WorldWideScience

Sample records for gendered career identities

  1. Sex-typed personality traits and gender identity as predictors of young adults' career interests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinella, Lisa M; Fulcher, Megan; Weisgram, Erica S

    2014-04-01

    Gender segregation of careers is still prominent in the U.S. workforce. The current study was designed to investigate the role of sex-typed personality traits and gender identity in predicting emerging adults' interests in sex-typed careers. Participants included 586 university students (185 males, 401 females). Participants reported their sex-typed personality traits (masculine and feminine traits), gender identities (gender typicality, contentment, felt pressure to conform, and intergroup bias), and interests in sex-typed careers. Results indicated both sex-typed personality traits and gender identity were important predictors of young adults' career interests, but in varying degrees and differentially for men and women. Men's sex-typed personality traits and gender typicality were predictive of their masculine career interests even more so when the interaction of their masculine traits and gender typicality were considered. When gender typicality and sex-typed personality traits were considered simultaneously, gender typicality was negatively related to men's feminine career interests and gender typicality was the only significant predictor of men's feminine career interests. For women, sex-typed personality traits and gender typicality were predictive of their sex-typed career interests. The level of pressure they felt to conform to their gender also positively predicted interest in feminine careers. The interaction of sex-typed personality traits and gender typicality did not predict women's career interests more than when these variables were considered as main effects. Results of the multidimensional assessment of gender identity confirmed that various dimensions of gender identity played different roles in predicting career interests and gender typicality was the strongest predictor of career interests.

  2. Gender Identity and Career Aspiration to Top Management of Malaysian Graduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karami, Roya; Ismail, Maimunah; Sail, Rahim Md.

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between gender identity and career aspirations of a group of Iranian international postgraduate students studying at a Malaysian public university. This study uses the Farmer's Achievement Motivation Theory and Astin's Sociopsychological Model of Career Choice as theoretical framework. The data were collected…

  3. Gendered Transitions, Career Identities and Possible Selves: The Case of Engineering Graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papafilippou, Vanda; Bentley, Laura

    2017-01-01

    This article, drawing upon the Paired Peers project, a longitudinal qualitative study (n = 90), examines how seven UK engineering graduates, four women and three men, construct their career identities during the transitionary period from university to work. It explores how gender and the occupational cultures that reside within the sector, and the…

  4. Communicating Gender-Equality Progress, Reduces Social Identity Threats for Women Considering a Research Career

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Una Tellhed

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the majority of top-level researchers are men, how does this vertical gender-segregation affect students’ perceptions of a research career? In the current study, an experimental manipulation either reminded students of academia’s current dominance of men or of its improving gender-balance. The results showed that women primed with the dominance of men anticipated much higher social identity threats (e.g., fear of discrimination in a future research career as compared to a control group. In contrast, women primed with the improving gender-balance anticipated much lower threat. Further, the dominance of men prime increased men’s interest in the PhD program, as compared to controls. Women’s interest was unaffected by the prime, but their lower interest as compared to men’s across conditions was mediated by their lower research self-efficacy (i.e., competence beliefs. The results imply that communicating gender-equality progress may allow women to consider a career in research without the barrier of social identity threat.

  5. Connecting High School Physics Experiences, Outcome Expectations, Physics Identity, and Physics Career Choice: A Gender Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazari, Zahra; Sonnert, Gerhard; Sadler, Philip M.; Shanahan, Marie-Claire

    2010-01-01

    This study explores how students' physics identities are shaped by their experiences in high school physics classes and by their career outcome expectations. The theoretical framework focuses on physics identity and includes the dimensions of student performance, competence, recognition by others, and interest. Drawing data from the Persistence…

  6. Gender Discrimination in Jessica's Career.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Ellen Piel

    1997-01-01

    Focuses on the sexual harassment and other gender-related difficulties faced by a Chinese-American woman. Profiles her encounters with gender discrimination and how it hindered career advancement and led to professional isolation. Relates how this case study can be used to sensitize workers to gender discrimination. (RJM)

  7. Career Mobility: Does Gender Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Rose R.

    1992-01-01

    A study examined attitudes of 95 women biomedical researchers in dual-career relationships toward mobility for enhancing occupational advancement. The women and spouses were surveyed concerning use of time, income, job satisfaction, willingness to move, and general career and marital satisfaction. Results indicate changes in gender effects on…

  8. Gender identity development in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steensma, Thomas D; Kreukels, Baudewijntje P C; de Vries, Annelou L C; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T

    2013-07-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Puberty and Adolescence".This article aims to provide an outline of what is currently known on trajectories, and contributing factors to gender identity development in adolescence. We give a historical overview of the concept of gender identity, and describe general identity development in adolescence, gender identity development in the general population and in gender variant youth. Possible psychosocial (such as child and parental characteristics) and biological factors (such as the effects of prenatal exposure to gonadal hormones and the role of genetics) contributing to a gender variant identity are discussed. Studies focusing on a number of psychosocial and biological factors separately, indicate that each of these factors influence gender identity formation, but little is known about the complex interplay between the factors, nor about the way individuals themselves contribute to the process. Research into normative and gender variant identity development of adolescents is clearly lagging behind. However, studies on persons with gender dysphoria and disorders of sex development, show that the period of adolescence, with its changing social environment and the onset of physical puberty, seems to be crucial for the development of a non-normative gender identity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Gender identity disorder.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    De Gascun, C

    2006-05-01

    Gender Identity Disorder (GID) is a relatively rare condition of atypical gender development in which there is a psychological perception of self as masculine or feminine which is incongruent with ones phenotype. GID replaced the term Transsexualism in DSM-IV in 1994. The demographics of GID in Ireland have not been established. Since 2000 we have received 52 referrals of individuals with confirmed GID to our endocrine service for consideration for hormonal treatment (HT). Of the 52 patients 45 have male to female (MTF) GID (mean age 38.9 years) and 7 have female to male (FTM) GID (mean age 30.7 years). The age at presentation in this group is approximately 9 years older than in international series for both MTF (39 years v 30yrs) and FTM (31 yrs v 22yrs). The karyotype where analysed has been normal for their phenotypic sex. Twenty-three of the patients had received HT prior to attending our clinic that in only one case had been prescribed by a specialist. A number of patients had obtained HT via the internet or from overseas sources without medical review. Eighteen of the patients have been or are married and 14 of the group have children. The scale of referrals confirms that GID exists in the Irish population to a significant degree. Thus an appropriate care pathway for people with the condition needs to be established. This will facilitate optimum medical management of the patient group and a coherent approach to the many difficult social issues faced individuals with this disorder.

  10. Gender Identity and Gender Confusion in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to be influenced by their identification with the males and females in their lives, the sense of being a girl or a boy (i.e. gender identity) cannot be changed. Gender Stereotypes Over time, society has recognized that stereotypes of ...

  11. The way of professional identity: gender features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. O. Kodatska

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism of formation of the professional identity on the level of personality and during the further development of the individual has been described in the article. Main gender differences of the process of self-determination which is not limited only by the choice of profession, but continues during the professional development have been described. The concept of socialization as a process of identity formation in contemporary social conditions and career building process has been studied. This concept is a multifunctional social-psychological phenomenon. Moreover, it has been proven during the research that the problem of professional identity has very big practical importance as it is one of the key social, psychological and educational processes in human activity during a career building. Cultural, historical, political, legal, individual psychological and socio-demographic barriers to women’s professional realisation have been studied. The conclusions has been made that in order to maintain the gender parity in society, the opportunity to balance successfully between work and family responsibilities is extremely important both for women and men. It has been emphasized that support of equal rights and opportunities for both sexes requires special governmental mechanism. Basic gender features of a professional career have been revealed in the article and their impact on personal career has been analyzed. Also the features of the role in socialization and the formation of gender identity have been defined. In addition, the necessity to ensure equal opportunities for professional and individual self-determination regardless gender, age, nationality or social origin has been grounded. Also it has been noted that the introduction of gender parity in educational institutions and enterprises of all forms of ownership provides a number of advantages, among which the main are: improvement of the quality of selection for employment; provision

  12. Career identity in the veterinary profession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page-Jones, S; Abbey, G

    2015-04-25

    This research investigates vet and vet nurse career identity through the qualitative methodology of narrative enquiry. It derives learning and understanding from these empirical data to assist the veterinary profession to adjust to the changing industry landscape. Through a case series of 20 vets and vet nurses' career stories, this paper seeks understanding about career identity and its impact on individuals and organisations in the light of industry consolidation. Findings suggest that career is central to identity for many veterinary professionals who tend to have a strong sense of self; this is particularly evident around self as learner and technically competent, teacher and educator, ethical and moral and dedicated and resilient. Consequently, mismatches between 'who I am' and 'what I do' tend not to lead to identity customisation (to fit self into role or organisation) but to the search for alternative, more identity-compatible employment. This study offers a valuable insight for employers, veterinary professionals and universities. It suggests that businesses can gain competitive advantage and employees achieve validation and enrichment by working towards organisational and individual identity congruence and that teaching veterinary professionals with contemporary business in mind may develop graduates with a more sustainable identity. British Veterinary Association.

  13. Identity Disorder and Career Counseling Theory: Recommendations for Conceptualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Michael T.

    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders III Revised rubric of identity disorder is linked to career theory and research findings on vocational identity, career indecisiveness, vocational maturity, and to the theories of Erikson and Kohut. Identity disorder has been found in career counseling clients. It appears that the brief…

  14. The early career gender wage gap

    OpenAIRE

    Sami Napari

    2006-01-01

    In Finland the gender wage gap increases significantly during the first 10 years after labor market entry accounting most of the life-time increase in the gender wage gap. This paper focuses on the early career gender wage differences among university graduates and considers several explanations for the gender wage gap based on the human capital theory, job mobility and labor market segregation. Gender differences in the accumulation of experience and in the type of education explain about 16...

  15. Racial and Gender Differences in Faculty Careers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Robert; And Others

    The overall study examined job satisfaction among tenured college faculty. This paper compares responses from minority (about 6%) and female (about 18%) faculty with the overall responses (N=1135). Overall, 91% reported being satisfied with their careers with 82% saying they would choose the career again. Race and gender were not related…

  16. Gender Differences in Career Helping Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stonewater, Barbara B.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Explored differences regarding way in which 27 male and 27 female college faculty members described relationships with "career helpers" by analysis of interview transcripts. Qualitative analysis of interviews indicated gender differences on themes of sense of professional self as related to career helpers and nature of assistance received from…

  17. Relation of Disability Type and Career Thoughts to Vocational Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanchak, Kristen V.; Lease, Suzanne H.; Strauser, David R.

    2005-01-01

    This study compared dysfunctional career thoughts and perceptions of vocational identity for individuals with different types of disabilities and examined whether the relation of career thoughts to vocational identity was moderated by type of disability. Ninety adults with cognitive and physical impairments were administered the Career Thoughts…

  18. Gender Equality Policies and Higher Education Careers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berggren, Caroline

    2011-01-01

    Gender equality policies regulate the Swedish labour market, including higher education. This study analyses and discusses the career development of postgraduate students in the light of labour market influences. The principle of gender separation is used to understand these effects. Swedish register data encompassing information on 585…

  19. The Gender-Mediated Impact of a Career Development Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassie, Diana V. W.; Chen, Charles P.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the differential impact of an educational intervention on high school students' career maturity based on gender. Dimensions of career maturity investigated include congruence, career certainty, career indecision, career decision-making self-efficacy and career exploration. Females were found to increase significantly in…

  20. Gender identity and autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schalkwyk, Gerrit I; Klingensmith, Katherine; Volkmar, Fred R

    2015-03-01

    In this review, we briefly summarize much of the existing literature on gender-related concerns and autism spectrum disorders (ASD), drawing attention to critical shortcomings in our current understanding and potential clinical implications. Some authors have concluded that gender identity disorder (GID), or gender dysphoria (GD), is more common in individuals with ASD, providing a range of potential explanations. However, existing literature is quantitatively limited, and our capacity to draw conclusions is further complicated by conceptual challenges regarding how gender identity is best understood. Discourses that emphasize gender as a component of identity formation are gaining prominence and seem particularly salient when applied to ASD. Individuals with ASD should enjoy equal rights with regard to treatment for gender dysphoria. Clinicians may be able to assist individuals in understanding this aspect of their identity by broadening the social frame and facilitating an exploration of gender roles.

  1. [Gender differences in career motivation: female doctors' ambitions benefit from family friendly work environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pas, B R; Lagro-Janssen, A L M; Doorewaard, J A C M; Eisinga, R N; Peters, C P

    2008-10-04

    To determine gender differences in career motivation and the effect of a family friendly work environment. Cross-sectional pilot investigation. A web survey among male and female doctors (n = 107; 72 women and 35 men) in different specialties, including surgical, internal medicine and general practitioners, was used to gather information on different dimensions of career motivation and perceptions of the family friendliness of the work environment. Differences were analysed by means of t-tests and regression analyses. Male doctors had higher scores on career identity and on career planning than female doctors. However, male and female doctors did not differ in their willingness to achieve top positions. Female doctors were more determined concerning their career goals than their male counterparts. The family friendliness of the work environment had an overall positive effect on career motivation for both male and female doctors. However, a family friendly work environment had a negative effect on the career identity of male doctors. For male and female doctors alike, support to achieve career goals and elimination of career barriers lead to increased career identity. Male and female doctors differed in certain dimensions of career motivation. Offering support for career goals and taking away career barriers leads to a higher career motivation than offering a family friendly work environment.

  2. Turning to Teaching: Gender and Career Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raggl, Andrea; Troman, Geoff

    2008-01-01

    As the largest public sector institution in the United Kingdom, education is a key site for studying the context of "choice" and changes in the identities of professional workers in contemporary society. Recruitment and retention problems in education have led to the creation of new routes into teaching to attract career changers from…

  3. Second Career Teachers and (Mis)Recognitions of Professional Identities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Ann

    2016-01-01

    Since the late 1980s there has been an increase of "second career teachers" (SCTs), professionals that switch careers to become teachers. Little is known about SCTs and their sense of professional identity. Building from Pierre Bourdieu's concepts of power and cultural capital, the professional identities of teachers were examined…

  4. [Diagnosis and treatment of gender identity disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Toshio

    2004-02-01

    According to DSM-IV criteria, gender identity disorder(GID) is characterized as follows: 1) Strong, persistent cross-gender identification. 2) Persistent discomfort with one's assigned sex or the Sense of inappropriateness in that gender role. 3) Not due to an intersex condition. In this chapter, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment of GID are briefly described. Possible pathogenesis of GID is also discussed.

  5. Emotion, gender, and gender typical identity in autobiographical memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grysman, Azriel; Merrill, Natalie; Fivush, Robyn

    2017-03-01

    Gender differences in the emotional intensity and content of autobiographical memory (AM) are inconsistent across studies, and may be influenced as much by gender identity as by categorical gender. To explore this question, data were collected from 196 participants (age 18-40), split evenly between men and women. Participants narrated four memories, a neutral event, high point event, low point event, and self-defining memory, completed ratings of emotional intensity for each event, and completed four measures of gender typical identity. For self-reported emotional intensity, gender differences in AM were mediated by identification with stereotypical feminine gender norms. For narrative use of affect terms, both gender and gender typical identity predicted affective expression. The results confirm contextual models of gender identity (e.g., Diamond, 2012 . The desire disorder in research on sexual orientation in women: Contributions of dynamical systems theory. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 41, 73-83) and underscore the dynamic interplay between gender and gender identity in the emotional expression of autobiographical memories.

  6. Careers research in Europe: Identity and contribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khapova, S.N.; Vinkenburg, C.J.; Arnold, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    This guest editorial introduces the special section of the Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology 'Careers research in Europe'. Contributing to the aim of the special section to highlight the value of the European careers research for the benefit of the global community of career

  7. An Economic Analysis of Identity and Career Choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Humlum, Maria Knoth; Kleinjans, Kristin J.; Nielsen, Helena Skyt

    2007-01-01

    Standard economic models which focus on pecuniary payoffs cannot explain why there are highly able individuals who choose careers with low pecuniary re- turns. Therefore, financial incentives are unlikely to be effective in influencing career choices of these individuals. Based on Akerlof...... and Kranton (2000), we con- sider a model of career choice and identity where individuals derive non-pecuniary identity payoffs. Using factor analysis on a range of attitude questions, we find two factors related to identity (career orientation and social orientation), which are important for educational...... choices. The implication is that policymakers and institutions of higher education need to focus on identity related issues rather than just improved financial incentives if they aim at attracting the high ability youth to occupations with excess demand for labor....

  8. Gender Differences in Career Self-Efficacy: Combining a Career with Home and Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, Sue A.; Bonett, Rhonda M.

    1991-01-01

    Piloted Career Attitude Scale, measure of career self-efficacy, with college students (n=130) and examined gender differences in career self-efficacy. Compared to men, women reported greater efficacy in terms of combining traditional career with family and home activities. Women also revealed greater confidence that they could competently handle…

  9. Gender identities and gender dysphoria in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuyper, Lisette; Wijsen, Ciel

    2014-02-01

    Several studies estimate the prevalence of gender dysphoria among adults by examining the number of individuals turning to health services. Since individuals might be hesitant to seek medical care related to gender dysphoria, these studies could underestimate the prevalence. The studies also lack information regarding the variance among different aspects of gender dysphoric conditions. Therefore, the current study estimated the prevalence by examining self-reported gender identity and dysphoria in a Dutch population sample (N = 8,064, aged 15-70 years old). Three measures assessed aspects of gender dysphoria: gender identity, dislike of the natal female/male body, and wish to obtain hormones/sex reassignment surgery. Results showed that 4.6 % of the natal men and 3.2 % of the natal women reported an ambivalent gender identity (equal identification with other sex as with sex assigned at birth) and 1.1 % of the natal men and 0.8 % of the natal women reported an incongruent gender identity (stronger identification with other sex as with sex assigned at birth). Lower percentages reported a dislike of their natal body and/or a wish for hormones/surgery. Combining these figures estimated the percentage of men reporting an ambivalent or incongruent gender identity combined with a dislike of their male body and a wish to obtain hormones/surgery at 0.6 %. For women, this was 0.2 %. These novel findings show that studies based on the number of individuals seeking medical care might underestimate the prevalence of gender dysphoria. Furthermore, the findings argue against a dichotomous approach to gender dysphoria.

  10. The career planning, athletic identity, and student role identity of intercollegiate student athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lally, Patricia S; Kerr, Gretchen A

    2005-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the career planning of university student athletes and relationships between their career planning and athletic and student role identities. Two retrospective in-depth interviews were held with four male and four female university student athletes. Participants entered university with vague or nonexistent career objectives and invested heavily in their athletic roles. In the latter years of their college career, the participants discarded their sport career ambitions and allowed the student role to become more prominent in their identity hierarchies. The current findings support Brown and Hartley's (1998) suggestion that student athletes may invest in both the athlete and student role identities simultaneously and that investing in the latter may permit the exploration of nonsport career options.

  11. Determinant factors of gender identity: a commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Lih-Mei; Audi, Laura; Magritte, Ellie; Meyer-Bahlburg, Heino F L; Quigley, Charmian A

    2012-12-01

    Paediatric specialists involved in the care of children with disorders of sex development may be expected to provide straightforward answers to questions concerning the "true sex" of a child, reflecting common perceptions of sex/gender as an immutable binary biological reality. This article highlights how much more broad and complex the topic of gender identity and its development is. Many theories have been put forward to advance knowledge of gender identity. Against the breadth and depth of this vast topic, the current overview is inevitably incomplete. It begins by arguing for a more consistent use of 'sex' and 'gender'. It considers in turn three influential theoretical frameworks that lend themselves to empirical research. These are: 1) the role of the brain; 2) the role of socialisation; and 3) multi-dimensional gender development. The article ends by suggesting potentially fruitful questions and areas for future research. Copyright © 2012 Journal of Pediatric Urology Company. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Identity Formation in Career Development for Gifted Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, Christine E.

    1991-01-01

    Necessary developmental tasks concerned with identity development of gifted college women include developing competence, managing emotions, developing autonomy, establishing identity, freeing interpersonal relationships, developing purpose, and developing integrity. These issues may be used as counseling interventions to raise career aspirations.…

  13. Construction of Gender Identity in Political Discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizaveta D. Butsyk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article regards the phenomenon of political communication from the perspective of the particularities of constructing gender identity by politicians. As far as the influence of the gender factor on politicians' speech is concerned, the most relevant approach among many others is the discourse approach formed within the paradigm of cognitive linguistics, which considers political discourse as the object of study. The paper deals with the notion of political discourse and examines a hypothesis that gender factor might have a number of manifestations in political communication. It is noted that studying the specificity of constructing gender identity by politicians in discursive practices is becoming a highly topical issue as the importance of female participation in public and political life is growing. Political decision-making has long been considered the prerogativeofmen, but now the necessity of studying the female factor in this sphere is obvious. The author dwells upon the historical background of linguistic gender studies and summarizes the main stages of their development focusing mainly on the theory of the social construction of gender. The founders of this theory advance the thesis that an individual's gender identity is shaped in the process of constructing gender relations in communicative interaction. Further in the article we analyse a few devices of creating the images of masculinity and femininity by famous English and American politicians. As structural components of gender identity, masculinity and femininity turn out to be modifiable parameters depending on the pragmatic attitudes of communicators. Traditional androcentrism of political discourse may account for modifying the female speech style towards masculinity to achieve certain communicative aims.

  14. The relationship between career competencies, career identity, motivation and quality of choice

    OpenAIRE

    Meijers, Frans; Kuijpers, Marinka; Gundy, Chad

    2018-01-01

    In this article we focus on the effects of career education and guidance among students (ages 12–19) enrolled in prevocational and secondary vocational education in The Netherlands. Our study included 3,499 students and 166 teachers in 226 classes in 34 schools. The results showed that career competencies positively contributed to learning motivation, experienced quality of study choice, experienced fit of choice with learning tasks, and experienced fit of internship. Career identity positive...

  15. Transsexual emergence: gender variant identities in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocha, Witchayanee

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to contribute to understanding of emergent gender/sexual identities in Thailand. Thailand has become a popular destination for sex change operations by providing the medical technology for a complete transformation, with relatively few procedures and satisfactory results at a reasonable price. Data were gathered from 24 transsexual male-to-female sex workers working in Pattaya and Patpong, well-known sex-tourism hot spots in Thailand. Findings suggest the emergence of new understandings of gender/sexual identity. Sex-tourism/sex work significantly illuminates the process through which gender is contested and re-imagined. The coming together of cultures in Thailand's sex industry, coupled with advances in medical technology, has resulted in the emergence of new concepts of gender.

  16. Epidemiology of gender dysphoria and transgender identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucker, Kenneth J

    2017-10-01

    This review provides an update on the epidemiology of gender dysphoria and transgender identity in children, adolescents and adults. Although the prevalence of gender dysphoria, as it is operationalised in the fifth edtion of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), remains a relatively 'rare' or 'uncommon' diagnosis, there is evidence that it has increased in the past couple of decades, perhaps reflected in the large increase in referral rates to specialised gender identity clinics. In childhood, the sex ratio continues to favour birth-assigned males, but in adolescents, there has been a recent inversion in the sex ratio from one favouring birth-assigned males to one favouring birth-assigned females. In both adolescents and adults, patterns of sexual orientation vary as a function of birth-assigned sex. Recent studies suggest that the prevalence of a self-reported transgender identity in children, adolescents and adults ranges from 0.5 to 1.3%, markedly higher than prevalence rates based on clinic-referred samples of adults. The stability of a self-reported transgender identity or a gender identity that departs from the traditional male-female binary among non-clinic-based populations remains unknown and requires further study.

  17. [Gender identity disorder in children and adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Heuzey, M-F

    2013-03-01

    There has been an explosion of public interest and concern about children and adolescents who show an interest in changing their gender. And it is an emerging problem for pediatricians, which brings many inquiries about what to do? Both the diagnosis and treatment of gender identity disorder are controversial. But there are a new early treatment using puberty blocking hormones. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Revealing gendered identity and agency in dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Geraldine

    2017-11-01

    As identity and agency are central to the well-being of people with dementia, this paper explores whether their dialogue conveys a gendered sense of identity and agency. The author discusses whether they demonstrate not just a subjective sense of being but also an understanding of their relational selves. Findings are presented from a qualitative study in the North of England which examined the everyday decisions made by married couples when one partner had dementia. Ethnographic methods were used, including participant observation and interviews. While dialogical analysis usually centres on the subjective self, it was also used to examine intersubjectivity. Comparisons are made between the dialogue of women and men in order to draw conclusions about the gendered nature of identity and agency. The study found that the women and men defined themselves according to their social and gender identities. The literature had suggested that agency might be a gendered concept and the study confirmed that men were somewhat individualistic and rational in their concerns, whereas women were more relational and even spiritual. Yet, women and men demonstrated emotional reflexivity. As national and international health policy prioritises living well with dementia, more systematic attention should be given to the role of gender in influencing well-being in dementia. Health and social care staff should recognise and facilitate the gender identity and related social roles of people with dementia (e.g. parent, carer and worker) in order to enhance their quality of life. © 2017 The Author. Health and Social Care in the Community Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Gender Identity Disparities in Cancer Screening Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabaac, Ariella R; Sutter, Megan E; Wall, Catherine S J; Baker, Kellan E

    2018-03-01

    Transgender (trans) and gender-nonconforming adults have reported reduced access to health care because of discrimination and lack of knowledgeable care. This study aimed to contribute to the nascent cancer prevention literature among trans and gender-nonconforming individuals by ascertaining rates of breast, cervical, prostate, and colorectal cancer screening behaviors by gender identity. Publicly available de-identified data from the 2014-2016 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System surveys were utilized to evaluate rates of cancer screenings by gender identity, while controlling for healthcare access, sociodemographics, and survey year. Analyses were conducted in 2017. Weighted chi-square tests identified significant differences in the proportion of cancer screening behaviors by gender identity among lifetime colorectal cancer screenings, Pap tests, prostate-specific antigen tests, discussing prostate-specific antigen test advantages/disadvantages with their healthcare provider, and up-to-date colorectal cancer screenings and Pap tests (pgender identity were fully explained by covariates, trans women had reduced odds of having up-to-date colorectal cancer screenings compared to cisgender (cis) men (AOR=0.20) and cis women (AOR=0.24), whereas trans men were more likely to ever receive a sigmoidoscopy/colonoscopy as compared to cis men (AOR=2.76) and cis women (AOR=2.65). Trans women were more likely than cis men to have up-to-date prostate-specific antigen tests (AOR=3.19). Finally, trans men and gender-nonconforming individuals had reduced odds of lifetime Pap tests versus cis women (AOR=0.14 and 0.08, respectively), and gender-nonconforming individuals had lower odds of discussing prostate-specific antigen tests than cis men (AOR=0.09; all pgender identity disparities in cancer screenings persist beyond known sociodemographic and healthcare factors. It is critical that gender identity questions are included in cancer and other health-related surveillance

  20. The effect of immigration status on physics identity and physical science career intentions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lung, Florin; Potvin, Geoff; Sonnert, Gerhard; Sadler, Philip M.

    2012-02-01

    Using data collected from a nationally-representative sample of first-year college students, we examine how students' identity development as physics persons and their likelihood to pursue a career in physical science is predicted by differing immigrant experiences. We consider broad factors having a social, economic, or cultural nature as covariates in a propensity score model that assesses differences due to immigrant generation. Our results show that, when controlling for such factors as race/ethnicity, socio-economic status, and gender, students' physics identities and the likelihood of choosing a career in physical science are significantly higher amongst first generation students than second generation (or later) students. We conclude that physical science as a career option can be influenced by the experiences of being an immigrant and through the relationship between origin and host culture.

  1. Tween Girls' Perception of Gender Roles and Gender Identities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tufte, Birgitte; Chan, Kara; Cappello, Gianna

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The present study aims to examine girls' perception of gender roles and gender identities in Hong Kong. Design/methodology/approach – A total of 16 girls aged 10 to 12 were asked to take pictures from the media that could illustrate “what girls or women should or should not be; and what...... girls or women should or should not do”. Qualitative interviews were conducted. Findings – Analysis of interviews and images captured found that tween girls' perceived gender roles for females were based on a mixture of traditional and contemporary role models. Girls in Hong Kong demonstrated...

  2. Neurobiology of Gender Identity and Sexual Orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roselli, Charles E

    2017-12-06

    Sexual identity and sexual orientation are independent components of a person's sexual identity. These dimensions are most often in harmony with each other and with an individual's genital sex, but not always. This review discusses the relationship of sexual identity and sexual orientation to prenatal factors that act to shape the development of the brain and the expression of sexual behaviors in animals and humans. One major influence discussed relates to organizational effects that the early hormone environment exerts on both gender identity and sexual orientation. Evidence that gender identity and sexual orientation are masculinized by prenatal exposure to testosterone and feminized in it absence is drawn from basic research in animals, correlations of biometric indices of androgen exposure and studies of clinical conditions associated with disorders in sexual development. There are, however, important exceptions to this theory that have yet to be resolved. Family and twin studies indicate that genes play a role, but no specific candidate genes have been identified. Evidence that relates to the number of older brothers implicates maternal immune responses as a contributing factor for male sexual orientation. It remains speculative how these influences might relate to each other and interact with postnatal socialization. Nonetheless, despite the many challenges to research in this area, existing empirical evidence makes it clear that there is a significant biological contribution to the development of an individual's sexual identity and sexual orientation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of Gender on Engineering Career Commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Anne M.

    Engineering has been one of the most difficult fields for 'women to enter and in which to succeed. Although the percentage of female engineers has Increased, women are still seriously underrcpresented in the workforce. This study examined the effect offender on career commitment, success, satisfaction, and involvement in engineering, and the effect of personality and work environment on these variables. Alumni from an engineering school in the northeastern United States were surveyed. The questionnaire was analyzed using statistical and descriptive methods to determine relationships among these variables. Women's commitment scores were lower than men's when controlled for other variables, including satisfaction and involvement. Men had longer tenure as engineers than women, even when controlled for year of graduation, professional engineering status, and number of children. Women did not leave engineering in different proportions than men, but they did earn significantly less despite controlling for year of graduation and number of hours worked weekly. Some gender differences in workplace experience were also found, including having colleagues act protectively, being mistaken for secretaries, and seeing men progress faster in their careers than equally qualified women.

  4. Gender Identity and Adjustment in Black, Hispanic, and White Preadolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corby, Brooke C.; Hodges, Ernest V. E.; Perry, David G.

    2007-01-01

    The generality of S. K. Egan and D. G. Perry's (2001) model of gender identity and adjustment was evaluated by examining associations between gender identity (felt gender typicality, felt gender contentedness, and felt pressure for gender conformity) and social adjustment in 863 White, Black, and Hispanic 5th graders (mean age = 11.1 years).…

  5. Gender, identities and environment: historiographical polysemies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina Oliveira Buriti

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The study of the gender identities has acquired particular relevance in the contemporary agenda and has been receiving multidisciplinary views. One of the approaches that has contributed significantly to this discussion is the historiographical perspective. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to analyze how the categories of gender have been addressed by multiple historiographical fields, especially the aspects of social history, the fields of cultural history, the post-structuralism research, and, more recently, by historians of the environment. Expliciting the limits and prospects of these studies within each historiographical paradigm, the importance of incorporating the gender perspective to the density of the theoretical debate on human and social sciences will be emphasized. Key-words: History; gender; culture; social justice; environment

  6. Change-supportive employee behavior – A career identity explanation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lysova, E.; Richardson, J.; Khapova, S.N.; Jansen, P.G.W.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to explore how career identity informs employees’ willingness to engage in organizational change initiatives. Design/methodology/approach - The paper draws on the findings of a qualitative case study exploring the experiences of 29 employees involved in a

  7. The theory of gender identity disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, J K

    1982-01-01

    Experience with more than 500 patients over the last decade has led to the conclusion that the quest for sex reassignment is a symptomatic compromise formation serving defensive and expressive functions. The symptoms are the outgrowth of developmental trauma affecting body ego and archaic sense of self and caused by peculiar symbiotic and separation-individuation phase relationships. The child exists in the pathogenic (and reparative) maternal fantasy in order to repair her body image and to demonstrate the interconvertability of the sexes. Gender identity exists not as a primary phenomenon, but in a sense as a tertiary one. There is, no doubt, a tendency to gender-differentiate in a way concordant with biological endowment. Nevertheless, gender formation is seriously compromised by earlier psychological difficulty. Gender identity is a fundamental acquisition in the developing personality, but it is part of a hierarchical series beginning with archaic body ego, early body image, and primitive selfness, representing their extension into sexual and reproductive spheres. Gender identity consolidates during separation-individuation and gender pathology bears common features with other preoedipal syndromes. Transsexualism is closely linked to perversions, and the clinical syndromes may shade from one into another. However, what is kept at the symbolic level in the perversions must be made concrete in transsexualism. In this regard there is a close relation to psychosis. The clinical complaint of the transsexual is a condensation of remarkable proportions. When the transsexual says that he is a girl trapped in a man's body, he sincerely means what he says. As with other symptoms, however, it takes a long time before he begins to say what he means.

  8. Gender Identification Moderates Social Identity Threat Effects on Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Cheryl R.; Hagiwara, Nao

    2011-01-01

    This investigation examined whether gender identification moderates women's working memory following exposure to situations that threaten the integrity of their gender group. Young adults read sentences that either threatened women's gender identity (in the social identity threat condition) or did not threaten this identity (in the control…

  9. Gender Differences in the Careers of Former Postdoctoral Fellows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnert, Gerhard

    2004-03-01

    The Project Access study examined the careers of men and women who had received prestigious postdoctoral fellowships and thus were presumably of about equal promise at the start of their professional careers. Had the women scientists in this elite group overcome a threshold beyond which they proceeded on equal footing with their male counterparts; or did a glass ceiling impede their careers? We found gender differences in career outcomes in the group we studied (699 questionnaires, 200 interviews), but these differences varied considerably by scientific discipline. Moreover, the career disparities for women, as a group, appear now to result chiefly from a series of subtle but identifiable and sometimes counterintuitive impediments as well as from slight gender differences in socialization. Each disadvantage by itself may be small, but in their accumulation they significantly influence women's careers.

  10. Dual Career Mothers' Role Conflict, Parental Roles, and Gender Roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsella-Shaw, Mary; And Others

    The increasing numbers of married women working make the study of dual career mothers an important topic for the psychology of women. Such research is vital to helping women integrate careers with family life. A study was conducted to examine the extent to which gender role, number of hours worked per week, and number and age of children relate to…

  11. Gender, identity and culture in learning physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbett, Katelin

    2016-06-01

    Student engagement in science, as defined by Iva Gurgel, Mauricio Pietrocola, and Graciella Watanabe, is of great importance because a student's perceived compatibility with science learning is highly influenced by personal identities, or how students see themselves in relations to the world. This can greatly impact their learning experiences. In this forum, I build on the work of Gurgel, Pietrocola, and Watanabe by exploring the relationships between engagement in physics and gender, and by looking at the expansive nature of the concept of culture. I expand the conversation by investigating ways in which learning science has impacted my own identity/worldview, particularly how it affects my personal teaching and learning experiences. I focus the conversation around the relationship between gender and the experience of learning science to further the dialogue concerning identity and how it impacts engagement in science. I also look at the role of didactic transposition in the perceived disconnect with science. I reveal my experiences and analysis through a personal narrative.

  12. Effects of Counselor Gender and Gender-Role Orientation on Client Career Choice Traditionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barak, Azy; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Male (N=120) and female (N=120) clients were counseled by male or female counselor classified as masculine, feminine, or androgynous in sex-role orientation. Clients' career choice traditionality was measured during counseling, following counseling, and with respect to clients' career six months later. Counselor gender and gender-role orientation…

  13. [Intersection between gender and socioeconomic status in medical sciences career choice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo-Hernández, Georgina; Ortiz-Hernández, Luis; Compeán-Dardón, Sandra; Verde-Flota, Elizabeth; Delgado-Sáncnchez, Guadalupe; Tamez-González, Silivia

    2006-01-01

    Analyze the relationship between gender identity and socioeconomic level associated with career choice among undergraduate students selecting the area of health sciences. Our sample was comprised of first year medical nutrition, dentistry and nursing students (n=637) admitted to the Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana - Xochimilco. A self administered questionnaire was used. The dependent variable was career choice. Independent variables included socioeconomic status, gender norms in student's homes, and gender stereotype internalization. More female nursing students came from low socioeconomic strata, while medical students had a higher socioeconomic status. Among males, more nursing and medical students belonged to a higher socioeconomicstrata. Nutrition and dentistry students belonged to a medium strata. In comparison with males from high socioeconomic strata more male participants reported that household chores were divided among men and women. For women, as the socioeconomic level increased, the participation of men and women also increased. In the indicators of internalization of gender stereotypes, nursing students had the highest rates in the submission scale, but the lowest for masculinity and machismo. As the socioeconomic strata increased, the characteristics of masculinity and machismo also increased. The present results seem to indicate that among women of low socioeconomic strata more traditional gender stereotypes prevail which lead them to seek career choices considered femenine. Among men, there is a clear relationship between career choice, socioeconomic level and internalization of gender stereotypes.

  14. From gender identity disorder to gender identity creativity: true gender self child therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrensaft, Diane

    2012-01-01

    True gender self child therapy is based on the premise of gender as a web that weaves together nature, nurture, and culture and allows for a myriad of healthy gender outcomes. This article presents concepts of true gender self, false gender self, and gender creativity as they operationalize in clinical work with children who need therapeutic supports to establish an authentic gender self while developing strategies for negotiating an environment resistant to that self. Categories of gender nonconforming children are outlined and excerpts of a treatment of a young transgender child are presented to illustrate true gender self child therapy.

  15. Identities in Harmony: Gender-Work Identity Integration Moderates Frame Switching in Cognitive Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacharin, Vera; Lee, Fiona; Gonzalez, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Professional women's identity integration--the perceived compatibility between work and gender identities--plays a role in how task or relationship information is processed. Seventy female business school students were primed with either their professional or their gender identity. Business women with higher identity integration showed an…

  16. Does gender identity influence children's psychological well-being?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunger, Jennifer L; Carver, Priscilla R; Perry, David G

    2004-07-01

    This study examined influences of gender identity on change in preadolescents' adjustment over time. In each of two successive years, three measures of gender identity (felt gender typicality, contentment with gender assignment, and felt pressure for gender conformity) and four measures of adjustment (self-esteem, internalizing symptoms, externalizing symptoms, and acceptance by peers) were collected. Low gender typicality, low gender contentedness, and high felt pressure all foreshadowed deterioration on one or more indexes of adjustment. The combination of low gender typicality with high felt pressure was especially conducive to internalizing problems, underscoring the importance of the cognitive organization of the gender identity variables. The advantages of a multidimensional perspective on gender identity are discussed. Copyright 2004 APA, all rights reserved

  17. Gender Differences in Career Paths in Banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Sandra; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Analyzed career paths of middle managers in bank. Study of matched pairs found that men (n=25) advanced faster and reached middle management through fewer promotions and positions than did women (n=25). Men had significantly more work experience outside of banking. In banking careers, men held more jobs in lending, whereas women occupied more…

  18. Combining gender, work, and family identities: The cross-over and spill-over of gender norms into young adults’ work and family aspirations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loes Meeussen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The current study investigates how descriptive and prescriptive gender norms that communicate work and family identities to be (incompatible with gender identities limit or enhance young men and women’s family and career aspirations. Results show that young adults (N=445 perceived gender norms to assign greater compatibility between female and family identities and male and work identities than vice versa, and that young men and women mirror their aspirations to this traditional division of tasks. Spill-over effects of norms across life domains and cross-over effects of norms across gender-groups indicated that young women, more than young men, aimed to ‘have it all’: mirroring their career ambitions to a male career model, while keeping their family aspirations high. Moreover, young women opposed traditional role divisions in the family domain by decreasing their family aspirations in face of norms of lower family involvement or higher career involvement of men. Conversely, in line with traditional gender roles, young men showed lower family aspirations in the face of strong male career norms; and showed increases in their career aspirations when perceiving women to take up more family roles. Young men’s family aspirations were, however, more influenced by new norms prescribing men to invest more in their family, suggesting opportunities for change. Together, these findings show that through social norms, young adults’ gender identity affects aspirations for how to manage the co-presence of their work and family identities. Altering these norms may provide leverage for change to allow both men and women to combine their multiple identities in an enriching way.

  19. Combining Gender, Work, and Family Identities: The Cross-Over and Spill-Over of Gender Norms into Young Adults’ Work and Family Aspirations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeussen, Loes; Veldman, Jenny; Van Laar, Colette

    2016-01-01

    The current study investigates how descriptive and prescriptive gender norms that communicate work and family identities to be (in)compatible with gender identities limit or enhance young men and women’s family and career aspirations. Results show that young adults (N = 445) perceived gender norms to assign greater compatibility between female and family identities and male and work identities than vice versa, and that young men and women mirror their aspirations to this traditional division of tasks. Spill-over effects of norms across life domains and cross-over effects of norms across gender-groups indicated that young women, more than young men, aimed to ‘have it all’: mirroring their career ambitions to a male career model, while keeping their family aspirations high. Moreover, young women opposed traditional role divisions in the family domain by decreasing their family aspirations in face of norms of lower family involvement or higher career involvement of men. Conversely, in line with traditional gender roles, young men showed lower family aspirations in the face of strong male career norms; and showed increases in their career aspirations when perceiving women to take up more family roles. Young men’s family aspirations were, however, more influenced by new norms prescribing men to invest more in their family, suggesting opportunities for change. Together, these findings show that through social norms, young adults’ gender identity affects aspirations for how to manage the co-presence of their work and family identities. Altering these norms may provide leverage for change to allow both men and women to combine their multiple identities in an enriching way. PMID:27909416

  20. Combining Gender, Work, and Family Identities: The Cross-Over and Spill-Over of Gender Norms into Young Adults' Work and Family Aspirations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeussen, Loes; Veldman, Jenny; Van Laar, Colette

    2016-01-01

    The current study investigates how descriptive and prescriptive gender norms that communicate work and family identities to be (in)compatible with gender identities limit or enhance young men and women's family and career aspirations. Results show that young adults ( N = 445) perceived gender norms to assign greater compatibility between female and family identities and male and work identities than vice versa, and that young men and women mirror their aspirations to this traditional division of tasks. Spill-over effects of norms across life domains and cross-over effects of norms across gender-groups indicated that young women, more than young men, aimed to 'have it all': mirroring their career ambitions to a male career model, while keeping their family aspirations high. Moreover, young women opposed traditional role divisions in the family domain by decreasing their family aspirations in face of norms of lower family involvement or higher career involvement of men. Conversely, in line with traditional gender roles, young men showed lower family aspirations in the face of strong male career norms; and showed increases in their career aspirations when perceiving women to take up more family roles. Young men's family aspirations were, however, more influenced by new norms prescribing men to invest more in their family, suggesting opportunities for change. Together, these findings show that through social norms, young adults' gender identity affects aspirations for how to manage the co-presence of their work and family identities. Altering these norms may provide leverage for change to allow both men and women to combine their multiple identities in an enriching way.

  1. Exploring Hybrid Identities: South Asian American Women Pursue a Career in Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Amita Roy

    2013-01-01

    This study explores how second-generation South Asian American women negotiated their hybrid identities to pursue a career in teaching. Many South Asian Americans have not pursued a career in teaching because of various external and internal factors that have influenced their sense of identity, academic achievement, and professional career path…

  2. The Influence of Cultural Social Identity on Graduate Student Career Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haley, Karen J.; Jaeger, Audrey J.; Levin, John S.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines and enriches understanding of the career choice process for graduate students of color. Social identity theory (SIT) is used as a framework to expand our understanding of how and why graduate students choose (or do not choose) faculty careers. Graduate students' cultural social identities influenced their career choice…

  3. Parent and Adolescent Perceptions of Adolescent Career Development Tasks and Vocational Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Mary E.; Creed, Peter A.; Praskova, Anna

    2018-01-01

    We surveyed Australian adolescents and parents to test differences and congruence in perceptions of adolescent career development tasks (career planning, exploration, certainty, and world-of-work knowledge) and vocational identity. We found that, for adolescents (N = 415), career development tasks (not career exploration) explained 48% of the…

  4. The development of gender identity in the autistic child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abelson, A G

    1981-01-01

    The Michigan Gender Identity Test (MGIT) was administered to 30 autistic children to determine whether autistic children could demonstrate a sense of gender identity. The results of the MGIT were correlated with other developmental indices obtained from the Alpern-Boll Developmental Profile. From this sample of autistics, a significant relationship was found between gender identity and mental age, chronological age, communication skills, physical skills, social skills, self-help skills and academic (cognitive skills.

  5. Gender differences in the association of depression with career indecisiveness, career-decision status, and career-preference crystallization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadassi, Reuma; Waser, Ayelet; Gati, Itamar

    2015-10-01

    Depression has detrimental effects on broad areas of functioning. However, its association with career decision-making factors has been largely unexplored. In the present study, we focused on the association between career decision-making difficulties, career-decision status, and career-preference crystallization, on the one hand, and depression, on the other. The hypothesis that high levels of career decision-making difficulties, less advanced decision status, and low levels of preference crystallization are associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms was tested with a sample of 222 college seniors. In addition, since it has been found that work-related stressors are more often associated with depression among men than women, it was hypothesized that the associations between vocational factors and depression would be stronger for men than for women. The participants filled out online self-report questionnaires assessing depressive symptoms, emotional and personality-related career decision-making difficulties, career-decision status, and career preferences. The results indicated that self-concept and identity-related career decision-making difficulties were associated with depressive symptoms for both men and women. In addition, for men, but not for women, less crystallization of career preferences also predicted higher levels of depressive symptoms. These results show how important it is for counseling psychologists to understand the role of the individual's vocational situation in depression. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Lay theories of gender identity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnham, Adrian; Sen, Radhika

    2013-01-01

    This study examined lay theories regarding gender identity disorder (GID). Pilot interviews were completed with participants (n = 10) regarding their views on possible causes and treatments of GID. Participants (mainly young British people and students; n = 124) then completed a questionnaire that was based on the interviews and a review of the salient literature on lay theories. As hypothesized, participants believed most in biomedical causes and treatments of GID. Factor analysis (with varimax rotation) identified 4 factors in relation to causes of GID: upbringing and personal factors, pregnancy and brain abnormalities, environmental factors, and biomedical causes. Five factors that were identified in relation to the cure/treatment of GID were psychological assistance and personal factors, extreme medical and behavioral changes, alternative therapies, external factors, and medical treatments. The results indicated that participants neither agreed nor strongly disagreed about causes and cures regarding GID, but that these beliefs were logically related. Limitations, particularly of sampling, were considered.

  7. Questioning scrutiny: bioethics, sexuality, and gender identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlert, Lance; Fiester, Autumn

    2012-09-01

    The clinic is a loaded space for LGBTQI persons. Historically a site of pathology and culturally a site of stigma, the contemporary clinic for queer patient populations and their loved ones is an ethically fraught space. This paper, which introduces the featured articles of this special issue of the Journal of Bioethical Inquiry on "Bioethics, Sexuality, and Gender Identity," begins by offering an analysis of scrutiny itself. How do we scrutinize? When is it apt for us to scrutinize? And what are the benefits and perils of clinical and bioethical scrutiny? Bearing in mind these questions, the second half of this paper introduces the feature articles in this special issue in response to such forms of scrutiny. How, why, when, and in what ways to sensitively scrutinize LGBTQI persons in the clinic are the aims of this piece.

  8. Gender discrimination and social identity: experimental evidence from urban Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Delavande, Adeline; Zafar, Basit

    2013-01-01

    Gender discrimination in South Asia is a well-documented fact. However, gender is only one of an individual's many identities. This paper investigates how gender discrimination depends on the social identities of interacting parties. We use an experimental approach to identify gender discrimination by randomly matching 2,836 male and female students pursuing bachelor's-equivalent degrees in three different types of institutions - Madrassas (religious seminaries), Islamic universities, and lib...

  9. The multifaceted influence of gender in career progress in nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracey, Catherine; Nicholl, Honor

    2007-10-01

    The complex web of gender influence in the workplace results from a multifaceted interplay of factors [Walby et al. (1994) Medicine and Nursing. Sage Publications, London]. Literature reports that in nursing men's success compared with that of women is disproportionate and substantial evidence of gender-based disadvantage is found [Women in Management Review13 (1998) 184]. However, studies have not addressed the specific reasons for this and little is known of how or what influences nurses' career decisions and developments [Journal of Advanced Nursing25 (1997) 602]. Those studies which examine career developments and patterns are mainly found in the private business sector.

  10. Gender differences in early-career wage growth

    OpenAIRE

    Napari, Sami

    2007-01-01

    In Finnish manufacturing, the gender wage gap more than doubles during the first ten years in the labor market. This paper studies the factors contributing to the gender gap in early-career wage growth. The analysis shows that the size of the gender gap in wage growth varies with mobility status the gap being much higher when changing employers compared to within-firm wage growth. Several explanations for the gender gap in wage growth based on human capital theory and theory of compensating w...

  11. Contested identities: gendered politics, gendered religion in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaheed, Farida

    2010-01-01

    In Pakistan, the self-serving use of Islam by more secular elements alongside politico-religious ones facilitated the latter's increasing influence and the conflation and intricate interweaving of Islam and Pakistani nationhood. A paradigm shift under Zia's martial law revamped society as much as state laws, producing both religiously defined militias and aligned civil society groups. Examining the impact on women of fusing religion and politics, this paper argues that women become symbolic markers of appropriated territory in the pursuit of state power, and that the impact of such fusing, different for differently situated women, needs to be gauged in societal terms as well as in terms of state dynamics. Questioning the positing of civil society as a self-evident progressive desideratum, the paper concludes that gender equality projects seeking reconfigurations of power cannot be effective without vigorously competing in the creation of knowledge, culture and identity.

  12. Men in Traditional and Nontraditional Careers: Gender Role Attitudes, Gender Role Conflict, and Job Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodson, Thomas A.; Borders, L. DiAnne

    2006-01-01

    Men established in traditional (mechanical engineering, n = 100) and nontraditional (elementary school counseling, n = 100) careers were compared on their career compromise choices (sex type vs. prestige), adherence to masculinity ideology, gender role conflict, and job satisfaction. The engineers tended to choose sex type over prestige; the…

  13. Childhood Gender Identity...Disorder? Developmental, Cultural, and Diagnostic Concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragowski, Eliza A.; Scharron-del Rio, Maria R.; Sandigorsky, Amy L.

    2011-01-01

    Childhood gender identity development is reviewed in the context of biological, environmental, cultural, and diagnostic factors. With the upcoming 5th revision of the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders," the authors offer a critical consideration of childhood gender identity disorder, along with proposed diagnostic changes.…

  14. Gender identity disorder: a literature review from a developmental perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shechner, Tomer

    2010-01-01

    The present paper reviews the theoretical and empirical literature on children and adolescents with gender variant behaviors. The organizational framework underlying this review is one that presents gender behavior in children and adolescents as a continuum rather than as a dichotomy of normal versus abnormal categories. Seven domains are reviewed in relation to gender variant behavior in general, and to Gender Identity Disorder (GID) in particular: theories of normative gender development, phenomenology, prevalence, assessment, developmental trajectories, comorbidity and treatment.

  15. Scientific careers and gender differences. A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Gouthier

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available In Europe, much effort has been devoted to explore the causes of the decline in number of university matriculations of science students and to identify gender differences in career choice. Yet, the problem extends to the fulfillment of career plans: given their professional expectations and their attitudes when choosing a career, girls are much less likely to pursue scientific careers such as engineering or physics. Evidence of this is provided by the social research carried out within the framework of the GAPP project (Gender Awareness Participation Process. The Gapp project is intended to investigate differences between girls and boys in their perception of science careers and to propose a range of innovative and concrete participatory activities involving scientists, engineers and professionals from the public and private S&T sectors. In this letter, we report a synthesis of the results of the social research conducted as first step of the project: exploring how the perceptions of science professions affect interest, motivation and subject choice at school, at the university and consequently in their career.

  16. Research Review: Gender identity in youth: treatment paradigms and controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turban, Jack L; Ehrensaft, Diane

    2017-10-26

    Pediatric gender identity has gained increased attention over the past several years in the popular media, political arena, and medical literature. This article reviews terminology in this evolving field, traditional models of gender identity development and their limitations, epidemiology and natural history of cross-gender identification among children and adolescents, co-occurring conditions and behaviors, research into the biological and psychosocial determinants of cross-gender identification, and research into the options regarding and benefits of clinical approaches to gender incongruent youth. Based on a critical review of the extant literature, both theoretical and empirical, that addresses the issue of pediatric gender identity, the authors synthesized what is presently known and what is in need of further research in order to elucidate the developmental trajectory and clinical needs of gender diverse youth. The field of pediatric gender identity has evolved substantially over the past several years. New research suggests that cross-gender identification is prevalent (approximately 1% of youth). These youth suffer disproportionately high rates of anxiety, depression, and suicidality. Although research into the etiology of cross-gender identification is limited, emerging data have shown that affirmative treatment protocols may improve the high rates of mental health difficulties seen among these patients. The field of pediatric gender identity has evolved dramatically. Emerging data suggest that these patients' high rates of anxiety, depression, and suicidality appear to be improved with affirmative protocols, although future longitudinal data are needed. © 2017 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  17. Gender differences in motives and career choice of medical students.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heiligers, P.J.M.; Emmerik, H. van

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Insight in the choices of medical students concerning their future career is an actual issue, since the population is changing towards a majority of female students. We focus here on insight in the effect of gender and life-stage on students’ preferences concerning a medical specialty,

  18. Equality and Illusion: Gender and Tenure in Art History Careers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudd, Elizabeth; Morrison, Emory; Sadrozinski, Renate; Nerad, Maresi; Cerny, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Using a national survey of 508 art history Ph.D.s including data on graduate school performance and careers 10-15 years post-Ph.D., this study investigates gender, family, and academic tenure in art history, the humanities field with the highest proportion of women. Alternative hypotheses derived from three perspectives--termed here "clockwork,"…

  19. Middle-Age Gender Differences in Emotional Adjustments to Career ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined middle-age gender differences in career challenges and emotional intelligence and its counselling implications. The study aimed at sensitizing the development of adult counselling programme for the middle-age persons. Survey design was adopted to obtain samples (800) from a large population of ...

  20. Gender Identity in Patients with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razzaghy-Azar, Maryam; Karimi, Sakineh; Shirazi, Elham

    2017-07-01

    Sex assignment in infancy for patients with disorder of sex development (DSD) is a challenging problem. Some of the patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) have DSD that may affect their gender identity. The study aimed to assess gender identity in patients with CAH. In this study, 52 patients with CAH, including 22 prepubertal children and 30 adolescents and adults, were assessed using two separate gender identity questionnaires for children and adults based on the criteria of diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 5th edition. In the children group, compatibility was seen between gender identity and rearing gender. In the adult group, there were three cases of mismatching between gender identity and sex assignment composed of two females with poor control and one male with good control with 21-hydroxylase deficiency (21-OHD). Three girls with 11-hydroxylase deficiency (11-OHD) were reared as boy. Two of them with late diagnosis at 5 and 6 years of age had pseudoprecocious puberty. Parents and children did not accept to change the gender. One of them is 36 years old now, is depressed and unsatisfied with her gender, another girl is still child and has male sexual identity. One girl with 11-OHD and early diagnosis at birth with Prader 5 virilization but with good hormonal control was changed to female gender at 12 years of age when female sexual characteristics appeared; she is 34-years-old now, married, and with two children, and she is satisfied with her gender. In patients with CAH, gender identity disorder is a rare finding. Hormonal control, social, familial, and religious beliefs have impacts on gender identity of these patients.

  1. Gender Identity Salience and Perceived Vulnerability to Breast Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.T.L.R. Sweldens (Steven); S. Puntoni (Stefano); N.T. Tavassoli (Nader)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractContrary to predictions based on cognitive accessibility, heightened gender identity salience resulted in lower perceived vulnerability and reduced donation behavior to identity-specific risks (e.g., breast cancer). No such effect was manifest with identity-neutral risks. Establishing

  2. Human identity versus gender identity: The perception of sexual addiction among Iranian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshtagh, Mozhgan; Mirlashari, Jila; Rafiey, Hassan; Azin, Ali; Farnam, Robert

    2017-07-01

    This qualitative study was conducted to explore the images of personal identity from the perspective of women with sexual addiction. The data required for the study were collected through 31 in-depth interviews. Sensing a threat to personal identity, dissatisfaction with gender identity, dissociation with the continuum of identity, and identity reconstruction in response to threat were four of the experiences that were common among women with sexual addiction. Painful emotional experiences appear to have created a sense of gender and sexual conflict or weakness in these women and thus threatened their personal identity and led to their sexual addiction.

  3. Sexual minority women's gender identity and expression: challenges and supports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitt, Heidi M; Puckett, Julia A; Ippolito, Maria R; Horne, Sharon G

    2012-01-01

    Sexual minority women were divided into four groups to study their gender identities (butch and femme), and gender expression (traditionally gendered and non-traditionally gendered women who do not identify as butch or femme). Experiences of heterosexist events (discrimination, harassment, threats of violence, victimization, negative emotions associated with these events), mental health (self esteem, stress, depression), and supports for a sexual minority identity (social support, outness, internalized homophobia) were examined across these groups. Findings suggested that butch-identified women experienced more heterosexist events than femme women or women with non-traditional gender expressions. There were no differences in mental health variables. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

  4. Gender identity: a multidimensional analysis with implications for psychosocial adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, S K; Perry, D G

    2001-07-01

    This study examined the relations between components of gender identity and psychosocial adjustment. The aspects of gender identity assessed were (a) feelings of psychological compatibility with one's gender (i.e.. feeling one is a typical member of one's sex and feeling content with one's biological sex), (b) feelings of pressure from parents, peers, and self for conformity to gender stereotypes. and (c) the sentiment that one's own sex is superior to the other (intergroup bias). Adjustment was assessed in terms of self-esteem and peer acceptance. Participants were 182 children in Grades 4 through 8. Felt gender compatibility (when operationalized as either self-perceived gender typicality or feelings of contentment with one's biological sex) was positively related to adjustment, whereas felt pressure and intergroup bias were negatively associated with adjustment. The results provide new insights into the role of gender identity in children's well-being, help identify sources of confusion in previous work, and suggest directions for future inquiry.

  5. Considerations for the Treatment of Children with Gender Identity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergin, Audrey E.; Niclas, Mary Ann

    1996-01-01

    The treatment of children with Gender Identity Disorder is laden with important ethical and moral considerations. Gender-typed behavior is defined by culture; therefore, it is of paramount importance that therapists clarify their own biases and expectations of gender-based behavior before attempting treatment. Two case studies are presented. (LSR)

  6. Gender-Role Identity, Attitudes toward Marriage, and Gender-Segregated School Backgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsurada, Emiko; Sugihara, Yoko

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the relationship between Japanese college students' gender role identity and attitudes toward marriage, exploring the effects of gender-segregated school backgrounds on gender role identity and attitudes toward marriage. Women without any coeducational school background had relatively strong masculinity and desired to marry at older…

  7. Gender identity and gender role orientation in female assigned patients with disorders of sex development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattila, Aino K; Fagerholm, Riitta; Santtila, Pekka; Miettinen, Päivi J; Taskinen, Seppo

    2012-11-01

    Gender identity and gender role orientation were assessed in 24 female assigned patients with disorders of sex development. A total of 16 patients were prenatally exposed to androgens, of whom 15 had congenital adrenal hyperplasia and 1 was virilized due to maternal tumor. Eight patients had 46,XY karyotype, of whom 5 had partial and 3 had complete androgen insensitivity syndrome. Gender identity was measured by the 27-item Gender Identity/Gender Dysphoria Questionnaire for Adolescents and Adults with 167 female medical students as controls, and gender role was assessed by the femininity and masculinity subscales of the 30-item Bem Sex Role Inventory with 104 female and 64 male medical students as controls. No patient reached the cutoff for gender identity disorder on the Gender Identity/Gender Dysphoria Questionnaire for Adolescents and Adults. However, patients with 46,XY karyotype demonstrated a somewhat more conflicted gender identity, although the overall differences were relatively small. As to gender role orientation, patients with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome had high scores on the femininity and masculinity scales of the Bem Sex Role Inventory, which made them the most androgynous group. Our findings, although clinically not clear cut, suggest that patients with disorders of sex development are a heterogeneous group regarding gender identity and gender role outcomes, and that this issue should be discussed with the family when treatment plans are made. Copyright © 2012 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The Biological Contributions to Gender Identity and Gender Diversity: Bringing Data to the Table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polderman, Tinca J C; Kreukels, Baudewijntje P C; Irwig, Michael S; Beach, Lauren; Chan, Yee-Ming; Derks, Eske M; Esteva, Isabel; Ehrenfeld, Jesse; Heijer, Martin Den; Posthuma, Danielle; Raynor, Lewis; Tishelman, Amy; Davis, Lea K

    2018-03-01

    The American Psychological Association defines gender identity as, "A person's deeply-felt, inherent sense of being a boy, a man, or a male; a girl, a woman, or a female; or an alternative gender (e.g., genderqueer, gender nonconforming, gender neutral) that may or may not correspond to a person's sex assigned at birth or to a person's primary or secondary sex characteristics" (American Psychological Association, Am Psychol 70(9):832-864, 2015). Here we review the evidence that gender identity and related socially defined gender constructs are influenced in part by innate factors including genes. Based on the data reviewed, we hypothesize that gender identity is a multifactorial complex trait with a heritable polygenic component. We argue that increasing the awareness of the biological diversity underlying gender identity development is relevant to all domains of social, medical, and neuroscience research and foundational for reducing health disparities and promoting human-rights protections for gender minorities.

  9. Psychological Capital, Career Identity and Graduate Employability in Uganda: The Mediating Role of Social Capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngoma, Muhammad; Dithan Ntale, Peter

    2016-01-01

    This paper seeks to evaluate the relationship between psychological capital, career identity, social capital and graduate employability. We also seek to evaluate the mediating role of social capital on the relationships between psychological capital, career identity and graduate employability in Uganda. A population of 480 unemployed young people…

  10. Ethnic Identity and Career Development among First-Year College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Ryan D.; Klingaman, Elizabeth A.

    2009-01-01

    The current study explored the relation of ethnic identity achievement and career development progress among a sample of 2,432 first-year college students who completed the Career Decision Profile and Phinney's Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure. Among students of color, correlational analyses revealed a series of statistically significant, but…

  11. Investigating the Professional Identity Dynamic in Career Counselling: The Socioconstructivist Interview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary, Ghislain; Costalat-Founeau, Anne-Marie

    2018-01-01

    A socioconstructivist method is used to investigate the professional identity dynamic of employees in the context of career counselling. This method is particularly well-suited because of the intrication, at the core of the client's identity, of psychological dimensions, such as values and capabilities, which are essential to career counselling.…

  12. What Managers Say when They Talk about Gender and Careers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmgreen, Lise-Lotte

    interact discursively (e.g. Sunderland 2004; Holmes 2006; Litosseliti 2006). A recent study tested this claim against the analysis of metaphorical constructions of gender and career issues in a Danish bank, finding that when female and male managers are organised into single-sex groups, they tend to use...... metaphors that reflect dominant discourses on gender, resorting only briefly to constructing gendered subject positions (author 2009). The paper takes its starting point in this study arguing that single-sex interview groups promote stereotypical gender constructions among female and male managers. However......, if organised into e.g. mixed-sex groups, men and women are likely to construct their own and the opposite sex along lines that reflect more diversity and hence, tend to adopt metaphors that reflect a number of gendered subject positions. To establish the validity of this claim, the paper will present...

  13. Social Epidemiology of Depression and Anxiety by Gender Identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisner, Sari L; Katz-Wise, Sabra L; Gordon, Allegra R; Corliss, Heather L; Austin, S Bryn

    2016-08-01

    This study investigates depression and anxiety in gender minority (i.e., transgender and/or gender nonconforming) compared with nongender minority (cisgender) young adults. Data were from the Growing Up Today Study, a national cohort of U.S. young adults. A two-step method (maternal-reported natal sex in 1996 cross-classified with participant-reported current gender identity in 2010) was used to identify gender minority and nongender minority respondents (n = 7,831; mean age = 26 years). Differences in past week depressive symptoms and anxious symptoms were examined cross-sectionally by gender identity. Gender minority and nongender minority respondents were compared using age-adjusted logistic regression models. In gender minorities, the prevalence of depressive and anxious symptoms meeting clinical cutoffs was 52% and 38%, respectively, compared with nongender minorities (27% and 30% in females and 25% and 14% in males; p identity is an understudied social determinant of mental health. Surveillance efforts to monitor mental health disparities should include survey questions to assess gender identity in epidemiologic research. Research and interventions to understand and ameliorate mental health disparities by gender identity are needed. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. THE ROLE OF FAMILY SOCIALIZING IN BUILDING GENDER IDENTITY

    OpenAIRE

    Adina Magda lena IORGA

    2015-01-01

    Socialization is an interactive communication process that requires individual development and social influences, thus highlighting personal reception and interpretation of social messages, as well as the intensity and content dynamic of these social influences. In this context, family socialization represents the main model of the of gender interactions, of defining gender identity composition and gender expectations. Gender socialization within the family setting is very important because i...

  15. Gender, race, and meritocracy in organizational careers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilla, Emilio J

    2008-05-01

    This study helps to fill a significant gap in the literature on organizations and inequality by investigating the central role of merit-based reward systems in shaping gender and racial disparities in wages and promotions. The author develops and tests a set of propositions isolating processes of performance-reward bias, whereby women and minorities receive less compensation than white men with equal scores on performance evaluations. Using personnel data from a large service organization, the author empirically establishes the existence of this bias and shows that gender, race, and nationality differences continue to affect salary growth after performance ratings are taken into account, ceteris paribus. This finding demonstrates a critical challenge faced by the many contemporary employers who adopt merit-based practices and policies. Although these policies are often adopted in the hope of motivating employees and ensuring meritocracy, policies with limited transparency and accountability can actually increase ascriptive bias and reduce equity in the workplace.

  16. Gender identity and sexual orientation in autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Rita; Stokes, Mark A

    2017-09-01

    Clinical impressions indicate that there is an overrepresentation of gender-dysphoria within the autism spectrum disorder. However, little is presently known about the demographics of gender-identity issues in autism spectrum disorder. Based upon what little is known, we hypothesized that there would be an increased prevalence of gender-dysphoria among those with autism spectrum disorder compared to a typically developing population. We surveyed gender-dysphoria with the Gender-Identity/Gender-Dysphoria Questionnaire among 90 males and 219 females with autism spectrum disorder and compared these rates to those of 103 males and 158 females without autism spectrum disorder. When compared to typically developing individuals, autistic individuals reported a higher number of gender-dysphoric traits. Rates of gender-dysphoria in the group with autism spectrum disorder were significantly higher than reported in the wider population. Mediation analysis found that the relationship between autistic traits and sexual orientation was mediated by gender-dysphoric traits. Results suggest that autism spectrum disorder presents a unique experience to the formation and consolidation of gender identity, and for some autistic individuals, their sexual orientation relates to their gender experience. It is important that clinicians working with autism spectrum disorder are aware of the gender-diversity in this population so that the necessary support for healthy socio-sexual functioning and mental well-being is provided.

  17. Robotics as science (re)form: Exploring power, learning and gender(ed) identity formation in a "community of practice"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurner, Sheryl Marie

    "Robotics as Science (re)Form" utilizes qualitative research methods to examine the career trajectories and gender identity formation of female youth participating as members of an all-girl, academic team within the male-dominated environment of the FIRST Robotics competition. Following the constant comparative approach (Glaser & Strauss, 1967), my project relies upon triangulating ethnographic data drawn from extensive field notes, semi-structured interviews, and digital and video imagery compiled over two years of participant observation. Drawing upon the sociolinguistic "community of practice" (CoP) framework (Eckert & McConnell-Ginet, 1992; Lave & Wenger, 1991; Wenger, 1998), this study maps the range of gendered "identities" available to girls involved in non-traditional academic and occupational pursuits within a local context, and reveals the nature, structure and impact of power operating within this CoP, a significantly underdeveloped construct within the language and gender literature. These research findings (1) contribute to refining theories of situated or problem based learning with a focus on female youth (Lave & Wenger, 1991; Wenger, 1998); (2) reveal affordances and barriers within the local program design that enable (and preclude) women and minority youth entering the engineering pipeline; and (3) enrich our understanding of intragroup language and gendered "practices" to counter largely essentializing generalizations based upon quantitative analysis. Keywords: Robotics, gender, identity formation, science, STEM, communities of practice

  18. Gender identity as a display of mutual influence of gender differences and inequalities

    OpenAIRE

    E. K. Skiba

    2014-01-01

    The article analyzes the different theoretical approaches to clarifying the causes of inequality of gender identities. The opinion of scientists, following the theory of sex roles who think that gendered people acquire their gender identity from their birth and go with it to the outside world, in order to fill in a gender-neutral social institutions is considered. The article highlights the main tenets of the theory differentiating socialization that explain male dominance as a result of gend...

  19. Strategies to include sexual orientation and gender identity in health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-05-04

    May 4, 2015 ... Social justice and equity are important principles in African health sciences ... Courses that endeavour to develop students' skills in patient-provider .... (sexual and emotional attraction) and gender identity (one's sense of.

  20. Collective Endeavors to Address Institutional Contradiction between Gender Identity and Occupational Identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villeseche, Florence

    or leaders and their social identity as women. Accordingly, I here seek to answer the following question: what dilemmas arise from the collective institutional work performed by actors facing institutional contradiction between their occupational and gender identity, and how are those dilemmas addressed? I......Women’s presence in the labor market is one of the major institutional changes of the past century. However, in particular at higher hierarchical levels, gender equality still remains a distant objective. The ideal-type of the worker, manager or leader is this largely a masculine one, thus...... associating the related occupational identity to a masculine gender social identity. Thus, it can be argued that women in organizations can face an “institutional contradiction” between their occupation and their gender – i.e a perceived discordancy between their social occupational identity as managers...

  1. If Ego Identity Is the Envelope Then Adaptive Change Is the Note to Self: Scaffolding the Career Choices of Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, Terence V.; Brindle, Kimberley A.

    2017-01-01

    The first aim of the current article is to primarily propose a model to assist career counsellors in understanding and guiding adolescents towards career commitment. The second aim is to focus on the relationship between career identity and career certainty, and how these positively influence the achievement of ego identity and maturity. Finally,…

  2. The impact of gendered organizational systems on women's career advancement

    OpenAIRE

    Deborah Anne O'Neil; Margaret M. Hopkins

    2015-01-01

    In this Perspective article we propose that in order to pave the way for women's career advancement into the senior ranks of organizations, attention must be directed at the systemic norms and structures that drive the gendered nature of the workplace. A focus on individual level issues, i.e., women lacking confidence and women opting out, detracts from the work that must be done at the organizational level in order to dismantle the system of pervasive, structural disadvantage facing women se...

  3. Gender Differences in Entry Wages and Early Career Wages

    OpenAIRE

    Astrid KUNZE

    2003-01-01

    This paper investigates the gender wage gap in entry wages and in the early career for German skilled workers in the period 1975-1990. We use a new administrative longitudinal data source that allows to observe complete work and skill accumulation histories from the beginning for up to 13 years in the labour market. Descriptives show an entry wage differential of 22 percent between male and female full-time workers. Furthermore, the differential stays almost constant throughout the first 8 ei...

  4. Mobility, productivity, gender and career development of Argentinean life scientists

    OpenAIRE

    Koen Jonkers

    2011-01-01

    In this study we use survival or event history analysis to explore the effect of international mobility, gender and productivity on career development of researchers in CONICET life science research institutes in Buenos Aires. We find support for our hypothesis that various productivity measures can explain the likelihood of promotion. Given the same level of productivity, female researchers tend to take longer to being promoted. Unconditionally international work experience has a positive ef...

  5. Psychological resources, satisfaction, and career identity in the work transition: an outlook on Sicilian college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santisi, Giuseppe; Magnano, Paola; Platania, Silvia; Ramaci, Tiziana

    2018-01-01

    The phases of career building today bring out a more complex process than in previous decades. Starting from the literature review, the university-to-work transition is considered a very important step in the future career of the graduates, and it involves some psychological resources and requires specific abilities. Research has examined the psychological resources that students at the end of a degree course can use in the university-to-work transition. The aim of the study is to verify the relationship between academic satisfaction and career identity, and the mediational role of readiness and confidence on this relationship. A group of 438 students were assigned to complete a questionnaire in order to examine the relationship between academic satisfaction and career identity and the role of core components of psychological resources: readiness and confidence as mediator. The results indicated both a direct relationship between academic satisfaction and career identity and a mediated relationship with the influence of readiness and confidence for a transition. Adding to our results, we assert that academic satisfaction has a directed effect on confidence during the transition and is a predictor of career identity, both directly and by the mediation of readiness in career transitions. Career identity has implication for exploratory behavior, thus increasing the motivation and mindfulness that create a virtuous circle, influencing the development of knowledge and skills, which are the base of proactivity and confidence in construction of one's future career.

  6. A South African Romeo and Juliet : gender identity in Minky ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article examines how gender identity is represented in a filmic adaptation of Shakespeare's play text Romeo and Juliet within South Africa's postcolonial context, thereby positioning identity politics as crucial in the decolonial project. This article focuses on Minky Schlesinger's South African adaptation of Romeo and ...

  7. Gender identity and sport: is the playing field level?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeser, J C

    2005-10-01

    This review examines gender identity issues in competitive sports, focusing on the evolution of policies relating to female gender verification and transsexual participation in sport. The issues are complex and continue to challenge sport governing bodies, including the International Olympic Committee, as they strive to provide a safe environment in which female athletes may compete fairly and equitably.

  8. Puberty suppression in gender identity disorder: the Amsterdam experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kreukels, B.P.C.; Cohen-Kettenis, P.T.

    2011-01-01

    The use of gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs (GnRHa) to suppress puberty in adolescents with gender dysphoria is a fairly new intervention in the field of gender identity disorders or transsexualism. GnRHa are used to give adolescents time to make balanced decisions on any further treatment

  9. Peer Influence on Gender Identity Development in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornienko, Olga; Santos, Carlos E.; Martin, Carol Lynn; Granger, Kristen L.

    2016-01-01

    During adolescence, gender identity (GI) develops through a dialectic process of personal reflection and with input from the social environment. Peers play an important role in the socialization of gendered behavior, but no studies to-date have assessed peer influences on GI. Thus, the goal of the present study was to examine peer influences on…

  10. Gendered Pedagogic Identities and Academic Professionalism in Greek Medical Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsouroufli, Maria

    2018-01-01

    Feminist scholarship has considered how pedagogical identities and emotions are implicated in the gender politics of belonging and othering in higher education. This paper examines how gendered and embodied pedagogy is mobilised in Greek medical schools to construct notions of the ideal academic and assert women's position women in Academic…

  11. Specifics of interpersonal trust among people with different gender identities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yury P. Zinchenko

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. This study addresses a current problem relating to trust and the identification of gender differences in trust/mistrust manifestation. Gender identity is associated with cultural stereotypes and social roles, which facilitate the formation of trust in people. It acts as a significant integral meaning-based component of an individual’s “I”- conception, which contributes to the formation of trust in himself and the world around him. Objective. To study features of trust/mistrust towards others in young people with different gender identities. Design. The cross-gender-typical sample consisted of 179 representatives, 83 males and 96 females, ages 17 to 23 (M = 19.34 and SD = 1.79. The techniques for collecting data included the MMPI, the Sex-Role Inventory by S. Bem, and the Trust/Mistrust towards Others questionnaire by A. Kupreychenko. The results were processed via the Mann-Whitney U Test, the Kruskal-Wallis H criterion, and cluster analysis. Results. Criteria of trust/mistrust among the youth with different gender identities were identified, and basic types of trust — categoric, irrational–emotional, ambivalent– contradictory, and non-differentiated — were singled out. Irrespective of biological sex, bearers of different gender identities do not exhibit the same criteria to determine trust/ mistrust. Conclusion. This study makes it possible to enrich our understanding of the role of social gender in the formation of interpersonal trust and differences in the foundations of trust toward others, in people with different gender identities. The empirical typology of trust in youth with different gender identities allows for using the typology in organizing psychological diagnostics, and for support and improvement of their interpersonal relations.

  12. THE ROLE OF FAMILY SOCIALIZING IN BUILDING GENDER IDENTITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina Magda lena IORGA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Socialization is an interactive communication process that requires individual development and social influences, thus highlighting personal reception and interpretation of social messages, as well as the intensity and content dynamic of these social influences. In this context, family socialization represents the main model of the of gender interactions, of defining gender identity composition and gender expectations. Gender socialization within the family setting is very important because it internalizes the gender rules and ideologies, assimilating gender content from the two significant figures: Mom and Dad. This content is a fundamental cornerstone for building gender identity. The research aims to identify the views of students from the Veterinary Medicine University of Bucharest regarding the role of family socialization in the construction of gender identity. The research results confirm a trend of perception for most students towards the innovative socializing model, based on equality in the distribution of tasks within the family. However, there are differences between the genders in terms of perception and comprehension of the role of women and men. Thus, it appears that some of the students believe that the woman carries most of the household domestic tasks, while some students assigned the traditional role of financial support for the entire family to the men.

  13. [The history of the concept of gender identity disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Jun

    2012-01-01

    The Metamorphoses Greek myth includes a story about a woman raised as a male falling in love with another woman, and being transformed into a man prior to a wedding ceremony and staying with her. It is therefore considered that people who desire to live as though they have the opposite gender have existed since ancient times. People who express a sense of discomfort with their anatomical sex and related roles have been reported in the medical literature since the middle of the 19th century. However, homosexual, fetishism, gender identity disorder, and associated conditions were mixed together and regarded as types of sexual perversion that were considered ethically objectionable until the 1950s. The first performance of sex-reassignment surgery in 1952 attracted considerable attention, and the sexologist Harry Benjamin reported a case of 'a woman kept in the body of a man', which was called transsexualism. John William Money studied the sexual consciousness about disorders of sex development and advocated the concept of gender in 1957. Thereafter the disparity between anatomical sex and gender identity was referred to as the psychopathological condition of gender identity disorder, and this was used for its diagnostic name when it was introduced into DSM-III in 1980. However, gender identity disorder encompasses a spectrum of conditions, and DSM-III -R categorized it into three types: transsexualism, nontranssexualism, and not otherwise specified. The first two types were subsequently combined and standardized into the official diagnostic name of 'gender identity disorder' in DSM-IV. In contrast, gender identity disorder was categorized into four groups (including transsexualism and dual-role transvestism) in ICD-10. A draft proposal of DSM-5 has been submitted, in which the diagnostic name of gender identity disorder has been changed to gender dysphoria. Also, it refers to 'assigned gender' rather than to 'sex', and includes disorders of sexual development

  14. Perceived gender-based barriers to careers in academic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, Amalia; Hauschild, Tricia; Elder, William B; Neumayer, Leigh A; Brasel, Karen J; Crandall, Marie L

    2013-08-01

    Women represent roughly 50% of US medical students and one third of US surgery residents. Within academic surgery departments, however, women are disproportionately underrepresented, particularly at senior levels. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that female surgeons perceive different barriers to academic careers relative to their male colleagues. A modified version of the Career Barriers Inventory-Revised was administered to senior surgical residents and early-career surgical faculty members at 8 academic medical centers using an online survey tool. Likert-type scales were used to measure respondents' agreement with each survey item. Fisher's exact test was used to identify significant differences on the basis of gender. Respondents included 70 women (44 residents, 26 faculty members) and 84 men (41 residents, 43 faculty members). Women anticipated or perceived active discrimination in the form of being treated differently and experiencing negative comments about their sex, findings that differed notably from those for male counterparts. Sex-based negative attitudes inhibited the career aspirations of female surgeons. The presence of overt and implicit bias resulted in a sense that sex is a barrier to female surgeons' career development in academic surgery. No differences were observed between male and female respondents with regard to career preparation or structural barriers. Female academic surgeons experience challenges that are perceived to differ from their male counterparts. Women who participated in this study reported feeling excluded from the dominant culture in departments of surgery. This study may help guide transformative initiatives within academic surgery departments. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Gendered Configurations: Transborder Professional Careers of Migrant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Jungwirth

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an analytical model within the framework of life course analysis is outlined, aiming at the multidimensional analysis of professional careers of migrants. Additional to the work cycle, reproduction as well as migration processes are included in the analysis of the occupational biography of migrants. By this, gender and gender relations as well as migration are systematically included in the reconstruction of the life course. This model is presented with reference to a research project on the labour market integration in Germany of highly qualified migrant women from post-socialist states, being qualified in the natural sciences and technology. Focusing on the professional careers of migrant women, the significance within migration studies of labour and migrant women’s chances of employment according to their qualifications is highlighted. After sketching the research project in the context of migration history and the regulation of highly skilled migration in Germany, the analysis of professional careers of migrant women in the life course perspective is conceptualized and discussed.

  16. Career Advancement Outcomes in Academic Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM): Gender, Mentoring Resources, and Homophily

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Eun

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation examines gender differences in career advancement outcomes among academic science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) scientists. In particular, this research examines effects of gender, PhD advisors and postdoctoral supervisors mentoring resources and gender homophily in the mentoring dyads on the career advancement…

  17. Home and Motivational Factors Related to Science-Career Pursuit: Gender Differences and Gender Similarities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jongho; Lee, Hyunjoo; McCarthy-Donovan, Alexander; Hwang, Hyeyoung; Yim, Sonyoung; Seo, EunJin

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine whether gender differences exist in the mean levels of and relations between adolescents' home environments (parents' view of science, socio-economic status (SES)), motivations (intrinsic and instrumental motivations, self-beliefs), and pursuit of science careers. For the purpose, the Programmed for…

  18. Identity, gender and teaching English in Japan

    CERN Document Server

    Nagatomo, Diane Hawley

    2016-01-01

    How do teachers, who have chosen to settle down in one country, manage the difficulties of living and teaching English in that country? This book answers this question by investigating the personal and professional identity development of ten Western women with Japanese spouses who teach English in various educational contexts in Japan.

  19. Psychological resources, satisfaction, and career identity in the work transition: an outlook on Sicilian college students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santisi G

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Giuseppe Santisi,1 Paola Magnano,2 Silvia Platania,1 Tiziana Ramaci2 1Department of Educational Sciences, University of Catania, Catania, Italy; 2Faculty of Human and Social Sciences, “Kore” University of Enna, Enna, Italy Background: The phases of career building today bring out a more complex process than in previous decades. Starting from the literature review, the university-to-work transition is considered a very important step in the future career of the graduates, and it involves some psychological resources and requires specific abilities. Methods: Research has examined the psychological resources that students at the end of a degree course can use in the university-to-work transition. The aim of the study is to verify the relationship between academic satisfaction and career identity, and the mediational role of readiness and confidence on this relationship. A group of 438 students were assigned to complete a questionnaire in order to examine the relationship between academic satisfaction and career identity and the role of core components of psychological resources: readiness and confidence as mediator. Results: The results indicated both a direct relationship between academic satisfaction and career identity and a mediated relationship with the influence of readiness and confidence for a transition. Adding to our results, we assert that academic satisfaction has a directed effect on confidence during the transition and is a predictor of career identity, both directly and by the mediation of readiness in career transitions. Conclusion: Career identity has implication for exploratory behavior, thus increasing the motivation and mindfulness that create a virtuous circle, influencing the development of knowledge and skills, which are the base of proactivity and confidence in construction of one’s future career. Keywords: career, transition, identity, satisfaction, resources

  20. Identity politics: implications for gender analysis policy and training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erturk, Y

    1997-01-01

    As attention has shifted from a concern for citizenship, equality, and welfare to ideas of empowerment, equity, and governance, the locus of competition over power has rested with "identity politics," a recognition of cultural diversity that claims the legitimate right to produce alternative definitions and symbols of identity in public space. The change in identity formation from universal/national to fractured/tribalizing has implications for gender relations in contexts where patriarchal power controls production and reproduction. Except for feminism, all discourses in the current competition over identity politics are patriarchal. A look at the forces of change that shifted the process of modernization to a process of globalization reveals that, while modernization tends to standardize, globalization embraces the contradictory forces of universalizing and diversifying trends. Issues of identity and inequality were not problematic until the modern and the traditional subsumed each other and, thus, revealed the inherent contradictions of modernization. The diversifying forces that jeopardize the transnationalization of identity into membership in a "human society" include 1) language differences among the working classes, 2) growing global inequalities, and 3) collective memories of antagonistic histories. An analysis of gender based on identity politics can be conducted on a macro-level to understand the reluctance of central governments to initiate certain interventions, competing needs, new contradictions, changing gender roles, and the importance of promoting a global social contract.

  1. [The development of gender identity beyond rigid dichotomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quindeau, Ilka

    2014-01-01

    The conflicts individuals with ambiguous sexual characteristics suffer from are not the result of genetic features but of the rigid and dichotomous gender order, which is currently undergoing a renaissance. This also applies to individuals with an uncertain gender identity. In the best interests of the child a concept of gender seems necessary, that goes beyond a binary separation and allows gender-specific intermediary stages in the personal development of identity. Such a gender concept can be developed following psychoanalytic theories. The present discourse contains a scale of connecting factors for a differentiated and less normative conceptualization of gender development. Starting from Freud's concept of constitutional bisexuality, Robert Stoller's theory, which has been firmly rooted in the mainstream of psychoanalysis for more than 40 years, will be critically reviewed. By involving Reimut Reiche's and Jean Laplanche's arguments, a continuative psychological gender theory will be drafted, which does not normatively and reductively claim the demarcation of gender, but rather opens up a space for gender diversity.

  2. Fashioning identities: gender, class and the self

    OpenAIRE

    Boydell, C. E.

    2004-01-01

    This article focused on four publications from Berg’s ‘Dress, Body and Culture’ series. It situates these publications within the context of the development of dress and fashion studies and acknowledges dress and adornment as universal practices which aid our understanding of our individual and collective attempts to express identities. This article utilises a discussion and analysis of these publications to reflect on the current state of fashion theory and research. Drawing on the writer’s ...

  3. Gendered career considerations consolidate from the start of medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alers, Margret; Verdonk, Petra; Bor, Hans; Hamberg, Katarina; Lagro-Janssen, Antoine

    2014-09-13

    To explore changes in specialty preferences and work-related topics during the theoretical phase of Dutch medical education and the role of gender. A cohort of medical students at Radboudumc, the Netherlands, was surveyed at start (N=612, 69.1% female) and after three years (N=519, 69.2% female), on specialty preferences, full-time or part-time work, motivational factors, and work-life issues. Chi square tests were performed to analyze gender-differences, and logistic regression to explore the influence of gender on considerations. A total of 214 female and 78 male students completed both surveys. After three years, the male students remained highly interested in surgery, but the female students increasingly preferred gynecology. These initial preferences were predictive. Four out of five male students versus three out of five female students continued to show a full-time preference. Women increasingly preferred part-time work. After three years, the combination of work, care, and patient contact motivated female students more, whereas salary remained more important to male students. Female students indicated that their future careers would influence their family life; male students assumed having a family would only affect their partners' careers. Against an international background of the feminization of medicine, our study shows that career considerations are reinforced early in medical studies. Women prefer to work fewer hours and anticipate care tasks more often. Students' preferences reflect Dutch cultural norms about working men and women. Therefore, guidance in choice-making much earlier in medical education can create opportunities.

  4. Gender, Ethnicity, and Physics Education: Understanding How Black Women Build Their Identities as Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Katemari Diogo da

    This research focuses on the underrepresentation of minoritized groups in scientific careers. The study is an analysis of the relationships between race, gender, and those with careers in the sciences, focusing on the lived experiences of Black women physicists, as viewed through the lens of women scientists in the United States. Although the research is geographically localized, the base-line question is clear and mirrors in the researcher's own intellectual development: "How do Black women physicists describe their experiences towards the construction of a scientific identity and the pursuit of a career in physics?" Grounded on a critical race theory perspective, the study uses storytelling to analyze how these women build their identities as scientists and how they have negotiate their multiple identities within different communities in society. Findings show that social integration is a key element for Black women physicists to enter study groups, which enables access to important resources for academic success in STEM. The study has implications for physics education and policymakers. The study reveals the role of the different communities that these women are part of, and the importance of public policies targeted to increase the participation of underrepresented groups in science, especially through after-school programs and financial support through higher education.

  5. The impact of gendered organizational systems on women's career advancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Deborah A; Hopkins, Margaret M

    2015-01-01

    In this Perspective article we propose that in order to pave the way for women's career advancement into the senior ranks of organizations, attention must be directed at the systemic norms and structures that drive the gendered nature of the workplace. A focus on individual level issues, i.e., women lacking confidence and women opting out, detracts from the work that must be done at the organizational level in order to dismantle the system of pervasive, structural disadvantage facing women seeking to advance to senior leadership positions.

  6. The impact of gendered organizational systems on women's career advancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Anne O'Neil

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this Perspective article we propose that in order to pave the way for women's career advancement into the senior ranks of organizations, attention must be directed at the systemic norms and structures that drive the gendered nature of the workplace. A focus on individual level issues, i.e., women lacking confidence and women opting out, detracts from the work that must be done at the organizational level in order to dismantle the system of pervasive, structural disadvantage facing women seeking to advance to senior leadership positions.

  7. Gender Identity in Autism: Sex Differences in Social Affiliation with Gender Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Kate; Smith, Laura G E; Russell, Ailsa J

    2018-04-28

    High rates of gender variance have been reported in autistic people, with higher variance in autistic females than males. The social component of gender identity may be affected, with autistic females experiencing lower identification with and feeling less positively about their gender groups than controls. We measured gender identification, gender self-esteem, and aspects of gender expression (masculinity and femininity) in autistic natal males and females, and controls (N = 486). We found that autistic people had lower gender identification and gender self-esteem than controls, and autistic natal females had lower gender identification than autistic natal males and natal female controls. In conclusion, autistic people, particularly natal females, had lower social identification with and more negative feelings about a gender group.

  8. Identity Bargaining: A Policy Systems Research Model of Career Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slawski, Carl

    A detailed, general and comprehensive accounting scheme is presented, consisting of nine stages of career development, three major sets of elements contributing to career choice (in terms of personal, cultural and situational roles), and 20 hypotheses relating the separate elements. Implicit in the model is a novel procedure and method for…

  9. An Expanded Model of Careers Professional Identity: Time for Change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Deirdre

    2013-01-01

    The careers profession is challenged significantly by government, employers and potential consumers to articulate its added value to society. Neoliberal discourses such as privatisation, deregulation, flexicurity and a self-help culture are impacting upon arrangements for the design and delivery of all-age careers provision across the UK. In this…

  10. Hmong transnational identity: the gendering of contested discourses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Julian

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Hmong women throughout the diaspora are increasingly expressing ‘what it means to be Hmong’ and ‘what it means to be a Hmong woman’ in a variety of media that constitute western popular culture. At the same time, Hmong women residing in different nation-states live Hmong femininity differently. This paper explores the contested nature of Hmong identity through an exploration of discourses and practices at global and local levels, with a particular emphasis on their gendered dimensions. The paper argues that global narratives of Hmong identity are analytically distinct from, but empirically intertwined with, the constructions of Hmong identities across transnational social spaces. Through a focus on Hmong in Australia and the United States, the paper highlights the significance of place, generation, gender, religion, class and status as axes of contestation and debate in the construction of Hmong identities.

  11. Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy and Career Commitment: Gender and Ethnic Differences among College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Y. Barry

    2002-01-01

    Analysis of responses from 165 undergraduates on the Career Decision Making Self Efficacy Scale revealed high internal consistency for the instrument and moderate correlation between it and the Career Commitment Scale. No gender or ethnic differences were found in this correlation. Blacks scored significantly higher than whites on both measures.…

  12. The role of gender identity in adolescents' antisocial behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira Trillo, Vanesa; Mirón Redondo, Lourdes

    2013-01-01

    Analysis of the relevance of the variables sex and gender to explain delinquency is a topic of growing interest in Criminology. This study tests a model of juvenile delinquency that integrates gender identity, the association with deviant peers, and a lack of attachment to conventional contexts. We used a sample of 970 adolescents of both sexes, representative of the urban population, between 12 and 18 years, attending public schools in Galicia (Spain). The results of path analysis confirm that: a) weak attachment to conventional contexts, and belonging to a deviant groups are precedents for deviation of adolescents of both sexes; b) these contexts also contribute to the development of gender identity; and c) gender identity affects the likelihood of deviation: femininity tends to reduce this behavior, and masculinity (in particular, negatively valued masculinity) contributes to increase it. These findings support the adequacy of including gender identity in the explanatory models of delinquency. They also suggest the need to reconsider the role of conventional settings in the socialization of masculinity and, therefore, in the genesis of adolescent delinquency of both sexes.

  13. The Effect of Gender Identity on Job Satisfaction of Employers

    OpenAIRE

    Vahid Ghasemi; Fereshteh Ghaysarieh Najafabady

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The importance and the role of gender identity in constituting the mental and personal structure of people within the society has caused this variable to be analyzed as one of the key elements in subjects and researches of the social and cultural sciences. This variable implicates as an index for evaluation of the femininity and masculinity on learned social roles and formed gender priorities. In recent years, job satisfaction and its related subjects have been introduced as ...

  14. Gender differences in medical students’ motives and career choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heiligers Phil JM

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The main subject is the influence of gender and the stage of life on the choice of specialty in medical education. In particular we looked at the influence of intrinsic and external motives on this relationship. The choice of specialty was divided into two moments: the choice between medical specialties and general practice; and the preference within medical specialties. In earlier studies the topic of motivation was explored, mostly related to gender. In this study stage of life in terms of living with a partner -or not- and stage of education was added. Methods A questionnaire concerning career preferences was used. The online questionnaire was sent to all student members of the KNMG (Royal Dutch Medical Association. 58% of these students responded (N = 2397. Only 1478 responses could be used for analyses (36%. For stipulating the motives that played a role, principal components factor analysis has been carried out. For testing the mediation effect a set of regression analyses was performed: logistic regressions and multiple regressions. Results Although basic findings about gender differences in motivations for preferred careers are consistent with earlier research, we found that whether or not living with a partner is determinant for differences in profession-related motives and external motives (lifestyle and social situation. Furthermore living with a partner is not a specific female argument anymore, since no interactions are found between gender and living with a partner. Another issue is that motives are mediating the relationship between, living with a partner, and the choice of GP or medical specialty. For more clarity in the mediating effect of motives a longitudinal study is needed to find out about motives and changing circumstances. Conclusions The present study provides a contribution to the knowledge of career aspirations of medical students, especially the impact of motivation. Gender and living with a

  15. Possible selves and identity in relation to career development: evidence from Chilean male middle-aged managers' career narratives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nazar, Gabriela; van der Heijden, Beatrice

    2014-01-01

    Social and economic conditions, as well as the dynamism of the Chilean labour market, place new demands on middle-aged workers who have to explore both internal and external opportunities to develop successful careers. We assumed that possible self and identity in future states are core organizing

  16. Career Advancement Outcomes in Academic Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM): Gender, Mentoring Resources, and Homophily

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Eun

    This dissertation examines gender differences in career advancement outcomes among academic science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) scientists. In particular, this research examines effects of gender, PhD advisors and postdoctoral supervisors mentoring resources and gender homophily in the mentoring dyads on the career advancement outcomes at early career stages. Female academic scientists have disadvantages in the career progress in the academic STEM. They tend to fall behind throughout their career paths and to leave the field compared to their male colleagues. Researchers have found that gender differences in the career advancement are shaped by gender-biased evaluations derived from gender stereotypes. Other studies demonstrate the positive impacts of mentoring and gender homophily in the mentoring dyads. To add greater insights to the current findings of female academic scientists' career disadvantages, this dissertation investigates comprehensive effects of gender, mentoring, and gender homophily in the mentoring dyads on female scientists' career advancement outcomes in academic science. Based on the Status Characteristics Theory, the concept of mentoring, Social Capital Theory, and Ingroup Bias Theory, causal path models are developed to test direct and indirect effects of gender, mentoring resources, and gender homophily on STEM faculty's career advancement. The research models were tested using structural equation modeling (SEM) with data collected from a national survey, funded by the National Science Foundation, completed in 2011 by tenured and tenure-track academic STEM faculty from higher education institutions in the United States. Findings suggest that there is no gender difference in career advancement controlling for mentoring resources and gender homophily in the mentoring dyads and other factors including research productivity and domestic caregiving responsibilities. Findings also show that the positive relationship between

  17. DANCE MUSIC: GENDER ISSUES AND EMBODIMENT OF NATIONAL IDENTITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Viktorovna Sokovikova

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on research of contemporary dance music this study analyzes how practices of, and discourse about, contemporary dance music contribute to the performance and embodiment of gender, and national identities. This article examines the articulation of gender and national identity in performance in the specific context of Russian contemporary male national dance. Dance in particular is a very interesting research setting for a subject as identity. Dance is located mostly outside of the daily life setting, therefore it enables another social framework with different social norms and rules than the ones applicable in daily life. Especially the identity axes of gender and national identity are provoked by national dances. To create insight and to understand the background and discourse of her research, the author presents the theoretical framework at first. Next her argument will be elucidated by the empirical chapters, which represent her findings in the field. At the end the author answers her research questions, as well as evaluating some existing theories on the topic, in her conclusion. The conclusion is that the bodies of dancers are cultural bodies and dance movements can be seen as scripts, which are culturally encoded and part of daily life. The body is the materialization of cultural definitions of femininity and masculinity, maleness and femaleness, and also materializes the dancer’s interpretation of them, as was stated by Aalten (1997. Namely, dancers create and recreate their gender and national identity inter-subjectively while dancing. Dance allow people to reclaim their humanity and is inscribed within the realm of feeling and emotion, The dancing body is a symbolic expression that may embody many notions of desire, hate, romance, anger, sexual climax. Dance, dance music and culture are intrinsically connected. Dancers and their dance practices reflect what exist in a society and culture, like how sexuality and gender are

  18. GENDER DISCRIMINATION AND THE EFFECTS ON WOMEN HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGERS CAREERS

    OpenAIRE

    BULUT, Dilvin; KIZILDAĞ, Duygu

    2017-01-01

    Working women have been faced obstacles based on gender discrimination in Turkey and inthe world at the point of career development,. Women have been exposed to gender-based obstaclesinstead of evaluating objectively with their success and competence as an employee. In this study,gender discrimination problems faced by women in their business life are evaluated. The purpose of  this study, a research was conducted to determine the effect of gender discrimination on the careers ofwomen manager...

  19. A parent-report gender identity questionnaire for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Laurel L; Bradley, Susan J; Birkenfeld-Adams, Andrea S; Kuksis, Myra A Radzins; Maing, Dianne M; Mitchell, Janet N; Zucker, Kenneth J

    2004-04-01

    This paper reports on the psychometric properties of a 16-item parent-report Gender Identity Questionnaire, originally developed by P. H. Elizabeth and R. Green (1984), to aid in the assessment of children with potential problems in their gender identity development. The questionnaire, which covered aspects of the core phenomenology of gender identity disorder (GID), was completed by parents of gender-referred children (N = 325) and controls (siblings, clinic-referred, and nonreferred; N = 504), who ranged in age from 2.5-12 years (mean age, 7.6 years). Factor-analysis indicated that a one-factor solution, containing 14 of the 16 items with factor loadings > or =.30, best fit the data, accounting for 43.7% of the variance. The gender-referred children had a significantly more deviant total score than did the controls, with a large effect size of 3.70. The GIQ total score had negligible age effects, indicating that the questionnaire has utility for assessing change over time. The gender-referred children who met the complete DSM criteria for GID had a significantly more deviant total score than did the children who were subthreshold for GID, although the latter group had a mean score that was closer to the threshold cases than to the controls. With a specificity rate set at 95% for the controls, the sensitivity rate for the probands was 86.8%. It is concluded that this parent-report gender identity questionnaire has excellent psychometric properties and can serve as a useful screening device for front-line clinicians, for whom more extensive, expensive, and time-consuming assessment procedures may be precluded.

  20. The Influence of Social Media Use on Male College Students' Gender Identity and Gendered Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, Lawrence Charles

    2017-01-01

    To better understand the influence of social media use on male college students' gender identity and male gendered performance, this research examined existing research on digital identity and social networking sites, male gender identity development, college student development theory, and the effects of living arrangements on college students.…

  1. Gender Differences in the Consistency of Middle School Students' Interest in Engineering and Science Careers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ing, Marsha; Aschbacher, Pamela R.; Tsai, Sherry M.

    2014-01-01

    This longitudinal study analyzes survey responses in seventh, eighth, and ninth grade from diverse public school students (n = 482) to explore gender differences in engineering and science career preferences. Females were far more likely to express interest in a science career (31%) than an engineering career (13%), while the reverse was true for…

  2. Threats to Feminist Identity and Reactions to Gender Discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichocka, Aleksandra; Golec de Zavala, Agnieszka; Kofta, Mirek; Rozum, Joanna

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this research was to examine conditions that modify feminists' support for women as targets of gender discrimination. In an experimental study we tested a hypothesis that threatened feminist identity will lead to greater differentiation between feminists and conservative women as victims of discrimination and, in turn, a decrease in support for non-feminist victims. The study was conducted among 96 young Polish female professionals and graduate students from Gender Studies programs in Warsaw who self-identified as feminists ( M age  = 22.23). Participants were presented with a case of workplace gender discrimination. Threat to feminist identity and worldview of the discrimination victim (feminist vs. conservative) were varied between research conditions. Results indicate that identity threat caused feminists to show conditional reactions to discrimination. Under identity threat, feminists perceived the situation as less discriminatory when the target held conservative views on gender relations than when the target was presented as feminist. This effect was not observed under conditions of no threat. Moreover, feminists showed an increase in compassion for the victim when she was portrayed as a feminist compared to when she was portrayed as conservative. Implications for the feminist movement are discussed.

  3. Strategies to include sexual orientation and gender identity in health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Various disciplines can teach sexual orientation and gender identity issues in their context by challenging heteronormativity and highlighting specific LGBTI health concerns, and can do so more successfully with interactive teaching approaches that hold more potential than formalised lectures. Rights-based teaching ...

  4. Descriptive Study of Gender Dysphoria in Japanese Individuals with Male-to-Female Gender Identity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinohara, Yoshie; Nakatsuka, Mikiya

    2018-04-01

    We focus on Japanese individuals with gender identity disorder (GID), especially male-to-female (MTF) GID, who have experienced difficulty in adapting to social life. We clarify what gender dysphoria is, and we examine methods of intervention. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 11 individuals with MTF-GID from August 2015 to April 2017. We categorized the subjects'experiences regarding dysphoria into the 'Onset of gender dysphoria,' 'Experience of feeling gender dysphoria,' and 'Changes due to receiving medical care.' The subjects reported experiencing great pain and distress because they did not fully understand that they were experiencing dysphoria and could not align their gender identity and their self-identity. All subjects described their experiences of dysphoria as negative. Additionally, all said that the dysphoria was alleviated by a medical intervention such as visiting a gender clinic, receiving a diagnosis and treatment, and changing their physical sex to the sex congruent with their gender identity. The provision of information at the gender clinic and the physical changes achieved by medical intervention exerted a positive effect both mentally and socially on the subjects, who suffered various physical, mental and social problems.

  5. Comparison of Masculine and Feminine Gender Roles in Iranian Patients with Gender Identity Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaveh Alavi, MD

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: Iranian FM‐GID individuals were less feminine than normal men. However, MF‐GID individuals were similar to normal women or more feminine. Cultural considerations remain to be investigated. Alavi K, Eftekhar M and Jalali Nadoushan AH. Comparison of masculine and feminine gender roles in Iranian patients with gender identity disorder. Sex Med 2015;3:261–268.

  6. Schizophrenia modifying the expression of gender identity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltieri, Danilo Antonio; De Andrade, Arthur Guerra

    2009-04-01

    According to the Brazilian Federal Medical Association, transsexualism is recognized as a gender identity disorder if a long-term diagnostic therapeutic process has demonstrated that the transposition of gender roles is irreversible, and if only hormonal and surgical procedures are appropriate to relieve the stress associated with the gender identity. Although such treatment will only be initiated with caution and after a long phase of intense diagnostic screening, the differentiation between pure identity disorders and transsexual feelings secondary to an ongoing psychopathologic process, such as schizophrenia, can be arduous for many health professionals. To report a case of a female patient with schizophrenia and transsexualism and the risks of a potential diagnostic confusion. A 19-year-old black woman, with an 8-year history of undifferentiated schizophrenia and intense gender dysphoria, was referred for sex reassignment surgery evaluation in the Ambulatory for the Treatment of Sexual Disorders of the ABC Medical School. After a more adequate antipsychotic treatment, her masculine behavior has persisted, but her desire to change her own genital organs has decreased. A better acceptance of the multiplicity of possible genders should neither contribute to inadequate interpretations of the signs and symptoms of our patients nor facilitate dangerous clinical or surgical recommendations.

  7. Home and Motivational Factors Related to Science-Career Pursuit: Gender differences and gender similarities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jongho; Lee, Hyunjoo; McCarthy-Donovan, Alexander; Hwang, Hyeyoung; Yim, Sonyoung; Seo, EunJin

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine whether gender differences exist in the mean levels of and relations between adolescents' home environments (parents' view of science, socio-economic status (SES)), motivations (intrinsic and instrumental motivations, self-beliefs), and pursuit of science careers. For the purpose, the Programmed for International Student Assessment 2006 data of Korean 15-year-old students were analysed. The results of the study showed that girls had lower levels of science intrinsic and instrumental motivations, self-beliefs, and science-career pursuit (SCP) as well as their parents' values in science less than boys. Gender similarities, rather than gender differences, existed in patterns of causal relationship among home environments, motivations, and SCP. The results showed positive effects for parents' higher value in science and SES on motivations, SCP, and for intrinsic and instrumental motivations on SCP for girls and boys. These results provide implications for educational interventions to decrease gender differences in science motivations and SCP, and to decrease adolescents' gender stereotypes.

  8. Ambiguous genitalia, gender-identity problems, and sex reassignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittmann, R W

    1998-01-01

    This article discusses general issues with regard to gender-identity problems, sex reassignment, and clinical management in patients with ambiguous genitalia, based on a detailed case history of a patient with penile agenesis who has been followed more than 20 years. After initial uncertainty, the patient began to grow up as a boy, lived from the fourth year of life as a girl and young woman, and lived from late puberty on as a man. Over his lifetime he experienced extensive corrective surgery plus hormonal substitution therapy. Pre- and perinatal hormonal conditions, phenomenology of the genitalia, sex of rearing, timing of sex reassignment and corrective surgery, for example, appear to be important components for the development of gender-role behavior, gender identity, and sexual orientation of intersex patients. Findings and retrospective considerations for this patient suggest the need for careful differential activities in diagnostic workup, approaches to sex assignment and possible reassignment, and the clinical management of patients and families.

  9. Does surgical genitoplasty affect gender identity in the intersex infant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nihoul-Fékété, C

    2005-01-01

    There is no clear-cut answer to the question of whether surgical genitoplasty affects gender identity in the intersex infant. The debate centres around which is more important for the development of gender identity: the biological sex of a child or the sex in which a child is reared. We believe that the surgical achievement of a phenotype concordant with the sex of rearing is a tremendous help to the parents of an intersex infant. We do not consider that the 'neutral' upbringing of a child with ambiguous genitalia is a feasible option, first because of the parents' distress which prevents them from raising their child normally and second because in most cultures around the world gender variants are not treated as equals. A neutral upbringing may induce psychosocial consequences that are more pernicious than carefully considered neonatal sex attribution and concordant surgical genitoplasty. (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Explaining sex differences in managerial career satisfier preferences: the role of gender self-schema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddleston, Kimberly A; Veiga, John F; Powell, Gary N

    2006-03-01

    Using survey data from 400 managers, the authors examined whether gender self-schema would explain sex differences in preferences for status-based and socioemotional career satisfiers. Female gender self-schema, represented by femininity and family role salience, completely mediated the relationship between managers' sex and preferences for socioemotional career satisfiers. However, male gender self-schema, represented by masculinity and career role salience, did not mediate the relationship between managers' sex and preferences for status-based career satisfiers. As expected, male managers regarded status-based career satisfiers as more important and socioemotional career satisfiers as less important than female managers did. The proposed conceptualization of male and female gender self-schemas, which was supported by the data, enhances understanding of adult self-schema and work-related attitudes and behavior.

  11. The Relationship of Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy, Vocational Identity, and Career Exploration Behavior in African American High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gushue, George V.; Scanlan, Kolone R. L.; Pantzer, Karen M.; Clarke, Christine P.

    2006-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between the social cognitive construct of career decision-making self-efficacy and the outcome variables of vocational identity and career exploration behaviors in a sample of 72 urban African American high school students. The results indicate that higher levels of career decision-making self-efficacy are…

  12. Career Development Practitioners as Advocates for Transgender Individuals: Understanding Gender Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangganjanavanich, Varunee Faii

    2009-01-01

    Assisting transgender individuals is a concern for career development practitioners because there is a lack of knowledge on this topic. The complexity of gender reassignment surgery brings challenges and unique needs to this population, throughout gender transition, and requires career development practitioners to understand these challenges and…

  13. The Problem with Women? Challenges Posed by Gender for Career Guidance Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bimrose, Jenny; Watson, Mark; McMahon, Mary; Haasler, Simone; Tomassini, Massimo; Suzanne, Pamela A.

    2014-01-01

    Institutionalised discrimination continues to perpetuate deep rooted social divisions, with gender inequality persisting as a pervasive feature of labour markets across the world. Despite the depth and breadth of gender inequality, there is limited acknowledgement in career theory that the career support needs of women are distinctive. A…

  14. Couples' Career Orientation, Gender Role Orientation, and Perceived Equity as Determinants of Marital Power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexton, Christine S.; Perlman, Daniel S.

    1989-01-01

    Investigated influence of resource exchanges and gender role on marital power. Compared dual-career (N=50) and single-career (N=50) couples. Found two couple types did not differ in perceived power nor in self-reported strategies for influencing spouses. Found gender role orientation did not affect marital power. (Author/CM)

  15. Gender Minority Social Stress in Adolescence: Disparities in Adolescent Bullying and Substance Use by Gender Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisner, Sari L.; Greytak, Emily A.; Parsons, Jeffrey T.; Ybarra, Michele

    2014-01-01

    Bullying and substance use represent serious public health issues facing adolescents in the U.S. Few large-sample national studies have examined differences in these indicators by gender identity. The Teen Health and Technology Study (N=5,542) sampled adolescents 13–18 years-old online. Weighted multivariable logistic regression models investigated disparities in substance use and tested a gender minority social stress hypothesis, comparing gender minority youth (i.e., who are transgender/gender nonconforming and have a gender different from their sex assigned at birth) and cisgender (i.e., whose gender identity or expression matches one’s sex assigned at birth). Overall, 11.5% of youth self-identified as gender minority. Gender minority youth had increased odds of past-12 month alcohol use, marijuana use, and non-marijuana illicit drug use. Gender minority youth disproportionately experienced bullying and harassment in the past 12 months, and this victimization was associated with increased odds of all substance use indicators. Bullying mediated the elevated odds of substance use for gender minority youth compared to cisgender adolescents. Findings support the use of gender minority stress perspectives in designing early interventions aimed at addressing the negative health sequelae of bullying and harassment. PMID:24742006

  16. Gender minority social stress in adolescence: disparities in adolescent bullying and substance use by gender identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisner, Sari L; Greytak, Emily A; Parsons, Jeffrey T; Ybarra, Michele L

    2015-01-01

    Bullying and substance use represent serious public health issues facing adolescents in the United States. Few large-sample national studies have examined differences in these indicators by gender identity. The Teen Health and Technology Study (N = 5,542) sampled adolescents ages 13 to 18 years old online. Weighted multivariable logistic regression models investigated disparities in substance use and tested a gender minority social stress hypothesis, comparing gender minority youth (i.e., who are transgender/gender nonconforming and have a gender different from their sex assigned at birth) and cisgender (i.e., whose gender identity or expression matches theirs assigned at birth). Overall, 11.5% of youth self-identified as gender minority. Gender minority youth had increased odds of past-12-month alcohol use, marijuana use, and nonmarijuana illicit drug use. Gender minority youth disproportionately experienced bullying and harassment in the past 12 months, and this victimization was associated with increased odds of all substance use indicators. Bullying mediated the elevated odds of substance use for gender minority youth compared to cisgender adolescents. Findings support the use of gender minority stress perspectives in designing early interventions aimed at addressing the negative health sequelae of bullying and harassment.

  17. Executive Function, Identity, and Career Decision-Making in College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilyn Welsh

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the relationship among executive function, identity, and career decision-making as self-reported by 82 college students. Participants were administered measures of executive function, identity status, career decision-making, and an index of verbal intelligence. After controlling for intelligence, self-reported difficulties with the metacognitive component of executive function were related to lower levels of identity achievement and higher levels of moratorium and diffusion. Difficulties with behavioral regulation were associated with higher levels of moratorium and foreclosure. Hierarchical multiple regressions with backward elimination indicated that individual differences in career certainty was best explained by metacognitive control and identity achievement. In contrast, variation in career uncertainty was predicted by verbal intelligence, behavior regulation, and low and high scores on identity achievement and diffusion, respectively. These preliminary results fill a gap in the current literature on career decision-making, suggesting the importance of executive function skills to this milestone process in the lives of emerging adults.

  18. Features of gender identity among schoolchildren of different ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.Y. Marchenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose . Gender identity manifestations in schoolchildren were investigated. Material . The study involved schoolchildren of 3 -11th forms of the secondary schools (206 – boys, 213 - girls. For the research of age peculiarities in psychological gender, a questioner worked out by Sundry Bam which consists of 60 statements was used. Results . A number of aspects of self description which have different psychological characteristics in boys and girls were analysed. A peculiarity of gender identity in schoolchildren, which was identified by the overall number of respondents in whom the androgens personality type was identified, was singled out. Out of 206 boys – 90% have an androgens index, as for the girls – 69.5% refer to androgens personality type. The presence of feminine character qualities in boys and masculine – in girls was found out, which proves maximal development of feminine and masculine in one person. This will help social adaptation of schoolchildren. Conclusions . Physical education has enormous potential emotional and physical impact on the formation of gender identity of students and their notions of femininity and masculinity. This can directly affect the formation of life value orientations students in general, including the formation of values in the sphere of physical culture.

  19. The molecular mechanisms of sexual orientation and gender identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Alessandra D; Ristori, Jiska; Morelli, Girolamo; Maggi, Mario

    2018-05-15

    Differences between males and females are widely represented in nature. There are gender differences in phenotypes, personality traits, behaviors and interests, cognitive performance, and proneness to specific diseases. The most marked difference in humans is represented by sexual orientation and core gender identity, the origins of which are still controversial and far from being understood. Debates continue on whether sexual behavior and gender identity are a result of biological (nature) or cultural (nurture) factors, with biology possibly playing a major role. The main goal of this review is to summarize the studies available to date on the biological factors involved in the development of both sexual orientation and gender identity. A systematic search of published evidence was performed using Medline (from January 1948 to June 2017). Review of the relevant literature was based on authors' expertise. Indeed, different studies have documented the possible role and interaction of neuroanatomic, hormonal and genetic factors. The sexual dimorphic brain is considered the anatomical substrate of psychosexual development, on which genes and gonadal hormones may have a shaping effect. In particular, growing evidence shows that prenatal and pubertal sex hormones permanently affect human behavior. In addition, heritability studies have demonstrated a role of genetic components. However, a convincing candidate gene has not been identified. Future studies (e.i. genome wide studies) are needed to better clarify the complex interaction between genes, anatomy and hormonal influences on psychosexual development. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. The relationship between career competencies, career identity, motivation and quality of choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijers, Frans; Kuijpers, Marinka; Gundy, Chad

    2018-01-01

    In this article we focus on the effects of career education and guidance among students (ages 12–19) enrolled in prevocational and secondary vocational education in The Netherlands. Our study included 3,499 students and 166 teachers in 226 classes in 34 schools. The results showed that career

  1. The Relationship between Career Competencies, Career Identity, Motivation and Quality of Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijers, Frans; Kuijpers, Marinka; Gundy, Chad

    2013-01-01

    In this article we focus on the effects of career education and guidance among students (ages 12-19) enrolled in prevocational and secondary vocational education in The Netherlands. Our study included 3,499 students and 166 teachers in 226 classes in 34 schools. The results showed that career competencies positively contributed to learning…

  2. Differences in Collaboration Patterns across Discipline, Career Stage, and Gender.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Han T Zeng

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Collaboration plays an increasingly important role in promoting research productivity and impact. What remains unclear is whether female and male researchers in science, technology, engineering, and mathematical (STEM disciplines differ in their collaboration propensity. Here, we report on an empirical analysis of the complete publication records of 3,980 faculty members in six STEM disciplines at select U.S. research universities. We find that female faculty have significantly fewer distinct co-authors over their careers than males, but that this difference can be fully accounted for by females' lower publication rate and shorter career lengths. Next, we find that female scientists have a lower probability of repeating previous co-authors than males, an intriguing result because prior research shows that teams involving new collaborations produce work with higher impact. Finally, we find evidence for gender segregation in some sub-disciplines in molecular biology, in particular in genomics where we find female faculty to be clearly under-represented.

  3. The gender identity/gender dysphoria questionnaire for adolescents and adults: further validity evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Devita; Deogracias, Joseph J; Johnson, Laurel L; Bradley, Susan J; Kibblewhite, Sarah J; Owen-Anderson, Allison; Peterson-Badali, Michele; Meyer-Bahlburg, Heino F L; Zucker, Kenneth J

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to provide further validity evidence for the dimensional measurement of gender identity and gender dysphoria in both adolescents and adults. Adolescents and adults with gender identity disorder (GID) were compared to clinical control (CC) adolescents and adults on the Gender Identity/Gender Dysphoria Questionnaire for Adolescents and Adults (GIDYQ-AA), a 27-item scale originally developed by Deogracias et al. (2007). In Study 1, adolescents with GID (n = 44) were compared to CC adolescents (n = 98); and in Study 2, adults with GID (n = 41) were compared to CC adults (n = 94). In both studies, clients with GID self-reported significantly more gender dysphoria than did the CCs, with excellent sensitivity and specificity rates. In both studies, degree of self-reported gender dysphoria was significantly correlated with recall of cross-gender behavior in childhood-a test of convergent validity. The research and clinical utility of the GIDYQ-AA is discussed, including directions for further research in distinct clinical populations.

  4. Enacting Efficacy in Early Career: Narratives of Agency, Growth, and Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth K Niehaus

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim/Purpose: To explore how early career faculty in the field of higher education administration develop and enact their personal and professional identities. Background:\tParticipants sought to understand themselves, to understand their environments and the “rules” of the academic “game,” and to reconcile conflicts between their own values and identities and the expectations and culture of their environments. Methodology: In-depth case studies of seventeen early career scholars in the field. Contribution: The participants’ experiences underscore important implications for mentoring and socialization that takes into consideration the unique motivation and identity development of aspiring and new faculty members. Findings: Identifies the early career period as one where new faculty are working to develop a strong internal foundation upon which they can manage the many challenges of their personal and professional lives. Recommendations: The findings point to implications for practice, both in graduate education and in departments hiring new faculty members.

  5. Descriptive Study of Gender Dysphoria in Japanese Individuals with Male-to-Female Gender Identity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Shinohara, Yoshie; Nakatsuka, Mikiya

    2018-01-01

    We focus on Japanese individuals with gender identity disorder (GID), especially male-to-female (MTF) GID, who have experienced difficulty in adapting to social life. We clarify what gender dysphoria is, and we examine methods of intervention. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 11 individuals with MTF-GID from August 2015 to April 2017. We categorized the subjects’experiences regarding dysphoria into the ‘Onset of gender dysphoria,’ ‘Experience of feeling gender dysphoria,’ and ‘C...

  6. Psychomedical care in gender identity dysphoria during adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Lorenzo, Isabel; Mora Mesa, Juan José; Oviedo de Lúcas, Olga

    In the clinical literature, the term gender dysphoria is used to define the perception of rejection that a person has to the fact of being male or female. In children and adolescents, gender identity dysphoria is a complex clinical entity. The result of entity is variable and uncertain, but in the end only a few will be transsexuals in adulthood. METHODOLOGY: RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS. Copyright © 2015 SEP y SEPB. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Gender identity as a display of mutual influence of gender differences and inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. K. Skiba

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the different theoretical approaches to clarifying the causes of inequality of gender identities. The opinion of scientists, following the theory of sex roles who think that gendered people acquire their gender identity from their birth and go with it to the outside world, in order to fill in a gender-neutral social institutions is considered. The article highlights the main tenets of the theory differentiating socialization that explain male dominance as a result of gender differences. We also investigate the vision of this problem by the representatives of the social construction theory, according to which gender is constructed at the same time both by a means of socialization of the entire system and the system of social roles of gender that circulate through all institutions of society and by the individual. As a result of analysis the article shows that the theory of gender roles, as well as differentiating socialization theory believe that a man and a woman are completely different beings, thus establishing and legitimizing dichotomy and hierarchy, while the social-constructionist approach argues that differences within a group of men, as well as within the group of women are greater and stronger than between men and women as a groups. The analysis defines that if the theory of sex roles and socialization theory differentiating believe that gender inequality is an inevitable consequence of gender difference and the difference is the cause of inequality, the social constructionist approach argues that gender inequality is not a natural state, and that the gender difference is the cornerstone which is the basis of justification and legitimization of gender inequalities in social institutions.

  8. Gender Identity and Labor Division In Norwegian Households

    OpenAIRE

    Hafzi, Kamran

    2016-01-01

    Master's thesis in Economic analysis We investigate if gender identity has any effect on the division of household labor among Norwegian couples. By deriving the potential income distribution of the Norwegian population, we compare couples’ comparative advantage in market work. Our results indicate that women who have higher potential income than their spouse are more likely to increase their labor supply and work full-time, rather than reduce their hours allocated to market work in order ...

  9. Gender identity disorder in a five-year-old boy.

    OpenAIRE

    Herman, S. P.

    1983-01-01

    Markedly effeminate behavior in a young boy is a source of concern and confusion for parents, teachers, and the child. It also represents a therapeutic dilemma for the child psychiatrist. The case of a five-year-old boy with gender identity disorder of childhood is presented and the literature on hypotheses of etiology, treatment, and long-term follow-up is reviewed. The ethical and philosophical questions posed by such a case are discussed.

  10. Reimagining the self at late-career transitions: how identity threat influences academic physicians' retirement considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyura, Betty; Bohnen, John; Wasylenki, Don; Jarvis, Anna; Giblon, Barney; Hyland, Robert; Silver, Ivan; Leslie, Karen

    2015-06-01

    There is scant empirical work exploring academic physicians' psychosocial adjustment during late-career transitions or on the factors that influence their retirement decisions. The authors examine these issues through the lens of sociopsychological identity theory, specifically examining how identity threat influences academic physicians' decisions about retirement. Participants were academic physicians at a Canadian medical school and were recruited via e-mail requests for clinical faculty interested in discussing late-career and retirement planning issues. Participants included 15 males and 6 females (N = 21; mean age = 63, standard deviation = 7.54), representing eight specialties (clinical and surgical). Data were collected in October and November 2012 via facilitated focus groups, which were digitally recorded, transcribed verbatim, and anonymized, then analyzed using thematic analysis. Four primary themes were identified: centrality of occupational identity, experiences of identity threat, experiences of aging in an indifferent system, and coping with late-career transitions. Identity threats were manifested in apprehensions about self-esteem after retirement, practice continuity, and clinical competence, as well as in a loss of meaning and belonging. These identity challenges influenced decisions on whether to retire. Organizational and system support was perceived as wanting. Coping strategies included reimagining and revaluing various aspects of the self through assimilating new activities and reprioritizing others. Identity-related struggles are a significant feature of academic physicians' considerations about late-career transitions. Understanding these challenges, their antecedents, and their consequences can prepare faculty, and their institutions, to better manage late-career transitions. Individual- and institution-level implications are discussed.

  11. Gender Identity Disorder and Schizophrenia: Neurodevelopmental Disorders with Common Causal Mechanisms?

    OpenAIRE

    Ravi Philip Rajkumar

    2014-01-01

    Gender identity disorder (GID), recently renamed gender dysphoria (GD), is a rare condition characterized by an incongruity between gender identity and biological sex. Clinical evidence suggests that schizophrenia occurs in patients with GID at rates higher than in the general population and that patients with GID may have schizophrenia-like personality traits. Conversely, patients with schizophrenia may experience alterations in gender identity and gender role perception. Neurobiological res...

  12. Review: Gender Identity Disorders in Childhood and Adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Mohammadi

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Gender identity includes individual sense of being male or female personality. Which will has been typical figured by the ages of 3 or 4 years. There are two criteria in DSM-IV A A strong and steady identification with opposite sex, B Inappropriate permanent feeling with self gender or unsuitable belief in self gender role. The frequency of this disorder have consisted various rates of 6-16% among nonformal epidemiologic studies. In order to evaluate of this disorder, we would already consider the parents reports, behavioral methods projective techniques. Meanwhile depression, behavioral abnormality and personality disorders can he figured as comorbidities of GID. There is no exact known relationship between sexual – orientation and sexual identification. It's been revealed bio-psycho-social etiological influenced factors in this case. On basis of Zucher, Bradly and Coates theorical models, exposed that there are usually two interactive factors which known as the major causes of gender Identity disorder: A general main factor which enforces the child anxiety and as a specific factor that poses dynamically among family members or in child own himself/herself. Behavioral techniques, psychoanalysis and family training can be considered as management modalities, but personal and self authorization, particularly within concern to comorbidities other psychosocial problems are felt so great importance.

  13. Puberty suppression in gender identity disorder: the Amsterdam experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreukels, Baudewijntje P C; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T

    2011-05-17

    The use of gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs (GnRHa) to suppress puberty in adolescents with gender dysphoria is a fairly new intervention in the field of gender identity disorders or transsexualism. GnRHa are used to give adolescents time to make balanced decisions on any further treatment steps, and to obtain improved results in the physical appearance of those who opt to continue with sex reassignment. The effects of GnRHa are reversible. However, concerns have been raised about the risk of making the wrong treatment decisions, as gender identity could fluctuate during adolescence, adolescents in general might have poor decision-making abilities, and there are potential adverse effects on health and on psychological and psychosexual functioning. Proponents of puberty suppression emphasize the beneficial effects of GnRHa on the adolescents' mental health, quality of life and of having a physical appearance that makes it possible for the patients to live unobtrusively in their desired gender role. In this Review, we discuss the evidence pertaining to the debate on the effects of GnRHa treatment. From the studies that have been published thus far, it seems that the benefits outweigh the risks. However, more systematic research in this area is needed to determine the safety of this approach.

  14. Gender identity in disorders of sex development: review article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jennifer H; Baskin, Laurence S; DiSandro, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Many concerns have been raised regarding the treatment and long-term outcome of infants born with complex genital anomalies. Debate among clinicians, psychologists, ethicists, and patient advocate groups regarding the optimal management of these individuals is ongoing. Although determining the most appropriate gender is a difficult task, this review will help clarify some of the issues at hand. A literature review which addresses the challenges of advising families about gender identity in infants and children with disorders of sex development. The evidence for endocrine effects on neurobiological development with regard to sexual behavior is compelling, although the existing outcome studies are largely anecdotal and somewhat contradictory. Gender assignment in infants born with a disorder of sex development remains only one of the many difficult decisions faced by both the treatment team and the family. Improved long-term follow-up of these patients will provide much needed feedback on previous and contemporary management. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The effect of gender bias on medical students and career choices: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AKANKSHA GARG

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Dear Editor, Gender equality amongst healthcare professionals is no doubt paramount to allow both equal opportunity and provision of good quality healthcare. The General Medical Council encourages that all colleagues should be treated fairly, but studies have previously demonstrated gender bias against female medical students (1. Whether this might have any impact on the students’ decision-making process and career pathways has yet to be explored. We aimed to evaluate whether doctors gave students gender-specific advice and the extent to which this advice influenced the students. Furthermore, we explored whether students felt their gender affected their career choices. We carried out a cross-sectional national study of British clinical medical students. A standardised questionnaire was completed by 94 students (54.3% female. The response rate was 88.7%. Results showed that 43.6% (n=41 of students received career advice based purely on their gender, and 63.4% (n=26 of these said that this would influence their career choices. Importantly, 82.9% (n=34 of the students who received gender-specific advice were female. Additionally, 41.2% (n=21 of females felt their gender would restrict their career choices compared with only 11.6% (n=5 of males (p=0.00142. 37.3% (n=19 of females thought their gender would unfairly disadvantage their career progression compared to 4.65% (n=2 of males (p=0.00016. Our results highlighted that doctors gave more gender-specific advice to females compared to males, and that this advice significantly impacts students’ decision making process. Furthermore, females disproportionately felt their careers would be disadvantaged and restricted compared with males. This shows an enormous disparity between male and female attitudes towards medical careers. This can have both long and short-term effects on training, career choices and patient interaction. Further research investigating why females feel their gender will

  16. Let's Go Toy Shopping! Exploring Early Anticipatory Socialization for Careers and Gender Expectations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones-Bodie, Ashley

    2016-01-01

    Courses: Gender Communication, Communication and Careers, Organizational Communication. Objectives: At the end of the activity, students will be able: to identify and analyze the socialization of gender expectations, to recognize and describe how early this type of socialization can occur, to critique the early socialization of gendered career…

  17. A Dialogue Worth Having: Vocational Competence, Career Identity and a Learning Environment for Twenty-First Century Success at Work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijers, Frans; Lengelle, Reinekke; Winters, Annemie; Kuijpers, Marinka

    2018-01-01

    The cultivation of intrinsic motivation is key in the twenty first century, but most students in Dutch vocational education lack this quality. To foster intrinsic motivation, a strong career-learning environment is needed that enables students to develop career competencies and a career identity.

  18. Professional identity, career choices, and working conditions of future and young dentists in Germany - study design and methods of a nationwide comprehensive survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettler, Nele; Frenzel Baudisch, Nicolas; Micheelis, Wolfgang; Klingenberger, David; Jordan, A Rainer

    2017-10-18

    Little is known regarding young and future dentists' career choices, professional identity, and working conditions in Germany. While the dental healthcare environment and demands in treatment are changing, it remains unclear what job perceptions young dentists have developed at the beginning of their work life and if and how these perceptions change during the subsequent years. The aim of this study was to survey future and young dentists regarding their professional identity, planned career paths, and working conditions and strains to understand career decisions and choices and enable policy makers to include future dentists' views and expectations in their decisions. This study is a longitudinal nationwide survey over a time span of 4 years of dental students and young dentists in Germany and is comprised of three waves. The first wave focuses on dental students in their final year before the state examination and is composed of a qualitative pre-study in the form of focus groups and a quantitative main survey in the form of a questionnaire. The end points were established to analyse (1) the professional identity of the young future dentists; (2) their career paths, preparation for a career, and basic career conditions; and (3) perceived conditions and strains. The aim of the overall survey was to depict the development of these three aspects during the first years of work life. All of the questions were evaluated with a descriptive univariate analysis. The analysed subgroups were grouped according to gender, target working condition (employed/self-employed), and primary socialisation (parents dentists/parents not dentists). To our knowledge, this is the only study which focuses on career choices, professional identity, and working conditions of future and young dentists in Germany. The longitudinal observation provides information that is essential for professional and purposive dental health care planning, and to meet the oral health demands and needs of the

  19. Problems with binary gender discourse: using context to promote flexibility and connection in gender identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiseman, Mel; Davidson, Sarah

    2012-10-01

    Western society recognises male and female sex from physiological attributes, such as genitals and chromosomes. 'Gender' is the social and cultural expectation of how males and females should think, behave and how they should be treated by others (Diamond, 2002). Some children and adolescents experience distress, marginalization, and abuse associated with their gender identifications, preferences and behaviours, which are inconsistent with those expected of their biological sex. Often their families and society find gender non-conformity at best difficult, at worst offensive, distressing and intolerable. There is increasing focus on how mental health professionals work with difference in gender and sexual identity and recent publications highlight the shift from pathologizing transgender to a more 'identity-based' perspective, focussing more on the stigmatizing affects of the environment and the impact on the individual (Bockting, 2009). This article describes the challenges of binary gender discourse for young people and their wider contexts and considers how clinicians may more helpfully respond to avoid unhelpful binaries and so keep the young person in mind. The therapeutic aims of the UK Gender Identity Development Service (GIDS) for children and young people are considered and examples of our work provided.

  20. Status of sex reassignment surgery for gender identity disorder in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masumori, Naoya

    2012-05-01

    An incongruence between one's physiological sex and the gender identity that is one's basic sense of self as a man or a woman is known as gender identity disorder. In general, the conditions of physiological men having female gender identity and physiological women having male gender identity are called male-to-female and female-to-male gender identity disorder, respectively. Although the precise pathogenesis of gender identity disorder remains unclear, the prevalence of gender identity disorder is quite high, with the rates calculated for male-to-female to be 1:25,000 and female-to-male to be 1:12,000 in Hokkaido, Japan. The diagnosis and treatment of gender identity disorder in Japan are based on the Diagnostic and Therapeutic Guidelines for Patients with Gender Identity Disorder, 4th edition. Although gender identity disorder was previously thought to be a psychiatric condition, it is extremely difficult to assign gender identity to physiological sex by psychiatric and psychological treatments. To adapt the figure of the body to the native gender identity, physical treatments such as administration of cross-sex steroids and sex reassignment surgery are considered. However, there are very few institutions that routinely carry out sex reassignment surgery in Japan, even though it is mandatory for changing sex on the census register at the present time. Sex reassignment surgery for male-to-female and female-to-male patients includes orchiectomy, penectomy, clitoroplasty, vaginoplasty and vulvoplasty, and hysterectomy, ovariectomy, metoidioplasty and phalloplasty, respectively. To provide accurate information about physical treatment for patients with gender identity disorder, even urologists who are not actively involved in the diagnosis and treatment of gender identity disorder should understand the fundamental aspects and contemporary problems of gender identity disorder. © 2012 The Japanese Urological Association.

  1. Career Identity and Life Satisfaction: The Mediating Role of Tolerance for Uncertainty and Positive/Negative Affect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Yunkyoung Loh; Lee, Ki-Hak; Ali, Saba Rasheed

    2017-01-01

    Identity formation is considered as a key factor in the conceptualization of life satisfaction (LS). Recent volatility in labor markets has negatively influenced college students' LS and attending to the relationship between their career identity (CI) and LS has become important for career researchers and counselors. The purpose of this study is…

  2. Dysfunctional Career Thoughts and Attitudes as Predictors of Vocational Identity among Young Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dipeolu, Abiola; Sniatecki, Jessica L.; Storlie, Cassandra A.; Hargrave, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    This study examined dysfunctional career thoughts and attitudes as predictors of vocational identity among high school students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Regression analysis results indicated that dysfunctional career thoughts and attitudes were significant predictors of vocational identity, accounting for 42% of the…

  3. Developmental trajectories and reciprocal associations between career adaptability and vocational identity : A three-wave longitudinal study with adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Negru-Subtirica, Oana; Pop, Eleonora Ioana; Crocetti, Elisabetta

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this longitudinal study was two-fold. First, we investigated patterns of stability and change in career adaptability and vocational identity in adolescents. Second, we examined reciprocal associations between career adaptability and vocational identity. In addressing both research

  4. Generational Difference in Feminist Identities? Exploring Gender Conscious Identities Among African American Men and Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine E. Harnois

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Studies of the general population have found strong generational differences in how women and men relate to feminism. But how well do these findings reflect feminism among African American men and women? The results of this study show that generational differences are very important for understanding feminism within the Black community. Also important are gender and involvement in the paid labor force. For African Americans of the baby bust generation, working in the paid labor force seems an especially important even in the development of gender-conscious identities.

  5. Will Veterans Answer Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Questions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruben, Mollie A; Blosnich, John R; Dichter, Melissa E; Luscri, Lorry; Shipherd, Jillian C

    2017-09-01

    The Veterans Health Administration does not routinely collect and document sexual orientation and gender identity (SOGI) data, despite existing health disparities among sexual and gender minority Veterans. Because of the legacy of previous Department of Defense (DoD) policies that prohibited disclosure of sexual or gender minority identities among active duty personnel, Veterans may be reluctant to respond to SOGI questions. This population-based study assesses item nonresponse to SOGI questions by Veteran status. This is a secondary analysis of data from a population-based sample of adults in 20 US states that elected to administer a SOGI module in the 2014 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey. Prevalence of SOGI refusals and responses of "don't know" were compared for Veterans and non-Veterans. Veterans (n=22,587) and non-Veterans (n=146,475) were surveyed. Nearly all Veteran respondents (≥98%) completed the SOGI questions, with 95.4% identifying as heterosexual, 1.2% as gay or lesbian, 1.2% as bisexual, and 0.59% as transgender. A significantly lower proportion of Veterans than non-Veterans refuse to answer sexual orientation (1.5% vs. 1.9%). There was no difference between Veterans and non-Veterans in responses for gender identity. Veterans are just as likely as non-Veterans to complete SOGI items in survey research. Asking Veterans about SOGI is unlikely to yield significant nonresponse. These data suggest that future research should investigate Veterans' perspectives on being asked about SOGI in research settings and as part of routine clinical care.

  6. Chi Sigma Iota Chapter Leadership and Professional Identity Development in Early Career Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luke, Melissa; Goodrich, Kristopher M.

    2010-01-01

    As the academic and professional honor society of counseling, Chi Sigma Iota (CSI) has been recognized in developing advocacy, leadership, and professional identity in student and professional members. A qualitative, grounded theory study was conducted to investigate experiences of 15 early career counselors who were CSI chapter leaders as…

  7. The relationship of gender and gender identity to treatment adherence among individuals with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajatovic, Martha; Micula-Gondek, Weronika; Tatsuoka, Curtis; Bialko, Christopher

    2011-08-01

    It has been demonstrated that 46% to 48% of individuals with bipolar disorder (BD) are at least partially nonadherent with prescribed medication. Reports of whether male gender is a predictor of treatment nonadherence in BD have been inconsistent. The construct of gender may also be a matter of cultural orientation, and psychological gender, as a component of self-perception, may affect the experience of mental illness. Gender identity is the subjective experience of one's individuality as male or female. This cross-sectional study evaluated gender and gender identity among men and women with BD as they relate to self-reported medication treatment adherence. This secondary analysis of a larger study on treatment adherence evaluated men and women with BD being treated with mood-stabilizing medications in a community mental health clinic. Gender identity and treatment adherence were evaluated using the Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI) and the Tablets Routine Questionnaire, respectively. Other measures included assessing BD symptoms using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and mania symptoms using the Young Mania Rating Scale, as well as psychosocial support with the Interpersonal Support Evaluation List and locus of control with the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale. Mean age of the 70 men and 70 women with type I BD was 43.1 years for adherent patients and 40.8 years for nonadherent patients. Women with BD had mean scores on the BSRI consistent with general population norms, whereas men with BD had scores suggesting lower levels of self-perceived masculinity than population norms. There were no differences between men and women on adherence; however, men with high BSRI masculinity scores had less adherence than other men in the sample (P = 0.04). Lower scores on the "powerful others" dimension of locus of control were associated with lower adherence. For women, there was no relationship between BSRI masculinity scores and adherence. Gender identity in

  8. Gender Differences in the Consistency of Middle School Students’ Interest in Engineering and Science Careers

    OpenAIRE

    Ing, Marsha; Aschbacher, Pamela R; Tsai, Sherry M

    2014-01-01

    This longitudinal study analyzes survey responses in seventh, eighth, and ninth grade from diverse public school students (n = 482) to explore gender differences in engineering and science career preferences. Females were far more likely to express interest in a science career (31%) than an engineering career (13%), while the reverse was true for males (58% in engineering, 39% in science). After controlling for student and school demographic characteristics, females were as consistent as male...

  9. Racial and gender identity among Black adolescent males: an intersectionality perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Leoandra Onnie; Scott, Marc A; Way, Niobe

    2015-01-01

    A considerable amount of social identity research has focused on race and racial identity, while gender identity, particularly among Black adolescents, remains underexamined. The current study used survey data from 183 Black adolescent males (13-16 years old) to investigate the development and relation between racial and gender identity centrality and private regard, and how these identities impact adjustment over time. It was found that dimensions of racial and gender identity were strongly correlated. Levels of racial centrality increased over time while gender centrality, and racial and gender private regard declined. In addition, racial and gender identity uniquely contributed to higher levels of psychological well-being and academic adjustment. These findings are discussed within the context of existing identity theories and intersectionality theory. © 2014 The Authors. Child Development © 2014 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  10. Math-Gender Stereotypes and Career Intentions: An Application of Expectancy-Value Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jingjing; Zuo, Bin; Wen, Fangfang; Yan, Lei

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to negative math-gender stereotypes undermines the intentions of female college students to engage in careers in the math field, yet the mechanisms by which such stereotypes relate to girls' career intentions remain unclear. We simultaneously tested multiple mediators in a sample of 186 female students from one high school in central…

  11. Racial/Ethnic and Gender Equity Patterns in Illinois High School Career and Technical Education Coursework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Asia Fuller; Malin, Joel; Hackmann, Donald

    2015-01-01

    This study analyzed high school Career and Technical Education (CTE) enrollments in Illinois, with comparisons to national data when possible, by career cluster and pathway and with respect to gender and racial/ethnic makeup of students. Enrollment patterns in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) CTE programming were emphasized.…

  12. On Motivated Role Selection: Gender Beliefs, Distant Goals, and Career Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Clifford D.; Diekman, Amanda B.

    2009-01-01

    Despite widespread changes in occupational opportunities, men and women continue to show divergent preferences for careers. This research invoked a motivational framework to explain sex-differentiated career interest. From a role congruity perspective (Diekman & Eagly, 2008), the internalization of gender roles leads people to endorse…

  13. Underneath It All: Gender Role Identification and Women Chemists' Career Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunert, Megan L.; Bodner, George M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes results from a study on the career choices of women earning doctorates in chemistry in the United States. Presented here are findings related to the participants' identification with traditional female gender roles and expectations for behavior in the male-dominated field of chemistry. Underlying a career decision-making model…

  14. The effects of part-time employment and gender on organizational career growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Osch, Y.M.J.; Schaveling, Jaap

    2018-01-01

    The literature on part-time employment suggests that this type of employment hampers career advancement especially for women. Conversely, role congruity theory suggests that part-time employment hampers career advancement for men. In view of the often confounded nature of gender and job status in

  15. Career Development: Issues of Gender, Race, and Class. Information Series No. 371.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stitt-Gohdes, Wanda L.

    The premise of this paper is that, although career choice implies options, issues of gender, race, and class may constrain the occupational choices an individual makes. Dominant career development theories are being reexamined for their appropriateness to diverse groups. This paper reviews the following theories: Ginzberg, Ginsburg, Axelrad, and…

  16. The Interactive Effects of Gender and Mentoring on Career Attainment: Making the Case for Female Lawyers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaswami, Aarti; Dreher, George F.; Bretz, Robert; Wiethoff, Carolyn

    2010-01-01

    The moderating effects of biological gender on the relationships between mentoring and career attainment were explored among legal professionals. Research results indicated that male and female lawyers were equally likely to have senior male mentors. However, senior male mentors were associated with higher career attainment only for female…

  17. The Gender-Differential Impact of Work Values on Prospects in Research Careers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hüttges, Annett; Fay, Doris

    2015-01-01

    Women are strongly underrepresented at top positions in research, with some research suggesting the postdoctoral career stage is a critical stage for female researchers. Drawing on role congruity theory and social cognitive career theory, we tested the gender-differential impact of work values (extrinsic rewards-oriented work values and work-life…

  18. Management challenges in a case of gender identity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anubhav Rathi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gender identity disorder (GID is a complex disorder and can be defined as a group of disorders whose common feature is a strong and persistent preference for living as a person of the other sex. It is associated with significant impairment in social, occupational, interpersonal, and other areas of functioning. We describe the case of an adolescent, biologically male who was brought to our outpatient department primarily with symptoms of adjustment disorder with GID and the management provided. The role of a psychiatrist in the management, ethical and legal issues involved is also discussed.

  19. The DSM diagnostic criteria for gender identity disorder in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucker, Kenneth J

    2010-04-01

    In this article, I review the diagnostic criteria for Gender Identity Disorder (GID) in children as they were formulated in the DSM-III, DSM-III-R, and DSM-IV. The article focuses on the cumulative evidence for diagnostic reliability and validity. It does not address the broader conceptual discussion regarding GID as "disorder," as this issue is addressed in a companion article by Meyer-Bahlburg (2009). This article addresses criticisms of the GID criteria for children which, in my view, can be addressed by extant empirical data. Based in part on reanalysis of data, I conclude that the persistent desire to be of the other gender should, in contrast to DSM-IV, be a necessary symptom for the diagnosis. If anything, this would result in a tightening of the diagnostic criteria and may result in a better separation of children with GID from children who display marked gender variance, but without the desire to be of the other gender.

  20. Gender stereotypes among women engineering and technology students in the UK: lessons from career choice narratives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Abigail; Dainty, Andrew; Bagilhole, Barbara

    2012-12-01

    In the UK, women remain under-represented in engineering and technology (E&T). Research has, therefore, investigated barriers and solutions to women's recruitment, retention and progression. Recruitment into the sector may be supported by exploring the career decisions of women and men who have chosen to study E&T. Triangulating quantitative and qualitative data from E&T students at a UK university, this paper examines the gendered nature of career choice narratives. It finds that women often maintain contradictory views; upholding gendered stereotypes about women's suitability for the so-called masculine work, yet also subscribing to ideals that the sector is accessible to all who wish to work in it. This is explained using an individualist framework in which women construct an autonomous sense of self, yet are also shaped by a gendered self. Women's discourse around career choice, therefore, reveals the problematic nature of gender norms for achieving gender equity in E&T.

  1. Influences of gender identity on children's maltreatment of gender-nonconforming peers: a person × target analysis of aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauletti, Rachel E; Cooper, Patrick J; Perry, David G

    2014-05-01

    We investigated whether gender identity influences preadolescents' tendency to single out gender-atypical peers for abuse. Data were gathered from 195 boys and girls (M age = 10.1 years) in the fall and spring of a school year. Children self-reported multiple dimensions of gender identity (intergroup bias, felt pressure for gender differentiation, felt gender typicality, gender contentedness); peers assessed each other's social behavior (gender nonconformity, aggression toward each classmate). Using multilevel modeling, we examined how children's attacks on gender-nonconforming peers (relative to their attacks on other peers) changed over the school year depending on their gender identity. There was modest support for the hypothesis that overconfident, arrogant gender identity promotes abuse of gender-atypical peers but considerable support for the hypothesis that insecure, self-questioning gender identity fosters this tendency. Implications for issues central to contemporary personality theory (e.g., Person × Situation interaction) are discussed. New and somewhat surprising information about the cognitive and behavioral characteristics of gender-nonconforming preadolescents is provided.

  2. [Characteristics of children and adolescents with gender dysphoria referred to the Hamburg Gender Identity Clinic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Inga; Gjergji-Lama, Voltisa; Romer, Georg; Möller, Birgit

    2014-01-01

    Given the increasing demand for counselling in gender dysphoria in childhood in Germany, there is a definite need for empirical data on characteristics and developmental trajectories of this clinical group. This study aimed to provide a first overview by assessing demographic characteristics and developmental trajectories of a group of gender variant boys and girls referred to the specialised Gender Identity Clinic in Hamburg. Data were extracted from medical charts, transcribed and analysed using qualitative content analysis methods. Categories were set up by inductive-deductive reasoning based on the patients' parents' and clinicians' information in the files. Between 2006 and 2010, 45 gender variant children and adolescents were seen by clinicians; 88.9% (n = 40) of these were diagnosed with gender identity disorder (ICD-10). Within this group, the referral rates for girls were higher than for boys (1:1.5). Gender dysphoric girls were on average older than the boys and a higher percentage of girls was referred to the clinic at the beginning of adolescence (> 12 years of age). At the same time, more girls reported an early onset age. More girls made statements about their (same-sex) sexual orientation during adolescence and wishes for gender confirming medical interventions. More girls than boys revealed self-mutilation in the past or present as well as suicidal thoughts and/or attempts. Results indicate that the presentation of clinically referred gender dysphoric girls differs from the characteristics boys present in Germany; especially with respect to the most salient age differences. Therefore, these two groups require different awareness and individual treatment approaches.

  3. A multiple identity approach to gender : Identification with women, identification with feminists, and their interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Breen, Jolien A.; Spears, Russell; Kuppens, Toon; de Lemus, Soledad

    2017-01-01

    Across four studies, we examine multiple identities in the context of gender and propose that women's attitudes toward gender group membership are governed by two largely orthogonal dimensions of gender identity: identification with women and identification with feminists. We argue that

  4. The Construction of Male Gender Identity through Choir Singing at a Spanish Secondary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elorriaga, Alfonso

    2011-01-01

    Several authors have recently investigated the psychological aspects that play a determinant role in choral singing during adolescence. One of these aspects is vocal identity, which influences the construction of gender identity according to adolescents' needs and societal gender roles. This article focuses on gender aspects of vocal identity…

  5. GENDER AND THE MBA: Differences in Career Trajectories, Institutional Support, and Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Sarah E; Damaske, Sarah; Sheroff, Christen

    2017-06-01

    This study asks how men's and women's careers diverge following MBA graduation from an elite university, using qualitative interview data from 74 respondents. We discover men and women follow three career pathways post-graduation: lockstep (stable employment), transitory (3 or more employers), and exit (left workforce). While similar proportions of men and women followed the lockstep pathways and launched accelerated careers, sizable gender differences emerged on the transitory pathway; men's careers soared as women's faltered on this path-the modal category for both. On the transitory path, men fared much better than women when moving to new organizations, suggesting that gender may become more salient when people have a shorter work history with a company. Our findings suggest that clear building blocks to promotions reduce gender bias and ambiguity in the promotion process, but multiple external moves hamper women, putting them at a clear disadvantage to men whose forward progress is less likely to be stalled by such moves.

  6. Social dominance orientation and gender: the moderating role of gender identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Marc Stewart; Liu, James H

    2003-06-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate the claim that gender differences in levels of social dominance orientation (SDO; Pratto, Sidanius, Stallworth, & Malle, 1994), a personality variable measuring a general predisposition towards anti-egalitarianism, are essentially invariant (Sidanius & Pratto, 1999). Previous findings have indicated that (regardless of covariate) males display higher levels of SDO than females. Two studies were conducted to test the expectation (derived from social identity theory) that the gender-SDO relationship would be moderated by strength of gender group identification. Both samples (150 non-students and 163 students) completed the full SDO(6) measure, and measures of gender group identification. Consistent with predictions, strength of gender identification was found to moderate the gender-SDO relationship, such that increasing group identification was associated with increasing SDO scores for males, and decreasing SDO for females. This result raises questions concerning the theoretical basis of social dominance theory, and whether gender group membership should be accorded a different status from other 'arbitrary-set' group memberships.

  7. The influence of gender and personality traits on the career planning of Swiss medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buddeberg-Fischer, Barbara; Klaghofer, Richard; Abel, Thomas; Buddeberg, Claus

    2003-10-11

    Since the 1990s, as many women as men have been entering and graduating from medical schools in Western countries. Up to date, prospective studies of physicians' career paths are lacking. This paper presents the data of the first assessment of a longitudinal survey of a cohort of Swiss medical school graduates, evaluated with regard to how gender and personality traits contribute to their academic achievement and further career planning. In 2001, 719 graduate students (52.9% females, 47.1% males) returned a postal questionnaire comprising sections on personality traits, career motivation, and career planning. Female graduates scored higher on traits such as helpfulness, relationship consciousness, empathy, family responsibility, and job security. Male students scored higher on traits such as independence, decisiveness, self-confidence, activity, income, and prestige. Women were further advanced in the writing of their thesis (p = 0.04), chose different topics (p extrinsic career motivation predict advanced academic achievement, whereas self-esteem and intrinsic career motivation influence the choice of speciality. The results indicate that women plan their career more purposefully than men, and that not only gender but also personality traits and career motivation play an important role in academic achievement and career planning.

  8. Gender identity rather than sexual orientation impacts on facial preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciocca, Giacomo; Limoncin, Erika; Cellerino, Alessandro; Fisher, Alessandra D; Gravina, Giovanni Luca; Carosa, Eleonora; Mollaioli, Daniele; Valenzano, Dario R; Mennucci, Andrea; Bandini, Elisa; Di Stasi, Savino M; Maggi, Mario; Lenzi, Andrea; Jannini, Emmanuele A

    2014-10-01

    Differences in facial preferences between heterosexual men and women are well documented. It is still a matter of debate, however, how variations in sexual identity/sexual orientation may modify the facial preferences. This study aims to investigate the facial preferences of male-to-female (MtF) individuals with gender dysphoria (GD) and the influence of short-term/long-term relationships on facial preference, in comparison with healthy subjects. Eighteen untreated MtF subjects, 30 heterosexual males, 64 heterosexual females, and 42 homosexual males from university students/staff, at gay events, and in Gender Clinics were shown a composite male or female face. The sexual dimorphism of these pictures was stressed or reduced in a continuous fashion through an open-source morphing program with a sequence of 21 pictures of the same face warped from a feminized to a masculinized shape. An open-source morphing program (gtkmorph) based on the X-Morph algorithm. MtF GD subjects and heterosexual females showed the same pattern of preferences: a clear preference for less dimorphic (more feminized) faces for both short- and long-term relationships. Conversely, both heterosexual and homosexual men selected significantly much more dimorphic faces, showing a preference for hyperfeminized and hypermasculinized faces, respectively. These data show that the facial preferences of MtF GD individuals mirror those of the sex congruent with their gender identity. Conversely, heterosexual males trace the facial preferences of homosexual men, indicating that changes in sexual orientation do not substantially affect preference for the most attractive faces. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  9. Does Gender Inequality Influence Interest in Pursuing a Career in Science or Mathematics Teaching?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Marie Paz E.; Avilla, Ruel A.; Espinosa, Allen A.

    2016-01-01

    The present study explored gender inequality in K to 12 basic education, based on the experiences of first year pre-service science and mathematics teachers. It also determined if pre-service teachers' pursuit of a career in science or mathematics teaching was related to gender influences. A survey instrument was used to gather data for the study.…

  10. Acculturation, Enculturation, Gender, and College Environment on Perceived Career Barriers among Latino/A College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway-Friesen, Holly

    2018-01-01

    This study examined the role culture and college environment had on the perception of ethnic and gender career barriers of 138 Latino/a college students. Specifically, background characteristics (i.e., parent education, immigration status, and sex), acculturation, enculturation, and college environment on perceived ethnic/gender barriers were…

  11. The Role of Culture and Gender in the Choice of a Career in Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malach-Pines, Ayala; Kaspi-Baruch, Oshrit

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The paper addresses the influence of culture and gender on the choice of a management career among men and women MBA students in Israel, the USA, the UK, Turkey, Cyprus, Hungary and India. The culture by gender comparison enabled an examination of five theories: two that focused on culture (Hofstede's and an application of Schneider's ASA…

  12. Gender, Career and Technical Education (CTE) Nontraditional Coursetaking, and Wage Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluhr, Stephanie A.; Choi, Namok; Herd, Ann; Woo, Hongryun; Alagaraja, Meera

    2017-01-01

    The two main objectives of this study were to examine the relationship between high school student (9th-12th) gender and nontraditional career and technical education (CTE) course taking, and the combined effects of gender and program area on estimated future wage earnings for male and female CTE completers. A Midwestern state CTE database…

  13. Do Gender-Science Stereotypes Predict Science Identification and Science Career Aspirations among Undergraduate Science Majors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cundiff, Jessica L.; Vescio, Theresa K.; Loken, Eric; Lo, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    The present research examined whether gender-science stereotypes were associated with science identification and, in turn, science career aspirations among women and men undergraduate science majors. More than 1,700 students enrolled in introductory science courses completed measures of gender-science stereotypes (implicit associations and…

  14. Comparison of Masculine and Feminine Gender Roles in Iranian Patients with Gender Identity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, Kaveh; Eftekhar, Mehrdad; Jalali Nadoushan, Amir Hossein

    2015-12-01

    Gender identity disorders (GID) are heterogeneous disorders that may be influenced by culture and social norms. The aim of this study was to determine masculine and feminine gender roles in a group of Iranian patients with GID and compare these roles with two control groups. Twelve male-to-female (MF) and 27 female-to-male (FM) individuals with GID referred to Tehran Psychiatric Institute in Tehran, I. R. Iran were evaluated by self-report inventories and were compared with two groups of healthy controls (81 men and 89 women). Diagnoses were established based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV) criteria. Data analysis was done using analysis of variance and chi-squared test. Masculine and feminine gender roles were assessed by two questionnaires: (i) Gender-Masculine (GM) and Gender-Feminine (GF) scales derived from the Minnesota Multiphasic Inventory-2 (MMPI-2); (ii) Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI). In the scales of masculinity, MF-GID individuals scored as male controls, but lower than female controls. FM-GID individuals scored similar to female controls and higher than male controls. In femininity scales, MF-GID individuals and control women seemed similar, and both scored higher than the other groups. FM-GID persons were considered less feminine than both controls in the GF scale of MMPI-2, but not in the BSRI. In both scales, FM-GID persons had higher scores than control women and MF-GID individuals. Iranian FM-GID individuals were less feminine than normal men. However, MF-GID individuals were similar to normal women or more feminine. Cultural considerations remain to be investigated. Alavi K, Eftekhar M and Jalali Nadoushan AH. Comparison of masculine and feminine gender roles in Iranian patients with gender identity disorder. Sex Med 2015;3:261-268.

  15. Teaching in higher education in nursing and identity construction: entry, career and permanence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Carla Natalina da Silva; Souza, Maria Conceição Bernardo de Mello E

    2017-06-26

    To identify and analyze the relation between biographical and relational processes in constituting the professional identity of the nursing course faculty in higher education institutions in the state of Goiás, Brazil. This study is a qualitative research, data were collected in 2014, attended by 11 teachers from four nursing courses. A semi-structured interview was used. Data analysis was guided by the thematic content analysis modality and discussions used the theoretical-philosophical framework of Dubar. Three thematic categories were identified: The entry into higher education teaching in nursing; The identity construction process of teaching in nursing and; Identity, career and permanence in the teaching profession. The constitution of the teaching professional identity required a complex negotiation between the biographic and relational aspects, highlighting the search for professional faculty development mechanisms.

  16. Demographics, behavior problems, and psychosexual characteristics of adolescents with gender identity disorder or transvestic fetishism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucker, Kenneth J; Bradley, Susan J; Owen-Anderson, Allison; Kibblewhite, Sarah J; Wood, Hayley; Singh, Devita; Choi, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    This study provided a descriptive and quantitative comparative analysis of data from an assessment protocol for adolescents referred clinically for gender identity disorder (n = 192; 105 boys, 87 girls) or transvestic fetishism (n = 137, all boys). The protocol included information on demographics, behavior problems, and psychosexual measures. Gender identity disorder and transvestic fetishism youth had high rates of general behavior problems and poor peer relations. On the psychosexual measures, gender identity disorder patients had considerably greater cross-gender behavior and gender dysphoria than did transvestic fetishism youth and other control youth. Male gender identity disorder patients classified as having a nonhomosexual sexual orientation (in relation to birth sex) reported more indicators of transvestic fetishism than did male gender identity disorder patients classified as having a homosexual sexual orientation (in relation to birth sex). The percentage of transvestic fetishism youth and male gender identity disorder patients with a nonhomosexual sexual orientation self-reported similar degrees of behaviors pertaining to transvestic fetishism. Last, male and female gender identity disorder patients with a homosexual sexual orientation had more recalled cross-gender behavior during childhood and more concurrent cross-gender behavior and gender dysphoria than did patients with a nonhomosexual sexual orientation. The authors discuss the clinical utility of their assessment protocol.

  17. Swiss residents' speciality choices – impact of gender, personality traits, career motivation and life goals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel Thomas

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The medical specialities chosen by doctors for their careers play an important part in the development of health-care services. This study aimed to investigate the influence of gender, personality traits, career motivation and life goal aspirations on the choice of medical speciality. Methods As part of a prospective cohort study of Swiss medical school graduates on career development, 522 fourth-year residents were asked in what speciality they wanted to qualify. They also assessed their career motivation and life goal aspirations. Data concerning personality traits such as sense of coherence, self-esteem, and gender role orientation were collected at the first assessment, four years earlier, in their final year of medical school. Data analyses were conducted by univariate and multivariate analyses of variance and covariance. Results In their fourth year of residency 439 (84.1% participants had made their speciality choice. Of these, 45 (8.6% subjects aspired to primary care, 126 (24.1% to internal medicine, 68 (13.0% to surgical specialities, 31 (5.9% to gynaecology & obstetrics (G&O, 40 (7.7% to anaesthesiology/intensive care, 44 (8.4% to paediatrics, 25 (4.8% to psychiatry and 60 (11.5% to other specialities. Female residents tended to choose G&O, paediatrics, and anaesthesiology, males more often surgical specialities; the other specialities did not show gender-relevant differences of frequency distribution. Gender had the strongest significant influence on speciality choice, followed by career motivation, personality traits, and life goals. Multivariate analyses of covariance indicated that career motivation and life goals mediated the influence of personality on career choice. Personality traits were no longer significant after controlling for career motivation and life goals as covariates. The effect of gender remained significant after controlling for personality traits, career motivation and life goals. Conclusion

  18. North Carolina – Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Law and Documentation of Discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Sears, Brad

    2009-01-01

    North Carolina law provides virtually no protection for public employees against job discrimination on the basis of gender identity or sexual orientation. No state-wide statute has been enacted in North Carolina to prohibit discrimination in employment on the basis of sexual orientation or gender identity. Also, little judicial or administrative action surrounding discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation or gender identity in the employment context or otherwise appears to exist.

  19. Gender identity and substance use among students in two high schools in Monterrey, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Kulis, Stephen; Marsiglia, Flavio Francisco; Lingard, Erin Chase; Nieri, Tanya; Nagoshi, Julieann

    2008-01-01

    This study explored relationships between several hypothesized dimensions of gender identity and substance use outcomes within a non-probability sample of adolescents in Monterrey, Mexico. Based on Mexican concepts of machismo and marianismo, four gender identity constructs were measured: aggressive masculinity, assertive masculinity, affective femininity and submissive femininity. The study assessed how well these gender identity measures predicted substance use behaviors, substance use inte...

  20. Research Priorities for Gender Nonconforming/Transgender Youth: Gender Identity Development and Biopsychosocial Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson-Kennedy, J; Cohen-Kettenis, P. T.; Kreukels, B.P.C; Meyer-Bahlburg, H.F.L; Garofalo, R; Meyer, W; Rosenthal, S.M.

    2016-01-01

    This review summarizes relevant research focused on prevalence and natural history of gender non-conforming / transgender youth, and outcomes of currently recommended clinical practice guidelines. This review identifies gaps in knowledge, and provides recommendations foci for future research. Recent findings Increasing numbers of gender nonconforming youth are presenting for care. Clinically useful information for predicting individual psychosexual development pathways is lacking. Transgender youth are at high risk for poor medical and psychosocial outcomes. Longitudinal data examining the impact of early social transition and medical interventions are sparse. Existing tools to understand gender identity and quantify gender dysphoria need to be reconfigured in order to study a more diverse cohort of transgender individuals. Increasingly, biomedical data are beginning to change the trajectory of scientific investigation. Summary Extensive research is needed to improve understanding of gender dysphoria, and transgender experience, particularly among youth. Recommendations include identification of predictors of persistence of gender dysphoria from childhood into adolescence, and a thorough investigation into the impact of interventions for transgender youth. Finally, examining the social environments of transgender youth is critical for the development of appropriate interventions necessary to improve the lives of transgender people. PMID:26825472

  1. Gender Identity and Gender Role in DSD Patients Raised as Females: A Preliminary Outcome Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercan, Oya; Kutlug, Seyhan; Uysal, Omer; Alikasifoglu, Mujgan; Inceoglu, Derya

    2013-01-01

    Gender identity and gender role are expected to be consistent with gender assignment for optimal DSD management outcome. To our knowledge, our study is the first to attempt evaluation of gender related outcomes in Turkish DSD patients. After receiving institutional ethical board approval and subject (or parent) informed consent, subjects with DSD raised as girls (22 patients 46 XX DSD, 11 patients 46 XY DSD) answered 566 questions of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) questionnaire including 60-item Masculinity-Femininity (MF) subscale which was the focus in this study. Controls (n: 50) were females similar to the probands in age, level of education, relationship status, and having a job or not also answered all questions. The answers were evaluated by a trained psychologist (Derya Inceoglu) on MMPI. For statistical purposes, seven findings were obtained from the data related to the MF subscale from the patients and controls. Of these seven findings (S1-S7), two were associated with masculinity (S3-S4) and another two were associated with femininity (S5-S6). In DSD patients, the percentages of masculinity findings were significantly higher when compared to controls (p gender change to male; only these two patients had the finding stating that sexual impulses could come to existence as actions (S7). In conclusion efforts to identify modifiable factors with negative impact and thus modifying them, and professional guidance may be important in minimizing the encountered gender related problems in DSD patients.

  2. Research priorities for gender nonconforming/transgender youth: gender identity development and biopsychosocial outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson-Kennedy, Johanna; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T; Kreukels, Baudewijntje P C; Meyer-Bahlburg, Heino F L; Garofalo, Robert; Meyer, Walter; Rosenthal, Stephen M

    2016-04-01

    The review summarizes relevant research focused on prevalence and natural history of gender nonconforming/transgender youth, and outcomes of currently recommended clinical practice guidelines. This review identifies gaps in knowledge, and provides recommendations foci for future research. Increasing numbers of gender nonconforming youth are presenting for care. Clinically useful information for predicting individual psychosexual development pathways is lacking. Transgender youth are at high risk for poor medical and psychosocial outcomes. Longitudinal data examining the impact of early social transition and medical interventions are sparse. Existing tools to understand gender identity and quantify gender dysphoria need to be reconfigured to study a more diverse cohort of transgender individuals. Increasingly, biomedical data are beginning to change the trajectory of scientific investigation. Extensive research is needed to improve understanding of gender dysphoria, and transgender experience, particularly among youth. Recommendations include identification of predictors of persistence of gender dysphoria from childhood into adolescence, and a thorough investigation into the impact of interventions for transgender youth. Finally, examining the social environments of transgender youth is critical for the development of appropriate interventions necessary to improve the lives of transgender people.

  3. Measuring Gender Dysphoria: A Multicenter Examination and Comparison of the Utrecht Gender Dysphoria Scale and the Gender Identity/Gender Dysphoria Questionnaire for Adolescents and Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Catharina; Cerwenka, Susanne; Nieder, Timo O; Briken, Peer; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T; De Cuypere, Griet; Haraldsen, Ira R; Kreukels, Baudewijntje P C; Richter-Appelt, Hertha

    2016-04-01

    This study examined two instruments measuring gender dysphoria within the multicenter study of the European Network for the Investigation of Gender Incongruence (ENIGI). The Utrecht Gender Dysphoria Scale (UGDS) and the Gender Identity/Gender Dysphoria Questionnaire for Adolescents and Adults (GIDYQ-AA) were examined for their definitions of gender dysphoria and their psychometric properties, and evaluated for their congruence in assessing the construct. The sample of 318 participants consisted of 178 male-to-females (MtF) and 140 female-to-males (FtM) who were recruited from the four ENIGI gender clinics. Both instruments were significantly correlated in the group of MtFs. For the FtM group, there was a trend in the same direction but smaller. Gender dysphoria was found to be defined differently in the two instruments, which led to slightly different findings regarding the subgroups. The UGDS detected a difference between the subgroups of early and late onset of gender identity disorder in the group of MtFs, whereas the GIDYQ-AA did not. For the FtM group, no significant effect of age of onset was found. Therefore, both instruments seem to capture not only similar but also different aspects of gender dysphoria. The UGDS focusses on bodily aspects, gender identity, and gender role, while the GIDYQ-AA addresses subjective, somatic, social, and sociolegal aspects. For future research, consistency in theory and definition of gender dysphoria is needed and should be in line with the DSM-5 diagnosis of gender dysphoria in adolescents and adults.

  4. Women (Do Not) Belong Here: Gender-Work Identity Conflict among Female Police Officers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldman, Jenny; Meeussen, Loes; Van Laar, Colette; Phalet, Karen

    2017-01-01

    The current paper examines antecedents and consequences of perceiving conflict between gender and work identities in male-dominated professions. In a study among 657 employees working in 85 teams in the police force, we investigated the effect of being different from team members in terms of gender on employees’ perception that their team members see their gender identity as conflicting with their work identity. As expected in the police force as a male-dominated field, the results showed that gender-dissimilarity in the team was related to perceived gender-work identity conflict for women, and not for men. In turn, perceiving gender-work identity conflict was related to lower team identification for men and women. Although lowering team identification might enable employees to cope with conflicting social identities and hence protect the self, this may also have its costs, as lower team identification predicted higher turnover intentions, more burn-out symptoms, less extra role behavior, lower job satisfaction, lower work motivation, and lower perceived performance. Additionally, for women, experiencing support from their team members and team leader showed a trend to mitigate the relationship between gender-dissimilarity and perceived gender-work identity conflict, and a positive diversity climate was marginally related to less perceived gender-work identity conflict. The results show the importance of the team context in shaping a climate of (in)compatible identities for numerically underrepresented and historically undervalued social group members in order to hinder or protect their work outcomes. PMID:28220097

  5. Women (Do Not) Belong Here: Gender-Work Identity Conflict among Female Police Officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldman, Jenny; Meeussen, Loes; Van Laar, Colette; Phalet, Karen

    2017-01-01

    The current paper examines antecedents and consequences of perceiving conflict between gender and work identities in male-dominated professions. In a study among 657 employees working in 85 teams in the police force, we investigated the effect of being different from team members in terms of gender on employees' perception that their team members see their gender identity as conflicting with their work identity. As expected in the police force as a male-dominated field, the results showed that gender-dissimilarity in the team was related to perceived gender-work identity conflict for women, and not for men. In turn, perceiving gender-work identity conflict was related to lower team identification for men and women. Although lowering team identification might enable employees to cope with conflicting social identities and hence protect the self, this may also have its costs, as lower team identification predicted higher turnover intentions, more burn-out symptoms, less extra role behavior, lower job satisfaction, lower work motivation, and lower perceived performance. Additionally, for women, experiencing support from their team members and team leader showed a trend to mitigate the relationship between gender-dissimilarity and perceived gender-work identity conflict, and a positive diversity climate was marginally related to less perceived gender-work identity conflict. The results show the importance of the team context in shaping a climate of (in)compatible identities for numerically underrepresented and historically undervalued social group members in order to hinder or protect their work outcomes.

  6. Women (Do Not Belong Here: Gender-Work Identity Conflict among Female Police Officers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Veldman

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The current paper examines antecedents and consequences of perceiving conflict between gender and work identities in male-dominated professions. In a study among 657 employees working in 85 teams in the police force, we investigated the effect of being different from team members in terms of gender on employees’ perception that their team members see their gender identity as conflicting with their work identity. As expected in the police force as a male-dominated field, the results showed that gender-dissimilarity in the team was related to perceived gender-work identity conflict for women, and not for men. In turn, perceiving gender-work identity conflict was related to lower team identification for men and women. Although lowering team identification might enable employees to cope with conflicting social identities and hence protect the self, this may also have its costs, as lower team identification predicted higher turnover intentions, more burn-out symptoms, less extra role behavior, lower job satisfaction, lower work motivation, and lower perceived performance. Additionally, for women, experiencing support from their team members and team leader showed a trend to mitigate the relationship between gender-dissimilarity and perceived gender-work identity conflict, and a positive diversity climate was marginally related to less perceived gender-work identity conflict. The results show the importance of the team context in shaping a climate of (incompatible identities for numerically underrepresented and historically undervalued social group members in order to hinder or protect their work outcomes.

  7. Career representations in high school pupils and students in relation to gender characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Sheveleva

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We describe a study of career representations in school and university students in relation to gender characteristics. The sample consisted of 36 students of XI grade and 40 students of I year of high school. We tested the hypothesis about relationship of career representations with gen-der characteristics of the subjects and their stage of professional development. The methods we used were “career anchors” by E. Schein, “Psychological gender” by S. Bem, survey “Professional career ideals" by A.M. Sheveleva. The statistical significance level of results was 0.05. It was re-vealed that, despite both school pupils and students preferred achievements, wealth and social recognition as the content of the ideal career, there are differences between the samples. Pupils are more focused on the “General managerial competence” and “Security/stability”, the students –on “Service/dedication to a cause” and “Technical/functional competence”. Regardless of sex, school pupils with an increase of masculinity have enhanced value of ”Pure challenge” orienta-tion and lowered value of the “Mode of Life” ideal career. The female students with increased femininity have higher importance of such content ideal career as “Experience Acquisition” and “Professional Path”, the value of career orientation “Autonomy/independence” is increased.

  8. Gender identity disorder. Is this a potentially fatal condition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousafzai, Abdul Wahab; Bhutto, Naila

    2007-01-01

    A person with a Gender Identity Disorder (GID) is a person who strongly identifies with the other sex. The individual may identify with the opposite sex to the point of believing that he/she is, in fact, a member of the other sex who is trapped in the wrong body. The treatment option is sex reassignment surgery. In Pakistan There is no specialized facility sex reassignment surgery. This case report deals with possible serious outcome of GID in Pakistan as a result of castration procedure which is carried out by 'gurus' in Pakistan. A systemic research in our country to this effect is required to find out the outcome of GID in Pakistan.

  9. Exploring the diversity of gender and sexual orientation identities in an online sample of transgender individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuper, Laura E; Nussbaum, Robin; Mustanski, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Although the term transgender is increasingly used to refer to those whose gender identity or expression diverges from culturally defined categories of sex and gender, less is known about the self-identities of those who fall within this category. Historically, recruitment of transgender populations has also been limited to specialized clinics and support groups. This study was conducted online, with the aim of exploring the gender identities, sexual orientation identities, and surgery and hormonal statuses of those who identify with a gender identity other than, or in addition to, that associated with their birth sex (n = 292). Genderqueer was the most commonly endorsed gender identity, and pansexual and queer were the most commonly endorsed sexual orientation identities. Participants indentified with a mean of 2.5 current gender identities, 1.4 past gender identities, and 2 past sexual orientation identities. The majority of participants either did not desire or were unsure of their desire to take hormones or undergo sexual reassignment surgery. However, birth sex and age were significant predictors of "bottom" surgery and hormone status/desire, along with several identities and orientations. This study explores explanations and implications for these patterns of identification, along with the potential distinctiveness of this sample.

  10. Schooling girls in a rural community: An examination of female science identity and science career choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Melisa Diane Creasy

    There is a gap in existence between the number of males and females entering science careers. Research has begun to focus largely on how identity impacts the selection of such careers. While much research has been done to examine the factors that impact student identity, little work has been done to examine what happens to female students who have been successful in science in a rural K-12 school once they leave high school and enter the world of academia. Thus, this study examined the following questions: (1) How do three recent female high school graduates from rural K-12 high schools narrate their identity? (2) How do the females narrate their experiences in a rural community and high school in relation to their science identity? (3) What do the participants describe as influencing their academic and career choices as they transition into the life of a college student? This study involved three female participants from a small rural community in a southeastern state. Each female has lived their entire life in the community and has attended only one K-12 school. All three females ranked in the top ten of their senior class and excelled in their science coursework. Additionally, each female elected to attend college locally and to live at home. The study utilized the qualitative methodology of interpretive biography. The researcher used a guided interview protocol with participants which served as the basis for the creation of their narrative biographies. The biographies were then analyzed for emergent themes. Sociocultural theory, identity theory, and critical feminism provided the theoretical frameworks utilized in data analysis. Findings from this study suggested that there were many differing factors influencing the science identity and career choices of the females under study. However, the most salient factor impacting their choices was their desire to remain in their hometown. Directions for future research suggestions involve exploring female students who

  11. Gender Issues: Analysis of Promotion and Career Opportunities Data

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1998-01-01

    .... For example, an Army report on sexual harassment stated that about half of the Army women surveyed thought that men have an advantage over women when it comes to having a successful military career...

  12. [Gender identity in adolescents of the lower classes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Alonso, A R

    1993-12-01

    This reflection on gender identity among lower class adolescent females begins with a discussion of concepts. The specific sociocultural context strongly influences gender identity, which depends largely on social definitions of the female or male. Adolescence is the phase of life from around ten to 18 years during which the individual assumes an adult personality and life plans. The lower class or marginal sector, by whatever term it is called, denotes the group forming the base of the socioeconomic structure. This profoundly heterogeneous group experiences restricted conditions of material and spiritual survival. High proportions are in-migrants from rural areas with little education who earn meager livelihoods in the informal sector. The symbolic configuration of their communities of origin entails a view of submission, dependence, and sacrifice as the dominant characteristics of the female role. Urban residence exposes the population to messages on the value of education, consumption, the modern woman, and family planning, values contradicting traditional female role expectations. Families are large and live in poor and crowded housing with few services. The sexual division of labor places heavy burdens on girls from an early age. Alcoholism, domestic violence, or drug addiction may affect psychoaffective development. The quality of education available to these population sectors is very low. School abandonment is common. Most who continue their studies will be frustrated by a lack of available employment. The less educated will be concentrated in poorly paid jobs in the domestic and personal services, without social security and subject to abuse and exploitation by the employer. Some 50% of the women are in union by age 18. Unmarried motherhood and frequent changes of sexual partners are common. Legal mechanisms to protect the rights of mothers and those of their children are almost completely lacking. Most of the problems suffered by this group result from

  13. Donation Behavior toward In-Groups and Out-Groups: The Role of Gender and Moral Identity

    OpenAIRE

    Karen Page Winterich; Vikas Mittal; William T. Ross Jr.

    2009-01-01

    We investigate how two important social identities--gender identity and moral identity--result in differential donations to in-groups and out-groups. Results from three studies indicate that moral identity importance tends to increase donations to out-groups (Iraq, Indonesia) and not to in-groups (London, New Orleans). However, this occurs only for consumers with a feminine gender identity. For consumers with a masculine gender identity, moral identity importance increases donations to the in...

  14. Acculturation, Enculturation, Ethnic Identity, and Conscientiousness as Predictors of Latino Boys' and Girls' Career Decision Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojeda, Lizette; Pina-Watson, Brandy; Castillo, Linda G.; Castillo, Rosalinda; Khan, Noshaba; Leigh, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the role of culture and personality on the career decision self-efficacy of 338 Latino seventh-grade public middle school students. Specifically, we examined the role of acculturation, enculturation, ethnic identity, and conscientiousness on career decision self-efficacy. Findings indicated Latina girls were more acculturated…

  15. Self-Efficacy, Perceptions of Barriers, Vocational Identity, and the Career Exploration Behavior of Latino/a High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gushue, George V.; Clarke, Christine P.; Pantzer, Karen M.; Scanlan, Kolone R. L.

    2006-01-01

    This study explored the potential relationship between the social cognitive variables of career decision making self-efficacy and perceptions of barriers and the outcome variables of vocational identity and career exploration behaviors in a sample of 128 urban Latino/a high school students. The results indicated that higher levels of career…

  16. Personality disorders in persons with gender identity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duišin, Dragana; Batinić, Borjanka; Barišić, Jasmina; Djordjevic, Miroslav L; Vujović, Svetlana; Bizic, Marta

    2014-01-01

    Investigations in the field of gender identity disorder (GID) have been mostly related to psychiatric comorbidity and severe psychiatric disorders, but have focused less on personality and personality disorders (PDs). The aim of the study was to assess the presence of PDs in persons with GID as compared to cisgendered (a cisgender person is a person who is content to remain the gender they were assigned at birth) heterosexuals, as well as to biological sex. The study sample consisted of 30 persons with GID and 30 cisgendered heterosexuals from the general population. The assessment of PDs was conducted by application of the self-administered Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II PDs (SCID-II). Persons with GID compared to cisgender heterosexuals have higher presence of PDs, particularly Paranoid PD, avoidant PDs, and comorbid PDs. In addition, MtF (transwomen are people assigned male at birth who identify as women) persons are characterized by a more severe psychopathological profile. Assessment of PDs in persons with GID is of great importance as it comprises a key part of personalized treatment plan tailoring, as well as a prognostic factor for sex-reassignment surgery (SRS) outcome.

  17. Personality Disorders in Persons with Gender Identity Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragana Duišin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Investigations in the field of gender identity disorder (GID have been mostly related to psychiatric comorbidity and severe psychiatric disorders, but have focused less on personality and personality disorders (PDs. Aims. The aim of the study was to assess the presence of PDs in persons with GID as compared to cisgendered (a cisgender person is a person who is content to remain the gender they were assigned at birth heterosexuals, as well as to biological sex. Methods. The study sample consisted of 30 persons with GID and 30 cisgendered heterosexuals from the general population. The assessment of PDs was conducted by application of the self-administered Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II PDs (SCID-II. Results. Persons with GID compared to cisgender heterosexuals have higher presence of PDs, particularly Paranoid PD, avoidant PDs, and comorbid PDs. In addition, MtF (transwomen are people assigned male at birth who identify as women persons are characterized by a more severe psychopathological profile. Conclusions. Assessment of PDs in persons with GID is of great importance as it comprises a key part of personalized treatment plan tailoring, as well as a prognostic factor for sex-reassignment surgery (SRS outcome.

  18. Parent-child relationships in gender identity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, H A; O'Shea, D; Lucey, J V

    2014-06-01

    To describe the relationship between parents with gender identity disorder (GID) and their child(ren) as described by the parent and to understand how being a parent affects transitioning from one gender to the other. Fourteen parents with GID underwent a semi-structured interview and completed the Index of Parental Attitudes (IPA). An IPA score of greater than 30 indicates parent–child relationship difficulties (range 0–100). The authors also conducted the SCID-I to establish other Axis I disorders. We assessed 12 male to female and two female to male parents with GID residing in Ireland. In total, 14 GID parents had 28 children. Three children had no relationship with their GID parent. The other 25 children, as reported by the parent, had good relationships with their children. In addition, these 25 children average score IPA score was 6.4 (range 0–25). Twelve GID parents (86 %) believed that being a parent had no effect on their desired level of transitioning, while two were influenced not to transition. Eleven GID parents (79 %) reported that being a parent had increased the time taken to commence transitioning, two have stopped transitioning altogether, while one cited no effect on time. Parents with GID report positive relationships or no relationship with their children and the IPA revealed no clinical problems. Being a parent can prolong transitioning time in people with GID and can affect overall achieved level of transitioning.

  19. Does gender affect career satisfaction and advancement in gastroenterology? Results of an AGA institute-sponsored survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerson, Lauren B; Twomey, Kay; Hecht, Gail; Lee, Linda; McQuaid, Ken; Pizarro, Theresa T; Street, Sarah; Yoshida, Cynthia; Early, Dayna

    2007-04-01

    Women comprise 19% of the American Gastroenterological Association (AGA) membership. We performed a prospective study to determine whether female gastroenterologists were less likely to achieve career advancement and satisfaction. We administered an online survey to AGA members from 2004-2006. The survey contained questions regarding effects of gender on career advancement, satisfaction with career, promotional policies, and integration of family and career. A total of 457 individuals (response rate 9% after 2 major invitations) completed the survey, including 262 (57%) women (20% in private practice, 53% in academic careers, and 27% trainees) and 195 men (23% in private practice, 58% in academic careers, and 19% trainees). The male gastroenterologists were significantly older (P careers for significantly more years (P = .002). There were no significant differences with respect to marital status, number of children, or number of hours worked between the genders. Men were more likely to achieve the rank of full professor (P = .035), and significantly more women reported that gender affected their career advancement (47% vs 9%; P careers reported less satisfaction with their careers (P = .01) and perceived more difficulty in achieving promotion and tenure. Women were more likely to choose private practice careers because of part-time options (P = .025). Equal numbers of men and women in practice reported difficulty balancing work and family life. Significantly more female than male gastroenterologists perceive that gender has affected their career advancement. Female academic gastroenterologists reported less overall career satisfaction and promotion than male academic gastroenterologists.

  20. It is complicated: gender and sexual orientation identity in LGBTQ youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosse, Jordon D; Chiodo, Lisa

    2016-12-01

    To explore the variations of sexual orientation and gender identity as well as the intersections of those identities in a sample of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, and questioning youth. Identity development is a key task of adolescence. Among the multiple identities that young people navigate are sexual orientation and gender identity. Challenges with solidifying and integrating aspects of one's identity can contribute to poor physical and mental health outcomes. Cross-sectional descriptive survey. A convenience sample was recruited via collaborations with community organisations and Internet groups who provide information and services for LGBTQ youth under the age of 25. Of the 175 respondents, one-third of the sample reported a gender identity that was not congruent with their sex assigned at birth. Those assigned female sex at birth reported noncongruent gender identities as well as fluid and nonbinary identities such as genderqueer and agender more frequently that respondents assigned male at birth. Individuals with noncongruent gender identities were more likely to identify with a sexual orientation other than lesbian, gay or bisexual than individuals with gender identities congruent with their sex assigned at birth. Adolescent sexual orientation and gender identity are complex and nuanced. Nurse scientists and clinical nurses can contribute to understanding of these identities, their meaning to the young person and the unique health implications by regularly inquiring about sexual orientation and gender identity in their practice. Nurses in clinical practice need to be aware of the sometimes complicated nature of adolescent identity and its related terminology so that they can ask relevant questions and provide culturally safe care. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. The early career, gender, and diversity actions at the LHCb Collaboration

    CERN Multimedia

    Rademacker, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    Numerous surveys of modern particle physics indicate that the discipline is still largely a male pursuit, and one in which women and other marginalised groups continue to face discriminatory practices. The fraction of female particle physicists reduces with each career stage. Early career particle physicists face precarious employment conditions with serial short term contracts, long working hours, the frequent need to relocate, and little prospect for a permanent academic position. There are indications that these employment conditions add to the gender-imbalance in the field, but clearly, this problem directly affects both male and female early career scientists. The LHCb experiment has, as the first (and so far only) LHC experiment, created a dedicated office for Early Career Gender and Diversity (ECGD) (see http://lhcb.web.cern.ch/lhcb/ECGD_Office/ECGD-intro.html ). The ECGD office’s role is to to advise the management on ECGD matters; provide a point of contact for anybody experiencing any kind discrim...

  2. The early career, gender, and diversity actions within the LHCb Collaboration (poster)

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00038235; Rademacker, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    Numerous surveys of modern particle physics indicate that the discipline is still largely a male pursuit, and one in which women and other marginalised groups continue to face discriminatory practices. The fraction of female particle physicists reduces with each career stage. Early career particle physicists face precarious employment conditions with serial short term contracts, long working hours, the frequent need to relocate, and little prospect for a permanent academic position. There are indications that these employment conditions add to the gender-imbalance in the field, but clearly, this problem directly affects both male and female early career scientists. The LHCb experiment has, as the first (and so far only) LHC experiment, created a dedicated office for Early Career Gender and Diversity (ECGD) The ECGD office’s role is to to advise the management on ECGD matters; provide a point of contact for anybody experiencing any kind discrimination, bullying or harassment; collate regular statistics and o...

  3. Attitudes toward homosexuality among young adults: connections to gender role identity, gender-typed activities, and religiosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbaugh, Evan; Lindsey, Eric W

    2015-01-01

    Individual differences in attitudes toward homosexuality have been linked to numerous personality and demographic variables. This study investigated the influence that gender role identity, involvement in gender-typed activities, and religiosity plays in this relationship. The sample included 194 undergraduate students from a Northeastern university. Analyses revealed that both males and females who held a more masculine gender role identity and individual commitment to religion scored higher on measures of homophobia and heteronormativity, whereas there was no association between spiritual meaning in life and attitudes toward homosexuality. Among males, but not females, more masculine gender identity and less spiritual meaning in life was associated with greater homophobia. The importance of the findings for research on the origins of attitudes toward individuals with a homosexual orientation are discussed, as well as the potential directions for future research on connections between gender role identity, religious affiliation, and attitudes toward gays and lesbians.

  4. What drives Researchers´ Careers? The Role of International Mobility, Gender and Family

    OpenAIRE

    FERNANDEZ-ZUBIETA Ana; MARINELLI ELISABETTA; ELENA PÉREZ SUSANA

    2013-01-01

    International mobility has become increasingly common in the research profession, partly due to strong policy support. To understand this trend, it is necessary to explore how researchers plan and envisage their career, that is, what drives their decisions. In this exploratory paper we shed light on this issue, comparing career drivers across three mobility categories. Furthermore, we take into account gender and the parental status of the researchers, as both factors remarkably influence car...

  5. Gendered Career Productivity and Success in Academia in Indonesia's Islamic Higher Education Institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Kholis, Nur

    2012-01-01

    Career advancement in Indonesian academia is nationally regulated. It, theoretically, provides equal opportunities for men and women to be productive and successful. The purpose of this study is to analyze gender effects on academic career productivity and success. Seven-hundred and fifty questionnaires were distributed randomly to eight Islamic Higher Education Institutions in seven provinces, from which 220 (Men = 57.7%, and Women = 42.3%) respondents returned the questionnaires with an ana...

  6. Identity work and illness careers of patients with medically unexplained symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossen, Camilla Blach; Buus, Niels; Stenager, Elsebeth

    2018-01-01

    often experience being met with mistrust and feel their identity threatened as a consequence of being illegitimately ill. There is a strong tendency in health care towards assessment thorough standardized so-called assessment packages. The study used a case study approach. Ethnographic fieldwork......This article reports a case study of the illness career and identity work of patients who have had medically unexplained symptoms for many years with a particular emphasis on their interactions with a specialized and standardized health care system. Patients with medically unexplained symptoms...... assessment with limited time can lead to a diagnostic limbo and that patients and health care professionals keep on searching for legitimate explanations for the patients' still unexplained symptoms. Consequently the patients were left in a constant identity negotiation....

  7. Gender differences in financial risk aversion and career choices are affected by testosterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapienza, Paola; Zingales, Luigi; Maestripieri, Dario

    2009-09-08

    Women are generally more risk averse than men. We investigated whether between- and within-gender variation in financial risk aversion was accounted for by variation in salivary concentrations of testosterone and in markers of prenatal testosterone exposure in a sample of >500 MBA students. Higher levels of circulating testosterone were associated with lower risk aversion among women, but not among men. At comparably low concentrations of salivary testosterone, however, the gender difference in risk aversion disappeared, suggesting that testosterone has nonlinear effects on risk aversion regardless of gender. A similar relationship between risk aversion and testosterone was also found using markers of prenatal testosterone exposure. Finally, both testosterone levels and risk aversion predicted career choices after graduation: Individuals high in testosterone and low in risk aversion were more likely to choose risky careers in finance. These results suggest that testosterone has both organizational and activational effects on risk-sensitive financial decisions and long-term career choices.

  8. Thoughts on the nature of identity: how disorders of sex development inform clinical research about gender identity disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiner, William G; Reiner, D Townsend

    2012-01-01

    Disorders of sex development (DSD), like gender dysphoria, are conditions with major effects on child sexuality and identity, as well as sexual orientation. Each may in some cases lead to change of gender from that assigned neonatally. These similarities-and the conditions' differences-provide a context for reviewing the articles in this issue about clinical approaches to children with gender dysphoria, in relation to assessment, intervention, and ethics.

  9. Young, southern women's perceptions of STEM careers: Examining science, technology, engineering & mathematics as a gendered construct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinton, Jessica Elizabeth

    Career interests develop over a lifetime and tend to solidify during late adolescence and early adulthood (Lent, Brown, and Hackett, 2002). The primary purpose of the present qualitative study, which is framed in Feminist Standpoint Theory (Haraway, 1988; Harding, 2007; Naples, 2007; Richardson, 2007), is to understand how eighth-grade, young women in a suburban, public, southern, middle school the South Carolina County School District (CCSD) (pseudonym) perceive their accessibility to Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) courses and careers. The secondary purpose is to understand these young women's "perceptions and unconscious beliefs about gender in science and mathematics" and how their "perceptions and unconscious beliefs about gender" in the STEM fields may impact the careers that these young women may choose in the future (American Association of University Women, 2010, 9). Within the present study, the perceptions of young women who identified as "Interested in Science," "Somewhat Interested in Science" and "Uninterested in Science" were identified. STEM courses and careers are a major emphasis in education today. Increasing the numbers of Americans who pursue STEM careers is a government priority, as these careers will strengthen the economy (AAUW 2010). The present study reveals how young women who are highly motivated, talented students perceive STEM courses and careers and how they are influenced by their experiences, gendered messages, and knowledge of STEM careers. To analyze the data, four of Saldana's (2010) dramaturgical codes were utilized including: 1. OBJectives, or motives; 2. CONflicts the participants faced; 3. TACtics to dealing with obstacles; and 4. ATTitudes toward the setting, others, and the conflict. The InVivo Codes allowed the participants stories to emerge through the set of dramaturgical codes that allowed for viewing the girls' experience sin different ways that added depth to their stories. The young women in

  10. Merely a stepping stone? Professional identity and career prospects following postgraduate mental health nurse training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrae, N; Askey-Jones, S; Laker, C

    2014-01-01

    Accelerated mental health nurse training attracts talented graduates, many with a psychology degree. Our study shows that such trainees feel incompatible with the nursing culture. Consequently, professional identification is inhibited, and on qualifying these nurses may choose to develop their careers elsewhere. Nurse educators and mentors should pay greater attention to nurturing a positive professional identity in trainees. Alongside their attainment of knowledge and skills, nursing trainees are moulded by a professional culture and inculcated to norms of beliefs and behaviour. The process of professional identification may be inhibited by accelerated nurse training and an influx of psychology graduates potentially using mental health nursing qualification as a springboard to other career opportunities. This study explored facilitators and barriers to professional identification in newly qualified nurses of accelerated postgraduate training. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 10 nurses who had recently completed a postgraduate diploma in mental health nursing at King's College London. Participants identified more with the mental health field than with the broader profession of nursing. They defined their practice in terms of values rather than skills and found difficulty in articulating a distinct role for mental health nursing. Although participants had found experience in training and as a registered practitioner rewarding, they were concerned that nursing may not fulfil their aspirations. Professional identity is likely to be a major factor in satisfaction and retention of nurses. Training and continuing professional development should promote career advancement within clinical nursing practice. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Does Parental Status Affect Career Advancement of Auditors in a Gender Egalitarian Context? Danish Evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warming-Rasmussen, Bent; Windsor, Carolyn

    attaining partner level. This research investigates whether parental role and gender affects career advancement of professional auditors employed by transnational audit firms in Denmark where institutional family policies encourage gender egalitarianism. A three-way analysis of covariance examines......, with nearly nine times more fathers at partner level than mothers. Results demonstrate that gender and parental status do matter for promotion in our sample of Danish auditors employed by the international audit firms that appear impervious to contextual gender egalitarianism. Moreover the Danish professional...

  12. "I'm Tired. You Clean and Cook." Shifting Gender Identities and Second Language Socialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Daryl

    2004-01-01

    Drawing on a multisite ethnographic study that spans educational, domestic, and workplace contexts in the United States and Laos, this article investigates the interplay between gender identity shifts and second language socialization, documenting the process by which working-class Lao women and men redefine gender identities in the United States.…

  13. Gender Identity and Adversarial Sexual Beliefs as Predictors of Attitudes toward Sexual Harassment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murrell, Audrey J.; Dietz-Uhler, Beth L.

    1993-01-01

    Examines impact of gender identity and adversarial sexual beliefs as predictors of attitudes toward sexual harassment for 52 female and 55 male college students. Adversarial beliefs and experience with sexual harassment predict less tolerant attitudes toward harassment for males, whereas strong gender group identity and experience with harassment…

  14. Challenging Normative Sexual and Gender Identity Beliefs through Romeo and Juliet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ressler, Paula

    2005-01-01

    Paula Ressler, an English teacher, suggests unconventional ways to work with William Shakespeare's "Romeo and Juliet" in the secondary school English curriculum to challenge normative sexual and gender identity beliefs. Reading queerly to explore non-normative sex and gender identities and reading for social justice have the potential to…

  15. Bridging Multidimensional Models of Ethnic-Racial and Gender Identity Among Ethnically Diverse Emerging Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Antoinette R; Leaper, Campbell

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to integrate and validate a multidimensional model of ethnic-racial identity and gender identity borrowing constructs and measures based on social identity and gender identity theories. Participants included 662 emerging adults (M age  = 19.86 years; 75 % female) who self-identified either as Asian American, Latino/a, or White European American. We assessed the following facets separately for ethnic-racial identity and gender identity: centrality, in-group affect, in-group ties, self-perceived typicality, and felt conformity pressure. Within each identity domain (gender or ethnicity/race), the five dimensions generally indicated small-to-moderate correlations with one another. Also, correlations between domains for each dimension (e.g., gender typicality and ethnic-racial typicality) were mostly moderate in magnitude. We also noted some group variations based on participants' ethnicity/race and gender in how strongly particular dimensions were associated with self-esteem. Finally, participants who scored positively on identity dimensions for both gender and ethnic-racial domains indicated higher self-esteem than those who scored high in only one domain or low in both domains. We recommend the application of multidimensional models to study social identities in multiple domains as they may relate to various outcomes during development.

  16. Race, gender, and sexual orientation in hate crime victimization: identity politics or identity risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Edward

    2006-06-01

    This study examined the impact of hate crimes upon gay and lesbian victims, reviewing 1538 hate crimes committed in Los Angeles County. Differences between sexual orientation and other hate crime categories were considered for offense severity, reportage to law enforcement, and victim impact. The type of offense varied between crimes classified for sexual orientation (n=551) and other bias-motivated crimes (n=987). Assault, sexual assault, sexual harassment, and stalking were predictive of sexual orientation hate crimes. Sexual orientation bias crimes evidenced greater severity of violence to the person and impact upon victim level of functioning. More violent forms of aggression were predictive of gay and lesbian victim's underreportage to law enforcement. For sexual orientation offenses, victim gender and race/ethnicity differences were predictive of the base rates of crime reportage as well. These findings are considered in terms of a group-risk hypothesis, encountered by multiple outgroup persons, that influences help-seeking behavior and ingroup identity.

  17. A "ton of feathers": gender discrimination in academic medical careers and how to manage it.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Phyllis L; Szalacha, Laura; Barnett, Rosalind; Caswell, Cheryl; Inui, Thomas

    2003-12-01

    To evaluate the experience of gender discrimination among a limited sample of women in academic medicine, specifically, the role of discrimination in hindering careers, coping mechanisms, and perceptions of what institutions and leaders of academic medicine can do to improve the professional workplace climate for women. In-depth, semistructured telephonic individual interviews of 18 women faculty who experienced or may have experienced discrimination in the course of their professional academic medical careers from 13 of the 24 institutions of the National Faculty Survey. A consensus taxonomy for classifying content evolved from comparisons of coding. Themes expressed by multiple faculty were studied for patterns of connection and grouped into broader categories. Forty percent of respondents ranked gender discrimination first out of 11 possible choices for hindering their career in academic medicine. Thirty-five percent ranked gender discrimination second to either "limited time for professional work" or "lack of mentoring." Respondents rated themselves as poorly prepared to deal with gender discrimination and noted effects on professional self-confidence, self-esteem, collegiality, isolation, and career satisfaction. The hierarchical structure in academe is perceived to work against women, as there are few women at the top. Women faculty who have experienced gender discrimination perceive that little can be done to directly address this issue. Institutions need to be proactive and recurrently evaluate the gender climate, as well as provide transparent information and fair scrutiny of promotion and salary decisions. According to this subset of women who perceive that they have been discriminated against based on gender, sexual bias and discrimination are subtly pervasive and powerful. Such environments may have consequences for both women faculty and academic medicine, affecting morale and dissuading younger trainees from entering academic careers. Medical schools

  18. GENDER IDENTITY AND GENDER ROLE IN DSD PATIENTS RAISED AS FEMALES:A PRELIMINARY OUTCOME STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oya eErcan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Gender identity and gender role are expected to be consistent with gender assignment for optimal DSD management outcome. To our knowledge, our study is the first to attempt evaluation of gender related outcomes in Turkish DSD patients.After receiving institutional ethical board approval and subject (or parent informed consent, subjects with DSD raised as girls (22 patients 46 XX DSD,11 patients 46XY DSD answered 566 questions of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI questionnaire including 60- item Masculinity-Femininity (MF subscale which was the focus in this study. Controls (n:50 were females similar to the probands in age, level of education, relationship status and having a job or not also answered all questions. The answers were evaluated by a trained psychologist(D.I. on MMPI .For statistical purposes, 7 findings were obtained from the data related to the MF subscale from the patients and controls. Of these 7 findings (S1-S7, two were associated with masculinity (S3-S4 and another two were associated with femininity (S5-S6In DSD patients, the percentages of masculinity findings were significantly higher when compared to controls (p< 0.001 and p< 0.001 for S3 and S4 respectively. In controls, the percentages of femininity findings were significantly higher when compared to DSD females (p< 0.001 and p< 0.001 for S5 and S6 respectively.There was no significant difference between 46XX DSD patients and 46XY DSD patients with respect to the percentage of any of the 7 findings. Two patients requested gender change to male;only these two patients had the finding stating that sexual impulses could come to existence as actions(S7.In conclusion efforts to identify modifiable factors with negative impact and thus modifying them, and professional guidance may be important in minimizing the encountered gender related problems in DSD patients

  19. GENDER IDENTITY: A Force in Igbo Traditional Musical Practices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This essay views some of such gender ascribed roles as they concern Igbo traditional .... weaning songs and lullabies are purely women's business due to the type of bond ... Sadiq, M. “Socialization and Gender Stereotyping”. Gender Issues.

  20. Psychiatric comorbidity of gender identity disorders: a survey among Dutch psychiatrists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    à Campo, Joost; Nijman, Henk; Merckelbach, H; Evers, Catharine

    2003-07-01

    In the Netherlands, it is considered good medical practice to offer patients with gender identity disorder the option to undergo hormonal and surgical sex reassignment therapy. A liberalization of treatment guidelines now allows for such treatment to be started at puberty or prepuberty. The question arises as to what extent gender identity disorder can be reliably distinguished from a cross-gender identification that is secondary to other psychiatric disorders. The authors sent survey questionnaires to 382 board-certified Dutch psychiatrists regarding their experiences with diagnosing and treating patients with gender identity disorder. One hundred eighty-six psychiatrists responded to the survey. These respondents reported on 584 patients with cross-gender identification. In 225 patients (39%), gender identity disorder was regarded as the primary diagnosis. For the remaining 359 patients (61%), cross-gender identification was comorbid with other psychiatric disorders. In 270 (75%) of these 359 patients, cross-gender identification was interpreted as an epiphenomenon of other psychiatric illnesses, notably personality, mood, dissociative, and psychotic disorders. These data suggest that there is little consensus, at least among Dutch psychiatrists, about diagnostic features of gender identity disorder or about the minimum age at which sex reassignment therapy is a safe option. Therapy options proposed to patients with gender identity disorder appear to depend on personal preferences of psychiatrists. These results underline the need for more specific diagnostic rules in this area.

  1. The birth of modern criminology and gendered constructions of homosexual criminal identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Jordan Blair

    2015-01-01

    There is a dearth of engagement with LGBTQ populations, and sexual orientation and gender identity more broadly, in the field of criminology. This article analyzes the treatment of sexual orientation and gender identity at the birth of the discipline around the 1870 s. Through an analysis of Cesare Lombroso's writings, the article argues that a multifaceted stigma of deviance attached to homosexuality and gender nonconformity in early criminological theory. The article explains this multifaceted stigma in terms of broader political, social, cultural, and legal developments before and during the late nineteenth century that shaped modern Western conceptions of sexual orientation and gender identity.

  2. The Influence of Peers During Adolescence: Does Homophobic Name Calling by Peers Change Gender Identity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLay, Dawn; Lynn Martin, Carol; Cook, Rachel E; Hanish, Laura D

    2018-03-01

    Adolescents actively evaluate their identities during adolescence, and one of the most salient and central identities for youth concerns their gender identity. Experiences with peers may inform gender identity. Unfortunately, many youth experience homophobic name calling, a form of peer victimization, and it is unknown whether youth internalize these peer messages and how these messages might influence gender identity. The goal of the present study was to assess the role of homophobic name calling on changes over the course of an academic year in adolescents' gender identity. Specifically, this study extends the literature using a new conceptualization and measure of gender identity that involves assessing how similar adolescents feel to both their own- and other-gender peers and, by employing longitudinal social network analyses, provides a rigorous analytic assessment of the impact of homophobic name calling on changes in these two dimensions of gender identity. Symbolic interaction perspectives-the "looking glass self"-suggest that peer feedback is incorporated into the self-concept. The current study tests this hypothesis by determining if adolescents respond to homophobic name calling by revising their self-view, specifically, how the self is viewed in relation to both gender groups. Participants were 299 6th grade students (53% female). Participants reported peer relationships, experiences of homophobic name calling, and gender identity (i.e., similarity to own- and other-gender peers). Longitudinal social network analyses revealed that homophobic name calling early in the school year predicted changes in gender identity over time. The results support the "looking glass self" hypothesis: experiencing homophobic name calling predicted identifying significantly less with own-gender peers and marginally more with other-gender peers over the course of an academic year. The effects held after controlling for participant characteristics (e.g., gender), social

  3. Engagement with a Teaching Career--How a Group of Finnish University Teachers Experience Teacher Identity and Professional Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korhonen, Vesa; Törmä, Sirpa

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this qualitative study was to identify teachers' ways of experiencing their identity and development challenges as teachers in the social and professional context of university. Identity and development as a teacher were examined based on interviews and drawings of career paths collected from a group of university teachers representing…

  4. 'THEY LIGHT THE CHRISTMAS TREE IN OUR TOWN': Reflections on Identity, Gender, and Adolescent Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kathleen E

    2009-12-01

    Sport occupies a prominent space in the public lives and private identities of US adolescents. Using the retrospective reflections of college students, this analysis explores two questions about sport-related identities during high school: Are 'athletes' and 'jocks' distinctly separate identities? Are these identities explicitly gendered? In four gender-segregated focus groups conducted in early 2005, 32 student-athletes from two upstate New York colleges discussed their high school experiences of sport, status, gender, and identity. Three primary themes developed with regard to differences between the 'jock' and 'athlete' archetypes: academic focus, teamwork, and cockiness/aggression. Examining the intersection of gender, high-status/high-profile sport, and identity in both popular cultural imagery and the personal experiences of the focus group discussants provided support for the thesis of a 'toxic jock' phenomenon.

  5. Features of the differential diagnosis of persons with gender identity disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z.D. Novikova

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We presented a study of the features of gender identity in people undergoing gender, psychological and psychiatric examination to address the issue of gender reassignment. We analyze the specifics of gender identity, levels of masculinity and femininity, the similarities and differentiation within four nosological groups, which include persons with gender identity disorders (GID with transsexualism, personality disorders, diseases of the schizophrenia spectrum, and with organic mental disorders. We address the question of the differential diagnosis in the process of psychological screening of people with transsexualism and other types of GID. The analytical description of the four algorithms and their comparison are psychologically specific, qualitative research, almost impossible using statistical method of data processing. The data presented may be useful to specialists involved in the study of persons with gender identity disorders

  6. Gender Roles in Transition: Career and Family Expectations of Accounting Students

    OpenAIRE

    Rebekah J. Maupin

    1993-01-01

    Quantitative data from a study of gender differentiation among accounting students are analyzed to discover if male and female accounting students have different attitudes, orientations, and expectations for career and family. Although some changes toward a more gender-equal population are found, the study results also indicate several potential conflicts which accounting students will have to face as they attempt to combine work and family roles. Both male and female accounting students have...

  7. A Multiple Identity Approach to Gender: Identification with Women, Identification with Feminists, and Their Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    van Breen, Jolien A.; Spears, Russell; Kuppens, Toon; de Lemus, Soledad

    2017-01-01

    Across four studies, we examine multiple identities in the context of gender and propose that women's attitudes toward gender group membership are governed by two largely orthogonal dimensions of gender identity: identification with women and identification with feminists. We argue that identification with women reflects attitudes toward the content society gives to group membership: what does it mean to be a woman in terms of group characteristics, interests and values? Identification with f...

  8. A Qualitative Exploration of Gender Identity in Young People who identify as Neither Male nor Female

    OpenAIRE

    Boddington, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    The dominant approach to categorising gender in western cultures, follows a binary\\ud system, where the gender of an individual must be either male or female. However,\\ud some individuals feel that their gender identity is neither male nor female, and may\\ud define themselves as non-binary. Non-binary gender has predominantly been\\ud encompassed within wider transgender research and, therefore, little is known about\\ud how young people who identify as non-binary describe their gender identity...

  9. Children's Gender Identity Development: The Dynamic Negotiation Process between Conformity and Authenticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkman, Britney G; Rabenstein, Kelly L.; Rosén, Lee A.; Zimmerman, Toni S.

    2014-01-01

    In the current study, 45 girls and 41 boys participated in focus groups following a program designed to teach them about social justice. The children articulated the discrepancy between their own gender identity and gender role stereotypes and discussed potential problems with conforming to gender role expectations as well as consequences of…

  10. Gender identity, gender assignment and reassignment in individuals with disorders of sex development: a major of dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, A D; Ristori, J; Fanni, E; Castellini, G; Forti, G; Maggi, M

    2016-11-01

    Disorders of Sex Development (DSD) are a wide range of congenital conditions characterized by an incongruence of components involved in sexual differentiation, including gender psychosexual development. The management of such disorders is complex, and one of the most crucial decision is represented by gender assignment. In fact, the primary goal in DSD is to have a gender assignment consistent with the underlying gender identity in order to prevent the distress related to a forthcoming Gender Dysphoria. Historically, gender assignment was based essentially on surgical outcomes, assuming the neutrality of gender identity at birth. This policy has been challenged in the past decade refocusing on the importance of prenatal and postnatal hormonal and genetic influences on psychosexual development. (1) to update the main psychological and medical issues that surround DSD, in particular regarding gender identity and gender assignment; (2) to report specific clinical recommendations according to the different diagnosis. A systematic search of published evidence was performed using Medline (from 1972 to March 2016). Review of the relevant literature and recommendations was based on authors' expertise. A review of gender identity and assignment in DSD is provided as well as clinical recommendations for the management of individuals with DSD. Given the complexity of this management, DSD individuals and their families need to be supported by a specialized multidisciplinary team, which has been universally recognized as the best practice for intersexual conditions. In case of juvenile GD in DSD, the prescription of gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogues, following the World Professional Association for Transgender Health and the Endocrine Society guidelines, should be considered. It should always be taken into account that every DSD person is unique and has to be treated with individualized care. In this perspective, international registries are crucial to improve the

  11. Moving up the ladder : heterogeneity influencing academic careers through research orientation, gender, and mentors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ooms, Ward; Werker, C.; Hopp, Christian

    2018-01-01

    We look into the question whether heterogeneity stemming from research orientation, gender, or disciplinary and cultural differences with their PhD supervisors helps or hampers academics’ careers. Based on a sample of 248 academics at two leading European universities of technology, we combine

  12. The Domestic Basis of the Scientific Career: Gender Inequalities in Ecology in France and Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loison, Anne; Paye, Simon; Schermann, Agnes; Bry, Clementine; Gaillard, Jean-Michel; Pelabon, Christophe; Bråthen, Kari-Anne

    2017-01-01

    Gender-related inequalities in scientific careers are widespread, evidenced by the attrition of women along the different stages of the promotion ladder. We studied the interwoven personal and professional trajectories of researchers in ecology and compared these trajectories between France and Norway. Given their differing welfare state policies…

  13. 'You're Not Able to Breathe': Conceptualizing the Intersectionality of Early Career, Gender and Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misiaszek, Lauren Ila

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on data from nine focus groups in four countries, I argue for the need to develop a research agenda around the intersectionality of early career, gender and crisis. I first give a brief explanation of the background, methodology and limitations of the study. Second, I lay out some key conceptualizations and their own limitations and then…

  14. Gendered Investments in Career and Family: Validating a Measure of Motherhood Schemas among Undergraduate Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savela, Alexandra Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    One persistent trend characterizing many work-family arrangements is the tendency for women to invest more heavily in the family sphere compared to men and to compromise career pursuits for their children or partner. Discovering which factors perpetuate these gender-stratified investments in work and family is necessary because, along with…

  15. [Gender differences in career motivation: female doctors' ambitions benefit from family friendly work environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pas, B.R.; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.; Doorewaard, J.A.C.M.; Eisinga, R.N.; Peters, P.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine gender differences in career motivation and the effect of a family friendly work environment. DESIGN: Cross-sectional pilot investigation. METHOD: A web survey among male and female doctors (n = 107; 72 women and 35 men) in different specialties, including surgical, internal

  16. The Different Effects of Family on Objective Career Success across Gender: A Test of Alternative Explanations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchmeyer, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    Gender gaps in achieved rank and salary, common indicators of objective success, often are attributed to the different family roles and responsibilities of men and women. This study tested three explanations for the different effects of family on careers: that is, choice, performance, and signaling explanations. In a sample of American doctoral…

  17. Factors That Influence Student Pursuit of Science Careers; the Role of Gender, Ethnicity, Family and Friends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Susan; Jindal-Snape, Divya; Snape, Jonathan B.

    2011-01-01

    This study adds to a body of research reporting on pupils' choices and outcomes in relation to science. The article reports on 536 Scottish pupils' perceptions regarding reported intention to choose careers in science, with further analysis in terms of family, friends, gender and ethnicity. The pupils, aged 14-15, from 5 schools in one Scottish…

  18. On Different Tracks? Gender, Professional Strategies, and Early Career Wage Gaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Grönlund

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A longstanding notion in labor market theory is that women accommodate family responsibilities in their occupational and job choices. Utilizing a survey of newly graduated highly educated men and women in five occupations in Sweden (n≈2400, the article explores whether men and women differ in their professional strategies and if such differences produce early career wage gaps. Findings based on OLS regressions show that women express dual commitment to work and family; compared with men, they value ‘family-friendly’ work-conditions higher but do not value wages and career lower. Parenthood is not related to lower levels of career focus, but neutralizes occupational differences in family focus for women. Despite the select sample, women have lower wages than men, but the wage gap is not explained by different prioritization of family/career. The findings suggest that assumptions about gendered skill investments must be empirically scrutinized and theories further developed.

  19. A qualitative study on perceptions of surgical careers in Rwanda: A gender-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Sojung; Lin, Yihan; Kansayisa, Grace; Costas-Chavarri, Ainhoa

    2018-01-01

    Access to surgical care in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) remains deficient without an adequate workforce. There is limited understanding of the gender gap in surgical trainees in LMICs. In Rwanda, females fill only one of 20 positions available. Understanding surgeons' experiences and perceptions of surgical careers may help facilitate support for females to contribute to the global surgical workforce. We performed qualitative analysis on perceptions of surgical careers through semi-structured interviews of all female surgeons (n = 6) and corresponding male surgeons (n = 6) who are training or have trained at University of Rwanda. Transcripts were analyzed with code structure formed through an integrated approach. Question categories formed the deductive framework, while theoretical saturation was reached through inductive grounded theory. Themes were organized within two key points of the career timeline. First, for developing interest in surgery, three main themes were identified: role models, patient case encounters, and exposure to surgery. Second, for selecting and sustaining surgical careers, four main themes emerged: social expectations about roles within the family, physical and mental challenges, professional and personal support, and finances. All female surgeons emphasized gender assumptions and surgical working culture as obstacles, with a corresponding strong sense of self-confidence and internal motivation that drew them to select and maintain careers in surgery. Family, time, and physical endurance were cited as persistent challenges for female participants. Our study reveals concepts for further exploration about gendered perceptions of surgical careers. Efforts to improve support for female surgical careers as a strategy for shaping surgical work culture and professional development in Rwanda should be considered. Such strategies may be beneficial for improving the global surgical workforce.

  20. Gender Identity and Sex Role of Patients Operated on for Bladder Exstrophy-Epispadias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taskinen, Seppo; Suominen, Janne S; Mattila, Aino K

    2016-08-01

    We evaluated whether genital deformity has an impact on gender identity and sex role in patients operated on for bladder exstrophy-epispadias complex. A total of 62 adolescents and adults operated on for bladder exstrophy-epispadias complex were mailed questionnaires evaluating gender identity (Gender Identity/Gender Dysphoria Questionnaire for Adolescents and Adults) and sex role (Bem Sex Role Inventory). Of the patients 33 responded and the results were compared with 99 gender matched controls. On the gender identity questionnaire female patients had median scores similar to those of their gender matched controls (4.93 vs 4.89, p = 0.412) but in males the score was lower compared to controls (4.87 vs 4.96, p = 0.023), indicating somewhat more conflicted gender identity. However, no patient had gender dysphoria. Female sex role index was higher in female patients vs controls (5.9 vs 5.3, p = 0.003) but was comparable between male patients and controls (5.2 vs 5.0, p = 0.459). Masculine sex role indices were comparable between female patients and controls as well as between male patients and controls. Of 32 patients 17 were considered to have androgynous sex role, as were 24 of 97 controls (p = 0.004). The exact diagnosis (bladder exstrophy or epispadias) or dissatisfaction with appearance of the genitals had no impact on gender identity or on sex role indices. Male patients had lower gender identity scores compared to controls and female sex role was enhanced among female patients. Androgynous sex role was more common in patients vs controls. Gender dysphoria was not noted in any patient. Copyright © 2016 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Recalled and current gender role behavior, gender identity and sexual orientation in adults with Disorders/Differences of Sex Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callens, Nina; Van Kuyk, Maaike; van Kuppenveld, Jet H; Drop, Stenvert L S; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T; Dessens, Arianne B

    2016-11-01

    The magnitude of sex differences in human brain and behavior and the respective contributions of biology versus socialization remain a topic of ongoing study in science. The preponderance of evidence attests to the notion that sexual differentiation processes are at least partially hormonally mediated, with high levels of prenatal androgens facilitating male-typed and inhibiting female-typed behaviors. In individuals with Disorders/Differences of Sex Development (DSD), hormonal profiles or sensitivities have been altered due to genetic influences, presumably affecting gender(ed) activity interests as well as gender identity development in a minority of the affected population. While continued postnatal androgen exposure in a number of DSD syndromes has been associated with higher rates of gender dysphoria and gender change, the role of a number of mediating and moderating factors, such as initial gender assignment, syndrome severity and clinical management remains largely unclear. Limited investigations of the associations between these identified influences and gendered development outcomes impede optimization of clinical care. Participants with DSD (n=123), recruited in the context of a Dutch multi-center follow-up audit, were divided in subgroups reflecting prenatal androgen exposure, genital appearance at birth and gender of rearing. Recalled childhood play and playmate preferences, gender identity and sexual orientation were measured with questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. Data were compared to those of control male (n=46) and female participants (n=79). The findings support that (a) prenatal androgen exposure has large effects on (gendered) activity interests, but to a much lesser extent on sexual orientation and that (b) initial gender of rearing remains a better predictor of gender identity contentedness than prenatal androgen exposure, beyond syndrome severity and medical treatment influences. Nonetheless, 3.3% of individuals with DSD in our

  2. Gender identity and substance use among students in two high schools in Monterrey, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulis, Stephen; Marsiglia, Flavio Francisco; Lingard, Erin Chase; Nieri, Tanya; Nagoshi, Julieann

    2008-06-01

    This study explored relationships between several hypothesized dimensions of gender identity and substance use outcomes within a non-probability sample of adolescents in Monterrey, Mexico. Based on Mexican concepts of machismo and marianismo, four gender identity constructs were measured: aggressive masculinity, assertive masculinity, affective femininity and submissive femininity. The study assessed how well these gender identity measures predicted substance use behaviors, substance use intentions, expectancies, and normative approval, and exposure and vulnerability to substance offers. Data were drawn from questionnaires completed by 327 students from 2 Monterrey secondary schools. Multivariate ordered logistic and linear regression analyses, adjusted for school level effects, indicated that aggressive masculinity was associated with higher risk of drug use on most outcomes, while affective femininity was associated with lower risk on selected outcomes. Assertive masculinity was associated with only one of the outcomes examined and submissive femininity with none of them. Most gender identity effects persisted after controlling for biological sex, academic performance, age, and other gender identity measures. For two of the outcomes, the gender identity measures had significantly stronger effects for males than for females. The findings are interpreted in light of males' higher risk for drug use and changes in gender roles and gendered behavior that are now occurring in Mexico as in the U.S.

  3. Gender identity and substance use among students in two high schools in Monterrey, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulis, Stephen; Marsiglia, Flavio Francisco; Lingard, Erin Chase; Nieri, Tanya; Nagoshi, Julieann

    2011-01-01

    This study explored relationships between several hypothesized dimensions of gender identity and substance use outcomes within a non-probability sample of adolescents in Monterrey, Mexico. Based on Mexican concepts of machismo and marianismo, four gender identity constructs were measured: aggressive masculinity, assertive masculinity, affective femininity and submissive femininity. The study assessed how well these gender identity measures predicted substance use behaviors, substance use intentions, expectancies, and normative approval, and exposure and vulnerability to substance offers. Data were drawn from questionnaires completed by 327 students from 2 Monterrey secondary schools. Multivariate ordered logistic and linear regression analyses, adjusted for school level effects, indicated that aggressive masculinity was associated with higher risk of drug use on most outcomes, while affective femininity was associated with lower risk on selected outcomes. Assertive masculinity was associated with only one of the outcomes examined and submissive femininity with none of them. Most gender identity effects persisted after controlling for biological sex, academic performance, age, and other gender identity measures. For two of the outcomes, the gender identity measures had significantly stronger effects for males than for females. The findings are interpreted in light of males’ higher risk for drug use and changes in gender roles and gendered behavior that are now occurring in Mexico as in the U.S. PMID:18329826

  4. Enhancing masculinity by slandering homosexuals: the role of homophobic epithets in heterosexual gender identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnaghi, Andrea; Maass, Anne; Fasoli, Fabio

    2011-12-01

    The current studies investigate the effects of homophobic labels on the self-perception of heterosexual males, hypothesizing that when exposed to homophobic epithets, they are motivated to underline their masculinity and claim a distinctly heterosexual identity by taking distance from homosexuals and, to a lesser degree, from women. Heterosexual male participants were subliminally (Study 1) and supraliminally (Study 2) primed either by a homophobic epithet or by a category label, and completed the Traditional Beliefs About Gender and Gender Identity scale. Participants stressed their heterosexual identity, but not their gender distinctiveness, when exposed to homophobic epithets, compared to category labels. Study 2 demonstrated that the relation between the homophobic label and the participants' heterosexual identity was mediated by how negatively they reacted to the antigay label. Heterosexual identity was enhanced in reaction to homophobic labels but not to an equally derogatory label referring to regional identity. Results are discussed within an intergroup framework.

  5. Gender Identity, Ethnicity, Acculturation, and Drug Use: Exploring Differences among Adolescents in the Southwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulis, Stephen; Marsiglia, Flavio Francisco; Hurdle, Donna

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the findings of a survey completed by 1351 predominantly Mexican American middle school students residing in a large urban center in the U.S. Southwest. The study explores possible associations between drug use attitudes and behaviors and gender (biological sex), gender identity, ethnicity, and acculturation status. Based on the concepts of “machismo” and “marianismo” that have been used to describe Mexican populations, four dimensions of gender identity were measured: aggressive masculinity, assertive masculinity, affective femininity, and submissive femininity. In explaining a variety of indicators of drug use behaviors and anti-drug norms, gender alone had limited explanatory power, while gender identity—often regardless of gender—was a better predictor. Aggressive masculinity was generally associated with higher risk of drug use, while the other three gender identity measures had selected protective effects. However, the impact of gender identity was strongly mediated by acculturation. Less acculturated Mexican American students reported lower aggressive masculinity scores than non-Latinos. Less acculturated Mexican American girls reported both the lowest aggressive masculinity scores and the highest submissive femininity scores. More acculturated Mexican American students, along with the less acculturated Mexican American boys, did not appear to be following a polarized approach to gender identity (machismo and marianismo) as was expected. The findings suggest that some aspects of culturally prescribed gender roles can have a protective effect against drug use behaviors and attitudes, possibly for both girls and boys. PMID:21359134

  6. Gender differences in identity processes and self-esteem in middle and later adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skultety, Karyn M; Krauss Whitbourne, Susan

    2004-01-01

    Gender differences were examined in the identity processes of identity assimilation (maintaining identity despite age changes), identity accommodation (changing identity) and balance (using both processes) and in the relationship of these processes to self-esteem. We tested a community sample of 222 adults (131 females and 91 males) ranging from 40 to 84 years of age (M = 57.5, SD = 12.1). Analysis of variance yielded evidence showing greater use of identity accommodation for women. Identity accommodation was negatively associated with self-esteem for both genders, while identity assimilation was positively associated with self-esteem for women only. For both men and women, identity balance was positively related to self-esteem. Women's use of the identity processes in relation to self-esteem is discussed. Societal views on aging are suggested to impact women, such that they engage in identity accommodation while benefiting from identity assimilation. From these findings, it appears that examining the processes contributing to the maintenance of self-esteem may be a more useful approach to characterizing the aging process and gender differences than focusing on mean differences alone.

  7. Gender Identity and Adjustment: Understanding the Impact of Individual and Normative Differences in Sex Typing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lurye, Leah E.; Zosuls, Kristina M.; Ruble, Diane N.

    2009-01-01

    The relationship among gender identity, sex typing, and adjustment has attracted the attention of social and developmental psychologists for many years. However, they have explored this issue with different assumptions and different approaches. Generally the approaches differ regarding whether sex typing is considered adaptive versus maladaptive, measured as an individual or normative difference, and whether gender identity is regarded as a unidimensional or multidimensional construct. In this chapter, we consider both perspectives and suggest that the developmental timing and degree of sex typing, as well as the multidimensionality of gender identity, be considered when examining their relationship to adjustment. PMID:18521861

  8. Why "Gender" Disappeared from the Gender Gap: (Re-)Introducing Gender Identity Theory to Educational Gender Gap Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vantieghem, Wendelien; Vermeersch, Hans; Van Houtte, Mieke

    2014-01-01

    Educational gender gap research tries to explain the differential achievement of boys and girls at secondary school, which manifests in many western countries. Several explanatory frameworks are used for this purpose, such as masculinities theory. In this review article, the history of educational gender gap research in Anglo-Saxon literature and…

  9. 76 FR 4193 - Equal Access to Housing in HUD Programs-Regardless of Sexual Orientation or Gender Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-24

    ... Gender Identity; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 76, No. 15 / Monday, January 24, 2011...--Regardless of Sexual Orientation or Gender Identity AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, HUD. ACTION: Proposed... individuals and families regardless of sexual orientation or gender identity. DATES: Comment Due Date: March...

  10. Gendered career considerations consolidate from the start of medical education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alers, M.; Verdonk, P.; Bor, H.; Hamberg, K.; Lagro-Janssen, A.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To explore changes in specialty preferences and work-related topics during the theoretical phase of Dutch medical education and the role of gender. METHODS: A cohort of medical students at Radboudumc, the Netherlands, was surveyed at start (N=612, 69.1% female) and after three years

  11. Career Salience and Gender-Role Attitudes in Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartung, Paul J.; Rogers, James R.

    Work and family form a core relationship in people's lives and many individuals struggle to balance these responsibilities. To explore this balance, some of the issues surrounding attitudes toward gender equality and work-family commitment as related to medical students, are examined in this report. The research focused on patterns of commitment…

  12. WHAT DRIVES RESEARCHERS' CAREERS? THE ROLE OF INTERNATIONAL MOBILITY, GENDER AND FAMILY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Fernandez-Zubieta

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available International mobility has become increasingly common in the research profession, partly due to strong policy support. To understand this trend, it is necessary to explore how researchers plan and envisage their career, that is, what drives their decisions. In this exploratory paper we shed light on this issue, comparing career drivers across three mobility categories. Furthermore, we take into account gender and the parental status of the researchers, as both factors remarkably influence career choices. We use data from the Study on International Mobility and Researchers’ Career Development Project (SIM-ReC, launched in 2011 by the Institute of Prospective Technological Studies (IPTS in collaboration with NIFU (Norway, Logotech (Greece and the University of Athens. The dataset covers researchers working in European universities across ten countries: Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the UK. The results highlight how different mobility patterns reflect different motivations and confirm that gender and parenthood are critical in shaping career decisions

  13. WHAT DRIVES RESEARCHERS' CAREERS? THE ROLE OF INTERNATIONAL MOBILITY, GENDER AND FAMILY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Fernandez-Zubieta

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available International mobility has become increasingly common in the research profession, partly due to strong policy support. To understand this trend, it is necessary to explore how researchers plan and envisage their career, that is, what drives their decisions. In this exploratory paper we shed light on this issue, comparing career drivers across three mobility categories. Furthermore, we take into account gender and the parental status of the researchers, as both factors remarkably influence career choices. We use data from the Study on International Mobility and Researchers’ Career Development Project (SIM-ReC, launched in 2011 by the Institute of Prospective Technological Studies (IPTS in collaboration with NIFU (Norway, Logotech (Greece and the University of Athens. The dataset covers researchers working in European universities across ten countries: Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the UK. The results highlight how different mobility patterns reflect different motivations and confirm that gender and parenthood are critical in shaping career decisions.

  14. Ideologies of self, suffering, and gender nonconformity at work in a US gender identity clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Eijk, Marieke

    2014-01-01

    Health care institutions are often severely criticized for regulating the lives of individuals who deviate from socially sanctioned norms. In teaching people where they fit in the conventional scheme of things, institutions often reproduce socially dominant ideologies of normality, health, and self. Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork conducted at a university-based gender identity clinic in the United States, I demonstrate that while some institutions adopt dominant cultural frameworks, others critically assess these. To understand the intricacies of the clinic's psychotherapeutic practices, I analyze the clinicians' constructions of health and suffering. Instead of viewing transgenderism as a psychiatric condition, these clinicians approach it as a normal human condition that is marginalized by society's heteronormative values. The analysis, attentive to the interaction among social context, institutional work, and psychotherapeutic ideologies, shows that while some institutions reproduce hegemonic cultural frameworks, others, in their attempts to alleviate people's suffering, do challenge dominant social norms.

  15. Features of the formation of the bodily aspect of gender identity in men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harlanova M.M.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the peculiarities of the bodily aspect of gender identity in men. The urgency of this work due to the fact that currently in Russia to study the influence of the bodily aspect to the whole structure of gender identity is given little attention. At the present time the problem of studying the physicality involved in domestic psychologists: Arina G. A., V. V. Nikolaev, A. S. Kostov, A. N. Borojevic, B. T. Sokolov, V. Yu., Baskakov, who agree in opinion on the necessity to study the influence of the morpho-biological patterns of gender identity, her social and personal "add-on" – of sex-role stereotypes, perceptions, behavior, preferences. However, studies supporting their interaction was not performed [7]. In the paper the following definitions: "gender identity", "gender", "differential socialization", "the Adonis complex". Produced comprehensive analysis of foreign sources for a detailed understanding of the studied phenomenon; analysis of the structural components and characteristics of the formation of the bodily aspect of gender identity in men with the help of specifically chosen tutorials. Discovered the distinctive features of the formation of the bodily aspect of gender identity in men and their reflection in sex-role behavior. We assume that men who are not satisfied with the perception of his own body, prone to distorted perceptions of sex-role images. The data obtained can provide the basis and prospects for development of programs of prevention, diagnostics and correction.

  16. Gender Identities and Female Students' Learning Experiences in Studying English as Second Language at a Pakistani University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rind, Irfan Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    This paper attempts to examine how female students' roles as learners are influenced by their socially constructed gender identities and gender roles in studying English as Second Language (ESL) at a public sector university of Pakistan. The aim is to understand how female students' gender identities and gender roles affect their learning. With an…

  17. Stories of a career. Amongst gender, organizations and personal life

    OpenAIRE

    Clara Selva Olid

    2013-01-01

    In this work I offer an overview of my doctoral research, presented at the Department of Social Psychology of UAB. It presents an approach on women’s professional trajectories from middle-management positions towards high-management ones, paying special attention to the elements which are crucial in the development of their stories. This research provides a phenomenological, longitudinal and gender-based perspective, directed by the stories of the last twelve years of nine women’s professiona...

  18. Gender and management: stereotypes and attributions for a sucessful career

    OpenAIRE

    Nogueira, Conceição; Amâncio, Lígia

    1996-01-01

    The experiment reported here belongs to a larger research project, which aims at analyzing the effects of gender representation and expectations on the perception of managerial power and success. In this experiment 240 high school students of both sexes received a short description of a successful manager. The actor's sex, marital status (married/divorced) and sector of activity of the organization (electronics/health) where the manager currently worked were manipulated in this description...

  19. Biomedical Science Ph.D. Career Interest Patterns by Race/Ethnicity and Gender.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth D Gibbs

    Full Text Available Increasing biomedical workforce diversity remains a persistent challenge. Recent reports have shown that biomedical sciences (BMS graduate students become less interested in faculty careers as training progresses; however, it is unclear whether or how the career preferences of women and underrepresented minority (URM scientists change in manners distinct from their better-represented peers. We report results from a survey of 1500 recent American BMS Ph.D. graduates (including 276 URMs that examined career preferences over the course of their graduate training experiences. On average, scientists from all social backgrounds showed significantly decreased interest in faculty careers at research universities, and significantly increased interest in non-research careers at Ph.D. completion relative to entry. However, group differences emerged in overall levels of interest (at Ph.D. entry and completion, and the magnitude of change in interest in these careers. Multiple logistic regression showed that when controlling for career pathway interest at Ph.D. entry, first-author publication rate, faculty support, research self-efficacy, and graduate training experiences, differences in career pathway interest between social identity groups persisted. All groups were less likely than men from well-represented (WR racial/ethnic backgrounds to report high interest in faculty careers at research-intensive universities (URM men: OR 0.60, 95% CI: 0.36-0.98, p = 0.04; WR women: OR: 0.64, 95% CI: 0.47-0.89, p = 0.008; URM women: OR: 0.46, 95% CI: 0.30-0.71, p<0.001, and URM women were more likely than all other groups to report high interest in non-research careers (OR: 1.93, 95% CI: 1.28-2.90, p = 0.002. The persistence of disparities in the career interests of Ph.D. recipients suggests that a supply-side (or "pipeline" framing of biomedical workforce diversity challenges may limit the effectiveness of efforts to attract and retain the best and most

  20. Genetic and environmental influences on female sexual orientation, childhood gender typicality and adult gender identity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Burri

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human sexual orientation is influenced by genetic and non-shared environmental factors as are two important psychological correlates--childhood gender typicality (CGT and adult gender identity (AGI. However, researchers have been unable to resolve the genetic and non-genetic components that contribute to the covariation between these traits, particularly in women. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we performed a multivariate genetic analysis in a large sample of British female twins (N = 4,426 who completed a questionnaire assessing sexual attraction, CGT and AGI. Univariate genetic models indicated modest genetic influences on sexual attraction (25%, AGI (11% and CGT (31%. For the multivariate analyses, a common pathway model best fitted the data. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This indicated that a single latent variable influenced by a genetic component and common non-shared environmental component explained the association between the three traits but there was substantial measurement error. These findings highlight common developmental factors affecting differences in sexual orientation.

  1. Relationships of Achievement Motivation and Sex-Role Identity to College Women's Career Orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Sandra J.; Wijting, Jan P.

    1980-01-01

    Career Centeredness places a career above other life activities as a source of satisfaction whereas Career Commitment concerns the intention of steadily pursuing a career throughout life. The expectation that Career Centeredness would be more characteristic of masculine women and correlate higher with achievement motivation was generally…

  2. Children's gender identity in lesbian and heterosexual two-parent families

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, H.; Sandfort, T.G.M.

    2010-01-01

    This study compared gender identity, anticipated future heterosexual romantic involvement, and psychosocial adjustment of children in lesbian and heterosexual families; it was furthermore assessed whether associations between these aspects differed between family types. Data were obtained in the

  3. Gender identity outcomes in children with disorders/differences of sex development: Predictive factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakula, Dana M; Mullins, Alexandria J; Sharkey, Christina M; Wolfe-Christensen, Cortney; Mullins, Larry L; Wisniewski, Amy B

    2017-06-01

    Disorders/differences of sex development (DSD) comprise multiple congenital conditions in which chromosomal, gonadal, and/or anatomical sex are discordant. The prediction of future gender identity (i.e., self-identifying as male, female, or other) in children with DSD can be imprecise, and current knowledge about the development of gender identity in people with, and without DSD, is limited. However, sex of rearing is the strongest predictor of gender identity for the majority of individuals with various DSD conditions. When making decisions regarding sex of rearing biological factors (e.g., possession of a Y chromosome, degree and duration of pre- and postnatal androgen exposure, phenotypic presentation of the external genitalia, and fertility potential), social and cultural factors, as well as quality of life should be considered. Information on gender identity outcomes across a range of DSD diagnoses is presented to aid in sex of rearing assignment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Review of Amanda E. Herbert, Female Alliances: Gender, Identity, and Friendship in Early Modern Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Rehbein

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Review of Amanda E. Herbert, Female Alliances: Gender, Identity, and Friendship in Early Modern Britain. New Haven: Yale UP, 2014. xi, 256 pages: illustrations; 24 cm. ISBN 978-0-300-17740-4.

  5. The case for the World Health Organization's Commission on Social Determinants of Health to address gender identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pega, Frank; Veale, Jaimie F

    2015-03-01

    We analyzed the case of the World Health Organization's Commission on Social Determinants of Health, which did not address gender identity in their final report. We argue that gender identity is increasingly being recognized as an important social determinant of health (SDH) that results in health inequities. We identify right to health mechanisms, such as established human rights instruments, as suitable policy tools for addressing gender identity as an SDH to improve health equity. We urge the World Health Organization to add gender identity as an SDH in its conceptual framework for action on the SDHs and to develop and implement specific recommendations for addressing gender identity as an SDH.

  6. Career preferences and the work-family balance in medicine: gender differences among medical specialists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiliger, P J; Hingstman, L

    2000-05-01

    In this article career preferences of medical specialists in the Netherlands are analysed, based on a survey among the members of medical associations of five specialties. Four different career preferences were offered, each of which implied a possible variation in working hours. A questionnaire was sent to a random selected group of working specialists in general practice, internal medicine, anaesthesiology, ophthalmology and psychiatry. Logistic regressions were used to predict career preferences. Besides individual characteristics, work and home domain characteristics were taken into the analysis. Not surprisingly, the preference for career change in respect of working hours is higher among full-time MDs, especially women, than among part-time workers. In contradiction to what was expected, home domain characteristics did not predict a part-time preference for female, but for male MDs. One home domain characteristic, children's age, did predict the male part-time preference. Further gender differences were found in respect of the fit between actual and preferred working hours (A/P-fit). The majority of male MDs with a full-time preference had achieved an A/P-fit, whereas significantly less female MDs achieved their preferences. It was found that hospital-bound specialists are less positive towards part-time careers than other specialists. Furthermore, the change of working hours would imply a reduction in FTE for all specialties, if all preferences were met. Especially in hospital-bound specialisms it was not confirmed that the reduction in FTE would be low; this was found only in respect of interns. It may be concluded that individual preferences in career paths are very diverse. Personnel policy in medical specialties, especially in hospitals, will have to cope with changes in traditional vertical and age-related career paths. Flexible careers related to home domain determinants or other activities will reinforce a life cycle approach, in which the centrality

  7. Predicting Chinese human resource managers' strategic competence : roles of identity, career variety, organizational support and career adaptability.

    OpenAIRE

    Guan, Y.; Yang, W.; Zhou, X.; Tian, Z.; Eves, A.

    2016-01-01

    Based on career construction theory, the predictors of human resource managers' strategic competence in the Chinese context were examined. Results from a survey administered to Chinese HR managers (N = 220) showed that professional identification, career variety and organizational support for strategic human resource management positively predicted Chinese human resource managers' strategic competence. In addition, career adaptability served as a significant mediator for the above relations. ...

  8. Gender identity disorder and schizophrenia: neurodevelopmental disorders with common causal mechanisms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkumar, Ravi Philip

    2014-01-01

    Gender identity disorder (GID), recently renamed gender dysphoria (GD), is a rare condition characterized by an incongruity between gender identity and biological sex. Clinical evidence suggests that schizophrenia occurs in patients with GID at rates higher than in the general population and that patients with GID may have schizophrenia-like personality traits. Conversely, patients with schizophrenia may experience alterations in gender identity and gender role perception. Neurobiological research, including brain imaging and studies of finger length ratio and handedness, suggests that both these disorders are associated with altered cerebral sexual dimorphism and changes in cerebral lateralization. Various mechanisms, such as Toxoplasma infection, reduced levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), early childhood adversity, and links with autism spectrum disorders, may account for some of this overlap. The implications of this association for further research are discussed.

  9. Gender Identity Disorder and Schizophrenia: Neurodevelopmental Disorders with Common Causal Mechanisms?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Philip Rajkumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gender identity disorder (GID, recently renamed gender dysphoria (GD, is a rare condition characterized by an incongruity between gender identity and biological sex. Clinical evidence suggests that schizophrenia occurs in patients with GID at rates higher than in the general population and that patients with GID may have schizophrenia-like personality traits. Conversely, patients with schizophrenia may experience alterations in gender identity and gender role perception. Neurobiological research, including brain imaging and studies of finger length ratio and handedness, suggests that both these disorders are associated with altered cerebral sexual dimorphism and changes in cerebral lateralization. Various mechanisms, such as Toxoplasma infection, reduced levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, early childhood adversity, and links with autism spectrum disorders, may account for some of this overlap. The implications of this association for further research are discussed.

  10. Connecticut – Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Law and Documentation of Discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Sears, Brad

    2009-01-01

    A Connecticut statute bans employment discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation. No Connecticut statutes prohibit discrimination on the basis of gender identity or expression. In November 2000, the Connecticut Commission on Human Rights and Opportunities – the agency responsible for administering the anti-discrimination statutes and for processing discrimination complaints – ruled that statutes prohibiting sex discrimination also banned discrimination on the basis of gender identity. ...

  11. A corpus-based analysis of the discursive construction of gender identities via abusive language

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Harthi, Tahir; Hardie, Andrew; McEnery, Tony

    2015-01-01

    This thesis investigates the discursive construction of gender identities through the use of abusive language in YouTube comments sections. The study attempts to answer the following overarching research question: How is abusive language used in the construction of gendered identities by Arabic-speaking posters on YouTube? A corpus of more than 2 million words of YouTube comments is constructed to study discourses involving terms of abuse and abusive swearing targeted at males and females. Th...

  12. Employment Discrimination Based on Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity in Pennsylvania

    OpenAIRE

    Mallory, Christy; Hasenbush, Amira

    2013-01-01

    Pennsylvania’s 174,000 LGBT workers are vulnerable to employment discrimination absent state or federal legal protections. While 33 Pennsylvania localities provide some protections, 69 percent of the state’s workforce could suffer discrimination without recourse based on their actual or perceived sexual orientation or gender identity. Pennsylvania teachers, factory workers and law enforcement officers have all faced workplace discrimination based on their sexual orientation or gender identity...

  13. Impact of Extending Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Nondiscrimination Requirements to Federal Contractors

    OpenAIRE

    Badgett, M.V. Lee

    2012-01-01

    A federal executive order that would require contractors to prohibit discrimination based on sexual orientation and gender identity would protect up to 16.5 million more workers than are already protected by state or private anti-discrimination policies. Currently, state laws or private voluntary policies already protect 61% of federal contractor employees from sexual orientation discrimination and 41% from gender identity discrimination. Research also suggests an executive order would not di...

  14. Nation and Gender: Female Identity in Contemporary South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... kind of femininity is suggested in those works? And how are the images of women related to the question of national identity? The paper focuses on three main features of female identity which can be found in the texts: the utopian quality of femininity, the mysteriousness of women, and the relation of women and history.

  15. Perceiving and Confronting Sexism: The Causal Role of Gender Identity Salience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Katie; Dovidio, John F.

    2017-01-01

    Although many researchers have explored the relations among gender identification, discriminatory attributions, and intentions to challenge discrimination, few have examined the causal impact of gender identity salience on women’s actual responses to a sexist encounter. In the current study, we addressed this question by experimentally manipulating the salience of gender identity and assessing its impact on women’s decision to confront a sexist comment in a simulated online interaction. Female participants (N = 114) were randomly assigned to complete a short measure of either personal or collective self-esteem, which was designed to increase the salience of personal versus gender identity. They were then given the opportunity to confront a male interaction partner who expressed sexist views. Compared to those who were primed to focus on their personal identity, participants who were primed to focus on their gender identity perceived the interaction partner’s remarks as more sexist and were more likely to engage in confrontation. By highlighting the powerful role of subtle contextual cues in shaping women’s perceptions of, and responses to, sexism, our findings have important implications for the understanding of gender identity salience as an antecedent of prejudice confrontation. Online slides for instructors who want to use this article for teaching are available on PWQ’s website at http://journals.sagepub.com/page/pwq/suppl/index. PMID:29051685

  16. Gendered Negotiations: Engagements with ‘Modernity’ and Identity Change amongst Chiapeneco Youth in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie-Leigh Ruse

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I wish to examine how changes have occurred in the processes of gendered identity construction amongst Mexican youths through examining local experiences of global, and specifically Mexican, modernities. Based on fieldwork carried out amongst youths in the city of San Cristobal de las Casas, in the southern Mexican state of Chiapas, my analysis addresses how youths plan for the future in the context of economic and political marginalisation, and how this affects the way in which they pursue different forms of romantic relationships. I also address changes that have occurred in youths’ understandings, perceptions and performances of their gendered identities in the context of a highly developed local tourist industry, the advent of mass media, and new online social worlds. My study shows how gendered identity construction amongst youths here becomes context-dependent, and how it encompasses individual agency whilst at the same time being negotiated through wider structural and social limitations. I also wish to demonstrate how changing gendered identities amongst youths are constantly constructed and renegotiated by individuals seeking to accommodate notions of modernity with perceptions of the traditional, and how these individuals balance contesting notions of gendered identities within themselves. This is, therefore, a study of local and gendered identity change amongst youths in the context of localised modernities and rapid social change.

  17. Perceiving and Confronting Sexism: The Causal Role of Gender Identity Salience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Katie; Dovidio, John F

    2017-03-01

    Although many researchers have explored the relations among gender identification, discriminatory attributions, and intentions to challenge discrimination, few have examined the causal impact of gender identity salience on women's actual responses to a sexist encounter. In the current study, we addressed this question by experimentally manipulating the salience of gender identity and assessing its impact on women's decision to confront a sexist comment in a simulated online interaction. Female participants ( N = 114) were randomly assigned to complete a short measure of either personal or collective self-esteem, which was designed to increase the salience of personal versus gender identity. They were then given the opportunity to confront a male interaction partner who expressed sexist views. Compared to those who were primed to focus on their personal identity, participants who were primed to focus on their gender identity perceived the interaction partner's remarks as more sexist and were more likely to engage in confrontation. By highlighting the powerful role of subtle contextual cues in shaping women's perceptions of, and responses to, sexism, our findings have important implications for the understanding of gender identity salience as an antecedent of prejudice confrontation. Online slides for instructors who want to use this article for teaching are available on PWQ's website at http://journals.sagepub.com/page/pwq/suppl/index.

  18. GENDERED CAREER PRODUCTIVITY AND SUCCESS IN ACADEMIA IN INDONESIA’S ISLAMIC HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Kholis

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Career advancement in Indonesian academia is nationally regulated. It, theoretically, provides equal opportunities for men and women to be productive and successful. The purpose of this study is to analyze gender effects on academic career productivity and success. Seven-hundred and fifty questionnaires were distributed randomly to eight Islamic Higher Education Institutions in seven provinces, from which 220 (Men = 57.7%, and Women = 42.3% respondents returned the questionnaires with an analyzable quality. Descriptive and multivariate analyses are employed for analyzing and presenting the results. The paper argues that women in Islamic Higher Education Institutions are less productive in terms of publications, hold lower academic rank and leadership positions, and earn significantly less than men. It further argues that Islamic Higher Education Institutions should provide specific empowerment for women by, for example, providing support for their continuing education, professional development, and career opportunities.

  19. Gender career divide and women's disadvantage in depressive symptoms and physical limitations in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambois, Emmanuelle; Garrouste, Clémentine; Pailhé, Ariane

    2017-12-01

    This study investigated the relationship between women's disadvantage in mental health and physical functioning and gender differences in career backgrounds. Sexual division of labor persists and key career characteristics are overrepresented in women: low-skilled first job, downward occupational trajectory, interruptions. These interrelated characteristics are usually linked to poor health. Their overrepresentation in women may be related to the female-male health gap; however, it may not if overrepresentation transposed into substantially weaker associations with poor health outcomes. To address this question, we used the French population survey "Health and Occupational Trajectories" (2006) and focused on 45-74 year-old individuals who ever worked (n=7537). Past career characteristics were qualified by retrospective information. Logistic regressions identified past characteristics related to current depressive symptoms and physical limitations. Non-linear decomposition showed whether these characteristics contributed to the gender health gap, through their different distribution and/or association with health. The overrepresentation of unskilled first jobs, current and past inactivity and unemployment in women contributed to their excess depressive symptoms. These contributions were only slightly reduced by the weaker mental health-relatedness of current inactivity in women and increased by the stronger relatedness of low-skilled and self-employed first jobs. Overrepresentation of current inactivity, past interruptions and downward trajectories also contributed positively to women's excess physical limitations. Gender-specific career backgrounds were significantly linked to women's disadvantage in mental health and physical functioning. We need to further explore whether equalization of opportunities, especially at the early stages and in terms of career continuity, could help to reduce women's mental and physical health disadvantage.

  20. Gender career divide and women's disadvantage in depressive symptoms and physical limitations in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuelle Cambois

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the relationship between women's disadvantage in mental health and physical functioning and gender differences in career backgrounds. Sexual division of labor persists and key career characteristics are overrepresented in women: low-skilled first job, downward occupational trajectory, interruptions. These interrelated characteristics are usually linked to poor health. Their overrepresentation in women may be related to the female-male health gap; however, it may not if overrepresentation transposed into substantially weaker associations with poor health outcomes. To address this question, we used the French population survey “Health and Occupational Trajectories” (2006 and focused on 45–74 year-old individuals who ever worked (n=7537. Past career characteristics were qualified by retrospective information. Logistic regressions identified past characteristics related to current depressive symptoms and physical limitations. Non-linear decomposition showed whether these characteristics contributed to the gender health gap, through their different distribution and/or association with health. The overrepresentation of unskilled first jobs, current and past inactivity and unemployment in women contributed to their excess depressive symptoms. These contributions were only slightly reduced by the weaker mental health-relatedness of current inactivity in women and increased by the stronger relatedness of low-skilled and self-employed first jobs. Overrepresentation of current inactivity, past interruptions and downward trajectories also contributed positively to women's excess physical limitations. Gender-specific career backgrounds were significantly linked to women's disadvantage in mental health and physical functioning. We need to further explore whether equalization of opportunities, especially at the early stages and in terms of career continuity, could help to reduce women’s mental and physical health disadvantage.

  1. Career development learning in higher education: how authentic work experiences and opportunities for career exploration canincrease self-efficacy and inform career identity

    OpenAIRE

    Benton, Paula

    2015-01-01

    A recent study suggests that enhancing career development is a key motivator for students entering university (Kandiko & Mawer, 2013). This article discusses the place of career development learning within the ‘employability’ agenda. It draws upon on social learning and constructivist theories of career development in a qualitative case study exploring undergraduate students’ experiences of placements in relation to their career development learning and employability. Findings suggest signifi...

  2. Walking the tightrope: Constructing gender and professional identities in account management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gremmen, C.C.M.; Benschop, Y.W.M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper contributes to the growing stream of organization research that explores the relationship between professional identities and gender. Our central question pertains to how account managers ‘do gender’ in constructing their professional identities. While account management has been

  3. The Family as a Site for Gendered Ethnic Identity Work among Asian Indian Immigrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrotra, Meeta; Calasanti, Toni M.

    2010-01-01

    Research on immigrants often points to the family as a source of support and a location for oppression. Using in-depth interviews with 38 first-generation immigrant Indians, this study adds to this literature by exploring families as sites of identity work where first-generation immigrants manage their gendered ethnic identities. Relocation into a…

  4. Strategies representations of gender identity in the practice actionism in the post-soviet space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Shelkovina

    2014-04-01

    In addition, the article rises the issue of the construction of national identity. The certain stage of this process is closely overlap with the construction of gender identity. In the post­Soviet region, these processes have become a way of rehabilitation of mental injuries that were acquired during the Soviet period.

  5. African American Men, Gender Role Conflict, and Psychological Distress: The Role of Racial Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wester, Stephen R.; Vogel, David L.; Wei, Meifen; McLain, Rodney

    2006-01-01

    Little research exists exploring the intersection of male gender role conflict (GRC), racial identity, and psychological distress. Accordingly, using a sample of 130 self-identified African American male participants, this study explored which aspects of racial identity mediated the relationship between GRC and psychological distress. Results…

  6. Sexual Orientation, Gender Identity, and Romantic Relationships in Adolescents and Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewinter, J.; De Graaf, H.; Begeer, S.

    2017-01-01

    This study compared sexual orientation and romantic relationship experience in a large sample of adolescents and adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (n = 675) and general population peers (n = 8064). Gender identity was explored in the ASD group in relation to assigned gender at birth. Compared to general population peers, more people with…

  7. Gender Nonconformity of Identical Twins with Discordant Sexual Orientations: Evidence from Childhood Photographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Tuesday M.; Holmes, Luke; Raines, Jamie; Orbell, Sheina; Rieger, Gerulf

    2018-01-01

    Childhood gender nonconformity (femininity in males, masculinity in females) predicts a nonstraight (gay, lesbian, or bisexual) sexual orientation in adulthood. In previous work, nonstraight twins reported more childhood gender nonconformity than their genetically identical, but straight, cotwins. However, self-reports could be biased. We…

  8. The Gender Identity of Pedophiles: What Does the Outcome Data Tell Us?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardif, Monique; Van Gijseghem, Hubert

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether pedophiles have a different gender identity profile compared with non-sexual offenders. Participants were 87 male adult subjects, divided into three groups: (a) 27 pedophiles who abused male victims, (b) 30 pedophiles who abused female victims, and (c) 30 non-sexual offenders. The gender identity…

  9. Sexual orientation, gender identity, and romantic relationships in adolescents and adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dewinter, J.; De Graaf, H.; Begeer, S.

    2017-01-01

    This study compared sexual orientation and romantic relationship experience in a large sample of adolescents and adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (n = 675) and general population peers (n = 8064). Gender identity was explored in the ASD group in relation to assigned gender at birth.

  10. Canadian Early Childhood Educators' Perceptions of Young Children's Gender-Role Play and Cultural Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servos, Jennifer E.; Dewar, Brandy A.; Bosacki, Sandra L.; Coplan, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates early childhood educators' perceptions of children's gender-role play and the impact their cultural background plays in their gender identity and play behaviors. Through qualitative in-depth interviews, early childhood educators in Canada (n = 40) were asked questions relating to their experiences with children from…

  11. Self-characterizations of adult female informal caregivers: gender identity and the bearing of burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Maeona K

    2005-01-01

    Gender identity is a powerful aspect of self that shapes values, attitudes, and conduct. Family caregivers, particularly women, tend to forgo institutionalization of care recipients even when care demands are overwhelming. The reluctance of women to relinquish care raises questions about the relationship between gender identity and the bearing of burden. To illuminate the relationship between gender and burden, 36 adult women caring for highly dependent adults were asked to describe the nature of "self"; that is, how they characterized themselves as a person. Results were tabulated and critically examined in relation to stereotypical gender traits, as well as social and political processes that create gender dichotomies. Overall, self-characterizations indicated caregivers had internalized stereotypical female gender traits that support and facilitate the enduring of burden.

  12. The early career, gender, and diversity actions within the LHCb Collaboration

    CERN Document Server

    Rademacker, Jonas

    2017-01-01

    The LHCb collaboration has, as the first (and so far only) LHC collaboration, created a dedicated office for Early Career, Gender and Diversity (ECGD). The ECGD office’s role is to advise the management on ECGD matters; provide a point of contact for anybody experiencing any kind discrimination, bullying or harassment; collate regular statistics and other relevant information related to gender and, where appropriate, other ECGD matters; organise regular open meetings where ECGD matters are discussed. We report on the first two years of the LHCb ECGD office.

  13. Analysis of gender gaps in profession, career and pay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela PASNICU

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Gender issues and concerns about its incorporation into all Community and national policies enjoy attention, both on the agenda of decision makers from the European Union and the Member States. Moreover, equality between women and men is one of the fundamental principles contained in the Charter of fundamental rights and at the same time, is also one of the founding principles of the EU, because it is based on the principle of “equal pay for equal work” stipulated in the Economics Community Treaty from Rome. The results presented in this article are based on questionnaire-based survey, conducted in ProFeminAntrep project financed on ESF, at national level, which included a sample of 3,200 respondents.

  14. Gender Role, Gender Identity and Sexual Orientation in CAIS ("XY-Women") Compared With Subfertile and Infertile 46,XX Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Franziska; Fliegner, Maike; Krupp, Kerstin; Rall, Katharina; Brucker, Sara; Richter-Appelt, Hertha

    2016-01-01

    The perception of gender development of individuals with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS) as unambiguously female has recently been challenged in both qualitative data and case reports of male gender identity. The aim of the mixed-method study presented was to examine the self-perception of CAIS individuals regarding different aspects of gender and to identify commonalities and differences in comparison with subfertile and infertile XX-chromosomal women with diagnoses of Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome (MRKHS) and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The study sample comprised 11 participants with CAIS, 49 with MRKHS, and 55 with PCOS. Gender identity was assessed by means of a multidimensional instrument, which showed significant differences between the CAIS group and the XX-chromosomal women. Other-than-female gender roles and neither-female-nor-male sexes/genders were reported only by individuals with CAIS. The percentage with a not exclusively androphile sexual orientation was unexceptionally high in the CAIS group compared to the prevalence in "normative" women and the clinical groups. The findings support the assumption made by Meyer-Bahlburg ( 2010 ) that gender outcome in people with CAIS is more variable than generally stated. Parents and professionals should thus be open to courses of gender development other than typically female in individuals with CAIS.

  15. Climbing the ladder : Gender-specific career advancement in financial services and the influence of flexible work-time arrangements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noback, Inge; Broersma, Lourens; Van Dijk, Jouke

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to gain insight into the gender-specific career advancement of about 10,000 middle- and top-level managers in a Dutch financial services company. Our results indicate that women earn less, work at lower job levels, but show slightly higher career mobility than men. However,

  16. Impact of gender-based career obstacles on the working status of women physicians in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Kyoko; Gohchi, Kengo

    2012-11-01

    Research has shown that women physicians work fewer hours and are more likely to become inactive professionally and to switch to part-time labor, compared with their male counterparts. The published literature suggests that a gender disparity still exists in medicine which may decrease work motivation among women physicians. The authors investigated whether the experience and the perception of gender-based career obstacles among women physicians in Japan are associated with their working status (i.e., full-time vs. part-time). The present cross-sectional study is based on surveys of alumnae from 13 private medical schools in Japan conducted between June 2009 and May 2011. Of those who agreed to participate in this study, 1684 completed a self-administered questionnaire (overall response rate 83%). Experience of gender-based obstacles was considered affirmative if a woman physician had been overlooked for opportunities of professional advancement based on gender. Perception of gender-based obstacles referred to the self-reported degree of difficulty of promotion and opportunities for a position in higher education. Approximately 20% of the study participants responded that they experienced gender-based obstacles while 24% answered that they were not sure. The scores for perception of gender-based career obstacles were statistically higher among part-time workers compared with full-time workers (mean difference = 1.20, 95% CI: 0.39-2.00). Adjusting for age, marital status, the presence of children, workplace, board certification, holding a PhD degree, overall satisfaction of being a physician, and household income, stepwise logistic regression models revealed that physicians with the strongest perception of gender-based career obstacles were more likely to work part-time rather than full-time (OR, 0.59; 95% CI: 0.40-0.88). Although the experience of gender-based obstacles was not associated with working status among women physicians, the results demonstrated that a

  17. Einstein girls: Exploring STEM careers, interest, and identity in an online mentoring community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Jill Rice

    The purpose of this project was to create and study an online mentoring community that connected fifth and sixth grade girls and female STEM mentors. The project was designed to give girls who were interested in science the chance to communicate online with women who were successful STEM professionals. The community provided the girls a venue to ask the women questions about their careers, their interests, and their science identities. Through this venue the girls were able to explore various STEM careers, be exposed to role models, and potentially increase their interest in science for the future. Mentoring has been shown to have a positive impact on girls and help improve their attitudes toward science and interests in STEM. The project examined the nature of the online mentoring process as well as the participants' perceptions of the opportunities and constraints of the community. The girls were members of an afterschool academy and the mentoring took place through the Internet using a secure educational social networking program. The program spanned a four-week period between April and May 2013. The main purpose of this study was formative since online mentoring is a relatively new area of research. This investigation produced detailed accounts of activities between the girls and the mentors. Findings revealed that the participants approached the community uniquely and explored many aspects of career exploration, STEM interest, and science identity. The participants also identified what they perceived as the opportunities afforded by the community as well as the constraints posed by the community. The research represented by this study was practitioner research with the work connecting theory with practice. The knowledge gained through the intentional reflection on and study of the Einstein Girls online mentoring community was useful in the production of knowledge that is transformative for the researcher's professional practice and transferable to other

  18. Sexual and gender minority identity disclosure during undergraduate medical education: "in the closet" in medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansh, Matthew; White, William; Gee-Tong, Lea; Lunn, Mitchell R; Obedin-Maliver, Juno; Stewart, Leslie; Goldsmith, Elizabeth; Brenman, Stephanie; Tran, Eric; Wells, Maggie; Fetterman, David; Garcia, Gabriel

    2015-05-01

    To assess identity disclosure among sexual and gender minority (SGM) students pursuing undergraduate medical training in the United States and Canada. From 2009 to 2010, a survey was made available to all medical students enrolled in the 176 MD- and DO-granting medical schools in the United States and Canada. Respondents were asked about their sexual and gender identity, whether they were "out" (i.e., had publicly disclosed their identity), and, if they were not, their reasons for concealing their identity. The authors used a mixed-methods approach and analyzed quantitative and qualitative survey data. Of 5,812 completed responses (of 101,473 eligible respondents; response rate 5.7%), 920 (15.8%) students from 152 (of 176; 86.4%) institutions identified as SGMs. Of the 912 sexual minorities, 269 (29.5%) concealed their sexual identity in medical school. Factors associated with sexual identity concealment included sexual minority identity other than lesbian or gay, male gender, East Asian race, and medical school enrollment in the South or Central regions of North America. The most common reasons for concealing one's sexual identity were "nobody's business" (165/269; 61.3%), fear of discrimination in medical school (117/269; 43.5%), and social or cultural norms (110/269; 40.9%). Of the 35 gender minorities, 21 (60.0%) concealed their gender identity, citing fear of discrimination in medical school (9/21; 42.9%) and lack of support (9/21; 42.9%). SGM students continue to conceal their identity during undergraduate medical training. Medical institutions should adopt targeted policies and programs to better support these individuals.

  19. Not always a nerd: exploring the diversity in professional identity profiles of STEM students in relation to their career choices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Endedijk, M.D.; van Veelen, R.; Möwes, Randy

    2017-01-01

    Although there is a high demand of highly educated professionals in the technical sector, only about 50% of the graduates from a study program in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) opt for a career in the technical sector. Professional identity has been shown to influence

  20. Doctoral Students in Music Education: Occupational Identity, Career Intent and Commitment, and Confidence for Teaching in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Lisa D.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine music education doctoral students' shifting occupational identity beliefs, career intent and commitment, and overall confidence for teaching in higher education. A total of 124 music education doctoral students, enrolled at 29 institutions of higher education in the United States, completed a onetime,…

  1. Effects of gay identity, gender and explicitness of advertising imagery on gay responses to advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakenfull, Gillian

    2007-01-01

    The present research draws from literature relating to gay identity in psychology and sociology and feminist theory to consider the effect of gay identity and gender on gays' and lesbians' attitudes toward various types of advertising content that are most commonly used to target gay consumers. As such, this study empirically tests whether gay males' and lesbians' responses to gay-oriented advertising content are moderated by individual characteristics: (1) the degree to which they identify as gay, and (2) their gender, and by the explicitness and gender of the gay-oriented advertising imagery.

  2. Age and gender identity in a perpetrators of sexual violence against children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dvoryanchikov N.V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper devoted to the age and gender identity among the perpetrators of sexual violence against children and discussed the factors lead to pathogenesis of abnormal sexual behavior against children. We have identified particularities of gender and age identity in perpetrators of violent sexual acts against children. It was noted that patients with a diagnosis of pedophilia have abnormalities mostly in cognitive structure of sexual identity, that is shown in undifferentiated age peculiarities of perception of self-image and gender and role stereotypes. These data allow assessing more accurately the abnormalities of sexual sphere, explaining the deviant behavior, as well as structure of age and sex self-identity in persons with the disorder of sexual desire in the form of pedophilia and take a step closer to understanding the mechanisms of abnormal choice of sexual object.

  3. Effects of Engineering Design-Based Science on Elementary School Science Students' Engineering Identity Development across Gender and Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capobianco, Brenda M.; Yu, Ji H.; French, Brian F.

    2015-04-01

    The integration of engineering concepts and practices into elementary science education has become an emerging concern for science educators and practitioners, alike. Moreover, how children, specifically preadolescents (grades 1-5), engage in engineering design-based learning activities may help science educators and researchers learn more about children's earliest identification with engineering. The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which engineering identity differed among preadolescents across gender and grade, when exposing students to engineering design-based science learning activities. Five hundred fifty preadolescent participants completed the Engineering Identity Development Scale (EIDS), a recently developed measure with validity evidence that characterizes children's conceptions of engineering and potential career aspirations. Data analyses of variance among four factors (i.e., gender, grade, and group) indicated that elementary school students who engaged in the engineering design-based science learning activities demonstrated greater improvements on the EIDS subscales compared to those in the comparison group. Specifically, students in the lower grade levels showed substantial increases, while students in the higher grade levels showed decreases. Girls, regardless of grade level and participation in the engineering learning activities, showed higher scores in the academic subscale compared to boys. These findings suggest that the integration of engineering practices in the science classroom as early as grade one shows potential in fostering and sustaining student interest, participation, and self-concept in engineering and science.

  4. Harassment Due to Gender Nonconformity Mediates the Association Between Sexual Minority Identity and Depressive Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Storey, Alexa; August, Elana G

    2016-01-01

    The visibility of a stigmatized identity is central in determining how individuals experience that identity. Sexual minority status (e.g., identifying as gay, lesbian, or bisexual) has traditionally been identified as a concealable stigma, compared with race/ethnicity or physical disability status. This conceptualization fails to recognize, however, the strong link between sexual minority status and a visible stigma: gender nonconformity. Gender nonconformity, or the perception that an individual fails to conform to gendered norms of behavior and appearance, is strongly stigmatized, and is popularly associated with sexual minority status. The hypothesis that harassment due to gender nonconformity mediates the association between sexual minority status and depressive symptoms was tested. Heterosexual and sexual minority-identified college and university students (N = 251) completed questionnaires regarding their sexual minority identity, experiences of harassment due to gender nonconformity, harassment due to sexual minority status, and depressive symptoms. A mediational model was supported, in which the association between sexual minority identity and depressive symptoms occurred via harassment due to gender nonconformity. Findings highlight harassment due to gender nonconformity as a possible mechanism for exploring variability in depressive symptoms among sexual minorities.

  5. Intersecting Sexual, Gender, and Professional Identities among Social Work Students: The Importance of Identity Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Shelley L.; Iacono, Gio; Paceley, Megan S.; Dentato, Michael P.; Boyle, Kerrie E. H.

    2017-01-01

    Discrimination toward lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) social work students can negatively affect academic performance and personal and professional identity development. Intersectionality is a conceptual approach that states that social identities interact to form different meanings and experiences from those that could be…

  6. Relationship Between Career Aspirations and Measures of Motivation Toward Biology and Physics, and the Influence of Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koul, Ravinder; Lerdpornkulrat, Thanita; Chantara, Soontornpathai

    2011-12-01

    A student's motivational orientation is considered to be a predictor of a range of related education decisions, from attending classes to choosing a particular course or a profession. This survey study conducted with student volunteers (males = 519; females = 904) enrolled in secondary school science-math academic stream in Thailand investigated the relationship between measures of motivation (achievement goal orientation and physics and biology classroom anxiety) and aspirations for high earning science and math related careers. Results of multiple discriminant analyses showed gender differences in the motivational factors that influence career aspirations. Our interpretation of the findings highlights the significance of cultural beliefs about gender in decision making for careers.

  7. Perceptions on gender awareness and considerations in career choices of medical students in a medical school in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Yueh-Chin; Lin, Ching-Yi; Huang, Chien-Ning; Yang, Jen-Hung

    2013-11-01

    The trend of medical career choice in the younger generation has resulted in deficiency of manpower in the four major disciplines of internal medicine, surgery, obstetrics/gynecology, and pediatrics, which will threaten people's health care in Taiwan. However, perceptions of gender awareness and factors affecting the career choices of medical students have not been investigated systemically in Taiwan. To explore the perceptions on gender awareness and considerations in career choices, we recruited 280 1(st)- and 7(th)-year male and female medical students at a Medical University for the study. A modified Nijmegen questionnaire using a 5-point Likert scale containing medical curricula (18 items), gender awareness (13 items), and career inclination (9 items) was adopted as the investigation tool in our study. The response rate was 75% (224/280). With regard to gender, the 1(st)-year male students had greater confidence in being a physician than the female students (p gender was more prominent in the 7(th)-year than in the 1(st)-year students (p gender and "female physicians are more empathetic and provide more communications than male physicians". Factors influencing career choices of medical students, including "personal interests/talents" and "academic achievement of the specialty," were not significantly different by gender. Factors included "training and learning environments of the specialty", "risk of lawsuit", and "economic incentive" were more appreciated by the senior than the junior students (p gender or seniority. The 7(th)-year students had experiences in clinical medicine and had different considerations in career choice in comparison to the 1(st)-year students, and gender played a role in senior students. In addition, the senior rather than the junior students regarded "training and learning environments", "risk of lawsuit", and "economic incentive" as more important factors affecting the career choices, and male students paid more attention to these

  8. Factor Structure of a Multidimensional Gender Identity Scale in a Sample of Chinese Elementary School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Yu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the factor structure of a scale based on the four-dimensional gender identity model (Egan and Perry, 2001 in 726 Chinese elementary school students. Exploratory factor analyses suggested a three-factor model, two of which corresponded to “Felt Pressure” and “Intergroup Bias” in the original model. The third factor “Gender Compatibility” appeared to be a combination of “Gender Typicality” and “Gender Contentment” in the original model. Follow-up confirmatory factor analysis (CFA indicated that, relative to the initial four-factor structure, the three-factor model fits the current Chinese sample better. These results are discussed in light of cross-cultural similarities and differences in development of gender identity.

  9. Sexual orientation and gender identity: review of concepts, controversies and their relation to psychopathology classification systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moleiro, Carla; Pinto, Nuno

    2015-01-01

    Numerous controversies and debates have taken place throughout the history of psychopathology (and its main classification systems) with regards to sexual orientation and gender identity. These are still reflected on present reformulations of gender dysphoria in both the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual and the International Classification of Diseases, and in more or less subtle micro-aggressions experienced by lesbian, gay, bisexual and trans patients in mental health care. The present paper critically reviews this history and current controversies. It reveals that this deeply complex field contributes (i) to the reflection on the very concept of mental illness; (ii) to the focus on subjective distress and person-centered experience of psychopathology; and (iii) to the recognition of stigma and discrimination as significant intervening variables. Finally, it argues that sexual orientation and gender identity have been viewed, in the history of the field of psychopathology, between two poles: gender transgression and gender variance/fluidity.

  10. Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity: Review of concepts, controversies and their relation to psychopathology classification systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla eMoleiro

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Numerous controversies and debates have taken place throughout the history of psychopathology (and its main classification systems with regards to sexual orientation and gender identity. These are still reflected on present reformulations of gender dysphoria in both DSM and ICD, and in more or less subtle micro-aggressions experienced by lesbian, gay, bisexual and trans patients in mental health care. The present paper critically reviews this history and current controversies. It reveals that this deeply complex field contributes (i to the reflection on the very concept of mental illness; (ii to the focus on subjective distress and person-centered experience of psychopathology; and (iii to the recognition of stigma and discrimination as significant intervening variables. Finally, it argues that sexual orientation and gender identity have been viewed, in the history of the field of psychopathology, between two poles: gender transgression and gender variance/fluidity.

  11. Gender-Role Identity and Perceived Peer Group Acceptance among Early Adolescents in Belgian Mixed and Single-Sex Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brutsaert, Herman

    2006-01-01

    Drawing on survey data, this paper explores the association between early adolescents' gender-role identity and sense of peer group acceptance, and how this association may vary as a function of the gender context of the school. Two indicators of gender-role identity were included in the analysis: in one measure the items reflect features of…

  12. From Athletes to Astrophysicists: Gender Differences in Patterns and Predictors of Career Aspirations in Pre-Adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brea L. Perry

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper adds to research on girls’ growing educational advantage by examining gender differences in career paths. Using baseline data from an intervention study (TRY-IT! targeting 265 sixth-graders in Title I schools, our research traces adolescent career aspirations by gender, race and class. Additionally, we investigate whether girls and boys exhibit differential sensitivity to environmental risk and protective factors that shape career and educational aspirations. We find that the career choices of boys vary more widely by social context, including socioeconomic status, race, and academic resources. Specifically, among youth with fewer social and academic advantages, girls aspire to more practical careers and careers which require higher levels of educational attainment relative to boys. The findings reveal how sources of inequality such as race and class shape gendered aspirations and complicate gender inequality. We reason that boys’ choices are more volatile and socially contingent because of the emphasis on high-status careers as a signifier of masculinity.

  13. A Multiple Identity Approach to Gender: Identification with Women, Identification with Feminists, and Their Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Breen, Jolien A.; Spears, Russell; Kuppens, Toon; de Lemus, Soledad

    2017-01-01

    Across four studies, we examine multiple identities in the context of gender and propose that women's attitudes toward gender group membership are governed by two largely orthogonal dimensions of gender identity: identification with women and identification with feminists. We argue that identification with women reflects attitudes toward the content society gives to group membership: what does it mean to be a woman in terms of group characteristics, interests and values? Identification with feminists, on the other hand, is a politicized identity dimension reflecting attitudes toward the social position of the group: what does it mean to be a woman in terms of disadvantage, inequality, and relative status? We examine the utility of this multiple identity approach in four studies. Study 1 showed that identification with women reflects attitudes toward group characteristics, such as femininity and self-stereotyping, while identification with feminists reflects attitudes toward the group's social position, such as perceived sexism. The two dimensions are shown to be largely independent, and as such provide support for the multiple identity approach. In Studies 2–4, we examine the utility of this multiple identity approach in predicting qualitative differences in gender attitudes. Results show that specific combinations of identification with women and feminists predicted attitudes toward collective action and gender stereotypes. Higher identification with feminists led to endorsement of radical collective action (Study 2) and critical attitudes toward gender stereotypes (Studies 3–4), especially at lower levels of identification with women. The different combinations of high vs. low identification with women and feminists can be thought of as reflecting four theoretical identity “types.” A woman can be (1) strongly identified with neither women nor feminists (“low identifier”), (2) strongly identified with women but less so with feminists (

  14. A Multiple Identity Approach to Gender: Identification with Women, Identification with Feminists, and Their Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolien A. van Breen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Across four studies, we examine multiple identities in the context of gender and propose that women's attitudes toward gender group membership are governed by two largely orthogonal dimensions of gender identity: identification with women and identification with feminists. We argue that identification with women reflects attitudes toward the content society gives to group membership: what does it mean to be a woman in terms of group characteristics, interests and values? Identification with feminists, on the other hand, is a politicized identity dimension reflecting attitudes toward the social position of the group: what does it mean to be a woman in terms of disadvantage, inequality, and relative status? We examine the utility of this multiple identity approach in four studies. Study 1 showed that identification with women reflects attitudes toward group characteristics, such as femininity and self-stereotyping, while identification with feminists reflects attitudes toward the group's social position, such as perceived sexism. The two dimensions are shown to be largely independent, and as such provide support for the multiple identity approach. In Studies 2–4, we examine the utility of this multiple identity approach in predicting qualitative differences in gender attitudes. Results show that specific combinations of identification with women and feminists predicted attitudes toward collective action and gender stereotypes. Higher identification with feminists led to endorsement of radical collective action (Study 2 and critical attitudes toward gender stereotypes (Studies 3–4, especially at lower levels of identification with women. The different combinations of high vs. low identification with women and feminists can be thought of as reflecting four theoretical identity “types.” A woman can be (1 strongly identified with neither women nor feminists (“low identifier”, (2 strongly identified with women but less so with feminists (

  15. A Multiple Identity Approach to Gender: Identification with Women, Identification with Feminists, and Their Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Breen, Jolien A; Spears, Russell; Kuppens, Toon; de Lemus, Soledad

    2017-01-01

    Across four studies, we examine multiple identities in the context of gender and propose that women's attitudes toward gender group membership are governed by two largely orthogonal dimensions of gender identity: identification with women and identification with feminists. We argue that identification with women reflects attitudes toward the content society gives to group membership: what does it mean to be a woman in terms of group characteristics, interests and values? Identification with feminists, on the other hand, is a politicized identity dimension reflecting attitudes toward the social position of the group: what does it mean to be a woman in terms of disadvantage, inequality, and relative status? We examine the utility of this multiple identity approach in four studies. Study 1 showed that identification with women reflects attitudes toward group characteristics, such as femininity and self-stereotyping, while identification with feminists reflects attitudes toward the group's social position, such as perceived sexism. The two dimensions are shown to be largely independent, and as such provide support for the multiple identity approach. In Studies 2-4, we examine the utility of this multiple identity approach in predicting qualitative differences in gender attitudes. Results show that specific combinations of identification with women and feminists predicted attitudes toward collective action and gender stereotypes. Higher identification with feminists led to endorsement of radical collective action (Study 2) and critical attitudes toward gender stereotypes (Studies 3-4), especially at lower levels of identification with women. The different combinations of high vs. low identification with women and feminists can be thought of as reflecting four theoretical identity "types." A woman can be (1) strongly identified with neither women nor feminists ("low identifier"), (2) strongly identified with women but less so with feminists ("traditional identifier"), (3

  16. A Gendered Identity Debate in Digital Game Culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, Lotte; Abeele, Mariek Vanden; Bauwel, Sofie Van

    2016-01-01

    Although women make up half of the gamer population, only a small portion of them considers themselves as a gamer. This is seen as a logical consequence of a culture and industry that fiercely concentrate on legitimizing a masculine gamer identity. The upcoming presence of women in the digital game

  17. Race, Gender, and Leadership Identity: An Autoethnography of Reconciliation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClellan, Patrice

    2012-01-01

    This article is an autoethnography of the author's journey researching Black men. She highlights two critical incidents during the research process that aided in the formation of her identity as a leader. Drawing on Hill Collins' "Black Feminist Thought" the author also identifies key women leaders whose examples fueled her commitment to…

  18. Examining the role of gender in career advancement at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhuo; Roy, Kakoli; Gotway Crawford, Carol A

    2010-03-01

    During the past decade, efforts to promote gender parity in the healing and public health professions have met with only partial success. We provide a critical update regarding the status of women in the public health profession by exploring gender-related differences in promotion rates at the nation's leading public health agency, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Using personnel data drawn from CDC, we found that the gender gap in promotion has diminished across time and that this reduction can be attributed to changes in individual characteristics (e.g., higher educational levels and more federal work experience). However, a substantial gap in promotion that cannot be explained by such characteristics has persisted, indicating continuing barriers in women's career advancement.

  19. Science and Engineering Ph.D. Students' Career Outcomes, by Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Annamaria; Visentin, Fabiana

    2015-01-01

    We examine differences in the careers of men and women Ph.D.s from two major European universities. Having performed regression analysis, we find that women are more likely than men to be employed in public administration when the alternatives are either academia or industry. Between the latter two alternatives, women are more likely to be employed in academia. These gender differences persist after accounting for Ph.D.s' and their supervisors' characteristics. Gender gaps are smaller for Ph.D.s with large research outputs and for those who conducted applied research. Restricting the analysis to Ph.D.s who pursued postdoc training, women are less likely than men to be employed in highly ranked universities, even after controlling for their research outputs. Finally, we find gender differences in Ph.D.s' appointment to professorship, which are explained by the Ph.D.s' publication output and the quality of their postdoc training.

  20. Identity Politics and Gender Issues in Contemporary Iran with emphasis on the Poetry of Ahmed Shamlou

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ardestani

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Today, identity politics is one of the most important analytic tools of social scientists. With this approach, they focus on political attitudes and interests of social groups who are mainly concerned with gender, race, ethnicity or religion. Attitude towards the female sexuality is one of the most important spectrums in their study. The epistemological development is rooted in the fundamental social changes and its understanding requires a careful study of some aspects in contemporary political literature of Iran. The main question of this study is the focus on gender in the contemporary political literature that may lead to the realm of identity politics in Iran. Any focus on identity and gender discourses will involve a critical analysis and application of the Fairclough’s model on Shamlou’s poems. Thus, a social scientist may tend to answer the questions of identity politics and gender issues. Our hypothesis is that Iranian society has gradually moved towards a new understanding of the concept of gender since the Constitutional Movement and it has helped the articulation of identity politics in Iran. The main manifestation of this politics should be sought in political literature which has always been an area for thinking due to the lack of civil society in the body polity of Iran.

  1. Sexuality and gender identity teaching within preclinical medical training in New Zealand: content, attitudes and barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Oscar; Rapsey, Charlene M; Treharne, Gareth J

    2018-06-22

    To investigate inclusion of sexuality and gender identity content, attitudes and barriers to inclusion of content in preclinical curricula of New Zealand medical schools from the perspective of key teaching staff. Staff responsible for curriculum oversight at New Zealand's two medical schools were invited to complete a mixed-methods survey about sexuality and gender identity content in their modules. Of 24 respondents, the majority included very little content relating to sexuality or gender identity (33%) or none at all (54%). This content was deemed important by most participants (69%), and none believed there should be less such content in their curriculum. Time was reported to be the main barrier limiting inclusion of such content. Our finding of limited content is consistent with international literature. Our findings extend the literature by revealing that barriers to greater inclusion of content are not due to overt negative attitudes. Staff responsible for preclinical medical curriculum oversight have positive attitudes about content relating to sexuality and gender identity but perceive curriculum space to be a limiting barrier. This is important as it informs approaches to change. Future interventions with medical schools should focus on methods to increase diverse content as part of existing teaching, education to increase knowledge of LGBTQI relevant material and potentially incorporate strategies used to address unconscious bias. Addressing the perceived barriers of time constraints and lack of relevance is required to ensure medical students receive training to develop the competencies to provide positive healthcare experiences for all patients regardless of sexuality and gender identity.

  2. Investigation of Personality Disordes and Personality Traits in Men with Gender Identity Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Noorian

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study is to investigation of personality disorders and personality traits in men who have gender identity disorder (GID. Identification of personality disorders can be useful for enhancement of the quality of help to the patients. Materials & Methods: This analytical and cross-sectional study was a comparative and case – control research. 40 men with gender identity disorder were selected by convenient sampling from individuals who have been referred to Tehran Navab Safavi welfare center. Also, 40 available individuals who have no any diagnostic criteria about gender identity disorder in DSM-IV-TR and worked in Islamic Azad University (Tehran Sciences and Researches Unit were selected as control group and matched with patients. Personality disorders and those frequencies were evaluated with Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-II (MCMI-II. Data were analyzed using by Chi-square and Independent T tests. Results: The results showed that gender identity disorder patients get higher scores as compared to control group in scales “Dependent” (P=0/038, “Histrionic” (P<0/001, “Antisocial” (P=0/017, “Passive – aggressive” (P=0/007, “Borderline” (P<0/001 and “Paranoid” (P=0/021 and their difference was significant. Conclusion: Generally, the results of this study showed persons who have gender identity disorder also have some symptoms of personality disorders more than normal people.

  3. Gender identity and the electric guitar in heavy metal music

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, Philip

    2009-01-01

    In this chapter I will attempt to outline the gendered characteristics of heavy metal and the electric guitar and address the question: has society’s impression of heavy metal as a primarily masculine pursuit been so imbedded in Western culture that we will never see a female heavy metal band achieve the same level of success as a male heavy metal band?

  4. Gender, Identity and Intercultural Transformation in Second Language Socialisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xingsong

    2006-01-01

    In L2 learners' second language socialisation process, males and females from different sociocultural backgrounds have diverse attitudes and access to second language acquisition. In this study, informed by feminist poststructuralist theory, we can see the highly context-sensitive nature of the gendered practices and the corresponding outcomes of…

  5. Social Identity and Gender Inequities for Male Elementary Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    River, Dawn

    2016-01-01

    For the last 10 years, the California Department of Education has reported that female teachers in California outnumbered male teachers two to one. The imbalance in teacher gender is a problem that affects elementary-age students and teaching staffs because the educated and caring male teachers who could be role models are largely absent from…

  6. Evolving Nature of Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jourian, T. J.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter discusses the historical and evolving terminology, constructs, and ideologies that inform the language used by those who are lesbian, gay, bisexual, and same-gender loving, who may identify as queer, as well as those who are members of trans* communities from multiple and intersectional perspectives.

  7. Towards full citizenship: correlates of engagement with the gender identity law among transwomen in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socías, María Eugenia; Marshall, Brandon D L; Arístegui, Inés; Zalazar, Virginia; Romero, Marcela; Sued, Omar; Kerr, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    In May 2012, Argentina passed its "Gender Identity" Law, which aimed to address the legal invisibility, discrimination and marginalization that transgender individuals have historically faced. The aim of this study was to explore factors associated with engagement with the Gender Identity Law among transwomen living in Argentina. Data were derived from a 2013 nationwide, cross-sectional study involving transwomen in Argentina. Using multivariate logistic regression, we assessed the prevalence and factors associated with acquiring a gender-congruent identity card within the first 18 months of enactment of the Gender Identity Law. Among 452 transwomen, 260 (57.5%) reported that they had obtained a new gender-congruent identity card. In multivariate analysis, factors positively associated with acquiring a new ID were: previously experiencing discrimination by healthcare workers (adjusted odd ratio [aOR] = 2.01, 95% CI: 1.27-3.20); having engaged in transition procedures (aOR = 3.06, 95% CI: 1.58-5.93); and having a job other than sex work (aOR = 1.81, 95% CI: 1.06-3.10). Foreign born transwomen were less likely to have obtained a new ID (aOR = 0.14, 95% CI: 0.06-0.33). More than half of transwomen in our sample acquired a new gender-congruent ID within the first 18 months of enactment of the Gender Identity Law. However, access to and uptake of this right has been heterogeneous. In particular, our findings suggest that the most empowered transwomen may have been among the first to take advantage of this right. Although educational level, housing conditions, HIV status and sex work were not associated with the outcome, foreign-born status was a strong negative correlate of new ID acquisition. Therefore, additional efforts should be made in order to ensure that benefits of this founding policy reach all transwomen in Argentina.

  8. Towards full citizenship: correlates of engagement with the gender identity law among transwomen in Argentina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Eugenia Socías

    Full Text Available In May 2012, Argentina passed its "Gender Identity" Law, which aimed to address the legal invisibility, discrimination and marginalization that transgender individuals have historically faced. The aim of this study was to explore factors associated with engagement with the Gender Identity Law among transwomen living in Argentina.Data were derived from a 2013 nationwide, cross-sectional study involving transwomen in Argentina. Using multivariate logistic regression, we assessed the prevalence and factors associated with acquiring a gender-congruent identity card within the first 18 months of enactment of the Gender Identity Law.Among 452 transwomen, 260 (57.5% reported that they had obtained a new gender-congruent identity card. In multivariate analysis, factors positively associated with acquiring a new ID were: previously experiencing discrimination by healthcare workers (adjusted odd ratio [aOR] = 2.01, 95% CI: 1.27-3.20; having engaged in transition procedures (aOR = 3.06, 95% CI: 1.58-5.93; and having a job other than sex work (aOR = 1.81, 95% CI: 1.06-3.10. Foreign born transwomen were less likely to have obtained a new ID (aOR = 0.14, 95% CI: 0.06-0.33.More than half of transwomen in our sample acquired a new gender-congruent ID within the first 18 months of enactment of the Gender Identity Law. However, access to and uptake of this right has been heterogeneous. In particular, our findings suggest that the most empowered transwomen may have been among the first to take advantage of this right. Although educational level, housing conditions, HIV status and sex work were not associated with the outcome, foreign-born status was a strong negative correlate of new ID acquisition. Therefore, additional efforts should be made in order to ensure that benefits of this founding policy reach all transwomen in Argentina.

  9. Women Leaders: the Gender Inequality, Career and Family in Work Organizations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaína Raquel dos Santos Canabarro

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to show the path taken by women leaders in the organization where they work, investigating the difficulties and challenges faced by them in order to achieve personal and professional projects. The chosen topics for the theoretical basis are: Diversity in leadership, which addresses the use of attributes of both genders in business management and Career, work and family, which features new family configurations and the economic and social changes in the workplace. To collect the data, six managers were interviewed individually. The analysis of the dialogues was performed through four categories: Career Planning; Work and family; Leadership style and gender characteristics of leadership from the point of view of a man leader. Finally, the data showed that in order to build and have a successful career, lots of study, effort and self-development are required. They live the conflict of knowing how to balance personal and professional life and they worry about performing well in several figures - woman, mother, wife and manager. They show characteristics of sensitivity, flexibility and partnership in team work, being strict and objective when the situation demands. There is a need for further observation in leadership styles, connected with a dichotomy of male and female behavior profiles when managing.

  10. Gender identity and sexual orientation in women with borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Devita; McMain, Shelley; Zucker, Kenneth J

    2011-02-01

    In the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, text revision (DSM-IV-TR) (and earlier editions), a disturbance in "identity" is one of the defining features of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Gender identity, a person's sense of self as a male or a female, constitutes an important aspect of identity formation, but this construct has rarely been examined in patients with BPD. In the present study, the presence of gender identity disorder or confusion was examined in women diagnosed with BPD. We used a validated dimensional measure of gender dysphoria. Recalled gender identity and gender role behavior from childhood was also assessed with a validated dimensional measure, and current sexual orientation was assessed by two self-report measures. A consecutive series of 100 clinic-referred women (mean age, 34 years) with BPD participated in the study. The women were diagnosed with BPD using the International Personality Disorder Exam-BPD Section. None of the women with BPD met the criterion for caseness on the dimensional measure of gender dysphoria. Women who self-reported either a bisexual or a homosexual sexual orientation had a significantly higher score on the dimensional measure of gender dysphoria than the women who self-reported a heterosexual sexual orientation, and they also recalled significantly more cross-gender behavior during childhood. Results were compared with a previous study on a diagnostically heterogeneous group of women with other clinical problems. The importance of psychosexual assessment in the clinical evaluation of patients with BPD is discussed. © 2010 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  11. Gender identity disorder: general overview and surgical treatment for vaginoplasty in male-to-female transsexuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvaggi, Gennaro; Ceulemans, Peter; De Cuypere, Griet; VanLanduyt, Koen; Blondeel, Phillip; Hamdi, Moustapha; Bowman, Cameron; Monstrey, Stan

    2005-11-01

    After studying this article, the participant should be able to discuss: 1. The terminology related to male-to-female gender dysphoria. 2. The different theories regarding cause, epidemiology, and treatment of gender dysphoria. 3. The surgical goals of sex reassignment surgery in male-to-female transsexualism. 4. The surgical techniques available for sex reassignment surgery in male-to-female transsexualism. Gender identity disorder (previously "transsexualism") is the term used for individuals who show a strong and persistent cross-gender identification and a persistent discomfort with their anatomical sex, as manifested by a preoccupation with getting rid of one's sex characteristics, or the belief of being born in the wrong sex. Since 1978, the Harry Benjamin International Gender Dysphoria Association (in honor of Dr. Harry Benjamin, one of the first physicians who made many clinicians aware of the potential benefits of sex reassignment surgery) has played a major role in the research and treatment of gender identity disorder, publishing the Standards of Care for Gender Dysphoric Persons. The authors performed an overview of the terminology related to male-to-female gender identity disorder; the different theories regarding cause, epidemiology, and treatment; the goals expected; and the surgical technique available for sex reassignment surgery in male-to-female transsexualism. Surgical techniques available for sex reassignment surgery in male-to-female transsexualism, with advantages and disadvantages offered by each technique, are reviewed. Other feminizing nongenital operative interventions are also examined. This review describes recent etiopathogenetic theories and actual guidelines on the treatment of the gender identity disorder in male-to-female transsexuals; the penile-scrotal skin flap technique is considered the state of the art for vaginoplasty in male-to-female transsexuals, whereas other techniques (rectosigmoid flap, local flaps, and isolated skin

  12. The Examination of the Effects of Biological Gender and Gender Identity Roles on Attitude of the Consumers to Advertisements Applied by Accomodation Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evren Güçer

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, especially focused on the concept of psychological-based gender identity and researched if there is a differentiation characteristic of consumers’ sex and gender identity roles (masculinity, femininity, androgynous and neutral on consumers’ attitude toward advertisements of accomodation establishments.According to the results,there is a general accordance between biological sex and gender identity roles of individuals and alsothe results of the previous studies were made in different areas in the same subject was supported with determination ofit is possible to participants have gender identity roles different from their biological sex to some extent.Otherwise; determination of theadvertisements ofaccomodationestablishments, contain feminine messages, are more preferred by people who have feminine and androgynous identity than the others; and advertisements ofaccomodationestablishments, contain masculinemessages, are preferred by all gender identity roles are ones of the results

  13. Gender, authentic leadership and identity: analysis of women leaders’ autobiographies

    OpenAIRE

    Kapasi, I; Sang, KJC; Sitko, R

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Leadership theories have moved from viewing leadership as an innate trait, towards models that recognise leadership as a social construction. Alongside this theorisation, gender and leadership remain of considerable interest, particularly given the under-representation of women in leadership positions. Methodological approaches to understanding leadership have begun to embrace innovative methods, such as historical analyses. This paper aims to understand how high profile women leader...

  14. Apples to committee consensus: the challenge of gender identity classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rettew, David C

    2012-01-01

    The debate surrounding the inclusion of gender dysphoria/gender variant behavior (GD/GV) as a psychiatric diagnosis exposes many of the fundamental shortcomings and inconsistencies of our current diagnostic classification system. Proposals raised by the authors of this special issue, including basing diagnosis on cause rather than overt behavior, reclassifying GD/GV behavior as a physical rather than mental condition, and basing diagnosis on impairment or distress, offer some solutions but have limitations themselves given the available database. In contrast to most accepted psychiatric conditions where emphasis is placed on ultimately changing internal thoughts, feelings, and behaviors, consensus treatment for most GD/GV individuals, at least from adolescence onward, focuses on modifying the external body and external environment to maximize positive outcomes. This series of articles illustrating the diversity of opinions on when and if gender incongruence should be considered pathological reflects the relative lack of scientific indicators of disease in this area, similar to many other domains of mental functioning.

  15. The impact of gender and parenthood on physicians' careers - professional and personal situation seven years after graduation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knecht Michaela

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The profile of the medical profession is changing in regard to feminization, attitudes towards the profession, and the lifestyle aspirations of young physicians. The issues addressed in this study are the careers of female and male physicians seven years after graduation and the impact of parenthood on career development. Methods Data reported originates from the fifth assessment (T5 of the prospective SwissMedCareer Study, beginning in 2001 (T1. At T5 in 2009, 579 residents (81.4% of the initial sample at T1 participated in the questionnaire survey. They were asked about occupational factors, career-related factors including specialty choice and workplace, work-life balance and life satisfaction. The impact of gender and parenthood on the continuous variables was investigated by means of multivariate and univariate analyses of variance; categorical variables were analyzed using Chi-square tests. Results Female physicians, especially those with children, have lower rates of employment and show lower values in terms of career success and career support experiences than male physicians. In addition, parenthood has a negative impact on these career factors. In terms of work-life balance aspired to, female doctors are less career-oriented and are more inclined to consider part-time work or to continue their professional career following a break to bring up a family. Parenthood means less career-orientation and more part-time orientation. As regards life satisfaction, females show higher levels of satisfaction overall, especially where friends, leisure activities, and income are concerned. Compared to their male colleagues, female physicians are less advanced in their specialty qualification, are less prone to choosing prestigious surgical fields, have a mentor less often, more often work at small hospitals or in private practice, aspire less often to senior hospital or academic positions and consider part-time work more often

  16. The impact of gender and parenthood on physicians' careers--professional and personal situation seven years after graduation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buddeberg-Fischer, Barbara; Stamm, Martina; Buddeberg, Claus; Bauer, Georg; Häemmig, Oliver; Knecht, Michaela; Klaghofer, Richard

    2010-02-18

    The profile of the medical profession is changing in regard to feminization, attitudes towards the profession, and the lifestyle aspirations of young physicians. The issues addressed in this study are the careers of female and male physicians seven years after graduation and the impact of parenthood on career development. Data reported originates from the fifth assessment (T5) of the prospective SwissMedCareer Study, beginning in 2001 (T1). At T5 in 2009, 579 residents (81.4% of the initial sample at T1) participated in the questionnaire survey. They were asked about occupational factors, career-related factors including specialty choice and workplace, work-life balance and life satisfaction. The impact of gender and parenthood on the continuous variables was investigated by means of multivariate and univariate analyses of variance; categorical variables were analyzed using Chi-square tests. Female physicians, especially those with children, have lower rates of employment and show lower values in terms of career success and career support experiences than male physicians. In addition, parenthood has a negative impact on these career factors. In terms of work-life balance aspired to, female doctors are less career-oriented and are more inclined to consider part-time work or to continue their professional career following a break to bring up a family. Parenthood means less career-orientation and more part-time orientation. As regards life satisfaction, females show higher levels of satisfaction overall, especially where friends, leisure activities, and income are concerned. Compared to their male colleagues, female physicians are less advanced in their specialty qualification, are less prone to choosing prestigious surgical fields, have a mentor less often, more often work at small hospitals or in private practice, aspire less often to senior hospital or academic positions and consider part-time work more often. Any negative impact on career path and advancement is

  17. The impact of gender and parenthood on physicians' careers - professional and personal situation seven years after graduation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background The profile of the medical profession is changing in regard to feminization, attitudes towards the profession, and the lifestyle aspirations of young physicians. The issues addressed in this study are the careers of female and male physicians seven years after graduation and the impact of parenthood on career development. Methods Data reported originates from the fifth assessment (T5) of the prospective SwissMedCareer Study, beginning in 2001 (T1). At T5 in 2009, 579 residents (81.4% of the initial sample at T1) participated in the questionnaire survey. They were asked about occupational factors, career-related factors including specialty choice and workplace, work-life balance and life satisfaction. The impact of gender and parenthood on the continuous variables was investigated by means of multivariate and univariate analyses of variance; categorical variables were analyzed using Chi-square tests. Results Female physicians, especially those with children, have lower rates of employment and show lower values in terms of career success and career support experiences than male physicians. In addition, parenthood has a negative impact on these career factors. In terms of work-life balance aspired to, female doctors are less career-oriented and are more inclined to consider part-time work or to continue their professional career following a break to bring up a family. Parenthood means less career-orientation and more part-time orientation. As regards life satisfaction, females show higher levels of satisfaction overall, especially where friends, leisure activities, and income are concerned. Compared to their male colleagues, female physicians are less advanced in their specialty qualification, are less prone to choosing prestigious surgical fields, have a mentor less often, more often work at small hospitals or in private practice, aspire less often to senior hospital or academic positions and consider part-time work more often. Any negative impact on

  18. Gender and stereotypes in motivation to study computer programming for careers in multimedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doubé, Wendy; Lang, Catherine

    2012-03-01

    A multimedia university programme with relatively equal numbers of male and female students in elective programming subjects provided a rare opportunity to investigate female motivation to study and pursue computer programming in a career. The MSLQ was used to survey 85 participants. In common with research into deterrence of females from STEM domains, females displayed significantly lower self-efficacy and expectancy for success. In contrast to research into deterrence of females from STEM domains, both genders placed similar high values on computer programming and shared high extrinsic and intrinsic goal orientation. The authors propose that the stereotype associated with a creative multimedia career could attract female participation in computer programming whereas the stereotype associated with computer science could be a deterrent.

  19. Gender, g, gender identity concepts, and self-constructs as predictors of the self-estimated IQ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storek, Josephine; Furnham, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    In all 102 participants completed 2 intelligence tests, a self-estimated domain-masculine (DMIQ) intelligence rating (which is a composite of self-rated mathematical-logical and spatial intelligence), a measure of self-esteem, and of self-control. The aim was to confirm and extend previous findings about the role of general intelligence and gender identity in self-assessed intelligence. It aimed to examine further correlates of the Hubris-Humility Effect that shows men believe they are more intelligent than women. The DMIQ scores were correlated significantly with gender, psychometrically assessed IQ, and masculinity but not self-esteem or self-control. Stepwise regressions indicated that gender and gender role were the strongest predictors of DMIQ accounting for a third of the variance.

  20. Gender, g, Gender Identity Concepts, and Self-Constructs as Predictors of the Self-Estimated IQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storek, Josephine

    2013-01-01

    In all 102 participants completed 2 intelligence tests, a self-estimated domain-masculine (DMIQ) intelligence rating (which is a composite of self-rated mathematical–logical and spatial intelligence), a measure of self-esteem, and of self-control. The aim was to confirm and extend previous findings about the role of general intelligence and gender identity in self-assessed intelligence. It aimed to examine further correlates of the Hubris–Humility Effect that shows men believe they are more intelligent than women. The DMIQ scores were correlated significantly with gender, psychometrically assessed IQ, and masculinity but not self-esteem or self-control. Stepwise regressions indicated that gender and gender role were the strongest predictors of DMIQ accounting for a third of the variance. PMID:24303578

  1. Missing data in substance abuse research? Researchers' reporting practices of sexual orientation and gender identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flentje, Annesa; Bacca, Cristina L; Cochran, Bryan N

    2015-02-01

    Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender individuals are at higher risk for substance use and substance use disorders than heterosexual individuals and are more likely to seek substance use treatment, yet sexual orientation and gender identity are frequently not reported in the research literature. The purpose of this study was to identify if sexual orientation and gender identity are being reported in the recent substance use literature, and if this has changed over time. The PsycINFO and PubMed databases were searched for articles released in 2007 and 2012 using the term "substance abuse" and 200 articles were randomly selected from each time period and database. Articles were coded for the presence or absence of sexual orientation and gender identity information. Participants' sexual orientation was reported in 3.0% and 4.9% of the 2007 and 2.3% and 6.5% of the 2012 sample, in PsycINFO and PubMed sample articles, respectively, while non-binary gender identity was reported in 0% and 1.0% of the 2007 sample and 2.3% and 1.9% of the 2012 PsycINFO and PubMed sample articles. There were no differences in rates of reporting over time. Sexual orientation and gender identity are rarely reported in the substance abuse literature, and there has not been a change in reporting practices between 2007 and 2012. Recommendations for future investigators in reporting sexual orientation and gender identity are included. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Missing data in substance abuse research? Researchers’ reporting practices of sexual orientation and gender identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacca, Cristina L.; Cochran, Bryan N.

    2014-01-01

    Background Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender individuals are at higher risk for substance use and substance use disorders than heterosexual individuals and are more likely to seek substance use treatment, yet sexual orientation and gender identity are frequently not reported in the research literature. The purpose of this study was to identify if sexual orientation and gender identity are being reported in the recent substance use literature, and if this has changed over time. Method The PsycINFO and PubMed databases were searched for articles released in 2007 and 2012 using the term “substance abuse” and 200 articles were randomly selected from each time period and database. Articles were coded for the presence or absence of sexual orientation and gender identity information. Results Participants’ sexual orientation was reported in 3.0% and 4.9% of the 2007 and 2.3% and 6.5% of the 2012 sample, in PsycINFO and PubMed sample articles, respectively, while non-binary gender identity was reported in 0% and 1.0% of the 2007 sample and 2.3% and 1.9% of the 2012 PsycINFO and PubMed sample articles. There were no differences in rates of reporting over time. Conclusions Sexual orientation and gender identity are rarely reported in the substance abuse literature, and there has not been a change in reporting practices between 2007 and 2012. Recommendations for future investigators in reporting sexual orientation and gender identity are included. PMID:25496705

  3. Impact of environment upon gender identity and sexual orientation: a lesson for parents of children with intersex or gender confusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Peter A; Houk, Christopher P

    2005-07-01

    Two histories of physically normal men with persistent gender issues highlight the major impact played by parental input on the sexual and gender development of children. Both men had been subjected to firm, harsh behavior modification by their parents, particularly their mothers, during childhood in response to effeminate behavior. While both men continue to manifest major gender/sexual issues as adults, their outcomes have been dramatically different. The first man takes female hormones and denies any satisfaction from his sexuality. This individual remains convinced that he has female internal sexual organs and monthly internal menstrual bleeding. Although he has a career, he has become alienated from his family and is a social cripple. The second man has a successful career, lives a heterosexual life with his children and wife of 20 years and is involved in his community. He is visually attracted to men and remains obsessed with male pornography. This individual credits his mother with directing him toward a successful heterosexual life, which he feels has prevented the emotional burden of an active homosexual life. These two cases illustrate the tremendous influence played by environment and parental input on the sexual perspectives of developing children.

  4. Sexual Orientation, Gender Identity, and Romantic Relationships in Adolescents and Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewinter, J; De Graaf, H; Begeer, S

    2017-09-01

    This study compared sexual orientation and romantic relationship experience in a large sample of adolescents and adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (n = 675) and general population peers (n = 8064). Gender identity was explored in the ASD group in relation to assigned gender at birth. Compared to general population peers, more people with ASD, especially women, reported sexual attraction to both same- and opposite-sex partners. About half of the participants with ASD was in a relationship (heterosexual in most cases) and most of them lived with their partner. A notable number of autistic participants, again more women than men, reported gender non-conforming feelings. Attention to gender identity and sexual diversity in education and clinical work with people with ASD is advised.

  5. ‘THEY LIGHT THE CHRISTMAS TREE IN OUR TOWN’: Reflections on Identity, Gender, and Adolescent Sports

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Kathleen E.

    2009-01-01

    Sport occupies a prominent space in the public lives and private identities of US adolescents. Using the retrospective reflections of college students, this analysis explores two questions about sport-related identities during high school: Are ‘athletes’ and ‘jocks’ distinctly separate identities? Are these identities explicitly gendered? In four gender-segregated focus groups conducted in early 2005, 32 student-athletes from two upstate New York colleges discussed their high school experienc...

  6. Significance of gender identity (the case of transsexualism) in Canon law

    OpenAIRE

    Meilius, Kazimieras; Juškevičius, Jonas; Širinskienė, Agnė

    2015-01-01

    Transsexualism is a gender identity disorder that is defined by the ICD-10 Classification of Mental and Behavioural Disorders as a “desire to live and be accepted as a member of the opposite sex, usually accompanied by the wish to make one’s body as congruent as possible with one’s preferred sex through surgery and hormonal treatment”. Gender identity disorder, especially after a surgical operation has been performed in order to achieve the desired sex of a transsexual, can create serious pro...

  7. Gender identity disorder and autism spectrum disorder in a 23-year-old female.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaire, Mathieu; Thomazeau, Barbara; Bonnet-Brilhault, Frédérique

    2014-02-01

    We describe the case of a 23-year-old woman with Gender Identity Disorder (GID) asking for a cross-sex hormonal treatment with sex reassignment surgery and who was recently diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Gender identity clinics are now reporting an overrepresentation of individuals with ASD among GID patients. The prevalence of ASD is 10-fold higher among GID patients than in general population. However, few case reports or studies have explored the co-occurrence of ASD and GID. This co-occurrence is relevant for diagnostic and clinical management and also raises important theoretical issues.

  8. Gender, Work, and Identity: Beauty Salons in Bogotá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Gabriela Arango Gaviria

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines hair salons, beauty parlors and barbershops in Bogotá from threeperspectives; first, as a space that offers a variety of services and aesthetic possibilities ina context of high informality and of class, race, and gender inequality; secondly, as workmarked by sexual and social divisions, in terms of both jobs and attention to the clientele,centered around “emotional work”; and thirdly, as a field of both cultural expressionand conflict with ethnic, racial and sexual aspects. Based on fieldwork and on a focus onintersectionality, the article explores these social differences as manifested in these jobswithin the processes of subsistence and professionalization.

  9. The DSM Diagnostic Criteria for Gender Identity Disorder in Adolescents and Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen-Kettenis, P.T.; Pfafflin, F.

    2010-01-01

    Apart from some general issues related to the Gender Identity Disorder (GID) diagnosis, such as whether it should stay in the DSM-V or not, a number of problems specifically relate to the current criteria of the GID diagnosis for adolescents and adults. These problems concern the confusion caused by similarities and differences of the terms transsexualism and GID, the inability of the current criteria to capture the whole spectrum of gender variance phenomena, the potential risk of unnecessar...

  10. Gender identity disorder: treatment and post-transition care in transsexual adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, A; Bradbeer, C

    2007-03-01

    As sex reassignment surgeries become more common and advanced, health professionals are more likely to see patients with gender identity disorders (GID) in their clinics. This can be challenging in many ways, and the challenges continue even after gender reassignment surgery as each case may present with unique anatomy. This article reviews the definition and treatment of GID, service provision in National Health Service and post-transition care of such patients.

  11. Sexual orientation, gender identity, and romantic relationships in adolescents and adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Dewinter, J.; De Graaf, H.; Begeer, S.

    2017-01-01

    This study compared sexual orientation and romantic relationship experience in a large sample of adolescents and adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (n?=?675) and general population peers (n?=?8064). Gender identity was explored in the ASD group in relation to assigned gender at birth. Compared to general population peers, more people with ASD, especially women, reported sexual attraction to both same- and opposite-sex partners. About half of the participants with ASD was in a relation...

  12. Swahili women since the nineteenth century: theoretical and empirical considerations on gender and identity construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gower, R; Salm, S; Falola, T

    1996-01-01

    This paper provides an analysis and update on the theoretical discussion about the link between gender and identity and uses a group of Swahili women in eastern Africa as an example of how this link works in practice. The first part of the study provides a brief overview of gender theory related to the terms "gender" and "identity." It is noted that gender is only one aspect of identity and that the concept of gender has undergone important changes such as the reconceptualization of the terms "sex" and "gender." The second part of the study synthesizes the experiences of Swahili women in the 19th century when the convergence of gender and class was very important. The status of Muslim women is reviewed, and it is noted that even influential women practiced purdah and that all Swahili women experienced discrimination, which inhibited their opportunities for socioeconomic mobility. Slavery and concubinage were widespread during this period, and the participation of Islamic women in spirit possession cults was a way for women to express themselves culturally. The separation of men and women in Swahili culture led to the development of two distinct subcultures, which excluded women from most aspects of public life. The third part of the study looks at the experiences of Swahili women since the 19th century both during and after the colonial period. It is shown that continuity exists in trends observed over a period of 200 years. For example, the mobility of Swahili women remains limited by Islam, but women do exert influence behind the scenes. It is concluded that the socioeconomic status of Swahili woman has been shaped more by complex forces such as class, ethnic, religious, and geographic area than by the oppression of Islam and colonialism. This study indicates that gender cannot be studied in isolation from other salient variables affecting identity.

  13. The impact of gendered organizational systems on women’s career advancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Neil, Deborah A.; Hopkins, Margaret M.

    2015-01-01

    In this Perspective article we propose that in order to pave the way for women’s career advancement into the senior ranks of organizations, attention must be directed at the systemic norms and structures that drive the gendered nature of the workplace. A focus on individual level issues, i.e., women lacking confidence and women opting out, detracts from the work that must be done at the organizational level in order to dismantle the system of pervasive, structural disadvantage facing women seeking to advance to senior leadership positions. PMID:26175708

  14. The impact of gendered organizational systems on women?s career advancement

    OpenAIRE

    O?Neil, Deborah A.; Hopkins, Margaret M.

    2015-01-01

    In this Perspective article we propose that in order to pave the way for women’s career advancement into the senior ranks of organizations, attention must be directed at the systemic norms and structures that drive the gendered nature of the workplace. A focus on individual level issues, i.e., women lacking confidence and women opting out, detracts from the work that must be done at the organizational level in order to dismantle the system of pervasive, structural disadvantage facing women se...

  15. From Social Identity to Professional Identity: Issues of Language and Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velez-Rendon, Gloria

    2010-01-01

    This study draws from sociocultural theory to examine how biographical factors interplay with contextual factors to shape the professional identity of a Spanish language teacher candidate. Specifically, it explores the student teaching experience of Marcos, a 30-year-old language teacher candidate from South America. Analysis of the data reveals…

  16. Is gender more important and meaningful than race? An analysis of racial and gender identity among Black, White, and mixed-race children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Leoandra Onnie; Meltzoff, Andrew N

    2017-07-01

    Social categories shape children's lives in subtle and powerful ways. Although research has assessed children's knowledge of social groups, most prominently race and gender, few studies have examined children's understanding of their own multiple social identities and how they intersect. This paper explores how children evaluate the importance and meaning of their racial and gender identities, and variation in these evaluations based on the child's own age, gender, and race. Participants were 222 Black, White, and Mixed-Race children (girls: n = 136; Mage = 9.94 years). Data were gathered in schools via 1-on-1 semistructured interviews. Analyses focused on specific measures of the importance and meaning of racial and gender identity for children. We found that: (a) children rate gender as a more important identity than race; (b) the meanings children ascribe to gender identity emphasized inequality and group difference whereas the meaning of race emphasized physical appearance and humanism/equality; and (c) children's assessments of importance and meaning varied as a function of child race and gender, but not age. The findings extend research on young children's social identity development and the role of culture and context in children's emerging racial and gender identities. Implications for identity theory and development and intergroup relations are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Doing gender/teaching science: A feminist poststructural analysis of middle school science teachers' identity negotiations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowell, Scott P.

    This research joins the gender equity conversation within science education by providing a feminist poststructural analysis of teachers' doing gender and teaching science. Feminist poststructuralism is used in recognition of the oppressive nature of dualistic modes of thought, which often reduce reality into a limiting either/or fallacy and can be theoretically constraining as research within any particular field becomes more sophisticated. By uprooting the concept of gendered identity from the unproductive grip of essentialism, and conceptualizing it instead as a shifting 'work in progress,' feminist poststructuralism provides an invigorating theoretical framework from which to conduct inquiries. From a this perspective, the identity of a teacher, as any identity, is not a fixed entity, but rather an unfinished project, swarmed upon by a variety of competing discourses. Situated in a rural middle school in the Florida panhandle, this research explores how numerous discourses compete to define what it means to be a female science teacher. More specifically, the aims of this research are to explore: (a) how the participants negotiated successful gendered identities within science and (b) how this taking up of subject positions crystallized into classroom practices which worked to reproduce and/or challenge commonsense notions of the heteropatriarchal gender dualism as well as the enmeshment of masculinity and science. Findings illustrate a wide array of classroom pedagogical practices, ranging from antioppressive emancipatory constructions of both gender and science to more traditional objectivist constructions that validated the patriarchal status quo. Explicating teacher identity as effects of these pedagogical approaches proved insightful in unveiling notions of resistance, frustration, enthusiasm, and agency as the teachers reflected on their practice.

  18. Gender Identity and Gender Performativity in Shakespeare’s Selected Plays: Macbeth, Hamlet and Merry Wives of Windsor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Amiri

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The main argument of this article is focused on three plays by William Shakespeare, Macbeth, Hamlet and Merry Wives of Windsor. There are several points in these plays which deal with woman and their rights. This article deals with Shakespeare’s plays in relation to feminism, which pays more attention to the rights of women and their true identity. In all societies women are defined in terms of their relations to men as the center of power to which women have limited or no access. Judith Butler's performativity is significance on understandings of gender identity. Butler believes that gender is produced in society; also it can be changed in society. Feminism should aim to create a society in which, one's sexual anatomy is irrelevant to who one is, and what one does. Shakespeare’s view of a woman is shown through his representation of female characters in his plays specifically in Macbeth, Hamlet and Merry Wives of Windsor.

  19. Unlimited Gender: The Discursive Construction of the Travesti Identity Through the Manipulation of the Grammatical Gender System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Borba

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates Southern Brazilian traveestis’ manipulation of the Portuguese grammatical gender system. During field work, it was verified that feminine forms are the preferred choice in the group. However, ideological and bodily tensions that surround travestis seem to force them to make use of masculine forms in specific discursive contexts. Travestis use masculine forms 1 to produce narratives about the time before their body modifications took place; 2 to report speech produced by others when talking about transvestites; 3 to talk about themselves within their family relationships; and 4 to distinguish themselves from ‘other’ travestis they do not identify with. Thus, the study shows how Southern Brazilian travestis use the Brazilian Portuguese grammatical gender system as a resource to manipulate their identities and the identities of the community they belong to.

  20. The effect of perceived overqualification on job satisfaction and career satisfaction among immigrants: Does host national identity matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassermann, Maria; Fujishiro, Kaori; Hoppe, Annekatrin

    2017-11-01

    Overqualification is a form of person-job misfit that is common among those who reside in a foreign country. It is associated with poor work-related well-being and can inhibit full adjustment to the host society. The goal of our study is to examine the impact of perceived overqualification on job satisfaction and career satisfaction among immigrants. Furthermore, we investigated immigrants' host national identity as a moderator of the impact of perceived overqualification on job satisfaction and career satisfaction. We analysed longitudinal online survey data from 124 Italian and Spanish immigrants who migrated to Germany between 2000 and 2014. Regression analyses show that perceived overqualification is negatively associated with job satisfaction six months later. Furthermore, host national identity moderates the association between perceived overqualification and job satisfaction: low overqualification is beneficial for job satisfaction whereas high overqualification is a threat for job satisfaction, especially for immigrants who identify strongly with the host society. We do not find corresponding direct and moderating effects on career satisfaction. We conclude that indicators of acculturation, such as host national identity, are worth considering in order to understand the impact of person-job misfit on work-related well-being among immigrants.

  1. TERRITORIES, TERRITORIALITIES AND IDENTITIES: MATERIAL RELATIONS, SYMBOLIC, AND OF GENDER IN THE COUNTRYSIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Aparecida Pires de

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The territory is understood as an appropriate space, delimitated by power relations, and constituted by material and symbolic relations which provide elements to the territorialities development and for forming men and women identities. In the territory of familiar production, the sexual division of labor and of spaces causes the 'invisibility' of women's work in the productive sphere, fact that influences on the construction of the rural women’s identity. However, women exercise their territorialities in both spaces and their productive and reproductive activities are fundamental to the family's livingness and permanence in the countryside. In this sense, it proposes to analyze the territorialities and the territorial identity of the subjects of the countryside and ascertain how this discussion contributes to the recognition of rural woman's identity. To the development of this research, have been taken theoretical research about: territory, territoriality, identity, gender and domestic space.

  2. Male gender identity in children with 46,XX DSD with congenital adrenal hyperplasia after delayed presentation in mid-childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Tanvir Kabir; Laila, Kamrun; Hutson, John M; Banu, Tahmina

    2015-12-01

    Girls with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) diagnosed at birth have some masculine behaviors but rarely convert to male gender. In developing countries, however, diagnosis and treatment (with secondary androgen suppression) are delayed. We aimed to assess effect of delayed treatment of CAH on gender identity. As part of a cross-sectional, case-control study of children with disorders of sex development (DSD), there were 11 patients with CAH. Patients and caregivers answered a questionnaire about gender identity, and behavior was assessed by observing toy play. Patients were examined for Prader score and gender identity. Of 11 CAH patients initially raised as girls, 3 (27%) had converted to male gender at presentation (5, 9, 9years) (Prader 3, 4, 4). Of the remaining 8 patients, one 4-year-old (Prader 2) had a male gender identity score. The remaining girls (2-13years, mean 8.1) (Prader 1-3) had gender identity scores in the female range. One third (4/11) of CAH patients presenting in mid-childhood had male gender identity scores, and ¾ had assumed male gender role. Although social and cultural factors are important in developing countries, this result suggests that delayed treatment may trigger male gender identity, and delayed female genital surgery may be unwise. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Children's Gender Identity in Lesbian and Heterosexual Two-Parent Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Henny; Sandfort, Theo G M

    2010-01-01

    This study compared gender identity, anticipated future heterosexual romantic involvement, and psychosocial adjustment of children in lesbian and heterosexual families; it was furthermore assessed whether associations between these aspects differed between family types. Data were obtained in the Netherlands from children in 63 lesbian families and 68 heterosexual families. All children were between 8 and 12 years old. Children in lesbian families felt less parental pressure to conform to gender stereotypes, were less likely to experience their own gender as superior and were more likely to be uncertain about future heterosexual romantic involvement. No differences were found on psychosocial adjustment. Gender typicality, gender contentedness and anticipated future heterosexual romantic involvement were significant predictors of psychosocial adjustment in both family types.

  4. A gender perspective on career preferences and entrepreneurial self-efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Urban

    2010-10-01

    Research purpose: The objective of this study was to establish to what extent women perceive self-employment as a viable career choice and how strong their beliefs are that they are capable of successfully performing various entrepreneurial roles and tasks. Motivation for the study: The study is relevant because national studies indicate that the ratio of female to male participation in entrepreneurial activity varies considerably across countries. Research design, approach and method: A survey design was used, with responses being based on quantitative measures. Measures were tested for validity and reliability. Descriptive statistics were calculated and differential tests were conducted to test the relevant hypotheses. Main findings: The results of the study showed that women believe that they have the skills needed to be an entrepreneur and have placed their preference for entrepreneurship as a career choice high on the list of options. Practical/managerial implications: Human resources managers and educators must recognise that ‘a one-size-fits-all’ approach to training and development might not be appropriate and that gender-sensitive programming, especially in relation to different levels of entrepreneurial self-efficacy might be required. Contribution of study: The study contributes to the growing knowledge base on women entrepreneurship and increases our understanding of entrepreneurship as a viable career choice in terms of entrepreneurial self-efficacy.

  5. Motives and career barriers choosing studies in Physics and Mathematics: gender aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldona, Augustiene

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the concepts of professional motivation and career barriers from the gender point of view. The research problem is expressed in the following questions: what personal and socio-cultural factors motivate young people to choose Physics and Mathematics study programmes? Are there significant differences in expression of motives and career barriers among male and female students? The sample consisted of 86 undergraduate students: 45 females and 41 male. Respondents were asked to write down their reflections as a free text answering the question why did they make such a professional choice choosing Physics and Mathematics studies. Motives that influenced the choice of Physics and Mathematics mostly expressed the dimension of self-realization and the dimension of material achievements. It was also found that both personality and social-cultural factors were important in choosing Physics and Mathematics, i.e. sensation of vocation and professional aptitude, as well as encouragement of relatives and good evaluation of future profession’s status. There were also found differences in expression of motives and career barriers among male and female students.

  6. Performing Gender in the Workplace: Gender Socialization, Power, and Identity among Women Faculty Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Jaime

    2008-01-01

    Organizational cultures shape and reinforce socially appropriate roles for men and women. Drawing on a performativity framework, which assumes that gender is socially constructed through gendered "performances," this study employs interviews with and observations of six women faculty members to examine how dominant discourses define and maintain…

  7. Generational Difference in Feminist Identities? Exploring Gender Conscious Identities Among African American Men and Women

    OpenAIRE

    Catherine E. Harnois

    2009-01-01

    Studies of the general population have found strong generational differences in how women and men relate to feminism. But how well do these findings reflect feminism among African American men and women? The results of this study show that generational differences are very important for understanding feminism within the Black community. Also important are gender and involvement in the paid labor force. For African Americans of the baby bust generation, working in the paid labor force seem...

  8. Singing, Sissies, and Sexual Identity: How LGBTQ Choral Directors Negotiate Gender Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Nicholas R.

    2016-01-01

    This article explores how choral directors negotiate personal and professional identity in relation to gender discourse. Many music teachers have tried hypermasculine messages, such as "Real men sing," used as recruitment tools for getting adolescent boys to join choir. Designed to counter the perception that "singing is for…

  9. The Boys Who Would Be Princesses: Playing with Gender Identity Intertexts in Disney Princess Transmedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlwend, Karen E.

    2012-01-01

    Using data from a 3-year ethnographic study in US early childhood classrooms, I examine two kindergarten boys' classroom play with their favourite Disney Princess transmedia to see how they negotiated gender identity layers clustered in the franchise's commercially given storylines and consumer expectations. This analysis contributes necessarily…

  10. Assessing the Utility of Diagnostic Criteria: A Multisite Study on Gender Identity Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paap, M.C.S.; Kreukels, B.P.C.; Cohen-Kettenis, P.T.; Richter-Appelt, H.; De Cuypere, G.; Haraldsen, I.R.

    2011-01-01

    Studies involving patients with gender identity disorder (GID) are inconsistent with regard to outcomes and often difficult to compare because of the vague descriptions of the diagnostic process. A multisite study is needed to scrutinize the utility and generality of different aspects of the

  11. A developmental, biopsychosocial model for the treatment of children with gender identity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucker, Kenneth J; Wood, Hayley; Singh, Devita; Bradley, Susan J

    2012-01-01

    This article provides a summary of the therapeutic model and approach used in the Gender Identity Service at the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health in Toronto. The authors describe their assessment protocol, describe their current multifactorial case formulation model, including a strong emphasis on developmental factors, and provide clinical examples of how the model is used in the treatment.

  12. Assessing the utility of diagnostic criteria: a multi-site study on gender identity disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paap, Muirne; Kreukels, Baudewijntje P.C.; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy; Richter-Appelt, Hertha; De Cuypere, Griet; Haraldsen, Ira R.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Studies involving patients with gender identity disorder (GID) are inconsistent with regard to outcomes and often difficult to compare because of the vague descriptions of the diagnostic process. A multisite study is needed to scrutinize the utility and generality of different aspects

  13. The DSM Diagnostic Criteria for Gender Identity Disorder in Adolescents and Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen-Kettenis, P.T.; Pfafflin, F.

    2010-01-01

    Apart from some general issues related to the Gender Identity Disorder (GID) diagnosis, such as whether it should stay in the DSM-V or not, a number of problems specifically relate to the current criteria of the GID diagnosis for adolescents and adults. These problems concern the confusion caused by

  14. "Putting My Man Face on": A Grounded Theory of College Men's Gender Identity Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Keith E.; Jones, Susan R.

    2009-01-01

    The theory that emerged from this constructivist grounded theory study of 10 college men's experiences depicts their gender identity as developed through constant interaction with society's expectations of them as men. In order to try to meet these perceived expectations, participants described putting on a performance that was like wearing a mask…

  15. Biological origins of sexual orientation and gender identity: Impact on health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hanlan, Katherine A; Gordon, Jennifer C; Sullivan, Mackenzie W

    2018-04-01

    Gynecologic Oncologists are sometimes consulted to care for patients who present with diverse gender identities or sexual orientations. Clinicians can create more helpful relationships with their patients if they understand the etiologies of these diverse expressions of sexual humanity. Multidisciplinary evidence reveals that a sexually dimorphic spectrum of somatic and neurologic anatomy, traits and abilities, including sexual orientation and gender identity, are conferred together during the first half of pregnancy due to genetics, epigenetics and the diversity of timing and function of sex chromosomes, sex-determining protein secretion, gonadal hormone secretion, receptor levels, adrenal function, maternally ingested dietary hormones, fetal health, and many other factors. Multiple layers of evidence confirm that sexual orientation and gender identity are as biological, innate and immutable as the other traits conferred during that critical time in gestation. Negative social responses to diverse orientations or gender identities have caused marginalization of these individuals with resultant alienation from medical care, reduced self-care and reduced access to medical care. The increased risks for many diseases, including gynecologic cancers are reviewed. Gynecologic Oncologists can potentially create more effective healthcare relationships with their patients if they have this information. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Responding to Issues of Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity in School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudy, Stewart

    2017-01-01

    It's hard not to notice how attitudes around sexual orientation and gender identity (SOGI) have changed over the past two decades. In this article, Stewart Rudy compares his time as a public school student to his time as a public school educator. Rudy questions whether improvement in the school system has translated into improved experiences for…

  17. Relationship between parenting styles and gender role identity in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yi-Ching; Billingham, Robert E

    2014-02-01

    The relationship between perceived parenting styles and gender role identity was examined in college students. 230 undergraduate students (48 men, 182 women; 18-23 years old) responded to the Parental Authority Questionnaire (PAQ) and the Bem Sex-Role Inventory (BSRI). The hypothesis was that parenting styles (authoritarian, authoritative, and permissive for both fathers and mothers) would be significantly associated with gender role identity (undifferentiated, feminine, masculine, and androgynous) of college students, specifically whether authoritative parenting styles associated with androgyny. To account for differences in sex on gender role identity or parenting styles, sex was included as a factor. The pattern of the difference in identity groups was similar for males and females. There were significant differences in parenting styles between gender role groups. Maternal and paternal authoritativeness correlated with participants' femininity, and for both parents, the relationship was observed to be stronger in males than females; paternal authoritativeness was significantly associated with androgyny. Future research based on these results should investigate how the findings relate to children's psychological well-being and behavioral outcomes.

  18. Shifting Identities: Negotiating Intersections of Race and Gender in Canadian Administrative Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Denise; Mitchell, Coral

    2017-01-01

    This qualitative study used a critical intersectional lens to examine how two black female Canadian principals negotiated their professional identities in administrative contexts. Both principals encountered gender and race-related pressures to fit normative expectations of administrators as white males. Navigating their intersecting identities…

  19. Sexual differentiation of the human brain in relation to gender identity and sexual orientation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savic, Ivanka; Garcia-Falgueras, Alicia; Swaab, Dick F.

    2010-01-01

    It is believed that during the intrauterine period the fetal brain develops in the male direction through a direct action of testosterone on the developing nerve cells, or in the female direction through the absence of this hormone surge. According to this concept, our gender identity (the

  20. When Social Identities Collide: Commentary on "Gender in the Management Education Classroom"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Eric

    2010-01-01

    This commentary to "Gender in the Management Education Classroom" (Bilimoria, O'Neil, Hopkins, & Murphy, 2010) employs social identity and self-categorization theory to analyze the incident described in the article. In any MBA classroom, students are dealing with multiple group memberships. Similar to workplace settings, when the focus is on…

  1. Gender and nation: Preservation (and construction of national identity through gender discriminative nationalistic politics: A case of Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Topić Martina

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses interconnection of gender, nation and national identity. Argumentation is based on the case study which is in this paper Croatia. At the beginning of its independence in the 90's Croatia faced with transition from totalitarian undemocratic system to a democratic one but also with a need for constructing the national identity which has not always been strongly incorporated in the society not obsessed with nationality and national identity, in a multinational state as Yugoslavia was. That construction of the national identity was made possible with so called return to the tradition where women were supposed to serve the country with theirs reproductive functions meant to enforce the nationalist politics of ethnical reproduction. In the past, Croatian political thought was not meant to be ethnical but civil, and therefore the nationalistic authorities wanted to nationalize the society and breast feed it with the idea of desire for independence that existed since ancient times, and gender played a crucial role in this politics. Only with political changes of 2000 a new era began but consequences of this radical nationalistic politics are still felt in the attitudes of the citizenship which still sees women in the traditional position and private sphere. .

  2. Violence motivated by perception of sexual orientation and gender identity: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blondeel, Karel; de Vasconcelos, Sofia; García-Moreno, Claudia; Stephenson, Rob; Temmerman, Marleen; Toskin, Igor

    2018-01-01

    To assess the prevalence of physical and sexual violence motivated by perception of sexual orientation and gender identity in sexual and gender minorities. We searched nine databases without language restrictions for peer-reviewed and grey literature published from 2000 to April 2016. We included studies with more than 50 participants that measured the prevalence of physical and sexual violence perceived as being motivated by sexual orientation and gender identity or gender expression. We excluded intimate partner violence and self-harm. Due to heterogeneity and the absence of confidence intervals in most studies, we made no meta-analysis. We included 76 articles from 50 countries. These covered 74 studies conducted between 1995 and 2014, including a total of 202 607 sexual and gender minority participants. The quality of data was relatively poor due to a lack of standardized measures and sometimes small and non-randomized samples. In studies where all sexual and gender minorities were analysed as one population, the prevalence of physical and sexual violence ranged from 6% (in a study including 240 people) to 25% (49/196 people) and 5.6% (28/504) to 11.4% (55/484), respectively. For transgender people the prevalence ranged from 11.8% (of a subsample of 34 people) to 68.2% (75/110) and 7.0% (in a study including 255 people) to 49.1% (54/110). More data are needed on the prevalence, risk factors and consequences of physical and sexual violence motivated by sexual orientation and gender identity in different geographical and cultural settings. National violence prevention policies and interventions should include sexual and gender minorities.

  3. Violence motivated by perception of sexual orientation and gender identity: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vasconcelos, Sofia; García-Moreno, Claudia; Stephenson, Rob; Temmerman, Marleen; Toskin, Igor

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess the prevalence of physical and sexual violence motivated by perception of sexual orientation and gender identity in sexual and gender minorities. Methods We searched nine databases without language restrictions for peer-reviewed and grey literature published from 2000 to April 2016. We included studies with more than 50 participants that measured the prevalence of physical and sexual violence perceived as being motivated by sexual orientation and gender identity or gender expression. We excluded intimate partner violence and self-harm. Due to heterogeneity and the absence of confidence intervals in most studies, we made no meta-analysis. Findings We included 76 articles from 50 countries. These covered 74 studies conducted between 1995 and 2014, including a total of 202 607 sexual and gender minority participants. The quality of data was relatively poor due to a lack of standardized measures and sometimes small and non-randomized samples. In studies where all sexual and gender minorities were analysed as one population, the prevalence of physical and sexual violence ranged from 6% (in a study including 240 people) to 25% (49/196 people) and 5.6% (28/504) to 11.4% (55/484), respectively. For transgender people the prevalence ranged from 11.8% (of a subsample of 34 people) to 68.2% (75/110) and 7.0% (in a study including 255 people) to 49.1% (54/110). Conclusion More data are needed on the prevalence, risk factors and consequences of physical and sexual violence motivated by sexual orientation and gender identity in different geographical and cultural settings. National violence prevention policies and interventions should include sexual and gender minorities. PMID:29403098

  4. Can motivations for studying dentistry inform us about gender and BME differences in dental academic careers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waylen, A; Barnes, O; Kenyon, P; Neville, P

    2017-01-13

    There are various motivators that prompt people to study dentistry but there is evidence that the salience of each varies according to gender and black and minority ethnic (BME) group. Given the current focus on inequality within the science, technology, engineering, medicine and mathematics (STEMM) academic disciplines where dentistry sits, it is important to understand the relevance of different motivators to different social groups if inequality is to be overcome. We carried out a survey of dental students from 11 out of the 18 dental schools in the UK to find out what prompted them to study dentistry. Our findings showed that most people make a personal choice to study dentistry and follow a patient-focused career while the prospect of an academic career was important for less than half of our sample. Differences according to gender and BME group were apparent but did not follow these trends. In order to continue to improve the diversity within dental academia dental schools should consider the different preferences of the workforce and work to broaden its potential.

  5. Sexual Minority Health and Health Risk Factors: Intersection Effects of Gender, Race, and Sexual Identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Ning; Ruther, Matt

    2016-06-01

    Although population studies have documented the poorer health outcomes of sexual minorities, few have taken an intersectionality approach to examine how sexual orientation, gender, and race jointly affect these outcomes. Moreover, little is known about how behavioral risks and healthcare access contribute to health disparities by sexual, gender, and racial identities. Using ordered and binary logistic regression models in 2015, data from the 2013 and 2014 National Health Interview Surveys (n=62,302) were analyzed to study disparities in self-rated health and functional limitation. This study examined how gender and race interact with sexual identity to create health disparities, and how these disparities are attributable to differential exposure to behavioral risks and access to care. Conditional on sociodemographic factors, all sexual, gender, and racial minority groups, except straight white women, gay white men, and bisexual non-white men, reported worse self-rated health than straight white men (pnon-white men, were more likely to report a functional limitation than straight white men (pgender, and racial minority groups. Sexual, gender, and racial identities interact with one another in a complex way to affect health experiences. Efforts to improve sexual minority health should consider heterogeneity in health risks and health outcomes among sexual minorities. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Philosophy teaching and the constitution of personal identity: Formation, autonomy and gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Aparecida Kuhnen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the contribution of philosophy in basic education classes for the formation of the students as individuals, helping them in the process of identity construction. Philosophy teaching in high school contributes to constituteself-aware individuals in space and time. It helps them with the ability to reflect critically on the social context in which they are inserted and on the expectations in terms of fixed gender roles imposed from the outside in. In this sense, the particularity of philosophical knowledge, as critical thinking through the creation of concepts, entails a more authentic and autonomous individual formation. This also justifies the presence of philosophy as a subject in high school. The personal gender experience is central in the formation of identity. So it is important to discuss this topic with the students. Due to that, we advocate the importance of bringing gender issues to philosophy classes. It refers a real experience that can be problematized in order to deconstruct naturalized gender performativity and think about the inequalities that pervade this social category. Thus, students can constitute a more conscious individual identity, critical to social position that their genders occupy in the social environment.

  7. Processes and content of narrative identity development in adolescence: gender and well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Kate C; Breen, Andrea V

    2009-05-01

    The present study examined narrative identity in adolescence (14-18 years) in terms of narrative content and processes of identity development. Age- and gender-related differences in narrative patterns in turning point memories and gender differences in the content and functions for sharing those memories were examined, as was the relationship between narrative patterns and self-esteem. The narrative patterns focused on were meaning-making (learning from past events) and emotionality of the narratives, specified as overall positive emotional tone and redemptive sequencing. Results showed an age-related increase in meaning-making but no gender differences in the degree of meaning-making. Results further showed that gender predicted self-esteem and that boys evidenced higher self-esteem. Emotionality also predicted self-esteem; this was especially true for redemption and for boys. In terms of telling functions, girls endorsed more relational reasons for telling memories than did boys. Results are discussed in terms of potential gendered and nongendered pathways for identity development in adolescence. Copyright 2009 APA, all rights reserved

  8. Exploring the Contribution of Teaching and Learning Processes in the Construction of Students’ Gender Identity in Early Year Classrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amina Baig

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study explores how gender identity construction takes place in a single gender classroom in early years. Qualitative research guided the study design which was conducted in two public sector single gender schools. The data were collected through observations of the teacher-student interaction, student-student interaction, focused group discussion, and semi-structured interviews. The study found that teaching and learning is gendered in single sex settings as gender messages are passed on to the students, who play an important role in the gender identity construction of these children. The study also indicated that the teachers’ personal experiences greatly affect their perceptions regarding gender identities. There was also evidence of teachers having different expectations for girls and boys. Schools were hence found promoting stereotypes regarding gender roles and responsibilities in a social context.

  9. Sexual differentiation of the human brain: relation to gender identity, sexual orientation and neuropsychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Ai-Min; Swaab, Dick F

    2011-04-01

    During the intrauterine period a testosterone surge masculinizes the fetal brain, whereas the absence of such a surge results in a feminine brain. As sexual differentiation of the brain takes place at a much later stage in development than sexual differentiation of the genitals, these two processes can be influenced independently of each other. Sex differences in cognition, gender identity (an individual's perception of their own sexual identity), sexual orientation (heterosexuality, homosexuality or bisexuality), and the risks of developing neuropsychiatric disorders are programmed into our brain during early development. There is no evidence that one's postnatal social environment plays a crucial role in gender identity or sexual orientation. We discuss the relationships between structural and functional sex differences of various brain areas and the way they change along with any changes in the supply of sex hormones on the one hand and sex differences in behavior in health and disease on the other. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Examining the Gender Identity of Language Teachers Using a Masculinity-Femininity Scale: A Case from Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pishghadam, Reza; Saboori, Fahime; Samavarchi, Laila; Hassanzadeh, Tahereh

    2016-01-01

    The present study pursued two goals: first, to construct and validate a masculinity/femininity scale (MFS); and second, to reveal and compare the dominant gender identity of English, Arabic, and Persian teachers. Regarding the first goal, a 30- item gender identity scale was designed and, using the data collected from 300 junior high school…

  11. Patient perspectives on answering questions about sexual orientation and gender identity: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjarnadottir, Ragnhildur I; Bockting, Walter; Dowding, Dawn W

    2017-07-01

    To examine patients' perceptions of being asked about their sexual orientation and gender identity in the healthcare setting. Health disparities exist in the lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender population, but further research is needed to better understand these disparities. To address this issue, experts recommend the routine collection of sexual orientation and gender identity data in health care. Nurses on the front line of patient care play a key role in the collection of these data. However, to enable nurses to conduct such assessments it is important to understand the perspective of the patients on being asked about their sexual orientation and gender identity in a healthcare setting. An integrative review was conducted using the methodology proposed by Whittemore and Knafl (Journal of Advanced Nursing, 2005, 52, 546). Six electronic databases were searched, and two reviewers independently reviewed papers for inclusion. Papers were included if they were empirical studies, peer-reviewed papers or reports, assessing patient perspectives on discussing sexual orientation and gender identity in the healthcare setting. Twenty-one relevant studies that met the inclusion criteria were identified. A majority of the studies indicated patients' willingness to respond to, and a perceived importance of, questions about sexual orientation and gender identity. However, fears of homophobia and negative consequences hindered willingness to disclose this information. This review indicates that in most cases patients are willing to answer routine questions about their sexual orientation in the healthcare setting and perceive them as important questions to ask. The findings of this review have implications for nurses looking to incorporate questions about sexual orientation into their routine patient assessment. The findings indicate that care providers need to be mindful of heteronormative assumptions and take steps to ensure they are knowledgeable about lesbian, gay

  12. Exploring the Contribution of Teaching and Learning Processes in the Construction of Students’ Gender Identity in Early Year Classrooms

    OpenAIRE

    Amina Baig

    2014-01-01

    The present study explores how gender identity construction takes place in a single gender classroom in early years. Qualitative research guided the study design which was conducted in two public sector single gender schools. The data were collected through observations of the teacher-student interaction, student-student interaction, focused group discussion, and semi-structured interviews. The study found that teaching and learning is gendered in single sex settings as gender messages are pa...

  13. Gender differences and the definition of success: male and female veterinary students' career and work performance expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogan, Lori R; McConnell, Sherry L; Schoenfeld-Tacher, Regina

    2004-01-01

    This article addresses the challenges that gender performance expectations create within the veterinary profession. An investigation of veterinary students' perceptions of the essential characteristics that define successful veterinarians and veterinary students, and the gender differences within these definitions, is described. Because previous research supports the premise that the standards required for success differ for males and females, it is likely that male and female veterinary students possess different career expectations and definitions of career success. The ramifications of these differences are explored, and proposed strategies to address this issue, in the form of student support services, are discussed.

  14. [Gender-specific evaluation of student's career planning during medical study in terms of orthopaedic trauma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooij, S C; Antony, P; Ruesseler, M; Pfeifer, R; Drescher, W; Simon, M; Pape, H-C; Knobe, M

    2011-08-01

    Due to recent changes in the medical licencing act as well as to the introduction of a new model-course programme for medical studies, careers in medicine have become increasingly more attractive. However, there is still a dramatic shortage in younger generation physicians, especially within the surgical fields. The goal of this cross-sectional study was the gender-specific assessment of the ideal career wishes of students during medical school, with a focus being placed in orthopaedic trauma surgery. During the winter semester of 2010/2011 an online questionnaire (www.surveymonkey.com) was created for students enrolled in their 3rd to 12th semester (n=887). The questionnaire consisted of 50 questions [Likert scale (LS); 5 = agree, 1 = disagree] along with 10 free response questions. The scope of these questions ranged from personal career goals, within the context of their learning environment, to general life goals and planning. With regard to career choice, a differentiation was made between students' ideal career choices/subjects (IS), which were based solely on personal affinity, and so-called reality-based subjects (RS), which students considered more practical and to which they were more likely to apply in the future. The response rate was 36,4% (n=323, 23,4 years, 6.3 semesters, 226 [70.0%] female [f] and 97 [30.0%] male [m]). A total of 206 students (63.8%; m=55.7% vs. f=66.7%; p=0.047) were able to pinpoint an IS, this percentage increased with increasing semester number (p=0.048). Overall, 29.1% of students indicated that their IS lay in the field of orthopaedic trauma, while 20.0% of men and 19.1% of women saw it as a realistic career path (RS). Throughout the course of their studies, from the 3rd semester to their practical year, a declining tendency was observed regarding the agreement between ideal and realistic career paths. Particularly evident was a decreasing interest in the field of orthopaedic trauma, beginning around the 9th semester and

  15. Gender identity and the management of the transgender patient: a guide for non-specialists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Albert; Cliffe, Charlotte; Hillyard, Miriam; Majeed, Azeem

    2017-04-01

    In this review, we introduce the topic of transgender medicine, aimed at the non-specialist clinician working in the UK. Appropriate terminology is provided alongside practical advice on how to appropriately care for transgender people. We offer a brief theoretical discussion on transgenderism and consider how it relates to broader understandings of both gender and disease. In respect to epidemiology, while it is difficult to assess the exact size of the transgender population in the UK, population surveys suggest a prevalence of between 0.2 and 0.6% in adults, with rates of referrals to gender identity clinics in the UK increasing yearly. We outline the legal framework that protects the rights of transgender people, showing that is not legal for physicians to deny transgender people access to services based on their personal beliefs. Being transgender is often, although not always, associated with gender dysphoria, a potentially disabling condition in which the discordance between a person's natal sex (that assigned to them at birth) and gender identity results in distress, with high associated rates of self-harm, suicidality and functional impairment. We show that gender reassignment can be a safe and effective treatment for gender dysphoria with counselling, exogenous hormones and surgery being the mainstay of treatment. The role of the general practitioner in the management of transgender patients is discussed and we consider whether hormone therapy should be initiated in primary care in the absence of specialist advice, as is suggested by recent General Medical Council guidance.

  16. A comprehensive program for children with gender variant behaviors and gender identity disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menvielle, Edgardo

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a clinical program designed to address broadly defined mental health needs of children who experience stress related to not fitting into normative gender types and argues for the need for integrated services that address the spectrum of gender variance. An array of services useful to children and their families is proposed. The article describes the clinical population served, common clinical and social problems, and a rationale for the interventions provided.

  17. A parent-report Gender Identity Questionnaire for Children: A cross-national, cross-clinic comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T; Wallien, Madeleine; Johnson, Laurel L; Owen-Anderson, Allison F H; Bradley, Susan J; Zucker, Kenneth J

    2006-07-01

    A one-factor, 14-item parent-report Gender Identity Questionnaire for Children (GIQC) was developed in a sample of 325 clinic-referred children with gender identity problems and 504 controls from Toronto, Canada (Johnson et al., 2004). In this study, we report a cross-national, cross-clinic comparative analysis of the GIQC on gender-referred children (N = 338) from Toronto and gender-referred children (N = 175) from Utrecht, The Netherlands. Across clinics, the results showed both similarities and differences. Gender-referred boys from Utrecht had a significantly higher total score (indicating more cross-gender behavior) than did gender-referred boys from Toronto, but there was no significant difference for girls. In the Toronto sample, the gender-referred girls had a significantly higher total score than the gender-referred boys, but there was no significant sex difference in the Utrecht sample. Across both clinics, gender-referred children who met the complete DSM criteria for gender identity disorder (GID) had a significantly higher cross-gender score than the gender-referred children who were subthreshold for GID (Cohen's d = 1.11). The results of this study provide the first empirical evidence of relative similarity in cross-gender behavior in a sample of gender-referred children from western Europe when compared to North American children. The results also provide some support for cross-clinic consistency in clinician-based diagnosis of GID.

  18. Gender differences in salary in a recent cohort of early-career physician-researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagsi, Reshma; Griffith, Kent A; Stewart, Abigail; Sambuco, Dana; DeCastro, Rochelle; Ubel, Peter A

    2013-11-01

    Studies have suggested that male physicians earn more than their female counterparts. The authors examined whether this disparity exists in a recently hired cohort. In 2010-2011, the authors surveyed recent recipients of National Institutes of Health (NIH) mentored career development (i.e., K08 or K23) awards, receiving responses from 1,275 (75% response rate). For the 1,012 physicians with academic positions in clinical specialties who reported salary, they constructed linear regression models of salary considering gender, age, race, marital status, parental status, additional doctoral degree, academic rank, years on faculty, specialty, institution type, region, institution NIH funding rank, K award type, K award funding institute, K award year, work hours, and research time. They evaluated the explanatory value of spousal employment status using Peters-Belson regression. Mean salary was $141,325 (95% confidence interval [CI] 135,607-147,043) for women and $172,164 (95% CI 167,357-176,971) for men. Male gender remained an independent, significant predictor of salary (+$10,921, P work hours, research time, and other factors. Peters-Belson analysis indicated that 17% of the overall disparity in the full sample was unexplained by the measured covariates. In the married subset, after accounting for spousal employment status, 10% remained unexplained. The authors observed, in this recent cohort of elite, early-career physician-researchers, a gender difference in salary that was not fully explained by specialty, academic rank, work hours, or even spousal employment. Creating more equitable procedures for establishing salary is important.

  19. Children and adolescents with gender identity disorder referred to a pediatric medical center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spack, Norman P; Edwards-Leeper, Laura; Feldman, Henry A; Leibowitz, Scott; Mandel, Francie; Diamond, David A; Vance, Stanley R

    2012-03-01

    To describe the patients with gender identity disorder referred to a pediatric medical center. We identify changes in patients after creation of the multidisciplinary Gender Management Service by expanding the Disorders of Sex Development clinic to include transgender patients. Data gathered on 97 consecutive patients gender behaviors, provided letters from current mental health professional, and parental support. Main descriptive measures included gender, age, Tanner stage, history of gender identity development, and psychiatric comorbidity. Genotypic male:female ratio was 43:54 (0.8:1); there was a slight preponderance of female patients but not significant from 1:1. Age of presentation was 14.8 ± 3.4 years (mean ± SD) without sex difference (P = .11). Tanner stage at presentation was 4.1 ± 1.4 for genotypic female patients and 3.6 ± 1.5 for genotypic male patients (P = .02). Age at start of medical treatment was 15.6 ± 2.8 years. Forty-three patients (44.3%) presented with significant psychiatric history, including 20 reporting self-mutilation (20.6%) and suicide attempts (9.3%). After establishment of a multidisciplinary gender clinic, the gender identity disorder population increased fourfold. Complex clinical presentations required additional mental health support as the patient population grew. Mean age and Tanner Stage were too advanced for pubertal suppressive therapy to be an affordable option for most patients. Two-thirds of patients were started on cross-sex hormone therapy. Greater awareness of the benefit of early medical intervention is needed. Psychological and physical effects of pubertal suppression and/or cross-sex hormones in our patients require further investigation.

  20. The Fraternal Exercise of Gender Identities: The Transsexuality Beyond Freedom and Equality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarindo Epaminondas de Sá Neto

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Visibility and invisibility are very meaningful words to the community of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex - LGBTTI. Compose this “alphabet soup” that represents the sex-diverse community means transit, lifelong, between invisibility and visibility. For lesbians and gays be visible implies publicly assume their sexual orientation; for transsexuals, transvestites, transgender and intersex people, visibility is compulsory at some point in their lives, since, unlike sexual orientation, which can be concealed by a lie by omission or by “closet”, the identity of Gender is experienced by people “trans” as a stigma that can not be hidden, as with skin color, for black men and women. In this paper will seek to analyze the performance of identities “trans” on the premise that free traffic between genders can not be treated as an issue linked to human sexuality, namely sexual orientation of the subject, but from a gender perspective, which will lead us to understand this issue as a fact linked to identity and not to psychological disorders. Also we analyze the contribution that the principle of fraternity can give to the exercise of such identities, taking into account the fact that freedom and equality (members of the French revolutionary triad do not lend, isolated in both. With regard to methodology, we opted for the inductive approach method and procedure as the monographic method, using as a data collection technique the literature.

  1. Maintaining the privacy of a minor's sexual orientation and gender identity in the medical environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyatt, Josh

    2015-01-01

    Dealing with self-identity, sexual orientation, and gender identity is often a struggle for minors. The potential negative outcomes minors face when their sexual orientation or gender identity is disclosed to others before they have an opportunity to address it in their own time has become more evident in the media. Because of the intimate nature of the provider-patient relationship, the healthcare provider may be the first person in whom they confide. If a minor receives a positive, nonjudgmental experience from his or her provider, it will often lead to a more positive self-image, whereas a negative, judgmental experience will often result in the opposite. Critical components of their experience are a sense of trust that the provider will keep the information confidential and the healthcare setting being organized in a manner that promotes privacy. Healthcare providers play a key role in developing and projecting a safe, comfortable environment where the minor can discretely discuss issues of sexual orientation and gender identity. Establishing this environment will usually facilitate a positive therapeutic relationship between the minor and the provider. Steps healthcare providers can take to achieve trust from minor patients and ensure confidentiality of sensitive information are understanding privacy laws, making privacy a priority, getting consent, training staff, and demonstrating privacy in the environment. © 2015 American Society for Healthcare Risk Management of the American Hospital Association.

  2. Female EFL teachers: shifting and multiple gender and language-learner identities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Ximena Rojas

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Gender studies have taken an important role within the academic community, and specifically in the field of second and foreign languagelearning. In this paper I use a Feminist Poststructuralist Discourse Analysis (FPDA study to explore how emergent femininities construct genderidentities and power relations inside the EFL classroom setting through interaction. I argue that identities are multiple and shifting accordingto the way individuals position and reposition themselves through discourse(s. In doing so, gender identities can be identified and related tolearners’ identities in EFL contexts. I chose a Feminist Poststructuralist Discourse Analysis (FPDA methodology (Baxter, 2003 in order toidentify telling cases (Mitchell, 1984 during interactions in which, female adult students from a private university in Bogotá, Colombia makeexplicit the exercising of power during classroom activities, such as debates (Castañeda- Peña, 2009 and disputes (Toohey, 2001 in foreignlanguage learning. I chose video recordings, transcripts and interviews as instruments to cope with the objectives of the study as well as toaccomplish the methodological suggestions. Findings suggest the importance of being aware of the multiplicity of gender identities that mayintervene when learning a language and how to deal with more egalitarian discourses and activities during classes that guarantee, to someextent, the empowerment of silent voices.

  3. Getting along or ahead: Effects of gender identity threat on communal and agentic self-presentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Samantha; Carlsson, Rickard; Björklund, Fredrik

    2016-10-01

    When faced with a threat to gender identity, people may try to restore their gender status by acting in a more gender-typical manner. The present research investigated effects of gender identity threat on self-presentations of agentic and communal traits in a Swedish and an Argentine sample (N = 242). Under threat (vs. affirmation), Swedish women deemphasized agentic traits (d [95% CI] = -0.41 [-0.93, 0.11]), Argentine women increased their emphasis on communal traits (d = 0.44 [-0.08, 0.97]), and Argentine men increased their emphasis on agentic traits (d = 0.49 [-0.03, 1.01]). However, Swedish men did not appear to be affected by the threat regarding agentic (d = 0.04 [-0.47, 0.55]) or communal traits (d = 0.23 [-0.29, 0.74]). The findings are to be considered tentative. Implications for identity threat research are discussed. © 2016 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Physical victimization, gender identity and suicide risk among transgender men and women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gia Elise Barboza, PhD

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigated whether being attacked physically due to one's gender identity or expression was associated with suicide risk among trans men and women living in Virginia. The sample consisted of 350 transgender men and women who participated in the Virginia Transgender Health Initiative Survey (THIS. Multivariate multinomial logistic regression was used to explore the competing outcomes associated with suicidal risk. Thirty-seven percent of trans men and women experienced at least one physical attack since the age of 13. On average, individuals experienced 3.97 (SD = 2.86 physical attacks; among these about half were attributed to one's gender identity or expression (mean = 2.08, SD = 1.96. In the multivariate multinomial regression, compared to those with no risk, being physically attacked increased the odds of both attempting and contemplating suicide regardless of gender attribution. Nevertheless, the relative impact of physical victimization on suicidal behavior was higher among those who were targeted on the basis of their gender identity or expression. Finally, no significant association was found between multiple measures of institutional discrimination and suicide risk once discriminatory and non-discriminatory physical victimization was taken into account. Trans men and women experience high levels of physical abuse and face multiple forms of discrimination. They are also at an increased risk for suicidal tendencies. Interventions that help transindividuals cope with discrimination and physical victimization simultaneously may be more effective in saving lives.

  5. Physical victimization, gender identity and suicide risk among transgender men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barboza, Gia Elise; Dominguez, Silvia; Chance, Elena

    2016-12-01

    We investigated whether being attacked physically due to one's gender identity or expression was associated with suicide risk among trans men and women living in Virginia. The sample consisted of 350 transgender men and women who participated in the Virginia Transgender Health Initiative Survey (THIS). Multivariate multinomial logistic regression was used to explore the competing outcomes associated with suicidal risk. Thirty-seven percent of trans men and women experienced at least one physical attack since the age of 13. On average, individuals experienced 3.97 (SD = 2.86) physical attacks; among these about half were attributed to one's gender identity or expression (mean = 2.08, SD = 1.96). In the multivariate multinomial regression, compared to those with no risk, being physically attacked increased the odds of both attempting and contemplating suicide regardless of gender attribution. Nevertheless, the relative impact of physical victimization on suicidal behavior was higher among those who were targeted on the basis of their gender identity or expression. Finally, no significant association was found between multiple measures of institutional discrimination and suicide risk once discriminatory and non-discriminatory physical victimization was taken into account. Trans men and women experience high levels of physical abuse and face multiple forms of discrimination. They are also at an increased risk for suicidal tendencies. Interventions that help transindividuals cope with discrimination and physical victimization simultaneously may be more effective in saving lives.

  6. Gender identity and HIV risk among men who have sex with men in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobson, Geoffrey; Tucker, Andrew; de Swardt, Glenn; Rebe, Kevin; Struthers, Helen; McIntyre, James; Peters, Remco

    2018-04-18

    Gender identity plays a potentially important role contributing to HIV risk among MSM in South Africa. Where studies have included a focus on gender identity, MSM reporting gender non-conformity have been found to have a higher risk of being HIV positive than other MSM. This article examines HIV risk among gender non-conforming MSM in a sample of 316 MSM in Cape Town, South Africa. Reporting gender non-conformity was associated with higher HIV prevalence and increased HIV risk behaviour. Gender non-conformity was also associated with a higher likelihood of being unemployed and reporting low household incomes. These findings highlight the importance of gender-identity as a factor affecting access to HIV treatment, care, and prevention in South Africa and this is an issue that needs to be addressed in interventions targeting MSM populations.

  7. Prevalence of dating violence among sexual minority youth: variation across gender, sexual minority identity and gender of sexual partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Storey, Alexa

    2015-01-01

    Dating violence during adolescence negatively influences concurrent psychosocial functioning, and has been linked with an increased likelihood of later intimate partner violence. Identifying who is most vulnerable for this negative outcome can inform the development of intervention practices addressing this problem. The two goals of this study were to assess variations in the prevalence of dating violence across different measures of sexual minority status (e.g., sexual minority identity or same-sex sexual behavior), and to assess whether this association was mediated by bullying, the number of sexual partners, binge drinking or aggressive behaviors. These goals were assessed by employing the Massachusetts Youth Risk Behavior Survey (N = 12,984), a regionally representative sample of youth ages 14-18. In this sample, a total of 540 girls and 323 boys reported a non-heterosexual identity, and 429 girls and 230 boys reported having had one or more same-sex sexual partners. The results generally supported a higher prevalence of dating violence among sexual minority youth. This vulnerability varied considerably across gender, sexual minority identity and the gender of sexual partners, but generally persisted when accounting for the mediating variables. The findings support investigating dating violence as a mechanism in the disparities between sexual minority and heterosexual youth, and the importance of addressing sexual minority youth specifically in interventions targeting dating violence.

  8. Managing an academic career in science: What gender differences exist and why?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Gayle Patrice

    The present study examines the career trajectories of academic scientists during the period from 1993 to 2001 to explore gender differences in mobility. Data from the National Science Foundation's Survey of Doctorate Recipients are used to examine and compare gender differences in the odds of promotion. The effects of age, marital and family status, duration of time to complete doctorate, academic discipline, cumulative number of publications and time in the survey are considered as explanatory variables. Event history analyses are conducted for all scientists, for scientists in four major academic disciplines and for scientists in various academic ranks. While no overall gender differences were observed in the odds of promotion, several important similarities and differences were evident. Expectedly, publications had a significant and positive relationship with advancement for both women and men. The role of parent influenced promotions quite differently for women and men. Contrary to expectations based on prior research, academic women scientists who were mothers advanced at similar rates as women without children. Consistent with expectations based on traditional roles, married men and men with children generally advanced more quickly than single or childless men, respectively. Two surprising patterns emerged among subgroups of women. Marriage was associated with greater odds of advancement for women engineers and motherhood was associated with greater odds of advancement for among assistant professors. Possible explanations for these findings are presented.

  9. The challenges to gender integration in the career fire services: a comparative case study of men in nursing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    pdf. 191 David F. Burrelli, Women in the Armed Forces (CRS Report No. 92008) ( Washington , DC: Congressional Research Service, 1998), 1, https...IB92008) Washington , DC: Congressional Research Service, 1998. https://www.hsdl.org/?view&did=718051. Carreiras, Helena. Gender and the Military: Women ...GENDER INTEGRATION IN THE CAREER FIRE SERVICES: A COMPARATIVE CASE STUDY OF MEN IN NURSING by Anna L. Schermerhorn-Collins March 2017

  10. Discrimination, Racial/Ethnic Identity, and Substance Use Among Latina/os: Are They Gendered?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Kristine M; Jackson, Benita; Rivera-Olmedo, Noemi

    2016-02-01

    Prior research suggests that stronger racial/ethnic identification offsets negative effects of discrimination on substance use. Yet research in this area and on whether gender modifies this association is limited for Latina/os. The purpose of the present study is to examine whether different sources of discrimination (everyday and racial/ethnic) are associated with substance use (alcohol use disorder, smoking), if racial/ethnic identity buffers this association, and the potential moderating role of gender among these variables. We present cross-sectional, US population-based data from the Latina/o adult sample (1427 females and 1127 males) of the National Latino and Asian American Study. Respondents completed self-reported measures of everyday and racial/ethnic discrimination, racial/ethnic identity, smoking status, and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV) lifetime alcohol use disorder. Weighted logistic regression analyses showed that before inclusion of three-way interactions and adjusting for covariates, everyday discrimination predicted increased risk for any DSM-IV lifetime alcohol use disorders. Moderation analyses revealed that the effect of everyday discrimination on the risk of being a current smoker was strongest for Latino men with high levels of racial/ethnic identity compared to those with low racial/ethnic identity. No differences were noted among Latino women. There were no main or interaction effects of racial/ethnic discrimination for any substance use outcome. Findings suggest differential associations for type of discrimination and outcome and that the role of racial/ethnic identity is gender-specific for smoking, appearing particularly detrimental for Latino men reporting high levels of racial/ethnic identity.

  11. Discrimination, Racial/Ethnic Identity, and Substance Use Among Latina/os: Are They Gendered?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Benita; Rivera-Olmedo, Noemi

    2016-01-01

    Background Prior research suggests that stronger racial/ethnic identification offsets negative effects of discrimination on substance use. Yet research in this area and on whether gender modifies this association is limited for Latina/os. Purpose The purpose of the present study is to examine whether different sources of discrimination (everyday and racial/ethnic) are associated with substance use (alcohol use disorder, smoking), if racial/ethnic identity buffers this association, and the potential moderating role of gender among these variables. Methods We present cross-sectional, US population-based data from the Latina/o adult sample (1427 females and 1127 males) of the National Latino and Asian American Study. Respondents completed self-reported measures of everyday and racial/ethnic discrimination, racial/ethnic identity, smoking status, and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV) lifetime alcohol use disorder. Results Weighted logistic regression analyses showed that before inclusion of three-way interactions and adjusting for covariates, everyday discrimination predicted increased risk for any DSM-IV lifetime alcohol use disorders. Moderation analyses revealed that the effect of everyday discrimination on the risk of being a current smoker was strongest for Latino men with high levels of racial/ethnic identity compared to those with low racial/ethnic identity. No differences were noted among Latino women. There were no main or interaction effects of racial/ethnic discrimination for any substance use outcome. Conclusions Findings suggest differential associations for type of discrimination and outcome and that the role of racial/ethnic identity is gender-specific for smoking, appearing particularly detrimental for Latino men reporting high levels of racial/ethnic identity. PMID:26489844

  12. [Gender identity disorders or andromimetic behaviour in a victim of incest--a case study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piegza, Magdalena; Leksowska, Aleksandra; Pudlo, Robert; Badura-Brzoza, Karina; Matysiakiewicz, Jerzy; Gierlotka, Zbigniew; Gorczyca, Piotr W

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, it is becoming increasingly difficult to clearly classify the issues associated with the phenomenon of gender dysphoria due to the fact that one identifies oneself in the context of increasingly fluid categories of gender identity-- an intrinsic sense of being a woman or a man. The authors present a woman whose internal problems connected with her sexuality and incomplete identification with the role attributed to her gender originate from her family history. Long-lasting, traumatic experiences of incestuous abuse and violence on the part of close relatives disturbed her development in many areas of personality and functioning. The aim of the study was to verify the hypothesis of the existence of gender identity disorder accompanied by depressive disorders. In addition to the medical history, the study of patient's problems included the following diagnostic tools: the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) and the Rorschach Inkblot Test in a CSR Exner system (TPA). The study revealed that as for sexual identification, the patient unambiguously identifies herself as a woman. Her behaviour to become like a man does not deny her sex, or even involve a temporary need of belonging to the opposite sex. It should be interpreted in the broader context of her traumatic experiences, not just sexual, but also concerning different aspects of a female gender role.

  13. Birth order and sibling sex ratio of children and adolescents referred to a gender identity service.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doug P Vanderlaan

    Full Text Available In adult male samples, homosexuality is associated with a preponderance of older brothers (i.e., the fraternal birth order effect. In several studies comparing gender dysphoric youth, who are likely to be homosexual in adulthood, to clinical or non-clinical control groups, the findings have been consistent with the fraternal birth order effect in males; however, less is known about unique sibship characteristics of gender dysphoric females. The current study investigated birth order and sibling sex ratio in a large sample of children and adolescents referred to the same Gender Identity Service (N = 768. Probands were classified as heterosexual males, homosexual males, or homosexual females based on clinical diagnostic information. Groups differed significantly in age and sibship size, and homosexual females were significantly more likely to be only children. Subsequent analyses controlled for age and for sibship size. Compared to heterosexual males, homosexual males had a significant preponderance of older brothers and homosexual females had a significant preponderance of older sisters. Similarly, the older sibling sex ratio of homosexual males showed a significant excess of brothers whereas that of homosexual females showed a significant excess of sisters. Like previous studies of gender dysphoric youth and adults, these findings were consistent with the fraternal birth order effect. In addition, the greater frequency of only children and elevated numbers of older sisters among the homosexual female group adds to a small literature on sibship characteristics of potential relevance to the development of gender identity and sexual orientation in females.

  14. Birth order and sibling sex ratio of children and adolescents referred to a gender identity service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderlaan, Doug P; Blanchard, Ray; Wood, Hayley; Zucker, Kenneth J

    2014-01-01

    In adult male samples, homosexuality is associated with a preponderance of older brothers (i.e., the fraternal birth order effect). In several studies comparing gender dysphoric youth, who are likely to be homosexual in adulthood, to clinical or non-clinical control groups, the findings have been consistent with the fraternal birth order effect in males; however, less is known about unique sibship characteristics of gender dysphoric females. The current study investigated birth order and sibling sex ratio in a large sample of children and adolescents referred to the same Gender Identity Service (N = 768). Probands were classified as heterosexual males, homosexual males, or homosexual females based on clinical diagnostic information. Groups differed significantly in age and sibship size, and homosexual females were significantly more likely to be only children. Subsequent analyses controlled for age and for sibship size. Compared to heterosexual males, homosexual males had a significant preponderance of older brothers and homosexual females had a significant preponderance of older sisters. Similarly, the older sibling sex ratio of homosexual males showed a significant excess of brothers whereas that of homosexual females showed a significant excess of sisters. Like previous studies of gender dysphoric youth and adults, these findings were consistent with the fraternal birth order effect. In addition, the greater frequency of only children and elevated numbers of older sisters among the homosexual female group adds to a small literature on sibship characteristics of potential relevance to the development of gender identity and sexual orientation in females.

  15. Puberty suppression in adolescents with gender identity disorder: a prospective follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Annelou L C; Steensma, Thomas D; Doreleijers, Theo A H; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T

    2011-08-01

    Puberty suppression by means of gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogues (GnRHa) is used for young transsexuals between 12 and 16 years of age. The purpose of this intervention is to relieve the suffering caused by the development of secondary sex characteristics and to provide time to make a balanced decision regarding actual gender reassignment. To compare psychological functioning and gender dysphoria before and after puberty suppression in gender dysphoric adolescents. Of the first 70 eligible candidates who received puberty suppression between 2000 and 2008, psychological functioning and gender dysphoria were assessed twice: at T0, when attending the gender identity clinic, before the start of GnRHa; and at T1, shortly before the start of cross-sex hormone treatment. Behavioral and emotional problems (Child Behavior Checklist and the Youth-Self Report), depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory), anxiety and anger (the Spielberger Trait Anxiety and Anger Scales), general functioning (the clinician's rated Children's Global Assessment Scale), gender dysphoria (the Utrecht Gender Dysphoria Scale), and body satisfaction (the Body Image Scale) were assessed. Behavioral and emotional problems and depressive symptoms decreased, while general functioning improved significantly during puberty suppression. Feelings of anxiety and anger did not change between T0 and T1. While changes over time were equal for both sexes, compared with natal males, natal females were older when they started puberty suppression and showed more problem behavior at both T0 and T1. Gender dysphoria and body satisfaction did not change between T0 and T1. No adolescent withdrew from puberty suppression, and all started cross-sex hormone treatment, the first step of actual gender reassignment. Puberty suppression may be considered a valuable contribution in the clinical management of gender dysphoria in adolescents. © 2010 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  16. The dual impact of gender and the influence of timing of parenthood on men’s and women’s career development: Longitudinal findings

    OpenAIRE

    Abele, Andrea E.; Spurk, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of gender, the gender-related self-concept (agency and communion), and the timing of parenthood on objective career success of 1,015 highly educated professionals. Hypotheses derived from a dual-impact model of gender and career-related processes were tested in a 5-wave longitudinal study over a time span of 10 years starting with participants’ career entry. In line with our hypotheses we found that the communal component of the gender self-concept had an im...

  17. Gendered practices of constructing an engineering identity in a problem-based learning environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Xiangyun

    2006-01-01

    of an engineering identity with masculinity and the culturally defined engineering competencies leads to different learning experiences for male and female students. The nature of hard-core engineering subjects, based on male interests, privileges men and acts as a barrier to women. The masculine culture......This article examines the learning experiences of engineering students of both genders in a problem-based and project-organized learning environment (PBL) at a Danish university. This study relates an amalgam of theories on learning and gender to the context of engineering education. Based on data...

  18. Motivational Pathways to STEM Career Choices: Using Expectancy-Value Perspective to Understand Individual and Gender Differences in STEM Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ming-Te; Degol, Jessica

    2013-12-01

    The United States has made a significant effort and investment in STEM education, yet the size and the composition of the STEM workforce continues to fail to meet demand. It is thus important to understand the barriers and factors that influence individual educational and career choices. In this article, we conduct a literature review of the current knowledge surrounding individual and gender differences in STEM educational and career choices, using expectancy-value theory as a guiding framework. The overarching goal of this paper is to provide both a well-defined theoretical framework and complementary empirical evidence for linking specific sociocultural, contextual, biological, and psychological factors to individual and gender differences in STEM interests and choices. Knowledge gained through this review will eventually guide future research and interventions designed to enhance individual motivation and capacity to pursue STEM careers, particularly for females who are interested in STEM but may be constrained by misinformation or stereotypes.

  19. Perceptions on gender awareness and considerations in career choices of medical students in a medical school in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueh-Chin Chung

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The trend of medical career choice in the younger generation has resulted in deficiency of manpower in the four major disciplines of internal medicine, surgery, obstetrics/gynecology, and pediatrics, which will threaten people's health care in Taiwan. However, perceptions of gender awareness and factors affecting the career choices of medical students have not been investigated systemically in Taiwan. To explore the perceptions on gender awareness and considerations in career choices, we recruited 280 1st- and 7th-year male and female medical students at a Medical University for the study. A modified Nijmegen questionnaire using a 5-point Likert scale containing medical curricula (18 items, gender awareness (13 items, and career inclination (9 items was adopted as the investigation tool in our study. The response rate was 75% (224/280. With regard to gender, the 1st-year male students had greater confidence in being a physician than the female students (p < 0.05, and female students subjectively suggested an advantage to communicate with patients or colleagues (p < 0.05. Faculty attitude in treating students differently by gender was more prominent in the 7th-year than in the 1st-year students (p < 0.001, and they felt male preceptors typically were more enthusiastic to teach and to rank higher grades to female than to male students; however, this was not observed among female preceptors. Both male and female students showed a low level of agreement that clinical skills and performance of a physician were significantly different by gender and “female physicians are more empathetic and provide more communications than male physicians”. Factors influencing career choices of medical students, including “personal interests/talents” and “academic achievement of the specialty,” were not significantly different by gender. Factors included “training and learning environments of the specialty”, “risk of lawsuit”, and

  20. The Effect of Socioeconomic Status and Gender on High School Student Perceptions about Career and Technical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwell, Briael Marie

    2016-01-01

    This quantitative study examines the perceptions of career and technical education (CTE) among high school students based on their socioeconomic status and gender, and the interaction between the two. The study used a convenience sample of 207 students from four coastal South Carolina high schools. The data was collected using the Image of…

  1. Education, Occupation and Career Expectations: Determinants of the Gender Pay Gap for UK Graduates. CEE DP 69

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, Arnaud

    2006-01-01

    A large proportion of the gender wage gap is usually left unexplained. In this paper, we investigate whether the unexplained component is due to misspecification. Using a sample of recent UK graduates, we introduce variables on career expectations and character traits, variables that are typically not observed. The evidence indicates that women…

  2. The Subtlety of Age, Gender, and Race Barriers: A Case Study of Early Career African American Female Principals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean-Marie, Gaetane

    2013-01-01

    While all educational leaders face challenges in achieving success, African American female principals often face a unique set of challenges associated with the complexity of their gender, race, and, as examined in this study, age. This case study investigates the experiences of two highly visible, early career African American female principals…

  3. Career aspiration in UK veterinary students: the influences of gender, self-esteem and year of study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, S M; Armitage-Chan, E

    2016-10-22

    It is widely reported that the veterinary profession is becoming increasingly female-dominated, but there are concerns that this is not represented in positions of leadership. Although there are well-documented data describing the under-representation of women in various senior veterinary positions (academic deans, practice owners, positions on professional councils and corporate boards), it is less clear why this occurs. Although likely multifactorial, the relative contributions from a gender divide in intent to pursue leadership positions, women being dissuaded from considering senior roles, or differences in success rate (e.g. in leadership appointments), are unknown. This study was performed to investigate whether there is a gender divide among veterinary students in intent to pursue a leadership role and also to explore other influencing factors in career aspiration in veterinary students. Students from five UK veterinary schools were surveyed using an electronically distributed questionnaire. Career aspiration and leadership ambition were identified as being influenced by gender, with a greater proportion of male students (83 per cent) than female students (73 per cent) indicating they aspired to owning a practice. Career aspiration was also positively influenced by self-esteem, confidence and previously holding a position in the students' union or other club or society; however, all of these were also more apparent in male students than female students. Career aspiration also appeared to be influenced by year of study, with a decline seen at each increasing student year group, and this was unrelated to gender or self-esteem. British Veterinary Association.

  4. Gender Differences in the Influence of Early Perceived Parental Support on Student Mathematics and Science Achievement and STEM Career Attainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ing, Marsha

    2014-01-01

    The lack of females entering STEM careers is well documented. Reasons for the gender gaps at all stages of the educational pipeline include both internal factors such as self-concept and external factors such as the influence of parents, media, and educators. Using latent growth curve analysis and nationally representative longitudinal survey…

  5. Who Has the Advantages in My Intended Career? Engaging Students in the Identification of Gender and Racial Inequalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, Stephen; Baker, Kimberly M.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes and assesses two learning modules designed to make students aware of gender and racial inequalities present in their own intended careers. Students identify their intended occupation in respect to the Standard Occupational Classification system and then use that code to determine the composition and earnings in that…

  6. Math and Gender: Is Math a Route to a High-Powered Career?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joensen, Juanna Schrøter; Nielsen, Helena Skyt

    There is a large gender gap in advanced math coursework in high school that many believe exists because girls are discouraged from taking math courses. In this paper, we exploit an institutional change that reduced the costs of acquiring advanced high school math to determine if access is, in fact......, the mechanism - in particular for girls at the top of the math ability distribution. By estimating marginal treatment effects of acquiring advanced math qualifications, we document substantial beneficial wage effects from encouraging even more females to opt for these qualifications. Our analysis suggests...... that the beneficial effect comes from accelerating graduation and attracting females to high-paid or traditionally male-dominated career tracks and to CEO positions. Our results may be reconciled with experimental and empirical evidence suggesting there is a pool of unexploited math talent among high ability girls...

  7. A Study of the Relevance of Gender Identity and Characterization of Female Gamers in Massively Multiplayer Online Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Hsueh Yang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The population of female gamers of Massive Multiplayer Online Games has increased significantly. Massive Multiplayer Online Games provide a virtual stage for players to freely shape their virtual roles and rebuild their self-identification based on preferences. Thus, characterization has become one of the most important parts when discussing female gamers of Massive Multiplayer Online Games. To understand the relevance of gender identity and characterization of female gamers in Massive Multiplayer Online Games, this paper divides gender identity into two parts: sexual orientation and gender role; and separates characterization into three parts: gender, class, and appearance. The results show the following. In gender identity, most female gamers are attracted to men. In gender role, female gamers must gradually shed gender stereotypes. This paper also finds that female gamers turn gender stereotypes upside down concerning toys, jobs, housework, and leadership. In characterization, female gamers tend to create female roles, tend to choose wizard and archer as an occupation; and create roles that have light skin and exude confidence. For gender identity and characterization, females’ psychological sex, sexual orientation, and gender role all have significant influences on a character’s gender and class.

  8. Black Adolescent Males: Intersections Among Their Gender Role Identity and Racial Identity and Associations With Self-Concept (Global and School).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Tamara R

    2017-09-12

    Intersectional approaches for understanding identity have gained momentum in the social sciences. Black adolescent males are often perceived as threatening, underachieving, and hypermasculine, which is reinforced through media outlets and psychological research that portray them as a monolith rather than a heterogeneous group with multiple intersecting identities. This cross-sectional study of 70 Black adolescent males between 14 and 18 years old simultaneously explores their race and gender identities and associations with self-concept (global and school). Results demonstrated that participants reported a combination of feminine and masculine gender roles, rather than hypermasculine. A canonical correlation analysis found that Black racial identity attitudes (RIAS-L) and gender roles simultaneously contributed to significant relationships with total and school self-concept. Study limitations and future directions for research and practice are discussed. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  9. Geeks, meta-Geeks, and gender trouble: activism, identity, and low-power FM radio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar-Hester, Christina

    2008-04-01

    In this paper, I consider the activities of a group of individuals who tinker with and build radio hardware in an informal setting called 'Geek Group'. They conceive of Geek Group as a radical pedagogical activity, which constitutes an aspect of activism surrounding citizen access to low-power FM radio. They are also concerned with combating the gendered nature of hardware skills, yet in spite of their efforts men tend to have more skill and familiarity with radio hardware than women. Radio tinkering has a long history as a masculine undertaking and a site of masculine identity construction. I argue that this case represents an interplay between geek, activist, and gendered identities, all of which are salient for this group, but which do not occur together without some tension.

  10. An experience of group work with parents of children and adolescents with gender identity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Ceglie, Domenico; Thümmel, Elizabeth Coates

    2006-07-01

    This article gives an account of an experience of group work with parents and carers who had children or adolescents with gender identity disorder (GID). The history of this intervention within the context of a service for children with gender identity problems is outlined. The limited literature on the subject is reviewed. Group meetings were held monthly for 6 months, facilitated by two therapists (the authors). Selection criteria for group participants, the aims of the group and the methodology for achieving those aims are described. Some information about the group's composition is provided. The structure and content of the group sessions are outlined together with details of some group interactions. Finally, we present the results of an evaluation of the intervention through feedback questionnaires and discuss the value for the children and young people of running such groups.

  11. Vermont – Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Law and Documentation of Discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Sears, Brad

    2009-01-01

    In 1992, the State of Vermont passed a comprehensive statewide law prohibiting discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation, which is defined as “female or male homosexuality, heterosexuality, or bisexuality.” Protection with respect to gender identity was added in May 2007. Vermont’s Human Rights Law prohibits discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation in areas such as employment, housing, and education.

  12. Employment Discrimination Based on Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity in North Dakota

    OpenAIRE

    Mallory, Christy; Sears, Brad

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 6,800 LGBT workers in North Dakota are not explicitly protected from discrimination under state or federal laws. Discrimination against LGBT employees has been documented in surveys, legislative testimony, the media, and in reports to community-based organizations. Many corporate employers and public opinion in North Dakota support protections for LGBT people in the workplace. If sexual orientation and gender identity were added to existing statewide non-discrimination laws, thr...

  13. Sexual differentiation of the human brain in relation to gender identity and sexual orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savic, Ivanka; Garcia-Falgueras, Alicia; Swaab, Dick F

    2010-01-01

    It is believed that during the intrauterine period the fetal brain develops in the male direction through a direct action of testosterone on the developing nerve cells, or in the female direction through the absence of this hormone surge. According to this concept, our gender identity (the conviction of belonging to the male or female gender) and sexual orientation should be programmed into our brain structures when we are still in the womb. However, since sexual differentiation of the genitals takes place in the first two months of pregnancy and sexual differentiation of the brain starts in the second half of pregnancy, these two processes can be influenced independently, which may result in transsexuality. This also means that in the event of ambiguous sex at birth, the degree of masculinization of the genitals may not reflect the degree of masculinization of the brain. There is no proof that social environment after birth has an effect on gender identity or sexual orientation. Data on genetic and hormone independent influence on gender identity are presently divergent and do not provide convincing information about the underlying etiology. To what extent fetal programming may determine sexual orientation is also a matter of discussion. A number of studies show patterns of sex atypical cerebral dimorphism in homosexual subjects. Although the crucial question, namely how such complex functions as sexual orientation and identity are processed in the brain remains unanswered, emerging data point at a key role of specific neuronal circuits involving the hypothalamus. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. [Gender identity disorder: challenges and specificity in the treatment of requests for sexual reassignment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pécoud, P; Pralong, F; Bauquis, O; Stiefel, F

    2011-02-16

    Gender identity disorder is defined as a permanent desire to relieve one's own sexual features to acquire the sexual features and line to life of the opposite sex. The diagnosis is based on the psychiatric evaluation and treatment on an interdisciplinary approach by endocrinologists, surgeons and psychiatrists, and can be conceptualized into distinct phases: diagnostic evaluation, real life experience, hormonal treatment and surgery. Multiples challenges have to be faced, especially by the psychiatrist who follows the patient during the whole process.

  15. Finger length ratio (2D:4D) in adults with gender identity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, Bernd; Noll, Thomas; Delsignore, Aba; Milos, Gabriella; Schnyder, Ulrich; Hepp, Urs

    2009-06-01

    From early childhood, gender identity and the 2nd to 4th finger length ratio (2D:4D) are discriminative characteristics between sexes. Both the human brain and 2D:4D may be influenced by prenatal testosterone levels. This calls for an examination of 2D:4D in patients with gender identity disorder (GID) to study the possible influence of prenatal testosterone on gender identity. Until now, the only study carried out on this issue suggests lower prenatal testosterone levels in right-handed male-to-female GID patients (MtF). We compared 2D:4D of 56 GID patients (39 MtF; 17 female-to-male GID patients, FtM) with data from a control sample of 176 men and 190 women. Bivariate group comparisons showed that right hand 2D:4D in MtF was significantly higher (feminized) than in male controls, but similar to female controls. The comparison of 2D:4D ratios of biological women revealed significantly higher (feminized) values for right hands of right handed FtM. Analysis of variance confirmed significant effects for sex and for gender identity on 2D:4D ratios but not for sexual orientation or for the interaction among variables. Our results indirectly point to the possibility of a weak influence of reduced prenatal testosterone as an etiological factor in the multifactorially influenced development of MtF GID. The development of FtM GID seems even more unlikely to be notably influenced by prenatal testosterone.

  16. Employment Discrimination Based on Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity in Wyoming

    OpenAIRE

    Mallory, Christy; Sears, Brad

    2015-01-01

    About 8,900 LGBT workers in Wyoming are not explicitly protected from discrimination under state or federal laws. Discrimination against LGBT employees in Wyoming has recently been documented in surveys, court cases, and other sources. Many corporate employers and public opinion in the state support protections for LGBT people in the workplace. If sexual orientation and gender identity were added to existing statewide non-discrimination laws, four more complaints would be filed in Wyoming eac...

  17. Employment, Housing, and Public Accommodations Discrimination Based on Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity in Missouri

    OpenAIRE

    Mallory, Christy; Hasenbush, Amira; Liebowitz, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    The 160,000 LGBT adults in Missouri would benefit from an expanded state non-discrimination law that includes sexual orientation and gender identity. There is currently no Missouri law protecting LGBT people from discrimination in housing, employment, and public accommodations. A uniform state-wide law would maximize protection for Missouri’s LGBT population, and provide them the same recourse available to their non-LGBT counterparts. Media reports and lawsuits document that a number...

  18. A multicase study of the impact of perceived gender roles on the career decisions of women in science-related careers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hren, Stephen Frank

    The purpose of this study was to determine how perceived gender roles developed throughout childhood and early adulthood impacted the career decisions of women in science-related career fields. An additional purpose was to determine if my experiences as I analyzed the data and the propositions discovered in the study would become a transformative agent for me. A multicase framework was utilized so that within and between case analyses could be achieved. Four women who showed early promise in science were chosen as the case study participants. The relationship of gender roles to the career decisions made by the four cases were arbitrated through three areas: (a) supports, which came from parents, immediate family members, spouses, teachers, mentors, and collaborators; (b) opportunities, which were separated into family experiences and opportunities, school and community opportunities, and postsecondary/current opportunities; and (c) postmodern feminism, which was the lens that grounded this study and fit well with the lives of the cases. As seen through a postmodern feminist lens, the cases' social class, their lived experiences tied to their opportunities and supports, and the culture of growing up in a small rural community helped them develop personas for the professions they chose even where those professions did not necessarily follow from the early promise shown for a science-related career. In addition, as related to my transformation as a male researcher, being a male conducting research in a realm most often shared by women, I was able to gain greater empathy and understanding of what it takes for women to be successful in a career and at the same time maintain a fruitful family life.

  19. Two years of gender identity service for minors: overrepresentation of natal girls with severe problems in adolescent development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Sumia, Maria; Työläjärvi, Marja; Lindberg, Nina

    2015-01-01

    Increasing numbers of adolescents present in adolescent gender identity services, desiring sex reassignment (SR). The aim of this study is to describe the adolescent applicants for legal and medical sex reassignment during the first two years of adolescent gender identity team in Finland, in terms of sociodemographic, psychiatric and gender identity related factors and adolescent development. Structured quantitative retrospective chart review and qualitative analysis of case files of all adolescent SR applicants who entered the assessment by the end of 2013. The number of referrals exceeded expectations in light of epidemiological knowledge. Natal girls were markedly overrepresented among applicants. Severe psychopathology preceding onset of gender dysphoria was common. Autism spectrum problems were very common. The findings do not fit the commonly accepted image of a gender dysphoric minor. Treatment guidelines need to consider gender dysphoria in minors in the context of severe psychopathology and developmental difficulties.

  20. Sexual harassment among adolescents of different sexual orientations and gender identities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Kimberly J; Ybarra, Michele L; Korchmaros, Josephine D

    2014-02-01

    This article examines (a) variation in rates of sexual harassment across mode (e.g., in-person, online) and type of harassment, (b) the impact of sexual harassment (i.e., distressing vs. non-distressing), and (c) how sexual harassment is similarly and differently experienced across sexual orientation and gender identity groups. Data were collected as part of the Teen Health and Technology online survey of 5,907 13 to 18 year-old Internet users in the United States. Past year sexual harassment was reported by 23-72% of youth, depending upon sexual orientation, with the highest rates reported by lesbian/queer girls (72%), bisexual girls (66%), and gay/queer boys (66%). When examined by gender identity, transgender youth reported the highest rates of sexual harassment - 81%. Overall, the most common modes for sexual harassment were in-person followed by online. Distress in the form of interference with school, family, and/or friends; creating a hostile environment; or being very/extremely upset was reported by about half of the sexually harassed bisexual girls and lesbian/queer girls, 65% of the gender non-conforming/other gender youth, and 63% of the transgender youth. Youth with high social support and self-esteem were less likely to report sexual harassment. Findings point to the great importance of sexual harassment prevention for all adolescents, with particular emphasis on the unique needs and experiences of youth of different sexual orientations and gender identities. Socio-emotional programs that emphasize self-esteem building could be particularly beneficial for reducing the likelihood of victimization and lessen the impact when it occurs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Sex-sensitive cognitive performance in untreated patients with early onset gender identity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haraldsen, I R; Opjordsmoen, S; Egeland, T; Finset, A

    2003-10-01

    We explored whether the cognitive performance of gender identity disorder patients (GID) was comparable to that of their biological sex or skewed towards that of their gender identity. We tested four potentially sex-sensitive cognitive factors (rotation, visualization, perception, and verbalization) as well as two neutral factors (logic and arithmetic) in GID patients from Norway (GID-N, n = 33) or the USA (GID-US, n = 19) and in a control group (C, n = 29). The testing was undertaken prior to cross sex hormone treatment. Four-way ANOVA was applied in the final analysis of the cognitive performance and its dependency on different predictors (age, biological sex, education, group). In both GID groups as well as in the control group (C) males excelled in visualization and rotation, also when controlling for potential confounders (biological sex, group, age and education). No female advantage was detected. Furthermore, no interaction between biological sex and group assignment was revealed in the samples. In this study the cognitive pattern of GID patients is consistent with that of their biological sex and not that of their gender identity.

  2. Sexual identity, partner gender, and sexual health among adolescent girls in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riskind, Rachel G; Tornello, Samantha L; Younger, Brendan C; Patterson, Charlotte J

    2014-10-01

    We examined associations between adolescent girls' sexual identity and the gender of their sexual partners, on one hand, and their reports of sexual health behaviors and reproductive health outcomes, on the other. We analyzed weighted data from pooled Youth Risk Behavior Surveys (2005 and 2007) representative of 13 US jurisdictions, focusing on sexually experienced girls in 8th through 12th grade (weighted n=6879.56). We used logistic regression with hierarchical linear modeling to examine the strength of associations between reports about sexual orientation and sexual and reproductive health. Sexual minority girls consistently reported riskier behaviors than did other girls. Lesbian girls' reports of risky sexual behaviors (e.g., sex under the influence of drugs or alcohol) and negative reproductive health outcomes (e.g., pregnancy) were similar to those of bisexual girls. Partner gender and sexual identity were similarly strong predictors of all of the sexual behaviors and reproductive health outcomes we examined. Many sexual minority girls, whether categorized according to sexual identity or partner gender, are vulnerable to sexual and reproductive health risks. Attention to these risks is needed to help sexual minority girls receive necessary services.

  3. Sexual Identity, Partner Gender, and Sexual Health Among Adolescent Girls in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornello, Samantha L.; Younger, Brendan C.; Patterson, Charlotte J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined associations between adolescent girls’ sexual identity and the gender of their sexual partners, on one hand, and their reports of sexual health behaviors and reproductive health outcomes, on the other. Methods. We analyzed weighted data from pooled Youth Risk Behavior Surveys (2005 and 2007) representative of 13 US jurisdictions, focusing on sexually experienced girls in 8th through 12th grade (weighted n = 6879.56). We used logistic regression with hierarchical linear modeling to examine the strength of associations between reports about sexual orientation and sexual and reproductive health. Results. Sexual minority girls consistently reported riskier behaviors than did other girls. Lesbian girls’ reports of risky sexual behaviors (e.g., sex under the influence of drugs or alcohol) and negative reproductive health outcomes (e.g., pregnancy) were similar to those of bisexual girls. Partner gender and sexual identity were similarly strong predictors of all of the sexual behaviors and reproductive health outcomes we examined. Conclusions. Many sexual minority girls, whether categorized according to sexual identity or partner gender, are vulnerable to sexual and reproductive health risks. Attention to these risks is needed to help sexual minority girls receive necessary services. PMID:25121821

  4. Gender and sexuality in Norwegian development policy and practice : The introduction of sexual orientation and gender identity in Norwegian development cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez, Annika W.

    2012-01-01

    Since 2005 Norwegian policy makers have sought to include perspectives on sexual orientation and gender identity in development cooperation. The main objectives of this study has been - To explore how the government and people who work with development cooperation perceive the roles sexual orientation and gender identity may or may not have in development cooperation. - To critically analyse Norway¡¦s development cooperation - its aims, strategies and justification - and explore how sex...

  5. Beyond the Binary: Differences in Eating Disorder Prevalence by Gender Identity in a Transgender Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diemer, Elizabeth W; White Hughto, Jaclyn M; Gordon, Allegra R; Guss, Carly; Austin, S Bryn; Reisner, Sari L

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether the prevalence of eating disorders (EDs) differs across diverse gender identity groups in a transgender sample. Methods: Secondary analysis of data from Project VOICE, a cross-sectional study of stress and health among 452 transgender adults (ages 18-75 years) residing in Massachusetts. Age-adjusted logistic regression models were fit to compare the prevalence of self-reported lifetime EDs in female-to-male (FTM), male-to-female (MTF), and gender-nonconforming participants assigned male at birth (MBGNC) to gender-nonconforming participants assigned female at birth (FBGNC; referent). Results: The age-adjusted odds of self-reported ED in MTF participants were 0.14 times the odds of self-reported ED in FBGNC participants ( p =0.022). In FTM participants, the age-adjusted odds of self-reported ED were 0.46 times the odds of self-reported ED in FBGNC participants, a marginally significant finding ( p =0.068). No statistically significant differences in ED prevalence were found for MBGNC individuals. Conclusions: Gender nonconforming individuals assigned a female sex at birth appear to have heightened lifetime risk of EDs relative to MTF participants. Further research into specific biologic and psychosocial ED risk factors and gender-responsive intervention strategies are urgently needed. Training clinical providers and ensuring competency of treatment services beyond the gender binary will be vital to addressing this disparity.

  6. Beyond the Binary: Differences in Eating Disorder Prevalence by Gender Identity in a Transgender Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diemer, Elizabeth W.; White Hughto, Jaclyn M.; Gordon, Allegra R.; Guss, Carly; Austin, S. Bryn; Reisner, Sari L.

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: To investigate whether the prevalence of eating disorders (EDs) differs across diverse gender identity groups in a transgender sample. Methods: Secondary analysis of data from Project VOICE, a cross-sectional study of stress and health among 452 transgender adults (ages 18–75 years) residing in Massachusetts. Age-adjusted logistic regression models were fit to compare the prevalence of self-reported lifetime EDs in female-to-male (FTM), male-to-female (MTF), and gender-nonconforming participants assigned male at birth (MBGNC) to gender-nonconforming participants assigned female at birth (FBGNC; referent). Results: The age-adjusted odds of self-reported ED in MTF participants were 0.14 times the odds of self-reported ED in FBGNC participants (p=0.022). In FTM participants, the age-adjusted odds of self-reported ED were 0.46 times the odds of self-reported ED in FBGNC participants, a marginally significant finding (p=0.068). No statistically significant differences in ED prevalence were found for MBGNC individuals. Conclusions: Gender nonconforming individuals assigned a female sex at birth appear to have heightened lifetime risk of EDs relative to MTF participants. Further research into specific biologic and psychosocial ED risk factors and gender-responsive intervention strategies are urgently needed. Training clinical providers and ensuring competency of treatment services beyond the gender binary will be vital to addressing this disparity. PMID:29359198

  7. Gender identity, healthcare access, and risk reduction among Malaysia’s mak nyah community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Britton A.; Brown, Shan-Estelle; Rutledge, Ronnye; Wickersham, Jeffrey A.; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Altice, Frederick L.

    2016-01-01

    Transgender women (TGW) face compounded levels of stigma and discrimination, resulting in multiple health risks and poor health outcomes. TGW identities are erased by forcing them into binary sex categories in society or treating them as men who have sex with men (MSM). In Malaysia, where both civil and religious law criminalize them for their identities, many TGW turn to sex work with inconsistent prevention methods, which increases their health risks. This qualitative study aims to understand how the identities of TGW sex workers shapes their healthcare utilization patterns and harm reduction behaviours. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 21 male-to-female transgender (mak nyah) sex workers in Malaysia. Interviews were transcribed, translated into English, and analysed using thematic coding. Results suggest that TGW identity is shaped at an early age followed by incorporation into the mak nyah community where TGW were assisted in gender transition and introduced to sex work. While healthcare was accessible, it failed to address the multiple healthcare needs of TGW. Pressure for gender-affirming health procedures and fear of HIV and sexually transmitted infection screening led to potentially hazardous health behaviours. These findings have implications for developing holistic, culturally-sensitive prevention and healthcare services for TGW. PMID:26824463

  8. Gender identity, healthcare access, and risk reduction among Malaysia's mak nyah community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Britton A; Brown, Shan-Estelle; Rutledge, Ronnye; Wickersham, Jeffrey A; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Altice, Frederick L

    2016-01-01

    Transgender women (TGW) face compounded levels of stigma and discrimination, resulting in multiple health risks and poor health outcomes. TGW identities are erased by forcing them into binary sex categories in society or treating them as men who have sex with men (MSM). In Malaysia, where both civil and religious law criminalise them for their identities, many TGW turn to sex work with inconsistent prevention methods, which increases their health risks. This qualitative study aims to understand how the identities of TGW sex workers shapes their healthcare utilisation patterns and harm reduction behaviours. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 21 male-to-female transgender (mak nyah) sex workers in Malaysia. Interviews were transcribed, translated into English, and analysed using thematic coding. Results suggest that TGW identity is shaped at an early age followed by incorporation into the mak nyah community where TGW were assisted in gender transition and introduced to sex work. While healthcare was accessible, it failed to address the multiple healthcare needs of TGW. Pressure for gender-affirming health procedures and fear of HIV and sexually transmitted infection screening led to potentially hazardous health behaviours. These findings have implications for developing holistic, culturally sensitive prevention and healthcare services for TGW.

  9. Gender Differences in Salary in a Recent Cohort of Early-Career Physician-Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagsi, Reshma; Griffith, Kent A.; Stewart, Abigail; Sambuco, Dana; DeCastro, Rochelle; Ubel, Peter A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Since prior studies have suggested that male physicians earn more than their female counterparts, the authors examined whether this disparity exists in a recently hired cohort. Method In 2010-11, the authors surveyed recent recipients of National Institutes of Health (NIH) mentored career development (i.e., K08 or K23) awards, receiving responses from 1,275 (75% response rate). For the 1,012 physicians with academic positions in clinical specialties who reported salary, they constructed linear regression models of salary considering gender, age, race, marital status, parental status, additional doctoral degree, academic rank, years on faculty, specialty, institution type, region, institution NIH funding rank, K-award type, K-award funding institute, K-award year, work hours, and research time. They evaluated the explanatory value of spousal employment status using Peters-Belson regression. Results Mean salary was $141,325 (95% confidence interval [CI] 135,607-147,043) for women and $172,164 (95% CI 167,357-176,971) for men. Male gender remained an independent, significant predictor of salary (+$10,921, P salary that was not fully explained by specialty, academic rank, work hours, or even spousal employment. Creating more equitable procedures for establishing salary at academic institutions is important. PMID:24072109

  10. Career histories as determinants of gendered retirement timing in the Danish and Swedish pension systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Stefanie

    2017-12-01

    After reforms in pension systems had taken place in most European countries within the last two decades, the concern was raised that women may be disadvantaged by these reforms. It is suggested that they are faced with a higher financial need to work longer. Retrospective data from SHARELIFE are used to run an event history analysis on the timing of the final employment exit, separately for gender, country and exit cohort. This study aims to disentangle the influence of gendered labour markets and pension regulations on retirement timing by investigating conditions in Denmark and Sweden. Some evidence was found that women compensate for lower labour market attachment due to long part-time periods by working longer, especially in younger cohorts. This seems to depend on the pension system. In countries with broad basic pensions, high replacement rates for low-income groups and fewer penalties for early retirement, the compensation is suggested to be less frequent. This study indicates the growing importance of the "compensation hypothesis" compared to the "status maintenance hypothesis" of previous careers in relation with retirement timing.

  11. The Development of Sex Role Stereotypes in the Third Year: Relationships to Gender Labeling, Gender Identity, Sex-Typed Toy Preference, and Family Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinraub, Marsha; And Others

    1984-01-01

    The onset and development of preschoolers' awareness of sex role stereotypes, gender labeling, gender identity, and sex-typed toy preference were explored in 26-, 31-, and 36-month-old children. Family characteristics that affect early sex role development also were investigated. (Author/RH)

  12. On the Gender-Science Stereotypes held by Scientists: Explicit accord with Gender-Ratios, Implicit accord with Scientific Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick L Smyth

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Women’s representation in science has changed substantially, but unevenly, over the past 40 years. In health and biological sciences, for example, women’s representation among U.S. scientists is now on par with or greater than men’s, while in physical sciences and engineering they remain a clear minority. We investigated whether variation in proportions of women in scientific disciplines is related to differing levels of male-favoring explicit or implicit stereotypes held by students and scientists in each discipline. We hypothesized that science-is-male stereotypes would be weaker in disciplines where women are better represented. This prediction was tested with a sample of 176,935 college-educated participants (70% female, including thousands of engineers, physicians, and scientists. The prediction was supported for the explicit stereotype, but not for the implicit stereotype. Implicit stereotype strength did not correspond with disciplines’ gender ratios, but, rather, correlated with two indicators of disciplines’ scientific intensity, positively for men and negatively for women. From age 18 on, women who majored or worked in disciplines perceived as more scientific had substantially weaker science-is-male stereotypes than did men in the same disciplines, with gender differences larger than 0.8 standard deviations in the most scientifically-perceived disciplines. Further, particularly for women, differences in the strength of implicit stereotypes across scientific disciplines corresponded with the strength of scientific values held by women in the disciplines. These results are discussed in the context of dual process theory of mental operation and balanced identity theory. The findings point to the need for longitudinal study of the factors’ affecting development of adults’ and, especially, children’s implicit gender stereotypes and scientific identity.

  13. On the gender-science stereotypes held by scientists: explicit accord with gender-ratios, implicit accord with scientific identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Frederick L; Nosek, Brian A

    2015-01-01

    Women's representation in science has changed substantially, but unevenly, over the past 40 years. In health and biological sciences, for example, women's representation among U.S. scientists is now on par with or greater than men's, while in physical sciences and engineering they remain a clear minority. We investigated whether variation in proportions of women in scientific disciplines is related to differing levels of male-favoring explicit or implicit stereotypes held by students and scientists in each discipline. We hypothesized that science-is-male stereotypes would be weaker in disciplines where women are better represented. This prediction was tested with a sample of 176,935 college-educated participants (70% female), including thousands of engineers, physicians, and scientists. The prediction was supported for the explicit stereotype, but not for the implicit stereotype. Implicit stereotype strength did not correspond with disciplines' gender ratios, but, rather, correlated with two indicators of disciplines' scientific intensity, positively for men and negatively for women. From age 18 on, women who majored or worked in disciplines perceived as more scientific had substantially weaker science-is-male stereotypes than did men in the same disciplines, with gender differences larger than 0.8 standard deviations in the most scientifically-perceived disciplines. Further, particularly for women, differences in the strength of implicit stereotypes across scientific disciplines corresponded with the strength of scientific values held by women in the disciplines. These results are discussed in the context of dual process theory of mental operation and balanced identity theory. The findings point to the need for longitudinal study of the factors' affecting development of adults' and, especially, children's implicit gender stereotypes and scientific identity.

  14. Gender difference in preference of specialty as a career choice among Japanese medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamoto, Ryuichi; Ninomiya, Daisuke; Kasai, Yoshihisa; Kusunoki, Tomo; Ohtsuka, Nobuyuki; Kumagi, Teru; Abe, Masanori

    2016-11-10

    In Japan, the absolute deficiency of doctors and maldistribution of doctors by specialty is a significant problem in the Japanese health care system. The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors contributing to specialty preference in career choice among Japanese medical students. A total of 368 medical students completed the survey giving an 88.2 % response rate. The subjects comprised 141 women aged 21 ± 3 (range, 18-34) years and 227 men aged 22 ± 4 (range, 18-44) years. Binary Logistic regression analysis was performed using specialty preferences as the criterion variable and the factors in brackets as six motivational variables (e.g., Factor 1: educational experience; Factor 2: job security; Factor 3: advice from others; Factor 4: work-life balance; Factor 5: technical and research specialty; and Factor 6: personal reasons). Women significantly preferred pediatrics, obstetrics & gynecology, and psychology than the men. Men significantly preferred surgery and orthopedics than the women. For both genders, a high odds ratio (OR) of "technical & research specialty" and a low OR for "personal reasons" were associated with preference for surgery. "Technical & research specialty" was positively associated with preference for special internal medicine and negatively for pediatrics. "Work-life balance" was positively associated with preference for psychology and negatively for emergency medicine. Among the women only, "technical & research specialty" was negatively associated with preference for general medicine/family medicine and obstetrics & gynecology, and "job security" was positively associated for general medicine/family medicine and negatively for psychology. Among men only, "educational experience" and "personal reasons" were positively, and "job security" was negatively associated with preference for pediatrics. For both genders, "work-life balance" was positively associated with preference for controllable lifestyle specialties. We

  15. Capital, Alienation, and Challenge: How U.S. Mexican Immigrant Students Build Pathways to College and Career Identities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Catherine R; Domínguez, Elizabeth; Cooper, Robert G; Higgins, Ashleigh; Lipka, Alex

    2018-06-01

    This article considers how the global "academic pipeline problem" constrains immigrant, low-income, and ethnic minority students' pathways to higher education, and how some students build pathways to college and career identities. After aligning theories of social capital, alienation/belonging, and challenge and their integration in Bridging Multiple Worlds Theory, we summarize six longitudinal studies based on this theory from a 23-year university-community partnership serving low-income, primarily U.S. Mexican immigrant youth. Spanning from childhood to early adulthood, the studies revealed two overarching findings: First, students built pathways to college and career identities while experiencing capital, alienation/belonging, and challenges across their evolving cultural worlds. Second, by "giving back" to families, peers, schools, and communities, students became cultural brokers and later, institutional agents, transforming institutional cultures. Findings highlight the value of integrating interdisciplinary theories, research evidence, and educational systems serving diverse communities to open individual pathways and academic pipelines in multicultural societies. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Dimensional profiles of male to female gender identity disorder: an exploratory research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Alessandra D; Bandini, Elisa; Ricca, Valdo; Ferruccio, Naika; Corona, Giovanni; Meriggiola, Maria C; Jannini, Emmanuele A; Manieri, Chiara; Ristori, Jiska; Forti, Gianni; Mannucci, Edoardo; Maggi, Mario

    2010-07-01

    Male-to-Female Gender Identity Disorder (MtF GID) is a complex phenomenon that could be better evaluated by using a dimensional approach. To explore the aggregation of clinical manifestations of MtF GID in order to identify meaningful variables describing the heterogeneity of the disorder. A consecutive series of 80 MtF GID subjects (mean age 37 +/- 10.3 years), referred to the Interdepartmental Center for Assistance Gender Identity Disorder of Florence and to other Italian centers from July 2008 to June 2009, was studied. Diagnosis was based on formal psychiatric classification criteria. Factor analysis was performed. Several socio-demographic and clinical parameters were investigated. Patients were asked to complete the Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI, a self-rating scale to evaluate gender role) and Symptom Checklist-90 Revised (SCL-90-R, a self-rating scale to measure psychological state). Factor analysis identified two dimensional factors: Factor 1 was associated with sexual orientation, and Factor 2 related to behavioral and psychological correlates of early GID development. No correlation was observed between the two factors. A positive correlation between Factor 2 and feminine BSRI score was found, along with a negative correlation between Factor 2 and undifferentiated BSRI score. Moreover, a significant association between SCL-90-R Phobic subscale score and Factor 2 was observed. A variety of other socio-demographic parameters and clinical features were associated with both factors. Behavioral and psychological correlates of Factor 1 (sexual orientation) and Factor 2 (gender identity) do not constitute the framework of two separate clinical entities, but instead represent two dimensions of the complex MtF GID structure, which can be variably intertwined in the same subject. By using factor analysis, we offer a new approach capable of delineating a psychopathological and clinical profile of MtF GID patients.

  17. Meanings and political implications of "psychopathology" in a gender identity clinic: a report of 10 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Stephen B; Solomon, Anna

    2009-01-01

    Beginning in August 2007, we committed ourselves to a clinical review the co-morbid diagnostic patterns of the last 10 patients interviewed by our Gender Identity Clinic. We found 90% of these diverse patients had at least one other significant form of psychopathology. This finding seems to be in marked contrast to the public, forensic, and professional rhetoric of many who care for transgendered adults. Much of this rhetoric sounds remarkably certain about the long-term value of gender transition, hormones, and sex reassignment surgery in improving the lives of those with Gender Identity Disorder (GID). Such clinical certainty would have to be based on carefully established sophisticated follow-up findings. These are lacking. The psychopathologies in this series included problems of mood and anxiety regulation and adapting in the world. Two of the 10 have had persistent significant regrets about their previous transitions. In discussing management decisions, civil rights, and ethics, we planned to separately briefly present the 10 patients. However, our decision to seek patients' permission proved so upsetting to three of the first six patients that we altered the structure of this report. Our attempt to follow the ethical principle of informed consent caused us to violate the principle of nonmalfiescence. This distressing experience only illustrates, however, the disadvantage of discussing professional concepts with lay audiences. Emphasis on civil rights is not a substitute for the recognition and treatment of associated psychopathology. Gender identity specialists, unlike the media, need to be concerned about the majority of patients, not just the ones who are apparently functioning well in transition.

  18. Lifestyle integration-gender based stereotypes: a study on Schein‟s career anchors within an ODeL HEI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marili Williams

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on research that examined the differences between the aspirations of females and males in the workplace in terms of Schein‟s career anchors and enablers. The stereotype that females only work to ensure enhanced family lifestyles remains evident in the daily life of all (Hoobler, Lemmon & Wyane, 2014, p. 704; Mihail, 2006. Furthermore the stereotype that males‟ focus is much more ambitious in terms of reaching the highest managerial achievement/technical/ functional competence is regarded as a reality within society (Hoobler, Lemmon & Wyane, 2014, p. 704; Mihail, 2006. Insight into the question whether females work to live or live to work was investigated and this article reports on the differences between females and males regarding their work life ambitions. The data resulted from a quantitative research approach and the population consisted of 4 200 employees within an Open Distance electronic Learning (ODeL Higher Education Institution (HEI in South Africa. The focus was on the composition of a structured career conversation framework, using the original Schein career anchors (Schein, 1978; 1990; 1996 and the three-factor career-enabler model, developed by Grobler, Bezuidenhout and Rudolph (2014. Descriptive statistics, chi-square statistics as well as independent t-test analysis was used to identify the differences between genders with regard to career anchors and career enablers in different career stages. The results of the analysis illustrated that females focus more on the autonomy/independence- and lifestyle integration career anchors than males in the first 3 years of employment, thereafter their focus remains more on the lifestyle integration career anchor than males. Males however focus more on the general managerial career anchor in the first 3 years of their careers than women; and after 3 years males‟ focus moves more to the entrepreneurial creativity career anchor. The reported differences between

  19. Clinical and theoretical parallels between desire for limb amputation and gender identity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Anne A

    2006-06-01

    Desire for amputation of a healthy limb has usually been regarded as a paraphilia (apotemnophilia), but some researchers propose that it may be a disorder of identity, similar to Gender Identity Disorder (GID) or transsexualism. Similarities between the desire for limb amputation and nonhomosexual male-to-female (MtF) transsexualism include profound dissatisfaction with embodiment, related paraphilias from which the conditions plausibly derive (apotemnophilia and autogynephilia), sexual arousal from simulation of the sought-after status (pretending to be an amputee and transvestism), attraction to persons with the same body type one wants to acquire, and an elevated prevalence of other paraphilic interests. K. Freund and R. Blanchard (1993) proposed that nonhomosexual MtF transsexualism represents an erotic target location error, in which men whose preferred erotic targets are women also eroticize their own feminized bodies. Desire for limb amputation may also reflect an erotic target location error, occurring in combination with an unusual erotic target preference for amputees. This model predicts that persons who desire limb amputation would almost always be attracted to amputees and would display an increased prevalence of gender identity problems, both of which have been observed. Persons who desire limb amputation and nonhomosexual MtF transsexuals often assert that their motives for wanting to change their bodies reflect issues of identity rather than sexuality, but because erotic/romantic orientations contribute significantly to identity, such distinctions may not be meaningful. Experience with nonhomosexual MtF transsexualism suggests possible directions for research and treatment for persons who desire limb amputation.

  20. Gender influences on career opportunities, practice choices, and job satisfaction in a cohort of physicians with certification in sports medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pana, A L; McShane, J

    2001-04-01

    To examine the gender differences in practice patterns, experiences, and career opportunities for family physicians who practice sports medicine. Descriptive, self-administered questionnaire. Family physicians with Certificate of Added Qualification (CAQ) in sports medicine were surveyed. The survey was sent to all women with a CAQ in Sports Medicine and a random sample of 20% of the men with CAQs in sports medicine. Survey consisted of multiple choice, Likert scale, and opened-ended questions. The data was analyzed with contingency tables, with gender as the dependent variable. Response rate to the survey was 75%, which included 42 females and 102 males. Demographics of our population demonstrated some gender differences. Males were of higher average age (41.1 vs. 38.1), and more likely to be married and have children. Practice types, location, and time spent in sports medicine did not differ with the exception of training room and event coverage. Males were more likely to cover all levels of training room except at the Division I level, where the percent of males and females covering training rooms were equal. Males were also more likely to cover all types of sporting events. Job satisfaction and reasons for choosing current jobs did not show significant gender differences. However, factors affecting career opportunities did vary. Professional relationships with athletic trainers and coaches were perceived to be different by males and females surveyed. Our survey of sports medicine physicians showed some gender differences in practice patterns relative to training room and sporting event coverage. Surprisingly, there were not many differences in the factors that affected job choice and factors affecting job opportunities with the exception of gender itself. However, our study does not conclude how or when gender begins to affect the female sports medicine physician's career opportunities.