WorldWideScience

Sample records for gendered fields sports

  1. The Sport Nexus and Gender Injustice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Travers

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Male-dominated and sex segregated elite professional and amateur sport1 in North America constitutes a "sport nexus" (Burstyn, 1999; Heywood & Dworkin, 2003 that combines economic and cultural influence to reinforce and perpetuate gender injustice. The sport nexus is an androcentric sex-segregated commercially powerful set of institutions that is highly visible and at the same time almost completely taken for granted to the extent that its anti-democratic impetus goes virtually unnoticed. The sport nexus’s hegemonic role in defining sporting norms (Coakley & Donnelly, 2004 means that its role in shaping lower level amateur and recreational sporting institutions and cultures is highly significant. Fraser (2007 defines gender justice, and hence democracy, in terms of "participatory parity," that is, material and cultural equality for women. The sport nexus itself is characterized by highly gendered occupational segregation (Coventry, 2004. It further contributes to gender injustice, homophobia and transphobia by promoting the ideology of the two sex system (Fausto-Sterling, 2000 and gendering citizenship as fundamentally male (Burstyn, 1999. Feminist strategies for sport reformation attempt to reduce or eradicate the role of the sport nexus in legitimating and perpetuating gender injustice. In this article I consider the potential of these strategies and conclude with a set of recommendations for transforming organized sport at both elite and recreational levels.

  2. The Sport Nexus and Gender Injustice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Travers

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Male-dominated and sex segregated elite professional and amateur sport1 in North America constitutes a "sport nexus" (Burstyn, 1999; Heywood & Dworkin, 2003 that combines economic and cultural influence to reinforce and perpetuate gender injustice. The sport nexus is an androcentric sex-segregated commercially powerful set of institutions that is highly visible and at the same time almost completely taken for granted to the extent that its anti-democratic impetus goes virtually unnoticed. The sport nexus’s hegemonic role in defining sporting norms (Coakley & Donnelly, 2004 means that its role in shaping lower level amateur and recreational sporting institutions and cultures is highly significant. Fraser (2007 defines gender justice, and hence democracy, in terms of "participatory parity," that is, material and cultural equality for women. The sport nexus itself is characterized by highly gendered occupational segregation (Coventry, 2004. It further contributes to gender injustice, homophobia and transphobia by promoting the ideology of the two sex system (Fausto-Sterling, 2000 and gendering citizenship as fundamentally male (Burstyn, 1999. Feminist strategies for sport reformation attempt to reduce or eradicate the role of the sport nexus in legitimating and perpetuating gender injustice. In this article I consider the potential of these strategies and conclude with a set of recommendations for transforming organized sport at both elite and recreational levels.

  3. Physical education, sports, and gender in schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solmon, Melinda A

    2014-01-01

    The benefits associated with engaging in regular physical activity are well documented, but a large segment of the population is not sufficiently active. School physical educa tion and sport programs are identified as important components in efforts to promote physical activity. Girls are less active than boys, and there is evidence that physical education programs are not effectively meeting their needs. The focus of this chapter is to examine gender as a construct in the domains of physical education and sport, clarifying the reasons girls tend to be less active and less involved in physical education. Following an historical overview, curricular issues and motivational aspects are considered. Implications are focused on ways that educators can provide positive experiences for all students in physical education and sport that will encourage them to adopt and maintain healthy active lifestyles and enhance their quality of life across the life span.

  4. Scholarship on gender and sport in Sex Roles and beyond

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knoppers, A.E.; McDonald, M.P.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we critically review how research on girls or women and sport has developed over the last 35 years. We use a post-positivist lens to explore the content of the papers published in Sex Roles in the area of women, gender and sport and examine the shifts in how gender and sport have been

  5. Addressing Gender Inequities in Collegiate Sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athena Yiamouyiannis

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine issues related to female representation within the governance structure of the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA. A descriptive statistics approach through the lens of feminism was taken in collecting and analyzing data related to the gender representation of staff leadership positions within the NCAA national office and gender representation within the NCAA Division I, II, and III governance structure. This was coupled with a review of NCAA programming initiatives related to leadership opportunities. Although a number of strategies are being implemented by the NCAA to provide greater access and leadership opportunities for women (e.g., diversity initiatives, Senior Woman Administrator legislation, and guaranteed representation on committees, women continue to be underrepresented within NCAA governance substructures and upper leadership levels within the NCAA national office. In addition, nongender neutral sport governance policies still exist that impede the progress of achieving gender equality.

  6. Sport Physiology Research and Governing Gender in Sport--A Power-Knowledge Relation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Hakan

    2013-01-01

    This article sets out to show how physiological knowledge about sex/gender relates to power issues within sport. The sport physiology research at the Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences (Swedish acronym: GIH) during the twentieth century is analysed in relation to the political rationality concerning gender at GIH and within the Swedish…

  7. Sport Physiology Research and Governing Gender in Sport--A Power-Knowledge Relation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Hakan

    2013-01-01

    This article sets out to show how physiological knowledge about sex/gender relates to power issues within sport. The sport physiology research at the Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences (Swedish acronym: GIH) during the twentieth century is analysed in relation to the political rationality concerning gender at GIH and within the Swedish…

  8. Women i n Sports Media i n t he Context of Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cihan AKKAYA

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Inequality between women and men, as many spaces of society, is also seen in the sports media. At theroot of this inequality, there is theeffect of genderroles. Accordingto Koca and Bulgu (2005 sports, should be examined as a gender based cultural practice. In particular, competition sports have strong messages about masculinity and femininity. Spo rts, traditionally, seen as a male activity, requires masculine gender role characteristics and superior sporting performance is considered as equivalent with masculinity. Sports media broadcasts in the context of these roles. In media, in sports news, largely non availability of woman sports and appearance of female body as a sexual object, is significant reproduction of social and financial inequality which situated in fields like labor force and home (Rowe, 1996. Also in Tu rkish society, women are mostly seen in relation to domestic fields and its scapes, while men are mostly seen in relation to public space.

  9. PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT FOR FIELD SPORTS

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    Christopher Carling

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available DESCRIPTION The book covers the various sport science assessment procedures for sports such as soccer, rugby, field hockey and lacrosse. It provides detailed and clear information about laboratory and field-based methods that can be used to assess and improve both individual and team performance. PURPOSE The book aims to provide a contemporary reference tool for selection of appropriate testing procedures for sports across a range of scientific disciplines. FEATURES The text begins with a chapter on the rationales for performance assessments, the use of technology and the necessity for procedures to conform to scientific rigor, explaining the importance of test criteria. This chapter ends by emphasizing the importance of the feedback process and vital considerations for the practitioner when interpreting the data, selecting which information is most important and how to deliver this back to the athlete or coach in order to deliver a positive performance outcome. The next two chapters focus on psychological assessments with respect to skill acquisition, retention and execution providing a variety of qualitative and quantitative options, underpinned with scientific theory and contextualized in order to improve the understanding of the application of these methods to improve anticipation and decision-making to enhance game intelligence.Chapter 4 provides coverage of match analysis techniques in order to make assessments of technical, tactical and physical performances. Readers learn about a series of methodologies ranging from simplistic pen and paper options through to sophisticated technological systems with some exemplar data also provided. Chapters 5 through 7 cover the physiological based assessments, including aerobic, anaerobic and anthropometric procedures. Each chapter delivers a theoretical opening section before progressing to various assessment options and the authors make great efforts to relate to sport-specific settings. The final

  10. Mind the Gap: The Layered Reconstruction of Gender in Sport Related Organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claringbould, I.E.C.

    2008-01-01

    Most sports are structured by gender resulting in sex segregation by sport. This formal division of an activity based on gender is unique in sport, in contrast paid and volunteer work in sport are not formally segregated by gender.. Qualified men and women may engage in this work regardless of sport

  11. Gender issues in Danish sports organizations - experiences, attitudes and evaluations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfister, Gertrud

    2006-01-01

    as an important issue in sport in general, only a small percentage of men and women are willing to invest time and energy in this issue. Because changes of the organizational culture are not seen as a necessity by the majority of the "insiders", analyses and perspectives on the gender hierarchy from outside......Based on the gender ratios in the leading positions of Danish sports organizations, this article aims at identifying reasons for the existing gender hierarchy. Theoretical approaches to the construction of gender and to the "gendering" of organizations provide the basis for the presentation...... and discussion of the results of a quantitative survey of Danish sports leaders. From the perspective of the respondents, the lack of women in leadership positions is mainly due to the decisions of women. But the results of the study also indicate that the gender hierarchies are rooted in the culture...

  12. Gender inequalities in Polish and international sports organisations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zbigniew Dziubinski; Natalia Organista

    2013-01-01

    ...: provisions prohibiting discrimination due to gender, rules and regulations providing women with a specified number of seats in the crucial positions of the organisation and activity of women’s sports committees...

  13. Mind the Gap: The Layered Reconstruction of Gender in Sport Related Organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claringbould, I.E.C.

    2008-01-01

    Most sports are structured by gender resulting in sex segregation by sport. This formal division of an activity based on gender is unique in sport, in contrast paid and volunteer work in sport are not formally segregated by gender.. Qualified men and women may engage in this work regardless of

  14. Gender Differences in Recreational Sports Participation among Taiwanese Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang-Ting Tsai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the gender differences in the enjoyment of recreational sports participation among Taiwanese adults. Data were obtained using the 2007 Taiwan Social Change Survey. The questionnaire included a topical module of the International Social Survey Program regarding leisure time and sports. Results showed that male subjects were more likely to participate in recreational sports to improve their appearance and on account of their personal interest. In addition to these factors, female subjects also experienced greater motivation to participate when Taiwanese athletes performed well in international sporting competitions. This study confirmed that the factors influencing enjoyment of recreational sports participation differ among men and women. These results can be used to better inform public health professionals and other regulatory organizations formulating physical activity intervention strategies.

  15. GENDER IDENTITY CONCEPTS OF FEMALE ATHLETES AND GIRLS WHO DON`T DO SPORT PROFESSIONALLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Alekseevna Usoltseva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to compare unconscious perception about gender identity between female athletes and girls not involved in sports. Method: the research was based on semantic differential method.Findings. Women involved in typically masculine sports have more gender identity difficulties in comparison with female athletes involved in typically feminine sports and with women not involved in any sports. Women involved in typically masculine sports have no internal coordination between gender and sports roles. There is an identification with the role of athletes at the expense of gender identity. The resolution of these difficulties is possible at internal psychological level of personality. Practical implications: understanding of sportswomen’s structure of perception  about gender identity allows organizing psychological work with sportswomen which is aimed at coordination between gender and sports roles.

  16. Gender differences in relation of students to sports activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marchenko O.Y.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The problem of gender approach in the modern physical education in schools is considered. The experiment was conducted with students of 5-11 grades of secondary schools in the city of Poltava in the amount of 419 people. By the experiment, the students were involved in I-year students (35 girls and 16 boys. It is noted that for the normal socialization are important sex and gender roles. They are associated with the awareness itself as the representative of a particular sex with the norms of behavior, characteristic of members of this sex. Show the direction of consideration for the interests, motivations, values in the process of physical education. Found that to attract students to the sports activity requires consideration of the physiological and morphological and functional characteristics of the individual through the process of gender mainstreaming in the school system.

  17. Reconsidering Feminisms and the Work of Norbert Elias for Understanding Gender, Sport and Sport-Related Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfield, Louise

    2008-01-01

    This paper reconsiders the relationships between feminist perspectives and the figurational/process-sociological perspective of Norbert Elias for understanding gender, sport and sport-related activities. The main aim of the article is to respond to Colwell's claim that there are differences between feminist and figurational approaches to…

  18. The Gender Gap in Youth Sports: Too Many Urban Girls Are Being Left Behind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabo, Don

    2009-01-01

    The last several decades have witnessed a large increase in the number of girls who participate in sports in the United States. Today an estimated 8 million third- through 12th-grade girls and 12 million boys participate in organized and team sports. While much progress has been made toward achieving gender equity in youth sports, too many girls…

  19. University Intramural Sport Administrators' Perceptions of Gender Modifications in Intramural Coed Flag Football

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Zach C.; Garn, Alex C.

    2016-01-01

    Coed sport environments can be paradoxical settings where pre-existing gender biases influence participants' enjoyment and success. Furthermore, gendered messages and stereotypes as well as low expectations for females within coed sports can create participation barriers by reducing feelings of confidence and performance. Within university…

  20. University Intramural Sport Administrators' Perceptions of Gender Modifications in Intramural Coed Flag Football

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Zach C.; Garn, Alex C.

    2016-01-01

    Coed sport environments can be paradoxical settings where pre-existing gender biases influence participants' enjoyment and success. Furthermore, gendered messages and stereotypes as well as low expectations for females within coed sports can create participation barriers by reducing feelings of confidence and performance. Within university…

  1. Applications of GPS technologies to field sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aughey, Robert J

    2011-09-01

    Global positioning system (GPS) technology was made possible after the invention of the atomic clock. The first suggestion that GPS could be used to assess the physical activity of humans followed some 40 y later. There was a rapid uptake of GPS technology, with the literature concentrating on validation studies and the measurement of steady-state movement. The first attempts were made to validate GPS for field sport applications in 2006. While GPS has been validated for applications for team sports, some doubts continue to exist on the appropriateness of GPS for measuring short high-velocity movements. Thus, GPS has been applied extensively in Australian football, cricket, hockey, rugby union and league, and soccer. There is extensive information on the activity profile of athletes from field sports in the literature stemming from GPS, and this includes total distance covered by players and distance in velocity bands. Global positioning systems have also been applied to detect fatigue in matches, identify periods of most intense play, different activity profiles by position, competition level, and sport. More recent research has integrated GPS data with the physical capacity or fitness test score of athletes, game-specific tasks, or tactical or strategic information. The future of GPS analysis will involve further miniaturization of devices, longer battery life, and integration of other inertial sensor data to more effectively quantify the effort of athletes.

  2. Social Reproduction of Gender Hierarchies in Sports through Schooling in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Hazir; Skelton, Christine

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines a neglected aspect of gender equality debate--how knowledge about gender and sports is organized in school textbooks in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK). It examines the contradictions that exist between government rhetoric of eliminating gender biases from school textbooks and the prevalence of the same in the current school…

  3. Targeting Mr Average: Participation, Gender Equity and School Sport Partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flintoff, Anne

    2008-01-01

    The School Sport Partnership Programme (SSPP) is one strand of the national strategy for physical education and school sport in England, the physical education and social sport Club Links Strategy (PESSCL). The SSPP aims to make links between school physical education (PE) and out of school sports participation, and has a particular remit to raise…

  4. Gender relations, gender-based violence and sport for development and peace : Questions, concerns and cautions emerging from Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hayhurst, Lyndsay M C; MacNeill, Margaret; Kidd, Bruce; Knoppers, Annelies

    2014-01-01

    In this study we discuss how gender relations are influenced by a 'girls only' martial arts-based sport, gender and development (SGD) programme that aims to improve young women's discipline, leadership skills and self-defence capabilities in a rural Ugandan community with widespread domestic and

  5. Gender relations, gender-based violence and sport for development and peace : Questions, concerns and cautions emerging from Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hayhurst, Lyndsay M C; MacNeill, Margaret; Kidd, Bruce; Knoppers, Annelies

    2014-01-01

    In this study we discuss how gender relations are influenced by a 'girls only' martial arts-based sport, gender and development (SGD) programme that aims to improve young women's discipline, leadership skills and self-defence capabilities in a rural Ugandan community with widespread domestic and gen

  6. Gender equality in sport leadership : From the Brighton Declaration to the Sydney Scoreboard

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adriaanse, Johanna A.; Claringbould, Inge

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the development of the legacies of the five World Conferences on Women and Sport that have been convened by the International Working Group on Women and Sport from 1994 to 2010. In particular, it examined the ways in which gender is constructed in these legacies in relation t

  7. College Athletes and Drug Testing: Attitudes and Behaviors by Gender and Sport

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Dona; Morris, Joyce

    1993-01-01

    We surveyed varsity athletes at a Big East university to assess attitudes toward a mandatory drug education and testing program and examined whether there were differences in drug-related attitudes and behaviors based on gender or varsity sport. We found no statistically significant differences in personal drug use behaviors based on gender or team affiliation. Attitudes about drug use and knowledge of a teammate using drugs did show significant differences based on varsity sport. Tennis play...

  8. Gendered Managerial Discourses in Sport Organizations: Multiplicity and Complexity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knoppers, Annelies; Anthonissen, A.

    2007-01-01

    The lack of women in senior management functions in sport may in part be attributed to dominant discursive managerial practices in sport organizations. The purpose of this study is to explore ways in which the discourses and their subtexts used by directors of Dutch national sport organizations to t

  9. Gender- and Sport-Specific Associations Between Religiousness and Doping Behavior in High-Level Team Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvan, Milan; Zenic, Natasa; Sekulic, Damir; Cubela, Mladen; Lesnik, Blaz

    2017-08-01

    Religiousness is known to be specifically associated with substance abuse, but there is an evident lack of studies investigating the association between religiousness and doping behavior as a specific type of substance abuse in athletes. This study aimed to provide evidence for possible gender- and sport-specific associations between religiousness and doping behavior among team-sport athletes of both genders. The participants were 886 athletes (21.9 ± 3.8 years of age; 352 females) involved in four sports: volleyball (n = 154; 78 females), handball (n = 206; 68 females), soccer (n = 316; 110 females) and basketball (n = 230; 96 females) from Croatia and Slovenia (all traditionally Roman Catholics). The data were collected using a previously validated structured questionnaire that examined sociodemographic, sport- and doping-related factors. In addition, religiousness was captured by the Santa Clara Strength of Religious Faith questionnaire (SCSRF). Gender-stratified simple logistic regressions were applied to determine associations between covariates and doping behavior (criterion). There was no significant difference in potential doping behavior between males and females (OR 1.06, 95 % CI 0.76-1.46), while females reported higher religiousness (SCSRF: 23.11 ± 3.23 and 25.46 ± 7.2 for males and females, respectively; t test = 1.82, p sport and age, the SCSRF remained a significant predictor of potential doping behavior (OR 0.95, 95 % CI 0.91-0.99). For males, the belief that doping was present in sport was strongly associated with a higher likelihood of doping. Our results suggest that highly religious females involved in three of the studies sports (i.e., volleyball, handball and basketball) show a weaker tendency toward doping. Meanwhile, there is no evidence that religiousness influences doping behavior among male team-sport athletes. Therefore, sport-specific and gender-specific approach in studying possible relationships that exist

  10. Gender differences in physical activity in older children and adolescents: the central role of organized sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilhjalmsson, Runar; Kristjansdottir, Gudrun

    2003-01-01

    Previous studies have generally had limited success in accounting for gender differences in leisure time physical activity. Based on a representative national survey of 3270 Icelandic 6th, 8th and 10th grade students, the study found that girls' lower enrollment in organized sport clubs fully accounts for gender differences in frequency of overall physical activity, and largely accounts for gender differences in frequency of strenuous activity, and weekly hours of overall and strenuous activity (enrollment hypothesis). Furthermore, girls' higher sport club withdrawal rate accounted for a small but significant part of the gender difference in weekly hours of overall activity and frequency of strenuous activity (withdrawal hypothesis). No evidence was found to suggest that different activity levels of boys and girls enrolled in the clubs affected gender differences in levels of overall or strenuous physical activity (activity differential hypothesis). Other independent variables, i.e., perceived importance of sport achievement, sport and exercise related instruction, physical education experiences, and social modeling, did not significantly affect observed gender differences beyond the sport club variables. The meaning of the results, and their implications for gender disparities, health promotion, and future research are discussed.

  11. DETERMINING PARTICIPATION MOTIVATION OF YOUNG ATHLETES WITH REGARD TO GENDER AND SPORT TYPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atahan ALTINTAŞ

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine motives of young athletes with regard to gender and sport type. Method: The sample of this study constituted 419 females (M age =12.23±1.88 and 477 males (M age =11.93±1.99 totally 896 athletes (M age =12.07±1.94 participants from variety of physical activity and sport settings. “Participation Motivation Ques tionnaire” (Gill et al., 1983 was administered to participants. P articipants were classified into two groups with respect to type of sports (individual/team sport. An independent t - test was used to determined differences in motivation orientations with r egard to gender and sport type. Results: Results showed that there were no significant differences in participation motives of athletes with regard to gender (p>.05. T - test results also revealed that significant differences in team and friendship motives between participants with regard to sport type (p< 0.05. Conclusion: In conclusion, the participants who participate in team sports have higher scores in team and friendship subscales. In other words, they want to be part of a team and make friends with team sports.

  12. Gender Differences in Popularity and Engagement in Sport Activities among Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matej Majerič

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this research was to analyse the gender differences among students at the University of Ljubljana concerning the popularity of sports and participation in different types and modes of sport activities. The research was done in the 2013 academic year on a random sample of 3% of the students (N=1390. A questionnaire about students’ lifestyles was used (Majerič, 2013. In this study, two variables were analysed: the popularity of different sport activities, and different types and modes of sport activities. The data of the variables were analysed with SPSS for Windows. The basic statistical parameters for both variables were calculated. To calculate the gender differences, a t-test for independent samples and a Mann-Whitney U test were run. An analysis of the popularity of different sport activities showed that gender differences were statistically significant in jogging (p=0.000, walking (p=0.000, football (p=0.000, basketball (p=0.000, fitness (p=0.001, aerobics (p=0.002, and dance activities (p=0.009. Analysis of the types and modes of sport activities among students showed that 63.90% of male students and 68.10% of female students were engaged in unorganized types of sport. Gender differences were found to be statistically significant in two types of sport activities: engaged organized in clubs–competitive out of faculty (p=0.000 and engaged in sport organized at the faculty–competitive (p=0.000. Our findings and conclusions provide useful guidance for the closer and wider professional public.

  13. Gender differences of athletes in different classification groups of sports and sport disciplines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Tarasevych

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to identify the percentage of masculine, androgynous and feminine figures in different classification groups, sports and sports disciplines, depending on the sport qualification. Material & Methods: the study was conducted on the basis of the Kharkiv State Academy of Physical Culture among students – representatives of different sports that have different athletic skills using analysis and compilation of scientific and methodical literature, survey, testing the procedure S. Bam "Masculinity / femininity "Processing and statistical data. Results: based on the testing method established S. Bam percentage masculine, androgynous and feminine personalities among athletes and athletes in various sports classification groups depending on their athletic skills. Conclusions: among sportsmen and women in a variety of classification groups of sports is not revealed feminine personalities; masculine identity, among both men and women predominate in sports; androgyny attitude towards men and women are different.

  14. Gender moderates the relationship between empathy and aggressiveness in sport: The mediating role of anger

    OpenAIRE

    Stanger, N; Kavussanu, M; Ring, C.

    2016-01-01

    This research investigated whether gender moderates, and anger mediates, the relationship between empathy (i.e., perspective taking and empathic concern) and aggressiveness in sport. In Study 1, perspective taking and empathic concern were negatively associated with aggressiveness, and this effect was stronger in women compared to men. In Study 2, perspective taking was a negative predictor of aggressiveness and antisocial behavior in sport, and anger mediated these relationships in women, bu...

  15. The representation of women and gender roles in sports television news

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena CALVO ORTEGA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Television is window to a constructed reality with which not all individuals identify. The reason behind this research lies in the observation of different representation of men and women in sports television news. This article approaches two aspects of representation: the first one is the under-representation of women and the second one addresses how gender roles and traditional stereotypes are passed on through both image and discourse. In the first case, the overwhelming presence of male sports, especially football, often exclude women and sports in which they are represented. In the second case, women are depicted as a sexualized object and in the role of a self-sacrificing mother; also present are examples of ridiculing or ignoring women. The results of this research reflect on this situation which restricts the abilities of the women in sports in the 21st century and at the same time maintains androcentric outlook on sport.

  16. Athletes′ criticism of coaching behavior: Differences among gender, and type of sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bebetsos Evangelos

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Most athletes are subject to intense mental and physical pressure not only during competition but also during practice. An important variable which may influence athletes′ performance is coaching behavior. The aim of the present study is to investigate if coaching behavior and its antecedents differentiate athletes according to their gender, type of sport, competition experience and weekly practice-time. The sample consisted of 367 male and female athletes who participated in both individual and team sports. They completed the Greek version of the “Coaching Behavior Questionnaire” (CBQ. Results indicated that coaching behavior differentiated athletes of individual sports, and athletes of team sports and experienced women with experienced men. Furthermore, coaches’ behavior contributed to the differentiation on athletes who practice more than those who practice less. In conclusion, these results could help athletes, coaches and sport professionals become more familiar with psychological aspects that influence athletes′ behavior.

  17. Intrinsic - external sport motivation as regards sex gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Mroczkowska

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was the analysis of the two dependencies. First of all, examining if the self-evaluation of athlete’s sport predisposition has some connection with an internal or external motivation. Secondly, checking if so called “male” motives oscillate around needs of winning and gaining some social position and “female” around an affiliation and personal development. The research was conducted on a group of fencers (W-29; M-41; aged from ~6 to ~18 years old using the self-evaluation scale (estimation of sport predisposition, effort and abilities and the 7 factors SRM scale (Sport Rivalry Motives. Generally, the research showed that interior motives of the sport practice are more important for athletes, regardless of the sex. However, this regularity characterized more girls who turned to be significantly stronger motivated by internal enforcements than boys. Motives of affiliation and self-development are valued equally high and motive of the financial gratification equally low by both sexes. The crucial differentiation of boys and girls was seen as considering the valuation of the possibility of the stress release and joy of motion (appreciated more by girls and the possibility of winning and gaining social appreciation (regarded higher by boys. Thus the expectation that higher self-esteem is connected with the exterior motivation did not confirm. Girls, despite of their significantly lower self-evaluation of the sport predisposition are more strongly motivated by the internal enforcements than boys are.

  18. Leadership Preferences of Adolescent Players in Sport: Influence of Coach Gender

    OpenAIRE

    Angelita B. Cruz, Hyun-Duck Kim

    2017-01-01

    The authors investigated the coaching behavior preferences and the relationships of these preferences with variables such as gender, type of sport, playing experience, competitive level, and coach gender among young athletes in the national badminton league. Participants were 167 elementary and high school badminton players (91 girls and 76 boys; age range = 9–18 years; M = 13.5 (SD = 2.22) years) competing in the badminton event of a national league. Players’ preferences for coaching behavio...

  19. Gender Differences in Adolescent Sport Participation, Teasing, Self-Objectification and Body Image Concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Amy; Tiggemann, Marika

    2011-01-01

    This study examined gender differences in adolescent participation in sport and physical activity, in teasing experiences specific to the physical activity domain, and the relationship between adolescent physical activity and body image. A sample of 714 adolescents (332 girls, 382 boys) aged between 12 and 16 years completed measures of…

  20. Effect of the Sport Education Tactical Model on Coeducational and Single Gender Game Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, Tony; McCollum, Starla; Sundal, Jacqueline; Colquit, Gavin

    2014-01-01

    Physical education teachers are faced with a decision when teaching physical activities in schools. What type of instructional model should be used, and should classes be coeducational or single gender? The current study had two purposes. The first purpose investigated the effectiveness of the sport education tactical model (SETM) during game play…

  1. Gender bias in beliefs on physical activity: Buffering effects of sport participation among girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study was to determine effects of child gender on parental and child beliefs and evaluate competitive sport participation as a modifier of child beliefs. Two age-groups of children and parents completed measures on child athletic appearance, competence, importance of physical act...

  2. The Effects of Gender of Private Sports Establishment Administrators on Job Satisfaction: A Case of Istanbul

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erol, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to indicate whether work satisfaction varies according to gender, the job itself and factors of human resources. To evaluate reassurence related with their jobs, a short version of "Minnesota Jobs Satisfaction'' survey was carried out with 32 men and 18 women who work at private sporting establishments in Anatolian side of…

  3. Incidence of Parental Support and Pressure on Their Children's Motivational Processes towards Sport Practice Regarding Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amado, Diana; Sánchez-Oliva, David; González-Ponce, Inmaculada; Pulido-González, Juan José; Sánchez-Miguel, Pedro Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Grounded in Self-Determination Theory, structural equation modeling (SEM) with the aim of examining how parental support/pressure could influence their children´s motivational processes in sport was conducted, as well as the models´ differences in operability regarding gender. The sample size was 321 children ranging in age from 10 to 16 years old who were athletes from Extremadura, and 321 parents (included only the father or mother more involved with the sport of his or her child). 175 participants were male and 146 were female from individual (n = 130), and team sports (n=191). A questionnaire was conducted to assess parental perception of support/pressure and another questionnaire was conducted to measure satisfaction of basic psychological needs, type of motivation and enjoyment/boredom showed by their children towards sport practice. Results revealed that parental pressure negatively predicted satisfaction of the basic psychological needs. It also emerged as a strong positive predictor of intrinsic motivation and negative predictor of amotivation. Moreover, intrinsic motivation emerged as positive predictor of enjoyment and a negative predictor of boredom, whereas amotivation positively predicted boredom and negatively predicted enjoyment. Furthermore, results showed there were mean differences by gender: male athletes perceived greater parental pressure. Hence, it is necessary to decrease parental pressure towards their children in sport, with the aim of making them more motivated and enjoy, promoting positive consequences.

  4. Incidence of Parental Support and Pressure on Their Children's Motivational Processes towards Sport Practice Regarding Gender.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Amado

    Full Text Available Grounded in Self-Determination Theory, structural equation modeling (SEM with the aim of examining how parental support/pressure could influence their children´s motivational processes in sport was conducted, as well as the models´ differences in operability regarding gender. The sample size was 321 children ranging in age from 10 to 16 years old who were athletes from Extremadura, and 321 parents (included only the father or mother more involved with the sport of his or her child. 175 participants were male and 146 were female from individual (n = 130, and team sports (n=191. A questionnaire was conducted to assess parental perception of support/pressure and another questionnaire was conducted to measure satisfaction of basic psychological needs, type of motivation and enjoyment/boredom showed by their children towards sport practice. Results revealed that parental pressure negatively predicted satisfaction of the basic psychological needs. It also emerged as a strong positive predictor of intrinsic motivation and negative predictor of amotivation. Moreover, intrinsic motivation emerged as positive predictor of enjoyment and a negative predictor of boredom, whereas amotivation positively predicted boredom and negatively predicted enjoyment. Furthermore, results showed there were mean differences by gender: male athletes perceived greater parental pressure. Hence, it is necessary to decrease parental pressure towards their children in sport, with the aim of making them more motivated and enjoy, promoting positive consequences.

  5. Track & Field: Special Olympics Sports Skills Instructional Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph P. Kennedy, Jr. Foundation, Washington, DC.

    One of five guidelines in the Sports Skills Instructional Program, the booklet addresses ways to teach track and field to mentally retarded persons. The approach is designed to use volunteers as instructors. An overview considers such topics as clothing, equipment, and field preparation. The long term goal of acquiring basic fundamental skills,…

  6. High School Sports Participation and Substance Use: Differences by Sport, Race, and Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denham, Bryan E.

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on data gathered in the 2009 Monitoring the Future study of American youth, and controlling for race and noncompetitive exercise frequency, this research examined the explanatory effects of competitive sports participation on alcohol consumption and marijuana use as well as the nonmedical use of prescription pain relievers among American…

  7. Leadership Preferences of Adolescent Players in Sport: Influence of Coach Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Angelita B; Kim, Hyun-Duck

    2017-06-01

    The authors investigated the coaching behavior preferences and the relationships of these preferences with variables such as gender, type of sport, playing experience, competitive level, and coach gender among young athletes in the national badminton league. Participants were 167 elementary and high school badminton players (91 girls and 76 boys; age range = 9-18 years; M = 13.5 (SD = 2.22) years) competing in the badminton event of a national league. Players' preferences for coaching behavior were measured using athlete preference version of the LSS to evaluate the five dimensions of leadership behavior in a sporting context. Notably, young athletes strongly preferred training and instruction, followed by positive feedback, democratic behavior, social support, and autocratic behavior. An interaction effect of athlete and coach gender on the leadership dimensions of democratic behavior, autocratic behavior, and social support was found. Male athletes with female coaches preferred more democratic behavior, autocratic behavior, and social support behavior than did those with male coaches. Conversely, female players with male coaches favored more democratic behavior, autocratic behavior, and social support than did those with female coaches. This study provides valuable insight into understanding the dynamics of sport leadership environments among young athletes, and how crucial is the role of coach's gender in the athlete-coach dyad interaction.

  8. Leadership Preferences of Adolescent Players in Sport: Influence of Coach Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelita B. Cruz, Hyun-Duck Kim

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors investigated the coaching behavior preferences and the relationships of these preferences with variables such as gender, type of sport, playing experience, competitive level, and coach gender among young athletes in the national badminton league. Participants were 167 elementary and high school badminton players (91 girls and 76 boys; age range = 9–18 years; M = 13.5 (SD = 2.22 years competing in the badminton event of a national league. Players’ preferences for coaching behavior were measured using athlete preference version of the LSS to evaluate the five dimensions of leadership behavior in a sporting context. Notably, young athletes strongly preferred training and instruction, followed by positive feedback, democratic behavior, social support, and autocratic behavior. An interaction effect of athlete and coach gender on the leadership dimensions of democratic behavior, autocratic behavior, and social support was found. Male athletes with female coaches preferred more democratic behavior, autocratic behavior, and social support behavior than did those with male coaches. Conversely, female players with male coaches favored more democratic behavior, autocratic behavior, and social support than did those with female coaches. This study provides valuable insight into understanding the dynamics of sport leadership environments among young athletes, and how crucial is the role of coach’s gender in the athlete–coach dyad interaction.

  9. The Manpower Aspect in the Field of Sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melania Kiswandari

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available As a result of enhanced professionalism and commercialization in the field of sports, it has become an industry of its own. Professionalism and industrialization are correlated; therefore sports actors’ performance achieved as a result of their professionalism lead to the commercialization, and even to the industrialization of certain (branches of sports. On the other hand, it is considered that industrialization which involves the commercial aspect is able to maintain, and even enhance sports actors’ professionalism/performance. In practice, such correlation is not always directly proportional, but inversely proportional. There have been cases of issues related to sports actors’ welfare not being properly fulfilled, in fact, being far below the general manpower standards applicable to people doing work (workers/laborers. In general such cases include late or non-payment of wages, reducing bonuses, implementation of contract not accordance with the initial agreement, unilateral termination of contract without compensation for damages and others. The frequently arising question is whether sports actors, particularly athletes, have the status of ‘nonemployee’ professionals, or the status of ‘employees’. The various existing opinions related to such issue of status raise certain legal implications, particularly from the manpower aspect which emphasizes the welfare and legal protection of ‘workers’, which are also often experienced by athletes. It is expected that this article will be able to provide to the readers a broader view regarding the status of athletes’ ‘manpower’ status.

  10. Youth motivations to watch sports in Indian context: exploring cross-nationality and cross-gender differences

    OpenAIRE

    Yousaf Anish; Bashir Makhmoor; Amin Insha

    2015-01-01

    The current study revolves around research in sport consumption motivations exploring Nationality and Gender difference across fan motivations to watch sports in a way similar to Kwon and Trail (2001) in Indian context, a subject neglected until now. Data was collected from 260 respondents from India’s largest Private University. Findings reveal Group Affiliation as the most important motivation followed by Eustress (entertainment), Aesthetics, and Self-Esteem. Betting on sports was found as ...

  11. Leadership Preferences of Adolescent Players in Sport: Influence of Coach Gender

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz, Angelita B.; Kim, Hyun-Duck

    2017-01-01

    The authors investigated the coaching behavior preferences and the relationships of these preferences with variables such as gender, type of sport, playing experience, competitive level, and coach gender among young athletes in the national badminton league. Participants were 167 elementary and high school badminton players (91 girls and 76 boys; age range = 9���18 years; M = 13.5 (SD = 2.22) years) competing in the badminton event of a national league. Players��� preferences for coaching beh...

  12. Resiliency as a factor protecting youths from risky behaviour: Moderating effects of gender and sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipowski, Mariusz; Lipowska, Małgorzata; Jochimek, Magdalena; Krokosz, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    We hypothesised that resiliency may protect adolescents against risky behaviours, and that both the practicing of sports, and gender are moderating variables in relationships between resiliency and risky behaviours. The study included 18-year-old pupils from a selection of secondary schools (n = 556). A total of 188 individuals practiced competitive sports and the remaining 368 participants were non-athletes. The participants were examined with the Resiliency Assessment Scale for Children and Adolescents (SPP-18) and with a survey containing questions and statements related to high-risk "experiments with adulthood". Adolescent athletes showed higher levels of resiliency than their peers. The power of the "Determination and Persistence in Action" effect on "Alcohol" scale differed significantly between male athletes and male non-athletes. Only in the athletes groups were higher scores on this scale reflected by lower values on the "Drugs" scale. Moreover, it is possible to observe differences in undertaking risky behaviour between male and female athletes. The analysis of risky sexual behaviour suggests that sport is a risk factor for men, and a protective factor for women. These data suggest that consistent prophylactic and psycho-educative activities, with a special attention to differences between genders, should be provided to all the adolescents, irrespective of their sport performance levels.

  13. Sport Engagement by Accelerometry under Field Conditions in German Adolescents: Results from GINIPlus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Maia; Berdel, Dietrich; Nowak, Dennis; Heinrich, Joachim; Schulz, Holger

    2015-01-01

    Sporting activities differ in their ability to promote moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). To assess adolescents' engagement in sport under field conditions we used accelerometers to measure their MVPA levels during sport. We pay special attention to differences between team and individual sport and between common sports. Diary data and 7-day accelerometry from 1054 Germans ages 15-17 were combined to measure physical activity. 1373 diaried episodes of more than 40 common sports were identified from 626 participants and grouped into team and individual sport. We modeled the effect of team and individual sport, and described levels of MVPA and episodes of no MVPA for all recorded sports. German boys and girls averaged 43 (SD 21) and 37 (SD 24) minutes MVPA per day. Boys got 2.2 times as much MVPA per minute during team compared to individual sport (psport ranged from 6% for weight training to 74% for jogging, with individual sports averaging 10-30% and team sports 30-50%. 11% of sport episodes had no MVPA: half of episodes of cycling, 5% of jogging, and none for tennis or badminton. An episode of individual sport was 17 times more likely to have no MVPA than an episode of team sport (psporting time. As measured by accelerometry, individual sport often produced no MVPA. Characteristics of the sport, such as team vs. individual, were more predictive of MVPA than were characteristics of the participant, such as background activity levels.

  14. Youth motivations to watch sports in Indian context: exploring cross-nationality and cross-gender differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousaf Anish

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The current study revolves around research in sport consumption motivations exploring Nationality and Gender difference across fan motivations to watch sports in a way similar to Kwon and Trail (2001 in Indian context, a subject neglected until now. Data was collected from 260 respondents from India’s largest Private University. Findings reveal Group Affiliation as the most important motivation followed by Eustress (entertainment, Aesthetics, and Self-Esteem. Betting on sports was found as the least preferred motivation. Findings revealed Nationality having a significant impact on Group Affiliation and Aesthetics while Gender has a significant impact on Group Affiliation, Eustress as well as on level of identification with sport. These findings have implications for sports marketers of different sporting events involved in marketing of sports related activities to enhance their marketing practices. The results of the current study are of interest for physical education departments of large private Universities which can use them to promote their sports events at a large scale. The last section of the study discusses the results in detail followed by directions for future research.

  15. The Perception of Same Gender Coaches by Iranian Skaters and its Influence on Sport Achievement Motivation and Commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negar HOMAYONI IZAD

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To examine the relationship between the perception of same gender coaches by male and female Iranian skaters and their sport achievement motivation and commitment. Participants: Fifty two female and forty two male skaters, age range 13 to 18 years, from the province of Isfahan in Iran. Materials: The following 3 questionnaires, tested for reliability and validity for the Iranian population and adapted for Farsi, were used: i Pelletier, Fortier, Vallerand and Briere (2001 Interpersonal Behaviour Scale to measure social support of trainers, ii Gill and Deeter (1988 Sport Orientation Questionnaire (SOQ to measure achievement motivation, and iii Scanlan, Simons, Car penter, Schmidt and Keeler (1993 Sport Commitment Model to measure sport commitment. Procedure: The questionnaires were administered to participants in person by the first author after training sessions in sport stadiums. Results: There was a significant positive correlation between perceived coaches' social support and sport achievement motivation and commitment for both male and female participants. However, on all of the above measures females scored significantly more positive ratings than their male c ounterparts. Results of regression analyses conducted separately for males and females showed that relatedness support is the strongest predictor for sport achievement motivation and commitment for males, whereas autonomy support was the strongest predicto r for sport commitment amongst females. Implications: These findings are of particular interest in understanding the impact of perceived coaching support for young male and female athletes, especially if coached exclusively by the same gender.

  16. Tie-breaker: Using language models to quantify gender bias in sports journalism

    CERN Document Server

    Fu, Liye; Lee, Lillian

    2016-01-01

    Gender bias is an increasingly important issue in sports journalism. In this work, we propose a language-model-based approach to quantify differences in questions posed to female vs. male athletes, and apply it to tennis post-match interviews. We find that journalists ask male players questions that are generally more focused on the game when compared with the questions they ask their female counterparts. We also provide a fine-grained analysis of the extent to which the salience of this bias depends on various factors, such as question type, game outcome or player rank.

  17. Connection between participation in sport and pro-social orientation and aggression of adolescents: Differences according to gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gašić-Pavišić Slobodanka Ž.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Former researches on the contribution of organized sport to antisocial and pro-social behavior of the young have yielded discordant and contradictory results. However, in the majority of researches, it was determined that active practice of sport has a different effect on psycho-social development of male and female participants. We have undertaken the research with the aim of examining whether there is a connection between the participation of the pupils of secondary school age in organized sport activities and their pro-social value orientation and aggressiveness, and, if there is, whether there are gender differences in that connection. The sample consisted of 300 pupils of secondary school (Mathematical High School in Belgrade, out of which 150 (49 female and 101 male regularly practice sport for more than two years, and 150 pupils (84 male and 66 female do not practice organized sport. The indicators of practicing sport are: the length of practicing sport activities, regularity and intensity of training, participation in contests and the kind of sport (individual or team sport. The following variables of pro-social orientation were examined: readiness for cooperation, caring for other people, social responsibility and empathy. Aggressiveness was examined through aggressive tendencies towards others. All variables were examined by the application of appropriate questionnaires and evaluation scales which were answered by the pupils themselves. The results have shown significant (although low, positive correlations between practicing sport and pro-social values, as well as the negative (low correlation between practicing sport and aggression, for both genders of students. Statistically significant differences were found between boys and girls regarding pro-social orientation (higher level in girls, as well as aggressiveness (higher levels in boys. Significant correlations were lower and more numerous in male than in female respondents.

  18. An Investigation of the Relationship between Digital Game Addiction, Gender and Regular Sport Participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurullah Emir Ekinci

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate digital game addiction of high school students according to gender and regular sport participation. For this 398 high school students who were randomly chosen voluntarily participated in the study. In addition to personal information from the Turkish version of Lemmens and colleagues’a game addiction scale was used as a data gathering tool. The Turkish adaptation of the scale was done by Aylin Yalcın Irmak and Semra Erdogan in 2015. The Turkish version of the scale consists of one factor and seven items anchored with a five Likert type scale. In the evaluation of the data linear regression was used. The findings of this study revealed that there was a positive relationship between gender and digital game addiction.

  19. Towards the “Undoing” of Gender in Mixed-Sex Martial Arts and Combat Sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Channon

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses sex integration in martial arts and combat sports, discussing the implications of mixed-sex training for challenging orthodox Western constructions of gender. Drawing on qualitative interviews with 37 long-term martial arts practitioners from around the English East Midlands between 2007–2011, the paper argues that restrictive, essentialist and hierarchal conceptions of sex difference can be challenged through integrated training practices. The paper advocates the “undoing” of gender in this regard as helping to build a more progressive, inclusive and liberal form of physical culture, seen as a key potential of sex-integrated training. To that end, the paper makes a number of proposals for instructors and practitioners interested in developing such inclusive environments in their own clubs and training settings.

  20. Sport Engagement by Accelerometry under Field Conditions in German Adolescents: Results from GINIPlus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maia Smith

    Full Text Available Sporting activities differ in their ability to promote moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA. To assess adolescents' engagement in sport under field conditions we used accelerometers to measure their MVPA levels during sport. We pay special attention to differences between team and individual sport and between common sports.Diary data and 7-day accelerometry from 1054 Germans ages 15-17 were combined to measure physical activity. 1373 diaried episodes of more than 40 common sports were identified from 626 participants and grouped into team and individual sport. We modeled the effect of team and individual sport, and described levels of MVPA and episodes of no MVPA for all recorded sports.German boys and girls averaged 43 (SD 21 and 37 (SD 24 minutes MVPA per day. Boys got 2.2 times as much MVPA per minute during team compared to individual sport (p<0.0001 but there was no significant difference for girls. Percent of time spent in MVPA during sport ranged from 6% for weight training to 74% for jogging, with individual sports averaging 10-30% and team sports 30-50%. 11% of sport episodes had no MVPA: half of episodes of cycling, 5% of jogging, and none for tennis or badminton. An episode of individual sport was 17 times more likely to have no MVPA than an episode of team sport (p<0.0001.Under field condition, adolescents were active for only a fraction of diaried sporting time. As measured by accelerometry, individual sport often produced no MVPA. Characteristics of the sport, such as team vs. individual, were more predictive of MVPA than were characteristics of the participant, such as background activity levels.

  1. The influence of gender and academic training int he entrepreneurial intention of physical activity and sport sciences students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Huertas González Serrano

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The objective of this article is to know if there are differences in the variables that explain the entrepreneurial intention of the Physical Activity and Sport Science students addressing academic training and gender of them. Design/methodology/approach: To know entrepreneurial intentions and the different variables related to entrepreneurship, a questionnaire previously validated was used. The questionnaire was provided to 578 students pre-graduated (1st-4th course and post-graduate of Physical Activity and Sport Science degree of Valencia. Findings: Statistically significant differences (p ≤ 0.05 in the variables that predict entrepreneurial intention of Physical Activity and Sport Science students by gender and training were found. In both genders, the attitude towards entrepreneurship and the perceived behavior control were the predictors of entrepreneurial intentions and in men also the subjective norms. Research limitations/implications: The students sample belongs only to the Physical Activity and Sport Science degree of Valencia, so the results cannot be extrapolated to the entire population. Practical implications: It should be developing the attitude toward the behavior of entrepreneurship and perceived behavioral control to promote entrepreneurship. In this way, the graduates will be more prepare for insertion into the working world. Social implications: To increase the number of entrepreneurs (male and female in the sports sector throughout the education, reducing the gender gap in entrepreneurship and improve the quality of entrepreneurship, as this is a key issue because of the positive impact that this phenomenon generates on the economy Originality/value: It is interesting to know the predictor variables of entrepreneurial intentions, and to know if there are differences based on education and gender due to the massive entry of women into the sport workplaces and low intention to undertake of the. So it is quite

  2. Lipstick and Labcoats: Undergraduate Women's Gender Negotiation in STEM Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Emily Grey

    2012-01-01

    Although women have made significant progress in the work force and in education, gender gaps still exist in many industries and occupations, including science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) fields. This research aimed to understand how undergraduate women negotiate gender within STEM fields, looking specifically at these women's…

  3. Society Gender Research in Leisure Sports%休闲体育中的社会性别研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易小坚; 黄先锋; 周珊

    2012-01-01

    As new sport activity and life style,the leisure sports enriched people's extra-curricular life.As a result of each kind of factor's influence,social gender question in leisure sport is quite serious,and the gender inequality still exists.This paper analyzed the occurrence and existence of social roots.The main purpose is to narrow the gender difference,provide theoretical basis for coordinated development of leisure sports and promote the health and sustainable development of sports business.%休闲体育作为一种新的体育活动方式和生活方式,丰富了人们的业余生活。由于受各种因素的影响,休闲体育中的社会性别问题比较严重,致使两性不平等现象依然存在。本文分析了其产生与存在的社会根源,为缩小性别差异,促进两性休闲体育协调发展提供理论依据与现实指导,以促进体育事业的健康可持续发展。

  4. Photovoltaic power system field test program at Tokyo Hikarigaoka sporting facilities, sporting facilities in a standard district; Tokyo Hikarigaoka taiyoko hatsuden system field test jigyo (hyojun chiku no sports shisetsu) Tokyo Hikarigaoka sports shisetsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeda, Y. [Maeda Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-05-30

    The photovoltaic power systems were installed in September in FY1994 in Tokyo Hikarigaoka sporting facilities, and the field tests have been conducted, to investigate applicability of the system to sporting facilities. Described herein are the results of the field tests conducted in FY1995, following those in FY1994, for its demonstrated applicability. The sporting facilities are very large in scale, having a 24-story office building, a 2-story building for sporting facilities, a 6-story hotel building and a common and large-space atrium. The photovoltaic system, installed on the 2-story building, provides power for various purposes, including illumination, air-conditioning and driving various devices. It is integrated into a low-voltage line of 20kW with reverse flow. It produces a maximum output of 21.45kWp, the array consisting of 15 (series) by 22 (parallel) single-crystalline modules, directed to due south at an elevation angle of 20{degree}. If demonstrated commercially viable, a photovoltaic power system can be integrated into a building adjacent to an office building in the planning stage, to greatly reduce the construction cost. The photovoltaic power systems have good PR effects, because a total of approximately 160,000 people can annually use the sporting facilities, including the office and hotel, and there are Hikarigaoka apartment complex (having 38,000 residents) and 50,000 local residents around the sporting facilities.

  5. Effects of personality and gender on fantasy sports game participation: the moderating role of perceived knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Woo-Young; Kwak, Dae Hee; Lim, Choonghoon; Pedersen, Paul M; Miloch, Kimberly S

    2011-09-01

    Although 30 million individuals are engaged in fantasy sports games in the United States, little is known about the personality, attitudes, and intentions of fantasy sports game participants. This study (N = 244) explored the role of gender, sensation seeking (SS), locus of control (LOC), and need for cognition (NFC) in predicting attitudes and intentions relative to participating in fantasy football league. A domain-specific construct (e.g., perceived football knowledge: PK) was employed as a moderator to control the potential attenuating effects of personality and related human behavior. A moderated multiple regression technique (MMR) examined the first-order and lower-order interaction effects on attitudes and behavioral intentions toward fantasy games. For males (n = 123), SS, LOC, and PK were related to both attitudes and intentions toward participating and PK acted as a moderator between LOC and intentions. For females (n = 121), none of the personality traits was associated with attitudes or intentions. The applied and theoretical implications of the findings are discussed along with future directions for research.

  6. The impact of track and field sports professionalization on age limits of athletes sports skills qualifications saving.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozlova O.K.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The age-related features of elite athletes were defined track-and-field events. It was established, that professionalization of track-and-field sport assists the expansion of the age limits elite athletes performances on a world of sporting arena. The most of sportsmen age of which exceeds 30 years is specialized in such of track-and-field events: race walking 50 km (men - 56,7 %; hammer throw (men -46,7%; discuss throw(women - 46,7%.

  7. Doping Attitudes and Covariates of Potential Doping Behaviour in High-Level Team-Sport Athletes; Gender Specific Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekulic, Damir; Tahiraj, Enver; Zvan, Milan; Zenic, Natasa; Uljevic, Ognjen; Lesnik, Blaz

    2016-01-01

    Team sports are rarely studied with regard to doping behaviour and doping-related factors regardless of their global popularity. This study aimed to investigate doping factors and covariates of potential doping behaviour in high-level team-sport athletes. The subjects were 457 high-performing, national- and international-level athletes (21.9 ± 3.4 years of age; 179 females) involved in volleyball (n = 77), soccer (n = 163), basketball (n = 114) and handball (n = 103). Previously validated self-administered questionnaires aimed at evidencing sport factors, doping-related factors, knowledge on sport nutrition and doping, and attitudes to performance enhancement were used. The results indicated a higher doping likelihood in male athletes, with a significant gender difference for basketball and handball. In males, a higher doping likelihood is found for athletes who had achieved better results at junior-age level, those who regularly consume dietary supplements, and who perceive their sport as being contaminated by doping. A higher sport achievement at senior-age level is protective against potential doping behaviour in males. In females, a higher likelihood of doping is evidenced in those athletes involved in binge drinking, while a lower tendency for doping is evidenced in female athletes who possess better knowledge on sport nutrition. Knowledge about doping is very low and thus education about doping is urgently needed. An improvement of knowledge on sport nutrition might be a potentially effective method for reducing the tendency for doping in females. Future studies should consider other approaches and theories, such as theory of planned behaviour and/or social-cognitive theory, in studying the problem of doping behaviour in team-sports. Key points The doping knowledge among Kosovar team-sport athletes is very low and systematic anti-doping education is urgently needed. The highest risk of doping behaviour in males is found for those athletes who had been

  8. Doping Attitudes and Covariates of Potential Doping Behaviour in High-Level Team-Sport Athletes; Gender Specific Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damir Sekulic, Enver Tahiraj, Milan Zvan, Natasa Zenic, Ognjen Uljevic, Blaz Lesnik

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Team sports are rarely studied with regard to doping behaviour and doping-related factors regardless of their global popularity. This study aimed to investigate doping factors and covariates of potential doping behaviour in high-level team-sport athletes. The subjects were 457 high-performing, national- and international-level athletes (21.9 ± 3.4 years of age; 179 females involved in volleyball (n = 77, soccer (n = 163, basketball (n = 114 and handball (n = 103. Previously validated self-administered questionnaires aimed at evidencing sport factors, doping-related factors, knowledge on sport nutrition and doping, and attitudes to performance enhancement were used. The results indicated a higher doping likelihood in male athletes, with a significant gender difference for basketball and handball. In males, a higher doping likelihood is found for athletes who had achieved better results at junior-age level, those who regularly consume dietary supplements, and who perceive their sport as being contaminated by doping. A higher sport achievement at senior-age level is protective against potential doping behaviour in males. In females, a higher likelihood of doping is evidenced in those athletes involved in binge drinking, while a lower tendency for doping is evidenced in female athletes who possess better knowledge on sport nutrition. Knowledge about doping is very low and thus education about doping is urgently needed. An improvement of knowledge on sport nutrition might be a potentially effective method for reducing the tendency for doping in females. Future studies should consider other approaches and theories, such as theory of planned behaviour and/or social-cognitive theory, in studying the problem of doping behaviour in team-sports.

  9. Incidence of Parental Support and Pressure on Their Children’s Motivational Processes towards Sport Practice Regarding Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amado, Diana

    2015-01-01

    Grounded in Self-Determination Theory, structural equation modeling (SEM) with the aim of examining how parental support/pressure could influence their children´s motivational processes in sport was conducted, as well as the models´ differences in operability regarding gender. The sample size was 321 children ranging in age from 10 to 16 years old who were athletes from Extremadura, and 321 parents (included only the father or mother more involved with the sport of his or her child). 175 participants were male and 146 were female from individual (n = 130), and team sports (n=191). A questionnaire was conducted to assess parental perception of support/pressure and another questionnaire was conducted to measure satisfaction of basic psychological needs, type of motivation and enjoyment/boredom showed by their children towards sport practice. Results revealed that parental pressure negatively predicted satisfaction of the basic psychological needs. It also emerged as a strong positive predictor of intrinsic motivation and negative predictor of amotivation. Moreover, intrinsic motivation emerged as positive predictor of enjoyment and a negative predictor of boredom, whereas amotivation positively predicted boredom and negatively predicted enjoyment. Furthermore, results showed there were mean differences by gender: male athletes perceived greater parental pressure. Hence, it is necessary to decrease parental pressure towards their children in sport, with the aim of making them more motivated and enjoy, promoting positive consequences. PMID:26039062

  10. Studying gender and injuries: a comparative analysis of the literatures on women's injuries in sport and work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theberge, N

    2012-01-01

    This article provides a review and analysis of the literatures on the gendering of injuries in sport and in work. It argues that, while research on women's work-related injuries has considered the interaction of biological and social bases of risk, research on women's injuries in sport has concentrated to a greater extent on biological risk factors alone. The difference in emphasis between these two literatures has, in turn, provoked contrasting responses to these sets of research. While bringing women into the discussion of work-related injuries is seen as an advance, the profiling of women's sport-related injuries has been viewed with alarm by critics, who see this as a return to historical notions of women's frailty. The analysis suggests that contrasts between these bodies of research derive from differences in the social organisation of sport and work and the broader literatures on health and safety in each setting. The article highlights the importance of conceptualisations of gender in research agenda devoted to understanding health-related concerns. The analysis presented here has important relevance to ergonomics because of the need to better understand how gender is implicated in ergonomics research and practice.

  11. ELECTRONIC SPORT: HOW PRO-GAMING NEGOTIATES TERRITORIAL BELONGING AND GENDER

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The article explores the phenomenon of electronic sport (e-sport), which refers to organised and competitive video gaming. It is approached as a 'social world' and a specific culture of gaming, which produces organised groups, events and broadcasting. Located at the intersection of gaming and sports, e-sport adopts elements from both areas. From a grounded theory perspective, the article discusses the contexts, meanings and practices of pro-gaming within e-sport as researched in a study consi...

  12. Incidence of Parental Support and Pressure on Their Children’s Motivational Processes towards Sport Practice Regarding Gender

    OpenAIRE

    Diana Amado; David Sánchez-Oliva; Inmaculada González-Ponce; Juan José Pulido-González; Pedro Antonio Sánchez-Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Grounded in Self-Determination Theory, structural equation modeling (SEM) with the aim of examining how parental support/pressure could influence their children´s motivational processes in sport was conducted, as well as the models´ differences in operability regarding gender. The sample size was 321 children ranging in age from 10 to 16 years old who were athletes from Extremadura, and 321 parents (included only the father or mother more involved with the sport of his or her child). 175 part...

  13. A comparative study of students' track and field technical performance in sport education and in a direct instruction approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, José; Hastie, Peter; Araújo, Rui; Farias, Cláudio; Rolim, Ramiro; Mesquita, Isabel

    2015-03-01

    This study examined students' technical performances improvements in three track and field events (hurdles, shot put, and long jump) following either a Sport Education season or a Direct Instruction unit. An experienced Physical Education teacher taught two classes totalling 47 sixth-grade students (25 boys and 22 girls, aged between 10 and 13 years old) in 20, 45-minute lessons over 10 weeks. The students' technical performances were analysed and evaluated through systematic observation of videos. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to compare scores at three time points (pre-test, post-test and retention), and the Mann-Whitney U test was used to examine the differences within each instructional model at each assessment moment, as well as by gender and skill level. The impact of each instructional model in student learning was markedly distinct. While in Sport Education students of both genders and skill levels improved significantly in all events, in Direct Instruction, evidence of significant improvements was limited to boys and students of higher skill level. Key pointsThe impact of each teaching approach in student learning was distinct. While in Sport Education the technical performance improvements spread throughout students of both genders and skill levels, in Direct Instruction significant improvements were exclusive to boys and students of higher skill level.The extended analysis in the current study, taking into account student gender and skill level, permitted a more comprehensive measure of the learning impact of the two approaches. More sophisticated analyses of the tasks and instructional strategies of each approach are encouraged.

  14. sports

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    正Nowadays,high school students hold different opinions about after-class activities.There are two quite different phenomenonena.Some students are crazy about sports and some other activities.They spend much time in joining the outdoor activities and varies of groups,and also,making new friends.However,they pay a little attention to their studies.

  15. Visual- spatial capacity: gender and sport differences in young volleyball and tennis athletes and non-athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notarnicola, Angela; Maccagnano, Giuseppe; Pesce, Vito; Tafuri, Silvio; Novielli, Grazia; Moretti, Biagio

    2014-01-21

    In the general population visual-spatial ability is better in males, due to the influence of biological and socio-cultural factors. We know that sport activity improves motor skills. The aim of this work is to determine if these gender differences exist in young athletes. The orientation test described by Terzi and standardized by Cesaroni, used to measure spatial ability, was carried out on 60 volleyball or 60 tennis athletes as well as on 60 non-sporting subjects. The data analysis revealed a worse performance for non-athletes in comparison with athletes in both components of test (p volleyball and tennis groups. As far as gender comparison is concerned, as expected in the non- sport group the males presented better values (p volleyball and tennis the specific training is able to develop spatial ability. Besides, boys and girls have similar performance demands and training experience. It appears that this specific training could be responsible for modifying gender differences in performance of spatial ability during adolescence.

  16. Making t he Objectives of Individuals Sports Body Mass Index, b y Age a nd Gender Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İbrahim Kubilay TÜRKAY

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the intent of making sport of individuals to the sports center. The study of 441 women and 808 men in 2007 - 2013 to the fitness center for a total of 1,250 people participated. The purpose of sports participants, Body Mass Index (BMI, by age and sex were examined. Obtained from the study for the Chi - square test was used for statistical analysis. %66,8 participants of the order to lose weight,%15,7in order to take the weight,%17,5 Tighter to the sports they have been identified. Participants "why sports are you doing?" The answer to the question they differ according to BMI was observed (p <0.01. Those whoare obese%99,5, those who are fat %98,7 exercise in order to lose weight, where as the rate of 0% is seen as weak and emerges with patients with normal %4 2,1. The age of participants in the sport with the aim of making a connection to a statistically significant difference (p <0.01. Again, the purpose of gender of the participants with a statistically significant link between sports (p < 0.01. In a recent study in Turkey of the population above the age of 15 and 16.9% obese, 33% fat was found (are over weight. (TSI, NO: 220 YEAR: 27.11.2011. The World Health Organization (WHO physical activity, "health is not just protection from disease and germs as a whole, the physical, mental and social well - being" is defined as (Ozer, 2006. As a result, a large portion of the participants exercise in order to lose weight was observed. BMI affects the purpose of sports, with increasing age, "to lose weight" sport in creased the proportion of those who have been identified.Our society is increasingly associated with obesity on the importance of sport habits of highly groups of subjects participated in this study, is a beautiful declaratory.

  17. Why are some STEM fields more gender balanced than others?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheryan, Sapna; Ziegler, Sianna A; Montoya, Amanda K; Jiang, Lily

    2017-01-01

    Women obtain more than half of U.S. undergraduate degrees in biology, chemistry, and mathematics, yet they earn less than 20% of computer science, engineering, and physics undergraduate degrees (National Science Foundation, 2014a). Gender differences in interest in computer science, engineering, and physics appear even before college. Why are women represented in some science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields more than others? We conduct a critical review of the most commonly cited factors explaining gender disparities in STEM participation and investigate whether these factors explain differential gender participation across STEM fields. Math performance and discrimination influence who enters STEM, but there is little evidence to date that these factors explain why women's underrepresentation is relatively worse in some STEM fields. We introduce a model with three overarching factors to explain the larger gender gaps in participation in computer science, engineering, and physics than in biology, chemistry, and mathematics: (a) masculine cultures that signal a lower sense of belonging to women than men, (b) a lack of sufficient early experience with computer science, engineering, and physics, and (c) gender gaps in self-efficacy. Efforts to increase women's participation in computer science, engineering, and physics may benefit from changing masculine cultures and providing students with early experiences that signal equally to both girls and boys that they belong and can succeed in these fields. (PsycINFO Database Record

  18. Effect of gender on lower extremity kinematics during rapid direction changes: an integrated analysis of three sports movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, S G; Walker, K B; van den Bogert, A J

    2005-12-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury is a common sports injury, particularly in females. Gender differences in knee kinematics have been observed for specific movements, but there is limited information on how these findings relate to other joints and other movements. Here we present an integrated analysis of hip, knee and ankle kinematics across three movements linked to non-contact ACL injury. It was hypothesised that there are gender differences in lower extremity kinematics, which are consistent across sports movements. Ten female and ten male NCAA basketball players had three-dimensional hip, knee and ankle kinematics quantified during the stance phase of sidestep, sidejump and shuttle-run tasks. For each joint angle, initial value at contact, peak value and between-trial variability was obtained and submitted to a two-way mixed design ANOVA (gender and movement), with movement condition treated as a repeated measure. Females had higher peak knee valgus and lower peak hip and knee flexion, with the same gender differences also existing at the beginning of stance (pACL injury. These differences appear to stem largely from subject-specific neuromuscular mechanisms across movements, suggesting that prevention via neuromuscular training is possible.

  19. Spinal posture in different DanceSport dance styles compared with track and field athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Kruusamäe

    2015-11-01

    Conclusions: The results of the present study suggest that smaller S-shaped vertebral curvatures of DanceSport athletes compared with track and field athletes are permanent changes rather than habitual.

  20. [The importance of sports medicine field tests as a means of training control in northern endurance sports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartl, P; Aigner, A

    1985-05-31

    In endurance sports heart frequency at the aerobic threshold (2 mmol/l lactate) is recommended for extensive training and heart rate at the anaerobic threshold (4 mmol/l lactate) for intensive training. Both values could be estimated by means of exercise tests in the laboratory as well as in the field. However for training-recommendations only data estimated on a specific exercise procedure should be used.

  1. Differential Gender Performance on the Major Field Test-Business

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielinska-Kwapisz, Agnieszka; Brown, F. William

    2013-01-01

    The Major Field Test in Business (MFT-B), a standardized assessment test of business knowledge among undergraduate business seniors, is widely used to measure student achievement. Many previous studies analyzing scores on the MFT-B report gender differences on the exam even after controlling for student's aptitude, general intellectual ability,…

  2. An Analysis of Brazilian Academic Production in Sports Marketing as a Multidisciplinary Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Mazzei

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Sport Industry has considerable numbers and its social, cultural, and economic impacts are significant in Brazil and worldwide. Marketing performs actions of creation, promotion, and delivery of products and services and applies techniques to influence the level, speed, and composition of consumption demand. Strategically, marketing can be critical to the growth of organizations. The purpose of this article was to evaluate the scientific production in Sports Marketing in Brazil, using a comprehensive database and considering this field in a multidisciplinary context of Sport Management. We concluded a low number of articles were published in Brazilian journals and identified primary or descriptive approaches. There are a predominance of "Essays" and issues related to the Promotion segment of the Sport Industry. This fact opens great prospects for the development of future research with Sports Marketing. Regardless of the current context, the need to apply marketing concepts in sport is effective mainly through the pressure for good sporting and economic results of sports’ organizations. This paper presented a frame of scientific production in Sports Marketing in Brazil, and identified some gaps that can be explored by researchers interested in this topic.

  3. Extending the field of play: Revealing the dynamics between sports, health and place.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Gavin J

    2016-11-01

    Although the sub-discipline of sports geography has a long fifty-year history it has been, at best, a sporadic endeavor. Whilst clearly indicating the fundamental geographical qualities of sports, it has never really taking off to the extent that arguably it should have given sport's social profile and importance. In way of a solution this paper presents triple tracks, or ways forward, that might circumvent this academic shortfall and cover some of the missed ground. First, pursuing the health component of sport far more thoroughly and in its very broadest sense, including its public health adoption and specific wellbeing, fitness and aesthetic features. Second, defining sport broadly beyond elite forms to include a wide-range of physical and lifestyle activities that possess elements of personal or interpersonal competition. Third, complementing sports geography by developing 'spatial sports studies' as a more expansive interdisciplinary field of inquiry spanning the health and social sciences. Indeed, these tracks potentially unearth substantial new research capacity by together considering the dynamics between sports, health and place.

  4. Exercise testing in Warmblood sport horses under field conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munsters, Carolien C B M; van Iwaarden, Alexandra; van Weeren, René; Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, Marianne M

    2014-01-01

    Regular exercise testing in Warmblood sport horses may, as in racing, potentially help to characterise fitness indices in different disciplines and at various competition levels and assist in understanding when a horse is 'fit to compete'. In this review an overview is given of the current state of

  5. Exercise testing in Warmblood sport horses under field conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munsters, Carolien C B M; van Iwaarden, Alexandra; van Weeren, René|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074628550; Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, Marianne M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/075234394

    2014-01-01

    Regular exercise testing in Warmblood sport horses may, as in racing, potentially help to characterise fitness indices in different disciplines and at various competition levels and assist in understanding when a horse is 'fit to compete'. In this review an overview is given of the current state of

  6. "Field of Dreams:" Sport as a Context for Youth Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Maureen R.

    2008-01-01

    Being asked to give the Charles H. McCloy research lecture is one of the highlights of the author's academic career. Although McCloy's primary area of expertise was measurement and the analysis of motor skills, he also shared an avid interest in youth development through sport and physical activity. In this article, the author features youth sport…

  7. Isokinetic hamstrings-to-quadriceps peak torque ratio: the influence of sport modality, gender, and angular velocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Marilia Dos Santos; De Lira, Claudio Andre Barbosa; Koffes, Fabiana De Carvalho; Mascarin, Naryana Cristina; Benedito-Silva, Ana Amélia; Da Silva, Antonio Carlos

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine differences in hamstrings-to-quadriceps (H/Q) peak torque ratios evaluated at different angular velocities between men and women who participate in judo, handball or soccer. A total of 166 athletes, including 58 judokas (26 females and 32 males), 39 handball players (22 females and 17 males), and 69 soccer players (17 females and 52 males), were evaluated using an isokinetic dynamometer. The H/Q isokinetic peak torque ratios were calculated at angular velocities of 1.05 rad · s⁻¹ and 5.23 rad · s⁻¹. In the analysis by gender, female soccer players produced lower H/Q peak torque ratios at 1.05 rad · s⁻¹ than males involved in the same sport. However, when H/Q peak torque ratio was assessed at 5.23 rad · s⁻¹, there were no significant differences between the sexes. In the analysis by sport, there were no differences among females at 1.05 rad · s⁻¹. In contrast, male soccer players had significantly higher H/Q peak torque ratios than judokas (66 ± 12% vs. 57 ± 14%, respectively). Female handball players produced significantly lower peak torque ratios at 5.23 rad · s⁻¹ than judokas or soccer players, whereas males presented no ratio differences among sports At 5.23 rad · s⁻¹. In the analysis by velocity, women's muscular ratios assessed at 1.05 rad · s⁻¹ were significantly lower than at 5.23 rad · s⁻¹ for all sports; among men, only judokas presented lower ratios at 1.05 rad · s⁻¹ than at 5.23 rad · s⁻¹. The present results suggest that sport modality and angular velocity influence the isokinetic strength profiles of men and women.

  8. Photovoltaic power generation field test at Hikarigaoka. Sporting facility in a standard district; Hikarigaoka Sporting Facility (Nerima Ward, Tokyo); Tokyo Hikarigaoka taiyoko hatsuden system field test jigyo (hyojun chiku no sports shisetsu). Tokyo Hikarigaoka sports shisetsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeda, Y. [Maeda Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-05-30

    A 20kW photovoltaic power generation system is mounted on the rooftop of the Hikarigaoka sporting facility building belonging in the large complex J-City consisting of an office building, hotel building, large-space atrium for common use, and the said sporting facility building. The power generated by the system is connected to the power distribution system for the facility, and is supplied to air conditioners, power-driven equipment, and lighting systems in the sporting facility building. Verification is carried out of the compatibility and stability of the photovoltaic power generation system as applied to meet the above-said purposes, and data are collected. In fiscal 1996, a protective glass pane was broken in a solar cell panel, but the operation was not affected and the field test was conducted smoothly. The glass was broken when a tiny defect produced in the manufacturing process grew larger due to thermal stress in the sunshine for the eventual breakdown. When a system is to be installed, upon verification of its practicability, in a building to be built in a place wherein plural buildings exist adjacent to each other, the system installation plan may be incorporated into the building as early as in its construction planning process, and this will reduce the system constructing cost. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  9. Coping and coping effectiveness in relation to a competitive sport event: pubertal status, chronological age, and gender among adolescent athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, Adam; Polman, Remco; Morley, David; Taylor, Natalie J

    2009-06-01

    An aim of this paper was to discover whether athletes of different pubertal status, chronological age, and gender reported distinct coping strategies in response to stress during a competitive event in their sport. A secondary aim was to examine pubertal status group, chronological age, and gender differences in coping effectiveness. Participants were adolescent athletes (n = 527), classified as beginning-pubertal (n = 59), midpubertal (n = 189), advanced-pubertal (n = 237), and postpubertal (n = 22). Findings revealed that there were small, but significant differences in how athletes of different pubertal status and chronological age coped. There were also significant differences between how athletes of different pubertal status perceived the effectiveness of their coping strategies. Interestingly, our results suggested that the relationship between pubertal status and coping and coping effectiveness is different from the relationship between chronological age and coping and coping effectiveness.

  10. The impact of a sports vision training program in youth field hockey players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Sebastian; Memmert, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether a sports vision training program improves the visual performance of youth male field hockey players, ages 12 to 16 years, after an intervention of six weeks compared to a control group with no specific sports vision training. The choice reaction time task at the D2 board (Learning Task I), the functional field of view task (Learning Task II) and the multiple object tracking (MOT) task (Transfer Task) were assessed before and after the intervention and again six weeks after the second test. Analyzes showed significant differences between the two groups for the choice reaction time task at the D2 board and the functional field of view task, with significant improvements for the intervention group and none for the control group. For the transfer task, we could not find statistically significant improvements for either group. The results of this study are discussed in terms of theoretical and practical implications. Key pointsPerceptual training with youth field hockey playersCan a sports vision training program improve the visual performance of youth male field hockey players, ages 12 to 16 years, after an intervention of six weeks compared to a control group with no specific sports vision training?The intervention was performed in the "VisuLab" as DynamicEye(®) SportsVision Training at the German Sport University Cologne.We ran a series of 3 two-factor univariate analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures on both within subject independent variables (group; measuring point) to examine the effects on central perception, peripheral perception and choice reaction time.The present study shows an improvement of certain visual abilities with the help of the sports vision training program.

  11. Physical self-concept in adolescents from Seville in relation with gender and the evolution of sport career

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Ries

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the physical capacities and the physical attractiveness of Seville adolescent athletes and whether these perceptions vary by gender and sport career development. 90 adolescents from 12 to 18 years (50 girls and 40 boys completed a Spanish adaptation of the Physical Self Description Questionnaire (Marsh, Richards, Johnson, Roche y Tremaye, 1994; Tomás, 1998 and a scale to collect physical attractiveness perceived (Alfermann, Saborowski y Würth, 1997. The results show that males have a more positive physical self-concept than females. There were no relationships of the variables with the level of sports performance. The follow-up survey, one year later, noted an increase in some subdomains of self-concept in terms of positive developments in the sport career. In this study the physical changes associated with maturation in adolescence seem to have fewer influences on the perception of the body as it has been reported in other studies

  12. Change of parameters of an estimation of gender differences of results of swimmer's performance under specifications of Uniform sports classification of Ukraine for 2009-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganchar A.I.

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Due levels and degrees of forming skills of the sporting swimming are considered for men and women on different distances. Likenesses and distinctions are rotined in the successive estimation of the state of preparedness level of swimmers of different floor. Likenesses and differences are exposed in the norms of swimming preparedness for the representatives of sex of men and womanish on Single sporting classification. The parameters of evaluation of dynamics of norms of swimming preparedness are presented. They allow objectively to estimate the level of bit requirements taking into account gender approach for the representatives of different age-dependent groups and sporting qualification.

  13. Leisure, consumption and sport between the upper strata: Contributions to the development of a problematic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Iuliano

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to deal with various problems concerned with the social productivity of the spaces and practices of leisure, consumption and sport, particularly referring to the upper strata and their sociability. Following this approach, we develop a critical work on the main perspectives on leisure and consumption, emphasizing, in some cases, the underlying normative assumptions and, in others, the conceptual contributions related to the positivity of leisure and consumption as elements for structuring social categories. Finally, the article analyses the contributions of the sociology and anthropology of sport to the study of the relationship between sporting practices and social levels, arguing in favour of giving a higher hierarchy to the study of phenomenon related to sport, leisure and consumption as legitimate fields of research of the transformations in the social structure, especially, connected to the upper strata

  14. Psychological balance in high level athletes: gender-based differences and sport-specific patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Schaal

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Few epidemiological studies have focused on the psychological health of high level athletes. This study aimed to identify the principal psychological problems encountered within French high level athletes, and the variations in their prevalence based on sex and the sport practiced. METHODS: Multivariate analyses were conducted on nationwide data obtained from the athletes' yearly psychological evaluations. RESULTS: A representative sample of 13% of the French athlete population was obtained. 17% of athletes have at least one ongoing or recent disorder, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD being the most prevalent (6%, followed by non-specific eating disorders (4.2%. Overall, 20.2% of women had at least one psychopathology, against 15.1% in men. This female predominance applied to anxiety and eating disorders, depression, sleep problems and self-harming behaviors. The highest rates of GAD appeared in aesthetic sports (16.7% vs. 6.8% in other sports for men and 38.9% vs. 10.3% for women; the lowest prevalence was found in high risk sports athletes (3.0% vs. 3.5%. Eating disorders are most common among women in racing sports (14% vs. 9%, but for men were found mostly in combat sports (7% vs. 4.8%. DISCUSSION: This study highlights important differences in psychopathology between male and female athletes, demonstrating that the many sex-based differences reported in the general population apply to elite athletes. While the prevalence of psychological problems is no higher than in the general population, the variations in psychopathology in different sports suggest that specific constraints could influence the development of some disorders.

  15. Involvement in sports clubs and informal sport activities of primary and secondary school children in Liechtenstein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Kühnis

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Sport involvement among children and adolescents has been a central field of research in sport science since years. This paper documents the participation of 11- to 15-year-olds in sport clubs and informal sport activities in Liechtenstein and examines possible gender- and age-specific differences. The analysis is based on four cross-sectional studies from 2004 to 2015 and includes the data of 1’262 children in primary (5th grade and secondary (7th and 9th grades school. According to our findings sports and exercise are considered to be one of the main leisure-time activities for all school levels (irrespective of gender. The percentage of fully sport-abstinent adolescents by 11- and 13-year-olds is about 5 %; by 15-year-olds is around 10 %. The culmination of sports club membership (with current 84.7 % appears to be at the age of 11 (5th grade. After the switch to secondary school the sports club commitment tends to decrease, while the high attendance of the informal sport activities (>85 % shows relatively stable age development. In contrast to other child and youth studies, our data indicates a levelling tendency and dissolution of classic gender differences not only in sports club commitment but also in informal sports among girls and boys.

  16. POSSIBILITIES OF CONSTRUCTION OF GENDER EQUALITY IN THE FIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaura Isabel Conte

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The construction of gender equality in the field, refers to a look at the history of rural women and how they put the story since, have long been heavily stereotyped, even more inferior when compared to the other. This study aims to show the possibilities of building gender equality, with through the contribution of feminism, from research conducted in the Movement of Rural Women. We made theoretical studies, documentary analysis and interviews with activists and leaders of the Movement. We believe that feminism is something quite recent in the case of meeting the guidelines of the peasant struggle, but has significantly contributed in the struggle for liberation of women. We also stress that the learning and the force exerted by collective motion, was and is crucial in the fight for greater equality between women and men in their class and patriarchal society.

  17. Playing Soccer on the Football Field: The Persistence of Gender Inequities for Women Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cress, Christine M.; Hart, Jeni

    2009-01-01

    Sports metaphor is employed as an epistemic tool for describing psychological, sociocultural, and organizational factors that contribute to enduring gender bias, inequalities, and discrimination faced by women faculty at colleges and universities. Quantitative and qualitative data from two comprehensive institutional campus climate studies show…

  18. Trust in leadership in sport: An empirical study of ethnicity and gender

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    different settings such as interpersonal trust, dyadic trust, inter-organizational trust, societal trust, ... This study investigated how ethnicity and gender affect the perceived trustworthiness ... Given the interaction relationship between athletes and

  19. Gender Bias in Sports Reporting: Female Athletes in the British Press

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Ponterotto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the question of the representation of female athleticism in the British press. By means of a corpus-assisted analysis of sports reporting of two female athletes, the Russian tennis champion Maria Sharapova and the Italian swimming champion Federica Pellegrini, it offers a linguistic description of the stereotyped discourse reserved for women in sports settings. The study reveals the presence in the corpus of a discursive frame which tends to downplay the athletic ability and success of female athletes. This frame emerges from two basic discourse strategies, a thematic strategy, which eroticizes the body of the female athlete and a metaphorical strategy, which trivializes it. The study suggests that this type of representation is motivated by sexist stereotyping related to the ideological interests of male hegemony. [1].

  20. The Struggle between the Chinese Female Students Studying Sports abroad and the Gender Stereotypes%性别刻板印象与近代女体育留学生的抗争

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宝强

    2016-01-01

    运用文献资料法、逻辑分析法等方法,对在1903年至1963年期间出国的47位中国女体育留学生进行全面分析。研究认为,近代以来女体育留学生在获得国外博士学位、发展体育教育事业、取得优异运动成绩、培养高水平运动员、引进新兴运动项目、开展体育科学研究以及从事体育管理等方面,为发展中国体育事业做出了积极贡献;她们挑战并打破了近代以来在体育领域“女子不如男”的刻板印象,为中国妇女走出家门、走进体坛、走向世界起了开创性作用。%Using the research methods of literature review,logical analysis and so on, the paper summarizes 47 Chinese female students studying sports abroad during 1903-1963 . The author holds that since modern times the main contribution of these students mainly includes re-ceiving foreign doctorates,developing physical education, obtaining excellent results of competition, training high level athletes, introducing new sports to China, engaging in the sports management, and carrying out scientific re-search of sports. They broke the gender stereotypes in the field of sports since modern times and played a pioneering role for the Chinese women outside the home, into the sports and towards the world.

  1. Youth participation in organized and informal sports activities across childhood and adolescence: exploring the relationships of motivational beliefs, developmental stage and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawes, Nickki Pearce; Vest, Andrea; Simpkins, Sandra

    2014-08-01

    Involvement in physically active pursuits, such as sports, contributes to achieving and maintaining good emotional and physical health. The central goal of this article was to examine the longitudinal relationships between participation (i.e., time spent in the activities) in organized and informal sports contexts and motivational beliefs, and factors that might impact these relationships, such as developmental stage and gender. The data for the current study were drawn from the childhood and beyond longitudinal study, which utilized a cohort sequential design with data collected on three cohorts across four waves. The current study sample included 986 European American youth (51 % female), who t were mostly from working- and middle-class families. Self-report questionnaires were used to collect data from the youth about their participation in sports and their motivational beliefs (i.e., value and perceptions of competence) about this activity. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the relationships between participation and motivational beliefs across childhood and adolescence. The results provide some support for a model of reciprocal relationships between participation and motivational beliefs in organized and informal sports activities. These relationships between participation and motivational beliefs did not vary significantly based on developmental stage or by gender. Overall, the findings suggest that participation in organized and informal sports contexts may be fostered by supporting the development of positive motivational beliefs about the activities across developmental periods.

  2. THE IMPACT OF A SPORTS VISION TRAINING PROGRAM IN YOUTH FIELD HOCKEY PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Schwab

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate whether a sports vision training program improves the visual performance of youth male field hockey players, ages 12 to 16 years, after an intervention of six weeks compared to a control group with no specific sports vision training. The choice reaction time task at the D2 board (Learning Task I, the functional field of view task (Learning Task II and the multiple object tracking (MOT task (Transfer Task were assessed before and after the intervention and again six weeks after the second test. Analyzes showed significant differences between the two groups for the choice reaction time task at the D2 board and the functional field of view task, with significant improvements for the intervention group and none for the control group. For the transfer task, we could not find statistically significant improvements for either group. The results of this study are discussed in terms of theoretical and practical implications

  3. Project on Elite Athlete Commitment (PEAK): III. An examination of the external validity across gender, and the expansion and clarification of the Sport Commitment Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlan, Tara K; Russell, David G; Magyar, T Michelle; Scanlan, Larry A

    2009-12-01

    The Sport Commitment Model was further tested using the Scanlan Collaborative Interview Method to examine its generalizability to New Zealand's elite female amateur netball team, the Silver Ferns. Results supported or clarified Sport Commitment Model predictions, revealed avenues for model expansion, and elucidated the functions of perceived competence and enjoyment in the commitment process. A comparison and contrast of the in-depth interview data from the Silver Ferns with previous interview data from a comparable elite team of amateur male athletes allowed assessment of model external validity, tested the generalizability of the underlying mechanisms, and separated gender differences from discrepancies that simply reflected team or idiosyncratic differences.

  4. Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grauer, Kit

    1996-01-01

    This publication focuses on the theme "Gender." Articles include: (1) "Sex! Violence! Death! Art Education for Boys" (Riita Vira; Finland); (2) "Pedagogy for a Gender Sensitive Art Practice" (Rita Irwin; Canada); (3) "Women's Conscientiousness of Gender in Art and Art Education in Brazil" (Ana Mae Barbosa; Brazil); (4) "Gender Issues in United…

  5. National survey on sports injuries in the Netherlands: target populations for sports injury prevention programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmikli, Sandor L; Backx, Frank J G; Kemler, Helena J; van Mechelen, Willem

    2009-03-01

    To define target populations for sports injury prevention programs. A computer-assisted telephone survey on sports injuries and sports participation during 2000-2005 using a 3-month recall period. Data obtained from a representative sample of Dutch citizens. Fifty-eight thousand four hundred five Dutch citizens aged older than 3 years. Age, gender, and type of sports were used to distinguish subgroups with a substantial contribution to sports injuries. The absolute number of sports injuries, the incidence of sports injuries per 10,000 hours, the severity, and costs of sports injuries. Sports participation was associated with 1.5 million injuries per year and 10 injuries per 10,000 hours; of these, 50% had to be treated medically. Two-thirds of all medically treated sports injuries were associated with 9 sports (representing 18 subpopulations, all younger than 55 years): outdoor soccer (males 4-54 years and females 4-17 years), indoor soccer (males 18-34 years), tennis (males/females 35-54 years), volleyball (females 18-54 years), field hockey (males 18-34 years and females 4-17 years), running/jogging (males/females 35-54 years), gymnastics (males/females 4-17 years), skiing/snowboarding (males 4-17 years and females 18-34 years), and equestrian sports (females 18-34 years). These groups showed more than average injury rates and covered two-thirds of all direct and indirect costs (euro 400 million). The survey identified the most important (sports-, age-, and gender-specific) target populations for injury prevention programs in the Netherlands. Sports participants aged older than 55 years were excluded from these target groups because of their limited contribution to the total sports injury problem.

  6. Black Generation Y gender differences in Premier Soccer League spectator motives : sport marketing

    OpenAIRE

    T.E. Mofokeng; Bevan-Dye, A.L.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether there are gender differences concerning Premier Soccer League (PSL) spectator motives amongst black Generation Y students in South Africa. In South Africa, the black Generation Y cohort (individuals born between 1986 and 2005) represents an important but under-researched market segment in that, in 2013, they made up 32 percent of the country's population. From a PSL marketing perspective, understanding the motives that drive game spectatorshi...

  7. The OMICS of Sports & Space: How Genomics is Transforming Both Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    Join top 10 New York Times Bestseller “The Sports Gene” author David Epstein and NASA Twins Study investigator Christopher E. Mason, Ph.D., in the debate as old as physical competition—nature versus nurture. From personal experience, Epstein tackles the great debate and traces how far science has come in solving this timeless riddle, and how genetics has entered into the field of sports. He’s an investigative science reporter for ProPublica and longtime contributor to Sports Illustrated. Epstein will share insights into performance-enhancing drugs, the lucky genetics that separate a professional athlete from a less talented athlete, and his research into the death of a friend with Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (HCM).From an epigenomic viewpoint, Mason examines the benefits and risks for astronauts who face extreme spaceflight conditions and what it means for the future of human space travel. He is an associate professor in the Department of Physiology and Biophysics, The Feil Family Brain and Mind Research Institute (BMRI) & The Institute for Computational Biomedicine at Weill Cornell Medicine. He is also part of the Tri-Institutional Program on Computational Biology and a Medicine Fellow of Genomics, Ethics, and Law in the Information Society Project at Yale Law School.The study of omics shows tremendous potential in prevention, diagnosis and treatment of injuries and diseases but genetic discrimination and molecular privacy concerns are raised in both sports and space.

  8. The acute symptoms of sport-related concussion: diagnosis and on-field management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putukian, Margot

    2011-01-01

    Sport-related concussion is a common injury that occurs in a variety of sports. In recent years, more attention has been focused on the importance of this injury as well as the long-term complications of unrecognized, repetitive, and/or severe injury. The acute presentation of concussion as well as the diagnosis of concussion is often straightforward and obvious, but it can also be subtle and difficult to discern. Most injuries are short lived with complete recovery within a couple of weeks, with a small minority taking several months to resolve. Unfortunately, it is difficult to predict which injuries will linger. This article discusses the on-field presentation, diagnosis, and management of sport-related concussion. It is important to have a concussion protocol for high-risk sports, including a preseason and postinjury assessment, and an individualized yet comprehensive approach that includes evaluating symptoms, and a neurologic examination that includes cognitive function and balance testing. A multifaceted approach to the evaluation and diagnosis of concussion is endorsed for the optimal management of this injury.

  9. Social physique anxiety and disturbed eating attitudes and behaviors in adolescents: moderating effects of sport, sport-related characteristics, and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanfranchi, Marie-Christine; Maïano, Christophe; Morin, Alexandre J S; Therme, Pierre

    2015-02-01

    The involvement of adolescents presenting high levels of social physique anxiety (SPA) in sport practice has been hypothesized as potentially problematic in terms of being associated with disturbed eating attitudes and behaviors (DEAB). Indeed, sport practice itself has been reported to be associated with higher levels of SPA and DEAB, and sport settings may sometimes promote unhealthy life habits. Nevertheless, current studies are few and present several limitations. The objective of the present study was to examine these relationships among adolescents involved or not in various types (i.e., leanness and individual) and contexts (i.e., organized and competitive) of sport practice. The sample included 766 French adolescents (337 boys and 429 girls), aged between 11 and 18 years, involved (n = 335) or not (n = 431) in sport practice. SPA and DEAB were assessed using French adaptations of the SPA scale and the Eating Attitudes Test-26. The results reveal a significant and positive association between SPA and the DEAB scales. Furthermore, they show a positive relationship between SPA and (a) vomiting-purging behaviors in adolescents involved in individual sports and (b) generic DEAB (i.e., a subscale covering fear of getting fat, food preoccupation, and eating-related guilt), particularly in adolescents involved in individual sports. The relationship between SPA and DEAB does not differ according to adolescents' involvement in sport practice or according to their involvement in organized, competitive, or leanness sport practice more specifically. However, higher levels of SPA and DEAB were observed in adolescents involved in individual sports.

  10. Self-organization processes in field-invasion team sports : implications for leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passos, Pedro; Araújo, Duarte; Davids, Keith

    2013-01-01

    In nature, the interactions between agents in a complex system (fish schools; colonies of ants) are governed by information that is locally created. Each agent self-organizes (adjusts) its behaviour, not through a central command centre, but based on variables that emerge from the interactions with other system agents in the neighbourhood. Self-organization has been proposed as a mechanism to explain the tendencies for individual performers to interact with each other in field-invasion sports teams, displaying functional co-adaptive behaviours, without the need for central control. The relevance of self-organization as a mechanism that explains pattern-forming dynamics within attacker-defender interactions in field-invasion sports has been sustained in the literature. Nonetheless, other levels of interpersonal coordination, such as intra-team interactions, still raise important questions, particularly with reference to the role of leadership or match strategies that have been prescribed in advance by a coach. The existence of key properties of complex systems, such as system degeneracy, nonlinearity or contextual dependency, suggests that self-organization is a functional mechanism to explain the emergence of interpersonal coordination tendencies within intra-team interactions. In this opinion article we propose how leadership may act as a key constraint on the emergent, self-organizational tendencies of performers in field-invasion sports.

  11. How gender and task difficulty affect a sport-protective response in young adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipps, David B.; Eckner, James T.; Richardson, James K.; Ashton-Miller, James A.

    2013-01-01

    We tested the hypotheses that gender and task difficulty affect the reaction, movement, and total response times associated with performing a head protective response. Twenty-four healthy young adults (13 females) performed a protective response of raising their hands from waist level to block a foam ball fired at their head from an air cannon. Participants initially stood 8.25 m away from the cannon (‘low difficulty’), and were moved successively closer in 60 cm increments until they failed to block at least 5 of 8 balls (‘high difficulty’). Limb motion was quantified using optoelectronic markers on the participants’ left wrist. Males had significantly faster total response times (p = 0.042), a trend towards faster movement times (p = 0.054), and faster peak wrist velocity (p < .001) and acceleration (p = 0.032) than females. Reaction time, movement time, and total response time were significantly faster under high difficulty conditions for both genders (p < .001). This study suggests that baseball and softball pitchers and fielders should have sufficient time to protect their head from a batted ball under optimal conditions if they are adequately prepared for the task. PMID:23234296

  12. Physical self-concept in a sample of primary students and its relationship with gender and out of school sport practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardino Javier Sánchez-Alcaraz Martínez

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this article are to evaluate the physical self-concept in adolescence and to get to know the outcomes in the different dimensions in the physical self-concept and to check the influence of the variables gender and level of physical activity. 125 students in Primary Education took part, aged between 11 and 13 years, and answered the Children Physical Self Questionnaire. Results in relation to gender indicated that boys had higher levels of self-perceived competence (p=.003, physical appearance (p=.000 and self-confidence (p=.029. With regard to sport practice, those participants who practice sports habitually obtain higher values at self-perceived competence (p=.000, physical appearance (p=.000, physical strength (p=.001 and self-confidence (p=.000. Therefore, according to the reached results, it can be concluded that, among the participants of this study, gender as well as sport practice have influence on the development of a positive physical self-concept.

  13. The comparison of critical thinking and problem solving disposition of athletes according to gender and sport type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Kolayiş

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The terms “critical thinking and problem solving” are crucial for cognitive processes of athletes. It could also be said that these two concepts are likely to affect athletic performance of individuals. Therefore, the aim of this research is to investigate critical thinking and problem solving disposition of athletes. For this purpose 432 athletes (Xage: 20.53±3.85; Xsportexperience: 9.47±4.22 who comprise of 261 males (60.4% and 171 females (39.6% participated to the research. Problem Solving Inventory and California Scale of Disposition to Think Critically. The data was analysed by SPSS 17.0 by using descriptive statistics and t-test Level of significance was determined to be 0.05. Results showed that mean score for critical thinking was 3,82±,41 and the mean was 3,83±,46 for problem solving skill of the athletes. It was also found that there was not a significant difference between males and females according to critical thinking (p>0,05. However, males’ and females’ scores for problem solving significantly differed (p<0,05. Any significant difference was not obtained according to sport type. Overall, it could be said that gender can act as a determiner role among athletes in terms of problem solving disposition.

  14. EVALUATION OF STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT FIELDS CULTURE, CAPABILITY, INFORMATION AND HUMAN RESOURCES OF YOUTH AND SPORT OFFICES OF WEST AZERBAIJAN PROVINCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roba Yadollahzadeh

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Management has a significant importance in sport organizations, specially, if it is accompanied with a strategic and program-oriented approach. Now in this progressing and developing world sport is not an exception, and many sport organizations are in rapid progress and in most cases the strategic approach of these organizations is the top priority. This study aims at evaluating the fields of strategic management in West Azarbaijan province offices of sport and youth. The subjects of the study are 47 managers and their assistants of W.Azarbaijan youth and sport offices. The tool of gathering data is a standard questionnaire which is made by Vic Gilgeous (improving strategic concerns.The method of descriptive research is a kind of analysis that, it is performed in a field study. For data analyzing, some parameters of descriptive and inferential statistics such as standard deviation, mean, frequency and some other like one sample t-test were used. The results show that the amount of realization of the culture, information and the strategic management resources in offices of youth and sports of W. Azerbaijan, are not in an appropriate condition (p < 0.05.So according to the results of the study we can deduce that the culture, information and strategic management resources in W. Azerbaijan offices of youth and sports, are significantly different with the society average and these fields need to be improved and strengthened.

  15. All STEM Fields Are Not Created Equal: People and Things Interests Explain Gender Disparities across STEM Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong eSu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The degree of women’s underrepresentation varies by STEM fields. Women are now overrepresented in social sciences, yet only constitute a fraction of the engineering workforce. In the current study, we investigated the gender differences in interests, and used it to explain the differential distribution of women across sub-disciplines of STEM as well as the overall underrepresentation of women in STEM fields. Specifically, we meta-analytically reviewed norm data on basic interests from 52 samples in 33 interest inventories published between 1964 and 2007, with a total of 209,810 male and 223,268 female respondents. We found gender differences in interests to vary largely by STEM field, with the largest gender differences in interests favoring men observed in engineering disciplines (d = .83 to 1.21, and in contrast, gender differences in interests favoring women in social sciences and medical services (d = -.33 and -.40, respectively. Importantly, the gender composition (percentages of women in STEM fields reflects these gender differences in interests. The patterns of gender differences in interests and the actual gender composition in STEM fields were explained by the people-orientation and things-orientation of work environments, and were not associated with the level of quantitative ability required. These findings suggest potential interventions targeting interests in STEM education to facilitate individuals’ ability and career development and strategies to reform work environments to better attract and retain women in STEM occupations.

  16. Energy models. Integrated heating and cooling in different sports fields and halls; Energiamalli. Urheilupaikkojen integroitu laemmitys ja jaeaehdytys (UPILAEJAE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aittomaeki, A.; Maekinen, A.

    2009-07-01

    The efficient use of energy is playing an increasing role in saving natural resources and in maintaining competitiveness. The system integration plays an essential role when efficiency is maximized. Expressed in thermodynamical terms the question is about minimizing the loss of energy. When planning the integration of heating and cooling the impacts of different coupling possibilities and measurements should be compared. In this report the modeling or simulation of energy balances studies in different systems is described. In the system integration of different sports buildings the modeling parts are the following: office space with heating systems, indoor ice-skating rink, skiing tunnel, indoor swimming pool, sports-field and sport center

  17. [Male identity, sport and health : Starting points for gender-sensitive support of boys and young men].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomberg, Christoph; Neuber, Nils

    2016-08-01

    Sport is highly relevant in the life of boys and young men. It is not only one of the most common and important leisure activities, but also helps male self-assurance through physical conflicts and competitions as well as through physical proximity and social involvement. At the same time, sport is an ambivalent area that preserves health, but can also be dangerous to it. By considering the development of male identity, the specific possibilities of sport, as well as an overview of the health situation of boys, this article develops starting points for lifestyle-oriented health promotion of boys and young men in the area of exercise, games and sport. In sports, physical practices are learned that can have long-term effects as somatic cultures on health behavior. The work with boys in sports can be health-promoting if opportunities and risks are reflected upon and considered in the didactic planning and execution.

  18. Gender Bias and Social Construction:Evolution of Female Sports Rights%性别偏见与社会建构:女性体育权利的变迁历程

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑艳芳

    2014-01-01

    In this paper ,we studied the characteristics of female sports rights in different ages ,the nature of evolution of female sports rights and other issues using documents and other methods .We hold that :female sports rights have experienced the evolution course of gender equality ,gender bias and social power involvement ;the evolution of female sports rights presents a horizontal and vertical isolation trend ,women have suffered overt and covert discrimination and exclusion in sports participation ;the main factors behind the evolution of female sports rights are deep -rooted gender bias ,social discipline ,gender role expectation ,gender role struggle and conflict ,sports event bureaucracy and professionalization ;to truly realize gender equality in female sports participation and safeguard women's rights in sports participatation ,we should abandon the deep-routed gender bias ,advocate positive and com-batant attitudes and reasonably construct their sports rights to fight against any form of gender exclusion in sports participation .%采用文献资料等研究方法对不同时代的女性体育权利特点和女性体育权利变迁的实质等问题进行研究。认为:女性体育权利经过了性别平等、性别偏见和社会权力卷入的演进历程;女性体育权利的变迁呈现了水平隔离和垂直隔离的态势,女性在体育参与中遭受了显性和隐形的歧视与排斥;女性体育权利演变的背后动因主要受固化的性别偏见、社会规训、性别角色期许、性别角色斗争与冲突、体育项目科层制及职业化等因素的影响;要想真正实现女性体育参与的性别平等,维护女性的体育参与权利应该摒弃固化的性别偏见、倡导积极和斗争的态度,合理建构自身的体育权利来反对任何形式的体育性别排斥现象。

  19. Sports Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洪毓

    2004-01-01

    Sports medicine has become one of the biggest and fastest growing medical fields in recent years. That is because sports have become a major part of most societies. As work becomes more stressful (紧张的,压力重

  20. Sport Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkhouse, Bonnie L., Ed.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Traditional teaching and coaching positions have become scarce but the expanding field of sport management has created its own job market, demanding new skills and preparation. Three articles are offered that explore different aspects and possibilities for a sport management career. (DF)

  1. Repeated sprints, high-intensity interval training, small-sided games: theory and application to field sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, James J; Reed, Jacob P; Leiting, Keith; Chiang, Chieh-Ying; Stone, Michael H

    2014-03-01

    Due to the broad spectrum of physical characteristics necessary for success in field sports, numerous training modalities have been used develop physical preparedness. Sports like rugby, basketball, lacrosse, and others require athletes to be not only strong and powerful but also aerobically fit and able to recover from high-intensity intermittent exercise. This provides coaches and sport scientists with a complex range of variables to consider when developing training programs. This can often lead to confusion and the misuse of training modalities, particularly in the development of aerobic and anaerobic conditioning. This review outlines the benefits and general adaptations to 3 commonly used and effective conditioning methods: high-intensity interval training, repeated-sprint training, and small-sided games. The goals and outcomes of these training methods are discussed, and practical implementations strategies for coaches and sport scientists are provided.

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF A NEW FIELD TEST TO ASSESSMENT OF ANAEROBIC PERFORMANCE FOR TEAM SPORTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celal

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study is develop a new anaerobic field test (Modified Illinois Agility Test: Mod IAT for team sports and investigate to reliability and reliationship with running-based anaerobic sprint test (RAST and Wingate anaerobic power test (WAnT. Method: Fourtythree male athletes were participated (10 handball, 10 football and 9 basketball players; team sports group: TSG and middle-long distance runners; individual sports group:ISG. At first day, height and body composition was assessed and all participants went to WAnT and Mod IAT measurements. Second testing day, RAST and repeat of Mod IAT was performed. There was at least 24-hour between Mod IAT tests. Also all tests were executed in a week for one subject. Heart rate and blood lactate was measured after the test and 5th min of recovery. Rate of percieved exerciton (RPE is also asked and saved after all the performance tests. Results:Physiological responses of all anaerobic tests were similar between BSG and TSG. When compared in-group there was significant difference in physiological parameters. The main finding of the study was the differences of completing times of new repeated agility test between ISG and TSG. The Mod IAT has good reliability cause of there is no significant difference between test-retest results of peak time (PT, total time (TT and fatigue index (FI values for all groups except PT value for ISG. Bland-altman analysis showed that all parameters of Mod IAT were limits of agreement in TSG and ISG but PT were not just for ISG. Conclusion: A similar repeated agility test in the study conducted by Haj-Sassi et al., the T test was selected and modified. The Illinois Agility test is the most commonly used test which is accepted as the standard (Winter EM, 2007. When the two test are compared in terms of TT; it was observed that although the RMAT is repeated for 10 times, it lasts much less than Mod IAT (61.22 ± 3.02 s. The present study indicate that required

  3. Views from the field Truth seeking and gender: The Liberian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to gender influence truth-seeking in a post-conflict situation? Following Liberia's ... mandated to investigate the causes, nature, patterns and impact of human rights violations, as well as identify .... based violence and particularly to the experiences of children and women during armed conflicts in Liberia… This articulation of ...

  4. Analysis of recent incidents of on-field violence in sport: legal decisions and additional considerations from psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, John H

    2009-01-01

    This article focuses on two recent incidents of serious on-field violence in sports and the legal consequences for those involved. The two incidents occurred in Dutch football (soccer) and became infamous owing to the nature of the violent incidents and widespread media coverage. The legal outcomes of these two incidents are described, and some of the difficulties that legal authorities face in considering assaults on the sports field are discussed. A new way of categorizing such violent incidents and the motivation behind them, based on an established psychological theory [reversal theory, Apter, 1982, 2001] is proposed. Taken along with the other points made in this article, being aware of when and how individuals cross the boundaries between play and anger, power or thrill violence may provide an additional perspective to making informed decisions about illegal violent acts on the sports field. Copyright 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Gender Differences in the Field of Information Security Technology Management: A Qualitative, Phenomenological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Marcia L.

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study explored why there are so few senior women in the information security technology management field and whether gender played a part in the achievement of women in the field. Extensive interviews were performed to capture the lived experiences of successful women in the field regarding the obstacles and common denominators of…

  6. Gender Differences in the Field of Information Security Technology Management: A Qualitative, Phenomenological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Marcia L.

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study explored why there are so few senior women in the information security technology management field and whether gender played a part in the achievement of women in the field. Extensive interviews were performed to capture the lived experiences of successful women in the field regarding the obstacles and common denominators of…

  7. A Laboratory/Field Study of Television Violence and Aggression in Children's Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Ann E.; Moriarty, Richard J.

    A study on the effect of viewing violence on television on childrens' behavior was conducted within the context of sport activity. Three sports--baseball, hockey, and lacrosse--were chosen. Teams of children from three different age groups were the subjects. Within each of the age levels in each sport, teams were selected and assigned to…

  8. Attitudes of Iranian Male University Students Toward Sport and Exercise with Reference to Age, Educational Level, and Field of Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirsafian Hamidreza

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aimed to discover the attitudes of Iranian male university students toward sport and exercise. This study is based on the same research as another published paper regarding the attitudes of Iranian female students toward sport and exercise. Participants (N = 821 were selected from different educational levels and fields of study from among 12 public universities. Data were collected by a modified and developed version of Kenyon's scale (1968, which measures the attitudes of people toward physical activity. For the analysis of the data, independent sample t-test and multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA were employed (p < 0.05. The results indicated that the attitudes of the respondents can be identified as fitness (3.96 ± 1.02, catharsis (3.84 ± 0.80, social (3.82 ± 1.10, aesthetic (3.03 ± 1.14, vertigo (2.15 ± 1.16, and ascetic (2.07 ± 0.79. Furthermore, it was found that various demographic and social characteristics affected participants' attitudes toward sport and exercise (p < 0.05. Based on the results, it was concluded that the sport programs should be organized around students' dominant attitudes toward regular activities. In addition, planning and organizing sport programs with regard to the wide attitudinal differences between male and female students could be a big step toward improving students' participation rate in sporting activities at Iranian universities.

  9. Suggestions from the field for return to sports participation following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: soccer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizzini, Mario; Hancock, Dave; Impellizzeri, Franco

    2012-04-01

    Successful return to play remains a challenge for a soccer player after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. In addition to a successful surgical intervention, a soccer-specific functional rehabilitation program is essential to achieve this goal. Soccer-like elements should be incorporated in the early stages of rehabilitation to provide neuromuscular training specific to the needs of the player. Gym-based and, later, field-based drills are gradually intensified and progressed until the player demonstrates the ability to return to team practice. In addition to the recovery of basic attributes such as mobility, flexibility, strength, and agility, the surgically repaired knee must also regain soccer-specific neuromuscular control and conditioning for an effective return to sports. The individual coaching of the player by the sports physiotherapist and compliance with the training program by the player are key factors in the rehabilitation process. To minimize reinjury risk and to maximize the player's career, concepts of soccer-specific injury prevention programs should be incorporated into the training routine during and after the rehabilitation of players post-ACL reconstruction.

  10. Connection between participation in sport and pro-social orientation and aggression of adolescents: Differences according to gender

    OpenAIRE

    Gašić-Pavišić Slobodanka Ž.; Janjetović Dragan

    2007-01-01

    Former researches on the contribution of organized sport to antisocial and pro-social behavior of the young have yielded discordant and contradictory results. However, in the majority of researches, it was determined that active practice of sport has a different effect on psycho-social development of male and female participants. We have undertaken the research with the aim of examining whether there is a connection between the participation of the pupils of secondary school age in organized ...

  11. A new field: Sport Tourism UN NUEVO CAMPO DE ACTUACIÓN: TURISMO DEPORTIVO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.T. Rebollo

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A new field: Sport TourismEn el siguiente artículo establecemos una estrategia a seguir para el análisis de recursos deportivo- turísticos en el medio natural. Se definen pautas de acción que actualmente estamos desarrollando en un trabajo de investigación centrado en la provincia de Granada sobre " Detección y análisis de recursos deportivo-turísticos".
    Supone una aportación para todos aquellos que se inicien en el estudio deportivo-turístico, argumentando la necesidad de investigación en este campo debido a la fuerte demanda de actividades deportivo-recreativas en el
    medio natural.

  12. Effects of sprint and plyometrics training on field sport acceleration technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockie, Robert G; Murphy, Aron J; Callaghan, Samuel J; Jeffriess, Matthew D

    2014-07-01

    The mechanisms for speed performance improvement from sprint training and plyometrics training, especially relating to stance kinetics, require investigation in field sport athletes. This study determined the effects of sprint training and plyometrics training on 10-m sprint time (0-5, 5-10, and 0-10 m intervals), step kinematics (step length and frequency, contact and flight time), and stance kinetics (first, second, and last contact relative vertical [VF, VI], horizontal [HF, HI], and resultant [RF, RI] force and impulse; resultant ground reaction force angle [RFθ]; ratio of horizontal to resultant force [RatF]) during a 10-m sprint. Sixteen male field sport athletes were allocated into sprint training (ST) and plyometrics training (PT) groups according to 10-m sprint time; independent samples t-tests (p ≤ 0.05) indicated no between-group differences. Training involved 2 sessions per week for 6 weeks. A repeated measures analysis of variance (p ≤ 0.05) determined within- and between-subject differences. Both groups decreased 0-5 and 0-10 m time. The ST group increased step length by ∼15%, which tended to be greater than step length gains for the PT group (∼7%). The ST group reduced first and second contact RFθ and RatF, and second contact HF. Second contact HI decreased for both groups. Results indicated a higher post-training emphasis on VF production. Vertical force changes were more pronounced for the PT group for the last contact, who increased or maintained last contact VI, RF, and RI to a greater extent than the ST group. Sprint and plyometrics training can improve acceleration, primarily through increased step length and a greater emphasis on VF.

  13. Perspectives of Turkish Intern and Non-Intern Students towards Sport Management Internship within the Context of Field Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coknaz, Dilsad

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine differences between intern and non-intern students in terms of their perspectives on sport management internship within the context of field experience. The subjects of the study were a total of 189 students. They were 4th year students who completed their internship and 3rd year students who were yet to…

  14. Metabolic Power Method: Underestimation of Energy Expenditure in Field-Sport Movements Using a Global Positioning System Tracking System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Darcy M; Dwyer, Dan B; Robertson, Samuel J; Gastin, Paul B

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the validity of a global positioning system (GPS) tracking system to estimate energy expenditure (EE) during exercise and field-sport locomotor movements. Twenty-seven participants each completed a 90-min exercise session on an outdoor synthetic futsal pitch. During the exercise session, they wore a 5-Hz GPS unit interpolated to 15 Hz and a portable gas analyzer that acted as the criterion measure of EE. The exercise session was composed of alternating 5-minute exercise bouts of randomized walking, jogging, running, or a field-sport circuit (×3) followed by 10 min of recovery. One-way analysis of variance showed significant (P consumption (VO2) -derived EE for all field-sport circuits (% difference ≈ -44%). No differences in EE were observed for the jog (7.8%) and run (4.8%), whereas very large overestimations were found for the walk (43.0%). The GPS metabolic power EE over the entire 90-min session was significantly lower (P < .01) than the VO2 EE, resulting in a moderate underestimation overall (-19%). The results of this study suggest that a GPS tracking system using the metabolic power model of EE does not accurately estimate EE in field-sport movements or over an exercise session consisting of mixed locomotor activities interspersed with recovery periods; however, is it able to provide a reasonably accurate estimation of EE during continuous jogging and running.

  15. Perspectives of Turkish Intern and Non-Intern Students towards Sport Management Internship within the Context of Field Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coknaz, Dilsad

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine differences between intern and non-intern students in terms of their perspectives on sport management internship within the context of field experience. The subjects of the study were a total of 189 students. They were 4th year students who completed their internship and 3rd year students who were yet to…

  16. The virtual education of antidoping as a strategy to develop the culture of fair play in the Mexican sport: a gender study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Iván Gavotto Nogales

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to analyze the level of knowledge and awareness on doping among elite female athletes in Mexico in order to educate women athletes and training teams on fair play, through psychopedagogical actions that facilitate meaningful learning, preventing athletes from voluntarily or involuntarily using prohibited methods or substances. The main question that guided the research was: What level of knowledge and awareness on doping do elite female athletes have in Mexico? For the field research, we designed a questionnaire with 22 questions to explore the level of knowledge and awareness that elite athletes belonging to the State or National team sports of gymnastics, archery, and field hockey have. The answers show that not much is known about some aspects of doping, and this reveals the need for further education on antidoping programs. It is stated that this ignorance on the matter is a threat to athletes who may unconsciously use prohibited substances and methods in sport.

  17. Sports Complexes, Located during MicroData field address collection 2004-2006. Kept in Spillman database for retrieval., Published in 2004, Vilas County Land Information/Mapping.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Sports Complexes dataset, was produced all or in part from Field Observation information as of 2004. It is described as 'Located during MicroData field address...

  18. Sex and gender issues in competitive sports: Investigation of a historical case leads to a new viewpoint

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Ballantyne (Kaye); M.H. Kayser (Manfred); J.A. Grootegoed (Anton)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractBased on DNA analysis of a historical case, the authors describe how a female athlete can be unknowingly confronted with the consequences of a disorder of sex development resulting in hyperandrogenism emerging early in her sports career. In such a situation, it is harmful and confusing t

  19. Explaining the Gender Wage Gap in STEM: Does Field Sex Composition Matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Michelmore

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Using the National Science Foundation's SESTAT data, we examine the gender wage gap by race among those working in computer science, life sciences, physical sciences, and engineering. We find that in fields with a greater representation of women (the life and physical sciences, the gender wage gap can largely be explained by differences in observed characteristics between men and women working in those fields. In the fields with the lowest concentration of women (computer science and engineering, gender wage gaps persist even after controlling for observed characteristics. In assessing how this gap changes over time, we find evidence of a narrowing for more recent cohorts of college graduates in the life sciences and engineering. The computer sciences and physical sciences, however, show no clear pattern in the gap across cohorts of graduates.

  20. Underground drainage system for field grass; Sports shiba wo sodateru chichu kyuhaisui system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiota, K.; Oku, M. [Obayashi Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-11-15

    This paper introduces an underground drainage system developed for sports field grass to realize easier maintenance and control of sand turf (turf grown on sandy soil). This system may be characterized as follows: water is fed by utilizing water level difference, by which water is supplied uniformly over the field; the laid perforated drainage pipes make quick drainage possible, during which root zones of the turf can be maintained in an aerobic condition; drained water is reused upon adjusting the water quality; water temperature can be controlled throughout winter and summer seasons by utilizing an underground water feeding tank; the soil is prevented from solidification by using sand-based three-layer structure and natural fiber mats; the amount of agricultural chemicals used can be reduced by mixing biomass materials into the bed soil; water fertilizer contents are controlled by a computer, which can be controlled easily; remote control is possible by using telephone lines; measures have been taken to prevent water feeding parts from getting clogged and turf roots from getting entwined; and manpower saving has been applied such as unattended water feeding and reduction in fertilizer feeding labor. 7 figs.

  1. Tournament Incentives in the Field: Gender Differences in the Workplace

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delfgaauw, J.; Dur, R.; Sol, J.; Verbeke, W.

    2013-01-01

    We ran a field experiment in a Dutch retail chain consisting of 128 stores. In a random sample of these stores, we introduced short-term sales competitions among subsets of stores. We find that sales competitions have a large effect on sales growth, but only in stores where the store’s manager and a

  2. Curricular Transformation of Education in the Field of Physical and Sport Education in Slovakia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendíková, Elena

    2016-01-01

    The study presents basic information on the curricular transformation of physical and sport education in Slovakia after the year 1989, which is related to the education process in the 21st century. What is more, it points to the basis for modern transformation in relation to sports as well as to insufficient undergraduate teacher training and its…

  3. Beyond the playing field: experiences of sport, social capital and integration among Somalis in Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaaij, R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the role of recreational sport as a means and marker of social integration by analysing the lived experiences of Somali people from refugee backgrounds with sport. Drawing on a three-year multi-sided ethnography, the paper examines the extent to and ways in which participation in

  4. Beyond the playing field: experiences of sport, social capital and integration among Somalis in Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaaij, R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the role of recreational sport as a means and marker of social integration by analysing the lived experiences of Somali people from refugee backgrounds with sport. Drawing on a three-year multi-sided ethnography, the paper examines the extent to and ways in which participation in

  5. Gender attitudes and sexual behaviors: comparing center and marginal athletes and nonathletes in a collegiate setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, Elizabeth Ann

    2008-09-01

    This research examines the impact of participating in different sports on male athletes' gender attitudes, hegemonic masculinity, sexual behavior, and sexual aggression. Expanding on past research that compares athletes with nonathletes, this research finds differences between collegiate athletes and men who do not participate in collegiate sports, as well as between men who play different collegiate sports. Athletes in center sports (such as football) scored significantly higher on hyper-masculinity scales, had lower attitudes toward women, and displayed more sexual aggression and more sexual activity than men who competed in marginal sports (e.g., track and field) or not at all.

  6. MODERN SPORT AND TOURISM AS TWO MUTUAL SUPPORTIVE AND COMPLEMENTARY FIELDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukan Vujović

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The development of the relationship between sport and tourism started yet in Ancient Greece and are continuing through the various forms and types in a sub¬sequent epochs and last to these days. The twentieth century was a period of unpre¬cedented general socio-economic development, and thus the development of sport and tourism. Democratization, the rise of social standards, and social modernization have led to an increasing number of members of the world community which has the oppor¬tu¬nity to participate in a various sports-recreational activities. Sport increasingly more represents a distinctive and very important social segment of the activities connected with the rest and relaxation. The interdependence of sport and tourism has not been yet fully elucidated. Sports tourism, in practice, has become extremely important and re¬pre¬sents a particular segment of tourism and tourist offer. The aim of this paper is to consider and point out to some aspects of their mutual dependence and conditionality, by analysis of the impact of some dominant sports on development and modernization of tourism resources, through customizing of the offered tourism facilities to the better and more quality sports-recreational de¬sti¬nation, and to the impact and importance of tourism resources in the affirmation of some new sports disciplines. Task of the paper is to show the complexity of the sports tourism impact on the wider community, in the form of development as an economic sector, factor of impro¬ve¬ment and enrichment of the site offering, with undeniable impact on the increase of the general cultural level of the population and increasing of life quality under the slogan: "training is a health."

  7. Dynamics of indexes of swimming and physical preparedness of students of marine type in the process of physical education and sport taking into account gender differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganchar A.I.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of work - to find out the dynamics of indexes of swimming and physical preparedness of students of marine type in the process of physical education and sport taking into account gender differences. 90 students took part in an experiment. Technology of pedagogical control is developed and the estimation of results of forming of skills of swimming is grounded. It is set that forming of skills of swimming for students takes a place under influence of basic physical qualities. Directions of development of physical qualities are rotined on the basis of the dominant motive modes. The most effective motive mode is recommended: systematic on 1-2 of teaching visit obligatory (32 hours and optional (32 hours educational employments.

  8. "Sport & Exercise Pedagogy". The Case for a New Integrative Sub-Discipline in the Field of Sport & Exercise Sciences/Kinesiology/Human Movement Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Kathleen M.; Chambers, Fiona C.

    2014-01-01

    The European Union Sport Unit has identified the societal and educational role of sport as a central topic in its new research agenda. It is argued that European Union (EU) citizens should be supported to learn continuously across the life course. In the sport/physical activity (PA) context, the role of teachers, coaches and exercise instructors…

  9. A linguistically level playing field: English-medium sport officiating between linguistic imperialism and cultural appropriation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Kornbeck

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article revisits four problem areas of the use of English as a lingua franca by sports officials (including coaches, referees, etc. at international sporting events which were recently identified in an editorial by McNamee in the journal Sport, Ethics and Philosophy. These propositions are revisited by drawing on, inter alia, the theoretical models of ‘linguistic imperialism’ and ‘cultural appropriation’. The argument is made, in particular, that the ability of so-called ‘non-native’ users of English must not be underrated.

  10. Major international sport profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Dilip R; Stier, Bernhard; Luckstead, Eugene F

    2002-08-01

    Sports are part of the sociocultural fabric of all countries. Although different sports have their origins in different countries, many sports are now played worldwide. International sporting events bring athletes of many cultures together and provide the opportunity not only for athletic competition but also for sociocultural exchange and understanding among people. This article reviews five major sports with international appeal and participation: cricket, martial arts, field hockey, soccer, and tennis. For each sport, the major aspects of physiological and biomechanical demands, injuries, and prevention strategies are reviewed.

  11. La calidad percibida de los servicios deportivos: diferencias según instalación, género, edad y tipo de usuario en servicios náuticos. (The perception of service quality in sport services: differences according to sport facility, gender, age and user type in nautical services.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Mundina Gómez

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEn el ámbito de la gestión deportiva, la calidad de los servicios deportivos y la satisfacción de los usuarios es un área de gran desarrollo. Este trabajo pretende determinar el grado de calidad percibida en unos servicios deportivos de carácter público como son unas escuelas de actividades náuticas. Para ello se analizaron 2375usuarios de estas escuelas que contestaron un cuestionario sobre calidad de servicio percibida y satisfacción con el servicio recibido. La escala de calidad percibida utilizada determinó diez dimensiones de calidad: las clases, el tiempo libre, el entorno náutico, los horarios, la comida, el material náutico, la comida completaría, la conserjería, la limpieza y la teoría. Las dimensiones mejor valoradas fueron las clases, el tiempo libre y el material náutico. Las peor valoradas fueron la comida complementaria y el entorno náutico. Se observan diferencias en la valoración en función del género, la edad, la instalación y el nivel de implicación del usuario.AbstractThe quality of sports services and user satisfaction is a developing area in the field of Sports Management. This paper intends to determine the degree of perceived quality in public sports services such as those provided on nautical schools. An analysis was carried out in which 2,375 users of these schools completed a questionnaire about perceived service quality and satisfaction. The perceived quality scale used determined ten quality dimensions: lessons, spare time, nautical environment, timetables, main meals, nautical equipment, complementary meals, reception services, cleanliness and theory lessons. The dimensions with higher scores were lessons, spare time and nautical equipment. Complementary meals and nautical environment registered the lowest scores. Scoring differences were found according to gender, age, sport facility and the kind of involvement of the user.

  12. Curricular Transformation of Education in the Field of Physical and Sport Education in Slovakia

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Bendíková

    2016-01-01

    The study presents basic information on the curricular transformation of physical and sport education in Slovakia after the year 1989, which is related to the education process in the 21st century. What is more, it points to the basis for modern transformation in relation to sports as well as to insufficient undergraduate teacher training and its consequences for the performance of newly qualified teachers. These findings are partially included in the grant VEGA no. 1/0376/14 Physical Activit...

  13. Analysis of Sport Management Literature: European Sport Management Quarterly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda Pitts

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A profession must be built upon a sound body of knowledge in order for its professional status to be recognized and considered credible by society (Zeigler, 1987. The body of literature should also reflect and define the field (Fielding, Pitts, & Miller, 1991. To that end, examining the state of a body of literature is essential as the findings can reveal such significant information as content, trends, author collaboration, and topical gaps and disparities. The purpose of this study was to examine the European Sport Management Quarterly and its predecessor the European Journal for Sport Management. A content analysis of the journal from 1994 to 2012 was the methodology employed. Results determined that a vast majority of the papers are in four content areas – “Management and Organizational Skills in Sport”, “Sport Business in the Social Context”, “Sport Marketing”, and “Sport Economics”. Sport business industry segments as a focus of the papers stayed relatively the same over the years, although “International Sport” increased much more than any other industry segment. The gender focus of the articles was primarily male, and the authorship and editorial membership was also male-focused. The geographical dispersion of both authors and editorial review board members has broadened over time to be less European. Academics may find information from this study useful in developing strategies and lines of inquiry in research agendas. As well, editors of journals may utilize the findings to plan strategies related to addressing gaps or disparities.

  14. "This Performance Art Is for the Birds:" "Jackass," "Extreme" Sports, and the De(con)struction of Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeny, Robert W.

    2008-01-01

    Many challenges currently face art educators who aim to address aspects of popular visual culture in the art classroom. This article analyzes the relationship between performance art and the MTV program "Jackass," one example of problematic popular visual culture. Issues of gender representation and violence within the context of Reality TV and…

  15. Analyzing Ethics in the Administration of Interscholastic Sports: Three Key Gender-Related Ethical Dilemmas Faced by Educational Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whisenant, Warren A.; Pedersen, Paul M.; Clavio, Galen

    2010-01-01

    Athletic administrators and decision makers within interscholastic athletics are expected to embrace a code of ethics that serves as a set of rules to guide their professional behavior. Included within this code are areas of controversy that present gender-related ethical dilemmas for administrators. Three specific ethical dilemmas involve (1)…

  16. Analyzing Ethics in the Administration of Interscholastic Sports: Three Key Gender-Related Ethical Dilemmas Faced by Educational Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whisenant, Warren A.; Pedersen, Paul M.; Clavio, Galen

    2010-01-01

    Athletic administrators and decision makers within interscholastic athletics are expected to embrace a code of ethics that serves as a set of rules to guide their professional behavior. Included within this code are areas of controversy that present gender-related ethical dilemmas for administrators. Three specific ethical dilemmas involve (1)…

  17. Gendered Expectations: Examining How Peers Shape Female Students' Intent to Pursue STEM Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riegle-Crumb, Catherine; Morton, Karisma

    2017-01-01

    Building on prior psychological and sociological research on the power of local environments to shape gendered outcomes in STEM fields, this study focuses on the critical stage of adolescence to explore the potential negative impact of exposure to exclusionary messages from peers within girls' science classrooms, as well as the positive potential impact of inclusionary messages. Specifically, utilizing longitudinal data from a diverse sample of adolescent youth, analyses examine how the presence of biased male peers, as well as confident female peers, shape girls' subsequent intentions to pursue different STEM fields, focusing specifically on intentions to pursue the male-dominated fields of computer science and engineering, as well as more gender equitable fields. Results reveal that exposure to a higher percentage of 8th grade male peers in the classroom who endorsed explicit gender/STEM stereotypes significantly and negatively predicted girls' later intentions to pursue a computer science/engineering (CS/E) major. Yet results also reveal that exposure to a higher percentage of confident female peers in the science classroom positively predicted such intentions. These results were specific to CS/E majors, suggesting that peers are an important source of messages regarding whether or not girls should pursue non-traditional STEM fields. This study calls attention to the importance of examining both positive and negative sources of influence within the local contexts where young people live and learn. Limitations and directions for future research are also discussed. PMID:28360868

  18. Sports talents: a study of personal attributes of the state of Paraná track and field athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenamar Fiorese Vieira

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate which personal attributes are necessary for track and field athletes to be considered talents. It was based on Bronfenbrenner’s (1995 bioecological paradigm. The data were collected through informer’s dossiers, semi-structured interviews, research records and other documents. The subject sample was composed by fourteen talents, thirteen family members, seven coaches, three directors of Paraná Sports and one State Secretary of Sports. Content analysis was used to interpret the data. The results demonstrated that personal attributes, body type and interest were prominent in the beginning of track and field practice. On the other hand, search for activities, power of will, need of companionship were the attributes mostly evidenced by the talents in their specialization phase. It may be concluded that talent is a personal competence attained through a special atmosphere favoring sports activities and based on physical and psychological qualities that qualify the athletes for a good performance.

  19. Sports Season, Sports Bars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ For foreigners in Beijing, the sports bar is a special place, a place to gather for watching matches and a place to feel the familiarity of home, while for some sports enthusiasts it serves as their second home.

  20. MOTIVATION IN ADAPTED SPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Torralba

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the motivation for practice of sport of people with disabilities that form part to a federated sport.The sample was composed of 134 athletes of both genders and different disabilities.The “Participation Motivation Inventory Questionnaire” by Gill, Gross and Huddleston was used. The instrument was adapted to Paralympic sport and describes the main reasons that encourage the sports activity practice. The results haven´t found significant difference between men´s and women´s or between blind - visually impaired physical and motor disabilities. About the motivation of the practice of sport, worth highlighting the importance given to factors of fitness and health, like sport practice, improve the level, to compete, feel good and have fun, well above being popular, influenced by coaches or satisfy to parents.

  1. Curricular Transformation of Education in the Field of Physical and Sport Education in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Bendíková

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The study presents basic information on the curricular transformation of physical and sport education in Slovakia after the year 1989, which is related to the education process in the 21st century. What is more, it points to the basis for modern transformation in relation to sports as well as to insufficient undergraduate teacher training and its consequences for the performance of newly qualified teachers. These findings are partially included in the grant VEGA no. 1/0376/14 Physical Activity Intervention for the Prevention of Health of the Population of Slovakia.

  2. Sports as a field of social mode of life: an experience in handball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dourivaldo Teixeira

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with an investigation on the level of 12-to-13-year-old male students-athletes’ sociomotive learning when submitted for comparison to the following methodologies: functional/integrative and traditional. Its objective was eventually to point out the best methodological option for sports learning and especially to verify and compare the sociomotive interaction level of the practitioners submitted to these methodologies. The results led to the conclusion that handball is an important sport for social mode of life and that the functional/integrative methodology offered a better possibility of social interaction than the traditional method in favoring sociomotive learning of the practitioners.

  3. Gendered Pathways: How Mathematics Ability Beliefs Shape Secondary and Postsecondary Course and Degree Field Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Felkner, Lara; Nix, Samantha; Thomas, Kirby

    2017-01-01

    Do mathematics ability beliefs explain gender gaps in the physical science, engineering, mathematics, and computer science fields (PEMC) and other science fields? We leverage U.S. nationally representative longitudinal data to estimate gendered differences in girls' and boys' perceptions of mathematics ability with the most difficult or challenging material. Our analyses examine the potentially interacting effects of gender and these ability beliefs on students' pathways to scientific careers. Specifically, we study how beliefs about ability with challenging mathematics influence girls' and boys' choices to pursue PEMC degrees, evaluating educational milestones over a 6-year period: advanced science course completion in secondary school and postsecondary major retention and selection. Our findings indicate even at the same levels of observed ability, girls' mathematics ability beliefs under challenge are markedly lower than those of boys. These beliefs matter over time, potentially tripling girls' chances of majoring in PEMC sciences, over and above biological science fields, all else being equal. Implications and potential interventions are discussed. PMID:28428762

  4. Letters from Early Career Academics: The Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy Field of Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfrey, Laura; Enright, Eimear; Rynne, Steven

    2017-01-01

    Taking our lead from Rainer Maria Rilke's (1929) "Letters to a Young Poet", our broader project aimed to create a space for dialogue and intergenerational learning between Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy (PESP) Early Career Academics (ECAs) and members of the PESP professoriate. This paper focuses specifically on the experiences of…

  5. PCDD/PCDF-contamination at sports fields and playgrounds covered with Kieselrot (red slag); PCDD/PCDF-Kontaminationen aus Kieselrot von Sport- und Spielanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuller, E. [TUEV Umwelttechnik GmbH im TUEV Hessen, Eschborn (Germany); Heinz, H. [TUEV Umwelttechnik GmbH im TUEV Hessen, Eschborn (Germany); Stoffers, H. [TUEV Hannover/Sachsen-Anhalt e.V., Hannover (Germany)

    1995-03-01

    Surfaces of many sports fields, playgrounds and paths in Germany are covered with red slag ``Kieselrot``. Kieselrot is extremely high contaminated by polychlorinated dibenzodioxines and dibenzofurans. Mean PCDD/F-concentration in surface layer of 35 locations in Hessen is 45500 ng I-TE/kg. PCDD/F-contents range from 1000 to 250 ng I-TE/kg with in 10 cm under surface layers and from 6000 to 600 ng I-TE/kg in top soil of three metres wide peripheral areas. Concentration in subsoils is a function of depth (n=18. r=-0,741), concentration in topsoils of peripheral areas is a function of distance from large sports fields (n=14, r=0,881) or small sportsfields (n=23, r=-0,742), respectively. A 15 metres wide and 10 centimetres deep peripheral area contains 0,8 g I-TE PCDD/F. The pollution of surroundings and further observations indicate that ``Kieselrot-areas`` must be regarded as important dioxin sources. (orig.) [Deutsch] In den Jahren 1991 bis 1993 wurden Bodenuntersuchungen an 35 hessischen Sportanlagen, Spielplaetzen und Wegen, deren Deckschicht aus dioxinhaltiger roter Asche (Kieselrot) besteht, durchgefuehrt. Die mittlere Konzentration von polychlorierten Dibenzodioxinen und Dibenzofuranen in der Deckschicht betraegt 45500 ng I-TE/kg. Im Unterbau der Anlagen wurden bis in eine Tiefe von 10 cm Gehalte von 1000 bis 250 ng I-TE/kg, in den Oberboeden einer 3 m breiten Randzone Gehalte von 6000 bis 600 ng I-TE/kg gefunden. Die Konzentration im Unterbau laesst sich als Funktion der Tiefe (n=18, r=-0,741), die in den Randzonen als Funktion der Entfernung zum Rand von grossen Anlagen (n=14, r=-0,881) bzw. von kleinen Anlagen (n=23, r=-0,742) beschreiben. Allein in einem 15 m breiten und 10 cm tiefen Randstreifen eines Fussballfeldes lagert eine Dioxin- und Furanmenge von ca. 0,8 g I-TE. Das Ausmass der Umgebungskontamination sowie weitere Beobachtungen sprechen dafuer, dass Kieselrotflaechen als bedeutende Emissionsquellen fuer PCDD/F bewertet werden muessen. (orig.)

  6. DRUGS IN SPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Mottram

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This new edition includes fresh information regarding drugs use and abuse in sport and the updated worldwide anti-doping laws, and changes to the prohibited and therapeutic use exemption lists. The objectives of the book are to review/discuss the latest information on drugs in sport by considering i actions of drugs and hormones, ii medication and nutritional supplements in sport, iii the latest doping control regulations of the WADA, iv the use of banned therapeutic drugs in sport, v an assessment of the prevalence of drug taking in sport. FEATURES A common, uniform strategy and evidence-based approach to organizing and interpreting the literature is used in all chapters. This textbook is composed of twelve parts with sub-sections in all of them. The topics of the parts are: i An introduction to drugs and their use in sport, ii Drug use and abuse in sport, iii Central nervous system stimulants, iv WADA regulations in relation to drugs used in the treatment of respiratory tract disorders, v Androgenic anabolic steroids, vi Peptide and glycoprotein hormones and sport, vii Blood boosting and sport, viii Drug treatment of inflammation in sports injuries, ix Alcohol, anti-anxiety drugs and sport, x Creatine, xi Doping control and sport, xii Prevalence of drug misuse in sport. Each specific chapter has been systematically developed from the data available in prospective, retrospective, case-control, and cross-sectional studies. The tables and figures are numerous, helpful and very useful. AUDIENCE The book provides a very useful resource for students on sports related courses, coaches and trainers, researchers, nutritionists, exercise physiologists, pharmacologists, healthcare professionals in the fields of sports medicine and those involved in the management and administration side of sport. The readers are going to discover that this is an excellent reference book. Extensively revised new edition of this book is also a first-rate resource for

  7. Team Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and sports prosthetics, as well as expenses for training and competition. Disabled Sports USA offers nationwide sports programs to anyone with a physical disability. Activities include winter skiing, water sports, summer ...

  8. The Adapted Italian Version of the Baller Identity Measurement Scale to Evaluate the Student-Athletes' Identity in Relation to Gender, Age, Type of Sport, and Competition Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupo, Corrado; Mosso, Cristina Onesta; Guidotti, Flavia; Cugliari, Giovanni; Pizzigalli, Luisa; Rainoldi, Alberto

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is twofold: to validate the properties of the Italian version of the Baller Identity Measurement Scale (i.e., BIMS-IT), a self-report questionnaire based on the athletic and academic identities; and to investigate differences in psychosocial factors such as gender, age, type of sport, and competition level. The dimensionality of the BIMS-IT was explored by means of the exploratory factor analysis, considering the scale's internal consistency too (Confirmatory Factor Analysis). Results related to exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis supported a model of measurement composed of two correlated factors: the athletic and academic identities and affectivity related to identities. For both factors, differences emerged between age, and competition level sub groups. In particular, higher identity scores emerged for ≤ 24 years old student-athletes with respect to their age counterparts. National sub-elite student-athletes reported lower identity values than those of national elite and international levels. Results suggest that the Italian version of the BIMS-IT is psychometrically robust and could be adopted for empirical uses. The higher identity scores reported by younger and higher competition level participants suggest a correspondent higher involvement into the student-athlete role. However, BIMS-IT represents a distinct model with respect to the original American BIMS, determining the need of further research on the student-athletes' identity to better clarify any socio-cultural contest effects.

  9. The Adapted Italian Version of the Baller Identity Measurement Scale to Evaluate the Student-Athletes’ Identity in Relation to Gender, Age, Type of Sport, and Competition Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cugliari, Giovanni; Pizzigalli, Luisa

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is twofold: to validate the properties of the Italian version of the Baller Identity Measurement Scale (i.e., BIMS-IT), a self-report questionnaire based on the athletic and academic identities; and to investigate differences in psychosocial factors such as gender, age, type of sport, and competition level. The dimensionality of the BIMS-IT was explored by means of the exploratory factor analysis, considering the scale’s internal consistency too (Confirmatory Factor Analysis). Results related to exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis supported a model of measurement composed of two correlated factors: the athletic and academic identities and affectivity related to identities. For both factors, differences emerged between age, and competition level sub groups. In particular, higher identity scores emerged for ≤ 24 years old student-athletes with respect to their age counterparts. National sub-elite student-athletes reported lower identity values than those of national elite and international levels. Results suggest that the Italian version of the BIMS-IT is psychometrically robust and could be adopted for empirical uses. The higher identity scores reported by younger and higher competition level participants suggest a correspondent higher involvement into the student-athlete role. However, BIMS-IT represents a distinct model with respect to the original American BIMS, determining the need of further research on the student-athletes’ identity to better clarify any socio-cultural contest effects. PMID:28056046

  10. Marketing of sport tourism

    OpenAIRE

    A.S. Teletov; V.I. Karpets

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the article. The aim of the article is to clarify the concept of «sport tourism marketing», to examine the state of its objects and to determine prospects for development of sport tourism in Ukraine. The paper singles out the role of sport in life; compares different types of cities in terms of provision the infrastructure for tourism development in the field of sports. Authors show the example of the campaign. The results of the analysis. The article deals with sport tourism as...

  11. Gender and students' vocational choices in entering the field of nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zysberg, Leehu; Berry, Devon M

    2005-01-01

    As the demand increases for nursing professionals, existing theories borrowed from the field of industrial psychology may help employers and recruiters to identify appropriate candidates, train, hire and promote nurses in a more effective manner. An important component of these theories is understanding an individual's motivation to choose a certain profession. This preliminary study examined gender differences in motivations to enter the field of nursing. Two theoretical points of view were offered to account for the differences: Holland and Row's models of person-job congruence and Maslow's hierarchy of needs. One hundred and sixty (24 men and 136 women) freshmen from 3 nursing programs were asked to report their motivations to enter nursing. A new instrument based on the models mentioned above and representing 2 basic motivations, self-actualization and survival needs, was developed for the purposes of this study. While both genders mentioned self-actualization as their main motivation for entering nursing, men tended to give survival needs more weight than women did. The motivation patterns as well as the gender differences are discussed in light of recent trends in nursing and within the framework of personnel selection and training.

  12. Identifying Gender-Sensitive Agroforestry Options: Methodological Considerations From the Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah-Lan Mathez-Stiefel

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Agroforestry is seen as a promising set of land use practices that can lead to increased ecological integrity and sustainable benefits in mountain areas. Agroforestry practices can also enhance smallholder farmers' resilience in the face of social and ecological change. There is a need for critical examination of existing practices to ensure that agroforestry recommendations for smallholder farmers are socially inclusive and grounded in local experience, knowledge, and perceptions. In this paper, we present a transdisciplinary systems approach to the identification and analysis of suitable agroforestry options, which takes into account gendered perceptions of the benefits and values of natural resources. The 4-step approach consists of an appraisal of local perceptions of the social-ecological context and dynamics, an inventory of existing agroforestry practices and species, a gendered valuation of agroforestry practices and species, and the development of locally adapted and gender-sensitive agroforestry options. In a study using this approach in the Peruvian Andes, data were collected through a combination of participatory tools for gender research and ethnobotanical methods. This paper shares lessons learned and offers recommendations for researchers and practitioners in the field of sustainable mountain development. We discuss methodological considerations in the identification of locally adapted agroforestry options, the understanding of local social-ecological systems, the facilitation of social learning processes, engagement in gender research, and the establishment of ethical research collaborations. The methodology presented here is especially recommended for the exploratory phase of any natural resource management initiative in mountain areas with high environmental and sociocultural variability.

  13. Leisure Sport Participation in Cyprus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicos Kartakoullis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study contributes to the limited existing research on the participation patterns of Cypriots in leisure and sports. Leisure and sport are viewed collectively while adapting the notion put forth by The Council of Europe (2007 defining leisure sports as sports activities aimed at the preservation and improvement of physical condition, health and fun. The purpose of this paper is to examine the leisure sport participation patterns of Cypriots, specifically: (1 participation patterns in leisure sports, (2 reasons for participating in leisure sports, (3 cost and participation in leisure sport, (4 leisure sport spectatorship, and (5 vacationing and leisure sport experiences. Data was commissioned and collected by the Centre for Leisure, Tourism and Sports (University of Nicosia for the Cyprus Sport Organisation. A telephone-survey of 1000 Cypriots, men and women, aged 15+, from coast-to-coast in Cyprus using stratified random sampling was employed. The sample was weighted by gender, age, district and region of residence. The results indicate that: (1 almost half of the Cypriot population participates in leisure sports, (2 participation in leisure sports decreases with age, (3 participation in leisure sports tends to be driven by health benefits, (4 most Cypriots participate in leisure sport at no cost, (5 television is the most common means reported for spectatorship, and (6 some Cypriots plan their vacations around leisure sport experiences. The results indicate the relevant importance of the leisure sport culture in Cyprus while also reflecting on age and cost related factors that may influence participation in leisure sports.

  14. Constructing the 'gender-specific body': A critical discourse analysis of publications in the field of gender-specific medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annandale, Ellen; Hammarström, Anne

    2011-11-01

    Gender-specific medicine, a new and increasingly influential ethos within medical research and practice, has received little critical attention to date. The objective of this article is to critically examine the attributes of gender-specific medicine as imparted by its advocates. Through a critical discourse analysis of its two leading academic journals, we identify five interrelated discourses: of male/female difference; of hegemonic biology; of men's disadvantages; of biological and social reductionism; and of the fragmented body. Together these comprise a master discourse of the 'gender-specific body'. The discourse of the 'gender-specific body' is discussed in relation to the current neoliberal political agenda which frames healthcare as a market good and locates health and illness in individual bodies rather than in the wider social arrangements of society. We argue that the 'gender-specific body' threatens not only to turn back the clock to a vision of the biological body as fixed and determinate, but to extend this ever deeper into the social imagination. Lost in the process is any meaningful sense of the human body as a relatively open system which develops in interaction with its social world. We propose that, as it gains momentum, the 'gender-specific body' is likely progressively to circumscribe our thinking about the health of women and men in potentially problematic ways.

  15. Infusing Disability Sport into the Sport Management Curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimmy Calloway

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Disability sport is growing around the world with momentum and is described as a “movement” (Bailey, 2008; DePauw & Gavron, 2005. While there are more similarities than differences with sport management for able-bodied athletes and those with disabilities, there are additional needs and considerations for persons with disabilities (DePauw & Gavron, 2005. The noticeable visibility of individuals with disabilities in society, including sport, raises concerns about the degree to which sport management academic programs have modified their curricula to ensure that individuals working in the sport management field are prepared to deal with theuniqueness of disability sport. This paper (a discusses theoretical perspectives toward understanding and thinking about disability, (b explores ways to enhance sport management curricula through infusion of disability sport, (c reflects upon current social practices for curriculum integration of athletes with disabilities in sport, and (d acknowledges infusion of disability sport businesses, organizations and events.

  16. Professional preferences of students in physical education and sport sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerónimo García Fernández

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The actual context has enhanced job opportunities in the field of sport in order to respond to the current market demand. Thus, Physical Education and Sport Science graduates who begin to do differents jobs to the traditional ones but relate to their study field. The aim of this study was to guess which are the job preferences of the students of Physical Education and Sport Science of Seville University by gender and age doing the second cycle of their college degree and determine if there are significant differences. A descriptive analysis was carried out, using a questionnaire based on several researches, it was related to professional opportunities in sport sciences. The sample was of 118 students which represented 40.7% of the overall registered students. Results shown that sport management is the most preferable professional opportunity for women and men of the total sample, following in second place by teaching in secondary school for people older than 25 years of both sexes and teaching in primary school for the younger than 25 years. These findings announce changes in occupational trends in sports, to be taken into account in the framework of the European higher education (Degree of Science in Sport and Physical Activity, own US Masters and Official, lifelong learning programs....

  17. Overview of sports vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Linda A.; Ferreira, Jannie T.

    2003-03-01

    Sports vision encompasses the visual assessment and provision of sports-specific visual performance enhancement and ocular protection for athletes of all ages, genders and levels of participation. In recent years, sports vision has been identified as one of the key performance indicators in sport. It is built on four main cornerstones: corrective eyewear, protective eyewear, visual skills enhancement and performance enhancement. Although clinically well established in the US, it is still a relatively new area of optometric specialisation elsewhere in the world and is gaining increasing popularity with eyecare practitioners and researchers. This research is often multi-disciplinary and involves input from a variety of subject disciplines, mainly those of optometry, medicine, physiology, psychology, physics, chemistry, computer science and engineering. Collaborative research projects are currently underway between staff of the Schools of Physics and Computing (DIT) and the Academy of Sports Vision (RAU).

  18. Gender, Race, and the College Science Track: Analyzing Field Concentrations and Institutional Selectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, Ann L.

    This study examines the effects of gender, race, and ethnicity on the pursuit of scientific fields of study among college students. It builds on previous research by considering variation among fields of science and variation across institutions in selectivity. The findings reveal that African American students graduating with degrees in science are underrepresented in elite institutions, principally because of their concentration in historically Black colleges and universities. The evidence does not indicate that female science majors are underrepresented in elite institutions. Both groups are concentrated among the science fields with the lowest labor market returns. These findings demonstrate that female and minority students are more disadvantaged than studies of their simple representation in science would suggest.

  19. Young Women, Sports, and Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Sandra L.

    2007-01-01

    This article examines young women's access to two traditionally male domains, sport and science, from two perspectives. The structural approach suggests that sport and science are stratified by gender and have historically been chilly climates for women. The Critical approach argues that structure and agency are important in understanding sources…

  20. Guide to Eating for Sports

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... depends on the individual's age, size, level of physical activity, and environmental temperature. Experts recommend that athletes drink ... different food groups based on age, gender, and activity level. Reviewed by: Sarah R. Gibson, MD Date reviewed: September ... TOPIC Nutrition & Fitness Center Sports Physicals Figuring Out Fat and Calories Sports Center Vitamins ...

  1. 对体育文化研究领域中若干问题的思考%Several Problems in Sports Culture Research Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高雯雯

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of analyzing the problems in the field of sports culture brought about by the interdisciplinarity of sport and culture, the paper analyses the connotation problem of sports culture, the logic start point of sports culture and study object of sports culture and contribution of culture to sport.%通过对体育与文化学科交叉所带来的体育文化领域内的几个问题进行浅析。分别探讨了体育文化定义的困顿、体育文化概念的逻辑起点、体育文化研究对象新意及文化对体育的贡献几个方面.以期为其他学者提供一些可以给体育文化带来进一步发展的契机。

  2. Challenge of Sport Towards Social Inclusion and Awareness-Raising Against Any Discrimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marivoet Salomé

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Sport presents itself as a social configuration that enhances social inclusion by promoting tolerance, respect for others, cooperation, loyalty and friendship, and values associated with fair play, the most important ethical principles of sport. However, intolerance and exclusion can also be expressed in sport, certainly even more so the bigger the social inequalities and the ethnic, religious, gender, disability, and sexual orientation prejudices are in society. The processes of social exclusion, integration, and inclusion are research areas in the social sciences with consolidated knowledge, namely in the study of the problems of poverty, social inequalities, racial and ethnic discrimination, disability, and education. However, it is necessary to discuss the existing theoretical approaches and conceptions seen as explanatory principles of the reality of these fields of analysis, look at how they can frame the reality on the sports field, and then confirm them through empirical research in order to produce knowledge based on the reality of social facts. Despite the broad consensus on the potential of sport in promoting social inclusion, in this paper I stress that this potential can only become real if the orientation of sport includes strategies aimed at achieving these goals. I intend to show how the –social issue‖ in the field of sports has gained relevance in the institutional context, and thereby a new field of research for the social science of sport has been opened and needs to be deepened.

  3. Sex Dilemmas, Amazons and Cyborgs: Feminist Cultural Studies and Sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Tolvhed

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article, I discuss sport and physical activities as a field of empirical investi-gation for feminist cultural studies with a potential to contribute to theorizing the body, gender and difference. Sport has, historically, served to legitimize and rein-force the gender dichotomy by making men “masculine” through developing phys-ical strength and endurance, while women generally have been excluded or di-rected towards activities fostering a “feminine suppleness”. The recent case of runner Caster Semenya, who was subjected to extensive gender tests, demon-strates how athletic superiority and “masculine” attributes in women still today stir public emotions and evoke cultural anxieties of gender blurring. But the rigid gen-der boundaries have also made sport a field of transgressions. From the “Soviet amazon” of the Cold War, transgressions in sport have publicly demonstrated, but also pushed, the boundaries of cultural understandings of gender. Gender verifica-tion tests have exposed a continuum of bodies that cannot easily be arranged into two stable, separate gender categories.In spite of the so called “corporeal turn”, sport is still rather neglected within cultural studies and feminist research. This appears to be linked to a degradation, and fear, of the body and of the risk that women – once again – be reduced to biology and physical capacity. But studies of sport might further develop under-standings of the processes through which embodied knowledge and subjectivity is produced, in a way that overcomes the split between corporeality and discursive regimes or representations. Furthermore, with the fitness upsurge since the 1980s, the athletic female body has emerged as a cultural ideal and a rare validation of “female masculinity” (Halberstam in popular culture. This is an area well-suited for “third wave” feminist cultural studies that are at ease with complexities and contradictions: the practices and

  4. Unstable identity compatibility: how gender rejection sensitivity undermines the success of women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlqvist, Sheana; London, Bonita; Rosenthal, Lisa

    2013-09-01

    Although the perceived compatibility between one's gender and science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) identities (gender-STEM compatibility) has been linked to women's success in STEM fields, no work to date has examined how the stability of identity over time contributes to subjective and objective STEM success. In the present study, 146 undergraduate female STEM majors rated their gender-STEM compatibility weekly during their freshman spring semester. STEM women higher in gender rejection sensitivity, or gender RS, a social-cognitive measure assessing the tendency to perceive social-identity threat, experienced larger fluctuations in gender-STEM compatibility across their second semester of college. Fluctuations in compatibility predicted impaired outcomes the following school year, including lower STEM engagement and lower academic performance in STEM (but not non-STEM) classes, and significantly mediated the relationship between gender RS and STEM engagement and achievement in the 2nd year of college. The week-to-week changes in gender-STEM compatibility occurred in response to negative academic (but not social) experiences.

  5. Influence of Gender Psychology on Content Setting of College Sports Dance Curriculum%两性心理学对高校体育舞蹈课程内容设置影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭祝平

    2016-01-01

    近年来,越来越多的高等院校开始开设舞蹈课程,尤其是一些综合性大学将体育舞蹈视为非常重要的教学内容。传统的体育舞蹈课程机械地设置教学内容和方式,甚至用“操化”动作进行示范模仿教学。此外,学生对于体育舞蹈的学习动机不单纯是追求运动技能,而大多数一线教师者缺乏两性心理学方面的知识,不重视而且鲜用伴侣学习法。深入分析了当前我国高校体育舞蹈教学的现状,针对导致当前课程效果不理想的各方面原因,提出了设置合理的男、女生合班体育舞蹈教育课程内容;加强体育舞蹈与其他学科的联动;明确体育舞蹈教育在艺术教育中的地位与作用;运用科学的理论知识指导体育舞蹈教学等对策。%In recent years,more and more colleges and universities begin to offer dance courses,especially in some comprehensive uni-versities,regarding them as very important teaching contents.Traditional sports dance courses set up teaching content and methods in-flexibly,and even use actions like gymnastics to carry out demonstration and imitation teaching.In addition,students'learning motiva-tion of sports dance is not only the pursuit of sports skills,but most teachers lack the knowledge of gender psychology.The paper analy-zes current situation of college sports dance teaching in China,and put forward several countermeasures in allusion to various reasons leading to current unsatisfied teaching effects:setting up reasonable classes for male and female students to take sports dance courses together,strengthening the linkage of sports dance and other disciplines,identifying the position and function of sports dance education in art education,and utilizing scientific theories to guide the sports dance teaching.

  6. 高校辅导员体育行为的性别差异及其对大学生的影响%Research on college counselors' gender differences influence on university students' sports behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    商伟; 韩流

    2012-01-01

    运用问卷调查及心理学理论分析高校辅导员性别差异对大学生体育行为的影响.研究结果表明:不同性别的辅导员对学生体育行为的影响是有差别的,男性辅导员对于学生体育行为的影响、促进及养成方面要比女性辅导员的作用更加明显.辅导员对学生体育行为的影响方式依次是体育意识的培养、对学生体育意识的教育、与学生一起参加体育锻炼、组织学生体育比赛、辅导员良好的体育行为与健康体魄的示范、购买体育器材等行动的支持,同时认为女性辅导员对学生体育意识教育的重视程度高于男性.%In this paper, we use the questionnaire survey and knowledge of psychology to analyze college counselor gender differences to the behavior of students'sports. The results show that the impact of different sex counselor to student sports behavior is different. For student sports behavior, male counselors have the more obvious role on promoting and developing than female counselors. The ways of influence of counselors to student sport behaviors are: Consciousness of Physical Training, education of the sports consciousness of students, and students participate in physical exercise, the student sports competitions, and good sportsmanship behavior counselor and a demonstration of good health, the purchase of sports equipment and so on. At the same time, we think that the female counselors pay more attention to sports awareness education than male counselors.

  7. Sport and transgender people: a systematic review of the literature relating to sport participation and competitive sport policies

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Bethany Alice; Arcelus, Jon; Bouman, Walter Pierre; Haycraft, Emma

    2016-01-01

    Background\\ud \\ud Whether transgender people should be able to compete in sport in accordance with their gender identity is a widely contested question within the literature and among sport organisations, fellow competitors and spectators. Owing to concerns surrounding transgender people (especially transgender female individuals) having an athletic advantage, several sport organisations place restrictions on transgender competitors (e.g. must have undergone gender-confirming surgery). In add...

  8. Field of Genes: An Investigation of Sports-Related Genetic Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer K. Wagner

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Sports-related genetic testing is a sector of the diverse direct-to-consumer (DTC industry that has not yet been examined thoroughly by academic scholars. A systematic search was used to identify companies in this sector and content analysis of online information was performed. More than a dozen companies were identified. Marketing practices observed generally did not target parents for child testing, and marketing images were mild compared to images used in popular media. Information was provided at a high reading level (industry-wide Flesh-Kincaid Grade Levels > 11. While ~75% of companies provide privacy policies and terms of service prior to purchase and ~40% provide scientific citations for their tests,

  9. Field of Genes: An Investigation of Sports-Related Genetic Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Jennifer K.; Royal, Charmaine D.

    2012-01-01

    Sports-related genetic testing is a sector of the diverse direct-to-consumer (DTC) industry that has not yet been examined thoroughly by academic scholars. A systematic search was used to identify companies in this sector and content analysis of online information was performed. More than a dozen companies were identified. Marketing practices observed generally did not target parents for child testing, and marketing images were mild compared to images used in popular media. Information was provided at a high reading level (industry-wide Flesh-Kincaid Grade Levels > 11). While ~75% of companies provide privacy policies and terms of service prior to purchase and ~40% provide scientific citations for their tests, e-commerce generally may adequately protect DTC genetics consumers without new federal legislation or regulation. PMID:25562204

  10. Sports physical

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000673.htm Sports physical To use the sharing features on this page, ... routine checkups. Why do you Need a Sports Physical? The sports physical is done to: Find out ...

  11. Sport tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Schwartzhoffová

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Sport tourism is one specific type of travel and tourism. The goal of this article is to introduce the definition and importance of sport tourism to academic and sports professionals. At present, sport tourism is a diverse social, economic and cultural phenomenon arising from the unique interaction of activity, people and place. The second part of this article reports about sports events as an important part of sport tourism.

  12. Field Dependence-Field Independence Cognitive Style, Gender, Career Choice and Academic Achievement of Secondary School Students in Emohua Local Government Area of Rivers State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyekuru, Bruno Uchenna

    2015-01-01

    This is a descriptive study that investigated the relationships among field dependence-field independence cognitive style and gender, career choice and academic achievement of secondary school students in Emohua Local Government Area of Rivers State, Nigeria. From the initial sample of 320 senior secondary school one (SS1) students drawn from the…

  13. Sport as Yoga

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Michael

    1977-01-01

    The author has written a metaphysical sports fantasy and completed a novel which explores evolutionary transformations of the mind and body. Now he is working on a long-term research project exploring radical bodily transformations occurring in various fields of human experience. This article on sport is part of that project. (Editor/RK)

  14. Men set their own cites high: Gender and self-citation across fields and over time

    CERN Document Server

    King, Molly M; Correll, Shelley J; Jacquet, Jennifer; West, Jevin D

    2016-01-01

    How common is self-citation in scholarly publication and does the practice vary by gender? Using novel methods and a dataset of 1.5 million research papers in the scholarly database JSTOR published between 1779-2011, we find that nearly 10% of references are self-citations by a paper's authors. We further find that over the years between 1779-2011, men cite their own papers 56% more than women do. In the last two decades of our data, men self-cite 70% more than women. Women are also more than ten percentage points more likely than men to not cite their own previous work at all. Despite increased representation of women in academia, this gender gap in self-citation rates has remained stable over the last 50 years. We break down self-citation patterns by academic field and number of authors, and comment on potential mechanisms behind these observations. These findings have important implications for scholarly visibility and likely consequences for academic careers.

  15. Sport-Related Concussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Don; Brady, Flo

    2011-01-01

    Sport-related concussions (SRC) are not limited to specific age ranges, professional athletes, or gender. The primary focus of much of SRC research pertains to the assessment, management, and return to play (RTP) of the concussed athlete. This article highlights some major issues of SRC along with some controversies that presently exist within the…

  16. Sport-Related Concussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Don; Brady, Flo

    2011-01-01

    Sport-related concussions (SRC) are not limited to specific age ranges, professional athletes, or gender. The primary focus of much of SRC research pertains to the assessment, management, and return to play (RTP) of the concussed athlete. This article highlights some major issues of SRC along with some controversies that presently exist within the…

  17. A yellow card for sport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annet Tiessen-Raaphorst; Koen Breedveld

    2007-01-01

    Original title: Een gele kaart voor de sport. Sport is usually described in positive terms, but not always. Stories about aggression on and off the football field, or doping scandals in the world of cycle racing, undermine the positive image generally associated with sport. These stories usually re

  18. Sport and Transgender People: A Systematic Review of the Literature Relating to Sport Participation and Competitive Sport Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Bethany Alice; Arcelus, Jon; Bouman, Walter Pierre; Haycraft, Emma

    2017-04-01

    Whether transgender people should be able to compete in sport in accordance with their gender identity is a widely contested question within the literature and among sport organisations, fellow competitors and spectators. Owing to concerns surrounding transgender people (especially transgender female individuals) having an athletic advantage, several sport organisations place restrictions on transgender competitors (e.g. must have undergone gender-confirming surgery). In addition, some transgender people who engage in sport, both competitively and for leisure, report discrimination and victimisation. To the authors' knowledge, there has been no systematic review of the literature pertaining to sport participation or competitive sport policies in transgender people. Therefore, this review aimed to address this gap in the literature. Eight research articles and 31 sport policies were reviewed. In relation to sport-related physical activity, this review found the lack of inclusive and comfortable environments to be the primary barrier to participation for transgender people. This review also found transgender people had a mostly negative experience in competitive sports because of the restrictions the sport's policy placed on them. The majority of transgender competitive sport policies that were reviewed were not evidence based. Currently, there is no direct or consistent research suggesting transgender female individuals (or male individuals) have an athletic advantage at any stage of their transition (e.g. cross-sex hormones, gender-confirming surgery) and, therefore, competitive sport policies that place restrictions on transgender people need to be considered and potentially revised.

  19. Research on the Construction of Sports Field of Inland Counties in Quanzhou%泉州内陆体育场地建设的现状研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴燕丽; 陈霞明; 陈燕霞

    2015-01-01

    Using the interview method,mathematical statistics and other research methods of litera-ture,with the sixth national sports field survey as the research platform,an empirical study of Quanzhou sports development present situation of the inland.The results show that up to 2013,the number of sports venues,the Quanzhou inland,the scale of investment increased to a great extent,the per capita area did not reach the 1.8 m2 ;sports type is relatively single,the sports development is not balanced,unbalanced development between urban and rural areas of sports venues,sports venues and investment funds to finance,units social donation,and other sources,supplemented by.%采用文献资料法、访谈法、数理统计等研究方法,借助第6次全国体育场地普查为研究平台,对泉州内陆体育场地建设现状进行实证研究.结果表明:截至2013年,泉州内陆体育场地数量、规模、投资金额等有大幅度增长,人均场地面积未达到1.8 m2;体育场地类型较为单一,各系统体育场地建设不均衡,城乡间体育场地发展不均衡,体育场地投资经费来源以财政拨款、单位自筹、社会捐赠为主,并以其他方式来源为辅.

  20. Heterosexism in Sport: Attitudes toward Lesbians and Gay Men among Collegiate Varsity and Recreational Club Sport Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Austin Robert

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated attitudes toward gay men and lesbians among collegiate varsity athletes and recreational sport club participants, including an investigation of differences in attitudes across competitive levels, team and individual sport divisions, sport by sport comparisons, gender, grade level, race, contact with gay men and lesbians and…

  1. Group Cognitive-Behavior Therapy and Supportive Art and Sport Interventions on Bam Earthquake Related Post Traumatic Stress Symptoms in Children: A Field Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narges Joshaghani

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available "n Objective: "n "nThe main objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of psychological therapies and art/sport supportive interventions separately,and in combination on post traumatic stress symptoms in children and compare them with a control group . "nMethods: In a field trial, we evaluated the efficacy of group behavioral therapy, art and sport supportive interventions in Bam earthquake children survivors with PTSD symptoms and compared it with a control group. Before and after interventions we evaluated the PTSD symptoms using K-SADS-PL semi-structural interview for each group and compared them using appropriate statistical methods. "nResults: The participants were 200 individuals who were randomized in four groups according to an intervention program including: Group behavioral therapy; Group behavioral therapy plus art and sport interventions; Art and sport interventions; and control group. During the interventions, 39 individuals were excluded. None of the participants had severed PTSD or other psychiatry disorders that needed pharmacological interventions. In interventional groups, the reduction of total PTSD symptoms and the symptoms of re-experience, avoidance and hyper arousal was not statistically significant. However, in the control group, the PTSD symptoms increased during the study which was statistically significant. "nConclusion: Group behavior therapy and supportive interventions (art and sport may have preventive effects on PTSD symptoms.

  2. 初中生性别角色与体质健康及体育态度的关系%The relationship between the gender roles and physical health as well as sports attitudes of junior school students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈少青; 张俊; 李文道

    2014-01-01

    The authors selected 586 junior school students from a key middle school and an ordinary middle school in Beijing as the specimens, measured and investigated their gender roles, physical health and sports attitudes, and revealed the following findings:the percentages of students with an androgynous gender role and students with an undifferentiated gender role were high (38.9%and 36.2%respectively), while the percentage of students with a unisexual gender role was low (24.9%);among the groups of boy students, the order of physical health from good to poor was as follows:students with a masculinized gender role, students with a feminized gender role, students with an androgynous gender role and stu-dents with an undifferentiated gender role, individuals with a masculinized gender role and individuals with an undifferen-tiated gender role were significantly different in terms of physical health (P<0.05), various single event indexes measured during physical test showed different patterns varying with gender role, different gender roles had an extremely significant difference in terms of sports importance, likeability and exercise times (P<0.001);among the groups of girl students, the order of physical health from good to poor was as follows:students with a feminized gender role, students with a mascu-linized gender role, students with an androgynous gender role and students with an undifferentiated gender role, individuals with a feminized gender role and individuals with an undifferentiated gender role were margin different in terms of physi-cal health (P=0.08), various single event indexes measured during physical test showed another pattern varying with gen-der role, girl students with different gender roles were significantly different in terms of sports importance (P<0.05) and likeability (P<0.001). Based on the said findings:the authors analyzed possibly existing affecting factors, research limita-tions, future expectations and corresponding intervention

  3. Marketing of sport tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Teletov

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The aim of the article is to clarify the concept of «sport tourism marketing», to examine the state of its objects and to determine prospects for development of sport tourism in Ukraine. The paper singles out the role of sport in life; compares different types of cities in terms of provision the infrastructure for tourism development in the field of sports. Authors show the example of the campaign. The results of the analysis. The article deals with sport tourism as a form of total tourism conducted extensive research of sports tourism values compared between typical sports facilities and infrastructure of cities millionaires, large, medium and small Ukrainian cities. The research is based on Sumy. It is shown that it may be attractive for sports, historical and cultural enrichment of professional athletes, children and adolescents, a large group of fans that come to competition. Marketing approaches to the decision of sport tourism problems today represent the ocial, cultural, public and political phenomenon simultaneously and is by phenomenon object of special researches. This increase: shows of sports, attraction to it of children, quantity of the people life, conducting a healthy image, increase of a network sport structures, hotels and other tourist objects. Work is complete scientific and practical work, implemented commission on education, science, culture, tourism, sport and youth policy Sumy Regional Council and is recommended to be involved to realizing for local councils, administrations and City Hall for recovery work in the field of tourism development. The theoretical and methodological developments generalizations made in this scientific work, have a scientific value and practical value and can be recommended for implementation in other regions of Ukraine. Conclusions and prospects for further researches. One of the few areas that still have powerful sports, tourism and how their derivatives – marketing

  4. Disruption of the naturally evolved N conservation strategy in soil under grassland at a sports field in York, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatti, Ambreen; Cresser, Malcolm S

    2014-11-01

    Water- and KCl-extractable ammonium-N and nitrate-N concentrations have been monitored at approximately monthly intervals over a year in soils from 0-10 and 10-20 cm depths under permanent grass at a sports field in York, UK. Measurements were made on both fresh, field-moist soils and after the same soils had been incubated for 7 days at ambient outdoor temperatures, to assess seasonal changes in the capacity of the soils to produce mineral-N species in the absence of plant uptake and other effects. Water extracts allowed potential mobility of N species to be assessed. Comparison of seasonal trends in mineral-N species concentrations in pre- and post-incubation soils confirmed depletion of exchangeable ammonium-N from the winter to summer. Mineral-N in fresh and incubated soils displayed summer minima and also low production in winter, associated with the effects of low temperature on nitrate production and probably microbial immobilization of nitrate produced by residual senescent plant litter with a higher C:N ratio from the previous autumn. The results support the concept that plant/soil systems co-evolved under more pristine conditions to conserve soil N by matching the dynamics of soil mineral N production and plant N uptake, but now N pollution has resulted in a dynamic mismatch.

  5. Sports Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gozalova Marina

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This article is devoted to sports tourism. The purpose of this article is to examine theoretical material on sports tourism, to analyze sports tourism in Russia and to search for promising areas for the study of sports tourism in our country. Material and methods. In this part the authors develop the idea of the role of doing sports and keeping fit. For anyone who really wants to be healthy, fitness has become an integral part of their lives. Results. The purpose of this research is to study theoretical material on sports tourism, to analyze sports tourism in Russia and to search for promising areas for the study of sports tourism in our country. On the basis of their research the authors come to the conclusion that sports and tourism are interconnected. There are important factors affecting the situation of sports tourism in Russia. The paper examines sports tourism attractions in Russia. Conclusion. The authors conclude that there exists a high correlation dependence of foreign and domestic development of sports tourism on resources allocated for sports infrastructure. All in all, sports tourism tours draw visitors to their favorite sporting event, facility, or destination throughout the world.

  6. Towards level playing fields? A time trend analysis of young people’s participation in club-organised sports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandermeerschen, Hanne; Vos, Steven; Scheerder, Jeroen

    2014-01-01

    Over the last 40 years, Sport for All policies – aiming at encouraging the sports participation of all citizens, regardless of age, sex, social class, ethnic origin, etc. – were implemented in a number of European countries. This study examines the extent to which a democratisation of club-organised

  7. The using of the track-and-field exercises in the process of formation of sport style of life of children of junior education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frolova N.A.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The problem of application of track-and-field exercises is lighted up for the decision of tasks of forming of sporting lifestyle junior schoolboys. The analysis of scientific literature is conducted on marked issue. Facilities of track-and-field have a wide spectrum of operating on an organism. They render assistance to the decision of health, educate and educational tasks in the process of physical education. Also form basis for mastering of maintenance of school on-line tutorial. It is well-proven that the use of facilities of track-and-field is rendered by an assistance initial sporting preparation of children in the conditions of general school.

  8. [Body, disability, and stigma in the origins of the field of adapted sport in the city of Buenos Aires, 1950-1961: a mere interiorization of a devalued identity?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrante, Carolina

    2014-01-01

    Although adapted sport is considered the main integrator of people with disabilities, Disability Studies argues that it reinforces the oppression suffered by this group. However, these positions do not historically reconstruct the ethos constructed in sport. In order to contribute to this discussion, I analyze here the ways of thinking about and experiencing disability that were constructed in the origins of the field of adapted sport, in the city of Buenos Aires, from 1950 to 1961. Thus, I begin by analyzing the content of publications of the first clubs for people with disabilities and in-depth interviews with protagonists of the origins of adapted sport and local physiatry.

  9. Geography of a Sports Metropolis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feddersen, Arne; Ahlfeldt, Gabriel M.

    2010-01-01

    This study analyses the sports infrastructure of Hamburg, Germany, from the residents’ perspective. Empirical evidence is provided for the Sports Place Theory developed by BALE (2003) using a micro-level dataset of 1,319 sports facilities, which is merged with highly disaggregated data......, locations’ endowment of sports infrastructure is captured by potentiality variables, while accounting for natural and unnatural barriers. Given potential demand, central areas are found to be relatively underprovided with a sports infrastructure compared to peripheral areas where opportunity cost...... in the form of price of land is lower. The determinants of spatial distribution vary systematically across types of sports facilities. Publicly provided open sports fields and sport halls tend to be concentrated in areas of relatively low income which is in line with their social infrastructure character...

  10. Characteristics Expected in Fields of Higher Education and Gender Stereotypical Traits Related to Academic Success: A Mirror Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verniers, Catherine; Martinot, Delphine

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to test whether the content of a gender stereotype concerning general academic achievement matched the characteristics deemed to predict success in the fields of higher education dominated by women and men respectively. A sample of 207 undergraduate students rated the extent to which characteristics ascribed to…

  11. Hemispheric Specialization for Language According to Grapho-Phonemic Transformation and Gender. A Divided Visual Field Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousin, Emilie; Perrone, Marcela; Baciu, Monica

    2009-01-01

    This behavioral study aimed at assessing the effect of two variables on the degree of hemispheric specialization for language. One of them was the "grapho-phonemic translation (transformation)" (letter-sound mapping) and the other was the participants' "gender". The experiment was conducted with healthy volunteers. A divided visual field procedure…

  12. The Development of Skill and Knowledge during a Sport Education Season of Track and Field Athletics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastie, Peter A.; Calderón, Antonio; Rolim, Ramiro J.; Guarino, Anthony J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the relative effectiveness of 2 forms of physical education instruction on students' skill and technical performance, as well as content knowledge in 3 track and field events. Method: Students from 6 classes in 3 Portuguese schools completed 900-min units conducted under the auspices of sport…

  13. GENDER DIFFERENCES IN SPORT INJURY RISK AND TYPES OF INJU-RIES: A RETROSPECTIVE TWELVE-MONTH STUDY ON CROSS-COUNTRY SKIERS, SWIMMERS, LONG-DISTANCE RUNNERS AND SOCCER PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leena Ristolainen

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This twelve months survey compared injury risk and injury types by genders (312 females, 262 males in 15- to 35-year-old cross-country skiers, swimmers, long- distance runners and soccer players. More male than female athletes reported at least one acute injury (44% vs. 35%, p < 0.05, and more male than female runners reported at least one overuse injury (69% vs. 51%, p < 0.05. When the incidence of acute and overuse injuries both separately and combined was calculated per 1000 training hours, per 1000 competition hours and all exposure hours combined we found no gender differences in either of these comparisons. After adjustment for sport event males were at increased risk for posterior thigh overuse injuries compared to females (relative risk (RR 5.8, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.3 to 26.4, p < 0.05 while females were at increased risk for overuse injuries in the ankle compared to males (RR 3.1, 95% CI 1.0 to 9.3, p < 0.05. After adjustment for exposure time (injuries/1000 exposure hours significance of the difference between the sexes in overuse injury to the ankle persisted (female 0.11 vs. male 0.02 injuries/1000 exposure hours, p < 0.05. Six athletes had an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL injury, of whom four were female soccer players. After combining all reported acute and overuse ankle and knee injuries, the proportion of athletes with such injury was higher in the female compared to male soccer players (75% and 54% respectively; p < 0.05, but no difference was found in such injuries when calculated per 1000 exposure hours. In conclusion, we found some gender differences in sport-related injuries, but most of these differences seemed to be explained at least in part by differences in the amount of training

  14. Policy, Sport and Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agergaard, Sine; Sørensen, Jan Kahr

    2010-01-01

    Increased public funding, more governmental involvement and an emphasis on the instrumental values of physical activities have in general become characteristic of Western nations’ policies towards sport. Denmark is, however, a little different in that there is still little political intervention...... in sport, although sports clubs do get economic support and are seen as having the potential to solve crucial social issues. The purpose of this article is to analyse and discuss the ways in which the political assumption that sport can enhance social integration is reflected in the practical governance...... of integration issues in particular in sports clubs. The article is based on a local field study in which we interviewed 10 talented football players with ethnic minority backgrounds and eight coaches and club leaders from six different football clubs. Distinguishing between integration and assimilation...

  15. MINDFULNESS AND SPORT PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel Mañas

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Mindfulness in sports is a recent field. While sport psychology relied mainly on “second wave” cognitive-behavioural interventions for the last four decades, a new approach has recently been developed in sport psychology including mindfulness: a “third wave” approach. This new approach assumes that ideal performance is a state that is not based on self-control or change in behaviour, but rather a state that arises from recognition and acceptance of thoughts, emotions and bodily sensations. Practicing mindfulness allows learns to observe and accept the thoughts, emotions, and body sensations, without making any attempt to eliminate or modify them. This paper reviews the main programs of mindfulness in sport performance both from the “third wave”: Mindful Sport Performance Enhancement (MSPE and Mindfulness-Acceptance-Commitment(MAC.

  16. Sports Nutrition: What the Future may Bring

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell Bill; Kalman Douglas S

    2004-01-01

    Abstract The field of sports nutrition is a dynamic one. Core competencies in exercise physiology, psychology, integrated metabolism and biochemistry are the initial parameters for a successful career in sports nutrition. In addition to the academic fundamentals, it is imperative that the sports nutritionist understand the sport in which our client participates. This sport specific understanding should manifest itself in fuel utilization, mechanics of movement, as well as psychological proces...

  17. Sports Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sometimes you can injure yourself when you play sports or exercise. Accidents, poor training practices, or improper ... can also lead to injuries. The most common sports injuries are Sprains and strains Knee injuries Swollen ...

  18. 铁复合剂对武术运动员运动性贫血的干预效果%Study on the effect of iron compound sport nutrition for sports anemia on track and field athlete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙超

    2012-01-01

    目的 武术运动主要是以氧供能为主的体育运动,要求运动员有较高的有氧能力.方法 本研究纳入武术运动员中为研究对象,完全随机分配为试验组和对照组,试验组为运动性贫血运动员,对照组为正常运动员.在运动员正常训练期间给予试验组运动员铁复合制剂治疗,并服用12周,对照组服用安慰剂治疗.观察实验前和试验后运动员相关红细胞数,血红蛋白浓度和红细胞压积,血清铁、血清铁蛋白以及铁转蛋白,以及铁复合剂对相关指标的影响.结果 研究结果表明女性运动性贫血明显多于男性运动性贫血,实验前贫血组红细胞相关指标、血清铁、血清铁蛋白浓度均低于正常对照组,服用铁复合剂后运动员的红细胞相关指标,血清铁,血清铁蛋白浓度与实验前相比显著性提高并达到正常值,而血清转铁蛋白显著性的降低.结论 铁复合剂能有效的改善武术运动员体内铁紊乱,提高血红蛋白水平和机体铁的贮备量,最终改善武术运动员中的运动性贫血.%OBJECTIVE The track and field sports ate based on the aerobic capacity, and it requires the athletes to have high aerobic capacity. Our study included the track and field athletes, and randomly divided into experimental group and control group. METHODS The athletes with sports anemia were regarded as experimental group, and the normal athletes were collected as controls. During the normal training period, the experimental group were administered with iron compound sport nutrition, and treated with 12 weeks, and the controls were treated with placebo. We observed the RBC, Hb, HCT, serum iron, serum ferritin and TRF before and after experiment, and observed the effect of iron compound sport nutrition on these indexes. RESULTS Our results indicated the female sports anemia athletes are significantly more than males. Before experimental, the related RBC indexes, serum iron and serum ferritin were

  19. 经络刮疗对田径运动员运动性疲劳及成绩的影响%The Influence of meridian scraping technique on track and field Athlete's sports fatigue and Sports Performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳玲; 陈丽云; 陈峰

    2015-01-01

    探讨经络刮疗对田径运动员运动性疲劳改善的效果及对运动成绩的影响。将运动员抽签随机分为刮疗组和对照组,观察刮疗前后训练相关情况、主观体力疲劳程度(RPE)及60m跑步成绩的变化。结果显示刮疗后运动员主观疲劳程度减轻,睡眠质量、训练体能、晨起精神这三个指标明显改善,刮疗组相对于对照组,60m跑步成绩提高较多。经络刮疗能促进运动性疲劳的恢复,提高运动成绩,是一种简便可行消除运动性疲劳的方法。%To observe the effects of meridian scraping technique on the track and field athlete ’ s of sports fatigue and sports performance.Athletes were randomly divided into the scraping therapy group and the control group.Training-related conditions and subjective physical fatigue (RPE) and the changes of 60m running scores before and after training were observed.After the scraping therapy , sleeping quality , training stamina , the mental state at the time of getting out of bed in the morning , in the player significantly improved.Meridian scraping therapy was an effective way to eliminate sports fatigue according to the analysis of RPE.Through the comparison of the athlete's own performance , the scraping therapy group improve athletic performance , The meridian scraping therapy can pro-mote the recovery of sports fatigue , which is an easy and effective way to eliminate sports fatigue.

  20. The E-C Translation of Vocabularies in Sports News

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何琳琳

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, many world top level sports events take place in China. The exchange in sports field between China and international society adds more significance to the E-C translation of sports news. This paper analyses the lexical features of sports news and then explains some difficulties in the translation of the words of sports news.

  1. The relationship between life and social timing of sports talents: a study with track and field athletes of the state of Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenamar Fiorese Vieira

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of life background and sports experience on the different developing stages of track and field athletic talents in the state of Paraná. The sample was composed by 38 subjects, comprising athletes, family, coaches, directors and sports secretary. Person-process-context-time bioecological paradigm (Bronfenbrenner, 1995 was used as model. Informant’s pad, interviews, researcher’s diary and other documents provided the data which were interpreted through categorial content analysis. The results demonstrated that the great majority of the athletic talents were born between 1970 and 1974, initiated their training at the age of 14.9 reaching their apex at the age of 20.9. These data were strongly influenced by the sports stimulating programs established and implemented by the state government from 1983 to 1990. The athletes began their sports practice at the expected age, but choosing their own athletic specialties at different ages. The survey of the life and social background revealed that the 8-to-11-year-old beginners intended just to play at the age of 12-16 they intended to travel and that from the age of 16 to 20 the training results appeared and reached their apex. It may be concluded that the developing trajectory of athletic talent is a continuous process dependent on a long-term training and an appropriate administrative structure. The evidences demonstrated that talent is a personal competence attained in the world of sports with a close relationship between social and life timing at the different stages of athlete’s development.

  2. Photobiomodulation on sports injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Guang; Liu, Timon C.; Jiao, Jian-Ling; Li, Cheng-Zhang; Xu, Xiao-Yang

    2003-12-01

    Sports injuries healing has long been an important field in sports medicine. The stimulatory effects of Low intensity laser (LIL) irradiation have been investigated in several medical fields, such as cultured cell response, wound healing, hormonal or neural stimulation, pain relief and others. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether LIL irradiation can accelerate sports injuries healing. Some experimental and clinical studies have shown the laser stimulation effects on soft tissues and cartilage, however, controversy still exists regarding the role of LIL when used as a therapeutic device. Summarizing the data of cell studies and animal experiments and clinic trials by using the biological information model of photobiomodulation, we conclude that LIL irradiation is a valuable treatment for superficial and localized sports injuries and that the injuries healing effects of the therapy depend on the dosage of LIL irradiation.

  3. [Use of tempered, particle-reinforced aluminum horse shoes in sport horses under field conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandstetter, J; Stanek, C; Hinterhofer, C

    1999-02-01

    The use of handmade particulate reinforced alloy horseshoes (MMC metal matrix composites) was tested in a field study on 15 riding and draught horses. All horseshoes have been tempered after having been manually forged and tested concerning their surface imperfection. Forging temperature ranged between 350 degrees and 420 degrees C. Horseshoes in series A consisted of particulate reinforced wrought alloy (22% Al2O3 in alloy matrix). 11 shoeing periods with a duration of mean = 49.7 days (sd = 13.6) were evaluated. Horseshoes in series B consisted of particulate reinforced foundry alloy (20% SiC in alloy matrix), 5 shoeing periods were evaluated with a duration of mean = 45.4 days (sd = 7.9). Series C tested horseshoes made of particulated reinforced coextruded wrought alloy evaluating 6 shoeing periods with a duration of mean = 49.2 days (sd = 18.7). Service of the tempered particulate reinforced alloy horseshoes was significantly higher compared to untempered alloy horseshoes. Mechanical and forging properties of tempered particulate reinforced alloy are satisfactory. Service is only suitable for riding horses but not for draught horses.

  4. Differentiated Gender Ownership of Cassava Fields and Implications for Root Yield Variations in Small Holder Agriculture of Southeast Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enete, AA.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available As a result of their relatively limited access to production resources, it has been variously reported that women obtain lower yields from their individual crop fields than men. Cassava root yields obtained from farmers' fields in three villages of southeast Nigeria were compared using separate ownership of fields by gender as a factor. The result of the analysis fails to confirm lower yields from women's fields. Instead, mean fresh root yield was lower for fields owned individually by men than for those owned individually by women, and about the same for fields owned jointly by the whole family and those owned individually by women. This was apparently because of differences in the use of purchased inputs, especially hired labor and improved cassava varieties, and perhaps also due to differences in the age of cassava at harvest and the intercropping of cassava as a minor crop with yam.

  5. Sport, how people choose it: A network analysis approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreri, Luca; Ivaldi, Marco; Daolio, Fabio; Giacobini, Mario; Rainoldi, Alberto; Tomassini, Marco

    2015-01-01

    In order to investigate the behaviour of athletes in choosing sports, we analyse data from part of the We-Sport database, a vertical social network that links athletes through sports. In particular, we explore connections between people sharing common sports and the role of age and gender by applying "network science" approaches and methods. The results show a disassortative tendency of athletes in choosing sports, a negative correlation between age and number of chosen sports and a positive correlation between age of connected athletes. Some interesting patterns of connection between age classes are depicted. In addition, we propose a method to classify sports, based on the analyses of the behaviour of people practising them. Thanks to this brand new classifications, we highlight the links of class of sports and their unexpected features. We emphasise some gender dependency affinity in choosing sport classes.

  6. Study on the Relationship between Sports Skills and Visual Image Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Zeng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available 120 college athletes including 30 gymnasts, 30 ball players, 30 athletes in track and field, and 30 swimmers with different levels of sports skills were measured on the operation speed and accuracy of visual images in the present study. The results showed that there was a close relationship between sport skill level and the operation level of visual images. The higher the sport skill level was, the higher the operation level was. The gymnasts were faster in the operation of visual images than the other athletes, but there was no significant difference among athletes of other sports games in visual image operation. The athletes achieved great improvement in their ability of visual image, but there was no significant difference between different genders.

  7. [Sport medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Yoram

    2012-02-01

    It is only since the late 20th century that Sport and Exercise Medicine has emerged as a distinct entity in health care. In Israel, sports medicine is regulated by a State Law and a sport physician is certified after graduating a structured program. In the past, sports medicine was related to the diagnosis and treatment of injuries encountered by top athletes. In recent years, the scope of sport medicine has broadened to reflect the awareness of modern society of the dangers of physical inactivity. In this perspective the American College of Sport Medicine (ACSM) recently launched a program--"Exercise is Medicine", to promote physical activity in order to improve health and well-being and prevention of diseases through physical activity prescriptions. This program is from doctors and healthcare providers, adjusted to the patient or trainee. The sport physician does not replace a medical specialist, but having a thorough understanding about the etiology of a sport-related injury enables him to better focus on treatment and prevention. Therefore, Team Physicians in Elite Sport often play a role regarding not only the medical care of athletes, but also in the physiological monitoring of the athlete and correcting aberrations, to achieve peak physical performance. The broad spectrum of issues in sport and exercise medicine cannot be completely covered in one issue of the Journal. Therefore, the few reports that are presented to enhance interest and understanding in the broad spectrum of issues in sports and exercise medicine are only the tip of the iceberg.

  8. Reliability and Validity of a New Test of Change-of-Direction Speed for Field-Based Sports: the Change-of-Direction and Acceleration Test (CODAT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockie, Robert G; Schultz, Adrian B; Callaghan, Samuel J; Jeffriess, Matthew D; Berry, Simon P

    2013-01-01

    Field sport coaches must use reliable and valid tests to assess change-of-direction speed in their athletes. Few tests feature linear sprinting with acute change- of-direction maneuvers. The Change-of-Direction and Acceleration Test (CODAT) was designed to assess field sport change-of-direction speed, and includes a linear 5-meter (m) sprint, 45° and 90° cuts, 3- m sprints to the left and right, and a linear 10-m sprint. This study analyzed the reliability and validity of this test, through comparisons to 20-m sprint (0-5, 0-10, 0-20 m intervals) and Illinois agility run (IAR) performance. Eighteen Australian footballers (age = 23.83 ± 7.04 yrs; height = 1.79 ± 0.06 m; mass = 85.36 ± 13.21 kg) were recruited. Following familiarization, subjects completed the 20-m sprint, CODAT, and IAR in 2 sessions, 48 hours apart. Intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) assessed relative reliability. Absolute reliability was analyzed through paired samples t-tests (p ≤ 0.05) determining between-session differences. Typical error (TE), coefficient of variation (CV), and differences between the TE and smallest worthwhile change (SWC), also assessed absolute reliability and test usefulness. For the validity analysis, Pearson's correlations (p ≤ 0.05) analyzed between-test relationships. Results showed no between-session differences for any test (p = 0.19-0.86). CODAT time averaged ~6 s, and the ICC and CV equaled 0.84 and 3.0%, respectively. The homogeneous sample of Australian footballers meant that the CODAT's TE (0.19 s) exceeded the usual 0.2 x standard deviation (SD) SWC (0.10 s). However, the CODAT is capable of detecting moderate performance changes (SWC calculated as 0.5 x SD = 0.25 s). There was a near perfect correlation between the CODAT and IAR (r = 0.92), and very large correlations with the 20-m sprint (r = 0.75-0.76), suggesting that the CODAT was a valid change-of-direction speed test. Due to movement specificity, the CODAT has value for field sport

  9. Subversion of Gender and Image:A Qualitative Study of Female Participa-tion in Heavy Athletic Sports%性别差异与形象颠覆:重竞技运动对女性影响的质性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴平

    2013-01-01

    The history of women's participation in sports is an important manifestation of gender equality and an epitome of time .In this paper ,we interviewed with female athletes who are en-gaged in heavy athletic sports events and adopted qualitative study as the main paradigm to fur-ther explain the trans -gender and group characteristics of female participation in sports .We hold that the traditional social culture decided the gender differences in sports participation ,and gender differences and role identification still exist in social modern sports activities ;due to the double discipline of social culture and athletic training ,women are succumbed to the new gender construction ;the subversion of female image ,fuzziness of gender orientation and social selection stratification mechanism of sports events themselves resulted in marginalization of female athletes in heavy athletic s sports events .%女性参与体育的历程是性别平等的重要体现,也是时代的缩影。本研究以质性研究为主要范式,通过对从事重竞技项目的女性运动员进行深入访谈,进一步阐释女性体育参与的性别跨越与群体特征,认为:传统社会文化注定了体育参与上的性别差异,在现代体育活动中仍然存在着性别差异和角色定位;社会文化和竞技训练的双重规训致使女性身体屈从于新的性别构建之中;女性形象颠覆、性别取向的模糊以及项目本身的社会分层遴选机制,致使从事重竞技项目的女性运动员处于边缘化状态。

  10. EPIDEMIOLOGY OF PEDIATRIC SPORTS INJURIES: INDIVIDUAL SPORTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis J. Caine

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the book is to review comprehensively what is known about the distribution and determinants of injury rates in a variety of individual sports, and to suggest injury prevention measures and guidelines for further research. This book provides comprehensive compilation and critical analysis of epidemiological data over children's individual sports: including equestrian, gymnastics, martial arts, skiing and snowboarding, tennis, track and field, and wrestling. This book encourages coaches and sports administrators to discuss rules, equipment standards, techniques, and athlete conditioning programs. In turn, they can inform parents about the risks and how they can help their children avoid or limit injury in sports. A common, uniform strategy and evidence-based approach to organizing and interpreting the literature is used in all chapters. All the sports-specific chapters are laid out with the same basic headings, so that it is easy for the reader to find common information across chapters. Chapter headings are: 1 Epidemiology of children's individual sports injuries, 2 Equestrian injuries, 2 Gymnastics injuries, 3 Martial arts injuries, 4 Skiing and snowboard injuries, 5 Tennis injuries, 6 Track and field injuries, 7 Wrestling injuries, 8 Injury prevention and future research. Chapter headings include: i Incidence of injury, ii Injury characteristics, iii Injury severity, iv njury risk factors, v Suggestions for injury prevention, vi Suggestions for further research. In each sports-specific chapter, an epidemiological picture has been systematically developed from the data available in prospective cohort, retrospective cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional studies. The tables are numerous, helpful and very useful. The book provides a very useful resource for sport scientist, pediatricians, family practitioners and healthcare professionals in the field of child and adolescent injury and prevention The readers are going to

  11. Aspects of government policies in the fields of economy and entrepreneurship from the gender viewpoint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Rusi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The equal access of women and men to goods and economic services plays an important role in achieving gender equality and empowerment of women. Gender equality, in the distribution of economic and financial resources, encompasses a multiple positive effect on the fulfillment of the key priorities to increase welfare and the living standard in the society. It contributes to the consolidation of the women’s rights by enabling them to initially manage and control their own life and consequently influence on the society. Removing gender bias in the economic level affects not only the improvement of the women’s own situation, but also the growth of the children’ s welfare and that of the other family members, considering that women spend a part of their time and costs for the later.

  12. Sexuality Matters in Physical Education and Sport Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemphill, Dennis; Symons, Caroline

    2009-01-01

    Sport-crazy Australia embodies in the public imagination a "fair go" ethos, giving everyone an equal opportunity to participate regardless of gender, race, ethnicity, or religion. At the same time, sport can be seen by others to be the last bastion of male power, which can make sport participation difficult for those perceived to be or…

  13. Grappling with Gender: Exploring Masculinity and Gender in the Bodies, Performances, and Emotions of Scholastic Wrestlers

    OpenAIRE

    Phyllis L. Baker; Douglas R. Hotek

    2011-01-01

    We contribute to the sociology of sport and gender literature with an ethnographic analysis of scholastic wrestling by observing the current climate of masculinity and gender. Our results suggest that it is necessary to understand men and sporting behavior within a broader framework of gender, not just masculinity, because the behavior of high school wrestlers fell along a gender continuum between an orthodox masculinity and femininity. Our exploration of the body, performance, and emotion pr...

  14. Physical self-concept in a sample of primary students and its relationship with gender and out of school sport practice

    OpenAIRE

    Bernardino Javier Sánchez-Alcaraz Martínez; Alberto Gómez-Mármol

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this article are to evaluate the physical self-concept in adolescence and to get to know the outcomes in the different dimensions in the physical self-concept and to check the influence of the variables gender and level of physical activity. 125 students in Primary Education took part, aged between 11 and 13 years, and answered the Children Physical Self Questionnaire. Results in relation to gender indicated that boys had higher levels of self-perceived competence (p=.003), physic...

  15. Use of Sports Science Knowledge by Turkish Coaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Koray; Ince, Mustafa Levent

    The purpose of this study is to examine the following research questions in Turkish coaching context: a) What are coaches' perceptions on the application of sport science research to their coaching methods? b) What sources do coaches utilize to obtain the knowledge they need? c) What barriers do coaches encounter when trying to access and apply the knowledge they need for their sport? In addition, differences in research questions responses were examined based on gender, years of coaching experience, academic educational level, coaching certificate level, coaching team or individual sports, and being paid or unpaid for coaching. The participants were 321 coaches (255 men, 66 women) from diverse sports and coaching levels working in Ankara. The questionnaire "New Ideas for Coaches" by Reade, Rodgers and Hall (2008) was translated, adapted into Turkish, and validated for the current study. According to our findings among Turkish coaches, there is a high prevalence of beliefs that sport science contributes to sport (79.8%);however, there are gaps between what coaches are looking for and the research that is being conducted. Coaches are most likely to attend seminars or consult other coaches to get new information. Scientific publications were ranked very low by the coaches in getting current information. The barriers to coaches' access to sport science research are finding out the sources of information, being able to implement the sport science knowledge into the field of coaching, lack of monetary support in acquiring knowledge, and language barriers. Also, differences in perceptions and preferences for obtaining new information were identified based on coaches' gender, coaching contexts (i.e., professional-amateur), coaching settings (i.e., team/individual), and their other demographic characteristics (i.e., coaching experience, coaching educational level, and coaching certificate level). Future coach education programs should emphasize the development of coaches

  16. Gender differences in preferences of individual and team sports in Polish adolescents [Genderové rozdíly při výběru individuálních a kolektivní sportů u polských adolescentů

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Frömel

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The prevalence of physical activity (PA depends greatly on the options of executing preferable and favorite PA. Objective information about individual preferences in types of PA can support successful integration of adolescents into regular participation in PA. Defining the role of individual and team sports in regard to girls' and boys' sport preferences is a permanent problem that requires objective and continuous diagnostics. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the study is to examine the relationship among girls' and boys' preferences in individual and team sports and further among these preferences and PA participation. METHODS: Online research was conducted in the Katowice region and 518 boys and 559 girls from the age of 15 to 17 years participated. All high schools in the region were called on for participation, but only schools that allowed the research examination participated. Sport preferences survey that participants completed online via INDARES system was used to diagnose preferences in individual and team sports. The results were analyzed using basic statistical procedures, the relationship was determined based on rank correlation coefficients and differences between orders of preferred sports were tested by Mann-Whitney test. RESULTS: The most preferred individual sport in girls and boys is swimming, and that applies for all age groups. There is a very strong correlation (rs = .841 - .895; p CONCLUSIONS: The Polish version of the online system INDARES is a suitable diagnostic tool for the examination of sport preferences sphere in adolescents. Understanding gender differences in sport preferences of adolescents can increase their participation in organized PA.[VÝCHODISKA: Prevalence pohybové aktivity (PA závisí z velké části na možnosti zvolit si preferovanou či oblíbenou PA. Objektivní informace o individuálních preferencích v rámci jednotlivých typů PA mohou úspěšně podpořit pravidelnou ú

  17. A Tale of the Field: Reading Power and Gender in the Learning Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexiou, Anna

    2005-01-01

    In this article, I will argue that learning organizations that claim certain emancipatory promises in principle continue to ignore issues of gender, which, in practice are a distinctive and defining feature of our workplace contexts. Applying a feminist?Foucauldian interpretive framework, I intend to demonstrate and analyse the material workings…

  18. Safety in Team Sports. Sports Safety Series, Monograph No. 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borozne, Joseph, Ed.; And Others

    This monograph examines methods of promoting safe practices in the conduct of selected team sports with the aim of reducing and eliminating the occurrance of injuries. The team sports discussed are baseball and softball, basketball, field hockey, tackle football, touch and flag football, ice hockey, lacrosse, and soccer. (MJB)

  19. ETHICS AND CHANGES IN SPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovo Radoš

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Ethics, as a practical philosophy, is found in essential relationships and relations with other relevant practical disciplines (economics, law, politics, sport, etc.. Every human activity is ethically grounded. Therefore, human ethics, which includes sport ethics, is one of the fundamental criteria for establishing moral relations in different are as of sport life. Sport morale stems from a universally accepted ethics legal principles that aim at maintaining sport spirit based on the Olympics codex and humanity principles, among which are: consciousness and honesty, righteousness, cultural-behavior principle, openness, and the like. Changes in sport (organizational, structural, competition, etc. need to be adequately adjusted to universal, and generally accepted, values. Avoiding deontological ethics inevitably leads to increased sports immorality (referees_ fixing match results, spectators_ aggressive behavior, cheating using for bidden doping, etc.. Thus, projecting and introducing innovations in the field of sport, which, after all, are necessary and unavoidable in all areas of life, including sport, will eventually show its positive results only if the aforementioned aspects of sport ethics are taken into consideration.

  20. Radiological imaging of sports injuries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masciocchi, C. [L`Aquila Univ. (Italy). Dept. of Radiology

    1998-02-01

    Sports medicine is acquiring an important role owing to the increasing number of sports-active people and professional athletes. Accurate diagnosis of the different pathological conditions is therefore of fundamental importance. This book provides an overview of the most frequently observed conditions and correlates them with sports activities, as well as documenting relatively unknown lesions of increasing significance. Diagnostic techniques are described and compared, and their roles defined; interpretative pitfalls ar highlighted. All of the contributing authors have distinguished themselves in the field and have a deep knowledge of the problem involved in the diagnosis and classification of sports injuries. (orig.) 265 figs.

  1. Eye Injuries in Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in Sports Which sports cause the most eye injuries?Sports cause more than 40,000 eye injuries each ... and racquet sports.When it comes to eye injuries, sports can be classified as low risk, high risk ...

  2. The Progress of BCAA in Sports Field%支链氨基酸(BCAA)在运动领域的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈成香; 张红红

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of formulating the studies of BCAA in sports field from its effect and mechanism, this paper points out the present situation and some proposals are offered.%从功效、作用和机制两个角度入手系统归纳了支链氨基酸(BCAA)在运动领域的研究与应用,并在此基础上阐述了目前的现状,提出了相应的建议。

  3. Teaching Sport as History, History through Sport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Robert F.

    1978-01-01

    Describes an undergraduate history course based on two themes: sport as a reflection of society and sport as a socializing agent affecting society. The course focuses on sports and industrialization, traditional and modern sports, political and economic aspects of sport, and inequality and discrimination in sports. (Author/JK)

  4. Active Video Games Application Research in the Sports Field%体感游戏在体育领域中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘现赟

    2015-01-01

    Through summarizes the active video games an overview of the domestic literatures , combined with research status of foreign literature review Active Video Games in the sports field. Research suggests that Active Video Games research in the field of sports overall trend positive , check with the experiment and the research, for the Active Video Games really applied to the field of public health provides a valuable reference basis. But by the limitation of research conditions, research institute do is preliminary conclusion, the conclusion of the final still need more and more long-term research.%查阅国内文献总结体感游戏的概况,结合国外文献综述其在体育领域的国内外应用研究现状。研究认为,体感游戏在体育领域中的研究结论整体趋向正面,其中以实验和调察研究居多,这为体感游戏真正应用于公共健康领域提供了很有价值的借鉴基础。

  5. Sport, Modernity, and the Body

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besnier, N.; Brownell, S.

    2012-01-01

    Over the past three decades, the important role that anthropological theory has bestowed on the body, modernity, nationalism, the state, citizenship, transnationalism, globalization, gender, and sexuality has placed sports at the center of questions central to the discipline. New approaches to the

  6. Sport, Modernity, and the Body

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Besnier; S. Brownell

    2012-01-01

    Over the past three decades, the important role that anthropological theory has bestowed on the body, modernity, nationalism, the state, citizenship, transnationalism, globalization, gender, and sexuality has placed sports at the center of questions central to the discipline. New approaches to the b

  7. The Role of Learners' Field Dependence and Gender on the Effects of Conversational versus Non-Conversational Narrations in Multimedia Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Liew Tze; Su-Mae, Tan; Wi, Tay Nuo

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to ascertain if the effectiveness of conversational narrations and non-conversational narrations in multimedia environment will be mediated by learners' field dependence and gender. 53 participants (25 field dependent and 28 field independent subjects) were randomly divided to interact with either one of…

  8. Sports Physicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prepare for Your Sports Season Choosing the Right Sport for You Contact Us Print Resources Send to a Friend Permissions Guidelines Note: Clicking these links will take you to a site outside of KidsHealth's control. About TeensHealth Nemours.org Reading ...

  9. Sport Toekomstverkenning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marieke van Bakel; Ine Pulles; Annet Tiessen-Raaphorst; Frank den Hertog; Robert Vonk; Casper Schoemaker

    2017-01-01

    Deze publicatie verschijnt enkel digitaal op www.sporttoekomstverkenning.nl. Welke maatschappelijke veranderingen beïnvloeden de sport in Nederland? Waar gaat het heen met de sport tussen nu en 2040? Welke kansen, maar ook keuzes biedt dit voor de sportsector en het sportbeleid? Deze vragen

  10. Sports Physicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... more specific about athletic issues. During a regular physical, however, your doctor will address your overall well-being, which may include things that are unrelated to sports. You can ask your doctor to give you both types of ... if your sports physical exam doesn't reveal any problems, it's always ...

  11. Sports Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missouri State Dept. of Health, Jefferson City.

    This guide deals with various aspects of sports and nutrition. Twelve chapters are included: (1) "Sports and Nutrition"; (2) "Eat to Compete"; (3) "Fit Folks Need Fit Food"; (4) "The Food Guide Pyramid"; (5) "Fat Finder's Guide"; (6) "Pre- and Post-Event Meals"; (7) "Tips for the…

  12. Paralympic Sports

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The sport movement for persons with a disability has changed dramatically over the last dec- ades with even more changes ahead.Public awareness has increased.More and more individuals with a disability of all ages find interest in sport.

  13. Applying the Sport Education Model to Tennis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayvazo, Shiri

    2009-01-01

    The physical education field abounds with theoretically sound curricular approaches such as fitness education, skill theme approach, tactical approach, and sport education. In an era that emphasizes authentic sport experiences, the Sport Education Model includes unique features that sets it apart from other curricular models and can be a valuable…

  14. Comparative Sports Psychology: British and American Developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Benjamin; Walsh, Joseph

    By the turn of the 20th century, research had begun dealing with the subject of sport psychology in America. In the early 1900's, Coleman Griffin, the father of sport psychology, led the way in researching sport psychology. It was not until the 1960's that research in this field became popular in Great Britain. In 1967, in both America and Great…

  15. Anterior cruciate ligament tears for the primary care sports physician: what to know on the field and in the office.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heard, Wendell M R; VanSice, Wade C; Savoie, Felix H

    2015-11-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries are relatively common and can lead to knee dysfunction. The classic presentation is a non-contact twisting injury with an audible pop and the rapid onset of swelling. Prompt evaluation and diagnosis of ACL injuries are important. Acute treatment consists of cessation of the sporting activity, ice, compression, and elevation with evaluation by a physician familiar with ACL injuries and their management. The diagnosis is made with the use of patient history and physical examination as well as imaging studies. Radiographs may show evidence of a bony injury. MRI confirms the diagnosis and evaluates the knee for concomitant injuries to the cartilage, menisci and other knee ligaments. For active patients, operative treatment is often recommended while less-active patients may not require surgery. The goal of this review is to discuss the diagnosis of an ACL injury and provide clear management strategies for the primary-care sports medicine physician.

  16. Legal Regulations for Ambush Maketing of Sports Field in China%我国体育领域隐性市场行为的法律规制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张诚

    2012-01-01

    It is for the purposes to seek ways of the legal regulation of the ambush market behavior in the field of sports, through the case analysis, logic analysis and other methods to explore the sports market sponsor rights and the protection of intellectual property rights and the related legal way. The conclusions are as follows : sports ambush market behavior has not been formed definite legal definition ; Adjustment of our country sports ambush market behavior mainly on the basis of intellectual property law, the general principles of the civil law and other legal clau- ses, the lack of corresponding laws and regulations. Suggestion- perfect intellectual property protection regulation mode, important trademark for the administrative protection ; Try to use the angle of third person creditorg rights in- fringement to regulate sports support market ambush marketing behavior.%文章以寻求体育领域中隐性市场行为的法律规制途径为研究目的,通过案例分析、逻辑分析等方法探讨体育市场中赞助商权益及相关知识产权保护的法律途径。结论如下:体育隐性市场行为尚未形成明确的法律界定;我国调整体育隐性市场行为主要依据《知识产权法》、《民法通则》等法律条款,缺少针对性的法规。建议:完善知识产权保护的规制模式,重要商标可进行行政化保护;探索以第三人侵害债权的视角来规制体育赞助市场的隐性营销行为。

  17. CONSIDERATIONS ON MANAGERIAL ETHICS IN SPORTS ORGANIZATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Mihai Constantin Razvan BARBU; Liviu CRACIUN

    2012-01-01

    The scholarly literature in the ethics field approaches the ethical management issue in different areas such as accounting, retail, banking, public institutions or private companies. The subject of sports managers’ ethics is not very well highlighted in the national literature, as "sports industry" is constantly evolving. Sports have a strong impact on the national culture, influencing the values of millions of spectators and participants. The definition of sports given by the Council of Euro...

  18. phobia and women's sport in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South Africans across the divides of race, class, gender and geography. The argument for using sport to foster social cohesion in South Africa rests on two ...... 'There's got to be a man in there': Reading intersections between gender, race and ...

  19. Rapportage sport 2008

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koen Breedveld; Carlijn Kamphuis; Annet Tiessen-Raaphorst

    2008-01-01

    Sport boeit. Sport bindt. Sport bevordert de gezondheid. En sport betaalt. Sport is anno 2008 ongekend populair. Tweederde van de Nederlanders doet aan sport. Na zwemmen en fietsen is fitness de meest populaire sport geworden. Daarnaast zetten anderhalf miljoen Nederlanders zich als vrijwilliger

  20. Mimetic desire and scapegoat mechanism in sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jernej Pisk

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The most fundamental question about sport is what is sport, what is its origin and its essence? Because sport is connected with the human being (there is no sport without human beings different anthropological visions of human being result in different understandings of sport. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this paper is to present and explain an anthropological vision of the human being and society as was developed by René Girard. In his view mimetic desire and the scapegoat mechanism have a central role in any culture, religion or other secular institutions. The explanatory power of his theory is presented when it is applied to the world of sport. METHODS: Our methodology is philosophical, involving conceptual analysis and the application of the outcomes to sport. RESULTS: In the paper we show that mimetic desire can be recognized as one of the important origins of recreational and competitive sports. When people recognize what other people are able to do or accomplish in sport this invokes the mimetic desire as a result of which motivation for sport and competiveness can arise. But mimetic rivalry leads to an unstable situation. Therefore a second element is needed: Scapegoating in sport is presented as a mean to preserve the good reputation of sport, to keep peace in sport as well as in society as a whole. Finally, the attempt to overcome mimetic desire and scapegoating in sport is presented and the question if this is worth trying at all is opened. CONCLUSIONS: The theories of mimetic desire and scapegoat mechanism have great explanatory power when they are applied to the field of sport. They could reveal us some hidden motives and forces which drive athletes and sport as a whole. Moreover, they exceed the world of sport and reveal the influence of sport on the whole of society.

  1. Α new concept in European sport governance: Sport as social capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NIKOLAOS PATSADARAS

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Social capital is a key component in understanding therelationship between European sport governing bodies andcivil society. A core concept in sociology, political science,organizational behaviour and business, social capital is relatively new in the context of European sport governance. Inexploring the boundaries of both sport and social capital intheory and practice, one can see sport as a form of positivesocial capital that promotes social cohesion, trust, socialties, etc. However, it could also be perceived as «dark» social capital since the politics of sport do not always deliverthe social benefits they proclaim due to the «exclusionary»vs. inclusive factors: commercialization, doping, institutionalized gender personification, the leaky pipeline and the glassceiling in SGBs and in competitive sports. Sport has not yetevolved into a form of social capital which can be nurturedand reproduced to raise social cohesion and eliminate socialexclusions.

  2. Pattern Research on Relational Schema Between Gender Stereotypes and Sports Preference among College Students---Take College Students in Shenzhen as an Example%大学生性别刻板印象和运动偏好的关系模式研究--以深圳市大学生为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周月媛; 黎洁霞

    2016-01-01

    通过选取深圳市905名体育成绩优秀,具有良好体育基础的全日制大学生进行调查,分析大学生性别刻板印象和运动偏好的关系模式,研究结果表明运动偏好在一定程度上存在性别刻板印象,并将运动分为女性、男性或性别中立的运动项目客观地识别出来,对提出提高大学生运动参与具着现实意义。%Based on a survey among 905 full -time college students in Shenzhen,all of whom have good grades as well as good foundation in physical education,this paper analyzes the patterns of the relation between gender stereotypes and sports preference among college students.The results show that gender stereotypes,to some extent,do exist in sports preference.Furthermore,the research objectively identifies female,male and neutral sports,which achieves practical significance in the improvement of sports participation among college students.

  3. Studies of Television and Youth Sports: Laboratory/Field Research on the Effects of Pro-Social and Anti-Social TV Models on Children/Youth in Sport/Athletics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriarty, Dick; And Others

    This study investigates the question of whether or not exposure to televised professional sports affects the social behavior of young people who themselves actively engage in those sports. Lacrosse, hockey, baseball were monitored on television, with students questioned about the impact the behavior of the players (pro-social and anti-social) has…

  4. Sports nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomanić Milena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to higher energy consumption, physically active people have higher nutritional requirements. In addition to other important factors for sports, such as good health and physical predisposition, adequate nutrition is a fundamental component. Sports nutrition must be well planned and individually adapted based on physical characteristics, tendencies towards gaining or losing weight, frequency, duration and intensity of training sessions. Studies have shown that a well-balanced ratio of macro and micronutrients, with the support of supplements and adequate hydration, can significantly improve athletic performance and plays a key role in achieving better results. An optimally designed nutritional program, with realistic and achievable goals, which complements a well-planned training program, is the basis for success in sports. Only when nutritional requirements are met, deficits can be prevented and performance in sport pushed to the limit.

  5. Physics of ball sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, C.; Clanet, C.

    2016-06-01

    Ball sports have been part of human history for thousands of years [1]. Nowadays, 13 of them are part of the Olympic games (badminton, basketball, beach volley, football/soccer, golf, handball, hockey, rugby, table tennis, tennis, volleyball, water polo, ice hockey). All these games differ by launcher (hand, club, racket, bat), ball (size, shape and mass), pitch size and number of players. These differences induce different ball velocities. Apart from the velocities and the way to maximize them, we discuss in this article the ball trajectories and their impact on the size of sports fields.

  6. The Cornerstone of the National Competitive Sports in Dilemma: Track and Field%困境中的国家竞技体育基石:田径

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝武南

    2012-01-01

    通过对比中国田径与世界田径以及中国男子田径和女子田径,提出中国田径项目形成目前状况的原因(外界挤压、自身特点、全运会战略和"奥运争光"计划影响)以及可能造成不利于中国体育整体均衡发展的影响,建议政府部门深化对田径项目的认识、淡化"奥运争光"计划和全运会战略、改善田径运动对大众的亲和力等。%By comparison of track and field between China and the world and China man track and field and woman track and field, the author proposed the causes of formation and present status of China track and field items (outside extrusion, its own features, national games strategy and the "Olympic glory" plans effect) and also the potential effect to the overall balanced de- velopment of China sports. The author suggested that the government should deepen the awareness of the track and field items, and desalting the "Olympic glory" plan and the national games strategy and improve the affinity of the tract and field to the mass.

  7. Sports fractures.

    OpenAIRE

    DeCoster, T. A.; Stevens, M. A.; Albright, J. P.

    1994-01-01

    Fractures occur in athletes and dramatically influence performance during competitive and recreational activities. Fractures occur in athletes as the result of repetitive stress, acute sports-related trauma and trauma outside of athletics. The literature provides general guidelines for treatment as well as a variety of statistics on the epidemiology of fractures by sport and level of participation. Athletes are healthy and motivated patients, and have high expectations regarding their level o...

  8. Sports Accidents

    CERN Multimedia

    Kiebel

    1972-01-01

    Le Docteur Kiebel, chirurgien à Genève, est aussi un grand ami de sport et de temps en temps médecin des classes genevoises de ski et également médecin de l'équipe de hockey sur glace de Genève Servette. Il est bien qualifié pour nous parler d'accidents de sport et surtout d'accidents de ski.

  9. Farmer Field Schools: Unexpected outcomes of gendered empowerment in wartime Nepal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westendorp, A.M.B.; Visser, L.E.

    2015-01-01

    This article is the outcome of an empirical study of technical training of women and men through Farmer Field Schools in rural Nepal during the last decade. When the Farmer Field Schools started in Nepal as part of the FAO Integrated Pest Management project in 1997, this was also the year that the

  10. Farmer Field Schools: Unexpected outcomes of gendered empowerment in wartime Nepal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westendorp, A.M.B.; Visser, L.E.

    2015-01-01

    This article is the outcome of an empirical study of technical training of women and men through Farmer Field Schools in rural Nepal during the last decade. When the Farmer Field Schools started in Nepal as part of the FAO Integrated Pest Management project in 1997, this was also the year that the M

  11. Estereotipos y roles sociales de la mujer en el cine deportivo Stereotypes and social role of women in sports gender films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín PIEDRA DE LA CUADRA

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Este documento profundiza en el rol y cualidades asociadas a la mujer en el cine deportivo de la primera década del siglo XXI, objeto de estudio poco habitual en el segmento de la investigación cinematográfica. Para ello, se determinó una muestra compuesta por 74 películas, seleccionadas a través de un muestreo no probabilístico por cuotas y mediante un diseño de investigación de tipo descriptivo, siendo el análisis de contenido el instrumento elegido para llevarlo a cabo. Los resultados arrojaron que se reflejaba con fidelidad el modelo imperante en la actualidad, así como el canon moderno que se atribuye al sexo femenino, lo cual debería cuestionar el peso que supone la industria cinematográfica como instrumento de normalización en el tratamiento de la mujer.This paper explores the role and qualities associated to women in sports movies of the first decade of the 21st century and it represents an unusual study in the segment of film research. To do this, we investigated a sample of 74 films, selected through a non-probability quota sampling and research design using a descriptive, content analysis as an instrument to carry it out. The results showed that the prevailing model of our society is faithfully reflected, and the same happens to the modern canon attributed to females, which should question the importance of the film industry as a means of correction in the treatment of women.

  12. Democracy predicts sport and recreation membership: Insights from 52 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balish, Shea M

    2017-03-01

    Although evidence suggests sport and recreation are powerful contributors to worldwide public health, sizable gender differences persist. It is unknown whether country characteristics moderate gender differences across countries. The primary purpose of this study was to examine if countries' levels of democracy and/or gender inequality moderate gender differences in sport and recreation membership across countries. The secondary purpose was to examine if democracy and/or gender inequality predicts overall rates of sport and recreation membership for both males and females. This study involved a nested cross-sectional design and employed the sixth wave (2013) of the world value survey (nSs=71,901, ncountries=52). Multiple hierarchal nonlinear Bernoulli models tested: (1) if countries' levels of democracy moderate gender differences in sport and recreation membership; and (2) if democracy is associated with increased sport and recreation membership for both males and females. Countries' level of democracy fully moderated gender differences in sport and recreation membership across countries. Moreover, democracy was positively associated with both male and female membership, even when controlling for individual and country-level covariates. Democratic political regimes may confer health benefits via increased levels of sport and recreation membership, especially for females. Future research should test mediating mechanisms.

  13. RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY OF A NEW TEST OF CHANGE-OF-DIRECTION SPEED FOR FIELD-BASED SPORTS: THE CHANGE-OF-DIRECTION AND ACCELERATION TEST (CODAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert G. Lockie

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Field sport coaches must use reliable and valid tests to assess change-of-direction speed in their athletes. Few tests feature linear sprinting with acute change- of-direction maneuvers. The Change-of-Direction and Acceleration Test (CODAT was designed to assess field sport change-of-direction speed, and includes a linear 5-meter (m sprint, 45º and 90º cuts, 3- m sprints to the left and right, and a linear 10-m sprint. This study analyzed the reliability and validity of this test, through comparisons to 20-m sprint (0-5, 0-10, 0-20 m intervals and Illinois agility run (IAR performance. Eighteen Australian footballers (age = 23.83 ± 7.04 yrs; height = 1.79 ± 0.06 m; mass = 85.36 ± 13.21 kg were recruited. Following familiarization, subjects completed the 20-m sprint, CODAT, and IAR in 2 sessions, 48 hours apart. Intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC assessed relative reliability. Absolute reliability was analyzed through paired samples t-tests (p < 0.05 determining between-session differences. Typical error (TE, coefficient of variation (CV, and differences between the TE and smallest worthwhile change (SWC, also assessed absolute reliability and test usefulness. For the validity analysis, Pearson's correlations (p < 0.05 analyzed between-test relationships. Results showed no between-session differences for any test (p = 0.19-0.86. CODAT time averaged ~6 s, and the ICC and CV equaled 0.84 and 3.0%, respectively. The homogeneous sample of Australian footballers meant that the CODAT's TE (0.19 s exceeded the usual 0.2 x standard deviation (SD SWC (0.10 s. However, the CODAT is capable of detecting moderate performance changes (SWC calculated as 0.5 x SD = 0.25 s. There was a near perfect correlation between the CODAT and IAR (r = 0.92, and very large correlations with the 20-m sprint (r = 0.75-0.76, suggesting that the CODAT was a valid change-of-direction speed test. Due to movement specificity, the CODAT has value for field sport

  14. Safety in Individual and Dual Sports. Sports Safety Series. Monograph No. 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borozne, Joseph, Ed.; And Others

    The prevention of injuries and control of hazards in individual and dual sports is outlined. A separate chapter is devoted to each of twelve sports: archery, bowling, equitation, golf, gymnastics, marksmanship, track and field, weight training and weight lifting, fencing, racquet sports, judo, and wrestling. (MM)

  15. Some Physics Constraints on Ultimate Achievement in Track and Field (Alternate title: Understanding and Misunderstanding the Physics of Sports or "Where do World Records in Track and Field come From?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frohlich, Cliff (University of Texas at Austin)

    2002-02-06

    World records in track and field have improved remarkably throughout the last 100 years; however, in several events physics places quite strict limitations on ultimate performance. For example, analysis suggests that records in broad jump and pole vault have approached their optimum possible values. Physical constraints are more subtle for events such as javelin, high jump, and the distance races, and thus there may be opportunities for 'breakthroughs' in current records. Considering that there is enormous cultural interest and economic expenditure on sports, for most events the level of scientific analysis isn't very high. This presents a research opportunity for fans who are engineers or physicists.

  16. Sports and Exercise Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Injuries Sports and Concussions Strains and Sprains Sports Physicals 5 Ways to Prepare for Your Sports Season Handling Sports Pressure and Competition Knee Injuries Runner's Knee Bike Safety Strength Training Dehydration Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Injuries Medial Collateral ...

  17. Facial Sports Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Find an ENT Doctor Near You Facial Sports Injuries Facial Sports Injuries Patient Health Information News media interested in ... should receive immediate medical attention. Prevention Of Facial Sports Injuries The best way to treat facial sports injuries ...

  18. In Pursuit of Excellence: A Student Guide to Elite Sports Development

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Hill

    2007-01-01

    DESCRIPTION This book is about how it is possible to achieve the excellence in sport in modern times. PURPOSE To cover the past of competitive sport of today as well as discussing current issues in sport such as drugs. The comparison of elite sporting methods in leading sport countries is also included. AUDIENCE Students in the field and anybody interested in modern sports especially in the history of it. FEATURES A comprehensive introduction about the pursuit of excellence in sport, covering...

  19. Investigating sport celebrity endorsement and sport event ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    \\' attitudes and the effect of sport event sponsorship and sport ... Results indicate that sport event sponsorship was perceived by participants as a product ... affecting consumers\\' pre-purchase attitudes that may influence buyer behaviour.

  20. Sports drink consumption and diet of children involved in organized sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlin, Dona L; Clarke, Shannon K; Day, Meghan; McKay, Heather A; Naylor, Patti-Jean

    2013-08-19

    Organized sport provides one option for children to be physically active. However, there is a paucity of information about the relationship between children's participation in organized sport and their diet, and specifically their sports drink consumption. Therefore, the relationship between sports participation in children and the consumption of sports drinks, sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) and other components of diet was examined. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted using baseline data from the Action Schools! BC Dissemination study cohort (n = 1421; 9.90 (0.58) y; 736 girls, 685 boys). The differences between the dietary behaviours of children participating in organized sport (sport) versus those that did not participate (non-sport) was examined. A modified Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C) was used to measure physical activity levels and participation in organized sport. A Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) and 24-hour dietary recall were used to assess eating behaviour and macronutrient intake (including protein, fat, and carbohydrate as well as sugar, fibre and total calories). Fruit, vegetable and beverage quantities were hand-tallied from the dietary recall. Fruit, vegetable and beverage frequency was assessed using the FFQ. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to analyse differences between groups and a chi-square test of association was use to determine if participation in sport was significantly associated with the proportion of children consuming sports drinks and SSBs, and with gender. Children involved in sport had a lower body mass index (BMI) and were more physically active than children in the non-sport group (p sports drinks and no difference in consumption of sports drink between sport and non-sport participants (p > .05) was observed. However, children involved in organized sport consumed more total calories, fat, fibre, fruit, vegetables and non-flavoured milk (p sport children. Children

  1. THE PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION AND SPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovo Radoš

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Sports education (training in physical education, development of physical skills and acquiring sports habits is, according to accepted international standards, considered an essential component of education. However, not only the experience we have, but contemporary tendencies in sport (different deviations and failure of established educational-moral principles as well confront us with the following question: Can sport still meet requirements in the process of education? The answer can be found among confronting philosophical- pedagogical views within the field of physical education, where special attention should be paid to universal value components of sport which, together with other examined values, make the general concept of humanity

  2. The Guangzhou Asian Games Sport Center and Roller Skating Field Project%广州亚运极限运动中心与轮滑场项目

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

      本文介绍了广州亚运比赛几个比较有特色的比赛场地:极限运动中心、小轮车场、轮滑场。重点介绍了这几种场地的设计要求及技术上的难点,期望对同类建筑设计有一定的借鉴作用。%This paper introduces several relatively unique ve-nues in Guangzhou Asian Game: Extreme Sports Center, BMX track, rol er skating field. Highlighting the design requirements of the several sites and technology dif iculties, expect to have certain reference to the similar architectural design.

  3. Nationalism in exotic clothes? Postcolonial thinking, gender and translation in the field day anthology of irish writing Nationalism in exotic clothes? Postcolonial thinking, gender and translation in the field day anthology of irish writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aidan 0'Malley

    2010-06-01

    Indian colonial experiences had no relevance in an Irish context, and they strongly suspected that Field Day’s interest in postcolonial thinking was little more than an attempt by the group to re-dress nationalism in exotic clothes. The blindness to gender evidenced in The Field Day Anthology of Irish Writing was taken as confirmation of this, as it showed that Field Day was a group that could not see beyond the ‘national’ question and engage with other urgent issues. In many ways, then, attention to gender and to women was construed in these, at times fiery, debates about the first three volumes as a symbol of progress and modernisation. Particularly in the Republic of Ireland, Field Day was characterised as a group of middle-ged, patriarchal Northern Irish men, who would drag the whole island backwards; who could not provide a viable narrative for it at the end of the twentieth century. However, volumes IV and V of The Field Day Anthology of Irish Writing, (those devoted to women’s experiences, are, in fact, even more vertly postcolonial  in their outlook than the first three volumes. But rather than looking towards Said, Fanon and Memmi, this second instalment was indebted to Subaltern Studies. Through giving an account of this episode in contemporary Irish cultural history, this article thinks about the problems and possibilities that attended upon this translation of postcolonial thinking from a non-European to a European setting.

    Field Day has been the most important collective cultural initiative in Ireland since Yeats and Lady Gregory’s National Theatre movement in the early twentieth century. Founded in 1980 to articulate a cultural intervention into the crisis in Northern Ireland, it

  4. Managing Collegiate Sport Clubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, David O., Ed.

    This book is written for the administrators of college sport clubs. It is comprised of a collection of articles on the topics of: (1) Sport Club Administration and Organization; (2) Student Development through Sport Clubs; (3) Sport Club Financing and Fund-Raising; (4) Liability Concerns of Sport Clubs; and (5) Sport Club Program Surveys.…

  5. AIESEP-Bham 2012 Position Statement: Sport (and Exercise) Pedagogy

    OpenAIRE

    Van Vuuren-Cassar, G.

    2012-01-01

    Sport Pedagogy’ is an academic sub-discipline of the broader fields of Sport & Exercise Sciences, Kinesiology and Human Movement Studies (etc). Taking its place alongside established sub-disciplines such as exercise physiology, sport and exercise psychology and sports biomechanics, sport pedagogy focuses on synthesising knowledge to inform the ‘pedagogical encounter’. The pedagogical encounter is defined as that precise moment where a teacher, coach or instructor seeks to support a learner i...

  6. Factors Influencing the Risk and Recovery from Sport-Related Concussion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R.J.Elbin; Tracey Covassin

    2011-01-01

    @@ Sport-related concussion remains a hot topic in the field of sport medicine as recent estimates indicate approximately 1.6 to 3 million concussions occur in sport and recreation every year in the United States[1].

  7. ŽENE I SPORT U CRNOJ GORI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl Cooky

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper is part of a larger study that identifies who plays sport in Montenegro, and the factors (family, education, economic, religious, cultural stereotypes, and so on that contribute to girls and women’s participation in sport or that limit girls and women’s participation in sport. This study is the first evidencebased research assessing the current status of girls and women’s sport participation in Montenegro, at all institutional levels. Using mixed-methodologies (quantitative assessment, survey data and qualitative focus group interviews this study will determine the numbers of girls and women participating in sport, as compared to boys and men in similar demographic categories, and to examine why girls and women do or do not participate in sport and what are their experiences in sport. Initial findings from the demographic assessment of sport in Montenegro illustrate overall gender disparities in sport participation in the 7 most popular sports; the majority of athletes, coaches, managers and decision-makers, medical staff, referees and sport delegates were men. We found the greatest gender imbalance in soccer and basketball, which were overwhelmingly male-dominated, and the greatest gender parity in handball and volleyball- and in some cases there were more female participants than male participants in these sports. We also examined overall trends in gender and sport participation across the different geographical regions, which were similar. However, there were differences in the types of sports men and women played in the different regions, which may indicate that some sports were more popular, or accepted, or easier to access for women in the central part of the country while other sports were more popular, or accepted or easier to access for women in the northern and southern regions. The project is a collaborative partnership with US- and Montenegro based scholars, the International Olympic Committee, the Montenegrin

  8. Nationalism in exotic clothes? Postcolonial thinking, gender and translation in the field day anthology of irish writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aidan OMalley

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Field Day has been the most important collective cultural initiative in Ireland since Yeats and Lady Gregory’s National Theatre movement in the early twentieth century. Founded in 1980 to articulate a cultural intervention into the crisis in Northern Ireland, it brought together some of the most important cultural figures in Ireland, such as the playwright Brian Friel, the actor Stephen Rea, and the poet Seamus Heaney. While it was originally conceived of as a touring theatre company, the enterprise also became a publishing imprint, and has produced some of the most challenging scholarly work on Irish culture and history. Its most ambitious project was The Field Day Anthology of Irish Writing, a massive undertaking that looked to compile and rethink 1,500 years of Irish writing. When the first three volumes of the Anthology were published in 1991 the egregious lack of women’s writing in their 4,044 double-columned pages, and the fact that not one of the editors of the 44 different sections was a woman, were immediately noted. In an embarrassed response, the editors commissioned a second instalment, which was entirely edited by women and devoted to women’s writing, and was published in 2002 in two volumes. The focus of this article is on the modes of postcolonial thinking that informed these two instalments. The first three volumes were clearly influenced by thinkers such as Said, who published a pamphlet with the group, and considered Field Day an archetypal postcolonial enterprise. Indeed, Field Day is credited with having introduced postcolonial thinking into Irish Studies, a move that was by no means uncontroversial. For many critics, theories emanating from African, Caribbean and Indian colonial experiences had no relevance in an Irish context, and they strongly suspected that Field Day’s interest in postcolonial thinking was little more than an attempt by the group to re-dress nationalism in exotic clothes. The blindness to gender

  9. Grappling with Gender: Exploring Masculinity and Gender in the Bodies, Performances, and Emotions of Scholastic Wrestlers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phyllis L. Baker

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available We contribute to the sociology of sport and gender literature with an ethnographic analysis of scholastic wrestling by observing the current climate of masculinity and gender. Our results suggest that it is necessary to understand men and sporting behavior within a broader framework of gender, not just masculinity, because the behavior of high school wrestlers fell along a gender continuum between an orthodox masculinity and femininity. Our exploration of the body, performance, and emotion practices of scholastic wrestlers gives credence to the current critiques of a hegemonic masculinity in men's sports. We show that gender is not dichotomous and that even in the highly masculinized sport of wrestling, feminine behavior by men is evident.

  10. Olympic Flame Illuminates National Sports

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Susan; Brownell

    2008-01-01

    In an e-mail interview,the pundit of China Central Television’s On the Spot Olympics coverage,Susan Brownell,gave Beijing Review her impressions of the Olympics lasting legacy on the nation and the Games themselves. A former U.S. track-and-field athlete her-self,Brownell is an authority on Chinese sports,having written several books on the country itself and conducted fieldwork on sports and body culture,and Olympic Studies. She was guest pro-fessor at the Beijing Sports University throughout 2007-08,and is currently Professor of Anthropology at the University of Missouri-St. Louis.

  11. 我国城市职业女性休闲体育运动发展--社会性别视域下趋势探析%Casual Sports Development of China's Urban Career Women---Trend Analysis from Social Gender View

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐爱萍

    2015-01-01

    满足女性多元化的体育需求,发展休闲体育运动是其中重要一环。依据从自身限制、人际限制、结构限制三个方面研究而得出的社会性别视域下的休闲理论,从休闲体育现状、内容、研究等方面分析了我国城市职业女性休闲体育运动发展中存在的问题。为树立女性休闲体育新理念、倡导节俭合理的女性体育消费观念、促进人与自然的和谐、开展生态文明教育活动四个方面的城市女性休闲运动的发展提供理论依据。%To develop casual sports is a good way to meet women's diverse sports needs. From social gender view, the casual theories are adopted by the author founded on studies on their own constriction, interpersonal constrain and structural constrain. This paper analyzes some issues of casual sports of China's professional women from the present status, sports contents and research, and it also provides a theoretical basis for the development of women casual sports from the four aspects such as building new women casual sports concept, advocating economical women consumption concept, promoting harmony between humans and nature, and carrying out the ecological civilization education.

  12. Transforming the Hidden Curriculum: Gender and the Library Media Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crew, Hilary S.

    1998-01-01

    Library media specialists are critically positioned to make a significant contribution to instituting gender-fair practices within a school. This article discusses instructional materials, curriculum, and collection development; gender culture and the media center; sports, gender, and different ways of knowing; and science, gender, and different…

  13. The promises and limitations of gender-transformative health programming with men: critical reflections from the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworkin, Shari L; Fleming, Paul J; Colvin, Christopher J

    2015-01-01

    Since the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development, researchers and practitioners have engaged in a series of efforts to shift health programming with men from being gender-neutral to being more gender-sensitive and gender-transformative. Efforts in this latter category have been increasingly utilised, particularly in the last decade, and attempt to transform gender relations to be more equitable in the name of improved health outcomes for both women and men. We begin by assessing the conceptual progression of social science contributions to gender-transformative health programming with men. Next, we briefly assess the empirical evidence from gender-transformative health interventions with men. Finally, we examine some of the challenges and limitations of gender-transformative health programmes and make recommendations for future work in this thriving interdisciplinary area of study.

  14. Sports Nutrition: What the Future may Bring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campbell Bill

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The field of sports nutrition is a dynamic one. Core competencies in exercise physiology, psychology, integrated metabolism and biochemistry are the initial parameters for a successful career in sports nutrition. In addition to the academic fundamentals, it is imperative that the sports nutritionist understand the sport in which our client participates. This sport specific understanding should manifest itself in fuel utilization, mechanics of movement, as well as psychological processes that motivate the participant to perform optimally. Sports nutrition as a field has grown substantially over the past 50 years, from glycogen loading to today's scientifically validated ergogenic aids. The last ten years has seen the largest advancement of sports nutrition, with the following areas driving much of the research: the effects of exercise on protein utilization, meal timing to maximize the anabolic response, the potential for ribose to benefit those engaged in high-energy repetitive sports, and creatine and its uses within athletics and medicine. The future of sports nutrition will dictate that we 1 collectively strive for a higher standard of care and education for counseling athletes and 2 integrate different disciplines. We are in an era of unprecedented growth and the new knowledge is constantly evolving. The International Society of Sports Nutrition (ISSN will contribute to this exciting field in many ways, and we ask for your contribution by sharing your passion, stories, research, and life experiences with us.

  15. New approaches to sport and exercise psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book contains articles based on selected presentations at the 11th European Congress of Sport Psychology, a congress arranged by the Danish Forum of Sport Psychology and the Institute of Exercise and Sport Sciences, University of Copenhagen, between 22 and 27 July 2003 in Copenhagen, Denmark.1......) The intention of this publication is to introduce the reader to a selection of articles which the editors would like to summarize under the title New Approaches to Sport and Exercise Psychology. Despite the diversity in content and form, all the articles have been selected on the basis of one common orientation......: they contribute something new or different to the field of sport and exercise psychology, for example, a new epistemological understanding, a new theoretical approach, a new research method or a new perspective on the applicability of sport psychology to different settings in the domain of sport, games...

  16. Application of infrared thermography in sports science

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book addresses the application of infrared thermography in sports, examining the main benefits of this non-invasive, non-radiating and low-cost technique. Aspects covered include the detection of injuries in sports medicine, the assessment of sports performance due to the existing link between physical fitness and thermoregulation and the analysis of heat transfer for sports garments and sports equipment. Although infrared thermography is broadly considered to be a fast and easy-to-use tool, the ability to deliver accurate and repeatable measurements is an important consideration. Furthermore, it is important to be familiar with the latest sports studies published on this technique to understand its potential and limitations. Accordingly, this book establishes a vital link between laboratory tests and the sports field. .

  17. ATHLETES ENGAGEMENT MODEL: A GENDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Martins

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Investigation from a diversity of theoretical perspectives displays that one of the best predictors of children’s continuing involvement in sports is the development of positive feelings for sport involvement (e.g. Martins, Rosado, Ferreira & Biscaia, 2014. In sport, the concept of engagement reflects the energy in action, the connection between the person and the activity, and it is considered as a form of active involvement between the individual and the task (Russell, Ainley, & Frydenberg, 2005. In sport, the concept of athletes’ engagement reflects a relatively stable and long lasting experience that is generically characterized through positive emotions and cognitions when engaged in the act of practicing the given activity (Lonsdale, Hodge, & Raedeke, 2007. Therefore, the analysis of experiences related to engagement is important in order to understand sport participation, and how its different levels can condition the social involvement. In addition, these studies failed to examine potentially important gender differences in engagement among athletes. Therefore, the study of athletes by evaluating their engagement levels comparing genders, can contribute towards shedding light on decisive aspects pertaining to its social involvement within ethical dimensions as well as personal and social responsibility, on which research is still lacking. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of gender on engagement in a sport scenario among youth athletes.

  18. Sports Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Div. of Career-Technical and Adult Education.

    This document presents the Ohio Integrated Technical and Academic Competency profile for sports marketing. The profile is to serve as the basis for curriculum development in Ohio's secondary, adult, and postsecondary programs. The profile includes a comprehensive listing of 999 specialty key indicators for evaluating mastery of 113 competencies in…

  19. Sports Gala

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    This year’s 11th National Games saw 21 new world and Asian records set Fans were treated to all the highs and lows of sport during China’s 11th National Games, billed as the country’s mini-Olympics, which witnessed both record-breaking feats and doping

  20. Sports Ballistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clanet, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    This review describes and classifies the trajectories of sports projectiles that have spherical symmetry, cylindrical symmetry, or (almost) no symmetry. This classification allows us to discuss the large diversity observed in the paths of spherical balls, the flip properties of shuttlecocks, and the optimal position and stability of ski jumpers.

  1. Sports Nation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    China is working to become a global sports power International Olympic Committee President Jacques Rogge watched China’s 11th National Games at Jinan’s stadium in Shandong Province on October 16, 2009. His high-profile attendance has set the

  2. Racket sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayanthi, Neeru; Esser, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Tennis may be considered a static and dynamic form of exercise with many well-demonstrated health benefits. Tennis has similar rates of injury to other individual recreational sports and junior competitive sports, without the catastrophic risk of contact/collision sports. Classifying tennis players into junior and elite categories versus adult recreational players may help in outlining volume of play recommendations, exposure risk, and types of injuries. Junior and elite players tend to tolerate higher volumes, have more acute and lower extremity injuries, and have more serious overuse stress injuries. Adult recreational players tend to tolerate lower volumes, have more overuse and upper extremity injuries, and more conditions that are degenerative. Many tennis players also develop asymmetric musculoskeletal adaptations, which may increase risk of specific injury. Tennis-specific evaluations may identify these at-risk segments, help guide preventive strategies including technical errors, and assist in developing return-to-play recommendations. Other racket sports such as squash, badminton, and racquetball have less data available but report both acute and traumatic injuries less commonly seen in tennis.

  3. Sports Fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... motivator. Physically, you need strength and endurance. Your training will vary with your sport. You would not train the same way for pole vaulting as for swimming. You might, however, cross train. Cross training simply means that you include a variety of ...

  4. Racquet Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebas, Carole J., Ed.; Groppel, Jack L., Ed.

    1983-01-01

    In six articles on racquet sports, the origins of the games are traced, methods for teaching skills such as footwork, racquetball strategy, and badminton techniques are discussed, and the biomechanics of the one- and two-handed backhand in tennis are reviewed. Information about paddle tennis is included. (PP)

  5. Consumers of leisure sports activities. Case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana RUSU

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, contextual dynamics of society require new understandings of leisure available to the individual. The manner in which he intends to spend his free time may affect the quality of life, beneficial or not. We intend to identify the preferences of the population over 25 years in Iași city, for leisure practicing sport and physical activities in specialized institutions. The sample survey included 150 citizens of Iasi (75 male, 75 female, distributed by age ranges: 25-34; 35-44; 45-54; 55-64 years. They answered a questionnaire with 14 questions that focused customer profile (demographics: age, sex, the behavior of consumption (frequency of practicing sport and physical leisure activities, frequency of practicing sport and physical activities in sports clubs, preferences for various sport and physical activities. The results suggest that sport and physical activities play an important place in free time, preferences turning to programs and services offered by sports clubs and associations in the city. There are gender differences regarding: leisure sports (men devote more time to, but also include several sports activities in their free time than women; also, young people pay more attention to sports activities compared to subjects other intervals age; in sports (even if there are a number of common sports, the reasons underlying their practice (women prevail desire to lose weight and men wish to keep fit. The understanding that free time is becoming shorter and shorter and precious determines behavior directed towards ensuring the individual benefits: better health condition, relaxation and satisfaction.

  6. THE SOCIAL DRAMATURGY OF SPORT: TOWARDS AN INTEGRATIVE GOFFMANIAN MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIANA-LUIZA DUMITRIU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the social field of sports within the general frame of social dramaturgy, by using three metaphors that are grounded on Goffman’s conceptual field: sport as play, sport as game and sport as ritual. After discussing “what”, “how” and “to what extent” can Goffman’s concepts be re-contextualized in understanding the dynamics of the sport acts, I went further and integrated the three metaphors into a more comprehensive analytic model. The multidimensional model of sport dramaturgy that I have built around Goffman’s hard-core concepts covers: the dramaturgical dimension, the strategic dimension and the ritual dimension of sport acting as complementary elements that can provide an integrative perspective upon the sport dynamics. Every dimension of this interactional model implies a specific definition for the competitive situation, for the sport actor and for his dispositional orientation when faced with a competitive situation

  7. Diagnostic relevance of high field MRI in clinical neuroradiology: the advantages and challenges of driving a sports car

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wattjes, Mike P.; Barkhof, Frederik [VU University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2012-11-15

    High field MRI operating at 3 T is increasingly being used in the field of neuroradiology on the grounds that higher magnetic field strength should theoretically lead to a higher diagnostic accuracy in the diagnosis of several disease entities. This Editorial discusses the exhaustive review by Wardlaw and colleagues of research comparing 3 T MRI with 1.5 T MRI in the field of neuroradiology. Interestingly, the authors found no convincing evidence of improved image quality, diagnostic accuracy, or reduced total examination times using 3 T MRI instead of 1.5 T MRI. These findings are highly relevant since a new generation of high field MRI systems operating at 7 T has recently been introduced. (orig.)

  8. KEY TOPICS IN SPORTS MEDICINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Ali Narvani

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Key Topics in Sports Medicine is a single quick reference source for sports and exercise medicine. It presents the essential information from across relevant topic areas, and includes both the core and emerging issues in this rapidly developing field. It covers: 1 Sports injuries, rehabilitation and injury prevention, 2 Exercise physiology, fitness testing and training, 3 Drugs in sport, 4 Exercise and health promotion, 5 Sport and exercise for special and clinical populations, 6 The psychology of performance and injury. PURPOSE The Key Topics format provides extensive, concise information in an accessible, easy-to-follow manner. AUDIENCE The book is targeted the students and specialists in sports medicine and rehabilitation, athletic training, physiotherapy and orthopaedic surgery. The editors are authorities in their respective fields and this handbook depends on their extensive experience and knowledge accumulated over the years. FEATURES The book contains the information for clinical guidance, rapid access to concise details and facts. It is composed of 99 topics which present the information in an order that is considered logical and progressive as in most texts. Chapter headings are: 1. Functional Anatomy, 2. Training Principles / Development of Strength and Power, 3. Biomechanical Principles, 4. Biomechanical Analysis, 5. Physiology of Training, 6. Monitoring of Training Progress, 7. Nutrition, 8. Hot and Cold Climates, 9. Altitude, 10. Sport and Travelling, 11. Principles of Sport Injury Diagnosis, 12. Principles of Sport and Soft Tissue Management, 13. Principles of Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation, 14. Principles of Sport Injury Prevention, 15. Sports Psychology, 16. Team Sports, 17. Psychological Aspects of Injury in Sport, 18. Injury Repair Process, 19. Basic Biomechanics of Tissue Injury, 20. Plain Film Radiography in Sport, 21. Nuclear Medicine, 22. Diagnostic Ultrasound, 23. MRI Scan, 24. Other Imaging, 5. Head Injury, 26. Eye

  9. Report on Sport 2003

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koen Breedveld; Rob Goossens; Maarten van Bottenburg; Wil Ooijendijk; Vincent Hildebrandt; Maarten Stiggelbout; Jo Lucassen; Hugo van der Poel

    2003-01-01

    Original title: Rapportage Sport 2003. There has been a huge increase in the interest in sport in recent decades. The number of people taking part in sport has grown strongly and more sport is broadcast on television than ever before. The government has invested a great deal in sport, not least bec

  10. Sport for life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annet Tiessen-Raaphorst; Desiree Verbeek; Jos de Haan; Koen Breedveld

    2010-01-01

    Original title: Sport: een leven lang. Many Dutch people are involved in sport: by participating themselves, performing voluntary work for a sports club, following the sporting achievements of others via the media or attending sporting events. In this report we look at each of these forms of involv

  11. Conceptualizing the adventure-sports coach

    OpenAIRE

    Collins, L; Collins, D.

    2012-01-01

    As a comparatively recent development, the adventure-sports coach struggles for a clear and distinct identity. The generic term ‘instructor’ no longer characterizes the role and function of this subgroup of outdoor professionals. Indeed, although the fields of adventure/outdoor education and leadership are comparatively well researched, the arrival of this ‘new kid on the block’ appears to challenge both the adventure-sports old guard and traditional views of sports coaching. In an attempt to...

  12. Sport and social media research: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Filo, K.; Lock, Daniel; Karg, A.

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of social media has profoundly impacted the delivery and consumption of sport. In the current review we analysed the existing body of knowledge of social media in the field of sport management from a service-dominant logic perspective, with an emphasis on relationship marketing. We reviewed 70 journal articles published in English-language sport management journals, which investigated new media technologies facilitating interactivity and co-creation that allow for the developmen...

  13. Sex, Drugs, and Kinesiology: A Useful Partnership for Sport's Most Pressing Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleaves, John; Llewellyn, Matthew; Wrynn, Alison

    2015-01-01

    From the gender controversy of South African runner Caster Semenya to the doping practices of disgraced American cyclist Lance Armstrong, recent sporting issues highlight kinesiology's important role and responsibility to sport. Increasingly, sport organizations, such as the International Olympic Committee, the World Anti-Doping Agency, and…

  14. Girls' Sports and Physical Activities in the Community: An Inclusive Vision for the New Millennium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varpalotai, Aniko; Doherty, Alison

    The Gender Equity in Recreation Services Policy for the City of London (Ontario, Canada, November 1996) was the first municipal policy of its kind in Canada. It followed the development of the Sport Canada Policy on Women in Sport and the Ontario Policy on Full and Fair Access for Women and Girls in Sport and Physical Activity. It resulted from…

  15. Heterogenous Effects of Sports Participation on Education and Labor Market Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorry, Devon

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzes the distribution of education and labor market benefits from sports participation. Results show that effects are similar across gender, but differ on other dimensions. In particular, participants in team sports show greater gains than those in individual sports. Quantile regressions show that educational gains are larger for…

  16. Sex, Drugs, and Kinesiology: A Useful Partnership for Sport's Most Pressing Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleaves, John; Llewellyn, Matthew; Wrynn, Alison

    2015-01-01

    From the gender controversy of South African runner Caster Semenya to the doping practices of disgraced American cyclist Lance Armstrong, recent sporting issues highlight kinesiology's important role and responsibility to sport. Increasingly, sport organizations, such as the International Olympic Committee, the World Anti-Doping Agency, and…

  17. Interfacing Sport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Tem Frank

    these media (expressiveness, reflexivity, identity), or ar media making us run (nudging, persuasion, societal benefits). The study includes theory on interactivity, media sociology, followed by cases (twitter and personal branding, selftracking and selfreflexivity, social media and club organization, fandom......This study tries to map out the possible interplay between interactive digital media (including mobile and wearable technologies) and sport as performance and participation. The ambition is to create a model providing the analytical framework for understanding questions like "are we running...

  18. A field investigation of flight anxiety: Evidence of gender differences in consumer behaviors among Las Vegas passengers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsey A Harvell

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study examines how anxious the Las Vegas public is through a case study of one local international airport. Design/Methodology/Approach: This study examines gender differences in consumer behaviors among the flying public inside Las Vegas McCarran International Airport in a field experiment theoretically grounded in Terror Management Theory. Findings and Originality/Value: Because airports are replete with reminders of human mortality, it is not a surprise that death awareness and flight anxiety may be closely related. The flying public that is anxious to fly presents an interesting public relations situation for airports. Therefore, this study examines how anxious the Las Vegas public is through a case study of one local international airport. Results show that flight anxiety does provoke the same kind of existential defenses that traditional death awareness does. This study also suggests that men and women do not react to flight anxiety in a uniform way, they are different in their reactions in seeking to gamble, eating unhealthy food, and an increased desire for electronic entertainment.

  19. Perceptions Regarding Employment Prospects among Final Year Students as Determined by Field of Study, Gender and Race

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hillary Tomu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated university student perceptions regarding their employment prospects and the extent to which differences exist regarding perceptions of employment prospects among beneficiaries and non-beneficiaries of the South African government’s affirmative action policies. A quantitative research design was used in which self administered questionnaires were distributed to respondents. A purposive sampling procedure was utilised. The data was subjected to a number of statistical analyses including one way ANOVA and T-test of independent samples. Results indicated that final Accounting and Pharmacy students reported positive perceptions about their employment prospects than final year sociology students. As hypothesised, female final year students were significantly more confident than male final year students about employment prospects. Also, black final year students were found to be significantly more confident than their white final year counterparts (non-beneficiaries of employment policies about their employment prospects. It is concluded that differences regarding employment prospects among final year students can be accounted for by factors such as gender, field of study, race and whether or not one is a beneficiary of the SA government’s affirmative employment policies.

  20. Actitudes hacia la práctica físico-deportiva según el sexo del practicante. Gender and attitudes toward the practice of physical activity and sport.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreno Murcia, Juan Antonio

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEl objetivo principal del estudio es examinar las actitudes hacia la práctica físico-deportiva según el sexo del practicante, con el fin de conocer y comprender los diferentes motivos que conducen a practicar actividades físicodeportivas. Para ello, se analizan las diferentes valoraciones otorgadas por el alumnado a la Educación Física, las prácticas físico-deportivas atendiendo a las diferencias existentes por sexo, la importancia de la motivación y la diversión en la práctica de actividad física regular, la aceptación social de las mujeres en el deporte y también, basándonos en todo lo expuesto, se establecen algunas prospectivas de estudio. Los resultados de los estudios muestran que las preferencias de los varones hacia la práctica físico-deportiva corresponden a actividades colectivas y competitivas, tales como el fútbol y el baloncesto, mientras que las adolescentes y mujeres muestran, tanto en la etapa educativa como post-educacional, actitudes positivas hacia actividades de tipo individual y estéticas tales como el aeróbic y la natación, actividades no ofertadas, en la mayoría de los casos, en las clases de Educación Física. Este aspecto ha sido considerado por los expertos como fomentador de desigualdad de oportunidades así como de discriminación del sexo femenino.AbstractThe principle objetive of the study is to examine the attitudes toward the practice of sports according to the sex of the practitioner, with the final objetive being to understand and describe the different motivations that drive them to exercise. For this, analysis is given to the different valuations given by the student body toward physical education. These include various physical activities practiced according to gender, the importance of motivation and “fun factor” in the practice of regular exercise, social acceptance of women in sport, and also, based on the results obtained, to establish various conclusions cocerning the

  1. Parents' perceptions of child-to-parent socialization in organized youth sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsch, Travis E; Smith, Alan L; McDonough, Meghan H

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to enhance understanding of how parents are socialized by their children's organized youth sport participation. Five semistructured focus groups were conducted with youth sport parents (N = 26) and analyzed using qualitative methods based on Strauss and Corbin (1998). Sixty-three underlying themes reflected parents' perceived socialization experiences resulting from their children's organized youth sport participation. Each theme represented 1 of 11 subcategories of parental change, which were subsumed within four broad categories of parent sport socialization (behavior, cognition, affect, relationships). Each category of parental change was interconnected with the other three categories. Moreover, six potential moderators of parent sport socialization were documented, namely, child age, parent past sport experience, parent and child gender, child temperament, community sport context, and type of sport setting (individual or team). Together, these findings enhance understanding of parent sport socialization processes and outcomes, thus opening avenues for future research on parents in the youth sport setting.

  2. Financing Professional Sports Facilities

    OpenAIRE

    Baade, Robert A.; Victor A. Matheson

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines public financing of professional sports facilities with a focus on both early and recent developments in taxpayer subsidization of spectator sports. The paper explores both the magnitude and the sources of public funding for professional sports facilities.

  3. Blood glucose levels and performance in a sports cAMP for adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus: a field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Dylan; Hamilton, Jill K; Riddell, Michael C

    2010-01-01

    Background. Acute hypo- and hyperglycemia causes cognitive and psychomotor impairment in individuals with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) that may affect sports performance. Objective. To quantify the effect of concurrent and antecedent blood glucose concentrations on sports skills and cognitive performance in youth with T1DM attending a sports camp. Design/Methods. 28 youth (ages 6-17 years) attending a sports camp carried out multiple skill-based tests (tennis, basketball, or soccer skills) with glucose monitoring over 4 days. Glucose levels at the time of testing were categorized as (a) hypoglycemic (13.9 mM). Results. Overall, sports performance skill was approximately 20% lower when glucose concentrations were hypoglycemic compared to either acceptable or hyperglycemic at the time of skill testing (P lasting an average of 84 minutes, but this did not affect sports skill performance the following day. Conclusions. Mild hypoglycemia markedly reduces sports skill performance and cognition in young athletes with T1DM.

  4. PRESENT TIMES SPORT MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Silvia GRĂDINARU

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to play as introduction for the sport management science, both as academic and professional major. The paper provides a broad overview of sport management rather than detailed instructions about how sport management is seen. The professional career in sport management should be built on a strong conceptual foundation. Sport managers who can think critically about sport – related issues will be competent, reflective professionals who have the potential to become influ...

  5. Sport and Tourism Between Modernity and Postmodernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenartowicz Michał

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The text presents and analyses manifestations of modernity and postmodernity in the field of competitive and recreational sport, physical education, leisure, and tourism. The paper builds upon an extensive literature survey and presents the concept and key features of postmodern societies and the modernity-postmodernity debate in sports with reference to postmodern tendencies in tourism. We have attempted to determine the proportions of tradition, modernity, and postmodernity in contemporary sport and tourism, keeping in mind that, similarly to contemporary societies as a whole, sport is undoubtedly a mixture of traditional, modern, and Fordist elements with postmodern and post-Fordist features. We present and discuss the prevailing belief that the key elements of leisure sport are mostly postmodern and focused on the notion of individualisation and freedom expressed especially in alternative sports, while commercialised mainstream sport follows the regular mass-media show-business development path, maintaining a significant amount of modern concepts, such as the importance of national identities. Special attention is also paid to the Olympic Games as a specific and very efficient mixture of modernity and postmodernity. More so than at any point in the past, and despite the actual proportions of modernity and postmodernity that it contains, contemporary sport has become an integral part of postmodern societies and their lifestyle, with technology-determined individualisation of sport consumption and leisure sport participation.

  6. Field Robotics in Sports: Automatic Generation of guidance Lines for Automatic Grass Cutting, Striping and Pitch Marking of Football Playing Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ole Green

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Progress is constantly being made and new applications are constantly coming out in the area of field robotics. In this paper, a promising application of field robotics in football playing fields is introduced. An algorithmic approach for generating the way points required for the guidance of a GPS-based field robotic through a football playing field to automatically carry out periodical tasks such as cutting the grass field, pitch and line marking illustrations and lawn striping is represented. The manual operation of these tasks requires very skilful personnel able to work for long hours with very high concentration for the football yard to be compatible with standards of Federation Internationale de Football Association (FIFA. In the other side, a GPS-based guided vehicle or robot with three implements; grass mower, lawn stripping roller and track marking illustrator is capable of working 24 h a day, in most weather and in harsh soil conditions without loss of quality. The proposed approach for the automatic operation of football playing fields requires no or very limited human intervention and therefore it saves numerous working hours and free a worker to focus on other tasks. An economic feasibility study showed that the proposed method is economically superimposing the current manual practices.

  7. Sport Psychology Foundations, Organizations, and Related Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaichkowsky, Leonard; Naylor, Adam

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to introduce psychologists and counselors who work in schools to the field of applied sport psychology. We begin with a brief history of how applied sport psychology developed in North America and other parts of the world. Landmark events such as the development of conferences, professional organizations and…

  8. The Shadow Report for the "Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW)" with Topics on Gender Diversity Education, Sex Education, and Female Participation in Exercise and Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li-Ching, Wang; Yu-Hsien, Tseng; Keng-Yu, Cho; Cheng-Ting, Wu; Yi-Chia, Lin

    2014-01-01

    This report primarily responds to the content of the Articles 10 and 12 regarding gender equity education in the governmental report made by the Taiwanese government in 2014 for CEDAW. In order to observe the obstacles and challenges facing gender equity education in our nation today, this report focuses on three aspects: gender diversity…

  9. The Shadow Report for the "Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW)" with Topics on Gender Diversity Education, Sex Education, and Female Participation in Exercise and Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li-Ching, Wang; Yu-Hsien, Tseng; Keng-Yu, Cho; Cheng-Ting, Wu; Yi-Chia, Lin

    2014-01-01

    This report primarily responds to the content of the Articles 10 and 12 regarding gender equity education in the governmental report made by the Taiwanese government in 2014 for CEDAW. In order to observe the obstacles and challenges facing gender equity education in our nation today, this report focuses on three aspects: gender diversity…

  10. INTERACTIONS BETWEEN GLOBALIZATION AND SPORTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senem ÇEYİZ

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We live in a world of rapid change. Although the most obvious examples of this change are seen in technology, it, in fact, has permeated all areas of life. When viewed from an international perspective, it is possible to say that almost all of the borders in many areas - particularly economic, social and cultural - in the world have disappeared due to the impact of technology. Nowadays the process which is seen as the source of all these changes and interactions is referred to as globalization. The word globalization has often been used as a multidimensional concept . Today, owin g to the process of globalization in many areas , spatial distances are almost diminished, so much so that the developments which take place at one end of the world may affect another country at the other end . The effects of globalization are as visible in the sports field as in many other areas. Sports is becoming more and more industrialized day by day . Live broadcasting of several sporting events has quite a large audience all over the world. Many foreign ath letes take part in national teams by changing their nationalities . It can also be argued that as much as globalization has an impact on sports today so does sports on globalization. The concepts inherent in sports like performance , competition, breaking re cords have created a common language recognized all over the world, a situation which serves to accelerate globalization.

  11. Writing lives in sport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mette Krogh

    Writing lives in sport is a book of stories about sports-persons. The people concerned include sports stars, sports people who are not quite so famous, and relatively unknown physical education teachers and sports scientists.Writing lives in sport raises questions about writing biographies...... in the academis world of sport studies. It does not set out to be a methodological treatise but through the writing of lives in sports does raise questions of method. Each essay in this collection deals with problems of writing sports-people's lives. These essays could be said to fall along a spectrum from those...... of the essays fails to recognise problems of sport-biography. Indeed, several focus explicitly on exemplifications of these problems and as such the book raises important questions for writing in a variety of sporting and educational disciplines....

  12. 近十年北美体育管理学研究热点主题之体育组织研究%Sports organizations research, hot research subject in field of sports management in North America for decade

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    浦义俊

    2009-01-01

    With the research methods of literature and logical analysis, the paper categorizes the sports organization research, the hot research subject in the Management of Sport: (JSM) to grasp the trend of its development.%运用文献资料法和逻辑分析法对(JSM)杂志中最热门的研究主题--"体育组织研究"进行归类和凝练,旨在了解和把握北美体育管理学中该热点主题的研究现状与趋势,弥补我国对此课题研究的不足.

  13. Predictors of Moral Disengagement in Sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, David Light; Funk, Christopher D; Bredemeier, Brenda Light

    2015-12-01

    Researchers have made productive use of Bandura's (1991) construct of moral disengagement (MD) to help explain why sport participants deviate from ethical ideals. In this study of intercollegiate athletes from diverse sports (N = 713), we examined MD in relation to other character-related variables: empathy, moral identity, moral attentiveness, and contesting orientations. We also examined whether moral attentiveness conforms to the pattern of "bracketed morality" found in moral reasoning (Shields & Bredemeier, 1995) and moral behavior (Kavussanu, Boardley, Sagar, & Ring, 2013). Results indicated that MD correlated positively with perceptual moral attentiveness and war contesting orientation; MD correlated negatively with empathy, moral identity, reflective moral attentiveness, and partnership contesting orientation. Results of hierarchical regression demonstrated that gender, contesting orientations, moral identity, and one form of moral attentiveness were significant predictors of MD. Finally, sport participants were found to be less morally attentive in sport than in everyday life.

  14. Green Marketing and Its Impacts on Consumer Behavior in Sports Shops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Shahlaee

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was investigation of green marketing and its impacts on consumer behavior in sports shops in East Azerbaijan province of Iran. The present study is functionalized by objectives and done by field. The study statistical society was sports shops in East Azerbaijan and 210 samples were chosen randomly according to Morgan sampling method and 196 questionnaires were collected finally. The author-prepared questionnaire’s validity was approved by some experts in sport management and marketing. Field and the reliability were assessed by pilot study using Chronbach’s Alpha (α= 819% which showed that the tool was reliable. The questionnaire had 30 items rated by Lakers scale. Questionnaire introduction contained demographic pieces information of age, income and education degree. Results shows that a significant relationship between green products features, green promotion, green pricing and green distributing with consumer green behavior; and education, income, and age, but not marital status, gender had a moderating effect on consumer green sports behavior.

  15. Creating sport consumers in Dutch sport policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Roest, Jan Willem; Vermeulen, Jeroen; van Bottenburg, Maarten; LS Sportontw. & Managing Social Issues; UU LEG Research USG Public Matters Managing Social Issues; LS Management van Cultuur en Zingeving

    2014-01-01

    This article deals with the tension between the association logic and the market logic that appears in the domain of voluntary sport clubs (VSCs). We present a qualitative analysis of sport policy texts of fifteen Dutch national sport organizations (NSOs) and the national umbrella organization to ex

  16. Creating sport consumers in Dutch sport policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Roest, Jan Willem; Vermeulen, Jeroen; van Bottenburg, Maarten; LS Sportontw. & Managing Social Issues; UU LEG Research USG Public Matters Managing Social Issues; LS Management van Cultuur en Zingeving

    2014-01-01

    This article deals with the tension between the association logic and the market logic that appears in the domain of voluntary sport clubs (VSCs). We present a qualitative analysis of sport policy texts of fifteen Dutch national sport organizations (NSOs) and the national umbrella organization to ex

  17. Creating sport consumers in Dutch sport policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Roest, Jan Willem; Vermeulen, Jeroen; van Bottenburg, Maarten

    2015-01-01

    This article deals with the tension between the association logic and the market logic that appears in the domain of voluntary sport clubs (VSCs). We present a qualitative analysis of sport policy texts of fifteen Dutch national sport organizations (NSOs) and the national umbrella organization to ex

  18. Creating sport consumers in Dutch sport policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Roest, Jan Willem; Vermeulen, Jeroen; van Bottenburg, Maarten

    2015-01-01

    This article deals with the tension between the association logic and the market logic that appears in the domain of voluntary sport clubs (VSCs). We present a qualitative analysis of sport policy texts of fifteen Dutch national sport organizations (NSOs) and the national umbrella organization to

  19. Creating sport consumers in Dutch sport policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Roest, Jan Willem; Vermeulen, Jeroen; van Bottenburg, Maarten; LS Sportontw. & Managing Social Issues; UU LEG Research USG Public Matters Managing Social Issues; LS Management van Cultuur en Zingeving

    2014-01-01

    This article deals with the tension between the association logic and the market logic that appears in the domain of voluntary sport clubs (VSCs). We present a qualitative analysis of sport policy texts of fifteen Dutch national sport organizations (NSOs) and the national umbrella organization to

  20. Creating sport consumers in Dutch sport policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Roest, Jan Willem; Vermeulen, Jeroen; van Bottenburg, Maarten

    2015-01-01

    This article deals with the tension between the association logic and the market logic that appears in the domain of voluntary sport clubs (VSCs). We present a qualitative analysis of sport policy texts of fifteen Dutch national sport organizations (NSOs) and the national umbrella organization to ex

  1. Ethical issues in sport psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Jack C; Way, William C; Hilliard, Robert C

    2017-08-01

    The field of sport psychology is dynamic and growing. To continue building credibility with the public and allied professionals, effective and ethical practice is crucial. Advances in technology have allowed sport psychology professionals to consult with athletes from a distance, but practitioners must be mindful of their competency to use technology, confidentiality concerns, and the suitability of technology for their clients. Movement toward defining competency and clarifying issues of title usage are additional areas in which the field is gaining momentum. Recent attention has also been drawn to the topics of professional development and cultural competency. With the unique settings in which applied sport psychology practice takes place, attention to multiple relationships is another key ethical issue. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Prevalence of knee instability in relation to sports activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hahn, Thomas; Foldspang, Anders; Hansen, Thorsten Ingemann

    2001-01-01

    to be positively associated with female gender and different features of occupational work. In conclusion, knee instability is a commonly reported phenomenon among active athletes. It was found to be independent of the type and the amount of sports activity but highly dependent on female gender, type and amount...

  3. The Allocation of Governmental Authority in the Field of Competitive Sports Management%现代竞技体育法制建构中的公权力配置

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈炜

    2012-01-01

    竞技体育法制建构的核心环节是竞技体育治理领域中的公权力配置。现代社会公权力配置,必须坚持和贯彻民主原则、权利保障原则、法治原则、公正原则、分权制衡原则和责权利均衡原则。作为调整各类竞技体育主体之间利益关系的竞技体育法制,其内容包括实体性规范、程序性规范、组织制度、工作制度和本领域特定的法律原则,我国现行竞技体育法制在上述几个方面都存在明显的缺失,而其核心性缺失则是有关竞技体育治理的公权力配置的失衡。现代竞技体育法制之建构,应按照上述六项基本原则的要求,对权力主体之权力、利益、义务和责任这四方面内容进行合理配置。%The allocation of governmental authority in the field of competitive sports management is the key point of competitive sports legal system construction. The modem social public power allocation must hold to and carry out the principle of democracy, rights protection, the principle of the rule of law principle, fair principle, principle of balances and duty and right balance principle. As the adjustment of various aspects of the interests within the sports legal system, competitive sports management includes the substantive law, procedural norms, organizational system, working system and the domain specific legal principles, our current sports law in the above several aspects are obviously lacking, but the core loss is related to competitive sports management of public power configuration unbalance. The modem competitive sports legal system construction should reasonably allocate the main power, interests, obligations and responsibilities in accordance with the above six basic principle.

  4. Enhancement in Sport, and Enhancement outside Sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Thomas

    2007-12-01

    Sport is one of the first areas in which enhancement has become commonplace. It is also one of the first areas in which the use of enhancement technologies has been heavily regulated. Some have thus seen sport as a testing ground for arguments about whether to permit enhancement. However, I argue that there are fairness-based objections to enhancement in sport that do not apply as strongly in some other areas of human activity. Thus, I claim that there will often be a stronger case for permitting enhancement outside of sport than for permitting enhancement in sport. I end by considering some methodological implications of this conclusion.

  5. Sports Culture and Sports in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yılmaz KAPLAN

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Sports culture indicates all kinds of morals, products, and behavior. This study aims to argue sports as a cultural element and its appearence in Turkey. This is a descriptive study based on theoretical argument. It is periodic since it is limited to a given term and it is also relied upon literature review. People's adaptations to living conditions are related to culture. We can specify this, “all the patt erns of living and behavior which are special to small units within a large and structurally developed society.” ( Erdemli , 2002In Turkey; it’s more accurate to say that, it’s understood football when you think about sports and sport culture is football culture. This condition can not only induce cultural diversity and wealth but it also leads to a transformation into a society who likes watching sports, talking about sports (saying more precisely football rather than doing sports. Sport magazine has sur passed the sport itself. Representation of sport in media does not make a favorable contribution. Sport media invites violence with its manner of representation of news by acting with the concerns of rating and curcilation although they, at every turn, dec lare that they are against violence. Discourses which include violence, nationalism, sexism, and slang has increased in media as an extensive research also suggested ( Talimciler , 2003.Culture, is a phenomenon which is considerably about quality and accumu lation. Processes are as important as results; sometimes even more. In this sense sport is much more than the score. In a country, a sport branch can be attracting more attention than the other ones; however, Limiting sports to football, also limiting fo otball to several football clubs, and ignoring many of sports branches, those who are interested in them, and who are amateurs is an unfair and reductive approach. On the other hand; sports opportunities could not be created for millions of young and adul t people in our country

  6. Microforms and Sport History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Peter

    1986-01-01

    Explores the importance of sport history as it reflects the social and cultural history of the United States. Discussion covers the various sport history materials that are available in microform, including the Spalding Collection, twentieth-century microfilm sources, and sports and social history (Sports Periodicals microfilm series). (EJS)

  7. Report on Sport 2008

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koen Breedveld; Carlijn Kamphuis; Annet Tiessen-Raaphorst

    2008-01-01

    Original title: Rapportage sport 2008. Sport: it appeals to people; it brings people together; it promotes health; and it is profitable. Today, in 2008, sport is enjoying popularity as never before. Two-thirds of the Dutch population take part in some form of sport. After swimming and cycling,

  8. Report on Sport 2008

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koen Breedveld; Carlijn Kamphuis; Annet Tiessen-Raaphorst

    2008-01-01

    Original title: Rapportage sport 2008. Sport: it appeals to people; it brings people together; it promotes health; and it is profitable. Today, in 2008, sport is enjoying popularity as never before. Two-thirds of the Dutch population take part in some form of sport. After swimming and cycling, fitn

  9. Sport participation styles revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steven Vos; Erik Thibaut; Bart Vanreusel; Julie Borgers; Hanne Vandermeerschen; Jeroen Scheerder

    2013-01-01

    Social changes have been influencing determinants for sports participation since the introduction of the Sport for All ideology in the early 1970s. Consistent with Crum’s sportisation theory, today’s modes of sports practices, as well as the network of sport services, have diversified and

  10. Building Character through Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumpkin, Angela

    2011-01-01

    Sports are a focus of millions of Americans as they attend, view, and participate in sports. The World Series, Final Four, and Super Bowl often bring back memories of fun-filled parties and celebrations, but there may be several reasons why sports are so popular in the United States. The popularity of sports, however, does not necessarily mean it…

  11. EVALUATION OF SPORTS MARKETING EFFICIENCY IN ARAB COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GEBRIL MOHAMED R.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:Purposes of this Study are evaluating the efficiency of sports marketing in the organizations of some Arab countries through the following sub-goals:1-Identify the philosophy of sports organizations towards sports marketing.2- Identify the extent and existence of an organizational unit to perform specialized functions for sports marketing activity.3- Determine the extent of the use effective marketing methods in sporting organizations in order to get the material and technical support required to implement the plans and programs.Research sample consisted of officials, members of boards of directors, and managers of sports bodies' in some Arab countries (Egypt, United Arab Emirates, Bahrain, and Qatar. Two hundred forty Seven board members from Egypt (N 101, United Arab Emirates (N 76, Bahrain (N 40, and Qatar (N30 were involved in the investigation. The Subjects were administered a Questionnaire developed by the researchers.The most important results are Research sample differed (clubs -sporting associations - the Olympic Committee Arab countries (Egypt - Emirates - Bahrain - Qatar in philosophy toward sport marketing. Sample search (clubs -sporting associations - the Olympic Committee Arab countries (Egypt - Emirates - Bahrain - Qatar agree on the sport marketing methods used sporting organizations. There are a difference among sample search sports organizations (clubs - Olympic Committee in Arab countries (Egypt - Emirates - Bahrain - Qatar and there are agreement by the sports federations in marketing efficiency. The most importance Recommendations are :1.Need to add sports fields of investment to create the appropriate field to become sports areas for attracting investment.2.Guarantee the right of return sporting bodies in competitions organized through the radio and television.3.Establishment channels of sports economic. 4.Exempt contributions businessmen and sponsor and the players from taxes.5.Use the name and logo and flag

  12. PRESENT TIMES SPORT MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia GRĂDINARU

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to play as introduction for the sport management science, both as academic and professional major. The paper provides a broad overview of sport management rather than detailed instructions about how sport management is seen. The professional career in sport management should be built on a strong conceptual foundation. Sport managers who can think critically about sport – related issues will be competent, reflective professionals who have the potential to become influential agents of change. The sport management will face many challenges in the future, as examination of the ethics, social responsibility and principled decision making but in the meantime will offer opportunities towards society.

  13. Investigation of Sport Branches of a Group of Physical Education and Sports School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cem Sinan Aslan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available It is believed by the community that physical education and sports school (PES's students are always selected among successful athletes. However, especially in recent years, this belief has been losing value because of arrangements done by Higher Education Institutions (YÖK following Undergraduate Placement Examination (LYS scores and secondary school achievement scores affecting Physical Education and Sports entrance exam score nearly % 67. The purpose of this study was to determine the percentage of doing sport and their sport branches of students of PES in a university of Turkey. In this study, 285 (113 women and 172 man Physical Education students participated as volunteers. It was requested to fill out a questionnaire including demographic information as "age, gender, educational department, sport branches and training year" from the participants. For analysis of the obtained data, "Descriptive Statistics" section of SPSS (Ver.22 package program was used. Results showed that 62,1% (177 people have done sports but the 37,9% (108 people of all students have never done any sport competitive. Football was the highest preferred sport branch among students with the proportion of 25,3%, the lowest ones were karate, skiing, and cycling with 0,4%.

  14. Sport and measurement of competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, R.H.

    2009-01-01

    Sport is becoming an activity of increasing importance: over time more people participate in sport (active sport consumption), more time is spent watching sport (passive sport consumption). An important part of sport consumption is passive sport consumption where production and consumption are separ

  15. The Face Management Challenges of Sport Celebrity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana-Luiza DUMITRIU

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available While gaining centrality within the sport field, media accelerated its commodification process and facilitated sport actors becoming competitive on the celebrity market. The aim of this paper is to discuss the reconfiguration that the celebrity logic brought in terms of the mere condition of the sport actor and the face management challenges and remedial strategies that he has to cope with. I will thus focus on two main dimensions that I find to be constitutive for the celebrity status: one related to the augmented media exposure that sport stars are subject to and to the corollary symbolic reconfiguration of the boundaries between his public and his private life, and the second one related to the vulnerability that comes along with the new visibility of the complex repertoire of identities and social roles performed by the sport actors. Within this last dimension of the sport-related celebrity cycle of promotion, I will lay stress not only on the face threatening aspects for the sport stars, but also on the vulnerability transfer within the affinal branding network and the challenges it could bring for the brands that chose to associate their image with a sport celebrity. Thus, I argue that the kaleidoscopic public figures of sport celebrities requires high impression management involvement on their part, as well as more caution on the marketeers part.

  16. Genetic testing and sports medicine ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamee, Michael John; Müller, Arno; van Hilvoorde, Ivo; Holm, Søren

    2009-01-01

    Sports medicine ethics is neither a well established branch of sports medicine nor of medical ethics. It is therefore important to raise to more general awareness some of the significant ethical implications of sports medicine practices. The field of genetics in sports is likewise in its infancy and raises significant ethical concerns. It is not yet clear how genetics will alter our understanding of human potential and performance in sports. While a number of professional medical bodies accept genetic interventions of a therapeutic nature, we argue that the use of genetic technologies to predict sports potential may well breach both the European bioethics convention and North American anti-discrimination legislation, which are designed to support important ethical ideals and the ongoing commitment of the physician to the welfare of their patient. We highlight further ethical problems associated with confidentiality and consent that may arise in genetic testing as opposed to more conventional methods of testing in sports medicine. We conclude that genetic testing in sport that is not strictly limited to the protection of the athlete against harm, should be viewed in a very sceptical light by sports medicine professionals.

  17. Biomechanics: an integral part of sport science and sport medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, B

    1999-12-01

    Biomechanics is one of the disciplines in the field of Human Movement and Exercise Science and it can be divided into three broad categories from a research perspective. Clinical biomechanics involves research in the areas of gait, neuromuscular control, tissue mechanics, and movement evaluation during rehabilitation from either injury or disease. Occupational biomechanics typically involves research in the areas of ergonomics and human growth or morphology as they influence movement. While these two categories will briefly be discussed, the primary aim of this paper is to show the role of biomechanics in sports science and sports medicine. Research in sports biomechanics may take the form of describing movement from a performance enhancement (such as matching of impulse curves in rowing) or injury reduction perspective (such as diving in swimming or the assessment of knee joint loading during downhill walking). However, the strength of sports biomechanics research is the ability to establish an understanding of causal mechanisms for selected movements (such as the role of internal rotation of the upper arm in hitting or striking, and the influence of elastic energy and muscle pre-stretch in stretch-shorten-cycle actions). The growth of modelling and computer simulation has further enhanced the potential use of sports biomechanics research (such as quantification of knee joint ligament forces from a dynamic model and optimising gymnastics performance through simulation of in-flight movements). Biomechanics research may also play an integral role in reducing the incidence and severity of sporting injuries (such as identification of the causes of back injuries in cricket, and the causes of knee joint injuries in sport). In the following discussion no attempt will be made to reference all papers published in each of these areas because of the enormity of the task. Published and current work from the biomechanics laboratory at the Department of Human Movement and

  18. Understanding of Competitive Sports Conducted by School under the New Curriculum Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Housheng; Liu, Xiaoping

    2008-01-01

    Because some teachers and the leaders as well as many sports theorists have some conceptual misunderstanding of competitive sports conducted by school, there're some differences of opinions about competitive sports in physical education field, it would have a negative effect on the development of competitive sports in school. This essay is mainly…

  19. Sport-specific nutrition: practical strategies for team sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holway, Francis E; Spriet, Lawrence L

    2011-01-01

    Implementation of a nutrition programme for team sports involves application of scientific research together with the social skills necessary to work with a sports medicine and coaching staff. Both field and court team sports are characterized by intermittent activity requiring a heavy reliance on dietary carbohydrate sources to maintain and replenish glycogen. Energy and substrate demands are high during pre-season training and matches, and moderate during training in the competitive season. Dietary planning must include enough carbohydrate on a moderate energy budget, while also meeting protein needs. Strength and power team sports require muscle-building programmes that must be accompanied by adequate nutrition, and simple anthropometric measurements can help the nutrition practitioner monitor and assess body composition periodically. Use of a body mass scale and a urine specific gravity refractometer can help identify athletes prone to dehydration. Sports beverages and caffeine are the most common supplements, while opinion on the practical effectiveness of creatine is divided. Late-maturing adolescent athletes become concerned about gaining size and muscle, and assessment of maturity status can be carried out with anthropometric procedures. An overriding consideration is that an individual approach is needed to meet each athlete's nutritional needs.

  20. Sport medicine and sport science practitioners' experiences of organizational change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagstaff, C R D; Gilmore, S; Thelwell, R C

    2015-10-01

    Despite the emergence of and widespread uptake of a growing range of medical and scientific professions in elite sport, such environs present a volatile professional domain characterized by change and unprecedentedly high turnover of personnel. This study explored sport medicine and science practitioners' experiences of organizational change using a longitudinal design over a 2-year period. Specifically, data were collected in three temporally defined phases via 49 semi-structured interviews with 20 sport medics and scientists employed by three organizations competing in the top tiers of English football and cricket. The findings indicated that change occurred over four distinct stages; anticipation and uncertainty, upheaval and realization, integration and experimentation, normalization and learning. Moreover, these data highlight salient emotional, behavioral, and attitudinal experiences of medics and scientists, the existence of poor employment practices, and direct and indirect implications for on-field performance following organizational change. The findings are discussed in line with advances to extant change theory and applied implications for prospective sport medics and scientists, sport organizations, and professional bodies responsible for the training and development of neophyte practitioners. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Building a sports medicine team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Freddie H; Tjoumakaris, Fotios Paul; Buoncristiani, Anthony

    2007-04-01

    There have been a growing number of participants in high school and collegiate athletics in recent years, placing ever-increasing demands on the sports medicine team. Building a winning sports medicine team is equally as important to the success of an athletic organization as fielding talented athletes. Acquisition of highly qualified, motivated, and hard-working individuals is essential in providing high quality and efficient health care to the athlete. Maintaining open paths of communication between all members of the team is the biggest key to success and an optimal way to avoid confusion and pitfalls.

  2. Evidence from the field: Findings on issues related to planning, implementing and evaluating gender-based programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczyk, Shelly; Randolph, Suzanne; Stokes, Shereitte; Winston, Stefanie

    2015-08-01

    An Initiative of the United States Department of Health and Human Services' Office on Women's Health (OWH), Coalition for a Healthier Community (CHC), supports ten grantees across the U.S. in the implementation of gender-based health interventions targeting women and girls. A national evaluation is assessing whether gender-focused public health systems approaches are sustainable and cost effective in addressing health disparities in women and girls. To inform the evaluation, a systematic examination was conducted of literature in both the public and private sector designed to track, assess, understand, and improve women's health, public health systems approaches, and the cost-effectiveness and sustainability of gender-based programs. A two-person team assured the quality of the results following the review of abstracts and full-text articles. Of 123 articles meeting eligibility criteria (See inclusion criteria described in Section 2.2 below), only 18 met inclusion criteria specific to a focus on a systems approach, cost-effectiveness and/or sustainability. Studies assessing systems approaches suggested their effectiveness in changing perceptions and increasing knowledge within a community; increasing involvement of local decision-makers and other community leaders in women's health issues; and increasing community capacity to address women and girls' health. Further evaluation of the cost-effectiveness and sustainability of gender-based approaches is needed.

  3. Socio-demographic characteristics affecting sport tourism choices: A structural model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Slak Valek

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Effective tourism management in the field of sports tourism requires an understanding of differences in socioeconomic characteristics both within and between different market segments. Objective: In the broad tourism market demographic characteristics have been extensively analyzed for differences in destination choices, however little is known about demographic factors affecting sport tourists' decisions. Methods: A sample of Slovenian sports tourists was analyzed using data from a comprehensive survey of local and outbound tourist activity conducted by the Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia in 2008. After data weighting the information for 353,783 sports related trips were available for analysis. The research model adopted suggests that four socio-demographic characteristics (gender, age, level of education and income significantly affect a tourist's choice of sports related travel either locally within Slovenia or to a foreign country. Furthermore the destination (local or foreign has an influence on the choice of the type of accommodation selected and the tourist's total expenditure for the trip. For testing the first part of our model (the socio-demographic characteristics effects a linear regression was used, and for the final part of the model (the selection of accommodation type and travel expenditure t-test were applied. Results: The result shows the standardized β regression coefficients are all statistically significant at the .001 level for the tested socio-demographic characteristics and also the overall regression model was statistically significant at .001 level. Conclusions: With these results the study confirmed that all the selected socio-demographic characteristics have a significant influence on the sport-active tourist when choosing between a domestic and foreign tourism destination which in turn affect the type of accommodation chosen and the level of expenditure while travelling.

  4. Paralympic sport: an emerging area for research and consultancy in sports biomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keogh, Justin W L

    2011-09-01

    The Paralympic Games are the pinnacle of sport for many athletes with a disability. The overall purpose of this paper is to highlight the role that the field of sports biomechanics specifically (and sports science in general) may play in improving performance in various summer Paralympic sports through research and consultancy. To achieve this broad aim, this review provides some history and background on the Summer Paralympic Games, discusses the eligibility and classification rules, describes the potential for the constraints-led approach of dynamical systems theory to inform practice and research in this area, and reviews selected studies examining the biomechanics of the primary forms of Paralympic locomotion. Some recommendations on how sports biomechanics can help facilitate improvements in Paralympic athletic performance through applied research and consultancy are provided, along with commentary on what may be some of the most important issues addressing Paralympic sport.

  5. Writing lives in sport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mette Krogh

    Writing lives in sport is a book of stories about sports-persons. The people concerned include sports stars, sports people who are not quite so famous, and relatively unknown physical education teachers and sports scientists.Writing lives in sport raises questions about writing biographies...... in the academis world of sport studies. It does not set out to be a methodological treatise but through the writing of lives in sports does raise questions of method. Each essay in this collection deals with problems of writing sports-people's lives. These essays could be said to fall along a spectrum from those...... dealing with anonymous individuals, whose anonymity results from the confidentiality requirements of a social scientific research methodology, to those leaning more towards the literary-historical traditions of 'conventional' biographical writing. However, these examples are polar extremes and none...

  6. [Sports medicine in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickhuth, H-H

    2005-08-01

    Sports medicine covers many different aspects, ranging from clinical specialties, such as internal medicine, orthopedics or pediatrics to physiology and sports sciences. The requirements for sports medicine evolve mainly from exercise physiology (elite, leisure and health oriented physical activity), orthopedics and traumatology as well as from preventive and rehabilitative issues. In the new German curriculum, sports medicine is defined as a subspecialty. Historically, sports medicine in Germany has a federal structure with a governing body (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Sportmedizin und Prävention). Due to these facts, University Departments of Sports Medicine (which vary greatly in size and performance) are either attached to Medical or non-Medical Faculties, such as Sports Sciences. In medical schools, sports medicine can be selected as an elective subject. However, the main part of teaching sports medicine is covered by Sports Science Faculties. In an international context, the strength of German sports medicine is its clinical orientation and close cooperation with the sport itself, especially high-performance sports. In the future, like in the Anglo- American countries, sports medicine in Germany will play a major role in health prevention and rehabilitation.

  7. AUTOCONCEPTO FÍSICO EN UNA MUESTRA DE ESTUDIANTES DE PRIMARIA Y SU RELACIÓN CON EL GÉNERO Y LA PRÁCTICA DEPORTIVA EXTRAESCOLAR [Physical self-concept in a sample of primary students and its relationship with gender and out of school sport practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardino Javier Sánchez-Alcaraz Martínez

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Los propósitos del presente trabajo son evaluar el autoconcepto físico en la adolescencia, conocer los resultados obtenidos en las distintas dimensiones consideradas en el autoconcepto físico y comprobar la influencia de las variables género y nivel de práctica deportiva de los encuestados. La muestra participante estuvo compuesta por un total de 125 estudiantes de Educación Primaria, con edades comprendidas entre los 11 y los 13 años, que contestaron a la Escala de Autoconcepto Físico para Jóvenes. Los resultados en relación al género indicaron que los chicos presentan niveles más altos de competencia percibida (p=.003, atractivo físico (p=.000 y autoconfianza (p=.029. Con respecto a la práctica deportiva, aquellos participantes que practican deporte regularmente obtienen valores superiores en las categorías de competencia percibida (p=.000, atractivo físico (p=.000, fuerza física (p=.001 y autoconfianza (p=.000. Por tanto, en función de los resultados alcanzados, se puede concluir que tanto el género como la práctica deportiva influyen en el desarrollo de un autoconcepto físico positivo entre los participantes del estudio.AbstractThe aims of this article are to evaluate the physical self-concept in adolescence and to get to know the outcomes in the different dimensions in the physical self-concept and to check the influence of the variables gender and level of physical activity. 125 students in Primary Education took part, aged between 11 and 13 years, and answered the Children Physical Self Questionnaire. Results in relation to gender indicated that boys had higher levels of self-perceived competence (p=.003, physical appearance (p=.000 and self-confidence (p=.029. With regard to sport practice, those participants who practice sports habitually obtain higher values at self-perceived competence (p=.000, physical appearance (p=.000, physical strength (p=.001 and self-confidence (p=.000. Therefore, according to the reached

  8. THE MANAGEMENT METHODS IN PERFORMANCE SPORTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia GRĂDINARU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Sports are a widespread phenomenon, capable of raising human energies and mobilize financial and material resources that can be difficult compared with those in other areas of social life. Management of sports organizations is influenced and determined by the compliance and requirements arising from the documents issued by international organizations with authority in the field. Organizational development is considered essentially as a strategy to increase organizational effectiveness by determining changes that consider both human resources and organizations. On the whole society, it is accelerated by an industry evolving sport with distinctive features. Its development is conditional on macroeconomics and technology. The complexity of the activities of sports organizations performance, the main laboratory performance national and international sports, requiring a more thorough investigation to enable knowledge of the complex mechanisms of their management and simultaneously identify some optimization solutions throughout the economic-financial and human resources.

  9. THE MANAGEMENT METHODS IN PERFORMANCE SPORTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia GRĂDINARU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Sports are a widespread phenomenon, capable of raising human energies and mobilize financial and material resources that can be difficult compared with those in other areas of social life. Management of sports organizations is influenced and determined by the compliance and requirements arising from the documents issued by international organizations with authority in the field. Organizational development is considered essentially as a strategy to increase organizational effectiveness by determining changes that consider both human resources and organizations. On the whole society, it is accelerated by an industry evolving sport with distinctive features. Its development is conditional on macroeconomics and technology. The complexity of the activities of sports organizations performance, the main laboratory performance national and international sports, requiring a more thorough investigation to enable knowledge of the complex mechanisms of their management and simultaneously identify some optimization solutions throughout the economic-financial and human resources.

  10. Globalization of the sports economy

    OpenAIRE

    Wladimir Andreff

    2008-01-01

    Introduction – 1. Major features of a globalized sports economy – 2. International economic flows in a global sports economy – 3. Globalization as geographical spread of the sports economy – 4. Globalization of professional sports – Conclusion – References

  11. Superstitious behavior in sport: A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dömötör, Zsuzsanna; Ruíz-Barquín, Roberto; Szabo, Attila

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this first literature review, in this area, is to unveil the current status of knowledge on superstition in sport. Its outcome reveals that superstitious behaviors vary with the type of sport, athletic level, as well as athletic role. In agreement with past theories, they increase with the level of challenge, as reflected by the importance of the competition, as well as with the level of uncertainty. Cultural factors, in conjunction with the education level, as well as gender, have a strong influence on superstitious behaviors in sports. Based on current thoughts, religiosity and superstition are different psychological constructs used as psychological aids by several athletes. Personality factors appear to mediate the manifestation of the behavior. Elite athletes are clearly more superstitious than non-elite athletes, An interaction between athletic skill and task-difficulty emerges to be another strong predictor of superstition in sport. It is evident that a set of complex personal and situational factors interact in the manifestation of superstitious behavior in sport that is used for the regulation of emotions in a quest for optimal performance. It is concluded that the objective benefits (i.e., success) of superstition in sport may be ascribed to the placebo effect that yields an increased sense of control and mental reassurance in unpredictable contest situations. © 2016 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Motivational Pathways to STEM Career Choices: Using Expectancy-Value Perspective to Understand Individual and Gender Differences in STEM Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ming-Te; Degol, Jessica

    2013-12-01

    The United States has made a significant effort and investment in STEM education, yet the size and the composition of the STEM workforce continues to fail to meet demand. It is thus important to understand the barriers and factors that influence individual educational and career choices. In this article, we conduct a literature review of the current knowledge surrounding individual and gender differences in STEM educational and career choices, using expectancy-value theory as a guiding framework. The overarching goal of this paper is to provide both a well-defined theoretical framework and complementary empirical evidence for linking specific sociocultural, contextual, biological, and psychological factors to individual and gender differences in STEM interests and choices. Knowledge gained through this review will eventually guide future research and interventions designed to enhance individual motivation and capacity to pursue STEM careers, particularly for females who are interested in STEM but may be constrained by misinformation or stereotypes.

  13. 中学体育与健康课程田径类项目竞技性再探讨%Discuss again on middle school sports and health curriculum athletics track and field project competition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王艳霞

    2013-01-01

      自我国现代化教育事业发展以来,一直都比较重视中学体育课程的发展。“每天锻炼一小时,健康工作五十年”的口号至今仍然存在,特别是新世纪以来我国对体育教育的投入逐渐增大,中学体育的教学课本几经改版,明确了田径类项目在中学体育课程中的重要性,并强调在中学体育与健康课程中要加强田径类项目的教育。田径类项目一直以来都是体育教育的重中之重,田径类项目的竞技性在中学体育与健康课程中的改进更是引起了教育界和社会的广泛关注。本文就中学体育与健康课程田径类项目的竞技性进行分析和探讨,从而提供一些可供参考的意见和发展措施。%Since the development of modern education in China, has been more emphasis on development of middle school physical education curriculum."Exercise one hour a day, work healthily for fifty years " still exists, especially since the new century China's investment in education increases gradually, the middle school sports teaching textbooks after the revision, the importance of the track and field project in middle school physical education curriculum, and emphasis on high school sports and health courses to strengthen the track and field project education.Track and field project has always been a priority among priorities in physical education, improve sports in school physical education and health curriculum in track and field project attract more attention of educational circles and society.This paper analyzes and probes into the competitive high school sports and health courses of track and field project, so as to provide some reference opinions and measures for development

  14. SITUACIÓN DEL MERCADO LABORAL ACTUAL EN EL ÁMBITO DE LA ACTIVIDAD FÍSICA Y DEPORTIVA Current working panorama in the Physical Activity and Sport field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sánchez

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available

     

    El artículo pretende identificar y definir los actuales campos y ámbitos de actuación de los profesionales de la actividad física y deportiva, que al margen de otras circunstancias, son elegidos por factores vocacionales, laborales y/o económicos. Se determinan cuatros campos como son la enseñanza-investigación, gestión-recreación deportiva, entrenamiento deportivo y actividad física para la salud y se detallan las características que definen a cada uno de estos cuatro campos. De igual forma, se realiza un análisis de las diferentes titulaciones, desde la doble perspectiva de la formación académica y de la normativa legal existente, para realizar una propuesta de asignación de campos y funciones a cada una de ellas. Seguidamente se hace un análisis de la situación de las relaciones laborales finalizando con unas conclusiones y propuestas encaminadas a regular el marco laboral de estos profesionales.
    PALABRAS CLAVE: Mercado laboral, salidas profesionales, gestión deportiva, recreación física, entrenamiento, actividad física y salud.

    The article aims it at identify and to defining the currents fields and activities which professionals of Physical Education and activities in which, professionals in Physical Education and Sport Activities which, in the margin of other circumstances, are chosen on the basis of vocational, labour and/or economical factors. They are decisive in four fields such as teaching, researching, sport management-recreation, sport training and physical activity for the health and each of these characteristics is defined within its own field. Likewise, an analysis is given of the different stydy plans, from the double perspective of academic training and existing legal norms, to be able to put forward a proposal about the assignments of the fields and functions of both of them. Inmediattely

  15. Influence of gender, working field and psychosocial factors on the vulnerability for burnout in mental hospital staff: results of an Austrian cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schadenhofer, Petra; Kundi, Michael; Abrahamian, Heidemarie; Stummer, Harald; Kautzky-Willer, Alexandra

    2017-08-14

    According to the European Agency for Safety and Health at Work (EU-OSHA), hospitals represent a work environment with high job strain. Prolonged perceived occupational stress may result in symptoms of burnout, such as emotional exhaustion (EE), depersonalisation (DP) and reduced personal accomplishment (PA). Understanding which factors may reduce vulnerability for burnout is an important requirement for well-targeted occupational stress prevention in mental hospital staff. To identify the influence of gender, age, working field, family structure, education, voluntarily occupational training during holidays and length of stay on job on occupational stress perception. In a cross-sectional design, 491 employees (311 female, 180 male) of an Austrian mental health centre participated in the study. The extent of perceived occupational stress was assessed by the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) with the scales for emotional exhaustion, depersonalisation and personal accomplishment. Participants were divided according to their working field in those working with/without patients. Prevalence of emotional exhaustion was higher in women working with patients compared to men working with patients (25% vs. 18%, p = 0.003). Age above 45 years was significantly associated with decreased vulnerability for burnout in men (EE p = 0.040, DP p = 0.010, PA p = 0.007), but not in women. A lower level of education had a significant impact on depersonalisation in both sexes (p = 0.001 for men, p = 0.048 for women). Length of stay on job showed a significant influence on emotional exhaustion. No significant relationship was found between family structure and vulnerability for burnout. Gender had a differential effect on perceived occupational stress indicating a need for gender-tailored preventive strategies. Age, working field, education, voluntarily occupational training during holidays and length of stay on job affect vulnerability for burnout in mental hospital staff.

  16. Aerobic conditioning for team sport athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Nicholas M; Kilding, Andrew E

    2009-01-01

    Team sport athletes require a high level of aerobic fitness in order to generate and maintain power output during repeated high-intensity efforts and to recover. Research to date suggests that these components can be increased by regularly performing aerobic conditioning. Traditional aerobic conditioning, with minimal changes of direction and no skill component, has been demonstrated to effectively increase aerobic function within a 4- to 10-week period in team sport players. More importantly, traditional aerobic conditioning methods have been shown to increase team sport performance substantially. Many team sports require the upkeep of both aerobic fitness and sport-specific skills during a lengthy competitive season. Classic team sport trainings have been shown to evoke marginal increases/decreases in aerobic fitness. In recent years, aerobic conditioning methods have been designed to allow adequate intensities to be achieved to induce improvements in aerobic fitness whilst incorporating movement-specific and skill-specific tasks, e.g. small-sided games and dribbling circuits. Such 'sport-specific' conditioning methods have been demonstrated to promote increases in aerobic fitness, though careful consideration of player skill levels, current fitness, player numbers, field dimensions, game rules and availability of player encouragement is required. Whilst different conditioning methods appear equivalent in their ability to improve fitness, whether sport-specific conditioning is superior to other methods at improving actual game performance statistics requires further research.

  17. ACQUIRING SKILL IN SPORT: An Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Honeybourne

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The book is a user-friendly, highly accessible text for the students to understand the basic concepts of sport skills acquisition. Each chapter covers important theoretical background and shows how this theory can be applied through practical examples from the world of sport. The book also examines the ways in which skills can be most effectively and addresses issues such as: characteristics and classifications of abilities and skills in sport, information processing in sport, motor programmes and motor control, phases of learning and presentation of skills and practices. PURPOSE This textbook aims to help readers develop an understanding of the basic concepts of motor skills in sport, dealing initially with the technical terms and then on focusing on the theories related to the learning of these skills. AUDIENCE A valuable resource for students and teachers in physical education, sport studies and sports science courses as well as for coaches who want to develop their theoretical knowledge. FEATURES The book guides the readers through the science that underlies sport skills, using practical examples to explain the concepts discussed. It is composed of 9 chapters which present the information in an order that is considered logical and progressive as in most texts. Chapter headings are: 1. Characteristics and classification of skills in sport, 2. Characteristics and classification of abilities in sport, 3. Information processing in sport, 4. Motor programmes and motor control, 5. Individual differences, 6. Theories of learning, 7. Phase of learning and learning curves, 8. Presentation of skills and practices, 10. Guidance, teaching and learning styles. ASSESSMENT This is an excellent book for the students in the field. Clearly written and illustrated throughout, with questions to test knowledge and understanding, this is an ideal introductory text for students of physical education, sport, human movement science and kinesiology, as well as

  18. The gender gap in relation to happiness and preferences in married couples after childbirth: evidence from a field experiment in rural Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, Yusuke; Akpalu, Bright; Mahama, Emmanuel; Ayipah, Emmanuel Kwesi; Owusu-Agyei, Seth; Hodgson, Abraham; Shibanuma, Akira; Kikuchi, Kimiyo; Jimba, Masamine

    2017-03-15

    How does the gap in preferences between married couples affect their happiness after childbirth? Are couples that share similar preferences happier? In recent years, gender, marriage, and happiness have been considered to be key issues in public health research. Although much research has examined the happiness status of married couples, practically no study has explored the gender gap in relation to happiness and the preferences of married couples after childbirth. Therefore, our study was conducted to assess the association between the preference gap and the happiness status among married couples in the afterbirth period. We conducted a field experiment in rural communities in the Brong-Ahafo region of Ghana. Participants were 80 married couples who had experienced childbirth within 2 years prior to the survey. As preference indicators, we measured trust, reciprocity, altruism, and risk lovingness through an economic experiment. Then, we assessed how, for a couple, the gap between these preferences affected their happiness. Wives' happiness was positively associated with the absolute value of the gap in risk lovingness between a couple (OR = 4.83, p = 0.08), while husbands' happiness was negatively associated with the gap in trust (OR = -3.58, p = 0.04) or altruism (OR = -3.33, p = 0.02). Within a couple, wives felt greater happiness than their husbands if there was a wider gap in trust (OR = 6.22, p = 0.01), reciprocity (OR = 2.80, p = 0.01), or risk lovingness (OR = 3.81, p = 0.07). The gender gaps in the preference indicators were found to be closely associated with the happiness levels between married couples after childbirth. For the further improvement of maternal and child health, we must consider the gender gaps between couples in relation to happiness and preferences.

  19. Gender Role Beliefs and Parents' Support for Athletic Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinze, Justin E.; Heinze, Kathryn L.; Davis, Matthew M.; Butchart, Amy T.; Singer, Dianne C.; Clark, Sarah J.

    2017-01-01

    Pay-to-play fees in public schools place more support for sport participation in the hands of parents; this may disproportionately affect the ability of girls to garner the benefits of sports. Using an online survey of a national sample of parents (N = 814), we examined the relationship between parents' gender role beliefs, parents' beliefs about…

  20. What Are Sports Injuries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 06:02 Size: 11.7 MB November 2014 What Are Sports Injuries? Fast Facts: An Easy-to- ... Research Is Being Done on Treating Sports Injuries? What’s the Difference Between an Acute and a Chronic ...

  1. Sports and Concussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Help Someone Who's Being Bullied? Volunteering Sports and Concussions KidsHealth > For Teens > Sports and Concussions Print A ... completely helps prevent long-term problems. How Do Concussions Happen? The brain is soft. The body protects ...

  2. Sports Stars Shine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Yan

    2012-01-01

    Alive and exciting award ceremony drew the attention of numerous Chinese households on the night of January 15.The most popular Chinese sports stars attended the 2011 CCTV Sports Personality Award Ceremony at the National Indoor Stadium in Beijing.

  3. Athletic identity, sport participation, and psychological adjustment in people with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasiemski, Tomasz; Brewer, Britton W

    2011-07-01

    This study examined interrelationships among athletic identity, sport participation, and psychological adjustment in a sample of people with spinal cord injury (SCI). Participants (N = 1,034) completed measures of athletic identity, life satisfaction, anxiety, depression, and demographic and sport participation variables. Current amount of weekly sport participation was positively related to athletic identity when statistically controlling for age, gender, and pre-SCI amount of weekly sport participation. Being able to practice one's favorite sport after SCI was associated with higher levels of athletic identity and better psychological adjustment. Team sport participants reported experiencing better psychological adjustment than individual sport participants did. The findings suggest that social factors are important in the link between sport participation and psychological adjustment in people with SCI.

  4. Longitudinal study of preadolescent sport self-concept and performance: reciprocal effects and causal ordering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Herbert W; Gerlach, Erin; Trautwein, Ulrich; Lüdtke, Oliver; Brettschneider, Wolf-Dietrich

    2007-01-01

    Do preadolescent sport self-concepts influence subsequent sport performance? Longitudinal data (Grades 3, 4, and 6) for young boys and girls (N= 1,135; mean age = 9.67) were used to test reciprocal effects model (REM) predictions that sport self-concept is both a cause and a consequence of sport accomplishments. Controlling prior sport performance (performance-based measures and teacher assessments), prior sport self-concept had positive effects on subsequent sport performance in both Grade 4 and Grade 6 and for both boys and girls. Coupled with previous REM studies of adolescents in the academic domain, this first test for preadolescents in the sport domain supports the generalizability of REM predictions over gender, self-concept domain, preadolescent ages, and the transition from primary to secondary school.

  5. Drugs in sport

    OpenAIRE

    Mottram, David R

    2007-01-01

    This new edition includes fresh information regarding drugs use and abuse in sport and the updated worldwide anti-doping laws, and changes to the prohibited and therapeutic use exemption lists. The objectives of the book are to review/discuss the latest information on drugs in sport by considering i) actions of drugs and hormones, ii) medication and nutritional supplements in sport, iii) the latest doping control regulations of the WADA, iv) the use of banned therapeutic drugs in sport, v) an...

  6. Relationship between sport commitment and sport consumer behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norberta Elisa Fernandes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between sport commitment and three types of sport consumer behaviors: participation frequency, sporting goods and media consumption. A survey was conducted among sport participants of both individual and team sports, fitness and outdoor activities (n= 900. The survey included questions related to demographic information, measures of sport commitment and sport consumption behavior. The results analyzed trough structural equation modeling showed that the sport commitment influences positively the participation frequency, sporting goods consumption and media consumption. Implications of these results are discussed and suggestions for future research on sport consumers are provided.

  7. RELATIONSHIP MARKETING IN PROFFESIONAL SPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iftime Dragoș Adrian

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The scope of this study is to present the evolution of Barclays Premier League organization from the relationship marketing perspective and to analyze issues regarding the way in which the sportive organization implements the relationship marketing principles, which strategies is using and what are the main benefits, based on the examination of its history and its current practices. The relationship between sport organizations and the consumers of the sport product is a genuine bond; in fact the consumer is the sine qua non condition for the sport organizations to exist. Without constant reference to the final consumer, the professional sport finds itself in the situation of no means or reasons to outlast. Even more, all the transactions achieved on the sport market imply a certain level of expressing relationship marketing. This paper studies the impact of embracing the principles of relationship marketing in one of the most successful sportive organizations, Barclays Premier League, and the positive changes driven by this approach over the past decade. The research presents also the complex dynamic of creating and maintaining relations in professional sport as well as the implications of adopting a functional approach of the relationship marketing in this field. One important aspect refers to the added value this concept creates for the sportive organization. The result of this study consists of a set of recommended strategies and tactics to be introduced by a football club oriented towards achieving relationship marketing oriented goals that would help the organization to fully benefit from the implementation of this concept.

  8. An investigation related to the aggression and empathic tendency levels of the university students according to their genders and sport educationÜniversite öğrencilerinin cinsiyet ve spor eğitimi alma durumlarına göre saldırganlık ve empatik eğilim düzeylerinin incelenmesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüseyin Kırımoğlu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the aggression and empathetic tendency levels of the students studying at Mustafa Kemal University by considering the gender and sport education variables. “Personal Information Form” developed by the researchers, the “Aggression scale” developed by Kiper (1984 and the “Empathic Tendency Scale” developed by Dökmen (1988 were used as data collection tools. The aggression and empathic tendency levels of the participants were compared in terms of their genders and whether they were doing sports or not. The study group of the research consisted of 535 participants including 254 women and 281 men who were studying at the Mustafa Kemal University during the 2012-2014 academic year. The scale of the aggression and Empathic tendency scale for non-parametric tests, Mann Whitney U test for binary comparisons is the significance level used is 0.01 and 0.05 level has been tested. When considering the findings it was discovered that according to the gender the destructive aggression and passive aggression levels of the women regardless to their sport educations were significantly higher. Again in terms of gender variable woman who do not get education of sport empathic tendency levels are more higher than man who do not get education of sport. As a result: in terms of the participants of this study according to the sport status the gender variable was not a significant variable in changing the aggression and empathic tendency levels, as well as it could be stated that doing sports was effective to some sub-dimensions.   Özet Bu araştırmada, Mustafa Kemal Üniversitesi öğrencilerinin cinsiyet ve spor eğitimi alma durumları dikkate alınarak, saldırganlık ve empatik eğilim düzeylerinin incelenmesi amaçlanmıştır. Veri toplama aracı olarak araştırmacılar tarafından geliştirilen “Kişisel Bilgi Formu”, Kiper (1984 tarafından geliştirilen ‘‘Saldırganlık Ölçeği’’ ve Dökmen (1988

  9. LAW IMPLEMENTATION IN SPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mexhid Krasniqi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This work offers a short review of sports marketing and management. It presents different ways of advertising some products either in sports events or throng electronic mediums. In addition, it reviles different aspects of the influence that politics and discrimination has on sport as well as the way of solving eventual arguments of any kind.

  10. Changing spaces for sports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kural, René

    2010-01-01

    The author argues that the fundamental values associated with sports seem to have changed. Accordingly spaces for sports are also undergoing change.The essay gives a number of examples of these new sports spaces. Their common denominator lies in their urban proximity, the combination of previously...

  11. Concussion in Winter Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Heads Up! Tool Kit Prevent Concussions Prevent Head Injuries Sports Safety Students Play Safe Youth Sports Safety Download ... — United States, 2001–2009 Nonfatal Traumatic Brain Injuries from Sports and Recreation Activities — United States, 2001–2005 ( ...

  12. On Sporting Integrity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Archer, Alfred

    2016-01-01

    It has become increasingly popular for sports fans, pundits, coaches and players to appeal to ideas of ‘sporting integrity’ when voicing their approval or disapproval of some aspect of the sporting world. My goal in this paper will be to examine whether there is any way to understand this idea in a

  13. Report on Sport 2014

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annet Tiessen-Raaphorst

    2015-01-01

    More than half the Dutch population participated in sport on a weekly basis in 2014. Fitness training and running are the most popular sports among adults. Government interventions at the level of neighbourhoods, primary schools, secondary schools and sports clubs are intended to persuade more peopl

  14. 4 Corruption in Sport

    OpenAIRE

    Andreff, Wladimir

    2016-01-01

    International audience; A typology of sport corruption differentiates petty corruption, barter corruption, corruption at the level of sport governing bodies, betting scandals and point-shaving. A deeper analysis goes further as regards match fixing-related bets and global online fraudulent sport betting networks and suggests new tools for combatting match fixing.

  15. Sport Specialization, Part I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myer, Gregory D.; Jayanthi, Neeru; Difiori, John P.; Faigenbaum, Avery D.; Kiefer, Adam W.; Logerstedt, David; Micheli, Lyle J.

    2015-01-01

    Context: There is increased growth in sports participation across the globe. Sports specialization patterns, which include year-round training, participation on multiple teams of the same sport, and focused participation in a single sport at a young age, are at high levels. The need for this type of early specialized training in young athletes is currently under debate. Evidence Acquisition: Nonsystematic review. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Conclusion: Sports specialization is defined as year-round training (greater than 8 months per year), choosing a single main sport, and/or quitting all other sports to focus on 1 sport. Specialized training in young athletes has risks of injury and burnout, while the degree of specialization is positively correlated with increased serious overuse injury risk. Risk factors for injury in young athletes who specialize in a single sport include year-round single-sport training, participation in more competition, decreased age-appropriate play, and involvement in individual sports that require the early development of technical skills. Adults involved in instruction of youth sports may also put young athletes at risk for injury by encouraging increased intensity in organized practices and competition rather than self-directed unstructured free play. Strength-of-Recommendation Taxonomy (SORT): C. PMID:26502420

  16. Cold-Weather Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Cold-Weather Sports KidsHealth > For Teens > Cold-Weather Sports A A A What's in this article? ... Equipment Ahh, winter! Shorter days. Frigid temperatures. Foul weather. What better time to be outdoors? Winter sports ...

  17. Sport in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annet Tiessen-Raaphorst; Koen Breedveld

    2007-01-01

    Sport is a popular pastime in the Netherlands; 10 million people take part in at least one sport. To do this, they can choose from more than 27,000 non-profit sports clubs, or more than 5,000 commercial providers such as fitness centres or riding stables. These clubs and commercial providers make us

  18. China Sports Museum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    THE China Sports Museum,inside the National Olympic Sports Center on 3A Anding Road,Andingmenwai, Beijing, is China's First museum dedicated to the nation's sporting history.Its exterior is in the shape of an octagonal spiral, with white

  19. Gene doping in sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unal, Mehmet; Ozer Unal, Durisehvar

    2004-01-01

    Gene or cell doping is defined by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) as "the non-therapeutic use of genes, genetic elements and/or cells that have the capacity to enhance athletic performance". New research in genetics and genomics will be used not only to diagnose and treat disease, but also to attempt to enhance human performance. In recent years, gene therapy has shown progress and positive results that have highlighted the potential misuse of this technology and the debate of 'gene doping'. Gene therapies developed for the treatment of diseases such as anaemia (the gene for erythropoietin), muscular dystrophy (the gene for insulin-like growth factor-1) and peripheral vascular diseases (the gene for vascular endothelial growth factor) are potential doping methods. With progress in gene technology, many other genes with this potential will be discovered. For this reason, it is important to develop timely legal regulations and to research the field of gene doping in order to develop methods of detection. To protect the health of athletes and to ensure equal competitive conditions, the International Olympic Committee, WADA and International Sports Federations have accepted performance-enhancing substances and methods as being doping, and have forbidden them. Nevertheless, the desire to win causes athletes to misuse these drugs and methods. This paper reviews the current status of gene doping and candidate performance enhancement genes, and also the use of gene therapy in sports medicine and ethics of genetic enhancement.

  20. American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Sports Medicine Sports Health: A Multidisciplinary Approach Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine Journal Apps Sports Medicine ... Tweets by @AOSSM_SportsMed A world leader in Orthopaedic Sports Medicine Education, Research, Publishing, Communication and Fellowship ...

  1. Participation in sports practice and motor competence in preschoolers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel da Rocha Queiroz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent theoretical model suggests that motor competence during early childhood is related to one's current and future health status and that practicing sports seems to be playing a special role in creating such competence. This study aimed to compare performance in gross motor skills among preschoolers participating in regular sports practice (SP and those not participating (NSP, including comparisons by gender. The study uses secondary data from a population-based study of performance regarding the locomotor and object control skills of preschoolers (3 to 5 years old. Preschoolers were assigned to groups SP or NSP, paired by age and sex according to skills: locomotor (n = 54; 30 boys or object control (n = 37; 17 boys. Analysis of variance showed that the SP group outperformed the NSP one, and there were gender differences only within SP group. Starting to practice sports during early childhood helps to build motor competence and benefits both genders.

  2. 田径运动的生理特征与饮食保健%Physiological Characteristics of Track and Field Sports and Diet Health

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄海; 葛岩琦

    2015-01-01

    The track and ifeld sports should be based on human physiological science, under the scientific planning of nutritional supplement to maximize the physical advantages, improve physical performance. The physiological characteristics of track and ifeld sports and diet health care for athletes.%田径运动应以人体生理科学为依据,在科学规划的营养补给下,才能最大限度地发挥体能优势,提高体能成绩。田径运动的生理特征和饮食保健对运动员来说意义重大。

  3. Effective Factors on Sports Tourism: Emphasizing Development in Sports Natural Attractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Safdel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this research is the evaluation of some of the effective environmental attractions on Khorasan Razavi’s sports tourism development. The research statistical population include of all in charge expert and professors in field of sport and tourism as 120 persons. This research is past-event descriptive that had been performed based on field method. Sampling had been performed as Categorized to determine effective environmental attraction effects on Khorasan Razavi’s tourism development, the questions had been analyzed by researcher that its validity had been confirmed by experts and Cronbach's alpha had been calculated as 0.82. Findings show that from experts and managers viewpoints, effective factors on sport tourism development with emphasis on sport natural attractions include of tourism and pilgrim attractions, natural treatment and warm water attractions and summer and water sports that are the most important items in Khorasan Razavi. Also there are three important factors in relation to problem and obstacles as Management problems, cultural problems and infrastructure problems. Research results show that pilgrim locations are effective to attract tourism and knowing the effect of tourism industry development effects and present obstacles and limitation in the province, attention to sport tourism development importance and applying various benefits of sport tourist attraction are necessary and programming and sport tourism developments by province planner and policy makers would be required.

  4. Application of Surface Electromyogram in Sports Field%表面肌电图在体育领域中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张佑磊

    2011-01-01

    表面肌电图也称动态肌电图和运动肌电图,是用表面电极采集肌肉活动产生的电活动的图形。目前,表面肌电图应用已经深入临床康复、运动医学、生物工程和体育等诸多领域。在运动生物力学研究中,表面肌电图主要用于肌肉力量评定、肌肉疲劳的诊断和神经肌肉功能的评价上,用于运动技术服务,指导运动训练,防止运动损伤。本文对表面肌电图在运动生物力学研究中的应用做一综述。%Surface electromyogram is also called dynamic and exercise electromyogram,it is the electrogenic graph using the surface electrode to collect muscle activity.At present,surface electromyogram has deeply used in rehabilitation,sport medicine,bioengineer and sports activity.In the research of biomechanics,the surface electromyogram is usually used in muscle strength assessment,muscle fatigue diagnose,neuromuscular function,sports technical service,sports training instruction and exercise injury prevention.This paper reviews the application of surface electromyogram in the research of biomechanics.

  5. Implementation factors of soft EU legislation in the field of gender equality. An example of the balanced representation of women and men in decision-making processes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Topolinjak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines various implementation factors of the European Union’s soft policy in the field of gender equality in Slovenia. We focus on implementation of the principle of the balanced representation of women and men in decision-making processes in the fields of politics, science and the economy, where the proportion of women in top positions remains low. Based on an analysis of EU and Slovenian legislation and interviews with relevant governmental and non-governmental actors at the EU and national levels, it was found that because of the adopted soft law in this area it is the national government, which can select public policy instruments and adapt them to its own aspirations, that is the most important player when it comes to implementation. Pressure from the EU was stronger in the accession negotiations when Slovenia was joining the EU and also when interest groups work together.

  6. SPORTS MARKETING AS A BUSINESS FUNCTION IN MODERN SPORTS

    OpenAIRE

    Danilo Aćimović; Omer Špirtović

    2013-01-01

    Discussion about sport marketing implies its theoretical definition and generalization, and then its actual definition in sport environment. Sport marketing, belongs to the newer type of the marketing. It appeared in time of increasing activity and significance of sport in the world. Huge human potential, with which sport as an activity disposes, implied the need to organize more properly and use it purposefully. “Sport marketing belongs to business function of sport organization and represen...

  7. Progression of mechanical properties during on-field sprint running after returning to sports from a hamstring muscle injury in soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendiguchia, J; Samozino, P; Martinez-Ruiz, E; Brughelli, M; Schmikli, S; Morin, J-B; Mendez-Villanueva, A

    2014-07-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine the consequences of an acute hamstring injury on performance and mechanical properties of sprint-running at the time of returning to sports and after the subsequent ~2 months of regular soccer training after return. 28 semi-professional male soccer players, 14 with a recent history of unilateral hamstring injury and 14 without prior injury, participated in the study. All players performed two 50-m maximal sprints when cleared to return to play (Test 1), and 11 injured players performed the same sprint test about 2 months after returning to play (Test 2). Sprint performance (i. e., speed) was measured via a radar gun and used to derive linear horizontal force-velocity relationships from which the following variables obtained: theoretical maximal velocity (V(0)), horizontal force (F(H0)) and horizontal power (Pmax). Upon returning to sports the injured players were moderately slower compared to the uninjured players. F H0 and Pmax were also substantially lower in the injured players. At Test 2, the injured players showed a very likely increase in F(H0) and Pmax concomitant with improvements in early acceleration performance. Practitioners should consider assessing and training horizontal force production during sprint running after acute hamstring injuries in soccer players before they return to sports.

  8. Metabolic markers in sports medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banfi, Giuseppe; Colombini, Alessandra; Lombardi, Giovanni; Lubkowska, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Physical exercise induces adaptations in metabolism considered beneficial for health. Athletic performance is linked to adaptations, training, and correct nutrition in individuals with genetic traits that can facilitate such adaptations. Intense and continuous exercise, training, and competitions, however, can induce changes in the serum concentrations of numerous laboratory parameters. When these modifications, especially elevated laboratory levels, result outside the reference range, further examinations are ordered or participation in training and competition is discontinued or sports practice loses its appeal. In order to correctly interpret commonly used laboratory data, laboratory professionals and sport physicians need to know the behavior of laboratory parameters during and after practice and competition. We reviewed the literature on liver, kidney, muscle, heart, energy, and bone parameters in athletes with a view to increase the knowledge about clinical chemistry applied to sport and to stimulate studies in this field. In liver metabolism, the interpretation of serum aminotransferases concentration in athletes should consider the release of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) from muscle and of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) mainly from the liver, when bilirubin can be elevated because of continuous hemolysis, which is typical of exercise. Muscle metabolism parameters such as creatine kinase (CK) are typically increased after exercise. This parameter can be used to interpret the physiological release of CK from muscle, its altered release due to rhabdomyolysis, or incomplete recovery due to overreaching or trauma. Cardiac markers are released during exercise, and especially endurance training. Increases in these markers should not simply be interpreted as a signal of cardiac damage or wall stress but rather as a sign of regulation of myocardial adaptation. Renal function can be followed in athletes by measuring serum creatinine concentration, but it should

  9. Adventure and Extreme Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Andrew Thomas; Rao, Ashwin

    2016-03-01

    Adventure and extreme sports often involve unpredictable and inhospitable environments, high velocities, and stunts. These activities vary widely and include sports like BASE jumping, snowboarding, kayaking, and surfing. Increasing interest and participation in adventure and extreme sports warrants understanding by clinicians to facilitate prevention, identification, and treatment of injuries unique to each sport. This article covers alpine skiing and snowboarding, skateboarding, surfing, bungee jumping, BASE jumping, and whitewater sports with emphasis on epidemiology, demographics, general injury mechanisms, specific injuries, chronic injuries, fatality data, and prevention. Overall, most injuries are related to overuse, trauma, and environmental or microbial exposure.

  10. FUNCTION of MANAGEMENT IN SPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srećko Novaković

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In the sport management coordination represents the basic deposit of management, and terms through numerous activities. Brother-in-law activity in sport has the specific management so speak about the management of sport event, management of sports facilities, management of management to the human activities, financial management in sport etc. The sportively management has presumed the specific management related to sports activities whose basic task of coordinations of sports activities. Management of sport organisations have been confided sport managers of special profile which differs towards the type of sport, rank of contest etc. The sport managers could utter survived the statement that in sport have not been educated special diameters manager, besides sport coaches. Specifically, in the role of manager in sport prevails almost all diameters of professional in professional or the volunteer relationship.

  11. Intimate relations and sexual abuse in Danish Sport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støckel, Jan Toftegaard

    . These relationships occurred during the athlete’s childhood (0.5%), adolescence (8%) or adulthood (28%). Data showed no statistically significant differences between reporting personal experiences of intimate relationships at various sports levels (from recreational thru to elite sport) or between gender. Respondents...... reporting to have had experienced an intimate relationship with a coach as an adult had a more positive response regarding the relationship than athletes experiencing the same at 13-17 years of age. Elite athletes had a more critical response to coach-athlete relationships than at other sport levels...

  12. Intimate relations and sexual abuse in Danish Sport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støckel, Jan Toftegaard

    . These relationships occurred during the athlete’s childhood (0.5%), adolescence (8%) or adulthood (28%). Data showed no statistically significant differences between reporting personal experiences of intimate relationships at various sports levels (from recreational thru to elite sport) or between gender. Respondents...... reporting to have had experienced an intimate relationship with a coach as an adult had a more positive response regarding the relationship than athletes experiencing the same at 13-17 years of age. Elite athletes had a more critical response to coach-athlete relationships than at other sport levels...

  13. U.S. High school girls sports and booster clubs

    OpenAIRE

    Donna M. Anderson, Ph.D.

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores United States high school booster club activity and its potential effect on gender equity by examining high schools’ booster club models – one all-school, all-sport booster club or a booster club for each sport – and club reporting requirements. The U.S. Title IX of the Education Amendment of 1972 prohibits schools from discriminating on the basis of sex in any educational program. However, schools can escape compliance by allowing each sport to have its own booster club, ...

  14. Sudden cardiac arrest in sports - need for uniform registration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solberg, E E; Borjesson, M; Sharma, S

    2016-01-01

    preparticipation screening and cardiac safety at sport facilities requires increased data quality concerning incidence, aetiology and management of SCA/SCD in sports. Uniform standard registration of SCA/SCD in athletes and leisure sportsmen would be a first step towards this goal......., the importance of gender, ethnicity and age of the athlete, as well as the type and level of sporting activity. A precise instruction for autopsy practice in the case of a SCD of athletes is given, including the role of molecular samples and evaluation of possible doping. Rational decisions about cardiac...

  15. The incidence of concussion in youth sports: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfister, Ted; Pfister, Ken; Hagel, Brent; Ghali, William A; Ronksley, Paul E

    2016-03-01

    To conduct a comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis of studies assessing the incidence of concussion in youth athletes. Specifically, we estimate the overall risk of concussion in youth sports and compare sport-specific estimates of concussion risk. Systemic review and meta-analysis. A search of Medline, Embase (1980 through September 2014), and SportDiscus (1985 through September 2014) supplemented by manual searches of bibliographies and conference proceedings. We included studies if they met the inclusion criteria of study design (prospective cohort study), relevant sports identified from the literature (eg, American football, rugby, hockey, lacrosse, soccer/football, basketball, baseball, softball, wrestling, field hockey, track, taekwondo, volleyball and cheerleading), population (males and females ≤18 years old), and outcome (concussion). Of the 698 studies reviewed for eligibility, 23 articles were accepted for systematic review and 13 of which were included in a meta-analysis. Random effects models were used to pool overall and sport-specific concussion incidence rates per 1000 athlete exposures (AEs). The overall risk of concussion was estimated at 0.23 (95% CI 0.19 to 0.28). The three sports with the highest incidence rates were rugby, hockey and American football at 4.18, 1.20 and 0.53, respectively. Lowest incidence rates per 1000 AEs occurred in volleyball, baseball and cheerleading at 0.03, 0.06 and 0.07, respectively. Quality of the included studies varied, with the majority of studies not reporting age and gender-specific incidence rates or an operational definition for concussion. There are striking differences in the rates of incident youth concussion across 12 sports. This systematic review and meta-analysis can serve as the current sport-specific baseline risk of concussion among youth athletes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  16. Technology and Sport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Rasmus Bysted; Møller, Verner

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between sport and technology is close and can be both fruitful and destructive. Technology has a constitutive function in sport as it makes the activity possible and it can enhance performance as well as the sporting experience. The use of football boots is clearly more comfortable...... and effective than playing in bare feet in a game of football. However, sport challenges its athletes by demanding the employment of less efficient means rather than more efficient means in pursuit of sport specific goals. Therefore technology can potentially subtract from the sporting experience and even...... threaten the internal logic of sport. If as an example very efficient hail cartridges were allowed for use in double trap shooting it would reduce the skills required to excel at that discipline reducing its value for participants and spectators alike. The use of forbidden performance enhancing substances...

  17. Is Sport Nationalism Justifiable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Pérez Triviño

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to clarify the deep relationships established between sport and nationalism by considering, among other factors, the instrumentalisation of sport by political elites, political apathy of citizens, economic resources for sport, the question of violence or identitarian matters. In order to define if the combination of sport and nationalism is admissible, the paper defines sport nationalism and distinguishes the political use of sport for purposes of domestic and foreign policy. In the first section the analysis focuses on whether a causal link with respect to the contribution to violence can be established and with respect to its use in the internal politics of a state, the paper differentiates between normal political circumstances and political crises in order to properly address the question of whether there are grounds to assert that sport can distract citizens from asserting their genuine interests.

  18. Is Sport Nationalism Justifiable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Pérez Triviño

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to clarify the deep relationships established between sport and nationalism by considering, among other factors, the instrumentalisation of sport by political elites, political apathy of citizens, economic resources for sport, the question of violence or identitarian matters. In order to define if the combination of sport and nationalism is admissible, the paper defines sport nationalism and distinguishes the political use of sport for purposes of domestic and foreign policy. In the first section the analysis focuses on whether a causal link with respect to the contribution to violence can be established and with respect to its use in the internal politics of a state, the paper differentiates between normal political circumstances and political crises in order to properly address the question of whether there are grounds to assert that sport can distract citizens from asserting their genuine interests.

  19. Sport and migrants' acculturation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morela, Eleftheria

    was to explore the acculturation attitudes of Greek adolescents as a function of sport participation, and, for those participating in sport, to investigate the role of the motivationalenvironment. The results showed that athletes scored higher than non-athletes on attitudes towards multicultural contact...... multiculturalism. Sport is considered to be a vehicle for bringing people together, and recently there has been an increasing policy interest in the use of sport as a venue for promoting social integration and intercultural dialogue. Regardless of its political significance, research on the integrative role...... of sport is limited and findings seem equivocal. Overall the purpose of the present study was to investigate whether participation in organized sport can affect the acculturation process of young adolescents from both minority and majority populations in Greece, and to explore features ofthe sporting...

  20. THE SPORT MARKETING MANAGEMENT MODEL

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandru Lucian MIHAI

    2015-01-01

    Sport marketing involves marketing fundamentals applied in one industry, the sport business industry. The development of sport marketing fundamentals is therefore based on basic marketing principles. The practice and activities of sport marketing are also based on basic marketing activities, but are modified and adapted to the sport business industry. Therefore, sport marketing is based on its primary and parent discipline - marketing. Sport marketing is one of the most important function...

  1. THE SPORT MARKETING MANAGEMENT MODEL

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandru Lucian MIHAI

    2015-01-01

    Sport marketing involves marketing fundamentals applied in one industry, the sport business industry. The development of sport marketing fundamentals is therefore based on basic marketing principles. The practice and activities of sport marketing are also based on basic marketing activities, but are modified and adapted to the sport business industry. Therefore, sport marketing is based on its primary and parent discipline - marketing. Sport marketing is one of the most important function...

  2. The Problem of Gender Categorisation: Addressing Dilemmas Past and Present in Gender and Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Becky; Paechter, Carrie

    2015-01-01

    Developments in the field of gender theory as applied to education since the 1970s are briefly reviewed in order to highlight key challenges and debates around gender categorisation and identification in gender and education. We argue that conundrums of categorisation have haunted, and continue to haunt, the field of gender theory, and empirical…

  3. The Problem of Gender Categorisation: Addressing Dilemmas Past and Present in Gender and Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Becky; Paechter, Carrie

    2015-01-01

    Developments in the field of gender theory as applied to education since the 1970s are briefly reviewed in order to highlight key challenges and debates around gender categorisation and identification in gender and education. We argue that conundrums of categorisation have haunted, and continue to haunt, the field of gender theory, and empirical…

  4. Gender and Degree Programs: The Interest for an Academic Field, a Factor that Influences the Choice of a Bachelors Degree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Gamboa García

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available As part of a study on the expectations of benefit of higher education applicants, this article approaches the choice of a degree program according to the academic interest from the perspective of the rational analysis. Applicants who took the admissions test in two institutions were surveyed in order to carry out later statistical analysis with the purpose of finding a multivariate model. The obtained results showed that gender, work, and age were related to the applicants’ interest on certain academic degree program. The interest for a degree program tends to be unimportant in employed women’s choices, aged 20 years or older. Among applicants whose father considered higher education very important, the probability to consider one’s interest on the choice of a bachelor’s degree was higher for male applicants. The above information confirms the variation in rational calculations regarding social characteristics.

  5. SPORTS MARKETING AS A BUSINESS FUNCTION IN MODERN SPORTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Aćimović

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Discussion about sport marketing implies its theoretical definition and generalization, and then its actual definition in sport environment. Sport marketing, belongs to the newer type of the marketing. It appeared in time of increasing activity and significance of sport in the world. Huge human potential, with which sport as an activity disposes, implied the need to organize more properly and use it purposefully. “Sport marketing belongs to business function of sport organization and represents primarily an economical process of connecting production (sport organizations with sportsmen and coaches and consumption (sport and other public. It can be seen in the fact besides promoting sport it conducts certain (limited productive activity (exchange of sport equipment, exchange of sport requisites and material goods that create sport clubs through competitions.

  6. Enhancement in Sport, and Enhancement outside Sport

    OpenAIRE

    Douglas, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Sport is one of the first areas in which enhancement has become commonplace. It is also one of the first areas in which the use of enhancement technologies has been heavily regulated. Some have thus seen sport as a testing ground for arguments about whether to permit enhancement. However, I argue that there are fairness-based objections to enhancement in sport that do not apply as strongly in some other areas of human activity. Thus, I claim that there will often be a stronger case for permit...

  7. Psicologia do esporte: uma área emergente da psicologia Psicología del deporte: un area emergente de la psicología Sport psychology: an emergent field in psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenamar Fiorese Vieira

    2010-06-01

    Sport Psychology field as a psychologist's emergent field of action in Brazil. A historical analysis is performed concerning the path of Sport Psychology presenting the areas of professional action (research, teaching and intervention, the role of the sport psychologist (researcher, academic teacher and consultant and the field's recent scientific state. Although the vast professional field, the diversity of knowledge needed to act in this subdivision of Psychology is an intervening element, resulting in an insufficient professional formation and a division of the professional action into two specialties: the Clinical Psychology and Educational Psychology applied to sport. Finally, it is highlighted the emergency in the comprehension of this aspects, providing background to understand the importance of the professional qualification in the field of Sport and Physical Exercise.

  8. Examining the Relationship between Superstitious Behavior in Sport and Trait Anxiety Levels among College Students Engaged in Active Sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utku Işık

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between superstitious behavior in sport and trait anxiety levels among college students engaged in active sports. 166 Pamukkale University and Ege University of School of Physical Education and Sports students who are selected simple random sampling method voluntarily participated (61 females and 105 males for the study. In the study for gathering data “Superstitious Ritual Questionnaire” and “Trait Anxiety Inventory” were used together. To examine the relationship between superstitious behavior in sport and trait anxiety levels the Pearson product-moment coefficients of correlation was used. The results indicated that the relationship between superstitious behavior in sport and trait anxiety level is positive and statistically significant (r=.208; p=.007. To explain whether there are significant differences between participants’ superstitious behavior in sport according to gender, Independent Sample T-test was used. Result of this analysis revealed no statistically significant difference between male and female students tendency to superstitious behaviors according to gender (t=1.15; p=.251. In conclusion study findings showed that anxiety is a factor that increases university students, engaging in active sport, superstitions behavior.

  9. International Colloquium on Sports Science, Exercise, Engineering and Technology 2014

    CERN Document Server

    Ismail, Shariman; Sulaiman, Norasrudin

    2014-01-01

    The proceeding is a collection of research papers presented at the International Colloquium on Sports Science, Exercise, Engineering and Technology (ICoSSEET2014), a conference dedicated to address the challenges in the areas of sports science, exercise, sports engineering and technology including other areas of sports, thereby presenting a consolidated view to the interested researchers in the aforesaid fields. The goal of this conference was to bring together researchers and practitioners from academia and industry to focus on the scope of the conference and establishing new collaborations in these areas. The topics of interest are as follows but are not limited to:1. Sports and Exercise Science • Sports Nutrition • Sports Biomechanics • Strength and Conditioning • Motor Learning and Control • Sports Psychology • Sports Coaching • Sports and Exercise Physiology • Sports Medicine and Athletic Trainer • Fitness and Wellness • Exercise Rehabilitation • Adapted Physical Activity...

  10. Sport, biopolitics and critique of political economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milorad Gačević

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this text we tried to point out the relationship between labour and biopolitical mechanisms of power in the context of the current situation in elite sport. In the first part we present developments inside left-oriented theories of sport, especially the need for critical research based on specific aspects of criticism of political economy. We then review brief the current situation in contemporary sport, mainly about parallel evolution of the capitalist commodification of sport and the emergence of the application of biopolitically directed practices, where we have tried to implement a short overview of Foucault’s concepts in the field of sport studies. The third part deals with the connection between Paolo Virno’s biopolitical studies and Marx’s labour power. In conclusion, we raise the possibility of applying Virno’s settings to treat sport practice in the context of its appropriation by capitalism, characterised by the intensification of strategies and techniques for controlling sportsman life. According to Virno’s settings we have tried to show influence to a life of sportsman in the aim of bio-potency, the ability/power to produce a labour force, while this force is treated like labour exchanged in the market in the context of capitalist commodification of modern sport.

  11. Collegiate Intramural Sports Participation: Identified Social Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill R. Sturts

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Collegiate recreational sports provide many avenues for student development resulting in various benefits that have been supported through theoretical and empirical research. This study examined social outcomes of participation in intramural sports. The data revealed differences in social outcomes related to gender, age, year in school, ethnicity, residence, and division of competition. Differences were found between groups in the degree of social outcomes experienced. The data contribute to a body of empirical research which shows that intramural sport participation serves as a vehicle for social development among college students, which not only improves overall well-being but can also help serve as a potential reason for why students persist at universities. Specific areas of development include social interaction, time management, ability to work within a team, overall happiness, sense of belonging, and feelings of self-worth. The results of this study will assist university recreational sport professionals and administrators in further understanding the role and importance of intramural sports as a vehicle for social development while also providing evidence of differences between groups.

  12. Relationship between Sport Nourishment Supplement and Athletes' Sports Abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingjiang Zhu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available It is very important for the athlete's body recovery and rehabilitation to have sport nourishment supplement. In this study, it analyzed the effect of sport nourishment supplement with the overview of sport nourishment supplements, discussing the influence of sports nutrition supplement on sports abilities of athletes.

  13. Comparison of eSports and Traditional Sports Consumption Motives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Donghun; Schoenstedt, Linda J.

    2011-01-01

    With recognition of the need for studying eSports in this interactive digital communication era, this study explored 14 motivational factors affecting the time spent on eSports gaming. Using a sample of 515 college students and athletic event attendees, we further compared eSports game patterns to their non-eSport or traditional sport involvements…

  14. 我国竞技田径项目项群区域性特征整合研究%Regional feature integration of sports item group of track and field in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙国涛; 邱凤霞; 鲁国斌

    2011-01-01

    With the research method of rapid clustering analysis and literature study,the paper analyses the competition results of the sports item group of the track and field in the 7th,8th,9th,10th and 11th National Sports Games and the competition results of the male and female athletes.The research reveals that the development of different track and field items are unbalanced and the competitive ability of the athletes from different regions is changing all the time.The track and field item is strong is 6 regions with Shandong the strongest,while it is weak in Ningxia,Qinghai,Hubei,Guizhou and Tibet.The features of the female and male sports items are different.The paper proposes to use the resources appropriately,pay attention to the reasonable regional distribution,establish the appropriate talent groups of the track and field young athletes and decrease the gap between regions by exchanging the track and field talents.%主要采用快速聚类分析的统计学方法和文献资料法,对7-11届我国全运会各区域田径项目项群的比赛成绩以及男、女子比赛成绩进行定量分析。结果表明:我国田径项目项群发展极不平衡,各区域竞技实力处于动态变化状态,有6个地区在不同项群上具备领先优势,山东实力最强,宁夏、青海、湖北、贵州、西藏为我国竞技田径落后区域,而男、女子项目项群区域特征各异。合理利用资源、巩固优势的同时注重项目合理布局;科学发展青少年田径人口,形成合理的田径运动人才梯队;通过跨区域竞技田径人才流动,缩小区域之间差距,是实现我国田径项目可持续发展的方向。

  15. Evaluation of the nutrition knowledge of sports department students of universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozcelik Ayse

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Individuals who have knowledge on the importance of adequate and balanced diet and reflect this knowledge to their behaviors are considered to be more successful in sports life. The present study aims to evaluate the nutrition knowledge of students receiving sports education in universities. Methods The study sample consists of 343 voluntary students from the Sports Departments of Hacettepe, Gazi and Ankara Universities in Ankara. The questionnaire used in the study included a demographic section, and 30 questions on true-false nutrition knowledge. For the reliability of the questionnaire, the internal consistency coefficient was calculated and the Kuder Richardson (KR-20 value was found to be 0.71. For higher reliability, 9 dysfunctional questions were excluded from the questionnaire. The research data were collected through a questionnaire form and face-to-face interviews. For the statistical analyses of the data, tables were prepared to show mean, standard deviation (X̄±SD and percentage (% values. In order to determine the nutrition knowledge of students, the "independent t test" was used for nutrition lesson and gender. Results University students receiving sports education and expected to continue their professional lives on sport-related fields were determined to have the lack of knowledge on nutrition. The mean value about the nutrition knowledge of the first year students was found 11.150 ± 2.962, while the mean value of the fourth year students was 13.460 ± 3.703, and the difference is statistically significant (p = .000. Conclusion Students, coaches and teachers in physical education were found not to give the necessary importance to their diets, and they were still not aware of the importance of nutrition on performance.

  16. [Sport and rheumatoid arthritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proschek, D; Rehart, S

    2014-06-01

    Sport is becoming increasingly more important in our society. Due to the changing age spectrum with a greater number of elderly and substantially more active people, an increasing number of people with underlying orthopedic diseases are becoming interested in participating in sport. This article deals with the possibilities and effects of sporting activities for people with rheumatoid arthritis within the framework of a conservative therapy. A literature search was carried out using medical search engines, in particular PubMed, and also via the recommendations of specialist societies and patient help groups. The quality of life of patients with rheumatoid arthritis consists of physical, mental and social components. Sport as a means of rehabilitation influences all of these components. Sport should be comprehended as a form of therapy and be adapted to the needs of the individual patient. The willingness to actively participate in sport should always be highly rated and encouraged. Sport is therefore an important pillar of therapy in a conservative total concept. The main aspects of sport therapeutic activities are functional, pedagogical and experience-oriented aspects. The clinical symptoms, extent of damage and physical impairment must, however, be evaluated and taken into consideration for the therapeutic concept. The amount of data on the complex topic of sport and rheumatoid arthritis is low and is mainly dealt with as retrospective reviews. A prospective randomized study basis is lacking. The aim must therefore be to confirm the currently available recommendations for various types of sport in controlled studies.

  17. Self-Determination and Goal Orientation in Track and Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Ngien-Siong; Khoo, Selina; Low, Wah-Yun

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated gender, age group and locality differences in adolescent athletes’ self-determination motivation and goal orientations in track and field. It also examined the relationship between the self-determination theory and achievement goal theory. A total of 632 (349 boys, 283 girls) adolescent athletes (aged 13–18 years) completed the Sports Motivation Scale and Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire. Results indicated significant differences between gender on intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, amotivation (t(630) = 4.10, p intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, amotivation and ego orientation. A significant difference was found between age groups on task orientation (t(630) = 1.94, p intrinsic motivation. Task orientation was related to intrinsic motivation (r = 0.55, p extrinsic motivation (r = 0.55, p intrinsic motivation (r = 0.30, p extrinsic motivation (r = 0.36, p intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation and amotivation accounted for 30.5% of the variances in task orientation. PMID:23486244

  18. Young people's leisure time: Gender differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Videnović

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the last three decades, topics relating to young peoples leisure time have become increasingly more present in academic literature. Among the numerous studies that delve into this subject, results point towards a relationship between the way teenagers spend their leisure time and their gender. In this study we wanted to answer the question if gender differences were evident in the way secondary school students in Serbia spent their leisure time. This problem was not looked into in more detail among secondary school students in Serbia. We conducted a survey on a sample of 922 secondary school teenagers from the 1st to 4th grade(ages 15–19 from nine Serbian towns. Research in this field commonly uses the rating scale. In this paper we have constructed an instrument that represents a methodological innovation in approaching a particular set of problems. It was a questionnaire. The task was to name all the activities they participated in, and the time frame in which the activities took place, over the course of one weekday and the Saturday of the previous week. The activities which best differentiate these two groups of surveyed teenagers are: sports, studying, computer use, spending time at friends’ homes and grooming. We did not discover differences in participating in creative activities while foreign studies show that such activities are more typical for girls.

  19. Effect of age, gender, economic group and tenure on thermal comfort: A field study in residential buildings in hot and dry climate with seasonal variations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Indraganti, Madhavi; Rao, Kavita Daryani [Architecture Department, Jawaharlal Nehru Architecture and Fine Arts University, Hyderabad (India)

    2010-03-15

    Energy consumption in Indian residential buildings is one of the highest and is increasing phenomenally. Indian standards specify comfort temperatures between 23 and 26 C for all types of buildings across the nation. However, thermal comfort research in India is very limited. A field study in naturally ventilated apartments was done in 2008, during the summer and monsoon seasons in Hyderabad in composite climate. This survey involved over 100 subjects, giving 3962 datasets. They were analysed under different groups: age, gender, economic group and tenure. Age, gender and tenure correlated weakly with thermal comfort. However, thermal acceptance of women, older subjects and owner-subjects was higher. Economic level of the subjects showed significant effect on the thermal sensation, preference, acceptance and neutrality. The comfort band for lowest economic group was found to be 27.3-33.1 C with the neutral temperature at 30.2 C. This is way above the standard. This finding has far reaching energy implications on building and HVAC systems design and practice. Occupants' responses for other environmental parameters often depended on their thermal sensation, often resulting in a near normal distribution. The subjects displayed acoustic and olfactory obliviousness due to habituation, resulting in higher satisfaction and acceptance. (author)

  20. Influence of BMI, gender, and sports on pain decrease and medication usage after facet–medial branch neurotomy or SI joint lateral branch cooled RF-neurotomy in case of low back pain: original research in the Austrian population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelzer, Wolfgang; Stelzer, Valentin; Stelzer, Dominik; Braune, Monika; Duller, Christine

    2017-01-01

    Purpose This retrospective original research was designed to illustrate the general outcome after radiofrequency (RF) neurotomy of lumbar medial branch (MB) and posterior ramus of the sacroiliac joint of 160 patients with chronic low back pain (LBP) 1, 6, and 12 months after treatment. Methods Visual Analog Scale (VAS) 0–10 pain scores, quality of life, body mass index (BMI), medication usage, and frequency of physical exercise/sports participation (none, 1–3×/week, more) were collected before the procedure, at 1 month post procedure (n=160), and again at 6 (n=73) and 12 months (n=89) post procedure. Results A VAS decrease of 4 points on a 10-point scale (from 8 to 4) in the overall group was seen after 6 months and of 4.5 after 12 months. Lower medication usage was reported, with opioids decreased by 40% and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) by 60%. Decreased pain lasted for 12 months. Significantly better outcomes were reported by patients with BMIs 30 are less likely to report decreased pain. The better long-term pain relief in the sports participating group is a motivation for the authors to keep the patients in motion. PMID:28144161

  1. [The bill of rights for children in sport: a tool to promote the health and protect the child in sport].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, P; Bizzini, L; Marti, M; Bouvier, P

    2006-07-26

    The Bill of rights for children in sport was developed in response to the need for prevention and protection of children practicing sport. It is the result of an interdisciplinary approach and is used with young sportsmen, sport clubs and in the education of the professionals involved with children's sport. It is an excellent tool to sensitize people to children's vulnerabilities and to establish the bases for prevention and protection. In complete accordance with the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, this Bill gives an example of a concrete application in the field of Sports. Used on a regular basis in the field, it contributes to change the adult's vision of children's sport and the approach to coaching;

  2. Motor memory in sports success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia GRĂDINARU

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The model of modern sports performance asks for certain graduation in the treatment of its efficiency. Besides the coaching model, what matters is the genetic potential of the child or junior, and particularly the selection of the young talented athlete identified at the proper time and included in a proper training system, in full harmony with the education process. The sports output is determined by the simultaneous action of several factors whose influences are different. At present, there is a tendency to improve those factors on which rely sports outcomes and that need to be analysed and selected. Psychic capacity is a major factor, and mental control – the power to focus, motor intelligence, motor memory, creativity, and tactical skills play a major role in an athlete’s style. This study aims at showing the measure in which motor memory allows early and reliable diagnosis of future performance. The subjects selected are components of the mini-basket team of the Sports Club “Sport Star” from Timisoara, little girls that have played basketball since 1st grade in their free time (some of the girls have played it for four years. The research was carried out during a competitive year; we monitored the subjects both during coach lessons and minibasketball championship. To assess motor memory, we used the “cerebral module” consisting in memorising a complex of technical and tactical elements and applying them depending on the situation in the field. The research also involved monitoring the subjects in four directions considered defining in the assessment of the young athletes: somatic data, physical features, basketball features and intellectual potential. Most parameters point out a medium homogeneity of the group, except for height and commitment (great homogeneity. Half of the athletes of the tested group are above the mean of the group, which allows guiding them towards higher coaching forms (allowing them to practice basketball

  3. Sports dentistry: a perspective for the future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Vinícius Soares

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Sports Dentistry (SD acts in the prevention, maintenance and treatment of oral and facial injuries, as well as the collection and dissemination of information on dental trauma, beyond stimulus to research. Establishes as a duty for the dentist detect problems related to the athlete’s stomatognathic system. This essay is based on the provided data from the literature related to SD, including definition, practice areas and research fields. To discuss the data, six areas were categorized: shares in sports dentistry; oral health of athlete; sports-related dental implications; dental-facial trauma; face shields; and mouthguards. The analyzed data show that the SD is still an underexplored field of action by dentists, but it is expanding, despite not being recognized specialty by the Federal Council of Dentistry, but the Brazilian Academy of Sports Dentistry has been created with a mission to show the real importance of Dentistry in sport. The dentist should be part of the group of professionals associated with the athlete to perform periodic checks in order to ensure oral health which may contribute to athletes´performance. When impact occurs, however, it would be possible reduce the severity of the impact related to injuries, by using helmets, masks, goggles, face shields and mouthguard. Additionally, it is imperative that dentists, sports coaching, athletes, and professional who work with athletes be aware of the benefits of incorporating SD as an important academic and professional subject.

  4. Augmented Reality in Sports: Today and Tomorrow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafer BOZYER

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The rapid change experienced in the field of Information Technologies makes the informati cs more tangible in daily life. Today, it became possible to encounter with the informatics applications almost all the disciplines. As a matter of course, many informatics applications are put into the practice regarding the sports discipline. Because of the condition that the power of information processing has increased and the studies on wearable technol ogies in addition to the expert system design, augmented reality (AR has become a topic which gains imp ortance in the field of sports. There are many studies that are conducted with the aim of increasing the efficiency of physical activities done in many sports branches, ensuring a more fair management of competitions and providing the opportunity for spectators to watch the competitions in a more comfortable and efficient way. In this study; the information about the current augmented reality practices th at are used in various sports branches has been given and the mobile and interactive augmented reality practices which are possible to be seen in future have been mentioned. In addition, there is an augmented reality practice which is designed with the aim of ensuring that the shoots of sports people who are interested in archery, are more stable and of ensuring that the trainings and exercises are more efficient by stating to the sports people whether he or she is in the right position for shoot which is c alled as T shape seen at the time of releasing the arrow.

  5. Adaptive sports technology and biomechanics: prosthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luigi, Arthur Jason; Cooper, Rory A

    2014-08-01

    With the technologic advances in medicine and an emphasis on maintaining physical fitness, the population of athletes with impairments is growing. It is incumbent upon health care practitioners to make every effort to inform these individuals of growing and diverse opportunities and to encourage safe exercise and athletic participation through counseling and education. Given the opportunities for participation in sports for persons with a limb deficiency, the demand for new, innovative prosthetic designs is challenging the clinical and technical expertise of the physician and prosthetist. When generating a prosthetic prescription, physicians and prosthetists should consider the needs and preferences of the athlete with limb deficiency, as well as the functional demands of the chosen sporting activity. The intent of this article is to provide information regarding the current advancements in the adaptive sports technology and biomechanics in the field of prosthetics, and to assist clinicians and their patients in facilitating participation in sporting activities.

  6. The engineering approach to winter sports

    CERN Document Server

    Cheli, Federico; Maldifassi, Stefano; Melzi, Stefano; Sabbioni, Edoardo

    2016-01-01

    The Engineering Approach to Winter Sports presents the state-of-the-art research in the field of winter sports in a harmonized and comprehensive way for a diverse audience of engineers, equipment and facilities designers, and materials scientists. The book examines the physics and chemistry of snow and ice with particular focus on the interaction (friction) between sports equipment and snow/ice, how it is influenced by environmental factors, such as temperature and pressure, as well as by contaminants and how it can be modified through the use of ski waxes or the microtextures of blades or ski soles. The authors also cover, in turn, the different disciplines in winter sports:  skiing (both alpine and cross country), skating and jumping, bob sledding and skeleton, hockey and curling, with attention given to both equipment design and on the simulation of gesture and  track optimization.

  7. The Styles of Coping with Stress in Team and Individual Athletes Based On Gender and Championship Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Tasaddoghi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is Prioritization coping with stress styles in individual and team athletes with an emphasis on gender and the level of championship. The‌ population is 1092 athletes participate in‌ team sports (volleyball, basketball, footsall and handball and individual sports (ping pong, badminton, track & field, physical fitness, taekwondo and karate with at least one year championship background. The sampling was selected by considering the lost subject 380 person one by one. For data collection in this research, has been used a 32 items questionnaire of Coping Scale Korea Atletes (CSKA related to coping with stress styles. Questionnaires were distributed in pilot studies and their reliability was estimated α = 0.81. Data has been analyzed by using Mann Whitney‌ U and in the level of P ≤ 0.05. The results of this research indicated that problem focused‌ coping and emotional coping style were higher priority than avoidance coping style and intuitive coping style. Male use the avoidance coping more than female and individual athletes apply problem focused coping more than group athletes. There is significant difference among athletes with different levels of sport achievement only in avoidance coping. The athletes according to background, genus, and kind of sport, education and levels of sport achievement use different coping style which this subject should be considered by coaches.

  8. Segregasi Gender dalam Organisasi Spasial Pesantren-Pesantren Besar di Pulau Jawa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Triyoga

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The presence of female santris in big pesantren in Java, which started around 1930, demanded the organization of spatial patterns related to intergender relations in the form of a segregation of activity zones between male and female santris. This study assesses the dynamics of gender segregation in the spatial organization of 18 big pesantren located on Java Island since their establishment until now. The data were collected through field observation, interviews and study of historical documents. The results show that gender segregation in the spatial organization of the pesantren is manifested through the concepts of gender specific zones, territoriality, and boundary. Levels of tolerance and flexibility towards gender segregation are observed within the formal activity zone (madrasah or school, but not in non-formal (boarding houses and informal (playgrounds, sports, recreation and social activities zones. Big pesantren in West Java show the highest degree of tolerance towards gender segregation in formal activity zones, followed by big pesantren in Central Java, and lastly by those in East Java. The Kyai as a charismatic leader, policy creator, and decision maker for the interests and benefits of the pesantren, has a significant influence on the level of tolerance of the pesantren as an institution towards gender segregation between male and female santris in the formal activity zone (madrasah or school.

  9. Sports Medicine: What is a Sports Medicine Specialist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... both the treatment and prevention of illness and injury. The Sports Medicine Specialist helps patients maximize function and minimize ... of these conditions. However, approximately 90% of all sports injuries are non-surgical. The Sports Medicine Specialist can ...

  10. The importance of sport psychology in school sport | le Roux ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The importance of sport psychology in school sport. ... of values associated with sport, the prevention of burnout in a young athlete, how to ... These findings can mainly be attributed to a lack of knowledge regarding the psychology of the child.

  11. Systematic variation in reviewer practice according to country and gender in the field of ecology and evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olyana N Grod

    Full Text Available The characteristics of referees and the potential subsequent effects on the peer-review process are an important consideration for science since the integrity of the system depends on the appropriate evaluation of merit. In 2006, we conducted an online survey of 1334 ecologists and evolutionary biologists pertaining to the review process. Respondents were from Europe, North America and other regions of the world, with the majority from English first language countries. Women comprised a third of all respondents, consistent with their representation in the scientific academic community. Among respondents we found no correlation between the time typically taken over a review and the reported average rejection rate. On average, Europeans took longer over reviewing a manuscript than North Americans, and females took longer than males, but reviewed fewer manuscripts. Males recommended rejection of manuscripts more frequently than females, regardless of region. Hence, editors and potential authors should consider alternative sets of criteria, to what exists now, when selecting a panel of referees to potentially balance different tendencies by gender or region.

  12. SPORTS ACTIVITIES SPONSORSHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DURBĂCEA - BOLOVAN MARIAN

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Sports and economy have discovered each other, hoping to serve common interests. In view of transferring in a more efficient way the information about their products or services to consumers, the business operator finances sports activities for advertising purposes. A company involved in sports sponsorship can instantly transmit the message about its products to millions of potential buyers, thus increasing the market share and hence the profit that it generates. By sponsoring sport it is meant any agreement / convention, under which one party the sponsor makes available to the beneficiary the material resources, financial and / or other benefits in exchange for its association with a sport or sportsman and especially the promise to use this association with sport or sportsman for the purpose of advertising, especially TV advertising. The growing use of athletes as spokespersons for a product is largely due to the ability of athletes to attract public attention and the credibility they enjoy

  13. Refleksiv Sports Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adamsen, Billy

    2013-01-01

    Sports management and its development is closely linked to the development of modern society and modern rationality. This article applies sociological theories and practical management philosophy to shed light on how sports management and its rationality in Denmark (Europe) and the United States...... have changed and undergone different phases for more than a century, and to show that, in late modernity, they are entering a new phase in which they seem to be more reflexive and communicative. This trend is evident in American sports management and will also soon be reflected in Danish sports...... management. My analysis of this development will also be based on a specific case study from the American world of sports, namely the story of Oakland Athletics baseball club’s reorganisation in the 1990s, because it both provides a rare insight into a modern sports organisation and demonstrates...

  14. Ethics in sports medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Warren R; George, Michael S; Churchill, Larry; Spindler, Kurt P

    2007-05-01

    Physicians have struggled with the medical ramifications of athletic competition since ancient Greece, where rational medicine and organized athletics originated. Historically, the relationship between sport and medicine was adversarial because of conflicts between health and sport. However, modern sports medicine has emerged with the goal of improving performance and preventing injury, and the concept of the "team physician" has become an integral part of athletic culture. With this distinction come unique ethical challenges because the customary ethical norms for most forms of clinical practice, such as confidentiality and patient autonomy, cannot be translated easily into sports medicine. The particular areas of medical ethics that present unique challenges in sports medicine are informed consent, third parties, advertising, confidentiality, drug use, and innovative technology. Unfortunately, there is no widely accepted code of sports medicine ethics that adequately addresses these issues.

  15. Sport-related concussions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéssica Natuline Ianof

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Traumatic brain injury (TBI is a major cause of lifelong disability and death worldwide. Sport-related traumatic brain injury is an important public health concern. The purpose of this review was to highlight the importance of sport-related concussions. Concussion refers to a transient alteration in consciousness induced by external biomechanical forces transmitted directly or indirectly to the brain. It is a common, although most likely underreported, condition. Contact sports such as American football, rugby, soccer, boxing, basketball and hockey are associated with a relatively high prevalence of concussion. Various factors may be associated with a greater risk of sport-related concussion, such as age, sex, sport played, level of sport played and equipment used. Physical complaints (headache, fatigue, dizziness, behavioral changes (depression, anxiety, irritability and cognitive impairment are very common after a concussion. The risk of premature return to activities includes the prolongation of post-concussive symptoms and increased risk of concussion recurrence.

  16. Refleksiv Sports Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adamsen, Billy

    2013-01-01

    Sports management and its development is closely linked to the development of modern society and modern rationality. This article applies sociological theories and practical management philosophy to shed light on how sports management and its rationality in Denmark (Europe) and the United States...... have changed and undergone different phases for more than a century, and to show that, in late modernity, they are entering a new phase in which they seem to be more reflexive and communicative. This trend is evident in American sports management and will also soon be reflected in Danish sports...... management. My analysis of this development will also be based on a specific case study from the American world of sports, namely the story of Oakland Athletics baseball club’s reorganisation in the 1990s, because it both provides a rare insight into a modern sports organisation and demonstrates...

  17. Implicit beliefs of ability, approach-avoidance goals and cognitive anxiety among team sport athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenling, Andreas; Hassmén, Peter; Holmström, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    People's implicit beliefs of ability have been suggested as an antecedent of achievement goal adoption, which has in turn been associated with behavioural, cognitive and affective outcomes. This study examined a conditional process model with team sport athletes' approach-avoidance achievement goals as mediators between their implicit beliefs of sport ability and sport-related cognitive anxiety. We expected gender to moderate the paths from implicit beliefs of ability to approach-avoidance goals and from approach-avoidance goals to cognitive anxiety. Team sport athletes with a mean age of 20 years (163 females and 152 males) responded to questionnaires about their implicit beliefs of sport ability, approach-avoidance goals and sport-related cognitive anxiety. Incremental beliefs, gender and the interaction between them predicted mastery-approach goals. Gender also predicted mastery-avoidance goals, with females reporting higher levels than males. Mastery-avoidance goals, gender and the interaction between them predicted cognitive anxiety, with females reporting higher levels of anxiety than males. Entity beliefs positively predicted performance-avoidance goals and the interaction between performance-approach and gender predicted anxiety. The indirect effects also showed gender differences in relation to performance-approach goals. Taken together, our results suggest that coaches trying to create a facilitating climate for their male and female athletes may be wise to consider their athletes' anxiety and achievement goal patterns as these may affect both the athletes' well-being and performance.

  18. SYSTEMATIZATION OF SPORTS AND SPORT DISCIPLINES ACCORDING TO THE ASPECT OF SPORT TRAINING

    OpenAIRE

    Duško Bjelica

    2006-01-01

    According to the aspect of sport training, it's necessary to do the systematization of sports according to their content. The content of sports is presented by qualitative and quantitative structure of development, and the classification of sports is performed by the amount of participation of elementary bio-motor dimensions in sports, respectivly.

  19. Sports Specialization, Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myer, Gregory D.; Jayanthi, Neeru; DiFiori, John P.; Faigenbaum, Avery D.; Kiefer, Adam W.; Logerstedt, David; Micheli, Lyle J.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Many coaches, parents, and children believe that the best way to develop elite athletes is for them to participate in only 1 sport from an early age and to play it year-round. However, emerging evidence to the contrary indicates that efforts to specialize in 1 sport may reduce opportunities for all children to participate in a diverse year-round sports season and can lead to lost development of lifetime sports skills. Early sports specialization may also reduce motor skill development and ongoing participation in games and sports as a lifestyle choice. The purpose of this review is to employ the current literature to provide evidence-based alternative strategies that may help to optimize opportunities for all aspiring young athletes to maximize their health, fitness, and sports performance. Evidence Acquisition: Nonsystematic review with critical appraisal of existing literature. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Conclusion: Based on the current evidence, parents and educators should help provide opportunities for free unstructured play to improve motor skill development and youth should be encouraged to participate in a variety of sports during their growing years to influence the development of diverse motor skills. For those children who do choose to specialize in a single sport, periods of intense training and specialized sport activities should be closely monitored for indicators of burnout, overuse injury, or potential decrements in performance due to overtraining. Last, the evidence indicates that all youth should be involved in periodized strength and conditioning (eg, integrative neuromuscular training) to help them prepare for the demands of competitive sport participation, and youth who specialize in a single sport should plan periods of isolated and focused integrative neuromuscular training to enhance diverse motor skill development and reduce injury risk factors. Strength of Recommendation Taxonomy (SORT): B. PMID

  20. Sport-related concussions

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of lifelong disability and death worldwide. Sport-related traumatic brain injury is an important public health concern. The purpose of this review was to highlight the importance of sport-related concussions. Concussion refers to a transient alteration in consciousness induced by external biomechanical forces transmitted directly or indirectly to the brain. It is a common, although most likely underreported, condition. Contact sports such...

  1. SPORT MARKETING MIX STRATEGIES

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandru Lucian MIHAI

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a brief overview of a significant element of the sport marketing management model called the marketing mix. The marketing mix is crucial because it defines the sport business, and much of the sport marketer’s time is spent on various functions within the marketing mix. The marketing mix is the strategic combination of the product, price, place and promotion elements. These elements are typically called the four Ps of marketing. Decisions and strategies for each are importa...

  2. Incidence rate of injuries during sport activity and physical exercise in a rural Swedish municipality: incidence rates in 17 sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Loës, M; Goldie, I

    1988-12-01

    A prospective study of acute injuries from sports and physical exercise was carried out during 1 year in a total population of a municipality with 31,620 inhabitants. Data on exposure were collected: the number of participants in each sport, the hours of participation, and number of weeks in the season per year. The number of injuries was used as numerator and the exposure data as denominator in a formula modified from Chambers for the calculation of population at risk in sports. A total of 571 injuries occurred in 28 different sports: 65% of the injured were males. The majority of the injuries were from soccer: 50% of the males and 27% of the females. Incidence rates in 17 sports are presented. The ranking order differs, when calculating not only the number, but also the exposure. Ice hockey and handball were then found to have the highest risk followed by soccer. Team and contact sports on the whole had the highest rates in both genders. As a group, intercompany players had the highest rate, especially in soccer. The lowest rates were found in individual sports such as downhill skiing, horseback riding, racket sports, and running. Gymnastics, except in school physical education, had no injuries at all. Sprains and strains were diagnosed in nearly half of the cases and the foot and ankle were the most frequent sites. Preventive measures are proposed.

  3. Sports injuries Lesiones deportivas

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Stress generated by sports practice has increased the probability that athletes suffer from acute and chronic injuries. Worldwide, there have been many different investigations concerning the incidence of sport injuries. The different ways in which results have been presented makes it difficult to compare among them. Rates of sports injuries vary between 1.7 and 53 per 1.000 hours of sports practice; 0.8 and 90.9 per 1.000 hours of training; 3.1 and 54.8 per 1.000 hours of competition, and 6....

  4. Confidentiality in Sports Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcolm, Dominic

    2016-04-01

    This article synthesizes existing literature to provide a summary of the ethical issues concerning patient confidentiality in sport. It outlines the medical principle of confidentiality and identifies cross-cultural ethicolegal variations that shape its implementation. Clinicians' multiple obligations, physical environments, and practice and policy contexts are discussed, and research detailing experiences of maintaining patient confidentiality in sport is reviewed. Policy recommendations for enhancing compliance with this ethical principle are summarized. It is argued that the context of sport exacerbates pressures on clinicians to break patient confidentiality, breaches occur regularly, and interventions are required to enhance ethical compliance in sports medicine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Phospholipids and sports performance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jäger, Ralf; Purpura, Martin; Kingsley, Michael

    2007-01-01

    .... The participation in physical activity often challenges a variety of physiological systems; consequently, the ability to maintain normal cellular function during activity can determine sporting performance...

  6. Gender constructions and negotiations in physical education: case studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    With-Nielsen, Ninna; Pfister, Gertrud Ursula

    2011-01-01

    In Denmark as in other European countries, many girls, and especially Muslim girls, seem to lose interest in physical activities and sport with increasing age. However, in a Danish context, little is known about the reasons why girls drop out of sport and which role physical education (PE) plays...... in this process. In this article we present results of a qualitative study on gendered discourses and doing gender in a PE class at a Danish high school. Drawing on constructivist and post-structuralist approaches to gender and ethnicity, we explore the different opportunities of girls in PE based on in...

  7. Treating and Preventing Sports Hernias

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Back to Healthy Living Treating and Preventing Sports Hernias If you play ice hockey, tennis or soccer, ... the most commonly misdiagnosed groin pain—a sports hernia. A sports hernia often results from overuse of ...

  8. The Structure of World Track and Field Sports from Medal List of Three Games%从三次大赛奖牌榜分析世界田径格局

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄文敏

    2012-01-01

    奖牌榜总体反映各参赛国的综合实力,它较为直观清晰的反映该项目的大体竞争格局和和发展态势。大邱,柏林世锦赛和北京奥运会田径比赛奖牌榜统计分析研究表明:1)世界田径运动的总体竞争格局未发生重大的变化;2)金牌分布呈高度集中趋势,"强弱分明"的两极分化态势加剧;3)竞技实力格局极端不平衡,优势项群的分布具有明显的地域特征;4)欧洲是现在世界田径运动的中心,中北美则是世界田径运动的焦点;5)中国队的整体实力有一定的提升,但夺金点,突破点并没有明显有效的增加,女子投掷、男女竞走、女子马拉松和男子110m栏是中国田径队伦敦主要夺金夺牌点。%Medal list reflected each participating countries integrative strength,which more clear reflected this sport general competitive pattern and developing state.The comparative research of medal standings of IAAF World Championships Daegu,Berlin and track and field competition in Beijing olympic games showed that: 1)The overall competitive pattern of world track and field sports has never made great change.2)Gold medal distributing become more and more centralizated,the gap between strong and weak is very huge.3)The pattern of competitiveness strength is extremely unbalance,preponderant item group distributing has distinct regionally character.4)Europe is the center of world track and field sports,and middle and north america is the focus.5)Chinese team's strength has definitely improved.However,gold point and break point have never effective increased.Women's Jaculation,men's race-walking,women's marathon and men's 110m hurdles will be chinese team's gold medal point or medal point in London olympic games.

  9. Gender Segregation in Fields of Study at Community Colleges and Implications for Future Earnings. Fact Sheet #C395

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moughari, Layla; Gunn-Wright, Rhiana; Gault, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Postsecondary education yields myriad benefits, including increased earnings potential, higher lifetime wages, and access to quality jobs. But postsecondary degrees are not all equal in the benefits they bring to students, and women tend to obtain degrees in fields with lower earnings. Women with associate degrees earn approximately 75 percent of…

  10. Science and the major racket sports: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lees, Adrian

    2003-09-01

    conceptualization of strategy and tactics. Racket sports have provided a vehicle for investigating fast interceptive actions, hand-eye coordination and perception-action coupling in the field of motor control. In conclusion, science has contributed considerably to our knowledge and understanding of racket sports, and racket sports have contributed to science by providing unique challenges to researchers.

  11. Conceptions managers and monitors on sport no more education program: for a pedagogization of sport practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deyvid Tenner de Souza Rizzo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Public policies for the development and systematization of the sport have been a highlight on the national scene. This study aims to investigate the design and job prospects of managers and monitors the More Education Program (MEP of a municipal school in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul in relation to the sport, following some classes of macro sports field and recreation and observing which activities are being offered to students. For this, we used a qualitative approach in the methodology, structured from a literature search and field, assisting in class observations and application of questionnaire and interview subjects that make up the monitoring and management of MEP. It was made possible through the collected data to conclude that the classes are guided only in entertainment contents and games, lacking concrete elements for the realization of any sport.

  12. Clima motivacional de los adolescentes y su relación con el género, la práctica de actividad física, la modalidad deportiva, la práctica deportiva federada y la actividad física familiar. [Motivational climate of adolescents and their relationship to gender, physical activity, sport, federated sport and physical activity family].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Castro-Sánchez

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available La adolescencia es un periodo crítico en cuanto a la adquisición de patrones de práctica de actividad física que se mantengan durante la etapa adulta, por ello se considera de vital importancia analizar la motivación hacia la asignatura de Educación Física. El presente estudio tiene como objetivo conocer los parámetros de práctica de actividad física y de motivación hacia la asignatura de Educación Física, para analizar las relaciones existentes entre las variables. Participaron 2.134 estudiantes de edades comprendidas entre los 15 y los 18 años, evaluados mediante el cuestionario de Clima Motivacional (PMCQS-2 y una hoja de auto registro que midió las variables físico-deportivas. Los resultados mostraron que tanto los alumnos como las alumnas se orientan más hacia la tarea que hacia el ego, mostrando las chicas valores superiores en el clima tarea, y los chicos en el clima ego. Únicamente un tercio de ellos no practican actividad física, mientras que de los que sí lo hacen, en su mayoría practican deportes colectivos. Dos de cada diez adolescentes se encuentran federados en algún deporte, los varones practican deporte de forma federada en mayor número que las féminas. Abstract Adolescence is a critical regarding the acquisition of patterns of physical activity to be maintained into adulthood, is therefore considered vital to analyze the motivation for Physical Education period. This study aims to determine the parameters of physical activity and motivation towards the subject of Physical Education and analyze the relationships between variables. They involved 2,134 students aged between 15 and 18 years, assessed by questionnaire Motivational Climate (PMCQS-2 and a self-registration sheet which measured the physical and sports variables. The results showed that students are more oriented toward the task to the ego, the girls showing higher values in the job climate, and the guys on the ego climate. Only a third of them do

  13. On Sporting Nationalism : Research Methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Uchiumi, Kazuo

    2010-01-01

    There are some theories that with globalization nationalisms will disappear, but nationalisms have been growing more and more. In sport, the number of international sporting events is increasing and sporting nationalism is becoming more and more obvious. Recently sporting nationalism and its relationship with (political) nationalism has been focused on. In this paper the author analyzed sporting nationalism in Japan and compared it with that of the United Kingdom, where researches on sporting...

  14. Gendered Globalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milwertz, Cecilia Nathansen; Cai, Yiping

    2017-01-01

    Both the People’s Republic of China (PRC) and Nordic countries (Sweden, Iceland, Denmark, Norway and Finland) view gender equality as a social justice issue and are politically committed towards achieving gender equality nationally and internationally. Since China has taken a proactive position o...... on globalization and global governance, gender equality is possibly an area that China may wish to explore in collaboration with the Nordic countries....

  15. Sport for Development and Global Public Health Issues: A Case Study of National Sports Associations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davies Banda

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Sport is widely recognised for the contribution it can make to international development goals. More specifically, the value of sport as a tool for development gained its impetus through the HIV/AIDS pandemic in sub-Saharan Africa. The institutionalized relationship between sport and development has mainly focussed on sport-for-development (SfD non-governmental organisations (NGOs. This study proposed to examine the response of National Sports Associations (NSAs towards the multisectoral approach for HIV/AIDS prevention in Zambia. The study draws on lessons learnt from how NSAs within a resource-scarce or low-income country responded to a health pandemic. While public health was previously a state and health sector preserve, the impact of HIV/AIDS pandemic influenced not only the way that a pandemic is managed but also other public health issues. A case study approach was adopted comprising of three National Sports Associations (NSAs as units of analysis. The study utilised semi-structured interviews, documentary analysis and field observations to gain perspectives on how each NSA mainstreamed and implemented work-based health programmes. Using governance and policy network theories, the paper discusses each NSAs’ role in the governance and implementation of a multisectoral approach to a health pandemic. The findings identified lack of engagement of sports agencies at strategic decision-making level, marginalisation of sport by other sectors, and variations in implementation patterns among sports agencies. Further findings indicate that lack of resources among government sport agencies or departments limited their involvement with other state or non-state actors in strategic level meetings or health policy networks. Resource-scarce conditions placed limitations on the political steer of state actors while non-state actors with foreign resources attracted collaboration from other public health policy networks.

  16. The Strength Model of Self-Control:Progress in the Field of Sport%自我控制的力量模型:竞技领域中的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    项明强; 张力为

    2016-01-01

    Based on strength model of self‐control ,it asserts that self‐control act can be de‐scribed as a process as well as human self‐control resources are limitied .After having worked on prior self‐control task ,the energy can deplete and is not immediately replenished .During this state ,termed ego depletion ,subsequent self‐control tasks may become worse performance . In this paper ,we report on a study on research and application of this model in the competitive field recently ,including perceptual motor ,sprint time ,decision making in sport ,the sport of training ,aggression in sport ,doping in sport ,and so on .Moreover ,in terms of ego depletion mechanism ,we discuss the limited energy theory ,energy allocation ,will power belief and shift‐ing priorities model .We also summarize the research approach to not only intergrate strength model of self‐control and attention control theory but also combine with strength model of self‐control and self‐determination theory .The findings provide further insights into our under‐standing of self control theory in the field of sport ,it is tentatively proposed that more scientif‐ic research paradigm and self‐control application reseach can be accessed based on the frame‐work of the dual‐process theories ,aiming to develop more ecological validity research methods , explore the mechanism of brain meanwhile improve the operability of ego‐depeltion coping and self‐control training .%自我控制的力量模型认为,自我控制行为是一个过程,且自我控制的能量有限,先前的自我控制任务所消耗的能量未得到及时恢复,就会出现自我损耗状态,进而导致后续自我控制任务的操作成绩下降。研究介绍了近年来该模型在竞技领域中的研究与应用,其中包括知觉动作、起跑反应时、运动决策、训练坚持性、运动攻击行为以及服用兴奋剂等。讨论了研究者在自我损耗机制方面提出的能量

  17. Exercise — Exploring Mutuality and Discordance(s Between Sport and Public Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eling D. de Bruin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sports is a peer-reviewed scientific journal that revolves around the interdisciplinary area of exercise sciences applied in sport and public health. The intention of Sports is to link several scientific disciplines in an integrated fashion in order to address critical issues related to exercise science, sports and public health. As the first Editor-in-Chief of Sports, I would like to share a few comments about this interdisciplinary field of research by discussing the mutuality and discordances between exercise as it is applied in sports and public health.

  18. Perceptions of Gender Group Variability in Majority and Minority Contexts Two Field Studies with Nurses and Police Officers

    OpenAIRE

    Hewstone, Miles; Crisp, Richard J.; Turner, Rhiannon N.

    2011-01-01

    Two field studies demonstrated that majority and minority size moderate perceived group variability. In Study 1 we found an outgroup homogeneity (OH) effect for female nurses in the majority, but an ingroup homogeneity (IH) effect for a token minority of male nurses. In Study 2 we found similar effects in a different setting - an OH effect for policemen in the majority and an IH effect for policewomen in the minority. Although measures of visibility, status, and, especially, familiarity tende...

  19. Sports gymnastics as a part of curriculum of Sports Management university studies in the Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Hruša, Petr; Hrušová, Dagmar

    2013-01-01

    Current approaches to systemize gymnastics differ in understanding the content of this concept; however, the authors agree that gymnastics is an open system of human conscious motion activities that contribute to the physical, aesthetic and social development. In our study we focused on studies of sports management, as a young field of study that appeared at Czech universities in the past two decades. The aim was to analyze sports gymnastics as a subject with practical applications in the fie...

  20. A Physics Heptathlon: Simple Models of Seven Sporting Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spathopoulos, Vassilios McInnes

    2010-01-01

    Anything that can capture the interest of students can be used to enhance the teaching of physics, and sport is practised, watched and followed fanatically by almost every young person. At the same time, in recent years, a wealth of research data has become available from the field of sports science. The purpose of this article is to draw from…

  1. A School Psychologist's Self-Study Guide to Sport Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesyk, Jack J.

    2005-01-01

    School psychologists may find the field of sport psychology beneficial to them in extending their skills and effectiveness. As trained psychologists, they are likely to already have some of the knowledge and skills necessary for working in the area of sport psychology. However, without additional training, this may not be sufficient for ethical…

  2. Sports in a dilemma and thinking of sports:the green sports system research%体育之困与解困之思:绿色体育的系统考察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    但艳芳; 柳鸣毅; 杜子阳

    2016-01-01

    绿色体育实现的主要形态是绿地体育、免费场馆体育和空地体育。绿色体育的实现路径应从健康型体育设施的规划利用、绿色体育活动新内容的拓展、绿色体育社会指导员队伍的建设、绿色体育政策法规的创建与完善以及绿色体育工作机制的宣传等方面着手。%The trapped sports as the current sports development and reform one of hot-spots in the field of research,has become a focus of research in the government departments and sports.Based on China's sports development and the reality of all existing investigation found that its development has trouble,but the green sports have opened up a green channel for it.The study found that the main form of implementation is green sports,free sports venues and open spaces free sports,for sports achieve a green path from planning to use Healthy sports facilities,expanding green sports new content,building green sports instructor team,creation and improvement of green sports poli-cies and regulations,as well as green sports publicity mechanism to proceed.Through the analysis of green sports may be in,in order to ease the struggle to the development of Chinese sports,green sports sustainable development to provide realistic thinking and the beneficial reference.

  3. CONSIDERATIONS ON MANAGERIAL ETHICS IN SPORTS ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Constantin Razvan BARBU

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The scholarly literature in the ethics field approaches the ethical management issue in different areas such as accounting, retail, banking, public institutions or private companies. The subject of sports managers’ ethics is not very well highlighted in the national literature, as "sports industry" is constantly evolving. Sports have a strong impact on the national culture, influencing the values of millions of spectators and participants. The definition of sports given by the Council of Europe is "all forms of physical activity which, through more or less organized participation, aim at expressing or improving physical and psychological condition, the development of social relationships or obtaining positive results in all levels competitions". In this paper we conducted a study on managerial ethics tools within sports clubs. The used methodology involved the intersection of the main current stage of knowledge and the formulation of new judgments. The study identified and highlighted the major role of the manager of sports clubs in providing the framework for the manifestation of ethical behaviors.

  4. Sport science integration: An evolutionary synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balagué, N; Torrents, C; Hristovski, R; Kelso, J A S

    2017-02-01

    The aim of the paper is to point out one way of integrating the supposedly incommensurate disciplines investigated in sports science. General, common principles can be found among apparently unrelated disciplines when the focus is put on the dynamics of sports-related phenomena. Dynamical systems approaches that have recently changed research in biological and social sciences among others, offer key concepts to create a common pluricontextual language in sport science. This common language, far from being homogenising, offers key synthesis between diverse fields, respecting and enabling the theoretical and experimental pluralism. It forms a softly integrated sports science characterised by a basic dynamic explanatory backbone as well as context-dependent theoretical flexibility. After defining the dynamic integration in living systems, unable to be captured by structural static approaches, we show the commonalities between the diversity of processes existing on different levels and time scales in biological and social entities. We justify our interpretation by drawing on some recent scientific contributions that use the same general principles and concepts, and diverse methods and techniques of data analysis, to study different types of phenomena in diverse disciplines. We show how the introduction of the dynamic framework in sport science has started to blur the boundaries between physiology, biomechanics, psychology, phenomenology and sociology. The advantages and difficulties of sport science integration and its consequences in research are also discussed.

  5. Sports Video Segmentation using Spectral Clustering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohong Zhao

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of the computer and multimedia technology, the video processing technique is applied to the field of sports in order to analyze the sport video. For sports video analysis, how to segment the sports video image has become an important research topic. Nowadays, the algorithms for video image segmentation mainly include neural network, K-means and so on. However, the accuracy and speed of these algorithms for moving objects segmentation are not satisfied, and easily influenced by the irregular movement of the object and illumination, etc. In view of this, this paper proposes an algorithm for object segmentation in sports video image sequence, based on the spectral clustering. This algorithm simultaneously considers the pixel level visual feature and the edge information of the neighboring pixels to make the calculation of similarity is more intuitive and not affected by factors such as image texture. When clustering the image feature, the proposed method: (1 preprocesses video image sequence and extracts the image feature. (2Using weight function to build and calculate the similar matrix between pixels. (2 Extract feature vector. (3 Perform clustering using spectral clustering algorithm to segment the sports video image. The experimental results indicate that the method proposed in this paper has the advantages, such as lower complexity, high computational effectiveness, low computational amount, and so on. It can get better extraction effects on video image

  6. [Gender, health and nursing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Edméia Almeida Cardoso

    2005-01-01

    This essay is about Gender, Health and Nursing, the main theme of the 65th Brazilian Nursing Week held in 2004. Besides doing a review of the construction of Gender as an analytical category and a critical analysis of socio-historical building of the nursing career, some implications of the stereotypes of gender to work practices are shown. The subject is articulated with concrete practices in which nurses are the focus of attention, particularly women's health and the influence of men and women relationship in the health-illness process. An awareness of gender building as one of the conditions to the increasing of the professional field pointing out challenges and ways to follow is emphasized.

  7. Epidemiology of concussion in sport: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, Michael B; Glover, Kari L; Lowe, Duane T

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to summarize sport concussion incidence data, identify sports that present higher injury frequency, reveal the degree of risk in some lesser-known sports, and outline specific details within the sports literature that raise additional concerns, such as helmet-to-helmet contact and player positions that experience frequent impact. A systematic literature review of Pub Med using keyword search on injury, concussion, and sports was performed through May 2012. Abstracts were identified, selections were made based upon inclusion criteria, and full-length articles were obtained. Additional articles were considered following review of reference sections. Articles were reviewed and tabulated according to sport. Two hundred eighty-nine articles were screened, and 62 articles were reviewed. The overall incidence of concussion in sport ranged from 0.1 to 21.5 per 1000 athletic exposures. The lowest incidence was reported in swimming and diving. Concussion incidence was highest in Canadian junior ice hockey, but elevated incidence in American football remains a concern because of the large number of participants. The literature reviewed included incidence of concussion on the field of play under real-world conditions and influenced by the current culture of sport. The studies examined in this article show that there is risk of concussion in nearly every sport. Some sports have higher concussion frequency than others, which may depend upon the forces and roles of the positions played in these sports. Younger athletes have a higher incidence of concussion, and female incidence is greater than male in many comparable sports. Headgear may reduce concussion in some sports but may also give athletes a false sense of protection.

  8. Acute Effects of Carbohydrate Supplementation on Intermittent Sports Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay B. Baker

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Intermittent sports (e.g., team sports are diverse in their rules and regulations but similar in the pattern of play; that is, intermittent high-intensity movements and the execution of sport-specific skills over a prolonged period of time (~1–2 h. Performance during intermittent sports is dependent upon a combination of anaerobic and aerobic energy systems, both of which rely on muscle glycogen and/or blood glucose as an important substrate for energy production. The aims of this paper are to review: (1 potential biological mechanisms by which carbohydrate may impact intermittent sport performance; (2 the acute effects of carbohydrate ingestion on intermittent sport performance, including intermittent high-intensity exercise capacity, sprinting, jumping, skill, change of direction speed, and cognition; and (3 what recommendations can be derived for carbohydrate intake before/during exercise in intermittent sports based on the available evidence. The most researched intermittent sport is soccer but some sport-specific studies have also been conducted in other sports (e.g., rugby, field hockey, basketball, American football, and racquet sports. Carbohydrate ingestion before/during exercise has been shown in most studies to enhance intermittent high-intensity exercise capacity. However, studies have shown mixed results with regards to the acute effects of carbohydrate intake on sprinting, jumping, skill, change of direction speed, and cognition. In most of these studies the amount of carbohydrate consumed was ~30–60 g/h in the form of a 6%–7% carbohydrate solution comprised of sucrose, glucose, and/or maltodextrin. The magnitude of the impact that carbohydrate ingestion has on intermittent sport performance is likely dependent on the carbohydrate status of the individual; that is, carbohydrate ingestion has the greatest impact on performance under circumstances eliciting fatigue and/or hypoglycemia. Accordingly, carbohydrate ingestion before

  9. Acute Effects of Carbohydrate Supplementation on Intermittent Sports Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Lindsay B.; Rollo, Ian; Stein, Kimberly W.; Jeukendrup, Asker E.

    2015-01-01

    Intermittent sports (e.g., team sports) are diverse in their rules and regulations but similar in the pattern of play; that is, intermittent high-intensity movements and the execution of sport-specific skills over a prolonged period of time (~1–2 h). Performance during intermittent sports is dependent upon a combination of anaerobic and aerobic energy systems, both of which rely on muscle glycogen and/or blood glucose as an important substrate for energy production. The aims of this paper are to review: (1) potential biological mechanisms by which carbohydrate may impact intermittent sport performance; (2) the acute effects of carbohydrate ingestion on intermittent sport performance, including intermittent high-intensity exercise capacity, sprinting, jumping, skill, change of direction speed, and cognition; and (3) what recommendations can be derived for carbohydrate intake before/during exercise in intermittent sports based on the available evidence. The most researched intermittent sport is soccer but some sport-specific studies have also been conducted in other sports (e.g., rugby, field hockey, basketball, American football, and racquet sports). Carbohydrate ingestion before/during exercise has been shown in most studies to enhance intermittent high-intensity exercise capacity. However, studies have shown mixed results with regards to the acute effects of carbohydrate intake on sprinting, jumping, skill, change of direction speed, and cognition. In most of these studies the amount of carbohydrate consumed was ~30–60 g/h in the form of a 6%–7% carbohydrate solution comprised of sucrose, glucose, and/or maltodextrin. The magnitude of the impact that carbohydrate ingestion has on intermittent sport performance is likely dependent on the carbohydrate status of the individual; that is, carbohydrate ingestion has the greatest impact on performance under circumstances eliciting fatigue and/or hypoglycemia. Accordingly, carbohydrate ingestion before and during a

  10. Acute Effects of Carbohydrate Supplementation on Intermittent Sports Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Lindsay B; Rollo, Ian; Stein, Kimberly W; Jeukendrup, Asker E

    2015-07-14

    Intermittent sports (e.g., team sports) are diverse in their rules and regulations but similar in the pattern of play; that is, intermittent high-intensity movements and the execution of sport-specific skills over a prolonged period of time (~1-2 h). Performance during intermittent sports is dependent upon a combination of anaerobic and aerobic energy systems, both of which rely on muscle glycogen and/or blood glucose as an important substrate for energy production. The aims of this paper are to review: (1) potential biological mechanisms by which carbohydrate may impact intermittent sport performance; (2) the acute effects of carbohydrate ingestion on intermittent sport performance, including intermittent high-intensity exercise capacity, sprinting, jumping, skill, change of direction speed, and cognition; and (3) what recommendations can be derived for carbohydrate intake before/during exercise in intermittent sports based on the available evidence. The most researched intermittent sport is soccer but some sport-specific studies have also been conducted in other sports (e.g., rugby, field hockey, basketball, American football, and racquet sports). Carbohydrate ingestion before/during exercise has been shown in most studies to enhance intermittent high-intensity exercise capacity. However, studies have shown mixed results with regards to the acute effects of carbohydrate intake on sprinting, jumping, skill, change of direction speed, and cognition. In most of these studies the amount of carbohydrate consumed was ~30-60 g/h in the form of a 6%-7% carbohydrate solution comprised of sucrose, glucose, and/or maltodextrin. The magnitude of the impact that carbohydrate ingestion has on intermittent sport performance is likely dependent on the carbohydrate status of the individual; that is, carbohydrate ingestion has the greatest impact on performance under circumstances eliciting fatigue and/or hypoglycemia. Accordingly, carbohydrate ingestion before and during a game

  11. Sports Hernia (Athletic Pubalgia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a traditional, abdominal hernia, it is a different injury. A sports hernia is a strain or tear of any ... to you about your symptoms and how the injury occurred. If you have a sports hernia, when your doctor does a physical examination, ...

  12. Sports-related concussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conder, Robert L; Conder, Alanna A

    2015-04-01

    Concussions are an inherent part of collision sports such as football and soccer. As a subset of traumatic brain injury, concussions are neurometabolic events that cause transient neurologic dysfunction. Following a concussion, some athletes require longer neurologic recovery than others. Education and intervention aimed at prevention and management can minimize the long-term sequelae of sports-related concussions.

  13. Somatotypes in Sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tóth Teodor

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The submitted article deals with the evaluation of the somatotype of persons and determination of a suitable somatotype for selected sports. In the introduction the method for determining and evaluating a somatotype according to Carter and Heath is characterised. The processes used for calculating the individual components - endomorphy, mesomorphy, ectomorphy - are presented as well as a description of these elements. The calculated components are subsequently put into a somatograph. The evaluation of a somatotype is of great benefit and offers a guideline with the selection of sporting activities; it subsequently helps assign athletes into a suitable position where they will be able to best develop their talents in view of their bodily construction. In this work two types of sports are evaluated - basketball and bodybuilding. With each sport the measurements which give the prerequisites for the given sport are presented. The selection of the presented sports was made with regard to the different requirements and demands in the scope of bodily constitution. The aim of the presented paper is to assess physical parameters of subjects groups in relation to selected sports (basketball and bodybuilding. Based on the body constitution to determine the conditions for developing the physical condition and success in the appointed sports. Another objective is to compare the rating form and equation methods for somatotype determination. The sample consist 32 subjects with age between 22-28 years of both sexes, who are dedicated to basketball, or bodybuilding at amateur level.

  14. Saga of American Sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, John A.; Smith, Ronald A.

    This history of sports and athletic activities in America covers a time span from the close of the sixteenth century to the present time. It is divided into three major sections. The first, "Colonial and Early American Sport," narrates the early moral and ethical attitudes of the Puritans and follows the changes in attitudes and introduction of…

  15. Subarachnoid Haemorrhage and Sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Sousa Nanji

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Some cases of subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH have been associated with vigorous physical activity, including sports. Our research aimed to describe the association between SAH and sports and to identify the types of sports that were more frequently found as precipitating factors in a tertiary single-centre SAH register. Methods: We retrieved information from a prospectively collected SAH registry and reviewed discharge notes of acute SAH patients admitted to the Stroke Unit of Hospital de Santa Maria, Lisbon, between 1995 and 2014. Results: Out of 738 patients included in the analysis, 424 (57.5% cases of SAH were preceded by physical activity. Nine cases (1.2% were associated with sports, namely running (2 cases, aerobics (2 cases, cycling, body balance, dance, surf and windsurf. Patients with SAH while practicing sports were younger than controls (average age 43.1 vs. 57.0 years; p = 0.007. In 1 patient, there was a report of trauma to the neck. Patients in the sports group only had Hunt and Hess scale grades 1 (11.1% or 2 (88.9% at admission, while patients in the control group had a wider distribution in severity. Conclusions: Our findings indicate that SAH precipitated by sports is not very frequent and is uncommonly related to trauma. Patients who suffered SAH associated with sports were younger and apparently had a milder clinical presentation.

  16. A Rising Sport

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Tennis is becoming more popular in China but there are still worries facing the sport 0ctober was a happy time for the sport of tennis and tennis fans in China. The China Open in Beijing,the 2010 Shanghai Rolex Masters and the China Tennis Grand Prix in Nanjing,Jiangsu Province,all take place.

  17. Mathematics and Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallian, Joseph A., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    "Mathematics and Sports", edited by Joseph A. Gallian, gathers 25 articles that illuminate the power and role of mathematics in the worlds of professional and recreational play. Divided into sections by the kind of sports, the book offers source materials for classroom use and student projects. Readers will encounter mathematical ideas from an…

  18. Youth Sports Safety Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sb75.pdf. 3 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Sports-related injuries among high school athletes, United States, 2005-06 ... 495-503. 10 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Nonfatal traumatic brain injuries related to sports and recreation activities among persons aged ≤19 years— ...

  19. Dealing with Sports Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Print A A A What's in this article? Prevention First Types of Sports Injuries What To Do Where Injuries Happen Getting Back ... Game en español Cómo afrontar las lesiones deportivas Prevention First The best way to deal with sports injuries is to keep them from happening in the ...

  20. NOTATIONAL ANALYSIS OF SPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian M. Franks

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available This book addresses and appropriately explains the notational analysis of technique, tactics, individual athlete/team exercise and work-rate in sport. The book offers guidance in: developing a system, analyzes of data, effective coaching using notational performance analysis and modeling sport behaviors. It updates and improves the 1997 edition