separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, David; Balsara, Nitash Pervez

    2016-04-26

    The invention herein described is the use of a block copolymer/homopolymer blend for creating nanoporous materials for transport applications. Specifically, this is demonstrated by using the block copolymer poly(styrene-block-ethylene-block-styrene) (SES) and blending it with homopolymer polystyrene (PS). After blending the polymers, a film is cast, and the film is submerged in tetrahydrofuran, which removes the PS. This creates a nanoporous polymer film, whereby the holes are lined with PS. Control of morphology of the system is achieved by manipulating the amount of PS added and the relative size of the PS added. The porous nature of these films was demonstrated by measuring the ionic conductivity in a traditional battery electrolyte, 1M LiPF.sub.6 in EC/DEC (1:1 v/v) using AC impedance spectroscopy and comparing these results to commercially available battery separators.

  17. Battery charging stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergey, M.

    1997-12-01

    This paper discusses the concept of battery charging stations (BCSs), designed to service rural owners of battery power sources. Many such power sources now are transported to urban areas for recharging. A BCS provides the opportunity to locate these facilities closer to the user, is often powered by renewable sources, or hybrid systems, takes advantage of economies of scale, and has the potential to provide lower cost of service, better service, and better cost recovery than other rural electrification programs. Typical systems discussed can service 200 to 1200 people, and consist of stations powered by photovoltaics, wind/PV, wind/diesel, or diesel only. Examples of installed systems are presented, followed by cost figures, economic analysis, and typical system design and performance numbers.

  18. Accumulator battery. Akkumulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poesch, G.; Hoogestraat, G.

    1987-04-02

    According to the invention, the pore volume of the active material is increased not by having more or bigger voids but by inserting open solid particles taking up the battery acid. By inserting mechanically stable solid particles embedding into the active material or meshing with it, mechanically stable electrodes with a large pore volume are obtained. The stability of the active material, in particular of the pasty battery plate material, is least impaired if the particles have a size of 0.5 to 40 ..mu..m and if the powdered lead used for producing the paste is adapted to the shape and amount of the particles with regard to its grain size distribution. The particles may be hollow microspheres or microcapsules with acid-permeable, mechanically resistant walls.

  19. Smart battery controller for lithium sulfur dioxide batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwater, Terrill; Bard, Arnold; Testa, Bruce; Shader, William

    1992-08-01

    Each year, the U.S. Army purchases millions of lithium sulfur dioxide batteries for use in portable electronics equipment. Because of their superior rate capability and service life over a wide variety of conditions, lithium batteries are the power source of choice for military equipment. There is no convenient method of determining the available energy remaining in partially used lithium batteries; hence, users do not take full advantage of all the available battery energy. Currently, users replace batteries before each mission, which leads to premature disposal, and results in the waste of millions of dollars in battery energy every year. Another problem of the lithium battery is that it is necessary to ensure complete discharge of the cells when the useful life of the battery has been expended, or when a hazardous condition exists; a hazardous condition may result in one or more of the cells venting. The Electronics Technology and Devices Laboratory has developed a working prototype of a smart battery controller (SBC) that addresses these problems.

  20. Electric batteries and the environment. Die Batterie und die Umwelt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiller, F.; Hartinger, L.; Kiehne, H.A.; Niklas, H.; Schiele, R.; Steil, H.U.

    1987-01-01

    The book deals with the production, use and waste management of batteries (accumulators and primary batteries), with regard to protection of the environment. Legal, technical and medical aspects are shown. There are numerous electro-chemical systems, but only few proved to be really good in practice. Most batteries contain lead, cadmium or mercury and must therefore be eliminated in a way doing no harm to the environment. Large quantities of the above named heavy metals are today already being recovered by means of appropriate procedures. The reduction of these heavy metals in batteries is also described to be a contribution to the protection of the environment. (orig.) With 67 figs.

  1. Optimization and Comparison of the PolyFect Gene Delivery Method in Three Different Kinds of Mesenchymal Stem Cell Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pezhman Fard-Esfahani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was optimization of the PolyFect gene delivery methodof pcDNA3.1 expression vector transfected with the mouse pdx-1 gene in three differentkinds of mesenchymal stem cells and Hepa cells as well as comparison of transfectionefficiency leading to expression of the mentioned gene in the cell types used.Materials and Methods: Rat bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells, C57 mousebone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells, human synovium derived mesenchymalstem cells and Hepa cells were used in this study. After culturing of the mentioned cells,mouse pdx-1 gene were transfected into them using the Qiagen PolyFect kit. 72 hourslater, the cells were treated with anti-mouse Pdx-1 antibody and immunocytochemicallyanalyzed using a fluorescent inverted microscope. Transfection conditions were optimizedin each of these cells by changing different lipofection parameters such as DNAconcentration, PolyFect reagent concentration and cell density.Results: The results demonstrated that for transfection of these cells, the best concentrationsof DNA and PolyFect reagent are 400 ng/μL and 6000 ng/μL respectively. For maximumtransfection efficiency, the best cell density in 12-well plates was 105 cells in Hepacells, 1.3×105 cells in rat bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells, 1.5×105 cells inhuman synovium-derived mesenchymal stem cells and 105 cells in C57 mouse bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. Under the mentioned optimized conditions, the maximumefficiency of transfection was determined to be 50% for Hepa cells, 40% for rat bonemarrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells, 21% for human synovium-derived mesenchymalstem cells and 10% for C57 mouse bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells.Conclusion: These findings implicate that the most important factor extremely influencingtransfection efficiency in mesenchymal stem cells is the cell derivation origin. Resultsof this study can be used in basic and clinical studies

  2. Gene discovery and transcript analyses in the corn smut pathogen Ustilago maydis: expressed sequence tag and genome sequence comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saville Barry J

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ustilago maydis is the basidiomycete fungus responsible for common smut of corn and is a model organism for the study of fungal phytopathogenesis. To aid in the annotation of the genome sequence of this organism, several expressed sequence tag (EST libraries were generated from a variety of U. maydis cell types. In addition to utility in the context of gene identification and structure annotation, the ESTs were analyzed to identify differentially abundant transcripts and to detect evidence of alternative splicing and anti-sense transcription. Results Four cDNA libraries were constructed using RNA isolated from U. maydis diploid teliospores (U. maydis strains 518 × 521 and haploid cells of strain 521 grown under nutrient rich, carbon starved, and nitrogen starved conditions. Using the genome sequence as a scaffold, the 15,901 ESTs were assembled into 6,101 contiguous expressed sequences (contigs; among these, 5,482 corresponded to predicted genes in the MUMDB (MIPS Ustilago maydis database, while 619 aligned to regions of the genome not yet designated as genes in MUMDB. A comparison of EST abundance identified numerous genes that may be regulated in a cell type or starvation-specific manner. The transcriptional response to nitrogen starvation was assessed using RT-qPCR. The results of this suggest that there may be cross-talk between the nitrogen and carbon signalling pathways in U. maydis. Bioinformatic analysis identified numerous examples of alternative splicing and anti-sense transcription. While intron retention was the predominant form of alternative splicing in U. maydis, other varieties were also evident (e.g. exon skipping. Selected instances of both alternative splicing and anti-sense transcription were independently confirmed using RT-PCR. Conclusion Through this work: 1 substantial sequence information has been provided for U. maydis genome annotation; 2 new genes were identified through the discovery of 619

  3. Navy Lithium Battery Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-14

    lithium -sulfur dioxide (Li-SO2), lithium - thionyl chloride (Li- SOCL2), and lithium -sulfuryl chloride (Li-S02CL2...and 1980’s with active primary cells: Lithium -sulfur dioxide (Li-SO2) Lithium - thionyl chloride (Li-SOCL2) Lithium -sulfuryl chloride (Li-S0 CL ) 2 2...DISTRIBUTION A. Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. NAVY LITHIUM BATTERY SAFETY John Dow1 and Chris Batchelor2 Naval

  4. Miniaturized nuclear battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adler, K.; Ducommun, G.

    1976-01-20

    The invention relates to a miniaturized nuclear battery, consisting of several in series connected cells, wherein each cell contains a support which acts as positive pole and which supports on one side a ..beta..-emitter, above said emitter is a radiation resisting insulation layer which is covered by an absorption layer, above which is a collector layer, and wherein the in series connected calls are disposed in an airtight case.

  5. Modular Battery Controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Button, Robert M (Inventor); Gonzalez, Marcelo C (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Some embodiments of the present invention describe a battery including a plurality of master-less controllers. Each controller is operatively connected to a corresponding cell in a string of cells, and each controller is configured to bypass a fraction of current around the corresponding cell when the corresponding cell has a greater charge than one or more other cells in the string of cells.

  6. Ultrasound-mediated gene transfection: A comparison between cells irradiated in suspension and attachment status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yiwei; Azuma, Takashi; Sasaki, Akira; Yoshinaka, Kiyoshi; Takagi, Shu; Matsumoto, Yoichiro

    2012-10-01

    Sonoporation, in the presence of microbubbles, is a promising nonviral gene transfection method. Although the mechanism is not yet fully understood, shock waves emitted by cavitation bubbles have been known to play an important role in creating pores on cell membranes. This work investigates the gene transfection efficiency and influencing parameters of cells in two different statuses: attachment and suspension based on the fact that cells in suspension have more bubbles surrounding them and that shock wave has distinct effects on hit objects whether the object is attached to a rigid wall or not. Fibroblast cells (NIH3T3), both in attachment and suspension, and green fluorescent protein (GFP) plasmid were exposed to variations in acoustic pressure (0.6-1.2 MPa) and 10% duty cycle at fixed settings of 2 MHz central frequency, 5 kHz pulse repetition frequency and 1 minute insonation time, in the presence of 10% v/v microbubbles (Sonazoid, a commercialized product of ultrasound contrast agent). The transfection efficiency and cell viability are compared for two statuses and a distribution map of GFP transfected cells as well as viable cells over the well bottom is given for attachment status. The results show that cells irradiated in suspension status has higher transfection ratio as well as viability than those irradiated in attachment status with the same intensity and that the transfected cells of attachment status experiment are highly concentrated near the center of the well.

  7. Phylogenetic analysis of VP2 gene of canine parvovirus and comparison with Indian and world isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, G; Chandra, M; Dwivedi, P N

    2016-03-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) causes hemorrhagic enteritis, especially in young dogs, leading to high morbidity and mortality. It has four main antigenic types CPV-2, CPV-2a, CPV-2b and CPV-2c. Virus protein 2 (VP2) is the main capsid protein and mutations affecting VP2 gene are responsible for the evolution of various antigenic types of CPV. Full length VP2 gene from field isolates was amplified and cloned for sequence analysis. The sequences were submitted to the GenBank and were assigned Acc. Nos., viz. KP406928.1 for P12, KP406927.1 for P15, KP406930.1 for P32, KP406926.1 for Megavac-6 and KP406929.1 for NobivacDHPPi. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the samples were forming a separate clad with vaccine strains. When the samples were compared with the world and Indian isolates, it was observed that samples formed a separate node indicating regional genetic variation in CPV.

  8. Comparison of target labeling methods for use with Affymetrix GeneChips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vernon Suzanne D

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several different commercial one-cycle labeling kits are available for preparation of the target for use with the Affymetrix GeneChip platform. However, there have been no evaluations of these different kits to determine if comparable results were generated. We report on the cRNA target synthesis, labeling efficiency and hybridization results using the One-Cycle Target Labeling Assay™ (Affymetrix, the BioArray RNA Amplification and Labeling System™ (Enzo Life Sciences, and the Superscript RNA Amplification System (Invitrogen Life Technologies. Results The only notable difference between kits was in the yield of cRNA target synthesized during in vitro transcription, where the BioArray assay had to be repeated several times in order to have sufficient target. However, each kit resulted in comparable signal and detection calls when hybridized to the Affymetrix GeneChip. Conclusion These 3 one-cycle labeling kits produce comparable hybridization results. This provides users with several kit options and flexibility when using the Affymetrix system.

  9. Comparison of lentiviral and sleeping beauty mediated αβ T cell receptor gene transfer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Christine Field

    Full Text Available Transfer of tumour antigen-specific receptors to T cells requires efficient delivery and integration of transgenes, and currently most clinical studies are using gamma retroviral or lentiviral systems. Whilst important proof-of-principle data has been generated for both chimeric antigen receptors and αβ T cell receptors, the current platforms are costly, time-consuming and relatively inflexible. Alternative, more cost-effective, Sleeping Beauty transposon-based plasmid systems could offer a pathway to accelerated clinical testing of a more diverse repertoire of recombinant high affinity T cell receptors. Nucleofection of hyperactive SB100X transposase-mediated stable transposition of an optimised murine-human chimeric T cell receptor specific for Wilm's tumour antigen from a Sleeping Beauty transposon plasmid. Whilst transfer efficiency was lower than that mediated by lentiviral transduction, cells could be readily enriched and expanded, and mediated effective target cells lysis in vitro and in vivo. Integration sites of transposed TCR genes in primary T cells were almost randomly distributed, contrasting the predilection of lentiviral vectors for transcriptionally active sites. The results support exploitation of the Sleeping Beauty plasmid based system as a flexible and adaptable platform for accelerated, early-phase assessment of T cell receptor gene therapies.

  10. Comparison of two approaches for the classification of 16S rRNA gene sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatellier, Sonia; Mugnier, Nathalie; Allard, Françoise; Bonnaud, Bertrand; Collin, Valérie; van Belkum, Alex; Veyrieras, Jean-Baptiste; Emler, Stefan

    2014-10-01

    The use of 16S rRNA gene sequences for microbial identification in clinical microbiology is accepted widely, and requires databases and algorithms. We compared a new research database containing curated 16S rRNA gene sequences in combination with the lca (lowest common ancestor) algorithm (RDB-LCA) to a commercially available 16S rDNA Centroid approach. We used 1025 bacterial isolates characterized by biochemistry, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight MS and 16S rDNA sequencing. Nearly 80 % of isolates were identified unambiguously at the species level by both classification platforms used. The remaining isolates were mostly identified correctly at the genus level due to the limited resolution of 16S rDNA sequencing. Discrepancies between both 16S rDNA platforms were due to differences in database content and the algorithm used, and could amount to up to 10.5 %. Up to 1.4 % of the analyses were found to be inconclusive. It is important to realize that despite the overall good performance of the pipelines for analysis, some inconclusive results remain that require additional in-depth analysis performed using supplementary methods.

  11. In vivo comparison of IVDU and IVFRU in HSV1-TK gene expressing tumor bearing rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, T.H.Tae Hyun; Ahn, S.H.Soon Hyuk; Kwon, H.-C.Hee-Chung; Choi, C.W.Chang Woon; Awh, O.D.Ok Doo; Lim, S.M.Sang Moo. E-mail: smlim328@kcch.re.kr

    2004-01-01

    (E)-5-(2-Iodovinyl)-2'-deoxyuridine (IVDU) and (E)-5-(2-iodovinyl)-2'-fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine (IVFRU) are potential substrates of Herpes Simplex Virus type 1thymidine kinase (HSV-TK). In the present study, cellular uptake of radioiodinated substrates was found to be low in wild type MCA cells, but high in HSV-TK gene expressing cells. The carrier-free substrates, in particular, showed higher cellular uptake than carrier-added compounds. Biodistribution showed that the %ID/g of the MCA-TK/MCA tumor ratio of IVDU injected at 1, 4, and 24 h were 1.1, 0.9 and 1.3, and those of IVFRU were 1.7, 1.7 and 1.8 respectively. Therefore, both IVDU and IVFRU could possibly be used as radiopharmaceuticals to evaluate reporter gene expression. However, IVFRU was more specific and stable than IVDU for selective non-invasive imaging of HSV-TK expression.

  12. Gene

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes,...

  13. Air and metal hydride battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lampinen, M.; Noponen, T. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Lab. of Applied Thermodynamics

    1998-12-31

    The main goal of the air and metal hydride battery project was to enhance the performance and manufacturing technology of both electrodes to such a degree that an air-metal hydride battery could become a commercially and technically competitive power source for electric vehicles. By the end of the project it was possible to demonstrate the very first prototype of the air-metal hydride battery at EV scale, achieving all the required design parameters. (orig.)

  14. Membranes in Lithium Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junbo Hou

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Lithium ion batteries have proven themselves the main choice of power sources for portable electronics. Besides consumer electronics, lithium ion batteries are also growing in popularity for military, electric vehicle, and aerospace applications. The present review attempts to summarize the knowledge about some selected membranes in lithium ion batteries. Based on the type of electrolyte used, literature concerning ceramic-glass and polymer solid ion conductors, microporous filter type separators and polymer gel based membranes is reviewed.

  15. Membranes in lithium ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Min; Hou, Junbo

    2012-07-04

    Lithium ion batteries have proven themselves the main choice of power sources for portable electronics. Besides consumer electronics, lithium ion batteries are also growing in popularity for military, electric vehicle, and aerospace applications. The present review attempts to summarize the knowledge about some selected membranes in lithium ion batteries. Based on the type of electrolyte used, literature concerning ceramic-glass and polymer solid ion conductors, microporous filter type separators and polymer gel based membranes is reviewed.

  16. High energy density lithium batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Aifantis, Katerina E; Kumar, R Vasant

    2010-01-01

    Cell phones, portable computers and other electronic devices crucially depend on reliable, compact yet powerful batteries. Therefore, intensive research is devoted to improving performance and reducing failure rates. Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries promise significant advancement and high application potential for hybrid vehicles, biomedical devices, and everyday appliances. This monograph provides special focus on the methods and approaches for enhancing the performance of next-generation batteries through the use of nanotechnology. Deeper understanding of the mechanisms and strategies is

  17. Comparison of factor VIII transgenes bioengineered for improved expression in gene therapy of hemophilia A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooriss, Kerry L; Denning, Gabriela; Gangadharan, Bagirath; Javazon, Elisabeth H; McCarty, David A; Spencer, H Trent; Doering, Christopher B

    2009-05-01

    Successful gene therapy of hemophilia A depends on the sustained expression of therapeutic levels of factor VIII (fVIII). Because of mRNA instability, interactions with resident endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperones, and the requirement for carbohydrate-facilitated transport from the ER to the Golgi apparatus, fVIII is expressed at much lower levels from mammalian cells than other proteins of similar size and complexity. A number of bioengineered forms of B domain-deleted (BDD) human fVIII have been generated and shown to have enhanced expression. Previously, we demonstrated that recombinant BDD porcine fVIII exhibits high-level expression due to specific sequence elements that increase biosynthesis via enhanced posttranslational transit through the secretory pathway. In the current study, high-expression recombinant fVIII constructs were compared directly in order to determine the relative expression of the various bioengineered fVIII transgenes. The data demonstrate that BDD porcine fVIII expression is superior to that of any of the human fVIII variant constructs tested. Mean fVIII expression of 18 units/10(6) cells/24 hr was observed from HEK-293 cells expressing a single copy of the porcine fVIII transgene, which was 36- to 225-fold greater than that of any human fVIII transgene tested. Furthermore, greater than 10-fold higher expression was observed in human cells transduced with BDD porcine fVIII versus BDD human fVIII-encoding lentiviral vectors, even at low proviral copy numbers, supporting its use over other human fVIII variants in future hemophilia A gene therapy clinical trials.

  18. Comparison of neuronal spike exchange methods on a Blue Gene/P supercomputer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eHines

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The performance of several spike exchange methods using a Blue Gene/P supercomputerhas been tested with 8K to 128K cores using randomly connected networks of up to 32M cells with 1k connections per cell and 4M cells with 10k connections per cell. The spike exchange methods used are the standard Message Passing Interface collective, MPI_Allgather, and several variants of the non-blocking multisend method either implemented via non-blocking MPI_Isend, or exploiting the possibility of very low overhead direct memory access communication available on the Blue Gene/P. In all cases the worst performing method was that using MPI_Isend due to the high overhead of initiating a spike communication. The two best performing methods --- the persistent multisend method using the Record-Replay feature of the Deep Computing Messaging Framework DCMF_Multicast;and a two phase multisend in which a DCMF_Multicast is used to first send to a subset of phase 1 destination cores which then pass it on to their subset of phase 2 destination cores --- had similar performance with very low overhead for the initiation of spike communication. Departure from ideal scaling for the multisend methods is almost completely due to load imbalance caused by the largevariation in number of cells that fire on each processor in the interval between synchronization. Spike exchange time itself is negligible since transmission overlaps with computation and is handled by a direct memory access controller. We conclude that ideal performance scaling will be ultimately limited by imbalance between incoming processor spikes between synchronization intervals. Thus, counterintuitively, maximization of load balance requires that the distribution of cells on processors should not reflect neural net architecture but be randomly distributed so that sets of cells which are burst firing together should be on different processors with their targets on as large a set of processors as possible.

  19. Comparison of in vitro hormone activities of selected phthalates using reporter gene assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ouxi; Du, Guizhen; Sun, Hong; Wu, Wei; Jiang, Yi; Song, Ling; Wang, Xinru

    2009-12-01

    Phthalates are widely used in the plastic industry and food packaging, imparting softness and flexibility to normally rigid plastic medical devices and children's toys. Even though phthalates display low general toxicity, there is increasing concern on the effects of endocrine system induced by some of phthalate compounds. The hormone activity of dibutyl phthalate (DBP), mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP) and di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) were assessed using the luciferase reporter gene assays. The results showed that DBP, MBP and DEHP, not only exhibited potent antiandrogenic activity, with IC(50) value of 1.05x10(-6), 1.22x10(-7)M and exceeding 1x10(-4)M respectively, but also showed the androgenic activity with EC(50) value of 6.17x10(-6), 1.13x10(-5)M and exceeding 1x10(-4)M. We also found that all the three related chemicals possessed thyroid receptor (TR) antagonist activity with IC(50) of 1.31x10(-5), 2.77x10(-6)M and exceeding 1x10(-4)M respectively, and none showed TR agonist activity. These results indicate that TR might be the targets of industrial chemicals. In the ER mediate reporter gene assay, three chemicals showed no agonistic activity except for DBP, which appeared weakly estrogenic at the concentration of 1.0x10(-4)M. Together, the findings demonstrate that the three phthalates could simultaneously disrupt the function of two or more hormonal receptors. Therefore, these phthalates should be considered in risk assessments for human health.

  20. Comparison of cytokine gene polymorphisms among Greek patients with invasive meningococcal disease or viral meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titmarsh, Callum J; Moscovis, Sophia M; Hall, Sharron; Tzanakaki, Georgina; Kesanopoulos, Konstantinos; Xirogianni, Athanasia; Scott, Rodney J; Blackwell, C Caroline

    2013-05-01

    High levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines are implicated in the severity of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) and viral meningitis (VM). This study compared single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine genes among patients with VM or IMD. Patient DNA samples were prepared by the National Meningitis Reference Laboratory in Athens: n=98 for IMD and n=53 for VM. The results for both patient groups were compared with data published for healthy Greek control data. Real-time PCR was used to assess the interleukin (IL) gene SNPs IL6 G-174C, IL1B C-511T, IL1RN T+2018C, IL10 G-1082A and IL8 A-251T and the tumour necrosis factor α (TNF-α) SNP TNFA G-308A. Differences were compared by Fisher's exact test. The genotype for high IL-6 responses was predominant among IMD (51%, P=0.0008) and VM (74.5%, P<0.0001) patients compared with the controls (31%). The genotype associated with high TNF-α responses was 5% among controls and lower for IMD (1.1%, P=0.0014) and VM (0%, P=0.052). There was no difference for IL-8 SNPs between controls and IMD (P=0.162), but the difference was significant for VM (P=0.0025). IL-6 (P=0.024) and IL-8 (P=0.00004) SNPs differed between IMD and VM. Reports on associations between IL-8 SNPs and cytokine responses differ. Because of its role in neutrophil attraction, differences in frequencies of the IL-8 SNP for IMD and VM require further investigation.

  1. A quantitative comparison of the similarity between genes and geography in worldwide human populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chaolong; Zöllner, Sebastian; Rosenberg, Noah A

    2012-08-01

    Multivariate statistical techniques such as principal components analysis (PCA) and multidimensional scaling (MDS) have been widely used to summarize the structure of human genetic variation, often in easily visualized two-dimensional maps. Many recent studies have reported similarity between geographic maps of population locations and MDS or PCA maps of genetic variation inferred from single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). However, this similarity has been evident primarily in a qualitative sense; and, because different multivariate techniques and marker sets have been used in different studies, it has not been possible to formally compare genetic variation datasets in terms of their levels of similarity with geography. In this study, using genome-wide SNP data from 128 populations worldwide, we perform a systematic analysis to quantitatively evaluate the similarity of genes and geography in different geographic regions. For each of a series of regions, we apply a Procrustes analysis approach to find an optimal transformation that maximizes the similarity between PCA maps of genetic variation and geographic maps of population locations. We consider examples in Europe, Sub-Saharan Africa, Asia, East Asia, and Central/South Asia, as well as in a worldwide sample, finding that significant similarity between genes and geography exists in general at different geographic levels. The similarity is highest in our examples for Asia and, once highly distinctive populations have been removed, Sub-Saharan Africa. Our results provide a quantitative assessment of the geographic structure of human genetic variation worldwide, supporting the view that geography plays a strong role in giving rise to human population structure.

  2. Characterization of vanadium flow battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bindner, H.; Ekman, C.; Gehrke, O.; Isleifsson, F.

    2010-10-15

    This report summarizes the work done at Risoe DTU testing a vanadium flow battery as part of the project 'Characterisation of Vanadium Batteries' (ForskEl project 6555) with the partners PA Energy A/S and OI Electric A/S under the Danish PSO energy research program. A 15kW/120kWh vanadium battery has been installed as part of the distributed energy systems experimental facility, SYSLAB, at Risoe DTU. A test programme has been carried out to get hands-on experience with the technology, to characterize the battery from a power system point of view and to assess it with respect to integration of wind energy in the Danish power system. The battery has been in operation for 18 months. During time of operation the battery has not shown signs of degradation of performance. It has a round-trip efficiency at full load of approximately 60% (depending on temperature and SOC). The sources of the losses are power conversion in cell stacks/electrolyte, power converter, and auxiliary power consumption from pumps and controller. The response time for the battery is limited at 20kW/s by the ramp rate of the power converter. The battery can thus provide power and frequency support for the power system. Vanadium battery is a potential technology for storage based services to the power system provided investment and O and M cost are low enough and long term operation is documented. (Author)

  3. Trends in Cardiac Pacemaker Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkateswara Sarma Mallela

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Batteries used in Implantable cardiac pacemakers-present unique challenges to their developers and manufacturers in terms of high levels of safety and reliability. In addition, the batteries must have longevity to avoid frequent replacements. Technological advances in leads/electrodes have reduced energy requirements by two orders of magnitude. Micro-electronics advances sharply reduce internal current drain concurrently decreasing size and increasing functionality, reliability, and longevity. It is reported that about 600,000 pacemakers are implanted each year worldwide and the total number of people with various types of implanted pacemaker has already crossed 3 million. A cardiac pacemaker uses half of its battery power for cardiac stimulation and the other half for housekeeping tasks such as monitoring and data logging. The first implanted cardiac pacemaker used nickel-cadmium rechargeable battery, later on zinc-mercury battery was developed and used which lasted for over 2 years. Lithium iodine battery invented and used by Wilson Greatbatch and his team in 1972 made the real impact to implantable cardiac pacemakers. This battery lasts for about 10 years and even today is the power source for many manufacturers of cardiac pacemakers. This paper briefly reviews various developments of battery technologies since the inception of cardiac pacemaker and presents the alternative to lithium iodine battery for the near future.

  4. A VRLA battery simulation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pascoe, P.E.; Anbuky, A.H. [Invensys Energy Systems NZ Limited, Christchurch (New Zealand)

    2004-05-01

    A valve regulated lead acid (VRLA) battery simulation model is an invaluable tool for the standby power system engineer. The obvious use for such a model is to allow the assessment of battery performance. This may involve determining the influence of cells suffering from state of health (SOH) degradation on the performance of the entire string, or the running of test scenarios to ascertain the most suitable battery size for the application. In addition, it enables the engineer to assess the performance of the overall power system. This includes, for example, running test scenarios to determine the benefits of various load shedding schemes. It also allows the assessment of other power system components, either for determining their requirements and/or vulnerabilities. Finally, a VRLA battery simulation model is vital as a stand alone tool for educational purposes. Despite the fundamentals of the VRLA battery having been established for over 100 years, its operating behaviour is often poorly understood. An accurate simulation model enables the engineer to gain a better understanding of VRLA battery behaviour. A system level multipurpose VRLA battery simulation model is presented. It allows an arbitrary battery (capacity, SOH, number of cells and number of strings) to be simulated under arbitrary operating conditions (discharge rate, ambient temperature, end voltage, charge rate and initial state of charge). The model accurately reflects the VRLA battery discharge and recharge behaviour. This includes the complex start of discharge region known as the coup de fouet. (author)

  5. Battery Post-Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Post-test diagnostics of aged batteries can provide additional information regarding the cause of performance degradation, which, previously, could be only inferred...

  6. ZEBRA battery meets USABC goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dustmann, Cord-H.

    In 1990, the California Air Resources Board has established a mandate to introduce electric vehicles in order to improve air quality in Los Angeles and other capitals. The United States Advanced Battery Consortium has been formed by the big car companies, Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the Department of Energy in order to establish the requirements on EV-batteries and to support battery development. The ZEBRA battery system is a candidate to power future electric vehicles. Not only because its energy density is three-fold that of lead acid batteries (50% more than NiMH) but also because of all the other EV requirements such as power density, no maintenance, summer and winter operation, safety, failure tolerance and low cost potential are fulfilled. The electrode material is plain salt and nickel in combination with a ceramic electrolyte. The cell voltage is 2.58 V and the capacity of a standard cell is 32 Ah. Some hundred cells are connected in series and parallel to form a battery with about 300 V OCV. The battery system including battery controller, main circuit-breaker and cooling system is engineered for vehicle integration and ready to be mounted in a vehicle [J. Gaub, A. van Zyl, Mercedes-Benz Electric Vehicles with ZEBRA Batteries, EVS-14, Orlando, FL, Dec. 1997]. The background of these features are described.

  7. Recent developments in cathode materials for lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fergus, Jeffrey W. [Auburn University, Materials Research and Education Center, 275 Wilmore Laboratories, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States)

    2010-02-15

    One of the challenges for improving the performance of lithium ion batteries to meet increasingly demanding requirements for energy storage is the development of suitable cathode materials. Cathode materials must be able to accept and release lithium ions repeatedly (for recharging) and quickly (for high current). Transition metal oxides based on the {alpha}-NaFeO{sub 2}, spinel and olivine structures have shown promise, but improvements are needed to reduce cost and extend effective lifetime. In this paper, recent developments in cathode materials for lithium ion batteries are reviewed. This includes comparison of the performance characteristics of the promising cathode materials and approaches for improving their performances. (author)

  8. Review on Electric Vehicle, Battery Charger, Charging Station and Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afida Ayob

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Electric vehicles are a new and upcoming technology in the transportation and power sector that have many benefits in terms of economic and environmental. This study presents a comprehensive review and evaluation of various types of electric vehicles and its associated equipment in particular battery charger and charging station. A comparison is made on the commercial and prototype electric vehicles in terms of electric range, battery size, charger power and charging time. The various types of charging stations and standards used for charging electric vehicles have been outlined and the impact of electric vehicle charging on utility distribution system is also discussed.

  9. Hubble space telescope onboard battery performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Gopalakrishna M.; Wajsgras, Harry; Vaidyanathan, Hari; Armontrout, Jon D.

    1996-01-01

    The performance of six 88 Ah Nickel-Hydrogen (Ni-H2) batteries that are used onboard in the Hubble Space Telescope (Flight Spare Module (FSM) and Flight Module 2 (FM2)) is discussed. These batteries have 22 series cells per battery and a common bus that would enable them to operate at a common voltage. It is launched on April 24, 1990. This paper reviews: the cell design, battery specification, system constraints, operating parameters, onboard battery management, and battery performance.

  10. Battery Cell Balancing System and Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Francis J. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A battery cell balancing system is operable to utilize a relatively small number of transformers interconnected with a battery having a plurality of battery cells to selectively charge the battery cells. Windings of the transformers are simultaneously driven with a plurality of waveforms whereupon selected battery cells or groups of cells are selected and charged. A transformer drive circuit is operable to selectively vary the waveforms to thereby vary a weighted voltage associated with each of the battery cells.

  11. Advanced Battery Diagnosis for Electric Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Lamichhane, Chudamani

    2008-01-01

    Summary Literatures on battery technologies and diagnosis of its parameters were studied. The innovative battery technologies from basic knowledge to world standard testing procedures were analysed and discussed in the report. The established battery test station and flowchart was followed during the battery test preparation and testing. In order to understand and verify the battery performance, the well established test procedures developed by USABC (United States Advanced Battery Consorti...

  12. Novel Mutations of the Tetratricopeptide Repeat Domain 7A Gene and Phenotype/Genotype Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reyin Lien

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The gastrointestinal tract contains the largest lymphoid organ to react with pathogenic microorganisms and suppress excess inflammation. Patients with primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDs can suffer from refractory diarrhea. In this study, we present two siblings who began to suffer from refractory diarrhea with a poor response to aggressive antibiotic and immunosuppressive treatment after surgical release of neonatal intestinal obstruction. Their lymphocyte proliferation was low, but superoxide production and IL-10 signaling were normal. Candidate genetic approach targeted to genes involved in PIDs with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD-like manifestation was unrevealing. Whole-genome sequencing revealed novel heterozygous mutations Glu75Lys and nucleotide 520–521 CT deletion in the tetratricopeptide repeat domain 7A (TTC7A gene. A Medline search identified 49 patients with TTC7A mutations, of whom 20 survived. Their phenotypes included both multiple intestinal atresia (MIA and combined T and/or B immunodeficiency (CID in 16, both IBD and CID in 14, isolated MIA in 8, MIA, IBD, and CID complex in 8, and isolated IBD in 3. Of these 98 mutant alleles over-through the coding region clustering on exon 2 (40 alleles, exon 7 (12 alleles, and exon 20 (10 alleles, 2 common hotspot mutations were c.211 G>A (p.E71K in exon 2 in 26 alleles and AAGT deletion in exon 7 (+3 in 10 alleles. Kaplan–Meier analysis showed that those with biallelic missense mutations (p = 0.0168, unaffected tetratricopeptide repeat domains (p = 0.0311, and developing autoimmune disorders (p = 0.001 had a relatively better prognosis. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT restored immunity and seemed to decrease the frequency of infections; however, refractory diarrhea persisted. Clinical improvement was reported upon intestinal and liver transplantation in a child with CID and MIA of unknown genetic etiology. In conclusion, patients with TTC7A mutations

  13. GABAA receptor subunit gene expression in human prefrontal cortex: comparison of schizophrenics and controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbarian, S.; Huntsman, M. M.; Kim, J. J.; Tafazzoli, A.; Potkin, S. G.; Bunney, W. E. Jr; Jones, E. G.; Bloom, F. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1995-01-01

    The prefrontal cortex of schizophrenics is hypoactive and displays changes related to inhibitory, GABAergic neurons, and GABAergic synapses. These changes include decreased levels of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), the enzyme for GABA synthesis, upregulation of muscimol binding, and downregulation of benzodiazepine binding to GABAA receptors. Studies in the visual cortex of nonhuman primates have demonstrated that gene expression for GAD and for several GABAA receptor subunit polypeptides is under control of neuronal activity, raising the possibility that similar mechanisms in the hypoactive prefrontal cortex of schizophrenics may explain the abnormalities in GAD and in GABAA receptor regulation. In the present study, which is the first of its type on human cerebral cortex, levels of mRNAs for six GABAA receptor subunits (alpha 1, alpha 2, alpha 5, beta 1, beta 2, gamma 2) and their laminar expression patterns were analyzed in the prefrontal cortex of schizophrenics and matched controls, using in situ hybridization histochemistry and densitometry. Three types of laminar expression pattern were observed: mRNAs for the alpha 1, beta 2, and gamma 2 subunits, which are the predominant receptor subunits expressed in the mature cortex, were expressed at comparatively high levels by cells of all six cortical layers, but most intensely by cells in lower layer III and layer IV. mRNAs for the alpha 2, alpha 5, and beta 1 subunits were expressed at lower levels; alpha 2 and beta 1 were expressed predominantly by cells in layers II, III, and IV; alpha 5 was expressed predominantly in layers IV, V, and VI. There were no significant changes in overall mRNA levels for any of the receptor subunits in the prefrontal cortex of schizophrenics, and the laminar expression pattern of all six receptor subunit mRNAs did not differ between schizophrenics and controls. Because gene expression for GABAA receptor subunits is not consistently altered in the prefrontal cortex of

  14. Comparison of the expression levels of Fas and Apaf-1 genes in systemic sclerosis dermal fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Abed Khojasteh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Systemic sclerosis (SSc is an autoimmune rheumatic connective tissue disease. In normal wound healing process, fibroblasts are activated, proliferated and involved in tissue repair, and then removed by apoptosis. In systemic sclerosis, patient’s fibrosis occurs when fibroblasts become resistant to apoptosis and secrete a large amount of collagen and other extracellular matrixes. As the primary causes the disease are very complex and often unknown, it is necessary to consider or target the secondary causes of disease, such as the unresponsiveness of activated fibroblasts to apoptosis as the major factor in the creation and deployment of illness. In this study, we examined the expression levels of two key pro-apoptotic genes, Fas and Apaf-1, which are respectively involved in external and internal pathway of apoptosis. Methods: In a case-control study skin biopsy samples were obtained from 19 patients with diffuse SSc, and 16 healthy controls. Dermal fibroblasts were cultured and total RNA was isolated from cell populations using High Pure RNA Isolation Kit (Roche Applied Science, Mannheim, Germany, followed by cDNA synthesis using RevertAid First Strand cDNA Synthesis Kit (Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc., Massachusetts, USA. Real-time PCR was performed using SYBRGreen gene expression master mix (Takara Shuzo, Co., Ltd, Shiga, Japan and specific primers for Fas and Apaf-1. Real-time data were analyzed using the (2-ΔCT×1000 method. Statistical analysis was accomplished by using the SPSS software, v22 (IBM, Armonk, NY, USA. The P value less than 0.05 were recognized as a significant threshold. All data are represented as the mean ± SEM. Results: Our results showed no significant difference in Fas (P=0.8 and Apaf-1 (P=0.17 mRNA expression levels between skin fibroblasts of systemic sclerosis patients and healthy controls. Conclusion: In this study we observed no significant change in Apaf-1 and Fas mRNA levels in systemic sclerosis

  15. Optimised battery capacity utilisation within battery management systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilkins, S.; Rosca, B.; Jacob, J.; Hoedmaekers, E.

    2015-01-01

    Battery Management Systems (BMSs) play a key role in the performance of both hybrid and fully electric vehicles. Typically, the role of the BMS is to help maintain safety, performance, and overall efficiency of the battery pack. One important aspect of its operation is the estimation of the state of

  16. Optimised battery capacity utilisation within battery management systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilkins, S.; Rosca, B.; Jacob, J.; Hoedmaekers, E.

    2015-01-01

    Battery Management Systems (BMSs) play a key role in the performance of both hybrid and fully electric vehicles. Typically, the role of the BMS is to help maintain safety, performance, and overall efficiency of the battery pack. One important aspect of its operation is the estimation of the state of

  17. Effect of Drought on Herbivore-Induced Plant Gene Expression: Population Comparison for Range Limit Inferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunbharpur Singh Gill

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Low elevation “trailing edge” range margin populations typically face increases in both abiotic and biotic stressors that may contribute to range limit development. We hypothesize that selection may act on ABA and JA signaling pathways for more stable expression needed for range expansion, but that antagonistic crosstalk prevents their simultaneous co-option. To test this hypothesis, we compared high and low elevation populations of Boechera stricta that have diverged with respect to constitutive levels of glucosinolate defenses and root:shoot ratios; neither population has high levels of both traits. If constraints imposed by antagonistic signaling underlie this divergence, one would predict that high constitutive levels of traits would coincide with lower plasticity. To test this prediction, we compared the genetically diverged populations in a double challenge drought-herbivory growth chamber experiment. Although a glucosinolate defense response to the generalist insect herbivore Spodoptera exigua was attenuated under drought conditions, the plastic defense response did not differ significantly between populations. Similarly, although several potential drought tolerance traits were measured, only stomatal aperture behavior, as measured by carbon isotope ratios, was less plastic as predicted in the high elevation population. However, RNAseq results on a small subset of plants indicated differential expression of relevant genes between populations as predicted. We suggest that the ambiguity in our results stems from a weaker link between the pathways and the functional traits compared to transcripts.

  18. Comparison of different disinfection processes in the effective removal of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Junsik; Salcedo, Dennis Espineli; Medriano, Carl Angelo; Kim, Sungpyo

    2014-06-01

    This study compared three different disinfection processes (chlorination, E-beam, and ozone) and the efficacy of three oxidants (H2O2, S2O(-)8, and peroxymonosulfate (MPS)) in removing antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in a synthetic wastewater. More than 30 mg/L of chlorine was needed to remove over 90% of ARB and ARG. For the E-beam method, only 1 dose (kGy) was needed to remove ARB and ARG, and ozone could reduce ARB and ARG by more than 90% even at 3 mg/L ozone concentration. In the ozone process, CT values (concentration × time) were compared for ozone alone and combined with different catalysts based on the 2-log removal of ARB and ARG. Ozone treatment yielded a value of 31 and 33 (mg·min)/L for ARB and ARGs respectively. On the other hand, ozone with persulfate yielded 15.9 and 18.5 (mg·min)/L while ozone with monopersulfate yielded a value of 12 and 14.5 (mg·min)/L. This implies that the addition of these catalysts significantly reduces the contact time to achieve a 2-log removal, thus enhancing the process in terms of its kinetics.

  19. Comparison of Calcitonin Gene Related Peptide Level between Children with Dilated Cardiomyopathy and Control Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noormohammad Noori

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dilated cardiomyopathy is revealed with left ventricular dilatation and systolic dysfunction. Objectives: This study aimed to compare the children with dilated cardiomyopathy and control group regarding the level of Calcitonin Gene Related Peptide (CGRP and its relationship with echocardiography findings Patients and Methods: This case-control study was conducted on 37 children with dilated cardiomyopathy and free of any clinical symptoms and 37 healthy age- and sex-matched children referring to Ali-e-Asghar and Ali Ebne Abitaleb hospitals in Zahedan, Iran. After taking history, echocardiography was performed for both groups. The data were analyzed using the SPSS statistical software and appropriate statistical tests. Results: The two groups were significantly different regarding most of the echocardiographic parameters (P < 0.05. Also, a significant difference was found between the two groups concerning the mean CGRP levels (P = 0.001. Among echocardiographic parameters, CGRP was directly related to Interventricular Septal dimension in Systole (IVSS (P = 0.022, R = 0.375. However, no significant relationship was observed between CGRP level and Ross classification. Conclusions: The findings of this study showed an increase in CGRP serum levels in the case group. Besides, a direct correlation was observed between CGRP level and IVSS.

  20. Comparison of 16S rRNA gene phylogeny and functional tfdA gene distribution in thirty-one different 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid degraders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baelum, Jacob; Jacobsen, Carsten S; Holben, William E

    2010-03-01

    31 different bacterial strains isolated using the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) as the sole source of carbon, were investigated for their ability to mineralize 2,4-D and the related herbicide 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid (MCPA). Most of the strains mineralize 2,4-D considerably faster than MCPA. Three novel primer sets were developed enabling amplification of full-length coding sequences (CDS) of the three known tfdA gene classes known to be involved in phenoxy acid degradation. 16S rRNA genes were also sequenced; and in order to investigate possible linkage between tfdA gene classes and bacterial species, tfdA and 16S rRNA gene phylogeny was compared. Three distinctly different classes of tfdA genes were observed, with class I tfdA sequences further partitioned into the two sub-classes I-a and I-b based on more subtle differences. Comparison of phylogenies derived from 16S rRNA gene sequences and tfdA gene sequences revealed that most class II tfdA genes were encoded by Burkholderia sp., while class I-a, I-b and III genes were found in a more diverse array of bacteria. Copyright 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Analysis and Comparison of Requirements of Safety of Lithium-ion Batteries Using in Mobile Phones between China and USA%中美手机用锂离子电池安全要求的分析比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王水生; 林金强

    2012-01-01

    介绍中美两国手机用锂离子电池的安全要求,并按照环境适应性、机械安全、电气安全、其他安全四部分划分原则,分析比较两个国家手机用锂离子电池安全要求的差异,为今后我国制修订锂离子电池安全标准和出口生产企业提供参考。%It introduces the requirements of safety of lithium-ion batteries using in mobile phones in China and USA,and according to the four rulers of environmental suitability,safety of machinery,safety of electricity and other safety, it analyses and compares the differences requirements of safety of lithium-ion batteries using in mobile phones between two countries,aftertime,it provides references for our country to draft out or emend the standards of safety of lithium-ion batteries and for export enterprises.

  2. A Critical Assessment of the Resource Depletion Potential of Current and Future Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens F. Peters

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Resource depletion aspects are repeatedly used as an argument for a shift towards new battery technologies. However, whether serious shortages due to the increased demand for traction and stationary batteries can actually be expected is subject to an ongoing discussion. In order to identify the principal drivers of resource depletion for battery production, we assess different lithium-ion battery types and a new lithium-free battery technology (sodium-ion under this aspect, applying different assessment methodologies. The findings show that very different results are obtained with existing impact assessment methodologies, which hinders clear interpretation. While cobalt, nickel and copper can generally be considered as critical metals, the magnitude of their depletion impacts in comparison with that of other battery materials like lithium, aluminum or manganese differs substantially. A high importance is also found for indirect resource depletion effects caused by the co-extraction of metals from mixed ores. Remarkably, the resource depletion potential per kg of produced battery is driven only partially by the electrode materials and thus depends comparably little on the battery chemistry itself. One of the key drivers for resource depletion seems to be the metals (and co-products in electronic parts required for the battery management system, a component rather independent from the actual battery chemistry. However, when assessing the batteries on a capacity basis (per kWh storage capacity, a high-energy density also turns out to be relevant, since it reduces the mass of battery required for providing one kWh, and thus the associated resource depletion impacts.

  3. Comparison of Two Different PCR-based Methods for Detection of GAA Expansions in Frataxin Gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entezam, Mona; Amirfiroozi, Akbar; Togha, Mansoureh; Keramatipour, Mohammad

    2017-02-01

    Expansion of GAA trinucleotide repeats is the molecular basis of Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA). Precise detection of the GAA expansion repeat in frataxin gene has always been a challenge. Different molecular methods have been suggested for detection of GAA expansion, including; short-PCR, long-PCR, Triplet repeat primed-PCR (TP-PCR) and southern blotting. The aim of study was to evaluate two PCR-based methods, TP-PCR and long-PCR, and to explore the use of TP-PCR accompanying with long-PCR for accurate genotyping of FRDA patients. Blood samples were collected from six Iranian patients suspected to FRDA, who referred to the Department of Medical Genetics at Tehran University of Medical Sciences during the year 2014. For one of these patients' four asymptomatic members of the family were also recruited for the analysis. DNA extraction was performed by two different methods. TP-PCR and long-PCR were carried out in all samples. The type of this study is assessment / investigation of methods. Using a combination of the above methods, the genotypes of all samples were confirmed as five homozygous mutants (expanded GAA repeats), two heterozygous and three homozygous normal (normal repeat size). The results obtained by TP-PCR are consistent with long-PCR results. The presence or absence of expanded alleles can be identified correctly by TP-PCR. Performing long-PCR and Fluorescent-long-PCR enables accurate genotyping in all samples. This approach is highly reliable. It could be successfully used for detection of GAA expansion repeats.

  4. A novel regucalcin gene promoter region-related protein: comparison of nucleotide and amino acid sequences in vertebrate species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, Natsumi; Yamaguchi, Masayoshi

    2005-01-01

    The molecular cloning and sequencing of the cDNA coding for a novel regucalcin gene promoter region-related protein (RGPR-p117) from bovine, rabbit and chicken livers was investigated using rapid amplification of cDNA endo (RACE) method. Their nucleotide and amino acid sequences were compared with human, rat and mouse sequences published previously. RGPR-p117 of bovine, rabbit and chicken livers consisted of 1052, 1045, and 929 amino acid residues with calculated molecular mass of 117, 114, and 103 kDa, and estimated pI of 5.64, 5.84, and 5.59, respectively. Comparison analysis revealed that the nucleotide sequences of RGPR-p117 from mammalian species were highly-conserved in their coding region, and the homologies were at least 72.9%. The RGPR-p117 proteins in mammalian species consisted of 1045-1060 amino acids, and had 63.1-90.2% identity. Meanwhile, the nucleotide and amino acid sequences of chicken RGPR-p117 had at least 36.4 and 43.7% identities, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis showed that RGPR-p117 in six vertebrates appears to form a single cluster. Mammalian RGPR-p117 conserved a leucine zipper motif. Moreover, the analysis for subcellular localization of RGPR-p117 from six vertebrates showed the probability of nuclear localization >52.2%; the nuclear localization in rat and mouse was 78.3%. This study demonstrates a great conservation of RGPR-p117 genes throughout evolution.

  5. Which battery model to use?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, M.R.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.

    2008-01-01

    The use of mobile devices like cell phones, navigation systems, or laptop computers, is limited by the lifetime of the included batteries. This lifetime depends naturally on the rate at which energy is consumed, however, it also depends on the usage pattern of the battery. Continuous drawing of a hi

  6. Redox Flow Batteries, a Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knoxville, U. Tennessee; U. Texas Austin; U, McGill; Weber, Adam Z.; Mench, Matthew M.; Meyers, Jeremy P.; Ross, Philip N.; Gostick, Jeffrey T.; Liu, Qinghua

    2011-07-15

    Redox flow batteries are enjoying a renaissance due to their ability to store large amounts of electrical energy relatively cheaply and efficiently. In this review, we examine the components of redox flow batteries with a focus on understanding the underlying physical processes. The various transport and kinetic phenomena are discussed along with the most common redox couples.

  7. Which battery model to use?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, M.R.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.

    2008-01-01

    The use of mobile devices like cell phones, navigation systems, or laptop computers, is limited by the lifetime of the included batteries. This lifetime depends naturally on the rate at which energy is consumed, however, it also depends on the usage pattern of the battery. Continuous drawing of a

  8. Which battery model to use?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, Marijn R.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.

    2009-01-01

    The use of mobile devices like cell phones, navigation systems or laptop computers is limited by the lifetime of the included batteries. This lifetime depends naturally on the rate at which energy is consumed; however, it also depends on the usage pattern of the battery. Continuous drawing of a high

  9. Automotive Battery Modelling and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Hammad

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The estimation of vehicle battery performance is typically addressed by testing the battery under specific operation conditions by using a model to represent the test results. Approaches for representing test results range from simple statistical models to neural networks to complex, physics-based models. Basing the model on test data could be problematical when testing becomes impractical with many years life time tests. So, real time estimation of battery performance, an important problem in automotive applications, falls into this area. In vehicles it is important to know the state of charge of the batteries in order to prevent vehicle stranding and to ensure that the full range of the vehicle operation is exploited. In this paper, several battery models have studied including analytical, electrical circuits, stochastic and electro- chemical models. Valve Regulated Lead Acid “VRLA” battery has been modelled using electric circuit technique. This model is considered in the proposed Battery Monitoring System “BMS”. The proposed BMS includes data acquisition, data analysis and prediction of battery performance under a hypothetical future loads. Based on these criteria, a microprocessor based BMS prototype had been built and tested in automotive Lab,. The tests show promising results that can be used in industrial applications

  10. Battery system with temperature sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Steven J.; Trester, Dale B.

    2012-11-13

    A battery system to monitor temperature includes at least one cell with a temperature sensing device proximate the at least one cell. The battery system also includes a flexible member that holds the temperature sensor proximate to the at least one cell.

  11. Battery system with temperature sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Steven J.; Trester, Dale B.

    2012-11-13

    A battery system to monitor temperature includes at least one cell with a temperature sensing device proximate the at least one cell. The battery system also includes a flexible member that holds the temperature sensor proximate to the at least one cell.

  12. Which battery model to use?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, M.R.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.

    2009-01-01

    The use of mobile devices like cell phones, navigation systems or laptop computers is limited by the lifetime of the included batteries. This lifetime depends naturally on the rate at which energy is consumed; however, it also depends on the usage pattern of the battery. Continuous drawing of a high

  13. Electric vehicle battery charging controller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    to a battery management system in the electric vehicle to charge a battery therein, a first communication unit for receiving a charging message via a communication network, and a control unit for controlling a charging current provided from the charge source to the electric vehicle, the controlling at least...

  14. Ceramic and polymeric solid electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fergus, Jeffrey W. [Auburn University, Materials Research and Education Center, 275 Wilmore Laboratories, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States)

    2010-08-01

    Lithium-ion batteries are important for energy storage in a wide variety of applications including consumer electronics, transportation and large-scale energy production. The performance of lithium-ion batteries depends on the materials used. One critical component is the electrolyte, which is the focus of this paper. In particular, inorganic ceramic and organic polymer solid-electrolyte materials are reviewed. Solid electrolytes provide advantages in terms of simplicity of design and operational safety, but typically have conductivities that are lower than those of organic liquid electrolytes. This paper provides a comparison of the conductivities of solid-electrolyte materials being used or developed for use in lithium-ion batteries. (author)

  15. In silico comparison of genomic regions containing genes coding for enzymes and transcription factors for the phenylpropanoid pathway in Phaseolus vulgaris L. and Glycine max L. Merr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinprecht, Yarmilla; Yadegari, Zeinab; Perry, Gregory E.; Siddiqua, Mahbuba; Wright, Lori C.; McClean, Phillip E.; Pauls, K. Peter

    2013-01-01

    Legumes contain a variety of phytochemicals derived from the phenylpropanoid pathway that have important effects on human health as well as seed coat color, plant disease resistance and nodulation. However, the information about the genes involved in this important pathway is fragmentary in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). The objectives of this research were to isolate genes that function in and control the phenylpropanoid pathway in common bean, determine their genomic locations in silico in common bean and soybean, and analyze sequences of the 4CL gene family in two common bean genotypes. Sequences of phenylpropanoid pathway genes available for common bean or other plant species were aligned, and the conserved regions were used to design sequence-specific primers. The PCR products were cloned and sequenced and the gene sequences along with common bean gene-based (g) markers were BLASTed against the Glycine max v.1.0 genome and the P. vulgaris v.1.0 (Andean) early release genome. In addition, gene sequences were BLASTed against the OAC Rex (Mesoamerican) genome sequence assembly. In total, fragments of 46 structural and regulatory phenylpropanoid pathway genes were characterized in this way and placed in silico on common bean and soybean sequence maps. The maps contain over 250 common bean g and SSR (simple sequence repeat) markers and identify the positions of more than 60 additional phenylpropanoid pathway gene sequences, plus the putative locations of seed coat color genes. The majority of cloned phenylpropanoid pathway gene sequences were mapped to one location in the common bean genome but had two positions in soybean. The comparison of the genomic maps confirmed previous studies, which show that common bean and soybean share genomic regions, including those containing phenylpropanoid pathway gene sequences, with conserved synteny. Indels identified in the comparison of Andean and Mesoamerican common bean 4CL gene sequences might be used to develop inter

  16. Comparison of neuronal spike exchange methods on a Blue Gene/P supercomputer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Michael; Kumar, Sameer; Schürmann, Felix

    2011-01-01

    For neural network simulations on parallel machines, interprocessor spike communication can be a significant portion of the total simulation time. The performance of several spike exchange methods using a Blue Gene/P (BG/P) supercomputer has been tested with 8-128 K cores using randomly connected networks of up to 32 M cells with 1 k connections per cell and 4 M cells with 10 k connections per cell, i.e., on the order of 4·10(10) connections (K is 1024, M is 1024(2), and k is 1000). The spike exchange methods used are the standard Message Passing Interface (MPI) collective, MPI_Allgather, and several variants of the non-blocking Multisend method either implemented via non-blocking MPI_Isend, or exploiting the possibility of very low overhead direct memory access (DMA) communication available on the BG/P. In all cases, the worst performing method was that using MPI_Isend due to the high overhead of initiating a spike communication. The two best performing methods-the persistent Multisend method using the Record-Replay feature of the Deep Computing Messaging Framework DCMF_Multicast; and a two-phase multisend in which a DCMF_Multicast is used to first send to a subset of phase one destination cores, which then pass it on to their subset of phase two destination cores-had similar performance with very low overhead for the initiation of spike communication. Departure from ideal scaling for the Multisend methods is almost completely due to load imbalance caused by the large variation in number of cells that fire on each processor in the interval between synchronization. Spike exchange time itself is negligible since transmission overlaps with computation and is handled by a DMA controller. We conclude that ideal performance scaling will be ultimately limited by imbalance between incoming processor spikes between synchronization intervals. Thus, counterintuitively, maximization of load balance requires that the distribution of cells on processors should not reflect

  17. Sensitivity of a Tier I screening battery compared to an in utero exposure for detecting the estrogen receptor agonist 17 beta-estradiol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, J C; Frame, S R; Biegel, L B; Cook, J C; Davis, L G

    1998-08-01

    A Tier I screening battery for detecting endocrine active compounds (EACs) has been evaluated for its ability to identify 17 beta-estradiol, a pure estrogen receptor agonist. In addition, the responses obtained with the Tier I battery were compared to the responses obtained from F1 generation rats from a 90-day/one-generation reproduction study with 17 beta-estradiol in order to characterize the sensitivity of the Tier I battery against the sensitivity of an in utero exposure for detecting EACs. The Tier I battery incorporates two short-term in vivo tests (5-day ovariectomized female battery; 15-day intact male battery) and an in vitro yeast transactivation system (YTS) for identifying compounds that alter endocrine homeostasis. The Tier I female battery consists of traditional uterotrophic endpoints coupled with biochemical and hormonal endpoints. It is designed to identify compounds that are estrogenic/antiestrogenic or modulate dopamine levels. The Tier I male battery consists of organ weights coupled with microscopic evaluations and a comprehensive hormonal assessment. It is designed to identify compounds that have the potential to act as agonists or antagonists to the estrogen, androgen, progesterone, or dopamine receptor; steroid biosynthesis inhibitors (aromatase, 5 alpha-reductase, and testosterone biosynthesis); or compounds that alter thyroid function. The YTS is designed to identify compounds that bind to steroid hormone receptors (estrogen, androgen, and progesterone) and activate gene transcription. The profile generated for 17 beta-estradiol was characteristic of the responses expected with a pure estrogen receptor agonist. In the female battery, responses to 17 beta-estradiol included increases in uterine fluid imbibition, uterine weight, estrus conversion, uterine stromal cell proliferation, uterine epithelial cell height, uterine progesterone receptor content, serum prolactin and estradiol levels, and decreases in uterine estrogen receptor content

  18. Inhibition of tumor growth in xenografted nude mice with adenovirus-mediated endostatin gene comparison with recombinant endostatin protein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁志慧; 吴沛宏; 李立; 薛刚; 曾益新; 黄文林

    2004-01-01

    Background Inhibition of tumor growth by endostatin has been shown to be an effective strategy in cancer therapy in mice. However, its widespread application has been hampered by difficulties in a large-scale production of the recombinant endostatin protein, rapid loss bioactivity of the protein, and the cumbersome daily administration. These limitations could be resolved by in vivo delivery and expression of the endostatin gene. In this study, we observed the effect and advantage of endostatin gene therapy mediated by a recombinant adenoviral vector (Ad/hEndo) on the growth of hepatocellular carcinoma BEL-7402 xenografted tumors, comparison with recombinant endostatin protein.Results After 4 courses of treatment, the tumor growth rates of high-dose treated group with 1×109 pfu of Ad/hEndo were inhibited by 42.26% compared with the Ad/LacZ control group (P=0.001) and by 46.26% compared with the NIH buffer control group (P=0.003), respectively. However, in this study, Ad/hEndo at low dose of 5×108 pfu failed to demonstrate significant inhibition of tumor growth, compared with control groups. After daily administration of recombinant human endostatin protein (rhEndo) for 9 days, the ratio of T/C (rhEndo group versus PBS group) was less than 47%. However, two days after rhEndo treatment ceased, the ratio of T/C was more than 50%. The peak of expression of endostatin mRNA in tumor tissue was at 2 or 3 days after administration intratumorally with Ad/hEndo of 1×109 pfu and gradually dropped undetectable by day 7. Dynamic analysis of endostatin concentration in tumor tissue showed that the highest level of mRNA is up at the third day after injection, and dropped to basal level three weeks later.Conclusions Endostatin gene therapy mediated by a recombinant adenoviral vector had significantly inhibited the growth of hepatocellular carcinoma BEL-7402 xenografted tumors at a high dose of 1×109 pfu compared with other groups. The analysis of dynamic expression of

  19. Grouping and comparison of Indian citrus tristeza virus isolates based on coat protein gene sequences and restriction analysis patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, A; Ramachandran, P; Brlansky, R H

    2003-04-01

    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is an aphid-transmitted closterovirus, which causes one of the most important citrus diseases worldwide. Isolates of CTV differ widely in their biological properties. CTV-infected samples were collected from four locations in India: Bangalore (CTV-B), Delhi (CTV-D), Nagpur (CTV-N), and Pune (CTV-P), and were maintained by grafting into Kagzi lime ( Citrus aurantifolia (Christm. Swing.). All isolates produced typical vein clearing and flecking symptoms 6-8 weeks after grafting. In addition, CTV-B and CTV-P isolates produced stem-pitting symptoms after 8-10 months. The CTV coat protein gene (CPG) was amplified by RT-PCR using CPG specific primers, yielding an amplicon of 672 bp for all the isolates. Sequence analysis of the CPG amplicon of all the four Indian isolates showed 93-94% nucleotide sequence homology to the Californian CTV severe stem pitting isolate SY568 and 92-93% homology to the Japanese seedling yellows isolate NUagA and Israeli VT p346 isolates. In phylogenetic tree analysis, Indian CTV isolates appeared far different from other isolates as they formed a separate branch. Comparison among the Indian isolates was carried out by restriction analysis and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). Specific primers to various genome segments of well-characterized CTV isolates were used to further classify the Indian CTV isolates.

  20. Experimental Investigation on the Internal Resistance of Lithium Iron Phosphate Battery Cells during Calendar Ageing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroe, Daniel Ioan; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stan, Ana-Irina

    2013-01-01

    is directly related to its internal resistance. This work aims to investigate the dependency of the internal resistance of lithium-ion batteries on the storage temperature and on the storage time. For this purpose, accelerated ageing calendar lifetime tests were carried out over a period of one year. Based......Lithium-ion batteries are increasingly considered for a wide area of applications because of their superior characteristics in comparisons to other energy storage technologies. However, at present, Lithium-ion batteries are expensive storage devices and consequently their ageing behavior must...... be known in order to estimate their economic viability in different application. The ageing behavior of Lithium-ion batteries is described by the fade of their discharge capacity and by the decrease of their power capability. The capability of a Lithium-ion battery to deliver or to absorb a certain power...

  1. Research on lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, I. R.; Goledzinowski, M.; Dore, R.

    1993-12-01

    Research was conducted on two types of lithium batteries. The first is a rechargeable Li-SO2 system using an all-inorganic electrolyte. A Li/liquid cathode system was chosen to obtain a relatively high discharge rate capability over the +20 to -30 C range. The fabrication and cycling performance of research cells are described, including the preparation and physical properties of porous polytetra fluoroethylene bonded carbon electrodes. Since the low temperature performance of the standard electrolyte was unsatisfactory, studies of electrolytes containing mixed salts were made. Raman spectroscopy was used to study the species present in these electrolytes and to identify discharge products. Infrared spectroscopy was used to measure electrolyte impurities. Film growth on the LiCl was also monitored. The second battery is a Li-thionyl chloride nonrechargeable system. Research cells were fabricated containing cobalt phthalo cyanine in the carbon cathode. The cathode was heat treated at different temperatures and the effect on cell discharge rate and capacity evaluated. Commercially obtained cells were used in an investigation of a way to identify substandard cells. The study also involved electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cell discharging at various rates. The results are discussed in terms of LiCl passivation.

  2. Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) strain HSZP host shutoff gene: nucleotide sequence and comparison with HSV-1 strains differing in early shutoff of host protein synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vojvodová, A; Matis, J; Kúdelová, M; Rajcáni, J

    1997-01-01

    The UL41 gene of the HSZP strain of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) defective with respect to the early shutoff of host protein synthesis was sequenced and compared with the corresponding HSV-1 strain KOS and 17 gene sequences. In comparison with strain 17, nine mutations (base changes) were HSZP specific, five KOS specific and four were common for both strains. Nine mutations caused codon changes. Three of these mapped to the nonconserved regions and the others to the conserved regions of the functional map of UL41 gene. One KOS specific mutation mapped to the region responsible for the binding of the virion host shutoff (vhs) protein to the alpha-transinducing factor (VP16). The possible relationship between mutations and host shutoff function is discussed. The nucleotide sequence data of the UL41 gene of HSZP and KOS have been submitted to the Genbank nucleotide database and have been assigned the accession numbers Z72337 and Z72338.

  3. Electric batteries. Lithium batteries; Piles electrique. Piles au lithium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarrazin, Ch. [Delegation Generale pour l' Armement, DGA/DRET, 75 - Paris (France)

    2002-05-01

    Lithium has the most negative potential and the highest mass capacity of all solid anode materials. It is the metal that allows to reach the highest mass energies in batteries when associated to a high potential cathode. The search for high performance cathodes has led to many different types of lithium batteries (transition metal oxides or sulfides, halogenides, oxi-halogenides, carbon, organic compounds etc..). These batteries can have a solid cathode (Li/CuO, Li/MnO{sub 2}, Li/CF{sub x}, etc..), or a liquid cathode (Li/SOCl{sub 2}, Li/SO{sub 2}, etc..) and in some cases they can have also a solid electrolyte, but not all types of lithium battery led to important industrial fabrication. The increasing use of lithium batteries is linked with the development of portable equipments for which, the compactness of the energy source is a key point. This article examines only the lithium batteries that have been the object of a significant industrial fabrication: lithium-sulfur dioxide, lithium-thionyl chloride, lithium-manganese dioxide, lithium-copper oxide, lithium-carbon fluoride, lithium-iron disulfide, other types of lithium batteries. (J.S.)

  4. Lead-acid batteries in micro-hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, Joern; Meissner, Eberhard; Shirazi, Sepehr

    More and more vehicles hit the European automotive market, which comprise some type of micro-hybrid functionality to improve fuel efficiency and reduce emissions. Most carmakers already offer at least one of their vehicles with an optional engine start/stop system, while some other models are sold with micro-hybrid functions implemented by default. But these car concepts show a wide variety in detail-the term "micro-hybrid" may mean a completely different functionality in one vehicle model compared to another. Accordingly, also the battery technologies are not the same. There is a wide variety of batteries from standard flooded and enhanced flooded to AGM which all are claimed to be "best choice" for micro-hybrid applications. A technical comparison of micro-hybrid cars available on the European market has been performed. Different classes of cars with different characteristics have been identified. Depending on the scope and characteristics of micro-hybrid functions, as well as on operational strategies implemented by the vehicle makers, the battery operating duties differ significantly between these classes of vehicles. Additional laboratory investigations have been carried out to develop an understanding of effects observed in batteries operated in micro-hybrid vehicles pursuing different strategies, to identify limitations for applications of different battery technologies.

  5. Computing lifetimes for battery-powered devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, M.R.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.

    The battery lifetime of mobile devices depends on the usage pattern of the battery, next to the discharge rate and the battery capacity. Therefore, it is important to include the usage pattern in battery lifetime computations. We do this by combining a stochastic workload, modeled as a

  6. 77 FR 28259 - Mailings of Lithium Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-14

    ... quantity, size, watt hours, and whether the cells or batteries are packed in equipment, with equipment, or... 111 Mailings of Lithium Batteries AGENCY: Postal Service TM . ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Postal... batteries and devices containing lithium batteries. This prohibition also extends to the mailing of lithium...

  7. Computing lifetimes for battery-powered devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, Marijn; Haverkort, Boudewijn

    2010-01-01

    The battery lifetime of mobile devices depends on the usage pattern of the battery, next to the discharge rate and the battery capacity. Therefore, it is important to include the usage pattern in battery lifetime computations. We do this by combining a stochastic workload, modeled as a continuous-ti

  8. BLET:Battery Lifetime Enhancement Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-Ju; Jang; Seongsoo; Lee

    2010-01-01

    <正>In recent years,mobile devices and high-hearth because of the multifunctional,battery capacity has been increased.In this paper,without the overhead by using the battery discharge characteristics,and application of technology to extend the battery life is explained. Experiment H.264 video transmission to take some losses and extended battery life was achieved.

  9. 46 CFR 169.668 - Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Batteries. 169.668 Section 169.668 Shipping COAST GUARD... § 169.668 Batteries. (a) Each battery must be in a location that allows the gas generated in charging to... this section, a battery must not be located in the same compartment with a gasoline tank or...

  10. Analytical assessment of the thermal behavior of nickel-metal hydride batteries during fast charging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taheri, Peyman; Yazdanpour, Maryam; Bahrami, Majid

    2014-01-01

    A novel distributed transient thermal model is proposed to investigate the thermal behavior of nickel-metal hydride (NiMH) batteries under fast-charging processes at constant currents. Based on the method of integral transformation, a series-form solution for the temperature field inside the battery core is obtained that takes account for orthotropic heat conduction, transient heat generation, and convective heat dissipation at surfaces of the battery. The accuracy of the developed theoretical model is confirmed through comparisons with numerical and experimental data for a sample 30 ampere-hour NiMH battery. The comparisons show that even the first term of the series solution fairly predicts the temperature field with the modest numerical cost. The thermal model is also employed to define an efficiency for charging processes. Our calculations confirm that the charging efficiency decreases as the charging current increases.

  11. Principles of an Atomtronic Battery

    CERN Document Server

    Zozulya, Alex A

    2013-01-01

    An asymmetric atom trap is investigated as a means to implement a "battery" that supplies ultracold atoms to an atomtronic circuit. The battery model is derived from a scheme for continuous loading of a non-dissipative atom trap proposed by Roos et al.(Europhysics Letters V61, 187 (2003)). The trap is defined by longitudinal and transverse trap frequencies and corresponding trap energy heights. The battery's ability to supply power to a load is evaluated as a function of an input atom flux and power. For given trap parameters and input flux the battery is shown to have a resonantly optimum value of input power. The battery behavior can be cast in terms of an equivalent circuit model; specifically, for fixed input flux and power the battery is modeled in terms of a Th\\'{e}venin equivalent chemical potential and internal resistance. The internal resistance establishes the maximum power that can be supplied to a circuit, the heat that will be generated by the battery, and that noise will be imposed on the circui...

  12. Ingestion of cylindrical batteries and its management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tien, Tony; Tanwar, Sudeep

    2017-01-17

    In contrast to the ingestion of coin batteries, the ingestion of cylindrical batteries is an uncommon medical presentation. Owing to their larger size, cylindrical battery ingestion can lead to serious complications including intestinal haemorrhage, bowel obstruction, bowel perforation, peritonitis and even death. We discuss the case of a 17-year-old girl who presented after swallowing three cylindrical batteries. Her medical history included depression and previous battery ingestion that required surgical removal. During this presentation however, these ingested batteries were removed endoscopically at oesophagogastroduodenoscopy and ileocolonoscopy. The patient was subsequently discharged without complication. This paper discusses the complications and management of cylindrical battery ingestion. 2017 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  13. Lewis Research Center battery overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odonnell, Patricia

    1993-01-01

    The topics covered are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite; the Space Station Freedom (SSF) photovoltaic power module division; Ni/H2 battery and cell design; individual pressure vessel (IPV) nickel-hydrogen cell testing SSF support; the LeRC Electrochemical Technology Branch; improved design IPV nickel-hydrogen cells; advanced technology for IPV nickel-hydrogen flight cells; a lightweight nickel-hydrogen cell; bipolar nickel-hydrogen battery development and technology; aerospace nickel-metal hydride cells; the NASA Sodium-Sulfur Cell Technology Flight Experiment; and the lithium-carbon dioxide battery thermodynamic model.

  14. The performance of Ebonex ® electrodes in bipolar lead-acid batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Keith; Hill, Andrew; Hill, John; Loyns, Andrew; Partington, Tom

    Recent work by Atraverda on the production of an Ebonex ® material that can be cheaply formulated and manufactured to form bipolar substrate plates for bipolar lead-acid batteries is described. In addition, data obtained by Atraverda from laboratory lead-acid batteries is presented indicating that weight savings of around 40% for a bipolar 36 V design (20 Ah capacity, 5 h rate, 9 kW) are potentially achievable in comparison to more conventional designs containing monopolar lead grids. Results indicate that their use as bipolar substrate materials will provide light-weight, long-lasting lead-acid batteries suitable for automotive, standby and power tool applications.

  15. Understanding the Effects of Electrode Formulation on the Mechanical Strength of Composite Electrodes for Flexible Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaikwad, Abhinav M; Arias, Ana Claudia

    2017-02-22

    Flexible lithium-ion batteries are necessary for powering the next generation of wearable electronic devices. In most designs, the mechanical flexibility of the battery is improved by reducing the thickness of the active layers, which in turn reduces the areal capacity and energy density of the battery. The performance of a battery depends on the electrode composition, and in most flexible batteries, standard electrode formulation is used, which is not suitable for flexing. Even with considerable efforts made toward the development of flexible lithium-ion batteries, the formulation of the electrodes has received very little attention. In this study, we investigate the relation between the electrode formulation and the mechanical strength of the electrodes. Peel and drag tests are used to compare the adhesion and cohesion strength of the electrodes. The strength of an electrode is sensitive to the particle size and the choice of polymeric binder. By optimizing the electrode composition, we were able to fabricate a high areal capacity (∼2 mAh/cm(2)) flexible lithium-ion battery with conventional metal-based current collectors that shows superior electrochemical and mechanical performance in comparison to that of batteries with standard composition.

  16. New Electro-Thermal Battery Pack Model of an Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed Alhanouti

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Since the evolution of the electric and hybrid vehicle, the analysis of batteries’ characteristics and influence on driving range has become essential. This fact advocates the necessity of accurate simulation modeling for batteries. Different models for the Li-ion battery cell are reviewed in this paper and a group of the highly dynamic models is selected for comparison. A new open circuit voltage (OCV model is proposed. The new model can simulate the OCV curves of lithium iron magnesium phosphate (LiFeMgPO4 battery type at different temperatures. It also considers both charging and discharging cases. The most remarkable features from different models, in addition to the proposed OCV model, are integrated in a single hybrid electrical model. A lumped thermal model is implemented to simulate the temperature development in the battery cell. The synthesized electro-thermal battery cell model is extended to model a battery pack of an actual electric vehicle. Experimental tests on the battery, as well as drive tests on the vehicle are performed. The proposed model demonstrates a higher modeling accuracy, for the battery pack voltage, than the constituent models under extreme maneuver drive tests.

  17. Aqueous lithium air batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visco, Steven J.; Nimon, Yevgeniy S.; De Jonghe, Lutgard C.; Petrov, Alexei; Goncharenko, Nikolay

    2017-05-23

    Aqueous Li/Air secondary battery cells are configurable to achieve high energy density and prolonged cycle life. The cells include a protected a lithium metal or alloy anode and an aqueous catholyte in a cathode compartment. The aqueous catholyte comprises an evaporative-loss resistant and/or polyprotic active compound or active agent that partakes in the discharge reaction and effectuates cathode capacity for discharge in the acidic region. This leads to improved performance including one or more of increased specific energy, improved stability on open circuit, and prolonged cycle life, as well as various methods, including a method of operating an aqueous Li/Air cell to simultaneously achieve improved energy density and prolonged cycle life.

  18. New Electro-Thermal Battery Pack Model of an Electric Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammed Alhanouti; Martin Gießler; Thomas Blank; Frank Gauterin

    2016-01-01

    Since the evolution of the electric and hybrid vehicle, the analysis of batteries’ characteristics and influence on driving range has become essential. This fact advocates the necessity of accurate simulation modeling for batteries. Different models for the Li-ion battery cell are reviewed in this paper and a group of the highly dynamic models is selected for comparison. A new open circuit voltage (OCV) model is proposed. The new model can simulate the OCV curves of lithium iron magnesium pho...

  19. Battery energy storage and superconducting magnetic energy storage for utility applications: A qualitative analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhil, A.A.; Butler, P.; Bickel, T.C.

    1993-11-01

    This report was prepared at the request of the US Department of Energy`s Office of Energy Management for an objective comparison of the merits of battery energy storage with superconducting magnetic energy storage technology for utility applications. Conclusions are drawn regarding the best match of each technology with these utility application requirements. Staff from the Utility Battery Storage Systems Program and the superconductivity Programs at Sandia National contributed to this effort.

  20. Computing lifetimes for battery-powered devices

    OpenAIRE

    Jongerden, Marijn; Haverkort, Boudewijn

    2010-01-01

    The battery lifetime of mobile devices depends on the usage pattern of the battery, next to the discharge rate and the battery capacity. Therefore, it is important to include the usage pattern in battery lifetime computations. We do this by combining a stochastic workload, modeled as a continuous-time Markov model, with a well-known battery model. For this combined model, we provide new algorithms to efficiently compute the expected lifetime and the distribution and expected value of the deli...

  1. Electro-chemical batteries for guided missiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. S. Jaggi

    1966-05-01

    Full Text Available Electro-chemical batteries owing to their simplicity and ease of stowage form one of the sources of electrical power inside a missile. However, all batteries are not suited for this application. This article describes the special features required of a missile borne battery pack and discusses the characteristics of various types of batteries available today in the world. Conclusions have been drawn as to the most suitable types of batteries for missile applications.

  2. Battery Ownership Model - Medium Duty HEV Battery Leasing & Standardization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Ken; Smith, Kandler; Cosgrove, Jon; Prohaska, Robert; Pesaran, Ahmad; Paul, James; Wiseman, Marc

    2015-12-01

    Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy, this milestone report focuses on the economics of leasing versus owning batteries for medium-duty hybrid electric vehicles as well as various battery standardization scenarios. The work described in this report was performed by members of the Energy Storage Team and the Vehicle Simulation Team in NREL's Transportation and Hydrogen Systems Center along with members of the Vehicles Analysis Team at Ricardo.

  3. In silico Coding Sequence Analysis of Walnut GAI and PIP2 Genes and Comparison with Different Plant Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Mohseniazar

    2017-02-01

    done with MEGA from aligned sequences. The motifs of protein sequences were found using the program of T-COFEE at website (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/Tools/msa/tcoffee/. The Neighbor-Joining (NJ method was used to designing the phylogenetic tree. The predicted exons and introns in mRNA sequences were done by http://genes.mit.edu/GENSCAN.html website. The secondary structure of proteins was predicted by PSIORED online on http://bioinf.cs.ucl.ac.uk/psipred/. Prediction of 3D model of protein was performed using the 3D alignment of protein structure by BLASTp and PDB database as source. Also, targeting prediction of proteins was done online by TargetP at (http://www.cbs.dtu.dk/services/TargetP/ website. Results and discussion: In phylogenetic investigation among 17 different species, Walnut species evolutionary stand in dicotyledonous and woody plants by both of GAI and PIP2 genes and protein sequence clustering. By multiple alignments and investigation in conserved sequence of these genes in plant revealed that despite differences in cDNA length, there were very similarities in conserved region, secondary and tertiary structure. Protein analysis in the GAI gene family showed that the following domains including DELLA, TVHYNP, VHIID, RKVATYFGEALARR, AVNSVFELH, RVER, and SAW were conserved in this proteins. In secondary structure of protein, β-sheets and α-helixes specified by PSIPRED software for both of GAI and PIP2 proteins. GAI protein had 9 β-sheets and 15 α-helixes in its structure, also PIP2 protein had2 β-sheet (at 180-188 and 248-253 and 8 α-helixes. In comparison of 3D structure, walnut PIP2 protein was very similar to chain A of PIP2 protein of spinach (Spinacia oleracea and GAI protein of walnut was similar to B-subunit of Arabidopsis GAI protein with 48% similarity. The length of GAI protein was varied from 636 aa in Malus baccata var. xiaojinensis to 336 aa in Physcomitrella patens among species. In walnut, the length of GAI and PIP2 protein was 613 aa and

  4. Comparison of TCDD-elicited genome-wide hepatic gene expression in Sprague–Dawley rats and C57BL/6 mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nault, Rance; Kim, Suntae; Zacharewski, Timothy R., E-mail: tzachare@msu.edu

    2013-03-01

    Although the structure and function of the AhR are conserved, emerging evidence suggests that downstream effects are species-specific. In this study, rat hepatic gene expression data from the DrugMatrix database (National Toxicology Program) were compared to mouse hepatic whole-genome gene expression data following treatment with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). For the DrugMatrix study, male Sprague–Dawley rats were gavaged daily with 20 μg/kg TCDD for 1, 3 and 5 days, while female C57BL/6 ovariectomized mice were examined 1, 3 and 7 days after a single oral gavage of 30 μg/kg TCDD. A total of 649 rat and 1386 mouse genes (|fold change| ≥ 1.5, P1(t) ≥ 0.99) were differentially expressed following treatment. HomoloGene identified 11,708 orthologs represented across the rat Affymetrix 230 2.0 GeneChip (12,310 total orthologs), and the mouse 4 × 44K v.1 Agilent oligonucleotide array (17,578 total orthologs). Comparative analysis found 563 and 922 orthologs differentially expressed in response to TCDD in the rat and mouse, respectively, with 70 responses associated with immune function and lipid metabolism in common to both. Moreover, QRTPCR analysis of Ceacam1, showed divergent expression (induced in rat; repressed in mouse) functionally consistent with TCDD-elicited hepatic steatosis in the mouse but not the rat. Functional analysis identified orthologs involved in nucleotide binding and acetyltransferase activity in rat, while mouse-specific responses were associated with steroid, phospholipid, fatty acid, and carbohydrate metabolism. These results provide further evidence that TCDD elicits species-specific regulation of distinct gene networks, and outlines considerations for future comparisons of publicly available microarray datasets. - Highlights: ► We performed a whole-genome comparison of TCDD-regulated genes in mice and rats. ► Previous species comparisons were extended using data from the DrugMatrix database. ► Less than 15% of TCDD

  5. Extending the evaluation of Genia Event task toward knowledge base construction and comparison to Gene Regulation Ontology task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin-Dong; Kim, Jung-Jae; Han, Xu; Rebholz-Schuhmann, Dietrich

    2015-01-01

    The third edition of the BioNLP Shared Task was held with the grand theme "knowledge base construction (KB)". The Genia Event (GE) task was re-designed and implemented in light of this theme. For its final report, the participating systems were evaluated from a perspective of annotation. To further explore the grand theme, we extended the evaluation from a perspective of KB construction. Also, the Gene Regulation Ontology (GRO) task was newly introduced in the third edition. The final evaluation of the participating systems resulted in relatively low performance. The reason was attributed to the large size and complex semantic representation of the ontology. To investigate potential benefits of resource exchange between the presumably similar tasks, we measured the overlap between the datasets of the two tasks, and tested whether the dataset for one task can be used to enhance performance on the other. We report an extended evaluation on all the participating systems in the GE task, incoporating a KB perspective. For the evaluation, the final submission of each participant was converted to RDF statements, and evaluated using 8 queries that were formulated in SPARQL. The results suggest that the evaluation may be concluded differently between the two different perspectives, annotation vs. KB. We also provide a comparison of the GE and GRO tasks by converting their datasets into each other's format. More than 90% of the GE data could be converted into the GRO task format, while only half of the GRO data could be mapped to the GE task format. The imbalance in conversion indicates that the GRO is a comprehensive extension of the GE task ontology. We further used the converted GRO data as additional training data for the GE task, which helped improve GE task participant system performance. However, the converted GE data did not help GRO task participants, due to overfitting and the ontology gap.

  6. Overlapping genes of Aedes aegypti: evolutionary implications from comparison with orthologs of Anopheles gambiae and other insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behura, Susanta K; Severson, David W

    2013-06-18

    Although gene overlapping is a common feature of prokaryote and mitochondria genomes, such genes have also been identified in many eukaryotes. The overlapping genes in eukaryotes are extensively rearranged even between closely related species. In this study, we investigated retention and rearrangement of positionally overlapping genes between the mosquitoes Aedes aegypti (dengue virus vector) and Anopheles gambiae (malaria vector). The overlapping gene pairs of A. aegypti were further compared with orthologs of other selected insects to conduct several hypothesis driven investigations relating to the evolution and rearrangement of overlapping genes. The results show that as much as ~10% of the predicted genes of A. aegypti and A. gambiae are localized in positional overlapping manner. Furthermore, the study shows that differential abundance of introns and simple sequence repeats have significant association with positional rearrangement of overlapping genes between the two species. Gene expression analysis further suggests that antisense transcripts generated from the oppositely oriented overlapping genes are differentially regulated and may have important regulatory functions in these mosquitoes. Our data further shows that synonymous and non-synonymous mutations have differential but non-significant effect on overlapping localization of orthologous genes in other insect genomes. Gene overlapping in insects may be a species-specific evolutionary process as evident from non-dependency of gene overlapping with species phylogeny. Based on the results, our study suggests that overlapping genes may have played an important role in genome evolution of insects.

  7. Comparison of six different sewage treatment processes-Reduction of estrogenic substances and effects on gene expression in exposed male fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunnarsson, L. [Department of Neuroscience and Physiology, The Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Box 434, SE-405 30, Goeteborg (Sweden); Adolfsson-Erici, M. [Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM), Stockholm University, SE-106 91, Stockholm (Sweden); Bjoerlenius, B. [Stockholm Water Co., Vaermdoevaegen 23, SE-131 55, Stockholm (Sweden); Rutgersson, C. [Department of Neuroscience and Physiology, The Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Box 434, SE-405 30, Goeteborg (Sweden); Foerlin, L. [Department of Zoology, University of Gothenburg, SE-405 30, Goeteborg (Sweden); Larsson, D.G.J., E-mail: joakim.larsson@fysiologi.gu.se [Department of Neuroscience and Physiology, The Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Box 434, SE-405 30, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2009-09-15

    Treated sewage effluents often contain a mixture of estrogenic compounds in low concentrations. The total combined activity of these, however, may be sufficiently high to affect the reproduction of aquatic vertebrates. The introduction of advanced treatment technologies has been suggested as a way to remove micro-contaminants, including estrogenic substances. In this study, one municipal influent was treated with six different processes in parallel on a semi-large scale in order to assess their potential to reduce substances that could contribute to estrogenic effects in male fish. The effluent from a conventional, activated sludge treatment line was compared to a similarly treated effluent with a final sand-filtering step. The addition of ozonation (15 g O{sub 3}/m{sup 3}), a moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) or both in combination was also evaluated. There was also a separate treatment line that was based on a membrane bioreactor. A small battery of hepatic estrogen-responsive genes was measured in the exposed fish using quantitative PCR. Concentrations of steroid estrogens and estrogenic phenols in the effluents were measured by GC-ECNI-MS. The ozonated effluents were the only tested effluents for which all measured biological effects in exposed fish were removed. Chemical data suggested that the MBBR technology was equally effective in removing the analyzed estrogens; however, elevated expression of estrogen-responsive genes suggested that some estrogenic substances were still present in the effluent. The membrane bioreactor removed most of the measured estrogens and it reduced the induction of the estrogen-responsive genes. However, fish exposed to this effluent had significantly enlarged livers. Given that the same influent was treated in parallel with a broad set of technologies and that the chemical analyses were combined with an in vivo assessment of estrogenic responses, this study provides valuable input into the assessment of advanced treatment

  8. Comparison of six different sewage treatment processes--reduction of estrogenic substances and effects on gene expression in exposed male fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnarsson, L; Adolfsson-Erici, M; Björlenius, B; Rutgersson, C; Förlin, L; Larsson, D G J

    2009-09-15

    Treated sewage effluents often contain a mixture of estrogenic compounds in low concentrations. The total combined activity of these, however, may be sufficiently high to affect the reproduction of aquatic vertebrates. The introduction of advanced treatment technologies has been suggested as a way to remove micro-contaminants, including estrogenic substances. In this study, one municipal influent was treated with six different processes in parallel on a semi-large scale in order to assess their potential to reduce substances that could contribute to estrogenic effects in male fish. The effluent from a conventional, activated sludge treatment line was compared to a similarly treated effluent with a final sand-filtering step. The addition of ozonation (15 g O(3)/m(3)), a moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) or both in combination was also evaluated. There was also a separate treatment line that was based on a membrane bioreactor. A small battery of hepatic estrogen-responsive genes was measured in the exposed fish using quantitative PCR. Concentrations of steroid estrogens and estrogenic phenols in the effluents were measured by GC-ECNI-MS. The ozonated effluents were the only tested effluents for which all measured biological effects in exposed fish were removed. Chemical data suggested that the MBBR technology was equally effective in removing the analyzed estrogens; however, elevated expression of estrogen-responsive genes suggested that some estrogenic substances were still present in the effluent. The membrane bioreactor removed most of the measured estrogens and it reduced the induction of the estrogen-responsive genes. However, fish exposed to this effluent had significantly enlarged livers. Given that the same influent was treated in parallel with a broad set of technologies and that the chemical analyses were combined with an in vivo assessment of estrogenic responses, this study provides valuable input into the assessment of advanced treatment processes for

  9. Prognostics in Battery Health Management

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Batteries represent complex systems whose internal state vari- ables are either inaccessible to sensors or hard to measure un- der operational conditions. This work...

  10. Ultrasonic enhancement of battery diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, R; Dornbusch, D; Branson, K; Tekeei, A; Suppes, G J

    2014-03-01

    It has been demonstrated that sonic energy can be harnessed to enhance convection in Galvanic cells during cyclic voltammetry; however, the practical value of this approach is limited due to the lack of open volumes for convection patterns to develop in most batteries. This study evaluates the ability of ultrasonic waves to enhance diffusion in membrane separators commonly used in sandwich-architecture batteries. Studies include the measuring of open-circuit performance curves to interpret performances in terms of reductions in concentration overpotentials. The use of a 40 kHz sonicator bath can consistently increase the voltage of the battery and reduce overpotential losses up to 30%. This work demonstrates and quantifies battery enhancement due to enhanced diffusion made possible with ultrasonic energy.

  11. Composite materials for battery applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amine, Khalil; Yang, Junbing; Abouimrane, Ali; Ren, Jianguo

    2017-03-14

    A process for producing nanocomposite materials for use in batteries includes electroactive materials are incorporated within a nanosheet host material. The process may include treatment at high temperatures and doping to obtain desirable properties.

  12. Flexible Hybrid Battery/Pseudocapacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Dennis S.; Paley, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Batteries keep devices working by utilizing high energy density, however, they can run down and take tens of minutes to hours to recharge. For rapid power delivery and recharging, high-power density devices, i.e., supercapacitors, are used. The electrochemical processes which occur in batteries and supercapacitors give rise to different charge-storage properties. In lithium ion (Li+) batteries, the insertion of Li+, which enables redox reactions in bulk electrode materials, is diffusion controlled and can be slow. Supercapacitor devices, also known as electrical double-layer capacitors (EDLCs) store charge by adsorption of electrolyte ions onto the surface of electrode materials. No redox reactions are necessary, so the response to changes in potential without diffusion limitations is rapid and leads to high power. However, the charge in EDLCs is confined to the surface, so the energy density is lower than that of batteries.

  13. Prediction of Retained Capacity and EODV of Li-ion Batteries in LEO Spacecraft Batteries

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    In resent years ANN is widely reported for modeling in different areas of science including electro chemistry. This includes modeling of different technological batteries such as lead acid battery, Nickel cadmium batteries etc. Lithium ion batteries are advance battery technology which satisfy most of the space mission requirements. Low earth orbit (LEO)space craft batteries undergo large number of charge discharge cycles (about 25000 cycles)compared to other ground level or space application...

  14. Comparison of the in vitro effects of TCDD, PCB 126 and PCB 153 on thyroid-restricted gene expression and thyroid hormone secretion by the chicken thyroid gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katarzyńska, Dorota; Hrabia, Anna; Kowalik, Kinga; Sechman, Andrzej

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the in vitro effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126; a coplanar PCB congener) and 2,2'4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB153; non-coplanar PCB) on mRNA expression of thyroid-restricted genes, i.e. sodium iodide symporter (NIS), thyroid peroxidase (TPO) and thyroglobulin (TG), and thyroid hormone secretion from the thyroid gland of the laying chicken. Relative expression levels of NIS, TG and TPO genes and thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) secretion from the thyroidal explants were quantified by the real-time qPCR and RIA methods, respectively. In comparison with the control group, TCDD and PCB 126 significantly increased mRNA expression of TPO and TG genes. TCDD did not affect NIS mRNA levels, but PCB 126 decreased its expression. No effect of PCB 153 on the expression of these genes was observed. TCDD and PCB 126 significantly decreased T4 and T3 secretion. There was no significant effect of PCB 153 on these hormone secretions. In conclusion, the results obtained show that in comparison with non-coplanar PCB 153, TCDD and coplanar PCB 126 can directly affect thyroid hormone synthesis and secretion, and in consequence, they may disrupt the endocrine function of the thyroid gland of the laying chicken. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Storage Reliability of Reserve Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    batteries – Environmental concerns, lack of business – Non-availability of some critical materials • Lithium Oxyhalides are systems of choice – Good...exhibit good corrosion resistance to neutral electrolytes (LiAlCl4 in thionyl chloride and sulfuryl chloride ) • Using AlCl3 creates a much more corrosive...Storage Reliability of Reserve Batteries Jeff Swank and Allan Goldberg Army Research Laboratory Adelphi, MD 301-394-3116 jswank@arl.army.mil ll l

  16. Separators for Lithium Ion Batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G.C.Li; H.P.Zhang; Y.P.Wu

    2007-01-01

    1 Results A separator for rechargeable batteries is a microporous membrane placed between electrodes of opposite polarity, keeping them apart to prevent electrical short circuits and at the same time allowing rapid transport of lithium ions that are needed to complete the circuit during the passage of current in an electrochemical cell, and thus plays a key role in determining the performance of the lithium ion battery. Here provides a comprehensive overview of various types of separators for lithium io...

  17. Lithium battery safety and reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Samuel C.

    Lithium batteries have been used in a variety of applications for a number of years. As their use continues to grow, particularly in the consumer market, a greater emphasis needs to be placed on safety and reliability. There is a useful technique which can help to design cells and batteries having a greater degree of safety and higher reliability. This technique, known as fault tree analysis, can also be useful in determining the cause of unsafe behavior and poor reliability in existing designs.

  18. Integrated Inverter And Battery Charger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rippel, Wally E.

    1988-01-01

    Circuit combines functions of dc-to-ac inversion (for driving ac motor in battery-powered vehicle) and ac-to-dc conversion (for charging battery from ac line when vehicle not in use). Automatically adapts to either mode. Design of integrated inverter/charger eliminates need for duplicate components, saves space, reduces weight and cost of vehicle. Advantages in other applications : load-leveling systems, standby ac power systems, and uninterruptible power supplies.

  19. Modeling the Lithium Ion Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summerfield, John

    2013-01-01

    The lithium ion battery will be a reliable electrical resource for many years to come. A simple model of the lithium ions motion due to changes in concentration and voltage is presented. The battery chosen has LiCoO[subscript 2] as the cathode, LiPF[subscript 6] as the electrolyte, and LiC[subscript 6] as the anode. The concentration gradient and…

  20. Iron-Air Rechargeable Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Sri R. (Inventor); Prakash, G.K. Surya (Inventor); Kindler, Andrew (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Embodiments include an iron-air rechargeable battery having a composite electrode including an iron electrode and a hydrogen electrode integrated therewith. An air electrode is spaced from the iron electrode and an electrolyte is provided in contact with the air electrode and the iron electrodes. Various additives and catalysts are disclosed with respect to the iron electrode, air electrode, and electrolyte for increasing battery efficiency and cycle life.

  1. Modeling the Lithium Ion Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summerfield, John

    2013-01-01

    The lithium ion battery will be a reliable electrical resource for many years to come. A simple model of the lithium ions motion due to changes in concentration and voltage is presented. The battery chosen has LiCoO[subscript 2] as the cathode, LiPF[subscript 6] as the electrolyte, and LiC[subscript 6] as the anode. The concentration gradient and…

  2. Potential use of low-copy nuclear genes in DNA barcoding: a comparison with plastid genes in two Hawaiian plant radiations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillon, Yohan; Johansen, Jennifer; Sakishima, Tomoko; Chamala, Srikar; Barbazuk, W Brad; Roalson, Eric H; Price, Donald K; Stacy, Elizabeth A

    2013-02-09

    DNA barcoding of land plants has relied traditionally on a small number of markers from the plastid genome. In contrast, low-copy nuclear genes have received little attention as DNA barcodes because of the absence of universal primers for PCR amplification. From pooled-species 454 transcriptome data we identified two variable intron-less nuclear loci for each of two species-rich genera of the Hawaiian flora: Clermontia (Campanulaceae) and Cyrtandra (Gesneriaceae) and compared their utility as DNA barcodes with that of plastid genes. We found that nuclear genes showed an overall greater variability, but also displayed a high level of heterozygosity, intraspecific variation, and retention of ancient alleles. Thus, nuclear genes displayed fewer species-diagnostic haplotypes compared to plastid genes and no interspecies gaps. The apparently greater coalescence times of nuclear genes are likely to limit their utility as barcodes, as only a small proportion of their alleles were fixed and unique to individual species. In both groups, species-diagnostic markers from either genome were scarce on the youngest island; a minimum age of ca. two million years may be needed for a species flock to be barcoded. For young plant groups, nuclear genes may not be a superior alternative to slowly evolving plastid genes.

  3. Electric batteries and the environment. 2. rev. and enlarged ed. Die Batterie und die Umwelt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiller, F.; Hartinger, L.; Kiehne, H.A.; Niklas, H.; Schiele, R.; Steil, H.U.

    1990-01-01

    The book deals with the prodution, use and waste management of batteries (accumulators and primary batteries), with regard to protection of the environment. Legal, technical and medical aspects are shown. Subjects: 1. Toxicological aspects of battery substances; 2. legal foundations of environmental protection; 3. off-air purification in battery production; 4. dust monitoring; 5. waste water of the battery industry; 6. safety aspects of battery operation; 7. recycling of battery materials; 8. disposal of used primary batteries. (orig./MM) With 67 figs.

  4. Carbon-enhanced VRLA batteries.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enos, David George; Hund, Thomas D.; Shane, Rod (East Penn Manufacturing, Lyon Station, PA)

    2010-10-01

    The addition of certain forms of carbon to the negative plate in valve regulated lead acid (VRLA) batteries has been demonstrated to increase the cycle life of such batteries by an order of magnitude or more under high-rate, partial-state-of-charge operation. Such performance will provide a significant impact, and in some cases it will be an enabling feature for applications including hybrid electric vehicles, utility ancillary regulation services, wind farm energy smoothing, and solar photovoltaic energy smoothing. There is a critical need to understnd how the carbon interacts with the negative plate and achieves the aforementioned benefits at a fundamental level. Such an understanding will not only enable the performance of such batteries to be optimzied, but also to explore the feasibility of applying this technology to other battery chemistries. In partnership with the East Penn Manufacturing, Sandia will investigate the electrochemical function of the carbon and possibly identify improvements to its anti-sulfation properties. Shiomi, et al. (1997) discovered that the addition of carbon to the negative active material (NAM) substantially reduced PbSO{sub 4} accumulation in high rate, partial state of charge (HRPSoC) cycling applications. This improved performance with a minimal cost. Cycling applications that were uneconomical for traditional VRLA batteries are viable for the carbon enhanced VRLA. The overall goal of this work is to quantitatively define the role that carbon plays in the electrochemistry of a VRLA battery.

  5. Computer Aided Battery Engineering Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesaran, Ahmad

    2016-06-07

    A multi-national lab collaborative team was assembled that includes experts from academia and industry to enhance recently developed Computer-Aided Battery Engineering for Electric Drive Vehicles (CAEBAT)-II battery crush modeling tools and to develop microstructure models for electrode design - both computationally efficient. Task 1. The new Multi-Scale Multi-Domain model framework (GH-MSMD) provides 100x to 1,000x computation speed-up in battery electrochemical/thermal simulation while retaining modularity of particles and electrode-, cell-, and pack-level domains. The increased speed enables direct use of the full model in parameter identification. Task 2. Mechanical-electrochemical-thermal (MECT) models for mechanical abuse simulation were simultaneously coupled, enabling simultaneous modeling of electrochemical reactions during the short circuit, when necessary. The interactions between mechanical failure and battery cell performance were studied, and the flexibility of the model for various batteries structures and loading conditions was improved. Model validation is ongoing to compare with test data from Sandia National Laboratories. The ABDT tool was established in ANSYS. Task 3. Microstructural modeling was conducted to enhance next-generation electrode designs. This 3- year project will validate models for a variety of electrodes, complementing Advanced Battery Research programs. Prototype tools have been developed for electrochemical simulation and geometric reconstruction.

  6. Transcription specificity of the class Ib genes SLA-6, SLA-7 and SLA-8 of the swine major histocompatibility complex and comparison with class Ia genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusza, S; Flori, L; Gao, Y; Teillaud, A; Hu, R; Lemonnier, G; Bosze, Z; Bourneuf, E; Vincent-Naulleau, S; Rogel-Gaillard, C

    2011-10-01

    Our aim was to analyse the transcription levels of the three non-classical class Ib genes SLA-6, SLA-7 and SLA-8 of the swine major histocompatibility complex in various tissues and conditions and to compare them to the transcription levels of classical class Ia genes. Twenty-five adult tissues from two pig breeds, pig renal PK15 cells infected with the Pseudorabies virus, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) stimulated by lipopolysaccharide or a mixture of phorbol myristate acetate and ionomycin were included in our study. Relative transcription was quantified by quantitative real-time PCR. On average, in adult tissues and PBMCs and compared to SLA-6, the transcription level of SLA-Ia genes was 100-1000 times higher, the level of SLA-8 was 10-20 times higher, and that of SLA-7 was five times higher. Thus, SLA-8 is the most transcribed SLA-Ib gene, followed by the SLA-7 and SLA-6 genes. The highest transcription levels of SLA-Ib transcripts were found in the lymphoid organs, followed by the lung and the digestive tract. The tissue variability of expression levels was widest for the SLA-6 gene, with a 1:32 ratio between the lowest and highest levels in contrast to a 1:12 ratio for the SLA-7 and SLA-8 genes and a 1:16 ratio for the SLA-Ia genes. During PK-15 infection and PBMC stimulation, SLA-Ia and SLA-8 genes were downregulated, whereas SLA-6 and SLA-7 were upregulated, downregulated or not significantly modified. Our overall results confirm the tissue-wide transcription of the three SLA-Ib genes and suggest that they have complementary roles. © 2011 The Authors, Animal Genetics © 2011 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  7. Comparison of cyanobacterial microcystin synthetase (mcy) E gene transcript levels, mcy E gene copies, and biomass as indicators of microcystin risk under laboratory and field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngwa, Felexce F; Madramootoo, Chandra A; Jabaji, Suha

    2014-08-01

    Increased incidences of mixed assemblages of microcystin-producing and nonproducing cyanobacterial strains in freshwater bodies necessitate development of reliable proxies for cyanotoxin risk assessment. Detection of microcystin biosynthetic genes in water blooms of cyanobacteria is generally indicative of the presence of potentially toxic cyanobacterial strains. Although much effort has been devoted toward elucidating the microcystin biosynthesis mechanisms in many cyanobacteria genera, little is known about the impacts of co-occurring cyanobacteria on cellular growth, mcy gene expression, or mcy gene copy distribution. The present study utilized conventional microscopy, qPCR assays, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to study how competition between microcystin-producing Microcystis aeruginosa CPCC 299 and Planktothrix agardhii NIVA-CYA 126 impacts mcyE gene expression, mcyE gene copies, and microcystin concentration under controlled laboratory conditions. Furthermore, analyses of environmental water samples from the Missisquoi Bay, Quebec, enabled us to determine how the various potential toxigenic cyanobacterial biomass proxies correlated with cellular microcystin concentrations in a freshwater lake. Results from our laboratory study indicated significant downregulation of mcyE gene expression in mixed cultures of M. aeruginosa plus P. agardhii on most sampling days in agreement with depressed growth recorded in the mixed cultures, suggesting that interaction between the two species probably resulted in suppressed growth and mcyE gene expression in the mixed cultures. Furthermore, although mcyE gene copies and McyE transcripts were detected in all laboratory and field samples with measureable microcystin levels, only mcyE gene copies showed significant positive correlations (R(2) > 0.7) with microcystin concentrations, while McyE transcript levels did not. These results suggest that mcyE gene copies are better indicators of potential risks from microcystins

  8. Comparison of cyanobacterial microcystin synthetase (mcy) E gene transcript levels, mcy E gene copies, and biomass as indicators of microcystin risk under laboratory and field conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngwa, Felexce F; Madramootoo, Chandra A; Jabaji, Suha

    2014-01-01

    Increased incidences of mixed assemblages of microcystin-producing and nonproducing cyanobacterial strains in freshwater bodies necessitate development of reliable proxies for cyanotoxin risk assessment. Detection of microcystin biosynthetic genes in water blooms of cyanobacteria is generally indicative of the presence of potentially toxic cyanobacterial strains. Although much effort has been devoted toward elucidating the microcystin biosynthesis mechanisms in many cyanobacteria genera, little is known about the impacts of co-occurring cyanobacteria on cellular growth, mcy gene expression, or mcy gene copy distribution. The present study utilized conventional microscopy, qPCR assays, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to study how competition between microcystin-producing Microcystis aeruginosa CPCC 299 and Planktothrix agardhii NIVA-CYA 126 impacts mcyE gene expression, mcyE gene copies, and microcystin concentration under controlled laboratory conditions. Furthermore, analyses of environmental water samples from the Missisquoi Bay, Quebec, enabled us to determine how the various potential toxigenic cyanobacterial biomass proxies correlated with cellular microcystin concentrations in a freshwater lake. Results from our laboratory study indicated significant downregulation of mcyE gene expression in mixed cultures of M. aeruginosa plus P. agardhii on most sampling days in agreement with depressed growth recorded in the mixed cultures, suggesting that interaction between the two species probably resulted in suppressed growth and mcyE gene expression in the mixed cultures. Furthermore, although mcyE gene copies and McyE transcripts were detected in all laboratory and field samples with measureable microcystin levels, only mcyE gene copies showed significant positive correlations (R2 > 0.7) with microcystin concentrations, while McyE transcript levels did not. These results suggest that mcyE gene copies are better indicators of potential risks from microcystins

  9. Ultrahigh-Performance Cu2ZnSnS4 Thin Film and Its Application in Microscale Thin-Film Lithium-Ion Battery: Comparison with SnO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jie; Guo, Jianlai; Liu, Chang; Guo, Hang

    2016-12-21

    To develop a high-performance anode for thin-film lithium-ion batteries (TFBs, with a total thickness on the scale of micrometers), a Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) thin film is fabricated by magnetron sputtering and exhibits an ultrahigh performance of 950 mAh g(-1) even after 500 cycles, which is the highest among the reported CZTS for lithium storage so far. The characterization and electrochemical tests reveal that the thin-film structure and additional reactions both contribute to the excellent properties. Furthermore, the microscale TFBs with effective footprints of 0.52 mm(2) utilizing the CZTS thin film as anode are manufactured by microfabrication techniques, showing superior capability than the analogous TFBs with the SnO2 thin film as anode. This work demonstrates the advantages of exploiting thin-film electrodes and novel materials into micropower sources by electronic manufacture methods.

  10. Battery thermal models for hybrid vehicle simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesaran, Ahmad A.

    This paper summarizes battery thermal modeling capabilities for: (1) an advanced vehicle simulator (ADVISOR); and (2) battery module and pack thermal design. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) ADVISOR is developed in the Matlab/Simulink environment. There are several battery models in ADVISOR for various chemistry types. Each one of these models requires a thermal model to predict the temperature change that could affect battery performance parameters, such as resistance, capacity and state of charges. A lumped capacitance battery thermal model in the Matlab/Simulink environment was developed that included the ADVISOR battery performance models. For thermal evaluation and design of battery modules and packs, NREL has been using various computer aided engineering tools including commercial finite element analysis software. This paper will discuss the thermal ADVISOR battery model and its results, along with the results of finite element modeling that were presented at the workshop on "Development of Advanced Battery Engineering Models" in August 2001.

  11. International Space Station Lithium-Ion Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Penni J.; Balcer, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Electric Power System (EPS) currently uses Nickel-Hydrogen (Ni-H2) batteries to store electrical energy. The batteries are charged during insolation and discharged during eclipse. The Ni-H2 batteries are designed to operate at a 35 depth of discharge (DOD) maximum during normal operation in a Low Earth Orbit. Since the oldest of the 48 Ni-H2 battery Orbital Replacement Units (ORUs) has been cycling since September 2006, these batteries are now approaching their end of useful life. In 2010, the ISS Program began the development of Lithium-Ion (Li-ion) batteries to replace the Ni-H2 batteries and concurrently funded a Li-ion cell life testing project. This paper will include an overview of the ISS Li-Ion battery system architecture and the progress of the Li-ion battery design and development.

  12. Evaluation of Batteries for Safe Air Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Williard

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Lithium-ion batteries are shipped worldwide with many limitations implemented to ensure safety and to prevent loss of cargo. Many of the transportation guidelines focus on new batteries; however, the shipment requirements for used or degraded batteries are less clear. Current international regulations regarding the air transport of lithium-ion batteries are critically reviewed. The pre-shipping tests are outlined and evaluated to assess their ability to fully mitigate risks during battery transport. In particular, the guidelines for shipping second-use batteries are considered. Because the electrochemical state of previously used batteries is inherently different from that of new batteries, additional considerations must be made to evaluate these types of cells. Additional tests are suggested that evaluate the risks of second-use batteries, which may or may not contain incipient faults.

  13. Study of hydrogen-powered versus battery-powered automobiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donnelly, J.J. Jr.; Greayer, W.C.; Nichols, R.J.; Escher, W.J.D.

    1979-05-01

    A study conducted to compare the technological status and the resultant potential vehicle characteristics for hydrogen- and battery-powered automobiles that could be produced from 1985 to 2000 is documented in 3 volumes. The primary objectives of the study were: the assessments of applicable energy storage and propulsion technology for the two basic vehicle types (applied to four-passenger cars); a rigorous comparison of vehicle weight, size, and usefulness versus design range; and an investigation of the relative efficiencies of expending energy from various primary sources to power the subject vehicle. Another important objective, unique to hydrogen powered vehicles, was the assessment of the technology, logistics, and cost implications of a hydrogen production and delivery capability. This volume, Volume III, contains three major sections: the assessment of battery electric vehicle technology for energy storage and the drivetrain system; the technical and economic comparison of hydrogen- and battery-powered vehicles derived primarily from data in the previous vehicle technology assessments, with consideration of alternative energy sources; and a series of appendices that support the vehicle definitions and comparisons.

  14. Transcriptome comparison and gene coexpression network analysis provide a systems view of citrus response to ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Huanglongbing (HLB) is arguably the most destructive disease for the citrus industry. HLB is caused by infection of the bacterium, Candidatus Liberibacter spp. Several citrus GeneChip studies have revealed thousands of genes that are up- or down-regulated by infection with Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus. However, whether and how these host genes act to protect against HLB remains poorly understood. Results As a first step towards a mechanistic view of citrus in response to the HLB bacterial infection, we performed a comparative transcriptome analysis and found that a total of 21 Probesets are commonly up-regulated by the HLB bacterial infection. In addition, a number of genes are likely regulated specifically at early, late or very late stages of the infection. Furthermore, using Pearson correlation coefficient-based gene coexpression analysis, we constructed a citrus HLB response network consisting of 3,507 Probesets and 56,287 interactions. Genes involved in carbohydrate and nitrogen metabolic processes, transport, defense, signaling and hormone response were overrepresented in the HLB response network and the subnetworks for these processes were constructed. Analysis of the defense and hormone response subnetworks indicates that hormone response is interconnected with defense response. In addition, mapping the commonly up-regulated HLB responsive genes into the HLB response network resulted in a core subnetwork where transport plays a key role in the citrus response to the HLB bacterial infection. Moreover, analysis of a phloem protein subnetwork indicates a role for this protein and zinc transporters or zinc-binding proteins in the citrus HLB defense response. Conclusion Through integrating transcriptome comparison and gene coexpression network analysis, we have provided for the first time a systems view of citrus in response to the Ca. Liberibacter spp. infection causing HLB. PMID:23324561

  15. Transcriptome comparison and gene coexpression network analysis provide a systems view of citrus response to ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Zhi-Liang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Huanglongbing (HLB is arguably the most destructive disease for the citrus industry. HLB is caused by infection of the bacterium, Candidatus Liberibacter spp. Several citrus GeneChip studies have revealed thousands of genes that are up- or down-regulated by infection with Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus. However, whether and how these host genes act to protect against HLB remains poorly understood. Results As a first step towards a mechanistic view of citrus in response to the HLB bacterial infection, we performed a comparative transcriptome analysis and found that a total of 21 Probesets are commonly up-regulated by the HLB bacterial infection. In addition, a number of genes are likely regulated specifically at early, late or very late stages of the infection. Furthermore, using Pearson correlation coefficient-based gene coexpression analysis, we constructed a citrus HLB response network consisting of 3,507 Probesets and 56,287 interactions. Genes involved in carbohydrate and nitrogen metabolic processes, transport, defense, signaling and hormone response were overrepresented in the HLB response network and the subnetworks for these processes were constructed. Analysis of the defense and hormone response subnetworks indicates that hormone response is interconnected with defense response. In addition, mapping the commonly up-regulated HLB responsive genes into the HLB response network resulted in a core subnetwork where transport plays a key role in the citrus response to the HLB bacterial infection. Moreover, analysis of a phloem protein subnetwork indicates a role for this protein and zinc transporters or zinc-binding proteins in the citrus HLB defense response. Conclusion Through integrating transcriptome comparison and gene coexpression network analysis, we have provided for the first time a systems view of citrus in response to the Ca. Liberibacter spp. infection causing HLB.

  16. Crash Models for Advanced Automotive Batteries: A Review of the Current State of the Art

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, John A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Allu, Srikanth [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gorti, Sarma B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kalnaus, Sergiy [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kumar, Abhishek [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lebrun-Grandie, Damien T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Pannala, Sreekanth [Saudi Arabia Basic Industries Corporation (SABIC), Houston, TX (United States); Simunovic, Srdjan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Slattery, Stuart R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wang, Hsin [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Safety is a critical aspect of lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery design. Impact/crash conditions can trigger a complex interplay of mechanical contact, heat generation and electrical discharge, which can result in adverse thermal events. The cause of these thermal events has been linked to internal contact between the opposite electrodes, i.e. internal short circuit. The severity of the outcome is influenced by the configuration of the internal short circuit and the battery state. Different loading conditions and battery states may lead to micro (soft) shorts where material burnout due to generated heat eliminates contact between the electrodes, or persistent (hard) shorts which can lead to more significant thermal events and potentially damage the entire battery system and beyond. Experimental characterization of individual battery components for the onset of internal shorts is limited, since it is impractical to canvas all possible variations in battery state of charge, operating conditions, and impact loading in a timely manner. This report provides a survey of modeling and simulation approaches and documents a project initiated and funded by DOT/NHTSA to improve modeling and simulation capabilities in order to design tests that provide leading indicators of failure in batteries. In this project, ORNL has demonstrated a computational infrastructure to conduct impact simulations of Li-ion batteries using models that resolve internal structures and electro-thermo-chemical and mechanical conditions. Initial comparisons to abuse experiments on cells and cell strings conducted at ORNL and Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC) at Carderock MD for parameter estimation and model validation have been performed. This research has provided insight into the mechanisms of deformation in batteries (both at cell and electrode level) and their relationship to the safety of batteries.

  17. Air Force Phillips Laboratory Battery Program overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, Shaun

    1992-01-01

    Battery development and testing efforts at Phillips Laboratory fall into three main categories: nickel hydrogen, sodium sulfur, and solid state batteries. Nickel hydrogen work is broken down into a Low Earth Orbit (LEO) Life Test Program, a LEO Pulse Test Program, and a Hydrogen Embrittlement Investigation. Sodium sulfur work is broken down into a Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO) Battery Flight Test and a Hot Launch Evaluation. Solid state polymer battery work consists of a GEO Battery Development Program, a Pulse Power Battery Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR), and an in-house evaluation of current generation laboratory cells. An overview of the program is presented.

  18. Liquid cathode primary batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlaikjer, Carl R.

    1985-03-01

    Lithium/liquid cathode/carbon primary batteries offer from 3 to 6 times the volumetric energy density of zinc/alkaline manganese cells, improved stability during elevated temperature storage, satisfactory operation at temperatures from -40 to +150 °C, and efficient discharge at moderate rates. he lithium/sulfur dioxide cell is the most efficient system at temperatures below 0 °C. Although chemical reactions leading to electrolyte degradation and lithium corrosion are known, the rates of these reactions are slow. While the normal temperature cell reaction produces lithium dithionite, discharge at 60 °C leads to a reduction in capacity due to side reactions involving sulfur dioxide and discharge intermediates. Lithium/thionyl chloride and lithium/sulfuryl chloride cells have the highest practical gravimetric and volumetric energy densities when compared with aqueous and most other nonaqueous systems. For thionyl chloride, discharge proceeds through a series of intermediates to sulfur, sulfur dioxide and lithium chloride. Catalysis, leading to improved rate capability and capacity, has been achieved. The causes of rapid reactions leading to thermal runaway are thought to be chemical in nature. Lithium/sulfuryl chloride cells, which produce sulfur dioxide and lithium chloride on discharge, experience more extensive anode corrosion. An inorganic cosolvent and suitable salt are capable of alleviating this corrosion. Calcium/oxyhalide cells have been studied because of their promise of increased safety without substantial sacrifice of energy density relative to lithium cells. Anode corrosion, particularly during discharge, has delayed practical development.

  19. Liquid cathode primary batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlaikjer, C.R.

    1985-01-15

    Lithium/liquid cathode/carbon primary batteries offer from 3 to 6 times the volumetric energy density of zinc/alkaline manganese cells, improved stability during elevated temperature storage, satisfactory operation at temperatures from -40 to +150/sup 0/C, and efficient discharge at moderate rates. The lithium/sulfur dioxide cell is the most efficient system at temperatures below 0/sup 0/C. Although chemical reactions leading to electrolyte degradation and lithium corrosion are known, the rates of these reactions are slow. While the normal temperature cell reaction produces lithium dithionite, discharge at 60/sup 0/C leads to a reduction in capacity due to side reactions involving sulfur dioxide and discharge intermediates. Lithium/thionyl chloride and lithium/sulfuryl chloride cells have the highest practical gravimetric and volumetric energy densities when compared with aqueous and most other nonaqueous systems. For thionyl chloride, discharge proceeds through a series of intermediates to sulfur, sulfur dioxide and lithium chloride. Catalysis, leading to improved rate capability and capacity, has been achieved. The causes of rapid reactions leading to thermal runaway are thought to be chemical in nature. Lithium/sulfuryl chloride cells, which produce sulfur dioxide and lithium chloride on discharge, experience more extensive anode corrosion. An inorganic cosolvent and suitable salt are capable of alleviating this corrosion. Calcium/oxyhalide cells have been studied because of their promise of increased safety without substantial sacrifice of energy density relative to lithium cells. Anode corrosion, particularly during discharge, has delayed practical development.

  20. Bifunctional redox flow battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, Y.H. [Research Institute of Chemical Defense, Beijing 100083 (China)], E-mail: wen_yuehua@126.com; Cheng, J. [Research Institute of Chemical Defense, Beijing 100083 (China); Beijing Science and Technology University, Beijing 100083 (China); Xun, Y. [Research Institute of Chemical Defense, Beijing 100083 (China); Ma, P.H. [Full Cell R and D Center, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian, Liaoning 116023 (China); Yang, Y.S. [Research Institute of Chemical Defense, Beijing 100083 (China); Beijing Science and Technology University, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2008-08-20

    A new bifunctional redox flow battery (BRFB) system, V(III)/V(II)-L-cystine(O{sub 2}), was systematically investigated by using different separators. It is shown that during charge, water transfer is significantly restricted with increasing the concentration of HBr when the Nafion 115 cation exchange membrane is employed. The same result can be obtained when the gas diffusion layer (GDL) hot-pressed separator is used. The organic electro-synthesis is directly correlated with the crossover of vanadium. When employing the anion exchange membrane, the electro-synthesis efficiency is over 96% due to a minimal crossover of vanadium. When the GDL hot-pressed separator is applied, the crossover of vanadium and water transfer are noticeably prevented and the electro-synthesis efficiency of over 99% is obtained. Those impurities such as vanadium ions and bromine can be eliminated through the purification of organic electro-synthesized products. The purified product is identified to be L-cysteic acid by IR spectrum. The BRFB shows a favorable discharge performance at a current density of 20 mA cm{sup -2}. Best discharge performance is achieved by using the GDL hot-pressed separator. The coulombic efficiency of 87% and energy efficiency of about 58% can be obtained. The cause of major energy losses is mainly associated with the cross-contamination of anodic and cathodic active electrolytes.

  1. Foothill Transit Battery Electric Bus Demonstration Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, Leslie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Prohaska, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kelly, Kenneth [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Post, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-01-27

    Foothill Transit is collaborating with the California Air Resources Board and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate its fleet of Proterra battery electric buses (BEBs) in revenue service. The focus of this evaluation is to compare performance of the BEBs to that of conventional technology and to track progress over time toward meeting performance targets. This project has also provided an opportunity for DOE to conduct a detailed evaluation of the BEBs and charging infrastructure. This report provides data on the buses from April 2014 through July 2015. Data are provided on a selection of compressed natural gas buses as a baseline comparison.

  2. Serum amyloid-P component of the Armenian hamster: gene structure and comparison with structure and expression of the SAP gene from Syrian hamster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudnick, C M; Dowton, S B

    1993-11-01

    Serum amyloid P (SAP), a phylogenetically conserved pentraxin, is an integral component of all amyloid deposits. Regulation of expression of SAP gene expression is quite different in two related hamster species. In Syrian hamsters, the resting serum levels of SAP are determined by gender, and the direction of alteration following inflammation is divergent. In Armenian hamsters, SAP is not a prominent acute-phase reactant and there is no gender dimorphism of expression. The structure and expression of the SAP gene of the Armenian hamsters was investigated by isolation of genomic clones, nucleotide sequence analysis, and RNA studies. The gene structure of Armenian hamster SAP is similar to the genes of all other pentraxins studied. While the upstream regions of the SAP genes of Syrian and Armenian hamsters are quite similar, important differences in potential enhancer sites have been recognized by comparing the corresponding sequences of SAP genes from both species. Little alteration in hepatic levels of transcripts encoding SAP or CRP, the other pentraxin, were noted following administration of lipopolysaccharide to Armenian hamsters. This relative lack of response occurred despite a marked acute phase reaction documented for serum amyloid A mRNA levels.

  3. The Analysis of Multiple Genome Comparisons in Genus Escherichia and Its Application to the Discovery of Uncharacterised Metabolic Genes in Uropathogenic Escherichia coli CFT073

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William A. Bryant

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A survey of a complete gene synteny comparison has been carried out between twenty fully sequenced strains from the genus Escherichia with the aim of finding yet uncharacterised genes implicated in the metabolism of uropathogenic strains of E. coli (UPEC. Several sets of adjacent colinear genes have been identified which are present in all four UPEC included in this study (CFT073, F11, UTI89, and 536, annotated with putative metabolic functions, but are not found in any other strains considered. An operon closely homologous to that encoding the L-sorbose degradation pathway in Klebsiella pneumoniae has been identified in E. coli CFT073; this operon is present in all of the UPEC considered, but only in 7 of the other 16 strains. The operon's function has been confirmed by cloning the genes into E. coli DH5α and testing for growth on L-sorbose. The functional genomic approach combining in silico and in vitro work presented here can be used as a basis for the discovery of other uncharacterised genes contributing to bacterial survival in specific environments.

  4. Concordance analysis of microarray studies identifies representative gene expression changes in Parkinson's disease: a comparison of 33 human and animal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oerton, Erin; Bender, Andreas

    2017-03-23

    As the popularity of transcriptomic analysis has grown, the reported lack of concordance between different studies of the same condition has become a growing concern, raising questions as to the representativeness of different study types, such as non-human disease models or studies of surrogate tissues, to gene expression in the human condition. In a comparison of 33 microarray studies of Parkinson's disease, correlation and clustering analyses were used to determine the factors influencing concordance between studies, including agreement between different tissue types, different microarray platforms, and between neurotoxic and genetic disease models and human Parkinson's disease. Concordance over all studies is low, with correlation of only 0.05 between differential gene expression signatures on average, but increases within human patients and studies of the same tissue type, rising to 0.38 for studies of human substantia nigra. Agreement of animal models, however, is dependent on model type. Studies of brain tissue from Parkinson's disease patients (specifically the substantia nigra) form a distinct group, showing patterns of differential gene expression noticeably different from that in non-brain tissues and animal models of Parkinson's disease; while comparison with other brain diseases (Alzheimer's disease and brain cancer) suggests that the mixed study types display a general signal of neurodegenerative disease. A meta-analysis of these 33 microarray studies demonstrates the greater ability of studies in humans and highly-affected tissues to identify genes previously known to be associated with Parkinson's disease. The observed clustering and concordance results suggest the existence of a 'characteristic' signal of Parkinson's disease found in significantly affected human tissues in humans. These results help to account for the consistency (or lack thereof) so far observed in microarray studies of Parkinson's disease, and act as a guide to the selection of

  5. Portable Battery Charger Berbasis Sel Surya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budhi Anto

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A type of solar battery charger is introduced in this paper. This equipment functions as a medium size rechargeable battery that is needed to move culinary merchants and coastal fishermen living in area which is not supplied by electrical networks. The equipment consists of solar module mounted onto portable mechanical construction, a 12-V 7.5-Ah lead acid battery and charge controller. Solar module charges the battery through charge controller and then the battery can be discharged to power on electric lamps for lightening culinary wagon or fisherman’s boat at night. Charge controller charges the battery with float charging which is implemented by maintaining 13.5 Volt between battery terminals and limiting the charging current to 1.5 Amperes. Charge controller circuit is based on adjustable linear voltage regulator LM338. The battery is of sealed lead acid type. This type of battery is maintenance free and more hygiene than other types of lead acid battery. The field experiment of charging the baterry of 50% residual capacity from 8 am to 4 pm under sunny weather shows that the solar module has charged the battery to its full capacity under battery safe charging conditions.Keywords: portable solar battery charger, float charging, LM338

  6. Characteristics of lithium-ion batteries during fire tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Fredrik; Andersson, Petra; Blomqvist, Per; Lorén, Anders; Mellander, Bengt-Erik

    2014-12-01

    Commercial lithium-ion battery cells are exposed to a controlled propane fire in order to evaluate heat release rate (HRR), emission of toxic gases as well as cell temperature and voltage under this type of abuse. The study includes six abuse tests on cells having lithium-iron phosphate (LFP) cathodes and, as a comparison, one test on conventional laptop battery packs with cobalt based cathode. The influence of different state of charge (SOC) is investigated and a limited study of the effect of water mist application is also performed. The total heat release (THR) per battery energy capacity are determined to be 28-75 kJ Wh-1 and the maximum HRR values to 110-490 W Wh-1. Hydrogen fluoride (HF) is found in the released gases for all tests but no traceable amounts of phosphorous oxyfluoride (POF3) or phosphorus pentafluoride (PF5) are detected. An extrapolation of expected HF emissions for a typical automotive 10 kWh battery pack exposed to fire gives a release of 400-1200 g HF. If released in a confined environment such emissions of HF may results in unacceptable exposure levels.

  7. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles: battery degradation, grid support, emissions, and battery size tradeoffs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Scott B.

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) may become a substantial part of the transportation fleet in a decade or two. This dissertation investigates battery degradation, and how introducing PHEVs may influence the electricity grid, emissions, and petroleum use in the US. It examines the effects of combined driving and vehicle-to-grid (V2G) usage on lifetime performance of commercial Li-ion cells. The testing shows promising capacity fade performance: more than 95% of the original cell capacity remains after thousands of driving days. Statistical analyses indicate that rapid vehicle motive cycling degraded the cells more than slower, V2G galvanostatic cycling. These data are used to examine the potential economic implications of using vehicle batteries to store grid electricity generated at off-peak hours for off-vehicle use during peak hours. The maximum annual profit with perfect market information and no battery degradation cost ranged from ˜US140 to 250 in the three cities. If measured battery degradation is applied the maximum annual profit decreases to ˜10-120. The dissertation predicts the increase in electricity load and emissions due to vehicle battery charging in PJM and NYISO with the current generators, with a 50/tonne CO2 price, and with existing coal generators retrofitted with 80% CO2 capture. It also models emissions using natural gas or wind+gas. We examined PHEV fleet percentages between 0.4 and 50%. Compared to 2020 CAFE standards, net CO2 emissions in New York are reduced by switching from gasoline to electricity; coal-heavy PJM shows smaller benefits unless coal units are fitted with CCS or replaced with lower CO2 generation. NOX is reduced in both RTOs, but there is upward pressure on SO2 emissions or allowance prices under a cap. Finally the dissertation compares increasing the all-electric range (AER) of PHEVs to installing charging infrastructure. Fuel use was modeled with National Household Travel Survey and Greenhouse Gasses, Regulated

  8. Lithium batteries in Japan; Les batteries lithium au Japon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guyomard, D.; Mercier, A.; Tarascon, J.M.

    2000-04-01

    This document is a mission report about the development of lithium batteries research in Japan. The mission took place between November 29 and December 3, 1999 and was organized by the Science and Technology Service of the French embassy in Tokyo. The organizations shown during the mission were: ETL, NEDO/LIBES, the Kyoto university, Yuasa, Hitachi, Matsushita, Japan Storage, Sanyo and Sony. The mission has shown that the government program is clearly backward. The Japanese research on battery materials remains important. The leaders of the lithium-ion technology are Sony, first, and then Hitachi and Sanyo. Applications of lithium-ion batteries are developing for small electric-powered vehicles. (J.S.)

  9. Controllers for Battery Chargers and Battery Chargers Therefrom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmes, John (Inventor); Kersten, Rene (Inventor); Pepper, Michael (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A controller for a battery charger that includes a power converter has parametric sensors for providing a sensed Vin signal, a sensed Vout signal and a sensed Iout signal. A battery current regulator (BCR) is coupled to receive the sensed Iout signal and an Iout reference, and outputs a first duty cycle control signal. An input voltage regulator (IVR) receives the sensed Vin signal and a Vin reference. The IVR provides a second duty cycle control signal. A processor receives the sensed Iout signal and utilizes a Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) algorithm, and provides the Vin reference to the IVR. A selection block forwards one of the first and second duty cycle control signals as a duty cycle control signal to the power converter. Dynamic switching between the first and second duty cycle control signals maximizes the power delivered to the battery.

  10. Comparison of CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP frequency in colon cancer using different probe- and gene-specific scoring alternatives on recommended multi-gene panels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne Berg

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In colorectal cancer a distinct subgroup of tumours demonstrate the CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP. However, a consensus of how to score CIMP is not reached, and variation in definition may influence the reported CIMP prevalence in tumours. Thus, we sought to compare currently suggested definitions and cut-offs for methylation markers and how they influence CIMP classification in colon cancer. METHODS: Methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MS-MLPA, with subsequent fragment analysis, was used to investigate methylation of tumour samples. In total, 31 CpG sites, located in 8 different genes (RUNX3, MLH1, NEUROG1, CDKN2A, IGF2, CRABP1, SOCS1 and CACNA1G were investigated in 64 distinct colon cancers and 2 colon cancer cell lines. The Ogino gene panel includes all 8 genes, in addition to the Weisenberger panel of which only 5 of the 8 genes included were investigated. In total, 18 alternative combinations of scoring of CIMP positivity on probe-, gene-, and panel-level were analysed and compared. RESULTS: For 47 samples (71%, the CIMP status was constant and independent of criteria used for scoring; 34 samples were constantly scored as CIMP negative, and 13 (20% consistently scored as CIMP positive. Only four of 31 probes (13% investigated showed no difference in the numbers of positive samples using the different cut-offs. Within the panels a trend was observed that increasing the gene-level stringency resulted in a larger difference in CIMP positive samples than increasing the probe-level stringency. A significant difference between positive samples using 'the most stringent' as compared to 'the least stringent' criteria (20% vs 46%, respectively; p<0.005 was demonstrated. CONCLUSIONS: A statistical significant variation in the frequency of CIMP depending on the cut-offs and genes included in a panel was found, with twice as many positives samples by least compared to most stringent definition

  11. How well do HapMap haplotypes identify common haplotypes of genes? A comparison with haplotypes of 334 genes resequenced in the environmental genome project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jack A; Xu, Zong-Li; Kaplan, Norman L; Morris, Richard W

    2006-01-01

    One of the goals of the International HapMap Project is the identification of common haplotypes in genes. However, HapMap uses an incomplete catalogue of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and might miss some common haplotypes. We examined this issue using data from the Environmental Genome Project (EGP) which resequenced 335 genes in 90 people, and thus, has a nearly complete catalogue of gene SNPs. The EGP identified a total of 45,243 SNPs, of which 10,780 were common SNPs (minor allele frequency >or=0.1). Using EGP common SNP genotype data, we identified 1,459 haplotypes with frequency >or=0.05 and we use these as "benchmark" haplotypes. HapMap release 16 had genotype information for 1,573 of 10,780 (15%) EGP common SNPs. Using these SNPs, we identified common HapMap haplotypes (frequency >or=0.05) in each of the four HapMap ethnic groups. To compare common HapMap haplotypes to EGP benchmark haplotypes, we collapsed benchmark haplotypes to the set of 1,573 SNPs. Ninety-eight percent of the collapsed benchmark haplotypes could be found as common HapMap haplotypes in one or more of the four HapMap ethnic groups. However, collapsing benchmark haplotypes to the set of SNPs available in HapMap resulted in a loss of haplotype information: 545 of 1,459 (37%) benchmark haplotypes were uniquely identified, and only 25% of genes had all their benchmark haplotypes uniquely identified. We resampled the EGP data to examine the effect of increasing the number of HapMap SNPs to 5 million, and estimate that approximately 40% of common SNPs in genes will be sampled and that half of the genes will have sufficient SNPs to identify all common haplotypes. This inability to distinguish common haplotypes of genes may result in loss of power when examining haplotype-disease association.

  12. Multi-species sequence comparison reveals dynamic evolution of the elastin gene that has involved purifying selection and lineage-specific insertions/deletions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Green Eric D

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The elastin gene (ELN is implicated as a factor in both supravalvular aortic stenosis (SVAS and Williams Beuren Syndrome (WBS, two diseases involving pronounced complications in mental or physical development. Although the complete spectrum of functional roles of the processed gene product remains to be established, these roles are inferred to be analogous in human and mouse. This view is supported by genomic sequence comparison, in which there are no large-scale differences in the ~1.8 Mb sequence block encompassing the common region deleted in WBS, with the exception of an overall reversed physical orientation between human and mouse. Results Conserved synteny around ELN does not translate to a high level of conservation in the gene itself. In fact, ELN orthologs in mammals show more sequence divergence than expected for a gene with a critical role in development. The pattern of divergence is non-conventional due to an unusually high ratio of gaps to substitutions. Specifically, multi-sequence alignments of eight mammalian sequences reveal numerous non-aligning regions caused by species-specific insertions and deletions, in spite of the fact that the vast majority of aligning sites appear to be conserved and undergoing purifying selection. Conclusions The pattern of lineage-specific, in-frame insertions/deletions in the coding exons of ELN orthologous genes is unusual and has led to unique features of the gene in each lineage. These differences may indicate that the gene has a slightly different functional mechanism in mammalian lineages, or that the corresponding regions are functionally inert. Identified regions that undergo purifying selection reflect a functional importance associated with evolutionary pressure to retain those features.

  13. Phylogeny of intestinal ciliates, including Charonina ventriculi, and comparison of microscopy and 18S rRNA gene pyrosequencing for rumen ciliate community structure analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittelmann, Sandra; Devente, Savannah R; Kirk, Michelle R; Seedorf, Henning; Dehority, Burk A; Janssen, Peter H

    2015-04-01

    The development of high-throughput methods, such as the construction of 18S rRNA gene clone or pyrosequencing libraries, has allowed evaluation of ciliate community composition in hundreds of samples from the rumen and other intestinal habitats. However, several genera of mammalian intestinal ciliates have been described based only on morphological features and, to date, have not been identified using molecular methods. Here, we isolated single cells of one of the smallest but widely distributed intestinal ciliates, Charonina ventriculi, and sequenced its 18S rRNA gene. We verified the sequence in a full-cycle rRNA approach using fluorescence in situ hybridization and thereby assigned an 18S rRNA gene sequence to this species previously known only by its morphology. Based on its full-length 18S rRNA gene sequence, Charonina ventriculi was positioned within the phylogeny of intestinal ciliates in the subclass Trichostomatia. The taxonomic framework derived from this phylogeny was used for taxonomic assignment of trichostome ciliate 18S rRNA gene sequence data stemming from high-throughput amplicon pyrosequencing of rumen-derived DNA samples. The 18S rRNA gene-based ciliate community structure was compared to that obtained from microscopic counts using the same samples. Both methods allowed identification of dominant members of the ciliate communities and classification of the rumen ciliate community into one of the types first described by Eadie in 1962. Notably, each method is associated with advantages and disadvantages. Microscopy is a highly accurate method for evaluation of total numbers or relative abundances of different ciliate genera in a sample, while 18S rRNA gene pyrosequencing represents a valuable alternative for comparison of ciliate community structure in a large number of samples from different animals or treatment groups.

  14. Multiple Genome Comparison within a Bacterial Species Reveals a Unit of Evolution Spanning Two Adjacent Genes in a Tandem Paralog Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuru, Takeshi

    2008-01-01

    It has been assumed that an open reading frame (ORF) represents a unit of gene evolution as well as a unit of gene expression and function. In the present work, we report a case in which a unit comprising the 3′ region of an ORF linked to a downstream intergenic region that is in turn linked to the 5′ region of a downstream ORF has been conserved, and has served as the unit of gene evolution. The genes are tandem paralogous genes from the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus, for which more than ten entire genomes have been sequenced. We compared these multiple genome sequences at a locus for the lpl (lipoprotein-like) cluster (encoding lipoprotein homologs presumably related to their host interaction) in the genomic island termed νSaα. A highly conserved nucleotide sequence found within every lpl ORF is likely to provide a site for homologous recombination. Comparison of phylogenies of the 5′-variable region and the 3′-variable region within the same ORF revealed significant incongruence. In contrast, pairs of the 3′-variable region of an ORF and the 5′-variable region of the next downstream ORF gave more congruent phylogenies, with distinct groups of conserved pairs. The intergenic region seemed to have coevolved with the flanking variable regions. Multiple recombination events at the central conserved region appear to have caused various types of rearrangements among strains, shuffling the two variable regions in one ORF, but maintaining a conserved unit comprising the 3′-variable region, the intergenic region, and the 5′-variable region spanning adjacent ORFs. This result has strong impact on our understanding of gene evolution because most gene lineages underwent tandem duplication and then diversified. This work also illustrates the use of multiple genome sequences for high-resolution evolutionary analysis within the same species. PMID:18765438

  15. Characterization of Vanadium Flow Battery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bindner, Henrik W.; Krog Ekman, Claus; Gehrke, Oliver;

    of wind energy in the Danish power system. The battery has been in operation for 18 months. During time of operation the battery has not shown signs of degradation of performance. It has a round-trip efficiency at full load of approximately 60% (depending on temperature and SOC). The sources of the losses......This report summarizes the work done at Risø-DTU testing a vanadium flow battery as part of the project “Characterisation of Vanadium Batteries” (ForskEl project 6555) with the partners PA Energy A/S and OI Electric A/S under the Danish PSO energy research program. A 15kW/120kWh vanadium battery...... has been installed as part of the distributed energy systems experimental facility, SYSLAB, at Risø DTU. A test programme has been carried out to get hands-on experience with the technology, to characterize the battery from a power system point of view and to assess it with respect to integration...

  16. A terracotta bio-battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajayi, Folusho F; Weigele, Peter R

    2012-07-01

    Terracotta pots were converted into simple, single chamber, air-cathode bio-batteries. This bio-battery design used a graphite-felt anode and a conductive graphite coating without added catalyst on the exterior as a cathode. Bacteria enriched from river sediment served as the anode catalyst. These batteries gave an average OCV of 0.56 V ± 0.02, a Coulombic efficiency of 21 ± 5%, and a peak power of 1.06 mW ± 0.01(33.13 mW/m(2)). Stable current was also produced when the batteries were operated with hay extract in salt solution. The bacterial community on the anode of the batteries was tested for air tolerance and desiccation resistance over a period ranging from 2 days to 2 weeks. The results showed that the anode community could survive complete drying of the electrolyte for several days. These data support the further development of this technology as a potential power source for LED-based lighting in off-grid, rural communities. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Characterization of Vanadium Flow Battery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bindner, Henrik W.; Krog Ekman, Claus; Gehrke, Oliver

    This report summarizes the work done at Risø-DTU testing a vanadium flow battery as part of the project “Characterisation of Vanadium Batteries” (ForskEl project 6555) with the partners PA Energy A/S and OI Electric A/S under the Danish PSO energy research program. A 15kW/120kWh vanadium battery...... has been installed as part of the distributed energy systems experimental facility, SYSLAB, at Risø DTU. A test programme has been carried out to get hands-on experience with the technology, to characterize the battery from a power system point of view and to assess it with respect to integration...... of wind energy in the Danish power system. The battery has been in operation for 18 months. During time of operation the battery has not shown signs of degradation of performance. It has a round-trip efficiency at full load of approximately 60% (depending on temperature and SOC). The sources of the losses...

  18. 46 CFR 111.15-5 - Battery installation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... must be as close as possible to the engine or engines. (c) Small batteries. Small size battery... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Battery installation. 111.15-5 Section 111.15-5 Shipping... REQUIREMENTS Storage Batteries and Battery Chargers: Construction and Installation § 111.15-5 Battery...

  19. 46 CFR 111.15-2 - Battery construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... that of a similar size lead-acid battery under similar charging condition. (d) Batteries must be... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Battery construction. 111.15-2 Section 111.15-2 Shipping... REQUIREMENTS Storage Batteries and Battery Chargers: Construction and Installation § 111.15-2 Battery...

  20. 49 CFR 173.185 - Lithium cells and batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lithium cells and batteries. 173.185 Section 173... Class 7 § 173.185 Lithium cells and batteries. (a) Cells and batteries. A lithium cell or battery, including a lithium polymer cell or battery and a lithium-ion cell or battery, must conform to all of...

  1. Global gene expression analysis in fetal mouse ovaries with and without meiosis and comparison of selected genes with meiosis in the testis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, C.; Nyeng, P.; Kalisz, M.

    2007-01-01

    In order to identify novel genes involved in early meiosis and early ovarian development in the mouse, we used microarray technology to compare transcriptional activity in ovaries without meiotic germ cells at embryonic age 11.5 (E11.5) and E13.5 ovaries with meiosis. Overall, 182 genes were......). These genes had previously only been described in spermatogenesis. The microarray also detected an abundance of vesicle-related genes of which four were upregulated (Syngr2, Stxbp1, Ric-8, SytIX) and one (Myo1c) was downregulated in E13.5 ovaries. Detailed analysis showed that the temporal expression of Syt......IX also coincided with the first meiotic wave in the pubertal testis. This is the first time that SytIX has been reported in non-neuronal tissue. Finally, we examined the expression of one of the uncharacterized genes and found it to be gonad-specific in adulthood. We named this novel transcript "Gonad...

  2. Battery Peak Power Shaving Strategy to Prolong Battery Life for Electric Buses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pham, T.H.; Rosea, B.; Wilkins, S.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a battery peak power shaving strategy for battery electric buses. The developed strategy restricts the battery charge/discharge power when the propulsion power demand is high to avoid high deterioration of the battery capacity during operation. Without reducing the propulsion

  3. 78 FR 16031 - Twelfth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-13

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Twelfth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S... Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to...

  4. 78 FR 6845 - Eleventh Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-31

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Eleventh Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S... Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to...

  5. 77 FR 39321 - Eighth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-02

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Eighth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Sizes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S... Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Sizes. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to...

  6. Li-ion Battery Aging Datasets

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set has been collected from a custom built battery prognostics testbed at the NASA Ames Prognostics Center of Excellence (PCoE). Li-ion batteries were run...

  7. Controlling fires in silver/zinc batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boshers, W. A.; Britz, W. A.

    1977-01-01

    Silver/zinc storage battery fires are often difficult to extinguish. Improved technique employs manifold connected to central evacuation chamber to rapidly vent combustion-supporting gases generated by battery plate oxides.

  8. Flameless Candle Batteries Pose Risk to Kids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162882.html Flameless Candle Batteries Pose Risk to Kids If swallowed, serious damage ... WEDNESDAY, Jan. 4, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Tiny button batteries that light up flameless "tea candles" pose a ...

  9. The NTS-2 nickel-hydrogen battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betz, F.

    1977-01-01

    Features of the first operational nickel hydrogen battery are described as well as experiences encountered during its testing and installation. Battery performance since launching of the NTS-2 satellite is discussed.

  10. Market for nickel-cadmium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putois, F.

    Besides the lead/acid battery market, which has seen a tremendous development linked with the car industry, the alkaline rechargeable battery market has also been expanded for more than twenty years, especially in the field of portable applications with nickel-cadmium batteries. Today, nickel-cadmium batteries have to face newcomers on the market, such as nickel-metal hydride, which is another alkaline couple, and rechargeable lithium batteries; these new battery systems have better performances in some areas. This work illustrates the status of the market for nickel-cadmium batteries and their applications. Also, for two major applications—the cordless tool and the electric vehicles—the competitive situation of nickel-cadmium batteries; facing new systems such as nickel-metal hydride and lithium ion cells are discussed.

  11. Specification For ST-5 Li Ion Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castell, Karen D.; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This Specification defines the general requirements for rechargeable Space Flight batteries intended for use in the ST-5 program. The battery chemistry chosen for this mission is lithium ion (Li-Ion).

  12. A comparison of portable XRF and ICP-OES analysis for lead on air filter samples from a lead ore concentrator mill and a lead-acid battery recycler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Martin; Pacolay, Bruce; Hintz, Patrick; Andrew, Michael E

    2006-03-01

    Personal and area samples for airborne lead were taken at a lead mine concentrator mill, and at a lead-acid battery recycler. Lead is mined as its sulfidic ore, galena, which is often associated with zinc and silver. The ore typically is concentrated, and partially separated, on site by crushing and differential froth flotation of the ore minerals before being sent to a primary smelter. Besides lead, zinc and iron are also present in the airborne dusts, together with insignificant levels of copper and silver, and, in one area, manganese. The disposal of used lead-acid batteries presents environmental issues, and is also a waste of recoverable materials. Recycling operations allow for the recovery of lead, which can then be sold back to battery manufacturers to form a closed loop. At the recycling facility lead is the chief airborne metal, together with minor antimony and tin, but several other metals are generally present in much smaller quantities, including copper, chromium, manganese and cadmium. Samplers used in these studies included the closed-face 37 mm filter cassette (the current US standard method for lead sampling), the 37 mm GSP or "cone" sampler, the 25 mm Institute of Occupational Medicine (IOM) inhalable sampler, the 25 mm Button sampler, and the open-face 25 mm cassette. Mixed cellulose-ester filters were used in all samplers. The filters were analyzed after sampling for their content of the various metals, particularly lead, that could be analyzed by the specific portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyzer under study, and then were extracted with acid and analyzed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). The 25 mm filters were analyzed using a single XRF reading, while three readings on different parts of the filter were taken from the 37 mm filters. For lead at the mine concentrate mill, all five samplers gave good correlations (r2 > 0.96) between the two analytical methods over the entire range of found lead mass

  13. Capillary electrophoresis with contactless conductivity detection for the quantification of fluoride in lithium ion battery electrolytes and in ionic liquids-A comparison to the results gained with a fluoride ion-selective electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyschik, Marcelina; Klein-Hitpaß, Marcel; Girod, Sabrina; Winter, Martin; Nowak, Sascha

    2017-02-01

    In this study, an optimized method using capillary electrophoresis (CE) with a direct contactless conductivity detector (C(4) D) for a new application field is presented for the quantification of fluoride in common used lithium ion battery (LIB) electrolyte using LiPF6 in organic carbonate solvents and in ionic liquids (ILs) after contacted to Li metal. The method development for finding the right buffer and the suitable CE conditions for the quantification of fluoride was investigated. The results of the concentration of fluoride in different LIB electrolyte samples were compared to the results from the ion-selective electrode (ISE). The relative standard deviations (RSDs) and recovery rates for fluoride were obtained with a very high accuracy in both methods. The results of the fluoride concentration in the LIB electrolytes were in very good agreement for both methods. In addition, the limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) values were determined for the CE method. The CE method has been applied also for the quantification of fluoride in ILs. In the fresh IL sample, the concentration of fluoride was under the LOD. Another sample of the IL mixed with Li metal has been investigated as well. It was possible to quantify the fluoride concentration in this sample.

  14. Comparison of Nuclear Accumulation of p53 Protein with Mutations in the p53 Gene of Human Breast Cancer Tissues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王萱仪; 查小明; 武正炎; 范萍

    2001-01-01

    Objective The objective was to compare nuclear accumulation of p53 protein with mutations in the p53 gene on the tissues of human breast cancer. Methods Fifty-four invasive ductal carcinomas of breast were analyzed by the method of polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformational polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) silver stain and strep-avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex (SABC) immunohistochemistry. Results A statistically significant association between the presence of p53 gene mutation and nuclear accumulation of p53 protein was found (P<0.01). 22 tumors that demonstrated p53 gene mutations showed nuclear accumulation of p53 protein, while only 9 (28%) showed nuclear accumulation of p53 protein in 32 tumors without p53 gene mutations. Both p53 mutation protein and p53 gene mutations were prevalent in steroid and progesterone receptors negative tumors (P<0.05). A statistically significant association was found between the nuclear accumulation of p53 protein and lymph node invasion (P<0.05), and between p53 gene mutations and lymph node invasion (P<0.05). p53 abnormalities might be associated with an aggressive phenotype in breast cancer. Conclusion The immunohistochemical detection of nuclear p53 protein accumulation is highly associated with p53 gene mutations in breast cancer tissues, and that this method is useful for rapid screening of p53 abnormalities. However, in order to avoid false positive reaction, the p53 gene mutations should be determined in cases slightly positive for p53 nuclear protein.

  15. Comparison of Gene Expression in Peri-implant Soft Tissue and Oral Mucosal Tissue by Microarray Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makabe, Yasushi; Sasaki, Hodaka; Mori, Gentaro; Sekine, Hideshi; Yoshinari, Masao; Yajima, Yasutomo

    2015-01-01

    Implant placement entails disruption of the epithelial continuity, which can lead to various complications. Therefore, the area of mucosal penetration is of particular interest clinically. The goal of the present study was to compare gene expression in peri-implant soft tissue (PIST) with that in oral mucosal tissue (OMT) using microarray analysis, and to investigate which genes were specifically expressed in PIST. The bilateral upper first molars were extracted from 4-week-old rats and titanium alloy implants placed only in the left-side extraction sockets. Four weeks after surgery, samples were harvested from the left-side PIST and right-side OMT and total RNA samples isolated. Microarray analysis was used to compare gene expression in PIST and OMT, which was then confirmed using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Immunohistochemical staining was also performed to confirm protein level expression. The number of genes expressed with more than a twofold change in PIST compared with OMT was 1,102, of which 750 genes were upregulated and 352 genes were downregulated. The messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of three selected genes-Ceacam1, Ifitm1, and MUC4-were more significantly expressed in PIST than in OMT(P microarray analysis showed that, because of implant placement, 750 genes were upregulated in PIST compared with OMT. CEACAM1, IFITM1, and MUC4 were specifically upregulated in PIST.

  16. The effect of missing marker genotypes on the accuracy of gene-assisted breeding value estimation: a comparison of methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, H.A.; Meuwissen, T.H.E.; Calus, M.P.L.; Veerkamp, R.F.

    2010-01-01

    In livestock populations, missing genotypes on a large proportion of the animals is a major problem when implementing geneassisted breeding value estimation for genes with known effect. The objective of this study was to compare different methods to deal with missing genotypes on accuracy of gene-as

  17. Evaluation and comparison of the GUS, LUC and GFP reporter system for gene expression studies in plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijter, de N.C.A.; Verhees, J.A.; Leeuwen, van W.; Krol, van der A.R.

    2003-01-01

    The detailed analysis of the expression pattern of a plant gene can give important clues about its function in plant development, cell differentiation and defence reactions. Gene expression studies have been greatly facilitated by the employment of proteins like beta-glucuronidase (GUS), green fluor

  18. Comparison of in vivo and in vitro reporter gene assays for short-term screening of estrogenic activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Legler, J.; Zeinstra, L.M.; Schuitemaker, F.; Lanser, P.H.; Bogerd, J.; Brouwer, A.; Vethaak, A.D.; Voogt, de P.; Murk, A.J.; Burg, van der B.

    2002-01-01

    Functional in vitro and in vivo reporter gene assays have recently been developed for the rapid determination of exposure to (xeno)estrogens. The in vitro estrogen receptor (ER)-mediated chemically activated luciferase gene expression (ER-CALUX) assay uses T47D human breast cancer cells stably trans

  19. Sex genes for genomic analysis in human brain: internal controls for comparison of probe level data extraction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellis Steven P

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genomic studies of complex tissues pose unique analytical challenges for assessment of data quality, performance of statistical methods used for data extraction, and detection of differentially expressed genes. Ideally, to assess the accuracy of gene expression analysis methods, one needs a set of genes which are known to be differentially expressed in the samples and which can be used as a "gold standard". We introduce the idea of using sex-chromosome genes as an alternative to spiked-in control genes or simulations for assessment of microarray data and analysis methods. Results Expression of sex-chromosome genes were used as true internal biological controls to compare alternate probe-level data extraction algorithms (Microarray Suite 5.0 [MAS5.0], Model Based Expression Index [MBEI] and Robust Multi-array Average [RMA], to assess microarray data quality and to establish some statistical guidelines for analyzing large-scale gene expression. These approaches were implemented on a large new dataset of human brain samples. RMA-generated gene expression values were markedly less variable and more reliable than MAS5.0 and MBEI-derived values. A statistical technique controlling the false discovery rate was applied to adjust for multiple testing, as an alternative to the Bonferroni method, and showed no evidence of false negative results. Fourteen probesets, representing nine Y- and two X-chromosome linked genes, displayed significant sex differences in brain prefrontal cortex gene expression. Conclusion In this study, we have demonstrated the use of sex genes as true biological internal controls for genomic analysis of complex tissues, and suggested analytical guidelines for testing alternate oligonucleotide microarray data extraction protocols and for adjusting multiple statistical analysis of differentially expressed genes. Our results also provided evidence for sex differences in gene expression in the brain prefrontal cortex

  20. Next Generation of Launcher & Space Vehicles Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laroye, J. F.; Brochard, P.; Grassien, J.-Y.; Masgrangeas, D.

    2008-09-01

    This paper presents several examples of Saft lithium batteries in use onboard launchers & space vehicles: ATV primary lithium manganese dioxide (LiMnO2) batteries and Rosetta primary lithium thionyl chloride (LiSOCl2) batteries as well as the VEGA rechargeable lithium-ion (Li-ion) avionics & thrust vector control (TVC) batteries.It gives an overview of possible chemistries and tradeoff to address these needs.

  1. Membranes for Redox Flow Battery Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Skyllas-Kazacos; Aishwarya Parasuraman; Tuti Mariana Lim; Suminto Winardi; Helen Prifti

    2012-01-01

    The need for large scale energy storage has become a priority to integrate renewable energy sources into the electricity grid. Redox flow batteries are considered the best option to store electricity from medium to large scale applications. However, the current high cost of redox flow batteries impedes the wide spread adoption of this technology. The membrane is a critical component of redox flow batteries as it determines the performance as well as the economic viability of the batteries. Th...

  2. Ion-batterier - "The Next Generation"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Martin; Becker, Jacob; Shen, Yanbin;

    2014-01-01

    Lithium-ion batterier er strømkilden, der har revolutioneret vores transportable elektronik. Familien af ion-batterier er imidlertid større end som så og har meget, meget mere at byde på.......Lithium-ion batterier er strømkilden, der har revolutioneret vores transportable elektronik. Familien af ion-batterier er imidlertid større end som så og har meget, meget mere at byde på....

  3. Ion-batterier - "The Next Generation"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Martin; Becker, Jacob; Shen, Yanbin

    2014-01-01

    Lithium-ion batterier er strømkilden, der har revolutioneret vores transportable elektronik. Familien af ion-batterier er imidlertid større end som så og har meget, meget mere at byde på.......Lithium-ion batterier er strømkilden, der har revolutioneret vores transportable elektronik. Familien af ion-batterier er imidlertid større end som så og har meget, meget mere at byde på....

  4. Principles and applications of lithium secondary batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Jung-Ki

    2012-01-01

    Lithium secondary batteries have been key to mobile electronics since 1990. Large-format batteries typically for electric vehicles and energystorage systems are attracting much attention due to current energy and environmental issues. Lithium batteries are expected to play a centralrole in boosting green technologies. Therefore, a large number of scientists and engineers are carrying out research and development onlithium secondary batteries.The book is written in a straightforward fashion suitable for undergraduate and graduate students, as well as scientists, and engineer

  5. Novel Electrolytes for Lithium Ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucht, Brett L. [Univ. of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    2014-12-12

    We have been investigating three primary areas related to lithium ion battery electrolytes. First, we have been investigating the thermal stability of novel electrolytes for lithium ion batteries, in particular borate based salts. Second, we have been investigating novel additives to improve the calendar life of lithium ion batteries. Third, we have been investigating the thermal decomposition reactions of electrolytes for lithium-oxygen batteries.

  6. Origami lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zeming; Ma, Teng; Tang, Rui; Cheng, Qian; Wang, Xu; Krishnaraju, Deepakshyam; Panat, Rahul; Chan, Candace K; Yu, Hongyu; Jiang, Hanqing

    2014-01-01

    There are significant challenges in developing deformable devices at the system level that contain integrated, deformable energy storage devices. Here we demonstrate an origami lithium-ion battery that can be deformed at an unprecedented high level, including folding, bending and twisting. Deformability at the system level is enabled using rigid origami, which prescribes a crease pattern such that the materials making the origami pattern do not experience large strain. The origami battery is fabricated through slurry coating of electrodes onto paper current collectors and packaging in standard materials, followed by folding using the Miura pattern. The resulting origami battery achieves significant linear and areal deformability, large twistability and bendability. The strategy described here represents the fusion of the art of origami, materials science and functional energy storage devices, and could provide a paradigm shift for architecture and design of flexible and curvilinear electronics with exceptional mechanical characteristics and functionalities.

  7. Vehicle Battery Safety Roadmap Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doughty, D. H.

    2012-10-01

    The safety of electrified vehicles with high capacity energy storage devices creates challenges that must be met to assure commercial acceptance of EVs and HEVs. High performance vehicular traction energy storage systems must be intrinsically tolerant of abusive conditions: overcharge, short circuit, crush, fire exposure, overdischarge, and mechanical shock and vibration. Fail-safe responses to these conditions must be designed into the system, at the materials and the system level, through selection of materials and safety devices that will further reduce the probability of single cell failure and preclude propagation of failure to adjacent cells. One of the most important objectives of DOE's Office of Vehicle Technologies is to support the development of lithium ion batteries that are safe and abuse tolerant in electric drive vehicles. This Roadmap analyzes battery safety and failure modes of state-of-the-art cells and batteries and makes recommendations on future investments that would further DOE's mission.

  8. Comparison of expression of secondary metabolite biosynthesis cluster genes in Aspergillus flavus, A. parasiticus, and A. oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlich, Kenneth C; Mack, Brian M

    2014-06-23

    Fifty six secondary metabolite biosynthesis gene clusters are predicted to be in the Aspergillus flavus genome. In spite of this, the biosyntheses of only seven metabolites, including the aflatoxins, kojic acid, cyclopiazonic acid and aflatrem, have been assigned to a particular gene cluster. We used RNA-seq to compare expression of secondary metabolite genes in gene clusters for the closely related fungi A. parasiticus, A. oryzae, and A. flavus S and L sclerotial morphotypes. The data help to refine the identification of probable functional gene clusters within these species. Our results suggest that A. flavus, a prevalent contaminant of maize, cottonseed, peanuts and tree nuts, is capable of producing metabolites which, besides aflatoxin, could be an underappreciated contributor to its toxicity.

  9. Comparison of Expression of Secondary Metabolite Biosynthesis Cluster Genes in Aspergillus flavus, A. parasiticus, and A. oryzae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth C. Ehrlich

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Fifty six secondary metabolite biosynthesis gene clusters are predicted to be in the Aspergillus flavus genome. In spite of this, the biosyntheses of only seven metabolites, including the aflatoxins, kojic acid, cyclopiazonic acid and aflatrem, have been assigned to a particular gene cluster. We used RNA-seq to compare expression of secondary metabolite genes in gene clusters for the closely related fungi A. parasiticus, A. oryzae, and A. flavus S and L sclerotial morphotypes. The data help to refine the identification of probable functional gene clusters within these species. Our results suggest that A. flavus, a prevalent contaminant of maize, cottonseed, peanuts and tree nuts, is capable of producing metabolites which, besides aflatoxin, could be an underappreciated contributor to its toxicity.

  10. Comparative study of a small size wind generation system efficiency for battery charging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayouf Messaoud

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an energetic comparison between two control strategies of a small size wind generation system for battery charging. The output voltage of the direct drive PMSG is connected to the battery through a switch mode rectifier. A DC-DC boost converter is used to regulate the battery bank current in order to achieve maximum power from the wind. A maximum powertracking algorithm calculates the current command that corresponds to maximum power output of the turbine. The DC-DC converter uses this current to calculate the duty cycle witch is necessary to control the pulse width modulated (PWM active switching device (IGPT. The system overview and modeling are presented including characteristics of wind turbine, generator, batteries, power converter, control system, and supervisory system. A simulation of the system is performed using MATLAB/SIMULINK.

  11. Performance Model for High-Power Lithium Titanate Oxide Batteries based on Extended Characterization Tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroe, Ana-Irina; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stroe, Daniel Ioan

    2015-01-01

    Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries are found nowadays not only in portable/consumer electronics but also in more power demanding applications, such as stationary renewable energy storage, automotive and back-up power supply, because of their superior characteristics in comparison to other energy...... storage technologies. Nevertheless, prior to be used in any of the aforementioned application, a Li-ion battery cell must be intensively characterized and its behavior needs to be understood. This can be realized by performing extended laboratory characterization tests and developing Li-ion battery...... performance models. Furthermore, accurate performance models are necessary in order to analyze the behavior of the battery cell under different mission profiles, by simulation; thus, avoiding time and cost demanding real life tests. This paper presents the development and the parametrization of a performance...

  12. A Battery Power Bank with Series-Connected Buck–Boost-Type Battery Power Modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung-Hsi Wu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The operation of a battery power bank with series-connected buck–boost-type battery power modules (BPMs was investigated in this study. Each BPM consisted of a battery pack with an associated buck–boost converter for individually controlling battery currents. With a proposed discharging scenario, load voltage regulation with charge equalization among batteries was performed by controlling the battery currents in accordance with their state-of-charges (SOCs estimated by real-time battery-loaded voltages detected under the same operating condition. In addition, the fault tolerance was executed to isolate exhausted or faulty batteries from the battery power bank without interrupting the system operation. Experiments were conducted to verify the effectiveness of the discharging scenario for a laboratory battery power bank with four series buck–boost BPMs.

  13. Battery control system for hybrid vehicle and method for controlling a hybrid vehicle battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockelmann, Thomas R [Battle Creek, MI; Hope, Mark E [Marshall, MI; Zou, Zhanjiang [Battle Creek, MI; Kang, Xiaosong [Battle Creek, MI

    2009-02-10

    A battery control system for hybrid vehicle includes a hybrid powertrain battery, a vehicle accessory battery, and a prime mover driven generator adapted to charge the vehicle accessory battery. A detecting arrangement is configured to monitor the vehicle accessory battery's state of charge. A controller is configured to activate the prime mover to drive the generator and recharge the vehicle accessory battery in response to the vehicle accessory battery's state of charge falling below a first predetermined level, or transfer electrical power from the hybrid powertrain battery to the vehicle accessory battery in response to the vehicle accessory battery's state of charge falling below a second predetermined level. The invention further includes a method for controlling a hybrid vehicle powertrain system.

  14. A Comparison of Target Gene Silencing using Synthetically Modified siRNA and shRNA That Express Recombinant Lentiviral Vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spirin, P V; Baskaran, D; Rubtsov, P M; Zenkova, M A; Vlassov, V V; Chernolovskaya, E L; Prassolov, V S

    2009-07-01

    RNA-interference is an effective natural mechanism of post-transcriptional modulation of gene expression. RNA-interference mechanism exist as in high eukaryotes both animals and plants as well in lower eukaryotes and viruses. RNA-interference is now used as a powerful tool in study of functional gene activity and many essential for fundamental biology results was obtained with this approach. Also it's widely believed that RNA-interference could be used in working out of new therapeutic medicine against malignant, infectious and hereditary diseases. One of the main problems of these developments is search of effective methods of siRNA transfer into the target cells. At present time for these purpose different sorts of transfect ions or viral transduction are used. At present article the results of comparison of inhibition of expression of oncogene AML-ET O by synthetic siRNA and by recombinant lentiviruses coding for corresponding shRNA are presented.

  15. Modelling of rechargeable NiMH batteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ledovskikh, A.; Verbitskiy, E.; Ayeb, A.; Notten, P.H.L.

    2003-01-01

    A new mathematical model has been developed for rechargeable NiMH batteries, which is based on the occurring physical–chemical processes inside. This model enables one to simultaneously simulate the battery voltage, internal gas pressures (both PO2 and PH2) and temperature during battery operation.

  16. Propagation testing multi-cell batteries.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orendorff, Christopher J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lamb, Joshua [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Steele, Leigh Anna Marie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Spangler, Scott Wilmer [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Propagation of single point or single cell failures in multi-cell batteries is a significant concern as batteries increase in scale for a variety of civilian and military applications. This report describes the procedure for testing failure propagation along with some representative test results to highlight the potential outcomes for different battery types and designs.

  17. Modelling of rechargeable NiMH batteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ledovskikh, A.; Verbitskiy, E.; Ayeb, A.; Notten, P.H.L.

    2003-01-01

    A new mathematical model has been developed for rechargeable NiMH batteries, which is based on the occurring physical–chemical processes inside. This model enables one to simultaneously simulate the battery voltage, internal gas pressures (both PO2 and PH2) and temperature during battery operation.

  18. Review of storage battery system cost estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, D.R.; Russell, J.A.

    1986-04-01

    Cost analyses for zinc bromine, sodium sulfur, and lead acid batteries were reviewed. Zinc bromine and sodium sulfur batteries were selected because of their advanced design nature and the high level of interest in these two technologies. Lead acid batteries were included to establish a baseline representative of a more mature technology.

  19. 33 CFR 183.420 - Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... battery terminals. (c) Each metallic fuel line and fuel system component within 12 inches and above the... battery must not be directly above or below a fuel tank, fuel filter, or fitting in a fuel line. (e) A... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Batteries. 183.420 Section...

  20. Battery Charge Equalizer with Transformer Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Francis

    2013-01-01

    High-power batteries generally consist of a series connection of many cells or cell banks. In order to maintain high performance over battery life, it is desirable to keep the state of charge of all the cell banks equal. A method provides individual charging for battery cells in a large, high-voltage battery array with a minimum number of transformers while maintaining reasonable efficiency. This is designed to augment a simple highcurrent charger that supplies the main charge energy. The innovation will form part of a larger battery charge system. It consists of a transformer array connected to the battery array through rectification and filtering circuits. The transformer array is connected to a drive circuit and a timing and control circuit that allow individual battery cells or cell banks to be charged. The timing circuit and control circuit connect to a charge controller that uses battery instrumentation to determine which battery bank to charge. It is important to note that the innovation can charge an individual cell bank at the same time that the main battery charger is charging the high-voltage battery. The fact that the battery cell banks are at a non-zero voltage, and that they are all at similar voltages, can be used to allow charging of individual cell banks. A set of transformers can be connected with secondary windings in series to make weighted sums of the voltages on the primaries.